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/J^ bo^ a. 79. 







JUNE 29, 1955 

Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 


65500 WASHINGTON : 1955 




United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS B. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 


JAMES B. FRAZIER, JH., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 


Thomas W. Bbalb, Sr., Chief Clerk 



Part 1 

June 27, 1955: Testimony of— P*«» 

Paul Wright Orr .- 1440 

Afternoon session: 

Andries Deinum 1474 

Anita Bell Schneider 1498 

June 28, 1955: Testimony of — 

Angela Clarke 1523 

Cecil Beard 1538 

Diamond Kim 1543 

Afternoon session: 

Diamond Kim (resumed) 1565 

Sue Lawson 1572 

George Hugh Murray Maitland Plardyman 1575 

Part 2 
June 29, 1955: Testimony of — 

George Hugh Murray Maitland Hardyman (resumed) 1599 

Raphael Konigsberg 1656 

Afternoon session: 

Sylvia Schonfield 1668 

Jean Wilkinson 1676 

Frank C. Davis 1679 

Irene B. Bowerman 1689 

Carl Sugar 1697 

Part 3 
June 30, 1955: Testimony of — 

Matthevi^ Samuel Vidaver, Jr 1707 

William Elconin 1713 

William Ward Kimple 1731 

Afternoon session: 

William Ward Kimple (resumed) 1742 

Max Benjamin Natapoff 1761 

Tashia Freed 1764 

Max Appleman 1768 

Joseph W. Aidlin 1771 

Part 4 

July 1, 1955: Testimony of — 

Stephen A. Wereb 1779 

Afternoon session: 

Stephen A. Wereb (resumed) 1811 

James Burford 1827 

Anne Pollock 1837 

Margeret Vaughn Mever 1844 

July 2, 1955: Testimony of— ^ 

Stephen A. Wereb (resumed) 1851 

John Waters Houston I860 

Harry Hay 1872 

Martha Hard Wheeldin 1875 

Louis Stark 1882 

Robert L. Brock 1889 

Index. (See pt. 4 of this series.) 


PuBuo Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted ty the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 


Rule X 


17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

* 4> * * * * * 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee ou Un-American Activities, as a whole, or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to malie from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attaclts 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clei'k of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 


House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 


Rule X 


1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
* * * * * * * 

Rule XI 


17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerli of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such bool^s, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subocmmittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 




United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Lob Angeles^ Calif. 


A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met at 
9 : 40 a. m., pursuant to recess, in room 518, Federal Building Los An- 
geles, Calif. Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman of the subcommittee) 

Committee members present : Representatives Clyde Doyle (chair- 
man) ; Morgan M. Moulder, Donald L. Jackson, and Gordon H. 

Staff membei'S present: Frank S. Tavenner, counsel, and William 
A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will please come to order. 

Let the record show that the full subcommittee is present : Congress- 
man Scherer of Ohio on my extreme left ; Congressman Jackson next 
to me on my left, from Los Angeles County ; Congressman Moulder 
from the State of Missouri on my right, and I am Congressman Doyle 
of Los Angeles County, subcommittee chairman. 

I want again before we begin our morning's session to just briefly 
say that we expect and appreciate continued cooperation of the audi- 
ence as our guests being quiet and without any demonstration either 
for or against any witness or anything that is said or done. You 
understand me, no demonstration of any kind, either favorable or 
unfavorable, please. That is the fair way to have it and that is the 
way we must have it in the room to proceed efficiently. 

Are you ready, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Hugh Hardyman, will you return to the stand, please. 


Mr. Hardyman. Mr. Chairman, I am accompanied by counsel. 
I trust that this will be permitted by the committee, the same counsel 
I was represented by yesterday. 

Mr. Doyle. May I say, Mr. Hardyman, that this committee is al- 
ways strongly in favor of every witness having counsel when counsel 



is prepared to represent his client before the committee fully and by 
due preparation. It so happens that in this particular instance your 
testimony was not completed yesterday, it was necessary for us to ask 
you to come back today. We realize that the nature of the testimony 
is such that you must have adequate time to get counsel who would be 
thoroughly familiar with the facts as you would give the facts to him, 
and that takes in your case, in the first place to get different counsel 
who could be here immediately, is probably impossible, with due prep- 
aration. That means we might not be able to get the benefit of your 
testimony during these hearings, which we hope will terminate Friday. 

Mr. Hardyman. In addition to that, sir, to me there is no counsel 
as good as Mr. Wirin. 

Mr. Doyle. At any rate, I am a member of the bar also, and I am 
always glad to hear a client compliment his counsel because it is a 
highly confidential relationship, that of counsel and client. 

The committee is not a court, we don't enter into legal problems, we 
are not the forum in which any legal matter should be presented or 
can be presented, we don't determine legal matters, matters of motions 
and those things, this is not the legal forum to do it in because we have 
no jurisdiction on those matters. But on the other hand, may I empha- 
size, Mr. Hardyman and Counsel, that we must insist on a strict obed- 
ience and compliance with that rule, which requires two things : First, 
that the attorney shall not address the committee because we don't have 
time and facilities for hearing that, and secondly, that the attorney 
must not put all the words into the mouth of his witness. The right of 
the counsel before this committee is limited to advising his client on his 
constitutional rights. 

Mr. Hardyman. I can assure you, sir, my attorney and no one else 
is going to put words into my mouth, no one, not even this committee. 
No one. 

Mr. Doyle. May I make it clear that the rule of the committee is 
as I announced it the other day, and I will read it again : 

Counsel is not permitted to make oral arguments or to address the 
committee. We want the witness' testimony and not that of the lawyer 
and we have the right to expect an ethical member of the bar to confine 
his advice to his client to matters involving his constitutional rights 
and not to put words in the mouth of the witness. 

Yesterday we voted on this issue and we members are never hesitant, 
we are American Congressmen, but we are never afraid nor ashamed 
to take our stand, we may differ on things, but we are public officials, 
of our votes in public. We want the public to know how we function. 

Gentlemen, you have heard Mr. Hardyman's request that Mr. Wirin, 
his counsel yesterday, be allowed to come back and be his counsel 
today. What is your pleasure in the matter ? 

I will call for a vote on it because we had a vote on it yesterday. I 
will call for a vote. 

Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr. Moulder. I vote "aye" in- favor of Mr. Wirin. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Jackson ? 

Mr. Jackson. Present. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. No. 

Mr. Doyle. I vote "aye." 


Therefore, by majority vote Mr. Wirin is with us as counsel for Mr. 

Mr. Hardyman. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, before we begin this morning it may 
be well to make an announcement to the witnesses who are present, and 
their counsel, regarding the time when the witnesses are likely to be 
reached, if you will permit me to make such an announcement. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. Do that, please. 

Mr. Tavenner. I should call to the committee's attention the fact 
that despite our assembling here an hour earlier the committee nor- 
mally sits about a half hour later than usual, our schedule is more 
than a half day in arrears. That means that there are present here 
a number of witnesses subpenaed for yesterday as well as those sub- 
penaed for today. I have made a careful study of the matter and I 
would like for the committee to direct all witnesses except those I 
am going to name who were called for yesterday — that is, directed to 
appear yesterday and directed to appear today — to report back here 
tomorrow morning. I saw all of them with the exception of these 
that I am going to name. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, these whose names you mention are to 
remain here 

Mr. Tavenner. They are to be available for testimony today. The 
names I am to read are to remain here. All others are to report tomor- 
row morning. 

Raphael Konigsberg, Sylvia Schonfield, Jean Wilkinson, and Matt 
Vidaver. They are to be reached as quickly as we can reach them 
in the course of the day, and all others directed to appear here yester- 
day and today should be excused until tomorrow morning. 

Mr. Doyle. That will be the order, then, and that of course will 
accommodate also the attorneys for those respective witnesses so they 
can go back to their offices. 

Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. I introduced in evidence yesterday a 
photostatic copy of a page of the January 12, 1953, issue of the Daily 
People's World, which made reference to a speech made by you in 
Los Angeles on January 11, 1953, on which occasion Dr. Kingsbury 
also spoke. I now desire to present to you another page of that same 
edition. This is page 3. The heading of it is "Hardyman Tells of 
New China's Might." 

Will you examine the article, please, and state whether or not it 
correctly states the substance of your speech on that occasion? 

(Document handed to witness; witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hardyman. I explained in earlier testimony that in view of the 
somewhat un-American theories of guilt by association which are 
current today, and also in view of the strange interpretations of the 
doctrine of waiver and because I feel that as a private citizen the 
committee has no right to search my mind, being barred therefrom 
by the fourth amendment to the Constitution, and because of the very 
vague mandate of the committee which I believe makes its entire 
operation illegal under the 9th and 10th amendments of the Consti- 


tution, and because of my belief in freedom of association, of speech, 
of press protected by the first amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt the witness ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you consider the speech you made in Communist 
China permitted under the first amendment to the Constitution? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. WiRiN. May I speak to him ? 

Mr. Doyle. Certainly. 

Mr. Hardyman. I am continuing with my reply to the question 
asked by committee counsel. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Hardyman, may I suggest this : I think you very 
fully laid the same foundation yesterday that you are laying now. 
You are continuing as the same witness and I am sure the record 
shows that very full statement by you yesterday as the groundwork 
for you refusing to answer, and may I suggest that we also under- 
stand that when you state your objection — I don't know what grounds 
you are going to use today so I can't suggest, but I would suggest 
that you don't need to take the time of yourself and counsel and us 
to restate your preliminary grounds. 

Mr. Hardyman. They hold? 

Mr. Doyle. Certainly. 

Mr. Hardyman. I have the committee chairman's statement that 
he will accept the grounds, the foundation laid yesterday, and my 
plea of certain amendments yesterday for my becoming again today 
a fifth amendment American — that is to say, join President Andrew 
Jackson and President Ulysses S. Grant in use of the fifth amend- 
ment by refusing to supply information to Congress which may lead 
to self-incrimination. 

Mr. Doyle. I don't think you have definitely claimed your con- 

Mr. Hardyman. I haven't ? By refusing to answer questions asked 
by Congress on the grounds of possible self-incrimination, on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment to the Constitution which means 
that no man need be a witness against himself ? 

Mr. Doyle. Do you so refuse on the grounds of the fifth amend- 

Mr. Hardyman. I certainly refuse, sir, on these grounds and I am 
trying to make this clear. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. 

Mr. Hardyman. That as President Andrew Jackson and President 
Grant also refused under somewhat different circumstances. 

Mr. Doyle. Not under the same circumstances. 

Mr. Hardyivian. But pleading the same amendment, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. For a different purpose. 

Mr. Hardyinian. In the case of President Grant, to avoid impeach- 

Mr. Jackson. INIay I say something ? To clarify the situation, my 
understanding of it is that the witness has claimed the protection of 
the 1st, 4th, 5tli, 9th, and 10th amendments. 

Mr. Hardyman. That is correct. 

Mr. Jackson. Can we understand that "For reasons previously 
stated I decline to answer" will be accepted rather than going through 
the whole thing: again on each occasion. 


Mr. Doyle. That is acceptable. 

Mr. Hardyman. Highly, sir. 

Mr. WiRiN. May he say "decline" instead of "refuse" ? 

Mr. Jackson. Refuse is better. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to introduce the document in evidence and 
ask that it be marked "Hardyman Exhibit No. 10" for identification 
only and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Doyle. It will be so received and so marked. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to read into the record a portion of this 
article : 

Reporting on the great conclave of Asian and Pacific peoples in October, Hardy- 
man, a California rancher, told an audience of 1,300 in Embassy Auditorium 
Thursday night — 

I should interpolate here that it is datelined Los Angeles, January 11. 
Then the following quotation appears : 

I am asked whether the Chinese fear war with the United States. The answer 
is the Chinese people know that their cities can be atom-bombed by the United 
States and millions of casualties caused. They acknowledge that such a catastro- 
phe would retard their efforts for a better life, but they are absolutely certain 
that this is all the United States can do. They know that 475 million Chinese 
united in freedom can not ever be conquered. 

With the advent of the Chinese People's Republic, another great power has 
taken its place in the world — 

he said. 

Then there is a heading "Germ Warfare" : 

It was action of the United States in rearming Japan that crystallized Asian 
and Pacific determination for peace. Unanimously expressed at the Peiping 
Conference — 

he said. 

The next paragraph is: 

This act created in the minds of Asian peoples the same stark horror that 
the rearming of Germany brought to Europe — 

Hardyman told his listeners. 
He continued: 

There is no enmity toward the American people among these Asian nations. 
There is indeed vigorous feeling against a government, particularly one which 
has indulged in germ warfare against civilian Asian populations. 

Delegates to the Peiping Conference, after viewing the evidence at firsthand 
have not the slightest doubt that germ warfare was indulged in by the United 
States, at least during 8 months of 1952. 

Mr. ScHERER. May I interrupt? 

Mr. DoYLE. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER, Isn't that the substance of this witness' speech while 
he was in Peiping during the war? 

Mr. Tavenner. The last two paragraphs which I have read and 
which are in quotes in the article are almost the same language as that 
contained in the broadcast from Communist China. 

Mr. ScHERER. The testimony and the evidence before this commit- 
tee is that this witness was in Peiping during the time that we were 
engaged in war with Communist China and made those statements. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Tavenner, I think I asked you yesterday if that 
isn't giving aid and comfort to the enemy in time of war ? I will make 


the statement, that in my opinion it is. I shouldn't ask you. I think 
that under our law it constitutes treason, doesn't it? 

Mr. Tavenner. I would think so, in time of war. 

Mr. Hardtman. Perhaps the Congressman had better leave matters 
relatmg to the judiciary to the judiciary and not pose as a jury or 

Mr. ScHERER. If there has been failure on the part— I am not saying 
there is— but if there has been a failure on the part of the Department 
of Justice to act in this case— it is the duty of this committee of Con- 
gress to act. The history has been that in the past few years where 
there has been a failure upon the part of some agencies of government 
to act, it is only after this committee has had hearings similar to this 
that action has been taken. 

I am going to determine in this case why you haven't been criminally 
prosecuted, because I can see evidence of at least four criminal offenses. 

Mr. Hardyman. May I call your attention, sir, to the decision of 
the United States Supreme Court in the Quinn case in which it is 
specifically stated that the power to investigate must not be confused 
with any of the powers of law enforcement. Those powers are as- 
signed under our Constitution to the executive and the judiciary. 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand that better than you do, sir. 

Mr. Hardyman. Pray obey it, sir, as well as understanding it. 

Mr. Jackson. Will the gentleman yield ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Mr. Jacksox. Doesn't it seem a little incongruous to you, Mr. 
Hardyman that during a period of time when this Nation was at war 
that by maltreatment and torture, confessions were extracted from 
some of our GI's who later made their way back to this country and in 
sorne instances were court-martialed for cooperating with the enemy, 
while at the same time you were giving substantially and voluntarily 
tlie same thing which was extorted from them behind the lines in the 
enemy country ? Does any incongruity occur to you in that picture, or 
would you care to comment on it at all ? 

Mr. Hardyman. In view of the strange interpretations of the doc- 
trine of waiver, I do not propose to discuss that matter, Mr. Congress- 
man, at this time. 

Mr. Doyle. In view of the remarks of both Mr. Scherer and Mr. 
Jackson, my colleagues, may I make it clear that my recollection is 
that the record shows that these were not confessions of fact. In other 
words, whereas this witness broadcast from Peiping apparently 

Mr. Scherer. We have heard abundance of testimony, as you know, 
of boys who were tortured almost beyond belief and here we have a 

so-called American citizen at that very time in Peiping, China 

^ Mr. Hardyman. Will the Congressman kindly refrain from refer- 
ring to me as a so-called American citizen. I ami his paymaster. We, 
sir, in whom the authority lies under the Constitution ; we, the people, 
not temporarily elected officials. 

Mr. Scherer. If it is within my power, you are going back where 
you came from if you can be denaturalized under the law. I am going 
to try to see that you are denaturalized because you are a disgrace to 
this country. 

Mr. WmiN. May I address the chairman ? 

Mr. Doyle. I would rather not. 


Mr. WiRiN. Are these remarks proper to my client? Do you rule 
they are proper ? ' 

Mr. Doyle. Let's proceed. 

Mr, WiRiN. My client is not here to be insulted by this committee 
or by any member thereof, and these remarks are insulting. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Wirin 

Mr. Wirin. I appeal to your good nature. 

Mr. Doyle. I realize it must be very difficult for you as a member 
of the bar to sit there and hear that sort of a statement by a distin- 
guished Congressman. On the other hand 

Mr. ScHERER. I didn't make it to counsel. 

Mr. WiRix. My client 

Mr. Doyle. On the other hand, may I say to you very emphatically 
and very clearly that when we, as American Congressmen on this 
committee as well as other committees, hear the kind of evidence 
by a witness that we heard yesterday about your client, I think you 
as counsel and the American public have to expect us as American 
Congressmen to speak out and to speak out with no question marks 
about how we feel, because as I said yesterday to your client, I felt 
that his broadcasting from Peiping, China, throughout the Eastern 
European countries, that my Government, your Government, partici- 
pated in biological warfare, as he said we had, and gave that notice 
to the people of Eastern Europe — in other words, the Communists — 
and satellite countries, was a dastardly lie and I say it now. I am 
not going to stop my colleagues from speaking their mind when those 
minds express what the evidence shows. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. May I say as calmly, as dispassionately as I can, 
with no insult intended whatever, sir, that I intend to back my col- 
league, Mr. Scherer, in taking every possible step to bring this matter 
to the attention of the Attorney General and see if we can rid ourselves 
and this Nation of a citizen who would go to enemy territory to fight 
the very cause for which 26,000 American men were at that time giv- 
ing their lives. This is merely a statement of my determination to 
take certain actions and I join with my colleagues in making that 

Mr. Hardyman. May I reply without insult that it is also the deter- 
mination of some citizens to remove from the Congress one or two 
representatives whom we feel the Congress would be better off without. 

Mr. Scherer. 1 have a number of your kind in my district who have 
been trying to remove me. Let me say this, Mr. Chairman, and then 
I am finished. I can't understand how this Government can prosecute 
American boys who were sent to fight in China who were brainwashed 
because they succumbed to the Communist doctrine, and then not take 
action in a case like this where we have a man who was partially, at 
least, responsible for that brainwashing. 

Mr. WiRiN. May I say something in his defense, or am I to sit mute 
and quiet ? 

Mr. Scherer. I am surprised that you would speak out in his 
defense after you know what happened. 

Mr. Doyle. Let's proceed, sir. 

Mr. WiRTN. You mean he has no right of defense ? 


Mr. ScHERER. He has the right. I am just surprised. 

Mr. Doyle. We are making the record so that our colleagues in 
Congress can realize what the evidence may be as we see it. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, very briefly, comment was made by 
the witness who happens to be a resident of the congressional district 
which I represent, to the effect that there are several Members of the 
United States Congress they are going to work to try to get rid of. I 
am delighted that I am one of them, Mr. Hardyman, and I hope that 
you will go up and down that area which has, through the activities of 
yourself and several others become known to some thoughtless and un- 
informed souls, as Ked Gulch to change its representation. 

Mr. Hardyman. May I restore you to more understanding of your 
district. I happen to reside in the district — I am fortunate enough to 
reside in a district represented by Congressman Holt. 

Mr. Jackson. I am delighted, may I say, and having discussed this 
matter on several occasions with Mr. Holt, I know that he joins me in 
soliciting your active opposition at the polls. 

Mr. Hardyman. The canyon in which I reside is a smog- free canyon 
of great beauty, inhabited by many and divers citizens of many polit- 
ical beliefs. You should not stigmatize an area, part of which I 
believe is in your district, by means 

Mr, Jackson. As I pointed out before, some citizens who are not 
aware of the extreme beauty of certain portions of Topanga Canyon 
have called it Ked Gulch, due to the activities of individuals like your- 
self, and a few others who have taken the fifth amendment before this 

Mr. Doyle. Let's proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hardyman, did you make a public statement 
in Los Angeles at the Embassy Auditorium on the Thursday night 
prior to January 11, which I just read in quotes from this article, 
namely, that the delegates to Peiping had not the slightest doubt that 
germ warfare was indulged in by the United States at least during 
8 months of 1952? 

Mr. Wirin. Is there a document that you have ? 

Mr. Tavenner. This is the same document that you examined and 
the same statement which I read before the colloquy that was just 
engaged in. 

Mr. Hardyman. As I explained, in this area I am refusing to an- 
swer questions for the reasons stated earlier in this inquiry. 

Mr. Tavenner. I continue to read from the document : 

In China it is acknowledged on all sides that the people of the United States 
cannot be aware of the "frightful manner in which the war against the Korean 
people is being conducted," Hardyman said. 

Mr. Hardyman, have you at any time since January 1, 1953, had in 
your possession in the State of California a copy of any so-called con- 
fessions by American pilots that they engaged in germ warfare in 
Korea ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Again, in the same area, I refuse to answer on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you transmit to anyone or deliver by any means 
to anyone in the State of California or elsewhere in the United States 
a copy of so-called confessions by United States pilots fighting in 
Korea to the effect that they had engaged in germ warfare ? 



Mr. Hardyman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investigation indicates that there 
was a letter signed by codirectors of the American Peace Crusade, an 
open letter to President Eisenhower, urging him to accept the offer of 
an immediate cease-fire in Korea as a peaceful alternative to spreading 
war in Asia, 

Do you recall being one of those who signed such a letter ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Ta\t3Nner. Do you know, as a matter of fact, that such type 
letters prepared on the subject of peace by the American Peace Crusade 
were delivered to Communist China for use for propaganda purposes 
throughout the Iron Curtain countries ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Doyle. That was one of the purposes for which the letters were 
written, as I understand it, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr, Tavenner. Well, here is an instance, Mr, Chairman, of a letter 
which any individual, any citizen, would have a right of course to 
address to the President of his country regarding the subject of peace. 
I am trying to find out whether there was any purpose behind that 
other than merely to address the President on the subject. 

Mr, ScHERER. Of course we know there was such a purpose. 

Mr. Tavenner, I want to hnd out precisely who were the planners 
for the use of such documents. 

Do you have any knowledge on the subject, Mr. Hardyman? 

Mr. Hardyman, I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Scherer. The fact is you do have such knowledge and you were 
one of those who participated in this program, aren't you ? 

Mr. Hardyman. If, sir, you are aware of what knowledge I possess, 
why waste the time and money of the country in questioning me ? 

Mr. Scherer, I think the American people would like to know. 

Mr, Tavenner. Are you acquainted with a person by the name of 
John T. Gojak, president of District Council No, 9 of the United 
Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America? 

Mr, Hardyman, I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Ernest DeMaio, president 
of the United Electrical District No. 11 at Chicago? 

Mr. Hardyman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner, Are you acquainted with Karen Morley, actress ? 

Mr, Hardyman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr, Chairman, during the course of our investi- 
gation we obtained from the State Department the record of trans- 
mission of the following information in English Morse code to south- 
east Asia, Europe, and North America from Peiping, Communist 

Mr, Doyle, What date? 

Mr. Tavenner. It will appear in the course of the article. It is 
datelined — 

Prague, March 18. — 

and incidentally, that is the date which I asked you whether you were 
in Prague earlier in the testimony. You refused to answer. I desire 
to make it clear that my reference, at that time, was to this message 
which is merely a message and does not indicate that you were in 
Prague at the time, but as will appear from the document that you were 


a cosigner of the letter which was transmitted from Prague, trans- 
mitted through Communist China but datelined Prague, March 18. 
The message is as follows : 

Prague, March 18. — An immediate cease-fire in Korea is called for by a group 
of prominent Americans, including labor, farm, and civil leaders, scientists, 
clergymen, and writers. In an open letter to Eisenhower these Americana 
urged him to accept the offer of an immediate cease-fire in Korea "as a peaceful 
alternative to spreading the war in Asia" — 

then appears three asterisks — 

on the basis of agreements already reached between both sides on the military 
issues, leaving for future settlement through negotiation all political issues, 
especially the issue of repatriation of prisoners of war. 

Continuing to read the message : 

Senders of the letter were codirectors of the American Peace Crusade — 

then the names of these signers appear in tha message. One of whom 
is John T. Gojak, president of District Council 9 of the United Elec- 
trical, Kadio, and Machine Workers. 

The committee will recall the appearance of Mr. Gojak before this 
committee in March of this year in our investigation of Communist 
activities within the field of labor in, I believe, the State of Indiana. 

Mr. ScHERER. The Fort Wayne area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Gojak refused to answer any questions relat- 
ing to his alleged Communist Party activities. 

Ernest DeMaio is another of the names mentioned — I am not read- 
ing all of the names — president of TJE District No. 11 in Chicago. 

The committee will recall the occasion when Mr. DeMaio was sub- 
penaed before the comittee in, I believe, 1952, and Karen Morley, the 
actress. There also appears here the name of Hugh Hardyman, busi- 
nessman, La Crescenta, Calif. 

Mr. Hardyman, did you as a codirector of the American Peace Cru- 
sade sign such a letter, a letter as described in the text of this message 
from Peiping. 

Mr. Hardtman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Hardyman Exhibit No. 11." 

Mr. Doyle. It will be received and so marked. 

Mr. Scherer. "V^^iat year was this now ? 

Mr. Tavenner. March 1953, I do not believe I stated the date. 

(The exhibit referred to will be found on pp. 1609 and 1610.) 

Mr. Scherer. Do you deny you went from Peiping to Prague and 
were in Prague on March 18, 1953 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact that you were there ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Have you not been listening. Congressman ? 

Mr. Scherer. I have been listening. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I may have confused the committee 
in the way I stated the contents of this document. This is a message 
which was sent. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand, but you asked him yesterday whether he 
was in Prague on March 18, 1953, didn't you ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking him isn't it a fact that he was in Prague 
on March 18, 1953. 

Hardtman Exhibit No. 11 


Mar. 20, 1953 


Peking, SCM, in Engli6h Morse to Southeast Asia, Eurppe, and North 
America, Mar. 19, 1953, 1^+37 G^Zr~W 


Prague, Mar. l8— An immediate cease-fire in Korea is called for ty a 
group of prominent Americans Includingg labor, farm, and civil leaders, 
scientists, elgrgjrauin, and writers. In an open letter to Eisenhower, 
these Americans ui-ged him to accept the offer of an immediate cease- 
fire in Korea "as a peaceful alternative to spreading the war in Asia « ♦ ♦ 
on the basis of afereeraents already reached between both sides on the 
military issues, leaving for future settlement through negotiation all 
political issues, especially the issue of repatriation of prisoners of 
war . " 

Senders of the letter were Co-Directors of the American Peace 
Crusade Thomas Rich ardson and Willard Uphaus. They were joined by 
Robert Mores J^ovett, former Governor of the Virgin Islands and 
Professor timer itus of English Literature at the University of Chicago; 
Willard Rans om, president of Indiana State National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People; Prof. Philip Morrison, nuclear physicist, 
Ithaca, N.Y.; John T. Go jack , prg'BI i lt iut uf &istr±t:t Council 9 of the 
United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workersj 

AJfred Kuchle r. educational director of the Northeast Dairy Farmers 
Union, Ogdensburg, N.Y.; Rev. J. Spencer Kennar^ Jr., author 
and teacher, former missionary in Japan, Columria, South Carolina; 
Clementina J. Paolone, obstetrician, chairman of American Woren 
rrarTeace;"V<fiTiam Harrison, editor of the BOSTON CER IJICLE; E rnest De 
iv|&inr presi^reTTt-TTf-trnTo District 11, Chicago; J^^eF^rmer 
attorney. World Federalist Movement leader, Nashville, Tecnesee; 

R^0£ii»llr4Cent, artist, Ausable Forks, N.Y.; Leon Straus^ executive 
secretary, Hew Yom JointnBcSrT'of the Furriers Onion; Hugh 
Hnrftyran^ businessman, La Crescenta, California; BQVard Fast, author; 
Ji5££3JfesJ-ey> actress; gve Merriam, poet; and Rev, Eliot White, 
former rector, Grace ChurcE, n;TT 


Peking, NONA, in English Morse to Southeast Asia, Europe, and North 
America, Mar. 19, 1953, 1552 GMT— R 


Peking, Mar. 19, by a Special Correspondent— Two out of every three 
peasants in China will be farming in teams by the end of this year. 

65500— 55— pt. 2- 



Mar. 20, 1953 

Another 85 million peasants are expected to enroll in the matml niH 
S'mn'T'"' r^""' '"''^^^'^ ^^^ membership o? mutuaJ-Sd ?eoms uo ?o 

?eaS has fonow'^ tL^""'^ ""f "^i"-, ^"^ development of mutual-aid 
MortL.of °K ■? ^^^ ^S'"''^'^ °^ ^''^ ^^"^ ^2^°^''^ movement, m the 
Northeast, where land reform waa completed early in 19A3 over «0 

lllTl ?t-'\' ":^r' population ar. already members of mutCIl^aid team. 
ZltJ: l''''''^'' -^ r'"''^"' °^ ^"^ ^^^1 ^^^eags of farmland. ?he per^ 
centage of organized peasants in other areas ranges from 20 percent to 
65 percent, depending on how long ago land reforS took place! 

DJasnn[,"^'?n 1n"^f^ f ^^^ g^°"^^'' mutual-aid teams has encouraged the 
peasants to join in teamwork. Mutual-aid teem members in the Southwest 
on ati average saved 30 percent of their labor time through teamwork last 
bu?'din?of"r ^^"f/^1^ to devote themselves to careful cuuSlon'ihe 
bui.ding of irrigation canals, the sinking of wells, and to side 
occupations. Mutual-aid team members harvested 15 percent more, on the 
c^nfff^'tf '" those working individually. With these succeSs U is 
11^1 f^o da??ngl9;i!' """"''''^ °' ''^ ''^^ '" ^^^^^"^^^ ^^^- 

The. third factor, though not the least important, is the guidance and 
help given by the People's Government. Organized peasants have been 
given priority for bank loans, deliveries of the new-type farm tools, 
and improved seed and technical aid. The People's Government will 
continue to carry on this policy. Plans have already been made to give 
Still more help to mutual-aid teams this year, including the training of 
millions of mutual-aid team leaders to give them better knowledge of 
teamwork leadership and better farming technique. Thousands more of 
horee-d^awn weeders, sowers, plows, and harvesters will also be supplied 
to the teams. 

With the uprooting of feudal exploitation in farming, the rapid develop- 
ment of mutual aid is lajang the groundwork for the gradual transforma- 
tion of the hundreds of millions of small individual cultivators into 
collective farmers. At the same time, it is substantially raising 
China s ugricultura"- output. Last year, altogether 2,2 million mutual- 
aid teams, or one-'hird of the country's total, joined in the emulation 
campaign which brought about a 15 percent increase in the Nation's 
grain output and 23 percent in cotton, 

Mr. Hardtman. Had you been listening, Congressman, you would 
have heard 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you direct the witness to answer the question ? 
_ Mr. Hardyman. Would have heard I was refusing to answer ques- 
tions of this type on the grounds of the fifth and other amendments to 
the Constitution, 

Mr. Scherer. Do you decline to answer my question on' those 
grounds now ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I refuse to answer your question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Jackson-. That is much clearer. 

Mr. Scherer. I might say that I have been listening and I have been 
shocked at what I heard the last couple of days. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hardyman, did you make a report on New 
China at a meeting on Friday, February 13, 1953, at 2409 South 
LaBrea, which was sponsored by the West Adams Club of the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party ? 


Mr. Hardtman. Mr. Counsel, for reasons already stated I refuse 
to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any official position with the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party in the State of California ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Mr. Counsel, for reasons already stated I refuse to 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee in the course of its investigation has 
ascertained from examination of the Daily People's World of January 
29, 1953, that you were listed to speak at the First Unitarian Church 
and you were described as Hugh Hardyman, United States delegate to 
the recent Peace Conference of the Asian and Pacific Regions, and 
the subject of the speech was. The People of China Today. 

Did you fulfill such an engagement to speak ? 

Mr. Hardyman. In that area I am refusing to answer all ques- 
tions, including this one, for reasons already given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend a meeting at the home of Peter 
Hyun at 1640 North Dillon Street on Saturday night, July 18, 1953, 
at which time there was an exhibition of works of art from China? 

Mr. Hardyman. I decline to answer this question for the reasons 
already stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it a fact that for a considerable period of time 
after December 20, 1952, you made many public appearances in which 
you stated in substance the matters which I read from the broadcast 
from China ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I am declining to answer that question for the same 
reasons as I refused to answer the previous questions in the same area. 

Mr. Tavenner. In answer to an earlier question in the course of 
your testimony I believe you said that for the past 10 years your prin- 
cipal occupation had been a reader, that you had been an avid reader 
for a period of 10 years. That is the way I recall your testimony. 

(The witness nodded affirmatively.) 

(Representative Jackson left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I presume you read the reports of this committee 
and the records of its hearings, particularly in the area of Los 
Angeles ? 

Mr. Hardyman. No, I don't think that my reading has included 
the reports of this committee. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. It has not? 

Mr. Hardyman. I have some reports of an earlier committee, I 
thmk Martin Dies was chairman and 1 or 2 subsequent ones. I only 
think I have about seven of the little volumes printed on that, but 
that doesn't bring it up to anywhere near current days. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that because you attended the hearings in person 
and telt no need to read the hearings ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I attended some hearings in person that were held 
here, 1 torget the date, but in any case, the real reason is because the 
nearmgs aren t interesting enough to warrant reading. 

Mr. Tavenner. I understand, you don't care what is contained 
"^^■AT \t hearings, you pay no attention to it, is that it? 

Mr. Hardyman. Precious little attention, Mr. Counsel, I am afraid. 

fr i?,^^^"^^^ S°"^^ on in the world in which I am interested. 

Mr. lAVENNER. You paid enough attention to be an observer here 
tor a period of about 10 days during 1 hearing. 


Mr. Hardyman. That is right, Mr. Tavenner, that is right. 

Mr. Doyle. I would think that the record of this hearing yesterday 
and today would be very interesting. 

Mr. ScHERER. I wouldn't characterize it with the word "interest- 
ing," Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. It would be informative. 

Mr. Scherer. Informative. 

Mr. WiRiN. I would agree. 

Mr. Hardyman. There is a companion volume to Communism in 
Action, by the way, called Fascism in Action, and that I have got and 
have read. 

Mr. Doyle, So have I. 

Mr. Hardyman. A very interesting book, 1940's, Library of 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hardyman, the committee understands from 
its investigation that you are the person who has been mainly instru- 
mental in the establishment of a summer camp which I believe is 
designated as Ormsby Village for Youth. 

Is it correct that you are chiefly responsible for its organization? 

Mr. Hardyman. I think that the words "mainly" or "chiefly," sir, 
should be modified to partially instrumental. Certainly not a chief 
role. That is too important a role to assign. Partially, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. In addition to your original work in its establish- 
ment, you have also been a substantial financial contributor to the 
project, have you not ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I would say directly and indirectly yes; substan- 
tial, for a small project. 

(Representative Jackson returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Mr. Raphael Konigsberg ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. I am not answering any questions involving my 
associations with other persons by name. If you wish some informa- 
tion about my part in the establishment of Ormsby Village for Youth, 
I would be happy to give it to you, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask, Mr. Chairman, that you direct the witness to 
answer the question as to whether he knew the individual named. 

Mr. Doyle. I make that direction, Mr. Hardyman, in connection 
with your testimony. 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. Hardyman. I am declining to answer on the grounds previ- 
ously stated in view of the theories of guilt by association which are 
current today, though I disapprove of them, and the other previously 
stated gromids. 

Mr. Jackson. May I inquire of counsel, the name of the individual ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Raphael Konigsberg. 

Mr. Jackson. Was he or is he connected with the foundation? 

Mr. Tavenner. I was in hopes the witness would tell us the extent 
of his connections with the summer camp. That was one purpose in 
asking the question. 

Mr. Jackson. Does this individual have any connection ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; it is our information and I am trying to find 
the exact position that he held. According to our information, I have 


Mr. Jackson. For my purpose, was he or is he associated with the 
camp ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir ; he was a type of director. Isn't it true he 
was an executive director of Ormsby Village for Youth? 

Mr. Hardtman. I decline, I refuse to answer on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. My own position in that connection, I am willing to 
inform the committee about. 

Mr. Tavenner. We know in a general way about your connection 
with it. I want to know specifically why Mr. Raphael Konigsberg 
was employed as an executive director of that camp and at whose 

Mr. PIardyjman. This I am declining to answer for the reasons pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did any member of the Communist Party confer 
with you regarding his employment at that camp ? 

