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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the St. Louis, Mo., area. Hearing"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



r 

INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA— PART 1 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOUKTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JUNE 4, 1956 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



(INDEX IN PART 4 OF THIS SERIES) 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

.OCT 5 1956 

UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1956 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE. California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER. Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Richard Arens, Director 

II 



CONTENTS 



Executive Hearings (See Part 3)i 

June 2, 1956: Testimony of— Page 

Joseph John Schoemehl 4949" 

Loval Hammack 4966- 

George V. L. Hardy.. 4971 

June 4, 1956: Testimony of — 

Joseph John Schoemehl (resumed) 4979 

Obadiah Jones 4981 

Public Hearings 

PART 1 
June 4, 1956: Testimony of — 

William W. Cortor 4724 

Afternoon session: 

William W. Cortor (resumed) 4758 

James H Sage 4761 

Elliott Waxman 4784 

Leslie S. Davison 4793^ 

Sol S. Nissen 4794 

John William Simpson __. 4798 

PART 2 
June 5, 1956: Testimony of — 

John William Simpson (resumed) 4803 

William Henry Holland. _ _ 4808 

Harvev John Dav 4818 

Thelma Hecht (Mrs. Julius Hecht) 4825 

Brockman Schumacher 4829 

Thomas A. Younglove 4834 

Afternoon session: 

Thomas A. Younglove (resumed) 4845 

Orville Leach 4864 

Zollie C. Carpenter 4869 

James Payne 4876 

Helen Aukamp Sage (Mrs. James H. Sage) 4883 

PART 3 
June 6, 1956: Testimony of — 

Dr. SolLonde... _ 4889 

William Edwin Davis 4895 

Ida Holland (Mrs William Henry Holland) 4899 

Edwin Leslie Richardson. 4902 

Anne (Ann) Yasgur Kling 4912 

Afternoon session: 

Anne (Ann) Yasgur Kling (resumed) 4920 

Gilbert Harold Hall. 4940 

Richard L. Stanford - 4944 

Romey Hudson 4945 

* Released by the committee August 24, 1956, and ordered to be printed. 

m 



IV CONTENTS 

PART 4 

June 8, 1956: Testimony of— ^^^ 

Helen Musiel — 4993 

Hershel James Walker 5000 

George Kimmel 5004 

Hershel James Walker (recalled) 5014 

Linus E. Wampler 5017 

George Kimmel (recalled) 5026 

Afternoon session: 

Dr. John F Rutledge 5028 

Ella Mae Posey Pappademos 5051 

Clara Perkins (Mrs. Haven Perkins; 5058 

Haven Perkins 5065 

Julius Hecht 5069 

Sol Derman 5070 

Douglas MacLeod 5072 



Index. 



1 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-AmericaD 
Activities operates is Public Law GOl, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OP COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

* :):•:): 4= * * * 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress; 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

:|c :!< :ic 4: H< 4= 4= 

Rule XI 

POWEKS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make, from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of S'ibversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. -, 

VI 



LWESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA— PART 1 



MONDAY, JUNE 4, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

St. Louis, Mo. 
public hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 10 a. m., pursuant to call, in room No. 3, United States Courthouse 
and Customs Building, St. Louis, Mo.; Hon. Morgan M. Moulder 
(chairman of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Morgan M. Moulder, 
of Missouri; James B. Frazier, Jr., of Tennessee; and Gordon H. 
Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; George C. 
Williams and Raymond T. Collins, investigators. 

Mr. Moulder. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Let the record show that the Honorable Francis E. Walter, of 
Pennsylvania. Chairman of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
of the United States House of Representatives, pursuant to law and 
the rules of this committee, has duly appointed a subcommittee for 
the purpose of conducting this hearing, composed of Representatives 
James B. Frazier, Jr., of Tennessee, who sits on my left, Gordon H. 
Scherer, of Ohio, who sits on my right, and myself, Morgan M. 
Moulder, of Missouri, as chairman. 

The Chair desires to make the following statement which has been 
prepared and approved by all of the members of this committee. 

This committee has devoted much time to the investigation of the 
subject of communism, and has endeavored to keep Congress well 
informed regarding the extent, character, and objects of the Com- 
munist conspiracy in this country. 

This is a continuation of similar investigations held in many of the 
most vital industrial cities in our Nation. In the performance of this 
work the committee has made reports to Congress prior to the present 
84th Congress in which 48 recommendations were made for new legis- 
lation or for the strengthening of existing legislation designed to aid 
in the fight against subversive communism. All but four of these 
recommendations have been enacted, in one form or another, into 
law by the Congress of the United States. Among these are the 
Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, the Communist Control 
Act of 1954, and the Immunity Act. 

4721 



4722 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

The purpose of this hearing is to investigate the extent, character, 
and objects of un-American propaganda activities which emanate from 
foreign countries or of a domestic origin and which attack the princi- 
ple of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, as 
well as all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation, with special reference to Com- 
munist infiltration in industrial plants, in mass organizations, and in 
the professions. 

It has been duly established by testimony before congressional 
committees and before the courts of our land that the Communist 
Party of the United States is a part of an international conspiracy 
which is being used as a tool or weapon by a foreign power to promote 
its own foreign policy, and which has for its object the overthrow of 
the governments of all non-Communist countries, resorting to the use 
of force, if necessary. 

Communism cannot successfully exist in our country except by the 
promulgation and diffusion of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda, and, in the opinion of this committee, every person who 
remains a member of the Communist Party is contributing to the 
ult'mate accomplishment of the objectives of the Communist Party. 

Communism and Communist activities cannot be investigated in 
a vacuum. Therefore, it is necessary, if Congress is to legislate in- 
telligently on the subject, to call as witnesses those whom the com- 
mittee has reason to believe have laiowledge on the subject. This 
the committee proposes to do in the discharge of the responsibilities 
placed upon us by the Congress of the United States. From such 
knowledge acquired it is the hope of the committee that legislative 
means may be found to more adequately protect our form of govern- 
ment and our country and our American way of life from the threat 
of this international Communist conspiracy. 

The leaders of the Soviet Union have recently launched a new 
tactical maneuver which is dangerous for the United States. They 
have adopted new tactics to weaken and discredit anticommunism 
within the United States. 

The general approach of this new policy is to appear more con- 
ciliatory, and to encourage non-Communist countries to make con- 
cessions in the name of a false Communist spirit of peace and civil 
liberties which we in America hold dear and have always sought and 
defended. 

They seek to smear this committee. They seek to dismantle anti- 
Communist legislation and achieve a false, so-called peaceful coexist- 
ence which will not resist future Soviet aggression and Communist 
subversion. 

The military might of the Soviet Union remains intact, and the 
dictatorial leaders of the Communist Soviet Union now control and 
direct more than one-third of the entire world. 

The new Communist policy is shrewdly designed to lull the American 
people into complacenc}^, inertia, and ultimately achieve the ripe 
opportunity for world communism under the iron heel of Soviet 
totalitarianism. 

We the members of this committee, and our hard-working staff of 
counsel and investigators, are not deceived by the new Communist 
propaganda, and we are not going to be stampeded or discouraged 
in the work delegated to us by the Congress of the United States. 



COJVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4723 

And we will not relax our fight against the spread of communism 
because of unjust criticism and because of smokescreen smear attacks 
on us as individuals or as a committee by the Communist Party and 
their fellow travelers. 

The committee wants it understood that in the conduct of this 
hearing we are not interested in any dispute between labor and man- 
agement or between one union and another union. 

Neither are we interested m the internal affairs of any labor union. 

We propose to ascertain the facts regarding Communist schemes 
and the activities of individuals affiliated with them, whether that be 
in the field of labor or in any other field, so that Congress will be 
enabled to legislate more ably and comprehensively on the subject. 

It is the standing rule of this committee that any person identified 
as a member of the Communist Part\^ during the course of the com- 
mittee hearings be given an early opportunity to appear before this 
committee, if he desires, for the purpose of denying, affirming, or 
explaining any testimony adversely aft'ecting him. If this be any 
person's desire, he should communicate with a member of the staff. 

The committee has observed from the press that 10 days prior to 
this hearing the bar association of St. Louis oft'ered its services to 
any witness subpenaed to appear before this committee who is unable 
to obtain the services of an attorney. 

As pointed out by the press, the committee, not being a court, is 
without power to appoint counsel for witnesses. However, the com- 
mittee for many years has encouraged witnesses to secure counsel, 
and, on a number of occasions, has requested local bar associations 
to furnish counsel for witnesses. Notable examples of instances in 
which local bars have rendered outstanding services to witnesses at 
the suggestion of this committee are Seattle, Wash., and Flint, Mich. 
We earnestly compliment the bar association of St. Louis for its 
action in this matter, expecially in view of the fact that it was with- 
out any suggestion on the part of the committee. 

May I make it clear that an attorne}^ who appears before this com- 
mittee as counsel for a witness, that that fact should not in itself be 
taken as any disparagement or reflection whatsoever against the lawyer 
for doing so, because he is so representing the witness as a part of his 
duty in the conduct of his work in his profession as a lawyer. And 
we invite and encourage counsel to be present. 

I would remind those present that we are here as Members of 
Congi'ess and as authorized and directed by the Congi*ess of the 
United States to discharge a duty placed upon us by Public Law 60 L 

Spectators are here by permission of the committee, and I trust 
that tliroughout the hearings you wiU conduct yourselves as guests 
of the committee. 

A disturbance of any Idnd or audible comment during the course of 
the testimony, whether favorable or unfavorable to any witness or to 
the committee, will not be tolerated. For any mfraction of this rule 
the offender or offenders will be ejected from the hearing room. 

I trust it is only necessary to call this matter to your attention, 
and that it will not be necessary to repeat it. 

In accordance with the rules of the House of Representatives, there 
will be no telecast or radio broadcast of testimony or proceedings had 
by this committee in this hearing room. 

Still photography is not permitted while a witness is testifying. 

81594 — 56 — pt. 1 2 



4724 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST, LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Please observe the rules of the Federal com*t that there be no 
smoking in the room. 

Call your first witness, please, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. William W. Cortor. 

Will you come forward, please. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which 
you are about to gwe before the subcommittee will be the truth, the 
whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Cortor. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Please be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM W. CORTOR 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Cortor. It is William W. Cortor, spelled C-o-r-t-o-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Cortor, it is the practice of the committee to 
advise all witnesses that they are entitled to have counsel present with 
them if they so desire, and to confer with counsel at any time during 
the course of their testimony. I wanted you to know that you have 
that right if you desire to exercise it. 

When and where were you born, Mr. Cortor? 

Mr. Cortor. I was born in Saint Francis County, Mo., on March 4, 
1912. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere do you now reside? 

