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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Philadelphia area. Hearing"

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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
PHILADELPHIA AREA-Partl 



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HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE Oj^ UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE EEPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



NOVEMBER 16, 1953 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES /^ b 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
401GS WASHINGTON : 1953 



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Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 

BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Je., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzir, Counsel 

Frank S. Ta^enner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Russell, Chief Investigator 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



November 16, 1953: 

Testimony of— Pag. 

Bella V. Dodd 2886 

Harry Fruit 2910 

Louis I vens 2914 

Estelle Naomi Thomas 2923 

Sarah Welsh Wepman 2927 

Lillian Lowenfels ^ 2930 

Samuel IMeyer Kaplan 2936 

Index 294a 

HZ 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Pubhc Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OP COMMITTEES 
* * * * * * *  

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (\) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recoinmendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5. January 3, 1953 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

I. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees: 

******* 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and object.s of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
•the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

r 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
PHILADELPHIA AEEA— Part 1 



MONDAY, NOVEMBER 16, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
PUBLIC hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pm-suant to call, at 10:37 a. m., in courtroom No. 1, United 
States Courthouse, Ninth and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., 
Hon. Harold H. Velde (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Harold H. Velde, 
Kit Clardy, and Francis E. Walter. 

Staff members present: Robert L. Kunzig, counsel; Earl Fuoss, 
and C. E. McKillips, investigators; and Juliette P. Joray, acting clerk. 

Mr. Velde. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Mr. Reporter, let the record show that under the authority of the 
House of Representatives I am designating for the purpose of this 
hearing a subcommittee composed of Representatives Kit Clardy of 
Michigan, Francis E. Walter of Pennsylvania, and myself, of Illinois, 
^s chairman. 

Hearings relating to Communist activities in the Philadelphia area 
were instituted by the House Committee on Un-American Activities 
in October 1952. At that time the hearings dealt largely with the 
Communist efforts and their success in infiltrating into the vital defense 
industries in the Philadelphia area. The hearings which are com- 
mencing today are a resumption of those hearings and are based on 
investigations which have been conducted by the staff of the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities over the past year. 

There has been some question raised particularly by the critics of 
the committee as to what right we have in holding hearings in the 
Philadelphia area and elsewhere. I should like to make it absolutely 
clear at this time that the committee is operating not solely on a right 
but more specifically on a duty which has been assigned to it by the 
Congress of the United States to ascertain the scope and success of 
subversive activities and propaganda both of foreign and domestic 
origin. 

_ The committee is, therefore, charged with the responsibility of inves- 
tigating subversion wherever it might be found relating to the United 
States of America. 

During the course of the hearings which will follow, the committee 
intends to call a number of witnesses w^ho have, through the course of 
the committee's investigation, been identified as either present or past 

2885 



2886 COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

participants in a subversive organization, the Communist Party. It is 
the hope of the committee in caHing these witnesses that they will add 
to the information already possessed by the committee of the operation 
and intent of the Communist Party as relates to the Philadelphia 
area. 

In accordance with the power granted me by the committee, I have 
given permission for the televising of these hearings. This permis- 
sion is given with the clear understanding that any such televising can 
be done only on a public-service basis. The coinmittee appreciates 
the courtesy which has already been extended by the city of Phila- 
delphia and other authorities in the Federal courthouse "here. We 
appreciate it more than they know. It has been a pleasure to be here 
so far and we expect it to be a continued pleasure to be here. 

Mr. Counsel, will you proceed with vour first witness? 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Dr. Bella Dodd." Will she please step forward? 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee, do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so "help you God? 

Dr. Dodd. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BELLA V. DODD 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would vou state your full name, please. Dr. Dodd? 

Dr. Dodd. Bella V. Dodd. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your present address. Dr. Dodd? 

Dr. Dodd. One hundred West 42d Street. 

Mr. KuNziG. In New York? 

Dr. Dodd. New York City. 

Mr. KuNziG. You understand, of course, your right to have an 
attorney. I take it you do not have one here this morning and so you 
prefer to testify without an attorney? 

Dr. Dodd. My attornev could not be here this morning. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You are an attorney yourself, is that right? 

Dr. Dodd. I am. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you state. Dr. Dodd, a resiune of your educa- 
tional background for the record? 

Dr. Dodd. I am a product of the public schools of the city of New 
York, both elementary and high school. 

I went to the Hunter College where I received my A. B. I did my 
master's work at Columbia University. I worked t"oward a doctorate 
in philosoph}-^ and then I switched into the legal division and went 
to New York University where I received a degree of doctor of juris- 
prudence. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you then give the committee a resume of your 
employment backgi'ound? 

Dr. Dodd. I was employed by the city of New York as a high 
school teacher for a brief period of several months upon graduation 
from Hunter College. 

I then became employed by Hunter College as an instructor, first 
as a tutor and then instructor of political science. I taught at Hunter 
College from 1926 to 1938. 

In 1935 I became interested in the Teachers' Union movement and 
began organizing, on a voluntary basis, with the Teachers' Union in 
1936. 



COaiMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2887 

In 1938 I took a full-time job as an organizer for the Teachers' 
Union and became its legislative representative and State organizer 
for a period from 1938 to 1943, or the end of 1943 or the beginning of 
1944. 

Mr. Clardy. State organizer in New York? 

Dr. DoDD. Yes, I became the State organizer for the State Federa- 
tion of Teachers' Unions in the State of New York. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you continue, please? 

Dr. DoDD. Yes, sir; in 1944 I became an employee of the Com- 
munist Party and was the legislative representative of the New York 
district of the Communist Party. 

As a member of the national committee I remained as a member of 
the national committee until 1948. 

Mr. KuNziG. As a member of the national committee of what? 

Dr. DoDD. Of the Communist Party. I remained until 1948. But 
my employment with the Communist Part}^ ended, from a salary 
point of view, in 1946. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see. Please continue. 

Dr. DoDD. Since then I have been practicing law as a private 
entrepreneur. 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Dodd, I want to ask you: Have you ever been a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Dr. Dodd. Yes, I have been a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. Obviously you were if you were a member of the 
national committee of the party. During what years were you a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Dr. Dodd. Well, because I was in the professional field, member- 
ship and working with the Communist Party kind of merged with each 
other. I didn't become a member of the Communist Party until the 
end of 1943, but before then I had worked with the Communist Party 
from 1932 on, and by the time I became affiliated with the Teachers' 
Union I was under discipline from the Communist Party, a voluntary 
discipline in many respects, but I worked with the Communist Party 
from 1935 in its inner workings on until I got out. 

Mr. Clardy. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Velde. Yes, 'Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. You say you officially became a member at a certain 
time. By that do you mean that you became a card-carrying mem- 
ber? Explain that a little more, please. 

Dr. Dodd. Well, Mr. Clardy, this question of card carrying has 
been overemphasized in the public mind. 

Mr. Clardy. I know it. That is why I am asking the question. 

Dr. Dodd. Most of us who were professionall}^ connected with or 
had some key position in the national organization were practially 
told not to carry cards. Some of us became members and some just 
worked with the party, attending its secret meetings, attending its 
fraction meetings, and attending its inner meetings without actually 
being members of a cell or unit. 

We gave contributions to the Communist Party at mass meetings 
or to one individual. These were not called dues so the question of 
the relationship of a person in a key organization or an important 
person professionally in the Communist Party never just depends 
upon card carrying, and I became a card-carrjdng member of the 

40168—53 — pt. 1 2 



2888 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Communist Party when I officially and openly joined the Communist 
Party and was put in as one of their officers. 

Mr. Clardy. You were received in the circle without the card prior 
to that time? 

Dr. DoDD. As a matter of fact, I might state that I was a much 
more influential and important member during the years when I did 
not carry a card, influential as far as the mass organizations were 
concerned. I became more influential in the inner circles when I was 
selected to the national committee. 

Mr. Clardy. Thank you. 

Mr. Velde. Dr. Dodd, it has always been interesting to me as a 
member of the committee, and I am sure it has to the other members 
and I think it is interesting to the loyal American people to learn just 
how a person becomes a member of the Communist Party, to find out 
what is in a person's mind, how he is indoctrinated, and I believe you 
can very efficiently and very ably tell the committee what was in your 
mind and how you were indoctrinated into the Communist Party. 

Dr. Dodd. People join the Communist Party for different reasons, 
but I think the large mass of young people both in the colleges and in 
the trade-union movements and in other mass organizations are 
trapped into the Communist Party little by little and on immediate 
issues rather than upon the fundamental philosophy of communism. 

For instance, I myself was a young teacher in 1932. I had come 
back from Germany where I had seen fascism. I knew fascism was 
wrong and I am proud of the fact that I opposed both fascism and 
nazism at that time. But the Communists were very clever in 
giving us two alternatives, which really were not alternatives. They 
put themselves at the head of the anti-Fascist movement. They 
said "We are the great anti-Fascists" and since you wanted to fight 
fascism you fell into the trap of working with the Communists. 

In 1932 they fiist approached me on the question of uniting in the 
fight against fascism, and since I had been to Germany and seen the 
terrible things they could do, I fell for the propaganda line of the 
Communists. I know now, as practically all Americans are begin- 
ning to realize, that these alternatives are false and propaganda 
alternatives, that actually the Communist movement is nothing but 
a more intensified kind of fascism, but at that time it was difficult 
to tell. I know now that every single drop of crude oil used by the 
Italian armies in fighting Abyssinia was sold to them by the Soviet 
Union. That was not common knowledge nor did they tell anyone 
that was what they were doing. 

Mr. Velde. You have mentioned other reasons why someone 
might get into the Communist Party. What were some of those 
other reasons? 

Dr. Dodd. If you are in a trade union, that might be one of the 
reasons, because the trade union is bedeviled with racketeering. 
The Communists say "We will cleanse it of the racketeering." 

They do work very hard until they gain control. Once they gain 
control, they have no objection to anything, including racketeering, to 
hold onto their power. But you do not see the entire picture. You 
are attracted to communism step by step by the immediate issues 
which seem good in themselves. 

Mr. Walter. Mr. Chau-man, may I ask a question? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2889 

Mr. Walter. The thing that disturbs me is that after all the mem- 
bership of certain labor unions is aware of the fact that the leader- 
ship is Communist and that they keep that leadership. 

For instance, recently in the election or the convention of the 
United Electrical Workers they elected well-kno^vTi Communists to 
office in that union. How can that happen? 

Dr. DoDD. Well, it happens for two reasons. You put your finger 
on perhaps the most important single organized Communist group in 
America, which is the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers 
of America. The leadership of that is a very strong party leadership 
trained in Moscow. They have a gi-eat deal of money and are tightly 
Imit. The ordinary worker does not have too much time for politics 
in a union. 

He goes to work and if his salary is inadequate he maybe takes a 
job after work. Maybe he has home duties, but the Communists 
make a 24-hour-a-day job of this thing. 

When it comes to elections they are beginning to control who shall 
hold a job in these industries and who shall not; people are frightened 
of moving the union leadership out of power for fear of losing their 
own jobs. 

May I add that some of our industrialists are not being very wise 
about the relations they had with the Communists because the Com- 
munists, as far as the industrialists are concerned, provide a leadership 
which provides stability for the industrialists. They are perfectly 
willing to deal with them and therefore they work on the idea that the 
union is accepted by the industrialists. 

Mr. Walter. Isn't it a fact that some of the corporations in which 
the United Electrical Workers Union is a bargaining agent are satis- 
fied to retain that sort of a union because the leadership cannot be 
militant and the workers are not actually faring as well with the 
Communist leadership as they would with other leadership? 

Dr. DoDD. I am convinced of that, Congressman, but the people 
are not as yet. I know that when the Communists took control of a 
union they were militant as could be until they got control. They 
fought the racketeers and they fought bad conditions. Once they got 
control they spent all of their time tying the workers into welfare 
plans of the union, educational plans of the union, but seldom actually 
putting up the kind of fight which is needed for the improvement of 
economic conditions of these workers. 

^Ir. Clardy. What this is leading up to apparently is the fact that 
Congress perhaps should be giving some thought to further erecting 
barriers against dealings between Communist unions on the one hand 
and employers on the other hand. 

Dr. DoDD. I think the members themselves ought to be drawing 
some conclusions as to where they are leading the American people 
by dealing with the strong Communist unions. It isn't the unions 
themselves, but the top leaders. 

Mr. Clardy. You are making it quite clear to me that perhaps 
there is need for some additional leadership that will make it apparent 
to even the dumbest of the industrialists that their relations with the 
Communist leaders of the unions can have nothing but bad effects. 

Mr. Walter. Isn't it true with respect to the defense contracts? 
Don't you think Congress should give consideration to the advis- 



2890 COIvIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

ability of making it impossible to award a contract to a company 
that has relationships with a Communist-dominated miion? 

Dr. DoDD. I certainly do. I understand that we ere giving war 
contracts for the manufacture of war materials to Communist unions 
in northern Italy. In other words, we are taking employment from 
here and giving it to Europe. Stuff is being manufactured and is 
being of great help to building up the Communist unions there and 
the Communist leaders in Italy are able to say to their workers in 
their unions "Look, we got the work for you." 

Mr. Walter. You have been correctly informed and I have just 
returned from Europe and it is a fact. It is perfectly shocking to me. 
What we are doing is nurturing a movement which is inimical to the 
interests of the free peoples of the world. 

Mr. Clardy. I concur with what you have just said. 

Mr. Velde. I concur with both you gentlemen. But we have a 
lot of difficulty in identifying a Communist-dominated union. Who 
shall be the authority to identify a Communist Party union as such? 
Now in order to pass such a law we would have to have quite a bit 
more information. 

As an able lawyer and as a foi-mer member of the Communist 
Party I think you could give us some advice on that. 

Dr. DoDD. I think both the American Federation of Labor and 
the CIO and the Railroad Brotherhoods of America could, working 
with Congress, I think, find a formula whereby this thing can be done. 
Everyone knows which are the Communist-dominated unions, only 
everyone is afraid to put their finger on them. 

Mr. Velde. This matter I understand will come up at the next 
session of Congress in the Labor Committee, of which I am also a 
member, when it attempts to amend the Taft-Hartley law. 

One of the points is to amend it so that we can more effectively 
handle this Communist domination of the labor unions. We will 
appreciate any advice that you and also your distinguished colleagues 
can give us on that. 

Mr. Clardy. I think it will come up with my bill to outlaw the 
Communist Party when that is up for consideration by either this 
committee or your committee or some other committee. 

Mr. Velde. Please continue, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Dodd, could you please tell the committee what 
offices you have had in the Communist Party? Tell us in detail. 

Dr. Dodd. I was a member of the State committee in New York 
from 1944 to 1948. 

I was a member of the national committee from 1944 to 1948. 

I was a member of the State secretariat of the New York district 
which consisted of Gil Green, Bill Lawrence, Israel Amter, and myself. 

That was from the period of late 1943 to 1946. The membership 
changed during that period but I was on until 1946. 

I have been a member of various committees of the party such as 
the Avomen's commission, the labor commission, the youth commis- 
sion, the legislative commission, and any number of other committees 
which arise. 

The Communist Party on the inside doesn't have any rigid organi- 
zational pattern. It has committees which can be easily set up and 
taken apart. It is very mobile as far as organizational structure is 
concerned. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2891 

On the fronts of the party I served in many capacities. As a matter 
of fact it would be impossible to enumerate the number of committees 
initiated bv the partv on which I served. 

Mr. KuNziG. Explain a little bit, if you will, how these Communist 
fronts operate. 

Dr. DoDD. Well, the pattern I guess is about the same in all, but 
the Communist Partv decides that a certain bit of propaganda shall 
take hold of the mxinds of the people. They set up committees and 
everything is geared toward building that line. Assume that they 
set up a committee to fight the Velde committee, the Un-American 
Activities Committee. They have for a long time. Then all you do 
is build up a number of seerningly nonpartisan people. For instance, 
you might get a college professor who is a party member but not 
known as a party member. He then sends a telegram to 1 or 2 or 3 
other prof essors "^and then they establish themselves as a temporary 
committee to fight the Un-American Activities Committee. To. 
facihtate that they send out 1,000 or so communications to different 
names the}' have and ask such a question as, "Will you join us tcv 
fight this?" And then they set up the committee. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would the Communist Party use a list of names of 
good, decent American citizens who were, shall we say, gullible or 
willing to agree to almost anything that would come to them, and 
did they use that list of names, if you know? 

Dr. DoDD. The Communist Party in its various divisions had lists 
of many people who had been sympathetic or who could be used on 
various Communist-front organizations. 

As a matter of fact, if I were put in charge of a committee to build 
the Un-American Activities campaign, I would be given a list of 
ministers, teachers, trade-union people, newspapers, writers, actors, 
dancers or what will you, politicians, people in public life. These 
names would be given to me and telephone numbers and addresses, 
and I would be free to go ahead and consult with them about serving on 
my committee. 

Mr. KuNziG. And these names would be given to you by the Com- 
munist Party; is that correct? 

Dr. DoDD. By some one person in the Communist Party in charge 
of that division. There is no centralized list of these things because 
they avoid centralization because of the danger that there is to it. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, ma}^ I ask a question? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. Is it the general idea through that apparatus you have 
described to then, by the mere punching of a button, so to speak, make 
it appear that all over America there is a concerted desire, for example, 
that this committee be abolished or that McCarthy be condemned to 
perdition, and so on? 

Dr. DoDD. You can set up a committee like that in a week and have 
the newspaper publicity for it almost immediately. 

You can have 500 names listed in a week of people who support you. 

For example, you send a telegram or a letter saying: "Dear Professor, 
we are setting up such-and-such a committee. May we hear from 
you? If we don't hear from you we will add your name to the list." 

A lot of people, by reason of inertia, do not reply. Then the 
committee does publicity work and it appears in the New York Times, 
the Herald Tribune, and aU the leading papers, and this would have a 



2892 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

tremendous impact upon the public, the pubhcation of the list of 
names of 1,000 or 500 college professors all across the country. 

Mr. Clardy. Trying to create the impression of a storm of protest, 
whereas it is a temptest in a teapot? 

Dr. DoDD. This is what makes it so difficult to know what are the 
facts in the case. 

Mr. Walter. I recently had my attention called to a committee in 
Chicago whose purpose it was to advocate the repeal of the McCarran- 
Walter immigration law. This committee is composed of many 
representative people, including 99 clergymen, which is the point that 
was stressed. Wliat is not known, but I know it and can prove it, 
is that this committee is being financed by one of the oldest Com- 
munist-front organizations in America. Yet here are these 99 clergy- 
men lending themselves to this movement. 

Dr. DoDD. That is quite the usual pattern. You see you might 
have a committee which was set up by them, a front committee, yet 
which was so closely identified with the Communist Party that they 
can manipulate public opinion in that way. 

Mr. KuNziG. I would hke to turn the discussion for a moment to 
the professional group. Were there such organizations within the 
Communist Party for professional groups such as teachers and other 
professional men and women? 

Dr. DoDD. Yes; the Communist Party was very, very keen about 
organizing teachers, professors, educators, the intellectuals, because 
these are the molders of public opinion and these are the people who 
make the shift in public opinion for the country. 

Very often it depended upon what period of history you were in 
as to whether the professional people became identified with the 
Communists or not. During a period when the Communist Party is 
in danger the professional people are more or less placed underground. 
As a matter of fact, one of the things we used to smile about — that is, 
those of us who became openly known as party people — was the fear 
the professional people had, the timidity they had, and we would 
constantly egg them on to become open and known Communists, but 
at the same time we would protect those who were important to the 
party. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did I understand you to say that the teachers group 
was more closely Icnit and secret than others? 

Dr. DoDD. Teachers group and, for instance, other groups like 
doctors, lawyers, scientists, what will you, had their own separate 
organization and teachers particularly, since they were large in 
number, had to worry about the question of security and the question 
of losing their jobs, and they would be organized by themselves in 
certain periods of the party history. 

During the period of the extreme united-front movement, the 
teachers were to join in street branches under different names and 
to merge themselves with housewives and others, but most of the 
time that I knew the party the teachers had their own special organi- 
zation with just teachers. They never went to party headquarters 
and never went anywhere near where the party might be identified, 
but meetings were organized and held in out-of-the-way places, in 
private homes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You know, do you, as a matter of fact, from your 
own personal knowledge in your position as one of the national 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2893 

leaders of the Commimist Party, that there were Communist teacher 
groups throughout the United States of America? 

Dr. DoDD. I certainly do. 

Mr. KuNziG. Since it is obvious that the great majority of teachers 
in America are fine, loj^al, and decent citizens, could you give the 
committee, if it lies within your knowledge, any estimate of the num- 
ber of Communist teachers that there may have been during this 
period of time or when you were a member of the national committee 
of the party? 

Dr. DoDD. Well, in contrast to the fact that there are 1 million 
teachers in America, or a little more than 1 million teachers at present, 
from my knowledge the highest number of Communist Party members 
that we had among the teachers was never much more than 1,500. 
That is a very small group, but you must bear in mind that in America 
there are only, according to J. Edgar Hoover, 25,000 party members 
at present among 160 million citizens. 

William Z. Foster in his book says there are 75,000 party members. 
But whether there are 75,000 or 25,000, it doesn't matter. The num- 
ber is insignificant compared to the total population, yet we worry 
about the Communist situation. 

But the same thing is true about the teachers. These 1,500 were 
all strategically placed and were so instructed and so alert to the 
problems which the party wanted to bring forward, that you cannot 
count their number. You must see the intensity with which they 
work and the training which they had in revolutionary techniques. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you have any connection with the teachers' unions 
during your period of time in the Communist Party? 

Dr. DoDD. Well, my connection with the unions preceded my real 
integration into the Communist Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. Could you describe, Dr. Dodd, in detail how a teachers* 
union operates and your experience with the Teachers' Union? 

Dr. Dodd. Well, teachers' unions operate the same as all other 
unions. They are a branch of the large number and there is nothing 
wrong with teachers' unions. I have known of some very effective 
work done on behalf of teachers by Teachers' Unions. 

The difficulty arises that when Communists take over a teachers' 
union they are not only interested in the economic welfare of the 
teachers but they begin to use the union for a political purpose, and 
that is where the real problem comes in because the Communists 
control the teachers' unions which they do infiltrate. 

Teachers' union just operate the way any other unions operate. 
They are part of an international organization. 

If you are familiar with the American Federation of Labor and the 
CIO and some of those which are independent, you will understand 
that they operate on the basis of affiliation with and support of the 
labor union and getting support from labor. Again I want to repeat 
that there is nothing wrong with teachers' unions as such. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you have any personal connection with the 
teachers' unions now existing in Philadelphia, particularly the one 
which has gone through a rather strenuous career? In 1940 and 1941 
it was part of the American Federation of Labor and was known as 
local No. 192. 

It is my understanding, and investigation on the part of the com- 
mittee has shown, that they later were ousted from the American 



2894 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Federation of La})or and there was quite a hearing and I understand 
that a Dr. Dodd, which I assume is yourself, represented the Teachers' 
Union at that time. I am intrested in knowing whether you did 
represent the Teachers' Union and also whether this union employed 
or had as its representative a top Communist, yourself? 

Dr. Dodd. My first acqurintance with the Philadelphia local of 
the Teachers' Union came back in 1936 when the American Federation 
of Teachers held their convention here in Philadelphia. I got to 
know some of the local people here who were in the Teachers' Union. 
I also began recognizing almost from the very beginning in my career 
in the Teachers' Union that the New York local, the WPA teachers 
movement, the college teachers of New York, the Philadelphia local 
and a number of the other locals on the eastern seaboard were being 
manipulated and being guided and directed by the Communist Party. 

The history of the Philadelphia local which is almost the history 
of the local union, has had almost the same pattern. The reason is 
obvious. During the period that I laiew it, it was led, guided, and 
instructed by the same people. 

Mr. KuNziG. Whom 3'ou knew also to be members of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Dr. Dodd. Whom I knew to be leaders of the Communist Party. 
They were very much concerned about the Communist control within 
the American Federation of Teachers. 

Around the period of the Stalin-Nazi pact in 1939 there were certain 
other forces of the American Federation of Teachers who decided to 
fight the Communist influence and, whereas they had not had much 
success during the Stalin-Nazi pact, they had a great deal of influence 
in fighting the Communist influence and they began pushing the 
Communist influence out of office in the American Federation of 
Teachers and forcing them out of positions of influence and ultimately 
ousting them, expelling them from the American Federation of 
Teachers. 

It was during this period when I mistakenly thought that the attack 
was one upon free public education and I, with some help from the 
Communist Party, began to equate the attack upon the grounds as an 
attack upon public education. I merged the two and in merging 
them I gained the sjTnpathy of many people not Communists and got 
them to help the Communist Teachers' Union to get support in their 
fight against being ousted by the American Federation of Labor. We 
were ousted from the American Federation of Labor. 

Mr. KuNZiG. The Philadelphia local was finally ousted? 

Dr. Dodd. Yes; and the New York local, too. Thereafter we 
remained independent for awhile and that was the Philadelphia and 
the New York locals, ard the independent floundered around because 
the Communist Party at that time was shifting its policy into support 
for the war which we were entering, and during that period we were 
not eager to make any enemies or to attack anyone in the labor union, 
and the union remained expendable and the Teachers' Union became 
almost extinct, became very small during that period. 

Mr. KuNZTO. Why was local No. 192 of the Teachers' Union here 
in Philadelphia thrown out of the American Federation of Labor? 
Was it for Communist activities? 

Dr. Dodd. All of those locals were thrown out because they were 
Communist-dominated unions. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2895 

Mr. KuNziG. And you as a member of the Communist Party at 
that time, testifying today before this committee, knew and now 
know that they were Communist dominated? 

Dr. DoDD. Yes, as a person who was teaching in the Communist 
conspiracy at that time, I Imew that they were working to try to 
keep the Communist unions within the American Federation of Labor. 

Mr. Velde. Can you give us the date that the Philadelphia union 
was thrown out of the American Federation of Labor? 

Dr. DoDD. I am not certain whether it was late 1940 or the begin- 
ning of 194L 

Mr. KuNZiG. I believe it was 194L Then the group remained not 
aflfiliated for some period of time and finally became local No. 556 of 
the State, County, and Municipal Workers of America, CIO. They 
were finally accepted by the CIO ; is that correct? 

Dr. DoDD. There again the negotiations for being affiliated with 
the CIO were carried out jointly by a joint committee of the Phila- 
delphia and the New York locals and we hoped we could find some- 
one and we shopped around for someone to take us into the big organi- 
zation. At that time we approached the CIO and thej would have 
nothing to do with us. We asked for them to establish a teachers' 
union and then we shopped around for the State, County, and Munic- 
ipal Workers which was Communist led at that time and they agreed 
to take the ousted local of the American Federation of Labor into the 
State, County, and Municipal Workers of America. 

Mr. KuNZiG. This State, County, and Municipal Workers of 
America became the United Public Workers of America, and on Feb- 
ruary 16, 1950, the United Public Workers of the CIO withdrew from 
the CIO and became independent. 

Dr. DoDD. Withdrew? 

Mr. KuNziG. Withdrew, and I say that with quotation marks 
around it. Do you know why they left tne CIO? 

Dr. DoDD. That was the time that Philip Murray was determined 
to cleanse the CIO of the Communist-led unions. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you knew that tliat was one of the Communist- 
led unions, from 3^our personal experience? 

Dr. D ODD. I certainly did. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew that because you were with those people. 

Dr. DoDD. Yes. 

Mr. KuxziG. The Teachers' Union had gone through all these 
various committees and unions and national affiliations, and do you 
know as a matter of fact whether this is the same group of people, 
the same union as it was all during those years? 

Dr. DoDD. Well, I guess it has some change in membership but as 
an organized group it is the same. 

Mr. KxjNZiG. And it would have the same policy and the same 
leadership? 

Dr. DoDD. Tliat I cannot tell you because I have not been close 
to it since I was there, but I would assume that it would. 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Dodd, what instructions would the party give, 
if any, to Communist teachers? 

Dr. DoDD. The Communist Party is not mterested in unions per se 
just to improve the working condition of the workers, and that 
includes the teachers as well as any other unions. 

40168 — 53— pt. 1 S 



2896 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

The Communist Party, in accordance with Lenin's theory of trade 
unionism, is that a union is important not for its economic force but 
for its political force and political power. Therefore, the Communist 
teachers who really were Communist Party members would have to 
understand that their union would have to play a political role and 
they would push them into the position of putting forth and support- 
ing- the Communist political objectives. 

As far as the teaching of the children was concerned, there would 
have to be certain ideology. The children would have to be taught 
in accordance with the directives of the Comm.unist Party. If the 
Con munist Party directives are to eliminate the private ownership 
of property, children would have to be taught in that direction. 

If the Communist Party believes — and it does — in eliminating all 
religion and all belief in God, then the Communist teachers would 
have to promote the Communist Party program as far as they possibly 
dare to do so and of course it was a question of judgment as to how 
far you could go without getting fired. 

Air. KuNziG. Can a Communist teacher teach children and still 
be free to teach them all sides of every question, major sides of 
questions? 

Dr. DoDD. It is absolutely impossible for a person to tear himself 
apart and say "I am a Communist today but I am teaching geography 
or liistory tomorrow and therefore I will teach the non-Communist 
h s^ory or the non-Communist geography." 

You may ask, Is there a Communist geography to teach? Is there a 
Communist history to teach? The answer is obvious. A teacher 
teaches children. It is the things you say, the way you greet the 
chil(h-en, the time you spend with them after hours, tlie books you 
recommend and the newspapers you recommend. That is where tne 
Communist teacher is very clever in putting forth her ideology and 
making it a part of the pattern of the child's mind. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. We ran across a situation in Los Angeles where they 
even perverted the Mother Goose rhymes to promote the Communist 
Party line. 

Dr. DoDD. You would be surprised at just how some of the great 
heroes of America have been perverted to promote the Communist 
Party line. 

Mr. Clardy. Lincoln was a Communist, according to them. 

Dr. DoDD. They always quote from Jetlerson on those things which 
promote their revolution. They seldom quote Lincoln's great spiritual 
messages but they quote those things which promote their idea. 

It is time we recaptured our own national heroes. 

Mr. Ku.NziG. Before I ask the next question I want to make clear 
for the record that there are approximately 4 teachers' unions in 
Philadelphia and we have been talking only about 1, entitled "The 
Teachers' Union of Philadelphia," formerly kno^vn as local No. 192 
or some time later lalo^vu as local No. 55G or the Jennings union. 
That is the only union we are talking about. 

How is a Communist teacher supposed to act with, respect to out- 
side organizations, membership in other organizations, and so forth? 

Dr. DoDD. It is the Communist teacher's duty to join as many 
organizations as we possibly can in order to inliuence and to bring 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2897 

the line of the party into those organizations. And this is partic- 
ularly true of her professional organizations. Thus a teacher might 
be a member of the Communist Party, of her union, then of a broad 
professional organization like the Association of Mathematics Teach- 
ers or the Association of Social Studies Teachers or the Association 
of English Teachers. 

Then into as many of the political organizations to which teachers 
might belong and, if they are women, into as many women's organ- 
izations as they can. Thus one Communist Party teacher gets the 
equivalent of 10 or 12 memberships and becomes not 1 person but 
10 or 12 different people because she operates in 10 or 12 different 
organizations. That is where the intensity comes in. In other 
words, she is not just a member of the Communist Party. She 
brings into those organizations the same program, the same resolu- 
tions, whatever the party has decided upon, and it is very beauti- 
fully done. For instance, if they are going to support certain legis- 
lation thej^ will bring this thing into 10 different organizations at 1 
time and you have the feeling that this is a spontaneous merger of 
public feeling. 

Mr. Clardy, You mean one rotten apple can spoU a whole barrel 
of apples. 

Dr. DoDD. That is right. 

Mr. Velde. At this point we will declare a short recess. 
(Whereupon, at 11:22 a. m., the hearing was recessed for 17 
minutes.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. Proceed Mr. 
Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Dodd, could you give us in more detail and explain 
to the committee just what is meant by the party line and by the 
phrase "party discipline" which you mentioned earlier this morning? 
Dr. Dodd. We have to be able to distinguish between party strategy 
and party tactics. The strategy of the Communist movement is 
world domination of all peoples of the earth. 

The party strategy in the United States is to make the United 
States a Soviet country. The question of how to reach that strategy, 
reach that objective, are the tactics and the tactics will change as the 
temper of the country changes. 

If for instance the countiy is very violently anti-Communist, the 
tactics will change in order so that some people will even say that they 
are anti-Communists in the hope of pushing forward their ultimate 
objective. In a period in which the Soviet Union changes its foreign 
policy, as for instance during the time of the Stalin-Hitler pact, the 
tactics in the United States were different than they would be at a 
time when the United States was in alliance with the Soviet Union. 
The tactics should and are constantly being changed. 
_ The strategy is always the same and the Communist does not lose 
sight of the fact that the strategy is the same. The ultimate objective 
is a Soviet world . 

Mr. Clardy, Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question? 
Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. That is what Lenin had in mind when lie said if it was 
necessary to kill two-thirds of the people to save the other one-third 
for communism, he would go along with it. 



2898 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Dr. DoDD. I think that gives us an idea of how much in danger the 
peoples of the world are, not only spiritually and mentally but also 
physically. The peoples of the world are in dreadful danger because 
of this menace. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you feel that there is a lack of understanding of 
the problem from your own experience and from your own knowledge 
as a member of the Communist Party? 

Dr. DoDD. Lack of understanding on the part of the American 
people? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

Dr. DoDD. I do not think the American people are aware of how 
deep this thing is; how all-pervasive it is; how it has permeated the 
very marrow of our bones; and how sometimes we do not recognize 
the party line. We have got to understand the basic philosophy of 
this thing. 

Americans have got to stop thinking about the immediate issues 
of this thing and go to the fundamental thing. It is a movement for 
the destruction of the life of the human individual. 

Mr. Clardy. Isn't it perfectly apparent that a great many people 
in the country expect the Communist movement to, in effect, erect 
neon lights to call our attention to it whereas as a matter of fact the 
Communists do exactly the opposite, they conceal and attempt to 
prevent us from finding out. 

Dr. DoDD. I was told by Gil Green, chairman of the party in 
New York State, that if ever communism came to America it would 
not come under the Socialist label or the Communist label but it 
would come under a label palatable to the American people. 

I said "What do you mean?" 

He said "It might be hberty or democracy or something of that 
Idnd." 

In other words, they wiU hide themselves under labels which the 
American people will think are their own. 

Mr. Clardy. They define everything they do as a liberal move- 
ment, something in a liberal direction. 

Dr. DoDD. They will use words with a definition which you and I 
do not use. For instance, they regard themselves as the most demo- 
cratic. I was always told that the American form of democracy is 
only a limited democracy. The most perfect democracy is the 
democracy of the Communist movement and of the Soviet Union, 
so when they use the word "democracy" they are obviously not using 
the same terms that we are using. The word is the same but the 
meaning is different. 

Mr. Velde. There could be no question but what the membership, 
numerically, of the Communist Party in this country is going down, 
Mr. J. Edgar Hoover mentioned recently that there were only 25,000 
Communist Party members in the United States where several years 
ago there were as many as 100,000 Communist Party members. 

Do you believe, therefore, and this question has been asked of me 
both officially and unofficially, do you believe, therefore, that we are 
making progress? Is there any need to continue the fig.ht? Is there 
any need for this committee, for instance, or any committee of 
Congress to continue the fight against communism because the num- 
bers have been going down? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2899 

I am sure that some people, and especially those who have pro- 
Communist viewpoints, feel that 25,000 compared to 165 million 
people is so small that it is ineffective as a weapon to infiltrate us as a 
nation. 

May we have your views on that point? 

Dr. DoDD. I think America is in greater danger now than it has 
been, and the reason for it is that the spreading of the Soviet imperial- 
ism has increased the strength of the Soviet bloc. It is the lure of 
success, the lure of the bandwagon. Nothing succeeds like success. 

We used to have only the Soviet Union. Now you have 500 million 
Chinese and 100 million eastern Europeans under that. The fact 
that you only have 25,000 members in the Communist Party is not the 
significant thing, although it is important to reduce the actual number 
of people tied to them. 

The Soviet Union, when Lenin landed in St. Petersburg, had only 
23,000 members of the Communist Party. Yet, those 23,000 members, 
highly organized, highly centralized, well financed, were able to take 
over 180 million people of the Soviet Union. 

The same thing was true in Italy for instance in 1941. I would 
say that at that time you did not have more than 15,000 party members 
in Italy. You now have a party of 2K million, and the question 
arises as to what made it blossom out like that? Well, it is the strength 
of the Soviet Union, the increa=iing financial support which the Com- 
munist movements of the world are getting, and the fact that they 
are able to change their labels. 

You are undoubtedly aware of the fact that in Guatemala you have 
four political parties, all of them controlled by the Communist move- 
ment but not carrying the Communist label. 

So the 25,000 members here are only for the purpose of keepmg the 
word "communism" ahve, sort of an intellectual goal. But actually 
the number of people involved in pushing forward the Communist 
ideology is very great and I think it is not just a question of going 
after the individual party members but as this congressional committee 
has done and the others, showing the people of America what this 
pattern is so that they can protect themselves. 

The fight is no longer around the individual members but it is a 
house-to-house fight and a street-to-street fight and a town-by-town 
fight. 

What in our town is pushing forward this Communist movement, 
what in our street, what in our home? They are trying to pervert all 
of those divisions. 

Mr. Velde. This committee, since 1938 has, along with its regular 
duties to investigate subversive activities, another important ex officio 
duty and that is to inform the people as to what the Communist 
conspiracy actually is. 

In light of that we have huge files. We have sent out millions of 
copies of pamphlets and reports of hearings and annual reports and 
so forth. 

In line with that, would you say that the Un-American Activities 
Committee has made some contribution to the fighting of the Com- 
munist conspiracy? I am not trying to pat myself on the back because 
this committee began a long time before I was a member of it. 

Dr. DoDD. I was one of the committee who fought the Un-American 
Activities Committee very violently for many years. I fought it 



2900 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

because your committee was being very effective in disclosing things 
W'Jiich wo did not want disclosed. 

Mr. Clardy. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman? 

Air. Velde. Yes, Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. As I gather from what you say, Dr. Dodd, you are 
omphatically of the opinion that despite outward appearances, as 
intlicatcd by a numerical decline in the number of recognized Com- 
munists, the threat is greater than ever today. 

Now would you say that is due largely to the fact that they have 
been able to enlist under theh banner a great many people who do not 
even know they are fighting for the Communist cause and they have 
been able to whip up an almost hysterical feeling that this committee 
and other committees investigating it are deliberately setting out to 
destroy academic freedom, to destroy the civil rights guaranteed under 
the Constitution? 

Wouldn't you say that they have succeeded and are becoming more 
dangerous simply because they have succeeded in selling a lot of good 
people totally false impressions and false ideas? Would you say 
that is a fact? 

Dr. Dodd. Yes; I think so. I think the Communist movement in 
America would have been smashed a long time ago if people in im- 
portant positions — and I do not mean just politicians but I mean in 
our economic system, politically and in our cultm-al society did not 
give support and even financial support to this thing. It is not just 
a question of the small people. 

Mr. Clardy. The term "witch hunters" originated with the 
Communist Party. That is typical of what we all know. Those types 
of phrases are being spread broadcast by a good many good people. 
Would you not say that is one of the most effective ways of blocking 
the Co.mmunists too? 

Dr. Dodd. The Communist cause is highly geared to propaganda. 
They understand it even better than Dr. Goebbels did. Propaganda 
is the most effective weapon in the hands of the Communists in 
beclouding the minds of American citizens. 

Mr. Clardy. We ought to keep our eye on the ball, in other words. 

Dr. Dodd. The question of propaganda and the question of who is 
channelizing propaganda in America is something we should pay 
attention to. 

