Skip to main content

Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Philadelphia area. Hearing"

See other formats


INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
PHILADELPHIA AREA— Part 5 




HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JULY 30, 1954 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OPFICB 
4''168 WASHINGTON : 1954 



Boston Public Library 
'uperintcndont of Documents 

NOV 2 4 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER,fMissouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, jR.,vTennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

Courtney E. Owens, Chief Investigator 

II 



CONTENTS 



Fags 

Julv 30, 1954, testimony of Wilbur Lee Mahaney _ 6773 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congeess 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un- A.merican 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES : 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent,, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to thie 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 
******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees: 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
.«X5ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 

(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
■•aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
.-attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
PHILADELPHIA AEEA— Part 5 



FRIDAY, JULY 30, 1954 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. O. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pm'suant to call, at 10:36 a. m., in the caucus room, 362, Old 
House Office Building, Hon. Harold H. Velde (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Harold H. Velde 
(chairman), Donald L. Jackson, Gordon H. Scherer (appearance 
shown in transcript), Francis E. Walter, Morgan M. Moulder (ap- 
pearance shown in transcript), and Clyde Doyle (appearance shown 
in transcript). 

Staff members present: Robert L. Kunzig, counsel; and Earl 
Fuoss, investigator. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

Let the record show I have appointed a subcommittee consisting of 
Mr. Jackson of California, ]Mr. Walter of Pennsylvania, and myself 
of Illinois, as chairman, for the purposes of this hearing. 

Mr. Counsel, will you make a statement regarding the purpose and 
nature of this hearing? 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mr. Chairman, on February 16, 1954, there appeared 
before this committee one Wilbur Lee Mahaney, Jr., a teacher from 
the Philadelphia Public Schools who was subpenaed to testify about 
his knowledge concerning Communist activities in the Philadelphia, 
Pa., area and to give us the benefit of the sum total of his knowledge 
on that subject. 

He came before the committee and admitted that he had been a 
member of the Communist Party but refused to answer any further 
questions. 

He was then dismissed from the stand. 

Thereafter, on May 11, 1954, after a unanimous vote by the com- 
mittee itself, the House of Representatives, by a vote of 346 to 0, 
cited Wilbur Lee Mahaney, Jr., for contempt of Congress. That was 
in Report 1580 and the resolution adopted that day was House Reso- 
lution 535, as I said, by a vote of 346 to 0. 

The matter is even now pending in the hands of the United States 
attorney for the District of Columbia. 

Thereafter, and very recently, one of the members of the staff of 
this committee was contacted by Dr. Mahaney who said that he 
wished to come before the committee and answer all questions. The 

6773 



6774 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

committee then received a written communication from Dr. Mahaney 
which I have marked as "Mahaney Exhibit No. 1" for identification. 
This is a letter signed by W. L. Mahaney, Jr., dated Jul}^ 2G, 1954, 
and reads as follows: 

Dear Chairman Veldk: On my own initiative I have decided to ask the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities for permission to appear before it to answer 
fully and freely all c|uestion.s relative to the inquiry at hand. On grounds of 
conscience and loyalty to the memory of a dead person, I previously had refused 
to answer any inquiries other than a'^out myself. 

I took this position l:ecause of a false sense of loyalty, I believe, and also because 
I was ill advised to do so. I shoulti like to get this matter cleared up permanently, 
once and for all, and if any information I have will accomplish this T stand ready 
and willing to give it to the best of my recollection. I am taking this position 
today without the advice of counsel. 

I cio not wish to appear to be setting any conditions for this hearing, but I would 
personally prefer an executive session, if agreeable to the committee. 

Thanking you for this con.sideration, I am, 
Sincerely j-ours, 

W. L. Mahaney, Jr. 

The committee then met and voted that because Dr. Mahaney 
had been heard in public session that his present testimony should 
be in public session, and he was invited to come if he desired to come. 

His appearance here this morning is without subpena. It is a 
voluntary appearance. He is here on his own responsibility. 
''. May I call the witness, sir? 

Mr. Velde. Before you call the witness, let the record show that 
Mr. Scherer, of Ohio, has arrived and is included in the subcommittee 
that the chairman appointed. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. Velde. Call your witness. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I call Dr. Wilbur Lee Mahaney. 

Mr. Velde. Will you raise your right hand. Dr. Mahaney? 

In the testimony you are about to give before this committee, do 
you solemnly swear you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Mahaney. I do. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Will you please state your full name, sir? 

TESTIMONY OF WILBUR LEE MAHANEY, JR. 

Mr. Mahaney. My name is Wilbur Lee Mahaney, Jr. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. May I direct one question to the witness at this 
time? 

. Mr. Velde. Yes. 

- Mr. Jackson. Have you been promised any reward or inducement 
or immunity for 3^our appearance here this morning? 

Mr. Mahaney. Definitely not; I was told to the contrary. 

Mr. Velde. Let the record show that Mr. Doyle, of California, 
has arrived and is also included in the subcommittee appointed by me. 

(Representative Clyde Doyle entered the hearing room at this 
•point.) 

- Mr. KuNziG. What is your residence, sir? 
. Mr. Mahaney. 704 Main Street, Trappe, Pa. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 6775 

Mr. KuNziG. You were present in the hearing room and heard the 
statement that I made for the record just a few moments ago? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was my statement correct? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is right. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You are testifying here this morning, voluntarily; 
is that right? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is right. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And you communicated with the committee and asked 
for the opportunity to appear? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is true. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I asked you, did I not, at that time, whether you were 
represented by counsel and said that you previously had been repre- 
sented by Mr. Rahill, ^ of the Philadelphia bar, and that I of course 
would wish to contact Mr. Rahill, and I asked if he still represented 
you and you said that he did not. 

Mr. Mahaney. You asked me if I was being represented bj^ counsel 
and I said no, that this appearance I took was on my own initiative. 
I don't know exactly what to say about his status inasmuch as when 
I decided to do this I did it without his advice or counsel or consulta- 
tion. I merely notified him by telegram that I was taking this step. 

Mr. KuNziG. You know, of course, under the rules of the com- 
mittee — and I know that you are familiar with them — that you 
have a right to have counsel, and I take it that you are desirous of 
testifying this morning without counsel. 

Mr. Mahaney. I am doing this on my own responsibilit3^ 

Mr. KuNZiG. You do not wish counsel this morning? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. I read into the record this morning a letter marked 
"Mahaney Exhibit No. 1," for identification. Was that a letter 
which you sent to the chairman of this committee? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is the letter. 

Mr. KuNZiG. That is the letter? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I offer into evidence the document 
marked "Mahaney Exhibit No. 1" for identification, the letter sent 
by Dr. Mahaney to this committee. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be received in the record at 
this point. 

(Letter dated July 26, 1954, addressed to Committee on Un- 
American Activities, from W. L. Mahaney, Jr., was marked 
"Mahaney Exhibit No. 1" for identification, and received in 
evidence.) ^ 

Mr. Velde. Let the record show that Mr. Moulder, of Missouri, 
has arrived and is also included in the subcommittee I have 
appointed. 

(Representative Morgan M. Moulder entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Mahaney, would you explain for the committee 
the circumstances surrounding your change of attitude and would 
you explain your position regarding your testimony before and yom* 
testimony today? 

1 William Allen Rahill. 

2 Read into record on p. 6774, and retained in committee files. 

40168—54 — pt. 5 2 



6776 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes ; I will be very glad to explain that. 

I never had complete assurance in my own conscience that I had 
done the right thing, although at the time I did believe that I was 
acting out of conscience. As I explained to the committee I had no 
intention of showing any disregard to the committee or its members, 
but that in good conscience I did not feel that I could discuss anyone's 
activities except my own, especially since one of the persons I knew 
to be involved was deceased. This was a matter of strong conscience 
with me and so I tried to explain that to the committee. 

I think I have now come to the conclusion that my position was 
completely wrong and erroneous and I feel that I was probably being 
unduly squeamish about it and I wanted to clear the record up once 
and for all and get everything as straight as humanly possible. 

There was no promise made to me of any sort. 

Mr. ScHERER. You made this decision to come back before the 
committee and clear up these matters that you have indicated you 
wanted cleared up after you were cited by the Congress for contempt? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is a matter of time record, but I do not think 
that was the major consideration. I was never quite comfortable in 
my own mind that mj^ position was ethical, so to speak, either. 