Mr. Cortor. 1859 Irving Place, Wellston, Mo. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been? 

Mr. Cortor. I finished grammar school, and had a little training 
in business college. That is the extent of my formal education. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the general nature of your present em- 
ployment? 

Mr. Cortor. I am employed on the towboats operated on the 
Mississippi and Ohio Rivers by various private companies. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Cortor, have you had an occasion in the past 
to become a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Cortor. I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Ai-e you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Cortor. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which you first became a member? 

Mr. Cortor. It was back in 1938 while I was on strike at the 
Emerson Electric Co. plant here in St. Louis that I first came in con- 
tact with the Young Communist League during my strike activities. 
And in the following September I joined the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. W^ere you employed at the Emerson Electric Co. 
at the time you mentioned? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes; I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did I understand you to say that you first became 
a member of the Young Communist League? 

Mr. Cortor. That is correct. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4725 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee, please, how you became a 
member, and the circumstances under which you became a member 
of the Young Communist League. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, I was very active in the organization of Emerson 
Electric and also in the conduct of the strike when I was approached 
by Henry Fiering and asked if I had ever read anything of Communist 
literature or anything of that type. And I told him "No." 

So he invited me to attend the meeting of the Young Communist 
League, which I attended, and joined the Young Communist League 
during that meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. At this point, will you tell us a little more about 
Henry Fiering. Other than his Communist Party activities, in what 
work was he engaged? 

Mr. CoRTOR. He was a strike leader at the Century Electric Co. 
which was on strike at the same time as Emerson. 

Mr. Tavenner. At what plant? 

Mr. CoRTOR. The Century Electric Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether he was at that time or at 
a later time an official in a union? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What union? 

Mr. CoRTOR. The United Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall what position he held in the United 
Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers of America? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, in 1945 he was international representative 
working in the Dayton area, Dayton, Ohio, area, for the UE. 

Mr. Scherer. In what year was he working in the Dayton area? 

Mr. Cortor. 1945. 

Mr. Scherer. When was the Univis strike in Dayton, counsel? 
He said this man Fiering was active in the Dayton area in about 
1945. Do you recall the date of the Univis strike in Dayton? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. That was in 1948. 

I may say to the subcommittee that Mr. Fiering was called as a 
witness before this committee on August 30, 1950, and was asked 
various questions relating to alleged Communist Party activities 
engaged in by him. But he refused to answer material questions on 
the ground that to do so might tend to incriminate him. 

Now you say that it was this Mr. Henry Fiering who brought you 
into the Young Communist League in 1938? 

Mr. Cortor. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long after that was it that you became a 
member of the Communist Party itself? 

Mr. Cortor. It was in September of the same year. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did that occur? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, I was called in to the party office, which at 
that time was at Vandeventer and Olive, and informed that my name 
had been submitted as a candidate for a national fulltime training 
school to be held somewhere in upstate New York. And I told the 
person at that time that I didn't feel that I was eligible for such a 



4726 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

school due to the fact that I wasn't a member of the Communist 
Party. 

At that time they gave me an application, which I filled out for 
membership in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. After filling out your membership requirements, 
were you selected for this training school? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No. I was rejected by the National office of the 
Communist Party due to the fact that I hadn't been a member of the 
party long enough. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was selected in your place? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Antonia Sentner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, this is the same training school or 
school for the training of leadership in the Communist Party about 
which the committee has received considerable evidence in the past. 

Will you tell the committee, please, if you can recall at this time, 
the other persons who entered the Young Communist League at the 
same time or approximately the same time that Henry Tiering induced 
you to become a member? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Mr. Louis Kimmel joined the same night I did, and 
his brother George joined sliortly afterward. 

Mr. Tavenner. The spelling of the name Kimmel is K-i-m-m-e-1, 
is it not? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did they also become members of the Communist 
Party with you? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Not at the same time. I don't know just when the 
two officially joined the Communist Party, but they did join later 
on. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think I will ask you at this time to give the 
committee the names of the leaders of the Comaiunist Party in St. 
Louis at the time you became a member or shortly thereafter. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Mr. Alfred Wagenknecht was a district organizer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the staff has investigated the cor- 
rect spelling of that name, and it is W-a-g-e-n-k-n-e-c-h-t. 

What position did he hold in the Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. He was a district organizer or State chairman of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well, sir, if you will proceed. 

Mr. CoRTOR. And his wife, Carolyn Drew, was also a leading party 
person. Exactly what position she held in the State apparatus I could 
not say at this time. 

There were William and Antonia Sentner, Henry Tiering, and Clara 
Wernick. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell Wernick? 

Mr. CoRTOR. W-e-r-n-i-c-k. 

Mr. Tavenner. I interrupted you. What were you going to tell 
the committee regarding her? 

Mr. CoRTOR. She was also the State chairman of the Young Com- 
munist League at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she the wife of Henry Fiering? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is right. 

There was also Ralph Shaw and his wife Sarah. Otto Miller. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the last? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Otto Miller. 



COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4727 

Mr. Tavenner. Otto Miller? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that the same individual who was subsequently 
deported? 

Mr. Cortor. To the best of my knowledge he is. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliy was he deported, counsel? 

Mr. Tavenner. It was pursuant to the immigration laws in con- 
nection with an immigration hearing. 

Do you know what position of leadership he had in any union? 

Mr. Cortor. Not during that period. He was a full-time func- 
tionary for the Communist Party at that time. He later became 
head of one of the plants in the Amalgamated Local of the UE here 
in St. Louis. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was an official of the UE, United Electrical, 
Radio, and Machine Workers of America? 

Mr. Cortor. He was an official of one of the locals. Whether he 
had a title in the district or not I couldn't say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether he was president of that 
local or not? 

Mr. Cortor. I believe he was. I could not swear definitely that 
he was a president. But he was a high official in the local. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether that local was 819? 

Mr. Cortor. I believe it was. Either local 819 or 810. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are not certain of the number of the local? 

Mr. Cortor. The Benjamin Air Rifle plant is where he worked. 

Mr. Moulder. May I interrupt, Mr. Tavenner, at this point? 

If the witness can, when naming persons and identifying them as 
Communist Party members, if possible and wherever possible, it has 
been the rule of this committee to ask the witness to give any specific 
description or identification of this person as much as possible so that 
the name may not be confused with other persons who might not 
have been members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. With what other leaders of the Communist Party 
did you become acquainted in your Communist Party activities whose 
names you have not mentioned? 

Mr. Cortor. The leaders in that period 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you if you were acquainted with 
Robert Manewitz. 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. The correct spelling of the name, Mr. Chairman, 
according to the committee's investigation, is M-a-n-e-w-i-t-z. 

How long did you remain in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Cortor. It was up until the fall of 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you then become a member again at a later 
period? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes, in the early spring of 1951. 

Mr. Tavenner. And then how long did you remain active in the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Cortor. Until the trial of the Smith Act defendants that was. 
held here in St. Louis in this com'troom. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1954? 

Mr. Cortor. In 1954, that is right. 



4728 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Was your identity as a member of the Communist 
Party disclosed at that time? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. Also, including your identity at that time as a 
person who had been working in the Communist Party at the request 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. So that your membership in the Communist 
Party was from 1938 until 1954 — that is, yom- active membership — 
except during the period from 1947 to 1951? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner, I wish you would tell the committee, please, at 
this time what the organizational setup of the Communist Party was 
when you first became a member of it and as you progressed in it. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, at that time the party apparatus was set up 
on the basis of neighborhood branches and also industrial branches 
and fractions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall how many neighborhood branches 
or groups of the Communist Party there were in St. Louis? 

Mr. CoRTOR. At that period of time it would be hard for me to say 
b.^cause I wasn't involved too much in neighborhood work. 
• Mr. Tavenner. Can you, from your recollection, identify any of 
those groups at the time that you went into it? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, there was one group that met at the Vanguard 
Book Shop at 3528 Franklin Avenue, and another group that met at 
1383 Goodfellow. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt at this point to 
clarify one thing? 

Were you an undercover agent for the Federal Bm*eau of Investiga- 
tion when you first joined the party in 1947? 

Mr, CoRTOR. 1938. No, sir; I wasn't. 

Mr. ScHERER. 1938 I mean. 

Mr. CoRTOR. But in the last period I was in the party. 

Mr. ScHERER. You reentered the Communist Party in 1951 then 
at the request of the Federal Bureau of Investigation? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were telling us about the second group, neigh- 
borhood group. I did not understand what area you said they were 
from. 

Mr. CoRTOR. They were from the West Side. It was one of the 
West Side groups, and they met at 1383 Goodfellow. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell us what people generally made up 
that West Side group of the Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, the good proportion of the membership of that 
group were members of the International Workers Order. And the 
building, so I understand, that they met in was owned by the Inter- 
national Workers Order. 

Mr. Tavenner. You spoke of industrial groups. Will you teU the 
committee the number of industrial groups, as far as you can recall, 
during this early period of your membership; that is, from 1938 to 
1947. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, there were four that I know of in the electrical 
industry. And during this early part — 1938 through the early 
1940's — there were quite a few groups in different steel plants in St. 
Louis. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4729 

Mr. Tavenner. In your judgment, all in all, how many groups of 
the Communist Party were there in industrial plants? 

Mr. CoRTOR. It would be hard for me to say the exact number that 
there were. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you give us the names of the plants in which 
these industrial groups were organized, as far as you can recall at this 
time, including the union that organized the particular plant. 

Mr. Cortor. There was a group at Emerson Electric which was 
organized by the UE. 

There was a group in Century Electric, also organized by the UE. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment, please. 

What local of the UE organized Emerson Electric? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. That was Local 1102. At Century Electric 
it was Local 1108 of the UE. And then there was a group in Wagner 
Electric, which was Local 1104. And a group in the Amalgamated 
local, which was Local 828 at the time, if I remember correctly. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Amalgamated local of the UE meant that that 
consisted of a local which had organized a number of smaller 
independent plants? 

Mr. Cortor. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have referred to a number of groups at that 
time in the steel plants. Can you elaborate on that? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, I knew of one group that was at the St. Louis 
Car Co. plant, which was organized by the Steel Workers' Organizing 
Committee. \^^iat the local number was there I couldn't say. And 
the various other steel plants, I couldn't identify the plants by name 
at the present time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien you refer to these groups of the Communist 
Party at Emerson Electric, Century Electric, and so on, are you 
referring to groups of the Communist Part}^ which had been organized 
among the employees at those plants? 