Mr. Clardy. The other day I read a statement by someone who 
said that the anti-Communist is more dangerous than the Communist. 
That is what I had in mind when I asked the question. That is 
promoting the line purely and simply. 

Dr. Dodd. Let me say this to you on the question of anticom- 
munism: The Communists are not adverse to putting on a cloak of 
anticommunism if it serves their purposes in promoting the party line. 
They will smear all genuine anti-Communists and make them look 
like Fascists or benighted people. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have talked about the party line. How is the 
party line spread to the teachers? How would a teacher get the party 
line? 

Dr. Dodd. There is no such thing as a democratic arrival of 
opinion in the Communist Party. The party is geared and run by 
democratic centralism. 



COM]MIINriST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2901 

IMr. KuNziG. Would you explain democratic centralism and how 
the part line is spread? 

Dr. DoDD. The dissemination of centralism and all programs orig- 
inate from the top, from the national committee, people from over- 
seas Avho work with the leaders of the national party. They set the 
line and once they formulate the line it is sent doAvn to the national 
committee and sent down to the State committee and to the various 
counties and finally it reaches the smaller committees and the indi- 
vidual members. But those groups have only the power to accept. 
Because if anyone dared to challenge the basic line which had been 
sent to them from the top that person would be isolated and ousted 
from the party. 

What they can do is to discuss how they will apply this decision 
which has been made on top in their own individual bailiwick. 

For instance, if they are teachers and the line has come that we 
must now push the fight for mutual coexistence with the Soviet 
Union, trade with the Soviet Union, or the admission of Red China 
into the United Nations, the teachers take that line which came from 
the top and decide how they will promote it among the teachers, first 
among the Communist teachers and then among the union teachers, 
whatever unions they happen to be in, then among the mass of teachers 
and then among all other groups. 

Mr. KuNziG. Let us make a hypothetical case. Suppose you are 
Dr. Bella Dodd and let us assume just for the purpose of discussion 
that you are teaching history at Olney High School in this city. How 
would you, in your dail}^ life, and remember you are a member of the 
Communist Party and you are interested in everything that has to 
do with the Communist way of life — how do you get the line? Who 
tells you? Where do you hear about it? 

Dr. Dodd. If I am a member of the Communist Party I may 
belong to a unit. If I am an ordinary teacher and not a leader, the 
unit meets maybe once or twice a month. 

Mr. KuNziG. With other teachers? 

Dr. Dodd. Yes. 

Mr. KuxziG. Wliere would those meetings be? 

Dr. Dodd. In someone's home, in some out-of-the-way place, and 
if someone should happen to come in that evening it would be a 
discussion gi-oup. They would change the program. That is, if 
someone came to the house. 

Mr. KuNziG. Accidentally? 

Dr. Dodd. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. But those who came to the real meeting held at such 
a private home, they would be Communists? 

Dr. Dodd. Yes, and there is a chairman of the unit who has 
already attended a meeting before this one and who has gotten his 
instructions from the county leader of the party or from the State- 
wide teachers' leader of the party. The organization will differ in 
difi^erent counties. He will either get his directions from the county 
party leader or someone in charge of the citj^vide teachers' group. 
Tiie}^ get it from the higher committee. There is a series of commit- 
tees going up to the top. 

When it comes down to the ordinary teachers to discuss the ques- 
tion, the problem, and answer questions, there is already literature 
ready to help assist them. The question is how can we spread it. 



2902 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

As an ordinary teacher I can spread it by going to my union meet- 
ing and seeing that a resohition is voted on. 

Mr. KuNziG. This might be a union not necessarily Communist- 
dominated. 

Dr. DoDD. That is right. As a teacher in my classroom, let us 
suppose the question is the admission of Red China into the United 
Nations. I have a bulletin board with clippings and I begin putting 
clippings on the bulletin board which are pro and if I put some 
against, I put more of those that are pro. 

The children raise the question and I discuss it with them back 
and forth and with a show of impartiality and I weight the thing in 
favor of the line which I want adopted. 

If I am teaching history it becomes logical. I take a question 
such as "Wlien do we recognize a country which has changed its 
form of government?" 

I show that there has been a legitimate effort after a certain period 
of time to recognize a de facto government. In other words, I show 
that as a normal course of relationships on international problems 
that we would recognize a country of that kind. 

In other words, I try to .make it as natural as possible for the 
students to accept the line I am promulgating, but I know what I am 
doing is promoting the ideas which I have. 

Communism is the total philosophy of life and if you believe in it 
strongly you carry it into every phase of your life. It is like a religion, 
but most people have gotten lukewarm about their religion. If you 
are a real Communist or a real Jew or whatever you may be its basic 
philosophy will affect all your dealings with people. 

So with communism; it affects all yom- thinking and dealings with 
people. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are trying to say that a Communist teacher who 
sincerely believes in this, has it as a religion, as you say, could not 
possibly not try to carry it into effect in daily life wherever he or she 
goes? 

Dr. DoDD. A Communist teacher is dedicated to seeing that 
communism is spread and that it becomes the successful form of 
government in their life and in everyone else's life. 

Mr. KuNziG. It has been said that a Communist teacher might 
have some effect in a history or a civics class or a geogi-aphy class but 
that it does not make any difi'erence whether a teacher is a teacher of 
art or woodworking or mathematics. What is your opinion about 
that? Can a teacher have some effect? 

Dr. DoDD. As I said before, we teach children and not subject 
matter. You not only see a child in the classroom in which you 
teach, you see him in your offclass period and in his group relation- 
ships. 

The best Communist teacher I know was a mathematics teacher 
because the social studies heads weeded out the Communists. The 
mathematics teachers are not expected to have those opinions. They 
served on committees to select textbooks, for establishing curricula, 
for mass participation of the students in civic affairs. They use it in 
every way possible. 

Mr. Velde. Actually as far as classroom teaching and indoc- 
trination in the classroom went, it had very little influence, I take it? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2903 

Dr. DoDD. I don't know if you remember some of your own 
teachers but I remember the teacher who had taught me. For 
instance, the teacher who teaches arithmetic, just by general rem.arks 
and the things that they said after the hour was over, the effect of 
that was very great. We do not just teach arithmetic and then rim 
out of the classroom. 

Mr. Clardy. Would you say that the point that you are trying 
to make applies with equal force to all professional people and for a 
still different reason, and that is that the people in the professions, 
the law, for example, occupy a little different position in the public 
mind so that their utterances on subjects other than that connected 
with their actual teaching or practice or whatever it is carries a little 
more weight and maybe a little more impact on the public awareness? 

Dr. DoDD. Certainly, the professional people are the molders of 
pubhc opinion. 

Mr. Clardy. That is what II had in mind. You would say that 
this is a powerful weapon in the hands of the Communists if they can 
get hold of those people? 

Dr. DoDD. If the Communists didn't think the teachers were so 
important they would not have worked so hard to get us into it. 

Mr. Clardy. Isn't that one of their prime objectives? 

Dr. DoDD. It has been and is important. Teachers are an extremely 
important group to them. 

Communist Party high-school teachers made a special effort during 
the war to keep in touch with their boys going into the Army. The 
reason was to give them an approach to the postwar peace program. 
The Communist teacher takes her responsibility very seriously. 

Mr. Clardy. This program you are talking about is applied with 
redoubled force in Russia itself, at least every one of us who studied 
it knows that. Hitler used the same ideas of seizing the minds of the 
youth. 

Dr. DoDD. AU totalitarian governments are essentially the same in 
that respect, how the state can control the individual. Hitler was not 
as successful as the Communists have been in that respect, however. 

Mr. Clardy. And they are patient. 

Dr. DoDD. They have a long-range program and are looking to 
take hold of the minds of today's youth in the hope that when they 
grow to adulthood they will be in a position to take over. 

As a matter of fact they are training the 3"0uth not for today but 
for the tomorrow which they expect will be a Soviet world. 

Mr. Velde. You mentioned that you fought nazism. I am sure 
that all loyal Americans did at that particular time, and now are 
fighting the Communist conspiracy. 

Do you have any way of comparing the techniques of the Nazis 
with the techniques of the Communist Party and its attempt to 
get control of the minds of the youth? 

Dr. DoDD. The Communists are of course an older movement and 
they have a body of literature which the Nazis did not have. The 
Nazis came to power sort of suddenly and had to write their bibles 
and books on ideology very fast. 

The Communist movement since 1848 has been permeating prac- 
tically the entire world. Karl Marx was not only in Germany and 
England, but here in the United States. Some of the first meetings 

40168 — 53— pt. 1 4 



2904 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

of the Communist International were held in New York and 
Philadelphia. 

Karl Marx wrote a weekly article on labor for the Herald Tribune 
in the 1860's. 

From 1S4S to 1953 is a long period of time. The one is really- 
much more efficient than the other. The Nazis just kind of stole 
from the most obvious techniques that the Communists have. 

The Nazis betrayed the individual man by the synthetic use of a 
mystical thing called the race. They said in the interest of a pure 
Gennan race everyone was expendable who did not fit into their 
goal. 

The Communists use another mystical thing. They teach a mystical 
thing called the proletariat, the race of proletariats, the industrial class 
will rule, and in the interests of that everytliing else is expendable, 
fanners, professional people. As a matter of fact, they make appeals 
to the youth and the minority national groups which they played 
havoc with. 

I think you will find that the Nazi movement was nothing but a 
paper cardboard movement in comparison with that of communism 
as far as being an organized thing is concerned. 

The Nazis, of course, in iisnig the mystical thing called purity of the 
German race did violence to most of us Americans because we under- 
stand that there is no such thing as a pure race. We are a nation in 
America with strength because we have so many people, but practically 
all of us fall for the idea that we are part of the working class. When 
the Communists say all power to the working class, and 98 percent of 
us in America are the working class, therefore in the name of the 
mystical thing called the proletariat they destroy the working class. 

Mr. Clardy. Don't they say that the individual is as of nothing, 
that all that counts is the group, the body, and that in the end is the 
state, so that to them the killing off of millions is only one of the things 
that just necessarily must be done and the fact that the individual 
suffers a horrible fate doesn't affect them at all. 

Dr. DoDD. The peoples of the world are not only in danger spirit- 
ually and mentally, but they are in physical danger of annihilation. 

I was not aware of that when I was a member of the Communist 
Party. I would like to read to you from this book published in 1949 
called The Twilight of World Capitalism by William Z. Foster. 

On page 150 he says, "Communism is inevitable in America." 

He dedicates it to his grandson who will live in a Communist 
America. 

Under the chapter entitled ''The Advent of Socialist Man" on page 
150 of his book, William Z. Foster has the following to say: 

Man will free himself, under socialism, from the burden of weakness and 
disease that has nursed him for so long and which is such a distressing feature 
of present-day society. 

Man, too, for the first time disregarding foolish religious taboos, will boldly 
solve the population problems, both in respect to the size of his own individual 
family and that of the number of people in the nations generally. 

How do they expect to solve the problem of popidation in the 
nations generally? How are they going to solve the problem of 
500,000,000 Chinese and 300,005,000 people in India and one- 
hundred-and-fifty-some-odd million people in America? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2905 

He goes on to say: 

The vital n atter of the evolution of mankind is not one that can any longer 
be left to chance, especially a capitalist society is now having such a negative 
effect on the development of the species. The law of natural selection, which 
built the marvelous complexities of plant and animal species, no longer can work 
spent meously. Now the evolution of the human species must be done artificially, 
by the conscious action of man himself. 

Mr. Clardy. That is what they meant when they said kilHng off 
100 milhon people would be a good thing. 

Dr. DoDD. There is no doubt in my mind that this is a program for 
reorganizing and rebuilding maakind, according to their own peculiar 
pattern. 

Mr. KuNziG. We hear a lot of discussion today specifically about 
academic freedom and respecting academic freedom. Of course 
everyone wants to respect academic freedom. My question to you is: 
Does the Communist Party have any respect for academic freedom? 

Dr. DoDD. The Communist Party doesn't know what academic 
freedom means. If a person criticizes the party or raises a question, 
that person is suspect. It is academic freedom for the Communists 
to say what they want to say, but not academic freedom for anyone 
else. 

Maybe you will remember the professors who raised some question 
of linguistics and genetics. Those men have disappeared from the 
intellectual and cultural life of Russia. And we are aware of the fact 
that many of the finest scientists and finest linguistic professors have 
been unwilling to accept chairs of learning in Russia because of the 
professor who disagreed with Stalin on what should be done with 
languages and what should be done with genetics. 

Air. KuNziG. Wliat would this mathematics teacher we were talk- 
ing about a little while ago and who comes to the meetings two times 
a month or so, what position would she be in if she disagreed with the 
line handed her from above? 

Dr. DoDD. First, they would try to cajole and convince her that 
she was wrong. 

Mr. KuNziG. Who would try? 

Dr. DoDD. The other party members in the union and the leader 
of the union, and if she still persisted they would probably bring in 
the county leader of the Communist Party to talk with her. 

But if she persisted in it, the next tiling would be to expose her and 
expel her from the party. Sometimes that expulsion is very violent. 
Sometimes it isn't. The more important the teacher the more violent 
the explusion. They wouldn't worry about whether she lost her job 
or reputation and wouldn't worry about charges. I have seen charges 
discussed against people which were just brutal. 

Mr. KuNziG. You mean discussed by members of the Communist 
Party? 

Dr. DoDD. Discussed by the control commission, the disciplinary 
commission. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know whether the Communist Party has its 
own security system, its owti detectives, its own shall we say spy 
apparatus to see that Communist members in key positions are not 
double-crossing the party? 

Dr. DoDD. The party functions with its owti security apparatus at 
all levels, practically. 



2906 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Kttnzig. Will you describe that, please? 

Dr. DoDD. When I was in the Teachers' Union I was one of the 
ofRcial leaders of the Teachers' Union. Yet the party placed, as 
secretary to the Union or as the office manager, someone who was in 
the employ of the party apparatus. I never knew that she was a 
member of the Communist Party. I never knew that she was getting 
instructions and yet I was a member of the party also. 

In other words, they set one person to spy on the other. 

Also from the point of view of security I happen to know the person 
in the New York district who was in charge of setting up the Com- 
munist Party securit}'' apparatus. It is a government within a 
government. They have their own court system whereby a person 
violating the Communist Party code is brought for trial and punish- 
ment is meted out to him just as it would be in an open court, only 
this is a private court. This is the emergence of the new type of 
Soviet government which they expect will some day take over. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you personally ever called before one of these 
control commissions? 

Dr. DoDD. During the period from 1945 to 1947 I was called before 
the control commission three times. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you describe that, please, as to what happened? 

Dr. DoDD. Of course, since I was a person they were a little bit 
afraid of because they were afraid to admit anyone really breaks with 
the party and because I was speaking in terms of really, being yerj 
upset by the things that were going on, they tried not to provoke me, 
but they called me on the carpet for something I had said in a unit 
meeting. I said something about the new Cominform one night. 
The next day I was before the control commission. They wanted to 
know what I meant by it. 

Another time they tried to inquire into certain personal affairs, 
and each time I was not cleared but was told to come to a meeting at a 
certain hour and I was made to wait until I was psychologically 
conditioned and disturbed, and a lot of questions were asked of me. 
No decision was made while I was there but I daresay that the decision 
was reported to people higher up and those three hearings probably 
ultimately brought to the conclusion my final expulsion from the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. I imagine. Dr. Dodd, that you have had the same 
experience getting out of the party. You stated that getting into 
the party can be a gradual process and I imagine that leaving the 
party must be in some way a gradual process of becoming disillusioned. 

Dr. Dodd. Leaving the party can be as a result of not paying dues. 
As a matter of fact, it took me years to eradicate some of the beliefs 
that I had because your whole philosophy of life becomes changed. 
Your attitude toward art and movies, your attitude toward friends 
and your family and your country is different. That is very basic. 
It had to change from the time you leave the party until the time you 
become an American citizen again. My whole attitude toward my 
country while I was in the party was that my country was run by a 
group of people who were very interested in profits and were selfish 
and the only thing that would save this country would be the estab- 
lishment of a Communist society. Therefore it is only in the light 
of losing my belief in the Communist objectives which I now realize 
are fraudulent and are propaganda that you begin to realize what a 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2907 

great value we have in the great Constitution of ours and the Bill of 
Rights and the rights which our people have achieved over the cen- 
turies which the Communists would topple over indiscriminately. 

Sometimes that laiowledge comes too late. In my case I thank God 
it came within time. 

Mr. KuNziG. May I ask you, within your own knowledge do you 
feel that when you were a teacher you did influence students along 
the Communist line? 

Dr. DoDD. I would have been a very bad Communist if I did not, 
I certainly influenced students. I taught economics. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where was this? 

Dr. DoDD. At Hunter College. I taught from 1926 to 1938 and 
taught many generations of freslunen. I hope I am undoing some of 
the things I did at that time. There is no doubt in my mind I taught 
a whole generation of students. Maybe I did not influence them 
enough so that they joined the Communist Party but I taught some 
of them to be disposed to accept the whole philosophy of the Com- 
munist Party. 

It always seemed so attractive because I was helping them to solve 
the problems of the people, the immediate problems in the framework 
that the Communists wanted us to present to the people. 

Mr. Clardy. You helped to undermine, I take it, the natural 
inclination of the average American to be a good, religious sort of 
person? You undermined that more or less b}^ the subtle methods 
that you described? 

Dr. DoDD, There is no doubt about the fact that atheism is part 
of the web and woof of communism and your general attitude is that 
since there is no God it is up to man himself to solve his problems. 
They place all the emphasis upon the fact that man must solve the 
problems by himself. 

Mr. Clardy. Wouldn't you say that the gravest tlu-eat that a 
Communist teacher ma}^ impose is that he undermines man's faith in 
his God and in liis religion? 

Dr. DoDD. That is fundamental to the entu-e Communist con- 
sphacy, 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Dodd, teachers then obviously play an important 
part in the Communist scheme of tilings. I would like to ask you 
whether teachers, intellectuals, are on the key positions, whether they 
play an important part in the higher realms or higher control? Does 
the party want top-ranking intellectuals in positions of control? 

Dr. Dodd. The Communists need teachers and intellectuals to fill 
the jobs which have to be handled by the Communists. They need 
them as experts in the field of labor, law, science, education, and so 
forth. The intellectuals are really important to them in order to 
create the leadership of the proletariat group. You may say "But I 
thought the Communist Party was a workers' movement." 

Well, that is the propaganda. That is the slogan, but actually it 
is the educated, the intellectuals, who were used in top positions for 
influencing the mind of the country. Behind the scenes they may 
have some power people from the international movement, but the 
people who promote the conspiracy are those who are put in key posi- 
tions. The professors, the intellectuals, are in a better financial posi- 
tion to help the party. 



2908 COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Hollywood for a long time was a tremendous source of revenue for 
the Communist Party. 

Some of the doctors that we have in the Communist Party, doctors, 
dentists are a tremendous source of financino- of the party. 

Mr. Clardy. That is still true today, isn't it? 

Dr. DoDD. It was when I last had contact with the party. I do not 
profess to know that today. 

Mr. KuNziG. In your personal knowledge were Communist teachers 
urged to get into unions and to attempt to gain control? 

Dr. DoDD. It was the function of every teacher to join a union, 
and particularly the union which the party told them to join. There 
was a choice of two. The party misht decide to send people into both 
unions but it might instruct certain special professors to have nothing 
to do with the Red union in order to preserve them for greater service 
to the partv. 

Mr. KuNziG. At this point I should like to read into the record 
some quotes from a publication called the Communist, a theoretical 
magazine of the Communist Part3\ This is an article written in 
1937 at the time the Teachers' Union was at its peak, an article called 
the Schools Are the People's Front. This article was written by 
Richard Frank and some of the sentences I think confirm exactly 
what the witness has said this morning. I am now quoting from this 
magazine of the Communist Party as follows: 

That which is most immediately apparent to anyone who studies public edu- 
cation must be the fact that the public-school S3^stem is part of the state machinery, 
and the function of the state machinery being to subjugate the proletarian and the 
toiling masses in geii'ral to the rule of the bourgeoisie, the role of the public- 
school system cannot be isolated from this general function of the capitalist state. 

JNow on the next page of his article Frank says as follows: 

Because of the economic hardships of their home life, the maiority of the 
children develop a feeling of hatred for the bourgeois public-school system. 
This hatred develops that spirit of rebelliousness which is to be found in every 
public-school room. 

The rebelliousness of the school children directed against a part of the state 
machinery itself is something that Communists cannot afford to ignore. This, 
together with their desire for knowledge and social lif^^, must form the starting 
point for our work among the stud.?nts in the schools. The problem is rather how 
to guide and direct that spirit of rebelliousness which already exists. 

Then he goes on to make certain recommendations with respect to 
getting the students into the Young Communist League, and he has 
this to say: 

The Young Communist League must endeavor to raise the spirit of rebellion 
found among school children to a level of higher consciousness by educating the 
students on the basis of their own experience to a realization of the class basis for 
the oppressive nature of the schools and to a realization of how the school system 
under a workers' and farmers' government would deal with the immediate prob- 
lems of the majority of students, imparting to them, with the utmost solicitude 
for their own interests, that warm and friendly culture of their own class. 

And finally he says this: 

The task of the Communist Party must be first and foremost to arouse the 
teachers to class consciousness and to organize them into the union. 

Communist teachers are therefore faced with a tremendous social responsi- 
bility. They must consider not merely their own teaching problems, but the 
problems of the children. They must take advantage of their position without 
exposing themselves, to give their students, to the best of their ability, the work- 
ing-class education. 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2909 

Do those quotations fit in with your personal knowledge of the situ- 
ation, Dr. Dodd? 

Dr. Dodd. Yes; that was the approach. The schools were to be 
instrumentalities of the class struggle and they were to train the 
young students in school as to what the class struggle was and to 
make him feel emotionally that ho belonged with the working class in 
that class struggle, and I might say that this man who wrote the article 
whom I laiew quite well was later taken to task because he had been 
too frank in stating this thing because it caused a little bit of embar- 
rasment, not because he was wrong but because he was too frank. 

Mr. KuNziG. I want to emphasize once more for the record the 
conclusions heard this morning are those of one who was a Communist 
teacher because you worked in this movement personally and therefore 
the testimony you have given so ably this morning is from your own 
personal knowledge. 

Dr. Dodd. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, as you know, we have vitally impor- 
tant executive testimony from Dr. Dodd and others given to us in 
executive session going into greater and more specific detail on the 
subject. But that of course is for the committee and remains in 
executive session. 

I have no further questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy, do you have any further questions? 

Mr. Clardy. I have no questions, but I think there is one thing 
that perhaps we ought to emphasize, something that Dr. Dodd said 
at the outset, that the percentage of teachers who have been infected 
with this virus is relatively small. 

Would you not agree with me that in all probability the percentage 
is at least as low if not lower than that for example in my own pro- 
fession of the law or any of the others? 

Dr. Dodd. Certainly. I think the teachers of America, once thev 
catch on to the meaning of this conspiracy, are going to be the great 
leaders in protecting America. 

Mr. Clardy. You are not in any way attempting to indict the 
teaching profession or any other profession in the United States. You 
are merely pointing out the pitfalls and the danger and the 
possibilities? 

Dr. Dodd. The American teachers have had a great role in the 
history of America and they will again. I think that some of them 
mistakenly think they have to protect this conspiracy. Once they 
realize that this is a conspiracy which will destroy the schools as we 
have known them in the history of America, I thinls: the American 
schoolteachers will come to the defense of their country. 

Air. Clardy. Would you not agree that while this committee has a 
proper duty and function in exposing the machinations of the Com- 
munist Party and letting people see how it functions and what it will 
do to them, would you say that the real battle against communism 
has got to be carried on in two fronts, one in the school and the other 
in the churches? 

Dr. Dodd. That is right. Those two are verj^ important and I 
think also on the industry front. I think that it is very important 
that our economic system become aware of this. 

Mr. Clardy. I appreciate that but the group that is going to carry 
the message are the others because this is, after all, a battle for the 



2910 COAIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

minds of man. Wouldn't you say that those two £i:roups are the 
ones that are really going to have to carry the real burden in this 
fight? 

Dr. DoDD. Plus the home, the fathers, and the mothers. Build 
good, strong homes, and this thing won't affect us. 

Air. Clardy. At least you will agree with me that they are impor- 
tant? 

Dr. DoDD. I certainly do. 

Mr. Clardy. Thank you. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. I have no questions. 

Mr. Velde. I have no questions, either. Dr. Dodd, but I would 
like to say this, that the committee, and I am sure loyal American 
people everywhere appreciate the dignified and sincere and learned 
manner in which you have outlined the Communist conspiracy, with 
emphasis on the conspiracy in the field of education. 

We know it is an ordeal for you to appear and give the information 
which you have and we are aware of the struggle which you had within 
your own conscience in getting into the Communist Party and getting 
out, and we want you to know that we as a committee of Congress 
appreciate the efforts you have been making in the past and the efforts 
we know you will make in the future to make America secure and safe 
from the Communist conspiracy. 

The committee will stand in adjournment untU 2 o'clock this 
afternoon. 

(Whereupon, at 12:32 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned until 
2:09 p. m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(At the hour of 2:09 p. m., of the same day, the proceedings were 
resumed, the following committee members being present: Repre- 
sentatives Harold H. Velde (chairman), Kit Clardy, and Francis E. 
Walter.) 

Mr. Velde. The subcommittee will be in order. Mr. Counsel, will 
you call your first witness this afternoon? 

Mr. KuNZiG. Will Mr. Harry Fruit please step forward? 

Do you have counsel with you, Mr. Fruit? 

Mr. McCabe. I am counsel for Mr. Fruit. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Will you please state your name for the record? 

Mr. McCabe. Louis F. McCabe. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you please step forward too, Mr. Fruit? 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee, do you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Fruit. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HARRY FRUIT, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

lOUIS F. McCABE 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give your full name, Mr. Fruit? 
Mr. Fruit. Mv name is Harrv Fruit. 
Mr. KuNziG. that is F-r-u-i-t? 
Mr. Fruit. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2911 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat is your address, Mr. Fruit? 

Mr. Fruit. 7134 Horrocks Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see that you are accompanied by counsel. Would 
counsel please state his name and address for the record? 

Mr. McCabe. Louis F. McCabe, 1218 Chestnut Street, Phila- 
delphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Fruit, could you please give the committee a 
resume of your educational background? 

Mr. Fruit. Yes. I was graduated from Central High School in 
Philadelphia and also from the University of Pennsylvania, from which 
I received the bachelor of science degree in education, and the follow- 
ing year a master of arts degree. 

Air. KuNziG. \Miat 3'ear did you receive the master of arts degree? 

Mr. Fruit. In 1935, I believe. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did that complete your formal education? 

Mr. Fruit. No; I spent a year in graduate work at the university 
also. 

Mr. KuNziG. Could you give the committee a resume of your em- 
ployment background? 

Air. Fruit. I was appointed to the public school system in 1936 
where I worked since that time, fu'st in junior high school and then in 
senior high school. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where are you employed now? 

Mr. Fruit. I am now employed at Germantowm High School. 

Mr. KuNziG. In Philadelphia? 

Mr. Fruit. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. What subject do you teach there? 

Mr. Fruit. Mathematics. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Fruit, are you now a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Fruit. No; I am not. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Fruit, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

(At this point Mr. Fruit conferred with A'r. A ' cCabe.) 

Mr. Fruit. I submit, Air. Kunzig, that an answer to that question 
may forge some link in a chain of evidence that may tend to induce 
some Federal authority to institute proceedings against me, and on 
that basis I do not wish to answer the question. 

Air. Kunzig. Are 3^ou refusing on the ground of the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mr. Fruit. I am refusing on the ground of the fifth amendment. 

Air. Kunzig. You are refusing because your answ^er might tend to 
incriminate you? 

Air. Fruit. The answer may lead to somx chain of inquiry that 
might do that; yes, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. I wish to ask you this question, A r. Fruit; were you 
ever an official of the Communist Party here in Philadelphia? 

Air. Fruit. I am requesting the same privilege. I invoke the same 
privilege. 

Air. Kunzig. You refuse to answer on the same ground? 

Air. Fruit. Yes. 

Air. Kunzig. Isn't it a fact that you were secretary of the West 
Philadelphia Club, section 8, of the Communist Party? 

Air. Fruit. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

40168—53— pt. 1 5 



2912 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. This was in the year 1945. Did you ever have a 
membership card in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Fruit. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Isn't it a fact, Mr. Fruit, that you had, in 1944, 
membership card No. 78347, and that in 1945 you had membership 
card 87642 in the Communist Party in Philadelphia? 

Mr. Fruit. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. KuNziG. To go on, Mr. Fruit, this committee has sworn testi- 
mony under oath to the effect that you were in 1945 secretary of the 
West Philadelphia Club, section 8, of the Communist Party, and that 
m 1944 you had membership card No. 78347 and in 1945 membership 
card 87642. 

Are we correct in that information, or do you wish to decline to 
answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Fruit. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever involved in an organization called 
Crusaders for Peace? 

(At this point Mr. Fruit conferred with Mr. McCabe.) 

Mr. Fruit. I will refuse to answer that question also on the same 
ground. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever know a Sidney and Genieve Fox, 
husband and wife? 

Mr. Fruit. I shall refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever attend Communist Party meetings held 
at the home of the Foxes here in Philadelphia? 

Mr. Fruit. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr, Chairman, the committee is in possession of 
sworn testimony that these meetings took place and that the witness 
attended these meetings. 

Sidney Fox was a Philadelphia teacher at Benjamin Franklin High 
School. He resigned, interestingly enough, the day before the Penn- 
sylvania Loyalty Act went into effect. 

Have you been active in the Teachers' Union here in Philadelphia, 
Mr. Fruit? 

(At this point Mr. Fruit conferred with Mr. McCabe.) 

Mr. KuNziG. I mean the group that used to be local No. 192 and 
later became local No. 556 and is now known as the Teachers' Union 
of Philadelphia with its total of some 197 members. This group has 
headquarters at 13 South 21st Street in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Fruit. Mr. Chairman, in view of the nature of the preceding 
questions that have been put to me and the attendant publicity 
regarding it, appearing in the newspapers and so forth, I am going to 
invoke the same privilege with regard to the Teachers' Union as well. 

Mr. Clardy. You are not referring to publicity that mentions you 
by name, I take it? 

Mr. Fruit. No. 

Mr. Clardy. The reason I say that is that we have released no 
information and it is our policy never to identify those who have 
been subpenaed and those who are under investigation and who may 
possibly appear under subpena, and I want to be sure that you are 
not implying that we had in any way released any unfavorable 
publicity? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2913 

Mr. Fruit. Not as an individual, but simply as a member of a 
group. 

Mr. Clardy. I wanted to be certain on the specific point. 

Mr. KuNziG. I think it is obvious that the witness is not going to 
answer any questions concerning his background in this field and I 
respectfully submit that I have no further questions to go into at 
this time. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, you said, and I am not challenging at all, 
that you are not today a member of the Communist Party. Would 
you give us the date when you severed any connection with it? 

(At this point Mr. Fruit conferred with Mr. McCabe.) 

]\Ir. Fruit. Mr. Clardy, it is obvious that in answering any such 
question I would be giving you the sort of information that I have not 
been wanting to, and therefore I am going to invoke the same privilege. 

Mr. Clardy. Let us get at it this way then; were you a member of 
the Communist Party prior to the time that a subpena was ssrved 
upon you by this committee? 

(At this point Mr. Fruit conferred with Mr. McCabe.) 

j\Ir. Fruit. I will decline to answer that question, 

Mr. Clardy. Were you a member of the Communist Party yes- 
terday? 

Mr. Fruit. No; I was not. 

Mr. Clardy. Were you a month ago today? 

Mr. Fruit. Mr. Clardy, I signed a loyalty oath in good faith. 

Mr. Clardy. When? 

Mr. Fruit. I believe it was in 1952. 

Mr. Clardy. Well then, is it fair to say that at the time you 
signed the loyalty oath you were not then a member of the party? 

Mr. Fruit. That is true. 

Mr. Clardy. Were you a member of the party within, say, 6 
months prior to the date you signed that loyalty oath? 

Mr. Fruit. I will have to invoke the privilege on that. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you come down to one daj^ before you signed the 
loyalty oath and tell us whether you were a member one day before 
you signed the lo3^alty oath? 

Mr. Fruit. I am invoking the privilege on that as well. 

Mr. Clardy. We are trying merely to discover when the period 
started that you were deiinitely not a member, and that is our chief 
concern. 

Mr. Fruit. You are assuming from my answers to your questions 
that I was a member, and that is your own assumption. I simply 
have refused to answer questions pertaining to that, and therefore 
you may draw your own conclusions. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, we have obviously sworn testimony dealing 
with that subject and have asked you those questions and I am 
trying my best to find out how long for certain you have not been a 
member. If you are not willing to give us any more information, 
then there is no need, of course, of our pursuing this, but I gather you 
do not want us to go into your background in that connection at all? 

Mr. Fruit, I will invoke the same privilege on any such question. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any further questions, Mr. Clardy? 

Mr. Clardy. No further questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter? 



2914 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. I have no questions. We had been hopeful that you 
would come before this committee and give us information relating; 
to Communist activities in this area. You have heard the witness 
this morning and I am sure 3'OU reaHze and I am sure I reahze how 
difficult it is to break away from the ideology or the behef that you 
formerly had. 

I personally would appreciate it very much, and I am sure the 
committee would, too, if you »vould think this matter over in your own 
mind and, if at some future date you do decide to come forth and 
answer the questions that are asked of you relative to the Communist 
Party activities, it would be a great thing for the Congress of the 
United States and the people of this country to aid in fighting the 
Communist conspir ,cy. 

The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Air. Louis Ive.ns. 

Air. Levitan. My name is A. Harry Levi tan. Aly cUent has certain 
objections with respect to the lights and the loudspeaker. 

Mr. Velde. You will abide by the rules of this committee and of 
course you are not allowed to speak before the committee. 

Mr. Levitan. The unfortunate thing is that if I leave it to my 
cHent to make this application, my cHent is proceeding 

Air. Clardy. Counsel, you are out of order. WiU you remain 
seated until you are addressed. 

Mr. Levitan. My client is 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee, do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the 
whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. IvENS. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS IVENS, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

A. HARRY LEVITAN 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you state your fufi name? 

Air. IvENS. Alay I make my objection? I am very willing to 
testify before this committee. However, television and broadcasting 
and newsreel cameras upset me and make it impossible for me to 
answer your questions in a truthful, calm, considered manner. I 
therefore request that these things be turned off during my testimony. 

Air. Velde. It has been the rule that where a witness has refused 
to testify under the lights of the television and the lights of the news- 
reel cameras because it would confuse him, that those lights be turned 
off. The television and newsreel camera lights will now be turned 
off, please. 

Do you have any f mother objections? 

Mr. IvENS. No broadcasting. 

Air. Clardy. It has never been the rule, Mr. Chairman, that I know 
of that the witness can raise that objection and I think that is going a 
little too far. 

Air. Velde. I think that we must now go ahead because it has been 
the policy of the committee to allow broadcasting. 

Mr. Levitan. Will the committee hear me, su"? 

Air. Velde. No; we cannot hear counsel. You know the rules of 
the committee that allow you to ap]iear with your client and give you 
the right to give him your legal opinion on his constitutional rights. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2915 

Mr. Clardy, Am I right, counsel, that copies of the rules of the com- 
mittee were served upon the attorneys representing the defendants in 
every case. 

Mr. KuNziG. They were supposed to be served on everyone. I did 
not serve them personally. They were served upon the witness. 

Mr. Clardy. I had understood someone to say that the attorneys 
had also been given copies. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you state your full name? 

Mr. IvENs. Louis Ivens. 

Mr. Levitan. Will you forgive me while I consult with him with 
reference to his wishes regarding broadcasting? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

Mr. Ivens. I request that no pictures of any kind be taken. I do 
not want any flashes in my eyes while I am testifying. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your home address, please? 

Mr. Ivens. 5314 Lebanon Avenue in this city. 

Air. KuNziG. You are a teacher where, sir? 

Mr. Ivens. At the Stetson Junior High School. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat do you teach there? 

Mr. Ivens. Social studies. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background? 

Mr. Ivens. I graduated in this city from Northeast High School 
with highest honors throughout my high school career. I was an 
excellent student. 

I went to Temple University where I received my bachelor of 
science in education. 

Mr. KuNziG. What year did you graduate from Temple? 

Mr. Ivens. In February 1949 and at that time, upon taking neces- 
sary examinations, I was employed by the school district of Phila- 
delphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you been employed there ever since? 

Mr. Ivens. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, Mr. Ivens, in giving the committee a resume 
of your employment background, it has been the school system of 
Philadelphia the entire time? 

Mr. Ivens. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. When you were at Temple University, were you a 
member of the Temple Club of the Communist Party of eastern 
Pennsylvania and Delaware? 

Mr. Ivens. I would like to answer that question in this way; first, 
under the first amendment I do not think that this committee should 
inquire into my private associations. I think, according to the first 
amendment of the Constitution and as to my own understanding, 
freedom of association has long been an American tradition. It has 
been one of the cornerstones of our liberty and freedom, and I feel 
that I should not answer questions about my past associations, my 
private associations, my beliefs, or my thoughts during that period. 

(At this point Mr. Ivens conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. Ivens. And also in addition to that I would also refuse to 
answer that question by invoking the fifth amendment. I do not 
intend to answer any questions which might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you think they would? 

Mr. Ivens. Sir, I have answered the question. 



2916 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Clardy. Do you think it would incriminate you to answer 
questions regarding your past Communist Party activities? 

Mr. IvEXs. I have invoked tlie fifth amendment. I do not intend 
to answer questions which might tend to incriminate me, 

Mr. Clardy. And you are invokmg it in refusing to answer the 
question which I just propounded? 

Mr. I YENS. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would counsel please identify himself? 

Mr. Levitan. My name is A. Harry Lsvitan, 1412 Fox Building, 
Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. This committee is in possession of sworn testimony 
that you were a member of Temple Club of the Communist Party 
of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

The committee is also in possession of sworn testimony that in 
July of 1947 you held the position of district press director of the 
Communist Party of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware; is that 
correct? 

Mr. IvENS. Sir, if you have sworn testimony then I believe the 
committee should present it with the people who have signed it. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have asked you the question, Were you the district 
press director of the Communist Party of eastern Pennsylvania and 
Delaware in July 1947? 

Mr. IvENS. Sir, I would again like to request that you bring those 
people here so that I can ask them questions. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Velde. Yes, you are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. IvENS. I refuse to answer the question for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. The committee has sworn testimony that in 1948 
you were a member of section 6 of the Communist Party of eastern 
Pemisylvania and Delaware; is that correct? 

Mr. IvENS. I would like to repeat again concerning sworn testi- 
mony that it be presented, showing those wiio hare signed it and 
that they be presented before the public here. 

Mr. Clardy. I ask agam that he be directed to answer the question, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. IvENS. I invoke the fifth amendment and also in relation to 
the first am.' ndment I would like to say once again that it has always 
been n y belief that the committee should not inquire into the personal 
beliefs or political opinions or ideas or associations of American citizens, 
and I maintain that position at this time. 

Mr. Velde. May I explain to you the duty that is imposed upon us 
by the House of Representatives,"^ that is to investigate and determine 
the facts concerning Communist and other subversive propaganda in 
the United States, whether it be of foreign or domestic origin, to 
report the information we so obtain to the House of Representatives 
for the purposes of remedial legislation to prevent the destruction of 
our American constitutional form of goverimient by the Soviet 
Union or any other foreign country. 