Mr. Hardyman. This too I am declining to answer for reasons pre- 
viously stated. It might be informative to the committee to know that 
I am not in the habit of inquiring into the political affiliations of per- 
sons with whom I am speaking. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not speaking of political affiliations. Did you 
know at any time during the period of his employment as executive 
director of that camp that he was a member of the Communist Party 
or had been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. PIardyman. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware that Mr. Eaphael Konigsberg had 
been identified as a member of the Communist Party before this com- 
mittee and that identification had been published in the committee re- 
ports as early as I believe May 1952. 

Mr. Hardyman. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously 

Mr. Tavenner. Would it have made any difference to you if you had 
known he was a member of the Communist Party in maintaining his 
position as executive director of that camp ? 

Mr. Hardyman. That, too, I refuse to answer on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. Without any reference to specific individuals, I am 
as ready to cooperate for a purpose which I think to be good with a 
Republican as with a Communist. Either one I would not hesitate 
to employ without inquiring their political beliefs. 

Mr. Jackson. In other words, then, that is an answer to the ques- 
tion : Would you have employed him if you had known him to be a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Mr. Jackson, any person, make this impersonal, I 
am not talking about people individually. 

Mr. Jackson. I understand, but you would employ a Communist or 
a Republican if you felt he could do the job ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Correct, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, that answers the question. 

Mr. Hardyman. Or a Democrat. I would work with them just 
as you would work with me for anything which we would have in 

Mr. Jackson. That is a rather far-fetched hypothesis, but I will 
accept it. 


Mr. Hardyman. Might I introduce this acknowledgment of that 
signed by you, sir, in which you pledge your best efforts to the achieve- 
ment of the goal we hold in common, this in connection with my oppo- 
sition to the use of American troops in Asia, I am very pleased to note 
that we are in complete accord on this vital matter, dated May 6, 1954. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have a copy of your original letter addressed 
to me? 

Mr. Hardyman. This is the original, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes ; but do you have a copy 

Mr. Hardyman. I will be happy to introduce it as a document in the 
record of this committee. 

Mr. Jackson. I have no objection to having it. 

Mr. WiRiN. May it be received, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Jackson. Just a moment. Do you have the original letter you 
wrote to me on the subject ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Not with me, sir, but as you can see from the first 
paragraph, I cited the opposition to the employment of American 
troops in Asia. 

Mr. Jackson. You might have written me expressing your opposi- 
tion to the Communist Party, for all I know. 

Mr. Yf iRiN. Kead the letter. 

Mr. Hardyman. Let me read the letter entirely and it will show. 

Mr. Scherer. I have received many of these letters from people 
who write specifically for the purpose of getting a man on record 
and that has been done many, many times. 

Mr. Jackson. May I see it ? 

Mr. Hardyman. This puts Mr, Jackson on record, sir, and I was 
glad of it prior to election. 

Mr. Scherer. I would like to see the letter that was sent to Mr. 

Mr. Jackson (after reading the letter). This is quite a different 
matter and I have no objection to reading my answer into the record. 

This will acknowledge with thanks your communication of recent date with 
respect to your support of Senator E. C. Johnson's nonintervention stand in 

I am pleased to note that we are in complete accord in this vital matter and 
I pledge my best efforts to the achievement of the goal we hold in common. 

I was opposed to the employment of United States troops in Indo- 

Mr. WiRiN. Does that have your signature ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, I was and still am opposed to employment of 
United States trops in Indochina. I make no apology for that stand. 

Mr. Scherer. So am I, 

Mr. Hardyman. I am for it, Mr. Congressman, we are working 
together to that end. 

Mr. Jackson. We have one goal in common. 

Mr. Scherer. Let's clarify the record. I am sure that the witness' 
reasons were different from your reasons. 

Mr. WiRiN. Is that a personal matter, Your Honor ? 

Mr. Jackson. I thank the gentleman. 

Mr. Doyle. Let's proceed now. Are you ready, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hardyman, are you acquainted with Jean 
Wilkinson ? 


Mr. Hardyman. For reasons previously stated, I decline to answer 
that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't she camp director of the camp in which you 
took such a great interest ? 

Mr. Hardyman. For reasons previously stated, sir, I decline to an- 
swer that question. I would be very happy to discuss with you the 
part that I played, modest as it was, in connection with that organ- 

Mr. Tavenner. What part did you play in the employment of 
Raphael Konigsberg and Jean Wilkinson as directors, executive direc- 
tor and camp director, at the Ormsby Village for Youth ? 

Mr. Hardyman. If you refer, sir, to the part I played in the organ- 
ization and in regard to the Ormsby Village and omit from your 
question, if 3'ou are anxious to get information, the names of indi- 
viduals, I will be very happy to answer. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I am interested in knowing the full circumstance 
of the employment in that camp of persons whom you may have known 
or believed were members of the Communist Party. That is what I 
am interested in inquiring into. I am not interested in knowing how 
much money you put in the camp or what your ideas about the camp 
are. We are inquiring here as to Communist Party activities and we 
want to understand and to know the full implications behind it. 

Mr. Hardyman. It is a subject of wliicli I happen to know nothing, 
Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Ta\T2xner. Tlien you did not know that Raphael Konigsberg 
was a member of the Communist Party at the time he was executive 
director of 3^our camp ? 

Mr. Hardyiman. I am declining to answer questions relating to indi- 
viduals, but I can assure j'ou that the j)olitical affiliations of persons 
emploj^ed in that camp were neither a reason for nor against their 
employment, nor were they asked or considered. What was consid- 
ered was the ability to do the job of the person available for the job. 
The endeavor in that camp was to provide vacations in an atmosphere 
of friendliness between children of different national backgrounds in 
the country. 

Mr. Tav'enner. I understand that perfectly well. 

Mr. Hardyman. And insofar as a man or woman could con- 

Mr. Ta^t3nner. Will you answer- 

Mr. PIardyman. Efficiently to the happiness of these vacations, they 
would be hired or not hired. No attention was paid to the political 
affiliations or indeed to the religious affiliations of the persons hired. 

Mr. MouuiER. Several times during your testimony you have re- 
ferred to the Communist or to a Communist as being affiliated with a 
political party and you have associated the Communist Party with 
the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. Am I to assume from 
your statement that you consider the Commmiist Party a legitimate 
political party as recognized by our American system of Government ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I don't think our American system of Government 
recognizes, this is a bad way of putting it, but I certainly regard the 
Communist Party as a political party like the Republican Party or 
Democratic Party, or the Prohibitionist Party or Progressive Party 
or a whole raft of others. 


Mr. ScHERER. The Supreme Court you cite frequently says it is not 
a political party, but a criminal conspiracy dedicated to the over- 
throw of the Government by force and violence. 

Mr. WiRiN. The Supreme Court never said that 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Wirin 

Mr. Wirin. I am a lawyer. The Supreme Court never said it. 

Mr. Jackson. Has the Congress of the United States ever outlawed 

Mr. Wirin. Yes ; that matter is being tested in the courts. 

Mr. Jackson. At the present time it is not a political party. It 
has been outlawed by an act of the United States Congress. 

Mr. Wirin. I agree with you, Mr, Jackson. I am disagreeing with 
Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Jackson. Let's have no talk about its present status as a legal 
political party. It is an outlaw. 

Mr. Scherer. I guess a motion on my part will not prevail so I won't 
make it. 

Mr. DoYLE. Please don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Frank C. Davis a member of the board of 
directors ? 

Mr. Hardyman, It is a question on an individual and which I refuse 
to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a person known to you to be a member of 
the Communist Party or as having in the past been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hardyman, Again a question about an individual and I am re- 
fusing to answer these questions on the grounds previously stated. 
Actually my connection with this organization was not too close so far 
as the management of the camp and organization and daily routine 
is concerned. Primarily I was representing the ownership of the 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you one of the trustees ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I was one of the trustees on the board which pur- 
chased the land for the use of the children of this community for vaca- 
tion purposes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you play any part in the raising of funds to sus- 
tain this project? 

Mr. Hardyman. Yes, a small part, a very small part as it happens. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have anything to do with the formation of 
an organization known as Friends of Ormsby Village, the main pur- 
pose of which was to raise funds for its support ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Nothing other than I believe attending a function 
or so, I think a tea given — oh, maybe more than one, probably, of these 
functions at which people were asked to contribute money. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the president of that organization? 

Mr. Hardyman. What organization ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the organization that I inquired about, Friends 
of Ormsby Village. 

Mr. Hardyman. I don't know, I don't know if it had a president. 
I don't know if it was anything that formal. Maybe there was, I don't 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't Sylvia Schonfield president of that organi- 
zation ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I don't know. 


That wasn't in my sphere of interest. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you know the Schoenf eld woman ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Pardon me, Congressman. Your manner is just 
so outrageous, I tend to get annoyed by them. Forgive me. Kindly 
speak with courtesy. If you are referring to one of your employers, 
a citizen of the United States, you may refer to Miss or Mrs. Schon- 
field. Do not talk to me in the term which you used. 
^ Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer my ques- 

Mr. Doyle. Did you hear Mr. Scherer's question ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I was shocked to hear it, sir. Will you ask him 
to phrase the question courteously ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know the Schonfield woman? 

Mr. Doyle. If you understand his question and can answer it, let's 
try it. 

Mr. Hardyman". I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds previously 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness. He said in response 
to Mr. Tavenner's question he did not know whether she was president 
or not. So obviously he has waived his right to answer that question. 
How can he say he doesn't know whether the woman is president or 
not if he won't answer whether he knows the woman or not ? 

Mr. Doyle. Do you understand the question, Witness ? I direct you 
to answer. 

Mr. Hardyman. I think that I have waived no privilege, sir, and 
I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Doyle. Very well, proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr, Moulder. Just 2 or 3 questions, Mr. Hardyman. 

What year did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I came from England in 1920. 

Mr. Moulder. Then where did you first reside when you came here ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I landed in New York, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. That is what I mean. Then did you come to Cali- 
fornia ? 

Mr. Hardyman. The first time, 1921. 

Mr. Moulder. I also recall in the beginning of your testimony that 
you stated that you were connected with the Southern California 
Peace Crusade in a small way or in a limited degree and that you would 
be willing to tell the committee what that association was. 

Mr. Hardyman. Would you care to hear about it, sir ? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes; I am asking. I think any witness is entitled 
to give an explanation. 

Mr. Hardyman. This is a committee of people who are exceedingly 
anxious to avoid the catastrophe of international war and who hold 
meetings, put out literature, get people to write letters to Congressmen 
and to the President and to their Senators, urging world disarmament, 
urging the cessation of the building of such devilish machines as hydro- 
gen bombs, urging international peace, urging conferences and more 
conferences and more conferences, anything is better than war, let us 
talk and talk and talk until a solution is arrived at for a modus vivendi 
with the rest of the world on the basis of equality. 


Mr. Moulder. May I interpose to interrupt you ? My question was 
directed at your personal association and activities in connection with 
the organization, not the objectives of it. 

Mr. Hardyman. I am one who approves of and speaks if asked to for 
the organization, writes occasionally material which the organization 
has distributed, and sometimes I have contributed toward the bills, the 
payment for printing and so on, and defrayment of costs of hiring 
halls for meetings, and the contributions never were as large as I would 
have liked for them to be because I have other uses for the small 
amount of money which I make, but I would like to be regarded as a 
typical member of the Southern California Peace Crusade and so far 
as I know I have been with it since at least very early in its organiza- 
tion. I forget just how it started. 

Mr. Moulder. Then you have appeared before audiences as a 
speaker ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Yes, indeed, sir. I will speak for the peace cru- 
sade any time they get me an engagement and I will speak before any 
audience whether it is Communist, Republican, Progressive, Demo- 
cratic or religious or any audience at all that will give me a chance to 
talk for peace, I will talk for peace. I believe this to be absolutely 
essential to the survival of the United States. 

Mr. Moulder. I have forgotten whether or not this question has 
been propounded to you, probably it has been, but for your own bene- 
fit as well as for the information which the committee desires, the 
question is : Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Hardymax. I was expecting that would be asked, sir, and it 
hasn't yet. I am quite willing to answer it, although with the stipu- 
lation that I do not think it is the business of congressional committees 
to inquire into the political affiliations of 

Mr. Moulder. You have come before this committee, and much that 
has been said here has had an unfavorable reflection upon you. This 
gives you an opportunity to deny or affirm and clear up that propo- 

Mr. Hardyman. I expect, I will answer that question. Congressman. 
Having explained that I don't think it should be asked of any citizen, 
it violates secrecy of the ballot or makes nonsense of the so-called sec- 
recy of the ballot and other processes of democracy. I happen to be on 
record already, I forget the date, but it was under oath, that at that 
time I was not nor had previously been a member of the Communist 
Party. That wasn't many years ago. In the meantime I have not 
joined the Communist Party. I am not a member thereof. I was a 
member of the Democratic Party for well over 20 years and then I be- 
came so outraged at the prolongation of what I regarded as the obso- 
lutely unjustifiable war in Korea that 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I am not interested in his back- 
ground ■ 

Mr. Hardyivian. I changed to the Progressive Party. 

Mr. Jackson. I think he has answered the question and an answer 
is what was sought. 

Mr. Moulder. Referring to Hardyman Exhibit 10, Mr. Tavenner, 
a while ago when questioning you about the speech you made as 


reported in the People's World, I believe there is a paragraph first 
which says : 

Solemn warning that neither Truman, H-bomb threats nor vaunted United 
States industrial and military might can be expected to dismay the Chinese peo- 
ple, was sounded by Hugh Hardyman, United States delegate to the Peiping Peace 

I assume you have just repeated your attitude about Truman, and 
that is the reason you base your objections and opinions of the Truman 
administration, because of that ? 

Mr. Hardyman. That and more, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Any more questions ? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

Have you at any time in your lifetime received any money from any 
agent or representative of any foreign government ? 

Mr. Hardyman. No, sir ; I have been on the contributing end pretty 
constantly. I have no 

Mr. Moulder. That is a simple question to answer. 

Mr. Hardyman. I have no gold from Moscow. 

Mr. M0U1.DER, I asked from any government, from an agent or rep- 
sentative of any foreign government. 

Mr. Hardyman. By money do you mean money or do you mean, for 
example, that I have eaten a meal or been entertained by somebody 
who might be construed to be a representative of a foreign govermnent ? 

Mr. Moulder. I will say in the form of compensation for any serv- 
ices performed by you. 

Mr. Hardyman. No, sir. That is safe enough. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Just what is the Ormsby Trust Foundation or Orms- 
by Hill Trust, whatever the proper name is for it ? 

Mr. Hardyman. There are two organizations. The Ormsby Hill 
Trust is an organization set up under the laws of the State of Califor- 
nia for the purpose of providing vacations in rural surroundings for 
underprivileged children from metropolitan areas. It has been doing 
this for a number of years and continues to do this. That organization 
was the purchaser of the estate wliich was used in Topanga Canyon 
for camp purposes by the Ormsby Village for Youth Foundation. 

Mr. Jackson. That answers my question. 

What is your official capacity ? What is your connection with the 
Ormsby Hill Trust if any ? 

Mr. Hardyman. I am one of the trustees of that institution. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you exercise any direct control over the employ- 
ment of any personnel at Ormsby Village ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Part of the time that Ormsby Village was func- 
tioning I was on the board of directors, I think you call it, the official 
title, and at such time as a member of the board and according to the 
bylaws since the Ormsby Hill Trust was the owner of the property, 
a representative of the trust had to be on the board. In that capacity 
I was on the board for part of the time that the foundation has 

For some years I wasn't. I am not even sure just which years I 
was elected to serve and which not. 

Mr. Jackson. What is the present Federal tax status of the Orms- 
by Hill Trust? 


Mr. Hardtman. It has a tax-exempt status as an eleemosynary 

Mr. Jackson. I have nothing further. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, you have testified about your connection 
with the Southern California Peace Crusade. Did j^ou hear the 
testimony of Anita Schneider ? 

Mr. Hardtman. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Scherer. "Was her testimony true or false when she said that 
the Southern California Peace Crusade was Communist dominated 
and Communist controlled and Communist inspired ? 

Mr. Hardtman. I am inclined personally to be extremely dubious of 
her testimony, but I am not categorizing her testimony as true or false. 

Mr. Scherer. As a matter of fact, you know that it was completely 
controlled and dominated by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hardtman. Mr. Scherer, you have told me again and again 
what I know and I think that you are exposing thereby your ignorance 
of my mind and I think that it is a presumption on your part to tell 
me what I know and I wish you'd stop doing it, sir, because it gets tire- 

Mr. Scherer. Is what I said untrue ? 

Mr. Hardtman. Frequently, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I am not asking you that. I am asking you right now : 
Is what I said untrue ? 

Mr. Hardtman. Yes, sir. I trust that the chairman will realize 
that I am replying to this question asked by the Congressman and I 
am under oath to speak the truth. I think this was the truth. I would 
not have put the question in that manner by choice, sir. I prefer a 
little more courtesy. 

Mr. Scherer. Are you willing to say then that her testimony is 

Mr. Hardtman. I have refrained, sir, from so stating. I have 
stated merely that in my opinion I am exceedingly dubious of its 
veracity. I am not in a position to know whether what she says is true 
or false. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, as a matter of fact, I will repeat it again, you 
know of your own knowledge, do you not, that the Southern California 
Peace Crusade was Communist dominated and Communist controlled, 
the same as the camp which you are participating in ? 

Mr. Hardtman. No, sir ; I do not know that of my own knowledge 
and when you state what somebody knows of their own knowledge in 
your opinion is a fact I just don't think you even know what a fact is, 
Mr. Scherer. It is extraordinary for you to be in Congress with this 
kind of thinking process. 

Mr. Jackson. It occurs to us it is very strange that you can be in this 
country at all in light of some of the things you have done. We are 
all puzzled. 

Mr. Hardtman. We are different. That is the explanation. People 
are different. 

(Representative Moulder left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Dotle. Any other question, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. DoTLE. I have a couple of questions. 


In addition to this committee membership here today, as you know, 
I am on the Armed Services Committee of the House. 

Mr, Hardyman. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. That is the committee which deals with the American 
military, whatever it is in the world. I also had the benefit of being 
in Korea for some time, flying an actual bombing mission to some place 
in North Korea. I make that statement to you, Mr. Hardyman, so 
you will realize my anxiety toward the reported statement by you as 
liaving been made in this country. I remember your statement that 
you wouldn't say anything about the area of China, what you did over 
there, but here in Los Angeles, you were reported to have made a 
statement, as I understand it, against our Government, our Military 
Establishment, charging that they used biological warfare — germ 

Did you make that statement or substantially that in Los Angeles 
after your return from China or at any time? Have you charged 
that the United States Military Establishment engaged in germ war- 
fare in Korea ? 

Mr. Hardymax. Suppose I state what I would state outside this 
room or any other place, and what I have stated before. In my 
opinion there is overwhelming evidence that the Armed Forces of 
the United States did participate in germ warfare during the 
Korean war. 

Mr. Jackson. That is a great international lie so far as I am con- 
cerned, and I should like to see your evidence, sir, that this Nation or 
any of its citizens engaged in germ warfare. 

Mr. WiRiN. May he answer ? 

Mr. Jackson. I want to categorically state my feelings. 

Mr. Hardyman. I have categorically stated on each occasion I 
believe that the subject has come up that this is my opinion, since I 
am not in a position to prove or disprove my opinion. 

Mr. ScHERER. In his speech in Peiping he said they had the uncon- 
tradicted evidence that there was germ warfare. That is what he said 
in his speech in Peking, that they saw the evidence. 

Mr. Doyle. I was getting to that, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I am sorry. 

Mr. Hardyman. I am sure Mr. Doyle, when you get to it you will 
read the matter correctly. 

Mr. Doyle. I heard your speech from Peiping, China, that there 
was uncontradicted evidence that our American troops engaged in 
germ warfare and of course that is a pretty strong statement to make 
by anybody, because our American military has flatly denied it. 

That statement by you from Peiping, China, went over the Eastern 
European countries back to the Iron Curtain. So you charged to 
all of Europe and the world that the country which has adopted 
you at your request, and the country for which my boy died, engaged 
in germ warfare. What evidence can you give this committee to 
prove such a statement ? I think it is your bounden duty to produce 
the evidence or retract your statement and apologize to the world. 


Don't you think so? What evidence have you? Produce it. If 
you can't produce it here, when will you produce it to the United States 
Government ? 

I, as a member of the Armed Services Committee, invite you to come 
before our committee and produce the evidence upon which you relied 
to make that 

Mr. Hardyman. As a member of the Armed Services Committee, 
Mr. Congressman, have you not seen the report of the international 
commission which investigated that subject ? 

Mr. Doyle. Sure I have seen that. 

Mr. Jackson. Handpicked lackeys of the Soviet Union in almost 
every instance of which I have knowledge. Don't talk about their 
high standing and unquestioned integrity because every one of them 
has a documented record of absolute subservience to the Soviet line. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you just rely on that report, or join in it ? 

Mr. ScHERER. He had the evidence before that report was made, 
during the war in Peiping, so lie said. 

Mr, DoYLE. Did you report to the 

Mr. Hardyman. Had you read the report, you would see this was 
made by an international commission of distinguished scientists who 
spent a long time investigating the situation in Korea. 

Mr. Doyle. I don't recall in this instance whether or not you made 
any contribution to their evidence, 

Mr. Hardyman. I could not possibly, sir. I am not a distinguished 
biologist, I am not a fellow of the Eoyal Society, or the head of a gov- 
ernment department in Brazil, or the head of a clinic in Sweden. 

(Representative Moulder returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Doyle. The evidence upon which you relied to make that charge 
from Peiping about this country is the report you referred to ; is that 

Mr. Hardyman. That was a substantial part of it, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. What was the rest of it ? What other evidence do you 
claim as reliable evidence ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Statements of many American fliers captured by 
the Chinese. 

Mr, Doyle. Who ? No doubt you made a record of them at the time 
you spoke with them. 

Mr. Hardyman. I didn't speak with them, Congressman. 

Mr. Jackson. They were probably not capable of further speech by 
the time the admissions had been extracted. 

Mr. Doyle, You brought home with you, you must have, I would 
assume you would bring home with you photostats or copies of the 
documents that you claim you relied upon; wouldn't you? You 
wouldn't dare come back to my country and yours and make these 
statements in public charging germ warfare without having evidence 
in your pocket. Where is the evidence on which you relied ? 

Mr. Hardyman. The report of the International Scientific Com- 

Mr. Doyle. You just now stated you had other evidence. What is 
the evidence ? Where is it ? Give it to us. 

Mr. Hardyman. I did not bring with me photostatic copies of the 
written confessions of our officers, sir. 


Mr. Doyle. Did you bring any copies of any sworn statements? 

Mr. HARDYMAisr. I brought the report of the International Scientific 
Commission which was available to the Congress. 

Mr. Doyle. May I understand that you have no other claimed 
documentary evidence ? 

Mr. Hardyman. That is right. 

Mr. Jackson. May I make a motion, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. That the alleged impartial neutral viewpoint as 
expressed by the International Commission be inserted in the record 
at this time together with the documented biography with respectto 
Soviet connections and Soviet fealty of those who participated in it? 

Mr. Doyle. It will be so ordered. 

(The information referred to follows :) 

[Reprinted by Hsinhua News Agency, Prague Office] 

Report of the International Scientific Commission for the Investigation 
OF THE Facts Concerning Bacterial Warfare in Korea and China 

table of contents P*s» 


Formation and Work of the Commission 


The Relevance of Japanese Bacterial Warfare in World War II 

Incident Analysis adopted by the Commission 

Entromological Data of the Prague Documents 

Medical Notes on the Insects Disseminated 

Phytopathological Data 

Incidents in Korea (plague) 

The Kan-Nan Incident (plague) 

The K'uan-Tien Incident (anthrax) 

Incidents in Liaotung and Liaohsi (respiratory anthrax) 

The Dai-Dong Incident (cholera) 

Types of Containers or "Bombs" 

Testimonies of Captured Intelligence Agents 

Testimonies of Captured Airmen 

Hygiene in New Ciiina 

General Considerations 



From the beginning of 1952, phenomena of a very unusual character occurring 
in the territories of Korea and China led to allegations by the peoples and 
governments of those countries that they had become the objective of bacteriologi- 
cal warfare. 

Since the peoples of the world had long manifested their disapproval, and 
indeed detestation, of such methods of war, the gravity of the situation was well 
understood. This was the reason for the formation of an International Scientific 
Commission which should examine the evidence in the field. 

The members of the Commission, who, conscious of their responsibility, made 
every effort to free themselves from preconceived ideas, have carried out their 
investigations according to the strictest scientific principles known to them. The 
details of this work, and the conclusions to which it has led, are placed before 
the reader in the present Report. In its composition eight languages have 
participated, and if it should be found lacking in elegance, the reader will remem- 
ber that it had to be clear, unambiguous, and comprehensible in every continent. 

formation and work of the commission 

On the 22nd February, 1952, Mr. Bak Hun- Yung, Foreign Minister of the 
Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and on the 8th March Mr. Chou En-Lai, 
Foreign Minister of the People's Republic of China, protested oflScially against 


the use of bacteriological warfare by the U. S. A. On the 25th February, Dr. 
Kuo Mo-Jo, President of the Chinese People's Committee for World Peace, 
addressed an appeal to the World Peace Council. 

At the meeting of the Executive Committee of the World Peace Council held 
at Oslo on the 29th March, Dr. Kuo Mo-Jo, with the assistance of the Chinese 
delegates who accompanied him, and in the presence of the Korean representa- 
tive, Mr. Li Ki-Ien, placed the members of the Committee, and other national 
delegates, in possession of much information concerning the phenomena in ques- 
tion. Dr. Kuo declared that the governments of China and (North) Korea did 
not consider the International Red Cross Committee sufficiently free from 
political influence to be capable of instituting an unbiased enquiry in the field. 
This objection was later extended to the Woi-ld Health Organisation, as a spe- 
cialised agency of the United Nations. However, the two governments were 
entirely desirous of inviting an international group of impartial and independent 
scientists to proceed to China and to investigate personally the facts on which 
the allegations were based. They might or might not be connected with organ- 
isations working for peace, but they would naturally be persons known for their 
devotion to humanitarian causes. The group would have the mission of verifying 
or invalidating the allegations. After thorough discussion, the Executive Com- 
mittee adopted unanimously a resolution calling for the formation of such an 
International Scientific Commission. 

Efforts were therefore made immediately after the Oslo meeting to obtain the 
acceptances of a considerable number of European, South American, and Indian 
scientists, as eminent as possible in the relevant fields. As soon as the provi- 
sional acceptances were known. Dr. Tsien San-Tsiang, Director of the Institute 
of Modern Physics of Academia Sinica (the Chinese National Academy), and a 
member of the Chinese Peace Committee, who had remained in Europe after the 
Oslo meeting charged with the work of organising the Commission, issued invita- 
tions in the name of Dr. Kuo Mo-Jo, President of Academia Sinica and of the 
Chinese Peace Committee. The indispeusable minimum of members having 
been reached by mid-June, they duly proceeded to China. 

The International Scientific Commission reached Peking on the 21st and 28th 
June, where its members were warmly welcomed by representatives of Academia 
Sinica and the Chinese Peace Committee. The members were as follows : 

Dr. Andrea Andreen (Sweden), Director of the Central Clinical Laboratory of 
the Hospitals Board of the City of Stockholm. 

Mons. Jean Malterre (France), Ingenieur-Agricole, Director of the Laboratory 
of Animal Physiology, National College of Agriculture, Grignon ; formerly 
Livestock Expert, UNRRA ; Corresponding Member of the Italian and Spanish 
Societies of Animal Husbandry. 

Dr. Joseph Needham (U. K.), F. R. S., Sir William Dunn Reader in Biochemistry, 
University of Cambridge; formerly Counsellor (Scientific), H. B. M. Embassy, 
Chungking, and later Director of the Department of Natural Sciences, 

Dr. Oliviero Olivo (Italy), Professor of Human Anatomy in the Faculty of 
Medicine of the University of Bologna ; formerly Lecturer in General Biology, 
University of Turin. 

Dr. Samuel B. Pessoa (Brazil), Professor of Parasitology at the University of 
Sao Paulo ; formerly Director of Public Health for the State of Sao Paulo ; 
Hon. Professor in the Faculties of Medicine of the Universities of Recife and 

Dr. N. N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov (U. S. S. R.), Professor of Bactei'iology at, and 
Vice-President of, the Soviet Academy of Medicine ; formerly chief medical 
expert at the Khabarovsk Trial of Japanese ex-service men accused of par- 
ticipating in bacteriological warfare. 

While greatly regretting that certain distinguished men of science whose par- 
ticipation had been expected, had not been able to come, the 15th July was fixed 
by the Commission as the last date for arrival. However, later on, a warm 
welcome was given to 

Dr. Franco Graziosi (Italy), Assistant in the Institute of Microbiology, Uni- 
versity of Rome, 
who arrived in Peking on the 6th August just before the return of the Commis- 
sion from Shenyang (Mukden). Since he was thus only able to be pre.sent 
during the last three weeks of the Commission's work, he was established in 
the status of Observer-Consultant, and in that capacity gave great help to the 


Finally, there participated : 
Dr. Tsien San-Tsiang (China), Director of the Institute of Modern Physics, 

Acadeniia Sinica (Chinese National Academy), 
who had accompanied the Commission from Europe to Peking as Dr. Kuo's 
representative. Upon the unanimous invitation of the Commission, he was 
attached hy the Chinese authorities as Liaison-Member, a position which carried 
a voice In the deliberations of the Commission, but no vote. The group also 
included : 

Mr. N. A. Kowalski ; Secretary-Interpreter to Dr. Zhukov-Yerezhnikov, and 
Mrs. S. B. Pessoa ; acting as Secretary-Interpreter to Dr. Pessoa. 

The International Commission was assisted by a Committee of Reception 
which had been set up on the Chinese side. This was constituted as follows: 
Chairman : Mrs. Li Te-Chuan, President of the Chinese Red Cross Society and 

Member of the World Peace Council 
Vice-Chairman : 

Mr. Liao Ch'eng-Chih, Member of the World Peace Council 
Dr. Ho Cheng, Hon. President of the Chinese Medical Association 
Secretary-General: Dr. Kung Nai-Ch'uan, Dii'ector of Shanghai Medical College 
Assistant Secretary-General : Dr. Chi Su-Hua, Secretary of the Chinese Medical 

Specialist Liaison OflScers : 

Dr. Chung Hui-Lan, Director of the People's Hospital, Peking, and Pro- 
fessor of Clinical Medicine, China Union Medical College 
Dr. Wu Tsai-Tung, Professor of Pathology, Nanking University Medical 

Dr. Fang Kang, Associate Research Member, Central Biological Products 

Institution Peking ; 
Dr. Chu Hung-Fu, Assistant Director Laboratory of Entomology, Academia 

Dr. Yen Jen-Ying, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Peking 

University Medical College 
Dr. Yang Chih-Ta, Professor of Public Health, Aurora University, Shanghai 

Most of the members of the Committee accompanied the Commission upon 
its travels, however hazardous or arduous, and were constantly ready to per- 
form every conceivable liaison task which the situation might demand. From 
time to time some of them, together with many other Chinese scientists and 
medical men, attended the meetings of the Commission as observers or to give 
evidence before it. The Commission wishes to thank all these colleagues, for 
whose soientitic attainments and probity it conceived a deep respect. 

As regards the conduct of the meetings of the Commission, the Chairman- 
ship rotated in an approximately consecutive manner among the members. 
M. Malterre was elected Scientific Secretary. The hrst meeting of the Com- 
mission took place in Peking on the 23rd .lune, and a brief chronological sum- 
mary of all the meetinjis held will be found in App. 

Of the general methods of the Commission it may be said that it worked in 
close contact with the Ministers and ministerial secretariats of the central and 
regional Ministries of Health at Peking, Shenyang (Mukden), and Pyongyang. 
It naturally had the help of all those scientists whose fields of work were 
relevant to the problem before it. Besides those already mentioned, tlie Com- 
mission wishes to thank Dr. Wang Pin and Dr. Pai Hsi-Ch'ing, Minister and 
Vice-Minister of Health respectively for the North-Eastern Region of China 
(Manchuria), who spared no pains to lay before the Commission all informa- 
tion that it was in their power to give. Its thanks are similarly due to Dr. 
Ri Pin:j;-Nam and Dr. Lu Tchen-Han, Minister and Vice-Minister of Health 
respectively in (North) Korea, but these could not be offered without an ex- 
pre.ssion of admiration for the cool manner in which these distinguished medical 
olficials conducted all their business while suffering the constant inconveniences 
and dangers of heavy air bombardments. 

In this connection, too, the Members of the Commission wish to voice their 
profoimd admiration for the devoted service to their country of all the Korean 
bacteriologists and other specialists whom they had the honour to meet Korean 
their visit. The Commiiision i-enders homage to three of the best Korean 
bacteriologists who have perished while carrying out their professional duties. 
It also wishes to place on record its admiration of the selfless service of the 
eminent Chinese specialists seconded to the Korean Epidemic Prevention Corps, 
such as Dr. Ch'en Wen-Kuei, Dr. Wei Hsi, and Dr. Ho Ch'i, who thought fit 

65500— 55— pt. 2 3 


to leave the quiet amenities of their laboratories in far-away parts of China 
to share all the hardships and dangers of their Korean colleagues in the front 
line of anti-bacterial defence. 

The meetings of the Commission varied in character. Sometimes the members 
discussed scientific problems for many hours in closed session, on other occasions 
Chinese scientific experts were present, and again at other times large rooms 
were required for the hearing of evidence of numerous eye-witnesses who came 
from all walks of life. Among the witnesses there figured a captured intelli- 
gence agent (App.) and four airmen (App. ). From time to time specific sub- 
committees of two or three members were delegated to look into particular prob- 
lems in conjunction with Chinese colleagues, and then to report back to the Com- 
mission. From time to time whole days were spent in laboratories, at Peking, 
Shenyang, and Pyongyang, where the Chinese and Korean scientists demon- 
strated in great detail the results of their investigations. As occasion demanded, 
too, members of the Commission made use of the very good library facilities avail- 
able at Peking and Shenyang. 

The material on the cases prepared by the Chinese and Korean specialists 
forms the bulk of the Appendices to the present Report. They will be found 
briefly described in the paragraphs which follow. It should be understood that 
they are not isolated cases, but represent a sampling from a larger mass of 
material. If the bulk of what is hei'e presented is Chinese rather than Korean, 
this is because the Koreans were working under far more diflaeult conditions, 
and because the Commission was in Korea for a shorter time, and indeed at a 
particularly diflScult moment. 

At the same time the Commission felt that it must familiarise itself with the 
original scientific data which had formed the basis for the documentation issued 
from Prague during the earlier part of the year. It was necessary that these 
documents should be validated or otherwise, if possible, and it proved that 
clarifications were indeed neces.«ary ; misunderstanding, tentative identifications 
afterwards withdrawn, sheer mistakes of translation, etc. being found. After 
a great deal of work along these lines, the results of which may be seen in many 
of the Appendices, the general conclusion of the Commission was, in fact, to 
confirm the main statements of the Reports of earlier investigating groups which 
had been disseminated through Prague. 

The main travels undertaken by the Commission were as follows. Having 
unravelled the main threads of the situation in Peking from the 23rd June to 
the 9th July, it proceeded to Shenyang (Mukden), where it worked from the 
32th to the 25th. Accompanied by the members of the Reception Committee, it 
then passed across the Yalu River into North Korea and held meetings in 
Psyongyang (subject to interruptions by air-raids) from July 28th to 31st. Then 
returning north, the Commission spent two days at a rendezvous with the 
captured airmen before re-crossing the frontier into Northeast China on August 
6th. It should be recorded tliat the technical organisation of this expedition 
was faultless. 

An earlier one, which took a shorter time, had been undertaken on the 15th 
and 16th July, when the Commission went by special plane, train, and jeep, via 
Chichihar and Laha to visit the localities in the Kan-Nan district which had 
been the scene of the dissemination of plague-infected rodents (see App.). 
These places are located in Heilungchiang province on the border of Inner Mon- 
golia. Other official journeys were of a minor character. 

