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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the New York City area. Hearings"

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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 

NEW YORK— PART II 

(YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS) 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGEESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MARCH 16, 1955 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
6U38 WASHINGTON : 1955 





~u 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

AUG 1 1955 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Je., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

n 



CONTENTS 



March 16, 1955: 

Testimony of —  Page 

Leon Wofsy _ 219 

Joseph Bucholt 229 

Robert Fogel __ 236 

Ernest Parent _ 243 

Sam Engler 244 

Index I 

ni 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

^ ^ *T* *f* *f* 3JC *|» 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 
******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees: 

1* *f* »I* *t* •!* f •(* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 
 For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES— NEW 
YOKK-PAKT II (YOUTH OKGANIZATIONS) 



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 16, 1955 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

public hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to notice, at 10:05 a. m., in room 346, Old House Office 
Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter 
(chairman), Edwin E. Willis, and Donald L. Jackson. 

Staff members present: Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk, and 
George C. Williams, investigator. 

The Chairman. The meeting will come to order. 

This hearing is a continuation of the inquiries conducted by this 
committee into the question of infiltration in youth organizations 
by Communists. 

Let the record show I have appointed a subcommittee consisting of 
Mr. Edwin E. Willis of Louisiana, Mr. Donald L. Jackson of Cali- 
fornia, and myself of Pennsylvania, as chairman, for the purposes of 
this hearing. 

Mr. Beale, have you a witness? 

Mr. Beale. Mr. Leon Wofsy. 

The Chairman. Step forward, Mr. Wofsy. Will you hold up your 
right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Wofsy. I do. 

The Chairman. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF LEON WOFSY, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

SAMUEL GRUBER 

Mr. Beale. Will you state your name for the record, please? 

Mr. Wofsy. Leon Wofsy, W-o-f-s-y. 

Mr. Beale. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Wofsy. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Beale. Will counsel please identify himself? 

Mr. Gruber. Yes. My name is Samuel Gruber, G-r-u-b-e-r, from 
Stamford, Conn. 

Air. Chairman, may I respectfully request that photographs of the 
witness not be taken now during the course of the hearing? 

219 



220 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 

The Chairman. Yes. The photographers know the rules, and they 
usually comply with them. 

Mr. Gruber. Mr. Chairman, I am advised by the clerk that at 
this time I could present a motion which I have for the consideration 
of the committee, and I would like to present it, if I may. 

The Chairmam. Of course, this is not the proper place to present 
the motion which you have presented. 

You may proceed, Mr. Beale. 

Mr. Gruber. May I have it in the record? 

The Chairman. It is in the record. I have just stated that this 
is not the proper place to make the motion which has just been made, 
and the motion will be made a part of the record. 

(The document above referred to marked "Exhibit No. 1" for 
identification only, is filed herewith and made a part of the committee 
files.) 

Mr. Gruber. Thank you. 

Mr. Beale. When and where were you born, Mr. Wofsy? 

Mr. Wofsy. I was born in Stamford, Conn., November 23, 1921. 

Mr. Beale. Where do you presently reside? 

Mr. Wofsy. In the Bronx, at 1308 Findlay Avenue. 

Mr. Beale. Will you give us a brief statement of your educational 
training? 

Mr. Wofsy. I went to public school in Stamford, continued at 
New Haven, and graduated from New Haven High School, and I am 
a graduate of the City College of New York. 

Mr. Beale. What year? 

Mr. Wofsy. 1942. 

Mr. Beaue. What has been your record of employment? 

Mr. Wofsy. May I consult with counsel? 

Mr. Beale. Yes; surely. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. I worked at a number of jobs in the field of chemistry 
after getting out of college for a period of approximately — in sum 
total, I would imagine, a year and a half or so. 

Beyond that, I would regard further inquiry into my employment 
as a sphere in which I would not answer on the grounds that to do so 
would violate my rights under the first amendment and would cause 
me to be a witness against myself, and I invoke the privilege of the 
fifth amendment against further answer to that question. 

Mr. Beale. You do invoke that privilege, then? 

Mr. Wofsy. I do. 

Mr. Beale. In other words, you are willing to tell of your employ- 
ment record up to 1944, but you are not willing to disclose what your 
employment has been since that time; is that correct? 

Mr. Wofsy. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Are you the national director of the Communist 
Party youth movement? 

Mr. Wofsy. I would decline to answer that question on the grounds 
that to do so would violate my rights under the first amendment to 
the Constitution, and I also invoke my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment against giving testimony which may be used against me. 

The Chairman. You said, "I would." By that do you mean you 
do? 

Mr. Wofsy. That is so. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 221 

Mr. Beale. Mr. Wofsy, the Daily Worker of April 9, 1946, has an 
article calling attention to meetings of 300 Communist Party clubs in 
New York, and urging the people to hear the outstanding leaders of 
the Communist Party speak at these meetings on the subject, The 
Struggle for Peace and Building the Communist Party. Scheduled 
among the speakers for Bronx County is one Leon Wofsy. Are you 
the Leon Wofsy mentioned in that article? 

Mr. Wofsy. May I consult? 

Mr. Beale. Surely. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. I would decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds as the previous one. 

Mr. Beale. Did you speak for or on behalf of the Communist Party 
during the month of April 1946? 

Mr. Wofsy. Similarly. 

Mr. Beale. Similarly what? 

Mr. Wofsy. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
to do so would violate my rights under the first amendment to the 
Constitution 

The Chairman. Let us save time by saying, "I refuse to answer 
on the grounds I have stated." 

Mr. Wofsy. Yes, I agree to that. 

Mr. Beale. According to information in the files of the committee, 
the Second National Convention of the American Youth for Democ- 
racy was held in New York City June 13-16, 1946. The report of 
that convention reflects that Leon Wofsy, of New York, made a 
report of the resolutions committee on peace policy at the Friday 
morning session. Are you the Leon Wofsy referred to in that report? 

Mr. Wofsy. The answer is the same as previously. 

Mr. Beale. Were you ever affiliated in any manner with the Ameri- 
can Youth for Democracy? 

Mr. Wofsy. The answer is the same as previously. 

Mr. Beale. A pamphlet published by the United May Day Com- 
mittee for May Day 1947 reflects the membership of the United May 
Day Committee, and contains the name of Leon Wofsy, executive 
secretary, New York State American Youth for Democracy. Are 
you the Leon Wofsy mentioned in that pamphlet? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Were you ever a member of the United May Day 
Committee? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Another pamphlet published by the Committee for 
May Day, 1948, reflects the name of Leon Wofsy as executive secre- 
tary, American Youth for Democracy of the New York State Council 
as a member of the May Day Committee for 1948. Are you that 
Leon Wofsy? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. On May 7, 1948, the Civil Rights Congress addressed 
a letter to all Members of Congress to which was attached an open 
letter, signed by numerous people, in opposition to H. R. 5852, then 
known as the Mundt bill. Among those signing that open letter 
appears the name of Leon Wofsy. 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

61438 — 55 2 



222 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 

Mr. Beale. Wait until I ask the question, please. Are you the 
Leon Wofsy referred to in that open letter? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Did you join with the Civil Rights Congress or any 
other organization in opposing any bill to control subversive activities? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Did you ever file an application for a passport with the 
State Department? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I request that the witness be directed 
to answer that question, whether or not he filed an application for a 
passport with the State Department. It seems to me that many 
people have so filed applications for passports, and that is a question 
which is well within the scope of this inquiry. 