You were called here as a witness to assist us in the work that we 
are trying to do. You could have been of great benefit, I am sure. 
You are the witness today, and what you have to tell us is a matter of 
your own choosing. If you do not want to tell us you will be allowed 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2917 

to continue answering or refusing to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment or any other amendment you so clioose. 

The committee would deeply appreciate it if you would consider 
our request to give this information concerning Communist Party 
activities in this area. 

Mr. IvENS. May I make a point, please? I am not a Communist. 

Mr. Clardy. Have 3"ou ever been one? 

Mr. IvENs. May I finish my statement? 

Mr. Clardy. No. Just answer that question. Have you ever 
been one? 

Mr. IvENS. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

But I would like to finish a statement in respect to the chairman's 
woi'ds a few moments ago. 

I stated I was not a Communist. A couple of years ago I also 
signed the loyalty oath of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Walter. When? 

Mr. IvENS. In 1952, affirming the fact 

Mr. Velde. Were you a Communist at that tiine? 

Mr. IvENs. When I signed that oath I affirmed that I w^as a loyal 
citizen of my State and this Commonwealth and of the country, and I 
say it again today. 

I would like to sa}^ that if the committee has evidence or sworn 
testimony that I have propagandized subversively that it put this 
evidence forth, that it present it. 

Mr. Velde. Please answer the questions being propounded to you. 
You are the one who has the knowledge of any Communist Party 
activities in which you might have been engaged. You are the proper 
one to give us that information. Proceed. 

Air. Clardy. The committee has from the beginning recognized 
the rio-ht of witnesses to object and refuse to answer on the ground of 
the fifth amendment when it is raised in good faith and when it can 
be demonstrated that that is the fact, but under court decisions and 
under our rules and in order to avoid repetition, we do not recognize 
validity in any other amendments applying to refusing to answer. 
So, if you say you are refusing to answer on the same grounds pre- 
viously raised — but we recognize only the fifth amendment in that 
respect. 

Air. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you signed the Pennsylvania loyalty oath? 

(At this point Air. Ivens conferred with Air. Levitan.) 

Mr, Ivens. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Levitan. Would you mind repeating the question, please, sir? 

Mr. KuNziG, Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
the time you signed the Pennsylvania loyalty oath? 

(At this point Air. Ivens conferred with Air. Levitan.) 

Mr. Ivens. No. 

Air. Kunzig. Were you a member of the party the day before? 

(At this point Air. Ivens conferred with Air, Levitan.) 

Mr. Ivens. No. 

Mr. Kunzig. A month before? 

(At this point Air. Ivens conferred with Air, Levitan,) 

Mr, Ivens. No, 

Mr. Kunzig. A year before? 



2918 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

(At this point Mr. Ivens conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. Ivens. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. Two years before? 

(At this point Mr. Ivens conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. Ivens. I invoke the privilege, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. During the years 1945 to 1948, were you a member 
of the American Youth for Democracy? 

Mr. Ivens. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment, and I would also hke to reiterate and emphasize 
that I feel that the first amendment, although I disagree with the 
member of the committee, that the first amendment must not be 
denied. I think it is essential in this hearing. 

Mr. Velde. You do invoke the first- and fifth-amendment 
privileges? 

Mr. Ivens. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. We have had these harangues before your appearance 
today and while we would like to give the witness every privilege we 
get a httle tired and weary of all these excuses. I am sure we can 
facilitate matters and hear the other witnesses we have called if you 
will just either answer the question or refuse to answer the question. 

Ml. Ivens. I do not mean to differ with you so far as your position 
as chairman of the committee is concerned, but I object to your term 
"harangue." I am not here to harass, but I beheve as a social studies 
teacher the Bill of Rights is essential. I am not haranguing, I would 
like to emphasize. 

Mr. KuNziG. The American Youth for Democracy has been cited 
as subversive and Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark in 
letters to Loyalty Review Board released December 4, 1947, and 
September 21, 1948. 

It was also cited as the new name under which the Young Com- 
munist League operates and which also largely absorbed the American 
Youth Congress in the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, 
report, March 29, 1944, page 102, and other congressional committees. 

The committee is in possession of certain sworn testimony that the 
witness was a member of the American Youth for Democracy from 
1945 to 1948. 

Mr. Walter. Is that a fact? 

Mr. Ivens. Sir? 

Mr. Walter. Is it a fact that you were a member of that organi- 
zation during that period of time? 

Mr. Ivens. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment unless testimony is brought iti, sworn to, signed by 
the individual, and the testimony shown and presented. 

Mr. Clardy. Would you answer if that is done? 

Mr. Levitan. One moment, please. 

(At this point Mr. Ivens conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. Clardy. What is your answer? 

Mr. Ivens. I would not answer the question for the reasons stated 
before, but I thiak as a part of the American tradition of law I think a 
persoQ accused of any sort of thing should be confronted with his 
accuser with a sworn statement. 

Mr. Velde. Let me disabuse your mind that you are being accused 
of anything. You were called here to give us some information rela- 
tive to Communist activities in the Philadelphia area. This is not a 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2919 

court of law. You are not being accused of a thing. This is a con- 
gressional committee, du'ected by the Congress of the United States, 
to gather information, to report to Congress for the purposes of reme- 
dial legislation, and it is not a court of law in any sense of the word. 

Mr. Clardy. Bear this in mind, we are giving you an opportunity 
to state the facts as you see them, even though you have seen ht to 
suppress the television and tried to suppress the radio and other 
means of communication. We are giving you your opportunity before 
anyone testifies publicly concerning you. You have not chosen to 
avail yourself of it. I am indeed sorry and I am amazed that you do 
not understand why we are doing this instead of bringing someone 
to name you first. 

Mr. KuNziG. May I continue? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Ivens, on July 8, 1947, did you attend a Com- 
munist Party street meeting at American and Poplar Streets in 
Philadelphia where you were one of the principal speakers? 

Mr. Ivens. I refuse to answer that question and I invoke the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. The committee is in possession of sworn testimony, 
Mr. Chairman, that such was the fact. 

Did you on March 22, 1948, attend a Communist Party street 
meeting at 31st and Diamond Streets in Philadelphia where you 
were introduced as the first speaker? 

Mr. Ivens. The same answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. In this speech you denounced the State Department 
and the President of the United States and so forth. Did you make 
such a speech in the Communist Party street meeting on March 22, 
1948? 

(At this point, Mr. Ivens conferred with Mr. Levi tan.) 

Mr. Ivens. Same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. As a teacher in the Philadelphia schools, have you 
ever used an alias, Mr. Ivens; did you ever go under any other name? 

Mr. Ivens. Will you repeat your question, sir? 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever go under another name? Hare you ever 
used an alias? 

Mr. Ivens. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. You refuse to answer whether you ever used an alias 
on the ground that it might incriminate you? 

Mr. Ivens. I do not recall it, but to be on the safe side, I invoke the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Isn't it a fact that you attended on April 3, 1948, a 
Communist Party meeting at Diamond and Camac Streets where the 
chairman of the meeting introduced one Louis Gold as the speaker. 
Louis Gold got up to speak, but it was you, is not that a fact? 

(At this point Mr. Ivens conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. Ivens. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have here, Mr. Chairman, a photograph which I 
will ask to have marked as "Ivens' Exhibit No. 1" for identification, 
which is a picture taken of this particular meeting to which I have 
just referred and a picture taken of the speaker Louis Gold. 

I would like to ask that Mr. Fuoss, the investigator, please pass that 
to the witness Louis Ivens and I would like to ask him if that is a 
picture of himself. This picture was taken of Louis Gold as he spoke. 



2920 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

(At this point Mr. Ivens conferred with Mr, Levitan.) 

Mr. Ivens. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. Velde. You decline to answer whether that person pictured 
on the photograph just handed you is the same as yourself? 

Mr. Ivens. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I offer this picture that has been 
marked "Exhibit No. 1" for identification into evidence as Ivens 
exhibit No. 1. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be so admitted. 

(Photograph marked "Ivens Exhibit No. 1" for identification and 
received in evidence.) 

Mr. Clardy. May I state I have examined the photograph and 
at the same time looked at the witness and there is no doubt in my 
mhid that the picture is a picture of the witness. I think the record 
should show that. 

Mr. KuNZiG. For the record I should like to state that prior to 
the April 3, 1948, meeting, a letter in longhand was received by the 
superintendent of police, city hall, Philadelphia, just prior to that 
reading as follows: 

Dkar Sir: This is to notify you that the Communist Party is holding an 
outdoor meeting Saturday, April 3, 1948, on the southeast corner of Camac and 
Diamond Streets, a topic of general political situations. 
Sincerely, 

Marcella Sloane, 
201/t North S2d Street. 

Isn't it a fact that at that meeting, after speaking at length denounc- 
ing various governmental activities, you stated that you wondered 
why everyone was against the Commimists when they have never 
done anything against this country? 

Mr, Ivens. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. The committee is in possession of sworn testimony^ 
Mr. Chairman, that such a speech making such a statement was 
made. 

Did you attend on May 1, 1948, a May Day rally in Keyburn 
Plaza held by district 3 of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Ivens. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr, KuNziG. Did you at that time attend as a part of a "goon 
squad" under the supervision of Robert Klonsky, William Hood, 
William David Powers, and Wilson Long, all Communist Party mem- 
bers? 

Mr. Ivens. I resent this reference to me in this hearing room, I 
refuse to answer that question for the same reason, 

Mr. Kunzig. We have another picture of this meeting, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Velde. If you resented it so much, wouldn't it be logical for 
you to deny it instead of refusing to answer the question? 

Mr. Clardy. That is if the facts would permit him to deny it. 

Mr. Ivens. I was not part of a goon squad, never have been, and I 
am willing to stand and say that right now, 

Mr, Kunzig. Well, then, we will say were you a part of a meeting 
held by the Communist Party on May Day, May 1, 1948? 

Mr. Ivens. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. Velde. What same answer? 

Mr, Ivens. On the fifth amendment. 



COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2921 

Mr. KuNziG. I have here a picture, Mr. Chairman, which I will 
ask to have marked "Ivens Exhibit No. 2" for identification, and I 
would like to ask Mr. Fuoss, the investigator, to show this to the 
witness and ask him if the person marked "No, 31" on this picture is 
not the witness. 

This picture was taken on May 1, 1948, at this particular rall}'^ to 
which we are referring. 

Air. Clardy. Are you asking whether this is the witness? 

Mr. KuNziG. I want to ask him if this is his own picture and if he 
so attended. 

Mr. IvENs. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. The answer is you don't know? 

Mr. Levitan. I don't know, either. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You were not asked, Mr. Levitan. 

May this photograph be introduced in evidence as Ivens exliibit 
No. 2, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Velde. It will be so admitted in evidence. 

(Photograph marked ''Ivens Exhibit No. 2" for identification and 
received in evidence.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, sir, on July 16, 1948, and July 18, 1948, the 
Communist Party, district 3, held a conv^ention at the Clii'is J. Perry 
Elks Hall on North Broad Street, 1416 North Broad Street, Phila- 
delphia. Did you attend that meeting of the Communist Party? 

Mr. IvENs. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. This meeting, Mr. Chairman, we have sworn testi- 
money, was attended by aU the leading functionaries and members of 
the Communist Party. 

The witness here today spoke at that meeting, according to sworn 
testimony before the committee. 

(At this point Mr. Ivens conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. KuNziG. On May 21, 1949, Mr. Ivens, did you as a teacher in 
the Philadelphia schools participate in the picketing of the United 
States Courthouse at Ninth and Market Streets, Philadelphia, which 
is this very building in which we are sitting now, the demonstration 
being sponsored by the Civil Rights Congress, protesting against the 
trial of the Communist leaders in the Federal Courthouse in New York 
City? 

Air. Ivens. Same answer, same reason. 

Air. KuNziG. I have a picture which I shall ask to have marked as 
"Ivens Exhibit No. 3," Air. Chairman, for identification, which is a 
picture of the group picketing this courthouse at that time, and I 
should like Mr. Fuoss to hand it to the witness and would you look 
at this picture, and I ask whether the person Mr. Fuoss will point out 
to you is yourself? 

Mr. Ivens. I don't know. It might be. 

Mr. KuNziG. I should hke to offer this Ivens exhibit No. 3 into 
evidence at this time, Air. Chairman. 

Air. Velde. Without objection, it will be accepted into evidence at 
this point. 

(Photograph marked "Ivens Exhibit No. 3" for identification and 
received in evidence.) 

Air. KuNZiG. We have sworn testimony. Air. Chairman, that the 
witness did attend every one of these functions to which we have re- 
ferred. 



2922 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

On June 17, 1949, did you attend a charter meeting of the Labor 
Youth League held at the Stephen Gu-ard Hotel, 2227 Chestnut Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa., along with Robert Klonsky? 

Mr. IvENs. I would like to answer that in the same manner, that 
testimony should be presented b}^ those who made those statements. 

Mr. KuNZiG. The Labor Youth League, Mr. Chairman, has been 
cited as a Communist front by Attorney General J. Howard McGrath 
in a letter to the Loyalty Review Board released April 30, 1950, as 
well as by the Un-American Activities Committee. 

On July 27, 1949, did you participate in the picketing of the city 
hall, Philadelphia, Pa., sponsored by the Communist Party and as- 
sisted by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People and the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. IvENs. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason, 
sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. And at that time you were in company with Robert 
Klonsky whom we previously mentioned. 

On September 29, 1949, did you attend the 30th anniversary rally 
of the Communist Party held at Reynolds Hall, 1416 North Broad 
Street, Philadelphia? 

Mr. IvENs. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I will not keep stating it, but each 
one of these statements the committee is in possession of sworn testi- 
mony that such was the fact. 

Now, on November 25, 1949, did you attend a people's rally held 
at the Met on Broad and Poplar Streets, Philadelphia, sponsored by 
the Communist Party, district No. 3, to celebrate the 32d anniversary 
of the Soviet Union and the 70th birthday of Joseph Stalin? 

Mr. IvENS. I would like to refuse to answer that question. 

I would like to know why the committee doesn't talk about the 
present time, 1953 and 1952. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, the witness is out of order. 

Mr. Velde. The committee naturally has to run its own business. 
I am sure the witness does understand that. 

Mr. KuNziG. On February 24, 1950, to come a little closer, did you 
attend a peace festival and a rally held at the Met sponsored by the 
Communist Party, district No. 3, held in commemoration of Lenin 
and of Joseph Stalin? You were seen there. 

Mr. Ivens. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. KuNziG. On the same grounds? 

Mr. Ivens. On the same grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. On February 10, 1951, did you attend the Negro 
freedom rally featuring Paul Robeson as the principal speaker, held 
at Reynolds Hall, Philadelphia, sponsored by the Civil Rights Con- 
gress? 

Mr. Ivens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. You did attend that? 

Mr. Ivens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you a member of the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. Ivens. I do not think I was, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you remember attending the meeting? 

Mr. Ivens. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. But you do not think you were a member of the 
Civil Rights Congress? 



COMMIINIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2923 

Mr. IvENS. No, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Was there any doubt in your mind as to whether you 
ever belonged to that organization? 

Mr. IvENs. No, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you? 

Mr. IvENs. I don't think so. 

Mr. Clardy. But you are not sure? 

Mr. IvENS. I did not think I was a member at that time. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, were you, frankly, ever a member? 

(At this point Mr. Ivens conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. Ivens. I do not think so. 

Mr. Clardy. That is as close as you will come? You will not say 
you were not? 

Mr. Ivens. I do not think so. 

Mr. Clardy. Very definitely. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have no further questions of this witness. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused with the same admonition and 
request that I made of the other witness early this afternoon. 

We will be in recess for a period of a few minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 2:56 p. m., the hearing was recessed for 15 minutes.) 

Mr. Velde. The Chair would like to make a very brief announce- 
ment for the benefit of the television audience. The committee has 
adopted definite rules concerning the televising of these hearings, and 
we do want the public to have all of the information which we can 
give, but in the interest of protecting the rights of the witness and 
the possible chance that the witness might cooperate with the com- 
mittee and give the committee information, we have determined to 
ask the television cameras to desist when a witness asks that the 
television cameras be turned off because it might confuse him. 

Mr. Clardy. Might I add something, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. That request must come from the witness himself 
after he has been sworn. 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Please proceed, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Estelle Naomi Thomas. 

Miss Thomas. May I ask the court not to be photographed, please? 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee, do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Miss Thomas. I do. 

Mr. Velde. You may now make your request. 

Miss Thomas. Sort of late. 

TESTIMONY OF ESTELLE NAOMI THOMAS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HER COUNSEL, HERMAN WEINER 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you state your name, please? 
Miss Thomas. Estelle Naomi Thomas. What do I have to do to 
call these shots off? 

Mr. Clardy. What was your request? 
Miss Thomas. I ask that please be stopped. 
Mr. Velde. Would the cameramen please desist? 



2924 CO]VIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. Would the attorney please identify himself for the 
record? 

Air. Weinee. Herman Weiner, 1412 Fox Building, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. Miss Thomas, would you please state your address? 

Miss Thomas. 4288 Parkside Avenue. 

Mr. KuNziG. In Philadelphia? 

Miss Thomas. In Pliiladelphia. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Are you a teacher. Miss Thomas? 

Miss Thomas. Yes, I am. 

Mr. KuxziG. Where are you a teacher at the present time? 

Miss Thomas. I am a teacher at the Bache School in Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Is that an elementary school? 

Miss Thomas. That is an elementary school. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What grade do you teach there? 

Miss Thomas. Second grade. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee, please, a resume of 
of your educational background? 

Miss Thomas. I am a graduate of the Betlilehem High School, the 
Libert}^ High School in Betlilehem, Pa., a graduate of the East 
Stroudsburg Teachers' College. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you give the committee a resume of your 
employment background? 

Miss Thomas. I taught educational recreation in the WPA. I 
worked for the Signal Corps. 

Mr. KuNziG. You worked for the WPA in the 1930's, is that 
correct? 

Miss Thomas. I believe it started in 1938. 

Mr. KuNziG. You started to say you worked for the United States 
Signal Corps? 

Miss Thomas. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. When was that? 

Miss Thomas. I believe it was 1943. 

Mr. KuNziG. 1943? 

Miss Thomas. I believe so. I am not quite sure of my dates. 

Mr. KuNziG. To the best of your memory. 

Miss Thomas. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Was that in Philadelphia? 

Miss Thomas. Yes, in Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. At what address? 

Miss Thomas. At the Signal Corps Depot on Wissahickon and 
Abbotsford Road. Then I taught on child care in Philadelphia and 
also in New York. 

I worked at the Philadelphia Psychiatric Hospital for a few months. 

Mr. KuNZiG. When was that? 

Miss Thomas. That was about 3 years ago, just a few months. 

Mr. KuNziG. Haven't you skipped 1944 to 1946? Where were 
you from 1944 to 1946? 

Miss Thomas. I am sorry. I taught English to Soviet engineers 
in Washington, D. C. 

Mr. KuNziG. At the Soviet Government Purchasing Commission? 

Miss Thomas. That is right, and then I was substituting at the 
Philadelphia school system and took an examination which I passed 
and became appointed in the Philadelphia school system 2% years ago. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2925 

Mr. KuNziG. Does that cover the whole thing? 

Miss Thomas. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. What about 1947 and 1948? Where were you then? 

Miss Thomas. I was then in Europe. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What did you do in Europe? 

Miss Thomas. I was traveling in Europe and first I went to 
England and from England I went on to see what had happened to 
my people, the Jews in Poland. I wanted to see what the Warsaw 
ghetto was like. 

I visited children's homes, the orphanage homes, the results of 
Hitler's crimes. I felt a duty to volunteer my services to help these 
children, to help therapeutically to put these children back to normal 
human beings. 

Mr. KuNziG. This was where? 

Miss Thomas. At the Jewish orphanage around Protrolesiv. 

Mr. KuNziG. In Lower Silesia, Poland? 

Miss Thomas. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You became a teacher in Philadelphia in February 
1951? 

Miss Thomas. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Have you at any time been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Miss Thomas. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Thomas. I am not now a member of the Communist Party. 
I signed the loyalty oath in 1952. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1952? 

Miss Thomas. T refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. Were you a member of the Communist Party on the 
date that you signed the loyalty oath? 

Miss Thomas. I was not a member of the Communist Party. I 
was in full loyalty to my country. 

Mr. KuNziG. In what month of 1952? 

Miss Thomas. I believe it was 1952, in March. 

Mr. KuNziG. It was between March and April. How about 
February 1952? Were you a member of the Communist Party then? 

Miss Thomas. I refuse for the same reason, refuse to answer the 
question. 

Mr. KuNziG. This committee is in possession of sworn testimony, 
Miss Thomas, that you have been a member of the Communist Party 
since about 1933. Do you wish to confirm or deny that fact? 

Miss Thomas. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. KuNZiG. The committee is also in possession of sworn testi- 
mony that some time in 1942 or 1943 you were president of a Com- 
munist STOup which included Communist members working in the 
United States Signal Corps here in Philadelphia, Pa., is that correct? 

Miss Thomas. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. In the fall of 1943, this committee is in possession of 
sworn testimony that you transferred to Group 2-A of the Com- 
munist Party, is that correct? 



2926 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Miss Thomas. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. We are in possession of sworn testimony that in 1943 
you had Communist Party membership book No. 94338, is that 
correct? 

Miss Thomas. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. KuNZiG. We are in possession of sworn testimony that in 1944 
you had Communist Party membership book No. 104190 or No. 
104194, one or the other of those two, is that correct? 

Miss Thomas. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. We also have sworn testimony, Miss Thomas, that 
you were a member of the first district of the Communist Party and a 
member of the Sam Lee Club of the Communist Party. 

I will ask you first, were you a member of the first district of the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Thomas. All these questions are cloaked in the same robe. 
I refuse to answer that question on the same ground. 

Mr. KuNziG. I will ask you secondly whether you were a member of 
the Sam Lee Club of the Communist Party? 

Miss Thomas. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNZiG. This was in the period of time of 1943, roughly. 

Miss Thomas. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you acquainted with Dave Davis and his wife 
Sophie? 

Miss Thomas. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know that Dave Davis was arrested by the 
FBI in connection with his Communist Party activities? 

Miss Thomas. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Dave Davis was identified as a member of the 
party by Mr. DiMaria ' on October 15, 1952, and by Mr. Delaney ^ on 
October 13, 1952, in the hearings held in this very room. 

In 1950, we have sworn testimony, that you were a member of the 
International Workers' Order which has been cited as subversive by 
the Attorney General of the United States. Were you a member of 
that group? 

Miss Thomas. Same reason, same amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions at this 
time to ask of Miss Thomas. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Will you call the next witness, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. Kunzig. I would like to call Sarah Walsh Wepman. 

Mrs. Wepman. I would like the television cameras and the photog- 
raphers' cameras turned off. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before the 
subcommittee, do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Wepman. I do. I would like to have the television cameras 
and newspaper cameras and television lights turned off, and the 
movie cameras. 

Mr. Velde. Your request will be complied with. We hope they 
will not confuse your testimony and that you wiU give us the infor- 
mation which counsel will question you about. 

1 Samuel J. DiMaria. 
'Thomas F. Delaney. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2927 

TESTIMONY OF SARAH WALSH WEPMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HER COUNSEL, JACOB S. RICHMAN 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your full name for the record, 
please? 

Mrs. Wepman. Mrs. Sarah Walsh Wepman. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would counsel please state his name and office 
address? 

Mr. RiCHMAN. Jacob S. Richman, northeast corner of 19th and 
Chestnut Streets. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Wepman, would you state your educational 
background, please? 

Mrs. Wepman. I was educated in the Philadelphia public schools, 
elementary and high school. 

I was graduated from the Philadelphia Normal School. I attended 
the University of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you graduate from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania? When did you leave Pennsylvania University? 

Mrs. Wepman. I did not leave. I almost — well, let me say to be 
quite exact, in 1939 the dean of the school of education called me in to 
find out why I had not finished my work. I was within six credits of 
my B. S. and I told him I had been working on the teacher tenure 
campaign in 1937, and at that point this gentleman told me that the 
teachers' tenure law would result in nothing but the scum apd the 
filth of the teacher system and I ventured to disagree with him and he 
got angry and told me to go. 

Mr. Velde. That information might be interesting, but it is not 
relevant to the subject matter that we are inquiring into. 

Just tell whether you graduated or whether you quit school. 

Mr. KuNziG. What year did this happen when you left? 

Mrs. Wepman. I should say it was 1938. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Wepman, would you state what your present 
address is? 

Mrs. Wepman. I five in a town in the country 30 miles from here, 
Solebury, Pa., in Bucks County. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you now a teacher? 

Mrs. Wepman. I have not been connected with the school system 
for the past 8 years. I am a housewife and a mother and I find that 
I put a 12- to 14-hour day in on that job. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a resume of your 
employment background in the years when you were a teacher? 

Mrs. Wepman. Yes; at the age of 19 I began to teach. I stopped 
teaching at the age of 41, 8 years ago, which would be about 1945, 
I t.hink. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where did you teach during those years? 

Mrs. Wepman. I taught in, it is too long ago to remember the 
elementary schools. 

Mr. KuNziG. To the best of your abihty. 

Mrs. Wepman. I taught in elementary schools for 4 years. I then 
taught for 17 years at the Penn Treaty Junior High School. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wliat did you teach? 

Mrs. Wepman. I was a teacher of English. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is that where you were when you left the schools? 

Mrs. Wepman. That is right. 



2928 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNZiG. This committee is in possession of sworn testimony 
that you joined the Communist Party in 1933 and 3^ou were captain 
of a unit, unit 1 of the party, is that correct? 

Mrs. Wepman. Well, I would like to go into that testimony but I 
am not going to. I would like to see that testimony placed before a 
court of law to see how it stacks up. I am not going to answer that 
question because you have had one self-confessed spy here today who, 
incidentally, needed a good course in enunciation because I couldn't 
hear half of what she said back there. 

Mr. Velde. We are not interested in that. 

Mrs. Wepman. But I am not answering your question which I say 
I am sure would not stack up in a court, and I invoke the fifth 
amendment because I am not required to testify against myself or 
answer any questions which may incriminate me. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, this committee is in possession of 
sworn testimony that Airs. Wepman's Communist membership card 
was one of the lowest we have ever had before this committee. It was 
No. 33. 

Mr. Velde. Lowest in number? 

Mr. KuNziG. Lowest in number. 

Mrs. Wepman. I am not that old. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you have Communist membership card No. 33, 
Mrs. Wepman? 

Mrs. Wepman. I refuse to answer that question on the ground that 
I am not required to testify against myself or answer any question 
which may tend to incri:Tiinate me. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you active, Mrs. Wepman, as a lobbyist and a 
leader for Local No. 192, the Teachers' Union of the American Federa- 
tion of Teachers at that time? 

Mrs. Wepman. I was. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you were a lobbyist and leader of Local 192? 

Mrs. Wepman. Same question, same answer. This is a "Do you 
beat your husband?" question, you know. Under the fifth amendment 
I will not answer that. 

Mr. KuNziG. We are just asking whether you are a member of the 
Communist Party. Your answer, when asked whether you wore a 
member of the Communist Party during your union work is that you 
refuse to answer the question on the basis of the fifth amend.ment? 

Mrs. Wepman. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know a Ben Weiss, city secretary of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Wepman. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you involved in that period of time in bitter 
arguments because of the fact that your publicity material was being' 
rewritten bv Walter Lowenfels, writer for the Dailv Worker? 

Mrs. Wepman. Mr. Kunzig, I am a contentious woman, but I 
would not answer that question, same reason. 

Mr. Kunzig. On October 13, 1942, did you attend a closed mectmg 
of the Communist Party also attended by Ralph Glick, Communist 
Party organizer, and Sam Darcy, Pennsylvania Communist Party 
secretary? 

Mrs. Wepman. I refuse to answer that question, same reason. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2929 

Mr. KuNZiG. The committee is in possession of sworn testimony 
that the witness did so attend, Mr. Chairman. 

On October 4, 1943, did you meet with Sam Darcy, J. Granville 
Eddy, Dave Davis, also identified before this committee as a Com- 
munist, and Carl Reeves? 

Mrs. Wepman. I refuse to answer that question, same reason. 
Air. KuNziG. This committee is in possession of sworn testimony 
that the meeting did take place and that the witness did attend such 
meeting. 

The committee is also in possession of sworn testimony that you 
were a member of the special branch of section 8 of the Communist 
Party in and around 1944, is that correct? 

Mrs. Wepman. I refuse to answer that question, same reason. 
Mr. Kttnzig. We have sworn testimony, Mrs. Wepman, that in 1944 
you had Communist Party Book No. 78307, and in 1945 you had Book 
No. 86225, Did you have those two Communist Party book numbers? 
Mrs. Wepman. I refuse to answer that question, same reason. 
Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever teach in the Philadelphia School of 
Social Science and Art? 

Mrs. Wepman. I refuse to answer that question, same reason. 
Mr. KuNziG. The Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art 
was cited as an adjunct of the Communist Party by Attorney General 
Tom Clark in a letter to the Loyalty Review Board released December 
4, 1947. 

Were you a delegate for District No. 3 of the Communist Party 
at the National Communist Party plenum in New York? 

Mrs. Wepman. I refuse to answer that question; same answer, 
same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG, We have sworn testimony, Mr. Chairman, that such 
is the fact. 

Mr. Velde. When was that? 
Mr. KuNziG. This was about January 1944. 

We have testimony that you were a member of the district board, 
district 3, of the Communist Party; is that correct, at about that time? 
Mrs. Wepman. I refuse to answer that question; same answer, same 
reason. 

Mr. KiiNziG. In April, on April 24, 1946, the State, County and 
Municipal Workers of America and the United Federal Workers of 
the CIO became kno\vn as the United Public Workers, CIO. Were 
you transferred to the national office of this organization and did you 
work as an organizer? 

Mrs. Wepman. I was not transferred. 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you state to the committee what the facts are? 
Mrs. Wepman. As a matter of voluntary choice when I left the 
school system I worked as national director of the Federal United 
Public Workers National Teachers' Division for about 1 year. 
Mr KuNziG. Are you a member of the Communist Party now? 
Mrs. Wepman. I refuse to answer that question; same answer, same 
reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman, 
Mr, Velde. Do you have any questions, Mr. Clardy? 
Mr. Clardy. No questions. 

Mr. Velde, Do you have any questions, Mr. Walter? 
Air. Walter. No questions. 



2930 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Velde. There are no further questions. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. Kunzig. I call Lilian Lowenfels. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 3:34 p. m. the hearing was recessed for 8 minutes.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee has considered a request by counsel in 
executive session that the lights be turned off when this witness appears 
for a very good reason, medical reasons. I ask that the television 
lights be turned off and no other lights be used. 

Mr. Kunzig. I call Lillian Lowenfels. 

Mr. Clardy. This is not a precedent, Mr. Chairman, but for a 
special medical reason. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony which you are about to give before 
this subcommittee, do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LILLIAN LOWENFELS, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 

COUNSEL, JOSEPH SHARFSIN 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you state your full name, please? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. Look, my blood pressure is 260 today. I do not 
want to collapse here today despite my illness. 

Mr. Clardy. We are giving you a privilege we have never given 
any other witness and for the very reason you have cited, and if you 
will just subside we will go along with you. 

Mrs. Lowenfels. I want you to know. Congressman, that I came 
here despite my illness. I did not ask for any delay. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you state your full name, please? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. Lillian Lowenfels. 

Mr. Kunzig. And your address? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. 4510 Regent Street. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Sharfsin. Joseph Sharfsin, 1332 Lincoln Liberty Building, 
Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Lowenfels, would you give the committee a 
brief resume of your educational background first? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. I graduated from West Philadelphia High School 
and got a bachelor's degree in science and education at the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Kunzig. What year was that? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. I graduated from West Philadelphia High School 
in 1921 and then on a scholarsliip received my degree from Penn- 
sylvania in 1924 in 3 years. 

Then I went to Paris to study French because I had majored in 
French. I was born and raised in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. Thank you. 

Mrs. Lowenfels. I stayed in Paris as an educational — well, it was 
partly educational. I was a newspaper writer and fashion corre- 
spondent for many years. I did ghost writing, six articles a week and 
one on Sunday for many years, wrote books, a book called Cleopatra's 
Daughter. 

Then in 1943, the fall of 1943, I returned to the University of Penn- 
sylvania and studied there and received in 1947 a master's degree in 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2931 

American civilization. This is a combination — for you gentlemen who 
don't know what American civilization is — it is a combination of the 
study of literature and history of America starting back at the begin- 
ning of colonial times. I know you are not interested in knowing why 
I went back to take this course, but we will let it go. 

Then in 1949 Dr. Hover, the superintendent of the Philadelphia 
Board of Education, gave me a fellowship through the National 
Conference of Christians and Jews to Rutgers University where I 
spent 6 weeks, a summer course, consisting of 8 credits in human 
relations, the workshop in human relations, a study which I took very 
seriously. 

I would like to call to your attention a very unamusing thing that 
has happened to me and I think that you as the Committee on Un- 
American Activities should be interested in this. I am no longer a 
teacher. The "Philadelphia School Board Ousts Teachers in Red 
Investigation" is the headline of an article. It is this investigation 
that has cost me my livelihood. 

Mr. Velde. Let me say that the committee has never as far as I 
am concerned, and never will, attempt to interfere with anybody's 
livelihood in any wa}^ whatsoever. We were dutybound to the people 
of the United States, to the Congress of the United States, to investi- 
gate subversive propaganda and report it to Congress for remedial 
legislation. That is our only purpose in holding these hearings. 

Mr. Clardy. Alay I just disabuse your mind of one thing that seems 
to be present? I haven't read the paper. I did not know what was 
in it and didn't know what you were talking about. But we have 
not released to anyone news that you were going to be called as a 
witness, and so if that has become broadcast it could only have come 
from you or someone to wdiom you have imparted the knowledge, 
because it is the invariable rule that we do not engage in that sort 
of thing. 

While I haven't read this, I am sure that if there is any implication 
in there that it is the result of our having announced it, it is not 
correct. 

Mrs. LowENFELS. I won't labor the point. I want to say this, that 
as the result of this publicity which appeared day after day about me 
I received obscene threats to my life. 

Mr. Clardy. That puts you in our class. We get that sort of thing 
right along. 

Mrs. liOWENFELS. But you are not the mother of four daughters 
and a granddaughter and an expectant grandson, I hope, and ill and 
so on. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, any action which the school board 
has taken has nothing to do with the Congress of the United States 
and nothing to do with this committee. They have taken whatever 
action they have completely on their own. 

I would like to ask you when you first became a teacher in the 
Philadelphia schools. 

Mrs. LowENFELS. I became what was known as a long-term 
substitute in 1943, the fall of 194.3. I had held that because of the 
war shortage of teachers. I had no intention of going back to teach. 
I was giving book reviews in Elkins Park and I was told or asked why 
I didn't go back and teach, and I did, and from 1943 to 1946 I taught 
first in junior high schools and then in senior high schools. 



2932 coMMuisriST activities est the Philadelphia area 

Mr. KuNziG. In what senior high school did you teach? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. My first teaching was at Shaw Junior High 
School and after that I was sent to Bartram High School when an 
opening appeared there, and from Bartram to West Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you go to West Philadelphia? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. It seems to me that would have been in the 
fall of the year, either the spring of 1945 or the fall of 1944. It was the 
spring of 1945. I was at John Bartram for 3 years. 

Mr. KuNziG. And then where? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. Then I went back to Bartram because there was 
no opening at West Philadelphia and even long-term substitutes are 
shifted about, and then in the fall of — do you want me to continue? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, please do. 

Mrs. LowENFELS. In 1946, the fall of 1946, I was called and asked 
if I would teach at the Veterans' program, the Veterans' accelerated 
program, which had been set up a few months before, as a French 
teacher. I taught also in the Veterans' Area College for 5 terms, I 
think, as long as it lasted, simultaneousl}^ with teaching the day 
school. I taught English at the Veterans' Area College. I taught 
at the Veterans' program for the equivalent of a 3^ear and a half for 
the first time and then took my teachers' examination. 

Mr. KuNziG. What year was this? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. 1947, while I was taking my master's degree 
and so on. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you receive a permanent appointment then? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. In 1947 I received a permanent appointment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where have you taught since 1947? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. I was at the girls high school as an auxiliary for 
1 year and then I was what is known as a forced transfer, that is when 
an opening no longer exists for a teacher she is shifted to wherever 
the board can find a place for her and I went from girls high school 
to West Philadelphia and then for a term to Overbrook and then for 
a term to William Penn and then back to the Veterans' program in 
February of 1950, where I have been to the day school, the evening 
school, the summer school and winter school. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where was this? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. This was at the Benjamin Franklin High School. 
In 1945 we had 130 to 150 teachers. We had, last September, 2 
teachers, of which I was one, but I was fired for mcompetence. I 
taught English, French, History, Spanish and German simultaneously. 
I also taught typing when they needed a typing teacher. 

Mr. KuNziG. You were an employee of the board of education in 
this Veterans' teaching program? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. And that is where you were until a week or so ago? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. Well, that is where I was until Monday morning. 

Mr. Clardy. I have read this article and I think the record ought 
to show that the article states it quite plainly that the committee 
had nothing to do with it. In fact, it specifically states " These persons 
have been under investigation for more than a year by the board 
itself." 

And then the reason for the suspension, which is apparently going 
to result in the hearings, is recited in here, and I note from the paper 
itseK for "incompetence and persistent and wiUful violation of the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2933 

laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania," which of course obvi- 
ously means that it has no connection with the Federal action. 

Mrs, LowENFELS. I want to say that judgment has been passed 
on me. I have been judged without a trial. I have been pilloried. 
My character has been assassinated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. LowENFELs. No, I am not a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you take the Pennsylvania loyalty oath? 

Mrs. LowENFELs. Naturally I took the Pennsylvania loyalty oath. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Between taking the oath and the present day, were 
you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. LowENFELs. I don't know what you mean. 

Mr. KuNziG. In the period of time between the time at which you 
took the oath and the present time, were you ever a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. LoWENFELS. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. During that period of time? 

Mrs. LowENFELs. I want to say this, there is only one reason why 
I am here. I am the wife of Walter Lowenfels. That is the only 
reason I was cited. I was selected as a target. 

Mr. Velde. I want to explain again before this gets too nauseating 
to the members of the committee or the audience participating, that 
our duty is to investigate subversive propaganda among other things. 
You were called as a witness in the hope that you could give us infor- 
mation about subversive activities in this connection, and that was 
the only reason you were called. We would appreciate it very much. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party at any time? 

(At this point Mrs. Lowenfels conferred with Mr. Sharfsin.) 

Mrs. Lowenfels. I refuse to answer on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. I was trying to read it in the Bill of Rights, which I 
always carry with me, to see what my rights are, no man shall be re- 
quired to be a witness against himself. 

Mr. Walter. In any criminal proceedings. 

Mr. KuNziG. This committee is in possession of sworn testimony 
that you were a known member of the Communist Party in 1940, 1941, 
1942, and 1943. Now, with respect to those specific dates, for the 
purpose of this present question, were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party in those years? 

(At this point Airs. Lowenfels conferred with Mr. Sharfsin.) 

Mrs. Lowenfels. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment on that. 

Mr. KuNziG. We are in possession of sworn testimony, under oath, 
that you took an active part in branch work and were appointed to 
the city committee of the Communist Party in 1943. Were you so 
appointed? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. I invoke my privilege, but I surely would like to 
see the person who said that. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been to the Communist Party head- 
quarters located at 250 South Broad Street in Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. Where the Shubert Theater is? 

Air. Kunzig. It is in that building, I believe. 



2934 COMMUNIST ACTRaTIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mrs. LowENFELS. I must invoke my privilege under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Clardy. As to whether you ever went in the buildiag? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. I don't know what he means. 

Mr. KuNziG. I asked you whether you went to the Communist 
Party headquarters at 250 South Broad Street in Philadelphia. 