It is important to say something regarding the difficulties of language neces- 
sarily attendant upon any enterprise such as that of the present Commission. 
Within the Commission itself seven languages were represented, but it was 
found that French was the one spoken and understood by the majority of the 
members, and this therefore became the working language. Russian, English, 
and Italian, when spoken, were at once translated into French. On the Chinese 
side, the fact that so many Chinese scientists speak excellent English or French 
was of great value to the work, but during meetings, for protocol reasons, they 
spoke in Chinese, interpreted immediately, and often independently, into French, 
Russian, and English. This was effected by Dr. Tang Shih-Ta and Mr. Ting 
Chi-Ch'ien for French, Dr. Ch'en Shu for Russian, and Dr. Yen Jen-Ying for 
English. At a later stage of the work. Dr. Wu Huan-Hsing rendered valuable 
literary and linguistic assistance. The Commission had further the advantage 
that one of its European members spoke and understood the Chinese language, 
which was of particular value during the interviewing of witnesses, and could 
also read and write Chinese, which facilitated the consultation of literature and 
the examination of documents. Another member was able to maintain direct 


Euglish-Russian linguistic contact. In Korea conditions were even more com- 
plicated, for very few Chinese scientists understand Korean, but the Commission 
had there the services of a remarkable linguist. Dr. Ok Jen-Hsieh, who in- 
terpreted perfectly from Korean into French, English or Chinese at will. Other 
Korean-Chinese interpreters were also available. A parallel check was obtained 
by translation into one of the European languages through Chinese, and also 
simultaneously from Korean to Russian direct. Since frequent comparison of 
notes took place, it will be seen that there was not much likelihood of any mistake 
on points of substance. Lastly, the proceedings at some of the meetings were 
recorded by magnetophone for subsequent reference. For all these reasons, the 
Commission considers itself protected against any criticisms that it did not 
succeed in apprehending the full mind of Chinese and Korean specialists and 

The names of the members of the Commission signed below bear appropriate 
indications as to the qualifications and fields of competence of the signatories. 
Their diverse experiences were pooled in laborious and extended discussions. 
Each contributed equally in all matters where a knowled;i:e and understanding 
of the scientific method as such suiBced, and when the problem was remote from 
their own fields, the critical expositions of the better qualified members carried 
the conviction of the others. The present Report is thvTS a truly collective work. 

Besides those things which the members of the Commission themselves saw and 
heard, and for which therefore they take the responsibility of witnesses, the 
Commission necessarily depended on Korean and Chinese documentation. 
Althou?h there was no reason to doubt the competence and probity of the medical 
men and other scientists in China and Korea, the Commission left no precaution 
untaken. It never wearied in analysing the cases, and took the greatest pains 
to enter into direct contact with the original facts whenever this was at all 
possible. Its members held themselves continually on guard against political, 
ethical or emotional influences, and its work was done in an atmosphere of calm 
and scientific ol jectivity. Its final convictions naturally rested to some extent 
upon the reliability of the hundreds of witnesses interviewed and interrogated. 
Their testimonies wei'e too simple, too concordant, and too independent, to be 
subject to doubt. 

In the descriptions which will be found in the body of the Report it was 
obviously impossible to incorporate in every sentence the Korean or Chinese 
authority upon which the statement is based. Personal tests, examinations, 
interrogations, etc., carried out by the members of the Commission, have generally 
been mentioned in the text. In all cases, full details will be found in the relevant 
documents and commentaries indicated by the references to the Appendices. 

A final Appendix gives biographical details of all the Chinese and Korean sci- 
entists whose names are mentioned in the documents here published. 


At the time when the members of the Commission first assembled, the only^ 
documents available to them were those which had been released by the Koreau 
and Chinese Governments and disseminated in the western world from the 
secretariat of the World Peace Council at Prague or through the various Chinese 
oflScial news agencies in the various countries. 

The First Report of the Korean Medical Service (SIA/l)* dealt only with 
events of Jan. and Feb. 1952. The material contained in it was worked over 
again in the International Democratic Lawyers' Commission (Kirea) Report 
(SIA/4), which added data on the appearance of plague cases in Korea, and of 
coui'se the results of examination of eye-witnesses by international personnel. 

The two most detailed reports were those of the Chinese Commission for 
Investigating the American Crime of Germ Warfare which carried out investi- 
gations both in Korea and in NE China (Manc'mria) during the month of March. 
The main one of these was that of the sub-commission in Korea printed in 
Peking in April, given in full in NCNA/85 (Suppl.), and abridged in SIA/13. 
The reix)rt of the sub-commission, in Northeast China (Manchuria) was similarly 
printed in Peking and abridged in SIA/.3. This report is that which contained 
the fullest entomological information. Nothing of strictly scientific significance 

1 The references contained in the text relate to Appendices which will be published at a 
later date. 

2 The following document identifications will be used: Prague series, SIA/ ; New China 
News Agency, NCNA/ ; Documents furnished to the International Scientific Commission,, 
in China. ISCC/ ; in Korea, ISCK/. 


was added by the International Democratic Lawyers' version of the same 
material, again printed in Peking, and fully reproduced in SIA/8. 

A special report by certain Euroiean scientists consulted by the Secretariat 
of the World Peace Council confirmed the entomological identifications by 
photographs, and appeared as SIA/2 ; it covered both Korean and NK Chinese 
data. A further special report by four Chinese scientists, again based on the 
same material, appeared as SIA/12. 

Those wlio wish to examine tise earlier reports would be well advised to study 
them in the above order. By the time that the members of the Lawyers' Com- 
mission returned to Europe (mid-April), a considerable amount of new duplicated 
and typescript material was ready for them to take with them, especially a series 
of ten important, but at that time only partially analysed, incidents, which, as 
they carried numbers 00001 to 00010, are termed the '"Four-Zero Series". 

The remaining material, while by no means lacking in scientific signflcance, 
was predominantly legal and personal. Eye-witness depositions, some of which 
concerned cases also described elsewhere (e. g. 0000.">), were collected in SIA/6 
and 10. Statements of various American prisoners of war and agents were 
collected in SIA/7, while many papers were devoted to the elaborate statements 
of captured American pilots (SI A/14, 15, 16, 17, 18), and these themselves 
were photolithographically reproduced in a document published by the Wi)rld 
Peace Council probably in May. A collection of relevant press excerpts on 
bacteriological warfare was brought together in SIA/5. 


No investi.uation of allegations of bacterial warfare in East Asia could fail 
to take cognisance of the fact that it was undoubtedly employed by the Japanese 
against China during the second world war. The Commission was relatively well 
informed on this subject since one of its members had been the chief expert at 
the Khabarovsk trial, and another had been one of the very few western scientists 
in an official position in China during the course of the events themselves. In 
1944 it had been {lart of his duty to report to his own government that although 
he had begun with an attitude of great scepticism, the material collected by the 
Chinest Surgeon-General's Office seemed to show clearly that the Japanese were, 
and had been, disseminating plague-infected fleas in several districts. They were 
thus able to bring about a considerable number of cases of bubonic pla'ue in 
areas where it was normally not endemic, but where conditions for its spread 
were fairly favourable. As is generally known, under normal circumstances, 
bubonic plague is endemic only in certain sharply circumscribed areas (e. g. 
Fukien province) out of which it does not spread. 

From the archives of the Chinese IMinistry of Health one of the original re- 
ports dealing with the artificial induction of plague at Chantge in Hunan 
province by the Japanese in 1941 was laid before the Commission (App. 
ISCC/1). This document is still today of considerable value and indeed his- 
torical interest. Official Chinese records give the number of hsien cities which 
were attacked in this way by the Japanese as eleven, 4 in Chekiang, 2 each in 
Hopei and Honan, and 1 each in Shansi, Hunan and Shantung. The total num- 
ber of victims of artificially disseminated plague is now assessed by the Chinese 
as approximately 700 between 1940 and 1944. 

The document reproduced below has, moreover, historical interest. It is 
known that the Chinese Surgeon-General at the time distributed ten copies 
among the Embassies in Chungking, and it may well be more than a coincidence 
that according to the well-known Merck Report of Jan. 1946, large-scale work 
in America on the methods of bacteriological warfare began in the very same 
year, 1941. The Commission was happy to have the opportunity, during its 
work in Korea, of meeting the distinguished plague specialist who wrote the 
original memorandum from Changte and of hearing his views on the failure of 
the Kuomintang Government to follow up the evidence which was already in their 
hands by the end of the second world war (App.). As is generally known, his 
conclusions were subsequently fully confirmed by the admissions of the accused 
at the Khabarovsk trial. 

By the publication of the "Materials on the Trial of Former Servicemen of 
the Japanese Army charged with Manufacturing and Employing Bacteriological 
Weapons" (Moscow, 1950) a wealth of information about the practical work 
carried out under the direction of the Japanese bacteriologist Ishii Shiro (who 
was unfortunately not himself in the dock) was made available to the world. 
It was established beyond doubt that techniques had been employed for the 


inass-production of bacteria such as those of cholera, typhoid and plague, liter- 
ally by hundreds of kilograms of the wet paste at a time. Techniques, quite 
simple in character, had also been used for the breeding of large numbers of 
rats and very large numbers of fleas, though in practice only the latter seem 
to have been disseminated. Moreover, the various witnesses were ready to give 
chapter and verse as to the dates upon which they had proceeded to various 
Japanese bases in China to superintend the methods of dissemination used. 
Abundant details were also forthcoming about the special secret detachments 
(such as the notorious "731") and their laboratories, pilot plants, and prisons 
in which Chinese and Russian patriots were made use of with perfect sangfroid 
as experimental animals. In the course of its work, as will be mentioned below 
(p. 44) the Commission had the opportunity of examining some of the few 
remaining specimens of the earthenware "bombs" which were manufactured 
for Ishii in a special factory at Harbin. 

It would seem that the Japanese militarists never abandoned their visions 
of world-conquest by the aid of biological weapons in genei'al and the dissemina- 
tion of insect weapons in particular. Before they departed from Dairen they 
systematically tore out from all volumes of journals in the university and de- 
partmental libraries articles which had any connection with bacterial warfare. 
It should not be forgotten that before the allegations of bacterial warfare in 
Korea and NE China (Manchuria) began to be made in the early months of 
1952, newspaper items had reported two successsive visits of Ishii Shiro to 
South Korea, and he was there again in March. Whether the occupation authori- 
ties in Japan had fostered his activities, and whether the American Far Eastern 
Command was engaged in making use of methods essentially Japanese, were 
questions which could hardly have been absent from the minds of members of 
the Commission. 


On account of its very nature, the use of biological weapons is an act excep- 
tionally difficult to prove. Perfect proof might require, for example, that an 
airplane be forced down with its biological cargo intact and its crew prepared 
to admit their proceedings forthwith. Obviously this would be a very unlikely 
occuri-ence for many reasons. It is therefore necessary to envisage a manner 
of grouping events into a coherent pattern so that they can throw light upon 
each other and perhaps build up a circumstantial case. A fi'st necessity, 
therefore, for the thought and work of the Commission was some kind of scheme 
which could serve as a framework for the facts which it would have to study 
in each particular investigation. 

The simplest scheme, in which, under ideal conditions, every component would 
be present and positive, was the following : 


plane seen to container mass of unusual 

I tlirow out I animals or objects 

I I something i i | 

seen lieard I 

course brought seen found I 

plotted down seasonal 

I anomaly 

examination-}- I other 
.cases of disease-! Poii^ts 
or epidemic 

zoological or | 
geographical seasonal 
anomaly anomaly 

of type 

cargo crew 

intact admit other 

anomalies other anomalies 

Naturally this complete pattern will rarely or never be encountered. There 
are, nevertheless, cases which come neai enough to it to be decisive. In this 
way it is possible to reconstruct the activities of those who have utilised such 
methods, and to elucidate the effects which have been produced by them. The 
Commission paid particular attention to those assemblies of facts which attained 
most nearly the demonstrative character of the ideal pattern. When the general 
complex of facts resulting from the confrontation of numerous patterns is 
examined, the whole situation becomes clear, (cf. p. 51 below). 


One of the first tasks which presented itself to the Commission when it began 
its work in Peking was the systematic examination of the scientific material 
on which the Prague documents had been based, and one of the first aspects 


of this work was the tabulation of the entomological evidence in conjunction 
with the Chinese scientists of Academia Sinica and other leai'ned bodies who 
had been responsible for the identitications. The opinion of the Commission 
was soon formed that there could be no doubts whatever as to their high 
competence (App.). They are, moreover, provided with very extensive library 
facilities including a rapid loan system between institutes, and the various col- 
lections of insects are maintained in excellent order. The only real difficulty, 
which remained insuperable, was the fact that even after the work of half 
a century, the systematic classification of many groups of insects in the Chinese 
sub-continent remains imperfectly known. It was therefore impossible to assert 
that all new introductions could be definitely recognised as such ; and the 
Commission had to be content with the fact that in certain cases certain insect 
species had at least never before been recorded from areas in which they now 
api^eared in great numbers. 

The species identified from specimens sent to the Chinese experts as repre- 
sentatives of unusual multitudes of insects found after the passage of American 
planes, are given in a Table (App.). They include nine species of Diptera 
(six species of flies and three of mosquitoes and midges), one of Plecoptera, 
one of Collembola, one of Siphonaptera, and three of Orthoptera, as well as 
two spiders (Arachnida). In all, eighteen species including a beetle to be 
mentioned below. 

One of the original impressions which the documentation (e. g. SIA/4) had 
given in Europe was that certain arthropods had been found which belonged, 
not only to si)ecies, but to genera, never known before in the relevant regions of 
continental Asia. This was not confirmed. Nevertheless, in three cases there 
were phenomena clearly anomalous in this respect. The species of Hylemyia 
(anthoniyiid fly) identified repeatedly from numerous swarms collected, proved 
definitely not the same as any one of the four species common in Northeast 
China, nor with any one of the fifteen species previously recorded from all parts 
of China. The genus, however, has some 600 species, counting all parts of the 
world, and the true faunal areas of all of them are not yet perfectly known 
(App.). Similarly, the sun-flies found (Helomiiza niodcsta; Meigen) were cer- 
tainly not identical with the single species of this genus previously recorded 
from China (App.). Exactly the same observation applies to the midge 
Orthocladius. These zoological and geographical discrepancies must be allotted 
due weight in the consideration of all the evidence 

In any case, the anomalies proved to be much more extraordinary on the 
oecological than on the zoological-geographical side. While the various species 
might or might not be strange to the region, it was certainly exceedingly strange 
to find them appearing in very large populations during the first three months 
of the year, when the snow is still on the ground in North and Northeast China 
and in Korea. The Comniis-sion found no diflficulty in substantiating that these 
masses had been seen (and destroyed as quickly as possible) by very many 
ordinary men and women in all walks of life. Of the eighteen species so far 
referred to, no less than twelve exhil)ited marked seasonal anomalies of appear- 
ance. In other words they appeared in mass with a precocity varying from 6-14 
weeks earlier than the time of year at which, according to the personal experi- 
ence and published works of competent entomologists, they ought normally to 
be expected to appear. The average shift was one of weeks; more than two 
months (App.). 

Here several points of interest arise. The collection of many tens of thou- 
sands of flies of approximately the same size as house-flies can easily be imagined, 
but the size of the spring-tail (Isotoma neigishina ; Burner) is so small (only 2 
mm. in length) that immense numbers in high density must have been present to 
have attracted any attention at all (App.). Wherever possible, concrete fijiures 
for assessed densities have been given in a Table ( App. ) . An observation of im- 
portance made by one of the Chinese entomologists in SIA/12 was that certain 
masses of Hylemyia appearing when the temperature was —10° C. contained 
a high proportion of individuals ready to lay eggs, thus still further deepening 
the mystery of their origin. Similarly striking was the case of the field-cricket 
Gryllus testaceus, the life-history of which happened to have been the subject 
of an elaborate paper written in Peking in 1951 (App.). Thousands of adults of 
this species appeared in March near K'uan-Tien in Liaotung province, NE China 
(Manchuria), adjoining Korea, i. e. at a time when even in Peking, which has 
a warmer temperature than NE China, there should be present no individuals ex- 
cept those in the egg stage. 


Now it may be granted that isolated and sporadic instances of the appearance 
of swarms of various kinds of insects in winter are to be found in entomological 
literature. But it is hardly conceivable that such phenomena could occur for 
so many species at once if its causes were purely natural. The Commission ascer- 
tained that the meteorological conditions pertaining in the past winter in NE 
China (Manchuria) and Korea were strictly normal (App.). It was therefore 
not at all surprising that the Chinese and the Koreans associated the unusual 
phenomena with the passage of American planes which on many occasions were 
seen by eye-witnesses to throw down non-explosive objects whence insects 
emerged. The Commission interviewed such eye-witnesses ( App. ) , and assured 
itself of their good faith and rational credibility. As we shall see (pp. 39-45 be- 
low) containers of types both banal and highly peculiar were found and studied. 
Unfortunately in some of the documentation which reached Europe (such as the 
Four-Zero Series) the essential statements of the passage of the planes before- 
hand were not included, but the Commission was able to clear up this important 
point (App.). 

Another argument would admit that there had indeed been a shift of the 
times of appearance of a considerable number of species of insects, but would 
urge that even if this could not have been due to abnormal meteorological 
conditions, some other natural factor had been at work, shifting systematically 
all the apparitions backwards by the .same amount. A test of this was fortu- 
nately very easy. It was only necessary to arrange the various species in the 
order of their normal appearance, and then to plot on the same graph the order 
of their abnormal appearance. If a uniformly-acting natural factor had beeu 
at work, the two curves or lines should run parallel, but a glance at Fig. in 
(App.) is sufficient to show that they do not. The order of abnormal appear- 
ances is so haphazard as to indicate the intervention of an artificial factor. 

One argument which had a certain success in various countries before the 
Commission began its work was that napalm bombing had notoriously been going 
on, and that this might well have led to intense and localised heating of the 
earth. Such an effect might have disorganised tlie normal life-cycles of various 
kinds of insects so as to lead to their appearance several weeks or even months 
before their proper time. The Commission therefore noted with interest the 
fact that many dozens of accounts of masses of insects including 33 principal 
incidents, some of which are given in Table, (App.) originated from places 
in NE China, a region in which there has, of course, been no napalm bombing. 

All the foregoing remarks apply to the species of insects mentioned in the 
SIA and parallel documents. A few species mentioned there by common names, 
such as "ants" and "horse-flies", could not be confirmed by the Chinese ento- 
mologists, and there may well have been some confusion due to terms used by 
non-scientific eve-witnesses. At a later stage the Commission examined new 
evidence concerning a coleopteron (beetle), Ptiniis, (App.) ; this will be dealt 
with in its place. B:)th in this and other cases of infected insects, the material 
assembled in the Appendices is available for the study of the connections be- 
tween the vectors and the outbreaks of disease. Relevant also here is the 
question of tbe measures taken in China and Korea to control insect populations 
(see App.), and that of the occuri-ence of pathogens on random samples of 
normal insects (App.). 


The reader may encounter in the following paragraphs certain insects and 
spiders the names of which are likely to be unfamiliar to non-specialists. The 
following lines are intended to supply brief descriptions of them, and they are 
arranged in correspondence with the order adopted in Appendix. 

The insect most frequently found to be disseminated is the anthomyiid fly, 
Hylcmyin sp. Flies of this genus are particularly common in North America, 
and there are in all more than 500 species, some of which frequent human habi- 
tations. Since they breed in human excrement they are naturally important as 
mechanical vectors of intestinal diseases. Many of the species pass the winter 
iniderground in tbe pupal stage, and in general their appearance in large num- 
bers does not occur earlier than the month of IMay. Under natural conditions 
these flies can be infected by various bacteria pathogenic to plants (cf. p. 25 
below, and App.). 

Helomyza sp. (family Helomyzidae), the sun-fly, is an insect which frequents 
dungheaps. There are several dozen species most of which live on the excre- 
ment of man, bats, small mammals and birds ; not only in the larval but also 


in the adult stages. Some species of these flies frequent human habitations, 
where they soil food and become the mechanical vectors of any human disease 
due to pathogenic bacteria. 

The house-tlies, Musca domestica and its southern form Musca vicina, live 
invariably with man, and are well recognised as carriers of the agents of his 
diseases. More than sixty different species of pathogenic bacteria have been 
found on them. 

The large house-flies, or stable-flies, Muscina stalulans, are also recognised as 
insects associated with man, and mechanical vectors of human diseases. 

All the above belong to the Diptera. The Plecoptera have been represented 
by Nenwura sp., one of the stone-flies. These multiply in streams and running 
water, their larvae feeding on the microorganisms in the water. The adults do 
not like to stray far from this environment of their growth. Contact with 
man can occur through water and plants. 

The Collembola, primiti^-e wingless insects, have been represented by Isotonic 
sp. These develoi) in decomposing plant material and damp soils rich "in humus, 
and in the roots of vegetables. Some species develop on the surface of standing 

In natural conditions, it has been proved that Pulex irrifans, the flea parasitic 
on man, is capable of causing serious outbreaks of plague, (Blanc and Balthazar). 
It will later be seen that this vector has been utilised in bacteriological warfare. 

The beetle Ptinus fur (Coleoptera) belongs to a genus comprising some .35 to 
40 species most of which have the same habits, and some of which live in the 
neighbourhood of man. The species in question is most frequently found in 
human habitations, storehouses, stables, lofts and mills, libraries and factories. 
It lives on husked grain, cereals, cottonseeds, stale bread or biscuits, flour, straw, 
furs, carpets, leather, etc. Among these things it lays its eggs. The process 
of metamorphosis lasts from 3 to 4 months, so that at least three generations 
can be produced in one year. The adult beetles can live for five years. They 
are to be met with in Europe, Asia, and North America, so that the species is 
widespread. Virulent anthrax bacilli have been isolated from Ptimts in the 
natural state (App.). 

Among the spiders, the representatives are Lijcosa sp. and Tarcntula sp. of 
the family Lycosidae. They are carnivorous, feeding on mosquitoes, flies, ants, 
and other species among which there may be some which are vectors of human 
diseases. When such a spider attacks a man, the pathological phenomena seen 
are provoked not only by the venom of the bite, but also by the fact that 
pathogenic bacteria may be injected at the same time. The excreta of these 
spiders may also contain pathogenic bacteria. Their length of life is consider- 
able, attaining several years. The adults are capable of living for two years 
without food, and several months without water ; they can also withstand light 

In the scientific literature there are descriptions of methods for the artificial 
production of insects and arachnids on a large scale. The most complete infor- 
mation on this subject will be found in a collective work prepared by American 
entomologists and entitled "Culture Methods for Invertebrate Animals" (New 
York, 1937). 

As can be seen from the above commentary, some of the insests disseminated 
are known vectors of diseases, while others do not figure in the text-books as 
having anything to do with such transmissions. Thus the flies Hylemi/ia and 
Hclomyza frequent human habitations from time to time, w^hile other "insects, 
such as the Collembolid Isotoma sp., have only remote contacts with man. It 
would therefore seem unlikely at first sight that such arthropods could have 
any importance in the transmission of human diseases. However, one must take 
into consideraiton not anly the great latitude of the so-called specificity of 
vectors, but also certain aspects of the vector-host relationship not yet clarified. 
Thus the connection of man with the fowl mite Dermanyssus gallmae is 
possible only in peculiar and narrowly-defined conditions. Before 1944 nothing 
was known of the important pai't played by this ecto-parasite in the transmis- 
sion and conservation of the virus of encephalitis. Before then it would have 
seemed absurd if anyone had made use of Dermanyssus to provoke artificially 
an epidemic of encephalitis. 

It can not be accepted as a general rule that those species which are in intimate 
contact with man are necessarily more effective disease vectors than wild species. 
Thus among many examples one may take that of the mosquitoes Aedes scapularis 
and Haemafiogus spegazzinii. Under laboratory conditions these species trans- 
mit yellow fever. Now the first of these is very domestic and frequents human 


habitations located in forest regions, while the second one never enter them. Yet 
the human commensal has no important role in the transmission of yellow fever, 
while the wild species is well known as a vector. 

As for the ease of Isotoma, for example, various hypotheses may be formed, so 
long as one does not lose sis'ht of the fact that they are only speculations about 
experiments of which we know nothing. For example : 

(a) /so ^omfl-> infection of lower mammal-»ecto-parasites (fleas, mites, 

etc. )-> infection of man. 

(b) /so^ortza-^ Contamination of food or water-^ infection of man. 

(c) Isotoma, multiplication of the pathogen in,-> Isotoma, congenital dis- 

ease^ infection of lower ma mmal^ecto-parasites-> infection of man. 

(d) /so <0Hta-> infection of plants. 

Many other hypotheses would also be plausible. 

The same kind of suppositions apply also to the stonefly, Nemoura, but here 
there are probably yet other possibilities, hard to state precisely at present. 
There is no difficulty in understanding the role of the semidomestic flies as 
vectors, especially when artificial laboratory conditions permit an augmentation 
of the percentage of infection, and an increased virulence of the pathogenic agent. 

One further important point is worth emphasizing. A single species can be 
semi-wild in one region and domesticated in another. As an example, one may 
cite the Anopheline mosquitoes of the genus Kerteszia which have no domestic 
habits north of the 24th degree of latitude in South America, and therefore play 
no part in the transmission of malaria. But south of that line, on the contrary, 
they become very domestic, and consequently attain importance in the trans- 
mission of the disease. 

Lastly, it is well known that prolonged researches were necessary before it 
became possible to establish definitely the role of arthropods as vectors in para- 
sitic and bacterial diseases, such as the anopheline mosquitoes for malaria, fleas 
for plague, lice and ticks for Rickettsias, and so on. The part which arthropods 
play in the transmission of disease agents is something which requires continued 
study. Little known vectors may well have been employed in the hope that 
the methods of control of these unusual species of insects had not been worked 
out. Thus with regard to the methods of bacteriological warfare it can be seen 
that the artificial establishment of new biological inter-relations is quite possible, 
and though the researches required to elucidate them may be arduous, they 
are not likely to be unsuccessful. 


Several references were made in the earlier literature to the dropping of packets 
of plan material from American airplanes. They were usually seen by the eye- 
witnesses to burst at about 1,000 feet and scatter the leaves or other parts of 
plants over a wide area. Incidents of this kind occurred at Chong-Ju in Korea 
on 20th March (NCNA/S5, p. 9 ; SIA/1.3 p. 4) and at more than ten other localities 
in Northeast China and North Korea. In one case the descent of the material was 
seen personally by a British war correspondent (SIA/6, p. 2). Members of the 
Commission were able to discuss the botanical and mycological identifications with 
Chinese phytopathologists and botanists of international repute (App). 

It was established that the stalks and pods of soya-beans were infected with 
purple spot fungus, Cercospora sojini Hara, (syn, Cercosporina kikuchii, Matsu- 
moto and Tomoyasu). This fungus is a plant pathogen which has been reported 
from Korea and China, and which could cause serious damage and loss to soya- 
bean crops. As in the other cases here discussed, the pathogenic organisms were 
found inside the tissues of the plant material, showing that it was thoroughly and 
not merely superficially infected. 

Among the fragments of leaves some were infected with anthracnose {Olome- 
rclJa, sp., the asexual stage of which is called Colletotrichnm) . The organism 
found has a wide host range, attacking apple-trees, pear-treas, and cotton-plants, 
as experimental inoculation tests demonstrated. Ordinary cotton anthracnose 
(OJomerella gossypii (South) Edg.) only attacks cotton and related plants, while 
the apple bitter-rot fungus (Glnmerclla cinf/vlnta (Stoneman), S. & S.), though 
attacking more than thirty host plants, does not attack cotton. Both these have 
been reported from China. The fungus found, however, has morphological 
differences from them, as well as a much wider host range. 

A third case of dissemination of a plant disease occurred as late as July, after 
the Commission had begun its work, near H.siu-Ten in the south of Liaotung prov- 


ince. Peach-leaves, (not its natural host), were found to be infected with Macro- 
phoma kuicatS'Ukni Hara, the fungus causing apple and pear fruit rot (ring-spot) 
and also canker and twig blight of those trees. The fungus isolated proved to be 
highly infectious. 

In the above three cases, precise eye-witness accounts of the dropping of the 
packets of plant material were available. 

A further incident in this phytopatliological warfare which came to the atten- 
tion of the Commission, was the appearance of scattered corn (maize) grains 
(kernels) after one of the constant American air intrusions over Liaotung 
province in NE China (Manchuria), at the village of Sun-Chia-Pao-Tzu near 
Antung. These grains were found to be infected with a species of TJiecaphora 
similar to, but not identical with, Thecaphora deformans, which is known as a 
pathogen of legumes in America and Europe. The plant pathogen here found 
had never previously been reported from China. 

Although the leaves were sometimes in a fragmentary state, there was only one 
consignment (the case) in which they could not be fully identified. 
In the first incident the material was Glycine max, in the third Prunus pers'ca, 
and in the fourth Zeamays. Other consignments frequently consisted of Quercus 
sp. (oaks) and Sorghum vulgare (kaoliang). Among them two are of particular 
interest (App.). At Dai-Tek San in North Korea a mass of leaves was dropped 
which were identified as those of the deciduous oak Quercns aliena, Bl. var. 
ruhripes, Nakai, a tree the distribution of which is strictly limited to regions 
south of the 38th parallel of latitude. At Hai-Loon hsien in NE China another 
mass of leaves was dropped on May 3rd, which were identified as those of Lindera 
glauca BL, a tree only found in South Korea and quite unknown in Northeast 

Allusion should be made to the possible use of insects as vectors of plant as well 
as human diseases. It is well known, for example, that the anthomyiid fly Hyle- 
myia spp. (cf. p. 20 above, and App.), carries lireblight of pear and aiiple (Erwinia 
amylovora), corn (maize) wilt (Phytomonas, steivartii), and soft rot of veg- 
etables (Erwinia coratovora) — three bacterial diseases — together with the fungal 
"black-leg" of cabbage (Phoma lingam). It is also well known the Muscina 
Stabulans (cf. p. 20 above, and App.), carries fireblight of pear and apple. 
Chinese phytopathologists have isolated strains of bacteria from the insects (and 
leaves) disseminated, and research is proceeding. 

In general it may therefore be said that the dissemination of plant diseases has 
certainly played a part in the biological warfare which has been carried on in 
Korea and Northeast China (Manchuria). 


As has already been observed, the classical method of bacteriological warfare 
involving plague, that adopted by the Japanese during the second world war, 
consists in delivering, whether by container or spray, large numbers of fleas 
infected with plague bacteria. Since the beginning of 1952 numerous isolated 
foci of plague have appeared in North Korea, always associated with the sud- 
den appearance of numbers of fleas and with the previous passage of American 
planes. Seven of these incidents, the earliest dating from 11th February, were 
reported in SIA/1, and in six of them the presence of the plague bacteria in the 
fleas was demonstrated. Document SIA/4 added the statement that after a 
delivery of fleas to the neighbourhood of An-Ju on the 18th February, fleas 
which were shown bacteriologically to contain Pastcurella pestis, a plague epi- 
demic broke out at Bal-Nam-Ri in that district on the 25th. Out of a popula- 
tion of COO in the village, 50 went down with plague and 36 died. 

According to the best information which the Commission was able to obtain, 
for the past five centuries there has been no plague in Korea. The nearest en- 
demic centres are three hundred miles away in NE China (Manchuria) and a 
thousand miles to the south in Fukien. Moreover, the month of February would 
be no less than three months too early for the normal appearance of human 
plague cases in this climate. Above all the fleas appearing were not the rat 
fleas which more usually carry plague bacteria in a state of nature, but human 
fleas (Pulex irritons). It was these which were used by the Japanese during 
the second world war, as we know from identifications on the Chinese side 
(App.) and from other indications (App.). 

While in Korea the Commission was invited to study two special cases (App.). 
In the first of these, at Kang-Sou towards the end of March, a farmer went to a 
jar near his well one morning after a plane had circled over his village the 


previous night. He found that numerous fleas were floating on the surface of 
the water in the jar. He was probably bitten by other fleas of the same sending, 
for he died of bubonic plague a few days later, the diagnosis being abundantly 
confirmed by pathological and bacteriological tests, carried out by Korean and 
Chinese experts. The fleas also were demonstrated to be infected with plague 
bacteria. Members of the Commission inspected the cultures of microorganisms 
isolated from the body of the patient by the above-mentioned specialists, and 
convinced themselves that these cultures were really of Pasteurella pestis. 
Pathological and histological preparations were also examined. Prompt sani- 
tary measures at Kang-Sou had prevented further cases. 

In the second of the studies, two lieutenants of the Chinese Volunteer Forces 
in Korea, found a very dense mass of fleas on a bare hillside near Hoi-Yang. 
The zoning was so distributed as to indicate that they had been delivered by a 
container which came down rather slowly in a NNE direction, but no trace of 
any container could be found. Somewhat astonished at the density of the 
population, which darkened the ground and blackened their trousers, the two 
young men, who were afterwards questioned by the Commission personally, re- 
turned to their quarters and brought reinforcements which destroyed the fleas 
with a fire of petrol and pine branches. In this case the soldiers were protected 
in a number of ways (App.) and their prompt counter-measures took effect before 
any appreciable number of the fleas could find their way to routes of transit 
frequented by human beings. Tests carried out by the Korean-Chinese services 
showed that these fleas were infected with plague bacteria, and that they were 
human fleas. 

The fact that they were fleas (P. irritans) parasitic on man must be em- 
phasised. According to what is known of the oecology of this inset, it would 
be impossil)le to find large numbers away from the houses of man. What, then, 
is to be said of the occurrence of a number of these insects estimated at many 
tens of thousands, at one time, on bare wasted land remote from any human 
habitation? Such a witches' sabbath was certainly not called together by any 
natural means. More relevant was the plane which members of the CPVF bil- 
leted in the neighbourhood had heard circling over the place about 4 a. m. on the 
day of the discovery. , ,. , • ^.v. 

Analysis shows that in these circumstances some of the normal links m the 
epidemiological chain of plague, in which Pulex irritans participates, are missing. 
Normally the epizootic disease manifests itself first among rodents, and this is 
followed by an outbreak of human cases, from which P. irritans is secondarily 
infected. Only then is this parasite of man capable of giving rise to further 

cases. . . ,. J <-• 

In the light of all these and other similar facts, the Commission had no option 
but to conclude that the American Air Force was employing in Korea methods 
very similar to. if not exactly identical with, those employed to spread plague by 
the Japanese during the Second World War. , , ., 

During the discussions of these cases at Pyongyang the Commission had the 
help of one of the foremost Chinese experts on plague, the author, indeed of the 
1941 report (App.). He gave evidence to the effect that he had urged the 
Kuomintang government to make known to the world the facts concerning Jap- 
anese bacterial warfare, but without success, partly, he thought, as the result of 
American dissuasion (App.). He also drew attention to the high virulency of 
the strains of plague bacteria now being used in Korea. 

The delivery of plague-infected fleas is of course not the only way in which 
it might be hoped to induce an epidemic. Other methods can be used and we 
shall now see that this has indeed been done. 


Another case with a relatively complete sequence of component elements which 
the Commission was invited to consider in great detail was one involving the 
sudden appearance of a population of voles infected with, and suffering from, 
plague. On the morning of the 5th April, 1952, the countryfolk of four villages 
situated within the area administered from the town of Kan-Nan (Kan-Nan 
hsien), awoke to find themselves surrounded by large numbers of a rat-like 
animal ( App.) . This town lies on the western border of the province of Heilung- 
ehiang in NE China (Manchuria), and its district is thus just on the edge of 
Inner Mongolia. 

During the previous night many of the villagers had heard a plane pass over- 
head, and information provided by the Chinese Air Observer Corps shows that 


after having crossed the Yalu River just before 10 p. m., it was over Kan-Nan 
district about 11 : 30 ; it then retraced its course as if its mission had been ac- 
complished (App.). It was identified by the Corps as an American F-82 double- 
fuselage night-fighter plane. In the morning, the villagers found many of the 
voles dying or dead in their houses and courtyards, on their roofs, and even on 
their beds, while others were scattered around the outskirts of the settlements. 
The total number collected and destroyed in and near the inhabited places of an 
area measuring roughly 3X9 miles was 717 (App.). There was an anomaly 
of season, for small rodents do not usually begin to show themselves in this 
region until a month later, and then in nothing approaching such numbers 
(App.). The location was also anomalous, for voles are not frequenters of 
human settlements. 

