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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the State of California. Hearing"

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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA— Part 11 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPEESENTATIYES 



EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



SEPTEMBER 17, 1954 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
INCLUDING INDEX 





UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
-47718 WASHINGTON : 1954 



I 



51 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

NOV 2 4 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEKICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 

BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Je., Tennessee 

ROBERT L. KuNziG, Counscl 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

THOMAS W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. NixON, Director of Research 

Courtney E. Owens, Chief Invcstic/ator 

II 



CONTENTS 

Page 

September 17, 1954, tostiiuony of- — 

Lynn Akerstein 7022 

O'bed Alexa.nr'er (Whitey) Rosen 7043 

Vincent William Acanf ora 7046 

Pavil Edwin Sleeth, Jr 7047 

John Carpadakis 7049 

Robert Samuel Ang\iis 7052 

Raymond Foss Baker 7055 

Marian A. Baker 7057 

Lura Stevenson Elston 705& 

George Richard Earl Adams 7060 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted 'by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
******* 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
:|E * * ' iji * * * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

RXTLE XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

* * * * * * * 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a wtiole or by subcommit- 
tee, is autliorizecl to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in tlie United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congi'ess 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such cliairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



ItULBS ADOPTED BY THE S3D CONGRESS 
House liesolution 5, January 3, 1953 

RlILE X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees : 

4s * 4: * * 4: :t 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 



Rule XI 

POWEKS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
4i ^ ^ « * * * 

17. Gonmiittee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and oljjects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial iegislaticm. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session ) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Conmiittee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued undfr 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any sul)committee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA— Part 11 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 17, 1954 

UxiTED States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee on 

Un-American AcTr\'inEs, 

San Diego ^ Ccdif. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to adjournment, at 10 a. m., in the Chamber of Com- 
merce Building, Hon. Donald L. Jackson (acting chairman) pre- 
siding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Donald L. Jackson 
and Clyde Doyle. 

Statf members present: William A. Wheeler, investigator; Mrs. 
Billie Wheeler, acting for the clerk. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. Through the author- 
ity vested in the chairman of the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities, an interim subcommittee consisting of Congressman Doyle 
and Congressman Jackson, with the latter acting as acting chairman, 
has been appointed to conduct whatever hearings are considered 
necessary or- desirable during the interim in the recess of Congress. 
Under that authority the committee is meeting this morning to hear 
the testiuKmy of witnesses during: the course of the dav. 

In the instance of the Avituess Mr. Richard Adams who, during a 
previous appearance before the connnittee acknowledged facts of his 
own memb?rship in the Communist Party, but who declined to elab- 
orate upon the names of those with whom he was associated or their 
activities in the ])arty, the PTouse of Representatives acting upon the 
recommendation of the House Connnittee on T'n-American Activities 
subsequently cited JNIi-. Adams for contempt of Congress. In line with 
the policy of tlie connnittee to attempt to meet all fair requests, and 
upon receipt of a request from Mr. Adams that he be permitted to 
appear again before the committee to answer relevant questions hav- 
ing to do with his own activities and those of others within the 
Comnnmist Party, the committee voted to hear him again and to 
authorize this subcommittee to take such testimony. 

Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Wheeler ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Call your first witness, please. 

Mr. Wheeler. Lynn Akerstein. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you please raise your right hand and be sworn? 

7021 



7022 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Do you solemnly swear in tlie testimony you are about to give be- 
fore the subcommittee you will tell the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Akerstein, I do. 

Mr. Jackson. I might say before the witness commences the testi- 
mony that the subcommittee will ask for the cooperation of the audi- 
ence here in the room in not expressing in any way approval or disap- 
proval of the testimony of any witness. 

Proceed, Mr. Wheeler, 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name, please ? 

TESTIMONY OF LYNN AKERSTEIN 

Mrs. Akerstein. Lynn Akerstein. 

Mr. Wheeler, Would you spell the last name ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. A-k-e-r-s-t-e-i-n, 

Mr. Wheeler, Mrs. Akerstein, I see you are not represented by 
counsel, 

Mrs. Akerstein. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Under the rules of the committee you are entitled to 
counsel if you so desire. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No. 

Mr. Wheeler, Where were you born? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Glendale, Calif, 

Mr, Wheeler. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Los Angeles, Calif. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you please briefly give the committee your 
educational background ? 

Mrs, Akerstein. I graduated from Antelope Valley High School, 
and then attended Los Angeles Junior College for 2 years. 

JNIr. Wheeler. Will 3"ou advise the committee of your employment 
background ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I did not work during my first marriage. In 194'6 
I went to work for Federal Housing in San Diego, worked there from 
May of 1946 until June of 1947. In June of 1917 I was employed as 
executive secretary by the Progressive Citizens of America and worked 
for them until February of 1948, at which time I became county 
director of the county Independent Progressive Party. I worked 
for the Independent Progressive Party until the end of 1948, at which 
time I went to San Francisco. I worked briefly for the California 
Labor School and subsequently for a department store. I worked for 
the Independent Progressive Party in San Francisco, and following 
that worked for 6 months in a cannery, and then for 6 months for the 
union of the Marine Cooks and Stewards. 

I was remarried, and following the termination of that marriage 
I went back to school and studied shorthand and worked as a secretary 
for a construction company. I am presently unemployed. 

Mr, Wheeler. Mrs, Akerstein, during the course of the hearings 
held by this committee in San Diego in April of this year you were 
identified by several former members of the Communist Party as a 
Communist Party member in this area. Is their identification card 
correct ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. 



COJMAIUNIST ACTIMTIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7023 

Mr. Wheeler. 'Wlien did you first join the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Late in 1946. 

Mr, Wheeler. And when did you leave the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. In the summer of 1950. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you join the Communist Party in San Diego, 
Calif.? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. In what city did you terminate your membership in 
the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Akerstein. In San Francisco. 

Mr. Wheeler. What were the reasons which interested you in be- 
coming a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. When I was working for Federal Housing I 
joined the United Public Workers Union. I had never before been in 
a position to be able to be a member of a trade uni(m, and I felt very 
strongly about the importance of organization and the need to partici- 
pate actively in union organization. After joining the local union 
I was elected a delegate to the CIO council. And I found that ideas 
that I had had for many years on the question of discrimination par- 
ticularly, and on other questions regarding social conditions in this 
country and the need for attempting to better conditions for all people, 
I found that these ideas of mine were shared by some of the people in 
the CIO. 

And I guess that as I expressed my ideas I came to the attention of 
people who felt the way I did. I became very active in the council, 
and particularly in terms of political action. And following some 
months of activity I was asked if I would like to attend a meeting where 
Marxism would be discussed. I did attend this meeting and following 
that was asked if I would like to join the Communist Party. It seemed 
to me at the time that the people who most nearly shared my ideas 
about the need for improvement of conditions for all people and the 
fight against discrimination in any form were people who were mem- 
bers of the Communist Party or who were in sympathy with the Com- 
munist Party. 

I had no preconceived ideas about the Communist Party, I was 
neither for it nor against it. I had never been a joiner. I didn't 
know anything about organizations. So I did join the Communist 
Party, as I say, feeling this was a way to express my feelings for all 
people to live better and be treated better. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do your beliefs now coincide with those of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No, they don't. At least, I don't believe that 
improved social conditions can be achieved through the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the name of the individual who asked 
you to join the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Blanche O'Brien. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you further identify Blanche O'Brien ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Mrs. O'Brien was a member of the CIO council, a 
delegate from either the United Public Workers or the United Office 
Workers. I think she was a member of both unions at various times. 

]\Ir. Wheeler. Do you recall where she was employed ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No, I don't. 

47718— 54— pt. 11 2 



7024 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Wheeler. You mentioned you attended a class on Marxism. 
Do you recall where this class was held ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. In Lloyd Hamlin's photojrraphy studio. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Lloyd Hamlin as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I met him then, and he was later known to me as 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Hamlin testified before the com- 
mittee in the April hearings, and I would like to mention the fact that 
he was an operative for the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the 
Communist Party, and not an actual Communist himself. 

Do you recall who the instructor was at this particular meeting at 
the studio of Mr. Hamlin ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. As I recall it w^as kind of a discussion group, and I 
think that Mr. Hamlin led the discussion. I wouldn't call him an 
instructor. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many meetings of this group did you attend? 

Mrs. Akerstein. One. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you then assigned to a group or unit of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who assigned you to this group ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No, I really don't remember. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the name of the club or group of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. It was the Morgan Hull Club of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know how it acquired the name Morgan 
Hull? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I am not really sure. I i-emember some discussion 
about a name. 

Mr. Wheeler. Morgan Hull was a leader of the Communist Party 
here in San Diego prior to your joining — he is now deceased — and they 
honored him by naming the club after him. 

Do you recall how many people comprised this unit, the Morgan 
Hull Club? 

Mrs. Akerstein. From 6 to 10 people. 

Mr. Wheeler. And how long were you a member of the Morgan 
Hull Club? 

Mrs. Akerstein. From the time I joined the Communist Party until 
I left San Diego at the end of 1948. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who the leader or president or chair- 
man of this club was? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Lloyd Hamlin. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the names of any other individuals 
wlio held offices in the Morgan Hull Club ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. The only other office that I recall was that of treas- 
urer. This office was held by Lolita Gibson. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you spell the first name ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. L-o-l-i-t-a. 

Mr. Wheeler. She is the individual to whom you paid your dues? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7025 

^fi-. Wheeler. What type of individuals comprised this unit, tlieir 
occupations or back<iround, et cetera, whatever you know about them? 

Mrs. Akersteix. Tlie membership of this oroup was an assortment 
of })eople, not with identical backiiTounds, maybe pretty dominantly 
professional, but tliere were some labor people, kind of a hodoepodfre. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was there any effort to keep the identity of the mem- 
bers of this club secret? 

J\Irs. Akerstein. Yes,; I think that the people in this particular 
club were probably there because they had either personal reasons or 
reasons of the Comnnmist Party some particular security problem it 
was desired that their membership be kept secret. 

Mr. Doyle. May I have that answer again, please ? I couldn't hear 
the question and answer, please. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you read the question and answer, please ? 

(Record was read.) 

Mr. Wheeler. Was it any particular advantage to the Comnnmist 
Party to keep their membership secret? 

]Mrs. Akersteix. Most, or maybe all, of the members of this club 
were people who were active in trade unions or in community organ- 
izations where they were not identified as Communists, and the Com- 
munist Party, in order to avoid being accused of dominating such or- 
ganizations, would have felt it an advantage to keep the identity of the 
members a secret. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you given any particular security instructions 
by the Conmiunist Party in relation to your own conduct ? 

Mrs. Akersteix. Well as individuals we would. It would be sug- 
gested that we not discuss our membership with other people, that we 
be cautious in using telephones and arranging meetings, and this kind 
of security. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you known to the rank and file as a member of 
the Connnunist Party? 

Mrs. Akersteix. To the rank and file of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Wheeler. Yes, as a member of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Akerstphx. I doubt that I was identified totally within the 
membership. 

Mr. Wheeler. An effort was made, then, by the Connnunist Party 
to keep your identity a secret ? 

^Irs. Akersteix. To some extent I tliink that is true. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the primarv objective of the Moraan Hull 
Club? . 

Mrs. Akerstein. As I said, the club membership was composed 
almost entirely of people who were active in mass organizations, so 
that the objecti^•e of the club logically must have been to give guidance 
to people in this kind of work, as such. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you employed by Federal Housing when you 
joined the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Akersteix. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you employed by Federal Housing 
after you became a member? 

Mrs. Akerstein. About 6 months. 

iNlr. Wheeler. I believe you have testified that after you left Fed- 
eral Housing you became an employee of the Independent Progressive 



7026 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Party, or perhaps rather the Progressive Citizens of America. Would 
you explain how you obtained that position ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. The Progressive Citizens of America was organ- 
ized at a number of organizing meetings, of which I was very active. 
And the first big activity of the Progressive Citizens of America was 
to stage a mass rally in San Diego, and I was asked if I would like 
to accept temporary employment to organize such a rally. I did 
accept this employment on a temporary basis, and following the rally 
the executive committee of the Progressive Citizens of America decicTed 
to maintain a permanent office, and I was employed as executive 
secretary. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the main objective or purpose of the 
Progressive Citizens of America? 

Mrs. Akerstein. The Progressive Citizens of America was a politi- 
cal action group organized nationally and in local communities. A 
pressure group to work toward the election of candidates pledged to 
at least a minimum program for social betterment. At the time of 
the organization of the Progressive Citizens of America it was devoted 
to the possibility of the candidacy of Henry Wallace, at that time the 
possibility of his candidacy with the Democratic Party. As time 
went on it proved to be true there was no possibility of his candidacy 
within the Democratic Party. 

Mr. Jackson. Mrs. Akerstein, to what extent, if any, was your entry 
into the activities of the Progressive Citizens of America influenced or 
directed by the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Well, I would say to very little extent, really. I 
was yevy new in the Communist Party at this time and, as I expressed 
before, I felt the desire for political action for the election of candi- 
dates who w^ould represent labor and minority peoples, and I think 
that I was interested in Progressive Citizens of America as an indi- 
vidual, not because 1 was pushed in that direction. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, did your activity in the Progressive Citizens 
of America meet with the approval with those with whom you were 
associated in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Akerstein. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you recommended to the executive committee 
of the Progressive Citizens of America when you acquired your job 
with them? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many individuals were on the executive board 
of the Progressive Citizens of America ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Fifteen to 20. 

Mr. Wheeler. And who was chairman of the board? 

Mrs. Akerstein. A. C. Rogers. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Rogers has been identified as 
a member of the Communist Party in the previous hearings and, as far 
as the rest of tlie membership of the board, I don't think it advisable 
to go into it at this time. 

Mr. Jackson. As I recall there was. Is it necessary to further iden- 
tify him? It seems to me at the previous hearing there was a senior 
and a junior by the same name. 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes ; there was. 

Mr. Jackson. I think the record should indicate 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7027 

Mr. Wheeler. It is A. C. Rogers, Sr. 

Mv. Jackson. That is, unless both men have been identified. 

Mr. Wheeler, No ; his son has not. 

Did the Progressive Citizens of America merge at a subsequent date 
with the Independent Progressive Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes; it did. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the purpose of this merger? 

Mrs, Akerstein. Well, as I said, when the Progressive Citizens of 
Amei'ica was first org;inized it was interested in the candidacy of 
Henry Wallace. When it developed that Wallace could not be named 
through the Democratic Party there began to be a feeling that maybe 
this was the time when there should be an attempt to form a new party, 
and through such a party Henry Wallace could be nominated. The 
various steps from one stage to another were taken to comply with the 
legal requirements to establish a new party, and at about the same time 
the Progressive Citizens of America held a national convention at 
which Wallace appeared and announced that if his candidacy could be 
effected only through the formation of a new party that he would be 
interested in such a candidacy. It was voted at the national conven- 
tion, as I recall, that the Progressive Citizens of America organiza- 
tions in various communities would decide on a local level whether to 
continue the organization as it then existed or whether they should 
merge into the newly-formed party, which in this State was the Inde- 
])endent Progressive Party. And following a petition campaign to 
establish the Indeijendent Progressive Party in California the local 
chapter of the Progressive Citizens of America did vote to merge into 
the IPP. 

Mr. Wheeler. And you automatically became an officer in the IPP ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. The Independent Progressive Party employed me 
immediately as county director. 

INIr. Wheeler. Going back to the Morgan Hull Club of the Commu- 
r.ist Party of which you were a member, were there any other members 
of this club also employed by the Independent Progressive Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes; there were. Lloyd Hamlin was in charge 
of the petition campaign to put the Independent Progressive Party on 
the ballot during the primary campaign in 1948. Jeff Boehm was 
employed for a short time by the Independent Progressive Party, and 
Ernestine Gatewood was employed over a period of about 6 months. 

Mr. Wheeler. And these persons were known to you as members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes ; they were. 

Mr. Jackson. Miss Gatewood is the person who appeared as a co- 
operative witness in tlie previous hearings. Is that not the case ? 

Mr. Wheeler. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask the witness there, what then happened was 
that the active members of the Communist Party became the active 
leaders of the Independent Progressive Party in San Diego. Is that 
correct ? For instance, you said you were active and Miss Gatewood 
was known to you to be a Communist, and she became active as a 
leader for 6 months ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. It is true up to a point. I would want to make it 
clear that there were many people in the Independent Progressive 
Party, leaders, who were not Communists. 



7028 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. DoTLE. But the office direction was under the control of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. That is correct. 

Mr. Jackson. Now, on that particuhir point of the Independent 
Progressive Party, to what extent, if any, did the policies of the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party deviate or vary from those which you 
became familiar with in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. The Independent Progressive Party had a State 
platform established by its State committee which established policy 
for the local organizations, and policy was not set on a local level. 