Mrs. LowENFELS. I invoke my privilege. 

Mr. KuNziG. During the years 1943 and 1944 were you a member 
of the Daily Worker Press Club here in Philadelphia? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. I must invoke my privilege on that. 

Mr. KuNziG. This committee is in possession of sworn testimony 
that such is the fact. 

Have you ever attended meetings of the Forty-sixth Ward Club 
which later became the West Philadelphia Communist Club during 
those years of 1943, 1944, and 1945? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. I shall have to invoke my privilege under the 
fifth amendment. May I ask just one question out of intellectual 
curiosity? 

Mr. Walter. You say "I must." You do not have to invoke the 
fifth amendment. 

Mrs. LowENFELS. I do because I am the wife of Walter Lowenfels 
and am^thing I say will incriminate me. I do for that reason, because 
I am the wife of a Smith Act defendant and I am very vulnerable 
because of that. 

Mr. KuNZiG. We are asking you questions, and I want to emphasize 
for the record, only about yourself, only about your activities and 
about no one else's activities whatsoever. 

Were you an instructor at the Tom Paine School of Social Science 
in Philadelphia in 1942? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. What school was that? I never heard of that 
school . 

Mr. KuNziG. Tom Paine. 

Mrs. LowENFELS. I have no recollection of having taught in that 
school, nor do I remember such a school. 

Mr. KuNziG. It has been cited as an adjunct in Westchester, 
N. Y., of the Communist Party by Attorney General Tom Clark in a 
letter to the Loyalty Review Board, released December 4, 1947. 

Mrs. Lowenfels. No recollection of that at all. 

Mr. KuNziG. On May 1, 1942, did you attend the Communist 
Party May Day Win-the-War Rally held"^in Town Hall, Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. How many years ago was that? 

Mr. KuNziG. If you subtract, I beheve it is about 11 years. 

(At this point Mrs. Lowenfels conferred with Mr. Sharfsin.) 

Mrs. Lowenfels. I refuse to answer. I invoke my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. The committee is in possession of sworn testimony 
that the witness did so attend. 

Have you been active in and around the period of 1944 collecting 
donations for the West Philadelphia Communist Club of the Com- 
munist Political Association? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. You refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. I cannot] answer, under the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2935 

Air. KuNziG. The committee is in possession of sworn testimony, 
Mr. Chairman, that Mrs. Lowenfels did so collect donations for the 
West Philadelphia Communist Club. 

When you listed all the various places at which you taught, did you 
teach at any other time at any other school in Philadelphia? 

(At this point Mrs. Lowenfels conferred with Air. Sharfsin.) 

Mrs. LowEXFELS. Same answer. 

Air. KuxziG. You refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment? 

Airs. Lowenfels. Yes. 

Air. KuNziG. Isn't it a fact that in the fall of 1944 you were listed 
in the Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art for the fall 
session of 1944 as a lecturer, and it says "Lillian Lowenfels, AP-UP, 
studied Sorbonne, history teacher," and so forth. Did you teach at 
that school? 

Airs. Lowenfels. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Air. Clardy. Do you have the document there, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, we have the document, which I would like to 
offer into evidence as Lowenfels' exliibit No. 1 and I should like to 
state that the Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art has been 
cited as an adjunct of the Communist Party by Attorney General 
Tom Clark in a letter to the Loyaltv Review Board released December 
4, 1947. 

Air. Velde. Without objection the document will be admitted in 
evidence. 

(Document listing Lilian Lowenfels as lecturer at Philadelphia 
School of Social Science and Art marked "Lowenfels Exliibit No. 1" 
for identification was received in evidence.) 

Mr. KuNziG. We also have evidence that you taught at the school 
m 1946, is that correct, this same school? 

Airs. Lowenfels, I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Air. KuNZiG. Were you present at the district convention of the 
Communist Party of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware held in 
1946? 

Mrs. Lowenfels. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. The committee has sw^orn testimony, Air. Chairman, 
that the witness was so present. 

In 1946 under the membership of section 3, district 3, of the Com- 
munist Party the following name appears as being a member of this 
particular section: Airs. W. Lowenfels, 4510 Regent Street, Phila- 
delphia. Were you so a member? 

Airs. Lowenfels. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Air. KuNziG. Did you ever attend meetings of the Communist 
Party in 1947 at a meeting place on Sixty-sixth Street in West Phila- 
delphia? 

Airs. Lowenfels. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. This committee has sworn testimony that you did 
so attend such meeting. 

The committee has testimony, Air. Chairman, also that the witness 
attended meetings at the home of Sidney and Genieve Fox at 2210 
Pine Street in Philadelphia, Communist Party meetings. 

These meetings were meetings of the professional side of the Com- 
munist Party. Did you attend such meetings? 

Airs. Lowenfels. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 



2936 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. In 1950 we have sworn testimony that you were seen 
attending meetings of the professional section of the Communist 
Party of Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware. Did you so attend 
such meetings? 

Mrs. LowENFELS. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I call Mr. Samuel Kaplan. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee, do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Kaplan. I do 

Could I request that the cameras be turned off now? It is a little 
bit late now for the newspaper cameras, but I would like to have 
them turned off now. 

Mr. Velde. One of the reasons that we grant the request of the 
witness is that it will not interfere with their testimony. So far as 
that is concerned you have not given any reason yet. 

Mr. Kaplan. Could I have the lights turned off, and the television? 

Mr. Velde. Before giving any testimony, you request that the 
lights be turned off, is that correct? 

Mr. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Let the request of the witness be granted, and the 
lights will again be turned off. 

Mr. Kaplan. I would like to explain why. I feel rather strongly 
about it. 

Mr. Clardy. We have ordered them turned off. You do not have 
to give us any reason. 

Mr. Kaplan. I will tell you why. 

Mr. KuNziG. Shall I proceed, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL MEYER KAPLAN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, HENRY W. SAWYER 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your full name for the record, please? 

Mr. Kaplan. Samuel Meyer Kaplan. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is vour present address, Mr. Kaplan? 

Mr. Kaplan. 1402 60th Street, Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Sawyer. Henry W. Sawyer, 117 South Seventeenth Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Are you presently a teacher in the Philadelphia 
school system, Mr. Kaplan? 

Mr. Kaplan. I am. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where do you teach? 

Mr. Kaplan. At the John Bartram High School. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Wliat subject do you teach? 

Mr. Kaplan. I teach English. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background? 

Mr. Kaplan. I am a graduate of the Central High School of 
Philadelphia. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2937 

Mr. KuNziG. In what year? 

Mr. Kaplan. 1927. 

Mr. KuNziG. Please continue. 

Mr. Kaplan. I am a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, 
1933, with a bachelor's degree. I took a master's degree at Temple 
University in 1949, I believe it was 1949. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And that is your formal education? 

]Mr. Kaplan. That is my formal education. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you now give the committee a resum6 of your 
employment, where you have worked? 

Mr. Kaplan. Yes; I w^orked in the WPA for a while in the late 
1930's and for the department of public assistance for about a year 
and a half. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that the Department of Public Assistance of the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania? 

Mr. Kaplan. Yes. I went into the service and served for 3% years 
in the Army of the United States. 

Wliile I was in the Army I was appointed to a teaching position. 
When I came out of the Army in 1945 I went into the school system 
as a teacher. 

Mr. Kunzig. I want the record to show that the witness was honor- 
ably discharged from the United States Army. Would you continue, 
please? 

Mr. Kaplan. Since that time I have been employed by the school 
system in Philadelphia, 

Mr. Kunzig. At what school? 

Mr. Kaplan, Wlien I came out at Gillespie Junior High School for 
a few months. 

Mr. Kunzig, Were you always teaching English? 

Mr. Kaplan. Yes; and from that school I went to the South Phila- 
delphia High School for Boys and from there I was transferred to the 
John Bartram High School where I now teach. 

Mr. Kunzig. On October 13, 1952, at hearings before this commit- 
tee held, I beheve, in this very room in Philadelphia, one Thomas 
Delaney testified that he joined the Communist Party in 1939 and 
went on to testify he was assigned to the professional branch, and so 
forth. This branch was composed of about 15 members of the Penn- 
sylvania Department of Public Assistance. He named Samuel Kap- 
lan as a member of that professional branch and also identified this 
Samuel Kaplan as educational director of this branch of the Com- 
munist Party. 

So, I wish to ask you whether at that time, and this was in 1939, 
you were a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Kaplan. For several reasons I refuse to answer that question. 
The first amendment, which has been thoroughly discussed today; 
the ninth amendment of the Constitution, which I think you all know; 
and the fifth amendment, since it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kunzig. You refuse to answer that on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment? 

Mr. Kaplan. I have mentioned three, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you educational director of this branch of the 
Communist Party as testified to by Thomas F. Delaney, under oath? 

Mr. Kaplan. Same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Kunzig. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 



2938 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party 6 
months ago? 

Mr. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you sign the Pennsylvania loyalty oath? 

Mr. Kaplan. I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you signed any oath, that oath particularly? 

Mr. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. That was in the spring of 1952. Were you a member 
of the Communist Party in the fall of 1951? 

Mr. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about the fall of 1950? 

Mr. Kaplan. I refuse to answer that question on the ground that 
it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kitnzig. We will move up a little bit. How about the summer 
of 1951? 

Mr. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. KuNZiG. The spring of 1951? 

Mr. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. February of 1951? 

Mr. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. January 1951? 

Mr. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. KuNZiG. December 1950? 

Mr. Kaplan. I refuse to answer that question on the gi'ound that 
it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mr. Delaney subsequently stated that the Sam Kaplan 
to whom he referred was a schoolteacher and that he had heard that 
Sam Kaplan and his wife Ruth Kaplan had been expelled from the 
Communist Party in late 1950 due to his wife sending out truth letters 
which criticized the leadership of the Communist Party of Philadelphia. 

Were you expelled from the Communist Party in late 1950 because 
of your wife having sent out a truth letter criticizing the leadership 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Kaplan. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds indi- 
cated earlier. 

Mr. Kunzig. And the fact that you refuse to testify when we hit 
December 1950, has nothing to do with that question? 

Mr. Kaplan. I refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Kunzig. You refuse to answer as to whether you were a member 
of the Communist Party from December 1950 back before that time? 

Mr. Kaplan. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. Where were you born? 

Mr. Kaplan. Norristown. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, to pinpoint this a little more, do I under- 
stand then that on December 31, 1950, you are refusing to answer as 
to whether you were or were not a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Kaplan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. How about January 1, 1951, and I am speaking of 
the day. 

Mr. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes, what? 

Air. Kaplan. I was not a member of the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2939 

Mr. Clardy. But you will not answer as to the day previous? 
Mr. Kaplan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. You are getting me confused by the answer. On 
January 1, 1951, you are very positive you were not a member, but 
as to the day preceding that, you refuse to answer. 
Mr. Kaplan. Yes. 
Mr. Clardy. Tlianlv you. 

Mr. Kaplan. It is the way you put the question. 
Mr. Clardy. I appreciate it. I did not phrase it that way acci- 
dentally. 

Mr. Kaplan. I am not an English teacher for nothing. 
Mr. Kunzig. Was this a New Year's resolution on that night? 
Mr. Kaplan. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Kaplan, in 1946, this committee is in possession 
of sworn testimony that you were a member of branch forty, f-o-r-t-y, 
-C of the central Philadelphia section of the Communist Party. 
Were you such a member? 

Mr. Kaplan. I refuse to answer that on the grounds given before. 
Mr. Kunzig. Were you a member of the Teachers' Union in Phila- 
delphia, Local Number 556? 

Mr. Kaplan. Will you repeat the question? 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you a member of the Teachers' Union of Phila- 
delphia, Local No. 556? 
Mr. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. During what years w^ere you a member? 
Mr. Kaplan. After I came out of the service. 
Mr. Kunzig. "Wliich was roughly when? 

Mr. Kaplan. I came out of the service and back to Philadelphia 
the beginning of November. I did not start teaching immediately, 
so it was at the end of 1945. To the best of my knowledge, that is. 
It was toward the end of 1945 and perhaps at the beginning of 1946. 
Mr. Kunzig. Until what year were you active? 
Mr. Kaplan. Until the year that it went over into the State, 
county and municipal workers. 

Mr! Kunzig. This was the CIO group. Are you still a member of 
the Teachers' Union under its new name? 
Mr. Kaplan. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Kunzig. You have been a member of this group consecutively 
from the date of 1945 imtil the present date, as it was local 556 and 
then became independent, I believe, in February 1953. They became 
an independent group. 

Mr. Kaplan. Whatever the time was. 
Mr. Kunzig. You are still a member? 
Mr. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you in 1949 a member of the executive board 
of the Teachers' Union? 

(At this point Mr. Kaplan conferred with Mr. Sawyer.) 
Mr. Kaplan. Yes. 
Mr. Kunzig. You were? 

Mr. Kaplan. As far as I can remember I was. 
Mr. Kunzig. Tell us the dates, to the best of your memory, when 
you were a member of the executive board of the Teachers' Union of 
Philadelphia. 



2940 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AKEA 

Mr. Kaplan. It is hard to remember. From 1946 or 1947 or 1948 
or in that area. 

Mr. KuNziG. You became a member in 1945. Did you go on the 
executive board immediately the next year? 

Mr. Kaplan. No, I am tr^nng to recall. It is possibly 1947 or 
possibly 1948. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Until when? 

Mr. Kaplan. Until the present. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are still a member of the executive board of the 
union? 

Mr. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr^KuNZiG. This committee is in possession of sworn testimony, 
Mr. Kaplan, that in 1950 you were an organizer of section 12 of the 
Communist Party, district 3, is that correct? 

Mr. Kaplan. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds given 
earlier. 

Mr. KuNziG. On May 17, 1950, did you hold a Communist Party 
fund drive in yoiu- home, attended by various school teachers from 
the city of Philadelphia? 

Mr. Kaplan. I refuse to answer that question, also on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Isn't it a fact that you were thrown out of the Com- 
munist Party because you criticized the Philadelphia leadership of the 
party in that Robert Klonsky, Edward Strong, and Benjamin Weiss 
were in hiding for their personal safety and you criticized the leader- 
ship for that fact, and they threw you out? 

Mr. Kaplan. I refuse to answer that on the ground and for the 
reasons given. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any questions, Mr. Clardy? 

Mr. Clardy. I am a little at a loss to miderstand your refusal to 
answer that last question. Is it your position that by refusing to 
tell us the facts as to whether you were tliro^^Tl out of the Commmiist 
Party you will in some way incriminate yourself? 

Mr. Kaplan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. You think that would be a violation of some law of 
the land because you might be prosecuted under it, the mere fact 
that you were thrown out of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Kaplan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. You teach what besides English? 

Mr. Kaplan. English. 

Mr. Clardy. Just English? 

Mr. Kaplan. Yes, just English. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, maybe that explains it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Kaplan, I would like to ask you one more ques- 
tion. We have sworn testimony to the effect that December 17, 1949, 
at a meeting where a class was being held on Marxist theory and 
dialectical materialism, the question came up about your being a 
Communist teacher and your not agreeing with the manner in which 
the school was operated. 

We have testimony to the effect that there was a lengthy dis- 
cussion as to whether you should continue to follow your chosen 
profession or seek other employment and you did not agree with the 
way the schools were being operated. Is such a fact? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2941 

Mr. Kaplan. I refuse to answer that question on the ground that 
it might tend to incrimmate me. 

Mr. KuNZiG. This meeting was alleged to have been held at your 
own liome. Do you recall the meeting on December 17, 1949, at 
you* own home with Commimist school teachers at the Communist 
Party meeting? 

Mr. Kaplan. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
given. 

Mr. KuNZiG. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. I would like to make an announcement before we 
adjourn. 

The witness may be excused. 

The other witnesses who hav^e been called and have not testified 
are continued. Their subpenas are continued until tomorrow morning 
at 10:30 o'clock when we will resume these hearings. 

Until that time, we will stand adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 4:21 p. m., the hearing was adjourned until 10:30 
a. m., of the following day.) 



INDEX 



Individuals Page 

Amter, Israel _ 2890 

Clark, Tom 2918, 2929, 2934, 2935 

Darcv, Sam 2928, 2929 

Davis, Dave 2926, 2929 

Davis, Sophie 2926 

Delaney, Thomas F 2926, 2937 

DeMaria, Samuel J 2926 

Dodd, Bella V 2886-2910 (testimonv) 

Eddv, J. Granville 2929 

Foster, William Z 2893, 2904 

Fox, Genieve 2912 

Fox, Sidney 29 12 

Fruit, Harry 2910-2914 (testimonv) 

Frank, Richard 2908 

Glick, Ralph 2928 

Gold. Louis 2919 

Green, Gil 2890, 2898 

Hood, WiUiam 2920 

Hoover, J. Edgar 2893, 2898 

Hoyer, Dr 293 1 

Ivens, Louis 2914-2923 (testimonv) 

Kaplan, Ruth 2938 

Kaplan, Samuel Mever 2936, 2941 (testimonv) 

Klonsky, Robert 2920, 2922, 2940 

Lawrence, Bill 2890 

Levitan, A. Harry 2914-2923 

Long, Wilson 2920 

Lowenfels, Lillian 2930^2936 (testimonv) 

Lowenfels, Walter 2928, 2933, 2934 

McGabe, Louis F 2910-2914 

McCarthy 289 1 

McGrath, J. Howard 2922 

Murray, Philip 2895 

Powers, Wilham David 2920 

Reeves, Carl 2929 

Richman, Jacob S 2927-2930 

Sawyer, Henry W 2936-2941 

Sharfsin, Joseph 2930-2936 

Sloane, Marcella 2920 

Strong, Edward 2940 

Thomas, Estelle Naomi 2923-2926 (testimonv) 

Weiner, Herman 2923-2926 

Weiss, Benjamin 2928, 2940 

Wepman, Sarah Walsh 2926, 2927-2930 (testimony) 

Organizations 

American Federation of Labor 2890, 2893-2895 

American Federation of Teachers 2894,2928 

American Youth Congress 2918 

American Youth for Democracy 2918 

Association of English Teachers 2897 

Association of Mathematics Teachers 2897 

Association of Social Studies Teachers 2897 

Bache School, Philadelphia 2924 

2943 



2944 INDEX 

Organizations — Continued 

Page 

John Bartram High School (Philadelphia) 2932, 2936, 2937 

Benjamin FrankUn High School (Philadelphia) 2912, 2932 

Civil Rights Congress 2921, 2922 

Colu mbia University 2886 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 2890, 2893, 2895, 2929, 2939 

Daily Worker Press Club, 2934 

Department of Public Assistance of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. _ 2937 

East Stroudsburg Teachers' College " 2924 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 2926 

Federal United Public Workers National Teachers Division 2929 

Germantown High School 2911 

Gillespie Junior High School (Philadelphia) 2937 

Hunter College 2886, 2907 

International Workers' Order 2926 

Labor Youth League 2922 

Lovaltv Review Board 2918, 2922, 2929, 2934, 2935 

May Day Win-the-War Rally 2934 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 2922 

National Conference of Christians and Jews 2931 

New York University 2886 

Penn Treaty Junior High School (Philadelphia) 2927 

Philadelphia Board of Education 2931 

Philadelphia Normal School 2927 

Philadelphia Psychiatric Hospital 2924 

Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art 2929, 2935 

Railroad Brotherhoods of America 2890 

Ru tgers University 2931 

Shaw Junior High School (Philadelphia) 2932 

South Philadelphia High School for Boys 2937 

Soviet Government Purchasing Commission 2924 

State, County, and Municipal Workers of America 2929 

State, County, and Municipal Workers, Local No. 556 2895 

State Federation of Teachers' Unions in the State of New York 2887 

Stetson Junior High School (Philadelphia) 2915 

Teachers' Union 2886, 2887, 2893, 2894, 2895, 2906, 2908, 2912 

Teachers' Union, Local No. 192 2894, 2896, 2912, 2928 

Teachers' Union, Local No. 556, of Philadelphia 2912, 293& 

Teachers' Union, Philadelphia 2896, 2912 

Temple University 2915, 2937 

Tom Paine School of Social Science, Philadelphia 2934 

United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America 2889 

United Federal Workers, CIO 2929 

United Nations 2901, 2902 

United Pubhc Workers of America 2895, 2929 

United States Signal Corps 2924, 2925 

University of Pennsylvania 2911, 2927, 2930, 2937 

Veterans' Area College 2932 

West Philadelphia High School 2932 

Works Progress Administration 2894, 2924, 2937 

Young Communist League 2908, 2918 

Publications 

Daily Worker 2928 

New Y'ork Herald Tribune 2891, 2904 

New Y'ork Times 2891 

o 



sj!:^ 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
PHILADELPHIA AREA-Part 2 




HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE 0^ UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-THIED CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



NOVEMBER 17 AND IS, 1953 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFEICJfl 
40168 WASHINGTON : 1953 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

FEB 2 3 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Dlinois, Chairman 

BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Je., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzio, Counsel 

Feank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Russell, Chief Investigator 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chie) Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



November 17, 1953: 

Testimony of — ^^so 

Dorothy Kelso Funn 2945 

Esther "Soler 2955 

Isadora Reivich 2962 

William Gordon Solar 2968 

Nathan Walter Alargolis 2973 

Sophie Elfont 2981 

Benjamin David Anton 2984 

David Parloff 2986 

Sadie T. Atkinson 2988 

Adela Pollock Margolis 2989 

Caroline Kramer Perloflf 2993 

November 18, 1953: 
Testimony of — 

Benjamin David Anton 2995 

Robert J. Rutman 3002 

Solomon Haas 3011 

Herman Aaron Beilan 3013 

Thomas Deacon 3018 

Index 3021 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

T* ^* *V 't* T* *<• T* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine^Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 
******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees: 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other ciuestions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House for to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together watli such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES INJHE 
PHILADELPHIA AEEA— PAET 2 



TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 17, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee 

ON Un-American Activities, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
public hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to adjournment, at 10:33 a. m., in courtroom No. 1, 
United States Courthouse, Ninth and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, 
Pa., Hon. Harold H. Velde (chairman), presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Harold H. Velde, 
Kit Clardy, and Francis E. Walter. 

Staff members present: Robert L. Kunzig, counsel; Earl Fuoss, 
and C. E. McKillips, investigators; and Juhette P. Joray, acting clerk. 

Air. Velde. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Mr. Counsel, will you proceed? 

Mr. Kunzig. WiU Mrs. Dorothy K. Funn please step forward. 

Mr, Velde. Will you raise your right hand? In the testimony you 
are about to give before this subcommittee, do you solemnly swear 
that you wiU tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mrs. Funn. I do. 

TESTIMONY|OF DOROTHY KELSO FUNN 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you state your full name, please? 

Mrs. Funn. Mrs. Dorothy Kelso Funn. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is your address? 

Mrs. Funn. 1352 Union Street, Brooklyn. 

Mr. Kunzig. New York? 

Mrs. Funn. That is right, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see that you are not represented here by counsel 
this morning. Do you desire to have counsel, or are you satisfied to 
testify without counsel? 

Mrs. Funn. I did not feel that I would need counsel. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background? 

Mrs. Funn. Well, I was born and brought up in Brookljm and did 
all my schooling in Brooklyn. I graduated from elementary school 
and then from Girls High School and went on to Maxwell Training 
School for Teachers. 

2945 



2946 COIVUVIUNIST activities in the PHILADELPHIA AREA 

After completion of that course I began teaching as a regular teacher 
in the New York City school system February 1, 1923. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you tell us your emploj^ment background, 
your teaching experience? 

i\Irs. FuNN. Yes. I taught continuously from February 192.3 
until February 1943 when I resigned from the school system. I was 
out of the school system for 4 years and returned to the New York 
City school system in February 1947. 

Mr. KuNziG. xire you presently a teacher, Mrs. Funn? 

Mrs. Funn. I am presently a teacher in the upper classes of the 
New York public elementary schools. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Funn, I want to ask you whether you have 
ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Funn. Yes, I was a member of the Communist Party. I 
joined that organization in May 1939 and I got out of it, I might say, 
physically, ideologically before that, but ph^^sically I would say 
approximately June 1946. 

Mr. KuNziG. I take it then that you are not now a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Funn. I am not. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Woidd you tell the committee, please, Mrs. Funn, 
how you became a Communist? 

Mrs. Funn. Well, I will have to give you a little personal back- 
ground, if I may. 

Mr. Kunzig. I would appreciate it if you would go into some detail. 

Mrs. Funn. First of all, teaching in Brooklyn and with children in 
the community, I was interested in the problems facing the com- 
munity, specifically in problems facing Negro children and the Negro 
residents in Brooklyn, and also things on a national scale. 

Of coiu'se, my very great interest stemmed from the fact that I am 
also a Negro. 

I was teaching in a low, depressed area of predominantly Negro 
children and I was interested in working with the parents and so on. 
There was a teacher there who seemed to be vitally interested in the 
children and the problems of the community and started, I might say, 
leading me on into more work to which I did not object, and finally 
he came to the point of exposing his membership in the party and 
asking me to become a member of the Communist Party, as the Com- 
munist Party being the most forthright organization fighting for the 
rights of Negroes. 

Having heard some of his discussions and also having read some 
of the propaganda that the Communist Party had put out concerning 
their fight for Negro rights, I felt then that that was the organization 
I should join. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you did then join? 

Mrs. Funn. And I^did join in May of 1939. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did other teachers in New York join the Communist 
Party, if it lies within your personal knowledge? 

Mrs. Funn. Yes; there were groat numbers of other teachers who 
joined the Communist Party. 

As I stated a moment ago, the teacher who recruited me was a 
member of the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2947 

After I became a member of the Communist Party I met with other 
teachers who were members of the Communist Party. We had 
regular meetings every 2 weeks of the Communist Party teachers. 

Air. KuNziG. Would you describe for us in some detail what these 
meetings were like, what took place at these meetings in New York 
of the Communist teachers? 

Mrs. FuNN. Well, we teacher members of the Communist Party 
met in a group after school and at that time we were given theoretical 
education in Alarxism and Leninism, We also would have discussions 
from time to tune on specific issues that were printed in the Daily 
Worker, which really was a guide for Communists all over the city, 
and I should say the Nation, in what their steps and next steps should 
be in a particular situation. 

We also discussed certain matters that would be coming up at the 
Teachers' Union meeting and what our stand should be. Of course, 
any discussion on Teachers' Union membership meetings and the 
stand that we should take came from a teacher Communist who had 
gotten the line from the party itself over on West 12th Street, New 
York. 

Mr. KuNziG. Since you mentioned the Teachers' Union, you are 
referring to the New York Teachers' Union? 

Mrs. FuNN. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you describe what relationship there was 
between that and the Communist Party, if any? Was there any 
infiltration? 

Mrs. FuNN. As far as I loiew the relation was that Teachers' Union 
problems were guided evidently by the party and I say "evidently" 
because this specific teacher member of the union acted as a liaison 
between teacher-comrades, Teachers' Union members and the party. 
So what we were to do in the Teachers' Union membership meeting 
was told to us by this teacher-Communist liaison. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you pay dues to the Communist Party? 

Mrs. FuNN. Yes, the dues were paid montldy. You paid on a 
scale according to your yearly salary. However, there were other 
assessments. For instance, I paid $2.50 a month. That was collected 
at my party meeting and at the same time there might be a collection 
for the Daily Worker drive. There might be a collection for the 
Communist Party fund drive. There might be a collection for some- 
body in some place or other who was in particular straits of some kind 
who was connected with the Communist Party, and I might say this, 
too, that the teachers were a great source of revenue to the party. 
Whenever anything of major capacity came up for financial assists 
ance, the teachers were the first ones who were contacted for pay- 
ment in large assessments. 

Mr. Clardy. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Velde. Yes, Mr. Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. Mrs. Funn, we have heard testimony about this 
before, but I wish you would enlarge on it a little bit. The Communist 
Party does have an assessment system, the percentage of what you 
earn and the percentage may vary from individual to individual as 
fixed by the party functionaries, is that true? 

Mrs. Funn. That is true. 



40168— 53— pt. 2 2 



2948 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Clardy. So that in the case of the teachers, even in the same 
pay bracket, some of them may have to pay because someone may 
arbitrarily set a figure that they should kick in with. Wasn't that 
true in some instances? 

Mrs. FuNN. As far as the party dues themselves are concerned. 

Mr. Clardy. Overall. 

Mrs. FuNN. Well, overall you might take on an obligation of $300 
for the fund drive. However, somebody else in your same salary 
bracket may say "I cannot do that so I will only take on an obliga- 
tion of $150." But within a certain length of time you had to have 
your obligation in to whatever amount you had pledged. 

Mr. Clardy. Were you ever called upon to make contributions to 
funds for the defense of Communists who might be under indictment 
by the Federal Government or in some other difficulty? 

Mrs. FuNN. As I recall, I did not come under that, generally 
speaking. However, back at the time when Earl Browder was in 
jail I did have such an assessment at that time, I was asked to 
give such an amount, as all of us in that teachers party group were 
asked to do, to give an amount for the Browder campaign. 

Mr. Clardy. As I understand it, then, the gross amount realized 
from the teacher members was, in your judgment, a fairly large 
figure? 

Mrs. FuNN. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you have occasion to go to a Communist school 
for teachers? 

Mrs. FuNN, Yes, Mr. Kunzig, I did. 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you describe that, please? 

Mrs. FuNN. I would be glad to. I would like to say something 
else, too, at the time. No matter what innocent bystanders may say 
or think, the Communist Party was making every effort to school 
teachers along the lines of Marxism-Leninism in order that they 
might be a great force in socialism for which they were working here 
in America. I could follow that with a little statement here, but if 
you prefer I go on and tell about the school itself, I can, although it 
ties in together. 

Mr. Kunzig. If you have a statement there, please proceed. 

Mrs. FuNN. Yes, I do. It is one of the Communist Party bibles. 
This particular pamphlet or magazine is entitled "The Communist" 
and it is dated May 1937 and this article is on the schools and the 
people's front. 

Mr. Kunzig. Was this article used as a bible for your Communist 
teacher groups during the years you were a member from 1939 to 
1946? 

Mrs. FuNN. It was used in teaching, and also I had not thought of 
it as such, I had read it, yes, and had certainly taken in what was 
said in it, yes, and from time to time there were quotes given in it as 
the responsibility of a good Communist teacher in the United States 
today. 

This was written by Richard Frank and is entitled "The School and 
the People's Front." 

It says: 

While teachers are part of the working class, their function differs vastly from 
that of the industrial worker. Communist teachers cannot afford to ignore this 
fact — that they come in contact with the children of the masses, that they are 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AKEA 2949 

responsible for training these children. They must realize the primary function 
of the school is to educate these children, and this will be true to a much greater 
extent in a socialist society than now. Communist teachers are, therefore, faced 
with a tremendous social responsibility. They must consider not merely their 
own teacher pioblems, but the problems of the children. They must fight for the 
latter. They must mobilize the other teachers in this fight. They must take 
advantage of their positions, without exposing themselves, to give to their students 
to the best of their ability working-class education. 

To enable the teacher in the party to do the latter, the party must take careful 
steps to see that all teacher comrades are given thorough education in the teach- 
ings of Marxism-Leninism. 

Which of course is part of what you want me to tell you about the 
school to which I was sent. 
It also says here : 

Only when teachers have really mastered Marxism-Leninism, will they be able 
skillfully to inject it into their teachings at the least risk of exposure and at the 
same time to conduct the struggles around the schools in a truly Bolshevik 
manner. 

To further illustrate the Communist Party position on Communist 
teacher responsibilities: 

A people's movement around the school can thus transform the latter into 
popular forums for progressive social action — ultimately into forums for the revolu- 
tion. 

Now, I entered the party, as I stated, in May of 1939. About the 
second meeting after I had joined, this matter of a Communist state 
school came up. They were asking that teachers of New York City 
apply and attend this state school. I was, as you know, very new in 
the party and therefore knew nothing about a school. To me a 
school was a school like those I had already attended, and I said, "If 
this is a special school I should like very much to go." 

Generally speaking, no one was allowed to attend these schools 
unless he had been in the party for a year. But, since I was vouched 
for, I was finally O. K.'d to go, after several conferences with the 
educational director for the New York State Communist Party, 

On July 4, 1939, I left for that school and attended the school out- 
side of Kingston, N. Y., for 6 weeks. In that school we carried out 
the tenets of the article that I have read to you. We were schooled, 

Mr. KuNziG. What kind of people went to this school? 

Mrs. FuNN. Teachers. 

Mr, KuNziG. Only teachers? 

Mrs. FuNN. Except for about three people. They felt that they 
should have some working-class people there, not all professionals. 
There were 30 of us. Twenty-seven of us were teachers in New 
York City. 

Mr. KuNZiG. This was the particular 6-week class which you 
attended? 

Mrs, FuNN. That is right. Now may I add this. Not only were 
they taking care of the professionals, teachers, and so forth, in New 
York State, but simultaneously with our school there was another 
school going on 30 miles away at Briehl's farm, which was called the 
National School, and at the National School there were in attendance 
people who were not teachers but were heads in large organizations of 
one kind or another over the Nation, That is why it was called the 
National School because those people were drawn from aU over the 
United States, but as I say, in my school we were all from New York 
City, we were all schoolteachers except for three. 



2950 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

We were schooled in Marxism-Leninism. We had one man, 
Alberto Moreau, who was head of the school and did most of the 
teaching. We had visiting professors who gave us other parts of the 
Communist Party doctrine. And at the end we graduated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was the basic thing taught the idea that you were 
to inculcate and influence children that came under you along Com- 
munist lines? 

Mrs. FuNN. We were to inculcate and influence children, parents, 
commimity organizations within which we were working. In other 
words, we were to do a job for the Communist Party in whatever way 
we possibly could and as well respected citizens in the community, 
teachers, we would be in a better position to carry on their work than 
some others would. 

Mr. KuNziG. Recently the Subversive Activities Control Board in 
Washington, D. C, handed down tliis order and opinion on the Com- 
munist Party of the United States. I would like to read just a few 
words from page 181 of that report and ask 3^ou if this fits in with 
your personal experience that you have just described to the com- 
mittee. 

The report says: 

Respondent has schools which had been conducted under varying degrees of 
secrecy. During periods of strict secrecy, including the periods of 1939-41 and 
1948-50, extraordinary precautions were taken to conceal the existence of these 
schools and the names of the trusted party members who were selected to attend 
them. 

They— 

carried out instructions to observe stringent concealment regulations in order to 
preserve their secrecy shrouding the existence of these schools. 

Did that fit in with your personal experience? 

Mrs. FuNN. Absolutely. We were completely isolated. We were 
not allowed to go out, even do^vn the road. We did take one trek 
into the town of Kingston to m.ovies one night, but we had to go to- 
gether and we went in together and came out together and had a soda 
together and got in the truck and were taken back to the farm to- 
gether and they said that was for security reasons because of our posi- 
tions in the school system in New York City. 

Mr. KuNziG. If it lies within your knowledge, how many teachers 
within the last few years have been dismissed from the school system 
in New York for allegedly subversive activities? 

j\Irs. FuNN. Well, I can only give you an approximation. 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

Mrs. FuNN. I would say approximately 90. Now, among those, 
may I also add, some were dismissed, some received communications, 
as I understand it, to appear before the council for the board of educa- 
tion, but resigned or left before coming up for a hearing. 

Mr. KuNziG. When you say 90, is that n-i-n-e-t-y? 

Mrs. FuNN. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know any Philadelphia teacher or teachers 
from your own personal experience and your own personal knowledge 
who are or were members of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. FuNN. I know only one who was a member of the party, and 
I understood that years ago she had her disagreements, and as I will 
put it, had seen the fight and had left the party. I knew her because 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2951 

she came to Naw York to attend a school simUar to the ones I have 
described, and stayed at my house for the time that she was attending. 

Mr. KiJXZiG. Roughly what year was that, to the best of your 
knowledge? 

Mrs. FuNN. It must have been 1941, 1941 or 1942. 

Mr. KuNziG. If it lies within your knowledge, then, as far as you 
know at the present time, this person is not a member of the Com- 
munist Party but was a member when you were a member? 

Mrs. FuNN. Tliat is right. 

Mr. KuNziG, What is the name of that person? 

Mrs. FuNN. Goldie Irvin Watson. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell that, please? 

Mrs. FuNN. G-o-l-d-i-e, and I am not sure whether it is I-r-v-i-n or 
I-r-v-i-n-g Watson, W-a-t-s-o-n. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, there is a Goldie Irvin Watson whom 
investigation has shown was a teacher and is a teacher at the present 
time at the Martha Washington School in Philadelphia. 

Am I correct that you later became a legislative representative for 
the National Negro Congress? 

Mi's. FuNN. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. This is for the period during the time when yoti left 
the New York school system; is that right? 

Mrs. FuNN. That is right. As I stated, I left the New York school 
system in February 1943 and the following November 1943 I went to 
Washington as the legislative representative for the National Negro 
Congress, and remained in that position until late 1946, about Decem- 
ber 1946, when I returned to New York and then went back into the 
New York school system. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was the National Negro Congress a Communist 
organization? 

Mrs. FuNN. Yes, it was. 

Mr. KuNziG. And 3"ou were in there as an avowed Communist? 

Mrs. FuNN. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was your function or supposed function to fight for 
the rights of Negi'oes? 

Mrs. FuNN. That was the function so stated when I first became 
associated with the National Negro Congress, and when I became the 
legislative representative for the National Negro Congress it was my 
imderstanding that I was going to Washington to lobby for bills that 
would be made law that would affect the status of the Negro in 
America against discrimination, for fair employment, against poll 
taxes, and other such legislation that would be fair to all and to Negro 
Americans as a part of our United States Government and country. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat did you find out in your day-to-day experience 
with this group? 

Mrs. FuNN. Well, I found tliat in anj'- work of this kind in an 
organization of that type, which is ruled by the Communist Party, 
you were not left to your own judgment in any instance. You were 
constantly kept in contact with the person who was responsible for 
Communist members' activity in Washington no matter what you 
might be doiug or thinking should be done, you must leave it if it does 
not conform to what the Communist Party thinks should be done at 
the time. 



2952 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

That included the work in my organization as well as work in other 
organizations. 

You see, in Washington we had one person who was the legislative 
representative of the Communist Party who I might say kept us on the 
line at all times. He attended our Communist Party meetings and he 
telephoned us if necessary. He contacted us on the side if necessary, 
at any time and all times in order to make sure that we were taking 
up bills aud going through the actions that the Communist Party 
stated should be done. 

Mr. Walter. Who was that person? 

Mrs. FuNN. Albert Blumberg. 

Mr. Walter. With what association was he officially connected? 

Mrs. FuNN. He was the legislative representative for the Com- 
munist Party, U. S. A., living in Baltimore and doing his work in 
Washington. Ofttimes we found in our Communist Party meetings 
that there would be Congressmen to be contacted which Blumberg as 
the open representative of the party could not do. Therefore we 
legislative representatives meeting as Communists took assignments 
and saw the Congressman on the specific pieces of legislation and 
that came directly from Albert Blumberg who had gotten his direc- 
tives directly from the upper echelons of the party, and I know that 
because he went to New York regularly once a week and sometimes 
more often to meet with the Communist Party leaders at the national 
office. 

Mr. Clardy. He was your political commissar; is that right? 

Mrs. FuNN. That is right; he was my political commissar. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Funn, do you feel that the Communist Party 
was sincerely desiring to help the Negroes in America? 

Mrs. Funn. Well, it is because I saw that they were not desirous 
of helping the Negroes that my eyes began to open up to everything 
and I did sever my relations with them. 

Mr. KuNziG. I was just going to ask you whether you severed 
your relations with the party. 