The species concerned also seemed to be regionally anomalous. It had never 
before been seen by the local people. It was possible to identify it as belonging 
to the genus Microtus, and morphologically similar to Microtus (Stenocranius) 
gregalis gregalis. This species had previously been reported by Tokuda (1941) 
from parts of Northeast China (Manchuria) northwest of Kan-Nan, and by 
others from points still more to the west. Further taxonomic study by Chinese 
Scientists is in progress. Moreover, this genus is not among those three which 
are normally carriers of plague {Pasteurelle pestis) in those parts of Northeast 
China where the disease is endemic (App.). Analysis of the evidence by the 
Commission, both at Shenyang (Mukden) and at the villages, showed that a 
certain role in concentrating the animals must have been played by the cats 
of the farmers, but it also became clear that the members of the intrusive species 
were uniformly diseased or dying before the cats found them. Some died in 
circumstances which excluded the action of cats. 

The Kan-Nan area has never known any form of plague so far as records are 
available, and reasons more than adequate were presented to show that a 
migration of the voles from the nearest endemic areas must be regarded, in view 
of the distances and obstacles involved, as highly unlikely (App.). Furthermore 
the season \Aas at least a month too early for the normal occurrence of epizootics 
■of plague among rodents in the endemic areas (App.). Only one individual was 
preserved sufficiently for bacteriological test, but the evidence of virulent infection 
with P. pestis obtained from this specimen, together with the eye-witness accounts 
mentioned above, pointed unmistakably to a collection of animals in the full grip 
of the plague (App.). This evidence was confirmed in personal experiments 
carried out by those members of the Commission competent to do so, in collabo- 
ration with the Chinese scientists, and demonstrated to the whole Commission in 
the Bacteriological Laboratories of the National Medical College at Mukden. 

The principal gap in the chain of evidence consists in tlie fact that no container 
or "bomb" of any kind was discovered. However, in view of the fact that in 
January 19-52 there was described in a Japanese journal (Malvichi) a container 
and parachute made of strong paper in such a maimer that it would burn away, 
leaving no trace, after depositing its cargo of infected rats (Api>. ) ; this missing 
link can hardly be considered suflicient to render nugatory the mass of circum- 
stantial evidence already outlined. Other Japanese press reports (Kotca 
Shrrnbiin, Aug. 19.52) revealed the existence of a breeding Institute directed by 
Ojawa, a former assistant of Ishii Shiro, which produces a large number of 
rodents, (App.). 

It only remains to add that the Commission heard evidence at Shenyang 
(Mukden) from ten farmers, who, with others, were visited also individually in 
their homes. It also heard evidence from the epidemiologist who took charge 
of the local sanitation arrangements after the incident, from the bacteriologists 
who investigated and isolated the plague bacteria, and from the zoologist re- 
sponsible for the specialised study of the rodents. The Commission considers 
that the countryfolk owed their escape from plague in this case to the sanitary 
precautions which they took from the moment of first discovery of the unusual 
rodents, and to the remarkable promptitude with M'hich they destroyed the whole 
population of cats and dogs at noon on the same day. Among the precautions 
taken was a very effective method in common use in NE China for destroying 
fleas in human habitations : a thin layer of dry hay and straw is tlirown over 
the earthen floors and k'angs, after all household goods have been removed, and 
then set on fire. For these reasons plague-infected fleas were unable to transmit 
the pathogenic agents to the human beings. 

In the opinion of the Commission, therefore, there remains no doubt that a large 
numbers of voles suffering from plague were delivered to the district of Kan-Nan 
during the night of the 4th/5th April, 1952, by the aircraft which the villagers 
heard. This was identified as an American F-82 double-fuselage night-fighter. 



The Comuiission studied in detail a case which involved the abnormal and 
simultaneous appearance of authomyiid flies and spiders (App. ). On the 12th 
March, 1952, inhabitants of the town of K'uan-Tien, which lies in the southeastern 
part of Liaotung province near the Yalu River, saw eight American fighter planes 
pass over the city about half-an-hour after noon. They recognised them without 
difiiculty for such intrusions were a common, almost daily, occurrence. The 
Chinese Air Observer Corps identified them as F-86 planes and spotted their 
courses. From one of them there was distinctly seen to drop a bright cylindrical 
object. Immediately aftenvards, and during the following days, the people of 
the town, including school-boys, organised searches in the region beyond the 
east gate where the object appeared to have fallen, and collected many authom- 
yiid flies {Hylemyia, sp.) and spiders {Tareiitula, sp.). 

Nine days after the original incident, one of the schoolboys was so fortunate 
as to discover fragments of a container in and around a shallow crater at the 
point of impact of the object (App.). The location was a maize field constituted 
by a small island surrounded hy the beds of rivers dry at this time of year. The 
largest "bomb" fragment was of metal, but the most numerous were of a thin 
porous calcareous substance the nature of which was not immediately obvious. 
This was later identified and will be discussed separately (p. 44). The site of 
the incident was visited on the following day by two well-qualified entomologists, 
who had already searched in the immediate neighbourhood four days earlier; 
they collected a further supply of flies, and carefully assembled as many con- 
tainer-fragments as possible, melting the snow with the help of hot water. 

The presence of snow, at least in drifts between the furrows explains how it 
was possible for the insects (sluggish at the low environmental temperature) to 
remain for more than a week in the close neighbourhood of the point of impact. 
It also explains the similar continued presence of considerable numbers of fowl 
feathers (also delivered at the same time) in the same zone. The insects and 
arachnids showed an anomaly of seasonal appearance (see p. 20 above) and the 
former also a regional anomaly as to zoological species (see p. 16 above). 

Competent bacteriological examination by the Chinese demonstrated the 
presence of the pathogenic organism causing anthrax (Bacillus anthracis} 
both in insects, spiders and leathers (App.). The occurrence of this in or 
on the arthropods must be considered a highly extraordinary phenomenon. 
While its occurrence on the fowl feathers is not quite so remarkable, bacterio- 
logical examination by the Chinese services of control specimens of feathers 
collected at random in N. China and NE China (Manchuria) yielded negative 
results. Moreover, the feathers may perhaps have been simply packing to 
ensure the safe passage of the insects, though it must be remembered that in 
other cases anthrax-infected feathers have been delivei*ed alone. No cases of 
anthrax in or around the town were reported as a result of this intervention. 

In view of the above facts the Commission had no option but to conclude 
that insects and spiders carrying anthrax had been delivered by means of at 
least one container of special type from at least one American plane in the 
neighbourhood of this small town in Liaotung province on March 12th. 


The Commission gave exhaustive study to a group of cases in which American 
planes coming from across the Yalu River and returning thither were actually 
seen to drop objects of various kinds (App.). Though no containers could be 
found at the presumed points of impact when local eye-witnesses immediately 
went to search for them, other things were found, notably large numbers of 
beetles of the species Ptinns fur (normally a pest of stored grain and other 
dry stuffs), or alternatively masses of downy feathers of fowls. In some cases 
large numbers of the house fly Musca vicina unexpectedly appeared, with the 
anomaly of season so often noted, snow being still on the ground. Though 
the beetle was not seasonally anomalous, its appearance in the open air and in 
daylight in great numbers was oecologically extraordinary. All three of these 
biological objects were found by the Chinese bacteriologists to be contaminated 
with anthrax bacilli. And the strains of bacilli isolated, in spite of the diversity 
of the objects, all had exactly the same behaviour in fermentation tests, — an 
unusual and suspicions circumstance. 

Thorough examination of 24 eye-witnesses was carried out, some of whom 
had been among those who saw the objects descending from the planes. Spotting 


records from the Chinese Air Observer Corps were available in all cases (Figs.) 
and this information showed that the intruding planes were in general F-86 
fighters, with the exception of a B-26 bomber on one occasion. In one case 
several people saw an object like a large red thermos flask thrown down, which 
seemed to burst with an explosive puff and a disagreeable smell like burning 
skin or horn when about 30 feet from the ground (cf. the paragraph on Con- 
tainers). In another case valuable testimony, admitting the absence of any 
material container at the presumed point of impact, described the slow dispersion 
by the wind of a large quantity of feathers from just that point, with the forma- 
tion of a triangular area slowly extending and broadening. In this instance 
the description of the container was such as to recall strongly the self-destroying 
"et'g-shell" type used at K'uan Tien, (App. and p. 44 below). 

The evidence concerning aircraft, containers, biological objects appearing, 
and baterioloeical tests, was now amplilied, for a number of localities in the 
provinces of Liaotung and Liaohsi, by concrete and well-analysed data concerning 
fatal human cases of respiratory anthrax and haemorrhaaic anthrax meningitis 
(App.). Five of these were examined, that of a railwayman, a tricycle-rickshaw 
driver, a housewife, a schoolteacher, and a farmer. All of these fell sick of a 
disease which ran a similar rapid course, and all of them presented the same 
picture to the pathologists on autopsy and subsequent histological analysis. 
The Commission satisfied itself that none of the cases had the customary oc- 
cupational history connected with anthrax. The beetles appear to have been 
responsible for two of the deaths, while the flies and the foathers would have 
accounted for another two. The Commission was fully .satisfied with the diag- 
nosis madp and the proofs demonstrated by Chinese scientilic colleagues. Further- 
more, the examination of witnesses brought out (App.) what was missing from 
the document itself (App.), namely that four out of the five victims had not 
only collected the insects and feathers in the general course of such organised 
hunts, but were known to have dispensed with the recognised precautions fol- 
lowed by most people ; that is to say. he or she had failed to protect the respira- 
tory passages by mask, or had handled the biological objects without gloves or 
forceps. Under the dissecting miscoscope it was clear that the beetle Ptinus 
would be well adapted for disseminating anthrax by this route, for it has an 
abundance of brittle chitinous spines on its elytrae which could be inhaled, a 
fact which the document appai-ently overlooked. 

It is not to be supposed that these were the only deaths caused by the anthrax- 
infected objects ; the five cases, with their precise pathological analysis, were 
presented as samples. Nor can the five cases be placed in their proper setting 
unless the full rarity of this kind of disease in the region previously, is clearly 
under.stood. Statistical evidence is presented (App.) which shows that not 
only was the classical cutaneous or pustular anthrax exceedingly rare in NB 
China in recent times, but respiratory anthrax leading to haemorrhagic menin- 
gitis was completely unknown. 

It is well known that the literature contains pronosals for the use of anthrax 
bacilli in bacteriological warfare. Although, under natural conditions, trans- 
mission from man to man occurs only rarely, so that a spontaneous epid-mic 
could not easily he set on foot, the bacillus has the "advantages" of a wide host 
range, a high infectivity is virulent, and an otereme resistance to environ- 
mental conditions so that it is capable of poisoning a locality for a long time. 
lo these must be added the very insidious character of the disease when the 
infection occurs by the respiratory route, for all the victims here mentioned 
remained comparatively normal until they suddenly collapsed, after which 
death ensued in 48 hours or less. 

Anthrax infection by the respiratory route is significant in connection with 
the work on bacteriological warfare carried out in the United States. Re- 
searchers from Camp Detrick, published in 1946 and 1947 (see App.), showed 
that it had been possible to obtain new strains of anthrax bacilli cultured on 
synthetic media which not only possessed unusually high virulence, but which 
-v^ere especially adapted to the respiratory route of infection. 

On the basis of the evidence presented, and on their own searching and pro- 
longed interrogation of a considerable number of witnesses, both medical and 
lay. the Commission was compelled to conclude that the delivery of various 
biological objects contaminated with anthrax bacilli to many places in the two 
Chinese provinces had taken place, and that this had given rise to a number 
of cases of a mortal infection hitherto unknown in the region, namely pulmonai*y 
anthrax and ensuing haemorrhagic meningitis. Eye-witness statements im- 


possible to doubt indicated American airplanes as the vehicles of delivery of the 
infected objects. 


One of the incidents to which the Commission was invited by the (North) 
Korean Minister of Health to devote detailed attention concerned certain fatal 
cases of cholera illustrative of those which have been occurring in rural areas 
since May, 1952 (App.). Early in the morning after a night (16th May) during 
which a plane had been heard circling round for an hour or more as if its pilot 
were trying to lind something, a country girl picking herbs on the hillsides 
found a straw package containing a certain kind of clam. She took some of 
the clams home and she and her husband made a meal of them raw ; on the 
evening of the same day both fell suddenly ill and by the evening of the following 
day both were dead. Medical evidence showed that the cause of death was 
cholera (App.). Further packages of clams were found on the hillsides by the 
local Home Guard, and bacteriological examination by the Korean and Chinese 
specialists proved that the clams were heavily infected with the cholera vibrio 

The whole sequence of events becomes more and more extraordinary the 
moi'e closely it is examined. In the first place, the appearance of marine 
luolluscs {Meretrix meretrix) , contaminated in this way, on a hill in the middle 
of the countryside, can only be regarded as a highly unnatural phenomenon. 
The human fatalities, moreover, were epidemiologically very abnormal. Evi- 
dence presented convinced the Commission that cholera has never been an 
endemic disease in Korea ; for while there have been a number of outbreaks 
during the past forty years it was always possiljle to trace them to a maritime 
point of entry. Yet here was a purely rural focus. Furthermore, there had 
only been one previous instance during this century of any cholera in Korea in 
May ; seldom did it appear before the month of August. Then there were several 
peculiarities about the clams as found. In Korea they are not usually wrapped 
in straw for sale, they appeared here a month before their usual season ( indeed 
since the beginning of the war they have not been reaching the markets at all), 
and if anyone had gone to the trouble of laying the packages down at various 
places on the hillside it was hard to explain why many of the thick calcareous 
shells of the clams should have been broken. 

Light was thrown on the sequence of events, however, when the nature of the 
locality was examined. The clams were found in a zone some 400 yards from 
a pumping-station at the top of the hill, and some 1,000 yards from a series of 
reservoirs or spring-fed ponds the water of which is drawn up by the pumping- 
station and distributed, partly for drinking, to several coastal settlements and 
port towns. On the night previous to that during which the clams made their 
appearance, the purification-plant adjacent to this pumping-station had been 
accurately destroyed by American planes using small bombs, the pumps them- 
selves being undamaged. Further statements of local residents examined per- 
sonally by the Commission (App.) revealed that the weather on the night of 
the second raid when the clams appeared had been da k and windy. All these 
facts pointed unmistakably to a deliberate and carefully-planned attempt to 
contaminate drinking-water reservoirs, the scheme having failed in its main 
purpose because the weather conditions on the night of the delivery of the clams 
did not permit the pilot to locate the reservoirs. On the night in question they 
would not have presented a mirror-like surface. 

It might still, however, be thought bizarre, that a marine or at least estuarine 
variety of lamellibraneh mollusc should have been thought suitable for depositing 
in fresh-water sources for their pollution. Evidence of much interest, however, 
not only reminded the Commission that the cholera vibrio is a halophilic organ- 
ism, but revealed the existence in the Japanese literature of researches which 
had shown the marine lamellibraneh molluscs to be well suited as media for its 
growth (App.). This provided the last link in the reconstruction of the plan 
for this kind of bacteriological warfare. During their slow osmotic death in 
fresh-water the molluscs would serve as natural culture-vessels for the cholera 
vibrios, liberating them at their death to contaminate the drinking-water for a 
period likely to be of the order of thirty days (App. ) . 

Thus the Commission could only conclude that American air force units, 
following a careful plan previously established, first destroyed the Dai-Dong 
purification plant without damaging the pumps, and then attempted to con- 
taminate the drinking-water reservoirs with cholera. The young couple who 


died, impoverished by war devastation, bad the imprudence to eat some of the 
clams which had been intended as the vehicles of contamination. 

This case should be studied in connection with evidence mentioned elsewhere 
(p. 58) concerning flies as artificial carriers of cholera. 


The time has now come to devote some attention to the types of containers, 
or "bombs," if the term is appropriate for engines of war which may contain 
little or no explosive material. At various times and places, particularly at 
Shenyang (Mukden) and in the neighbourhood of Pyongyang, the Commission 
had the opportunity of examining at leisure a variety of the containers in which 
biological objects had been delivered from the air. Its members were thus able 
to verify a number of the statements made in the Prague documentation, and 
to investigate in considerable detail newer methods more refined than any which 
had been described therein. As will be better appreciated shortly the task of 
the Commission was not rendered easier by a circumstance which soon became 
apparent, namely that some of these newer methods comprise "self-destroying 
containers," that is to say, containers which either break into pieces so small 
that their discovery is unlikely, or containers which set fire to themselves and 
disappear after delivering their cargo. Moreover, throughout the Prague docu- 
ments, and even in subsequent depositions collected by the Commission, there 
runs a streak of unavoidable confusion, due to the fact that even when eye- 
witnesses were on the spot when a container was delivered, they did not always 
succeed in finding it, partly because naturally they did not quite know what 
to look for, and when they did find it their desci'iptions were sometimes not as 
detailed as they might have been. This confusion was unfortunately not 
cleared up by the testimonies of the captured air force officers, whose status as 
pilots and navigators did not seem to have entitled them to very precise and 
detailed information on bombs and containers. It must be remembered that in 
one of the lectures which the pilots attended (Quinn/Ashfork; see below, p. 51 
and App.) it was distinctly stated that "our bombs are still in the experimental 
stage, and there are various types of them." The contents of this paragraph 
must therefore be accepted with all due reservation.s. 

The containers present a variety of forms and systems probably adapted to a 
variety of different cases. It seems also that pathogenic agents can be spread 
directly over the target area. In what follows it will be convenient to begin 
with this method, namely spraying, which involves no container at all, and to 
end with the self-destroying receptacles. Intermediate positions will be occupied 
by the less specialised devices whether parachuted or not. 

(1) Spraying. — In NCNA/85, p. 4 (Report of the Chinese Scientific Commission 
in Korea ) the claim was made that a Chinese volunteer soldier actually saw an 
American plane spraying insects at Chor-Won from a height of about 900 feet 
on February 11th. It .seems unlikely that this could have been anything else 
than a deduction from the fact that large numbers of insects were found anom- 
alously on the snow over and oblong area 6X3 miles after its passage. Neverthe- 
less the statements of all four American pilots are quite specific and concordant 
that in five separate lectures they were told that spraying could and would be 
done. One of these statements (O'Neal, ISCK/4, App.) includes a diagram of 
the equipment installed in the plane, and another (Kniss, ISCK/5, App.) says 
that its writer was informed that spraying would start in June. However, the 
former witness states his reasons for believing that spraying was going on from 
at least February 18th, so the Chinese volunteer may have been right in his de- 

As to the kinds of insects which could be so distributed, it seems certain that 
the method would be unsuitable for delicate creatures such as mosquitoes, but 
other discussions (App.) indicated that it would not be unreasonable for fleas. 
It would of course be the way in which bacteria, viruses or toxins, would be dis- 
seminated in aerosol form. 

(2) 1^ on-exploding Objects and Paper Packets. — Several of the Prague docu- 
ments have descriptions of the findings of paper packages of various colours from 
which insects were emerging. Again on the 11th February Chinese volunteers 
at Chor-Won saw three American planes throw down such non-explosive ob- 
jectives, which turned out to be cylindrical yellow paper packets 8 inches high 
and 4 inches in diameter (SIA/1, p. 6; SIA/4, p. 5). Elsewhere in the vicinity 
there were rectangular grey paper packets, 4X4X1% inches, containing insects, 
White paper packets are spoken of as having been delivered at Pyongyang on the 


4th March (NCNA/85, p. 8) and brown ones at Chang-Do on 10th March (NONA/ 
85, p. 6). Two of the lectures attended by the captured pilots (Enoch/Wilson 
and Quiun/Ashfork, see below, p. 51) describes the use of paper as a packing for 
infected insects. While it seems conceivable that hardly insects might be dropped 
from a low height simply wrapped in this way, it seems more probable that in 
all cases the packets originated from the interior of metal leaflet-containers or 
"bombs" which had exploded and opened in mid-air. To these we now turn. 

(3) Air-Burst my Variable-Time Fuse Leaflet Bomb. — This type of container 
is the one which has figured most in all accounts hitherto published on bacterio- 
logical warfare in Korea and China, and it is certainly the commonest type in 
the collections which the authorities of those two countries have made. Mem- 
bers of the Comnjission saw many examples of it. This bomb is of approxi- 
mately the same size and shape as the ordinary American 500 pound HE bomb, 
but it weighs only about 150 pounds and can therefore be loaded on to the planes 
by hand (App.). It consists of a conical nose-piece at the tip of which is the 
time-fuse. This nose-piece forms a small empty compartment, and below it 
the cylindrical body of the bomb is divided by three steel diaphraghms into four 
separate compartments. The casing is divided longitudinally so that half of it, 
being mounted on hinges, can swing open and release its contents at any moment 
desired. Below the floor of the lowest compartment the casing narrows again to 
form a conical empty space fi'om the sides of which spring the four tail-fins, and 
in the bottom of which is a hole sufficiently large to permit of the escape of a 
parachute if it should be desired to equip the bomb with such a device. There 
has been some divergence in the published measurements of the bomb (NCNA/85, 
SIA/13, ISCC/4 etc.) but the specimens seen by the Commission and described 
by the captured pilots have a total length of approximately 4 feet and a diameter 
of 1 foot 2 inches. The casing is made of % inch steel, and the total capacity of 
the 4 compartments is of the order of I4I/2 gallons. The length of the time-fuse 
is a little more than 3 inches. Markings seen were "Leaflets Bomb — 500 lb. — 
M 105 Lot — U. S. Time (-fuse) -Empty''. According to the descriptions given by 
the captured airmen (App.) the doors of the bomb are supposed to open at a 
height of about 100 feet, distributing the contents over an area likely to be 
about 300 feet in diameter. 

The classical eye-witness description (App.) is that of an array doctor who on 
March 26th saw an American plane, circling over Yong-Won, drop two bombs in 
a power dive. Both split into two on exploding and gave rise to an insect- 
congested zone some 200 yards long and 100 yards broad, with a maximum 
density of 100 insects per square yard, centering on the craters (5 inches deep) 
made by the boml) halves (NCNA/85, p. 5). The Commission had the oppor- 
tunity of personal interrogation of eyewitnesses, mostly peasant farmers, who 
had found three such leaflet-bombs surrounded by insects after they had been 
dropped by planes on March 27th and 31st at Ch'ang-Pai in Liaotung Province 
(ISCC/4; SIA/10). Again, while at Pyongyang, the Commission inspected a 
collection of these containers, and here reproduces a table of details concerning 
them of. App.). 

Serial No. 










Pyong-An-Nam.- - 

flies temp. —4°. 






flies 300 X 300 ft. temp. -3°. 



8 p. m 


Pyong-An-Nam. -- 







flies in discoidal zone centering on 
point of impact, 2,700 sq. ft. 
temp. —1°. 






flies, 600 X 300 ft., lethargic. 



4a. m 


Pyong-An-Nam. - _ 

flies in discoidal zone centering on 
point of impact, 150 ft. diam.; 
greatest density 20-30 sq. yd. 









9a. m 


flies in discoidal zone centering on 
point of impact, area 100 sq. yds- 

It only remains to add to the above that this type of container was descriljed 
in more or less detail in every one of the nine lectures attended by the four 
captured airmen who gave evidence before the Commission. In all four cases, 
too, the airmen believed that the bacteriological bombs which had been loaded 
on to their planes and which they duly dropped, were of this type (App.). 

65500 — 55 — pt. 2 4 


As is well-known, public disputes have arisen in the international press about 
the use of leaflet containers, but the chief of the American Army Chemical 
Corps is on record for the statement that they are well suited for the delivery 
of biological objects ( SlA/9, p. 1 ; NCNA/85, p. 5 ; ISCC/4). 

(4) Air-Bur Hting Piopeller- Armed Leaflet Bomb. — This container would ap- 
pear to be a variation of that just described. The fuse in the nose would be 
armed by a small passive airscrew or proi)eller which would bring about detona- 
tion after a certain number of revolutions. There is hardly any mention of this 
type in the documentation issued before the Commission began its work, nor was 
any evidence found of its use. However, it was described in one of the lectures 
which the ca])tured aiimen had received (O'Neal/McLaughlin, see below, p. 51). 

(5) Leaflet Bomb ivlth Doors opened by a Propeller. — In this type, which 
would be similar in external appearance to both those just described, the passive 
propeller or airscrew in tlie nose would actuate a mechanism, to open a series 
of doors along the length of the bomb after it had carried out a predetermined 
number of revolutions. The packets are then blown out by the wind. Again 
there is no mention of this in the Prague documentation, nor did the Commission 
find direct evidence of its existence or use. But nevertheless it was described in 
one of the lectures which the captured airmen had received (Quinn/Ashfoi-k, 
see below, p. 51). 

(6) Leaflet Bomb until Doors or Sides opening after Impact. — Here the half- 
side of the bomb, or a series of doors in it, would be opened by mechanism 
driven by electric batlery activated only by the shock of impact. Breakage of 
a plastic partition would permit access of the acid to the plates. This was not 
mentioned in the Pra'-jue documents, nor was direct evidence of its existence 
found. But it was described in one of the lectures attended by the captured 
airmen (Quinn/Ashfork, see below, p. 51) who was aftei-wards able to make a 
sketch of it in his deposition (App.). From the descriptions it would follow 
that this type of bomb must be equipped with a parachute, and it is possible 
that this was the container referred to in their lectures as delivering infected 
insects by parachute (O Neal/McLaughlin ; Kniss/Holleman ; Kniss/McLaugh- 
lin). (^ne of them (App.) was able afterwards to make a sketch of what he 
conceived such parachute containers to look like. 

(7) Paper or Carton Cylinder with Silk Parachute. — The only type of para- 
chute container which the Commission actually saw was one which is said to 
be similar to those used for flares. It is a carton cylinder with walls about 
% inch thick, some 1 foot 2 inches long and 5 inches diameter. The examples 
seen were marked "USC .5/1-1-1952-Lot lOO-F-6". The silk parachute attached 
had a diameter of only 2 feet 3i/^ inches. As has been pointed out, (NCNA/85, 
p. 5) this size is only one thirtieth of the ordinary flare parachute, so that pre- 
sumably it would not be likely to float for a long time in the air. It was also 
pointed out that there was no trace of burning on the carton, and this was cer- 
tainly true of the examples which the Commission examined. It may well be 
significant that on one of the occasions when such a receptacle was found, it 
appeared to have delivered midges (Kang-Dong, 26th March, NSNA/85 ; SIA/13). 
Delicate insects such as these (Orthocladius), or mosquitoes, would doubtless 
conveniently be delivered by such a method. 

(8) Paper container tcith Paper Parachute {Self-Destroying) . — Of this inter- 
esting type no example was seen by the Commission nor had the captured air- 
men any information to give about it. But such a device was described in some 
detail in the article by Maj. R. Sakaki in Mainichi for .lanuary, 1952 (App.). 
According to this account, the container would be of strong paper and would 
include several compartments, it would be weighted, and it would carry a fuse 
so arranged as to be alile to ignite both the container and the paper (or im- 
pregnated silk) parachute when the proper moment arrived. In Sakaki's de- 
scription the biological objects (plague-infected rats) would be gently liberated 
after the container had opened on touching the ground, and then after a suf- 
ficient latent period the ignition would occur and no trace would be left. But 
the machine could easily be so arranged as to deliver its load some 20 or 30 feet 
above the ground, after which, becoming lighter, it could drift further away 
before ignition and disappearance. The circumstance that Sakaki specifically 
refers to the use of these containers for plague-infected rats made it tempting 
to suppose that a battery of them had been used in the Kan-Nan incident (p. 29 
above), lint for this there is no specific evidence. One corollary of paper con- 
tainers for rodents would be that the animals might have to be kept in at least 
a semi-anaesthetised condition during the flight, to prevent them from gnawing 


their way out. The Commission places these points on record only for the 
purpose of drawing attention to possibilities. 

(9) Bomb-shaped Containers of Earthenware or Porcelain. — During the second 
world war, the Japanese bacteriological warfare organisation manufactured 
"porcelain" (actually earthenware) bomb-shaped containers, of at least two 
diffei-ent sizes, in a special plant near Harbin. Specimens of these (the larger 
about 2 feet 6 inches and the smaller about 1 foot 6 inches long) were examined 
by the Commission at Shenyang (Mukden). Although this kind of container 
is still recommended in Japan, as by Sakaki in the article already mentioned 
(App. ), for bacterial cultures, the Commission did not find any evidence for 
its use in 1952 in Korea or China. Here it takes its place rather as the precursor 
of the most ingenious of all the types in question, namely the "egg-shell" container 
which breaks up on impact, but into a greater number of small and thin pieces 
easily overlooked. 

(10) J he A/tificial Egg-Shell Container. — On March 21st, more than two 
hundred fragments of a container made of some calcareous material, together 
with a cap-shaped steel plate and luetal rod attached to the centre ot the concave 
surface, were found outside the city of K nan-Tien in Liaotuug province. Cir- 
cumstances (reported in ISCC/3, App.) showed that these things must have 
been the remains of a container which had fallen from an American plane on the 
12th, and in which there was reason to think that anthomyiid flies, spiders, and 
fowl feathers, bearing anthrax bacilli, had been delivei-ed. The metal pieces and 
calcareous fragments were subjected to an exhaustive analysis by the Institutes 
of Modern, and of Applied, Physics of Academia Sinica (the Chinese National 
Academy), with a view to reconstruction of the original form of the device 

It was thus possible to deduce that the intact container must have been 
cylindrical, and domed at least at one end. The total length would have been 
more than 1 foot 31/4 inches, and the length of the rod 11 inches (Fig.). The 
radius of curvature of the steel cap plate is just under .1 inches, and its diameter 
6% inches; the radius of the calcareous body of the container G^/^ inches. The 
thickness of the calcareous walls would have been just over 1/16 inch, and the 
whole had been painted on the outside with aluminium paint. X-ray exam- 
ination demonstrated that the material of the walls was chiefly calcium car- 
bonate. While mainly calcite, the substance contained, as was shown spec- 
troscopically, some magnesium. By some means or other, then, a fragile calcite 
box had been fashioned, and chemical evidence was obtained of the presence of 
organic matter, which had served perhaps as a cement for the calcite particles. 
Something is still lacking in our understanding of the facts since it is not yet 
clear how so fragile a container can stand the shock of departure from the plane. 

The incident at K'uan-Tien (ISCC/3) had already been pirtially reported in 
SIA/3, p. 2 and SIA/8, p. 6, and the Commission was able to examine the 
calcareous fragments preserved from it. But it did not represent the only 
Incident of the kind which came to the notice of the Commission. As late as 
June 6th, the delivery of insects to the neighbourhood of Pi-Tung (N. Korea) 
had been accompanied by what was described as the rather slow slanting fall of 
silvery globes about twice as big as footballs (App.). There can be little doubt 
that this was the same device again. ]Moreover, one of the eye-witness accounts 
of the Pai-Ch'ing-Tzu cases (ISCC/5; SIA/6, p. 1) mentioned shining objects 
dronped by American planes. Here, too, masses of feathers infected with 
anthrax were delivered. Other descriptions (e. g. SI A/10, p. 1) might refer 
to this type, but it is not possible to be sure. In any case, the Commission con- 
siders that there can be no doubt that such containers were used by the Americans 
on bo+h sides of the Yalu Ri''-er in INIarch and in Jnne. 

(11) Miscellaneous Containers. — It only remains to add that evidence has 
been produced of the use of several other kinds of receptacles besides those 
already mentioned. For rodents there has been mention of cylindrical cages 
of wire-netting (NCNA/85, p. 5) and of wooden boxes (NCNA/85, p. 6). If 
these indeed descended from the sky, it was more probably as part of the cargo 
of some kind of parachute bomb. Packages of straw were used for the cholera 
clams of Dai-Dong (App.). A hand-grenade type of bomb has also been men- 
tioned (NCNA/85, p. 6; SIA/13) ; the Commission did not see this. Members 
did however have the opportunity of examining near Pyongyang fragments of a 
green translucent insect container which, it was stated, had been fired as a shell 
(NCNA/95, p. 5, 6; SIO/13). Artillery participation in bacteriological warfare 
was referred to in at least two of the lectures attended by captured American 
airmen (Enoch/Wilson and O'Neal/Williams, see below, p. 51) ; but the Com- 


mission found no evidence of the practical use of the method of warfare described 
by Sakaki, namely of covering pieces of shrapnel with jelly containing B. welchii 
(gas gangrene) or tetanus (App. Cotton filling for padded winter clothing, 
however, which appeared at one time conveniently near the Chinese trenches, 
was found to be contaminated with paratyphoid B (comm. from DGMS, CPVF). 

(12) Ground Distrimtions of Biological Oijects Delivered.— Those who read 
the appendices to this Report as well as the earlier documents issued from Prague 
will find eye-witnesses constantly speaking of discoidal insect-congested zones, 
centered on the remains, generally quite uncrumpled, of the leaflet-container 
"bomb." This presumably means that there was a fairly regular concentric 
distribution around the spot immediately beneath which the opening of the 
container had taken place. 

Apart from these cases, the Commission noted two interesting examples of 
ground distribution of delivered objects. In one case (ISCC/5) (App.) feathers 
were found being blown away slowly by the wind from their point of arrival, 
so as to form a triangular area Va mile long and rather less than % mile broad 
at the base. This was gradually lengthening and broadening. Though no con- 
tainer or its fragments were found, the bomb in this case was probably of the 
egg-shell type. In another instance, that of the great numbers of human fleas 
found on a bare hillside (ISCK/3; App.)., it was seen that the insects covered 
an ellipsoidal area about 30 yards X 10 yards with a zone of maximum density 
at approximately one of the centres or foci of the ellipse. This would pre- 
sumably suggest that the fleas were delivered by some object, perhaps a parachute 
container, which travelled along the long axis of the ellipse. 


The Korean authorities informed the Commission that since the beginning of 
the war agents had been sent into North Korea with the precise objective of 
obtaining and sending back epidemiological information related to bacterial 
warfare. Many of these agents had been captured, and their admissions had 
thrown considerable light on the organisation of the American intelligence serv- 
ice and the work which had been entrusted to them. Already in SIA/7 detailed 
information had been published concerning some of the agents, for example one- 
Chinese and one Korean. 

Members of the Commission had the opportunity at Pyongyang of interviewing 
at length one of these agents, (App.). The young man, whose schooling had 
been cut short, belonged in 1945 to the "Youth Organisation" of the South 
Korean Government, and when the American troops finally retreated he had 
gone with them. Minor personal interest, rather than political conviction, had 
apparently been the dominant motive in his autogonism to the North. 

Unable to make a living, the witness joined the American auxiliary intelligence 
forces. He described the political, military, and hygienic training which he had 
received in a organisation entitled "K. L. O." at Seoul between December, 1951 
and March, 19.52, (App.). Here he was taught the techniques for obtaining the 
information desired. It was during this period that the bacterial warfare devel- 
oped. Numerous inoculations were given to him about the beginning of February, 
though he was not informed of their nature. Until the eve of his departure he 
had no contact with foreign military officers, but his final instructions were then 
delivered to him by an American major through an interpreter. These com- 
prised a specific area for his operations, and gave exact details of the diseases 
about which the Americans wanted to know (tyiihoid, plague, cholera, encepha- 
litis, dysentery, and smallpox). The witness was informed as to the systems 
on which North Korean statistical information was drawn up, and his instruc- 
tions were to obtain it if possible by means of contacts in the health and other 
governmental services, or if need be, to steal it. He was also told to be extremely 
careful of what he ate, not to pass the night in places infected with insects, and 
not to drink unboiled water. North Korea was full of illness, it was said, but 
his inoculations would give him great protection. 

The witness accordingly passed into North Korea on the 29 March, and worked 
there with an accompanying radio-telegraphist until he was arrested on the 20th 
May. In i-eplying to questions, he was rather reticent, perhaps to shield collabo- 
rators. He said that he had very little success in contacting North Korean health 
personnel, and had been able to transmit little or no information to American 

The witness made it clear that before his illicit entry into North Korea, he had 
been given no indication that bacterial warfare was being carried oil He had only 


heard that there were numerous epidemics in the North, and that the armies of the 
South "were employing the most modern scientific weapons with good results." 
He learnt of bacterial warfare only from reading public notices. 

The Commission was unanimously of the opinion that the bearing of this witness 
and his evidence about his mission and instructions bore the stamp of truth, and 
that any pressure, physical or mental, could be excluded. For the rest, he seemed 
to be a rather mercenary personality. The Commission found no improbability in 
the sending of epidemiological intelligence agents across the lines. It was satisfied 
that the task of the agent had been to provide information about the effectiveness 
of bacteriological warfare ; a conclusion which could only add to the cumulative 
mass of evidential material inculpating the American armed forces. 