Mr. ScHERER. Doctor, you made no attempt to contact the com- 
mittee with reference to your change of mind until after you had been 
notified of your citation for contempt? 

Mr. Mahaney. The only notification I ever had was that I saw 
it in the papers and that I understood at the beginning might be a 
matter of fact. 

Mr. ScHERER. But until you saw the notice of the action of the 
Congress in the paper you made no effort to contact the committee 
with reference to changing or adding to your testimony? 

Mr. Mahaney. I made no attempt to contact Mr. Fuoss until the 
end of the week, about around the 23d or something like that. 

Mr. ScHERER. And that was after you had knowledge of the citation 
of contempt. 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, sir, it was. 

Mr. Scherer. Had you consulted anybody about the possibility of 
coming before the committee before you learned of the congressional 
citation? 

Mr. Mahaney. As I tried to make clear, my wife and family and 
I were never quite satisfied that this was the proper position for me 
to take. Although at the time I took it I did in good conscience and 
my conscience later told me that it was an improper position. 

Mr. Scherer. I explained to you rather fully at the time you were 
here before the committee that it was an improper position. 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes; I am sure you did. 

Mr. Scherer. And very carefully so and quite at length. 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes; I do recall it, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. The responsibility was not yours in testifying with 
respect to the individuals who were members of the Communist Party, 
but it was that of the committee in view of the fact that the committee 
subpenaed you and you were here under compulsion of subpena. That 
was explained to you at the time. 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes it was, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no fm-ther questions at this time, Mr. 
Chairman. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 6777 

Mr. Jackson. May I direct an inquiry to the Chair' or to counsel?' 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Obviously one of the principal reasons which caused^ 
the present witness to take the position he did was his reluctance to 
name a person who was deceased or who has since passed away as a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Is it essential to the present inquiry that that individual be named 
today? 

Mr. Velde. Well, as far as the Chair is concerned and in line with 
our policy of the past, we wUl not insist on receiving that testimony, 
and I am inclined to follow the precedent that the committee has 
followed. 

Mr. KuNziG. I think the record should be clear that the question 
of who recruited Dr. Mahaney into the Communist Party is only one 
of m.any questions he refused to answer. 

Mr. Walter. He ascribes two reasons: One is a false sense of 
loyalty, and the second reason was that he was ill advised. So there 
were actually two reasons. 

Mr. Jackson. I wondered whether it was essential to this hearing 
inquiry to elicit the name of the deceased person. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Jackson, my recollection of Dr. Mahaney's 
testimony is such that I do not believe his refusal to answ^er the 
question was based to any degree, let us say, on the fact that one of the • 
many individuals we were inquiring about was deceased. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, I do not want to belabor the point. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair is inclined to follow our precedent and not 
question the witness about any deceased person by name except to 
get the fact that he was recruited by a person now deceased, recruited 
into the Com.munist Party. I feel he can leave the matter of this 
person's identity out of the record. 

Mr. Walter. I think it is far more im.portant to find out who it is 
who has been impeding the work of this com.mittee. What difference^ 
does it make if it is a dead person? If anybody has been able to 
influence the witness to not only not cooperate but place himself or 
herself in a position where they m.ight be prosecuted for contempt, it 
seems to m.e that we ought to know who it is. 

You said in your letter of July 26, Doctor, that you were ill advised 
not to cooperate. Who advised you not to cooperate with this com- 
mittee? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, I guess I am more responsible than anybody 
else, of course, because this was, I thought, a m.atter of conscience \^^th 
me at the time. In other words, I considered it a very serious thing 
and I was confirmed in that belief by the position which my attorney 
took in that he agreed that the position was morally defensible, which 
was what I thought I was doing. 

Mr. Walter. t)o you mean to say that an attorney advised you 
not to cooperate with a com.m.ittee of Congress? 

Mr. Mahaney. No, I wouldn't say advised ro.e not to cooperate 
with a committee of Congress, but he explained to m.e that there was 
a danger of contempt but he thought possibly that the committee 
would understand that I was refusing to testify on grounds of con- 
science and he thought, I suppose, that I would be sustained in that 
position or possibly he hoped I might be sustained. 



6778 coMivnjNiST activities in the Philadelphia area 

Mr. ScHERBR. And you understood from your testimony, answering 
the way you did, that it might subject you to a contempt citation? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, he did so inform m.e; he told me that that was 
a possibility and certainly m.ade me aware of it. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair feels that we have explored this m.atter of 
his reasons for testifying fully and I ask counsel to proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Mahaney. Clifton Forge, Va., November 3, 1902. 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you give us please, so the record may be com- 
plete today yom* educational background? 

Mr. Mahaney. I was graduated from the Clifton Forge, Va., 
High School in 1920, an academic coiu-se. I was president of the 
senior class. I won the State scholarship to the University of Virginia. 

My father objected to my going inasmuch as I was about 16 years 
old at the time and he said that the University of Virginia was a place 
for men and not youngsters, so instead I went to the University of 
Richmond where I staved 4 years, and took a bachelor of arts degree. 
I played football, baseball, and track for the university. I graduated 
in 1 924 with a bachelor's degree. I was president of the senior class 
of the University of Richmond. In 1928 I took a master's degree 
from the University of Virginia. 

In 1938 I took a Ph. D., a doctor's degree, from the University of 
Pennsylvania. I was awarded the Peimfield Fellowship in Inter- 
national Diplomacy, Belles Lettres, which w^as the top fellowship at 
the University of Pemisylvania and went to do further graduate work 
and worked on my doctoral dissertation at the League of Nations in 
Geneva, Switzerland, in 1933 and 1934. 

My doctorate was conferred in 1938. My subject was the Soviet 
Union. The title was "The Soviet Union, the League of Nations and 
Disarmament." 

Air. KuNziG. Would you give us a brief description of your employ- 
ment background? 

Mr. Mahaney. In 1924 and 1925 I taught at the Halifax, Va., 
High School. 

In 1925 and 1926 I taught and coached at the Sm^Tna, Del., High 
School. 

In 1926 and 1927 I did graduate work at the University of Virginia. 

In 1927 and 1928 I taught at Augusta Military Academy, Fort 
Defiance. 

In September 1929 I took a position as instructor with the Phil- 
adelphia Public School System. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have been with the Philadelphia Public School 
System until just recently? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is it correct that you had a hearing with regard to 
alleged Communist activities? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, that was not technically the hearing. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Wliat was the hearing about? 

Mr. Mahaney. I was one of a number of teachers who were called 
to a hearing before the board as a result of alleged incompetence, the 
incompetence being that we had refused to discuss certain things with 
the superintendent of schools. Dr. Hoyer. 

Mr. KuNziG. And those items involved membership or lack of 
membership in the Communist Party, did they not? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 6779 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You had a hearing. Was it a pubHc hearing? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What date was that hearing? 

Mr. Mahaney. If I recall, it was June 7 this year. 

Mr. KuNziG. 1954? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Have you heard the results of that hearing? 

Air. Mahaney. The result of that hearing was that I, along with 
the rest of them, and I think I was the final person to be heard, were 
dismissed and there is now an appeal pending before the State super- 
intendent of public instruction. Dr. Haas. 

Air. KuNziG. Is there an appeal pending your case? 

Air. Mahaney. An appeal has been filed, I should say. 

Mr. Kunzig. At the present moment you have been dismissed from 
the Philadelphia School System? 

Air. AIahaney. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. I will repeat brief!}" for you a few of the questions I 
asked you before. 

Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party, sir? 

Air. AIahaney. Yes; I have. 

Air. Kunzig. When did you become a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Air. Mahaney. Around the fall of 1935 or the spring of 1936. 

Air. Kunzig. And you stayed in until when? 

Air. AIahaney. Until, I would say, the spring of 1946. 

Air. Kunzig. Will you describe for the committee how you became 
a member of the Communist Party? 

Air. AIahaney. Well, when I came back from Europe I, of course, 
was busy with a lot of research and I had done enough reading and 
I was still working on it, but after coming back to Philadelphia I met 
people who said they were members of the Communist Party and I 
was solicited to join. This went on for a number of months and 
I should say that after some 5 or 6 months I finally agreed to join 
the Communist Party. 