Mrs. Funn. It was my feeling that the Negro question, as it was 
called by the Communists, was just one more tactic in their plan to 
take over America and turn it into another Soviet so that they used 
the minorities and they tried to get their base in the unions. They 
would get their people among the intellectuals. There was no phase 
of American life to which they did not try to appeal in order to carry 
out their main objective of socialism for America and the elimination 
of our form of Government. 

Mr. KuNziG. Why, personally, did you break? You were just 
starting to tell us that. 

Mrs. Funn. Well, I broke because I found that just as I have said 
my interest in the problems of the Negroes here in America for social 
and economic freedom were not their true interests, although they 
wrote much on it and they spoke much on it. It was just not the 
organization for the things that I thought needed to be done on the 
status of the Negro in America. Not only thought, but I saw and I 
knew that it was not true. If there was some cause celebre coming 
up — a terrible thing of lynching or of some discrimination — immedi- 
ately they jumped upon that, you see, as a means of catapulting the 
organization into the press and for drawing in more people into the 
organization and then nothing happened because the means at our 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2953 

disposal, the Government agencies and so on, they were not wilHng 
to go through those channels. Everything was geared to revolution 
and Socialist Soviet America. 

Mr. Clardy. That takes me back to something that you read, the 
last sentence in the excerpt from the book. Will you refer to that 
again? I intended to question you at the time but you were develop- 
ing a thought and I did not want to interrupt there. Would you read 
that sentence over? 

Mrs. FuNN. It is as follows: 

A people's movement around the schools can thus transform the latter into 
popular forums for progressive social action — ultimately into forums for the 
revolution. 

Mr. Clardy. A little over a week ago I sat in a courtroom where 
6 Communists were being tried for violation of the Smith Act in 
Detroit, Mich., and I listened to the reading of page after page of testi- 
mony that dealt with the very subject of revolution. 

My question is this, Is it not a basic Communist tenet that the social 
revolution will never be accomplished except through force and vio- 
lence? In other words, is not the Communist Party completely out 
of sympathy with the Socialist Party because the Socialist Party seems 
to think that the same goal can be reached by what they caU the 
democratic process or the use of the processes set up under our Consti- 
tution, whereas the Communists say that is tommyrot. The only 
way to get it is to chop off heads and take over forcibly. Is that not 
the substance of what you were taught and told in the textbooks 
which you studied? 

Mrs. FuNN. Yes, because after all our basic reading matter was 
Marxism-Leninism, and the whole history of the revolution in Russia 
and the taking over of the country by the Communists at the time that 
Lenin and then Stalin went mto power and it was not done by a 
Socialist revolution. It was done through blood being shed, and if 
you are studying this particular history as a basis for your future 
action, there is nothing else that one can do but conform and therefore 
by bloody revolution we will do the same thing that was done in 
Russia. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes, I noted it all through the pages of the text that 
was read, and of course I read a great deal of it before that, and one 
common thought was to be found, and that was that the dirty capital- 
ists, as they call everyone else, would never succumb peacefully. It 
was foolish and idle to talk of it, and therefore the only remedy for the 
proletariat was to get out the tommygun and whatever else was 
required. 

That was the essence of what they were told to teach you so that 
you in turn as a teacher might impart subtly that idea in the minds of 
our youth. 

Mrs. FuNN. That is right. 

Mr. Clardy. Go ahead, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have one further question, Mrs. Funn. Do you 
feel that in your own life and in your own teachings with the children 
in your case %vith whom you came in contact that you influenced 
them along the lines that the Communist Party wished you to? 

Mrs. Funn. I could not help but do it. \Vlien one is schooled in 
this sort of education or whatever you want to call it for a certain 
length of time, it becomes a part of you. Wliether I am standing 



2954 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

before a class or whether I am doing work in the community outside, 
there is no way possible that you can divorce yourself from what has 
become your guiding philosophy. I cannot walk into the classroom 
and teach one thing and then walk outside and do something else. 

If I am a Communist following the Communist Party line and their 
teachings, it becomes a part of my life. 

Mr. Clardy. You surrender yourself completely, your soul and 
your mind, when once you become a member? 

Mrs. FuNN. Absolutely. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. I have no questions. 

Mr. KuNziG. Thank you, Mrs. Funn. You are excused at this 
time. 

Mr. Velde. Call the next witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Esther Soler. 

Mr. Velde. Do j^ou solemnly swear that in the testimony you are 
about to give before this subcommittee you will tell the truth, the 
whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Soler. I do. 

Mr. Clardy. It is against our rules to permit you to address the 
committee, Mr. Counsel. If you wish to advise your witness to make 
some objection of some sort we will be glad to permit you to so advise 
your client. 

Mr. McCabe. I will conduct myself with those rules. 

Mr. Clardy. Under our rules we do not permit counsel to take an 
active part by addressing the bench at any time and it would be 
extremely bad for us to make an exception in this case, eminent though 
I know you are, as I have been assured by Mr. Walter, in the profes- 
sion in this State. If the witness has some objection to make, she 
may state it. 

Mrs. Soler. I just wanted to say that I am not refusing to be 
televised bi'.t I do want to make protest to the fact of how a person 
can consider calmly with the men in front gyrating and contorting to 
get their pictures, and the lights glaring and the heat of the whole 
situation makes it difficult, and I feel that I would like to utter that 
protest, but I would like to ask this question; If at any time during the 
testimony of myself that it becomes impossible may I at that time 
request that all of this be stopped, television and lights? 

Mr. Clardy. May I explain before you give any testimony and 
give any answer I shall instruct the still photographers to quit taking 
pictures and if you object to that during the progress of your testimony 
I shall then instruct them to withhold it until a recess or until your 
permission is given for any more pictures. 

Now are you objecting to the television? 

Mrs. Soler. I am not objecting to the men taking the picture right 
n w. 

Mr. Clardy. You may later. 

Mrs. Soler. May I at that time? 

Mr. Clardy. You may, and you may consult with your counsel 
about the time to do it and the way to do it. We will be most coop- 
erative. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2955 

Mrs. SoLER. All right, at that time when I make the request will 
I again have to listen to a 5-minute ruling from the Chair as to the 
dispersal of the television because I want it stopped at the moment 
I ask for it. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Kunzig, will you proceed? 

Mrs. SoLER. You did not answer my question. 

Mr. Kunzig. Shall I proceed? 

Mr. Clardy, Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF ESTHER SOLER, ACCOMPANIED BY HER COUNSEL 

LOUIS F. McCABE 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you state your full name, please, for the 
record? 

Mrs. SoLER. Mv name is Esther Soler. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is"^ that Miss Soler? 

Mrs. Soler. Mrs. Soler. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you please give your address? 

Mrs. Soler. 5243 Lebanon Avenue. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is that in Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Soler. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. I note that you are accompanied by counsel. Would 
counsel please state his name and office address? 

Mr. McCabe. Louis F. McCabe, 1218 Chestnut Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Soler, are you presently a teacher? 

Mrs. Soler. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wliere? 

Mrs. Soler. I am now employed at the William B. Mann School 
at 54th and Burke Streets. 

Mr. Kunzig. That is an elementary school? 

Mrs. Soler. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wliat grade do you teach? 

Mrs. Soler. I am presently teaching the fourth grade, and last 
year I taught the second grade and I taught the classes from first to 
fourth. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you not include the city of Philadelphia? Did 
you say she teaches in the city of Philadelphia? 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes. 

Would you kindly give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background? 

Mrs. Soler. I went to the New York public school system, I guess 
the first 2 years of my elementary education and then continued at 
the Philadelphia schools. 

I graduated from the Sharswood Elementary School, graduated 
from South Philadelphia High School. 

Mr. Kunzig. In what year? 

Mrs. Soler. Well, that is difficult. I graduated from the Plii:a- 
delphia Normal School for Girls in 1928 and at that time it ran a 
2-year course for teachers and so I graduated from the Philadelphia 
High School for Girls in 1926. 

Since my graduation from the Philadelphia normal schools I have 
taken postgraduate courses which the Philadelphia Normal School 
gave after our graduation and I have continued to take in-service 

40168— 53— pt. 2 3 



2956 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

courses which the Philadelpliia Board of Education has given when 
new guides are presented to the scliool system and we are availed of 
the opportunity to take these courses. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you become a teacher? 

Mrs. SoLER. You mean when was I appointed to teaching? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

Mrs. SoLER. I was appointed in the month of March 1930. I have 
been teaching for 23 years, 

Mr. KuNziG. In what schools have you taught in Philadelphia? 

Mrs. SoLER. Well, I have taught only in— are you asking me also 
the schools in which I taught M^lien I substituted for a year? 

Mr. KuNZiG. Let us take the schools at which vou taught from 
1930. 

Mrs. SoLER. At the Francis Read School from 1930 to 1936 and 
then again in the Francis Read School from 1937 to about 5 years ago 
when I asked for a transfer to the William B. Mann School, and I have 
been teaching at the William B. Mann School for those 5 years. 

Mr. KuNziG. This committee is in possession of testimony under 
oath that you were a member of the professional section of the Com- 
munist Party. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. SoLER. At this point let me answer this question by pulling 
out my loyalty oath, reading from it if I may, that I am not a sub- 
versive, which is what I had to sign here. Ivlay I read it? 

Mr. KuNziG. That was not the question, Mrs. Soler. The ques- 
tion is. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. SoLER. All right then, let me answer it this way. I am not 
going to answer any question as to my political beliefs before April 1, 
1952, or, rather, the 14th day of March of 1952, for this reason, when 
I go to the polls I am guaranteed the privacy of my politics, am I not? 
When I go to the polls I am. I would not have even admitted to the 
signing of this loyalty oath to my present loyalty if I had not signed 
this loyalty oath and it were a matter of public record. 

I have answered that question, and I would not have answered if I 
had not signed this loyalty oath because a seemingly harmless answer 
today in this climate could be taken by a politically ambitious prosecu- 
tor and built step by step into some very far-fetched accusations of 
my wrongdoing against my country, and on that basis I am invoking 
the fifth amendment. 

I am also invoking the first amendment. I know that Senator Velde 
or Senator Clardy — I don't know which of the two — yesterday said, 
and I quote the word, that it was "nauseating" — — 

Mr. Velde. Let us correct the title. 

Mrs. Soler. Should I say Congressman? Is that the correct title? 
Anyway, he said it was nauseating to hear people repeating the first 
amendment, but our Founding Fathers put that first amendment in 
to protect us from just such inquisitions and I am not going to be a 
party to subverting the first amendment. 

So, under the first amendment and under the fifth amendment for 
reasons which I gave and further under the fifth amendment because 
today the legal mind — and I am not a legal-minded person- 

Mr. Velde. You have been called here to answer some questions 
relative to subversive activities in which the committee has infor- 
mation you have engaged. We would welcome any information that 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2957 

you have relative to your own activities in the Communist Party 
in this area or anywhere thi'oughout the United States, but we are 
fully informed as to the fifth amendment, the first amendment and 
all other amendments in the Bill of Rights and it is just wasting our 
time and it is wasting your time, too, to go on with this type of 
argument, and so I now direct you to answer the question or refuse 
to answer it, stating your legal gi'ounds. 

Mrs. SoLER. You are asking me to answer a question in one word,. 
a question which may determine the loss of my livelihood, my 
reputation, my family's reputation, when yesterday you gave Mrs. 
Bella Dodd 2 hom-s of time and this morning you gave Mrs. Funn 
much more time. Her questions were not answered in one word. 
Why are you confining me to one-worded answers? 

Mr. Walter. Of com-se, the difference is that Mrs. Funn answered 
the question and you are refusing to answer the question. 

Mrs. SoLER. But you said you are giving me an opportunity to 
answer questions. 

Mr. Velde. Please answer the question. 

Mrs. Soler. But I must answer the question. 

Mr. Velde. This question is a very simple one. Were you ever a 
member of the Communist Party? It can be answered yes or no. 
Or you can refuse to answer it. 

Mrs. Soler. It is not a simple question in today's climate and the 
fact that my name already has been prejudiced since a month ago. 
My employers knew of this subpena a month ago. 

Mr. Clardy. May I suggest that I think she answered a while ago 
that she was refusing to answer on the basis of the fu'st and fifth 
amendments and I suggest counsel go along. 

Mr. Velde. Is that what the committee understands, that you do 
refuse to answer on the basis of the first and fifth amendments? 

Mrs. Soler. May I say this, I want to answer the questions in my 
own way 

Mr. Clardy. She is standing on the fifth amendment and we have 
not been in the habit of permitting them, particularly laymen, to 
explain the law to us. We are thoroughly aware of it. 

Mrs. Soler. Except that when people invoke the fifth amendment 
people are considered guilty of hiding something. 

Mr. Clardy. My opinion is that you are hiding something or you 
would have answered the question. 

Mrs. Soler. I am here, in my opinion, as a defendant and a suspect 
which you have just made the point, and therefore I want to demand 
the right that I be allowed to advance my reasons for invoking the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. Let me disabuse your mind on that. You are not 
here as a defendant and are not charged with anything. You are 
here to answer any question within our jurisdiction we want to ask 
of you, and to do our duty. We expect you as an American citizen 
to answer the questions that are asked of you in order that we might 
get on with the work that we are obligated to do by the people of this 
country. 

Mrs. Soler. I know that you have the obligation but I want to 
say this, that my employers, from the principal and the superintendent 
on October 23 knew that I was subpenaed. In yesterday morning's 
inquiry, this is what they said "He said no innocent people would be 
put on the stand." 



2958 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Velde. You are here as a witness. Now, please answer the 
question. 

Mrs. SoLER. Well, in my opinion I have been tried and convicted. 

Mr. Velde. Will you proceed? 

Mr. KuNziG. I ask you next this question: The committee has 
sworn testimony that you in 1944 held Communist Party membership 
card No. 78392. Is that information correct and did you have that 
card? 

Mrs. SoLER. I want to consult with my attorney at this point. 

Mr. Velde. You have some letter? 

Mr. McCabe. There is some difficulty about this. Yesterday I 
was told some of my comments went over the air and sometimes I 
am a lit tie profane and the whole business may be on the air. 

Mr. Clardy. You may retire from the microphone if you wish. 

(At this point Mrs. Soler conferred with Mr. McCabe.) 

Mrs. Soler. On that question [ am going; to invoke the first and 
fifth amendments in view of this material that was put out the day 
before the hearing. 

Mr. Clardy. May I disabuse your mind. This committee at no 
time has released any information about you or any other person that 
was under subpena before this committee. If that information got 
out, then I am afraid it must in some way have come from you. It 
definitely did not come from the committee. 

Mrs. Soler. I said before that my employers knew about the sub- 
pena, and here is the information in this article. It says that no 
innocent people would be put on the stand and that there would be 
a good reason for every witness and every question. That is prejudic- 
ing me in the eyes of the people and in the eyes of my employers, and 
I cannot answer that question under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Walter. You are not being accused of any wrongdoing. 

Mrs. Soler. But the paper said so. 

Mr. Walter. No; it did not. We are of the opinion that you have 
certain information that would be helpful to us in the work that we 
have been assigned to do by the Congress of the United States. 

Mrs. Soler. If this committee had demonstrated its sincerity, hear- 
ings would have been private and conclusions from the hearings made 
public after the hearings. We have been prejudiced before the hear- 
ings. Tliat is all I can say. 

Mr. Walter. If you would testify under those circumstances, if 
you would not get behind the first and fifth amendments of the Con- 
stitution, Ave will call you in executive session. 

Mrs. Soler. After a month of this kind of thing I wouldn't stand 
a chance. 

Mr. KuNziG. This witness was asked, Mr. Chairman, when she was 
first served if she wanted to testify in executive session, but there was 
no effort on her part to so testify. 

In 1945, the committee has evidence that you held Communist 
Party membership card No. 85916; is that correct? 

Mrs. Soler. I am going to, as I said before, invoke the first and 
fifth amendments for any questions prior to March 14, 1952. I know 
you are going to continue to ask these questions, and in my opinion 
you are only asking them to smear me. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, there is no question pending. 

Mr. Velde. The gentleman is right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2959 

Mr. KuNziG. In July 1945 we have testimony that you were a 
delegate from the professional section of the Communist Party to the 
district convention of the Communist Party; is that testimony correct? 

Mrs. SoLER. May I consult with my attorney? 

Mr. Velde. Certainly. 

(At this point Mrs. Soler conferred with Mr. McCabe.) 

Mrs. Soler. I am going to invoke the first and fifth amendments 
for my reply to that question. 

Mr. Velde. May I say this to the attorney, Mr. McCabe, and the 
witness, at any time if you desire to confer in private you may do so 
at your request. If you are afraid that the microphones are on your 
conversation, you may move back or even out of the room to confer 
on any of the questions. 

Mr. KuNziG. The testimony also shows, Mrs. Soler, that at this 
particular session of the convention you were appointed a member of 
the trade-unions committee of the Communist Party. Were you a 
member of the trade-unions committee of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Soler. As I said before, and for the same reasons, I am not 
answering any question under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are standing on the fifth amendment on the 
ground that your answer might tend to incriminate you; is that 
correct? 

Mrs. Soler. I am answering on the fifth amendment because I 
feel that any seemingly harmless answer I give may be used again in 
some farfetched accusation of wrongdoing against me and might be 
used against me. 

Mr. KuNziG. At the second session of the convention on August 
12, 1945, you were elected a member of the district committee. This 
committee has evidence of that. Is that correct? 

Mrs. Soler. I am again standing on my statement that I am not 
answering any question before March 14, 1952. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are standing on the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Soler, On the fifth and first amendments. 

Mr. KuNziG. On September 9, 1945, there is evidence that the 
Comniunist Party held a meeting at the Sylvania Hotel in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., the purpose of the meeting being to remove Sam Donchin 
as district organizer of the Communist Party, 

At this meeting we have testimony that you spoke in favor of 
Donchin and indicated that the national committee of the party v,^as 
showing personal animosity to this Donchin; is that correct? Did 
you make such a statement? 

Mrs. Soler. I will stand on the statement I have made time and 
time again, and I will add to it the 10th amendment. We have a law 
in Pennsylvania to try subversives. If there is such a law why has 
there been a hiatus of 20 months? 

Mr. KuNziG, Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Soler. And I feel that the 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Soler. I am not a member of the Communist Party. I 
attested to that when I signed the loyalty oath. 

Mr. KuNziG. What date did you sign the loyalty oath? 

Mrs. Soler. March 14, 1952. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
March 13, 1952? 



2960 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mrs. SoLER. I said I would not answer any question before March 
14, 1952. 

Mr. KuNziG. So as to March 13 you refuse to answer on the 
ground that it might incriminate you? 

Mrs. SoLER. On the ground of the 1st amendment and the 5th 
amendment and the 10th amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. On September 23, 1945, Mrs. Soler, there is evidence 
that you attended a meeting of the district committee of the Com- 
munist Party 

Mrs. Soler. I am going to answer as I have answered before, 
that I will not answer any question before March 14, 1952. 

Mr. KuNziG. I haven't asked you any question yet. 

Mrs. Soler. Well, you mentioned the date before 1952. You 
mentioned 1945. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Here is the question: The evidence is that on this 
occasion you again spoke on behalf of Donchin and pointed out that 
the change in the party line in regard to Earl Browder was a great 
selling point among the schoolteachers in Philadelphia. You stated 
you felt if Donchin were removed from office it would cause a bad 
reaction among the teachers who were Communists in this city. Is 
that correct? 

Mrs. Soler. I refuse to answer again as I have said over and over 
and over again, that I will not answer any question before March 
14, 1952. There are so many things that could be used for framing 
and I am not going to answer on the basis of the 1st and the 5th and 
the lOtli amendments. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Were you ever an officer of the Teachers' Union here 
in Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Soler. I am an officer of the Teachers' Union. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you first become an officer? 

Mrs. Soler. I will not answer any question before March 14, 1952, 
particularly on the Teachers' Union, in view of the testimony that 
was offered here by Bella Dodd, an informer, a person of harm to 
every decent citizen in the United States. 

I will answer questions of my association beginning with ISIarch 14, 
1952, my social, my political, and my personal life after that date. 
Previous to that date I will not answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. As to the question as to when you first became an 
officer of the Teachers' Union in Philadelpliia, your answer is that 
you refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Soler. On the grounds of the 1st, 5th, and 10th amend- 
ments. 

Mr. KuNziG. What position in the Teachers' Union of Philadelphia 
do you hold today? 

Mrs. Soler. At this point I am a member of the executive board. 
I was legislative director last year. 

Mr. KuNziG. You were at one time secretary of the Teachers' 
Union; is that correct? 

Mrs. Soler. I will not answer any question before Alarch 14, 1952. 

Mr. KuNziG. You replaced in that position Sarah Walsh Wepman; 
is that correct? 

Mrs. Soler. I am proud to be a member of the Teachers' Union 
which fought against the Peckham law and at a public hearing you 
yourself tried to introduce 



COMMUNIST ACTR^TIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2961 

Mr. Velde. The statements you are offering are purely voluntary 
and have nothing to do with the subject matter of this hearing and I 
would again say that I would appreciate it greatly and admonish you 
to make your answers yes or no and explain as short as possible, or 
refuse to answer and state your legal groimds. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is it not correct that you replaced Sarah Walsh 
Wepman wlio testified here yesterday, replaced her on April 24, 1946, 
in this position with the Teachers' Union? 

Mrs. SoLER. I will not answer any questions before March 14, 1952, 
no matter how harmless that answer might be, on the gi'ounds of the 
1st, oth, and the 10th amendments. 

Mr. KuNziG. On October 27 and October 28, 1945, Mrs. Soler, we 
have sworn testimony that you attended a district conference of the 
Communist Party at the Commodore Hotel in Philadelphia, is that 
correct? 

Mrs. SoLER. If your sworn testimony is the testimony of people like 
Bella Dodd I question the sworn testimony. 

I will not answer any question before March 14, 1952, on the basis 
of the amendments I cited. 

Mr. KuNziG. In June 1946 is it not correct that you attended a 
special conference of the Communist Party, district No. 3, held at the 
Metropolitan Opera House in Philadelphia on June 21, Jime 22, and 
June 23? 

Mrs. SoLER. I refuse to answer on the basis of the amendments 
which I cited. 

Mr. KuNziG. If I said that under oath you were seen attending 
those and were elected as a member of the district committee and 
received 216 votes. Will you now answer and admit whether you 
were present or not? 

Mrs. SoLER. I will not answer questions before Tvlarch 14, 1952. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is it correct that you gave a speech, lectm-ing on the 
deficiencies of the school system in Philadelphia and throughout the 
United States of America? 

Mrs. Soler. I will repeat what I said, that I will refuse to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. On the basis of the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Soler. On the fifth amendment? Not on the fifth amend- 
ment alone. 

JNlr. KuNZiG. The fifth amendment is the only tbing that the courts 
have recognized. 

Mrs. Soler. You may not recognize, but I recognize it and the 
people of the United States recognize it. At this point even the 
courts are thinking of whether the first amendment must be recog- 
nized. I am not going to subvert the first amendment and I am not 
answering these questions under the 1st, 5th, and 10th amendments. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you not a delegate to the Comm.unist Party 
convention we were talking about of the professional group in Phil- 
adelphia known as the Benjamin Franklin Section No. 11? 

Mrs. Soler. Again I will repeat what I have said before, under 
the 1st, 5th, and 10th amendments I will not answer the question. 

Mr. KuivziG. Now I have a question I am most interested in 
getting your answer on; do you have any special connection or any 
connection of anj^ kind as a policymaking member of the educational 
policies committee of the Philadelphia Board of Education? 

Mrs. Soler. I am not. 



2962 COMMUNIST ACTWITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you have any connection whatsoever with the 
educational policies? 

Mrs. SoLER. You mean with the board of education? 

Mr. KuNziG. With any committee or group from the board of 
education. 

Mrs. SoLER. I meet with my faculty once a month at a faculty 
meeting. 

Mr. KuNZiG. That is the onl}^ group? 

Mrs. SoLER. That is the only group I am a member of as far as 
policy for education is concerned. 

Mr. KuNziG. What are your duties for education? Do you have 
the classroom group? 

Mrs. SoLER. Do you really want to hear them? 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you just have the classroom group? 

Mrs. SoLER. That, plus yard duty, plus hall duty, plus millions of 
other duties where you just do not have time for yourself. I am just 
a classroom teacher. 

Mr. KuNziG. According to sworn testimony you had quite a bit of 
time, at least, to attend these various meetings. 

I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused and the committee will be in 
recess for 10 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 11:39 a. m., the hearing was recessed for 23 min- 
utes.) 

Mr, Velde. The committee will be in order, 

Mr. Kunzig, call the next witness. 

Mr. Kunzig. I call Isadore Reivich. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee, do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Reivich. I do. 

May I ask that the lights be turned off, and the television be 
turned off, please? 

Mr. Velde. The television lights and the newsreel lights will be 
turned off. 

Mr. Kunzig. Shall I proceed, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Velde. Is that satisfactory, Mr. Witness? 

Mr. Reivich. All except the still photographers. 

Mr. Velde. The photographers will please desist. 

TESTIMONY OF ISADORE REIVICH, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, IRVING W. BACKMAN 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you please give your full name? 

Mr. Reivich. Isadore Reivich. 

Mr. Kunzig. Your address, please? 

Mr. Reivich. My address is 2038 North 52d Street, Philadelphia, 
Pa. ^ 

Mr. Kunzig. Are you a teacher, Mr. Reivich? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. Yes; I am a teacher in the Philadelphia public school 
system. 

Mr. Kunzig. In what schools do you teach? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2963 



Mr. Reivich. I teach at West Philadelphia High School. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What is j^our subject at West Philadelphia High 
School? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I teach in the social studies department at West 
Philadelphia High School. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you teach American history? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I do teach American history 1, 2, and 3 at West 
Philadelphia High School. 

Mr. KuNziG. I note that you are accompanied by counsel. Would 
counsel please state his name and address for the record? 

Mr. Backman. Irving W. Backman, 1612 Market Street, Phila- 
delphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you now, please, Mr. Reivich, give the com- 
mittee a brief resume of your educational background? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I attended the William B. Mann School. I then 
graduated and attended the Overbrook High School. I graduated 
from Overbrook High School in Januaiy 1936. 

I then attended Temple University until January 1940. After 
coming out of the Army in 1945 I went back to Temple University 
and received a master's degree in economics in the Liberal Arts School, 
and since that time I have taken a number of credits toward a doctor's 
degree. 

Mr. KuNziG. Let the record show that Mr. Reivich was honorably 
discharged from the Army in 1945. Is that correct? 

Mr. Reivich. That is correct. _ 

Mr. KuxziG. When did you become a teacher for the first time? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I became a teacher in the Philadelphia public school 
system in September 1946. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you been a teacher ever since? 

Mr. Reivich. Yes, I have been a teacher ever since. 

Mr. KuNziG. What schools have you been assigned to during the 
period of time from 1946 to the present time? 

Mr. Reivich. I have always taught at the West Philadelphia High 
School. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever used any aliases, Mr, Reivich? Have 
you ever gone under another name? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I cannot answer that question, or, let me put it this 
way; with the advice of counsel I refuse to answer that question on 
the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is it not a fact that you have gone under the name of 
Israel Reinick? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. The committee has sworn testimony that you have 
used that name. 

We also have testimony that you used the name Bill Roberts. 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds. 

40168 — 53— pt. 2 i 



2964 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNZiG. We are in possession of testimony, under oath, 
Mr. Reivich, that you used the name Bill Roberts when you became 
an active member of the Young Communist League. Is it correct 
that you used the name of Bill Roberts in the Young Communist 
League? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. When was that, Mr. Kunzig? Have you got the 
date? 

Mr. Kunzig. In or about 1940, sir. 

We also have testimony, Mr. Reivich, that you were executive 
secretary of the West Pliiladelphia Young Communist League and 
director of the Young Communist League of Eastern Pennsylvania. 
Did you hold either of the positions, either or both of those positions? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Kunzig. On August 6, 1942, it has been testified under oath 
that you spoke at an outdoor Communist meeting held at Brooklyn 
Street and Faii^mount Avenue. One of the speakers at the meeting 
was John Jack Devine who was known as a prominent Communist. 

Did you speak at that meeting on August 6, 1942? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer on the ground of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you take an active part in the creation of the 
American Youth for Democracy prior to the time that you went into 
the Army? 

The American Youth for Democracy has been cited as subversive 
and Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark and various com- 
mittees. 

Mr. Clardy. Are you referring to the national organization? 

Mr. Kunzig. A local of the entire national organization. 

Mr. Clardy. That is what I assumed. 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Kunzig. After yom- discharge from the Army in 1945, is it not 
a fact, Mr. Reivich, and we have sworn testimony to this, that you 
became a member of the Ben Gardner Club, section 2, of the Com- 
munist Party of Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware? 

(At this point Mr. Reivish conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Walter. Wlien was that? 

Mr. Kunzig; In and about 1945. 

In 1945, as the testimony went, when you were a member of the 
Ben Gardner Club, district 3, we also have testimony, Mr. Reivich, 
that you held Daily Worker Press Club membership card No. 25891. 
Did you have such card?. 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Walter. Wlien did you go into the military service, Mr. 
Reivich? 

Mr. Reivich. I think the date was October 17, 1943. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2965 

Mr. Walter. Were you commissioned? 
(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 
Air. Reivich. No, I was not commissioned. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the time you were serving in the Armed Forces? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 
jVIr. Reivich. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. KuNziG. We also have testimony, sir, that you were a member 
of section 2, district 3, of the Communist Party, holding membership 
card No. 53810. Is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 
Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment. 
Mr. KuNziG. In 1946 the testimony goes that you were nominated 
for membership to the district committee of the Communist Party; 
and in 1947 you were transferred to the professional section of the 
Communist Party, in October 1947, Are those statements correct? 
(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 
Mr, Reivich. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment. 
Mr. KuNziG. The testimony goes on that you were again a member 
of the Ben Gardner Club of the Communist Party in 1948 and that 
at that time of your registration in the Commimist Party in 1948 you 
indicated that you had been a member of the party for 10 years, is 
that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backmm.) 
Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer that on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you, diu*ing the month of January 1948, assist 
Edward Strong and Ben Weiss, the treasm-er of district 3 of the Com- 
munist Party? Did you assist them in arranging a program to 
protest the deportation charges against alien Communists? 
(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 
Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment* 
Mr. KuNziG. Have you been active in the Civil Rights Congress? 
(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 
Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment. 
Mr. KuNziG. The Civil Rights Congress, Mr. Chairman, as I have 
already put in the record yesterday, has been cited as subversive and 
Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark and various committees. 
(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 
Mr. KuNZiG. Did you, on July 17 and July 18, 1948, attend ses- 
sions of the Communist Party, district No. 3, convention held at the 
Chris J. Perry Elks Hall, 1416 North Broad Street, Philadelphia? 
(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 
Mr. Reivich. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. KuNziG. There is sworn testimony, sir, that you spoke at 
this convention and that you spoke on the subject of the importance 
of the Communist Party holding a mass movement in veterans' groups, 
is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 
Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment. 
Mr. KuNziG. There is also sworn testimony that as recently as 1950 
you were reported as active in obtaining funds on behalf of the Com- 



2966 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

munist Party in eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware. In other words, 
you were raising money for the Communist Party, is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I object to this type of question on the basis of the 
first amendment, because the first amendment provides that 

Mr. Walter. Now, never mind the excuses. I think that every 
shoemaker should stick to his last. You are objecting to questions 
and refusing to answer it because of your conception of protection 
given you by the Constitution of the United States. Say so. This is 
no place for a legal argument. 

Mr. Reivich. I will answer the question in the following fashion: 
On approximately May 1, 1952, I took the Pennsylvania loyalty oath. 

I object to answering any questions concerning my political beliefs, 
associations, and so forth, on the basis of the first amendment and on 
the basis of the fifth amendment before the taking of the oath. 

Mr. Walter. You might be interested in knowing that the Supreme 
Court passed on the validity of your refusal to answer on the basis of 
the first amendment in the so-called Hollywood cases. So, now, let us 
get to something else. 

Mr. Velde. Regardless of whether you object or not, do you refuse 
to answer the question'^* That is the only legal recourse. 

Mr. Walter. We can understand your statement, but that isn't 
the question. The pertinent question is do you refuse to answer? 

Mr. Reivich. On the basis of the first and fifth amendments, I 
will not answer any questions concerning my belief or association | 
prior to the taking of the Pennsylvania State loyalty oath. 

Mr. Walter. Let us direct our attention to the fifth amendment. 
You are refusing to answer questions because of the provisions of the 
fifth amendment because you are afraid that the criminal prosecution 
that might ensue would be a prosecution for perjury because you took 
the oath when you did take it, isn't that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Walter. Isn't that your apprehension? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I have only invoked the fifth amendment. You 
have not granted me the right to discuss things, and now you are 
attempting to involve me in a discussion. 

Mr. Velde. You were certainly granted the right to discuss if you 
answer the question instead of refusing to answer. It has been the 
rule under which this committee has been operating for a long while, 
and as far as I am concerned it will continue. 

Mr. Reivich. I am invoking the first and the fifth amendments up 
until the signing of the loyalty oath. After I signed the loyalty oath, 
I still object to such an oath, but in deference to the laws of the State 
of Pennsylvania, and I am a law-abiding citizen, and according to the 
interpretation of this oath I will say that I am not a member of the 
Communist Party since the taking of this oath. 

Mr. Walter. Do I understand you to mean by that that you got 
out of the Communist Party in order to take this oath, and that is the 
only reason why you are declining to answer questions? 



COI^IMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2967 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer tliat question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Air. Velde. Do you have anything further, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. Kunzig. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy? 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, I have observed you rather carefully during 
your entire time on the stand. And I have observed that you seem 
to regard it as something humorous and amusing. 

My question is this: Do you think that the Communist conspiracy 
against the United States and the freedom we enjoy here is something 
that should be treated with amused tolerance? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer it on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, with advice of counsel. 

Mr. Clardy. Are you of the opinion, and I base this on a statement 
that you made just a few moments ago, that the Communist con- 
spiracy is really nothing more than a political movement, a political 
part}^ movement? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer this question of opinion on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, do 3^ou have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. Mr. Kunzig, I am curious to know about the collection 
of funds and things, the alleged activities of this witness. 

Mr. Kunzig. The committee has sworn testimony that in the year 
1950 this witness was active in soliciting funds on behalf of the Com- 
munist Party of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

Mr. Walter. Did you ever solicit funds for the Communist 
Party anywhere at any time? 

(At this point Mr. Reivich conferred with Mr. Backman.) 

Mr. Reivich. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Walter. That is all, Mr. Chau-man. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Kunzig. I call Mr. William G. Soler. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee, do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Soler. I do. 

Mr. Chairman, before we begin may I say that I haven't the elo- 
quence of one of our previous speakers. 

Mr. Velde. There is no question before the witness. 

Mr. Soler. I should like to make this statement about television. 

Mr. Velde. The committee does not hear any voluntry state- 
ments. Do you request that the lights be turned off? 

Mr. Soler. I should like to say that I really protest the use of 
television and newspaper cameras and publicity which has tended to 
create an atmosphere of prejudice. 

Mr. Kunzig. The Chair is requesting the television lights be turned 
off because you protest the use of the lights. 

Now we will proceed with the hearing. 



2968 COMMUNIST ACTWITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM GORDON SOLER, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, LOUIS F. McCABE 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your full name, please, sir? 

Mr. SoLER. William Gordon Soler. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Louis F. McCabe, whose name is well known to 
the committee, is representing the witness, and let the record show 
that we can proceed. 

Would you give your address, please, Mr. Soler? 

Mr. Soler. 5243 Lebanon Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you a teacher, sir? 

Mr. Soler. I am. 

Mr. KuNziG. At what school do you teach? 

Mr. Soler. At the Central High School of Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. What subject do you teach there? 

Mr. Soler. I teach English. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a brief resume of 
your educational background? 

Mr. Soler. I shall be glad to, sir, and I hope that you will pardon 
reference to notes because I have been busy teaching all these days 
and I haven't had the opportunity to spend 6 months preparing a 
case. I shall therefore, with your permission, proceed. 

I was born in Philadelphia in 1909. I was graduated from the 
Standard Evening High vSchool in 1926, I believe, and from the 
Philadelphia Normal School in 1929. 

While I was teaching I took work at Temple University, receiving 
my bachelor's degree in 1936 and my master's degree in 1947, and 
for a dissertation on one of the framers of the Constitution who 
prophetically warned that the dorms of liberty might be attacked, 
and I received my doctor's degree in June 1953. 

I began teaching at the Kearney Elementary School in 1929 and 
continued teaching until about 1936. 

After examination I was appointed to the Vaux Junior High 
School in 1936. 

During that time I enlisted in the United States Army in the 
volunteer officer candidate program, was honorably discharged some 
months later, and thereafter continued teaching at the Vaux Junior 
High School. 

Mr. Walter. When were you in the Army? 

Mr. Soler. I am not certain of the date, but I believe you have 
the record, maybe 1941, somewhere near the beginning of the war. 

Mr. Walter. I haven't the record. As a matter of fact, I have 
never heard of you before this session. 

Mr. Soler. I do not have the exact date, but I believe that if 
the committee is interested the records are available. I do not 
recall the exact date, but those are the facts. 

Mr. Walter. Wlien were you commissioned in the Reserve? 

Mr. Soler. I was not. As I say, I was honorably discharged some 
months later because I had trouble with my feet, and I am wearing 
plates right now as a result of all that. 

I was appointed to teach English at the Edward Bok Vocational 
School in 1947 after an examination, and about 5 years later I was 
appointed as a teacher of English in Central High School in September 



COJNIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2969 

1952, a total of almost a quarter of a century in the public schools of 
Philadelphia. 

I also have been teaching at Germantown Evening High School, 
adults, some 5 or 6 years, and I may say that I have numerous letters 
of commendation and those letters include notations regarding my 
teaching of gi'oups during the civil defense program, during the First 
World War, and that I have letters, as I say, of commendation from 
my superiors after having gone through this work. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. SoLER. Mr. Chairman, in accordance with the act of assembly 
approved December 22, 1951, I signed a loyalty oath on March 7, 
1952, subject to penalty of perjury, a felony, to wit, a fine not exceed- 
ing $3,000, and imprisonment by solitary confinement at labor not 
exceeding 7 years, or both. 

That statement further requires that I swear that I do not advocate 
and am not knowingly" a member of any organization that advocates 
the overthrow of the Government of the United States or of this 
Commonwealth, by force or violence or other unconstitutional means, 
or seeking by force or violence to deny to the persons their rights under 
the constitution of the United States or of this Commonwealth. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 
It is a very simple question. 

Mr. SoLER. The question is not as simple as it appears on the 
surface. I would have to take a position consistent with that, but I 
wish to say that it has come to my attention that charges of some 
nature linking me with the Communist Party exist so that the danger 
of framedup charges exists in my mmd and I believe that precisely 
that situation, among others, is what the fifth amendment is intended 
to protect, and I want to say here and now that I am here sworn to 
uphold the Constitution of the United States and the Bill of Rights, 
and that I shall use every effort under the fii-st, fifth, and tenth 
amendments to protect myself. 

Mr. Kui^ziG. Whatever amendment you intend to use, would you 
please just answer the question? Are you a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. SoLER. I have told you, sir, what I laiow and I shall therefore 
invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment which protect me from 
unwittingly helping form a link of inquuy 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Soler, you said that you took the Pennsylvania 
loyalty oath. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you swore to that oath? 

Mr. SoLER. I have indicated, sir, that I have had rumors of baseless 
charges, unfounded, in fact, that my employers have so indicated  

Mr. Velde. That is not in answer to the question. The question 
is very simple, and the Chair du'ects you to answer the question. 

Mr. Soler. Yes, I am going to answer the question. 