On January 1.3th, 19.j2, a B-26 bomber of the American Air Force was shot 
down over An-Ju in Korea. By May 5th statements of considerable length 
admitting their participation in bacteriological warfare had been made by the 
navigator, Lt. K. L. Enoch, and by the pilot, Lt. John Quinn, and issued to 
the world through Peking. As has already been stated, these documents will 
be found in SIA/14 and 15 respectively, and together with lithograph repro- 
ductions of the original manuscripts, in the printed brochure issued from 
Prague. The relevant parts are here reproduced in App. Documents SIA/17 
and 18 should also be consulted, though the later interviews recounted in them 
did not add much to the technical and scientific evidence. 

What were the essential points in the principal declarations of these air- 
men? First of all, both officers had had to attend, in Japan and in Korea, 
secret lectures on the methods of bacteriological warfare. These expositions 
which it was impressed on them contained highly confidential information, 
described the use of bacteria directly as cultures deposited or sprayed, of insects 
transmitting diseases biologically or mechanically, of rodents in parachute-con- 
tainers, of poisoned foods, and of bacteria-containing artillery shells. Various 
kinds of containers or "bombs" were described and sketched. Correct altitudes 
and air-speeds for delivery were given. Particularly significant statements 
made in the lecture attended by Lt. Quinn were (a) that "almost any insect 
could be used for spreading disease", (&) that "rats could he dropped, though 
this might not be necessary", and (c) that there was an intention to use encepha- 
litis, "for which no positive cure is known." 

Secondly, both officers had received orders to carry out bacteriological war- 
fare missions, and had duly flown them, though with the greatest inner reluctance. 
There were various peculiarities about the special bombs used, and in some 
cases these were under special guard so that the pilots could not examine them 
too closely. In one of the reports information was given as to the various types 
of planes most suitable for delivering various kinds of containers. From the 
pei'sonal knowledge of the two airmen many of their fellow service-men had also 
engaged in such missions, and later conversations brought out well the large 
number of Air Force personnel who had been instructed on bacteriological 
warfare, (SIA/17). Lt. Enoch was briefed "germ bombs" while Lt. Quinn was 
briefed "duds", but both were told that in debriefing (i. e. reporting the results 
of the flight) "duds" was to be the term used. 

There can be no doubt that these admissions had considerable influence on the 
western world. But those who did not wish to be convinced tended to brush them 
aside as confessions obtained under physical or mental duress, saying that after 
all, only two young men had come forward, and suggesting indeed they did not 
really exist at all, and that the whole declarations were forged. Attempts, how- 
ever, to demonstrate inconsistencies in Lt. Quinn's story, failed (SIA/16). 

In these circumstances it was of great importance that the Commission was 
able to meet, at a rendezvous in Korea, not only the two officers so far mentioned, 
but two more, Lt. F. B. O'Neal and Lt. Paul Kniss, whose accounts are even more 
lengthy and detailed (App.). With those four American airmen, the Commission 
found itself in presence of a good cross-section of American life — a cool-headed 
electrical engineer ; a middle-class business man ; a young research chemist, and a 
solid steel-mill worker of agricultural origins. The Commission had the oppor- 
tunity of extended conversations with these men under conditions of free dis- 
course. Its members unanimously formed the opinion that no pressure, physical 
or mental, had been brought to bear upon these prisoners of war in order to induce 
them to make the declai'ations which they made. These declarations were made 
of their own free will, after long experience of the friendliness and kindness of 


their Chinese and Korean captors had brought to them the realisation that their 
duty to all races and peoples must outweight their natural scruples at revealing 
what might be considered the military secrets of their own government. The 
greater part of the conversations consisted in question and answer among the 
airmen and the members of the Commission, but each airman prefaced his inter- 
view with a statement along the lines of his written document, and concluded it 
with a solemn aflBrmation of the convictions to which his conscience had brought 

Since the statements of the witnesses (ISCK/4 and 5), and the commentaries 
containing the substance of the interviews, are reproduced below as App., there is 
no necessity to elaborate them further here. But from the written statements 
and answers to questions it seems already possible to reconstruct what was going 
on in the American air force during the last months of 1951 and the early months 
of 1952. This may be appreciated by means of the following table : 


June Kniss attends lecture by Laurie in U. S. Information given 

because the enemy might use bacteriological warfare. 

Aug. 25th Enoch attends lecture by Wilson in Japan. The U. S. has no 

plans for bacteriological warfare, but the enemy might 
use it. 

October Enoch attends lecture by Browning in Korea. Same state- 

Dec. 1st O'Neal attends lecture by Williams in U. S. Non-committal 

attitude on intention to use bacteriological warfare. 

December Enoch attends another lecture by Browning in Korea. Same 

statement as in October. 

Dec. 18th Quinn attends lecture by Ashfork in Korea. Necessity of 

preparing for bacteriological warfare which the enemy 
might use. 

Jan. 3rd Quinn's first mission with bacteriological bombs. Briefed and 

debriefed as "duds," but from other circumstances he 
knew what they were. 

Jan. 6th Enoch's first mission with bacteriological bombs. Briefed as 

"germ bombs," to be debriefed as "duds." 

Jan. 22nd O'Neal attends lecture by McLaughlin in Korea. Bacterio- 
logical warfare stated definitely to be in use. 

Feb. 15th O'Neal's first mission with bacteriological bombs. Briefed as 

"germ bombs," to be debriefed as "air-burst VT." 

Feb. 18th O'Neal sees evidence of the use of spraying technique, from 

specially adapted planes. 

Feb. 22nd Kniss attends lecture by Holleman in U. S. Use of bacterio- 
logical wai'fare definitely denied, but possession bf weapons 
by the U. S. admitted. 

Mar. 21st Kniss attends lecture by McLaughlin in Korea. Bacterio- 
logical warfare stated definitely to have been in operation 
since 1st Jan. Clear statement that the U. S. Government 
would continue to deny it as long as possible. 

Mar. 27th Kniss' first mission with bacteriological bombs. Briefed as 

"flacksuppressor," to be debriefed as "results of mission un- 

From the above facts the conclusion can hardly be avoided that the order to 
begin bacteriological warfare upon the people of North Korea and China must 
have been given late in 1951, air personnel having previously been prepared for 
the work by cautious informatory lectures, and not apprised of what they were 
expected to do, even after January 1952, until their actual arrival in Korea. 
At American and Japanese bases, bacterial warfare was said to be a theoretical 
and purely defensive matter ; but at Korean bases pilots were surprised to find 
that it had already been started weeks or months before their arrival. The fact 
that the general order must have iieen given during the period of the Kaesong 
peace talks was not overlooked by the pilots. 

For the rest, the independently heard testimonies of the airmen contained 
several points of interest. It was noteworthy that they did not remember ever 
having received any instruction on the recognized customs and usages of war, 
such as the prohibition of the shooting of prisoners nor of having seen any regula- 
tions relating thereto in American manuals of procedure; still less had they 
heard of the outlawing of certain forms of war, at least by certain nations. Then 

COMMinsriST activities in the LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 1647 

the testimony of the witnesses was unanimous as to the disastrous effects on the 
morale of their fellow service-men of the orders to carry out bacteriological 
bombing. It was the last straw for many of them already disgusted by the 
ferocity with which they were being hounded on to slaughter the civilian popu- 
lation of North Korea ( App.) . The revulsion of feeling which the witnesses then 
underwent, when after their capture they were treated in such a friendly way 
by the Koreans and Chinese, who evidently no longer regarded as enemies those 
who had laid down their arms, can well be imagined. 

The officers interviewed did not seem very well-informed on the variety of 
tyi>es of containers being used, but this was doubtless because as pilots and 
navigators they were not supplied with the information which armament officers 
would have had. They were also able only to speculate as to the place of origin 
of the biological material used, but significantly some of them thought that it 
might be in Japan. 

In sum, the Commission, as the result of exhaustive conversations and direct 
personal contact, saw every reason to accept the veracity and to uphold the 
integrity of the officers who gave evidence before it. They appeared fully normal 
and in perfect health, they .spoke in a natural way and seemed fully at their 
ease. The Commission once more affirms its belief that the airmen were not sub- 
jected to any physical or mental pressure, and that their treatment was worthy 
of the best traditions of Chinese humanism. The Commission therefore accepted 
as true and faithful the evidence of the airmen, which complemented indeed 
in many ways the strictly scientific and observational evidence already accumu- 
lated from the field. 


The Commission was deeply impressed by the present hygienic conditions of 
the Chinese people and by the measures which are being taken to raise the hygenic 
standards and to combat the spread of epidemic diseases. These measures are 
effective and thorough. The idea that the Chinese people live in very unsatis- 
factory hygienic conditions is widespread in the West, but even a superficial first- 
hand acquaintance with the conditions now prevailing, and with the enthusiasm 
shown by the Chinese population in carrying out the health directives of their 
government, is sufficient to dispel it. 

A few figures may be given to indicate the extraordinary progress which has 
been brought about in a few years. In Northeast China 35 million rats were 
killed in 1951, and 10 million in the spring of 1952 — a war against rodents un- 
paralleled in any other part of the world. The fight against files and other in- 
sects capable of acting as vectors of disease has assumed a universal character, 
and Peking has become a city almost devoid of flies and mosquitoes. Before the 
liberation, vaccination against smallpox was sparse and inefficient, the largest 
number of persons vaccinated in one year (194(5) being no more than 7.3 million. 
But in three years since the liberation .307 million people have been vaccinated, 
and the disease has been almost entirely eliminated. Re-education of midwives 
has lowered the infant mortality rate from Tetanus neonatorum, by one third 
between 1949 and 1951. Infantile mortality as a whole, and maternal mortality, 
were reduced by one half in the same period. The numerous practitioners who 
follow the system of traditional Chinese medicine have been mobilised as auxil- 
iaries in the great campaign for health, and have proved both able and willing 
to receive such instruction in modern medicine as equips them to play a useful 
part. In Peking and other great cities there has been a complete elimination of 
stray dogs, which were suspected of being reservoirs of encephalitis virus and 
vectors of many infections. 

Besides all this, there has been great progress in the organisation and produc- 
tive capacity of the laboratories producing vaccines and sera. The Commission 
visited the relevant Institute in Peking, and was impressed by its efficiency, high 
production, and excellent scientific research quality. 

The health movement is not confined only to Peking or a few other "model" 
cities. Reliable informants asserted that it reaches far into the remotest cor- 
ners of the sub-continent. The Commission as a body had the opportunity of 
seeing this for themselves during their travels in the Northeast, which included 
a visit to remote places in the north of Heilungchiang province, on the borders 
of Inner Mongolia. The members were much impressed by the cleanliness of 
the villages. 

Since the liberation, indeed, there has been a health education campaign in 
China of a breadth and scope probably hitherto imattained elsewhere. The 
whole-hearted cooperation of every member of the population, man, woman 


and child, has been necessary for the results which have been achieved. The 
clearing away of accumulated rubbish, the scrupulous cleaning of courtyards 
and waste-laud, the screening of windows, the fight against all kinds of noxious 
insects, the production and use of insecticides and vaccines — every possible 
aspect of a constantly and rapidly rising general level of public health has been 
thought of and executed with verve and thoroughness. The fundamental edu- 
cation has been carried out by every available means of instruction, by large 
meetings, by posters, picture-books and wall-newspapers, by the press, from the 
stage, and on the screen. 

When confronted with bacteriological warfare, or even the suspicion of it, the 
peasant masses of China knew exactly what to do, and did it without the least 
confusion or panic. The Commission was able to visualise, through personal 
contact with a large number of witnesses from many parts of the Chinese 
countryside, the disciplined action of hundreds, indeed thousands, of ordinary 
folk, guided by instructions from the central and regional Ministries of Health, 
combing their fields and streets to collect and destroy everything which issued 
from containers arriving from the air. 

The liygienic progress in China today constitutes the active execution of 
measures more or less vainly urged by successive international health organisa- 
tions. The achievement of so much progress in so short a time would not have 
been possible if the Chinese government had not been able to count upon the un- 
conditional support of all classes of the population. Peasants and factory work- 
ers, scholars and religious groups, have approved its aims and done their best to 
achieve them. 


It will now be useful to assemble certain facts in tabular form, not only those 
which were summarily set forth in the Prague documents, but also those which 
were brought before the Commission during June, July and August for exami- 
nation. A certain number of the clearer incidents will be found in the folding 
table (App.). For each case there is recorded the reference number, date, place 
and circumstances, whether the passage of a plane was noted, and whether 
any object was seen to fall, whether a container was found, and what areas un- 
usuUy congested with insects or other biological objects were observed, together 
with notes on the density of the animals, where possible. There follows the 
entomological or zoological identification, the results of bacteriological tests, 
and any epidemiological remarks. It must be understood that only a small num- 
ber of the known incidents is included in the Table. 

It will be clear from this summary tabulation that the appearance of biological 
material found to be infected with pathogenic micro-organisms was not always 
followed by human cases of disease. This must be in great part attributed to 
the speed with which the country and townspeople throughout the districts af- 
fected have searched for and destroyed any unusual animals and objects which 
there was reason to think might have been disseminated from the air. So 
effective have these operations been that in many cases no samples were saved 
for bacteriological analysis, as the Table shows. In other cases, bacteriological 
analysis gave negative results for those types of pathogenic organisms for which 
tests were made. 

Here it is worth noting tiiat the incursions of planes over Northeast China 
have been numerous during the year, and that for the most part they have not 
been accompanied by bombardment with explosives. Between the 29th Febru- 
ary and the 21st March, American planes made 955 sorties in 175 groups over 
NE China (Manchuria), covering 70 hsien districts in the provinces of Liaotung, 
Liaohsi, Chilin, Sungchiang and Heilungchiang (SIA/3). Other similar figures 
have also been given (NCNA/85: SIA/1.3), and the air intrusions over China 
have recently intensified rather than decreased. In the eight days ending 7th 
August, for instance, American planes* made 398 sorties in 79 gi'oups over 
Chinese territory. 

The geographical distribution of the incidents in NE China is also Interesting 
(see Map.) Down to the end of April, taking well-analysed incidents only, the 
greatest number (18) had occurred in Liaotung province, which borders most 
of the Korean frontier. Here the fact was striking that almost always the 
incidents were reported from the immediate neighbourhood of railways and 
main roads. The same peculiarity was noteworthy in the 8 incidents which 
occurred in the remotest province. Heilungchiang. Here one of the railway 
lines north of Chichihar and Harbin describes a vast S-shaped bend, with sides 
of a hundred miles or more — all along this line the incidents were dotted. 


Documents previously published gave on the one hand some of the bacterio- 
logical and epidemiological details relating the infected insects with cases of 
human disease ; and on the other hand evidence relating the insects to the 
passage of planes. Sometimes the data furnished in those documents were 
incomplete. This was one of the reasons for the exhaustive enquiries which 
the Commission made, in collaboration with the Chinese and Korean scientists, 
with regard to the incidents at Hoi-Yang, Kan-Nan, K'uan-Tieu, Liaotung and 
Liaohsi, Dai-Dong, etc., recounted in the preceding paragraphs. From all these 
investigations it will be seen that the connection between the planes, the vectors, 
and the cases of human disease, can no longer be contested. 

At an earlier point, the method of incident analysis was explained. The 
moment has now come to assemble the data from the most fully analysed cases 
in the form of a synoptic Table. From this confrontation of patterns, an organic 
plan clearly emerges. Planes were always seen or heard, and their course often 
plotted ; and the statement of captured pilots later added supplementary detail. 
There follow in the Table the necessary data on the fall of containers, the vectors 
employed and their anomalies, the bacteriological tests, and the clinical cases 

In connection with all these facts, the Commission heard and interrogated a 
large number of ordinary Chinese countiT-folk. Its members were convinced 
of the integrity and stolid honesty of these witnesses, whose depositions wei'e 
marl^ed by plainness and clarity. 

Turning to specific questions, the Commission considered the possibility that 
the plague in Korea might have been transported by incoming traffic from those 
areas in Northeast China (Manchuria) where it still remains endemic. There 
are several reasons why this possibility must be ruled out. First, no case of 
plague has at any time been reported from the regions which separate the new 
Korean foci from the above-mentioned endemic areas. Secondly, there were 
very serious seasonal anomalies in the occurrence of the plague (see App.) . Third, 
in the Korean foci the characteristic appearance of dead rodents, denoting an 
epizootic, before the human epidemic begins, was entirely absent. Fourthly, the 
clinical effects were often demonstrably connected with the previous passage 
of planes and the dissemination of suitable vectors. Finally, the most stringent 
sanitary precautions are, and were from the beginning, taken both by the Chinese 
and the North Koreans at the frontier between the countries. 


Seen or heard 

Course plotted 

Crsw Interrogated 

Delivery: Objects seen to fall 

Container: Found 

Spraying suspected 

Aiiimals or other Vectors: 

Anomaly of high concentration 

Anomaly of season 

Anomaly of locality 

Anomaly of species 

Animal or other Vectors: Bacteriological 


Disease, human, cases following 

Anomaly of season 

Anomaly of locality 

Anomaly of type of disease 

Disease, vectorial 

Anomaly of season 

Anomaly of locality 

Anomaly of type of disease 







+ i + 




Several of the diseases used are connected with domestic animals as well as 
man for example anthrax (NCNA/85; Ai)p.). When the discovery of Pastcurella 
multocida {aeptica) on certain disseminated vectors (App., Table) was con- 
firmed, it seemed at first to have little importance since it is so common an in- 
fection of laboratory animals. There are reasons, however, for supposing that 
it might be used as a weapon against domestic stocli (App.). 

As for the Viltrio cholerae, though in the detailed case studied above (Dai- 
Dong) it appeared in contaminated molluscs, there have also been not a few 
cases (App.) in which it has been found on insects, especially flies. The same 
has also been true for Salmonella typhosi and paratyphosi, and for Shif/cUa 
dysenteriae. These pathogens have been found on populations of flies appear- 
ing in areas where no cases of these diseases had been known. This raises the 
question of the possible existence of pathogenic micro-organisms in or upon 
normal flies collected at random. The Chinese medical literature contains 
studies (App.), publislied many years before the present hostilities, in which 
exactly these controls were made. They showed that in non-epidemic periods, 
normal flies did not carry the bacteria of typhoid or paratyphoid fever, or the 
cholera vibrio. The relevant appendix adds a further note on certain similar 
studies made this year in Slienyang (Mukden). 

A question related to this is the use of quantitative methods of investigation 
in the study of the carriage of bacteria by insects ; it is treated of in a special 

A few words should be added concerning the part played by insect vectors, 
to complete what has already been said in the Prague documentation and else- 
where. One Appendix is devoted to the zoological identification of the insects 
disseminated ; another will help the reader in the general study of problems of 
medical entomology relating to bacteriological warfare. 

In the earlier reports there were a certain number of questions, especially as 
regards events in Korea, which still remained open. During its stay in Pyong- 
yang, therefore, the Commission submitted to the Minister of Health, Dr. Ri, 
a series of questions (App.), to which answers were in due course received 
(App.). It thus appeared that some translations had been faulty. The word 
"tick" used in the first Korean report (SIA/1) had in fact been a reference to 
the red mite, Tromhicida akamvshi. As for the nycteribiid flies, parasitic on 
bats, also mentioned in the same document, the Commission was informed by 
the competent Korean authorities that it could not now be considered demon- 
strable that these insects had been connected with the bacteriological warfare- 
Confirmation, however, was obtained for the statement that dead fishes con- 
taminated with Sohnonelln and Shigella had on more than one occasion been 
found lying on hillsides. It was emphasized that these phenomena had always 
occurred in the neighbourhood of drinking-water sources. This recalls the Dai- 
Dong incident investigated in detail by the Commission (P. 37 and App.) where 
the purpose of .spreading cholera clearly appeared. 

A question which had particularly aroused the curiosity of western scientists, 
and about which the Commission was seriously concerned, was that of the 
"Ivophilised proteinaceous material" discovered after the passage of planes 
(NCNA/85). This substance, found in separate masses, was sticky and hygro- 
scopic, absorbing water as it lay on the surface of the snow. Chemical analysis 
showed that it was composed of protein breakdown products ; proteoses, peptones 
and polypeptides. The bacteriologists were able to isolate from it mannitol- 
fermenting dysentery bacilli. No incident of this kind took place during the 
period of the Commission's work in Korea, and it had therefore to rely upon the 
reports of the Korean services, but it foimd entirely probable the hypothesis 
accepted by the Minister himself, namely that the material represented the 
delivery of freeze-dried bacterial cultures as such. 

As for the question of the dissemination of insects under conditions of very 
low environmental temperatures, the Commission points out (though not itself 
prepared to subscribe necessarily to such affirmations) that in their evidence the 
captured airmen alluded to methods directed to the production of insect popula- 
tions specially endowed with cold-resistance (App.). 

In a preceding paragraph (p. 16), eighteen .species of insects and arachmids 
disseminated from airplanes were described. Of these, nine have been definitely 
incriminated by bacteriological tests as infected with pathogenic micro-organ- 
i.sms. What is to be said of the others? The Commission could not conclude that 
they were perfectly clear from infection. It is a difficult matter to isolate patho- 
genic micro-organisms from such material when no one knows exactly what 


should be looked for, all the more so when artificially selected bacteria and 
viruses are in question. The possibilities are far from having been exhausted. 

In the American literature on bacteriological warfare there are some contradic- 
tions with what has been seen in Korea. Certain judgments expressed in works 
not yet superseded are hardly in accordance with the observations of the Com- 
mission. It seems likely that in some important cases technical advances have 
rendered these opinions obsolete. The case of plague is typical. Ten years ago 
Kosebury cautiously expressed the view that it might be possible to spread this 
effectively for warlike purposes, bvit only in areas remote from the front lines 
owing to the great danger of the infection of friendly territory. In Korea the 
Oommission's work has revealed repeated attempts to diffuse plague at places not 
far removed from the front lines contrary to the opinion of so experienced a bac- 
teriologist as the former Director of Camp Detrick. But the conti'adiction is only 
-apparent. The last ten years have seen enormous progress in techniques of dis- 
infestation; on the one hand new and ever more potent insecticides, combined in 
various mixtures, and on the other hand machines of high efficiency for the dis- 
semination of clouds of these substances in large amounts and minimum time, suf- 
ficiently simple to be operated by any ordinary person. These machines derive 
from smoke-screen apparatus developed during the second world war. 

Practical experience has shown that such methods can be used for the eradica- 
tion of diseases caused by insect vectors from whole territories. Recent published 
information shows that the American forces in Korea are in possession of such 
machines, and emphasises their significance since "in any future hostilities ordi- 
nary measures and normal methods may well prove insufiicient to cope with the 
situation." (App.). 

These data are siiflScient to clear up the apparent contradiction between the 
literature and the facts found in the field. They apply, at any rate partly, to all 
other insect-carried diseases, and help to explain the general tendency seen in 
Koi'ea towards the use of insect vectors. The example taken is typical ; we cannot 
limit the possibilities of bacteriological warfare to what has classically been 
observed in natural conditions ; technical and scientific advances extend the range 
of what may be done, and throw light, as here, on apparent contradictions. An 
almost perfect control of insect vectors on the American side in Korea would 
invalidate the reservations found in the literature. For the same reasons the 
Commission cannot shai-e the opinion of those who would assume that the diffu- 
sion of bacteria, viruses and toxins, in aerosols is the only effective method of 
bacteriological warfare. Thus Japanese experience (cf. pp. 13/14 above) can 
now be utilised on a new level. 

However, one of the cases examined by the Commission, that of the epidemic 
of encephalitis (SIA/.3 :S :0f)010) occurring in the cities of Shenyang (Mukden) 
and Anshan in Liaotung province. Northeast China (Manchuria), raised the 
possibility that a virus had been disseminated directly by the aerosol method. 
The Conmiission was unalile to reach a firm conclusion on the matter, since it 
could not establish a definite relationship between the disease and the air 
incursions. Nevertheless the evidence is indeed disturbing and full documenta- 
tion concerning it is therefore placed amcmg the Appendices (ISCC/6). 

The Commission is not in a position to give to the world concrete figures 
concerning the total number of Korean and Chinese civilians killed, nor the total 
morbidity, nor the mortality rate. It is not desirable that this should be done, 
since it would provide the last essential data for those upon whom the responsi- 
bility lies. The information is not necessary for the proof of the case upon 
which the Commission was invited to express an expert opinion. All that is 
necessary is to know what the Commission confirmed, namely that many human 
fatalities have occurred in isolated foci and in epidemics, under highly abnormal 
circumstances in which the trail always leads back to American air activity. 
It is essential that the world should take warning froiu what has hapi)ened and 
is still happening. All people should be aware of the potentialities of this kind 
of warfare, with its Incalculable dangers. 


Since the beginning of 19.")2, phenomena of a very unusual character occurring 
in Korea and China, led to allegations by the peoples and governments of those 
countries that U. S. A. forces were waging bacteriological warfare. The Inter- 
national Scientific Commission which was formed to investigate the relevant facts 
has now brought its work to a conclusion after more than two months in the 


It found itself in tlie presence of a mass of facts, some of which formed 
coherent patterns which turned out to be highly demonstrative. It therefore 
concentrated its efforts especially upon these. 

The Commission has come to the following conclusions. The peoples of Korea 
and China have indeed been the objective of bacteriological weapons. These 
have been employed by units of the U. S. A. armed forces, using a great variety 
of different methods for the purpose, some of which seem to be developments 
of those applied by the Japanese army during the second world war. 

The Commission reached these conclusions, passing from one logical step to 
another. It did so reluctantly because its members had not been disposed ta 
believe that such an inhuman technique could have been put into execution in 
the face of its universal condemnation by the peoples of the nations. 

It is now for all peoples to redouble their efforts to preserve the world from 
war and prevent the discoveries of science being used for the destruction of 

The list of the 46 appendices is as follows : 

A. Chronological summary of the meetings of the commission. 

B. General survey of the principles of transmission of diseases by insect vectors, 


C. Memorandum on the quantitive investigation of bacteria carried by insects. 

D. Memorandum on the mechanical transmission of bacteria by normal flies in 

China ; analysis of studies on random samples. 

E. An investigation to determine whether the flies naturally occurring in the 

city of Shenyang (Mukden) carry intestinal pathogenic bacteria or Bacillus 
anthracis (ISCC8). 

F. An investigation on the bacteriology of local specimens of chicken feathers 

collected from the cities of Shenyang and Kuan-Tien to determine if they 
carry Bacillus anthracis (ISCC9). 

G. General table of incidents in North Korea and Northeast China (Manchuria) ; 

including some of the more important of those mentioned in the Prague 

H. Entomological data on the insects disseminated (ISCC 10) ; table of species 

identified ; graph showing the anomalies in the appearances of the unusual 

insect populations ; graph comparing the winter temperatures of 1951 to 

19'i2 with earlier figures. 
I. Questions addressed to the (North) Korean Minister of Health (Pyongyang, 

30 July, 1952), and replies received (Peking, 21 August). 
J. (a) Report on fungus-laden plant materials dispersed by U.S. planes in 

Northeast China and in North Korea (ISCC7). 
J. (b) Report on two kinds of leaves of South Korean plants disseminated by 

U.S. planes in North Korea and Northeast China. 
K. Report on plague in Changteh. Hunan (12 December 1941) (ISCK6). 
L. Memorandum on certain aspects of Japanese bacterial warfare (ISCK6). 
M. Renort on voles infected with Pasteurella pestis dropped by U.S. plane at 

Kan-Nan Hsien. Heilungchiang Province (ISCC2). 
N. Hearings on the Kan-Nan incident; depositions of eyewitnesses and others; 

oliservations of the commission made on the spot, etc. 
O. Memorandum on the comparison between the voles collected at Kan-Nan with 

Microtus gregalis Pallas (ISCC2a). 
P. Commentary on the comparison of the Kan-Nan voles with Microtus gregalis 

Q. Article : "Bacteriological Warfare", by Sakaki Ryohei, formerly major. Epi- 
demic Prevention Service, Japanese Kwantimg Army; translated from 

Sunday Mainichi (weekly). No. 1,682, 27 January, 1952. 
K. Report on a case of plague in Kang-Sou Goon Pyong-An Nam Do, caused by 

contact with fleas infected with plague, dropped by U.S. planes on March 25th, 

19.52 (ISCK2). 
S. Hearings on the Kang-Sou incident (plague) ; replies of eyewitnesses and 

statements of scientific experts. 
T. Report on the spreading of human fleas infected with plague bacteria, by 

U.S. planes (ISCK3). 
U. Hearings on the Hoi Yang incident — plague ; eyewitness statements, etc. 
V. Renort on the calcareous bacteriological bomb dropped by U.S. plane at 

Kuan-Tien district, Liaotung Province (ISCC3). 
W. Cmnmentnry on the case of "effgshell" container used at Kuan-Tien 
X. Notes on the incident of June 6th. 


Y. Report on four-compartment insect bombs dropped by U.S. planes at Chang- 

Pai Hsien, Liaotung Province (ISCC4). 
Z. Notes on exhibits of containers in the Central Laboratories of the Korean. 

Epidemic Prevention Service, Pyongyang (ISCK7). 


A. (a) Report on the occurrence of respiratory anthrax and haemorrhagic 

anthrax meningitis follovping the intrusion of U.S. planes over Northeast 
China (ISCC5). 

B. (b) Hearings on the incidents in Liaotung and Liaohsi Provinces connected 

with the dissemination of anthrax and fatalities arising therefrom. 

C. (c) Report on a case of cholera in Dai-Dong Goon caused by eating raw clams 

contaminated with Vibrio cholerae and dropped by U.S. planes during the 
night of May 16th, 1952 (ISCKl). 

D. (d) Hearing on the Dai-Dong incident (cholera) ; statements of scientific 

experts and depositions of eyewitnesses. 

E. (e) Memorandum on the mollusc Meretrix as an agent for carrying Vibria 

cholerae (ISCCll). 

F. (f ) Memorandum on acute encephalitis — a new disease in Shenyang (Mukden) 

and its neighbourhood produced by the intrusions of U. S. planes (ISCC6). 

G. (g) Hearings on the cases of a new form of encephalitis occurring at Shenyang 

(Mukden) after U. S. air intrusions. 

H. (h) Information on arthropod-borne diseases of the encephalitis type in man. 

I. (i) Commentary on the incidents at Shenyang (Mukden) (encephalitis). 

J. (j) Notes on the case of the South Korean agent sent to North Korea to collect 
and transmit to U. S. headquarters epidemiological intelligence. 

K. (k) Testimony of Lieutenant K. L. Enoch concerning his participation in bac- 
terial warfare waged by the U. S. forces in Korea (SIA14). 

L. (1) Testimony of Lieutenant J. Quinn concerning his participation in bacterial 
warfare waged by the U. S. forces in Korea ( SIA15) . 

M. (m) Testimony of Lieutenant F. B. O'Neal concerning his participation in 
bacterial warfare waged by the U. S. forces in Korea (ISCK4). 

N. (n) Testimony of Lieutenant P. R. Kniss concerning his participation in bac- 
terial warfare waged by the U. S. forces in Korea (ISCK5). 

O. (o) Notes on interviews with four captured U. S. airmen. 

P. (p) Memorandum on the public health and hygiene movement in New China. 

Q. (q) Report on the occurrence of epizootics of septicaemia among fowls follow- 
ing the dissemination of spiders carrying Pasteurella multocida by U. S. 
planes (ISCC12). 

R. (r) Declaration by Dr. Franco Gi'aziosi. 

S. (s) Excerpt from medical literature presented as a reference concerning the 
use of exploding projectiles for the dissemination of pathogenic organisms. 

T. (t) Biographical register of Chinese and Korean scientists and medical men. 

Mr. Doyle. We will have that report in context with your claim. 

The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

May I ask you to return for just a short time after the 5 minute 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will come to order and the guests in 
the courtroom will please be seated promptly. 

I want to say it was quite helpful for you folks in the room to be so 
quiet this morning. It is not easy to sit in a crowded room this way, 
not altogether air-cooled. We appreciate your cooperation. 

Let the record show that all the members of the subcommittee are 
present : Messrs. Scherer, Jackson, Moulder, and Doyle, the committee 
convening at 11 : 25 a. m. 

Mr. Hardyman, I only have one more question and I will tell you the 
basis of it for your guidance. Now that you have answered me and 
given me as I understand the substance and the basis of your charge 
at Peiping over the radio, whatever way you gave that speech to the 
Eastern European countries in which you said substantially, if this 


report is correct, that there was uncontradicted evidence of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States using germ warfare, and then when 
you spoke at Embassy Auditorium, if you did, as reported in these 
papers, and you said again that there was germ warfare, and I just 
assume that you have made some effort since you have come home 
now that you said you didn't bring any documents or any photostats 
or any copies with you of statements by fliers or by American fliers or 
by American military, I just assume that as long as you didn't bring 
any of those other things home with you to justify your attack on the 
American military and American Government, I assume you made 
effort to get additional proof or supplementary proof and evidence 
to j ustif y your attack. Have you ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Your assumption, sir, is correct. I have read the 
newspapers with great care, including the one which I believe is the 
most reliable newspaper, the Wall Street Journal. 

Mr. Doyle. Just a moment. I don't refer to newspapers and mag- 
azines, I am referring to your own individual effort to justify your 
claim that there was germ warfare used. 

Mr. Hardyman. My sources of information, Mr. Chairman, are 
quite limited. Not being a member of the Armed Services Committee, 
I do not have access to any private sources of information or classi- 
fied material or anything of that sort but as far as your statements in 
the press which confirm 

Mr. Doyle. Those are all public. 

Mr. Hardyman. That is all I have to go on, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. No, I would think 

Mr. Hardyman. I don't have a pipeline to any mysterious or secret 
or hidden information. 

Mr. Doyle. No, but I assume you did have a pipeline at least and 
I assume it continues because of your expressed interest in peace, I 
assume you still have a pipeline to certain sources in Europe, includ- 
ing China. 

Now I assume therefore that you have come home and you have 
kept the pipeline open in order to get further evidence, if you could, 
to justify your statements in my country that the military forces of 
my country that you adopted or adopted you, were using germ war- 
fare. Did you ? 

Mr. Hardyman. Mr. Doyle, I have not and have never had any 
actual secret or special sources of information. However, I have read 
with great interest the reports in the press many of which give con- 
siderable substance to this point of view. 

Moreover, you as a Member of the Congress would be in a better 
position than I to tell me and the American people why the United 
States refuses to sign the convention which has been signed by all other 
powers except Japan agreeing that it will not use biological bacterial 
gas and other new means of warfare. 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. 

Mr. Hardyman. The United States is sacrificing thereby 

Mr. Doyle. Please cooperate. 

Mr. Hardyman. I am trying to, sir, trying to explain. 

Mr. Doyle. I want you to answer my question and not take advan- 
tage of me to make a speech to express your philosophy. I am being 
frank with you. 


Mr. Hardyman. I am trying to explain to you on what my opin- 
ion is based. 

Mr. Doyle. I asked you a question and that isn t an opportunity to 
make a speech on some other subject. 

Mr. Hardyman. I am speaking to the subject as far as I can. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you yield, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Mr. Hardyman, I am disappomted that you 
as a responsible man of finance, at least evidently an outstanding 
success in the financial world in some way, haven't felt enough re- 
sponsibility toward the American people and the world to try to docu- 
ment in every way you could the charges you made against the Ameri- 
can military. . . i . i • i t 

Again I say I think I am in a position to say to you that which 1 
said yesterday, and that which I say today, whether you knew or not 
it was a lie, it was a dastardly lie that you told, unfounded m fact, 

and I repeat it. . ^ , , , ^ j 

Now, if you have anything to prove it, for heaven's sake get up and 
produce it. Otherwise keep your mouth shut in making charges of 
that kind against the xVmerican military. 

If it hadn't been for the American military the Chinese Communists 
would be in China today and would have been not only in South 
Korea, they would be in Japan today. 