Now, at the time I probably did not realize any serious implica- 
tions or never thought of any serious implications being involved, 
because, as it was explained to me, the Communist Party had a pro- 
gram which was rather expansive and liberal or progressive or what- 
ever you want to call it, and so far as I could see the alleged objectives 
of the party were somewhat similar to the aims that I thought were 
being pursued by the Roosevelt administration. In other words, I 
do not want to give the impression or hurt any Democrat's feelings, 
because I will very frankly admit that I m3'self was a registered 
Democrat at that time, and that I had been and was at a 2-year later 
date a Democratic committeeman myself. 

I was interested mostly in international affairs and peace and dis- 
armament and such general topics as that, and unemployment and 
the party policy and aim seemed to be in that general direction. 

Actually I never saw anything inconsistent with my Communist 
Party membership in being a good Democrat, as a matter of fact. 

As I think I said before, I voted the straight Democratic ticket 
on these years. 



6780 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. KuNZiG. You mentioned that several people tried to influence 
you to join the Communist Party. 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Leaving out the name of the person who is now 
deceased, will you tell us about these people who tried to influence 
you and recruit you into the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, I do not have the qualms of conscience that 
I did have previously. I do not think that I would be betraying any 
memory and I have no objection to mentioning the fact that one of 
the persons who solicited me to join who is deceased was Mrs. Sylvia 
Drasin. 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Mahaney, so there will be no mistake in identity 
of this person whom you just nam.ed who is deceased, is this person 
any relation to Samuel Drasin who appeared before this committee 
in February of 1954, one of the Philadelphia teacher group? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, she was Mr. Drasin's wife. 

Mr. KuNziG. And the committee will recall, Mr. Chairman, that 
Mr. Drasin was a fifth amendment witness before the committee. 

Who else, Dr. Mahaney, recruited you into the party? 

Mr. Velde. Where did Mr. Drasin testify? Was that in Phila- 
delphia? 

Mr. KuNziG. No, sir; it was in Washington, D. C, in February of 
1954. 

Mr. Mahaney. The other person who I think had the m.ost influ- 
ence in signing me up, so to speak, to the party was a Mrs. Lillian 
Marco vitz. 

Mr. KuNziG. Could you further identify Mrs. Lillian Marcovitz? 

Mr. Mahaney. The only identification I guess would be that she 
is or was an ex-schoolteacher. 

Mr. KuNZiG. In the Philadelphia school system? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, and who left the system many, many years 
ago, possibly around 1940 or so. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you any further identification such as an address 
or anything of that sort or is she married? 

Mr. Mahaney. Wefl, at the time that I knew her she lived around 
the 2200 block of Pine Street. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairm.an. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. When did you last see Mrs. Marcovitz? 

Mr. Mahaney. The last time I saw Mrs. Marcovitz was I guess 
some 3 or 4 months ago when, in the pursuit of my present employ- 
ment I went to see them about purchasing a set of the 1954 edition 
of the Encyclopedia Britannica. I am working with, the Encyclopedia 
Britannica and I understood that Dr. Marcovitz, her husband, was 
interested. Since you asked me, the last time, that was the last time. 

Mr. Jackson. Could you tell us today, under the compulsion of 
your oath, that Mrs. Marcovitz is no longer a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. To my actual knowledge, I could not testify, but 
I did see Mrs. Marcovitz. I ran into her back in 1949 in Philadelphia, 
I just happened to bum.p into her in town and we exchanged pleasan- 
tries and among the things she mentioned to me was the fact that she 
had left the party in 1940 or 1941. Now, other than that, I have no 
knowledge. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 6781 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. KuNziG. You mentioned a Dr. Marcovitz. Do you laiow 
whether that is a doctor of philosophy or a medical doctor? 

Mr. Mahaxey. I am sure he is a medical doctor. 

Mr. KuNZiG. In joining the Communist Party, Dr. Mahaney, in 
early 1936, to what branch of the party did you belong? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, I don't know what name the branch may have 
had, but m.y first meeting that I attended was held in town in the 
city of Philadelphia. I myself lived in Germantown in those days and 
the meetmg was held at a small apartment around 16th or 18th on 
Vino Street, as I recall it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you meet in any public hall or in the home of 
some individual? 

Mr. Mahaney. No, it was not a public hall. It was a private 
apartment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know the name of the tenant of the 
apartment? 

Mr. Mahaney. I was trying to be absolutely certain about it. 
My recollection of it is that it was a young lady. Of course I know 
who she was. She was a single woman. I think her name was Reed. 

Mr. KuNziG. How many people attended these meetings? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, there were only 5 or 6 that I have any 
recollection of at all. There was this Miss Reed and myself and 
then there was a colored man whose name I have forgotten and 
whose nam.e I do not think I ever knew. Mr. and Mrs. Drasin, 
Samuel and Sylvia. 

Mr. RtTNZiG. This is the first tim.e you m.entioned Mr. Samuel 
Drasin. There is no doubt in your mind that these were Communist 
Party meetings? 

Air. Mahaney. No, these were regular Communist Party meetings. 
It was the first place I ever Avent to a Comm.unist Party meeting. 

Mr. KuNziG. So to your knowledge Samuel Drasin was a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Naturally, I thought he was. He was at the same 
meeting I was. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew him to be a member of the Comm.unist 
Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. This was a closed m.eeting of the Comm.unist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. This was a regular meeting. At that time I never 
heard of such a thing. It was a regidar party meeting. We met 
about once or twice a month. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you ever hear of a Comm.unist Party meeting 
that you attended that was an open meeting? 

Mr. Mahaney. Oh, yes; som.e years later, but at this time I never 
heard of such a thing. 

Mr. KuNziG. So the record may be clear, you knew that Samuel 
Drasin was a m.ember of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, to whom did you pay dues in this group? 

Mr. Mahaney. To this Miss Reed. We paid dues to her. She 
collected dues. 

Mr. KuNziG. Over what period of time did you attend meetings 
at this group? 



6782 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Mahaney. That was probably the first year or two, 1936-37. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Where else did you attend meetings of the Comro.unist 
Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. The next meeting place that I recall was in north- 
east Philadelphia. I don't know whether you call it the old York 
Road or Cham.plost section. 

I attended meetings there for a while. That would be around 
1938-39. Possibly it might even run over in 1940. 

Mr. KuNziG. At whose house did you attend the meetings? 

Mr. Mahaney. I would say the house was owned or rented by a 
Mr. Geiselman. That was Paul Geiselman, Sr. That was the place 
where we had meetings but Mr. Geiselman was not a member of the 
group so far as I knew, himself. His son Paul, Jr., met with us. 

Mr. KuNziG. It was at the home of Paul Geiselman, Sr., but the 
person who was the member was Paul Geiselman, Jr.? 

Mr. Mahaney. He was the person most active when we met; he 
and his sister whose name was Lucia. 

Mr. KuNziG. You say that was a sister of Paul Geiselman, Jr.? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. How long did you attend meetings at this place? 

Mr. Mahaney. Of course I was there myself and the two Geisel- 
man's. I would say from 1938-39 and possibly into early 1940. 

Mr. Kunzig. To whom did you pay dues in this group of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. To Miss Geiselman. 

Mr. Kunzig. Lucia Geiselman? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Samuel Di Maria, in his appear- 
ance in Philadelphia in October 1952, testified that he was recruited 
into the Communist Party in 1939 and assigned to a branch of the 
party of which Cea Geiselman and Paul Geiselman, Jr., brother and 
sister, were the officers of the branch. 

He further testified that he paid dues to Cea Geiselman. 

These individuals were undoubtedly the same two individuals to 
which the present witness today is referring. 

You mentioned three people, the Geiselman's and yourself in this 
group. Is that all that you recall in this particular branch of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, it is. 

Mr. Kunzig. Approximately how many members belonged to the 
group? 

Mr. Mahaney. I do not think I could be too accurate, but I do not 
believe that the membership was more than 6 or 7 or 8. 

Mr. Kunzig. You cannot remember the names of the others? 

Mr. Mahaney. No, I do not. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you please tell us the next group to which you 
belonged? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, I think at the same time or probably con- 
currently in 1940 or 1941 I used to go to meetings at the home of 
Samuel and Sylvia Drasin. 