Mr. Cortor. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the Communist Party did they generally refer 
to those groups of the Communist Party by the name of the plant in 
which they were working? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said there were also fractions, that the organ- 
izational setup included fractions. What do you mean by that? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, you would have your different groups in the 
various plants, and each one of these groups would have 1 or 2 people 
selected to meet as a fraction for the industry as a whole. 

Mr. Tavenner. So that in industry, for instance, if you had a 
fraction meeting you had present representatives from these various 
organized groups of the Communist Party meeting in one meeting? 

Mr, Cortor. That is right, 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you place a reasonably accurate estimate on 
the Communist Party membersliip in St. Louis during that early 
period between 1938 and 1947? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, the first part of 1940 the party made the 
announcement that, if I remember the figure correctl}^ they gave it 
at 512 for the districtwide membership of the Communist Party at 
that time. 

The district at that time was composed of Missouri and Arkansas. 



4730 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give the committee any fair estimate as 
to the proportion of that membership which was located in the 
St. Louis area? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Oh, I would say 90 percent. 

Mr. Tavenner. After 3^ou returned to the Communist Party in 
1951 you found that there had been quite a change, did you not, in 
the organization of the groups? That for security reasons the groups 
consisted of much smaller numbers. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you ever in a position after 1951 to make 
any substantial estimate of the membership, any substantially correct 
estimate? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No, I wasn't. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Counsel, do you not think you should ask him 
to explain in reply to your question in which you asked whether the 
groups were much smaller in 1951 because of security reasons? Could 
he elaborate on that? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; I think it would be well to explain it at this 
point, although I had expected to go into that later. 

Mr. Scherer. I will withdraw the request. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe now is the best time to do it since we 
have mentioned the matter. 

What security provisions did the Communist Party have at the 
time you again became a member of it in 1951? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, the group memberships were, in the vast 
majority of cases, limited to not over 4 in any 1 group. And there 
would be only one person in that group wlio would be in contact with 
the next higher body, which would be the section. And then the 
section leaders, people in the section — tnere would be one person in 
that group who would be in contact with the next higher body, and so 
on up. 

Mr. Scherer. What was the reason for that. Witness? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, they were afraid of being exposed. 

Mr. Tavenner. The trial of the first Smith Act case was begun in 
1949 and the committee has abundant evidence indicating that the 
plan which 3'ou say was in effect liere in St. Louis was put into effect 
generally over the country in 1950. 

Mr. Scherer. For the purpose of preventing exposure. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, and for the purpose of concealing activities. 

Going back to the organizational setup of the Communist Party, 
what was the next higher level of the Communist Party above that of 
neighborhood groups? 

Mr. Cortor. The city committee — do you mean in the early period? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Cortor. It would be the city committee, and then the State 
committee, and then the national body. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said there was a chain of organization from 
the lowest level of the neighborhood groups straight to the national 
body in New York City? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. And at that time also the International body, 
the Communist International. 

Mr. Tavenner. To the Communist International. 

When you first became a member of the Communist Party in 1938 
were you assigned to any particular group of the Communist Party? 



CO]VIMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4731 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. I was assigned to the Emerson group. I was 
an employee of Emerson at that time, and I was assigned to work and 
maintain my party membership in that group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was the chairman or leader of the Emerson 
group? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, the group was led by both William Sentner 
and Robert Manewitz. William Sentner also met with all the other 
groups and with the local head of the union at that period. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of the Emer- 
son group? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Oh, it was up until the latter part of 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were the meetmgs held? 

Mr. CoRTOR. There were several held at the Vanguard Book Shop, 
1 or 2 held at the party office at Vandeventer and Olive, and in various 
homes would be meetings of the group. 

Mr. Tavenner. At that period of time, what was the general 
course that the meetings took? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Just about 90 percent of the discussion would be 
involved around the problems in the local unions, and recruiting of 
further members from the local unions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what the principal 
purpose of the Communist Party was in organizing these various 
groups in industry at that time? 

Mr. CoRTOR. To either maintain themselves in control or to obtain 
control of the local trade-union apparatus, and to further the program 
of the Communist Party in those trade unions. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think I will ask you at this time a question regard- 
ing certain decisions made by the Communist Party which were 
made about the time that you left the Communist Party in 1947. 

I desire to read into the record at this point, as a basis for f mother 
questioning of this witness, "Schoemehl E.xhibit No. 1," 

Mr. Moulder. Has that exhibit been admitted in evidence? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, it was first introduced in the executive 
testimony of Mr. Schoemehl. 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. This is a copy of a report by Ray Koch, organiza- 
tional secretary- of the Communist Party, under date of April 14, 
1947, which the staff, in the com-se of its investigation, procured. 
This exhibit reads as follows: 

Organization Department Report to Clubs, April 14, 1947 

Following consultation ^^^th the national organization commission of our party, 
the Missouri State board has made a number of important decisions. These 
decisions are for the purpose of strengthening our party and its leadership in 
order that our party can fulfill its role in organizing and leading the struggles of 
our class and our people in Missouri. These decisions on Organization include: 

1. That the Missouri district implement immediately and seriously its con- 
centration policy in the electrical and machine industry, by establishing a con- 
centration section plus the assignment of one fulltime person to head the 
concentration work. 

2. That Ray Koch be assigned as organization secretary of the district full t inic, 
and that Al Murphy be assigned to full-time work as North Side section organizer 
and to raise the level of party activity among the Negro masses. 



81694— 56— pt. 1- 



4732 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

3. That, following the establishment of a concentration section, the remaining 
West Side clubs be consolidated with the North Side section, except that the 
Haldane (student) Club shall be assigned to the Professional section. 

4. Organizational assignments involving the promotion of a number of com- 
rades are being made for the following posts: (a) Educational director, (6) litera- 
ture director, (c) press director, (d) finance and dues secretaries. The heads of 
these departments, together with the organizational secretary shall constitute 
the organizational department, to assist the sections and clubs in the proper 
organization and execution of their work. 

5. A capable comrade is being assigned as trade union director to assist with the 
board in the coordination of the trade-union work of the party. 

6. Additional commissions l)eing established to assist in the development 
and guidance of party work are: (a) Youth commission, (b) Negro commission, 
(c) Review commission, (d) Out-State committee. 

The above organizational decisions will aid in the development of collective 
leadership, division of work, and a greater all-around organizational efficiency. 

Ray Koch, 
Organization Secretary, 

When you returned to the Communist Party m 1951, and up until 
1954, was the Communist Party continuing this program of concen- 
tration in the electrical and machine industry? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the course of your Communist Party activity 
did you become acquainted with Al Murphy? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he engage in the work indicated that he had 
been assigned to by this report? 

Mr. Cortor. He had engaged in that work for several years before 
then, to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Reference was made to the Out-State committee. 
What is meant by Out-State committee? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, I am not famihar with that letter due to the 
fact that I was a merchant seaman at that time and was at sea at the 
time that letter came out. But, in my judgment, it would be a com- 
mittee to coordinate the work of the party jjeople who lived outside of 
the St. Louis area. 

Ml'. Tavenner. And in the district generally? 

Mr. Cortor. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is meant by review commission? 

Mr. Cortor. That would be a commission they would set up to 
review the activities of the party, different sections of the party for a 
previous period. 

Mr. Scherer. Did the review commission have diaciphnary power 
over the members of the party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. As to that I couldn't say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you get an answer to the question? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes; he said he couldn't answer m}^ question; he 
didn't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. I may say, Mr. Chairman, that in the executive 
testimony of Mr. Joseph John Schoemehl 

Mr. Scherer. That was the reason I was asking the question, 
because I listened to his testimony, and did he not say that the review 
commission did have disciplinary powers? 

And wasn't he called before the review commission and tried? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir; that is correct. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4733 

In addition to other things, it acted and served as a control or 
disciplmary committee. 

Mr. ScHERER. And further that a member was not allowed to 
invoke the fifth amendment before that commission. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you given any particular assignment in the 
Communist Party during the period of time that you were a member 
of the Emerson electrical group of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, there was one assignment while I was in that 
group outside of my maintaining membership and furthering the work 
of the party in the local union. I was assigned to work with the 
unemployed due to the fact that for a considerable period of time, 
when I met with the electrical fraction, I was unemployed, and ob- 
tamed a job on WPA for the purpose of helpmg lead the unemployed 
group here m St. Louis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this group in the unemployed utilized to 
increase the membership of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Cortor. They used this group as a recruiting basis; yes. I 
personally didn't recruit anybody out of the gi'oup. 

IMr. Tavenner. Now you have described for us the fraction meet- 
ings in the industrial units. Did you attend any fraction meetings 
yom'self? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a representative of your electrical group 
in tliose fraction meetings? 

Mr. Cortor. I could not say that I was oificial representative, but 
I would be invited to attend some of the fraction meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. How frequently did you attend these fraction 
meetings? 

Mr. Cortor. Oh, I would say I attended 4 or 5 of them during the 
time I was assigned to the Emerson group. 

Mr. Tavenner. And, as you have said, the persons who attended 
these fraction meetings represented various organized gi'oups of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Cortor. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. In industry? 

Mr. Cortor. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. And therefore when you can identify an individual 
from a particular company or employment — that meant that there 
was a Communist Party group organized withm that plant? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, not necessarily. See you take in the Amal- 
gamated local — -they may have only one member in a plant, but they 
would have a group in the local. 

Mr. Tavenner. But, other than the Amalgamated gi'oup, it would 
mean the Communist Party organized group? 

Mr. Cortor. That is true, yes, su\ 

Mr. Tavenner. WUl you at this time tell the committee who met 
with you in these fraction meetings, and give the committee all the 
descriptive information you can regardmg the individual. 

Mr. Cortor. Well, there was William Sentner who mahitained his 
local membership m Local 1102, the Emerson local. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he one of those convicted in the Smith Act 
trial in 1954? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes; that is right; and Robert Manewitz also from 
Local 1102, who was also a defendant. 



4734 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Henry Fiering, who was at Century Electric at that 
time; Otto Maschoff. 

Mr. Tavenner. TVliat was that name? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Otto Maschoff. 

Mr. Tavenner. M-a-s-c-h-o-f-f. Is that the correct spelling? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. From what plant? 

Mr. Cortor. Century Electric. 

And Helen Musiel, who led the strike at the Superior Electric Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell the committee at this point anything 
more about Helen Musiel? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes; later, in a later period, Helen Musiel became a 
full-time functionary of the Communist Party here in St. Louis for, 
oh, quite a few years. The exact length of time she was a full-time 
functionary I couldn't say because I was gone so much of the time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you proceed, please. 

Mr. Cortor. There was Dave Barker from Wagner Electric. Zollie 
Carpenter also from Wagner Electric. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the first name. 

Mr. Cortor. Z-o-l-l-i-e; and Orville Leach. 