Mr. Jackson. To w]iat extent did the policy set at the State level de- 
viate or vary from the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Well, I would say that it was 

Mr. Jackson. The reason I ask that question, Mrs. Akerstein, is 
that the witness Barbara Hartle in Seattle, Wash., testified before 
the committee several months ago that there was no fundamental dif- 
ference in the State of Washington as between the policy of the In- 
dependent Progressive Party and the Communist Party, and in that 
area the members of the Communist Party exercised practically 
complete control over the formulation of policies and the implemen- 
tation of policies in the Independent Progressive Party. I ask that 
question only to see if the same situation existed in some degree in this 
area. 

Mrs. Akerstein. Well, I would say that the platform of the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party would have been considered a minimum 
program by the Communist Party, that it did not go as far in any 
direction, but that on a minimum basis there was similarity. 

Mr. Jackson. But that members of the Communist Party were in 
some instances in key policy positions? 

Mrs. Akerstein. In some instances. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Akerstein, was the operation of the Independ- 
ent Progressive Party discussed in meetings of the Morgan Hull Club 
of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes ; it was. 

Mr. Wheeler. What IPP matters were discussed in these meetings? 

Mrs. Akerstein. The things that were discussed would be prob- 
lems surrounding organization of clubs, the whole organizational 
setup on a local level, organizational problems around candidates both 
national, State, and local, and particular campaigns to implement the 
work around such candidates. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you follow the suggestions in your work that 
came out of the Morgan Hull Club of the Connnunist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you deviate at any time from any suggestion 
or decision that was reached within the Morgan Hull Club of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes, I think that I did at times. There would be 
discussions in the Communist Party club, but then the Independent 
Progressive Party had many clubs and these clubs had delegates to 
an executive committee, and there were fairly wide variances of opin- 
ion among a diverse group of people. 

Mr. Jackson. In the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. In the Independent Progressive Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7029 

Mr. Jackson. In the Independent Progressive Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. So that it wouldn't necessarily follow that 
discussions in the Communist Party club would be carried out just 
like this within the Independent Progressive Party. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you find any considerable divergences of opinion 
in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Not in the club that I was in, which was mild. 

Mr. Jackson. Were you ever yourself made the object of discipli- 
nary action because of your failure to implement the decisions of the 
Communist Party in your work in the Independent Progressive Party 'i 

Mrs. Akerstein. No. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did the Independent Progressive Party sponsor any 
local candidates ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. yes. We had a candidate for Congress and candi- 
dates in two assembly districts in 1048. 

Mr. Wheeler. And how were these candidates selected ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. These candidates were selected bj- — there would 
be^ — in the first place, the clubs and then the executive committee 
established mininnnn local programs to which we felt candidates 
should adhere. Around this program people would be suggested as 
potential candidates, and a committee of the executive committee 
would see these people, ask them their opinion on the various points of 
the program, and in this fashion candidates would be arrived at. 

Mr. Wheeler. To what degree did the Communist Party control 
the selection of tlie local candidates appearing on the Independent 
Progressive ballot ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I wouldn't say that the Communist Party con- 
trolled the selection of candidates. 

Mr. Jackson. Were any of the candidates selected known to you 
to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. According to the records of this committee. Dr. 
Harry Steinmetz was the IPP candidate for Congress of the United 
States. Do you have any knowledge as to how he was selected ^ 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes, Dr. Steinmetz was selected in the way that I 
just described. And as I recall I originally suggested the possibility 
of his candidacy. This was a suggestion of mine, it was not suggested 
by the Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. At that time were vou a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Doyle. Active in its leadership ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No, I wasn't in the leadership of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Jackson. Where did you first make your proposal that Dr. 
Steiiunetz be a candidate, to what group or what organization ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. To the Independent Progressive Party. I don't 
recall whether it was to this subcommittee or to the executive 
committee. 

Mr. Jackson. Had you at any time prior to this proposal discussed 
this matter within the councils of the Conmiunist Party ? 



7030 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mrs. Akerstein. Not prior to the proposal. I think tlifit the candi- 
dacy was discussed subsequently, but at the time that I considered — 
made this suggestion it had not been, to my knowledge. 

Mr. Jackson. And after you did make tlie suggestion it was subse- 
quently discussed within the party? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. What was the position of the party relative to the 
candidacy of Dr. Steinmetz ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I don't think that there was any actual position. 
I think that as I recall the only discussions that I specifically recall 
was after his candidacy was sort of a f adeout. 

Mr. Jackson, Well, let me paraphrase the question. Was there any 
active opposition within the Communist Party to the candidacy of 
Dr. Steinmetz, to the best of your own personal knowledge '? 

Mrs. Akerstein. There may have been, but. I am not sure. I 
can't 

Mr. Jackson. You personally have no knowledge of any such indi- 
vidual or organized opposition within the Communist Party to the 
candidacy ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No. 

Mr. Jackson. I think the record should also show that Dr. Stein- 
metz apeared before the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties in Los Angeles I believe 2 years ago. He declined to answer ques- 
tions having to do with his alleged activities in the Communist Party, 
invoking the provisions of the fifth amendment. Proceed, Mr. 
Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you at any time in San Diego hold any official 
position with the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you remember, were you on any of the commit- 
tees of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the San Diego County Com- 
mittee of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did 5^ou at any time meet with any officials of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you identify the individuals you met with 
and tlieir position in the Communist Party in the county of San 
Diego ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. When I was first a member of the Communist 
Party, Enos Baker was the San Diego chairman, and I on occasion 
met with him. Subsequently Bernadette Doyle was in San Diego, 
and I frequently met with her. She attended meetings of the club 
of which I was a member, and I met with her individually, too. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you meet with any other functionaries of the 
Communist Party in San Diego? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I think that on occasions I attended meetings at 
which Nancy Lund was present, and she had some official capacity, 
but T don't recall what it was. 

Mr. Wheet.er. Do you recall the purpose of the meeting ? 

Mrs. Akerstein, I don't have such specific memory. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7031 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if you ever discussed the Independent 
Progressive Party with the functionaries you have just mentioned? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the purpose of discussing the Independent 
Progressive Party with the heads of the Communist Party in San 
Diego County? 

Mrs. Akerstein. The same purpose that I have previously referred 
to, in discussing the Independent Progressive Party within the club 
of the Communist Party to which I belonged on occasion, the things to 
be discussed, the problems of organization, of candidates, et cetera, 
would be taken up with Miss Doyle. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you think the Independent Progressive Party in 
San Diego County would have been organized without the efforts, the 
advice of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. It would have been rather difficult and much 
slower. 

Mr. Wheeler. In your opinion to what degree or what credit do 
you give to the Communist Party in organizing the IPP ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Well, there is no question but that the Communist 
Party had as part of its program of activity a campaign to organize 
the third party. 

Mr. Wheeler. You mentioned a Mr. Hamlin was in charge of the 
committee, a petition conniiittee. I assume tliis was to circulate peti- 
tions to qualify the Independent Progressive Party for the ballot ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Eight. 

Mr. Wheeler. It was under the direction of Mr. Hamlin ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who circulated these petitions? 

Mrs. Akerstein. The petitions were circulated by individuals, 
members of the Independent Progressive Party, members of Pro- 
gressive Citizens of Ajnerica, members of trade unions, members of 
vehatever group we could find to cooperate. And the petitions were 
circulated, as well, by individual members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, at that point I notice — your answer — 
you said there was no question that the Communist Party had as its 
program the organization of the third party. I think that that is 
almost your exact words in the answer. Now, in what area was your 
knowledge of that? In other words, was that just a local part of 
the Communist Party program, or did it extend statewide or nation- 
wide, if you know ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I don't know. I was familiar with what hap- 
pened in San Diego, I represented the Independent Progressive 
Party on a statewide basis only in the sense of attending meetings 
and reporting back. 

Mr. Doyle. So that you knew that at least this extended to the 
State of California, geographically, this purpose ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No, I can't say that I actually did, because I have 
no identification of people whom I met at a statewide meeting. 

Mr. Doyle. Is there any question in your mind as to whether or not 
the Communist Party, as you knew it and as a member of it, was 
deliberately infiltrating into the Independent Progi-essive Party, as 
far as you knew ? 

47718 — 54— pt. 11 3 



7032 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mrs. Akerstein. Well, I would think, if you want an opinion, 
that if the Communist Party in San Diego was interested in pro- 
moting the establishment of the Independent Progressive Party then 
this logically would have been true throughout the State, and to 
whatever extent it took place here there would have been, as you 
say, infiltration elsewhere. 

Mr. DoTiiE. It is a case, Mr. Chairman, in which the Communist 
Party deliberately infiltrates other political parties in order to gain 
control if they can. The reason I asked you that question is because 
we are aware, and the result of our hearings and other evidence, that 
the Communist Party in America does deliberately infiltrate if it can. 
In fact, we know it is doing the same thing right now in California 
in both the political parties, it is trying to infiltrate both the Demo- 
cratic and Republican leadership. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Wlieeler. 

Mr, Wheeler. Mrs. Akerstein, getting back to the Morgan Hull 
Club of the Communist Party, I believe you identified Lloyd Hamlin 
as a member, Blanche O'Brien as a member, Jeff Boehm, B-o-e-h-m, 
as a member, and Mrs. Gibson as a member ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Right. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was Mr. Boehm's occupation ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Mr. Boehm was a writer who had at one time been 
employed at the San Diego Journal. 

Mr. Wheeler. And what was the occupation of Mrs. Gibson? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I believe she was a housewife. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who else were members of this group that you 
recall? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Mrs. O'Brien's husband, Jack O'Brien. They 
were in the group originally, but they left San Diego shortly after. 

Mr. Wheeler. And what was Mr. O'Brien's occupation? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I think he was a physicist. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know where he was employed ? 

Mrs, Akerstein. At that time he was employed at Ryan Aircraft. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any of the other members ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. As I recall, Ray Morkowski was a member of 
that group. 

Mr, Wheeler. Would you spell that name, please ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. M-o-r-k-o-w-s-k-i, 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Wheeler, I would like to caution the witness at 
this point in the matter of identities. If you have a personal knowl- 
edge that the individual or any individuals subsequently left the party 
I think it would he helpful if you would state that for the record. 

Mrs. Akerstein. I had veiy little knowledge of any of these indi- 
viduals, now. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you further identify Mr. Morkowski ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Mr. Morkowski at that time was chairman of the 
CIO Council in San Diego. He was employed at Ryan Aircraft. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Wilma Crittenden, C-r-i-t-t-e-n-d-e-n, a mem- 
ber of this unit of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Akerstein, Yes, she was, 

Mr. Wheeler. And how was she employed ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Slie was employed at the — I think it was the San 
Diego Union, one of the newspapers. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7033 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, for the record I would like to state 
that Mr. Jack O'Brien is no longer in the aircraft industry, nor is 
Mr. Kay Morkowski. 

From the employment description that you gave of these individuals 
it indicates that this may have been a select group of the Conmiunist 
Party. 

Mrs. Akerstein. I am not sure I know what you mean by select. 
Mr. Wheeler. You mentioned the security regulations. I mean, 
it is evident in the employment of these individuals that the Commu- 
nist Party was endeavoring to protect them or protect their member- 
ship from the public? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes, I think that was true. 

Mr. Wheeler. During the time you were a member of the Commu- 
nist Party here did you meet any other individual here in San Diego 
County as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I occasionally met people. It is very- difficult to 
be sure as to membership in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Can you describe the occasions or the purposes that 
you met with these individuals ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Well, in my work as an organizer for the PCA and 
the IPP, as I said, I would meet with Bernadette Doyle, particularly, 
and sometimes there would be other people involved who would be 
discussing particular problems concerned with the work that I was 
doing. 

Mr. Wheeler. Could this be termed as a fraction meeting of mem- 
bers of the Independent Progressive Party i 
Mrs. Akerstein. No, I wouldn't say so. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are not clear in your own mind whether or not 
these were actual Communist Party meetings ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No, I am really not, and that is why I am so 
hesitant because it is very difficult to say this person is or this person 
is not, or was or was not. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee does not want you to make such inden- 
tifications ; however, I think in those instances it might be well for the 
investigating staff to pursue the matter further in the nature of 
executive testimony. Proceed, Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. Do you recall the approximate date when 
Bernadette Doyle came to San Diego County as county organizer ? 

Mi-s. Akerstein. I am not sure. I think it must have been in the 
fall of 1947. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you loiow the reasons why she was assigned to 
San Diego County? 

Mrs. Akerstein. This I am not sure about, either. My impression 
is that the organization of the Communist Party in San Diego County 
had been rather loose and disorganized, and I have sort of a memory 
that Miss Doyle had been assigned here earlier and had been ill, and 
then she came — wlienever it was, in 1947 — probably to renew oi'gan- 

ization and tighten things up and 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you notice 

Mrs. Akerstein. Give more leadership. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you notice any change in the structural setup of 
the Communist Party after her arrival? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I think that there was more regard for security, 
more discipline, more attention to detail. 



7034 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Wheeler. To your knowledge was anyone expelled from the 
Communist Party shortly after her arrival in San Diego ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes, there were people expelled. I guess it must 
have been shortly after her arrival, I don't recall. 

Mr. Wpieeler. Do you know the reasons why they were expelled? 

Mrs. Akerstein. There were people expelled who were accused of 
factionalism in the party. 

Mr. Wheeler. What do you mean by factionalism ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Of having ideas that were contrary to aecisions 
Inade by the Communist Party as a whole, and attempting to carry 
out these beliefs as individuals or within what other organizations 
they were members, in contradiction to the expressed policy of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Bernadette Doyle then didn't permit deviation or 
self-expression from the Communist Party line at that time ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I thinlv no leader of the Communist Party wants 
deviation. 

Mr. Wheeler. May we have a recess, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. At this time we will stand in recess for 10 
minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Jackson. The meeting will be in order. Proceed, Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Akerstein, I believe you have testified that 
your employment was terminated with the Independent Progressive 
Party in San Diego in the latter part of 1948 ? 

Mi^. Akerstein. That is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. Why did you leave the Independent Progressive 
Party in San Diego? 

Mrs. Akerstein. After the 1948 campaign we didn't have much 
money in the Independent Progressive Party, and it wasn't practical 
to continue my employment. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was the Independent Progressive Party considered 
a success in San Diego? 

Mrs. Akerstein. We didn't elect any candidates. 

Mr. Wheeler. After you moved to San Francisco in the latter part 
of 1948 did you renew your Communist Party membership, or rather, 
were you transferred to San Francisco ? 

Mi*s. Akerstein. I was transferred. 

Mr. Wheeler. And did you become a member of a club in San 
Francisco ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes; I was. 

Mr. Jackson. On that point, Mr. Wheeler, I think it would be 
interesting to know the mechanics of the transfer, how it was accom- 
plished, what your instructions were. 

Mrs. Akerstein. I think that it was kind of haphazard in my case. 
I saw Bernadette Doyle here before I went to San Francisco, and she 
told me to go and see someone at the Communist Party office up there 
whose first name was Louise — and I do not remember her last name — 
and I did; and a short time afterward someone came to me and said, 
you know, had heard that I was in town and assigned me to a club. 
There were no mechanics. 

Mr. Jackson. What credentials 

Mrs. Akerstein. Just my face. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7035 

Mr. Jackson. Nothing further was required in San Francisco^ 
further identification'? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No. I have heard there were other mechanics, but 
thev didn't apply in my case personally. 

Mr. Jackson. 'I think that the record should show that some highly 
interesting devices were used in transfers from one place to another. 
The witness, Charles David Blodgett, who appeared in San Francisco 
was given one-half of a dollar bill — the party must have been in better 
financial condition than the Independent Progressive Party— he was 
given one-half of a dollar bill to match up, in the best cloak-and-dagger 
style. He was then identified as a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you advise the committee of the unit you were 
in, the type of units, their location, during the period of time from the 
end of 1948 until you terminated your membership in the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Akerstein. When I went to San Francisco I was assigned to 
a club of the Communist Party in the neighborhood in which I lived, 
and I was there for a few months and 

Mr. Wheeler. What neighborhood was that? 

Mrs. Akerstein. This was in the Fillmore area of San Francisco. 

Mr. Wheeler, Was it called the Fillmore Club? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No; I don't think so. I don't really remember 
the name of the particular club. Then I subsequently lived in Oak- 
land for a time and worked in the cannery, and was assigned to a 
club that was composed of cannery workers in Oakland. When I 
moved back to San Francisco, which was in the beginning of 1950, 
I was not transferred. It had been simple from San Diego to San 
Francisco, but it became very complicated across the bay, and was 
not reassigned to a club in San Francisco during that period. 

Mr. Jackson. What was the date of that, approximately ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. In January of 1950. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, with the permission of the Chair, 
I suggest that we take the names of the individuals she met as Com- 
munists in San Francisco in executive session at a later time. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. Wheeler. Thank you. What were the circumstances when 
you left the Communist Party, how did you leave? 