Mr. Kunzig. The}" are the two people you have mentioned 
alread}^? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr, Kunzig. Wlio attended these meetings? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 6783 

Mr. Mahaxey. Well, I recall about 3 or 4 all together. There was 
myself and Samuel and Sylvia, and then there was another person 
who was Mrs. Reisbord. 

Mr. KuNziG. Can you further identify this person whom you have 
named as ]Mrs. Reisbord? 

Mr. Mahaney. IMrs. Anne Reisbord. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is she married? 

Mr. Mahaney. She was married. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did her husband attend all the meetings? 

Mr. Mahaney. Somewhat later on. In other words, at first I do 
not recall Mr. Reisbord, whose name was Alex, I believe. She was 
an ex-teacher who had left the system some years before and was just 
a housewife and she and myself and Mr. Reisbord, and I cannot recall 
more than about four of us, myself, and an Alex were there and of 
course the Drasins still met with us at the Reisborcl's. 

}klr. KuNZiG. Wliere did these meetings take place? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, they took place at the Reisbord residence. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliere was that? 

Mr, AIahaney. It was about a block and a half — it was in the 
Mount Airy section of Philadelphia, about a block and a half off 
Lincoln Drive. I thirds: the residence was on Cresheim Road. 

Air. KuNziG. I think the record should show, Mr. Chairman, that 
although some like to emphasize that communism flourishes in the 
poorer districts of the city, that this district now being referred to 
where Communist Party meetings were held is one of the wealthiest 
districts of the city of Philadelphia, an upper-class district. 

Over what period of time did you attend meetings with the 
Reisbord's? 

Mr. Mahaney. 1941 and 1942 was the approximate period. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat sort of thmgs would take place at these meet- 
ings? What did you do? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, the meetings were mostly in the form of 
discussion groups about current problems, about political problems 
that were taking place, either in Harrisburg or in Washington or 
whatever international crisis if such was occm-ring and we spent 
usually about an hour and a half discussing things and expressing 
our opinions pro and con. 

Mr. KuNZiG. This period of 1940 to 1941 interests me because it 
was the period, at least in 1940 particularly, when Germany and 
Russia were tied in together in their infamous pact. Did the group 
at that time agree with the Russian vie-^T^oint which meant also the 
German viewpoint? 

Mr. Mahaney. WeU, I don't know what the group decided as a 
whole, but I thinls: there were differences of opinion in the group, but 
so far as I know the group followed the general party line. 

Mr. KuNZiG. The Communist Party line? 

Mr. Mahaney. The Communist Party line, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliere did you attend meetings next, the next place? 

Mr. Mahaney. The next, place was over in the Old York Road 
section around 71st Street and Old York Road. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Wliose home was it? 

Mr. ]Mahaney. That was the home of ]Mrs. Ehzabeth Finkelstein. 

Mr. KuNziG. Can you give us any further identification of Elizabeth 
Finkelstein, who she married? 

4016S — 54 — i)t. 5 3 



6784 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Mahaney. She was married to a dentist. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat was his name, if you know? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, his name was Dr. Eli Finkelstein. 

Mr. KuNziG. She was the one, I take it, who was the member of 
the party? 

Mr. Mahaney. She was the one at whose home we attended 
meetings. Dr. Finkelstein occasionally came in or went out of the 
house when meetings were in progress, and if I recall on 1 or 2 occasions 
sat down and listened, but I do not recall him ever participating. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you know Elizabeth Finkelstein to be a member 
of the party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, she was a member of the party, of the group. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Wlio met with this group? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, there was myself, Elizabeth Finkelstein, the 
two Drasins, Mr. and Mrs. Drasin, a Miss Sophie Elfont was there. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And who else? 

Mr. Mahaney. The only other person I think I can recall was a 
Mrs. Eleanor Fleet. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should show tliat 
Sophie Elfont testified before this committee on November 17, 1953, 
in Philadelphia, Pa. She resorted to the use of the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. Eleanor Fleet testified before this committee on February 16, 
1954, here in Washington, D. C, in this room, and also resorted to 
the fifth amendment. 

Are these people whom you have just mentioned the same two indi- 
viduals you referred to as having party membership or having 
attended these party meetings with you in the home of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Finkelstein? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. So you personally knew, so far as Sophie Elfont and 
Eleanor Fleet were concerned that they were members of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. They were members of the same group that 
I was a member of. 

Mr. KuNziG. Over w^hat period of time did you attend meetings at 
this residence? 

Mr. Mahaney. That would be 1941 and 1942. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Where did you next attend meetings? 

Mr. Mahaney. In relatively same area. We went to meetings 
from time to time at ]\Iiss Sophie Elfont's residence. 

Mr. KuNZiG. At the home of Sophie Elfont? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. So Sophie Elfont, who would not answer questions to 
this committee here, actually had Connnunist Party meetings in her 
own home? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What years? 

Mr. Mahaney. Along about the same time, 1948 or possibly a year 
later, 1944, possibly the early part of 1944 we used to go there. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Were there any persons, other than those whom you 
have already named, who attended these meetings? 

Mr. IvTahaney. The group was relatively the same. The only 
identification that I recall is tliat my ex-wife started to attend meetings 
with me. This was at this particular time. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 6785 

Mr. KuNziG. I have just a few questions with regard to the former 
Mrs. Mahaiiey. Normally we would not ask these questions, but the 
former Mrs. ^Vlahaney was also a witness before this committee and 
appeared before the committee on February 17, 1954, in Washino:ton, 
D. C The Adeline Mahaney who appeared on February 17, 1954, 
was that the same person who was your former wife and wdio attended 
meetings with vou with vSophie Elfont, meetings of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you knew her to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Mahaxey. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What period of time was this? 

Mr. Mahaney. I would sav also the latter part of 1944. 

Mr. KuxziG. 1944? 

Mr. ]\[ahaney. That is where I would jjlace it. 

]Mr. KuNZiG. I would like to point out that Adeline Mahaney, on 
February 17, 1954, testified to the question "Have you ever been a 
member of the Communist Party?" that in 1946 she went to a meeting. 
It was an open meeting and it was not a secret meeting, nothing secret 
about it. It was not a meeting of the Communist Party. It was a 
meeting of the Communist Political Association. She testified she 
attended maybe a few meetings. 

She was also asked if she attended meetings at the home of Sidney 
and Genieve Fox and she stated that it was un-American to mention 
anyone's name. 

You stated you attended meetings with Adeline Mahaney at the 
home of Sophie Elfont. I want you to give the time, if you can. To 
the best of your knowledge, what period of time was that? 

^^r. ^Mahaney. To the best of my recollection it was the peiiod in 
and around 1944 or possibly the early part of 1945. I could not place 
the time any more accurately. 

Mr. KuNZiG. It was not just one meeting, I take it? 

Mr. Mahaney. No, she went to meetings with me when I went. 
I was given to understand that my attendance was not frequent 
enough. 

Mr. KuxziG. The Communists gave you to understand that? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, the party members chided me for that, that 
my attendance was not particularly regular, but wdien I went my ex- 
wife went along. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where did you next attend meetings? 

Mr. Mahaney. I next attended meetings in to\ATi. 

Mr. KuxziG. Wliere? 

Mr. Mahaney. In midcity, in that area. I would put that around 
1944 or 1945 and I used to go to meetings at the Fox residence. 

Mr. KuxziG. Would you identify the Foxes further, is that Sidney 
and Genieve Fox? 

Mr. Mahan^ey. Yes. 

Mr. KuxziG. Wliere did thev live? 

Mr. Mahaney. They lived in the 2200 block of Pine Street. 

Mr. KuxziG. Will you please name the individuals v.dio attended 
these meetings with you, these Communist Part}^ meetings at the 
home of Sidnev and Genieve Fox? 



6786 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, the persons who were at the meeting usually 
with me that I recall were Sidney and Genieve Fox and myself, Adele 
Margolis, and Lillian Lowenfels. Then a Celestine Fulchon came to 
meetings. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Counsel, we have had a call to the House, and 
apparently we will be unable to finish with this witness before such 
time in view of the fact that the members have to answer the call. 
You may proceed for a short period of time. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have just a few questions before the members have 
to leave to go to the floor, just to clear up the names of these people 
who have just been mentioned. 