Mr. Tavenner. Orville Leach? L-e-a-c-h? 

Mr. Cortor. L-e-a-c-h, who was originally out of the Amalgamated 
local, and then later on went to work at Wagner. 

Lou Kimmel, also from Emerson Electric, also attended some of 
these fraction meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who? 

Mr. Cortor. Lou Kimmel, Louis Kmimel. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. Do you know what position Lou Kim- 
mel later acquired in the United Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers 
of America? 

Mr. Cortor. He was either a field or an International representa- 
tive of the UE. 

And Henry Fiering was also in the meetings, if I have not named 
him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the names of others at this time? 

Mr. Cortor. Who attended the electrical fraction meetings? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

(There was no response.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with John Nordman? 

Mr. Cortor. Oh, yes. John Nordman was also from Century 
Electric. 

Mr. Tavenner. N-o-r-d-m-a-n? 

Mr. Cortor. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he attend these fraction meetings? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall anyone from Johnston Tinfoil? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes, there was a James Payne. 

Mr. Tavenner. P-a-y-n-e? 

Mr. Cortor. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall any other person from Emerson? 

Mr. Cortor. At the present time, no. 
• Mr. Tavenner. Was there a woman in the group from Emerson? 

Mr. Cortor. Not at that time, not during this period, no. 



COJVIMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4735 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Dorothy Sage? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I was acquainted with Dorothy Sage, but she went to 
work at Emerson Electric after I had left the electrical union. I knew 
her during the earl}' period. She was active iii the Young Communist 
League under her maiden name, Dorothy Aukamp, A-u-k-a-m-p. 

Mr. Tavenxer. She was not, as far as you can recall, a member of 
this fraction? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Not at that period. 

Mr. Tavenxer. These fraction meetings to which you have referred 
were fraction meetings of the Communist Party, were they not? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is right. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were they open to the pubhc or were only members 
of the Communist Party permitted to attend? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Only members of the Communist Party were per- 
mitted to attend. Other people might be invited in occasionally, 
but very seldom. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Were all of the persons whose names you have 
mentioned as having attended these fraction meetings known to you 
to be members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. They were. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you attend au}^ schools of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes, sir, I attended several of the schools, local 
schools conducted by the Communist Party. One specifically was 
held at 3528-A Franldin Avenue, which was a night school I attended 
after work. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Approximate!}^ what year? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That was in the fall of 1939, 1 beheve. 

Mr. Tavex'X'er. Can you tell us who conducted that school, the 
instructors, or the leaders in it? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, there was one individual that was sent out by 
the National educational committee of the Communist Party, by 
the name of Peter Chaunt; C-h-a-u-n-t I believe is the wa}' he 
spelled it. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Sent from w'here? 

Mr. CoRTOR. From the National educational committee of the 
Commmiist Party, in New York. 

And Carolyn Drew. 

\h'. Tavexxer. Was Carolyn Drew the wife of Wiiham Sentner? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No. Of Alfred Wagenknecht. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Ai-e there any others you can recall? 

Mr. CoRTOR. And Clara Wernick also led one of the sessions. She 
was the W'ife of Henry Fiering. 

Mr. Tavexxer. What was the general type of teaching conducted 
at that school? 

Mr. CoRTOR. It was a basic course in Marxism-Leninism for whii-t 
they termed "newer people in the part}'." And it went deeply inio 
the whole setup in explaining to the people there that the only way 
that the working class, which the Communist Party claimed to 
represent, could obtain power would be through force and violence, 
that the so-called capitalists or the bourgeoisie woidd not let the 
working class take power without force and violence. 



4736 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. That was actually tauglit at this school? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That was actually taught; yes, su-. 

Mr. Tavenner. You remained a member of the Communist Party, 
you said, from 1938 up until 1947. Was there any time diu-ing that 
period when your Communist Party activities were transferred to 
any other area of the country? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, yes. For quite a lon^ period of time I was 
assigned to the Waterfront section of the Communist Party, and also 
for almost a year I worked up in the District 7 area of the UE as a 
field representative. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the UE? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before I question you about that, let me ask you 
when were you transferred to the Waterfront section. 

Mr. Cortor. It was in the fall of 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. After being transferred to that section, did you 
still remain in contact with tlie Emerson group of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Cortor.' Yes. I attended a few of tlieu' meetings after the 
transfer to the Waterfront section. 

Air. Tavenner. Under what jurisdiction was the Waterfront 
section of the Communist Party? W^as it a part of your district here 
or how was it organized? 

Mr. Cortor. The Waterfront section of the party was set up as a 
National section of the party. 

Due to the industry and the way the men engaged in the waterfront 
industry move around the country, they were actually set up as, well, 
what they actually term "as a separate district of the party." 

The people that were assigned to the waterfront continued in the 
local party, but the}^ actually weren't under the jurisdiction of the 
local party leadership. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that because you would first be in one port 
and then another? 

Mr. Cortor. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you could not be tied down to any particular 
group? 

Mr. Cortor. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what areas of the country did you attend 
Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, while I was in the Waterfront section I attended 
meetings in St. Louis, in New Orleans, Galveston, Tex., and one 
meeting in Houston. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you were a member of the Waterfront 
section did you go abroad at any time? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any contact with Communists in 
foreign ports? 

Mr. Cortor. In Marseilles, France, and in Genoa, Italy. I 
visited the part}^ headquarters in jNIarseilles, and helped them cele- 
brate an election victory over there. And I visited the party offices 
in Genoa, and one of their branch offices there, and made a tour 
through the shipyards there under the leadership of the branch 
organizer of the party there. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN" ST. LOUIS, MO,, AREA 4737 

IMr. Tavexner. You mean the branch organizer of the Communist 
Party took you through tlie shipyard? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Air. Tavenner. Did you learn anything about the strength of the 
Communist Party in the shipping industry over there; that is, the 
ship3"ards? 

Air. CoRTOR. Well, this organizer told me that 70 percent of the 
workers at this shipyard were members of the Communist Party. 

Air. AIouLDER. Which shipyard was that? 

Air. CoRTOR. I don't remember the name of it. It was a repair 
yard there in Genoa, Italy. It was a repair yard that did mostly 
repau' work and did very little original building. 

Air. Tavenner. What was the principal activity of the Waterfront 
section of the Communist Party with which you were affiliated? 

Air. CoRTOR. Well, mostly operating to control the National Alari- 
time Union at that period. 

Air. Tavenner. The National Alaritime Union succeeded in get- 
ting rid of the Communists at a later date, did they not? 

Air. CoRTOR. They did a very good job of doing it. 

Air. Tavenner. Did you ever observe an}^ effort on the part of the 
United Electrical, Radio, and Alachine Workers to get rid of com- 
munism within that organization? 

Air. Cortor. Well, some of the locals made ciuite an effort. Local 
1102 here in St. Louis, and the Century local made quite an effort. 
But, due to the fact that the top leadership of the United Electrical, 
Radio, and Alachine Workers were Communist, the local membership 
was more or less stymied. 

Air. Scherer. In other words, they did not succeed in their efforts 
to rid the local union from Communist domination because of the 
control of the National organization by Communists? 

Air. Cortor. Well, they succeeded in some cases, but, overall, they 
were unable to clean house due to the domination of the National 
officers of the UE. 

Air. Scherer. That condition continued until you left the part}- in 
1954, did it? That situation with reference to the UE continued up 
until the date when you left the party in 1954? 

Air. Cortor. Well, at the time I left the party in 1954 there was 
practically no UE left in St. Louis. I mean they had a few. The 
Amalgamated local was still hi existence. But the UE was practically 
a dead pigeon at that time. 

Air. Tavenner. Prior to the time that the National Alaritime 
Union was successful in ousting communism from its organization to 
what extent would you say the maritime union at St. Louis was under 
the control and domination of the Communist element? 

Air. Cortor. Well, from the time when I first went into the Water- 
front section up imtil 1948 the River section of the National Alaritime 
L^nion was under the complete dommation and control of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Air. Tavenner. How many persons comprised the membership of 
the Communist Party in the River section of the maritime union at 
that time; at the time they had control? 

Air. Cortor. WeU, to the best of my laiowledge, I think their top 
strength in any one year was 11. 

Air. Tavenner. Eleven. 



4738 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Do you mean that 11 persons could exercise and keep control of 
that union? 

Air. CoRTOR. Well, j^es; through the assistance they received from 
the National union. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the membersliip of the union at that 
time which you say was dominated here in St. Louis by the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I would say, over all, on the water approximately 
2,000. 

Mr. Tavenner. So that 2,000 persons were dominated or at least 
led by 11 Communist individuals? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Right. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were they the officers of the union? 

Mr. CoRTOR. In most cases, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I thmk, Mr. Chairman, it might be well to remind 
the subcommittee at this point, because all of you were not in Los 
Angeles in AprU, that we had as a witness, Nikolai Khokhlov, who, until 
1953, had been a captain in the military intelligence in the Soviet 
Union. And he testified that in the Soviet Union at the present time 
the Communist Party consists of only 2 per cent of the people, and yet 
they were able to control the enthe country. 

And also, as pointed out by this witness, the number of people in 
concentration camps in the country who were opposed to communism 
were 13 million, which was about 6 times as many persons as there 
were Communists in tlie country, the whole coimtry. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes; I recall his testimony. 

Mr. Scherer. Was he not there as late as 1954 rather than 1953, 
Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. That is not my recollection, Mr. Scherer. 

He had been sent in 1953 on a mission to organize the assassination 
of the leader of the anti-Communists. 

Mr. Scherer. In Frankfurt. 

Mr. Tavenner. The underground in West Germany. 

He may not have gotten to this comitry until 1954, but I think that 
he left the Soviet Union in 1953, according to my recollection. 

Will you tell us, please, the names of those who were the principal 
leaders in the Communist Party movement within the maritime union 
while you were a member of it? 

Mr. CoRTOR. When I first entered the Waterfront section it was 
A. E. Phillips who was the local agent at that time. Felix Siren who 
was the River's director. 

And the national figures were Howard McKenzie and Frederick 
Myers, who were both vice presidents. And Ferdinand C. Smith, 
who was national secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. Ferdinand C. Smith was deported, was he not? 

Mr. CoRTOR. To the best of my knowledge, he was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, this is the same individual about 
whom the committee received evidence from Patrick Walsh, the Cana- 
dian seaman, in our hearings in Albany, N. Y. Mr. Walsh testified 
that had it not been for the deportation proceedings against Ferdinand 
Smith and the action of the National Maritime Union in getting rid of 
Ferdinand Smith, that the maritime union on the Eastern Seaboard 
would have been successfully brought into the Canadian seamen's 
strike at the time that the whole world shipping was blocked by a 
Communist strike. That was in 1948 or 1949. 