Mrs. Akerstein. In the summer of 1950 I was dropped by the 
Communist Party. I was called in by a couple of individuals and 
told that I was being dropped. As I said, I had not been retrans- 
ferred back into San Francisco, and I attended no more than 1 or 2 
meetings during that entire year of any kind. I, at the time, was 
very much disturbed by this, I didn't understand the reasons, I was 
not given any logical reasons. And some little time later I asked for 
a hearing which I was told would be done. The hearing was not 
held for several months, I think it was a period of at least 6 months 
that went by. And when the hearing was held I asked what the 
specific charges were, what the reasons were, and received no answers. 
I felt at the time, and feel very strongly, that there was an extreme 
of disciplinary action of causing people to adhere to a straight line, 
with not only no deviation, but no explanation. That to me repre- 
sented the kind of totalitarianism that the Commmiist Party professed 
to be against. 



7036 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. Well, had this fact not impressed itself upon you 
previously ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Sometime previous. However, I would like to 
say that I worked hard in the Independent Progressive Party, I be- 
lieved in it. And you get kind of swept away, you don't have time, or 
maybe I didn't take time to stop and think too much about individual 
actions as things were happening. Everybody's second guess is bet- 
ter than their first guess, and there were things in San Francisco 
in the party that I didn't like, methods I was in disagreement with, 
but it seemed very difficult to express disagreement. And as I say, 
when I was dropped and the whole thing was handled in the way that 
it was — and I saw this with other people, too — I felt that it was the 
kind of inquisition that just was not in keeping with the professed 
beliefs — and with the things that I believed, I believed then, I believe 
now. 

Mr. Jackson. From your efforts to seek reinstatement it would 
seem to indicate that you were philosophically in accord with the 
Communist Party. 

Mrs. Akerstein. I think that is the way it would seem. I also 
think, in retrospect, that there was a big factor of pride involved. I, 
as I say, had worked very hard, and the idea of being kicked out of 
something to which you have devoted so much in time and in thought 
and in work was very difficult for me to face up to, there was an 
emotional, personal reaction, and it took me some time to become 
objective about it rather than emotional. Following the hearing I 
was told that I could apply for further hearing, which I did not. 

Mr. Jackson. My questions in this regard, I would like to make 
clear, are not intended to force you into any recantation or repudia- 
tion of any sincere belief you hold. But I believe it is important for 
the committee and the people to know not what takes people into the 
party but what brings them out, the final dissolution, in what manner 
and method the party fails to meet the goals and the aspirations of 
people who do enter the party, and that is why I pursue this particular 
line at this time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Akerstein, have you ever appeared before a 
committee prior to your appearance here today ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes, I was subpenaed by the Tenney committee in 
San Diego in 1948. 

Mr. Wheeler. And what position did you take at that time ? How 
did you respond in answering questions ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I didn't answer the questions. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you avail yourself of the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. What has caused the change of your position ? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Wheeler, before we proceed to that I should 
like to ask several questions relative to the previous appearance. 

Were you advised by the party to avail yourself of the fifth amend- 
ment ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. In 1948? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Was the same advice given by the party to all of the 
other members of the party who were subpenaed on that occasion? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I don't know personally. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7037 

Mr. Jackson. But in your own instance you were advised to avail 
yourself of the amendment? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. Proceed, Mr. Wlieeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you feel that you were sincere in pleading the 
fifth amendment, if you had cooperated would you have incriminated 
yourself? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I am not really sure that I understand the ques- 
tion. I feel that I was sincere. It is hard to determine to what extent 
you act on your own belief and to what extent you are influenced. I 
haven't been consciously insincere either then or now. 

]Mr. Jackson. On that occasion were you advised that your coop- 
eration might lead to criminal prosecution ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No; I don't recall that I was. 

Mr. Jackson. Of course, you understand that in order to take the 
provisions of the fifth amendment in good faith you must stand in 
very real fear of being prosecuted in court ; otherwise, it is an improper 
use of the amendment, as I understand it. But I wondered whether 
or not you were advised that to cooperate with the committee would 
lay you open to criminal prosecution at a subsequent date, or might djo 
so. As I understand your answer you were not so advised ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Well, as I recall, but I am not being purposely 
vague. I have a rather dim 

Mr. Jackson. I understand . 

Mr. Doyle. May I supplement the chairman's question this way: 
Do you remember the reason given you by the Conununist Party law- 
yer or leaders that you should plead the fifth amendment? What 
reason did they give you as being a justification, in your own mind, 
for pleading it ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Well, as I recall, it is true that I was advised to 
use the fifth amendment. It is also true that this was a principle of 
the Independent Progressive Party, that we felt strongly about the 
rights of political expression, political freedom, and the right to 
inquire, and it is hard for me to say to what extent I was told to plead 
this for certain legal reasons and to what extent it was a personal, emo- 
tional reaction, and by people who were in the I. P. P. and who weren't 
Communists but Avho felt the same way I did. 

Mr. Doyle. All right, counsel. 

Mr. Wheeler. You stated that you were advised by the Communist 
Party to avail yourself of the fifth amendment. Would it go as far 
as being instructed to plead the fifth amendment ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I imagine that it w^ould have been if it had been 
necessary. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have any fear that you would be indicted 
and taken to court if you cooperated with the committee and admitted 
Communist Party membership ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. You did at that time. Getting back to the question 
I asked some time ago, why have you changed your position ? Today 
you have been very frank and sincere and honest and answered all 
questions, I believe, in good faith. What has changed your position 
from 1948 to today? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Well, I think from the way I have answered the 
questions that it must be obvious that the whole attitude has changed. 



7038 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

It seemed to me in 1948 — to me personally — that no one had the right 
or the reason to inquire into my political beliefs. I also feel that there 
is — I don't know what the explanation is, really, whether it is a differ- 
ence in me, but there seems to be much difference in attitude and a 
way of going about it on the part of this committee as against the 
Tenney committee. Maj^be a different reason for investigating; I 
don't know. 

Mr. Jackson. Mrs. Akerstein, in light of your change in attitude 
personally toward the Commmiist Party, and in light of the action 
of your Congress in the past session in outlawing the Communist 
Party as a conspiracy, do you now feel that a committee of the Con- 
gress has a right to inquire into the area of political belief when that 
political belief is associated with the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I certainly feel that there is a tremendous differ- 
ence in inquiring into and investigating something that is publicly 
known and acknowledged to be illegal, and something which is recog- 
nized as a legal instrument. And it is again my personal opinion that 
subversion shoidd be defined, that if it is considered by the Govern- 
ment that any organization is illegal then it should be known to be 
illegal, it should be — there should be no possibility of thinking one 
thing and having something else happen. 

Mr. Jackson. In retrospect don't you believe that the purposes and 
aims and goals and aspirations of the Communist Party are exactly 
the same today, even following this official designation by the Con- 
gress, as it was 10 years ago, 20 years ago, that the conspiratorial na- 
ture and activities of the Communist Party have not been changed by 
the designation of a conspiracy ? Perhaps I don't make myself clear. 
It is tme that the committees of the Congress and other agencies have 
been investigating the Communist Party or the Communist conspiracy 
for many years. It was because of those investigations, it was because 
of the disclosure publicly to the American people of the nature of 
those activities that caused the Congress to take the action it did in 
declaring the party illegal and in outlawing it, so I think the record 
should show that those committee investigations which led to outlaw- 
ing of the party, although repugnant to some, were nevertheless the 
physical agencies which brought about the action by the Congress. I 
say that in defense of the investigations. I merely make that as an 
observation, not a question. 

I would like to ask you at this time, lest I forget it later on, whether 
or not there were any inducements made, any promises made to you 
in return for your appearance before the committee today ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No; I haven't been promised anything. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions. I would 
like to ask the witness if she has anything she would like to add for the 
record, 

Mrs. Akerstein. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, I have a few. Apropos, Mrs. Akerstein, of your 
statement that you felt that subversive should be defined, of course 
we have defined it. We have tried to define it openly and publicly 
many, many times, both in our printed literature and in our state- 
ments over radio and otherwise. But because you again stated this 
morning that subversive should be defined, Mr. Chairman, I think it 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7039 

appropriate that we call attention to the group here that on September 
19, as of September 19, there is a booklet which will be issued by our 
committee entitled "This is Your House Committee on Un-American 
Activities," and this is the only copy of this book within this room. 
Within a few weeks they will be available, as long as the supply lasts, 
to Members of Congress and to our committee in Washington, But 
this lists some hundred questions and answers to these questions. And 
question 3 I want to read, it is very brief : 

What is un-American or subversive activity? Ajiswer: That activity which 
attaclis the principle of a form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution 
is un-American and subversive by seeking to overthrow by force and violence 
in violation of established law. 

Now, may I just urge again, JNIr, Chairman, the fact that this com- 
mittee is not charged and does not intentionally go into the question 
of a person's beliefs, your personal beliefs are not what Congress is 
interested in, unless they are subversive as defined here. In other 
words, in going to the forceful overthrow of our constitutional form 
of government. But just in that connection, because I want to ask 
you a couple of questions. Public Law 601, under which this committee 
is here again today, charges this subcommittee with investigating sub- 
versive and un-American activities as defined by question 3 which I 
just read, and answer, 

* * * it is instigated in foreign countries or domestically and which attacks 
the principal form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution. 

Then also this committee is charged with questioning you or any 
other witness — or any other evidence — on all questions relating to 
the subject matter of subversive activities which would aid Congrear 
in any legislation. That is one reason we are here again this morning. 
We are interested to see if you and the other witnesses can help us, 
as a committee of Congress, to better know how to legislate in Wash- 
ington to meet tlie Communist subversive conspiracy, 

I made notes as you were testifying, I think you said substantially, 
"I don't believe the improved social conditions can be achieved through 
the Communist Party," Do you remember volunteering that state- 
ment? 

Mrs, Akerstein. Yes, 

Mr, Doyle, Now, remembering your statement about your interest 
in improved social conditions, when did you come to the conclusion 
that the Communist Party could not improve the social conditions as 
you felt they sliould be improved ? You say you went into the party 
jbecause you thought perhaps it was the channel to carry out your ideal- 
ism politically, as I understand it. Now, when did you come to the 
conclusion that the Communist Party was not the channel through 
which you could achieve your political activity or political idealism ? 
How long before you were expelled ? 

Mrs. Akerstein, Well, I think that I started having doubts about 
certain policies and methods, oh, in 1949, maybe I expressed disagree- 
ment on occasion. The way I feel today, however, has been arrived 
at over a long period of time, and I can't say at this point I decided, 
you know ; you build your ideas in whatever direction, 

Mr, Doyle, Well, may I ask you this question, because we are al- 
ways anxious to get help of any patriotic, sincere citizen : Have you 

47718— 54— pt. 11 4 



7040 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

any suggestion to us, as a committee of your Congress, as to what we 
might consider as strengthening legislatively, in the field of legisla- 
tion at the national level ? What should be consider seriously in legis- 
lation, if you have any suggestion, because that is one reason we are 
here; is to get evidence to help us do a better legislative job in meeting 
the Communist conspiracy. Have you any suggestion for us ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I am afraid I haven't. Congressman. I would 
have to think more seriously than I have in that direction. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I am giving you a very sincere and emphatic 
invitation to think clearly and promptly on that subject and then pass 
on to us, if you will, your considered opinion. You have had experi- 
ence that should be very valuable to your country and we, as your 
Congressmen — I am sure Mr. Jackson joins me in this — Mr. Jackson 
and I ask you to give us in writing in the next several weeks, if you 
would, your considered opinion in this field of legislation. 

Now, I noticed also you stated that in this group that you were in, 6 
or 10 people in the Communist cell here are anxious to keep it secret 
in order to not be charged with dominating community groups. I 
noticed you used the term "dominating community groups." I take 
it, therefore, that you had in mind that you and the other members 
in that cell were such leaders in the community that you were in 
positions to dominate community groups. Is that correct? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I don't think that is exactly what I was thinking, 

Mr. DoTLE. But that is what you said, do you remember ? I remem- 
ber you using the term ''dominating," and that is why I wondered if 
there was an effort on the part of the cell to secretly try to dominate 
other groups but to keep that domination secret as far as the Com- 
munist Party was concerned? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Well, yes; to some extent. This was true that 
maybe there was an attempt to dominate, or maybe just if it had been 
publicly known that a number of people in a particular organization 
were Communists there could have been cliarges of domination, with 
or without foundation. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I noticed your last couple of observations, in. 
answer to Chairman Jackson's questions, you stated that you had 
observed that this committee — I take it you refer to this committee 
that is back here today, and the House Un-American Activities Com- 
mittee as a whole — you stated that you noticed it "operated differ- 
ently." Now, apparently you came to feel that the functioning of your 
House committee or subcommittee, which is here this morning, was 
really acting constructively and in the best interests of our country, 
perhaps, was giving the witnesses a fair hearing and is anxious to get 
appropriate information. Is that true? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes, sir ; that is true. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you any suggestion, then, as to how this com- 
mittee should function differently than we are? We are anxious to 
be truly representative of the best procedure; democratic procedure; 
American procedure. Have you any suggestion ? You are back here 
this morning changing your position entirely — manifestly you are 
cooperating with this committee. Now, why do you do that? I 
think it would lielp your San Diego neighbors to have a little more 
elaboration on that. 

Mrs. Akerstein. Well 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7041 

Mr. Doyle. When I say "San Diego neighbors," I, of course, mean 
all the people in the State. I think you are from Los Angeles now 
instead, of this area. 

Mrs. Akersteix. I thought I had tried to answer that question. I 
guess I don't know quite how to elaborate further. I feel that times 
have changed and I have changed, too. I also feel one thing on the 
subject of the conmiittee. I don't think I am too different from the 
average person in lumping all committees together, and I have seen 
today what, as you said, appears to be a desire to be constructive, to 
work in the best possible fashion, and this strikes me as being some- 
what different from the aims as I saw them of this other committee 
that I had experience with. 

Mr. DoTiJ3. Well, may I ask you to elaborate briefly, at least, on — 
you say times have changed. What do you have in mind by that? 

Mrs. Akersteix. Well, very specifically I have in mind the fact 
that I think joining the Communist Party when it is a legal political 
party, recognized as such, and joining or being in it when it has been 
termed illegal is quite a major difference. And one's attitude must 
be affected. 

Mr. Doyle. I think there is one more question. Before I ask that 
question, Mr. Chaimian, I think it might be appropriate for me to 
call attention to the fact that today here Mr. Jackson and I are on 
opposite sides of the political aisle in Congress, but it doesn't make 
any difference to us. We have this job to do here, as you see. 

Now, I noticed you used the word when you referred to the hearing 
which you asked for, you said it was "totalitarian," the very thing that 
the Communist Party professed to be against. Then you described 
that hearing and the procedures as an "inquisition." Now, in any 
man's language tliat is a pretty strong word, and yet you used it. Do 
you remember doing so ? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes ; I remember doing so. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, is the procedure within the Communist Party as 
you meant it one of inquisition, was it in your case? If so, how did. 
it function so that you felt justified in calling it an "inquisition" ? 

Mrs. Akersteix. Well, I thiiak my vocabulary was somewhat exag- 
gerated maybe, but what I meant was when this hearing was held I 
was not told specific charges, I was not told who the people were who 
made them, although I asked. I was given no opportunity to admit 
or deny, it was just, you know, you did this, this, this, and this, and. 
you are through. And it had seemed to me from what I had believed, 
or had wanted to believe up until that time, that if there must be 
disciplinary action within the Communist Party it should at least be 
conducted in a fair way with everyone involved given a chance to 
express themselves and. to know what was being charged, and to defend 
themselves. And this did not prove to be true. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, I take it from your answer that the 
same thing that we have heard in hundreds of other cases, there is 
totalitarianism and control in the Communist Party of America, and 
you suffered it without even being given a bill of particulars or a bill 
of complaints with what you were charged? 

Mrs. Akersteix. That was my experience. 

Mr. Doyle. Then you had no chance to defend yourself by testi- 
mony or with witnesses ? 



7042 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mrs. Akerstein. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. That is why you called it an "inquisition." I think that 
is all, Mr. Chairman. I want to thank you, of course, on my behalf 
as a member of the committee. I notice you didn't bring a lawyer; 
I am a lawyer and I always feel a lawyer is a valuable person if he 
acts ethically and patriotically, so I do notice you didn't feel the need 
of having legal counsel with you, 

Mr. Jagkson. Mrs. Akerstein, are you here under compulsion of 
subpena, or are you here voluntarily? 

Mrs. Akerstein. I was subpenaed. 