Mr. Hardyman. Mr. Chairman, throughout the period under dis- 
cussion, the 1950-53 period, the gentleman who is now my admired 
President Eisenhower, was making a series of speeches on the subject 
of peace. In fact, he pledged during this very period under discus- 
sion to go to Korea in the hope of bringing to an end what he regarded 
as a lamentable war and he brought it to an end, thank heaven, and 
I believe he is continuing to preserve peace for the people m the best 
way he knows how, and I am for it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will the Chairman yield ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. We are missing the issue. It isn't a question today 
whether the United States engaged in germ warfare in Korea or not. 
Here we have a naturalized American citizen, at the time we are en- 
gaged in war, perpetrating' a fraud on the State Department m ob- 
hiining a passport, obviously perjuring himself, with that passport 
obtained by fraud, going into China at a time of war, and there mak- 
ing charges against the Government of the United States and giving 
aid and comfort to the enemy. That is the crux of this question. 
AVhether we engaged in germ warfare I don't think has anything to do 
with it. 

Mr. Hardyman. The Justice Department can decide about matters 
of perjury. It is not your role, sir, to make those decisions. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all, Mr. Hardyman, thank you, and Counsel. 

Mr. Hardyman. Thank you. And thank you for the courtesy to 
my counsel. 

(Whereupon the witness was ejtcused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Eaphael Konigsberg, will you come forward; 
please, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. I do. 



Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please, sir. 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. My name is Raphael Konigsberg. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Will counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Simmons. Herbert Simmons, of Los Angeles. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Mr. Konigsberg, will you spell both your first and 
last names, please? 

Mr. Konigsberg. R-a-p-h-a-e-1 K-o-n-i-g-s-b-e-r-g. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Konigsberg? 
_ Mr. Konigsberg. Mr. Counsel, and Mr. Chairman, if I may 1 would 
like to introduce my answer to the question with a very brief com- 
ment whicli I think may help us all and that is this : Tliat since I have 
very carefuiy read the law establishing tliis committee, particular 
reference being made to section (b), I have a copy in front of me 
which Mr. Wheeler so graciously sent me in the mail, which indicates 
the nature of your duties, the subject matter of your investigation 
has been announced in the press, and since I am certain that you are 
not men who have come here for any other purpose other than to 
investigate that subject, certainly not to get publicity to smear me 
or perhaps be in California at vacation time, I want to say I have no 
intention of giving you any information in the area in which you 
proclaim you are investigating, particularly since I believe that every 
citizen should act on the basis of the recent Supreme Court decision 
wiiich says a committee of Congress cannot investigate where Congress 
cannot legislate. 

Therefore, I would refuse to supply information in the area which 
the press and you have said you are investigating on the basis pri- 
marily of the privileges guaranteed to every citizen under the Con- 
stitution, under the first and fifth amendments particularly, as I do 
not intend to collaborate with those I think are undermining the Con- 
stitution and so since I don't intend to give you any information I 
want to ask whether you intend to persist in asking these questions. 

Mr. Doyle. We are going to persist, sir, in following our assigned 
duty under Public Law 601, which is on page 4 of the little blue cov- 
ered book that you have, and I assume you read it. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, you have made your preliminary explanation 
and let's proceed. We intend to follow the law and we intend to follow 
our bounden duty. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Fine. 

Mr. Doyle. You have been asked what question ? 

Mr. Ta\^nner. The question was : When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Mr. Chairman, I do not intend to answer that 
question. I wouldn't care to even answer 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer that question. The United 
States is entitled to know where its citizens were born and where they 
live and where they are and you know it, and don't be facetious in 
your answer. 

Mr. Konigsberg. I am not being facetious. It is irrelevant and 
what has that to do with the subject matter ? 


Mr. DoTLE. We are trying to find out the extent of your activitiy, if 
any, in the Communist Party, and we want to know who you are, 
where you were born, where you live. We are entitled to know. 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. Mr. Chairman, any question you ask is either 
relevant or irrelevant. If it is irrelevant, then under the Supreme 
Court decision a citizen is not required to answer and if it is relevant it 
would be incriminating. 

Mr. DoYEE. Congress can legislate. Congress has the authority, and 
you know it, to legislate on the conduct and the status of all American 
citizens, and I hope you are an American citizen. 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. I Certainly am. 

Mr. DoTLE. Then where were you born ? I direct you to answer- 
Mr. Moulder. Another question was asked. May I suggest that the 
question pending is : When and where was he born, propounded by 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Do you want me to tell you when and where I 
was born? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir ; the same question. 

Mr. KoxiGSBERG. Having stated my objection to this type of question 
being asked, I will nevertheless inform the committee I was born March 
25, 1911, in Austria. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\^nien did you come to this country, Mr. Konigs- 

Mr. Konigsberg. I was 9 months old, my mother tells me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Correct, Mr. Counsel. I did not come to the United 
States then. We first moved to Canada. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you come from Canada to the United 
States ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. I believe it was about 1918. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your age at that time ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Will you repeat the question, please ? 

Mr. Ta\tenner. What was your age then at the time you came to 
the United States ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. I intend to object to all such questions as being 
irrelevant and immaterial and to refuse to answer on the basis of the 
grounds cited before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course I can figure it out for myself, if I make 
the effort. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Yes; why do you ask questions that are so obvi- 
ously answered by yourself ? 

Mr. D0T1.E. Just a minute. Congress is entitled to know the answer 
to that question. 

]\Ir. Konigsberg. If it will help 

Mr. DoTLE. We don't accept your answer, and I direct you to 

ISIr. Konigsberg. If it will help Congress in its deliberations how 
old I was when I came to America ? 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Yes; what was your age when you came to the 
United States from Canada? 

65500— 55— pt. 2 5 


Mr. KoNiGSBERG. Since I came in 1918 and was born in 1911, if my 
mathematics is correct I was 7. 

Mr. Doyle. That is rapid calculation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen ? 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. Yes. 

( Representative Scherer left the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. "V\^en and where were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. I want to raise the objection that I raised before 
as to the relevancy of these questions as having no bearing on the 

Mr. DoTLE. I direct you to answer the question. The United States 
is certainly entitled to know where people claim they were naturalized. 
You know that. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Well, if you direct me to answer that question 

Mr. Doyle. I am going to direct you to answer every such question, 
so don't waste your time and ours and your counsel's by trying to avoid 

Mr. Konigsberg. Mr, Chairman, it is not a question of avoiding 
answering, I think there is basic principle involved, not simply being 
in opposition or obstreperous. 

Mr. Doyle. You know we are entitled to inquire where you were 

Mr. Konigsberg. I only know full well, not under the Supreme 
Court. You are directing me to answer ? 

Mr. Doyle. I do. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Konigsberg. It just occurs to me that since this committee, as 
evidenced in a recent decision of the Supreme Court, which I think 
proves that several years ago actions taken by this committee were 
wrong, they could be wrong again, but since you direct me to answer 
this question — when and where was I naturalized? Was that the 
question, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Read him the question. May I suggest that the 
witness confine his answers to the question instead of volunteering ir- 
relevant matter. 

Mr. Konigsberg. We will let that pass. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Konigsberg. I was naturalized according to my father's having 
taken out citizenship papers, I think I was about 15, 1 can't be certain 
of the exact date, but it was in Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Again objection on the same grounds stated. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer. 

Mr. Konigsberg. I live at 2446 Echo Park Avenue, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Konigsberg. I would appreciate and I think it would help if 
counsel would indicate to me the relevancy of these questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer, you know the relevancy of them. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Does the chairman feel that these questions are 

Mr. Doyle. Yes ; we do or we wouldn't take your time and ours ta 
ask them. 


Mr. KoNiGSBERG. Is the witness entitled to know on what basis these 
questions are relevant ? 

Mr. Doyle. You have distinguished legal counsel right at your side. 
Ask him what your constitutional rights are. I direct you to answer. 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. I f orgot the question now. 

Mr. Jackson. That is so extremely humorous, this outburst of the 
last few minutes, I request if there are additional ones that the hearing 
room be cleared. 

Mr. Doyle. That is what we will do. We expect the cooperation of 
everyone. Continue. 

Mr. Jackson. This is the business of the United States Government 
and this committee is going to have quiet, or I will request the chair- 
man, that this hearing room be cleared. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Truly, sir, I have forgotten the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Read him the question. 

Mr. Moulder. It takes so much time reading questions. The ques- 
tion was how long he lived in Los Angeles. 

Mr, Konigsberg. I came to Los Angeles in 1936. That makes it 19 
years, approximately. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived in Los Angeles continuously since 
1936 ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Yes, except for time I served in the United States 
Army overseas. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the period of your service overseas ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Well, I think the same objections I have made to 
every question asked apply here, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer. 

Mr. Konigsberg. I enlisted in the Army October 1942, was dis- 
charged April 1946. 

Incidentally, I was not overseas all that time, I was overseas 20 
months, I think, but I wasn't in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation, please, sir ? 

]Mr. Konigsberg. Again I object on the same grounds previously 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer. 

Mr, Konigsberg. By training I am a social worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been engaged in that business ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Again I object on the same grounds. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer. 

Mr, Konigsberg. Well, I have been a social worker since 1933. One 
moment, please. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Konigsberg, during the course of investigation 
the staff has procured a photostatic copy of a notice of intention to 
appeal or solicit for charitable, philanthropic, or patriotic purposes. 

(Representative Scherer returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine this, please, and state whether or 
not the signature appearing at item 22, which is the last item on the 
second page, is your signature ? 

(Document handed to witness; witness conferred with Iiis counsel.) 

Mr. Konigsberg. Mr. Counsel, with respect to this document the sub- 
ject matter which it relates I refuse too to answer on the basis of the 
first and tlie fifth amendments and I don't think it is clear since in the 


context of this hearing any reference to Ormsby Village would justify 
such a claim, I refuse therefore to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will the chairman direct that the question be an- 
swered ? 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. I Still refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to ask that tlie document be marked and 
received as "Konigsberg Exhibit 1" for identification only. 

Mr. Doyle. So received and so marked. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, this is an application which shows 
that Ormsby Village for Youth Foundation was organized Janu- 
ary 21, 1951. It is dated June, it was received by the proper Govern- 
ment department on June 28, 1954. It shows that the person in 
charge of the appeal that was desired to be made for funds for Ormsby 
Village for Youth Foundation was under the charge of Kaphael 

Mr. Konigsberg, were you employed in the capacity of raising 
funds for Ormsby Village for Youth Foundation on June 28, 1954, or 
any date subsequent thereto ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Mr. Counsel, I refuse to answer that question on 
the grounds stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a check and ask 
you to examine it, please, and also the endorsement appearing on the 
back of the check. This check, Mr. Chairman, was obtained by sub- 
pena duces tecum issued by the committee. 

Mr. Konigsberg. What do you want to know about this check? 

Mr. Tavenner. I want you to examine the endorsement appearing 
on the back. Is that your endorsement ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. On the grounds stated, I will refuse to answer 
and I want to emphasize — a number of questions may be directed to 
this area — that I will refuse to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments because I think it is the duty of a citizen to use 
these amendments to defend that Constitution and particularly since 
the Supreme Court in the recent decision ■ 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute, please. We understand and we know 
the decisions of the Supreme Court and you have referred to that 
decision, so let's confine your answers, please, to what is pertinent and 
germane in your answers, which is the plea of your constitutional 

Mr. Konigsberg. Yes. Don't you think 

Mr. Doyle. You have explained the basis before. 

Mr. Konigsberg. There is another point I want to make. 

Mr. Doyle. You have several books there in front of you and we 
will not have time to let you refer to long, printed documents and 

Mr. Konigsberg. Just a sentence or two from the Supreme Court 

Mr. Jackson. Regular order. Let's proceed with the question. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you stand on your constitutional privilege? 

Mr. Konigsberg. I refuse to answer any questions relating to this 
check for the grounds given. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer the check in evidence and ask that it be 
marked "Konigsberg Exhibit 2" for identification only. 


Mr. Doyle. It will be so received and so marked. 

Mr. Moulder. Are you going to pursue questioning this witness 
concerning Ormsby Village for Youth Foundation ? 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what I am attempting to do. 

Mr. Moulder. I have a question on that. Are you a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Konigsberg. I think the nature of my reply ought to be obvious, 
what the reply would be and particularly since we recognize, I know 
you do, wanting to uphold the constitutional law that the use of the 
fifth amendment is for the use of the innocent as well as the guilty 
that I think, as one witness previously cited, it is a proud claim to 
claim that you are a fifth amendment American, that you are a con- 
stitutional amendment American, and it is a citizen's duty to use 
these amendments, not hide behind them, and use them to defend that 
Constitution. I will use these amendments now and in every other 
question, because I do not admit and the Supreme Court does not 
admit you have a right to question what my views or party member- 
ship may be and I do refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. I do want to explain my question. 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. You asked me a question and I am answering it. 

Mr. Moulder. Very good, I understand, of course, that a founda- 
tion for Youtli organization in itself is certainly not illegal or sub- 
versive, or un-American. In other words, you have refused. 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. Why do you ask me about political membership 
in connection with youth work ? 

Mr. Moulder. That is the reason I asked you whether or not you were 
a Communist. Do you give the same answer to that question as you 
give to questions concerning the Youth Foundation? I assume there 
must be some relation. Wliat sort of logic do you use to arrive at 
that deduction ? 

Mr. Doyle. This is the logic, and you know it. We are here under 
Public 601 which tells us that we are directed to investigate the extent 
and nature and character of subversive and Communist activities. 
Now, if you or any other one in control of Ormsby Village is a Com- 
munist, that is what we are after and you know it. We are trying 
to find the extent to which Ormsby Village, if at all, is now or was 
ever, under your direction or any one else's, controlled in whole or in 
part by a Communist faculty of instructors. 

We have certain evidence that we are in possession of, otherwise 
we wouldn't take your time to call you here. But you have not an- 
swered our questions and have stood upon your constitutional rights. 
That is the background of our questioning you, as you well know. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Mr. Chairman, this check bears date July 15, 1954, 
and appears from its face that it is payable to Raphael Konigsberg 
in the amount of $214, signed Ormsby Village for Youth Foundation. 
One of those signing the check is Susan Hardyman. In the left-hand 
corner of the check appears a description of the purpose for which 
it was used. It states there : 

Salary, July 1 to July 15t $250, tax withheld, $35.90. 

Were you employed and receiving a salary based on $250 for a half 
a month period in July 1954 — that is, employed by Ormsby Village ? 


Mr. KoNiGSBERG. Mr. Tavenner, I thought I answered you. Didn't 
you ask me before if I was employed ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Answer the question, please. 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. I refuse to answer on the grounds stated, com- 
pletely irrelevant to the subject matter of this investigation and vio- 
lates my rights. 

Mr. Jackson. That would appear to be entirely in line with item 15 
of this notice of intention to appeal or solicit for the charitable pur- 
pose. Item 15 covers salaries, allowances, or other remuneration pay- 
able out of the contributions accepted and there is a note of "$500 per 
month salary to executive director," which would appear to bear out 
the $250 figure. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you the executive director of this camp on 
July 15, 1954? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. I refuse to answer that question, too, not only on 
the basis of the first, because you have no right to inquire into this, 
but on the basis of the fifth being a shield for the innocent as well as 
the guilty, and the obligations of ever}^ citizen to invoke them at every 
opportunity, I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
July 15, 1954 ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Why do you think I would answer that any more 
than the question Mr. Moulder asked me? 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask that the winess be directed to answer the 
question, the statement is not responsive. 

Mr. Doyle. We don't accept that statement as an answer and I direct 
you to answer. 

Mr. Konigsberg. I was just concerned about the woeful waste of 
time and taxpayers' funds repeating these questions. 

Mr. Doyxe. You are sure wasting it. 

Mr, Konigsberg. I didn't initiate the inquiry. 

Mr. Jackson. You could expedite it considerably. 

Mr. Konigsberg. I am attempting to do that. I said at the start 
I was going to refuse to answer. You could have got me off the stand 
in 1 minute. 

Mr. DoYLE. Do you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously given. 

Mr. Moulder. AVliat was that? 

Mr. Tavenner. It is the date of this check payable to him in the 
amount of $214.10. 

Will you tell the committee, please, the circumstances under which 
you were employed by Ormsby Village? 

Mr. Konigsberg. No, I won't tell the committee for the reasons 

Mr. Tavenner. I ask that the witness be directed to answer. 

Mr, Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. Witness. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Mr. Chairman, I think I am making it clear that a 
citizen not only has certain rights and privileges in America, he has 
duties to perform, and one duty is to refuse to collaborate with any 
action that will undermine that Constitution which I think the actions 
of this committee are doing and I will not be a party to it. 

Mr, Doyle, Do you refuse to answer and if so, state your grounds. 

Mr. Konigsberg. I refuse to answer. 


Mr. Doyle. On what grounds? 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. On the first and fifth amendments, which must 
be used in these circumstances. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. I move that all extraneous matter from this point on 
which is not in direct answer to the inquiry be stricken from the record. 
The points have been made time and time again, he has referred to 
Supreme Court decisions, there is nothing that can be said from this 
time on that would not be entirely repetitious and I ask that any ex- 
traneous matter that is not in direct response be stricken. 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. Would the Congressman tell me what is extrane- 

Mr. Jackson. Everything beyond the statement of your constitu- 
tional grounds for refusal to answer is entirely extraneous. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Specifically? 

Mr. Jackson. Specifically everything. 

Mr. Konigsberg. You mean reference to the Supreme Court and 
Constitution are irrelevant ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes ; in answer to a direct question answerable yes or 
no, or which you can decline to answer on constitutional grounds, I 
believe is extraneous. We have heard practically everything that you 
have to say, could conceivably say many, many thousands of times. 

Mr. Konigsberg. And hasn't it made an impression. Congressman? 

Mr. Jackson. It has made an impression but not the one you de- 
sire, either with the committee or with the American people. 

Mr. Doyle. At least, Witness, you have stated these other grounds 
in addition to the constitutional amendments. We understand them. 
They are in the record. So let's just confine your answers. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Mr. Doyle, I simply said an additional word or two 
in each instance. 

Mr. Jackson. Eegular order, and my motion still stands. I made 
that in the form of a motion. 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed. 

Mr. Jackson. That is without objection ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Konigsberg. I shall endeavor to do so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not 
in 1952 you were a member of the Central Committee of the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party in California ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. For the grounds previously given in deference to 
Congressman Jackson, I will simply say I refuse to answer on the 
grounds given. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were asked a question, if I recall, correctly, as 
to whether you are now a member of the Communist Party and 
whether you were a member of the Communist Party on July 15, 1954. 
My question now is : Have you ever been a member of the Communist 

Mr. Konigsberg. For the reasons already given several times, which 
are only repetitious, I decline to answer that question and I just want 
to add this point which I don't think is outside the matter Congress- 
man Jackson is saying, that the fifth amendment must be used not only 
as a shield but also as a sword in defense of the Constitution. 


Mr. Tavejstner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Moulder? 

Mr. Moulder. Since you have been subpenaed before the commit- 
tee and the answers which you have given you claim the privilege and 
protection of the Constitution might give some considerable unfavor- 
able reflection upon you 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. I am sorry, I didn't hear that. 

Mr. Moulder. I said it gives an unfavorable reflection upon you 
even though you maintain that the Constitution is for the protection 
of the innocent as well as the guilty and of course that is the law. Do 
you wish to give more detailed information about your services in the 
Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Congressman Moulder and Mr. Chairman, I think 
it is, I would like to do it, yes, and I will explain why I won't do it, 
though I would like to do it, and that is simply that I think it is a 
rather tragic state of affairs in this Nation that the public morality has 
so been permeated by actions such as this committee is guilty of that a 
man can't stand up and proudly say what he has done, whether for the 
Army, children's good, education, integration of all Americans, what- 
ever it may be, but you have so corrupted the public thinking we can- 
not proudly admit what we have done and though I have a proud rec- 
ord in the military service, I refuse to answer in that area of discussion. 

Mr. jACKSOisr. I resent the suggestion this committee has corrupted 
any of the public. This committee is acting in accordance with the 
directions of the Congress of the United States. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Not when it violates the Constitution. 

Mr. Jackson. To the extent that your remarks are directed at this 
committee and at the Congress under the authority of which this com- 
mittee operates, I want it very definitely noted I take exception to it, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. So do I. I hope the gentleman as executive director 
and social worker of children is not teaching or allowing to be 

Mr. Konigsberg. I was a teacher. 

Mr. Doyle. Teaching the American children, all races, creeds and 
colors, that the United States Congress is allowing a committee to go 
about corrupting the country. If you are teaching the American chil- 
dren that, of course, that is a line of the Communist Party, just right 
down your alley, just the statement you made is the line of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Konigsberg. This is the line of eminent Americans from Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to Dr. Hutchins of the 

Mr. Jackson. Regular order. 

Mr. Konigsberg. I have answered Congressman Moulder's question. 
I do not wish to enter into the area of my military service. 

Mr. Moulder. I don't care to argue about it, either, but regardless 
of your opinion of me as a member of the committee I wanted to give 
you an opportunity to explain anything in your life which would be 
favorable to you such as service in the armed services. I think it was 
being very fair. 

Mr. Konigsberg. I appreciate it and I think I have said it not per- 
sonally directed against you. I feel strongly about the role of this 
committee in American affairs comparable to the similar situations in 
other periods in our history. This period is going to pass. I think 


frankly these are the last days of this committee and I feel that the 
committee has done a great disservice to civil liberties and democracy 
in this country. That is my opinion. 

Mr. Doyle. The Communist Party says that, too, 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. If the Communists would like fresh air and I 
like fresh air, that proves nothing. 

Mr. Jackson. It proves a great deal to me if the air is in a closed 
meeting of Communists ? 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. May I make a comment ? 

jVIr. Jackson. May we have the regular order of business so we can 
complete with this witness who is obviously going to say nothing with 
respect to his work in the camp or respect to his participation in the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. I Said that at the start. 

Mr. Jackson. This is a total waste of the time of the committee. It 
has been demonstrated clearly and beyond any peradventure of doubt 
that he was employed by the Ormsby Village Youth Foundation, he 
was brought into constant day-to-day touch with children of all races, 
creeds, and colors. I think his philosophy is well enough demonstrated 
so I wouldn't trust him within 50 feet of a child's mind. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you have any questions ? 

Mr. Jackson. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr, Scherer. What branch of the service did you serve in ? 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG, I dou't care to answer that, 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct him to answer, 

Mr. Doyle. I direct that you answer that question. It is certainly 

Mr. Scherer. How can a man claim the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment in refusing to answer as to the branch of service to which he was 
assigned ? 

Mr. Doyle. I have heard some men who have been ashamed of the 
fact they served in the militaiy of the United States, ashamed of wear- 
ing the United States uniform. I have heard a few fellows like that, 

Mr. KoNiGSBERG. I havc met them in the Army. They turned out 
to be Fascist -minded Americans, but I was proud to wear the uniform. 
I did not claim the fifth in answering Congressman Moulder's ques- 
tions. I said I don't care to enter that area of discussion, as the notes 
will show. 

Mr. Scherer. To get the record straight, did you serve in the Armed 
Forces of the United States ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. I made it clear when I answered Mr. Tavenner's 
question I enlisted October 1942 and was discharged honorably in 
April 194G. 

Mr. Scherer. What branch 

Mr. Konigsberg. Pardon me a moment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Konigsberg. What area, did you say? I was an officer in the 
Medical Administrative Corps, 

Mr, Scherer. What rank did you have ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Captain, 

Mr. Scherer. Just one question : While so serving in the Armed 
Forces of the United States, were you a member of the Communist 


Mr, KoNiGSBERG, Here we go on the old merry-go-round. The 
answer is that I refuse to answer such questions for the reasons already 

Mr. ScHERER. That is all. 

Mr. Doyle. Any other questions, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Ta\^nner. No, sir. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. Moulder? 

Mr. Moulder. No questions. 

Mr. Ta%t:nner. I have one other question : Do you still have a 
commission in the Army ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Not to my knowledge. I didn't enter the Reserve, 
if that is what you are asking. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have any type of commission ? 

Mr. Konigsberg. Not to my knowledge. I say not to my knowledge 
because I remember hearing once that once an active officer you are 
really on duty I think, but I did not join the Reserves and was never 
asked to, as I recall, but I was an officer the entire time I was in the 
Army, having received a direct commission. 

Mr. Doyle. Any other questions ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. You 
are excused. 

Mr. Konigsberg. Thank you. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 10 p. m. the committee was recessed, to reconvene 
at 2 p. m. the same day. ) 


Mr. Doyle. The committee will please come to order. 

Again the courtroom is filled with citizens, and we are glad to have 
you. I know you will continue to give us your utmost cooperation 
and be as quiet as you can, and we know you will make no demonstra- 
tions in terms of laughter, applause, or anything else, either of appro- 
bation or disapproval. Please do that, be as quiet as you can and don't 
show any approbation or disapproval as to what goes on, what is said. 

Mr. Tavenner, are you ready ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Let the record show, please, that the full personnel of 
the committee is here: Congressman Scherer, of Ohio, Congressman 
Jackson, of California, Congressman Moulder, of Missouri, and Con- 
gressman Doyle, of California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the committee issued a subpena for 
the appearance here during the course of these hearings of a witness 
by tlie name of Lew Harris. Before we left Washington there was 
received a doctor's certificate which went quite a bit into detail regard- 
ing the witness' state of health, in which the doctor concluded that Mr. 
Harris was not able to appear in a public session for testimony or to ap- 
pear for testimony. 

As it is the practice of the committee, an investigation of our own 
was undertaken immediately and the witness has been examined by 
a physician chosen by the committee and the result of that investiga- 
tion is that the Government's doctor is of the opinion that the witness 
is not well enough to undergo a public hearing, but concludes that 


under the proper conditions he could have a closed session hearing 
without injury to his health. 

Mr. Charles J. Katz, counsel for this witness, is present. He has 
asked for a continuance. I have informed you of all the facts within 
the possession of the staff, and I know that the committee has been 
considering this matter as to what action it should take. I suggest 
now that if you are not ready for a decision that you give Mr. Katz 
an opportunity to be heard or that you announce your decision if you 
have reached one. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you any statement you wish to make, Mr. Katz, in 
behalf of your client ? 

Mr. Charles J. Ivatz. Yes, sir; the nature of the four operations 
to which my client has recently been subjected is such that there has 
been removed completely his gallbladder and also there has been re- 
moved his common bile duct so that he lives virtually on borrowed 
time and has required in order to continue to function to ingest his 
own bile. In talking with his physician, any kind of tension or strain 
at this time may render this man a total invalid for life. It is a 
miracle he has survived these four major operations. He has been a 
resident of this community and a property owner all of his adult life. 
It is my recommendation and plea to the committee that the matter 
of his examination either in executive or public session be deferred 
for, say, a period of 2 or 3 months. He is under the care of expert 
physicians who are creating artificial bile ducts which he can use for 
a short period of time and then they take them out as they decay or 

I know the committee would not want, and I don't want to have the 
responsibility for the possible total invalidism of this man, and he 
is making slow recovery and will be here whenever you suggest ■ 

Mr, Doyle. If you can assure us he will be here whenever we 
direct • 

Mr. Katz. Yes ; no question about it. 

Mr. Doyle, Have you any objection to a continuance, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. As I suggested earlier, I recommend a 
continuance to a specific date. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer, do you have any objection ? 

Mr. Scherer. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Jackson? 

Mr. Jackson. No objection. 

Mr. Moulder, No objection. 

Mr. Doyle. This committee is certainly not going to be a party to 
the health status of any American citizen being permanently injured 
where it is possible to avoid it. May we continue the hearing until 
Monday, November 14, at 10 o'clock here ? 

Mr. I^TZ. That is agreeable. 

Mr. Doyle. This same year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Announcement by the chairman, I assume, is the 
equivalent of a direction to the witness to appear. 

Mr. Doyle. I am sure Mr. Katz will follow through and have his 
client here, 

Mr. Katz. No question about it. Thank you very much, 

Mr, Ta\t:nner, Mrs. Sylvia Schonfield, will you come forward, 
please ? 


Mr. Doyle. Mrs. Sclionfield, will you raise your rioht hand and be 
sworn? Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 


Mr. DoTLE. Please be seated. 


Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. Sylvia Schonfield. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mrs. Schonfield. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel ]3lease identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Marshall. Daniel G. Marshall, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your name, please ? 

Mrs. Schonfield. S-y-1-v-i-a S-c-h-o-n-f-i-e-l-d. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of California ? 

Mrs. Schonfield. May I, before any questions are asked, I want 
this committee to know that I intend to be a first and fifth amendment 
American. I intend to defend the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the witness has not been asked a 
question yet. 

Mrs. Schonfield. I said before any questions are asked me I would 
give the statement. 

Mr. Marshall. I thought counsel asked the witness if she was a 
native of California and the witness wanted to make the statement. 

Mr. TA^^5NNER. I did ask the question. 

Mr. Marshall. Counsel did, so you proceed. 

Mrs. Schonfield. I intend to defend the Constitution by refus- 

Mr. Doyle. Just a moment. 

Mr. Jackson. The rules of the committee state that if a witness has 
a prepared statement to make it may be presented to the committee 
and if in the determination of the committee the statement is con- 
sidered a suitable one it may be accepted. This is a statement of that 

Mrs. Schonfield, This is a note I have made, not a statement. 

Mr. ScHERER. Regular order. Let's proceed with the questioning. 

Mr. Jackson. I oppose the admission of any statement. 

Mrs. Schonfield. As you said before • 

Mr. Doyle. If you have a statement which you are reading 

Mrs. Schonfield. I have never been very good at public speaking 
and I don't remember everything that I intend to say. 

Mr. Doyle. You are pretty good, apparently. 

Mr. Marshall. The witness wants to finish her answer, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. You know the rules, Counsel. 

Mr. Marshall. I know the rules and we have no typed statement. 
The witness wants to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. The rule, as you know it, the counsel cannot speak to 
the committee except through the witness. Please observe that and 
cooperate with us. 

Mr. Jackson. May I suggest, Mr. Chairman, if the witness desires 
to make a statement of this sort that she have it prepared, submit it 


to the committee, the committee will midertake study of it and enter 
it or not enter it, but certainly this is not responsive to the question 
pending and I ask that the witness be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. DoTLE. You are directed to answer the question of whether 
or not 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I Wanted to make my statement publicly in answer 
to this question. 

Mr. Jackson. I still insist on direction to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. If you feel you 
have a constitutional privilege to claim for refusing to answer, then 
exercise whatever privilege you feel is yours. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. No, I am not a native of California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Schonfield. Well, I am trying to save the committee's time 
and money. As you said before, too much time has been take^i up, 
so may I state now that I am going to refuse to answer all questions 
basing it on the first and fifth amendments and it will save us all time. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you decline to answer this question ? 

Mr. ScHERER. How can the witness then properly invoke the first 
and fifth amendments if she says she is going to refuse to answer all 
questions on the basis of the first and fifth amendments ? 

Mr. Marshall. You didn't give the witness a chance to answer, to 
finish her answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Marshal, please, you are a member of the bar and 
I am going to enforce the rule of the committee and I am not going 
to permit you to address the committee. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. Mr. Scherer, may I finish my answer ? 

Mr. Doyle. Proceed with whatever answer you have but do not read 
your statement. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I waut to answer the question and these are my 
notes, they are not a prepared, long statement. I don't make, 1 don't 
write long things, but I just want to finish my answer. 

]VIr. Doyle. Read the witness' answer as far as she has gone. 
What is the question? Where were you born? You don't have to 
read any dissertation on where you were born, do you? 

Mr. Marshall. Is that the pending question? 

Mr. Doyle. I think that is the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is not precisely the pending question. I suggest 
that the reporter read it. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

Mr. Doyle. The question the reporter read is: Where were you 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. Before I answer any questions I want you to 
know again that I intend to be a first and fifth amendment Ameri- 
can, and I will defend the Constitution by refusing to give this 
committee any information whatsoever. 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute, please. I am not going to permit you 
to violate the rules of this committee. Neither you nor counsel. 


You might as well understand it. If you want to plead the first and 
fifth amendments in replying to a question of where you were born, 
that is your privilege. How in the world could saying where you were 
born incriminate you ? Let's have a common understanding. There 
is not going to be, directly or indirectly, any violation of the congres- 
sional rules in this hearing. 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mr. Jackson. I ask that the witness be directed again to answer 
the question. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. If you will allow me to fuiish my answer, then 
I can go on. 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. I have directed that you answer the 
question. I am not going to permit you to read a document because 
that is a violation of the committee rules. You have several sheets of 
paper there, several sheets very visibly written out, to which you are 
referring, and I am not going to permit the violations. Please proceed 
to obey the rules of the committee. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. It is forbidden for me to look at my notes? 

Mr. Doyle. No, it isn't forbidden. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. That is what I looked at. 

Mr. Jackson. It is against the comittee rules for the witness to make 
a statement. I don't care whether she has notes or a written statement. 
The rules of the committee say that any statement which is to be made 
by a witness shall be prepared in writing and submitted to the commit- 
tee before the hearing. This statement has not been and it is in direct 
violation of the rules and I shall protest any further statement until the 
witness has answered the question. If it is then necessary to elaborate 
on her answer as to why she answered it that way, that is a matter for 
further consideration. But it is obviously outside the purview of the 
rules for her to make a statement at this time. I shall continue to 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I do want to answer if you will allow me 

Mr. Jackson. Please do. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. To look at my notes. 

Mr. Jackson. You have to refer to a note to determine your an- 
swer as to where you were born ? 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. It is a strange situation and I can't remember 
everything I intended to 

Mr. Doyle. You don't have to look at your notes to answer the ques- 
tion of where you were born. Let's have a common understanding. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. My counsel tells me that I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Your counsel is not going to tell you to violate the rules 
of the committee. If he does, he is violating the rules of the committee 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Jackson. There is a pending question. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct the witness to answer. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. Your view is different because Mr. Jackson just 
said I could look at my notes. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Jackson said just the reverse. 

Mr. Jackson. I said irrespective of whether you have notes, what 
you are saying is in the nature of a prepared statement, a statement 
which you have prepared in advance whether it be written out in 


detail or in the form of notes. Such a statement made before the com- 
mittee without having been submitted to the committee previously 
is a violation of the rules of procedure of the committee and for that 
reason I shall object to any statement from the witness. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. What rule is that, may I ask, please ? 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Marshall knows what rule it is. 

Mr. Jackson. The rule on page 5 of the committee : 

Any witness desiring to make a prepared or written statement for the record 
of the proceedings in executive or public sessions shall file a copy of such state- 
ment with counsel of the committee within a reasonable period of time in advance 
of the hearing at which the statement is to be presented. 

All such statements so received which are relevant and germane to the sub- 
ject of the investigation may upon approval at the conclusion of the testimony 
of the witness by majority vote of the committee or subcommittee members 
present be inserted in the official transcript of the proceedings. 

The statement upon which you embarked is a statement of that na- 
ture as I interpret the rules. Therefore, I make the point of order that 
the statement is in violation of the committee rules, and is not respon- 
sive to the question which has been asked, and to which the Chair has 
directed an answer. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. Of course I will sustain the point of order. Go ahead 
and cooperate a little bit if you can. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. Again I will try. I was born in Russia. 

Mr. Jackson. Where ? 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I was born in, from what my mother told me, I 
was born in Poskura, Padulska Poskura. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell it for the reporter. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I didn't know hoAV to spell when I left there and 
still don't know how to spell that. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think it is sufficient that she was born in Russia. 

Mr. Jackson. The record should reflect every word of the tran- 
script, but if she can't spell it, she can't. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I Can't. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I was 1 year old. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. When did you take up your residence for the first 
time in the State of California i 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. Before I can go on with an adequate answer 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. You are referring again to a prepared 
typewritten statement. 

Mrs. Schonfield. It is not a statement. 

]\Ir. Marshall. How can you see from there, Mr. Doyle? If you 
can, you shouldn't. 

Mr. Doyle. Why not ? I have a right to look at you and at what 
the witness is using. 

Mr. Jackson. What is the pending question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. The question is: When did she first take up her 
residence in the State of California. 

Mrs. Schonfield. Before I can go on with an adequate answer I 
would like to have the facts and the circumstances on wliich this com- 
mittee relies to establish the pertinency of this information. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you reading that directly from the paper? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 


Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I decline to answer that on the advice of my 
counsel. *^ 

Mr. Jackson. I insist upon an answer, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr Doyle. Manifestly she was. We could all see her doing it 
1 could see her plainly reading it. 

Mr. Jackson. I request the witness be directed to answer the ques- 
tion as to whether she was reading a statement in violation of the 
rules of the committee. 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, maybe I can simplify the matter. 
I will withdraw the question. Where do you now reside ? 