The Chairman. Yes, I think the witness certainly should answer. 
I could imagine questions that might be asked in that connection 
which might involve you in crime, but the mere question whether or 
not you have applied for a passport certainly cannot involve you in 
criminal prosecution, and I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Wofsy. May I consult with my attorney? 

Mr. Beale. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. I would answer "Yes," that I did apply. 

Mr. Beale. I show you a photostatic copy of a passport applica- 
tion, and ask you if the signature of Leon Wofsy on that application 
is your signature? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
as previously stated. 

The Chairman. Do you decline to answer? 

Mr. Wofsy. I do, sir. 

Mr. Beale. Will you look at the application and state whether or 
not the photostatic copy of the picture on that is a reasonable likeness 
of yourself? 

Mr. Wofsy. Shall I request each time I want to consult with my 
attorney? 

The Chairman. No. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
as previously indicated. 

Mr. Beale. Was this application for passport granted or denied? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

The Chairman. What is the date of it, Mr. Beale? 

Mr. Beale. It appears to be the 11th of June 1948. 

Mr. Wofsy. I would decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

The Chairman. Do you decline to answer? 

Mr. Wofsy. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Beale. According to an article in the Daily Worker of Juiy 14, 
1948, Leon Wofsy, national educational director of the American 
Youth for Democracy, filed an application for a passport on June 11 
for the purpose of attending the Young Workers Conference and an 
executive meeting of the World Federation of Democratic Youth. 
According to this article the passport had not been issued, and a 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW YORK AREA 223 

protest was filed with the State Department by the American Youth 
for Democracy. Are you the Leon Wofsy referred to in this article? 

Mr. Wofsy. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. Had you made arrangements to attend the World 
Federation of Democratic Youth? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Who made those arrangements? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. In the March 1949 issue of Political Affairs appears an 
article entitled "Fighting for the Needs of the Young Workers," by 
Leon Wofsy. According to Political Affairs, this article was based on 
a report to the national committee of the Communist Party made on 
January 24, 1949. Were you the writer of that article? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Did you make such a report to the national committee 
of the Communist Party on January 24, 1949? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. According to an article in the Daily Worker of April 1, 
1949, the 8 youth leaders from New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and 
California were to meet to consider plans for a new working class youth 
organization. Among those who issued a statement about this meeting 
was Leon Wofsy. Are you the Leon Wofsy mentioned in this article? 

Mr. Wofsy. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that, 
in my opinion, any question in that sphere would interfere with due 
process and any semblance of justice for the Labor Youth League in 
the McCarran proceedings which are now underway and which the 
Labor Youth League is contesting. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you decline to answer on any grounds other than 
that? 

Mr. Wofsy. In my opinion, that is an adequate ground for the time 
being. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question, Mr. Wofsy. 

Mr. Wofsy. I answer it on that ground the same way, as well as on 
the grounds of the first amendment and the fifth amendment privilege 
which I have used previously. 

Mr. Jackson. I interposed that question in order that he might 
not place himself in jeopardy by overlooking the fifth amendment in 
this question. The previously stated grounds I do not consider to 
be legal grounds for refusing to answer the question. 

Mr. Beale. What was the purpose of that meeting? 

Mr. Wofsy. I maintain the same position on all three grounds. I 
would regard this as an inquiry upon an inquiry not provided for by 
the laws of Congress. I think it would be an interference with the 
procedures of Congress 

The Chairman. I would like to remind you that this committee is 
charged with the responsibility of making the American people aware 
of the existence of activities which are not in the best interests of the 
United States. It is not a punitive operation. It is for information. 
That is what we are seeking now. We would be very grateful if you 
would give us assistance in this very patriotic movement which we 
know you can give us. 

Mr. Wofsy. If I may 

The Chairman. This is purely a case of informing the people. I 
am going to ask you, are you a member of the Labor Youth League? 



224 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW YORK AREA 

Mr. Wofsy. I decline to answer that on the same grounds as previ- 
ously stated. 

The Chairman. You are the national chairman of the Labor Youth 
League, are you not? 

Mr. Wofsy. If I may, I believe I have a strong position which we 
believe in deeply, and I believe it is a patriotic position, and I believe 
that it is perfectly in line with the facts. Certainly the Labor Youth 
League hearings have been given extensive publicity, very extensive 
publicity, and it is our understanding — we have consulted with coun- 
sel, and it is our understanding that it is an infringement on the rights 
of Congress 

The Chairman. With what counsel did you confer? Who gave you 
that opinion? 

Mr. Wofsy. We have consulted, if I may consult further at this 
moment — if I may consult at this moment on that question before I 
answer it. 

The Chairman. Yes, surely. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. I have consulted with my attorney, and that position 
was indicated in the motion which Mr. Gruber placed here before the 
committee at the outset. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Beale. Getting back to this meeting, what was the result of 
the meeting? 

Mr. Wofsy. I must refuse to answer that on the same grounds as 
previously indicated, that it does not represent a legitimate question 
within the sphere of this inquiry. 

Mr. Be ale. In addition to that, do you also plead the provisions 
of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Wofsy. If I am so directed, I believe I am also entitled to the 
privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Beale. I ask that he be directed to answer. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer. 

Mr. Wofsy. Yes; I am basing myself, in that case, on all three 
grounds previously indicated. 

Mr. Beale. Mr. Wofsy, isn't it true that this meeting resulted in 
a gathering in the People's Auditorium in Chicago, 111., on May 
28-29, 1949, at which time the national organizing conference for a 
Labor Youth League was launched? 

Mr. Wofsy. I refuse to answer that on exactly the same grounds 
as previously indicated. 

Mr. Beale. Did you attend that meeting in Chicago? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Isn't it true that you were named chairman of the 
national organizing conference for a Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Did you prepare a report of the meeting? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

The Chairman. I think there is a newspaper account of his election 
as chairman; is there not? 

Mr. Beale. I will get to that, Mr. Chairman. 

I show you a photostatic copy of a pamphlet entitled, "For a New 
Youth Organization Dedicated to Education in the Spirit of Socialism," 
which is also called a Report to the Gathering of Youth Leaders which 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 225 

launched the national organizing conference for a Labor Youth 
League at the People's Auditorium in Chicago, 111., May 28-29, 1949. 
W^re you the author of that report? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Doesn't that report reflect the words, "By Leon 
Wofsy"? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. That name appears here. 

The Chairman. Do you contend that that Leon Wofsy and you 
are two different people? 

Mr. Wofsy. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Beale. In an advertisement appearing in the July 28, 1949, 
issue of the Daily Worker, there is mention of a Dimitroff, 
D-i-m-i-t-r-o-f-f, memorial meeting to be held under the auspices 
of the Communist Party of New York State. Listed in the advertise- 
ment as speakers are Benjamin J. Davis, John Gates, and Leon 
Wofsy, chairman, Labor Youth League. Are you the Leon Wofsy 
mentioned hi that advertisement? 

Mr. Wofsy. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. Did you speak at that meeting? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Did you attend that meeting as chairman of the Labor 
Youth League? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. The Daily Worker of August 25, 1949, carries a "Dear 
Ben Gold" column. This column is devoted to pleas by Ben Gold 
for funds for the defense of the 12 Communist leaders. In the column 
appears a letter to Ben Gold which reads: 

We who have just attended the first national leaders' meeting of the national 
organizing conference for a Labor Youth League are proud to second Een Gold's 
motion. We pledge our efforts to win young people for the freedom of Winston, 
Green, and Hall, and for the smashing of the frameup on Foley Square. 