Mr. Chairman, for the record, Sidney Fox was a member of the 
school system of the city of Philadelphia and I think it is most inter- 
esting to note that he resigned from the school system the night 
before he was required to take the oath of loyalty required under the 
laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He has now left the 
east coast, I understand. 

Adele Margolis and Lillian Lowenfels appeared before this com- 
mittee in 1953 in Philadelphia, Pa., at which time they resorted to 
the use of the fifth amendment in answer to questions put to them. 

You know these people, Dr. Mahaney. Ai'e they the same people 
who appeared before this committee and refused to answer? Are they 
the same ones you are talking about? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And you knew them to be members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. I think it is also important, Mr. Chairman, that 
Celestine Fulchon testified before this committee on February 17, 
1954, in Washington, D. C, in this very room. 

Is that the same person you are referring to? 

Mr. Mahaney. I don't know about her testifying, but it is the 
same person. 

Mr. KuNZiG. For the purpose of identification, can you identify her 
further in any way? 

]Mr. Mahaney. Well, I loiow that she was one of those who were 
summoned to be here. She was a Negro, a rather tall, heavy-set 
person, light brown complexion. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you knew her to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. I knew her to attend meetings with me at the 
home of the Foxes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, when asked the question, "Have you 
ever been a member of the Communist Party"? she said, in this very 
same room and sitting in the very same chair in which the witness is 
now sitting, "I have not." 

She denied having anything to do with the Communist Party. 
She did not take the fifth amendment. She did not do anything 
except deii}^ the questions asked her. And I think that this matter is 
one which we should now take under advisement and study further 
with the possible citation to the Justice Department for perjury action. 

Mr. Veldp:. Certainly, and without objection from the members 
of the committee, counsel is directed to refer the record on this 
particular matter to the Attorney General. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 6787 

Mr. KuNziG. The Lillian Lowenfels referred to is the same person 
who is now under trial under the Smith Act in the city of Phila- 
delphia? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, she is. 

Mr. KuNziG. The wife of Walter Lowenfels? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, Walter Lowenfels' wife. 

Mr. RuNziG. This would be a good tim.e to take a break, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in recess until 2 o'clock this 
afternoon. 

(Whereupon, at 11:26 a. m., the hearing was recessed to 2 p. m. 
the sam.e day.) 

afternoon session 

(At the hour of 2:08 p. m. of the same day, the proceedings were 
resumed. Representatives Donald L. Jackson, Francis E. Walter, and 
Clyde Doyle being present.) 

Mr. Jackson. The coro.m.ittee will be in order. 

Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

TESTIMONY OF WILBUR LEE MAHANEY, JR.— (Resumed) 

Mr. Kunzig. Just as we closed in this m.orning's session. Dr. 
Alahaney, we were discussing Celestine Fulchon, and to make sure 
the record is correct, you identified her as someone you knew who had 
been a member of the Communist Party, is that correct? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Continue on from, there. I would like to ask you a 
few further questions. I take it, Dr. Mahaney, that you are fam.iliar 
with the names of some 40 schoolteachers who were subpenaed by 
the committee in Novero.ber 1953 in Philadelphia and in February 
1954 in Washington, D. C? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, I think so. 

Mr. Kunzig. I would like to ask you at this time, other than the 
individuals you have already identified, do you know any others of 
this group who were subpenaed by this committee to have been 
members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Only those that I have previously identified with 
you to this committee. 

Mr. Kunzig. We have had a gi"eat deal of testimony before this 
committee. Dr. Mahaney, at various times to the effect that par- 
ticularly professional groups of the Communist Party, groups of 
teachers, lawyers, doctors, dentists, people of that type were in small 
groups, were kept very, very small groups, and did not comingle 
usually in the different groups. You have already testified today 
that the groups with whom you met were all small groups, that there 
were 5, 6, or 8; is that correct? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. I want the record to be completely clear, Mr. Chair- 
man, that we have asked Dr. Mahaney only to testify about the 
people whom he positively loiew to have been members of the Com- 
munist Party, those whom he could positively identify. There, of 



6788 COMMUNIST ACTWITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

course, must be no inference that because Dr. Mahaney happens to 
be from PhUadelphia that any people whom he did not name were 
not members of the party. 

Is it correct, Dr. ^lahaney, that teachers whom you did not name, 
you merely knew nothing about? 

Mr. Mahaney. There were a number of them whose names I did 
not know. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And you have told us about those members of the 
party whom you knew personally to be members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes; and there undoubtedl}^ rnay have been other 
groups with which I was totally unfamiliar. 

Mr. Jackson. Of course the committee is ver^^ anxious that you 
testify onh' to the names of those of whom you have personal 
knowledge. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I believe you stated that you were transferred from 
the Communist Party gi'oup that met at the Fox residence; is that 
true? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes ; that is true. 

Mr. KuNziG. To what group were you then transferred? 

Mr. Mahaney. This was in 1946. I was then transferred to a 
group in the lower part, the Queen Lane section around Winona 
Street. This was the last group that I had an affiliation with, because 
this was along about the time that I was making up my mind that 
I was going to drop out and break with the Communist Party and 
leave it. I attended approximately, I think, two meetings there. 

Mr. KuNziG. Winona Street and what other street? 

Mr. Mahaney. It was around Winona and Pulaski, because it was 
a neighborhood group. 

Mr. KuNziG. You say it was a neighborhood group? 

Mr. Mahaney. It was a neighborhood meeting place. 

Mr. KuNziG. What do you mean by that? 

Mr. Mahaney. There seemed to have been some sort of a club 
which may have been used by other groups for membership meetings. 

Mr. Kunzig. Other than the Communist Part}^? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Do you recall any of the individuals who attended 
meetings with you in this particular group? 

Mr. Mahaney. No; as I said before, I only went possibly a couple 
of times. I do not think I ever knew a soul. It was a mixed group, 
a new group, and I probably went to two meetings. 

Mr. Kunzig. Dr. Mahaney, you were very active in the Teacher's 
Union in Philadelphia, were you not? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, I was for some years; that is true. 

Mr. Kunzig. In order that the record may be clear, I mean the 
union recently headed by Mr. Jennings, not any other miion. 

Mr. Mahaney. The original imion I joined was back in 1935, 
I believe, when I came back from Europe and it was the old American 
Federation of Teachers. 

Mr. Kunzig. The one with which you were associated and is now 
headed by Mr. Jennings. 

Mr. Mahaney. That is the same one. 

Mr. Kunzig. The same group? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 6789 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes; the same group. 

Mr. KuNziG. How long were you in that union? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, I was in it, I would say, from about 1935, 
possibly early in 1936, but I thmk 1935 until about 1944, maybe 
€ven 1945, about 10 years. 

Mr. KuNziG. In other words, your period of time with this union 
was almost identical with the period of time that you were in the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. The reason for that was when I broke and got 
away from the Communist Party I not only did that, but my whole 
way of life changed and I moved, dropped everything, all affiliations 
and associations and I had nothing to do with the people and moved 
30 miles away for that pm-pose. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Were 3"ou ever an officer of the Teachers Union? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes; I was a member of the executive board for a 
couple of years. 

Mr. KuxziG. Can you give us those years when you were a member 
of the executive board? 

Mr. Mahaney. I would say offhand in 1938-39. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you hold any other position? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes; for 2 years I believe, I was one of the vice 
presidents of the union. That would be either 1940 or 1941. 

Mr. KuNziG. In order that the record be clear, Dr. Mahaney, 
you are telling us that when you were a member of the executive 
board and later when you were a vice president of this Teachers Union 
in Philadelphia, you were a member of the Communist Party at that 
very same time? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you at that time announce to the m.embers of the 
union that you were a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. No, I did not. 

Mr. RuNziG. Did you hold any other office, official position, after 
that with the union? 

Mr. Mahaney. I did not. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you ever an mstructor in the Philadelphia 
School for Social Sciences and Arts, a cited Communist-front organiza- 
tion, Mr. Chairman, for the record? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, I taught one of the classes, a seminar, you 
might call it, in American history, I believe in the spring and fall of 
1944. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You were a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you were an instructor for the Philadelphia School for Social 
Science and Arts, were you not? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, I think I still was in active m.em.bership. 

Mr. KuNZiG. In regard to your official capacity in the teachers 
union, did you know any of the m.embers of the union to be members of 
the Com.ro.unist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney, I assume that some of them were. I just took it 
for granted. 