COMMimiST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4739 

But for the resistance of the leadership of this maritime miion to 
the Communist plan, which Patrick Walsh described in his testimony, 
it may well have been a worldwide strike which would have succeeded 
in upsetting the Marshall Plan. That was the testimony that was 
given, that was what the strike was aimed at. 

Do you recall the names of any other persons who were active in 
the maritime-union group of the Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. In a later period there was Mrs. Pearl Bernstein 
Starks. 

Mr, Tavenner. Is it Stark or Starks? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Starks. 

Mr. Tavenner. S-t-a-r-k-s? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

She wasn't married to Mr. Starks at the time she was in the NMU 
office here. She was the office secretary, and more or less served as 
the party contact for us people who would be out of town and wanted 
to drop in and find out what was happening in the local party. 

And William E. Davis, who was a patrolman in Memphis in this 
later period. 

Mr. Tavenner. After you returned to the Commmiist Party in 
1951 did you have occasion to see William E. Davis again in the St. 
Louis area? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he continue in Commimist Party activities 
during the period between 1951 and 1954? 

Mr. CoRTOR. He did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then, as I miderstand it, you were in the maritime 
miion from 1939 until 1947. Was there any intervening period in 
which you became active in Commimist Party w^ork in some other 
area? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. I served for almost a year in District 7 of the 
UE, which is the Ohio area. 

Mr. Tavenner. District 7? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Of the UE, as a field representative. 

Mr. Tavenner. WiU you tell the committee, please, how you 
obtained the position of organizer of the UE in Ohio. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, I was on a river boat that had pulled into 
Cincmnati for some repairs. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say Cincinnati? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

We pulled in there and were going to have a few days there. So I 
was uptown one evenmg looking over Cincinnati, and I saw the local 
sign. I forget the local number, the local of the UE. And I had 
heard that Henry Fiering was in Ohio somewhere. So I went into 
this local headquarters. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliat year was that? 

Mr. CoRTOR. 1945. 

I met a person by the name of Waldo Stager, who was a local 
leader, and I asked him about Henry Fiering, and told him that I 
had been a friend of Mr. Fiering's in St. Louis and wondered where 
Mr. Fiering was. And he told me that Mr. Fiering would be in that 
local office that night, for me to drop back if I wanted to see Mr. 
Fiering, which I proceeded to do. 

81594—56 — pt. 1 i 



4740 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

And Mr. Fiering introduced me to Mr. Stager then as a member of 
the party, and a person he considered one of his prize recruits. 

And that evening Mr. Fiering asked me if I would be interested in a 
job with the UE in Ohio. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you took the job? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I took the job. 

Mr. Tavenner.* How long were you on that job? 

Mr. CoRTOR. It was from the latter part of January up through 
December of 1945. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you find that the leadership in the United 
Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers in District 7 in Ohio was 
Communist leadership? 

Mr. CoRTOR. 95 percent of them were, the full-time people that 
I met. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what area of Ohio did you work? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I first worked in the Cincinnati area for about 6 
weeks under the direction of Mr. Stager; as Mr. Fiering termed it, 
to be my break-in period, to observe operations in the local unions and 
attend negotiating sessions with the different companies. And then 
I was transferred up to the Dayton area. 

Mr. Tavenner. To Dayton? 

Mr. CoRTOR. The Dayton, Ohio area, to work out of the subdistrict 
office up there under the direction of Mr. Fiering. 

Mr. Tavenner. During that period of time what were your oppor- 
tunities while in Dayton to learn of the Communist Party membership 
of leaders in the UE? 

Air. CoRTOR, Well, I attended several staft* meetings, and I would 
come into Dayton occasionally to run off organizational leaflets for 
various plants that I was trjnng to organize. And I would meet 
various party people in the UE office at that time. And also I 
attended — I couldn't say exactly how man}'' meetings I did attend, 
but of the electrical fraction of the Communist Party 

Mr. Tavenner. The electrical fraction of the Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Before we leave the Cincinnati area, can you give 
us the names of any other individuals you met while in Cincinnati 
who were members of the Communist Party other than this man 
Stager? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No, sir, I cannot. The fellow's name is Stager, 
S-t-a-g-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. S-t-a-g-e-r? 

Air. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Where w^as their headquarters at that time? 

Air. CoRTOR. I don't know. This was the local union 

It was out rather far in Cincinnati. I don't remember just exactly 
the address. It was the Ama%amated Local of Alachine Shops. 

Air. Scherer. Did you learn where the Communist Party head- 
quarters were located in Cincinnati? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No. I was never in the part}^ headquarters in 
Cincinnati. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of persons with whom 
you attended Communist fraction meetings in Dayton? 

Air. CoRTOR. Yes. 

It was Hemy Fiermg, Senator Kermit Kirkendall who was a State 
senator in Ohio at that time 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4741 

Mr. Tavenxer. jMr. Scherer, I believe, you were chairman of the 
subcommittee that met in Daj'ton in September in 1954, and, will 
recall there was some evidence at that time on that same subject. 

Air. Scherer. Yes. The man Kirkendall and the other man to 
whom he referred were identified by a number of witnesses at that 
time as active members of the Communist Party. 

So, in that respect, this witness' testimony is corroborated. They 
all participated m that Univis Lens strike, did they not, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. In the Dayton strike, which was completely con- 
trolled and dominated by the Communist Party, it was necessary to 
call out the National Guard because of the severe violence that devel- 
oped in connection therewith. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

All right, if 3'ou will proceed, please, sir. 

Mr. CoRTOR. There was a girl named Bebe Ober. And Forrest 
PajTie. 

Mr. Scherer. I might say I distinctly recollect that Bebe Ober 
testified before the committee at that time. She had been identified 
as a member of the Communist Party. I think Bebe Ober left the 
party, however, did she not, and testified for the Government? 

Mr. Tavenner. That is correct. She admitted her former Com- 
munist Party membership and was helpful in the testimony she 
gave us. 

Mr. Scherer. Wasn't she one of those that was recruited mto the 
Communist Party while a student at Antioch College, Yellow Springs? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. She began with it as a member m the 
Young Communist League. And Herbert Reed, the Communist 
Party organizer in the area, followed those young people up after 
leaving Antioch College, and got some of them, including this person 
that you have identified, Bebe Ober, to get into active Communist 
Party work m the field of labor. 

Mr. Scherer. After she graduated from Antioch. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, that is correct. 

Are there any others you can now recall? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Have I mentioned Forrest Payire? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Can you give the committee more information relating to Forrest 
Payne? 

Air. CoRTOR. Forrest I knew and worked with him in the one plant 
that was my assignment to try to organize, which was the Robins & 
Myers Electric Co. in Springfield, Ohio. Mr. Payne gave me some 
assistance on that plant, and one evening drove me down to Yellow 
Springs. He said there was some people down there he wanted me to 
meet. 

And we went to some professor's house, but I haven't been able to 
recollect the name of this professor. 

Mr. Scherer. I wish you could. 

Air. CoRTOR. I do, too. 

Air. Tavenner. "V^Tiat year was that? 

Air. CoRTOR. That was in 1945. 

Air. Scherer. Do you remember at what school he was a professor? 

Air. CoRTOR. I don't have the slightest recollection. I was at 
Antioch College. 



4742 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Tavenner, do you recall the name of one of the 
professors who testified about that time? He said he was a mem- 
ber of a Communist cell comprised not only of people of the college 
but also of townspeople. \M^iat was that professor's name? 

Mr. Tavenner. Professor Robert M. Metcalf. 

Mr. Scherer. He refused to tell who svas associated with him in 
that cell ; did he not? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. And was cited for contempt. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. And contempt proceedings are still pending. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you learn of any Communist Party activities 
mthin Vernay Laboratories in Yellow Springs? 

Mr. CoRTOR No; I did not. 

Mr. Scherer. Let me ask a question. 

Does the mention of Professor Metcalf refresh yom- recollection? 
. Mr. CoRTOR. No; it doesn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what influence 
the Communist Party had in the conduct of the business of the United 
Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers in the Ohio area dming the 
period that you were there? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, they had a tremendous influence because 95 
per cent of the full-time people in Ohio were members of the Com- 
munist Party or very close sympathizers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were the plants organized by United Electrical, 
Radio, and IViachine Workers in that area, plants which were engaged 
in the manufacture of defense materials for the United States 
Government? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes, verj^ definitely. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the Communist Party leadership and influence 
of sufficient strength to have altered the conduct or operation of those 
defense plants? 

Mr. CoRTOR. In the Dayton, Ohio, area I would say definitely, yes. 

Mr. Scherer. I think his tcstimon}^ has been corroborated again 
by the testimony at Dayton in that respect. I refer to the Univis 
strike. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now were there others? I may have interrupted 
you. Were there other persons you can now recall in leadership in 
the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workeis of America who 
were known to you to be members of the Communist Party in that 
area? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes, on the districtwide level, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us their names, please? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Tliere was Victor Decavitch, who was district presi- 
dent at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. 

Mr. Chairman, Victor Decavitch was one of the first witnesses 
that this committee heard in our investigation of communism within 
the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers Union. He 
testified in the summer or fall of 1949. He told this committee of his 
former Communist Party membership and activity, and that he was 
no longer a member of the Communist Party. And he cooperated 
with this committee and gave it some important information, includ- 
ing his statement that, in his opinion, 99 per cent of the organizers in 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4743 

the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America were 
members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. ScHERER. That testimony was confirmed by a number of other 
w^itnesses subsequent to that. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is those with whom he came in contact. 

Mr. CoRTOR. There was Marie Haug. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us that name again. 

Mr. Cortor. Haug. 

Mr. Tavenner. H-a-u-g? 

Mr. Cortor. I believe that is the way it is spelled. 

And her husband, who was in Cleveland at that time. 

And Clara Wernick Fiering. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was Marie Haug's husband's name? 

Mr. Cortor. Fred, I believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then did you name another person? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. Clara Wernick Fiering, who at that time was 
business agent at the UE lamp local in Cleveland. I don't know the 
local number. But she identified herself to me in Dayton to that 
effect. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did you leave your work as an organizer 
of UE? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, due to the fact that the Robins & Myers 
plant^I was forced to go into an election over my objection. 
Mr. Fiering 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by an election? 

Mr. Cortor. The election in the plant for bargaining rights for 
the UE. It was right during the General Motors strike in the fall 
and early mnter in 1945, and I was the person most closely connected 
to the plant, and 1 knew the sentiment of the people. They were 
discouraged due to the length of the General Motors strike. And I 
told Mr. Fiering if we went into an election during that period we 
would be sure to lose it. 