Among the names appearing as having signed that letter is one Leon 
Wofsy. Are you the Leon Wofsy referred to? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask a question? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Counsel, what was the offense for which Ben Gold 
was indicted? 

Mr. Beale. This was a movement to raise funds launched by Ben 
Gold on behalf of the 12 Communist leaders, . 

Mr. Jackson. Was he not later indicted? 

(Conference at the committee table, off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson. Falsification of non-Communist affidavit under the 
Taft-Hartley Act. Thank you. 

Mr. Beale. According to the Daily Worker of December 5, 1949, 
three youth leaders were added to the staff of the national organizing 
conference of the Labor Youth League. This article further states 
that the new leaders joined Leon Wofsy, who was elected national 
chairman at the organizing conference held at Chicago on Memorial 
Day weekend. Are you that Leon Wofsy? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 



226 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 

^ Mr. Beale. According to the Daily Worker of January 12, 1950, 
there was a Bronx County Communist Party Lenin memorial meet- 
ing to be held January 19 at 7:30 p. m. Scheduled as speakers were 
Robert Thompson, Pearl Lawes, Leon Wofsy, chairman of the National 
Labor Youth League. Are you the Leon Wofsy mentioned in that 
article? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Did you speak at the Lenin memorial meeting? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. In the May 1950 issue of Political Affairs appears an 
article entitled, "Toward Unity of the Working Youth for Peace, 
Jobs, and Democracy." This is an article by Leon Wofsy. In the 
article I direct your attention to one sentence which reads: 

Despite the angry attention that the league is already receiving from witch 
hunters, it has begun to answer the vital need in our country for an independent 
youth organization with a working-claoS content and direction, with a program of 
education in the spirit and principles of Marxism, of scientific socialism. 

Do you recall that statement? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. What does that statement indicate? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Did you ever hear of a publication called Challenge? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. Yes. 

Mr. Beale. Is not Challenge the official organ or publication of 
the Labor Youth League? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
previously indicated. 

Mr. Beale. Mr. Chairman, I ask that he be directed to answer. 
The witness has identified it. He said he has heard of it. 

The Chairman. Yes; the witness is directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. I don't believe I have to answer that. It would 
seem to me that it is two entirely different questions: what I heard 
about it, and what I may or may not know about it. 

Mr. Beale. You are directed to answer it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. Well, I must respectfully decline on the grounds 
previously indicated, all three. 

The Chairman. You are not under any compulsion. Do you 
decline to answer that question? 

Mr. Wofsy. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness has stated that he does know of a 
publication called Challenge. I should like to ask the witness the 
extent of his knowledge relative to Challenge. 

Mr. Wofsy. I would decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds as previously indicated. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness has testified that he has knowledge of 
the publication, and I would ask that the witness be directed to 
answer the question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 227 

The Chairman. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wofsy. I would answer that in the following way: I have seen 
the publication many times; and as to any further knowledge of the 
publication, I would decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

The Chairman. Have you contributed anything to the magazine? 

Mr. Wofsy. I would decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Beale. In the May 1950 issue of Challenge appears an article 
entitled "Peace Can Be Won Only If We Fight for It Now." On the 
same page appears a picture, and under the picture the name of 
Wofsy. It is apparent that Wofsy was the author of this article. 
Will you look at this photostatic copy and tell the committee whether 
or not the picture appearing there is a reasonable likeness of yourself? 

Mr. Wofsy. I decline to answer that on the same grounds previously 
indicated. 

Mr. Beale. Does not that article appear on that page of Challenge, 
the article that I previously mentioned? 

The Chairman. Offer in evidence the article. The article is the best 
evidence, Mr. Counsel. 

(The photostatic copy of the article appearing in the May 1950 issue 
of Challenge was made a part of the record.) 

Mr. Beale. According to information in the files of the committee, 
the first national convention of the Labor Youth League was held in 
New York City on November 23-26, 1950. A report of that conven- 
tion reflects the names of those elected to a national council of the 
Labor Youth League. Among those names appears that of Leon 
Wofsy, national chairman. Were you elected to the national council 
of the Labor Youth League in November 1950? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. According to an article in the Daily Worker of July 5, 
1951, there was a meeting held at Park Palace on 110th Street and 
5th Avenue, by the Committee to Defend Roosevelt Ward, Jr. Among 
the scheduled speakers were Claudia Jones and Leon Wofsy, national 
chairman of the Labor Youth League. Are you the Leon Wofsy 
mentioned there? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Did you speak at that meeting? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. The Daily Worker of August 26, 1952, carries an 
article that Leon Wofsy's new 15-cent pamphlet entitled, "Youth 
Fights for Its Future," is now available for distribution. Were you 
the author of such a pamphlet? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. I show you a photostatic copy of that issue of the 
Daily Worker and ask you if you can recognize the picture on there 
as a likeness of yourself. 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. According to an article in the Daily Worker of March 
22, 1954, it is reported that — 

Wofsy proudly stated the Labor Youth League's fraternal relations with the 
Communist Party, as well as the fact that he personally is a Communist. 



228 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 

Were you correctly reported in that article? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

The Chairman. When was that, Mr. Beale? 

Mr. Beale. March 22, 1954. 

The Chairman. Do you know anything about a petition which 
was circulated among teen-agers having to do with peace? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

The Chairman. I think, Mr. Beale, that this is of terrific impor- 
tance. When 50,000 gullible children were prevailed upon by obvi- 
ously Communist leaders to become enmeshed in this international 
conspiracy, it calls for further investigation. I would like to know 
who circulated the petition, what means were used to induce these 
unsuspecting children to sign, how many signed, and who is respon- 
sible for the actual circulation. 

Mr. Beale. I will have it looked into. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Wofsy. That was not a question? 

The Chairman. I was making a speech for your benefit. 

Mr. Wofsy. I wish we had the same opportunity. 

The Chairman. I know it would make no impression, any more 
than yours would make on me. 

Proceed, Mr. Beale. 

Mr. Beale. What are the fraternal relations existing between the 
Labor Youth League and the Communist Party? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer; the same three grounds as previously 
indicated. 

Mr. Beale. The September 1954 issue of Political Affairs is en- 
titled, "Reports and Documents, National Election Conference of the 
Communist Party, New York City, August 7-8, 1954." This issue 
carried an article entitled, "For Democratic Youth Unity," by Leon 
Wofsy, and has a footnote that it was a speech made at the conference. 
Did you attend the national election conference of the Communist 
Party held in New York City in August 1954? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Did you make that report at the conference? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Mr. Wofsy, how long have you been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Wofsy. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. I have no further questions of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Mr. Willis? 

Mr. Willis. No. 

The Chairman. Air. Jackson? 

Mr. Jackson. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman, but I certainly 
hope that the transcript of this witness' testimony will be read by 
every educator in the country, in order that the Labor Youth League 
may be adequately evaluated for what it is. Nothing further. 

Mr. Gruber. May I address the Chair and ask one question? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Gruber. Are these exhibits mentioned by the examiner to be 
made a part of the record? 

The Chairman. We will determine that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 229 

Mr. Gruber. Except the one that you indicated was to be? 

The Chairman. We will determine which of those we will make a 
part of the record for the purpose of bringing home to decent Ameri- 
cans just what this is. 

Mr. Gruber. I just wanted to know which 

The Chairman. We are not concerned so much with the witness* 
testimony as the use of it in connection with information we have. 