Mr. Jackson, I should point out one thing, and I certainly don't 
want it to be interi^reted in any way as a threat or warning, but rather 
in the nature of a friendly reminder, that you are under the compulsion 
of a very binding oath in your testimony. And I should like to ask 
you that if under the compulsion of that oath you have told — you have 
given the committee all of the information in your possession upon 
which you have been questioned and the identity of all of the indi- 
viduals whom you personally knew to be members of the Communist 
Party during the period of your own membership ? Let me preface 
this by saying the reason I am asking this question as to laying such 
stress upon your oath, that it has unfortunately developed in cases in 
the past that witnesses acting out of a mistaken sense of loyalty or for 
some other reason have failed to disclose their close and intimate 
associations wdth others who were very well laiown to them to be mem- 
bers of the Communist Party. That, of course, is a serious matter, 
and I should like to know positively and afhrmatively that you have 
given to tlie committee or to Mr. Wheeler in executive hearing the 
names of all such persons, without exception? 

Mrs, Akerstein. I have not deliberately withheld anything. I can- 
not say 

Mr, Jackson, But you were not attempting to defend any person 
who is known to you or was known to you to be a member of the 
Coimnunist Party? 

Mrs. Akerstein. No, I am not, 

Mr. Jackson. The subconmiittee and the full committee and the 
House of Representatives under the authority under which we ox)erate 
is very happy to have had your cooperative testimony. It is testi- 
mony of this sort, not only in San Diego but elsewhere throughout the 
Nation, that has made possible for the American people, probably 
more so than the people in the case of any other country in the world, 
to have a considerable knowledge of the Communist Party and its 
operations. That information does not accrue to the committee or 
to the Congress through the recalcitrance of those who refuse to co- 
operate. For that reason, and I am sure that Mr. Doyle joins with 
me, I want to express to you the thanks of the committee, and to 
express the hope that your friends, your business associates, those by 
whom you are employed will understand that you have rendered a con- 
siderable service in giving your testimony here today and will judge 
their future associations with you on the basis of that cooperation with 
the American Congress. 

Do you have anything further, Mr. Wheeler ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Just one matter. Is the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities the first Government agency that you have talked 
to or cooperated with? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7043 

Mrs. Akerstein". Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Sliould you be contacted in the future by other 
agencies of the Government will you cooperate fully with them? 

Mrs. Akerstein. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused. Call your next witness. Mr. 
Wheeler. 

^Ir. Wheeler. Mr. Obed Eosen. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you raise j'Our right hand and be sworn, sir? 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee that you will tell the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help j^ou God ? 

Mr. Rosen. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name ? 

TESTIMONY OF OBED ALEXANDER (WHITEY) EOSEN, ACCOM- 
PANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, JOHN W. POETER 

]SIr. Rosen. Obed Alexander Rosen. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you also known among your associates as Wliitey 
Rosen ? 

Mr. Rosen. That is a nickname. 

Mr. Wheeler. And when and where were you born ? 

IMr. Rosen. December 12, 1917, Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Wheeler. And where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Rosen. In Pacific Beach. 

Mr. Wheeler. I notice you are represented by an attorney. Would 
the attorney identify himself for the record, please? 

Mr. PtRTER. John W. Porter, 112 West Ninth Street, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Wheeler. And what is your educational background, Mr. 
Rosen ? 

Mr. Rosen. High school graduate and 3 years of college. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you graduate from high school in San Diego? 

Mr. Rosen. No, in Marinette, Wis. 

Mr, Wheeler. And what college did you attend ? 

]\Ir. Rosen. Northwestern and U. C. L. A, 

Mr. Wheeler. And when did you complete your education at 
U. C. L.A.? 

Mr. Rosen. Well, I left there to go into — well, the war started. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have served in the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Rosen. The Air Force, as a flying cadet before the war, before 
Pearl Harbor, 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, what was the period of your military service? 

Mr. Rosen. Very short, 2 months. I received an honorable dis- 
charge. 

Mr. Wheeij:r. Thank you. And what has your employment back- 
ground been ? 

Mr. Rosen. An aircraft worker. 

IMr. Wheeler. Let's say since you were discharged from the Army, 
hoAv have you been employed ? 

]\Ir. Rosen. In aircraft. 

Mr. Wheeler. By what aircraft company? 

Mr. Rosen. Ryan Aeronautical. 



7044 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. "Wheeler. "What approximate date did you become employed by 
Eyan? 

Mr. EosEN. From August 27, 1941, until March 2, 1954. 

Mr. Wheeler. What type of work did you do for Eyan Aircraft? 

Mr. Eosen. I was an inspector. 

Mr. Wheeler. "V^^iat type of work did you inspect ? You must have 
been employed by a certain branch in Eyan Aircraft. 

Mr. Eosen. Metal products division. 

Mr. Wheeler. Metal products division. Have you ever known a 
person by the name of Mildred Berman ? 

Mr. Eosen. Well, at this time I invoke the privilege of the first 
and the fifth amendments to the Constitution not to be a witness 
against myself, and I refuse to answer that question and subsequent 
questions which attempt to police my thoughts and conscience. 

Mr. Wheeler. Our infonnation, or rather, the investigation con- 
ducted here in San Diego discloses that in June 1943 you made appli- 
cation for Communist Party membership. Is that correct? 

Mr. EosEN. I must reply with the same statement. 

Mr. Wheeler. Also, that you were assigned to the Liberator branch 
of the bay section of the Communist Party in San Diego County ? 

Mr. Eosen. Same answer. 

Mr. Jackson. For the same reason ? 

Mr. EosEN. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Also, that you recruited Eay Morkowski in the Com- 
munist Party. Do you know Mr. Morkowski? 

Mr. EosEN. Same answer as previous. 

Mr. Wheeler. For what reason were you dismissed from Eyan 
Aircraft ? 

Mr. Eosen. Again I have to invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you receive any 

Mr. Eosen. And I do both. 

Mr. Jackson. And decline to answer the question ? 

Mr. Eosen. Yes, sir ; on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you receive any type of communications from 
Eyan Aircraft in regard to your dismissal ? 

Mr. Eosen. Same answer. 

Mr. Wheeler. A¥ere you not advised that you were released be- 
cause "The employee does not meet security regulations"? 

Mr. Eosen. Same answer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you not afforded a hearing ? 

Mr. Eosen. Same answer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, the witness here, of course, was em- 
ployed in the aircraft industry for a long period of time. I had hoped 
that he would coo])erate with the committee and give what information 
he had concerning infiltration into that industry. However, because 
of his attitude, I liave no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. DoYi.E. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you now a member of the Commiuiist Party ? 

Mr. EosEN. Again I must use the privilege, and invoke it, of the 
first and fifth amendments, I decline to answer that. I resent the 
iittem])t to police my thoughts. 

Mr. Jackson. No one is interested in attempting to police j'our 
tliounhts. We are interested in whether or not there was a concen- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7045 

trated effort to infiltrate a very important defense activity in this area. 
Do you have any questions, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. Mr. Rosen, in my membership on this committee 
I am also a member of the Armed Services Committee of Congress. 
Perhaps, therefore, I am quite aware of the importance of the aircraft 
industry in our national defense. I might state that recently the 
committee was in Michigan. There we had uncontroverted evidence 
produced that the American Communist Party had deliberately tried 
to colonize the automobile industry in Michigan by deliberately send- 
ing from New York headquarters, and otherwise, known Communists ; 
even some of them college graduates, civil engineers, young civil engi- 
neers under phony names, assumed names, fictitious names. And these 
Communists of the American Connnunist Party, when they made their 
application for employment in the automobile industry of IVIichigan, 
signed phony names. They concealed the fact that they were civil 
engineers, and they took menial employment. Instead of taking em- 
ployment or asking employment as engineers or high-class employees, 
they took employment on the assembly line where they could sabotage 
in case of difficulties in the world, they could sabotage and be the 
instruments of sabotage of critical machinery. 

Now, I relate that fact because I want to save you, sir, that the 
aircraft industry is just as critical, perhaps more so in our national 
defense, as is the automobile industry. xVnd we wouldn't be surprised 
at all if the American Communist Party wasn't doing the same thing 
in the American aircraft industry. I want to say to you that you have 
a right, of course, to stand on your constitutional privilege. I honor 
a man that stands on it in good faith, especially when he is so advised 
by worthy counsel. But you were in the room a minute ago and heard 
this lady come back and help us, you see, call the American Communist 
Party in California where you and I live an "inquisition." I just want 
to say to you that if you have been a member of the Communist Party, 
or if you are now, I hope sometime you will have a change of heart 
to the point where you will put your Nation's welfare ahead of your 
own when it comes to the Communist conspiracy. Mr. Wheeler 
wouldn't have had you subpenaed for this morning unless we had 
good reason to believe that you knew quite a little about the Com- 
munist conspiracy in California. You are in a critical industry. My 
boy was a flier, when he was alive, in the Air Force, and he gave his 
life in the Air Force. But he didn't give his life in the uniform of 
an Air Force lieutenant in order that an inquisitional Communist 
conspiracy could prosper in the aircraft industry, of which he was 
flying a product. 

Now, if you have been in the Communist conspiracy or are in it now, 
for God's sake get out. I don't hesitate to talk with you that way 
even in the presence of your counsel, because I am a lawyer, too. That 
is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have any further questions, Mr. Wheeler? 

Mr. Wheeler. No, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

Mr. Wheeler. No. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from further attendance under 
this subpena. 



7046 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Do you desire to call another witness before lunch ? 
Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. Vincent Acanf ora. 

TESTIMONY OF VINCENT WILLIAM ACANFORA, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HIS COUNSEL, JOHN W. PORTER 

Mr. Jackson. Eaise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee will be the truth, the whoie truth and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. AcANFORA. I do. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name, please ? 

Mr. AcANFORA. Vincent William Acanfora. 

Mr. Wheeler. I see you are likewise represented by counsel. Will 
counsel identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Porter. John W. Porter, 112 West Ninth Street, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are appearing before the committee in response 
to a subpena served upon you ? 

Mr. Acanfora. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you advise the committee of your educational 
background, please? 

Mr. Acanfora. About 1 year of high school. 

Mr. Wheeler. In what city was that? 

Mv. Acanfora. New York City. 

Mr. Wheeler. And when and where were you born ? 

Mr. Acanfora. October 28, 1913, New Haven, Conn. 

Mr.. Wheeler. What is your occupational background? 

Mr. Acanfora. My occupational background, sir? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes ; please. 

Mr. Acanfora. I am a cook at present. 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes; I know. How have you been occupied since 
the year 1940 ? 

Mr. Acanfora. Well, I have had a very extensive employment rec- 
ord and my memory is rather faulty. I can give you it rather vaguely. 
I have been working in restaurants; I have worked in various other 
industries. And perhaps if you could make the question more specific 
I may be able to answer it. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you leave the employment of Kolir Air- 
craft? 

Mr. Acanfora. In February of 1954. 

Mr. Wheeler. February of this year ? 

Mr. Acanfora. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. And how long had you worked for Rohr Aircraft? 

Mr. Acanfora. Five and a half years, approximately. 

Mr. Wheeler. During that period of time you were in Denver for 
a short period of time; is that right? 

Mr. Acanfora. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. And how were you employed in Denver ? 

Mr. Acanfora. I worked in a couple of machine shops there. 

Mr. Wheeler, xlnd what type of work did you do at Rohr Aircraft? 

Mr. Acanfora. Pattermnaker when I left. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Mr. Lloyd Hamlin ? 

Mr. Acanfora. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments, sir. 



COJMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7047 

]\Ir. Wheeler. Were you a member of the National City-Chula 
Vista Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. AcANFORA. I refuse to answer as previously stated. 

]\lr. Wheeler. Under what circumstances did you leave the employ- 
ment of Rohr ? 

]Mr. AcANFORA. I refuse to answer as previously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well. Mr. Chairman, this is exactly a parallel case^ 
the same as the previous witness. I have no further questions, 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I noticed your answer that your memory was very 
vague. But I noticed when Mr. "Wlieeler asked you specific questions 
you remembered dates pretty well. I didn't get the idea your memory 
was vague at all from your answers. But I just w^anted you to know 
that you didn't impress me as having a vague memory by your answers. 
You were here in the room when I spoke to the last witness, and I know 
you heard what I said to him. 

(Witness nodded head affirmatively.) 

]\Ir. Doyle. And as an American Congressman from California I 
say the same thing to you. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Not at all, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from further attendance under 
this subpena. 

The committee will stand in recess until 2 p. m. 

(Recessed at 12 : 05 p. m. ; hearing reconvening at 2 p. m.) 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. The Chair will again 
caution the audience in the hearing room against any demonstration of 
approval or disapproval relative to testimony given by any witness. 

Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Wlieeler ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. Paul Sleeth, please. 

Mr. Jackson. Please raise your right hand, sir. 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee that you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Sleeth. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will the witness state his full name, please ? 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL EDWIN SLEETH, JE. 

Mr. Sleeth. Paul Edwin Sleeth, Jr. 

Mr. Wheeler. And when and where were you born ? 

Mr. Sleeth. Logansburg, Pa. 

Mr. Wheeler. And would you give the committee a brief resume of 
your educational background ? 

Mr. Sleeth. Well, I went to high school in Pasadena ; I went on to 
junior college in Pasadena, and I went to Santa Monica Junior College 
for a while in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you resided in San Diego ? 

Mr. Sleeth. Since in late 1948. 

Mr. Wheeler. How have you been employed for the last few years ? 

Mr. Sleeth. Well, right now I have been employed at the Goodwill 
Industries, San Diego. 



7048 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Sleeth, are you acquainted with Lloyd Hamlin ? 

Mr. Sleeth. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that^ — 
on the first and fifth amendment, and do not desire to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Wheeler. We are particularly interested in the professional 
group of the Communist Party which existed here, which in all prob- 
ability does at the present time. Mr. Hamlin, in his testimony before 
the committee in the April hearings in San Diego, identified you as a 
member of this group, with membership date approximately 1950. Is 
Mr. Hamlin's statement the truth ? 

Mr. Sleeth. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with Carol Bayme, B-a-y-m-e? 

Mr. Sleeth. I refuse to answer that question on the same constitu- 
tional grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Bayme also testified before the committee the 
fact that she was a member of the Communist Party and she identified 
you as a member of the Communist Party. Was her identification 
correct ? 

Mr. Sleeth. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no f urtlier questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you serve in the Armed Forces of the United 
States ? 

Mr. Sleeth. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you 

Mr. Sleeth. You see, I did for, let's see, for a while I did. That 
was back in 1940, I believe. I was in the National 

Mr. Doyle. I understood you to say no, you didn't. 

Mr. Sleeth. I was mistaken. It was before the war and I had 
almost forgotten that I did. 

Mr. Doyle. I see. And in what division of the military did you 
serve ? 

Mr. Sleeth. I was in the National Guard as a — worked in the 
Medical Corps. 

Mr. Doyle. Here in California? 

Mr. Sleeth. That is right. 

Mr. DoTLE. What National Guard unit ? 

Mr. Sleeth. I think it was the 115th Medical Regiment; I think 
that w^as it. 

Mr. Doyle. Was it in Pasadena or San Diego ? 

Mr. Sleeth. Pasadena. 

Mr. Doyle. I didn't hear whether Mr. Wheeler asked you whether or 
not you were a member of the Communist Party at any time or not. 
Were you ? 

Mr. Sleeth. I refuse to answer that question on the first — grounds 
previously stated, constitutional grounds previously stated. 

Mr. DoTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Sleeth. I refuse to answer that question on the constitutional 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you were in the National Guard? 

Mr. Sleeth. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viouslv stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7049 

, Mr. Doyle. I am sorry I didn't understand your answer. Where 
are you now employed ? 

Mr. Sleeth. Goodwill Industries of San Diego. 

Mr. Doyle. And what is your work there? 

Mr, Sleeth. I am a solicitor. 

Mr. Doyle. Solicitor from house to house with merchandise? 

Mr. Sleeth. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. The merchandise is picked up and then handled? 

Mr. Sleeth. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all. 

Mr. Jackson. Anything further, Mr. Wheeler? 

Mr. Wheeler. Nothing, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Any reason why the witness shouldn't be excused? 
- Mr. Wheeler. No, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from further attendance un- 
der this subpena. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I make this additional, I want to 
ask this witness if you were here this morning when I spoke to the 
young man, Whitey ? You were here in the room, weren't you ? 

Mr. Sleeth. I would like to consult with my attorney. 

Yes, I was. 

Mr. Doyle. You heard my statements to Whitey, who was working 
in aircraft? 

Mr. Sleeth. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, now, I am not going to take your time, and nat- 
urally under the circmnstances, to repeat that sort of thing. But will 
jou consider I am saying the same thing to you that I said to Whitey ? 
Thank you very much. I wish you would. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. John Carpadakis. 