Mr. KuNziG. We are only mterested in names that you can posi- 
tively identify. 

Mr. Mahaney. I do not think I can positively identify them. 

Mr. KuNziG. There m.ay have been many members of other groups 
of the Communist Party that you did not know. 



6790 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Mahaney. There might have been. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know Mary Foley Grossman to be a mero.ber 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. No, I only assumed that Mrs. Grossman was. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you have close association with her in the union? 

Mr. Mahaney. Not particularly. I was not vice president of the 
union at that tim.e that she served as president. 

Mr. KiJNziG. I want you to be very certain that we have covered 
the questions which you refused to answer in your prior appearance 
before the committee here. 

You were asked about recruiting into the Communist Party and we 
have covered that. 

You were also asked who were the other members that you knew in 
the Communist Party. 

Ai*e there any other nam.es of people that you can think of whom, you 
knew in the Com.munist Party whom, you have not mentioned here 
and I am keeping in mind that we are only interested in those whom 
you can positively identify. 

Mr. Mahaney. I cannot think of any other names other than 
those that I have discussed with the committee. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have asked you about Mary Foley Grossman. I 
have asked you before prior to this meeting and I will ask you again, 
dii vou know Miss Sarah Walsh to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. The same answer that I have given about Mrs. 
Grossman. I assumed as much. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Eleanor Fleet as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have already testified about her. 

Mr. Mahaney. I testified to this committee I went to meetings 
with Mrs. Fleet. 

Mr. KuNZiG. We asked you whether you attended Communist 
Party meetings at the home of Sidney and Genieve Fox at 2200 Pine 
Street in Philadelphia and you have already testified that you did 
attend such meetings? 

IVIr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You did attend? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. And we asked you whether you knew Sidney and 
Genieve Fox, and the answer is "yes"? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. We asked you whether you knew them to be members 
of the Communist Party, and the answer is "yes". 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes; that is con-ect. 

Mr. KuNziG. You were asked about other people here, Adeline 
Mahaney, your previous wife, and you identified lier as having been 
a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. As having gone to meetings with me ; yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Lillian Lowenfels. 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Adele Margolis. 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes; I did. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 6791 

Mr. KuNziG. I am reading some of the questions for which you 
were cited for contempt; how about Harry Fruit? 

Mr. Mahaney. I did not know him as such. 

Mr. KuNziG. Ethel Fruit? 

Mr. Mahaney. No; I did not know Mrs. Fruit. Is she Mrs. Fruit? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes; I beheve so. In other words, you did not know 
them to be members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. I knew him, but I do not remember ever meeting^ 
her. 

Mr. KuNziG. That doesn't mean they could not have been, but 
you don't know? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Esther Soler? 

Mr. Mahaney. I knew her to be active, an active member in the 
imion. That was toward the end of my career, you might call it. 

Mr. KuNziG. You don't know whether she was a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. No. 

Mr. Jackson. I do not want the record to reflect or indicate that 
this is the first time that these individuals have been named in a 
hearing of this sort, lest such impression be given. It is a fact that 
aU these people have heretofore been called in executive session. 

Mr. Kunzig. These people have been called in public session before 
this committee and have all taken the fifth amendment, and they have 
been identified before this committee in executive session. 

Mr. Jackson. That is the important thing, because so far as the 
testimony of the present witness is concerned, we have nothing except 
an assumption, and so I think it is important that the record reflect 
that these people have heretofore been identified. 

Mr. Kunzig. I am asking these questions in this order because 
these were the specific questions that this witness refused to answer 
before. 

Mr. Jackson. I understand that, but the point of the prior identifi- 
cation had not been adduced and should be in the record. Proceed, 
Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Kunzig. Dr. Mahaney, will you explain further your reasons 
for breaking or disassociating yourself with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Mr. Kunzig. all the questions of late, the last few 
have sort of left me under the impression that possibly I have not 
made myself particularly clear, my own position, and if you don't 
mind, if I may digress, might I say that I want to make it clear to 
the committee and to the American people for that matter that I am 
not a member of the Communist Party, that I have not been a mem- 
ber of the party for some 6 or 8 years, and that I am not at all interested 
in it one way or the other. 

"\Mien I came before this committee and testified the first time, I 
testified according to my conscience. I did what my conscience 
prompted me to do, and I realize now that it was a very serious and 
grave mistake, but I would also like for the committee to understand 
that it was done in good faith and it was done in good conscience and 
I realize now that it was a grave mistake. 

I think I acted out of a mistaken sense of loyalty. I think I was 
wrong, and I am very sorry that it happened for that matter. 



6792 coMivruNiST activities in the Philadelphia area 

I realize now that my first loyalty is definitely to my country and 
to my family and this is the reason why I attempted what I did 
attempt and was successful in contacting the committee, because I 
wanted to rectify what other errors there seemed to be among them 
that I had a hesitancy about discussing anything because of a possible 
information factor which I had nothing to do with at all so far as I 
could separate the thing in my mind, and what I am doing today is 
the proper thing and what I undoubtedly should have done at the 
time, but I am not a member of the party and I have not been and 
I would like to be sure that everybody understands it. 

Mr. KuNziG. Could you tell us, as I asked before, why you left the 
party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, that is a long, long story which could be 
boiled do\vn into probably a few not too general statements. 

I do not think that I was ever completely comfortable in the Com- 
munist Party in any sense for the very simple reason that it appeared 
to be necessary to observe a certain amount of anonymity. So belong- 
ing to an organization which required anonymity, or at least anonymity 
seemed to be at a premium, I felt very uncomfortable at times and 
very seriously embarrassed, 

I almost felt as if I had some sort of a millstone around my neck 
from time to time and as the years went by I became more and more 
convinced that it was a grave error. 

Now, of course, my personal affairs did have something to do with 
the break which I made around 1946. In 1946 there was, you might 
say, a complete change in my whole personal life. I became estranged 
from, separated, and finally divorced from my first wife. 

At that time I moved out of town. I disassociated myself from 
ever3^body. I went to very few union meetings, possibly 1 or 2 in 
the course of a year or so, and my idea was to break away completely. 
My whole life took a completely different turn. 

I became acquainted with my present wife whom I had known 
casually a few years before. Eventually I married her. We now live 
at our present address. We had a couple of young sons, one 3 and 
one 6. I was not interested in any of these things. I had my wife, 
my children, my home, my teaching job, and I hardly went any place 
except to and from work. All of our friends were different. I saw 
no one except the new friends and acquaintances that I had made and 
so this was what happened. 

Mr. KuNZiG. And now, of course, you have no connection, as you 
have testified, in any way whatsoever with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. None whatsoever. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Dr. Mahaney, in order that the record may be clear, 
it is correct, is it not, that at the suggestion of this committee you 
have communicated with another Government agency within the last 
few days and have given them your entire story, is that correct? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is true. I also was told to do it confidentially 
by friends, but particularly by this committee when I decided that I 
wanted to bring this whole thing to a complete and clear ending so 
that the committee would have the benefit of what information might 
be pertinent and desirable to them. 

I contacted the committee here and they agreed to try to arrange 
a meeting. They also suggested that it might be a good thing to talk 



COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 6793 

to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. I spent a couple of days 
with them. I discussed everything freely and frankly with them. 

Mr. KuNziG. This was the first time you have clone that? 

Mr. Mahaney. This was the first time I had done it, that is true. 

I would like to say possibly for the record, if that might be per- 
mitted, that when I came to the committee I was received in a very 
friendly fashion. Mr. Fuoss and yourself, Mr. Kunzig, were very 
kindly and I received every courtesy. 

The same is true of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and I feel 
if others who might find themselves in a similar situation as myself 
had the assurance which I now have that it would clear up the atmos- 
phere considerably and would dispel what I feel is an attitude or fear 
which I believe prevented former party members from willingly com- 
ing forth and discussing their former affiliations and associations. 

Mr. Kunzig. In order that the record may be clear, of course, I 
want to repeat what you have already testified to, namely, that you 
have been promised nothing by any member of this committee or hy 
any of us, is that correct? 

Air. Mahaney. Not a thing. 

Mr. Kunzig. You came here of j'our OAvn free will and told the 
story coro.pletely and told the truth? 