Mr. Gruber. I was just inquiring whether all of the exhibits that 
were read from are to be made a part of the record, and you have in- 
dicated that the committee will decide which of them. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Gruber. Thank you. 

Mr. Wofsy. If I may say so, this is so obviously unfair that I 
don't believe it will make much of an impression on young people 

The Chairman. It won't on some people. 

Mr. Wofsy. Who know that they can hear everything the Labor 
Youth League has to say and judge it for themselves, if they go to 
the Labor Youth League office, I would imagine. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

The Chairman. Call another witness. 

Mr. Beale. Joseph Bucholt. 

The Chairman. Will you hold up your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Bucholt. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH BUCHOLT, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, SAMUEL GRUBER 

Mr. Beale. Will you state your name for the record, please? 

Mr. Bucholt. Joseph Bucholt, B-u-c-h-o-l-t. 

Mr. Beale. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Bucholt. I am. 

Mr. Beale. May the record show that the same counsel is repre- 
senting Mr. Bucholt as represented the preceding witness? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Beale. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Bucholt. I was born in the Bronx, N. Y., on April 25, 1920. 

Mr. Beale. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. Bucholt. I now reside in the Bronx, N. Y., at 109 West 
Burnside Avenue. 

Mr. Beale. What has been your educational training? 

Mr. Bucholt. I went to several public schools in Bronx and Man- 
hattan. I was graduated from Tilden High School in Brooklyn. 

Mr. Beale. What year? 

Mr. Bucholt. In 1936. 

Mr. Beale. Did that complete your formal education? 

Mr. Bucholt. I had about half a year in engineering school at 
City College, New York. 

Mr. Beale. What has been your record of employment? 

Mr. Bucholt. Upon graduating from high school, for several years 
I had a job in a hardware establishment and in two real estate offices. 
I spent Z)'i years in the United States Army; and in relation to my 

61438—55 3 



230 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW YORK AREA 

employment after that, I decline to answer on the basis of my rights 
under the first and fifth amendments to the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Beale. I don't want to mispronounce your name. How did 
you pronounce it? 

Mr. Bucholt. Bucholt. 

Mr. Beale. One "h" or two? 

Mr. Bucholt. One. 

Mr. Beale. Did you ever hear of a publication called the Weekly 
Review? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
my rights guaranteed under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Beale. Mr. Chairman, there has been no identification of the 
publication so far. 

The Chairman. He probably knows all about it. That is why he 
has invoked the Constitution. 

Mr. Beale. Undoubtedly he does. 

The Chairman. That is why. 

Mr. Beale. Wasn't the Weekly Review the publication of the 
Young Communist League? 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer on the same constitutional 
grounds. 

Mr. Beale. Let me call your attention to an item appearing in 
the January 27, 1942, issue of the Weekly Review: 

As Comrade Max Weiss, national chairman of the Weekly Review circulation 
drive, has said, it requires the entire energy of our league members to overcome 
this weakness, and increase the Review circulation. There is no single question 
before our YCL that comes before this task, and if our members realize this 
fundamental truth then we will achieve any and all tasks before us. Therefore 
we, the section organizers of the New York State YCL, assume personal respon- 
sibility for organizing and leading the Review circulation drive from February 1 
to May 1 to gain a stable circulation of 18,000 weekly in New York State. 

Going then to the March 31, 1942, issue of the Weekly Review, 
concerning this drive, there appears the following article: 

Bronx Versus Brooklyn 

From our corner of Brooklyn— Brownsville, East New York, and the 18th 
Assembly District — we're taking this opportunity of making public our challenge 
to three brother sections from the Bronx — East Bronx, West Bronx, and North 
Bronx. 

Skipping further down it discloses this article, it is signed by Ruth 
Osherow, Herb Malibow, and Joe Bucholt, 18th A. D. — S. O. Are 
you the Joe Bucholt mentioned in that article? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same as previously stated. 

Mr. Beale. That is, you decline under the privilege of the fifth 
amendment? 

Mr. Bucholt. On the basis of my privileges under the first and 
the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Beale. The Daily Worker of April 9, 1946, contains an article 
calling attention to special meetings of 300 Communist Party clubs 
in New York in which the people are urged to hear the outstanding 
leaders of the Communist Party speak on the subject, The Struggle 
for Peace and the Building of the Communist Party. 

Scheduled among the speakers for Bronx County appear Robert 
Thompson, Alexander Trachtenberg, Joe Bucholt, and others. Are 
you the Joe Bucholt mentioned in that article? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 231 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Were you on April 9, 1946, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Did you speak at any of these Communist Party 
meetings during that week? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. According to the information in the files of the com- 
mittee, the American Youth for Democracy held its second annual 
convention in New York City, June 13-16, 1946, and in the report 
of the proceedings of that convention, one Joe Bucholt was a member 
of the New York State National Council of the AYD. Are you the 
Joe Bucholt mentioned? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Were you at any time a member of the American 
Youth for Democracy? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. According to the Daily Worker of September 20, 1948, 
picketing of the Federal Building at Foley Square, New York City, 
was to begin the next day, the purpose being to demand the dismissal 
of the indictments against the 12 Communist Party leaders. This was 
under the auspices of the New York State division of the Civil Rights 
Congress. 

According to the article, those scheduled to lead the pickets were, 
among others, Joseph Bucholt, executive secretary, New York State 
American Youth for Democracy. Are you the Joseph Bucholt men- 
tioned in the article? 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that on the basis of my rights 
under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Beale. Did you participate in the picketing of the Federal 
Building? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. The Daily Worker of March 31, 1949, carries a news 
item to the effect that Joseph Bucholt, assistant New York State youth 
director of the Communist Party, told United States District Judge 
Harold Medina's law assistant yesterday, young men and women in 
the Communist Party charge the judge is unjustly permitting the 
party and its program to be placed on trial and condemned without 
permitting the jury to hear testimony of the main defense witness, 
William Z. Foster. Are you the Joseph Bucholt mentioned in that 
news item? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. The Daily Worker of July 15, 1949, carries a picture 
entitled, "At the Reunion Dance of Former YCL'ers." Under the 
picture appears the following: 

Joseph Bucholt and Julian Lowitt, leaders of the organizing conference for 
a Labor Youth League, sell honorary memberships in the league to four Com- 
munist Party leaders at a reunion dance of former Young Communist League 
members * * *. 

Are you the Joseph Bucholt mentioned in that article? 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that on the basis of my rights 
under the first and fifth amendments of the United States Constitu- 
tion. 

Mr. Beale. Were you a member of the organizing conference for a 
Labor Youth League? 



232 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW YORK AREA 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Did you sell honorary memberships in the league to 
Communist Party leaders? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. The Daily Worker of August 25, 1949, carries a 
column headed, "Dear Ben Gold." In that column appears the 
following: 

We who have just attended the first national leaders' meeting of the national 
organizing conference for a Labor Youth League are proud to second Ben Gold's 
motion. We pledge our efforts to win young people for the freedom of Winston, 
Green, and Hall, and for the smashing of the frameup on Foley Square. 