Mr. Jackson. Please raise your right hand, sir. 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee that you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name, please ? 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN CARPADAKIS, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, JOHN W. PORTER 

Mr. Carpadakis. John Carpadakis. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you spell your last name ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. C-a-r-p-a-d-a-k-i-s. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Porter, would you identify yourself for the 
record ? 

Mr. Porter. John W. Porter, 112 West Ninth Street, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe you represented the previous witness, Mr. 
Sleeth, also? 

Mr. PoRiTCR. Yes, I did. The record may so show. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and where were you born, Mr. Carpadakis? 

Mr. Carpadakis, In 1895, in Greece. 

Mr. Wheeler. I didn't catch the place. 

Mr. Carpadakis. March 13, 1895, in Greece. 



7050 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Wheeler. In Greece. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you obtain your citizenship ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Some time in August of 1918. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was that in San Diego, Calif. ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. That was in Georgia — Atlanta, Ga. 

]Mr. Wheeler, Was it in the United States court in Atlanta, Ga. ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. It was Federal court. I w\as 

Mr. Wheeler. How old were you at that time ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. I was about 23 years old. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you lived in San Diego ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Since 1944. 

Mr. Wheeler. Prior to that time where did you reside ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. In New Jerse5^ 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your occupation, Mr. Carpadakis ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Driving a truck. 

Mr. Wheeler. Sir ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Produce truck. 

Mr. Wheeler. Produce truck. You have your own business? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you been in this type of work ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Since 1946, the beginning of 1946. 

Mr. Wheeler. And how were you employed prior to that ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. I was working at the Consolidated factory, with 
Convair, the aircraft. 

Mr, Wheeler. Aircraft company ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat type of work did you do for Consolidated ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Machinist, 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a machinist by trade ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with Lloyd Hamlin ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that it might tend to incriminate me, 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you familiar with Mr. Hamlin's testimony be- 
fore this committee in April of this year ? 

Mr. Carpadakis. I refuse to answer that question for the same 
reasons. 

Mr. Porter. May we take a moment? 

Mr. Carpadakis. I didn't read the testimony. 

Mr. Jackson. You are not familiar, then, with his testimony? 

]\Ir. CARPADAias. I am not familiar. 

IVIr. Wheeler. Mr. Hamlin, during the course of his testimony, 
identified you as a member of the Communist Party and a member of 
the Linda'Vista Club. Was Mr. Hamlin correct in his testimony? 

Mr. Carpadakis. I refuse to answer that question for the same 
reasons stated before. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Carpadakis. I am going to refuse to answer that for the same 
reason. 

Mr. AVheeler. Are you presently a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Carpadakis. I refuse to answer that question for the same 
grounds ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7051 

Mr. Wheeler. No further questions, Mr, Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. I think you said you became a citizen of the United 
States in 1918 in Atlanta, Ga.? 

Mr. Carpadakis. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, that puts you in as a naturalized citizen with the 
same responsibilities that I have. I was born in California ; we are 
lx)th in the same class, then. 

I know that you were here this morning, too, were you not, when 
IVhitey was testifying? 

Mr. Carpadakis. I don't thinls: I was here while he was testifying, 
Whitey. Yes, I was here. 

Mr. Doyle. I thought I saw you back there. You heard what I said 
to Whitey? 

Mr. Carpadakis. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Let me say the same thing to you without repeating it, 
as long as you heard. But may I say to you, sir, it just seems to me 
that in view of the fact that the United States of America has given 
you citizenship you are in a little bit different way than we men that 
are born in this country. You folks that are naturalized by citizen- 
ship ought to see to it that you do nothing but honor the country that 
gives you citizenship. I feel that way myself, born here, and I hope 
you do, naturalized here. That leaves me to say this, sir, that I don't 
see ]iow in God's name how a man naturalized by this country could 
think of joining the Communist Party in the United States. I remem- 
ber what your answer was, and that is your privilege under our Con- 
stitution. If you ever have been or are a member of the Communist 
Party get out of it and do honor to the country that gave you natural- 
ization, instead of being a party to a foreign conspiracy. I am talk- 
ing to you as an American Congressman. I urge you to get out of it 
if you are in it, and if you are in it to get out of it and make amends 
in every way you can by serving the country that gave you naturaliza- 
tion. 

Mr. Carpadakis. May I comment on that? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Carpadakis. I think that must apply to you, because the Demo- 
cratic Party, the party of treason according to our colleges, so they 
might start to investigate that. They voted for a new deal. 

Mr. Doyle. You see, Mr. Jackson is a member of one political 
party and I am a member of another. This is not a partisan commit- 
tee. We are American Congressmen first and our job is to be Ameri- 
can Congressmen first and Republicans and Democrats afterward. 
And your job as an American citizen is to be an American citizen 
first and whatever else you are afterward. But for God's sake get out 
of the Communist Party if you are in it. 

Mr. Jackson. Anything further, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. That is all. 

Mr. Jackson. I should like to supplement what Mr. Doyle has said 
by saying simply this, that in the fall of 1947 I traveled through 
Greece, the Grammos Mountains, Kilkis, Drama, and Salonika. I saw 
the depredations of the Communists, I saw them drive their own peo- 
ple south where there were hundreds of thousands of refugees. We 
got into villages where the Communists had slaughtered many people 



7052 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

the night before. The worst situation I can see is you in the northern 
part of your homeland. 

Anything further, Mr. Wheeler ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Not at all, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from further attendance under 
this subpena. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Wheeler. ;" ; 

Mr. Wheelfjj. Robert Anguis. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about 
to give before this subcommittee that you will tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Anguis. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name, please ? '' 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT SAMUEL ANGUIS, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, JOHN W. PORTER 

Mr. Anguis. Robert Samuel Anguis. 

Mr. Wheeler. Please spell your last name. 

Mr. Anguis. A-n-g-u-i-s. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your occupation, Mr. Anguis ? 

Mr, Anguis. I am a meatcutter. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, during the course of the last hear- 
ings we received a telegram from a Bob Angus, A-n-g-u-s, sports- 
writer for the Evening Tribune, and stating that he was not tlie Rob- 
ert Anguis identified during the last hearings. And I want to make 
it clear that there is no connection between the two. 

Mr. Jackson. I believe the announcement was made during the 
course of the last hearings, but the record can indicate again at this 
time. 

Mr. Wheelt:r. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Anguis ? 

Mr. Anguis. I was born in Douglas, Ariz., December 14, 1910. 

Mr. Wheeler. And what is your educational background ? 

Mr. Anguis. Well, I was taken out of school from Douglas at the 
age of 10, and my folks took me to Yugoslavia. Well, that was in 
1921, and I went in school there for, oh, a period of about 3 years, 
returned to this country in 1928, 

Mr, Wheeler. And how have you been employed ? 

Mr, Anguis. Well, I first, when I landed in Arizona I was wasliing 
dishes, and followed the restaurant trade for a while. And then I 
came to San Diego in June of 1931 and I have been here ever since. 
I worked for a period, also, following the culinary workers line. At, 
oh, about 1934 I started working for a meat company and I have been 
following the butcher trade ever since. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you own your own business here ? 

Mr. Anguis. For a short period I had a business during — well, I 
was in company with another fellow worker, we had a little market 
for about 2 years, I believe it was. I don't exactly know. Then.! 
went back to the job in the butchers. " ■' ' 

Mr. Wheeler. Let the record show that the witness is represented 
by Mr. Porter again. 

Mr. Porter. The record may so show. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7053 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with Mildred Berman? 

Mr. Anguis. Well, I also at this time would like to invoke the privi- 
lege of the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution that person- 
ally guarantees me to the right of speech, to talk or not to talk, as I 
see it, the right to not be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Jackson. You would like to. Do you so invoke those constitu- 
tional amendments and refuse to answer the question ? 

Mr. Anguis. I do. 

Mr. Wheeler. She testified that you were a member of the Com- 
munist Party to her knowledge in 1943. AVas she telling the truth 
in her testimony? 

Mr. Anguis. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Anguis. I also refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party in the 
year 1934? 

Mr. Anguis. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previously 
stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever know a person by the name of Na- 
thaniel Griffin ? 

Mr. Anguis. Sir, may I consult with my attorney ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Certainly. 

Mr. Anguis. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds 
as previously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Griffin, according to the records of the secretary 
of state, of the State of California, was the Communist Party nominee 
for assemblyman from the 78th district here in San Diego. Since he 
won the nomination of the Communist Party it was liis privilege to 
appoint three delegates to the Communist Party State Convention 
in Sacramento in the year 1934. On this document appears the name 
Kobert Anguis, San Diego, Calif. I would like to ask you if you 
were a delegate to the Communist Party State Convention in Sacra- 
mento in the year 1934. 

Mr. Anguis. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever use the name of Robert AVliite as a 
Communist Party name? 

Mr. Anguis. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previously 
stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Mr. Stanley Hancock when he was 
Communist Party organizer in San Diego County ? 

Mr. Anguis, Again, sir, I refuse to answer the question on the 
gromids as previously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Hancock testified before the committee in Wash- 
ington, D. C., that he knew Robert Anguis in the Communist Party 
and that he went under the name of Robert White. Is that a state- 
ment of fact? 

Mr. Anguis, I refuse to answer that question on the grounds as 
previously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever reside at 1410 Robinson Street in 
San Diego? 

Mr. Anguis. 1401 Robinson ? 

Mr. Wheeler. No, 1410 Robinson Street in San Diego. 

Mr. Anguis. I am trying to recollect. I will consult with my 
attorney. 



7054 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Would you tell me what period of time? Wliat period of time do 
you have on that document ? 

Mr. Wheeler. 1934. 

Mr. Akguis. Well, sir, to the best of my knowledge — I should re- 
member all of the streets, at least — I never lived on Kobinson Street. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you sign a sponsor's certificate on behalf of 
Nathaniel Griffin in the year 1934, as sponsoring his candidacy for 
the Communist Party ? I will show you the signature. 

Mr. PoRi-ER. May I ask, Mr. Chairman, if the question just put 
is withdrawn ? Or is that question still pending ? 

Mr. Wheeler. It is still pending. 

Mr. Anguis. Which was that? I refuse to answer again on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, I would like to introduce into the 
record Anguis exhibit No. 1, "Appointment of Members of the State 
Central Committee Meeting at Sacramento in the year 1934." 

Mr. Jackson. It will be admitted.^ 

Mr. Wheeler. And the "Sponsor's Certificate" just referred to as 
Anguis exhibit No. 2. 

Mr. Jackson. It will be admitted.^ 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Anguis, from this documentation and from the 
testimony of witnesses it appears that you have been in the Communist 
Party for quite a period of years, and we would like very much for 
you to coperate with the committee. Do you refuse to help your 
Government in this matter? 

Mr. Anguis. I invoke my rights under the Constitution as previously 
stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Communist Party right 
now? 

Mr. Anguis. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. I wasn't sure, Mr. Anguis, that I heard correctly. As a 
boy 10 or 12 years did you go back to Europe with your folks? 
Yugoslavia ? 

Mr. Anguis. Yugoslavia. 

Mr. Doyle. You were there from 1910 to 1921 ? 

Mr. Anguis. I beg your pardon, I was born in 1910, but we went to 
Yugoslavia in 1921. I stayed there 7 years, and my folks are still 
there, and I came back in 1928. 

Mr. Doyle. While over there did you make any observation as to 
whether or not the Communist Party was active over there ? I am not 
asking you whether or not you joined or were a member of it, I would 
like to know as a matter of information. 

Mr. Anguis. I would like to make an opinion, if you want. Would 
that be what you want ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Anguis. I just want to make a statement that as a kid I was only 
interested in sports and things they had, I didn't know anything about 
politics, if that is what you mean. 

Mr. Doyle. I didn't know how far down into the young people of 
Yugoslavia the Communist Party was operating. I thought you 

Retained In committee files. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7055 

might notice among the youth of Yugoshavia the Communist Party 
was operating. 

Mr. Anguis. I have answered ah'eady. 

Mr. Doyle. You were here this morning, weren't you, Mr. Anguis, 
and heard my remarks to Mr. Rosen ? 

Mr, Anguis. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. DoYL,E. And Whitey ? 

Mr. Anguis. I was here when the witnesses were called. 

Mr. Doyle. You heard my remarks ? 

Mr. Anguis. I surely did. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Doyle. Without me taking time to repeat them may I ask that 
you consider that I have repeated those to you ? 

Mr. Anguis. I will consider it, sir. I understand. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Jackson. Anything else, Mr. Wheeler? 

Mr. Wheeler. Nothing at all, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Any reason — — 

Mr. Anguis. May I read a statement, please? 

Mr. Jackson. No. You may submit a statement for the considera- 
tion of the committee, and if it meets with the rules which are pre- 
scribed for the admission of statements, it will be considered. 

Mr. Anguis. Well, I would like also to give one to the press. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask the witness this, as 
long as he is submitting a statement: Mr. Anguis, did you prepare 
that statement yourself ? 

Mr. Anguis. I sure did, sir. I sure did. 

Mr. Jackson. Call your next witness, please. 

Mr. Wheeler. Raymond Foss Baker. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are 
about to give before this subcommittee that you will tell the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Baker. I will. 

Mr. Wheeler. State your full name, please. 

TESTIMONY OF EAYMOND FOSS BAKER, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, JOHN W. PORTER 

Mr. Baker. Raymond Foss Baker. 

Mr. Jackson. I wonder, Mr. Baker, if you would move closer to the 
microphone in order that the committee might hear you better ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Will counsel identify himself for the record, please? 

Mr. Porter. John W. Porter, 112 West Ninth Street, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Baker. May I complete the answer to my first answer? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Baker. I am more commonly known as Foss Baker. 

Mr. Jackson. Is that your full name ? 

Mr. Baker. My full name is Raymond Foss Baker, more commonly 
known as Foss Baker. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and where were you born, Mr. Baker ? 

Mr. Baker. Nebraska, in 1904. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you mind giving us the month and the date? 

Mr. Baker. September 5. 

Mr. Wheeler. And what is your educational backgi'ound ? 



7056 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Baker. Higli school, 3 years of college. 

Mr. Wheeler. And where did you attend college? 

Mr. Baker. Northfield, Minn. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was that the name of the university ? 

Mr. Baker. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is that name ? 

Mr. Baker. It was not a university ; it was a college. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat was the name of the college ? 

Mr. Baker. Carleton. 

Mr. Wheeler. Thank you. Would you give the committee a brief 
resume of your occupation after leaving college ? 

Mr. Baker. I worked as a steamship clerk, a hospital orderly, a 
trade-union organizer, and as a salesman. For the past 4 years I have 
been in poor health and I have been intermittently a part-time em- 
ployee. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you resided in the city of San Diego ? 

Mr. Baker. I do not reside in the city of San Diego. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you resided in the county of San 
Diego ? 

Mr. Baker. Thirteen months. 

Mr. Wheeler. And in what city do you reside ? 

Mr. Baker. El Cajon. 

Mr. Wheeler, What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Baker. I have part-time employment as a salesman. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where did you reside prior to moving to San Diego ? 

Mr. Baker. Michigan. 

Mr. Wheeler. In what city in Michigan ? 

'^^v. Baker. Lansing. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever meet Mr. Wayne Salisbury in the State 
of Michigan ? 

Mr. Baker. I invoke my rights under the first and the fifth amend- 
ments of the Constitution of the United States and decline to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Salisbury testified before the committee on Feb- 
ruary 27, 1952, during the time the committee was hearing testimony 
in Michigan ; he identified you as Foss Baker and testified under oath 
that he knew you as a member of the Communist Party. Was Mr. 
Salisbury correct in this identification ? 

Mr. Baker. Same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you today a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Baker. Same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Wheeler. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. DoYLE. May I ask, Mr. Baker, you were here this morning 
when I spoke to "Wliitey ? 

Mr. Baker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. And you heard my remarks to him ? 

Mr. Baker. More or less, yes, sir. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doi-LE. Well, may I ask that you consider that I am taking tnne 
now to make the same remarks to you without taking the time to 
actually do so ? 

Mr. Baker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. May I say this to you, that I notice you, in relatnig 
your occupation, said you had been a trade-union organizer. That 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7057 

means you were more than the ordinary leader of men in my book. 
And I hope that if there was ever any affiliation by you with the Com- 
munist Party at any time that you will apply your energy now as 
actively against the conspiracy as perhaps you did at any time you 
were a member of the Communist outfit. It just seems to me that any 
man that is able to be chosen an organizer of any group of American 
men, has an ability that our country needs against the Communist 
infiltration, 

Mr. Jackson. Anything further, Mr. Wheeler ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Nothing. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from further attendance under 
this subpena. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Raymond Baker, please. 

Mr. Jackson. Raise your right hand, please. Do you solemnly 
swear in the testimony you are about to give before this subcommittee 
that you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Baker. I do. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name, please ? 