;Mr. Velde. Well, then, answer the question. 

jMr. Soler. I am going to answer that under the protection of the 
first and fifth and tenth amendments I must invoke the privilege. 

Mr. Velde. Well, then, you refuse to answer? 

Mr. Soler. I have invoked tlie privilege because such an answer 
might tend to incriminate me in a sense that some stool pigeon or 
some informer miglit have baseless charges against me, of which I 
know nothing. 



2970 COAOIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Walter. That raises a very interesting question. You said 
an informer. Wliat do you mean by an informer? 

Mr. SoLER. All I know is that I have heard all kinds of statements 
in the press that the press, perhaps acting as agents, abetting the 
agents of this committee, have issued statements which clearly indi- 
cate that people are already accused of wrongdoing, and that being 
the case the whole climate has been prejudiced. There is a hysteria 
which exists which could affect my life. 

Mr. Walter. Your answer is very evasive. I asked you about in- 
former. Now, to me the word informer indicates somebody who tells 
on somebody else with whom they have been associated in an illegal 
act. 

Mr. SoLER. That may be, and under press of precisely this type of 
publicity one may use a word which perhaps, under certain circum- 
stances, he would not be inclined to use. I can only tell you that I 
am aware that charges, baseless rumors, statements have been made 
in the press which have created a situation which makes it impossible 
for me, sworn to uphold the Constitution of the United States and 
knowing something about the way this Constitution was made, I 
want it pointed out, sir. 

Mr. Walter. Yes, we know all about it. Will you now answer 
that one simple, little question; were you a member of the Communist 
Party on the 1st of April 1952? 

Mr. Soler. Precisely for the same reasons, recognizing that 

Mr. Walter. That is before your oath, the Pennsylvania loyalty 
oath, isn't it? 

Mr. Soler. I have stated 

Mr. Walter. What is the date of that, please? 

Mr. Soler. As far as I know, that date may have been, and I 
say mav, and I am accustomed to try to choose my words carefully. 

Mr. Walter. You were not so careful when you used the word 
informer. Give me the date of that affidavit. It was in 1952, early 
in 1952, wasn't it? 

Mr. Soler. The 7th day of February 1952. 

Mr. Walter. All right, now, on the 6th day of March 1952 were 
you a Communist, a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Soler. Mr. Chairman, I have indicated that because of the 
climate and hysteria which exists and because of rumors which I have 
heard, I must seek 

Mr. Velde, The question is simple and the Chair directs you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Soler. I am seeking and I shall invoke the privileges of the 
first, fifth, and tenth amendments on the grounds that I certainly 
am not in any position and wish not to be in any position which might 
link me in any matter which could be then used against me in some 
way. 

Mr. Velde. And then you do refuse to answer the question? 

Mr. Soler. I think, sir, that I have invoked the privilege of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. You said "I must" do it. You are not under any 
compulsion. 

Mr. Soler. I do invoke the fifth amendment on the grounds that 
I have stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2971 

Mr. KuNziG. I would like to follow that up with one other question 
on that point. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
March 7, the very day that you swore under oath to the State of 
Pennsylvania, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, that you were- 
not a member of any group seeking to overthrow the Government 
by force or violence ? 

Mr. SoLER. Mr. Chairman, I should like to say this, that for the- 
last 5 years I have been busy working on my thesis, and 

Mr. Velde. The question is simple, and you are directed to answer 
the question. 

Mr. SoLER. Yes ; I shall be very glad to. Would you please repeat 
that question? 

Mr. KuNziG. Would the reporter please read back the question! 

Whereupon the reporter read the question as follows : 

I would like to follow that up with one other question on that point. Were 
you a member of the Communist Party on March 7, the very day that you swore 
under oath to the State of Pennsylvania, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
that you were not a member of any group seeking to overthrow the Government 
by force or violence? 

Mr. SoLER. When I took the oath I laid myself open to penalties 
of perjury, fine not exceeding $3,000 and imprisonment by improper 
answer. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair directs you to answer the question or to 
refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. SoLER. Because of the statements that I have previously made, 
I feel that it is my right and privilege as an American citizen to invoke 
the 1st, 5th, and 10th amendments of the Constitution od the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the time that you served in the Armed Forces of the United States? 

Mr. SoLER. I think I have already indicated that I feel it my sworn 
duty to defend the Constitution of the United States and I propose to 
use the privileges which the Bill of Rights has afforded me, and I 
shall invoke the 1st, 5th, and 10th amendments in connection with 
such questions because I do not know what kind of slanderous gossip 
exists which would forge a chain — — 

Mr. Velde. That is a voluntary statement and it shall be strickeB 
from the record. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Soler, this committee is in possession of sworrs 
testimony as follows: That you were a member of branch 70 of the- 
Communist Party in 1943 and that you then became a member of sec- 
tion 8 of the Communist Party and have had the following Com- 
munist Party membership cards or books; in 1944 membership card 
No. 78393 and in 1945 membership card No. 85939. Is that infor- 
mation, under oath, correct? 

(At this point Mr. Soler conferred with Mr. McCabe.) 

Mr. Soler. This is in line with the same type of question, and I 
have no recomse under tlie Constitution but to invoke tlie privileges 
accorded to me by the Bill of Rights, the 1st, 5th, and 10th amend- 
ments, I suppose. I am not a legal man. 

Mr. Clardy. That is very obvious. 

Mr. Soler. I did not make law my study, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. You said you must. Are you doing so, or are you 
not? 

40168— 53— pt. 2 5 



2972 COJVIRIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. SoLER. I am invoking the privilege of the fifth amendment 
because I do not know when I may unwittingly make statements 
which could be used in such a manner as to forge some proceeding 
which could be used against me. 

Mr. Clardy. Ma}' I make an observation on that point just briefly, 
Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Air. Clardy. I want to point out not to the witness because I do 
not want to elicit a torrent of words, but I do want to get across the idea 
to those who are yet to come on the stand, and anyone else who may 
be listening, that mere membership in the Communist Party is not a 
crime and no one can be punished for it, much as 1 wish that were the 
case. It is, therefore, impossible for anybody to incriminate himself 
by admitting that he was or is a member of the party unless, in addi- 
tion thereto, there shall be adduced evidence to show that he engaged 
in a criminal conspiracy directed against the best interests of the 
United States. 

In other words, something dealing with a subversive act of some 
type, and I am amazed that that fact has not been made clear to some 
.,of these witnesses before they take the stand. 

That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have one further question, Mr. Chairman. This 
committee has sworn testimony that as recently as 1953 — this year — 
you have been active in Communist Party affairs; is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Soler conferred with Mr. McCabe.) 

Mr. Soler. It is more of the old gossip and the slander which 
exists. Sir, it is precisely for that kind of slanderous gossip which exists 
that I shall invoke the 1st, 5th, and 10th amendments. 

Mr. Velde. The witness will be directed to answer the question or 
refuse to answer the question as he sees fit. 

Mr. Soler, I shall invoke the fifth amendment, as I have no other 
recourse in this case. 

Mr. Clardy, That last statement simply isn't true. You do have 
other recourses, and I want the record to show that. You may answer 
truthfully, if you will. 

Mr, KuNziG, I have no further questions from this witness, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr, Velde, The witness is excused and the committee will stand 
in recess until 2:15 this afternoon. 

(Whereupon, at 1:39 p. m., the subcommittee adjoiu-ned until 
2:30 p. m, the same day,) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(At the hour of 2:21 p. m. of the same diy the proceedings were 
resumed, the following committee members being present: Representa- 
tives Harold H. Velde (chairman). Kit Clardy, and Francis E. Walter.) 

Mr, Velde, The subcommittee will be in order. Will counsel 
call his next witness? 

Mr. KuNZiG. I call Nathan Walter Margolis. 

Mr. Velde. Due to the fact that the next witness has an ailment, 
a heart ailment, and we have a medical certificate to that effect, the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2973 

committee has decided that the television lights be turned off at this 
time before the witness takes the stand. We are always aware of the 
fact that certain witnesses have medical difficulties and physical 
difficulties and I suppose that all witnesses have emotional distress. 
We certainly do want to cooperate with witnesses and anyone who 
comes before this committee so that their health cannot be injured. 

So, will the lights be turned off at this point? 

Mr. KuNziG. Will Mr. Margolis please step forward? The same 
treatment will be accorded to you as has been accorded the others. 

Mr. Velde. Will you raise your right hand? In the testimony you 
are about to give before this sabcomxnittee, do you solemnly swear 
that you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you wish to be seated or stand? 

Mr. Margolis. I left my notes on the bench back there. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you answer on the oath? The reporter tells me 
he did not hear anything. Did you say "I do" when the chairman 
administered the oath? 

Mr. Margolis. Yes; I do. 

TESTIMONY OF NATHAN WAITER MARGOLIS, ACCOMPANIED BY 

HIS COUNSEL, LOIS FORER 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you state your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Margolis. Nathan Walter Margolis. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you spell it, please? 

Mr. Margolis. Nathan Walter M-a-r-g-o-l-i-s. 

Mr. Kunzig. And your address, Mr. Margolis? 

Mr. Margolis. 840 Asbury Terrace, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. Are you a teacher? 

Mr. Margolis. I am. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wliere do you teach? 

Mr. Margolis. At the John Bartram High School. 

Mr. Kunzig. T\Tiat is your subject? 

Mr. Margolis. Art. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see you are accompanied by counsel. Would 
(counsel please state her name and address for the record? 

Miss Forer. Lois Forer, Packard Building. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Margolis, would you give the committee a brief 
resume of your educational and emplo^^mejit background? 

Mr. Margolis. I graduated from the Central High School in 
Philadelphia in 1924. graduated from the Philadelphia Normal School, 
major in art, in 1926. 

I took courses in color and design in the School of Industrial Art. 

After that time, somewhere around 1926 to 1929, I studied at the 
Graphic Sketch Club, painting and drawing and etchi:'ig from about 
1926 to 1933, more or less. That was nights and weekends. 

I studied at the University of Pennsylvania, receiving my B. S. 
degree as an art major, and in 1938 — that was all after school and 
evenings. In 1938 I was awarded a fellowship to Harvard to study 
the techniques of Italian painting, the Fogg Aluseum, where I very 
carefully studied BotticelU and El Greco and the fresco paintings and 
worked from a Botticelli Madonna and a Greco Christ. 



2974 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

I studied at the Barnes Foundation from 1942 to 1943 or maybe 
1943 or 1944, and I got a moster's degree in fine arts from the Stella 
Elkins Fine Arts of Temple University in 1946. 

Now, my teaching work is interwoven with that, of course, because 

1 did this after school and eveni/igs and so on. Now, with respect to 
elementary schools, I began to teach at the age of 18. I was in the 
elementary school until 1931. I was appointed an art teacher in the 
junior high school from 1931 to 1935. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What junior high school was that? 
Mr. Margolis. Sulzberger Junior High School. I was appointed 
to the senioi high school, Frankford, in 1935 and stayed there for about 

2 years. 

Now from here on, you must understand that I was the newest 
appointment in the high-school system aad that the last one into a 
school is the first one to leave when numbers drop, so from 1937 I 
worked in very many schools, Northeast, from 1937 to 1938, Over- 
brook 1938 to 1939, Stetson Junior High School. That was not a 
demotion. That was just to relocate me, 1939 to 1940, approximately. 

Then there w^s an opening in the senior high school in a somewhat 
related field called mechanical drawing, and that was at the Bartram 
High School from 1940 to 1941, I think. 

From there I went to the Benjamin Franklin High School and the 
Wilham Penn High School and I shifted between both, and then totally 
at the Willirm Penn High School, I beheve, from 1943 to 1945, and 
then to the Bartram High School from 1945 to now. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And that is where you are at the present time? 

Mr. Margolis. There is something else. I taught at the Graphic 
Sketch Club, drawing and painting, from 1928 to 1942 in the evenmgs. 
Durmg that period of course there was the war and I sought to 
volunteer but I was rejected for physical reasons. j 

Mr. KuNziG. This committee has testimony under oath that you 
have been a member of the Communist Political Association of 
Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware, specifically in 1945. Is that 
information correct? 

Mr. Margolis. In order to answer that question I must explain 
my position and ask the assistance of this committee. 

Mr. Velde. The committee has every desire to assist you, Mr. 
Margolis. However, we do not care for lengthy explanations unless 
you answer the question that was directed to you. 

I therefore now direct you to answer the question that was asked 
you by counsel. 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I am answering it and I have come to answer fully 
and to the best of my ability and I have consulted counsel and I 
have been advised that under the Constitution I have the right to 
decline to answer. I should prefer not to refuse. 

Mr. Walter. You say you have been advised that you have a 
rig.ht to decline to answer? 

Mr. Margolis. Yes. 

Mr. Walter. That is correct. Do you decline to answer? 

Mr. Margolis. I should prefer not to refuse to answer. 

Mr. Walter. Do you refuse to answer? 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2975 

Mr. Margolis. Since receiving my subpena I have been thinking 
about this very deeply. 

Mr. Walter. Yes, I suppose so, but now do you refuse to answer 
the question? 

(At this point Air. Margohs conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I have thought this through and I have to answer 
it in my way. 

Mr. Walter. That is all beside the point. The question has been 
submitted. Now, do you refuse to answer? 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I wish not to refuse and if 3^ou will permit me to 
continue in my own way, I will 

Mr. Velde. You have previously been directed to answer or decline 
to answer the question. I again direct you to answer or decline to 
answer the question. It is very simple. You are directed to answer 
or decline to answer and state your reasons. 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I will not decline to answer on the express agree- 
ment that you will let me continue to finish my answer as I have tried 
to do. 

Mr. Walter. Now you have declined to answer. You are refusing 
to answer. 

Mr. Margolis. No, I haven't yet. 

Mr. Walter. Not yet. 

Will you read the question, Mr. Stenographer? 

(The reporter read the question as follows:) 

This committee has testimony, under oath, that you have been a member of 
the Communist Pohtical Association of Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware, 
specifically in 1945. Is that information correct? 

Mr. Margolis. I should like to answer fully all questions you may 
care to ask me, but with respect to myself 

Mr. Walter. What are you reading from? 

Mr. Margolis. A prepared answer, because I have never — • — 

Mr. Walter. Prepared by whom? 

Mr. Margolis. Prepared by me. 

Mr. Walter. Now, you have heard the question. Is the sworn 
testimoTiy that this committee has correct? 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I will answer all your questions about myself upon 
the express 

Mr. Walter. Just answer that one and then I won't ask one more. 

Mr. Margolis. On the express agreement that you ask me only 
about myself. 

Mr. Walter. I will make a deal right here and now. If you answer 
that question I won't ask you one more question. 

Mr. Velde. If he will answer it yes or no. 

Mr. Margolis. I will answer that question if there are no further 
questions, only about myself. 

Mr. Walter. You answer that question. 

Mr. Margolis. Does this committee agree not to ask me any 
questions in regard to anyone else? 

Mr. Walter. I don't know anything of the plans the counsel of 
the committee has. I am merely stating that if you answer that 
question I personally wiU not ask you any more questions. 



2976 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. Well, may I have the agreement of the committee 
that I may answer only about myself? 

Mr. Velde. No; certainly not. The committee has the express 
duty of asking questions of witnesses relative to subversive activities, 
and we must fulfill that duty, so we cannot enter into an agreement 
of that type with any witnesses. 

Mr. Walter. I would like to make a deal with this witness because 
I was hoping that this witness would cooperate with the committee. 

Mr. Margolis. I had hoped to be able to. 

Mr. Walter. You have a great opportunity right now and if you 
prefer to testify in executive session I am sure that I could prevail upon 
the chairman of this committee, with whom I have very little influence, 
to agree to hear you in executive session, because I am particularly 
interested in knowing the sovu'ce of the funds the Communist Party 
received in this community, and I would like to know the pattern 
employed in the collection of those funds. And I would like to know 
what happened to the money and if you will cooperate with this 
committee to the extent that we can go into that phase I think that 
perhaps we can go into executive session right now. 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I would prefer to testify in open session if you would 
allow me to answer the question in my own way. 

Mr. Walter. Answer that question. 

Mr. Margolis. In my way, please. 

Mr. Walter. Answer the question that was asked you several 
times. 

Mr. Margolis. I have this answer. May I read my answer? 

Mr. Walter. As to what? 

Mr. Margolis. This question. 

Mr. Walter. How did you anticipate this question? You have 
an answer there to a question that you did not even know was going 
to be propounded. That is no answer. It is a dissertation just 
handed to 3^ou by your lawyer. 

Mr. Margolis. There was no question in my mind but what you 
would ask me these questions. 

Mr. Walter. Why did j^ou think we would ask you about this? 

Mr. Margolis. Because everybody is asked that when they come 
here. 

Mr. Walter. No; everybody isn't asked the specific question 
about your activity in raising funds. Now, why did you anticipate 
that this committee was going to ask you about raising funds? 

Mr. Margolis. I didn't hoar any question about funds. Your 
counsel did not ask me a question about funds. 

Mr. Velde. Let me say this to the witness: I do not always agree 
with my distinguished friend from Penns3dvania, but I certainly 
would agree in this particular case that if you will answer the question 
asked of you by counsel I would be in favor of going into executive 
session, which we can do right now, to get your answer to that one 
question. 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. If you permit me to answer it in my way I will 
answer it now. 



COJVIMUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2977 

Mr. Walter. As I understand it, you object to naming other 
people, is that it? 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Aliss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. Will you let me answer it in my way? 

Mr. Walter. Is that your objectioQ? You are objecting to the 
question because you do not want to be placed in a position of men- 
tioning the names of others who may or may not have been associated 
\vith you ; is that it? 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. You are telling me how to answer. 

Mr. Walter. No; I am asking vou. 

(At this pomt Mr. Margolis conferred with ]Miss Forer.) 

Mr. KuNZiG. Ai'e you ready to answer, sir? 

Mr. Margolis. Will you let me collect my answer on it? 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. Will you let me answer this in my own way? 

Mr. Walter. How many pages is it? 

Mr. Margolis. Just this [indicating]. 

Mr. Walter. I think we would save time if you just read it and 
go on and answer the question. 

Mr. Margolis. All right. 

Mr. Velde. I concur with that. 

Mr. Walter. As much time as it takes. Just read what you have 
before you so that you will feel free to answer the question. 

Mr. Margolis. In order to answer the question 

Mr. Walter. You are not answering the question. 

Mr. Margolis. I must briefly explain my position and ask the 
assistance of this committee. 

I am a loyal, law-abiding American citizen. I have come here 
today despite my ill health to answer all questions fidly and to the 
best of my ability. 

I have consulted counsel and I am advised that under the Constitu- 
tion I have the right to decline to answer certain questions. I should 
prefer not to refuse. 

Since receiving this subpena I have considered searchingly this 
matter of the state and the individual. I am an artist and a teacher. 
I am not a political theorist or a politicia.n. I have spent 27 years of 
my life teaching art in the public schools in Philadelphia and else- 
where. 

It is my belief and understanding that a teacher and an artist has 
a personal duty of integrity and I shall therefore decline to answer 
under the privileges of the first amendment to the Constitution. 

It is also my opinion that the public schools of Philadelphia are the 
responsibility of the State and not the Federal Government. I fear 
the encroachment of an all-powerful central government as a step 
away from democracy, and a violation of the 10th amendment. 

I have been advised that no man is required to testify against him- 
self. Despite my personal belief as to the authority and the wisdom 
of this proceeding, I shoidd like to waive my rights to challenge the 
authority and the propriety of this proceeding under the 1st and 10th 
amendments. 

In addition, I should like to waive my rights and privileges under 
the fifth amendment in order to answer certain questions and to answer 



2978 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

fully all questions you may care to ask me with respect to myself upon 
tiie express a^jreement of the committee not to ask me now or at any 
time queytions regarding any other individual. 

My reason for not wishing to answer questions about other people 
is that in answering questions based upon the imperfect and incom- 
plete knowledge which one person has about another and witliout the 
right of that person to cross-examine anyone or to present evidence 
in his own behalf, I should be giving to this committee information 
■which might be misleading. I do not wish to be a party to a proceed- 
ing which is contrary to the American concepts of fair play and those 
concepts of law which are characterized by the unfounded accusation 
and the big lie. 

But if the committee will agree to question me only with respect 
to my own activities I shall waive my rights and privileges under the 
1st, 5th, 9th, and 10th amendments of the Constitution. 

What is your ruling? 

Mr. Velde. We have already been through this harangue. Now, 
are you willing to answer the question or do you refuse to answer the 
question ? 

Mr. Margolis. What is your ruling, sir? 

Mr. Veldf. I asked you whether you were willing to answer the 
question or whetluM you decline to answer the question. T have given 
you every privih'ge that any witness or any person deserves before this 
committee. 

(At this point Mr Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

A^Ir. Velde. Phrase show your patriotism. Show your love of 
country, if you liave it, and answer that question either yes or no or 
refuse to answer. 

Mr. Margolis. I do love my country dearly and I would like to 
ask you for a ruhng. 

Mr. Velde. Tlie committee does not make ruhngs. The committee 
merely ^eeks out information from witnesses who are called before it. 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. If you want information about me, I will give it 
to you, but not about any other individual. 

Mr. Velde. Do 3^ou remember the questions? You have just 
promised that you would give us information about yourself, and that 
is information about you. 

Mr. Margolis. On the condition that you would not ask me 

Mr. Walter. Now, the Supreme Court has passed on this very 
question of immunity that it extends to you under the fifth amend- 
ment of the Constitution, but not to anybody else. We are asking 
you only about yourself. 

Mr. Velde. We are not to make any deals with you. Mr. Kunzig 
asked a question. 

Mr. Margolis. Very well, then; I will not waive my rights under 
the Constitution. 

Mr. Velde. All right, we will cross that bridge when we come to it. 

Mr. Kunzig. The question presently pending is whether Mr. 
Margolis was a member of the Communist Political Association of 
Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware in the year 1945. 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I shall decline to answer that under the privileges 
of the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2979 

Mr. Walter. Is there any testimony in the records of this com- 
mittee to the effect that Mr. Margohs did participate in the activities 
of that organization, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. KuNziG. There is, Mr. Walter, yes, sh; sworn testimony. 

After the Communist Political Association was reconstituted back 
into the Communist Party in 1945, were 3^ou then a member of the 
Communist Party, as has been sworn to before this committee? 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I shall decline to answer that question under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been connected with the Independent 
Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions, formed in 
December 1945? 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. In connection with that question I shall decline 
to answer on the basis of the first amendment, which has to do with 
freedom of association, and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Margolis, this committee is in possession of sworn 
testimony that you took an active part in the organization of the 
Pennsylvania regional chapter of the Independent Citizens Com- 
mittee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions and you were chairman 
of the program committee. This group, of course, Mr. Chairman, 
as has been put in our records many times before has been cited as a 
Communist front. 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I do not think you are correct on that. 

Mr. KuNziG. As a Communist organization. 

Mr. Margolis. Has it been put on a subversive list? 

Mr. KuNziG. I will read from the Guide to Subversive Organiza- 
tions and Publications, page 60: 

Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions. Cited 
as a Communist front by the Congressional Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties, review of the Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace arranged 
by the National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions and held in New 
York City on March 25, 2G, and 27, 1949, House Report No. 1954, April 26, 1950 
(originally released April 19, 1949), page 2; and House Report No. 378, on the 
Communist peace offensive, April 25, 1951, original date, April 1, 1951, pages 
11 and 12. 

2. "This Communist front grew out of the Independent Voters' Committee of 
the Arts and Sciences." (California Committee on Un-American Activities, report, 
1948, p. 262.) 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Velde. Would you like to confer further? 

Mr. Margolis. Just a statement that you are talking about 1949 
and you have asked me a question which I decline to answer about 
1945. I did not get the question. 

Mr. Kunzig. That is correct. We have had this point raised again 
and again and again. Obviously these organizations are not cited 
on the basis of activities that happened 1 minute before the citation, 
but on the basis of information preceding the citation. 

Mr. Walter. I understand that this information came because 
this witness asked you a question. 

Mr. Margolis. And the date came to be 1949. 

Mr. Velde. And you do decline to answer the question originally 
propounded? 



4016a— 53— pt. 2- 



2980 C0M2VIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Margolis. Yes. 

Air. KuNziG. About 1 year later the Independent Citizens Com- 
mittee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions merged with several 
small independent groups to form the Progressive Citizens of America, 

Our sworn testimony is that you continued actively in the Progres- 
sive Citizens of America during 1947, is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I decline to answer on the basis of the first amend- 
ment and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. The California Committee on Un-American Activities 
has cited this as a new and broader Communist front for the entire 
United States formed in September 1946 at the direction of Com- 
munist steering committees. 

Mr. Margolis. How would I know what goes on in California? 

Mr. KuNziG. It went on, I thinlc, right here, Mr. Margolis. 

Mr. Walter. That is all we want to find out. 

Mr. Margolis. How would I know what went^on behind the 
scenes? 

Mr. Walter. If you will answer the questions maybe you will be 
able to assist us in finding out the same thing. 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I have no information about what went on there. 

Mr. Walter. Were you a member of that organization at any 
time? 

Mr. Margolis. I will not answer on the basis of the^fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Walter. How can we find out if you take that position? 

Mr. Margolis. You seem to have sworn testimony. 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr, KuNziG. Were you a member of the cultural committee of sec- 
tion 8 of the Communist Party of Eastern Pennsylvania and Dela- 
ware? The committee is in possession of sworn testimony that you 
were such a member. 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. Wliat was that date, sir? 

Mr. KuNziG. 1945 and 1946, in around that period of time, Mr. 
Margolis. 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred Avith Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I don't know of any such organization or any such 
committee. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the cultural committee of sec- 
tion 8 of the Communist Party of Eastern Pennsylvania and Dela- 
ware? 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I don't know of that committee, but I shall decline 
to answer that on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party, Mr. Margolis, at any time? 

(At this point Mr. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. I shall decline to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is it correct, as sworn testimony before this com- 
mittee has shown, Mr. Margolis, that you held party membership 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AEEA 2981 

book No. 85409 at one time or not? The date is not here. Did you 
ever hold Communist Party membership book No. 85409? 

(At this point Mr. Margohs conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mr. Margolis. On the basis of the first amendment and the fifth 
amendment I shall decline to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Sophie Elfont. 

Mr. Velde. Will you stand, please, and remain standing and raise 
your right hand? 

In the testimony you are about to give before this subcommittee do 
you swear that you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Miss Elfont. I do. I understand that the television can go on 
without those bright lights. 

Mr. Velde. I am sorry, I did not hear you. 

Miss Elfont. I understand that the television could go on without 
the bright lights. 

Mr. Velde. Do the lights bother you and confuse you? 

Miss Elfont. I do not expect to be confused, but they do 
bother me. 

Mr. Velde. I am sorry, I didn't hear you. 

Miss Elfont. They do bother me. I should appreciate having 
them turned off. 

Mr. Velde. The lights of the television and the cameras will be 
turned off at this time. 

TESTIMONY OF SOPHIE ELFONT, ACCOMPANIED BY HER COUNSEL, 

DAVID BERGER 

Mr. Kunzig. State your full name, please. 

Miss Elfont. Sophie Elfont. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is it Miss or Mrs.? 

Miss Elfont. Miss Elfont. 

Mr. Kunzig. ]\Iiss Elfont, what is your present address? 

Miss Elfont. 425 South Carlisle Street, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Kunzig. I see that you are represented by counsel. Would 
counsel please state his name for the record? 

Mr. Berger. David Berger, 1516 Girard Trust Building, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Kunzig. I would like to ask you if you would please tell the 
committee whether you are a teacher. Miss Elfont? 

Miss Elfont. I am a teacher where I once was a student, at 
Stetson. 

Mr. Kunzig. Stetson Junior High School in Philadelphia? 

Miss Elfont. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. What do you teach there? 

Miss Elfont. I am in the English Department of Stetson Junior 
High. I went to Stetson and I went to Kensington High School 
where I was awarded a scholarship to the University of Pennsylvania 
in the class of 1929 and m the last 20 years I have taught in Audenreid 
Junior High and Penn Treaty Junior High School. 



2982 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a r6sum6 of your 
employment? Have you been constantly at the same place? 

Miss Elfont. I thought I had done that. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have been constantly at Stetson? 

Miss Elfont. No, I will tell you what I just said. I stated that 
I had once been a student at Stetson and I teach there now. 

Mr. KuNziG. I want to know the place where you first became a 
teacher and the places where you have taught. 

Miss Elfont. The secretary at my school put it all down. Would 
you like all the dates? 

Mr. KuNziG. Just the main places. 

Miss Elfont. All the schools are important. 

Mr. KuNziG. How many are there? 

Miss Elfont. Shall I read them as they are here? 

Mr. KuNziG. Just give us the facts. 

Miss Elfont. Thomas Junior High, September 1930 to January 
1932. 

South Pliiladelphia High School, January 1932 to June 1932. 

Penn Treaty Junior High [Schoor from [September 1932 to June 
1934. 

Audenreid Junior High School from September 1934 to March 1936. 

Penn Treaty Junior High School from March 1936 to January 1944. 

Stetson Junior High School from January 1944 to date. 

Mr. KuNziG. Miss Elfont, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

(At this point Miss Elfont conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Elfont. I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. The question was, "Have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party?" 

Miss Elfont. I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are saying that you are not a member, is that 
right? 

Miss Elfont. I am not a member. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you answer the question? Have you ever 
been a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Elfont. Don't you want me to answer the question? 

Mr. Kunzig. I asked you the question, "Have you ever been a 
member of the Communist Party"? and that is the question I would 
like answered, if you don't mind. 

Miss Elfont. One tallvs her own way. I just spoke to counsel. 

(At this point Miss Elfont conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Elfont. As you see, I have just consulted my counsel, and 
on the advice of my counsel I must respectfully decline to answer that 
question. 

Mr. KuNziG. It is very hard to hear you. Please keep your voice 
up. 

Miss Elfont. As you all can see, I just consulted counsel and I 
have been advised to respectfully declme to answer that question 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you sign a Communist Party petition in 1940? 

(At this point Miss Elfont conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Elfont. Same advice, same answer. 

Mr. Velde. Same what? I am sorry; I didn't understand that. 

Miss Elfont. Same answer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2983 

Mr. Clardy. She is refusing, as I understand it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Daily Worker Press Club 
in 1933, 1934, and 1936? 

(At this pomt Miss Elfont conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Elfont. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the same grounds. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Have you ever been a member of the professional 
section of the Communist Political Association of Eastern Penn- 
sylvania and Delaware, specifically during the years 1944 and 1945? 

(At this point Miss Elfont conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Elfont. Same answer. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Were you literary director of the professional section 
of the Communist Party of Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware in 
1946? 

(At this point Miss Elfont conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Elfont. I respectfully decline to answer on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Are you a member of the Philadelphia chapter of the 
CivU Rights Congress? 

(At this point Miss Elfont conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Miss Elfont. Same answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. The Civil Rights Congress, Mr. Chairman, has of 
course been cited. 

Mr. Velde. The same answer. Just a moment. 

Miss Elfont. I shall go back and consult my attorney. 

Mr. Velde. I take it that is a refusal to answer, 

Mr. KuNziG. I am understanding that she is refusing to answer 
on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. Let us have it on the record. 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, we will make it specific. 

Mr. Berger. May we have that question again, please? 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you read the question again, Mr. Reporter? 

(Whereupon the reporter read the question as follows:) 

Are you a member of the Philadelphia chapter of the Civil Rights Congress? 

Miss Elfont. I am not a member of the Civil Rights Congi-ess. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are not a member at the present time of the 
Civil Rights Congress? 

Miss Elfont. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever been in any way active with the 
Civil Rights Congress in the past? 

Miss Elfont. I decline to answer that on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, the CivU Rights Congress is an 
organization cited as subversive and Communist by Attorney General 
Tom Clark in the years 1947 and 1948. 

We are in possession of sworn testimony that in 1949 the witness 
was a member of the Philadelphia chapter of the CivU Rights 
Congress. 

Once again, Miss Elfont, you have been identified before this 
committee by witnesses sworn under oath, as having been a member 
of the Communist Party. Have you ever been a member of that 
party? 

Miss Elfont. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 



2984 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNZiG. No furthei' questions, Mr. Chamnan. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Clardy, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Clardy. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Benjamin David Anton. 

Mr. Anton. Mr. Chairman, in administering the oath I would 
like to ask you to use the word "affirm" instead of "swear" because 
of my religious belief. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee, do you affirm that you will tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Anton. I beg your pardon, Mr. Chairman. In view of the 
fact that as a member of the Ethical Faith we have the permission to 
declare truth under affirmation and not under oath, using the name 
of any deity. 

Mr. Velde. I asked you if you will affirm and not swear in my 
administering of the oath. Now will you please be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF BENJAMIN DAVID ANTON 

Mr. Anton. I affirm. 

Now, may I ask a question with respect to the television? 

Mr. Velde. Do the lights confuse you or bother you to any degree? 

Mr. Anton. The television people have been printing in white 
letters 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer this question? Do the lights of the 
television cameras and the newsreel cameras bother you? 

Mr. Anton. I will come to that in a half a second. 

Mr. Velde. On the order of the chairman the lights will be turned 
off at the present time. 

Mr. Anton. I did not ask for that. I am asking for something 
else in regard to television. 

Mr. Velde. This is the order on the Chair's own motion. 

Mr. Anton. No; I am not asking 

Mr. Velde. I don't care whether you are asking it or not. It is 
the order of the committee. 

Mr. Anton. I haven't slept for 72 hours because my name has been 
given out and this committee gave out my name on Thm^sday to the 
press. 

(Certain voluntary statements made by the witness were, on the 
motion of Mr. Clardy, ordered stricken from the record by the chair- 
man.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2985 

Mr. Clardy. May I ask him a question? He made a statement of 
not having slept for 72 hours. 

Mr. Vblde. All right. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, and I am concerned about this, has the loss 
of sleep during the time that you have indicated, in your judgment put 
you in such physical condition that you do not feel able to go forward 
and do justice to yourself at this time? 

Mr. Anton. Look at me, look and decide. 

Mr. Clardy. You look perfectly normal to me. 

Mr. Anton. I am certainly within a few inches of collapse. I 
received a card signed by some veteran's post threatening my life. 

Mr. Clardy. I want to know about your physical condition. Are 
you in such physical condition that in your candid opinion it will not 
permit you to go forward? 

Mr. Anton. No, I am not; but if you insist, I am ready to go 
through, but if you will grant me that privilege I will be able to go 
home and go to bed. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you think that if we proceeded with the question- 
ing that it will have an adverse effect on your health? 

Mr. Anton. Yes; I am positive. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Chairman, may we have a brief interim and talk 
to counsel here? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will stand in recess for 10 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 3 :14 p. m., the hearing was recessed for 16 minutes.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

The last witness, Mr. Benjamin Anton, stated to the committee 
that he had not had any sleep for the last 72 hours. The committee 
is always inclined to grant any courtesy to a witness who appears 
before it. We have decided that the witness could not give clear 
and accurate testimony under those circumstances. 

We have therefore continued his testimony until tomorrow morning 
at 10:30, with the hope that in compliance with his request he will 
treat us just as courteously tomorrow and give us information which 
we are seeking here in Philadelphia. 

Call the next witness, please. 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Mr. David Perloff. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee, do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Perloff. I do. 

Mr. Chairman, these lights seem to be annoying everyone in the 
room but the committee, so I respectfully request that the lights be 
turned off. 

Mr. Velde. That request is granted. 



2986 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID PERIOFF, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

SAMUEL H. LANDY 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your full name, please? 

Mr. Perloff. My name is David Perloff. 

Mr. KuNziG. Your address, please, Mr. Perloff? 

Mr. Perloff. My address is 7024 Cedar Park Avenue, Phila- 
delphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see that you are represented by counsel. Would 
counsel please state his name? 

Mr. Landy. Samuel H. Landy, 1415 Walnut Street. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Perloff, are you now a teacher in the Philadelphia 
school system? 

Mr. Perloff. Yes ; I am a teacher in the public schools. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Where do you teach, sir? 

Mr. Perloff. I teach at the Abraham Lincoln High School. 

Mr. KuNziG. And your subject, please? 

Mr. Perloff. My subjects are bookkeeping, typing, and clerical 
practices. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational and employment background up to the present time, 
please, sir? 

Mr. Perloff. My high school is South Philadelphia High School 
in 1926. 

My university is Temple University, 1930. 

I have taken a few additional courses at Temple through the years. 

My employment background, exclusive of substitute service, 
consists of these: 1934, Mastbaum Vocational School, approximately 
15 years, to 1949. 

Thereafter, to William Penn. 

Thereafter, to Frankford High School. 

Thereafter, to Lincoln. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, sir, this committee is in possession of sworn 
testimony that you have been a member of the Communist Political 
Association. Have you ever been a member of that organization? 

Mr. Perloff. I decline to answer that question on the ground of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. We also have sworn testimony that you held member- 
ship card in the Communist Party No. 78363, in and around 1944 or 
1945. Did you have such a card, sir? 

Mr. Perloff. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. There is also sworn testimony by witnesses before this 
committee that you were a member of the Olney Club in 1945 of the 
Communist Party, is that correct? 

Mr. Perloff. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. In May of 1945 we have testimony that you trans- 
ferred from the Olney Club to section 8 of district 3 of the Communist 
Party, is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Perloff conferred with Mr. Landy.) 

Mr. Perloff. Same reason, same answer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2987 

Mr. KuNZiG. There is also testimony that in that year you had 
membership book or card No. 87622. Did you have such membership 
card number? 

Mr. Perloff. Same answer, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. KuNziG. As is well known and as has been testified before this 
•committee, at times the Communist Party membership would use a 
key number when they paid their dues rather than to give their names. 

There has been sworn testimony that in 1945, sir, you had key No. 
13, is that correct? 

Mr. Perloff. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever act as an instructor in the Philadelphia 
School of Social Science and Art? If so, when? 

Mr. Perloff. On the basis of the fiist and fifth amendments, I 
decline to answer the question. 

Mr. KuNziG. This committee has sworn testimony that the witness 
did so teach, Mr. Chairman, and taught the Russian language at the 
Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art. 

This organization has been cited as an adjunct of the Communist 
Party by Attorney General Tom Clark in a letter to the Loyalty 
Review Board released December 4, 1947. 

In 1946, Mr. Perloff, were you a member of the North Philadelphia 
branch of the professional section of the Communist Party of eastern 
Pennsylvania and Delaware? 

Mr. Perloff. Mr. Chairman, I decline to answer on the gi'ounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have sworn testimony that such was the fact. 

Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party at any 
time, sir? 

Mr. Perloff. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any questions, Mr. Clardy? 

Mr. Clardy. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is dismissed. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Sadie Atkinson. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony which you are about to give before 
this committee, do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Atkinson. I do. 

Before I begin my testimony I should like to object to the telecast, 
Your Honor. 

Mr. Velde. The lights will be turned off. 

Mrs. Atkinson. I object to the telecast with or without the lights. 

Mr. Velde. Will the lights confuse the witness? 

Mrs. Atkinson. The point is that I object to the telecast. 

Mr. Clardy. \^Tiat did you say? 

Mrs. Atkinson. I understand that there is a ruling that if the 
witness objects to the telecast the court will order that it be turned off. 



2988 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Velde. First of all, this is not a court. That will be a matter 
of decision for the committee. 

(Discussion off the record.") 

Mr. Velde. The committee's decision in this matter is that the 
telecast and television cameras be turned off at this time and that 
they not photograph the witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. Shall I proceed, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF SADIE T. ATKINSON, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 

ATTORNEY, FRANKLIN FOUL 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your name, please? 

Mrs. Atkinson. Sadie T. Atkinson. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is it Miss or Mrs.? 

Mrs. Atkinson. It is Mrs. Atkinson. 

Mr. KuNziG. And your address, Mrs. Atkinson? 