Among the signers to the letter appears the name of Joseph Bucholt. 
Are you the Joseph Bucholt mentioned in that? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Did you ever hear of a publication called the Challenge? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Isn't that a publication of the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. On page 6 of the issue of March 1950 appears an 
article about Jose Marti, a Cuban revolutionary hero. The article is 
by Ted Veal and Joe Bucholt. Did you prepare, or take part or 
participate in the preparation of, that article? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. On the same page appears the picture of Ted Veal, 
Joe Bucholt, and Flavio Bravo, a leader of the Cuban Socialist Youth. 
Will you look at the picture and tell the committee if that is a reason- 
able likeness of you? 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that question based on my con- 
stitutional rights as guaranteed under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Beale. According to information in the files of the committee, 
the Labor Youth League held its first national convention on Novem- 
ber 23-26, 1950, in New York City. Did you attend that convention? 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that question based on my rights 
under the first and fifth amendments to the United States Constitu- 
tion, as well as on the ground that hearings in relation to the Labor 
Youth League, as indicated in the motion filed by my attorney this 
morning, are now pending before other bodies. 

The Chairman. Where is the hearing pending? 

Mr. Bucholt. It is pending before the Subversive Activities 
Control Board. 

The Chairman. Have 3^011 been subpenaed as a witness in that 
proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bucholt. No. 

The Chairman. Do you know whether the preceding witness in 
this hearing was subpenaed in that proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that question, based on my 
rights as guaranteed under the first and fifth amendments. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that question, based on my 
rights under the first and fifth amendments. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 233 

The Chairman. These proceedings were brought after the Attorney 
General found this organization, with which it is alleged you have 
been associated, to be a Communist organization; is that not correct? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that, based on my rights under 
the first and fifth amendments. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that, based on my rights under 
the first and fifth amendments. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Beale. 

Mr. Beale. We were talking about the report of the first national 
convention of the Labor Youth League. I want to show you a 
photostatic copy of page 22 of that report, which is an article entitled, 
"Education for Peace, Excerpt From the Report on Education." 
I ask you to look at that and state whether or not that photostatic 
copy says that that article was by Joe Bucholt. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bucholt. Yes; that article says it was by Joe Bucholt. 

The Chairman. Are you the Joe Bucholt who wrote that article? 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Beale. The Daily Worker of December 29, 1950, carries a 
news item about the 15th National Convention of the Communist 
Party, and about meetings held in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and the 
Bronx. According to this article, Joseph Bucholt spoke at the 
Manhattan meeting. Are you the Joseph Bucholt mentioned in the 
article? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same as previously stated. 

Mr. Beale. Did you speak at this Communist Party meeting? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

The Chairman. What was that date? 

Mr. Beale. December 29, 1950. 

According to the Daily Worker of September 26, 1951, a rally was 
to be held the following day sponsored by the Committee to Defend 
Roosevelt Ward, Jr. Among the speakers scheduled were Joseph 
Bucholt, State chairman of the Labor Youth League. Are you the 
Joseph Bucholt mentioned in that article? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Are you acquainted with Roosevelt Ward, Jr.? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. The Daily Worker of June 12, 1952, carries an open 
letter to Claudia Jones and Betty Gannett. The letter closes with 
these words: 

Warmest fraternal greetings. New York State Board, Labor Youth League; 
Joe Bucholt, chairman; Mary Morris, organizational director. 

Are you the Joe Bucholt mentioned there? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Were you the chairman of the New York State board 
of the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Do you know Claudia Jones? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Do you know Betty Gannett? 



234 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 

Mr. Bucholt. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Who is Mary Morris? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. According to the Daily Worker of Wednesday, Janu- 
ary 20, 1954, members and leaders of the Labor Youth League will 
join in celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Daily Worker the 
following Friday. This was a statement supposedly made by Joe 
Bucholt, New York State chairman of the Labor Youth League. 
Are you the Joseph Bucholt mentioned there? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. According to the Daily Worker of February 25, 1954, 
a new national council of the Labor Youth League was elected at its 
second national convention. Joseph Bucholt is listed as a member of 
the new national council. Are you that Joseph Bucholt? 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that, based on my constitutional 
rights as guaranteed under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Beale. According to the Daily Worker of March 7, 1955, 
Robert Fogel was elected as State chairman of the Labor Youth 
League to succeed Joseph Bucholt, who had served 4 years in that 
capacity. Are you the Joe Bucholt mentioned there? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. The Daily Worker of March 10, 1955, carries an 
article in which appears the following: 

The convention, on behalf of the national membership of the LYL, said fare- 
well to the former State chairman of the New York State organization, Joseph 
Bucholt, who was released from activity in the LYL and the national youth 
movement. Mr. Bucholt was paid tribute to by the delegates with speeches and 
gifts and warmly saluted for his many years of service to American youth and 
the Labor Youth League. 

Are you the Joseph Bucholt referred to in that article? 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that, based on my constitutional 
rights as guaranteed under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Beale. What does the article mean when it says you were 
released from activity in the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. Are you today active in the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Isn't it true, Mr. Bucholt, that you were released from 
activity in the Labor Youth League to take a position of importance 
with the Communist Party underground? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
my rights as guaranteed under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Beale. Are you today a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Bucholt. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Beale. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. When were you commissioned in the Army, 
Mr. Bucholt? 

Mr. Bucholt. I was commissioned, I think it was, the summer of 
1943. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 235 

The Chairman. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
the oath of allegiance was administered? 

Mr. Bucholt. I decline to answer that question on the basis of my 
constitutional rights as guaranteed under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Willis. Did you take an oath of allegiance at the time. 

Mr. Bucholt. I did. 

The Chairman. As a matter of fact, at that very moment you were 
an organizer for one of the Communist organizations; were you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bucholt. Without relinquishing any of my rights under the 
fifth amendment and first amendment of the Constitution, I was fully 
100 percent of my time, thinking and activity, devoted to service in 
the United States Army and in the efforts to defeat the Nazi armies 
which we were fighting. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Beale. He still hasn't answered the question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Was the oath of allegiance which you took at that 
time taken in good faith? 

Mr. Bucholt. Absolutely. 

Mr. Jackson. In the event of hostilities as between this country 
and the Soviet Union, would you again take such an oath in good faith? 

Mr. Bucholt. I have taken the oath under good faith. I always 
take oaths of allegiance and loyalty to my country in good faith, and 
I reject and feel that the question as posed in relation to conflict 
between the United States and the Soviet Union is an unreal one, and 
one which stems from, and is part of an anti-Soviet war hysteria, which 
many forces in our country are seeking to perpetrate at this time. 

Mr. Jackson. That is a very fine statement. It does not, of course, 
answer the question which I asked, whether or not in the event of 
possible hostilities between this country and the Soviet Union, would 
you take in good faith such an oath of allegiance as might be required? 

Mr. Bucholt. I answered that question. 

Mr. Jackson. No. Let the record show you did not answer it. 
You gave a very evasive and roundabout reply, but it was in no sense 
an answer. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. You have testified, and you just stated, that you 
always take an oath in good faith. If that is a fact, why don't you 
help us in what we are trying to do? We are not trying to prosecute 
anyone. We are not trying to get anyone into any trouble. We are 
just trying to let the young people of this country know that there are 
serpents creeping about. That is all. If you took the oath in good 
faith, why don't you tell us what you know? Why don't you answer 
these questions? 

Mr. Bucholt. My record stands on itself in relation to my devotion 
to my country and to the young generation. 

The Chairman. Any more witnesses, Mr. Beale? 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Beale. Robert Fogel. 

The Chairman. Will you hold up your right hand, Air. Fogel? 
Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Fogel. I do. 



236 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT FOGEL, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

SAMUEL GRUBER 

Mr. Be ale. Will you state your name for the record, please? 