(The witness conferred witli her counsel.) 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. Los Angeles. • 

Mr. Tavenner. What address ? 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. Siucc there are so many cranks in this city, would 
it be all right if I wrote it down and handed it to counsel for the com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Tavenner. We want the record to show what your address is. 

Mrs. Schonfield. Don't you have that so that tlie record could 
show it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, I do not. It may be on your subpena, I am not 

Mrs. Schonfield. I was served there with a subpena. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. That satisfies me. 

Mr. Scherer. Wait a minute. I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question as to where she lives. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct that you answer the question. 

Mrs. Schonfield. Can I hand it to you, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. No, I want it for the record, 

Mrs. Schonfield. Mr. Tavenner thought that would do for the 
record, if I handed it to you. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. We don't accept your answer. 

Mrs. Schonfield. I was trying to cooperate, but as you aren't 12401 
Sunset Boulevard. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Plow long have you lived in Los Angeles « 

Miss Schonfield. Since 1924. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your profession or business ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Schonfield. A housewife. 

Mr. Ta%t:nner. Have you engaged in any occupation in the period 
01 the last 5 years ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Schonfield. Is that information pertinent to any information 
which you may have ? 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question, please. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I make a statement. The witness has made that 
reply several times and apparently proposes to continue it. I think it 
IS well recognized that on the question of materiality the witness must 
bear whatever risk it is, if she decides not to answer the question that 
the committee is not bound to explain the reasons for asking the 
question. ^ 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 


Mr. Tavenner. If the committee considers it is a material question, 
that is as far as we need go. So I ask again that the witness be directed 
to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with her counseL) 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. Will jou repeat the qucstiou ? 

Mr. Jackson. It was whether you have engaged in any occupation in 
the last 5 years. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first amendment to the Constitution, supplemented by the fifth 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I still decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Doyle. Very well. Next question. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a card and I will 
ask you to examine both front and back of it, where you will see the 
name Sylvia Schonfield, and I will ask you whether or not those signa- 
tures were made by you. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Schonfield. I would also 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you look at the back also ? 

Mrs. Schonfield. No, I didn't. 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Schonfield. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first amendment to the Constitution supplemented by the fifth 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I offer the document in evidence and 
ask that it be marked "Schonfield Exhibit No. 1" for identification 

Mr. Doyle. It will be so received and so marked. 

Mr. Tavenner. The document, Mr. Chairman, was procured through 
a subpena duces tecum by this committee. It is a photostatic copy of 
a depositor's signature card with the Bank of America for a commer- 
cial account in that bank in the names of Friends of Ormsby Village. 
I will read the pertinent parts. After naming of the lodge, association, . 
or society as Friends of Ormsby Village, it is stated that it is signed 
by and the name in handwriting, "Sylvia Schonfield," under wh'ch 
appears the word, opposite the word "title" the word "president." 

There also appears on the first page or the front side of the card 
authorized signature Sylvia Schonfield, president. 

On the reverse side is a sworn statement which is not fully com- 
pleted, but on which there appears the name in handwriting of Sylvia 
Schonfield, president. 

Mrs. Schonfield, will you tell the committee, please 

Mr. Marshall. Could I see that exhibit again, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Yes, sir. 

Counsel has called my attention to the fact that it is not a sworn 
statement and he is correct in that. It is "witness our hands and seals ; 
this blank day of blank." That is the part not completed and it is 
signed in handwritino; Sylvia Schonfield, title, president. 

Mrs. Schonfield, will you tell me whether or not on the date of this ; 
card, which is — the card shows the date when the account was opened, 
but it is so blurred I can't read it. I would like to withdraw the ques- 

65500 — 55— pt. 2 6 


tion, please, and will you state whether or not you opened an account 
under the name of Friends of Ormsby Village at Bank of America by 
deposit of $271.55? 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. As I have stated before, I decline to answer on 
the grounds of the first amendment to the Constitution supplemented 
by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. The date apparently is July 5, 1954, with the aid 
of my associate. I think the committee can look at it and can probably 
see the date. Now that he has told me I have no trouble seeing it. 

On that date, July 5, 1954, were you the president of the Friends of 
Ormsby Village? 

Mrs. SciiONFiELD. I still decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the first amendment to the Constitution, supplemented by 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the organization, Friends of Ormsby Village, 
established for the purpose of raising funds to promote the Ormsby 
Village for Youth organization ? 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. Bcf orc I can go on with an adequate and lawful 
answer to this question may I have, I would like to have from the com- 
mittee the following information. The fact and the circumstances 

(Representative Jackson left the hearing room.) 

Mr. DoTLE. Just a minute. You are reading from a prepared state- 
ment, manifestly, and I am not going to permit you to do that. So 
please cooperate on that point, Counsel and Witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, may I call your attention to the 
fact that that is the same question that she has asked 2 or 3 times 
before and which we endeavored to give her the committee's position 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer the question. Witness. 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment to the Constitution, supplemented by the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not 
you conferred with any member of the Communist Party regarding 
the organization of Friends of Ormsby Village prior to its actual 
organization ? 

Mrs. Schonfield. I decline to answer this question on the same 
grounds as previously stated, based on the grounds of the first amend- 
ment to the Constitution supplemented by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
July 5, 1954? 

Miss Schonfield. I decline to answer this question on the same 
grounds of the first supplemented by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you confer with Mr. Hugh Hardyman regard- 
ing the organization of this group prior to its organization ? 

Mrs. Schonfield. I must decline to answer that question, not only 
must, but I do decline to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first amendment to the Constitution, supplemented by the fifth amend- 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any inquiry made of you before accepting the 
position of president of Friends of Ormsby Village whether or not 
you were affiliated with the Communist Party or ever had been ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 


Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I ref use to answer that question. 
Mr. Tavenner. Had you at any time prior to July 5- 

Mr. Doyle. Ma}^ I interrupt, Mr. Tavenner. All you have done is 
refuse to answer the question. I think probably the record should 
show whether or not you claim your constitutional privilege in so 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. Do I have a direction to answer, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. TA^^:NNEE. I suggest you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I think all I heard you say was you refused to answer 
the question, and you didn't say you refused to on the grounds of the 
first supplemented by the fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. You hadn't directed me to answer. I refuse to 
answer that question on the grounds of the first amendment to the 
Constitution supplemented by the fifth amendment. It would save 
time if we didn't have 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 

Mrs. ScHONFiELD. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of 
the first amendment to the Constitution, supplemented by the fifth 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Moulder? 

Mr. Moin.DER. No questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. How did you become naturalized ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sciionfield. I refuse to answer that question as not pertinent. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 

Mr. Doyle. I direct that you answer the question. We can't accept 
that answer. 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Schonfield. I became a citizen by derivative citizenship. 

Mr. Doyle. Derivative citizenship accomplished where and when, 
what State ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sciionfield. I believe it was in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Doyle. About what year ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sciionfield. I think it was either 1924 or 1926. I am not 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Any other questions. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Mrs. Schonfield, and Mr. Marshall. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Mrs. Jean Benson Wilkinson, come forward, please. 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I have two counsel. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you be sworn. Do you solemnly swear to tell the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Will you be seated. 



Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please. 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I am Jean Wilkinson. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by two counsel.. 
Will they identify themselves for the record, please. 

Mrs. WiLKiNisox. I have two because I am known as being very 
talkative and it takes two. May I introduce Daniel Marshall 

Mr. Tavenner. You need not introduce them. We are quite fam- 
iliar with both gentlemen. 

Will they please identify themselves ? 

Mr. Kenny. Robert Kenny, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Marshall. Daniel G. Marshall, Los Angeles. 

(Representative Jackson returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born, Mrs. Wilkinson ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. Approximately 33 years. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your pro- 
fession or occupation is ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I am an ex-teacher. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
f ornial education training has been in preparation for your profession ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. Yes, I attended UCLA, received my bachelor of 
arts there and my teaching credential. 

Mr. Tavenner. What year, please ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. 1936 and my teaching credential from California, 
Berkeley, in 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Wilkinson, do you have any knowledge of a 
method used by Ormsby Village for Youth in employment of its 
directors ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I might as well tell you right now that I am an 
unfriendly witness and since this committee has already seen fit to 
smear Ormsby Village 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute, Madame. 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I am refusing to answer the question, sir, and I 
intend to explain my answers in my own way. 

Mr. Doyle. You answer the question and if it is pertinent we will 
give you time to explain. 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I didn't have a chance to finish. Give me a chance 
to finish and 

Mr. Doyle. That isn't part of your answer. It can be answered yes 
or no. 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I have read the rules and I know my rights and 
if I am brought up here and made a spectacle of I am going to have my 
rights and if I am pleading the first and fifth amendments, I have a 
right to explain why. And I am now in the process of explaining why. 
Would you be quiet and let me finish ? 

Mr. Doyle. I am not going to permit you to make an oration and! 
you might as well understand it. 


Mrs. Wilkinson. You had better just check up on your constitu- 
tional law, because I have a right to explain my reasons why I am de- 
clining to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. After you answer the question. 

Mrs. Wilkinson. Isn't that correct, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. You have a perfect right 

Mrs. Wilkinson. Thank you. 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. Let him answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have a perfect right in refusing to answer a 
question to state the legal basis for your refusal but not to argue rea- 
sons that are not a legal basis. 

Mrs. Wilkinson. To me this is — may I explain my legal basis ? 

Mr. Jackson. After you answer the question. 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I am refusing to answer any questions regarding 
Ormsby Village on the basis of the fifth amendment. 
(Additional statement stricken from the record.) 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I move that all of the witness' answers 
after she invoked the fifth amendment be stricken from the record. 

Mr. Jackson. I second it and I shall make the same motion and 
support it from this point on in all answers that are not directly re- 
lated to answering the question and setting forth the constitutional 
grounds upon which the declination is made. 

Mr. DoTLE. I will grant the motion. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you selected 

Mrs. Wilkinson. Just a minute. May I finish that answer ? 

Mr. Scherer. I think the witness should be warned that her conduct, 
at least in the opinion of this member of the committee, is contemptu- 
ous, she is not complying with the ruling of the Chair, and if she per- 
sists I shall recommend that she be cited for contempt because ob- 
viously that is her purpose here as indicated by her first statement. I 
suggest we proceed in order. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there a question pending ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Not quite. 

Mrs. Wilkinson. Point of order, Mr. Chairman. May I ask a 
question ? 

Mr. Doyle. Is there a question pending ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I started the question. If you will permit me to 
finish it 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead. 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I want to finish the last question. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated your legal basis for refusal and the com- 
mittee heard you. 

Mrs. Wilkinson. First and fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all you need and that is perfectly clear in the 

Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not you were selected 
as the camp director of Ormsby Village for Youth ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Wilkinson. This is obviously the same area of questions, and 
I must refuse on the same basis. 


Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 

Mr. Marshall. The chairman accepted the claim. 

Mr. Doyle. We don't accept your claim as sufficient and therefore I 
direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. AViLKiNSON. I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who conferred with you with regard to any possi- 
ble appointment as an official at that camp or employee at that camp ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I must refuse to answer that question and particu- 
larly if it would involve any other individual I wouldn't care to have 
them join the show. 

Mr. Jackson. You say you must decline. Do you so decline ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I do so decline and refuse. 

Mr. Jackson. For the reasons previously stated ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time in 1954? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. On that question I also refuse to answer because 
that is my own business, my political affiliations, my religious affilia- 
tions ; I decline on the first and the fifth. 

Mr. ScHERER. You say the Communist Party amounts to a religious 
affiliation ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. I didn't say that. You said it. If you want it, 
keep it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you read the witness' answer ? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, there is a group in here who seem 
to find this an extremely amusing proposition. I am going to ask in 
about 5 minutes that a little— I won't call it a cell— but a little group 
be removed from the audience if they continue in it. This is not a 
humorous proceeding. It is a proceeding of your Congress whether 
you have any faith in the Congress or not. 

Mr. Doyle. I have been noticing the same several people. I hope 
you will desist a\ hether you came here intending to cooperate or not. 

Mr. Tamsnner. The testimony and documentary evidence intro- 
duced in the course of this hearing indicates that tlie organization was 
established— that is, Ormsby Village for Youth— around the year 
1951. Will you tell the committee, please, whether at any time prior 
to that date you were a member of the Connnunist Party ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. That is the same question, sir, and I must refuse 
on the same basis, first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

Mrs. Wilkinson. Same answer, first and fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr. Moulder. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Jackson I Mr. Scherer ? 

Thank you, Mrs. Wilkinson and Counsel, you are excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Frank Davis. 

Mr. Doyle. Dr. Davis, will you j^lease raise your right hand and be 
sworn. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Dr. Davis. I do. 



Dr. Davis. May I ask why we are not being televised ? It seems to 
me it is unfair to the rest of the avenues of communication. I am glad 
to have the press here and the press cameras, but it seems to me it is 
very unfair to the other avenues of communication not to allow this 
to go out to as many people as want to look and listen. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. May we proceed ? 

Mr. ScHEKER. I agree with the witness that it should be televised, 
but the rules of the House as interpreted by the present Speaker pro- 
hibit it. That is the only reason. I would be happy to have it go out. 

Mr. Jackson. I concur with my colleague in that. I think all of 
us would feel that way. 

Mr. Ta^-enxek. Dr. Davis, will you state your name, please. 

Dr. Davis. Frank C. Davis. May I explain the "C" please? This 
is the first time in public I have ever admitted my middle name as 
being Cornelius. The reasons I do it are two. 

Mr. TA\TiNNER. The fact that it is used is all we are interested in. 

Dr. Davis. Because there are so many Frank Davises I want no- 
body to be judged guilty because I happen to have that name. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. It is noted you are accompanied by the same two 
counsel who represented the jDreceding witness and it will be so 

When and where were you born ? 

Dr. Davis. May I ask a question before we go into that? Do I 
understand statements are not permitted to be read at these sessions? 

Mr. Dotle. They are not permitted to be read unless they have been 
submitted to the committee previously and we have had an opportunity 
to pass upon them under rule 9. 

Dr. Davis. Are they permitted to be read if the committee has seen 
them previously ? 

Mr. Doyle. If we have had them and passed on them. 

Dr. Davis. I have a short statement which I think might speed up 
the proceedings. 

Mr. Doyle. We would be glad to have you file it with us if that is 
what you want to do. 

Dr. Davis. I would be glad to do that. That is a statement mailed 
out to 300 psychologists last week which explains my position. 

Mr. Tavenner. Please state when and where you were born? 

Dr. Davis. Born in South Framingham, Mass., in 1896. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a resident of Los Angeles ? 

Dr. Davis. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you resided in Los Angeles ? 

Dr. Davis. I first came to Los Angeles as a resident in 1931. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived here continuously since that date? 

Dr. Davis. Except for trips to take summer sessions, teaching ap- 
pointments at other places, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your profession ? 

Dr. Davis. I would say I am an educator and a psychologist. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you t^ll the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been ? 


Dr. Davis. I would be glad to. I went to grade school in Portland, 
Maine, high school in Summerville, Mass., I am perhaps the only 
Ph. D., doctor of philosophy, in the country who didn't graduate from 
high school, the reason being there I encountered the first Fascist- 
minded principal in my experience and he and I didn't agree and he 
had more power than I did and he saw to it I didn't graduate. In- 
cidentally, his name was John B. Avery and he looked a little like 
Mr. Scherer, which I hope 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. 

Dr. Davis. I just want to say that I am trying, not by association, 
trying not to have anything against ]Mr. Scherer by association. 

Mr. Doyle. This is no forum to take a crack at one of your former 
teachers, we are not going to permit that sort of thing. 

Dr. Davis. Take a crack at one of my former teachers to describe 

Mr. Doyle, Please confine yourself to the things that are pertinent 
and answer the question : What was your formal education. 

Mr. Scherer. He must have been a pretty good teacher. 

Dr. Davis. Because of the resemblance ? Don't you feel it is rele- 
vant when I try to tell you the reasons why I did not graduate from 
high school ? 

Mr. Doyle, I don't think so. 

Dr. Daves, I feel it is, 

Mr. Doyle. It is accomplishments we are interested in. 

Mr. Tavennek. May I ask that the witness be instructed to answer 
the question ? 

Mr, Doyle. Answer the question, please. 

Dr. Davis, I was answering the question to the best of my ability, 
I will be responsive but I shall answer them in my own way under 
the first amendment, 

Mr. Ta\'enner. You are not answering it. 

Mr. Doyle, You will not answer them in violation of the rules of 
the committee. Let's have a common understanding. 

Dr. Davt^s. Are the rules of the committee in violation of the first 
: amendment ? 

Mr. Doyle, Not at all. 

Dr. Davis. That is good, glad to hear that. 

Following my nongraduation from high school under the circum- 
stances I described I came to California and went one semester to the 
Davis Agricultural School. Not because I expected to become a 
farmer, though sometime later in my later years I wished I had chosen 
the occupation instead of this more controversial one, but because you 
needed credits to make up for high school. I took carpentry, botany, 
English, got those credits later on, went back to Boston for a year and 
took some postgraduate work in the same high school still without a 
high school diploma and eventually came back to California and was 
admitted as a special student at the College of the Pacific, Methodist 
■ College, then in San Jose, 

First World War interrupted by formal education and I enlisted 
in the Armed Forces of the United States I think 1 week after war 
was declared in 1917. 

I spent a year and a half in the United States Navy, Wliile there 
I had some more education, formal education at the Harvard Naval 


Radio Training School at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass., 
and was sent to the New London Submarine School, where I was 
trained and sent out as one of the first radio listeners in the First 
World War, on a submarine, and on the submarine chaser and various 
other boats during my term of enlistment. While there I took exten- 
sion courses from the University of California in navigation and I 
think also in Shakespeare, hoping to profit somewhat by the enforced 
absence from college, 

I shouldn't have said enforced absence from college because as I 
said, I volunteered 1 week after the war started. 

Upon the expiration of my service with the Armed Forces I was 
discharged from the Navy with a medical discharge. A number of 
times I have been told I should have applied for a pension because 
of having been discharged with a medical discharge, 

I, in my opinion at that time, was such a good American I didn't 
want a pension in case I was physically able to get along without it 
and as you can see, these many years later I still seem to be in pretty 
good physical health and I myself feel in very good mental health, 
perhaps better than ever before, I am freer from fear than ever before 
in my life. 

Therefore, I didn't apply for a pension. Once out of the Navy, and 
since at that time there were no GI bill benefits, and at that time I 
don't feel I would have accepted them if there had been, my feelings 
were not alon^ that line, they have changed considerably in recent 
years, at that time I renewed my education ,went back to the College of 
the Pacific, spent 2 more years there, transferred to the University of 
California at Berkeley and completed my 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date of your transfer to Berkeley ? 

Dr, Davis. I would say the summer session of 1920, and then I 
stayed there the following year as a senior even though I had been 
elected president of the student body of the College of the Pacific I 
stayed at the University of California at Berkeley because I could get 
a better education for me at that time there than 1 could by going back 
to a smaller college, 

I received my AB degree at the University of California at Berkeley 
in 1921, I continued on there as a teaching fellow in psychology after 
having been offered scholarships at both Stanford and the University 
of California, and accepting the one that paid the most, namely, $52,50 
a month, which wasn't bad in those days, I stayed on then as a teaching 
fellow and received my master's degree in, I think, December 1922, 

I continued on as a teaching fellow working toward my Ph, D. de- 
gree. My work for the degree of Ph. D. was interrupted due to illness 
of my wife and my illness and a tonsilectomy which put us hundreds of 
dollars in the hole and I interrupted my work toward my Ph, D, I was 
offered a job after applying for it in Honolulu to teach psychology at 
the then Territorial Training School, now School of Education in the 
University of Hawaii, 

I was offered a job to teach psychology alone for $1,800, They 
cabled me back an offer of almost double that amount, if I would also 
coach basketball, be dean of men, and organize a jazz orchestra in order 
to raise enough money to support the athletic program, 

I cabled the acceptance to the offer and promptly took courses in 
basketball coaching from Nibs Price, real name Clarence, nickname- 


Nibs, and George Jelte, Avho was giving a summer session course in 
recreation at the University of California that summer. 

So, as I said, in order to make enough money and pay oil my doctor's 
bills and my wife's doctor's bills I took this job in Honolulu. I stayed 
there 3 years, 

Mr. Tavenner. "V^-liat year did you leave Hawaii ? 

Dr. Davis. Arrived there in 19i2i and left there in 1927. 

Mr. Tavenner. Proceed. 

Dr. Davis. When I left I was on leave of absence. I left in order 
to resume mj^ formal education. My wife and I went to New York City 
where I enrolled for graduate courses at Columbia University in psy- 
chology, football coaching, and swimming. While at the same time I 
passed the New York Public School Board of Examiners examination 
for a teaching job in psychology and statistics and remedial reading at 
the New York Trinity School for Teachers. 

That was in 1927, as I said. I taught there at the New York Trinity 
School for Teachers for 1 year, was offered a salary of $5,000 a year 
to stay there even without a Ph. D., chose to come back to Berkeley 
and finish up my work for the Ph. D. at Berkeley instead of staying 
'On in New York under those conditions. 

At Berkeley I was offered a position, very minor position, very ill- 
paid position as a research associate at the Institute of Child Welfare. 
YVlien I say ill -paid I shouldn't imply that I am complaining about 
the salary scale at that time because jobs were few, graduate students 
were many and few were even offered a job; you were honored and 
your ability recognized. 

I was research associate at the University of California at Berkeley 
in the Institute of Child Welfare from, I think, 1929 to 1931 when I 
.received my Ph. D. in psychology. 

That concludes the statement as to my formal education. I feel that 
is far from a complete statement as to what my education has been 
like because I was conscious of gaps in it even after I received my 
Ph. D. If it is relevant and this committee feels it is 

Mr. Tavenner. All professional men interested in their profession 
continue to study. My question was merely what your formal ecluca- 
tional training was. 

Mr. Sciierer. I can now sympathize with the problems of that high 
school teacher who I look like. 

Dr. Davis. May I ask what the meaning of that remark is, Mr. 
Smearer — pardon me — Scherer. That wasn't unconscious, I have been 
practicing that for days. 

Mr. Jackson. It showed. 

Dr. Da\t:s. I am sure it showed. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did you have any official connection with Ormsby 
Tillage for Youth? 

Dr. Davis. I was not in this room when the f omidation was laid for 
questioning about Ormsby Village. Would you please let me know 
what the situation is as of the present moment ? 

INIr. Tavenner. I think all that is necessary for you to know is that 
the committee considers that it is a material question. 

Dr. Da\t:s. Well, to answer that I would like to do it in this way : 
Wlien I received my subpena and called a lawyer and asked him what 
the committee was here for this time — - — 

Mr. Scherer. Kegular order, Mr. Chairman. 


Dr. Davis. He told me so far as lie knew Ormsby Village camp 
was one of the subjects they were going to investigate, and I recall my 
first remark : "How silly can they get ? A camp for underprivileged, 
interracial, intercultural" 

Mr. Tavenner. The answer is not responsive to the question. I 
ask that he be directed to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead and answer. 

Dr. Davis. I will respond to any questions you ask, but I insist 
under the first amendment in answering them in my own way. I feel 
myself as good an American as anybody here this afternoon, believe me. 

When I said I felt freer from fear today I mean that, too. I feel 
committee members try to intimidate some witnesses. They are not 
going to intimidate me. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you through criticizing the committee? If you 
are, let's have a little cooperation and answer the question. 

Dr. Davis. I wasn't intending that as criticism. It is a statement 
of fact, as I see it. 

Mr. Doyle. Doctor, I have certain obligations as chairman the same 
as you do as a witness and I am not going to let you override the 
rules of the committee. You might as well understand it. I am co- 
operating with you up to a point, but I will not let you abuse the 
committee nor the privileges of the witness chair. 

Dr. Davis. I understand where the power lies in this room, Mr. 

Mr. Doyle. It is not a matter of power. It is a matter of decent 
respect and cooperation both ways. 

Dr. Davis. I would be glad to see it both ways; I hear the com- 
mittee make remarks over and above even statements of opinion. 

Mr. Doyle. Please; I will make a ruling in a minute and I ask 
your cooperation. 

Dr. Davis. I will be glad to cooperate, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Then give it. 

Dr. Davis. What is the ruling? 

Mr. Doyle. What is the question, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Ta\'enner. The question was whether or not he has had any 
official connection with Ormsby Village for Youth. 

Dr. Davis. May I consult with my attorneys, please, since I know 
nothing about the background of this ? 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Dr. Davis. After conferring with my attorneys I feel that it is the 
only thing I can do as a loyal American in my own right to refuse 
to answer that question on the grounds of the first supplemented by 
the fifth amendment, 

Mr. Doyle. Do you want a direction ? 

Mr. Tavenner, Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. We cannot accept your answer, and I direct you to 
answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Dr. Davis. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first amend- 
ment to the Constitution supplemented by the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the organizational papers of the cor- 
poration which the staff investigated, it appeared that you were a 


member of the first group of the board of directors. In other words, 
that you were a member of the board of directors. 

Dr. Davis. The first group of the board of directors? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am mistaken. I understand it is 1953 that you 
were a member of the board of directors. Are we correct in that in- 
formation ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Dr. Davis. What was that date, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. 1953. 

Dr. Davis. Would you give me the months on which I am alleged 
to have served on the board ? 

Mr. Tavenner. If I haven't I will give it to you. The information 
that we have is that on July 27, 1953, you were listed as a member 
of the board of directors. 

Dr. Davis. On July 27, 1953. That is approximately 2 years ago. 

I am searching my memory, Mr. Chairman. My memory is not 
clear as to those dates, but nevertheless, in this area since Ormsby 
Village has been so labeled by this committee, I shall refuse to answer 
on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give a direction to answer ? 

Mr. Doyle. Doctor, we cannot accept your answer. I direct you 
to answer the question. 

Dr. Davis. For the same reasons. Chairman Doyle, I refuse to 

Mr. Ta\'enner. The answer that you gave leaves the inference that 
you are uncertain as to the date when you were a member of the board 
of directors but that you were in fact a member of the board of 
directors. I want to he certain what you mean by your answer. 
Were you a member of the board of directors at any time ? 

Dr. Davis. Is this one of those open-the-door questions, Mr. Taven- 
ner, that I have heard Mr. Scherer refer to ? 

Mr. Tavennet;. I am not interested in opening the doors. I am 
interested in trying to get facts that should be within your knowledge. 

Dr. Davis. I shall have to refuse to answer that on the same 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you assist in any manner in the selection of 
the executive director of the camp and the camp director. 

Dr. Davis. Since apparently Ormsby Village is now here before 
this committee something other than a camp for underprivileged kids 
of different races and creeds, I shall refuse to answer that question on 
the same grounds as before. 

Mr. Doyle. May I help the doctor to understand the situation of 
the committee in regard to Ormsby Village. We are here under 
Public Law 601 of the Congress, your Congress and mine, which 
directs us to investigate the extent and the character and the sub- 
versive activities over the country, the extent to which the Com- 
munist Party is in control or trying to get into control of any organi- 
zation or any group of persons. We have information that perhaps 
at Ormsby Village there was an eft'ort made by some Communists 
to get on the faculty, get in control of the board, perhaps, get in 
control of the policy of these American children regardless of race, 
creed, or color. 


Now, certainly, Doctor, there is no more important segment of the 
American public than children. So I am talking to you frankly as 
one man to another. If we didn't believe from our information that 
Ormsby Village is one of those youth camps in the country to which 
the Communist Party has applied its elfort to get into the teaching 
realm and raising-of-children realm for future Communists we 
wouldn't be here. That is the background why we are here question- 
ing you about Ormsby Village. 

Dr. Davis. I understand that is your statement as to the reasons 
why you are here. 

Mr. Doyle. That is my statement as chairman of this committee, 
and I wouldn't be here, frankly, on this committee at this hearing if 
I didn't know that M-e have certain evidence that makes it pretty clear 
that there is a very definite Communist influence, past or present, in 
this area. We are asking your help, as a responsible American 
citizen, to help us as a congressional committee to find out the extent 
to which the Communist Party in California has exercised any influ- 
ence, past or present, in control of these American children. 

Dr. Davis. The implication being that the purpose of the camp was 
not for the pleasure and fun of these kids, but something more sinister. 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes, that is the implication. 

Mr. DoTLE. The implication definitely being that in Ormsby Vil- 
lage, the same as in other camps we know to be Communist agencies, 
there has been some efi'ort to do that very thing. We are asking your 
cooperation to help us. 

Dr. Davis. Then you also mean to indoctrinate them with American 
doctrines or concepts. 

Mr. DoTLE. We are trying to expose wherever there is an effort by 
the Communist conspiracy to indoctrinate American children with the 
Communist philosophy. 

Dr. Davis. Any evidence that was done at Ormsby Village ? 

Mr. Doyle. You would be surprised. 

Mr. Jackson. We can't find out what was done at Ormsby Village. 
Nobody will talk. It is hard to find out whether it was fun and recrea- 
tion or indoctrination. You are in a position to assist us, Doctor. 
Why don't you tell us what was done at Ormsby Village, then perhaps 
we will be in a position to draw some intelligent conclusion. 

Dr. Davis. May I speak to my attorney for a moment ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Dr. DA\qs. Chairman Doyle and members of the committee, and 
Mr. Tavenner, I hope you were listening to the prefacing remarks 
with which I answer that question. My first inclination — and I am 
saying this not on the advice of my lawyers, they didn't tell me what 
to say, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I must have bothered you pretty much by my ques- 
tions this morning. 

Dr. Davis. Yes; when you objected to Mr. Wirin and fed questions 
and answers to a witness who was a friendly witness, then you bother 
me. I feel this was very unfair on your part and I still feel it is 


My attorneys have not told me what to say in answer to this ques- 

Mr. ScHERER. Does that bother you ? 
Dr. Davis. Will you please let me finish? 

Mr. ScHERER. No. 

Dr. Davis. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Jackson. I don't think this relates to the legislative work of 
the committee or t lie investigation 

Dr. Davis. It does relate 

Mr. Jackson. Of the committee. 

Dr. Davis. This is a hearing, Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. The question was directed to you. 

Dr. Davis. I swore to tell the whole truth, this is a hearing. Am I 
going to be heard or not, or is it a star chamber proceeding ? 

Mr. Jackson. Are you going to tell the whole truth ? 

Dr. Davis. Let me tell the truth in my way. 

Mr. Jackson. If you answer the questions your way, we are going 
to get no information at all about Ormsby Village, 

Dr. Davis. I want to take the first amendment. My attorneys didn't 
know I was going to say this. 

Mr. Doyle. Doctor 

Dr. Davis. Can I say I wanted to take the first amendment only 
before I came to this hearing. Can I say why I wanted to do that 
and why I didn't ? 

Mr. Jackson. Let him say it. I don't care why he takes it as long 
as he takes it, with any others. 

Mr. SciiERER. He wants to give the reason why. 

Mr. Marshall. We can't understand, there is a colloquy there, 
whether there is a question or not. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. I don't know if there is a question. I will ask the re- 
porter to read. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Dr. Davis. I am advised by my lawyers that 

Mr. ScHERER. I don't care what he is advised by his lawyers. He 
isn't allowed to tell us what he is advised by his lawyers. 

Dr. Davis. I was going to answer the question. 

Mr. Marshall. What is the ruling? Who is for who and why? 

Mr. Doyle. Undertake to answer the question. 

Mr. Marshali,. What is the question ? 

Mr. Doyle. Read it, please. Do you have the question in mind ? 

Dr. Davis. The original question I have completely forgotten. 

Mr. Scherer, He is so mad at me he can't 

Dr. Davis. I am not made at you personally, but I object to your 
attitude. It is unfair. 

]\Ir. Doyle. Please read the question. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

Mr. Jackson. Why don't we ask a couple of questions and clarify 
this and get the witness off the stand ? It is obvious we are not going 
to get any information on Ormsby Village from him. 

Dr. Davis. I had hoped to have a fair hearing. 

Mr. Jackson. You will have a fair hearing to the extent you are 
willing to answer the questions of the committee. 


Dr. Davis. Fair hearing? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Jackson asked the question. 

Mr. Jackson. The only question I want to ask is whether or not you, 
Dr. Davis are, or ever have been a member of the Communist Party, 
and whether you were at the time that you were connected with 
Ormsby Village ? 

Dr. Davis. May I give the answer and explain my answer, which 
is what I was trying to do before ? 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, go ahead with a reasonable explanation. 

Dr. DA\^s. In accordance with the rules of the committee, is it not? 

Mr. Jackson. So far as I am concerned, after you answer the ques- 
tion a reasonable time should be given to explain the answer. 

Dr. Davis. Reasonable time. 

Mr. ScHERER. If he answers the question. If he takes the fifth 
amendment that is not answering, that is refusing to answer. 

Dr. Davis. I don't understand that at all. 

Mr. Jackson. If you answer the queston "Yes, I am, but I should' 
like to explain the circumstances," if j^ou answer "No, I am not, how- 
ever" — then to me that would seem to warrant an opportunity to ex- 
plain. If you simply say to this committee, "I refuse to answer because 
it might tend to incriminate me" 

Dr. Davis. Because of my constitutional rights, that is not answer- 
ing your question ? 

Mr. Jackson. It is answering the question and you have every right 
to answer the question in that way. 

Dr. Davis. Mrs. Roosevelt said 7 years ago, "Stand up and be- 
counted," and next day tlie reporter was fired. Andries Deinum, I 
read in the paper, was fired from his job. 

Mr. Jackson. You were saying don't put words in my mouth. I 
am saying to you don't tell me what I am telling you. You can answer 
yes or no, or decline to answer. If you decline to answer that would 
preclude any lengthy statement as to wliy you decline, except the con- 
stitutional grounds which are granted to you for the declination. That 
is a perfectly clear-cut reasonable situation as far as I am concerned. 

Mr. Doyle. Doctor, do you plead your constitutional privilege ? 

Dr. Davis, In response to the question just asked me by Mr. Jack- 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, that indicates to us you are aware of your constitu- 
tional privilege and under advice of your counsel and your own con- 

Dr. Davis. Are you allowed to explain your answers ? Others have 
done it. 

INIr. Doyle. We haven't had opportunity in the work of this com- 
mittee to allow long explanations. 

Dr. Davis. It won't take very long. 

Mr. Doyle. When men take their constitutional privilege, that is 
their privilege. We don't criticize them when it is in good faith. 

Dr. Davis. I want to explain the reasons for taking this position. 

Mr. Doyle. When you take your constitutional privilege, thnt is 
your right. We don't criticize you for it, but there is no reason to. 
explain why you take it. You take it because you believe in it, I as- 
sume. If you don't believe in it you shouldn't take it. 


Dr. Davis. I am not a lawyer myself. 

Mr. Doyle. I know, but what I mean is, as I see it as an American 
Congressman when you plead your constitutional privilege if it is 
honest and in good faith — I always assume it is honest and in good 
faith in my book. 

Dr. Davis. Good. 

Mr. Doyle. But on the other hand, if you plead the constitutional 
provision there is no reason for an explanation as to why you do it. We 
know you do it liecause you believe it is your privilege and that is suffi- 
cient. That is sufficient, the fact that you plead it. 

Mr. Davis. Chairman Doyle, I am a psychologist and things often 
aren't as simple to psychologists as to a layman. Yes or no answers 
doesn't tell the whole story. 

Mr. Jackson. Regular order, and may I insist on the answer to the 
question. We are consuming altogether too much time. 

Dr. Davis, I am reminded more and more of my high-school princi- 

Mr. Doyle. Doctor, what is your thought on an answer to that 
question ? 

Dr. Davis. I refused to answer the question, if I remember cor- 
rectly, on the gi'ounds of the first supplemented by the fifth amend- 
ment. May I explain ? 

Mr. ScHEEER. No. When you invoke the fifth amendment that is 
not answering, that is a declination. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer, I was going on to say this to the doctor. 
We cannot accept that as an answer on that point and I direct you 
to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Dr. Davis. I decline to answer on the basis of the first amendment 
to the Constitution, supplemented by the fifth amendment, and I would 
like to explain my answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Doctor. 

Do you have any more questions ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I have nothing else. 

Mr. Moulder. During the course of your testimony you made some 
reference to the activities and functions of this school in that you 

Dr. Davis. Which school, Mr. Moulder? 