TESTIMONY OF MAEIAN A. BAKER, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 
COUNSEL, JOHN W. PORTER 

Mrs. Baker. Marian A. Baker. 

Mr. Wheeler. And where were you born ? 

Mrs. Baker. Minnesota. 

Mr. Wheeler. Let the record show that the witness is represented 
by Mr. Porter. 

Mr. Porter. It may so show. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat was your maiden name, Mrs. Baker? 

Mrs. Baker, Piker. 

Mr, Wheeler, And would you relate to the committee your edu- 
cational background ^ 

Mrs. Baker. I am a high-school graduate. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you attend college? 

Mrs. Baker. Not as an undergraduate. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, did you attend college at all ? 

Mrs. Baker. I attended a 6 weeks' inservice training program at 
one time. 

Mr. Wheeler. At what university ? 

Mrs. Baker. Michigan State College. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you been employed in the recent years? 

Mrs. Baker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, what has your employment been ? 

Mrs. Baker. I have been a stenographer. 

Mr. Wheeler. And that is both back East and here ? 

Mrs. Baker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. And how long have you resided in San Diego 
County ? 

Mrs. Baker. Since August of 1953. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you presently reside in El Cajon ? 

Mrs. Baker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you presently employed ? 



7058 COMIMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mrs. Baker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your occupation ? 

Mrs. Baker. I am a secretary. 

Mr. Wheeler. For whom ? 

Mrs. Baker. The La Mesa-Spring Valley School District. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you meet Mrs. Bereniece Baldwin in Michigan^ 

Mrs. Baker. I invoke the fifth amendment and decline to answer 
that question. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
Michigan ? 

Mrs. Baker. I decline to answer that question for the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you attended any Communist Party meetings 
in San Diego County since your arrival here 13 months ago? 

Mrs. Baker. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
which I have previously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you today a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Baker. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. Mrs. Baker, were you here this morning and heard my 
remarks to Mr. Whitey Rosen ? 

Mrs. Baker. Yes; I was. 

Mr. Doyle. And may I ask that you apply those to yourself as my 
hope for you as far as your American citizenship is concerned with- 
out my taking time to repeat them ? And if you are engaged in any 
field of education — I understand it is your field — it worries me no end 
to have any people that are engaged in any field of education with 
California children, whether as secretary to the principal or who- 
ever it is, so close to the Comnimiist activity that at least they are 
subpenaed before our committee. It worries me no end that anyone 
in the field o'i education, as I say, that is so close to the Communist 
fringe at lea; t that they are subpenaed by our investigators. That 
is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Any reason why the witness should be further 
retained ? 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no reasons, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Tlie witness is excused from further attendance under 
the subpena. 

Mr. Wheeler. Lura Stevenson Elston. 

Mr. Porter. Mr. Chairman, Mrs. Elston, whom I represent, is not 
here yet. I believe she is on her way and I ask that her appearance 
be postponed until later in the afternoon. 

Mr. Jackson. I understand she is here. Is that correct? 

Mr. Porter. Well, I haven't had an opportunity to consult with her. 
May I do that? 

Mr. Jackson. The committee at this time will take a 5-miniite 
recess in order to give counsel an opportunity to confer with his client. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Jackson. Tlie connnittee will be in order. Are you ready to 
proceed with your next witness? 

Mr. Wheeler. Lura Stevenson Elston. 

Mr. Jackson. Raise your right hand, please. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7059 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee that you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Elston. I will. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name, please ? 

TESTIMONY OF LURA STEVENSON ELSTON, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 

COUNSEL, JOHN W. PORTER 

Mrs. Elston. Lura Elston. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is it L-u-r-a? 

Mrs. Elston. Yes, sir; that is correct. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you known as Lura Stevenson previously ? 

Mrs. Elston. That was my former name. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would counsel identify himself, please? 

Mr. Porter. John W. Porter, 112 West Ninth Street, Los x^ngeles. 

Mr. W^heeler. And what is your educational background, Mrs. 
Elston? 

Mrs. Elston. Eleven years. 

Mr. Wheeler. Beg pardon ? 

Mrs. Elston. I didn't graduate from high school ; I attended school 
for 11 years, 11%- 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you been employed during the last 6 or 7 years? 

Mrs. Elston. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you tell us where you have been employed ? 

Mrs. Elston. I am a waitress. Is that what you mean ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. Where were you born ? 

'Mrs. Elston. Nebraska. 

Mr. Wheeler. And how long have you resided in San Diego 
County ? 

Mrs. Elston. Since I was 2 years old. 

Mr. W^HEELER. You have just recently returned to San Diego 
County ; haven't you ? 

Mrs. Elston. "We were on a trip ; yes, sir. We leased our home here 
and went on a trip and returned. 

Mr, Wheeler. Plow long have you been back ? 

Mrs. Elston. About — I will have to stop and think. About — I am 
not absolutely certain ; I could check back. Approximately 5 months. 

Mr. W^heeler. Are you acquainted with Mr. Hamlin ? 

Mr. Porter. Will you state the full name ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Lloyd Hamlin, Mr. Lloyd Hamlin. 

Mrs. Elston. I refuse to answer on the ground that it is an infringe- 
ment of my rights under the first and fifth amendment of the Con* 
stitution. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever held any positions in any union ? 

Mrs. Elston. Yes, sir ; I was the business agent of my union for, I 
believe it Avas 3 years. 

Mr. Wheeler. And during what years ? 

Mrs. Elston. These kind of questions are probably easy for most 
people, but I never remember what year anything happened. Put 
it must have been about 

Mr. Jackson. Well, within a year or two is all right. 



7060 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mrs. Elston. I really am not sure, but about — up until about 4r 
years ago, 5 years ago, the previous 3 years. I could check and get 
the information for you. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Hamlin testified before this committee in April 
that he knew you to be a member of the Communist Party. Is that 
correct ? 

Mrs. Elstok. I again refuse to answer on the grounds that it might 
incriminate me, under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Elston. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Jackson. For the same reasons? 

Mrs. Elston. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Our records show you were a member of the county 
committee of the Communist Party. Is that correct ? 

Mrs. Elston. I again refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

Mrs. Elston. I again refuse to answer on the grounds that it might 
tend to incriminate me under the first and fifth amendments. .■ 

Mr. Wheeler. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. DoTLE. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from further attendance under 
the subpena. 

Call your next witness, please. ; 

Mr. Wheeler. ]Mr. Richard Adams. 

Mr. Jackson. Raise your right hand, please, Mr. Adams. 

Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about to give before 
this subcommittee that you will tell the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Adams. I do. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you please state your full name? 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE RICHARD EARL ADAMS 

Mr. Adams. George Richard Earl Adams. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are the same Richard Adams who appeared be- 
fore this committee on April 21, 1954? 

Mr. Adams. On or about that date. I believe it was a day or so, 
later. 

Mr. Wheeler. I notice you are not represented by counsel. Are you 
waiving that right ? 

Mr. Adams. I shall act as my own counsel. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Adams, are you appearing here today under 
subpena? ;;•; 

Ml'. Adams. I am not. 

Mr. Wheeler. It is correct, then, to say you are appearing here 
then at your own request? .i 

Mr. Adams. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you advise the committee why you desire to 
appear before the committee and retestify ? 

Mr. Adams. Well, at the committee's hearing in April I testified 
fully before this committee under oath pertaining to my own political 
background and affiliation. However, at that particular time I re- 
fused to divulge to this committee names of individuals, I might add 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7061 

I have known in the past to be Communists. Subsequent to that, acting 
on the theory that I waived on my immunity, Congress — and I under- 
stand by a unanimous vote — voted to cite me for contempt of Congress 
at the behest of this committee. I feel that I am not in a position 
alone to argue with some 400-odd Congressmen. If they feel that 
I happen to be wrong in that respect the problem is not mine. If 
the people don't like the Congress they have they can change it this 
fall. So I decided rather than spend a couple of years of my life 
fighting Congress up to the Supreme Court, with the possibility of a 
conviction, and with the further possibility of all that is entailed, to 
answer the questions put by this committee. 

Mr. Wheeler. Then it is your feeling at this time that you will be 
responsive to all questions asked ? 

Mr. Adams. I shall be responsive to all questions asked, Mr. 
Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. In a cooperative mamier? 

Mr. Adams. In a cooperative manner. 

Mr. Jackson. May the Chair interpose a question at this time, Mr. 
Adams ? Have you been promised any immunity or emolument or any 
other guaranties for your appearance before the committee? 

Mr. Adams. Mr. Jackson, I have not, as you well know. 

Mr. Jackson. I well know, but I want the record to also reflect 
that. 

Mr. Adams. The record may show that. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, with the Chair's permission, I would 
like to introduce as Adams' exhibit No. 1, the resolution adopted by 
the House of Representatives citing Mr. Richard Adams for contempt 
and referring the matter to the United States attorney for the south- 
ern district of California. 

Mr. Jackson. It will be admitted.^ 

Mr. Wheeler. I also rexjuest the permission of the Chair to intro- 
duce report No. 2458, 83d Congress, 2d session, entitled "Proceedings 
Against Richard Adams." This is Adams' Exhibit No. 2. 

Mr. Jackson. So admitted.^ 

Mr. Wheeler. And ask that the transcript of the previous testi- 
mony taken on April 21, 1954, also be entered as Adams' Exhibit 
No. 3. 

Mr. Jackson. It will be admitted.^ 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Adams in his previous appear- 
ance before the committee testified rather fully concerning his back- 
ground, his OMm participation in the Communist Party, and his own 
opinions regarding Communist Party theories. I do not believe it is 
necessary to reiterate any of this testimony, unless the Chair deems 
it advisable. 

Mr. Jackson. No ; I think we can omit anything that was satisfac- 
torily covered in the previous hearing. Mr. Doyle, do you concur? 

Mr. Doyle. I do. 

Mr. Wheeler. Pardon me just a second. Mr.* Adams, I believe in 
your testimony of April 21, 1954, you testified that you were recruited 
into the Communist Party in the State of Minnesota. Is that correct? 

Mr. Adams. That is correct, sir. 

^ Retained in committee files. 



7062 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat was the name of tlie person who recruited 
you into the Communist Party? 

Mr. Adams. I beheve he was the first Communist mayor elected 
in the United States, a fellow by the name of Emil Nygaard. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you spell his last name ? 

Mr. Adams. I believe the correct spelling is N-y-g-a-a-r-d, either a 
Swede-Finn or a Finn-Swede. 

Mr. Wheeler. And how long were you a member of the Coimnunist 
Party in the State of Minnesota ? 

Mr. Adams. From approximately 1935 to 1939. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you assigned to any groups or units or clubs 
of the Communist Party during this period of time ? 

Mr. Adams. My work primarily during that period of time was 
working with miners who were unemployed. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, were you assigned to any units of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Adams. Oh, yes ; I was assigned to the unit in Crosby, Minn. 

Mr. Wheeler. And how long were you a member of that unit ? 

Mr. Adams. I was a member from about sometime in 1935 until 
1936, 1 believe, that particular unit. 

Mr. Wheeler. One year? 

Mr. Adams. Approximately. 

Mr. Wheeler. And what type of individuals comprised this par- 
ticular unit? 

Mr. Adams. Well, this was a mining community. I believe that 
all of the members of the unit were either miners or ex-miners. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the identity of any individuals that 
were in this group ? 

Mr. Adams. Aside from Mr. Nygaard I recall the identity of a 
gentleman by the name of Raino Tantilla. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you spell it, please? 

Mr. Adams. I believe the spelling would be T-a-n-t-i-1-l-a on the 
last name; the first name would be R-a-i-n-o. I understand that he 
was killed in Spain during the Spanish Civil War. I also can recall 
another person, a John Snyder. 

Mr. Wheeler. S-n-y-d-e-r? 

Mr. Adams. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Can you further identify Mr. Snyder? 

Mr. Adams. At this time, no. I have no recollection outside of 

Mr. Wheeler. How large was this unit ? 

Mr. Adams. At that particular time I think there were, oh, any- 
where from 25 to 45 people in it. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the identity of any of the others ? 

Mr. Adams. At this particular time I have no present recollection 
of the identity of any other people. This has been almost 20 years 
ago. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you subsequently transferred or assigned to 
another unit of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Adams. Well, I worked for a time up on the border in a little 
town by the name of Baudette. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you spell that? 

Mr. Adams. B-a-u-d-e-t-t-e, where I had no organizational connec- 
tion with the Communist Party for a year or so, and subsequent to 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7063 

that I went into Duluth where I was assigned to a branch or a unit. 

Mr. Wheeler. And that would probably be in 1937? 

]Mr. Adams. No, it was later than that. It was in January of 1939, 
approximately. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who were the members of this unit in Duluth ? 

Mr. Adams. There was a preacher's son who was the organizer of 
the unit by the name of Harry Smith. I recall 3 or 4 other people. A 
gentleman by the name of John Fisher; another 

Mv. AVheeler. Can you identify these people a little further? 

Mr. Adams. John Fisher I can't. Another individual by the name 
of Sam Davis who ran for governor on the Communist Party ticket 
in the State of Minnesota back in the early thirties. Another individ- 
ual wdiose last name was Cooler, I am not too sure of the first name, I 
think it might be Fred. And an Irishman by the name of Malcolm 
Mclsaac. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the occupation of Mclsaac or Cooler? 

Mr. Adams. At the time I knew him he was teaching. 

Mr. Wheeler. Which one? 

Mr. Adams. Mclsaac. 

Mr. Wheeler. And where was he a teacher? 

Mr. Adams. He was teaching on the adult education program. I 
believe it was sponsored by the Works Piojects Administration. 

Mr. Wheeler. He was employed by the WPA as a teacher? 

Mr. Adams. I don't know, it is possible he was. It is also possible 
that he was employed by the Duluth city school system. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was the strength of this unit in Duluth ? 

]Vrr. Anv^rs. The unit I was in at that particular period probably 
had anywhere from 25 to 50 members. 

Mr. Wheeler. And is this all the individuals you recall ? 

Mr. Adams. This is all the individuals that I have any present 
recollection of. 

Mr. WheLler. What positions did you hold in the Communist Party 
during the time you were a member in the State of Minnesota ? 

Mr. Adams. I held every position from unit organizer to a member 
of the S^-qte committee. 

Mr. Wheeler. And during what year were you a member of the 
State committee ? 

Mr. Adams. I believe it was during the year 1938. 

Mr. Wheeler. And how many members were on the State committee 
of the Communist Party in the State of INIinnesota ? 

Mr. Adams. At that particular time there were anywhere from 15 
to 25. 

Mr, Wheeler. Would you identify all the ones you recall, please? 

Mr, Adams. Well, at that time Nat Ross was State secretary ; Martin 
Macki was a member of the committee ; and a man by the name of John 
Saltis. And at this particular time I cannot recall the names of the 
other members of the State committee. 

Mr, Wheeler. You recall 2 ? 

Mr, Adams, I believe 3, Nat Eoss, Martin Macki, John Saltis. 

Mr. Wheeler. And how did you spell the name Macki ? 

Mr. Adams. M-a-c-k-i. 

]\Ir. Wheeler. Were they employees of the Communist Party or 
did they have other occupations, have positions in the community in 
which they resided ? 



7064 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Adams. I have no present knowledge of that. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know what districts they represented in the 
State of Minnesota ? 

Mr. Adams. Well, Mr. Ross was the State secretary. The other two 
people I do not know. I do not recall, if I ever knew. 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe you testified you were expelled from the 
Communist Party in 1939? 

Mr, Adams. I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Just briefly would you tell us the reason why ? 

Mr. Adams. Mr. Wheeler, I went into this quite thoroughly in April. 
May I refresh my recollection from some of my notes ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Certainly. 

Mr. Adams. Tliat I had at that time. Well, the expulsion was 
brought about mainly through a difference of opinion between myself 
and the Duluth leaders of the Communist Party over the role that the 
United States should play in tlie war that broke out in August, I 
believe, of 1939, in Europe. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are those all of the individuals you recall in the 
State of Minnesota as members of the' Communist Party ? 

Mr. Adams. At this particular time those are the only individuals 
that I have- any present positive recollection of. And I might add, 
Mr. Wlieeler, that this has been from 20 to about 15 years ago and it 
is veiy difficult to search a person's recollection to try to dredge up 
people, particularly, that you might be positive of. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you first come to San Diego, Calif. ? 

Mr. Adams. I believe it was in September 1943. 

Mr. Wheeler. Then have you resided here since that date ? 

Mr. Adams. I have resided in San Diego County continuously since 
that date. 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe you testified in your previous testimony 
that you rejoined the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Adams. I rejoined the Communist Party in 19-13, I believe — 
1944, probably the early part of 1944. 

Mr. Wheeler. Early 1944 ? 