He said, "No, we would win it." 

And I said, "Well, if we lose it I quit." 

Because I said, "You are going into it over my objection." 

And we went into the election and we lost by exactly the number of 
votes I told him we would lose by. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many votes? 

Mr. Cortor. Sixty-four. 

Mr. Tavenner. Out of a total number of how many votes? 

Mr. Cortor. It was around one -thousand-four-hundred-some-odd 
votes cast. 

Mr. Tavenner. A fairly close election. As a result of that did you 
resign? 

Mr. Cortor. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you came back — ^ — • 

^Ir. Cortor. Back to maritime. 

Mr. Tavenner. Back to maritime. And you remained in the mari- 
time union then how long? 

Mr. Cortor. I stayed in the maritime union until 1950, the fall of 
1950. But I severed my connections with the party in 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did you sever your connections with the 
Communist Party in 1947? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, the thought had been in my mind. I had had 
doubts in my mind for several years, including the experience I had 



4744 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

in this plant of Robins & Myers in Ohio. And the doubts had been 
in my mind for several j^ears until I was elected a delegate to attend 
the 1947 national convention, the National Alaritime Union. 

In all my previous experience in the party this was the first real 
opportunity I had ever had of seeing the real Communist Party 
machine in operation with their rule-and-ruin tactics, because at that 
time the party was engaged in a ver.y bitter fight with the cm'rent 
faction of the National Maritime Union. And the policy they 
adopted was it would be rule or ruin, regardless of the effects it might 
have on the membership of the union, that the party must stay in 
power. 

So after the convention I told the party people that I was in contact 
with, that I had no further intention of remaining in the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did any specific occurrence take place at that 
convention which influenced you in your decision? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, the whole tenor of the whole convention. 

But there was one specific instance. I can't remember the name 
of the individual, but he was appealing his conviction by a trial 
committee. 

The way the setup they have in the NMU is: if a person violates 
the rules and regulations of the union, like if he is on the crew of a ship 
and cuts a felloV with a knife or he is a dope fiend or anything like 
that, the crew \^dll bring him up on charges. And he is tried in the 
port where they dock. 

The membership of that port elects a trial committee, and they try 
the person. And they fine him or sentence him to so long a suspension 
and so forth. And he can accept the ruling of the trial comrnittee or 
can appeal to the national council. If the national council rejects his 
appeal he can appeal to the national convention. 

Well, this fellow had exhausted all these other steps, and had 
appealed to the previous national convention which had rejected him. 
And here he was appealing to the 1947 convention. 

So we had a copy of the proceedings at the 1945 convention on om- 
desk, a book about so thick. So I get to leafing through it and I find 
the proceedings of this person's appearance before the trial committee 
in the 1945 convention. And they were arguing back and forth. First 
there woidd be a Communist get\ip and speak for this guy, and there 
would be somebody else get up and speak about it. 

So I raised my hand, with the book in my hand. And the president 
of the union, Joe Kern, gave me the microphone, and I read from the 
1945 proceedings, the position the convention took at that time. And 
the final vote was to uphold the action of the previous convention. 

I was called up on the carpet by some of the party people there. 

Mr. Tavexner. You were? 

Mr. CoRTOR. And the man had been convicted in com-t of being a 
dope fiend. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you learn whether or not that individual was 
a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I was told he was a good guy. As to whether lie was 
actually a member of the Communist Party I couldn't say. 

Mr. Tavenner. A good guy? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; we have heard that a number of times. 



COjMAIUNIST activities in ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4745 

Mr. Chairman, this would be a good place for a break. 

oMr. Mouldp:r. The committee will stand in recess for a period of 
5 minutes. 

(Wliereupon, a short recess was taken, there being present at tlie 
time of taking the recess Representatives ^Moulder, Frazier, and 
Scherer.) 

(The committee was reconvened upon the expiration of the recess, 
there being present Representatives ]Moulder, Frazier, and Scherer.) 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Cortor, as a result of yom- experience in the 
Communist Party, did j'ou take any action to advise yoiu" Govern- 
ment of facts within your knowledge about their activities? 

Mr. Cortor. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee what you did, please. 

Mr. Cortor. Well, after I left the party in 1947, until the first 
trial in New York I was more at a loss as to what I could do with what 
little information I had. 

After the first trial in New York I decided what little information I 
knew about the Communist Party might be of value. So I contacted 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation here in St. Louis. 

Mr. Tavenner. What year was it you contacted the FBI here in 
St. Louis? 

Mr. Cortor. In 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a result of that, what occmTed? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, after several conferences with the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation they asked me if I would go back into the party, 
if I thought I could get back. 

I told them I would not go back under mj' own hook, of my own 
volition. But if the Communist Party came to me, then I would go 
back into activities in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did they come to 3'ou? 

Mr. Cortor. They did. 

Mr. Tavenner. TeU the committee how that occmTed. 

Mr. Cortor. I was contacted bj- a woman by the name of Thelma 
Hecht, who told me that Robert Manewitz would like to see me. 
And I agreed to see Mr. Manewitz. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say this was Thelma Hecht? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. 

]VIr. Tavenner. How do you spell the name? H-e-c-h-t? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then what occmTed? 

Mr. Cortor. I had one meeting with Mr. Manewitz. We went 
over the whole problem. I was very frank with him. I gave him 
exactly the reasons why I left the party. 

And, after some discussion, he still asked me to "reactivize" myself, 
as he termed it. And I still refused to do so. 

So he asked me to have another meeting with him later, and I 
agreed to that. And at that second meetnig with Mr. Manewitz I 
did agree to reactivize myself in the Comnumist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. How long was it after you had this discussion with 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation wherein they asked you to rejoin 
the Communist Party that you were contacted })v the paVty? 

Mr. Cortor. It was about 6 months. 



4746 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. You told the FBI that you would not rejoin the 
Communist Party unless you were requested to rejoin? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Unless I was contacted by the party itself. 

Mr. ScHERER. I don't know how that happened, but I imagine 
they had some other undercover agent ask Mane>vitz to get you back 
in the party. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, no, sir. 

You see the policy of the Communist Party 

You never quit the Communist Party. You may drop out, but 
you become mactive. They always have an idea that they can even- 
tually reactivize you, they call it, which was the procedure I went 
under. I was reactivized, as Robert Manewitz termed it. 

Mr. ScHERER. You had been out since 1948? 

Mr. CoRTOR. 1947. 

Mr. ScHERER. And thev did not try to contact vou until 6 months 
after the FBI talked to you in 1950? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No. 

I was contacted several times in that period, but I just told the 
people, you know — if I would meet them on the street, wherever I 
would meet them — I just wasn't interested. 

Mr. Moulder. \Mien you say you are never completely out of 'the 
Communist Party, do you mean that is the attitude which the leader- 
ship takes toward a former member? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is right. 

Mr. Moulder. But that may not be the attitude of the former 
member himself. 

Mr. CoRTOR. No. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. To what grouj) of the Communist Party were you 
assigned when you reentered in 1951? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I was assigned to one of the West Side groups. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\Mio was the chahman of that group? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Thelma Hecht. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with, the husband of Thelma 
Hecht? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was his name? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Julius. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Thelma so identified him to me. He had been a 
member of the party in my previous membership, and Thelma identi- 
fied him to me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Don't state what someone told you about it. Just 
state what you yourself know. 

]Mr. CoRTOR. I knew him as a member of the Communist Party 
during both periods; in the first period especially. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of other members^of 
that group, the West Side group. 

Mr. CoRTOR. All right, sir. 

There was John Nordman. 

Mr. Tavenner. N-o-r-d-m-a-n? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is correct. 

Orville Leach, L-e-a-c-h, Robert Manewitz, and myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. So that made five? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4747 

Mr. Tavenner. I think you told us that the membership after 1951 
was to be about four. 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is right. 

The question was brought up in the group whether or not I was a 
fifth member of the group, wliich made one too many, and one person 
would have to leave the group. And Mr. Manewitz did leave. I 
mean what other group he was assigned to I couldn't say, but he 
was taken out of this group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you given any particular assignment in the 
Communist Party after reentering it in 1951? 

Mr. CoRTOR, Well, in the later period I was — 

After the arrest of the Smith Act defendants I was asked to work 
with a group that was set up, that was called the St. Louis Emergency 
Defense Committee, and to work in a group established here, the 
local branch in the National Negro Labor Council. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did you learn in the Communist Party 
meetings regarding this defense committee? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, I was informed when it was first set up in our 
branch meeting it was a group set up to — 

There was a group set up, in the first place, to get the five defendants 
out of jail, to raise bail money, conduct their legal defense and get 
them out of jail, and also to collect money for their defense when they 
came up to trial. And they would also serve as a propaganda ap- 
paratus before the public to diffuse the party program and so on and 
so forth under the guise of the defense committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that was a Communist-organized group? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And in what capacity did you work with the 
group? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I helped them in operating the mimeograph machine, 
getting out mailings, and in furnishing transportation to the chairman 
of the group — that is by the use of my auto, and any other way that 
I could be fit into the picture. 

Mr. Tavenner. The St. Louis Emergency Defense Committee was 
the exact name of it, was it not? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Of the Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. It was not? 

Mr. CoRTOR. It was a Communist Party apparatus, but it was not 
set up as a part of the Communist Party. It was a front group for 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Moulder. Now I understand you. It was an agency of the 
Communist Party actually. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Actually, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the names of 
those active in that group who were known to you to be members of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Mr. Brockman Schumacher who was the chairman 
of the committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. The first name, you say, is Brockman? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Brockman. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell that? 

Mr. CoRTOR, B-r-o-c-k-m-a-n, 

81594— 56— pt. 1 5 



4748 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Air. Tavenner. S-c-h-u-m-a-c-h-e-r? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I believe that is the way the last name is spelled, 

Mr. Tavenner. He was the head of the committee? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. \Miat other persons were active in the 
conduct of its business who were known to you to be members of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. There was William E. Davis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that the same William E. Davis you referred 
to as having been in the maritime union with you? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

James Wilburn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wilburn? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. W-i-1-b-u-r-n? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I believe so. 

Homey Hudson. 

Mr. Tavenner. R-o-m-e-y? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Hudson, H-u-d-s-o-n. Is that the spellmg? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I believe so. 

And there would be various other party people that would drop in 
from time to time m case we had an emergency mailing or anything 
of that kind to get out. 

But these were the people that were predominant m what you call 
the dhecting force of the St. Louis Emergency Defense Committee. 

Mr. Scherer. They were the directing force. How many other 
persons who were non-Communists joined this defense committee? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, I couldn't say actually how many non-Com- 
munists there were. There were some people there that could have 
been Communists, or they couldn't. I couldn't swear as to whether 
they were Communists or not. 