Mr. Fogel. Robert Fogel, F-o-g-e-1. 

Mr. Beale. Let the record show that the same counsel is represent- 
ing Mr. Fogel as represented the two preceding witnesses. 

When and where were you born? 

Mr. Fogel. I was born in New York City on July 1, 1926. 

Mr. Beale. Where do you presently reside? 

Mr. Fogel. In New York City. 

Mr. Beale. Do you have any objection to giving us the street 
address? 

Mr. Fogel. 609 West 151st Street. 

Mr. Beale. What has been your educational training? 

Mr. Fogel. I went to various public schools in New York City. 
I graduated from Stuyvesant High School, and I graduated from 
Cornell University in June of 1948. 

Mr. Beale. Did you ever hear of a publication called New 
Foundations? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question under the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Beale. According to the spring 1948 issue of New Foundations, 
Robert Fogel of Cornell University is listed as one of the collegiate 
editors. Are you the Robert Fogel mentioned there? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
as I stated previously. 

Mr. Beale. The same issue contains a short story entitled "Mostly 
Love Stories," by Robert Fogel. Are you that Robert Fogel? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. The same issue lists the names of the contributors, and 
the listing reads: 

Robert Fogel, a senior at Cornell University, is president of the Marxist 
Cultural Society there. 

Are you that Robert Fogel? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Beale. While a student at Cornell University, were you pres- 
ident or affiliated in any manner with the Marxist Cultural Society? 

Mr. Fogel. When I was a student at Cornell, I was active, as many 
students are, in all kinds of scholastic and extracurricular activities. 
I might say that was a period of time when young people were not as 
intimidated as they are today by committees such as this, and were 
much less afraid of entering into debate on all kinds of public issues. 

The Chairman. Why do you suppose the young people are afraid 
today? 

Mr. Fogel. I think the whole past number of years has been one 
in which witch hunting stemming from 

The Chairman. We are not witch hunting. We are Communist 
hunting. 

Mr. Fogel. That is your opinion. My opinion is that this com- 
mittee and many other committees are carrying out activities which 
are stifling democratic thinking 

The Chairman. Let's get the record straight. This committee is 
doing nothing of the sort. The Congress of the United States, becom- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW YORK AREA 237 

ing aware of the existence of this movement after a long time, when it 
should have been obvious that there was a movement afoot to under- 
mine this country, created this committee to make inquiry into these 
activities so that the young people in America could be made aware of 
the existence of these movements. The Congress of the United States 
in its wisdom, charged with the responsibility of securing this Nation, 
has set up this committee. 

You are a college graduate. Why don't you come clean here? 
Why don't you help us develop the truth? 

Mr. Fogel. I am clean. I came clean and 1 am trying to help you 
develop the truth. 

The Chairman. Good. I am glad to hear it. 

You said you were going to help us develop the truth. Were 
you a lecturer at Camp Unity at any time? 

Mr. Fogel. I do not think you are really interested in getting at 
the truth, or else 

The Chairman. I want to know the truth about that. Did you 
ever lecture at Camp Unity? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Fogel. Under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Jackson. I think there is a question pending. The witness 
has stated that he entered into all sorts of collegiate and extracur- 
ricular movements on the campus. 

Mr. Fogel. Activities. 

Mr. Jackson. Activities on the campus. The question which is 
pending is, Did you enter specifically into Communist Party activities 
while on the campus? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. I don't see 

Mr. Jackson. What you see about it does not make a bit of 
difference at this moment. The question has been answered. It is 
within the scope of the jurisdiction of this committee to ask. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Beale. 

Mr. Beale. Now will you answer my question, please? 

Mr. Fogel. I am not sure what question you are referring to. 

Mr. Beale. I asked you if at any time while you were attending 
Cornell University you were the president of or affiliated in any 
manner with the Marxist Cultural Society at that university. 

Mr. Fogel. I would like to indicate that I was active in many 
extracurricular activities 

Mr. Beale. You indicated all that before. Now will you answer 
my question, please? 

Mr. Fogel. Of which I am proud. 

I decline. 

The Chairman. Answer this question. 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer this specific question, as I feel it 
is an invasion of my rights under the first amendment to the Consti- 
tution, which guarantees me free speech and assembly, and I think 
that kind of question violates that right and helps to create this 
atmosphere of intimidation which makes many young people afraid 
to enter into that kind of discussion and debate today. 

Mr. Jackson. You mean, then, they are not afraid to enter into 
an organization at the present time which has been declared to be 



238 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 

subversive bv the Congress of the United States, the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Fogel. What I mean is that over the past number of years, 
through the activities — what has commonly been known and referred 
to as McCarthyism — an atmosphere has been created in which young 
people have been intimidated, bullied, so as not to take advantage of 
the opportunities that they had or that I had, for example, when I 
was at college, to learn through discussion and debate of all kinds of 
public issues. 

The Chairman. Then as I understand you, there are now fewer 
students who are members of the organizations about which you have 
been asked; is that it? 

Mr. Fogel. No; you misunderstand me. I am talking about all 
kinds of activities. 

The Chairman. I am talking about one particular activity, Com- 
munist activity, and for the first time I have heard someone say that 
our committee has really succeeded in accomplishing something. I am 
very happy that we have. 

Mr. Fogel. They have succeeded in curtailing academic freedom 
and democratic rights, in my opinion. 

The Chairman. Academic freedom designed — never mind. 

Mr. Fogel. If you will read the New York Times 

The Chairman. There is no question pending. 

Proceed, Mr. Beale. 

Mr. Beale. In order that there is no misunderstanding and in 
order that the record is absolutely clear, are you relying on the first 
amendment in your refusal to answer the last question? 

Mr. Fogel. I think that last question is obviously a violation of the 
first amendment. 

Mr. Beale. And you are relying on that solely? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beale. We just want to make the record clear. 

Mr. Fogel. I don't know what you mean by rely on that. Can 
you explain that? 

Mr. Beale. You are the one who used the first amendment. You 
ought to know what you are doing. 

The Chairman. That is immaterial, Mr. Beale. The witness has 
answered the question by stating that he refuses to answer because 
of the constitutional protection given against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Beale. No, sir; he hasn't. He only used the first amendment. 

The Chairman. Only the first amendment? 

Mr. Fogel. I said I felt that this question was a violation of the 
first amendment. I think it is an improper question. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Fogel. I think it violates other parts of the Constitution as 
well. 

Mr. Beale. Are you pleading other parts of the Constitution? 

Mr. Fogel. I am pleading — first of all, I am indicating — I don't 
know what you mean by "pleading," exactly. 

Mr. Beale. You have counsel there. You may confer with him. 

Mr. Fogel. As I understand, you asked a question, and I indicated 
that in my opinion that was an improper question. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you decline to answer that? 

Mr. Fogel. Yes, I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 239 

Mr. Jackson. Upon what grounds do you decline to answer it? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer it, first of all, as I previously indi- 
cated, on the grounds that I think it is improper and violates the first 
amendment. I also decline to answer it under the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Beale. 

Mr. Beale. According to the information in the files of the com- 
mittee, there was issued a call for a Conference on Democracy in 
Education to be held in New York City, December 17-18, 1949. 
According to this call, Robert Fogel, New York State chairman of the 
student conference for the Labor Youth League, is listed as one of the 
sponsors. Are you the Robert Fogel referred to in that article? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
that I previously mentioned. 