Mrs. Atkinson. 2203 North Seventh Street, Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you presently a teacher in the Public schools? 

Mrs. Atkinson. Yes, I am. 

Mr. KuNziG. At what school? 

Mrs. Atkinson. I am at the Clara Barton Public School, elementary 
school. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat grade do you teach there? 

Mrs. Atkinson. I teach the first grade. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Atkinson, would you give the committee a brief 
resume of your educational and employment background? 

Mrs. Atkinson. Yes, sir. I am a graduate of the Whittier Ele- 
mentary School, the Philadelphia High School for Girls, the Phila- 
delphia Normal School, and Temple University. 

Aly employment for the last 10 years is that I have been employed 
by the Philadelphia Board of Education as a teacher, beginning in 
1943. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Atkinson, I neglected to ask your counsel ta 
state his name and address for the record. 

Mr. Poul. Franklin Poul, 2100 Ghard Trust Building, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Atkinson, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party at any time? 

Mrs. Atkinson. I decline to answer on the grounds of possible 
self-incrimination, based on the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. KuNziG. This committee has sworn testimony, Mrs. Atkinson^ 
b}^ witnesses before the committee, under oath, that you have been a 
member of the United People's Club of the Communist Party, is that 
correct? 

Mrs. Atkinson. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. We also have sworn testimony that your Communist 
membership book in the year 1945 was No. 86905. Did you have 
such a Communist Party membership book? 

Mrs. Atkinson. I invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment on 
the same gi'ounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, at this time I have no further ques- 
tions. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any questions, Mr. Clardy? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2989 

Mr. Clardy. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, do a'ou have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. IvuNziG. I call Adele Margolis. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before the sub- 
committee, do you swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Margolis. I do. 

Mr. Chairman, I have no objection to the television or the cameras 
except for this business in front here which I find disconcerting. 

Mr. Velde. Will the news photographers please take their pictures 
and leave? 

Mrs. Margolis. And also those fairly large lights. 

Mr. Velde. Do the lights confuse you? 

Mrs. Margolis. Yes, they bother my eyes. 

Mr. Velde. All right, the lights will be turned off. 

Mrs. Margolis. Before we begin I should like to say that the 
subpena issued for me was dated October 5, 1953, and it was served 
to me on Saturday afternoon at 1 o'clock, November 14. I was told 
to report here Monday morning at 10:30. I think you will agree that 
this is fairly short notice, in light of the date on which the subpena 
was issued. 

Mr. Velde. It is my understanding that the subpena was continued 
to today. 

Mrs. Margolis. Yes, I have been in the city the entire time since 
October 5 and it could have been served to me a little earlier to prepare 
for this session. 

Mr. Velde. Would you be inclined to answer questions that are 
asked of you without invoking the fifth amendment if the committee 
would grant an extension of your subpena? 

Mrs. Margolis. I beg your pardon? 

(At this point Mrs. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mrs. Margolis. Mr. Chairman, I have no idea of what you are 
going to ask me. I would prefer to hear just what it is that you would 
like to know first before I commit myself. 

Mr. Velde. Counsel will proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF ADELE POLLOCK MARGOLIS, ACCOMPANIED BY 

HER COUNSEL, LOIS FORER 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your full name, please? 

Mrs. Margolis. Adele Pollock Margolis. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And your address, please, Mrs. Margolis? 

Mrs. Margolis. 840 Asbury Terrace, Philadelphia. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Are you the wife of the witness who appeared here 
earlier today? 

Mrs. Margolis. I am. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would counsel please state her name again for the 
record? 

Miss Forer. Lois Forer. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Margolis, you are not presently a teacher in the 
Philadelphia schools; is that correct? 



2990 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mrs. Margolis. That is correct, Mr. Kunzig, and in light of the 
fact that you have called teachers here for questioning I am at a little 
of a loss to know why you have called me for I have not been a teacher 
in the Philadelphia schools since 1948. 

Mr. Kunzig. We will ask the questions and we will just go right 
ahead, whether you were a teacher or not. 

Mrs. Margolis, what is your educational background, please, a brief 
resume? 

Mrs. Margolis. May I finish this one statement? 

Mr. Kunzig. I have asked a question. 

Mrs. Margolis. Very well, then. I went to the schools in Phila- 
delphia. I graduated from the William Penn High School for Girls. 

I went to the Philadelphia Normal School. 

I took college extension courses, collateral extension courses, at the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

I have, in addition, studied art and fashion design and pattern 
drafting. 

Mr. Kunzig. What has your employment been through the years? 

Mrs. Margolis. 1 have taught in the Philadelphia schools since 
graduation from the normal school. 

Mr. Kunzig. When did you first start to teach^ 

Mrs. Margolis. September 1930. 

Mr. Kunzig. Where did you teach. Mrs. Margolis? 

Mis. Margolis. I taught at the Fox Chise School. 

I took time out to have a daughter. 

I taught at the Darrah School, the Forrest School, and Crispin. 

When my division was dropped at the Crispin School I was trans- 
ferred to the Brown School, and my last employment was at Moffctt. 

Mr. Kunzig. On March .31. 1946, vou resigned at that time from 
the school system; am I correct? 

Mrs. Margolis. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. At that time you took over the duties of field director 
of the schools in the college division of Philadelphia Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship ; is that right ? 

Mrs. Margolis. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. How long did you remain with the Philadelphia 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship? 

Mrs. Margolis. Until the summer of 1947. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you ever connected in any way with the National 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship? 

Mrs. Margolis. Just inasmuch as the job I had was part of the 
national division. 

Mr. Kunzig. The National Council of American-Soviet Friend- 
ship was cited, ]\Ir. Chairman, as subversive and Communist by 
Attorney General Tom Clark in 1947 and again in 1948. 

Mrs. Margolis. Mr. Chairman, I wish to protest that the Supreme 
Court of the United States instructed that tliat organization be re- 
moved from the Attorney General's list until it had had a hearing, 
and to date it has not had. 

Therefore, I cannot accept the term "subversive organization" for 
that organization. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party, Mrs. Margolis ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2991 

(At this point Mrs. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mrs. Margolis. I decHne to answer under the privileges of the 
fifth rmendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you apply for reinstatement as a teacher with 
the Philadelphia County Board of Education in 1950? 

Mrs. Margolis. I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you given employment or denied employment? 

(At this point IVIrs. Margolis conferred with JVIiss Forer.) 

Mrs. Margolis. I applied for a position in 1950 when I heard 
that there had been a shortage of teachers. I was not given any 
employment at that time for reasons which were not stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever have Communist Party membership 
book No. 78377 in 1944? 

Mrs. Margolis. I decline to answer that question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you have Communist Party book No. 87631 in 
1945? 

Mrs. Margolis. I decline to answer that question for the same 
reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have sworn testimony, Mrs. Margolis, that you 
did have those two Communist Paity membership numbers in those 
2 years. 

We also have sworn testimony that in 1947 you were a member of 
the FDR Club, section 11, of the Communist Party, United States 
of America. 

Mr. Velde. Just a moment, the witness wants to confer with her 
attorney. 

(At this point Mrs. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mrs. Margolis. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Velde. Do you recall the question that was asked? 

Mrs. Margolis. Yes, I do. I would like to be confronted with the 
witnesses who have given you this information. 

Mr. Velde. You have tlae information within your own knowledge, 
I am sure, and we are asking you and giving you this chance to 
answer. 

Mrs. Margolis. You are assuming that I have the information 
within my own knowledge. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have the information within your own 
knowledge? 

Mrs. Margolis. Mr. Chairman, I have seen several witnesses here 
in this courtroom, yesterday Dr. Dodd and this morning Mrs. Funn, 
give, I consider, some rather irresponsible testimon}^, and I would like 
to make sure that people who accuse me of such things are people 

Mr. Velde. Is my assumption tiue or false that you have the infor- 
mation within your own knowledge with which to answer that 
question? 

Mrs. Margolis. I decline to answer that question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed, Mr. Kunzig. 

Mr. KuxziG. I will repeat that last question: Have you ever been, 
during 1947, a member of the FDR Club, section 11, of the Com- 
munist Party, United States of America? 

(At this point Mrs. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 



2992 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mrs. Margolis. Mr. Kiinzig, I would lilve to see some of the elo- 
mentary rules of evidence observed, and I decline to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Walter. What elementary rules, for example? 

Mrs. Margolis. I would lilve to be confronted with the people who 
have given you this information. 

Mr. Walter. If you are confronted with them, will you answer 
the question? 

Mrs. Margolis. Yes, I will. 

Mr. Walter. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the subpena be con- 
tinued and the witness be given an opportunity to hear the evidence 
that now has been adduced by this committee. 

Mrs. Margolis. I do not want to hear the evidence. I would 
lilve to be confronted with my accuser. 

Mr. Velde. Again I want to explain to you, and possibly you were 
not in the hearing room when I explained it, this is not a court of law. 
You are not being tried or accused of anj'thing. You are here simply 
to give us some information. 

(At this point Mrs. Margolis conferred with Miss Forer.) 

Mrs. Margolis. It seems to me that I am being accused. You 
have stated certain things about me. This information is going over 
the air and it is being issued to the press. For all practical purposes 
I have been accused. 

Mr. Walter. Accused of what? 

Mrs. Margolis. Of these things which you say are true about me. 

Mr. Walter. It is no crime to be a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know a Philip Bart, an identified member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Margolis. I refuse to ansv/er that question under the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Isn't it a fact that you have had numerous meetings 
with Philip Bart who at one time was chairman of district 3 of the 
Communist Party on Communist Party business? 

Mrs. Margolis. I refuse to answer that question for the same 
reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have sworn testimony of that fact, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mrs. Margolis. Again, Mr. Kunzig, I would like to be confronted 
witli the person who gave you the information. 

Mr. Kunzig. On April 4, 1949, did you attend a peace rally spon- 
sored by the Philadelphia Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions 
held at the Metropolitan Opera House at Broad and Poplar Streets, 
Philadelphia, Pa.? 

Mrs. Margolis. Mr. Kunzig, I arranged that meeting. 

Mr. Kunzig. That is correct? 

Mrs. Margolis. I did. 

Mr. Kunzig. That is the next question. You beat me. 

Mrs. Margolis. I did, and I am very pi'oud of it. 

Mr. Kunzig. This was in your capacity as executive secretary of 
the Philadelphia Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions? 

Mrs. Margolis. That is right. 

Mr. Kunzig. I have already read the citation with respect to that 
group. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2993 

Again with respect to the question as to whether you have ever 
been at any time a member of the Communist Party, am I correct 
that you refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Margolis. I do. 

Mr. KuNziG. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mrs. Margolis. May I make a statement? 

Mr. Velde. Not unless your statement answers the questions asked 
of you. 

Do you have any questions, Mr. Clard}^? 

Mr. Clardy. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. No questions, Mr. Chahman. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Will you call the next witness, Mr. Kunzig? 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Caroline Kramer Perloff. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee, do you solemnl}" swear that you will tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Perloff. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Chairman, will you kindly have the lights turned off? 

Mr. Velde. Yes; the lights will be turned off. 

TESTIMONY OF CAROLINE KRAMER PERLOFF, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HER COUNSEL, SAMUEL H. LANDY 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you state your full name, please? 

Mrs. Perloff. Caroline Kramer Perloff. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is your address, Mrs. Perloff? 

Mrs. Perloff. 7024 Cedar Park Avenue. 

Mr. Kunzig. Will counsel state his name for the record? 

Mr. Landy. Samuel H. Landy. 

Mr. Kunzig. Are you a teacher at the present time, Mrs. Perloff? 

Mrs. Perloff. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Kunzig. At what school? 

Mrs. Perloff. At the Ferguson School. 

Mr. Kunzig. Where is that? 

Mrs. Perloff. Seventh and Norris Street. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wliat do you teach? 

Mrs. Perloff. I am a counseling teacher. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wliat are your responribilities in that function? 

Mrs. Perloff. As a cou/iseling teacher I work with children who 
have problems a?id I try to help them work their problems out so that 
they can adjust better in a school situation. 

Mr. Kunzig. Are you related to the preceding witness earlier today, 
David Perloff? 

Mrs. Perloff. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Kunzig. Are you his wife? 

Mrs. Perloff. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Perloff, briefly what is your educational and 
employment background ? 

Mrs. Perloff. I am a graduate of the South Philadelphia Pligh 
School for Girls, also a graduate of the Philadelphia Normal School. 

I took courses at the University of Pennsylvania, in addition. 

I was appointed to the school S3^stem in 1931, taught at Baldwin 
School. I was there until I took maternity leave in about 1934. 



2994 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

I returned to the same school and I taught there until about 194S 
when I took a second maternity leave. 

On my return I was appointed as a counseling teacher at the 
Ferguson School, where I have been since. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have sworn testimony, Mrs. PerlofF, that in 1944 
you were a member of the Communist Party and you held membership 
book No. 78364; is that correct? 

(At this point Mrs. Perloff conferred with Mr. Landy.) 

Mrs. Perloff. I decline to answer under the protection of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. In 1945, we have sworn testimony that you were a 
member of the North Philadelphia group of section 8 of the Com- 
munist Part}^ having membership book No. 87623. Is that correct? 

Mrs. Perloff. I decline to answer under the privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. We also have sworn testimony that during the year 
1945, as I mentioned eai'lier when I explained what a key number was, 
that in coimection with paying dues you had key No. 14; is that 
correct? 

Mrs. Perloff. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Have you ever at any time, Mrs. PerlofF, been a 
member of the Communist Political Association or the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Perloff. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any questions, Mr. Clardy? 

Mr. Clardy. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is exxused. 

It is now the usual hour for adjournment. All those witnesses who 
were subpenaed for today and have not been reached will report at 10 
o'clock, not 10:30, I will emphasize that, and those who were sub- 
penaed for tomorrow will also appear at that time. 

The hearing will stand adjourned until 10 o'clock tomorrow morning 
in this same room. 

("Wliereupon, at 4:04 p. m., the hearing was adjourned until 10:00 
a. m. of the following day.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
PHILADELPHIA AREA— Part 2 



WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 18, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on 

Un-American Activities, 

Philadeljjhia, Pa. 
PUBLIC hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to adjournment, at 10:06 a. m., in courtroom No. 1, 
United States Courthouse, Ninth and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, 
Pa., Hon. Harold H. Velde (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Harold H. Velde 
and Francis E. Walter. 

Staff members present: Robert L. Kunzig, counsel; Earl Fuoss and 
C. E. McKillips, investigators; and Juliette P. Joray, acting clerk. 

Mr. Velde. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Will you proceed, Mr. Counsel, with your first witness? 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Benjamin David Anton. 

Mr. Velde. You have already been affirmed and that will carry 
over to today. 

TESTIMONY OF BENJAMIN DAVID ANTON 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you state your full name, please, sir? 

Mr. Anton. Benjamin David Anton. 

Mr. Kunzig. And your address? 

Mr. Anton. I can write that for vou and it can be put in the record 
[4336 Pine Street]. 

I will say roughly it is in the vicinity of 43d and Pine, and I will not 
give it out loud so that it will not be publicized, in view of the pre- 
vious hearings. 

Mr. Velde. Yes; you may do that. 

Mr. Kunzig. When and where were you born, Mr. Anton? 

Mr. Anton. In a town near Kiev, Russia, in 1894, June 10. 

Air. Kunzig. Are you connected with the Philadelphia school 
system? 

Mr. Anton. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. In what capacity? 

Mr. Anton. I am principal of the Baldwin Public School. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you give the committee a brief resume of your 
education and background and your employment in the schools? 

First of all, I see that you are not represented by counsel. You 
imderstand your right to have counsel if you so desire? 

2995 



2996 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Anton. Yes; I do. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give us the resume now, please? 

Mr. Anton. I was educated in the elementary schools of the city 
of Philadelphia. I graduated from Central High School in 1911. 

I attended Temple Law School from 1918 to 1922 and was admitted 
to practice at the bar in 1922. 

I attended extension courses at Temple University atid in 1932 
earned a bachelor of science degree, and by 1936 a master of science 
degree. 

1 took postgraduate courses at Columbia University, and in my 
religious education I took courses at the Talmud-Torah. 

My teaching experience is as follows: I was a teacher at various 
Philadelphia elementary schools from 1914 to 1921. In 1921 I was 
appointed to teach at the Thomas Junior High School. 

My subjects were mathematics and general public training. 

In 192G I was transferred to the Holmes Junior High School, where 
my subjects were art, algebra, junior business training, and geography. 

In 1927 I was appointed an auxiliary principal in the Philadelphia 
schools and from 1927 to 1930 as an auxiliary principal I served in 
some thirty-odd schools throughout the city. Some were new buildings 
that were overcrowded as they were also. Some were old buildings, 
firetraps, some were buildings that had classrooms with no windows, 
some that had classrooms in the basement for children, and I was so 
moved and disturbed by these conditions that I said to myself if I 
ever have a chance to improve and correct conditions in education in 
Philadelphia I will do that, and I had that opportunity through work 
in the Teachers' Union. 

I was principal in the Northwestern School at Fifteenth and Ray 
Streets from 1930 to 1933. 

A Government survey at that time found that there was an incidence 
of 22 percent 

Mr. Kunzig. Just a moment. Have you given us the names of 
the schools where you taught? Let us not get into some of these other 
matters. 

Mr. Anton. I was director of educational, religious education and 
activities at the West Philadelphia Community Center in 1927-28. 

I was an instructor in contract law for a group of pupils of LaSalle 
Extension University in the local area from 1929 and 1930. 

I was an instructor in various religious schools on Sundays from 
1930 to 1951. 

I was superintendent of the Philadelphia Ethical Society Sunday 
School from 1950 to 1952. 

I taught methods and techniques of teaching at the Teachers' Union 
workshop from 1940 to 1943. 

I taught many groups in the civilian defense work during the 4 war 
years, and I have many citations for work in the defense, the bond 
drives, the various connnunit}" drives, cancer crusades, the Red Cross, 
and others. 

Mr. Kunzig. Wliat public schools were you principal of, if you were 
a principal, from the time that you have mentioned this morning? 

Mr. Anton. Auxiliary principal of about 30, principal of Northwest- 
ern School and principal of the Baldwin School. 

At the Baldwin School I have been principal for the past 21 years. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2997 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mr. Anton, tliis committee has sworn testimony that 
you have been a member of the professional section of the Communist 
Party. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Anton. May I consult my notes just a minute? 

Mr. KuNziG. Certainly. 

Mr. Anton. Wliich is the question, the professional group? 

Mr. Kunzig. Well, I will ask you first, have you ever been a member 
of the Communist Party at any time? 

Mr. Anton. To answer that question, I would like to have a half 
minute to point out why I do not give you a yes or no immediately. 
The Congressman who heads tliis committee is a human being. He 
has a soul. He has a conscience. He is a politician. He is an 
investigator of this committee and perhaps he may be a future 
President. 

Now in these capacities when a question is asked you have to con- 
cern yourself with which term he is asldng the question. Is it as a 
police inspector and you want a yes or no answer? 

Mr. Kunzig. The question is being asked by this committee under 
the powers granted it by law, by the'Congress of tlie United States of 
America, and we are asking you a very simple, clear question, and 
that question is, Mr. ilnton, "Have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party?" 

Mr. Anton. But the question is not a clear question, as I just 
pointed out to you, that it can be asked in the variety of categories. 

An aura is set up on all legislation that had to do with thinldng, 
discussion, association, an aura is set up whereby at certain times and 
under certain circumstances criminal 

_Mr. Velde. Let me tell you this, that you were called here as a 
witness to give to the Un-American Activities Committee information 
relative to subversive activities. 

The question asked you by counsel is very simple. Certainly you 
have within your knowledge whether you were ever a member of the 
Communist Party or not. Therefore, the Chair directs you to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Anton. I am trying to answer the question in my way, which 
to me seems reasonable. 

Mr. Walter. In view of the fact that you regard Mr. Velde as a 
person of many capacities, perhaps it would be better and you would 
be more willing to answer the question if it came from me, an unwilling 
member of this committee. 

Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Anton. I am going to answer the question. 

Mr. Walter. Well, answer it. It is very simple. 

Mr. Anton. In view of the circumstances of this investigation, I 
have to answer it and to point out wherein criminal danger is involved 
and in legislation that has to do with thinking and association, there 
are in times of hysteria, and I think a hysteria has been created now, 
a criminal action may be attached. 

Therefore, I want to avail myself of certain protections of law. 

Mr. Walter. In that connection I think it might be well for you 
as a teacher and for all the teachers of Philadelphia to take the edi- 
torial appearing in today's Philadelphia Inquirer, a splendid editorial 
on the fifth amendment, and call it to your attention, call it to the 



2998 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

attention of those whose thinking you mold, and then say that you 
heard Congressman Walter state that he had just returned from the 
Iron Curtain countries and had talked with dozens — no — hundreds 
of people who would be mighty happy if they had a fifth amendment 
to protect them from the sort of oppression that they are facing today. 

Have you read that editorial? 

Mr. Anton. No; I haven't. I thank you for calling that to my 
attention. 

Mr. Walter. Just take time to read that editorial on the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Anton. I shall read the editorial. I am not concerned with 
the Iron Curtain countries. I am concerned with America. 

Mr. Walter. I do not think there are enough Americans who are 
concerned with it. I do not think there are enough Americans who 
are hysterical, if that is what you are talking about. I do not think 
there are enough people who really appreciate what the situation is. 

I have asked you a simple question. It doesn't take a Philadelphia 
lawyer to understand it. 

Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Anton May I consult my notes? 

I decline to answer that question for I believe it may incriminate 
me or lead to a cham of circumstances in which I may have to violate 
the code of an American to refrain from being an mformer. 

Mr. Walter. May I mterrupt you at that pomt. An informer, 
informing on yourself, is that what you are talking about? 

Mr. Anton. No. 

Mr. Walter. That, in my opinion, is an informer. You haven't 
been asked about anybody else. You have been asked about your 
own activities. 

Mr. Anton. As I have read some of the reports of hivestigative 
committees, there is a search for information. There is a search for 
information for fingering other people who mnocently may have been 
involved, who had no concern with what was going on and who may 
be, by association, called criminals, and in view of the fact that this 
legislation on thinking and discussion 

Mr. Walter. What legislation on thinking and discussion? 

Mr. Anton. The legislation that instituted this committee that 
results in my being accused of committing a crime, and m order to 
protect myself I invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment, and as 
a supervisory official in a coi'porate organization under the authority 
of the State of Pennsylvania, namely the School District of Phila- 
delphia, which looks to the State of Pennsylvania to give it orders, 
direction, legislation and so on, on the tenth amendment which forbids 
invasion of State's rights, and on the advice recently given to the 
teachers by President Eisenhower who said to us we should guard with 
devoted vigilance the freedom of thought and discussion which inspire 
freemen to teach all men how to be free. 

Mr. Walter. And you think that that 

Mr. Anton. Applies to me. 

Mr. Walter. You think that that is a directive from the present 
occupant of the Wliite House to certain people to teach the overthrow 
of the American form of government? 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 2999 

Mr. Anton. No. It teaches men to value the freedom of thinking 
and discussion because in that, the market place of ideas, civilization 
will advance. 

Mr. Walter. Will you answer the question, please? Have you 
ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Anton. I decline to answer that question, using the privilege 
of the 5th amendment, the 10th amendment. 

Mr. Walter. And the first amendment? 

Mr. Anton. And the first amendment, thank you. 

Mr. Walter. I have heard that before from coast to coast. 

Mr. Anton. The fu'st amendment is a wonderful amendment. 

Mr. Walter. I heard all about it even before the Supreme Court 
held that it had no application in this. 

Mr. KiTNziG. We should make one point very clear. This com- 
mittee is investigating and is empowered to investigate communism 
wherever it may be in the United States. We are not here investi- 
gating schools. We are here investigating subversive activities. 

Mr. Walter. I think everybody understood that who wants to 
understand that. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Anton, we have sworn testimony that you were 
a member of the professional section of the Communist Party and in 
1944 you held Communist Party membership card No. 78283. Is 
that correct? 

Air. Anton. I decline to answer that, invoking the privilege of the 
first amendment, invoking the privilege of the fifth amendment, and 
invoking the privilege of the tenth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have sworn testimony that in 1945 you held 
Communist Party membership card No. 87613, is that correct? 

Mr. Anton. I decline to answer that question as I have explained 
to you, that freedom of discussion, thinking, association, under certain 
hysterical legislation may at times lead to a chain where criminal 
imputation may involve, and I invoke the privileges of the fifth 
amendment, and also as a supervisory official. 

Mr. KuNziG. All that means is that you refuse to answer the ques- 
tion on the grounds that you may in some way be incriminated. 

Mr. Anton. I decline to answer because in some way I may be 
incriminated. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have already mentioned the Teachers' Union 
here in Philadelphia. WTiat were your activities and when did you 
first become involved with the Teachers' Union in Philadelphia? 

Mr. Anton. I first became a member of the Teachers' Union in 
Philadelphia in about 1921. 

At that time the junior high school idea was being expanded. In 
May the junior high school teachers received appointments on 
secondary scholarships which called for a maximum of $2,100. 

In July of that year the board of education met and set up a salary 
schedule in which the maximum was about $2,200 or $2,400, con- 
siderably less than the maximum that the teachers are expected to get. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you first become an officer of the Teachers' 
Union? 

Mr. Ant IN. I am coming to that. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you first become an officer in the Teachers' 
Union? 



3000 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Anton. I have to complete what I have been talking about to 
make this situation clear. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you first become an ofl5cer of the Teachers' 
Union? 

]Mr. Anton. In giving the answer to that question I have to finish 
the sentence, but in 1927 

Mr. Velde. Before proceeding, the Chair would like to have you 
you identify the Teachers' Union you are referring to a little more 
specifically. 

Mr. KuNziG. The Teachers' Union I am referring to is the one we 
have been referring to all tlu'ough these hearings, local No. 192 which 
was originally known as that and then it became independent and 
then it became local No. 556, and now it is independent again. It is 
an independent union known as the Teachers' Union of Philadelphia, 
headed by Mr. Jennings at the present time. 

Mr. Anton. You asked me a former question. 

Mr. KuNziG. I asked you when you fii'st became associated. 

Mr. Anton. I said 1921. 

Mr. KuNziG. I asked you when you first became an officer of the 
Teachers' Union. 

Mr. Anton. Let me finish. Let us be courteous. It will only 
take a half a minute. 

Mr. KuNziG. I would like to request that the witness be ordered 
to answer when he first became an officer of the Teachers' Union. 

Mr. Anton. You have asked two questions. 

Mr. Velde. We were, I think, reasonably courteous to you in 
extending your subpena until this morning due to the fact that you 
had not had any sleep. 

Mr. Anton. I thank you because sweet sleep has knit up the 
raveled care. 

Mr. Velde. Now that you have had sleep, could you give us any 
information? 

Mr. Anton. No, I am not offering the information. You are 
shutting oft" my statements on the information you ask me. I am 
still answering the question you asked and you shut me off. 

Mr. Velde. It always has been the practice of this committee if 
the witness will answer the question to allow him later on to expand 
his answer. 

Mr. Anton. I joined the Teachers' Union in 1921. 

Mr. Velde. And when a witness uses the fifth amendment, there 
is no reason why we should listen to a lot of guff from the witness. 

Mr. Anton. I am sorry that you look upon it as guff because to 
me it is hardly that. It is a very serious situation. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I am asking you a very simple question. I asked 
you when you first became connected with the Teachers' Union and 
you answered that, and now I am asking you when you first became 
an officer of the Teachers' Union. The date is what I am seeking. 

Mr. Anton. May I consult my notes? 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes. 

Mr. Anton. In either 1939 or 1940 I was elected, I think as the 
elementary representative on the executive board of local No. 192. 

Mr. Kunzig. When did you become president or chairman, if you 
did? 



COMMUAHST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3001 

Mr. Anton. I believe about 1942. 

Mr. KuNziG. How long did you remain head of the Philadelphia 
Teachers' Union? 

Mr. Anton. From 1942 to 1946 or 1947. I am not sure of the 
closing date because I was injured by a reckless driver and I stopped 
activities, outside activities from that time on because of a very 
bad leg. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Are you still a member of the Teachers' Union? 

Mr. Anton. I retain my membership. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you an officer of the Teachers' Union today? 

Mr. Anton. I am a member of the executive committee. 

Mr. KuNziG. You submitted a voluntary statement to this com- 
mittee, Mr. Anton, and the first statement j^ou make in that, I might 
add, was that this statement is not under oath but is voluntary, telling 
about your work in the community and your teacliing work, and your 
first statement was : 

First, let me state emphatically that neither now nor ever was I a member of an 
organization that advocated the overthrow of our Government. 

Let me ask you that here in this hearing room today under oath: 
Have you ever been a member of anj^ organization that advocated the 
overthrow of our Government? 

Mr. Anton. As I explained to you on the business of discussion, 
thinking, in view of the tortuous situation that has developed under 
these things, under the 1st, 5th, and 10th amendments — — 

Mr. KuNziG. You refuse to answer? 

Mr. Anton. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Kunzig. In other words, what you are saying is that you are 
perfectly willing to say this on a piece of paper, submit it to the 
committee and say respectfully submitted and so forth, I make the 
following statement, but when asked the same question, Air. Anton, 
under oath before the same committee, you refuse to answer on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment; is that correct? 

Mr. Anton. That is correct. 

Mr. Walter. Why do you pay any attention to that statement? 

Mr. Kunzig. It obviously can have no credence. 

Mr. Walter. When was this submitted? 

Mr. Kunzig. Recently, within the last few weeks. 

I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Anton. As a friendl}^ witness I would like to say something. 

Mr. Kunzig. Just a minute, please. 

Mr. Velde. There is no question pending. 

Mr. Kunzig. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Anton. I would Hke to offer this as a friendly witness to include 
this in tlie legislation you propose. 

Mr. Velde. There is no question pending. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kunzig. I call Dr. Robert Rutman. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee, do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Dr. Rutman. I do. 

Mr. Kunzig. You may be seated. 

Dr. Rutman. Mav we dim the lights? 

Mr. Velde. The lights will be turned off. 



3002 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT J. RUTMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, DAVID BERGER 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you state your full name, please, sir? 

Dr. RuTMAN. My name is Robert J. Rutman. 

Mr. KuNziG. And your address, Dr. Rutman? 

Dr. Rutman. 6331 Ross Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would your attorney please state his name for the 
record? 

Mr. Berger. David Berger, 1516 Girard Trust Building, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your present employment, Dr. 
Rutman? 

Dr. Rutman. I am employed as an assistant professor of biological 
chemistry engaged in research into the causes of cancer at the depart- 
ment of biological chemistry in the Jefferson Medical College, Phila- 
delphia. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are not a medical doctor, is that right? 

Dr. Rutman. That is right, sir. I am a doctor of philosophy in 
biological chemistry. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a brief resume of 
your educational background? 

Dr. Rutman. My public-school education occurred in New York 
City, and I graduated from high school there also. 

I received my bachelor of science in biological chemistry from the 
Pennsylvania State College, and some time later received the degree 
of doctor of philosophy in biological chemistry from the University 
of California at Berkeley, Calif. 

Mr. KuNziG. When was that? 

Dr. Rutman. That was officially probably in 1950. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you graduate from undergraduate school? 

Dr. Rutman. Februaiy 1940. 

Mr. KuNziG. That is the conclusion of your formal education? 

Dr. Rutman. My formal education. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give us a resume of your employment 
background? 

Dr. Rutman. Upon graduation from the Pennsylvania State Col- 
lege, my first employment was as an agricultural chemist in the Texas 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, College Station, Tex, 

Shortly thereafter I had a part-time employment with the United 
States Geodetic Survey Division of Water Analysis on a temporary 
basis for some 4 months. 

Then upon completion of my doctoral training I received my 
appointment to the faculty of the Jefferson Medical College. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where are you at the present time, at the Jefferson 
Medical College? 

Dr. Rutman. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever at any time, Dr. Rutman, been a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Dr. Rutman. You will excuse our moving back, the microphone 
probably carries the consultation. 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. Rutman. May I respectfully submit that I am not a member 
of the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AEEA 3003 

Mr. KuNZiG. You are not a member at the present time? 
Dr. RuTMAN. May I respectfully submit that I am not a member 
of the Communist Party, but that as a loyal American citizen I must 
uphold my Constitution and defend the right of free speech implicit 
in the first amendment and free inquiry and therefore in order to 
defend these rights I must ask leave to use the privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. In other words, as to the question "Have you ever 
been a member of the Communist Party," your answer is that you 
refuse to answer on the ground that you may incriminate yourself, 
is that correct? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I object to the use of the word "incriminate." The 
fifth amendment carries no inference of crime of any kind. 

Mr. KuNziG. We do not have to have a lecture on law. The fifth 
amendment applies to criminal proceedings. You must be in fear of 
danger of testifying against yourself in a criminal proceeding. 

Dr. RuTMAN. This is the wording of the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution, but the courts have held that it applies to civil pro- 
ceedings and Government proceedings as well, so that there is no 
implication as to the nature of the proceedings. 

Air. KuNziG. jMr. Chairman, shall we continue, without legal argu- 
ment? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Dr. RuTMAN. This is not a legal argument. 

Mr. KuNziG. Doctor, as a lieutenant in the United States Army, 
were you assigned in or about 1942 or 1943 to the Rocky Mountain 
Ai'senal Division of the Chemical Corps located in Denver, Colo.? 

Dr. RuTMAN. That is right, a division of the Chemical Warfare 
Corps. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you supervisor of what was lalo^\^l as the con- 
trol laboratory? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I acted in a supervisorial capacity in an analytical 
laboratory. 

Mr. KuNziG. At the time you had that assignment, were you a 
member of the Communist Party? 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. Rutman. Again I object to this line of questioning because on 
the basis of the present-da}^ situation, since questions like this may 
even soon be denied to members of the Democratic Party, in view of 
the scare headlines in the paper 

Mr. Walter. I wouldn't let that worry you a bit. I am a Demo- 
crat, and nobody is going to keep my mouth shut. 

Were 3''ou serving as an officer in the Army? 

Dr. Rutman. W^ould you care to have me answer the counsel's 
question first? 

Mr. Walter. No. I am only interested in facts. 

Dr. Rutman. I was about to answer that question first. 

Mr. Walter. Were you an officer in the United States Army when 
you were assigned to this position in Denver, Colo.? 

Dr. Rutman. Yes; I was an officer in the United States Army. 

Mr. Walter. And at the time you were commissioned you took an 
oath, did you not? 

Dr. Rutman. I did, sir. 



3004 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Walter. At that time were you a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I was not, sir. 

Mr. Walter. All right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Let us come back to that question as to whether you 
were a member of the Communist Party when you were a lieutenant in 
the United States Army stationed in Denver, Colo. 

Dr. KuTMAN. I was not. 

Mr. KuNziG. That is good. Now we are getting some answers. 

Now let me ask you whether in the assignment from 1944 to 1946, 
is it correct that as a captain you were assigned to the Analytical 
Control Division of the Atomic Energy Commission? 

Dr. RuTMAN. That is not correct. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you have any assignment of any kind in connec- 
tion with the Manhattan District? 

Dr. RuTMAN. That is right. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Wliat assignment did you have? 

Dr. RuTMAN. That is right, but the identification was incorrect. 

Mr. KuNziG. What was the assignment? It was an Army assign- 
ment. It was not the Atomic assigmnent? 

Dr. RuTMAN. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that the Manhattan Engineer District project 
that you were attached to? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I don't understand. Are you talking with counsel 
or with me, sh? 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. What was j^our assignment m connection with the 
Manhattan project concernmg the atom bomb? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I was an assigned officer in the Manhattan Engineer 
District, of the Corps of Engineers of the United States Army. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, were you a Communist when you had that 
assignment? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I was not. I was not a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Velde. What were the years of your assignment m that 
particular capacity? 

Dr. RuTMAN. Well, the dates of this I cannot pin down accurately, 
but I believe that the assignment began m 1944, I think. Perhaps it 
was 1943, and it ended in 1946. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you assigned at any time in Berkeley, Calif., in 
connection with atomic-energy work? 

Dr. RuTMAN. Upon discharge from the Army during termmal leave 
I spent several months as a civilian assistant m that particular project. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where and when? 

Dr. RiJTMAN. It was at the close of 1946. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What was the assignment and what was your assign- 
ment, the work you were domg? 

Dr. RuTMAN. Well, I am not free to discuss the nature of any of 
this work by oath to the respective agencies. 

Mr. KuNZiG. This is then secret? 

Dr. RuTMAN. That is right, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you were doing classified, secret work? 

Dr. RuTMAN. That is right. 



CORIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3005 

Mr. Velde. Was that at the radiation laboratory at the University 
of California? 

Dr. RuTMAN. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. At the time you were doing this classified work in 
Berkeley, Calif., were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Dr. RuTMAN. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. That was in 1946? 

Dr. RuTMAN, That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1947? 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. RiTTMAN. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1947? 

Dr. Rutman. I wish to make it completely clear that I am and 
always have been a loyal American citizen and the net of inferences 
now being constructed around me forces me, gives me no choice but 
to decline to answer this question, I respectfully submit, on the grounds 
granted me by the privileges of the Constitution and the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. When I asked you about whether you were a member 
of the Communist Party in 1946 when you were working in this 
higlily secret atomic energy work, 3'our answer there quite honestly 
was "No." Now, suddenly a web of intrigue becomes involved around 
you. 

I asked you a simple question; were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party in 1947? There is no difl'erence, just a year. 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conf ci red with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. Rutman. On the basis of the reasons I have just given, I stand 
on my previous answer and I invoke the protection of my free political 
association granted by the first amendment and also that granted 
by the fifth amendment. 

Air. Walter. Your free political right, did you say? 

Dr. Rutman. That is it exactly. I have a right to associate, hold 
any ideas and examine any ideas I wish. 

Mr. Walter. And by that I understand 3^ou to contend you feel 
you have a perfect right to join the Communist Party, and, having 
done so, no legally constituted body has any right to inquire as to 
the activities of that organization. Is that what I understand you 
to mean? Or are you pa^^ing any attention to me? 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. Rutman. In my answer to that question I did not imply 
anything of any kind. I stood 

Mr. Walter. Were 3^ou a member of the Communist Party in 1947? 

Dr. Rutman. Alay I finish the sentence I started? 

Mr. Walter. Yes; go on. 

Dr. Rutman. I stood on my privileges under the first and the fifth 
amendments to our Constitution to decline to answer questions which 
by any means can result in damage to m}'^ well-being, my economic 
position, my job or in any other fashion harm me as a citizen. That 
is a protection given me by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. Wliy do you think it would be harmful to you to 
admit that you were a member of the Communist Party? 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. Rutman, I would like to repeat that I am not a member of the 
Communist Party. I am a loyal American citizen but I have been 



3006 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

advised by my counsel that any citizen admitting former membership 
in the Communist Party may open himself to damages and prosecution 
in no way incident with such actions. 

Mr. Walter. If instituted within a statutory period. 

Now, rnay I ask you this; you said you were not a member of the 
Communist Party in 1942 and 1943 when you were in Denver, Colo. 

Dr. RuTMAN. So the record shows now. 

Mr. Walter. Were you a member of the Communist Party before 
you went to Denver, Colo., in 1942? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I was not. 

Mr. Walter. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1941? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I was at no time prior to that a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Walter. When did you join the Communist Party? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I have not admitted to joining the Communist Party. 
This is an inference taken by the committee chairman. 

Mr. Walter. I do not happen to be the chahman. 

Mr. Velde. Yes, but I take the inference. 

Dr. RuTMAN. This is no inference at all. That is the main diffi- 
culty in this situation. 

Mr. Walter. Did you ever become a member of the Communist 
Party at any time? 

Dr. RuTMAN. Will you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you repeat the question, please, Mr. Reporter? 