Mr. Moulder. I believe you stated it was an interracial recreational 
facility for underprivileged children, thereby indicating that you had 
considerable knowledge or at least some personal knowledge as to its 
functions, and its operations. Do you care to give the committee any 
knowledge or information which you have concerning it? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Dr. Davis. Because of the setting in which this inquiry is being 
carried on and the foundation laid, I must refuse to answer any ques- 
tions in this area for the grounds previously stated, for the reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Doctor, and thank you counsel. The wit- 
ness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes, 

(Short recess.) 

Mr. Doyle. Let the committee come to order. 


Let the record show the full membership of the subcommittee is 
here : Congressmen Scherer, of Ohio ; Jackson, of California ; Moulder, 
of Missouri ; and Doyle, of California. 

Mr. Tavenner, Bertha Bargeman, please. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Bargeman. I do. 


Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. My name is Irene B. Bowerman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell the name, please. 

Mrs. Bowerman. Last name ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Bowerman. It is not the name that is on the subpena. I have 
been married. It is B-o-w-e-r-m-a-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was your name before marriage ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. Correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Thank you. 

Mrs. Bowerman. That was a previous married name. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Margolis. For the record my name is Ben Margolis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of California ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. No ; I was born in Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in Los Angeles? 

Mrs. Bowerman. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. Since 1936. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived in Los Angeles continuously since 

Mrs. Bowerman. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your profession or occupation ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. I am a nursery-school teacher. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly, what 
your formal educational training has been ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. I went through grammar school and high school 
in a town called Pittsburg, Kans. I attended Milwaukee- Downer 
College, Milwaukee, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Wis., and I 
have had a number of extension courses at the University of California 
at Los Angeles and Los Angeles College. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you followed any occupation other than that 
which I mentioned ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. Yes; I have been a newspaper reporter, office 
worker, and office administrator. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you worked in any connection in the moving- 
picture industry ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. Well, now, we got so far. I am very confused by 
certain things that I have been observing the last few days in this com- 
mittee or before this committee, in terms of answering and not answer- 
ing questions. As an American citizen it is certainly my desire to co- 

65500— 55— pt. 2 7 


operate with any properly constituted group of the Government en- 
gaged in a proper kind of investigation, but as I said, I am confused. 

Now it is my understanding — and if I am incorrect please correct 
me — that there are certain limitations imposed on this committee, one 
is an investigation into private affairs. Now a question like this 

Mr. ScHERER. Regular order, Mr. Chairman. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I need some clarification, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I think you are entitled to rely upon the advice of your 

Mr. Margolis. I need some clarification. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. A question like this is either an inquiry into the 
private affairs 

Mr. ScHERER. You know the rules of the committee. 

Mr. Margolis. I know the rules of law, sir, and we are entitled to 
this clarification. 

Mrs. BowERMAN". It is something 

Mr. Jackson. Just a minute. If the witness will suspend. The 
witness was asked a simple question. Quite obviously this is another 
statement carefully rehearsed in preparation for this occasion. It is 
a prepared statement. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. It is not a prepared statement. 

Mr. Jackson. If the witness desires to have the statement typed or 
otherwise put in form where it can be presented to the committee, all 
right, let's do it. Meanwhile, there is a question pending which should 
be answered before any explanation. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I am not going to answer that question until I 
have a question answered for me. Am I waiving all my privileges in 
anything relating to that subject, if I answer ? 

Mr. Doyle. You have able counsel by your side. He has been 
before this comittee many times. 

Mr. Margolis. In several capacities. 

Mr. DoYLE. In several capacities, and we are not here in that 
capacity. You have counsel and if you didn't have counsel we would 
see that you did. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I am sorry, Congressman Doyle, I saw the witness 
here who had able counsel on Monday and he answered a certain ques- 
tion and you asked him other questions and it was your opinion, which 
was read into the record, that he had waived his privilege. I am not 
interested in waiving my privilege. I want to protect my privilege. 

Mr. Jackson. Then by all means take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. You follow the advice of your counsel on your consti- 
tutional rights, that is your privilege and you should rely on it. 

Mrs. Bowerman. Apparently you can do what you like. The com- 
mittee says you can claim the privilege, whatever you claim. 

Mr. Doyle. Claim whatever you and your counsel please. 

Mrs. Bowerman. You leave me and my counsel no choice and I do 
claim the first amendment supplemented by the fifth amendment, and 
I also would like to add, if I might, that I am proud to claim these 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask the chairman to direct the witness to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Doyle. We can't accept your answer to that question, and I 
direct you to answer. 


Mrs. BowERMAN". You just told me I could claim the privilege. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask what the question was? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. That is why I want clarification. 

Mr. Tavenner. The question was as to whether or not she was at 
any time employed in the moving picture industry. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask for a direction to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. Bowerman. I refuse on the grounds I previously stated. 

Mr. Doyle, Very well. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Bowerman. Does that question refer to motion picture studio ? 

Mr. Tavenner. It refers to any employment in the moving picture 

Mrs. Bowerman. Moving picture industry is a very spreadout kind 
of industry. I mean, a place like Faith Plating Co. makes parts for 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliatever connection you had w^ith it is what I want 
you to tell us about. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. I thought she took the fifth amendment to the direc- 

Mrs. Bowerman. Does the question include organizations that are 
interested in motion pictures ? 

Mr. Tay-enner. If you answer the question as to whether or not you 
have been employed in any way in the moving picture industry it 
would seem to me to be simple. 

Mrs. Bowerman. It is not a simple question because the obvious 
purpose of this committee is to trap people. I am not a legal 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute, Madame. Can you break that question 
down just a little bit, Mr. Tavenner, to help this witness understand 
plain English? 

Mr. Scherer. She understands. 

Mr. Ta\tsnner. I can't break it down any more than that. 

Mr. Margolis. She wants to know whether it is in the industry or 
an organization. She has a right to know. This is a trap. 

Mr. Jackson. It is not a trap, Mr. Margolis. 

Mr. Margolis. It is the way it is being handled. 

Mr. Jackson. It is not a trap. 

Mr. Margolis. Why don't you answer her question and stop treating 
it as a trap? 

Mr. Tavenner. If there is a question in her mind about a matter 
that I have no knowledge of which would aid her to answer the ques- 
tion by changing it, I will be glad to do it. I understand you are 
concerned about my question as to wliether or not I am inquiring as 
to employment in the industry itself or in some organization con- 
cerned with the industry. Is that your problem ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. That is my problem. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Then let us make it plain. Were you employed in 
any capacity by the industry itself, that is, in the moving picture 

Mrs. Bowerman. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was that employment ? 


Mrs. BowERMAN. I was employed in the office of a laboratory that 
processed motion picture film. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period of time was that ? 

Mrs. Bow^ERMAN. This was from 19o7 to 1939. 

Mr, Tavenner. Were you known at that time by the name of Mrs. 
Bargeman ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. No, I was not. I was not married then. My name 
was Schlanger, S-c-h-1-a-n-g-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wlien were you married ? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I was married in 1939, my first marriage. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you known as Bert Bargeman? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. That is my nickname. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date of your second marriage ? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. January of this year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any other employment by the industry 
other than which you just told us ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. BowERMAN. No; to the best of my knowledge I answer that 
question "no." 

Mr. Tavenner. You indicated there was a distinction between being 
employed by the industry itself and by an organization connected with 
the industry. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. That was the distinction I was trying to determine 
and you made it for me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you employed by an organization which was 
connected with the industry ? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. On that question I claim the privilege on the 
grounds I have previously stated. 

Mr, ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 

Mr. DoTLE. We cannot accept your answer as given and I direct you 
to answer that question. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. Well, I regret my inability to oblige you, Mr. 
Doyle, but I cannot answer that question on the basis of the first amend- 
ment, which gives me freedom of association and on the fifth amend- 
ment, which says that a witness may not be compelled to testify. 

Mr, Tavenner, Were you a member of any talent guild ? 

Mrs, Bowerman. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of any union organized within 
your place of employment between 1937 and 1939 ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Bowerman. I didn't know that it was within the rights of this 
committee to inquire into union membership. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. I said. Is it within those rights of this committee 
to inquire into a person's union membership ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 

Mr. DoTLE. We can't accept your answer and I direct 

Mr. Jackson. She hasn't answered. 

Mrs. Bowerman. I was proud of my affiliation. I was a member 
of the Screen Office Employees Guild. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold any position in that field ? 


Mr. Doyle. I might state while he is preparing to ask the next 
question the chief purpose in our asking about union identification 
or membership is that we have heard of some unions in Hollywood 
that in time were well dominated and well infiltrated by Com- 
munists, and the Communist Party is well known as being subversive, 
so our interest is not for you as a union member, but we hope to have 
your cooperation in helping us in case there was infiltration in your 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I would like to say, Mr. Doyle, when I aiiswer 
that question which from a personal feeling I felt was something of 
an infringement of my private rights, that I did not answer that ques- 
tion with any feeling or any idea that you were going to inquire further 
into the affairs of this union because I want to make it absolutely clear 
I would not answer any questions if I had any knowledge about the 
affairs of a union. 

Mr. DoTLE. I felt it necessary on my part as chairman to indicate 
to you that we were asking you about the union because we believe 
under Public Law 601 our duty is to investigate subversive activities 
wherever they exist, whether it is in your union or my union or wher- 
ever it is. 

Mrs. BowERMAisr. May I say just one thing, please ? 

Mr. DoTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I got a subpena three weeks ago tomorrow. I have 
had no idea since I got the subpena what the purpose, what ]3urpose 
this committee had in calling me here, was because maybe I signed a 
petition sometime or maybe I was on a picket line sometime. So — just 
a minute — the witness before me asked you certain questions about 
Ormsby Village before he came into the room. If I hadn't heard at 
any time any comments from you or Mr. Tavenner or any other person 
on this committee that you were interested in expressing the affairs of 
the now defunct Screen Office Employees Guild I would not have 
even admitted my membership. I would have stood on the first and 
fifth amendments to that question. 

Mr. Jackson. Regular order, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, that you understand the situation let's proceed, 
Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Hollywood "Writers 
Mobilization ? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I cannot answer. 

Mr. TA^^2NNER. Or were you employed by it ? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first amendment and the fifth amendment and 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Central Committee of the 
Independent Progressive Party of California, in 1952? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Before you answer that question I would like to 
hand you a photostatic copy of a paper. 

Mr. Margolis. We are not interested in seeing it, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you hand the document to the witness? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mrs. BowERMAN. Are you also interested in how I voted in that 
year ? 


Mr, Tavenner. You just answer my questions and you will find out 
what I am interested in. I would like to withdraw my question and 
ask you to look at the paper which has been presented to you and state 
whether or not you see a facsimile of your signature ? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I am not going to answer a question of this kind. 
I consider it a gross infringement of my personal rights to belong to a 
legal political party and of anybodj^'s choice on the ballot of the State 
of California and not to be questioned about what party I might have 
belonged to. This is one of the things I remember from my earliest 

Mr. Jackson. Do you decline to answer the question? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I do decline to answer. 

Mr. Jackson. On wdiat grounds? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. On the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Bowerman Exhibit No. 1" for identification only. 

]\Ir. Doyle. So received and so marked. 

Again may I briefly state that the purport of our questions along 
that line go to the objective of trying to find out the extent to which 
the Communist Party either organized or controlled the IPP, if it did. 

jMr. Scherer. There is abundant evidence in the record already 
that it did control it and dominate it. 

Mrs. Bowerman. If there is abundant record, why do you require 
me that I state my political affiliation before a roomful of people ? 

Mr. Doyle. There is a registration at the county court house, matter 
of public record. 

Mrs. Bowerman. You can check that. 

Mr. Jackson. As I understand it, you didn't disclose your politi- 
cal registration before a roomful of people. You stood on your 
constitutional rights. 

Mrs. Bowerman. I did and I am proud to. 

Mr. Jackson. There is no disclosure of any secret in your life, 
including your registration. 

Mrs. Bowerman. Only because I must decline to answer questions 
that I am not disclosing. 

Mr. Jackson. You are extremely fortunate that we have the fifth 
amendment and the first amendment. 

Mrs. Bowerman. Everybody in the United States is fortunate to 
have the fifth amendment. This is part of our tradition and the 
idea that a stigma attaches to a person because they stand on the 
fifth amendment is becoming pretty upsetting to people in this 

Mr. Jackson. You said the stigma attaches. No member of the 
committee— — - 

Mrs. Bowerman. When the previous witness tried to explain why 
he stood on the fifth amendment you wouldn't let him explain why. 

Mr. Jackson. It was not necessary for him to explain. 

Mrs. Bowerman. When he or somebody else may lose a job to- 
morrow it is not necessary to explain ? 

Mr. Doyle. You have had ample time to explain. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVere you appointed by the Los Angeles County 
Central Committee as a delegate to the State convention of the Inde- 
pendent Progressive Party in Sacramento in the year 1952? 


Mrs. BowERMAN. The same question, and I give the same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the central committee in 
the year 195'2? That is, the central committee of the Independent 
Progressive Party ? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I am not going to disclose my political affilia- 
tions, past, present, or future to this committee and I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. What grounds ? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. On the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what knowl- 
edge you have, if any, of Communist Party domination or control 
of the Independent Progressive Party in 1952 in the State of Cali- 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I refuse to answer that question. I think this 
is an infringement of my personal rights and I am finding myself 
feeling very resentful, which I regret. 

Mr. Jackson. On what ground do j^ou decline to answer ? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. On the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. DoYLE. Very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Comunist Party at 
any time between 1941 and 1945? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
July 1952 ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. That is the same question. 

Mr. Scherer. No, it is not. 

Mrs. Bowerman. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. On the same grounds ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Bowerman. I refuse to answer that question, too. 

Mr. Doyle. On what grounds ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. On the grounds of the first and the fifth amend- 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I liave no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr. Moulder. I have no questions other than to ask you if you were 
not a member of the Communist Party, would you refuse to answer? 

Mrs. Bowerman. That is also the same question. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that she be directed to answer Mr. Moulder's 

Mr. Doyle. You haven't stated the ground, on which you refused, 

Mrs, Bowerman. The same grounds that I previously stated. I 
wish to call to the attention of this committee that I read some lines 
recently that said that no ritualistic formula is necessary to invoke the 
privilege before this committee. That was in the Supreme Court 

Mr. Doyle. You didn't refer in your last answer to the Constitu- 

Mrs. Bowerman. I am happy to refer to it but it gets kind of 

Mr. Doyle. I assure you it is not ridiculous. 


Mr. SoHERER. Where are you teaching now ? 

Mrs. BowERMAN. I think I shall refuse to answer that question, too, 
because I think that is a matter 

Mr. Doyle. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. It is a matter of record, it is on the subpena. I was 
served at my place of employment and a question like this is simply 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. BowERMAN. You have the information on the subpena and the 
question is just a matter of further possible harassment. 

Mr. SchereR. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I so direct you, Witness. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. BowERMAN. May I inquire what the purpose of this question is 
in order to be able to give a proper answer ? 

Mr. ScHERER. No, you may not. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. How can people cooperate with you when you 
don't even want to indicate what reasons you are asking the question ? 

Mr. Doyle. You are being asked the question because we believe the 
question pertinent. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. Pertinent to what, to getting fired from my job? 

Mr. Jackson. Pertinent for proper identification. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. You have the identification. 

Mr. Jackson. I don't know where you are employed, I didn't know 
your name until you took the stand. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. It is in the record and it is on the subpena and I 
was served at my place of employment. You do have the information. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have we directed the witness to answer ? 

Mr. DoYLE. I direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. If she doesn't answer in my opinion she is in con- 
tempt. She hasn't invoked any constitutional privilege and if she 
would invoke a constitutional privilege I believe it would be an im- 
proper invocation. 

Mrs. BowERMAN. It is a matter of record and so I will answer it. 
I do not think and I am not invoking any privileges, I am going to 
answer the question but I certainly think that it is public harassment, 
because you already know and it is on the record, to force people 
to come up here and tell you where they are employed. That is the 
only ])ossible purpose it could serve. 

Mr. Jackson. Now where are you employed ? 

Mrs. Bowerman. I am employed by the Gardenville Park Coopera- 
tive Nursery School. 

Mr. Doyle. You are excused. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, as a result of investigation conducted 
by the staff of the committee during the course of this hearing, I 
understand you received a telegram from a person who desires to 
appear before the committee in regard to the subject which we have 
been inquiring about, and I understand he is here now and I also 
am informed that the committee unanimously agreed that he could 
appear here and testify. 

Mr. Doyle. I think I gave you the telegram, didn't I, Mr. Wheeler? 

Mr. Tavenner. I think Mr. Wlieeler has it. I understand he is 
here now and if it is the committee's pleasure, I will call him. 

Mr. Doyle. You hand me a telegram from Carl Sugar. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right. 


Mr. DoTXE. Mr. Sugar, will you come forward, if you are here. 
Will you please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear to 
tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you, 

Mr. Sugar. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Please be seated. We have your telegram, which was 
sent voluntarily, and without your having been subpenaed by this 
committee, in which you stated you believe your findings would be 
of value to this committee and held yourself available — that you be- 
lieved you had valuable information for us. We sent you a telegram 
saying come on and we would take time to hear you. 


Mr. Sugar. Thank you very much, Mr. Doyle. 

My name is Carl Sugar. I live in Stockton, Calif. I am a con- 
sulting industrial engineer. Back about 1936-37 I became quite agi- 
tated over the problem of fascism and nazism. I was in Los Angeles 
at the time, living here. I attended many meetings of the German- 
American Bund out at Hindenberg Park up above here in La Crescenta 
and I saw these people with fire in their eyes heiling Hitler, marching, 
drilling, and getting to the point where I was deej^ly agitated. 

I had read about the Nazis lining up their battleships in a little 
town off the coast of Spain and blasting the town out and I was 
worried. I attended meetings of the American League Against War 
and Fascism in the hope I would find some agency or something that 
would help me propagate against tliis type of subversive activity of the 

I attended their meetings and they weren't the answer. I then 
attended an open meeting of the Communist Party I think it was late 
in 1937 — I don't recall the exact time — at which time they put on a 
terrific demonstration against fascism, against the exact thing that 
I was opposed to. I felt that here was an organization that I could 
do some work in. At that time the Communist Party was on the 
ballot, it was legal, there was no animosity toward it to my knowledge, 
so I joined the party. 

After a while in the party I realized this wasn't the answer that in 
exchange for battling nazism they presented other problems that I 
could not take as an American citizen, so I left the party. 

Mr. DoYLE. How long were you in it ? 

Mr. Sugar. I judge about a year, but I wasn't too regular in attend- 
ance. I then went to Sacramento. I was appointed to the State 
board of forestry. While on the board I agitated wherever I could 
get a meeting to tell them about this problem, to tell them about the 
potential sabotage. If our forests were burned by saboteurs we would 
be blocked off and be in bad shape. I continued this actually 
until the war. Upon the attack at Pearl Harbor I took some photo- 
graphs I had obtained of these Nazi affairs. Incidentally, prominent 
Los Angeles citizens in those pictures, I took it to the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation. 

Mr. Doyle. What year was this ? 

Mr. Sugar. That would be in December 1941, after Pearl Harbor. 
Within a week or ten days after Pearl Harbor. 


I held myself in readiness at any time that they wanted any infor- 
mation from me and since that date I have been fighting all of those 
isms whether it is fascism, communism, or any others. 

During this period of time I have spent considerable of my own 
money and time in putting across these particular messages and as a 
result I have prepared a number of ideas that I would like to present 
to the committee for consideration. I think they will be helpful. 

Mr. Doyle. Any question, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. I would like to question the witness before 
he does that. 

Mr. Sugar, the staff of the committee as long ago as April of this 
year in the course of its investigations obtained evidence indicating 
your former Communist Party membership and I think you were 
interviewed by a member of the staff on one occasion. 

Mr. Sugar. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now the investigation indicates that the group or 
cell of the Communist Party of which you were a member was known 
as the Pasadena professional cell. Is that correct, or not? 

Mr. Sugar. Yes, I was assigned apparently in 1938 to that cell or 
that gToup. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Pasadena professional cell ? 

Mr. Sugar. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Our investigation further disclosed, Mr. Chairman, 
that that cell was made up of a number of students at Cal-Tech, prob- 
ably some ])rofessors, and a few on the outside. Is that in accordance 
with your recollection of it? 

Mr. Sugar. Well, yes ; as far as I can recall that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have made a careful investigation of the 
membership of the student body for the purpose of determining what 
happened to them after leaving school, and we are not prepared at this 
time to make public the names of any of those young students, but it 
is our information that Dr. Frank Oppenheimer was also a member of 
this professional group. Do you recall him in the group ? 

Mr. Sugar. I attended I think altogether three meetings of that 
group over quite a lengthy period of time. I asked too many ques- 
tions and they were the ones who kicked me out of the Communist 
Party, incidentally. I don't recall him or any of the people. 

Incidentally, I might add I have gone over this material a number 
of years ago with another governmental agency so I don't recall him 
at this time. I don't recall, to be very honest, who was there or who 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether there was any other physicist 
or teacher in Cal-Tech who was a member of this professional cell? 

Mr. Sugar. Again I am in a bad position because I didn't know 
who was who in that organization. I attended three or four meet- 
ings, I was never introduced to anybody. I wouldn't know them 
now. It has been after all about 12 years ago. I have never heard 
any of their names. 

Mr. Scherer. Sometimes in the party, particularly in the profes- 
sional cells, they used fictitious names. 

Mr. Sugar. Yes, I am so informed. I understand I was given a 
fictitious name, 

Mr. Tavenner. What was that name that you were given ? 

Mr. Sugar. C. C. Carl. 


Mr. Tavennek. How were you employed at the time you were a 
member of this cell of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sugar. I was employed by a large statewide banking organiza- 
tion handling fieldwork for them. 

Mr. Doyle. How old a man were you at that time ? 

Mr. Sugar. I would be about 26 years old. 

Mr. Ta\'exxer. I might advise you the substance of testimony that 
the committee took in executive session in April regarding your mem- 
bership. It was considered quite strange in the Communist Party, 
from information that we have received, that a member of the bank- 
ing profession should become a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr, Sugar. "Well, you are correct. I was seeking and I didn't find 
it so I got out. I was seeking an answer to the potential sabotage 
that the Xazis could bring upon our country. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Actually, the witness who testified before us was 
assigned the duty of investigating you, although he was in the Com- 
munist Party, to make sure that you were not in as an informer. 

Mr. Sugar. I don't know what he told you. but they finally did boot 
me out because I asked too many questions and I wasn't satisfied with 
what I found there. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Can you tell the committee, please, what other pro- 
fessions were represented in that group, if you know? 

Mr. Sugar. I don't know. I don't know who were schoolteachers, 
students, or oil station attendants. I never inquired and never found 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I might make this observation, that 
the testimony of this witness is not unusual. 

During the 21/^ years I have been a member of the committee, other 
individuals have testified before this committee and have stated that 
they entered the Communist Party for the same reason that you did 
in the late thirties and early forties, and of course this committee 
doesn't blame anyone for entering the party under those conditions. 
A number have testified, as I recall, that they got out of the party for 
the same reasons that you did, they found out it wasn't the answer. 

I believe it was Dr. Gorham Davis, from Harvard, who had an 
experience similar to 3'ours. He said he found out after he was in 
the party that there wasn't much difi'erence between nazism and 
the Communist philosophy. 

Mr. Jacksox. Do jon recall who recruited you into the party? 
"With whom did you make your first contact ? 

Mr. Sugar. The man by the name of Prokel, as I recall. 

Mr. Jacksox. Do you know how that was spelled ? 

Mr. Sugar. Xo ; I don't. Sounds like a fuimy name, but as I recall, 
that was the man's name. 

Mr. Jacksox. "Would you approximate the spelling of it ? 

Mr. Sugar. P-r-o-k-e-1, 1 would assume. I don't know. 

Mr. Jacksox. You do not recall any of the other individuals or the 
occupations of any other individuals with whom you were associated 
during the period of your membership in the party ? 

Mr. Sugar. Xo, Mr. Jackson, it has been a long time, a lot of water 
has gone under the bridge, I have talked to millions of people in the 
meantime. You will recall possibly I have somewhat of a public 
career in my life and as a result many organizations and I don't recall. 


Mr. Jackson. I press this only for your benefit in the event some 
day a witness takes the stand and says my good friend C. C. Carl went 
to a Communist convention, it would put an entirely different light 
on the matter, so I say under the compulsion of your oath you should 
search your memory to the best of your ability. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Sugar, you said your party name was C. C. 

Mr. Sugar. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee in the course of its investigations 
has been able to uncover from sources other than you a Communist 
Party book in the name of C. C. Carl. That is, the original book 
bearmg number 80715, issued on May 10, 1937, signed by William 
Schneiderman. Will you examine it, please, and state anything you 
know and can recall about the book ? 

Mr. Sugar. Yes, sir ; be glad to. 

If you have a question, Mr. Tavenner, on the book 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall having been issued that book ? 

Mr. Sugar. No, I can't, but I understand that that is the book that 
they issued and if I was a member of the party it is obvious that I did 
have it in my possession at least some time, or at least it was issued 
for me. The question being of course if I had it it wouldn't be here 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you what is known as a control card 
which we understand from the operations of the Communist Party 
must have been issued about July 1937. 

Will you examine it and see whether or not the C. C. Carl appear- 
ing there is your handwriting ? 

Mr. Sugar. It appears to be my handwriting; yes. The balance of 
it also appears to be my handwriting. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you another Communist Party book issued 
in December 1937. 

I will ask you if you can recall any facts regarding its issuance. 

Mr. Sugar. Frankly, I don't recall it. The fact is until I saw them 
in the hands of ]VIr. Wheeler some time ago I didn't remember even 
what they looked like or what they were. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. The committee has uncovered a list of Com- 
munist Party members prepared in State headquarters in San Fran- 
cisco in the year 1939, showing the names of those who had failed 
to reregister in the Communist Party in this area in the year 1938. 
Your name was on that list according to our investigation, indicating 
that they had to check up on you and follow up and get your registra- 
tion for the year 1938. We have located an alleged copy of the re- 
registration in 1939, a copy of which I will hand you. I do not know 
whether you signed it or not. 

Mr. Sugar. It is not mine. In 1939 I had been out of the Communist 
Party at least 6 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. I do have a registration card for you for 1938, 
reregistration. Will you examine it, please, and state wliether or not 
you recognize your handwriting on that document. 

Mr. Sugar. Yes, that I have seen before. That is my handwriting. 

Mr. Tavenner. I should have advised you in the document that I 
handed you preceding this that it is not a copy which somebody 
else prepared from your original. 


Mr. Sugar. It couldn't possibly have been, Mr. Tavenner, because 
by the middle of 1938 I was out fighting them and I continued all 
through 1939 and ever since. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what I have understood from your testi- 
mony, that since that time you have opposed the Communist Party in 
every way that you know how. 

Mr. Sugar. Right. 

Mr. Doyle. Anything else, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe that is all, Mr, Chairman. 

Mr. Dotle. Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr. Moulder. No questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said you had been active in fighting communism 
since 1938. I want to ask you in what way you have done that. 

Mr. Sugar. In 1938-39 on through until the war began I was fight- 
ing all types of sabotage, all types of isms that might be detrimental 
to our country and I did it through conservation practices. In 1939 
I became chairman of the State board of forestry here in California. 
I might tell you that I worked my way through college with the United 
States Forestry Service and I have been in experimental work and 
things of that nature and I realized that all these isms had to be de- 
stroyed and I brought with me some evidence of the work I did at the 
time and if I might be permitted, I would like to read at least a part 
of an editorial from the Los Angeles Times just prior to Pearl Harbor 
which I think will establish what I was doing. I would like very much 
to do these things. 

Mr. Scherer. I think they ought to be put in the record. 

Mr. Jackson. Because of the time element involved, I certainly have 
no objection to their being extended in the record and would so move. 

Mr. Sugar. Representative Jackson, I am up here being branded a 
Communist. Can't I defend myself back at the very beginning when 
I left the party in 1938-39 ? 

Mr. Jackson. That is the purpose. 

Mr. Sugar. These people and the newspapers won't read that tran- 
script where they will after many years I have gone. 

Mr. Jackson. I won't press the point. We have a considerable 
volume of work. 

Mr. Doyle. Can you just read briefly and identify the one editorial 
and read a brief portion and then we will make provision, I am sure 
the committee will approve inserting the balance of it, if you will fur- 
nish us those we will insert the pertinent portions and return to you 
the originals. 

Mr. Sugar. I am going to put this in the record, if I may at this 
time, but I feel very badly about this. I was under the impression I 
would be able to make a statement here about what I believe and how 
I am operating and what I think the committee can do, and I feel quite 
strongly about it, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Sugar, we have your telegram and I will read it and 
we will put it in the record showing this : 

Hon. Clyde Doyle, Chairman, House Un-American Activities Committee, Bilt- 
more Hotel, Los Angeles. 

I request permission to appear before your committee in Los Angeles to present 
my views regarding your committee work. I liave spent over 20 years studying 
group motivations and believe my findings will be of value to your committee for 
discussion and possible legislation. I will be available for any other matters 
your committee may wish to discuss with me. 

Cabi. Sugab. 


Mr. Sugar. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think, Mr. Doyle, we should take the time and let 
him read some of the excerpts. 

Mr. Sugar. Thank you very much, Mr. Scherer. This is on the 
editorial page of the August 21, 1941, issue of the Los Angeles Times 
and this is actually what is here, I am not going to give it substance, 
I will read it : 

Carl Sugar has been worrying 20 years about our forest situation and can't 
get anyone to listen to him. Sugar says that in midsummer a few planes carrying 
incendiary bombs could sweep over California from Mexico to Washington and 
start tires which would put all our main highways and railroads out of commis- 
sion and there wouldn't be enough efficient fire fighters in the State to put them 
out and we have potential saboteurs in the State. The CCC boys are trained to 
fight forest fires, but now there are fewer than there were. The orange packing 
plant operators have been more farsighted than most groups of businessmen and 
have promised in case of fire their crews will aid in fire fighting but Sugar says 
those crews are not trained to the job. He thinks the National Guard might 
have fire-fighting units and major disaster organizations should make plans for 
every town in California. 

He seems to have something. Maybe we should all join Pasadena in urging 
Uncle Sam not to reduce CCC activities there but with so many boys in the Army 
it may be hard to find enough to fill the CCC camps. 

If I may, I won't go into any more back history. I am sure that if 
there are any questions about what I was doing on those days 

Mr. Doyle. You mentioned here in your telegram that you thought 
you had some matters of value to the committee and matters of possible 

Mr. Sugar. Yes, I have, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you take the time of the committee briefly to give 
us that, with the understanding that you will furnish us promptly 
elaboration of your suggestions in the field of legislation, because under 
our law 601 that is one of the very — in fact, it is the only thing — that 
justifies the committee's existence in the major premise, and then if 
you can, Mr. Sugar, file some of the papers involving your back history 
with us, but give us briefly the benefit of your suggestions on legisla- 
tion and then elaborate on it in a written statement. 

Mr. Sugar. I will be happy to. I have several points here that I 
think will be of interest. I started out by stating that there are many 
groups actually fomenting racial disturbances and all types of diffi- 
culties today here in the United States recruiting great numbers of 
people because of certain identification, fear, profit motives involved. 
I say that we can counteract these groups by publicity, by your com- 
mittee picking on these groups, showing what motivates them, why 
do people join them and show them the antidote and of Americanism 
and what we believe in here. 

The second one is on schools. I believe that in 1930 in Germany 
there were many brilliant, well-trained men led astray because a man 
knew how to mold them. They weren't trained in our daily work, 
weren't trained in motivations in life. The Soviet Union has done 
the same thing. I feel our schools are falling down because all they 
are doing is training the mind, not training the people. I feel that 
we should teach these people in schools starting with seniors in the 
high school, about all of these anti-American dogmas, ideologies and 
how they operate and how we can eft'ectively combat them so they are 
on the watch and not to be taken in by any of these groups. 


Then I suggest a new evaluation of the word "Communist." This 
committee is interested, and I feel that I would like to read what I have 
written here just to take a moment. 

Mr. DoTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Sugar. New evaluation of the word "Communist." Twenty- 
five years ago many people joined many different organizations, being 
motivated by many and various personal reasons. Many of these 
people were mere sojourners during a period of personal need. The 
stigma of "Commies" has been attached to many of these people 
innocent of wrongdoing unaware that their motives at that time were 
easily explained, yet they live under a badge of dishonor. 

I suggest legislation or administrative action in classifying Com- 
munists and others subversives based upon a sound reasoning. I might 
say in this morning's Times there was a statement to the same ehect 
by the subcommittee of the Internal Security Committee of the Senate. 

Mr. ScHERER. Could I interrupt ? 

Mr. Sugar. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think your case here clearly demonstrates that this 
committee has already followed what you have suggested, xVs you 
know, the committee made an investigation, an investigation that up 
until this moment has never been made public, it is only made public 
because you requested that you be here. 

Mr. Sugar. Right. 

]Mr. ScHERER. The committee had ample proof that you were a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, but never called you because it felt that 
your membership was only transitory. It got some idea of why you 
joined the party and, as I said to you before, there are many people in 
the late thirties that joined the party for the reasons that you say 
you joined and then got out of it. So the conmiittee isn't interested 
in smearing anybody as we are charged, because you are only one of 
many individuals that have been investigated and then nothing has 
been done, nobody ever knows, you have never been identified publicly 
by this committee. 

So we do follow what you suggest here that mere membership in 
the party doesn't mean that we call a witness before this committee. 
We call a witness before this committee because we feel he has con- 
tinued his membership in the Communist Party or because he has 
valuable information which will help this committee in doing its job, 
and in recommending remedial legislation. 

Mr. DoTLE. Thank you, Mr. Sugar. 

Mr. Sugar. Let me finish one more thought. In this particular last 
one I was interested in many things that motivate people to join 
organizations: Lack of job. Anybody loses his job, the first man 
comes down the line and says "Our group will get you a job," he joins 
it. I feel many problems are because we haven't gone to the source 
or the seed that creates these situations and I have several suggestions 

One, we have juvenile delinquency and young people roaming the 
streets. I suggest revival of the Civilian Conservation Corps between 
high school and the going into the military service. It will do a lot 
of good for American conservation and we will have good Americans 
as a result. 

There are a number of other things in letting the people know, let 
Americans know what is behind the Iron Curtain, let them know what 


is happening in America. We tell them these things happen behind 
the Iron Curtain but we haven't educated our people in what is hap- 
pening right in America and I feel that is a big field we have to get 

I might say that in closing, I know you want to go, but in 1939 I 
appeared before the Bankhead Committee on Forestry in San Fran- 
cisco dealing with the Clarke-McNary fund. Prior to that time they 
had allocated no money for public information. The only money that 
went out would be for treatises by foresters for foresters and I went 
before that committee and Dan Eeed I think is the last living member 
of that committee, and asked them to provide money for specialists to 
provide the people with knowledge of what is happening to their 
forests, what is happening to conservation, how they can help, and 
as a result today we have it. 

Mr. Doyle. Any other question of Mr. Sugar ? 

You are in the same position other witnesses have been before the 
committee. We simply don't have time to hear as much dissertation 
as we would like to. But will you please file your data with us. 
Mr. Sugar. I will be happy to. 

Mr. DoYLE. We appreciate your coming to us at your own expense 
and taking your time and your money to do so. 
Mr. Sugar. Thank you. 

Mr. DoYLE. I wish to thank you for your information. 
Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Matthew Vidaver, will you come forward, 
please sir. 

Mr. ViDA\^R. My counsel is not here, Mr. Chairman. He was here 
a minute ago, but he left. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that Mr. Margolis ? 
Mr. Vidaver. That is right. 

Mr. Taxhenner. I am very much afraid Mr. Margolis may have mis- 
understood me. 

Mr. Vidaver. He said you said I would not be on today. 
Mr. Tavenner. I said there is a chance we wouldn't reach you and 
that is where he misunderstood me. 
Mr. Vidaver. Sorry. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think in light of that we could scarcely get Mr. 
Margolis back here in time. 

Mr. DoYLE. As long as you said there was a chance he wouldn't be 
called, he took the chance. That was about a quarter to five. It is 
10 minutes to 5. Is there anything else you must do this afternoon in 
the next 10 minutes ? 
Mr. Tavenner. No. 
Mr. Jackson. I move we adjourn. 

Mr. Doyle. We will adjourn until 9 o'clock in the morning. 
(Whereupon, at 4 :50 p. m. the committee was recessed, to reconvene 
at 9 a. m. the following day, Thursday, June 30, 1955.) 



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