Mr. Beale. Were you a member of the student conference for the 
Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. According to an article in the Daily Worker of Monday, 
August 15, 1949: 

Last Thursday, a gang attacked the speaker's stand at an outdoor rally, where 
Robert Fogel, chairman of the student division of the Communist Party, was 
speaking. 

Are you the Robert Fogel mentioned in that article? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
that I previously mentioned. 

Mr. Beale. Were you the chairman of the student division of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. According to an article in the Daily People's World 
of November 22, 1949, there was a walkout of students at the New 
York City College. The following appears in this article: 

Robert Fogel, organizational secretary of the student division of the New 
York Communist Party, and Jack Cohen, a Jewish youth leader, described the 
situation in the June 1949 issue of Jewish Life. 

Are you the Robert Fogel referred to there? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the grounds which 
I have previously mentioned. 

Mr. Beale. Were you the organizational secretary of the student 
division of the New York Communist Party? 

Mr. Fogel. I also decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Beale. In the summer 1949 issue of New Foundations appears 
an article entitled "Free Our Schools," by Robert Fogel, and a foot- 
note to the article appears: 

Mr. Fogel, a 19-18 graduate of Cornell University, is now organizational secre- 
tary for the student division of the New York Communist Part} 7 . 

Are you the Robert Fogel referred to in that article? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Beale. Did you ever hear of a publication called Challenge? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. Isn't that the publication of the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. In the May 1950 issue of Challenge appears an article 
entitled, "A Better Future for Students," by Bob Fogel. Did you 
write that article? 



240 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. The article deals with the second World Student Con- 
gress to be held in Czechoslovakia, and the following is quoted from 
the article: 

The Congress — 

and that refers to the second World Student Congress — 

will help to expose the lies about the Soviet Union which are sold as fact in our 
schools. 

Did you write that? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. What did you mean when you said, "the lies about 
the Soviet Union which are sold as fact in our schools"? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. According to information in the files of the committee, 
the First National Convention of the Labor Youth League was held 
in New York City, November 23-26, 1950. The report of that con- 
vention states that Bob Fogel, among others, had been elected to a 
national council to lead the Labor Youth League. Are you the 
Robert Fogel mentioned in that? 

Mr. Fogel. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Were you ever elected to membership on the national 
council of the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Fogel. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. According to the Daily Worker of January 31, 1951, 
leaders of the New York Labor Youth League pledged active support 
to the circulation of the Daily Worker. Among those who pledged 
their support appears the name of Bob Fogel. Are you the Bob Fogel 
referred to? 

Mr. Fogel. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. According to the Daily Worker of September 10, 1952, 
an investigation of the Board of Education of New York City was 
referred to by the National Council of the Arts, Sciences and Pro- 
fessions, and the New York State council of the Labor Youth League, 
as a witch hunt. The same article quotes Robert Fogel, Labor Youth 
League student director, as demanding that the McCarran committee 
immediately discontinue its witch hunt and leave this city, and 
further quotes Fogel as saying: 

Using the inquisition as their weapon, lies and slander as their ammunition, 
stool pigeons as their witnesses, the committee hopes to be able to smash tho 
unions and other democratic organizations of teachers. 

Are you the Robert Fogel who wrote that article? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. According to the Daily Worker of February 25, 1954, 
the Second National Convention of the Labor Youth League elected a 
new national council. Among those elected to the council was one 
Robert Fogel. Are you the Robert Fogel referred to? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. Were you elected a member of the national council of 
the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW YORK AREA 241 

Mr. Beale. In the Daily Worker of April 12, 1954, appears an 
article entitled, "Freedom Rallies To Be Held This Week on Many 
College Campuses." This article is written by Robert Fogel. 

The Chairman. When was that? 

Mr. Beale. April 12, 1954. 

According to the article, the Labor Youth League issued 20,000 
copies of the statement urging students to reject the "big lie" that 
communism menaces America, and to unite to defend academic 
freedom and the Bill of Rights. Were you the author of that article? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question. 

The Chairman. What information have we concerning those rallies 
on the college campuses? Were they actually held? 

Mr. Beale. I haven't checked on that. This is the notice that 
they would be held. 

The Chairman. Let us complete the investigation and, wherever 
they were held, inform the college authorities the source of the 
inspiration for the meetings. 

Mr. Beale. That will be done. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Beale. The Sunday Worker of July 4, 1954, carries an article 
entitled, "Draft Program of the Communist Party." This article 
was written by Robert Fogel. It is a review of the Communist Party 
program which is entitled "The American Way — to Jobs, Peace, and 
Democracy." Were you the author of that article? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same ground. 

Mr. Beale. In the March 7, 1955, issue of the Daily Worker 
appears a news article to the effect that Robert Fogel was the newly 
elected chairman of the New York State Labor Youth League, suc- 
ceedingJoseph Bucholt. Are you the Robert Fogel referred to there? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Beale. Were you elected chairman of the New York State 
Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Fogel. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Are you presently the chairman of that organization? 

Mr. Fogel. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Are you today a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline to answer that question under the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Beale. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Fogel. I decline for the same reason. I think that violates 
my constitutional rights, and not only mine but many other young 
Americans. 

Mr. Beale. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. Fogel. I would like to say something before 

Mr. Beale. You are excused. Step down. 

Mr. Willis. I refer to the article Mr. Beale questioned you about, 
appearing in the Worker, Sunday, July 4, 1954, wherein one Fogel 
quoted Robert Thompson as saying: 

In all truth we can say that the forces that win the youth of our country will 
win our country. 



242 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW TORE AREA 

Do you agree to that? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fogel. I am not clear on that question. Could you indicate 
what you are trying to get at? 

Mr. Willis. The article quoted states— and I will not take it 
out of context; I will read the two sentences: 

Work among j^outh is not just another important field of work for our party — 

meaning the Communist Party — 

and for the progressive forces; it is a decisive field of work. In all truth we can 
say that the forces that win the youth of our country will win our country. 

I ask you, do you agree to that statement? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fogel. Are you interested in my opinion, on what I think 
on this question? 

Mr. Willis. I will be frank with you, my next question was going 
to be: Did you participate, as the article indicates, in winning the 
youth of the country to the draft program of the Communist Party, 
which is the title of the article you are alleged to have written? 

Mr. Fogel. If you want my opinion on the problems confronting 
young people in our country today and what I think they should do 
about it, I will be very glad to answer it. 

The Chairman. We know the answer without putting you to that 
trouble. 

Mr. Fogel. If the question is trying to undermine my constitu- 
tional privileges, I won't. 

Mr. Willis. I don't care for your opinion generally. 

Mr. Fogel. I thought that was one of the reasons I was called 
here. 

Mr. Jackson. If that was one of the reasons, the committee and 
the Congress and the country certainly have not benefited to any de- 
gree by your answers. 

Mr. Fogel. I think if I had been given a full and fair opportunity 
to present my ideas and point of view, and not just — I think anyone 
who was called before the committee would have benefited. 

Mr. Jackson. If you had answered the questions which have been 
put to you, you would have done a much more rapid and greater 
service to the country than by the delivery of propaganda speeches 
you might care to deliver. 

This committee has listened for many years to everything that you 
might be expected to deliver in the way of a speech. We have been 
harangued, vilified, much the same as you would do, if you had the 
opportunity. I, for one, do not intend that you shall have an oppor- 
tunity to use this committee as a sounding board for the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Fogel. I didn't ask to come before this committee; I was 
subpenaed. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Jackson. And quite rightfully. I think that is one of the best 
subpenas we have issued. 