^Ir. Adams. These dates, without going back and checking my 
notes, are approximate dates. I hope the committee understands that, 
because I am not trying to record back to the committee 

Mr. Jackson. It will be understood that these are approximate to 
the ])est of your recollection. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Adams, I refer you to page 4854 of the official 
transcript of the previous testimony, and repeat to you a question 
asked by Mr. Frank Tavenner, committee counsel. And I would like 
to note, Mr. Chairman, that this is the first question of a series of 9 
questions which was the basis on which the House of Representatives 
based their contempt citation against Richard xVdams : 

Mr. Tavenner. To whom did you submit your api)lication for membership? 

Mr. Adams. Is that the present question ? 

]\Ir. Wheeler. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Adams. I believe I submitted it to Fran Decker. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is that Frances Decker? 

Mr. Adams. Well, I knew her as Fran Decker, D-e-c-k-e-r. 

Mr. Wheeler. And who was she? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7065 

Mr. Adams. At the time I was informed that she was secretary of 
the San Diego Communist Party. 

Mr. Wiif:FXER. Were vou assigned to a chib or unit of the Commu- 



nist Party here in San Diego I 



Mr. Adams. I was eventually. It took a little time for my applica- 
tion to be accepted, and I believe I was assigned to what was then 
known as the Logan Heights branch. 

Mr. AYi lEELER. And how long were you a member of the Logan 
Heights branch ? 

j\ir. Adams. It was not too long a period ; in terms of months, maybe 
6 months, it could have been a year. There was reorganization that 
took })lace shortly after that, there was a general consolidation of 
various San Diego branches into a central group, later on a reassign- 
ment of people out of the central group back into branches. I couldn't 
state too positively how long it was. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many members were in this Logan Heights 
Club of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Adams. I couldn't positively even approximate the number of 
members. The number of members that I possibly saw at meetings — 
well, it would be impossible to estimate, because at that time the war 
was on and people worked diiferent shifts, and it could have been 10 
members, it could have been 50. 

Mr. Jackson. What would the average attendance be at a meeting? 

Mr. Adams. Oh, 8 or 10 people. 

Mr. Whj:eler. How many meetings would you say yoii attended 
of this club? 

JMr. Adams. To the best of my recollection, 2 or 3 meetings. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall who was the chairman of the club or 
any of the officers of it? 

Mr. Adams. No, I don't. I don't recall who was chairman of the 
€lub or wlio tlie officers of the club were. I was new in San Diego and 
individuals' faces or names meant very little to me, 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any of the members of this club? 

Mr. Adams. I recall Red Plagen, who has testified before this com- 
mittee, and the only reason I recall him was my recollection was re- 
freshed by conferences in my offices prior to his testimony here, and 
also introducing him to ]Mr. Wheeler. I also recall Morgan Hull 
a member of this local. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is Red Hagen known as Oliver Hagen ? 

Mr. Adams. That is correct ; O. B. Hagen. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was William Pope a member of this club ? 

Mr. Adams. I believe he was, and his wife Beverly. 

Mi'. Wheeler. Well, you knew both William Pope and Beverly 
Pope as members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Adams. I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else ? 

Mr. Adams. Not of the Logan Heights branch. That is your refer- 
ence at this particular time? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. Do you recall who assigned you to the Logan 
Heights branch ? 

Mr. Adams. No, I do not, but I believe Frances Decker or Morgan 
Hull, 1 of the 2. 



7066 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. The record should show at this time that the Frances 
Decker mentioned in the testimony appeared before the committee in 
Washington, D. C, some months aoo and declined to answer any ques- 
tions having to do with her alleged Communist Party activity, taking 
the provisions of the fifth amendment as her grounds for not an- 
swering. 

Mr. AViiEEi.ER. Mr. Adams, I recall your testifying that it could 
have been G months to a year that you remained a member of the 
Logan Heights branch. And what happened after you left this 
branch ? 

Mr. Adams. I was transferred again to a larger group, I believe, 
and then sliortly thei'eafter transferred to a South Bay unit. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would this be the Communist Political Association? 

Mr. Adams. It is ]:)ossible that it was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where did the Communist Political Association 
meet? 

Mr. Adams. Well, the meetings I attended, I believe, were in a hall 
on 12th Street or 11th Street. I don't know the name of the hall or 
t he address, here in the city of San Diego. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any of the members of this large group 
or unit ? 

Mr. Adams. Well, primarily I can recall the members of the execu- 
tive committee, who were George Lohr, Enos Baker, Nancy Rosenfeld, 
Lura Stevenson, Josephine Benson, Lloyd Hamlin, Dave Buchanan. 

INIr. Wheeler. This is the executive committee of the Communist 
Political Association? 

INIr. Adams. Well, for the time being the executive committee of the 
Connnunist Political Association. And then the association was dis- 
banded and the Communist Party was reorganized. 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe you testified in your previous testimony 
that you were elected to the executive committee of San Diego County ? 

Mr. Adams. I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. That was during the year 1944-45 ? 

Mr. Adams. That is correct. So some of these names, Mr. Wheeler, 
if I may interject, were doubtlessly members of the committee at the 
time of my election, probably some of them were members of the 
committee at the time of the association, and possibly some of them 
after the disbandment of the association. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you further describe Georoe Lohr? 

Mr. Adams. He was the chairman of the San Diego Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Enos Baker? 

Mr. Adams. I don't know particularly what his job was. 

Mr. Whei:ler. Nancy Rosenfeld? 

Mr. Adams. I believe she was a clerk of some kind in tlie offices of 
the Communist Party. 

INIr. Wheeler. Was she also known as Nancy Rosenfeld Lund. 
L-u-n-d? 

My. Adams. I have no knowledge of that, I have no personal knowl- 
edge of that. 

Mr. Wheeler. Lura Stevenson? 

Mr. Ada]ms. Yes. 

IVfr. Wheeler. Well, what was her occupation ? Could you further 
describe her? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7067 

Mr. Adams. Well, Liira Stevenson testified before I did, I believe 
she said she was business agent for the Cooks and Waitresses Union, 
and I believe that was her occupation at the time that I knew her, 

Mr. WiiEELEK. Josephine Benson? 

Mr. Adams. She was also a business agent for the Cooks and Wait- 
resses Union. 

Mr. Wheeler. David Buchanan? 

Mr. Adams. I believe he was in the building trades. 

Mv. WiiEELEK. Did you know Ray JNIorkowski? 

Mr. Adams. The name Ray Morkowski is familiar. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was he a member of the central committee ? 

Mr. Adams. At this time I have no present recollection whether he 
was or not, 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know him to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Adams. At this time I have no present recollection whether he 
was a member or not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, he has been previously identified. 

What was the ])eriod of time you were a member of the Communist 
Political Association? 

Mr. Adams. Well, I have to go back and check a lot of notes to make 
an exact determination when the Communist Party was disbanded 
and when it was reinstated, but I believe the Connnunist Party was 
reorganized sometime in 1945. 

Mr. Jacksox. Membership was continuous in the Communist Po- 
litical Association until the reconstitution of the Communist Party? 

Mr, Adams. Well, the Communist Political Association was a fig- 
ment of the imagination of Earl Browder, and when Browder went 
out the political association went along with him. 

Mr. Jacksox. Wliat I mean to say, your membership was continuous 
through that period? 

Mr. Adams. From 1944 to 1946; yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. You testified, Mr. Adams, you then became a mem- 
ber of the South Bay branch ? 

Mr. Adams. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler, What period of time were you a member of this 
club? 

Mr. Adams. Well, that was probably the latter part of 1945 and 
part of 1946. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you remain a member of this club until you left 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Adams. I remained a member of that club until I was expelled 
by the Communist Party. 

Mr. AVheeler. At that period of time you resided in National City ? 

Mr. Adams. I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. And that South Bay Club 

Mr. Adams. I believe it encompassed everything south of the San 
Diego city line. 

Mr. Wheeler. And what was the membership of this club? 

Mr. Adams. Well, it was somewhat smaller than the Logan Heights 
Club. My impression was 10 or 12 people. 

Mr. Wheeler. Could you identify the members that you presently 
recall ? 



7068 f:OMMUNIST activities IX THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Adams. Tlie only people that I have a present recollection of 
were John Lang, his wife, Mrs. John Lang — I believe her first name is 
JRita — a woman by the name of Honja Lewie. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wonld j^ou spell that, please? 

Mr. Adams. I believe her first name is H-o-n-j-a, last name L-e-w-i-e ; 
and a gentleman by the name of W. L, Edwards. 

Mr. Wheeler. i)o you recall the occupation of the latter two indi- 
viduals? 

Mr. Adams. Mr. Edwards was retired. Honja Lewie. I did not 
know her occupation. 

Mr. Wheeler. That is all the members that you recall in this 
branch ? 

Mr. Adams. To the best of my present recollection, yes; Mr. 
Wlieeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Adams, this next question was previously asked 
by Mr. Tavenner, and is the second of a series of nine questions which 
were the basis of citing you for contempt of Congress, on page 4857 of 
the official transcript. Quoting the record : 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was in charge of the recruitment of new members or the 
work of recruitment of new members from the executive committee of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Adams. Well, primarily the person responsible for the recruit- 
ment of new members would be the head of the party in the county 
who, at the time I was a member, would be either Morgan Hidl or 
George Lohr. 

Mr. Wheeijer. Mr. Adams, I will repeat this question asked of you 
by Mr. Tavenner, and it is the third question that was used as a basis 
of citing you for contempt. 

This appears on page 4857 of the official transcript. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was in cliarge of the worlc of distribution of Ctuumunist 
Party literature? 

Mr. Adams. I can't answer that question because at this particular 
time I cannot recall who might have been assigned from the central 
committee to the literature distribution. 

Mr. Wheeler. When you testified before the committee previously 
I believe you listed in your employment that you were a manager of a 
book store here in San Diego? 

Mr. Adams. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. What book store is that? 

Mr. Ada^is. It was known as the Community Book Store. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was it a Communist Party book store ? 

Mr. Adams. Well, I don't know whether it was a Communist Party 
book store, it was owned by the corporation that was organized back 
in the late twenties or early thirties. It handled all types of Commu- 
nist literature, along with a lot of other stuff. 

Mr, Wheeler. How did you obtain this position ? 

Mr. Adams. I was assigned to it by the central committee of the 
Connnunist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. The Communist Party had a deciding interest in 
this book store, then? 

Mr. Adams. To the extent that they were in a position to appoint 
the manager ; yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7069 

Mr. Wheeler. Where did you get the literature that was sold at 
this book store? 

Mr. Adams. Primarily from a distributor in San Francisco. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wlio was that ? 

jNIr. Adams. At this time I Avouldn't be able to recall tlie name of the 
firm that sold us literature. 

Mr, Wheeler. Mr. Adams, this is the fourth of the series of nine 
questions which was used as the basis for the contempt citation. Tliis 
is repeating from page 4857 of the official transcript : 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was head of the rommunist Party at the time you were 
a member of the executive committee, that is, the head of the party in San Diego 
County? 

Mr. Adams. At the time I joined I believe Fran Decker was; later 
on Morgan Hull was, and subsequent to Morgan Hull I believe George 
Lolir. 

Mv. Wheeler. I will repeat a question asked by Mr. Tavenner at 
the previous hearing. This is the fifth of the series of questions. It 
appears on page 4853 of the transcript. I don't know whether you can 
])ick this up or not. The question is: 

Mr. Tavenxek. Who was liead of the Communist Party in San Diego County 
at the time tliis action was taken 

Mr. Adams. What action is he referring to? 

Mr. Wheeler. I thought you might recall that. I will have to 
check back. 

Mr. Adams. Xo; I don't. 

Mr, Wheeler. It was referring to your expulsion from the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr, Adams. George Lohr. 

Mr. Wheeler. In regard to expulsion from the Communist Party 
how were you notified? 

Mr. Adams. Well, I was notified I was dropped by Mr. Lohr, and 
suljsequent to that time I was notified by his wife that I had been 
expelled. 

Mr. Wheeler. His wife. Would you identify her? 

Mr. Adams. Ilelga Weigert. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you offered a hearing? 

Mr. Adams. I did not ask for one. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you offered one? 

Mr. Adams. There was no offer made. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did they advise you the reasons why you were 
expelled ? 

Mr. Adams. I did not ask the reasons, there was no advice given 
on that score. 

Mr. Wheeler. However, you accepted their decision without com- 
ment ? 

Mr. Adams, I knew what the reasons were. 

Mr. Jacksox. Did you yourself know of the reason why you had 
been expelled? 

Mr. Adams. I did . 

Mr. Jackson. What was that reason? 

Mr. Adams. Well, once more, it was a difference of opinion between 
myself and the leaders of the San Diego Communist Party, pri- 
marily — the primary reason being a difference of opinion on policy. 



7070 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. You were showing a lot of individuality for a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Adams. I always show individuality, Mr. Jackson, whether I 
am meeting with the Communist Party or a Congressman. 

Mr. Jackson. We are aware of that. Was it apparent to you that 
further breaches of discipline of that kind would probably result in 
your expulsion? 

Mr. Adams, Absolutely. 

Mr. Jackson. It already having occurred on one occasion? 

Mr. Adams. Absolutely. I fully understood, and have always. And 
I might say that I have made a 20 — more than a 20-year study of 
communism, and it is a fact that the Communist Party, being a 
monolithic party, cannot tolerate or cannot afford to have people in- 
side of the Communist Party that do not believe in the program, the 
aim or the objective of the party. And I might say that in the past 
the Democratic Party has tried to do the same thing by trying to purge 
some of tlie Soutlierners and they have had a hard time trying to do 
it. And the same thing holds true with any political party, unless 
you agree with the aims, objectives, activities of any organization you 
are going to have to get out of the organization or take it over, there 
will be no room for the • 

Mr. Jackson. A lot of that argument 

Mr. Adams. The Republican and Democratic Party is not a revolu- 
tionary party. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have already answered this question, Mr. 
Adams. However, I would like to repeat it, it is the sixth of the 
nine questions for which you were cited for contempt; it appears 
on page 4863. And I repeat the question, it is by Congressman 
Jackson : 

Mr. Jackson. Who was the person who notified you of your expulsion from 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Adams. The person who notified me of my being dropped was 
Mr. Lohr and his wife, Mrs. Lohr, or Helga Weigert, notified me quite 
some time later that I was expelled. And by the way, I never knew 
Helga Weigert as a Communist. 

Mr. Jackson. But she notified you that you had been expelled from 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Adams. I assumed she was bringing the message from her 
husband. 

Mr. Jackson. A reasonable assumption under the circumstances? 

Mr. Adams. Yes, a very reasonable assumption. 

Mr. Wheeler. The next question which will be repeated, questions 
7, 8, and 9, which concludes the series of 9 questions for which Con- 
gress cited you for contempt, on page 4863 to 4865, No. 7 : 

Mr. Tavrnner. Was George Lohr the one who notified you you were dropped 
from the Communist Party? 

Mr. Adams. Yes, 

Mr. Wheeler. The next question : 

Mr. Tavenner. Was George Lohr the head of the Communist Party in San 
Diego at tliat time? 

Mr, Adams. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7071 

Mr. Wheeler. No. 9 : 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, all you know regarding 
the activities in the Communist Party of George Lohr in San Diego, if you know 
of such activities? 

Mr. Adams. Well, that would probably take a whole volume and an 
hour's testimony. George Lohr was transferred into San Diego as 
the San Diego chairman; from where I do not know. I believe he 
came into San Diego in the middle of 1945. When he left San Diego 
I have no knowledge, because I was not a member of the party at 
that time. During his tenure of office or his tour of duty he served 
as the spokesman or chairman or head of the San Diego County Com- 
munist P'arty. And during the period of the Political Association, 
head of that association. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know of his present whereabouts ? 

Mr. Adams. Simply from hearsay. I was informed by the press 
that George Lohr and Helga Weigert were in Czechoslovakia. George 
Lohr told me he was born in New York, had been taken back to 
Germany as a child, had got out of Germany after the advent of 
coming to power of Hitler, and came back to his native country. 
Also, other things that he told me led me to believe that he had a 
lot of help doing a lot of things that he was doing, besides the help he 
was getting from the Communist Party. I frankly always suspected 
him of being in the employ of the FBI or of the State Department. 

Mr. WiiEELEK. That information, a guess by the witness, might be 
an injustice to the person you are discussing in San Diego. 

Mr. Adams. It shouldn't be. 

Mr. Wheeler. I would like to refer you to part 2 of the hearings, 
Investigation of Communist Activities in the State of California, 
4611, the testimony of Mr. Benjamin Haddock, H-a-cl-d-o-c-k. Were 
you ever acquainted with Mr. Haddock ? 

Mr, Adams. I have no present recollection of ever having met the 
man. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, he testified in Washington to the effect he was 
a member of the Communist Party here in San Diego. And Mr. 
Tavenner is doing the questioning, and I would like to repeat this 
portion of the testimony. [Reading :] 

Will you give us the names, please, and all the identifying information you 
can regarding the Communist Party membership of any other person other than 
you have already named wliere you have direct knowledge of your own indicat- 
ing Communist Party membership? 