]\Ir. Mahaney. I did, and I cam.e without advice of counsel. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Chairm.an, I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Walter, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Walter. Doctor, I hope that you have, by the very courageous 
position that you have taken, indicated to others, particuarly to those 
of education, that they owe to this Republic a greater responsibility 
than they do to an}'' mistaken ideas of loyalty and so on. 

This is a distasteful job that we are doing. We do not like it and 
despite the stories that you m.a}^ have heard, we are not entirely 
unsympathetic with most of the people in fact who appear before this 
committee. But I think we have come now to the time when every- 
body ought to realize that we are either on one team or the other and 
that there is no place in America for those who would give any com- 
fort, even though indirectly, to people who have by an abundance 
of evidence demonstrated that they are our enemies. 

I for one feel that you have m.."de a considerable contribution and 
I hope that many others will do the fine, patriotic thing that you have 
done and will come to us and let us continue our work to the end that 
we can strengthen the attitude of the American people toward this 
international conspiracy. 

Air. Jackson. Mr. Doyle, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Doyle. As I recall it, your testimony this morning was that 
you joined the Comm.unist Party in 1936? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is absolutely correct. 

Mr. Doyle. And you stayed in 10 years, until 1946. 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. You stated that you have done a great deal of reading. 
Do you remember that? 

Air. AIahaney. Yes, I did. 

Air. Doyle. I assume therefore that you read the record and 
history of the American Communist Party because you were still a 
member then, according to your own statement, under oath, of the 



6794 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Communist Party Convention in 1945 at which time they threw Earl 
Browder out? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, I remember that. 

Mr. Doyle. You remember the Duclos letter? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, I do not remember as I read it, but I think 
at the time parts of it undoubtedly were discussed at party m.eetings. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you tell me if I am in error, but my information 
is that that letter substantially laid down the line of demarcation 
pretty clearly showing that from that time on the American Com- 
munist Party was to understand that the American way of life and 
the Soviet way of life could not exist side by side in the same world. 
That was true, was it not? 

Mr. Mahaney. I never got any such impression. 

Mr. Doyle. You never got any such impression? 

Mr. Mahaney. Possibly because I did not go into it. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever get that impression at any time? 

Mr. Mahaney. Only when recent events took place, and I began 
to realize that after the war the whole picture began to change. In 
other words, after we were no longer allies. 

Mr. Doyle. What year would that be that you began to get that 
impression? 

Mr. Mahaney. That would be after 1945 or in 1946. 

Mr. Doyle. But you stayed in the party until 1946? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes, until the early part of 1946. 

Mr. Doyle. Why didn't you get out of it in 1945 when you began 
to have that impression? Wliy didn't you get out of it immediately? 

Mr. Mahaney. I was not a very active member and only attended 
a few meetings from time to time. I was dropping out, so to speak, 
then. 

Mr. Doyle. But you were a scholarly member? You were blessed 
with more education and degi'ees than most. You were well read. 
You were a scholar. As Mr. Walter has said previously, this is not 
an easy thing for any of us to do. 

But for myself as a member of this committee it makes me feel 
very uncomfortable that not until you were cited, not until you knew 
you were going to be cited for contempt did you ask for a further 
hearing before this committee. You were before this committee on 
October 26, 1953. That was October. It is now, for all intents and 
purposes, August 1, 1954. You received your subpena and appeared 
in the first place on October 26, 1953, and you came in February 
1954. February, March, April, May, June, July, that is 7 months. 

And not until after 7 months had elapsed after you testified here, 
together with the fact that not until you knew you were being cited 
for contempt did you ask to come back here and straighten up your 
conscience as a matter of public record. 

How do you explain that? Wliat were you doing with your 
conscience those 7 months? 

Mr. Mahaney. Mr. Congressman, you are probably unaware of 
the fact, but originally, previously, what I am doing now is what 
I had planned to do at first. 

Mr. Doyle. Why didn't you come back before 7 months had 
elapsed? 

Mr. Mahaney. Well, I thought at the time that I had done the 
proper thing and on the advice of my coinisel I had done it and he 



COailVIITNIST ACTR'ITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 6795 

had agreed that I had taken a high moral ground of conscience and 
that was his advice to me, too. 

I do not mean to involve him. He had so counseled my wife and 
she was uncomfortable about it. We have all been uncomfortable 
about it, but we did not know what could be done about it especially 
and I left it in his hands. 

Mr. Doyle. He has not been counseling you for some time since 
you appeared here, has he, since you appeared in February? He has 
not been telling you not to come back to the committee and straighten 
up your conscience? 

Mr. Mahaney. No; I would not say he advised me not to come 
back to the committee, but I asked him once or twice if there was 
anything that I could do and he said, no, there was nothing more 
that we could do; we just would have to wait until we saw what the 
action of the committee was, if they were going to hold me in con- 
temnt. And he did not believe that they would, that he did not 
think Congress would do that. 

And for months, of course, I relied on that. 

Mr. Doyle. So you relied on that possibility and your conscience 
was not worrying you enough to find out whether or not you could 
come back and straighten up the record? 

Mr. Mahaney. I asked him what I could do and he merely told 
me what I could do was to wait and see what Congress would do. 

Mr. Doyle. And whether or not you were cited. 

Mr. Mahaney. He did not think I would be. 

Mr. Doyle. And you took the chance on whether or not you would 
be cited against clearing up your own conscience, in spite of the lawyer's 
advice? 

Mr. Mahaney. No; I had always wanted to do this, that is, to 
tell the whole storv. 

Tvlr. KuNziG. "VYliy didn't you? 

Mr. Doyle. I am deliberately asking you these questions, not 
because it is pleasant but I do not go so far as a member of this 
committee to feel that witnesses ought to get the idea before this com- 
mittee that they can come in here and refuse to cooperate and wait 
until they are cited for contempt and then come in on the theory 
that they will purge the record of their previous Communist affilia- 
tions and following the Communist line when they are first before 
the committee. 

I do not know how in the world I can discover, as a member of 
this committee, if a man is acting in good faith or not. If a man 
has been in bad faith and a member of the Communist Party for 10 
years, how am I to know whether or not I can believe the good faith is 
true? I don't know. That leaves me in a very uncomfortable position. 

I want you as an American citizen and everybody who knows 
about it to know that it worries me so, and in your case for you to 
say that you have been feeling uncomfortable for 7 months about 
the testimony you gave in the first place in February and then wait 
until you are cited and then come in to clean up the situation — 
however, in closing I am going to assume that you are in good faith. 

Mr. Mahaney. I am very sorry that you have got this impression. 

Mr. Doyle. My impression is that it is a difficult situation for 
you to put me in as a Member of Congress. 

Mr. Mahaney. It is even more difficult for me to explain except 
on the grounds that I think I was ill advised in the first place. 



6796 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILADELPHIA AREA 

Mr. Doyle. You say just one more thing I wish to remind you of. 
On page 5 of the hearings, here is what you said, and this is what 
makes it difficult for me to understand. You said: 

I have always believed and I have been told that to be an informer as to the 
friends that you might have or acquaintances that you might meet along the 
pathway of life is contrary to every tenet of the American way of thinking. 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. That was not legal advice that you were relying on 
when you stated that. That was not your attorney's opinion. That 
was your own positive statement to this committee in February of 
this year. 

I want to read it again: 

I have always believed and I have been told that to be an informer as to the 
friends that you might have or acquaintances that you might meet along the 
pathway of life is contrary to every tenet of the American way of thinking. 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. That was your own opinion? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. And you held it all along? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. And so stated. That was not your lawyer's opinion, 
that was your lifelong experience. 

Mr. Mahaney. I thought, Mr. Congressman, that I made it clear 
that when I took the position I did back in February that I was 
pursuing the proper course, that this was what my conscience told 
me to do, and I did it. 

Now, it so happened that it agreed perfectly with my counsel's 
consultation, or at least he so advised me and he thought that this 
was a perfectly proper procedure. He did tell me of course that 
there was a danger, in other words, that Congress might decide that 
they did not agree Avith my way of thinking. I mean, I do not want 
to give you the impression that he assured me that nothing would 
happen. But I felt entirely different about it lots later on and there 
was a question about it in the minds of my wife and family and 
friends that I had a mistaken sense of loyalty to people, and one of 
them was the fact that this woman was dead and I had been taught 
to respect the dead and that sort of thing. I think I tried to make 
that clear that it was a mistake. 