Mr. Fogel. I think that if this committee wants to get at the truth 
and not to get excited because students had academic freedom, about 
which apparently the chairman is very excited, and I think his reaction 
to that 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW YORK AREA 243 

The Chairman. I am excited because I know a lot of very decent 
college students 

Mr. Fogel. And so do I. 

The Chairman. Who have been imposed upon by your ilk. I 
would like to have the youngsters of this country know just exactly 
who inspired the sort of thing that apparently was held last year. 
That is all. 

Any more witnesses, Mr. Beale? 

Mr. Fogel. If you want to give me credit for inspiring activities 
for academic freedom, I think that is very good, and I think that is 
one of the most democratic, patriotic things that anyone can do. 

The Chairman. That is enough. 

The next witness, Mr. Beale. Have you any more witnesses? 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Beale. Ernest Parent. 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

The Chairman. Hold up your right hand, Mr. Parent. Do you 
solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Parent. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ERNEST PARENT, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, SAMUEL GRUBER 

Mr. Beale. Let the record show the same counsel who has ap- 
peared for the preceding witnesses appears for this witness. 

Will you state your name for the record? 

Mr. Parent. My name is Ernest Parent, P-a-r-e-n-t. 

Mr. Beale. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Parent. I was born in Montreal, Canada, October 2, 1919. 

Mr. Beale. Where do you presently reside? 

Mr. Parent. I live at 1049 Fox Street, Bronx, N. Y. 

Mr. Beale. What has been your educational training? 

Mr. Parent. If you mean my formal educational background, I 
have gone to various public schools in and around New York City, 
and went to high school for a period of time but did not graduate. 
That has been the extent of my formal education. 

Mr. Beale. Going back just a minute, what was the date and place 
of your birth? 

Mr. Parent. October 2, 1919. 

Mr. Beale. Where? 

Mr. Parent. Montreal, Canada. 

Mr. Beale. When did you come to the United States? 

Mr. Parent. I don't recall the exact month, but I believe it was 
around August of 1925. I don't want to be held to that, however. 
I believe that is the approximate date. 

The Chairman. Give us the best of your recollection. 

Mr. Beale. Have you resided in the United States continuously 
since then? 

Mr. Parent. I have." 

Mr. Beale. Have you ever filed an application to become a citizen 
of the United States? 

Mr. Parent. I have. 



244 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 

Mr. Beale. When and where? 

Mr. Parent. I filed several applications. 

Mr. Beale. When did you file and where did you file the first one? 

Mr. Parent. Let me answer the question, Counsel, in my own way. 

Mr. Beale. I will ask the questions, please. 

Mr. Parent. I filed an application before I entered into the Army. 
I believe the date was around 1940. I became a citizen, however, in 
1943 — I believe that is the date — in the Army, Chatham County, Ga. 

Mr. Beale. What has been your employment record? 

Mr. Parent. I started going to work in, I would say, the year 1935. 
I have held various positions and have done many jobs — all of them, 
I assure you, honest. I have been a metal worker, a furrier, a laundry 
worker, a hospital worker, salesman, laborer. 

Mr. Beale. Where are you now employed? 

Mr. Parent. At the moment I am unemployed. 

Mr. Beale. Where were you last employed? 

Mr. Parent. I would refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that I believe that it would leave me open to prosecution and possible 
persecution. Therefore, I refuse to answer that question for the very 
reasons stated under the fifth amendment. It would leave me open 
to incrimination. 

Mr. Beale. Over what period of time does the employment cover 
which you don't want to tell us about? 

The Chairman. I think that is immaterial. 

Are you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Parent. I decline to answer that question on the very same 
grounds. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. There is no reason for 
our wasting time. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

The Chairman. Do you have another witness? 

Mr. Beale. One more. Sam Engler. 

The Chairman. Hold up your right hand, Mr. Engler. Do you 
solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Engler. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAM ENGLER, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

SAMUEL GRUBER 

Mr. Beale. Let the record show the same counsel who has appeared 
for the preceding witnesses appears for this witness. 

State your name for the record, please. 

Mr. Engler. Sam Engler, E-n-g-1-e-r. 

Mr. Beale. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Engler. I was born in New York City, June 27, 1920. 

Mr. Beale. Where do you presently reside? 

Mr. Engler. 506 West 122d Street, Manhattan, New York City. 

Mr. Beale. What has been your education and training? 

Mr. Engler. Public schools in Brooklyn, Boys High School in 
Brooklyn, and City College of New York. 

Mr. "Beale. When? 

Mr. Engler. When what? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW YORK AREA 245 

Mr. Beale. In City College of New York. When did you finish 
there? 

Mr. Engler. I did not graduate. I left in 1941. 

Mr. Beale. What has been your record of employment? 

Mr. Engler. I have worked most of the time as a publicity writer. 

Mr. Beale. Where have you worked? 

Mr. Engler. I work now at Yeshiva University. 

Mr. Willis. Where is that? 

Mr. Engler. New York. 

Mr. Beale. According to the Daily Worker of March 8, 1954, the 
first session of the People's Conference to Repeal the McCarran Act 
was held in Washington, D. C, the previous day. Among the 
speakers at that meeting were William L. Patterson, Carl Marzani, 
and Sam Engler, a New York State Labor Youth League leader. Are 
you the Sam Engler mentioned in the article? 

Mr. Engler. I decline to answer under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Beale. Were you a member of the New York State Labor 
Youth League? 

Mr. Engler. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Are you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Engler. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Engler. The same answer. 

Mr. Beale. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. Were you the educational director of the New York 
State Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Engler. The same answer. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. Willis. No. 

The Chairman. That is all. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Beale. That concludes the hearing, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The meeting is adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 11:40 a. m., the hearing was adjourned, subject to 
call.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Bravo. Flavio 232 

Bucholt, Joseph 229-235 (testimony). 241 

Cohen, Jack 239 

Davis, Benjamin J 225 

Engler, Sam 244-245 (testimony) 

Fogel, Robert 234, 235, 236-243 (testimony) 

Foster, William Z 231 

Gannett, Betty 233 

Gates, John 225 

Gold, Ben 225, 232 

Gruber, Samuel 219, 229, 236, 243, 244 

Jones, Claudia 227, 233 

Lawes, Pearl 226 

Lov itt, Julian 23 1 

Malibow, Herb 230 

Marti, Jose 232 

Marzani, Carl 245 

Morris, Marv 233, 234 

Osherow, Ruth 230 

Parent, Ernest 243-244 (testimony) 

Patterson, William L 245 

Thompson, Robert 226, 230, 241 

Trachtenberg, Alexander 230 

Veal, Ted 232 

Weiss, Max 230 

Wofsy, Leon 219-229 (testimony) 

Organizations 

American Youth for Democracy 221-223, 231 

Camp Unity 237 

Civil Rights Congress 221, 222, 231 

Committee to Defend Roosevelt Ward, Jr 227, 233 

Conference on Democracy in Education 239 

Cuban Socialist Youth 232 

Labor Youth League 222-229, 231-234, 239-241, 245 

Marxist Cultural Society 236, 237 

National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions 240 

United May Day Committee 221 

World Federation of Democratic Youth 222, 223 

World Student Congress 240 

Young Communist League 220, 231 

Young Workers Conference 222 

Publications 

Challenge 226, 227, 232, 239 

Jewish Life 239 

New Foundations 236, 239 

Political Affairs 223, 226, 228 

Weekly Review 230 

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