Mr. Haddock. Richard Adams, who was the party functionary to come to me 
and get me to sign the application card for my 1946 membership. I was sick at 
the time and so he came to my home. I have never seen him since or before. 
And he later ran for office in National City and was elected. 

Do you recall that incident? 

Mr. Adams. I do not, Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. AVas it part of your duties as a member of the Com- 
munist Party to reregister people or to obtain their applications ? 

Mr. Adams. It probably was ; it is entirely possible that I did. But 
I would not know^ Mr. Haddock if I met him in the street and I don't 
recollect his name. 

Mr. Wheeler. Well, if you did that type of work you would have 
been in possession of a list of a great number of people who were 



7072 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

members of the Communist Part}' in San Diego. Would that be 
correct? 

Mr. Adams. Well, not a great number. It is possible that — I don't 
know which branch he belonged to. 1 might have been given a list 
by the county office of a few people that were sick and couldn't come 
in and asked to contact them, and possibly that is one of those events. 
He said he was ill. From time to time I have been in possession of 
lists of great numbers of people. 

Mr. Wiieel?:r. Would you be able to identify any other individuals 
who were members of the Communist Party in San Diego? 

My. Adams. Not at this particular time. I couldn't even identify 
Mr. Haddock. If you w^ant to refresh my recollection with the indi- 
vidual names that you might have, possibly that might 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe you testified in your previous testimony that 
you wrote for the Federated Press in San Diego. Is that correct? 

Mr. Adams. I was stringman for a while for the Federated Press. 

Mr. Wheeler. How did you acquire that position ? 

Mr. Adams. I think I was either hired by mail, or the Los Angeles 
editor came down and made arrangements for me to write material 
for them. I don't recall. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle, do you have any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, I remember very well, Mr. Adams, your 
appearance in xipril of this year here. I am very glad, iis a Member 
of Congress, that you have come back to help us with this information. 
I will be perfectly frank with you, I remember Mr. Wheeler's ques- 
tion to you a few" minutes ago in asking how it came about that you 
were back with us today, I remember that you related that you felt 
you were not in a position alone to go against the opinion of 435 Mem- 
bers of the House of Representatives. I always wonder the extent 
to which peo])le who volunteer or cooperate with us do so because they 
feel it is their patriotic duty. I know^ you answered Mr. Wheeler's 
question rather briefly, but you didn't relate that as one of the reasons 
as being any patriotic motive on your part. 

Mr. Adams. May I answer your question, Congressman ? 

Mr. Doyle. Certainly. 

Mr. Adams. I listened very closely to your lecture that you gave the 
witness this morning. For your information, sir, my ancestors and 
relatives have died in every war in this country since the French and 
Indian War. I feel that my patriotism, my love of America is as great 
as any person. I think possibly, besides yourself and your family, the 
death of your son would be regretted by myself as much as anyone in 
this world. 

I regret that people on both sides of this terrific struggle between 
communism and capitalism are so shortsighted, are so vicious and have 
such hatred in their hearts that they are going to inevitably cause a 
clash between these two forces, and when that day comes, and it has 
already come, that brave men on both sides will die, and I think that 
we all regret that. And, sir, it isn't a question of being a great Ameri- 
can or being a patriot, it is a question of having love for your fellow 
man and trying to see the way clear to do something that will head 
off this inevitable clash that is building up between these tw^o great 
forces in the modern world today. And I can only say to you that I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7073 

disagree with your method of trying- to combat communism in Amer- 
ica, because you know as well as I do that every time unemployment 
increases a million people you make 10,000 potential Connnunists. 
And with unemployment going up as it has in the past year or so, five 
or six or seven million, yon will make more Communists than this com- 
mittee can ferret out in 10, 20 years. So the thing to do is stop the 
economic ills of the world, that stops communism. 

Mr. Doyle. AVell, I lemember in April yon did relate your inheri- 
tance background, at least briefly. I think I am clear on that recollec- 
tion. But I did notice in your brief relating of circumstances under 
whicli you are back here today that you emphasized that you didn't 
want to come up or you didn't want to tight alone the position of 435 
Members of the Hoiise and carry the case clear to the Supreme Court, 
and so forth. You made no 'mention of any desire to help your 
Congress. 

Mr. Adams. That is correct. 

Mr. Doylj:. As I say, I couldn't \\e\p but notice that you didn't take 
time to relate that you have come to the conclusion for those or any 
other reasons you felt perha})S it was your duty and ])rivilege to help 
this committee against subversive activity. We have not forced you 
to say a word today, you volunteered. 

Mr. Adams. I see what you are getting at, Congressman. My differ- 
ence of opinion developed with the Communists in 1945 and 1946 ; it 
hasn't clianged. However, my attitude toward committees is this, and 
my attitude toward the right of Congress to sponsor committees has 
not changed in that respect, and certainly when you come here with 
the force of the Federal Government behind you and with all that that 
entails it would be very easy for me to say, well, Congressman — and 
as a lawyer you appreciate this — I shall rely on the fifth amendment 
and will tell you nothing. However, I don't believe that anything that 
I ever did in my life would tend to incriminate me in any degree, so 
therefore personally I could not in good moral conscience rely on the 
fifth amendment as to my own activity. 

However, I think it is moral — in other words, I feel that there is 
only room for one kiss-and-tell man in California, and I think that the 
Federal Government is morally wrong to force me, under the threat 
cf criminal prosecution, to do what you have forced me to do today. I 
think that it is morally wrong for Congress to do it. However, that is 
my opinion and Congress disagrees with me, so I am not about to put 
myself in a position where you can go to the Federal Attorney General 
and indict me and have the case grind along up through the Federal 
courts of the United States, because life is too short to go through that. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, 435 men may be right ? 

Mr. Adams. Or they may be wrong, 

Mr. Doyle. And you may be right or you may be wrong? 

Mr, Adams. That is correct, only history will say, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Adams. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, one more question: AVhat year was it you were 
expelled from the Communist Party the second time? 

Mr. Adams. I was expelled in the early part of 104G. 

Mr. Jackson. Let me say, Mr. Adams, that it was not economic 
consideration ; it was not men who were unem]^loyed, who were hun- 
gry, who stole from the top-secret files of this Government the secrets 
which might well cost the Yixes of untold millions of people. These 



7074 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

were men wlio were dedicated to the destruction of the American 
constitutional form of government. They were not the hungry itin- 
erants on park benches to which you had reference ; these were men — 
Alger Hiss, Harry Dexter AVhite, Lauchlin Currie, men of that stripe — 
to whom this counti'y had given every conceivable advantage; men 
who were drawing their stipend from the very Government they 
were attempting to destroy. I think this committee and other com- 
mittees are doing a disagreeable job. It is no pleasure for us to hale 
before us an intelligent man of ability such as yourself and to be 
charged in some quarters with persecution. We are appointed to 
these committees. I think the record should show that the basis for 
your citation was not that we were at all interested in persecuting 
you or sending you to jail. It was in the Supreme Court finding, 
United States v. Rogers, in explaining your own participation in 
what has been found to be a conspiracy, and in declining further to 
discuss the activities of others you have waived your immunity. Had 
you not been cited by CongTess, we would be placed in the position 
of having to overlook in the future every witness who appeared before 
us and refused to answer questions. There is no personal animus 
today as between the members of this subcommittee and yourself on 
our part. I want that in the record — that this is not a clash of 
personalities. 

Mr. Adams. May I say, Mr. Jackson, that I fully understand as 
much as you, and, although I might disagree, I would certainly have 
no personal animosity toward you, and I feel that you have no per- 
sonal animosity toward me, as much as I might deplore your political 
inclination and as much as you might deplore my political convic- 
tions. Now, to go back, you are, I believe you said, a member of the 
Armed Services Committee. 

Mr. Jackson. No; I am not. Mr, Doyle is. 

INIr. Adams. You are aware that our Government spends literally 
millions and possibly in the billions at the present time in an elfort 
to secure information from our potential enemies. We set up spy 
systems, they set up spy systems, and when you talk about the people 
who stole the secrets, whether they stole them through an ideological 
conviction that they were doing something right or whether they stole 
because they were bought and paid for, I have no knowledge of that, 
but I will say this thing I spoke about before where this constant hate 
between people and countries is being engendered, certainly hatred 
is the most dangerous thing. I wouldn't be surprised to open the 
newspaper and find that top officials in our Government have been 
disclosed as spies because it is entirely possible. It doesn't spring 
entirely from the thing that you believe it does, and that is why I 
think that frankly your committee is like a flivver in the snow — it is 
just spinning its wheels getting no place. 

Mr, Jackson. Well, we uncover a little mud. Let me say this: A 
gi'eat many people have been concerned for many, many years not 
over any pro])ensity which might plunge tlie world into another war. 
I think we who served in war abhor it more than the men who take 
the soapboxes. In the words of Lenin himself, "It is inconceivable 
that the Soviet Union and the United States can long exist in the same 
world." 

Mr, Adams. Mr. Jackson, I have forgotten more about communism 
that you ever knew, and I fully appreciate what Lenin says, and I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 7075 

fully appreciate that socialism and communism shall not exist even- 
tually side by side. Eventually one of the other is going to have to 
conquer. Inevitably I think there is going to be a terrific clash. All 
I am i^leading for is a little sanity to see if there isn't some way out 
of the predicament the world is in. 

Mr. Jackson. We will try to proceed in a nonhysterical fashion. 

Mr. Adams. I can also quote you any number of officials who say 
capitalism can't exist with communism, so the leaders on both sides, 
I believe, have said that we can't live in the same world together. 

Mr. Jackson. Of course, we don't have prophets in this system who 
fall into the same category as Lenin does in the galax;^ of the Corn- 
munist state. We have people voicing all sorts of opinions in this 
country, and that is a good condition. This is academic to the extent 
that a couple of us are going to miss a plane. 

Mr. Adams. After the First World War the Russians went Com- 
munist; the Second World War Eastern Europe went Communist; 
subsequent thereto China went Communist; subsequently we have 
lost part of Indochina. We didn't succeed in Korea. My thesis is 
war breeds communism. The first thing they should try to do is stop 
war. 

Mr. Doyle. May I make this remark, Mr. Chairman, in closing, 
to Mr. Adams. I am sure any lawyer will understand it. I hope the 
time will come in your life, in your rich experience, when you will not 
leave your appearance before this committee and make a reappearance 
on the basis of the possible outcome of a contempt citation and in- 
dictment. In other Avords, I hope the time will come with you, be- 
cause there are great opportunities in your profession because you 
have great opportunities for leadership, and I hope that your leader- 
ship will be directed in point of cooperating with the lawful pro- 
cedures of your own Nation, even to the extent of helping congressional 
committees trying to do a difficult job in a fair manner, rather than 
just doing it as a matter of saving yourself inconveniences. 

Mr. Adams. Thank you, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there anything further ? 

JSIr. Wheeler. Nothing further, sir. • 

Mr. Jackson. The subcommittee will direct the reporter, in addi- 
tion to the regular number of copies, that he furnish a copy to the 
Office of the Attorney General of the United States, and the United 
States attorney in Los Angeles. 

Thanks from the committee. You are excused from further appear- 
ance under the subpena. 

Mr. Adams. Thank you. 

Mr. Jackson. At this time both Mr. Doyle and I would like to 
thank the audience in the hearing room for their fine deportment dur- 
ing the course of the day; also our thanks to the sheriff's office and 
the office of the chief of police, the San Diego Police Department, for 
the officers who have been on duty here in the hearing room, to the 
chamber of commerce for their kindness in making this room available 
to us today for our hearing. 

With that the subcommittee will stand in adjournment subject to 
call of the Chair. 

(Whereupon the subcommittee adjourned, subject to the call of the 
Chair.) 



INDEX TO PART 11 



Individuals 

Pag« 

Acanfora, Viucent William 7046-7047 (testimony) 

Adams, George Richard Earl 7021.7000-7075 (testimony) 

Akerstein, Lynn 7021,7022-7043 (testimony) 

Anguis, Robert Samuel 7052-7055 (testimony) 

Angus, Bob ^52 

Baker, Euos 7030, 7066 

Baudette 7062 

Bayme, Carol 7(>48 

Baker, Marian A. (Mrs. Raymond Baker) 7057-7059 (testimony) 

Baker, Raymond Foss 70.55 

Baldwin, Bereniece 70-58 

Benson, Josephine I06i'>, 7067 

Berman. Mildred • 7044, 70.53 

Blodsett. Charles David 7035 

Boehm. Jeff 7027. 7032 

Browder. Earl 7067 

Buchanan. Dave 7066, 7067 

Carpadakis, John 7049-7052 (testimony) 

Currie, Lanchlin 7074 

Crittenden, Wilma 7032 

Davis, Sam 7063 

Decker, Frances 7064-7066, 7069 

Dovle, Bernadette 7030, 7031, 7033, 7034 

Edwards, W. L 7068 

Elston, Lura Stevenson 7058,7059-7060 (testimony) 

Fisher, John 7063 

Gatewood. Ernestine 7027 

Gibson, Lolita 7024, 7032 

Cooler 7063 

Griffin, Nathaniel 7053, 7054 

Haddock, Benlamin 7071 

Hagen. Oliver B. (Red) 7065 

Hamlin. Lloyd 7024, 7021, 7031, 7032, 7046, 7048, 7050, 7059, 7060, 7066 

Hancock, Stanley 7053 

Hartle. Barbara 7028 

Hiss, Alger 7074 

Hull, Morgan 7024, 7065, 7068, 7069 

Lang, John 7068 

Lang. Rita (Mrs. John Lang) 7068 

Lewie. Himja 7068 

Lohr, George 7066, 7068-7071 

Lund, Nancy Rosenfeld (see also Rosenfeld, Nancy) 7030,7066 

Macki, Martin 7063 

Mclsaac, Malcolm 7063 

Morkowski. Ray 7032, 7033, 7044. 7067 

Nygaard. Emil 7062 

O'Brien, Blanche 7023. 7032 

O'Brien. Jack 70.32, 7033 

Pope, Betty (Mrs. William Pope) 7065 

Pope, William 7065 

Porter, John W 7043, 7046, 7049, 7052, 7055. 7057, 70.59 

Roger.s. A. C. Sr 7026, 7027 

Rosen, Obed Alexander (Whitey) 704.3-7046 (testimony), 

7051, 7055, 7056, 7058 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Rosenfeld, Nancy (see also Lund, Nancy Rosenfeld) 7066 

Ross, Nat 7063, 7064 

Salisbury, Wayne 7056 

Saltis, John 7063 

Sleeth, Paul Edwin, Jr 7047-7049 (testimony) 

Smith, Harry 7063 

Snyder, John 7062 

Steinmetz, Harry 7029, 7030 

Stevenson, Lura 7066, 7067 

Tantilla, Raino 7062 

Wallace, Henry 7026, 7027 

Weigert, Helga (Mrs. George Lohr) 7069, 7071 

White, Harry Dexter 7074 

White, Robert 7053 

Organizations 

CIO 7023 

CIO Council, San Diego 7032 

California Labor School 7022 

Carleton College 7056 

Communist Party : 
California : 

Central Committee 7054 

Linda Vista Club 7050 

Logan Heights Branch 7065-7067 

National City-Chula Vista Club 7047 

San Diego 7032, 7066, 7069 

San Diego County 7031, 7033, 7071 

Liberator branch 7044 

San Diego County Committee 7030, 7066 

San Diego, Morgan Hull Club 7024, 7025, 7027, 7028, 7032 

South Bay Club 7067 

State Convention 7053 

Michigan 7058 

Minnesota 7061-7064 

Communist Political Association 7066 

California, South Bay unit 7066 

San Diego County 7071 

Community Book Store, San Diego, Calif 7068 

Consolidated Aircraft Co 7050 

Cooks and Waitresses Union 7067 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 7024, 7071 

Federal Housing Administration 7022, 7023, 7025 

Goodwill Industries, San Diego 7047, 7049 

Independent Progressive Party 7022, 7025, 7027-7029, 7031-7037 

San Diego 7034 

International Union of Marine Cooks and Stewards 7022 

Michigan State College 7057 

Northwestern University 7043 

Progessive Citizens of America 7022, 7026, 7027, 7031, 7033 

Rohr Aircraft 7046 

Ryan Aircraft Co 7032, 7043, 7044 

Santa Monica Junior College 7047 

State Department 7071 

UCLA 7043 

United Office and Professional Workers 7023 

United Public Workers of America 7023 

Works Projects Administration 7063 

Publications 

Federated Press 7072 

San Diego Evening Tribune 7052 

San Diego Journal 7032 

San Diego Union 7032 

o 



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