Mr. Scherer. Were there some others who were not Communists, 
but who sympathized? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes, a few. 

Mr. Scherer. You obtained some of yom' money from non- 
Communists, did you not? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is true. 

Mr. Scherer. But the committee by itself, as you point out, was 
set up, controlled, and dominated by Communists. It was not a 
Communist organization as such. 

You mean anyone w^ho was not a Communist could be a member 
of the committee? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is true. 

Mr. Scherer. The idea was to get people who were not Com- 
munists to be members of the committee. Was that not the object? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. That is the reason you called it a Communist-front 
organization, because it was not solely composed of Communists? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you get much of your money for that defense 
committee from non-Communists? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I couldn't say. I wasn't in the financial end of it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4749 

Mr. ScHERER. The purpose of the committee, of course, was to 
raise money, or rather one of the purposes of the committee was to 
raise money. Do you have any idea how much money you raised? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No, sir, I couldn't say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall a person by the name of Sol Nissen, 
N-i-s-s-e-n? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes, I do. 

As one person, they o:ave him a title one night as the manager of 
the mimeograph. He did a good proportion of the mimeograph work 
for the defense committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Sol Nissen known to you to be a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes, sir. 

In my contact with him while I was employed at the Fisher Body 
plant at General Motors I got to know Air. Nissen as a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Back at that time? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Who handled the finances for that committee? Who 
was the head of the money-raising section of the committee? 

Mr. CoRTOR. The person that actually handled the money for the 
defense committee was Dr. Sol Londe. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Sol Londe? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

The money was 

Other people would collect money and it would eventually be fun- 
neled to Dr. Londe. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you had any other experience with Dr. Sol 
Londe before serving on this defense committee with him? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, yes. I first met Dr. Londe in 1938 when I 
went to him for a physical examination as a volunteer in the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade to fight in Spain. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is he a medical doctor? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes, he is a medical doctor. 

Mr. Tavenner. By whom were you sent to Dr. Londe? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I was referred to him by the party office. If I re- 
member correctly, it was Carolyn Drew who sent me to him. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the Communist Party office? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you pay anything? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. For your examination? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether the Communist Party did 
or not? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did this group go about raising money? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, they eventually ended up with all the mailing 
list of all the front groups, and any other places Avhere they could 
get anybody's mailing list. 

There were some of the professional groups in St. Louis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Professional groups of what? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Any of the professional groups they could get in 
contact with they thought they might be able to get some money 
out of. 



4750 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

And then door-to-door canvassing in some places. A person would 
be given a list of names to go see if they could get money from. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did the general public or people from whom you 
were soliciting these funds know that this committee was Communist 
controlled and Communist dominated, or did you suppress that 
information? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That information was suppressed. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a document which says The 
St. Louis Defender, issued by the St. Louis Emergency Defense 
Committee, May 26, 1956, which is a very vicious attack on this 
committee in the conduct of this hearing, and which goes to con- 
siderable length in encouraging witnesses not to testify and to use 
the fifth amendment in refusing to do so. 

Will you examine it, please, and state whether or not that is the 
same organization of which you have been speaking — the St. Louis 
Emergency Defense Committee? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Scherer. Is that still in existence today, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Tavenner. This would indicate that on May 26, 1956, its 
name was used. 

Mr. CoRTOR. This is the same name, under the same name, yes. 
That, I would take to be the same organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to have the document marked for 
identification purposes only as "Cortor Exhibit No. 1." 

The Chairman. It wdll be so marked and filed. 

(The document referred to was marked Cor tor Exhibit No. 1 for 
identification and retained in the files of the committee.) 

Mr. Scherer. We have not seen that yet. 

Mr. Tavenner. I don't know whether you have or not, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Scherer. How long have you had that? 

Mr. Tavenner. I think about 2 days. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, Mr. Cortor, you have said that you were 
assigned to membership in one of the West Side groups, and that its 
chairman was Thelma Hecht. 

Were you transferred from her group to another group? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the name of that group of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Cortor. It was called the Construction Workers Group. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many persons were members of that group? 

Mr. Cortor. There were four. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that include yourself? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes; that includes myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio were the other members of that group? 

Mr. Cortor. John Day. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you had any other Com.munist Party con- 
nection with John Day besides your association with him in this 
particular group of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. I knew Mr. Day during my early period in the 
Communist Party, and also knew him later as a member of an auto 
branch of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. Proceed, please. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4751 

Mr. CoRTOR. And there was a Frank Mariz who was a painter. 
He spells his name either M-a-r-i-z or M-a-r-i-t-z. I have seen him 
use both spellings at one time or another. 

And Simon Tendle or Kendle. I am not sure of the correct last 
name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the purpose of that group? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, that was a group of construction workers that 
were trying to penetrate the construction industry, tr^'ing to get some 
influence in the construction workers' unions here, which, in my 
opinion, they didn't succeed in doing. 

Mr. Day at that time was a cement finisher. Mr. Mariz was a 
painter. And Mr. Tendle or Kendle was a bricklayer. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Going back for a moment to the St. Louis defense 
committee, I am not certain I gave you an opportunity to give us the 
names of all of those you considered to be the leaders in that group. 
The last one that you gave was Hudson, Romey Hudson. Then I 
think I got off into a discussion and probably interrupted you. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, Mrs. Daroth}" Forrest helped direct the group 
after she was gotten out of jail on bail. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Dorothy Forrest? 

Air. Cortor. Yes. She was one of the Smith Act defendants, and 
she was with the group. 

And so did the rest of the Smith Act defendants. The actual leader- 
ship outside of these people I have named would be hard for me to 
remember at this time. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Were you acquainted with jMr. Sol Derman? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he active in that group? 

Mr. Cortor. To some extent. He attendee! some of the meetings 
and was actuallj^, I believe, on the steering committee of the defense 
committee. But he didn't attend too many meetings of the defense 
committee. 

Air. Tavenner. Where did the leadership come from in the Com- 
munist Party here while these principal defendants were bemg tried 
under the Smith Act? 

Air. Cortor. Well, it came from what they call the secondary 
leadership of the Communist Party. 

Air. Tavenxer. Secondary leadership? 

Air. Cortor. Or the section leaders of the Communist Party at 
that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us their names, or as many of them 
as you recall. 

Mr. Cortor. WeU, Thelma Hecht was one. And Harold Hall. 

Air. Tavenner. Harold Hall? 

Air. Cortor. Yes. 

Air. Tavenner. Can you give us any further information relating 
to the activities of Harold Hall? 

Air. Cortor. Well, I met Air. Hall as a member of the Communist 
Party when I for a short period of time was transferred to one of the 
South Side groups of the Communist Party. And Air. Hall attended 
several of theu- meetings as a section leader. 

Air. Tavenner. Will joii proceed with the names of any other 
persons who constituted the secondarv leadership of the Communist 
Partv. 



4752 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, those are the only two individuals that I could 
specifically identify. 

Mr. Tavenner. After a period of time in this construction group, 
were you transferred to another group of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. I transferred to the South Side group that I 
previously spoke of, for a short period of time, a period of, oh a few 
months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were in the South Side group with you? 

Mr. Cortor. There was Bruce and Laura Miller, man and wife. 

Mr. Tavenner. Bruce Miller and Laura Miller. 

Had you had anv previous experience with them in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. In the early period I belonged — They were both 
members of the Communist Part}^ at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you then transferred to still another group 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was that group? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I was transferred to an auto group. 

Mr. Tavenner. An automotive group or branch of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have not mentioned that branch up until the 
present time, have you? 

Mr. Cortor. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What year was that? . 

Mr. Cortor. This was in 1953, the early part of 1953. * 

Mr. Tavenner. Define the Automotive Branch of the Communist 
Party. Just what was it? 

Mr. Cortor. It was a group of people employed in the General 
Motors plants here in St. Louis, the branch I belonged to. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did it include more than General Motors? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes. There was one person worked out at the 
Lincoln-Mercury plant. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of this group of the Com- 
munist Party? What was the Communist Party trying to do in 
General Motors and Lincoln-Mercury? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, to try to establish themselves in a position of 
influence or leadership in the local union. 

Mr. Tavenner. During this period of time was Chev^rolet Shell 
operating? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes, it w^as. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the practice about persons employed in 
Chevrolet Shell and then later with General Motors? 

Mr. Cortor. WeU, the original practice, as I understood it, was 
that when the Chevrolet Shell plant was first put into operation there 
was a good-sized group of the old-timers, experienced help, that trans- 
ferred out of the Cheva'olet and the Fisher Body plants into Chevrolet 
Shell with the understanding that they retained their seniority in 
their old department, and that when Chevrolet Shell closed dow^n they 
would transfer back to their old jobs. So that if there was ever a time 
when Chevrolet Shell would be reopened the labor supply would be 
available to reopen the plant with. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have in your membership in the Com- 
munist Party any persons who have answered that definition that you 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4753 

have given, that is, persons who have returned to the General Alotors 
plant for normal employment who might be selected to go back to 
Chev^rolet Shell in the event that a national emergency arose and that 
shop would be again opened? 

Mr. CoRTOE. To the best of my knowledge, no. There was no one 
in the group I was in that would fit that definition. But if they 
reopened the plant to fill the rest of the jobs in Chevrolet Shell the 
people working at Chevrolet and Fisher Body would be given the 
first opportunity to fill these jobs. 

So anyone working at Chevrolet or Fisher Body would fit into the 
categories named. 

Mr. Tavexner. So then the possibility of the Communist Party 
infiltrating Chevrolet Shell would depend upon how successful you 
were in developing membership in General Motors? 

Mr. CoRTOR, That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know how many cells or groups of the 
Communist Party were organized within General Motors? 

Mr. Cortor. There was two groups. 

Mr. Moulder. In what year? 

Mr. Cortor. This was in 1953 and 1954. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether there were more than two? 

Mr. Cortor. I knew of two. I don't know whether there was 
any more or not. I knew of two. 

Mr. Tavexner. Could others have existed without your knowing 
it? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes; it is possible. 

Mr. Tavexner. But you never heard of more than the two? 

Mr. Cortor. Two is all I ever heard of. 

Mr. Tavexner. Who were members of your branch in the auto- 
motive section? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, the chairman of the group was William Henry 
HoUand. 

Another member was John Simpson. 

John Da}^ was also in this group, and myself. 

Mr. Tavenxer. How did you happen to find out about the second 
group? Was it accidental? 

Mr. Cortor. More or less. 

Mr. Tavexner. Tell us about it. 