(Thereupon the question was read by the reporter as follows :) 

Did you ever become a member of the Communist Party at any time? 

Dr. RuTMAN. On the advice of my counsel I respectfully submit I 
cannot answer that question under the — I will not answer that question 
under the privileges afforded me by the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Witness, it appears to Mr. Walter and to myself 
that you at one time joined the Communist Party. If your statement 
is correct, and I think it probably is in both of our minds here, you 
must have joined the Communist Party after 1946 and had not be- 
longed to it before that time. 

In a sensitive position that you held at the University of California 
certainly you must have become aware of the danger of the Communist 
conspiracy to this Government at that late date and it is difficult for 
me to understand why any loyal American citizen would join the 
Communist Party after so much information had been sent out to the 
people regarding the nature of the Soviet conspiracy. 

Let me ask you a question. Are you familiar with the House 
committee's report on Soviet espionage at the radiation laboratory in 
Berkeley, Calif.? 

Dr. RuTMAN. No. 

Mr. Velde. You have never read that report? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I have not, sir. 

Mr. Velde. Are you familiar with the organization known as the 
Federation of Electronic Engineers, Chemists, and Technicians? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I recollect the name, but that is all it means to me. 

Mr. Velde. Were you a member of that organization? 

Dr. RuTMAN. No. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3007 

Mr. Velde. I do want to instruct our investigator for the committee 
to send the witness a copy of the report of the Soviet espionage in the 
radiation laboratory in Berkeley, Calif. 

Mr. KuNziG. You say you were not a member of the Communist 
Party in 1946 and when we came to 1947 you invoked the fifth amend- 
ment and refused to answer. 

My question now is were you a member of the Communist Party 
in 1948. 

Dr. RuTMAN. I respectfully refuse to answer that question on the 
previous grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. 1949? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I repeat the same answer, the privileges granted me 
by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. 1950? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I repeat the same answer, the privileges granted by 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. 1951? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I repeat the same answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. 1952? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I repeat the same answer, that I do not care to answer 
this question under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. Just a minute. That isn't an answer; that you do 
not care to. Do you? 

Dr. RuTMAN. That is right, excuse the English formulation. It 
was unintentional. 

Under the privileges granted me by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have testified this morning that you are not a 
member of the Communist Party, this being November of 1953. You 
refuse to answer with respect to 1952. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party in January of 1953? 

Dr. RuTMAN. On August 4, 1953, in conjunction with the request 
of the Jefferson Medical College, I subscribed to the Peckham loyalty 
oath which requires that I be a member of no subversive organization 
in order to so take that oath. That oath represented a truthful 
situation. 

Concerning anything that transpired prior to that in the period 
you have inquired about, I respectfully decline to answer the questions 
and claim my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. On August 4, 1953, of this year, were you a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Dr. RuTMAN. It could not be so done without perjuring myself. 

Mr. KuNziG. Just answer the question. 

Dr. RuTMAN. I was not when I took the oath. 

Mr. KuNziG. On August 4, 1953, you were not a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Dr. RuTMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, on August 3, 1953, were you a member of the 
Communist Party, the day before you took the loyalty oath? 

Dr. RuTMAN. The counsel has heard me answer to the previous 
question that I will decline to answer questions prior to that period. 
What is the purpose of repeating the question? 

Mr. KuNziG. On August 3, 1953, you refuse to answer on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment; is that correct? 

Dr. RuTMAN. That is right. 



3008 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IK THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Walter. The question is whether or not he was a member of 
the Communist Party; is that it? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, sir. 

Air. Walter. Were you a Communist, without being a member 
of the party? 

Dr. RuTMAN. I am afraid I do not understand the question at all, 
sir. You are well aware, I am sure, that almost any action of any 
kind can be labeled by anyone who wishes, and guilt by association 
is one of the most serious problems that you can face today. 

Mr. Walter. I have heard that before. 

Dr. RuTMAN. It makes it no less true. 

Mr. KuNziG. On February 10, 1951, this committee is in possession 
of testimony that there was a Negro freedom rally held at Reynolds 
Hall at 1416 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa., sponsored by the 
Civil Rights Congi'ess, an organization cited, which has already been 
mentioned in this testimony before in these 8 days. 

Did you on February 10, 1951, attend that rally under the auspices 
of the Civil Rights Congress? 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. RuTMAN. I must respectfully decline to answer that question 
on the grounds of the privileges granted me by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. On June 23, 1951, you were also at a meeting spon- 
sored by the Philadelphia Council of the American Peace Crusade at 
their headquarters, 1415 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

This was a sendoff meeting to the delegates to the Chicago Peace 
Congress to be held June 29 through July 1, 1951, inclusive. 

The American Peace Crusade is a cited organization. 

Were you there arid present on June 23, 1951? 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. RuTMAN. Again I must respectfully decline to answer that 
question on the grounds that attendance at such meetings is not in 
violation of free association, and in addition on the grounds that the 
fifth amendment grants me that privilege. 

Mr. KuNZiG. On Julj^ 6, 1951, the committee is in possession of 
sworn testimony that you. Dr. Rutman, attended a meeting of the 
Philadelphia Council of the American Peace Crusade, the same group, 
at 1415 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pa., and that you spoke at this 
meeting. 

And according to the testimony, in yom* speech you recommended 
distribution of United States postcards throughout various neighbor- 
hoods requesting that handwritten cards be sent to President Truman 
demanding the withdrawal of United States troops from Korea. 

Did you attend such a meeting and did you so speak? 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. Rutman. I must respectfully and regretfully decline to answer 
that question. 

Mr. KuNziG. On the same grounds? 

Dr. Rutman. On the same grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. On August 26, 1951, there is sworn testimony that 
you attended the Peace and Brotherhood Festival held at the Old 
Mill Picnic Grounds, sponsored by the Communist Party, this picnic 
gi-ounds being 1 mile west of Route 309, West Rock Hill Township, 
Bucks County, Pa., sponsored by district No. 3 of the Communist 
Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3009 

Did you attend this meeting, the Peace and Brotherhood Festival? 

(At this point Dr. Rutnian conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. RuTMAN. Although I fail to understand Avhat the purpose of 
these questions is, I must respectfully decline to answer the question 
on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. You are not under any compulsion. 

Dr. RuTMAN. I do repeat. 

Mr. KuNziG. On August 28, 1951, 2 days after the Peace and 
Brotherhood Festival, there is sworn testimon3^ that you attended a 
meeting of the Philadelphia Council of the Arts, Sciences and Pro- 
fessions, held in the Clover Room of the Bellevue Stratford Hotel at 
Broad and Walnut Streets in Philadelphia, Pa. That is part of the 
National Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, which has been 
cited and previously mentioned. 

Did you attend this meeting on August 28, 1951? 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

\It. Velde. The committee will be in recess for 10 minutes. 

("\Miereupon, at 11:03 a. m., the hearing was recessed for 17 minutes.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Rutman, do you hold a Reserve commission in 
the United States Army? 

Dr. Rutman. I do not, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Reporter, would you read the question which was 
pending just prior to the recess, please? 

(The reporter read the question as follows:) 

On August 28, 1951, 2 days after the Peace and Brotherhood Festival, there is 
sworn testimony that you attended a meeting of the Philadelphia council of the 
Arts, Sciences, and Professions, held in the Clover Room of the Bellevue Stratford 
Hotel at Broad and Walnut Streets in Philadelphia, Pa. That is part of the 
National Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, which has been cited and 
previously mentioned. 

Did you attend this meeting on August 28, 1951? 

Dr. Rutman. I must respectfully decline to answer that question. 
I have no desire to bring the names of other people into the proceed- 
ings of this committee because that can only bring to the person diffi- 
cult}", economic, social, or even physical. Therefore I must use m}^ 
immunities under the fifth amendment. I must use my immunities 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution and respectfully de- 
cline to answer that question. 

Mr. KuNziG. You do not have to use your immunity. 

Dr. Rutman. I mean simpl}- that I do use my immunit}^ under the 
fifth amendment in declining to answer that question. 

Mr. KuNziG. I want to make it very clear that we are only asking 
you about yourself with regard to whether you attended this meeting. 

Now, on November 9, 1951, there was a meeting of the Phila- 
delphia Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions at the Penn 
Sheraton Hotel. Were you present at that meeting? 

Dr. Rutman. May I have the details again? 

Mr. KuNziG. November 9, 1951, a meeting of the Philadelphia 
Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions at the Penn Sheraton 
Hotel in Philadelphia, Pa. 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. RuTMAX. Again I must respectfull}' decline to answer this ques- 
tion on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 



3010 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNZiG. I, of course, have already stated for the record that 
the National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions, of which 
this is a part, is a cited Communist organization. 

Dr. RuTMAN. Does the Supreme Court decision have any effect on 
this? 

Mr. KuNziG. On December 15, 1951, there is sworn testimony that 
you attended a Bill of Rights rally at Reynolds Hall, Philadelphia, Pa., 
sponsored by the Pennsylvania Civil Rights Congress. 

The principal speaker was James Dolson, who was convicted for 
violation of the Pennsylvania Sedition Act. 

Were you present at that meeting sponsored by the Civil Rights 
Congress? 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. Rutman. Again I must respectfully use the privileges granted 
to me by the fifth amendment of the Constitution in declining to 
answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. On March 20, 1952, you were observed attending a 
welcome home rally for William L. Patterson, sponsored by the 
Pennsylvania Civil Rights Congress, at the Academy of Music Foyer. 
The principal speaker was again James Dolson, a person recently 
convicted for violation of the Pennsylvania sedition law. 

This was sponsored by the civil rights organization, a recently cited 
organization. 

Were you present at that meeting? 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. Rutman. In respect to many of these questions, as in respect 
to this one, I do not have a memory of the meetings mentioned, but 
because my memory does not give me a correct picture of this situation 
I must respectfully decline to answer the question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Walter. Why don't you just say "I don't remember"? 

Dr. Rutman. I don't know what that could lead to. 

Mr. KuNziG. On September 7, 1952, did you attend a freedom 
picnic held under the auspices of the West Philadelphia Chapter of 
the Civil Rights Congress at Boyertown at Camp Alpine Road on 
Route 1 in Boyertown, Bucks County, Pa.? This was sponsored by 
the Civil Rights Congress, a cited organization. Were you present 
there, as the committee is in possession of sworn testimony, that you 
were? 

(At this point Dr. Rutman conferred with Mr. Berger.) 

Dr. Rutman. I plead the fifth amendment on this question and I 
decline to answer it under the privileges given me by that amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any questions, Mr. Walter? 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. Call your next witness, Mr. 
Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Soloman Haas. 

Mr. Haas. Mr. Chairman, I request that the lights be put out and 
that no pictures be taken. 

Mr. Velde. Will you come forward and be sworn? 

In the testimony you are about to give before this subcommittee, 
do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 



COIVCVIUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3011 

Mr. Haas. Yes, sir; I do. 

Mr. Velde. Do you now make the request that the television Hghts 
be turned off? 

Mr. Haas. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Velde. The television lights wUl now be turned off. 

TESTIMONY OF SOLOMON HAAS, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

ALBERT B. GERBER 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you now state your full name, please? 

Mr. Haas. Solomon Haas. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Your address, please? 

Mr. Haas. 5432 Sansom Street. 

Mr. KuNZiG. In Pliiladelphia? 

Mr. Haas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would counsel please state his name and office for the 
record? 

Mr. Gerber. Albert B. Gerber, 1512 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a brief resume of 
your educational background? 

Mr. Haas. I attended the public schools in Philadelpliia, graduated 
from high school in 1933. 

I continued my education at Temple University and graduated 
with a bachelor of arts degree in 1949, continued there and in 1951, 
approximately 1951, I got my master's degree in education. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat is your employment background? 

iSlr. Haas. I had scattered emplo;>Tnent up until the time of 
approximately 1934. 

In 1934 I had begun to work for Litt Brothers. 

From 1935 to the end of 1938 I worked for radio station WFIL. 

Mr. KuNziG. Please continue. 

Mr. Haas. I worked for a brief period for the Associated Hospital 
Service of Philadelphia in 1939. 

I had scattered emplo3mient until August 1941, at which time, from 
1941 with intermittent periods until 1949, February, I worked for the 
Department of Public Assistance. Tliis was interrupted by a period 
of time that I was in the Army. 

It was also interrupted for schooling. 

In 1949, m December, until the present time, I am with the school 
system. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where do you teach, Mr. Haas? 

Mr. Hass. At the Hunter Elementary Public School. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where is that? 

Mr. Haas. Masher and Dolplim Streets. 

Mr. KuNziG. What grade do you teach? 

Mr. Haas. 6-A and 5-B. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party, Mr. Haas? 

Mr. Haas. I am not now a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. That did not answer the question. The question 
was have you ever been a member of the Communist Party. 

(At this point Mr. Haas conferred with Mr. Gerber.) 

Mr. Haas. I plead the privileges under the fifth amendment. 



3012 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. And you refuse to answer that then on the grounds 
that it might incriminate you, is that correct? 

Mr. Hass. I plead tiie privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. And dechne to answer the question? 

Mr. Haas. Well, if you interpret it as such, it is a declination. 

Mr. KuNziG. It seems rather obvious that it is. 

Now, in 1946 were you a member of section 10 of the Communist 
Party? The committee is in possession of sworn testimony that you 
were a member of section 10 in 1946. 

(At this point Mr. Haas conferred with Mr. Gerber.) 

Mr. Haas. I respectfully decline to answer the question under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have sworn testimony, sir, that in 1947 you 
attended a special party given by the 30th ward of section 5 of the 
Communist Party of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware. 

Did you so attend a meeting of the 30th ward, section 5, of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Haas. I respectfully decline to answer the question imder the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Have you ever been a member of the International 
Workers' Order, a cited Communist-front organization? 

Mr. Haas. I respectfully decline under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kuj^ziG. The committee is in possession of sworn testimony 
that in 1947 you were a member of the International Workers' Order. 

We also have testimony that in 1948 you were a member of the 
Daily Worker Press Club. Were you a member of that club? 

Mr. Haas. I respectfully decline to answer the question under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. On October 26, 1949, a picket line, sponsored by the 
Communist Party of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware, was be- 
tween Eighth and Ninth Streets on Market Street in front of this 
building in Philadelphia, Pa. Were you a member of that picket 

Mr. Haas. I respectfully decline on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. . . 

Mr. KuNziG. We have sworn testimony that you were participating 
in that picket line, handing out circulars concerning the verdict con- 
cerning the 1 1 national leaders of the Communist Party. 

I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. Where were you employed in 1949? 

Mr. Haas. I was working from February until December for the 
Department of Pubhc Assistance. In December I began to work for 
the school system. 

Mr. Walter. When was that picket fine, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. KuNziG. October 26, 1949. 

Mr. Walter. That is all. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Mr. Herman Beilan. 

Mr. Beilan. I would like not to be televised, please. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee, do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVmES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3013 

Mr. Beilan. I do. 

I would like to request that the television cameras be turned off, 
please. 

Mr. Velde. Is it because they will confuse you in your testimony? 
The lights are ordered again turned off. 

' Mr. Beilan. I would like the television to be turned off completely, 
according to your own rules. 

Mr. Velde. The television cameras will be turned off the witness 
and the television photographers will not photograph the witness 
during this hearing. 

Mr. KuNziG. Shall I proceed, Mr. Chairman? 
' Mr. Velde. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF HERMAN AARON BEILAN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, W. J. WOOLSTON 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would you give your full name, please? 

Mr. Beilan. Herman Aaron Beilan. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Your address, please, sir? 

Mr. Beilan. 7641 Thouron Avenue. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would counsel please state his name and address for 
the record? 

Mr. Woolston. W. J. Woolston, 1529 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you give the committee, please, Mr. Beilan, a 
brief resume of your educational and employment background? 

Mr. Beilan. Yes, sir. 

I graduated from Central High School in the year 1928. 

I went to the Philadelphia Normal School and graduated in Febru- 
ary 1930. 

I was appointed as a teacher 2 weeks later. I continued my educa- 
tion at Teachers' College, from which school I graduated in 1934 
with honors. 

Since that time I have taken many in-service courses offered by the 
board of education. 

My professional record is as follows: I was appointed on February 
17, 1930, to the industrial arts class of the Crispin Elementary School. 
I taught there until September 1, 1933, when I was appointed to the 
Ferguson School. 

In 1940 the board of education abandoned the industrial arts pro- 
gram and I was reappointed to the grades in the same school. That 
was in February 1940. 

In September 1942, I was transferred to the Blaine School, and in 
September 1944 I was appointed to the Barratt Junior High School 
in the field of general education. 

In February 1947 I was appointed to the senior high school in the 
field of English and for one-half year, as was the custom at that time, 
I served as an auxiliary teacher in district 6. 

In September of that year I was appointed to Grants High School, 
where I am now teaching. 

Mr. Kunzig. What do you teach there, Mr. Beilan? 

Mr. Beilan. I asked to have the cameras turned off. I respect- 
fully ask again, according to your own rules, that they be turned off, 

Mr. Velde. The rule refers to telecast. 



3014 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Beilan. One of the cameras has "TV" marked on it. 

Mr. Velde. I understand from the technician that it is not running. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you been a director of Sunnyland Day Camp 
located on Route 309, Montgomery County, near here, a camp for 
children? 

Mr. Beilan. Yes, I have. 

Mr. KuNziG. When was that, what year? 

Mr. Beilan. 1952 and 1953. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Beilan, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Beilan. I have several reasons for not answering that question. 
I believe I have the right under the Constitution of the United States 
not to answer that question, under the fifth amend.ment. 

Mr. KuNziG. You refuse to answer under the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Beilan. That is well stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. This committee is in possession of sworn testimony 
that you have been a member of the Communist Party and tliat also 
in 1943 and 1944 you were a member of the Daily Worker Press Club. 
Is that correct? 

Mr. Beilan. I object to this question because this is cross examina- 
tion. 

According to your own rules, and I would like to give the number 
of the rule, rule 1 1, in this book that was handed to me, entitled "Rules 
of Procedure" 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you answer the question, please, Mr. Beilan? 
Have you been a member during 1943 and 1944 of the Daily Worker 
Press Club? 

Mr. Beilan. I would like a ruling from the chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The committee does not make any rules. Will you 
proceed to give the information which is being requested of you by 
counsel? 

Mr. Beilan. These rules were handed to me. 

Mr. Velde. We are familiar with the rules of this committee. Will 
you please proceed so that we might have other witnesses before we 
have to adjourn? Maybe somebody will give us a little information 
pretty soon. 

Mr. Beilan. I want to register an objection. 

Now, will you please repeat the question? 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Reporter, would you read back the question to 
the witness? 

(Whereupon, the following question was read:) 

This committee is in possession of sworn testimony that you have been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party and that also in 1943 and 1944 you were a member of 
the Daily Worker Press Club. Is that correct? 

Mr. Beilan. I invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. In 1944 were you press director of the professional 
section of section 8 of the Communist Political Association, as has 
been testified to under oath before this committee? 

Mr. Beilan. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, in 1945 were you secretary of section 8 of the 
Communist Political Association, as has been testified to before this 
committee under oath? 

Mr. Beilan. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNZiG. We also have, under oath, testimony that in 1944 



COISEMUXIST ACTIVITIES IX THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3015 

Mr. Beilan. Excuse me while I consult with my counsel. 

(At this point Mr. Beilan conferred with Mr. Woolston.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you concluded your conference? 

Mr. Beilan. Yes. Now, would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. KuNziG. Will the reporter read the question? 

(Whereupon, the following question was read:) 

Now, in 1945 were you secretary of section 8 of the Communist Political 
Association, as has been testified to under oath before this committee? 

Mr. Beilan. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. The committee is in possession of sworn testimony 
that in 1944, as a member of the Communist Party, you held member- 
ship book No. 78343. Is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Beilan conferred with Mr. Woolston.) 

Mr. Beilan, Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. And in 1945 we have sworn testimony that you held 
membership book m the Communist Party No. 87591. 

Mr. Beilan. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. We have testimoiw that in 1946 and in 1947 3'ou were 
an organizer of the professional section of the Communist Party 
of eastern Penns3'lvania and Delaware. Is that correct? 

(At this point Mr. Beilan conferred with Mr. Woolston.) 

Mr. Beilan. May I ask if you have this information why is it 
relevant that you ask me? 

Mr. Velde. Because the matters about which counsel is asking 
you are certainly within your own knowledge either to admit or to 
deny. If they are not within your own knowledge then you can 
deny that you know anything about them at all. We like to go to the 
source of information. 

(At this point Mr. Beilan conferred with Mr. Woolston.) 

Mr. Beilan. Yes; but these questions do not relate to propaganda 
activities. 

Mr. Velde. We do not care for any further argument. We would 
lilve to hear the answer. 

Mr. Beilan. I would like to please have you explain the relevancy 
of this question. 

Mr. Walter. It would be developed quite rapidly if you would 
answer the question. You would see the relevancy of the whole 
thing. 

Mr. Beilan. Would you please repeat the question? 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Reporter, would you please read the pending 
question? 

(Wliereupon the pending question was read:) 

We have testimony that in 1946 and in 1947 you were an organizer of the pro- 
fessional section of the Communist Party of eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware. 
Is that correct? 

Mr. Walter. I will explain to you the relevancy of this question. 
If you would answer to the best of your ability, then we could find out 
hoV extensive was the work you did, how many people joined and 
whether or not those people who joined became active in the dis- 
semination of propaganda. 

You see how it is all part of the picture, depending of course, upon 
your answer. 

(At this point Mr. Beilan conferred with Mr. Woolston.) 



3016 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Beilan. Is the question, Mr. Chairman, that you want infor- 
mation about other people and not about me? 

Mr. Velde. We want all information we can get about the Com- 
munist activities, whether it involves vou or other people, who have 
been engaged in Communist subversive activities which would destroy 
this country. 

Mr. Beilan. I am willing to talk about myself and about no one 
else. 

Mr. Velde. Please do, then. 

Mr. Beilan. Will you agree not to ask me any question about 
anyone else? 

Mr. Velde. We are not making deals with you or anyone else 
about any evidence you are called upon to give or any answers you 
are called upon to give. 

(At this point Mr. Beilan conferred with Mr. Woolston.) 

Mr. Beilan. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member, Mr. Beilan, of the International 
Workers' Order in 1947 and 1949, a cited organization? 

(At this point Mr. Beilan conferred with Mr. Woolston.) 

Mr. Beilan. I invoke the privileges. 

Mr. KuNziG. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. Where was this boys' camp that you were connected 
with? 

Mr. Beilan. Your information is inaccurate. It was not a boys' 
camp. It was a children's camp. 

Mr. Walter. Excuse me, please. Where was this children's camp 
located? 

Mr. Beilan. I believe if you have the court reporter read back, 
you located it. 

Mr. Walter. Don't bother. 

Mr. Beilan. I will answer it. On route 309. 

Mr. Walter. I am withdrawing the question. 

What did the children do during the period that you were at the 
camp? Were they given any courses of instruction on athletic training? 

(At this point Mr. Beilan conferred with Mr. Woolston.) 

Mr. Beilan. Well, I think we had a combination program of both 
athletic activities. 

Mr. Walter. You said "I think we did." Did you? 

Mr. Beilan. We did have such activities. 

Mr. Walter. Now, who were the instructors? 

Mr. Beilan. I am sorry, I did not finish. 

Mr. Walter. Well, you heard me. You have testified as to what 
I wanted to learn. Who were the instructors of the camp? 

Mr. Beilan. All right. They were Philadelphia teachers, for the 
most part. 

Mr. Walter. Will you give us their names, please? 

(At this point Mr. Beilan conferred with Mr. Woolston.) 

Mr. Beilan. We had a staff of about 10 or 12 people. I would like 
a few minutes to recall to my memory exactly the names of those 
people. 

Mr. Walter. To save time, if you will prepare the list and mail it 
to the committee, that would be satisfactory. 

Mr. Beilan. I wiU be very happy to do that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3017 

Mr. Walter. What educational facilities were provided for the 
youth? 

Mr. Beilan. As a teacher of 23 years I have always had the opinion 
that we should provide as fine educational facilities as possible. We 
had a library there of approximately 100 books. 

Mr. Walter. What was in the library? 

Mr. Beilan. Books which I obtained from the free library of Phila- 
delphia at 19th and Parkway. 

Mr. Walter. Have we such a list? ^ 

Mr. Beilan. I have such a list. I will be glad to mail it to you 

Mr. Walter. Were the children instructed in communism? 

Mr. Beilan. I have no knowledge of such instruction. 

Mr. Walter. Who was in charge of the camp? 

Mr. Beilan. I was. 

Mr. Walter. That is all. 

Mr. KuNZiG. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Beilan. May I please submit a statement? I have a pre- 
pared statement. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Beilan, would you please return to the stand? 
I have one more question. 

Mr. Walter. Mr. Beilan, I have asked you to come back because 
your statement was submitted at the completion of your testimony. 
I am not impugning your motives or behefs and I have not gone further 
than five lines of your prepared statement. 

You state: 

I make this statement in good faith and as a personal effort to counteract the 
false impressions which have resulted from the highly prejudicial pubUcity which 
has been leveled against the Philadelphia schools. 

I want you to know that there has been nothing done in these 
hearings that would in anywise reflect on the Philadelphia schools or 
on the Philadelphia school system. Now if there are any individuals 
that we feel, in comphance with our duties to the Congress of the 
United States, should be brought before this subcommittee to testify, 
that is one thing. But this follows a very similar Hne. 

Now you state further: 

unequivocally that I have always been a loyal American, that I have never 
advocated or participated in any illegal activity against the United States — 

and so on. 

In light of that statement submitted at the completion of your 
sworn testimony, and this is not under oath, I will ask you have 
you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Beilan. I submitted this statement under oath. 

Mr. Walter. No, you did not. This was a statement submitted 
at the completion of your testimony, after you had left the witness 
stand. 

Mr. Beilan. I will submit it now under oath. 

Mr. Walter. All right, now. Do you swear that you have never 
been a member of the Communist Party? 

(At this point Mr. Beilan conferred with Mr. Woolston.) 

Mr. Beilan. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Walter. All right. Let this be made a part of the record. 



3018 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Beilan. I am not under oath. 
Mr. Walter. Oh, yes; you are under oath. 
Mr. WooLSTON. Certainly he is. 
Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Mr. WooLSTON. Could you repeat that last question? I do not 
think he understood it. 

Mr. Walter. Read the question back, Mr. Reporter. 
(The reporter read the question as follows:) 

All right, now. Do you swear that you have never been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Walter. The question was were you ever a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Beilan. I am not now a member. 

Mr. Walter. I said have you ever been. 

Mr. Beilan. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. All right. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Mr. KuNziG. I call Thomas Deacon. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee, do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Deacon. I do. 

Ma}^ I respectfully request, in accordance with your rules, that the 
television be turned off and all cameras be turned off, including motion 
pictures and newspapers? 

Mr. Velde. The lights of the television cameras and the television 
cameras themselves will be turned off the witness during his testimony. 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS DEACON, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, A. HARRY LEVITAN 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your name, please? 

Mr. Deacon. Thomas Deacon. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What is your address? 

Mr. Deacon. 1931 Spruce Street. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Are you presently a teacher in the Philadelphia school 
system? 

Mr. Deacon. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. What school? 

Mr. Deacon. I beg your pardon, I am a counselor at this time at 
the Sulzberger Junior High. 

Mr. KuNziG. What are your duties at Sulzberger Junior High 
School? 

Mr. Deacon. I help individual students with problems, attendance, 
behavior problems. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state very briefly your educational 
background? 

Mr. Deacon. I graduated from the Philadelphia Normal School in 
1928. I began to teach in elementary school at that time. 

I taught elementary school for approximately 15 years, during which 
time I went to Temple University and obtained a bachelor's degree 
and a master's degree in counseling. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 3019 

Mv. KuNziG. Wlien did you first become employed with the Phila- 



delphia school 

Mr. Deacon. In 1929. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have been with them ever since? 

Mr. Deacon. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. At what schools, sir, the main ones? 

Mr. Deacon. Principally at Barry School for about 14 years. 

Mr. Kunzig. And now Sulzberger Junior High? 

Mr. Deacon. Yes. 

(At this point Mr. Deacon conferred with Mr. Levitan.) 

Mr. Kunzig. Let the record show that Mr. Levitan is representing 
the witness. 

This committee has sworn testimony, Mr. Deacon, that you have 
been a member of the "in town" group of section 8 of the Communist 
Party. Is that correct? 

Mr. Deacon. I took the loyalty oath. I am not a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Kunzig. Let us just answer the question. Have you ever been 
a member of the "in town" group of section 8 of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Deacon. I refuse to answer under the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. Did you take the Pennsylvania loyalty oath about 
April 1952? 

Mr. Deacon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
March of 1952? 

Mr. Deacon. I refuse to answer on the basis previously given. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you took the loyalty oath? 

Mr. Deacon. No. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you a member of the Communist Party the day 
before you took the loyalty oath? 

Mr. Deacon. Same answer. 

Mr. Kunzig. You refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment? 

Mr. Deacon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. We also have sworn testimony, Mr. Deacon, that in 
1944 you had membership book No. 78308 in the Communist Party. 
Is that correct? 

Mr. Deacon. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. Kunzig. In 1945 we have sworn testimony that you had 
Communist Party book No. 86246. Is that correct? 

Mr. Deacon. Same answer, same reason. 

Mr. Kunzig. You refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment? 

Mr. Deacon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kunzig. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Walter, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. 

Before adjourning the subcommittee, I would like to make a state- 
ment. 



3020 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Some weeks ago in Washington we had scheduled hearings concern- 
ing Communist activities in the Philadelphia area which would be 
held on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of this week. Due to 
the great pressure of other congressional business upon myself and 
the other members of the committee it will be impossible to continue 
hearings for a longer period in Philadelpliia at this time. 

It will therefore be necessary, in accordance with the usual custom 
of the committee, to hear the remaining witnesses at some future time 
in Washington, D. C. 

I therefore order that the witnesses who have been subpenaed to 
appear in Philadelphia before the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities either Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday are hereby con- 
tinued until further notice. You will be notified as to the time and 
place of the hearing by telegram. 

At the conclusion of our Philadelphia hearings I wish to say I am 
exceedingly sorry that the great majority of witnesses have seen fit to 
refuse to give to this committee the benefit of the knowledge we know 
they have concerning Communist activities in the Philadelphia area. 

As counsel has repeatedly stated, the committee is in possession of 
sworn testimony which leaves no room for doubt that the witnesses 
who were subpenaed could greatly enlarge our knowledge of sub- 
versive activities. But the witnesses refused to talk. Instead, they 
say nothing. One can only draw the conclusion that although many 
witnesses have emphasized that they are not today members of the 
Communist Party, they did not wish to help destroy the Communist 
conspiracy. It must be kept in mind and never forgotten that there 
are some 8,000 teachers in the city of Philadelphia, the overwhelming 
majority of whom are fine, outstanding, loyal American citizens. 

We must not lose our sense of proportion in these matters because a 
small group of teachers have seen fit to take the course they did before 
this committee. It does not in any way reflect upon either the board 
of education or the fine, able, and conscientious teachers of the city of 
Philadelphia. 

I wish to emphasize this point and make my meaning abundantly 
clear. 

In conclusion, it is the desire of the committee to thank the many 
people in Philadelphia who have cooperated and helped enormously 
with the arrangements for these hearings. The United States marshal, 
the clerk of the district court, and the courts have been more than 
cooperative. 

In particular I want to express my appreciation to the Honorable 
Frank Truscott, attorney general of the State of Pennsylvania, and 
his able staff for their valuable cooperation and assistance. 

Unless the gentleman from Pennsylvania, Mr. Walter, has some- 
thing further to say, the committee will stand in adjournment at this 
time until further notice. 

(Whereupon, at 12:02 p. m., the hearing was adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Anton, Benjamin David 2984-2895 

(testimony), 2985, 2995-3001 (testimony) 

Aoreau, Alberto 2950 

Atkinson, Sadie 2987, 2988-2989 (testimony) 

Bachman, Irving W 2962-2967 

Bart, Philip 2992 

Beilan, Herman Aaron 3012, 3013-3018 (testimony) 

Berger, David 2981-1984, 3002-3010 

Bliimberg, Albert 2952 

Browder, Earl 2948, 2960 

Clark, Tom 2964, 2965, 2983, 2987, 2990 

Deacon, Thomas 3018-3020 (testimony) 

Devine, John Jack 2964 

Dodd, Bella 2957, 2960, 2961, 2991 

Dolson, James 3010 

Donchin, Sam 2959, 2960 

Elfont, Sophie 2981-2984 (testimony) 

Forer, Lois 2973-2981, 2989-2993 

Frank, Richard 2948 

Funn, Dorothy Kelso 2945-2954 (testimony), 2991 

Gerber, Albert B 3011-3012 

Haas, Solomon 3010, 3011-3012 (testimony^ 

Landy, Samuel H 2986-2987, 2993-2994 

Levitan, A. Harry 3018-3020 

Margolis, Adele Pollock 2989-2993 (testimony) 

Margolis, Nathan Walter 2972, 2973-2981 (testimony) 

McCabe, Louis F 2954, 2955-2962, 2968-2972 

Patterson, WiUiam L 3010 

PerloflF, Carohne Kramer 2993-2994 (testimony) 

PerloflF, David 2985, 2986-2987 (testimony), 2993 

Poul, Franklin 2988-2989 

Reinick, Israel (alias for Isadora Reivich) 2963 

Reivich, Isadore^. 2962-2967 (testimony) 

Roberts, Bill (alias for Isadore Reivich) 2963, 2964 

Rutman, Robert J 3001,3002-3010 (testimony) 

Soler, Esther 2954, 2955-2962 (testimony) 

Soler, William Gordon 2967, 2968-2972 (testimony) 

Strong, Edward 2965 

Truman, President 3008 

Truscott, Frank 3020 

Watson, Goldie Irvin (Irving) 2950 

Weiss, Ben 2965 

Wepman, Sarah Walsh 2960, 2961 

Woolston, W. J 3013-3018 

Organizations 

Abraham Lincoln High School (Philadelphia) 2986 

American Peace Crusade 3008 

American Youth for Democracy 2964 

Associated Hospital Service of Philadelphia 3011 

Atomic Energy Commission 3004 

Audenreid Junior High School (Philadelphia) 2981, 2982 

Baldwin School (Philadelphia) 2993, 2995, 2996 

3021 



3022 INDEX 

Page 

Barnes Foundation (Philadelphia) 2974 

Barratt Junior High School (Philadelphia) 3013 

Barry School (Philadelphia) 3019 

Benjamin Franklin High School (Philadelphia) 2974 

Blaine School (Philadelphia) 3013 

Brown School (Philadelphia) 2990 

Central High School (Philadelphia) 2968, 2973, 3013 

Chicago Peace Congress 3008 

Civil Rights Congress 2965, 2983, 3008, 3010 

Civil Rights Congress, Philadelphia Chapter 2983 

Clara Barton Pubhc School (Philadelphia) 2988 

Columbia University 2996 

Crispin School (Philadelphia) 2990, 3013 

Dailv Worker Press Club 2864, 2983, 3012, 3014 

Darrah School (Philadelphia) 2990 

Department of Pubhc Assistance (Philadelphia) 3011, 3012 

Edward Bok Vocational School (Philadelphia) 296S 

Federation of Electronic Engineers, Chemists, and Technicians 300*1 

Ferguson School (Philadelphia) 2993, 2994, 3013 

Fogg Museum 2973 

Forrest School (Philadelphia) 2990 

Fox Chase School (Philadelphia) 2990 

Francis Read School (Philadelphia) 2956 

Fraukford High School (Philadelphia) 2974,2986 

Germantown Evening High School (Philadelphia) 2969 

Grants High School (Philadelphia) 3013 

Graphic Sketch Club (Philadelphia) 2973,2974 

Harvard 2973 

Holmes Junior High School (Philadelphia) 2996 

Hunter Elementary Public School (Philadelphia) 3011 

Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions. _ 2979, 

2980 
Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions, 

Pennsylvania regional chapter 2979 

Independent Voters' Committee of the Arts and Sciences 2979 

International Workers' Order 3012, 3016 

Jefferson Medical College (Philadelphia) 3002 

John Bartram High School (Philadelphia) 2973, 2974 

Kearney Elementary School (Philadelphia) 2968 

Kensington High School (Philadelphia) 2981 

LaSalle Extension University 2996 

Lincoln School (Philadelphia) 2986 

Loyalty Review Board 2987 

Manhattan Engineer District of Corps of Engineers of the United States 

Army 3004 

Martha Washington School (Philadelphia) 2951 

Mastbaum Vocational School (Philadelphia) 2986 

Maxwell Training School for Teachers (Philadelphia) 2945 

Moffet School (Philadelphia) 2990 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship 2990 

National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions 2979, 3009, 3010 

National Negro Congress 2951 

New York Teachers' Union 2947 

Northwestern School (Philadelphia) 2996 

Northeast High (Philadelphia) 2974 

Overbrook High School (Philadelphia) 2963, 2974 

Peace and Brotherhood Festival 3008, 3009 

Pennsylvania Civil Rights Congress 3010 

Pennsylvania State College 3002 

Penn Treaty Junior High School (Philadelphia) . 2981, 2982 

Philadelphia Board of Education 2956, 2961, 2988 

Philadelphia Council of American-Soviet Friendship 2990 

Philadelphia Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions 2992, 3009 

Philadelphia Council of the American Peace Crusade 3008 

Philadelphia County Board of Education 2991 

Philadelphia Ethical Society 2996 

Philadelphia High School for Girls 2988 



INDEX 3023 

Puge 

Philadelphia Normal School 2968, 2973, 2988, 2990, 2993, 3013, 3018 

Philadelphia Normal School for Girls 2955, 2988 

Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art 2987 

Progressive Citizens of America 2980 

Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Calif 3006, 3007 

Rocky Mountain Arsenal Division of the Chemical Corps 3003 

School District of Philadelphia. 2998 

School of Industrial Art (Philadelphia) 2973 

Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace 2979 

South Philadelphia High School 2982, 2986 

South Philadelphia High School for Girls 2993 

Standard Evening High School (Philadelphia) 2968 

Stella Elkins Fine Arts of Temple Universitv 2974 

Stetson Junior High School (Philadelphia), J 2974, 2981, 2982 

Subversive Activities Control Board 2950 

Sulzberger Junior High School (Philadelphia) 2974, 3018, 3019 

Sunnyland Day Camp, Montgomery County, Pa 3014 

Supreme Court of the United States 2990 

Teachers' Union 2947, 2960, 2961, 2996, 2999-3001 

Teachers' Union (Philadelphia) 2960,2999-3001 

Temple Law School 2996 

Temple University 2963, 2968, 2986, 2988, 2996, 3011, 3018 

Texas Agricultural and INIechanical College 3002 

Thomas Junior High School (Philadelphia) 2982, 2996 

United States Army 3003, 3004, 3009 

United States Geodetic Survey Division of Water Analysis 3002 

Universitv of California at Berkeley, Calif 3002, 3005, 3006 

University of Pennsylvania 2981, 2990, 2993 

Vaux Junior High School (Philadelphia) 2968 

West Philadelphia Chapter, Civil Rights Congress 3010 

West Philadelphia Community Center 2996 

West Philadelphia High School 2963 

West Philadelphia Young Communist League 2964 

William B. Mann School (Philadelphia) 2955, 2956 

Wihiam Penn High School (Philadelphia) 2974, 2986 

William Penn High School for Girls (Philadelphia) 2990 

Young Communist League 2964 

Young Communist League of Eastern Pennsylvania 2964 

PUBLICATIOXS 

The Communist 2948 

Daily Worker 2947 

Philadelphia Inquirer 2997 

o