Mr. Doyle. The Communist Party, when you were a member of 
it in the last several years was pretty much of a secret outfit, wasn't 
it? 

Mr. Mahaney. I don't know that it was any more secret in 1945 or 
1946 than it had ever been, not to my knowledge, 

Mr. Doyle. It was semisecret at least. 

Mr. Mahaney. It always had been, I would say, clandestine. 

Mr. Doyle. So all the time you were in it you knew it was a 
clandestine organization at least? 

Mr. Mahaney. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. In closing, Mr. Chairman, I just want to have this 
fellow citizen know that I realize and I am sure that the rest of the 
members realize that he was a member of a clandestine organization 
that was a part of an international conspiracy, even in those days, 
whether you knew it or not, as a scholarly man and well read, and 
stated that you had read a lot and you must have known a good deal 
of what it was. 



coivrMimiST activities in the Philadelphia area 6797 

Mr. Mahaney. Certainly at the time I joined I had no such idea. 

Mr. Doyle. The other point I want to make is that I am sure that 
our counsel has made it plain to you and I think other members of the 
committee feci that the fact of your coming back here voluntarily 
doesn't place us under any obligation directly or indirectly to do any- 
thing about removing the possibility of your being in contempt. 

Mr. Waltee. Will you speak for youi-self, Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. I am speaking for myself individually as a member of 
the committee. 

Mr. Mahaney. Mr. Kunzig explained that to me and also Mr. 
Fuoss. 

Mr. Doyle. It is clear in your mind and I want it clear in the minds 
of everybody that our counsel so advised you, and I as a member of 
the committee take the same position. 

Again I want to compliment you for coming back and I assume you 
-are 100 percent in good faith. 

Mr. Mahaney. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. One reason that I am lecturing you perhaps as I am 
is not because it is comfortable but because I know that some former 
Communists are now coming in before this committee, before we are 
a year or two older and they will ask to be purged and some of them 
will not be in good faith with this committee. They will still be cheats 
and still be subversives and of bad intent and it will make it very 
difficult for me as a member in such a short time to be discerning 
enough in my limited experience to know who is in good faith and who 
is in bad faith. 

Mr. Walter. Of course all that presupposes that this is a punitive 
matter. We are charged with getting information. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr. Walter. It seems to me that if they are able to come in and 
contribute to our knowledge, I do not see any sense in citing people; 
what do you learn by going tlu-ough that tortuous procedure? 

Mr. Doyle. I complimented the gentleman for coming back volun- 
tarily, but I cannot help bearing in mind that he had his conscience 
with him from February until he was cited for contempt without 
coming back voluntarily. 

Mr. Kunzig. In order that the record may be absolutely clear, 
Dr. Mahaney, the people whom you named here today were people 
whom you knew to be members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is correct. 

Mr. Kunzig. I would like to say one thing for the record, m3^self, 
Mr. Chau-man, and that is that I know nothing about what was in 
this man's mind prior to his coming back here in the past few days, 
but in my lengthy convei'sations with him in the last few days and 
today I feel clearly in my own mind and in my own heart that this 
man is here today in good faith. 

Mr. Jackson. The Chair would like to say in conclusion, before the 
witness is dismissed, that I am in accord personally with what has 
been said by the gentleman from Pennsylvania. 

I am very happy as an individual Member of the Congress and of 
the committee that you did make the decision to return to the com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Walter has said we gain nothing by sending people to jail. Our 
job is to develop information that will be of help to the Congress in 
deciding what remedial action or legislation is needed. We have a 



6798 coMi^-iUNiST actiyities in the Philadelphia area 

reason to bolieve and to know that the Communist Party m.ade a very 
deterramed effort to infiltrate their own people and people of like 
mind into the teaching profession. 

The ComroAinist magazine, an official organ of the party, set forth 
the criteria which should be used in recruiting teachers into the con- 
spiracy and then went on to say what was expected of the Com.munists 
and that was to carry the class struggle into the classroom, both on and 
off campus, so we feel there is a very real and urgent need for som.e 
legislation which will meet the determined eflort of infiltration of the 
C/om.m.unist conspiracy into the classroom.s of the Nation. 

One m.ore point, and that is the matter of giving nam.es of people 
you knew a long time ago. That is not an easy thing to do. How- 
ever, it is m.y feeling and I speak again as an individual, that the people 
with whom you were associated m.ay in many instances be mem.bers 
of the Comm.unist Party unless you are prepared to state affirmatively 
under the compulsion of your oath that you know that none of them 
are members of the Communist Party. 

Could you state affirm.atively and under the compulsion of your 
oath that none of these people are m.em.bers of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. Of my own personal knowledge I could not. 

Mr. Jackson. That goes to the very point of the necessity of going 
into the background of the conspiracy because the Smith Act defend- 
ants today are the young Communists of 20 or 30 years ago. 

It is a very difficult ordeal. I congratulate you upon your decision 
to return and associating myself with Mr. Walter I would certainly 
not, as a Member of Congress, seek any further punitive action against 
you. 

Have you given the committee, friendships and loyalties aside, the 
nam.cs of all of those who were personally known to you to be members 
of the Comm.unist Party? 

Mr. Mahaney. I have given all the names that I personally knew 
of my own personal knowledge to Mr. Kunzig and Mr. Fuoss and to 
the committee. 

Mr. Jackson. And you have also gone into the extent of the activi- 
ties so far as they were known to you? 

Mr. Mahaney. That is true. 

Mr. Jackson. I ask that because if in the future a close personal 
friend of yours might be subpenaed before this committee and it 
might again create a very difficult situation in the event that he might 
identify you as a close intimate friend with whom, he had been in the 
Comm.unist Party, so I think it is important that no false feeling of 
loyalty under the situation as it obtains today should be allowed to 
enter into your thinking or into your testimony. 

Is there anything further? 

Mr. Walter. No questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I have nothing further. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have anything further, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Kunzig. No, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused? 

Mr. Kunzig. No. 

Mr. Jackson. With the thanks of the com.mittee, you are dis- 
missed and the committee stands adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 2:51 p. m., the hearing was adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Browder, Earl 6794 

Di Maria, Samuel 6782 

Drasin, Samuel 6780-6784 

Drasin, Svlvia (Mrs. Samuel Drasin) 6780-6784 

Duclos._I 6794 

Elfont, Sophie 6784, 6785 

Finkelstein, Eli 6784 

Finkelstein, Elizabeth (Mrs. Eli Finkelstein) 6783, 6784 

Fleet, Eleanor 6784, 6790 

Fox, Genieve (Mrs. Sidney Fox) 6785, 6786, 6788, 6790 

Fox, Sidney 6785, 6786, 6788, 6790 

Fruit, Ethel (Mrs. Harrv Fruit) 6791 

Fruit, Harrv 6791 

Fulchon, Celestine 6786, 6787 

Geiselman, Lucia (Cea) 6782 

Geiselman, Paul, Jr 6782 

Geiselman, Paul, Sr 6782 

Grossman, Marj' Foley 6790 

Haas, Dr 6779 

Hover, Dr 6778 

Jennings, Mr 6788 

Lowenfels, Lillian (Mrs. Walter Lowenfels) 6786, 6787, 6790 

Lowenfels, Walter 6787 

Mahaney, Adeline 6785, 6790 

Mahaney, Wilbur Lee, Jr 6773, 6774-6798 (testimony) 

Marcovitz, Lillian 6780 

Margolis, Adele 6786, 6790 

Rahill, William Allen 6775 

Reed, Miss 6781 

Reisbord, Alex 6783 

Reisbord, Anne (Mrs. Alex Reisbord) 6783 

Soler, Esther 6791 

Walsh, Sarah 6790 

Organizations 

American Federation of Teachers 6788 

Encyclopedia Britannica 6780 

FBI 6793 

League of Nations 6778 

Pennfield Fellowship in International Diplomacy 6778 

Philadelphia PubUc School System 6778, 6779 

Philadelphia School for Social Sciences and Arts 6789 

Teacher's Union, Philadelphia 6788, 6789 

University of Pennsylvania 6778 

University of Virginia 6778 

i 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05445 3467