Mr. Cortor. I found out the second group — 

Well, I run into one individual I knew to be a member of the party, 
and found out he was working at General Motors. And I asked him 
what group he belonged to. He said he belonged to the second group. 

And the other person I can identify from the second group I got to 
know through the defense committee. And he was also working on 
the same floor with me at Fisher Body. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Who were in this second group as far as you were 
able to find out? 

Mr. Cortor. Elliott Waxman and Sol Nissen. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Was Elliott Waxman the chairman of that group 
or the head of that group? 

Mr. Cortor. I believe so. 

Mr. Moulder. May I interrupt? How did you happen to become 
a member of the group that you have referred to? 



4754 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, by first secm-ing employment at Fisher Body. 

Mr. Moulder. Were you dii-ected by the Communist Party to do 
that? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Not particularly directed. I was told they were 
hiring. I was out of emplo\Tnent at that time. So I went by and 
was lucky enough to be hired. 

Mr. Moulder. You were told that by the Communist Party 
leadership? 

Mr. CoRTOR. By some member of the Communist Part}^ I can't 
recollect just which individual it was — that Fisher Body was hiring. 

Mr. Moulder. After you were employed, did 3'ou become a member 
of this particular cell or group jou have referred to? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. The point I am trying to bring out is, were you 
requested to become a member of the particular cell or group by 
Communist Party leadership after you went there. 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. I was assigned — ^I was transferred to this 
group by the Communist Party after I went to work at Fisher Bod3^ 

Mr. Moulder. I see. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there any other information you can give the 
committee regarding the activities of Elliott Waxman in the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, Elliott Waxman at one time was the solicitor, 
and headed the Daily Worker committee here in St. Louis. And he 
also served as either the literature director or one of the literature 
directors of the Communist Party because I had occasion at times to 
go to him for literature for branch pin*poses and for other purposes. 
And I also secured from him — imder directions I received from Mrs. 
Hecht — I received from Elliott Waxman a homemade mimeograph 
machine. It was to be used for underground purposes, so I was 
informed. I retained this machine in my possession until I turned it 
over to the Federal Bureau of Investigation just before the trial of the 
Smith Act defendants. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that homemade machine was obtained from 
whom? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Elliott Waxman. 

Mr. Tavenner. You spoke of his connection with the Daily 
Worker. TV^iat means were used to disseminate the Daily Worker 
among the membership here? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, by subscriptions. And those people that 
didn't want their home address used could pick them up at several 
places. I, for example, used to pick up for a wliUe — I was picking my 
Daily Workers up at the Waxman's. In other words, I would use the 
Waxman residence as a mad drop to receive my mail and the Daily 
Worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliy didn't you subscribe to the paper and have it 
delivered directly to yom^ home? 

Mr. Cortor. Because I wanted to keep on livmg there. If I did 
that I wouldn't have been living there very long. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean yom* family would have objected? 

Mr. Cortor. Very definitely. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say there were other members of the Com- 
munist Party who also wouldn't get the Daily Worker directly? 

Mr. Cortor. That is true. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4755 

Mr. Tavenner. But would get someone else to act as a mail drop 
for them? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is right. 

Mr. Tavekner. Did any other person that you know of act as a 
mail drop for the Daily Worker besides Waxman? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, after my subscription ran out I liad the oppor- 
tunity several times to go by the home of Ella Mae Posey and pick 
up a copy of the Daily Worker. I would buy them from her. Whether 
that was used as a mail drop or cbculation point I couldn't say. But 
it seemed like they always had extra copies available there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did otlier people get their copies there, too? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I couldn't say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with the wife of W. Henry 
HoUand? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You testified, W. Hem-y Holland, was the chairman 
of yom- own group in the automotive industry? 

Mr. CoRTOR. That is right. 

Yes, I met her on several occasions when we had meetings at theij- 
home. And I knew her as a member of the party through personal 
conversation. And one evening I was there they were talking about 
Hem-y going to have to baby sit while she went to her group meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what her group was in the Com- 
nmnist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No, I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you active in any other front organization 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. The Negro Labor Council, the St. Louis branch of 
the National Negro Labor Council. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should show at 
this point that the National Negro Labor Council was designated 
on January 22, 1954, by the Attorney General under Executive 
Order 10450. 

What was the natm'e of your work with the National Negro Labor 
Council? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, mostly to help to set up the organization, try 
to get it on a functioning basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it set up at the instance of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. As I understand it, Mr. Tavenner, in order that the 
record might be clarified as to your statement, this organization was 
on the Attorney General's designated list. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sh-; the Attorney General of the United 
States. 

Mr. CoRTOR. My work was confined to the local council. I can't 
make any statement about the affiliations of any of the national 
people. Those people I didn't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend any of its national conventions? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. I attended one in Cleveland in 19 — . It was 
the second convention of the Negro Labor Council, in Cleveland. 

Mr. Tavenner. At whose instance did you attend that conven- 
tion? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I went up there as a delegate of the St. Louis Emer- 
gency Defense Committee. 

81594— 56— pt. 1 6 



4756 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean that defense committee directed yoii to 
go as a delegate to the Convention of the National Negro Labor 
Council? 

Mr. CoRTOR. To this convention; yes, sh. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was this? What year was this convention 
held? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I believe this was in the fall of 1952. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Do you know whether any representatives from 
vSt. Louis attended the founding convention? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes, sir. I was informed at tlie time I was asked to 
go into the Negro local to help establish the local chapter that Hershel 
Walker — I was informed by Hershel Walker that he and William 
Davis and one other person whose name I don't recall had attended 
the founding convention in Cincinnati. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Hershel Walker known to 3'ou to be a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Later. 

Mr. Tavenner. At a later time? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is this William Davis the same William Davis 
you have mentioned several times in the course of your testimon\^? 

Mr. CoRTOR. The same William Davis. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of that organization here 
in St. Louis, the local chapter? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, the purported purpose was to fight for the 
eciualities of Negroes in job opportunities, and abolish Jim Crow, as 
they called it, and abolish any form of discrimination toward the 
Negro people. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend conventions of any other organi- 
zation at the instance of the Communist Party here? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes; I attended one meeting — this was at the — I 
couldn't say it was the Communist Party that sent me. A Com- 
munist Party member asked me to go, and, if my car would be avail- 
able, to take a group of people. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell us about that. 

Mr. CoRTOR. I attended the founding convention of an organiza- 
tion known as the SOS, or the Save Our Sons Committee, which was 
held in Springfield, 111.' 

Mr. Tavenner. Who asked you to go to that founding convention? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Brockman Schumacher asked me, if my car would be 
available, to take people up there. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was the head of the defense committee? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Save Our Sons Committee? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVliat was that organization interested in? 

Mr. CoRTOR. They were interested primarily, or so they stated, to 
bring the boys back from Korea. It was a peace front. 

Mr. Tavenner. A peace front. 

Do you know who was the head of that organization, or wlio was 
the principal proponent of it at that convention? 

Mr. CoRTOR. A woman by the name of Florence Gowgiel. 

Mr. Tavenner. G-o-w-g-i-e-1. Is tbat the spelling? Our investi- 
gation shows it is G-o-w-g-i-e-1. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4757 

Mr. CoRTOR. It may be correct. I couldn't tell you because I 
never had met the woman before. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Do vou recall whether anv person from St. Louis 

was elected to a positioner appointed to a position in that organization? 

Mr. Cortor. This individual wasn't from St. Louis. He was from 

out-State Missouri at that time. That was Louis Kimmel. He was 

living on a farm out here at Meta, Mo. 

Mr. Tavexner. You have already testified to prior Communist 
activities on his part, have you not? 
Mr. Cortor. That is right; yes. 

And he chaii'ed one of the sessions of this convention, and he was 
elected a member of the continuation committee, I beheve, as repre- 
sentative from Missouri on the committee. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you receive an}- instructions at that founding 
convention as to what j^ou were to do when you returned to St. Louis? 
Mr. Cortor. Well, to try to establish a local group here in St. Louis 
if possible, and participate with any other groups that were in the 
peace groups that were trying to bring the boys back. But there was 
no local group ever established here in St. Louis to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavexxer. I beheve, Mr. Chairman, we had better recess 
instead of trying to finish now. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you wish to recess? 
Mr. Tavexxer. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Congressman Scherer wishes to be recognized. 
Mr. Scherer. Before we adjourn for lunch, Mr. Chairman, I have 
looked over this pamphlet that was issued on May 26 by the Emer- 
gency Defense Committee of St. Louis. 

This witness just testified that the Emergency Defense Committee, 
up until 1954 at least, was controlled and dominated by the Com- 
munist Party. 

This pamphlet, which gained some circulation in St. Louis, is a 
vicious and libelous attack, chiefly directed at Morgan Moulder, of 
Missouri, the chairman of this subcommittee. 

Mr. Moulder is a Democrat, and I am a Republican. But I can 
say that the charges made in this sheet are untrue, unwarranted, and 
unfounded. Mr. Moulder is a fine Am.erican, an able Member of the 
Congress, and I know, as a matter of fact from my association with 
him, that the charges made against him in this pamphlet here in the 
area in which he lives are utterly untrue and unfounded, and I would 
class them as vicious and libelous. 

Mr. Moulder. Thank you very much, Mr. Scherer. 
The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 
(^\^lereupon, at 12:40 p. m., the committee was recessed, to be 
reconvened at 2 p. m., this same day, there being present at the time 
of the recess Representatives Moulder, Frazier, and Scherer.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, MONDAY, JUNE 4, 1956 

(The subcommittee was reconvened at 2:15 p. m. at the expiration 
of the recess, there being present Representatives Morgan ^L Moulder 
and James B. Frazier, Jr.) 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

Proceed with the examination of this witness, please, Mr. Tavenner. 



4758 coMMuisriST activities in st. louis, mo., area 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM W. CORTOR— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Cortor, you said that one of your early assign- 
ments in the Communist Party was to work with the unemployed 
groups. 

Mr. Cortor. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that one purpose of the party in doing that 
work was to use it as a means of recruiting people into the Communist 
Party. 

Can you recall at this time the name of any person or persons 
recruited at that time? 

Mr. Cortor. No; I can't recall the names of any people that were 
recruited during that period. I didn't recruit any myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there any other members of the Communist 
Party that you can recall now who participated in that work with 
you? 

Mr. Cortor. Well, there was one that I can recall at the present 
time. That was Richard Stanford. 

Mr. Tavenner. Richard Stanford? 

Mr. Cortor. That is true; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any Communist Party connection 
with him at a later date? 

Mr. Cortor. Not Communist Party connection. I met him in the 
defense committee and some of the CRC meetigns I attended — Civil 
Rights Congress meetings I attended. Mr. Stanford also would be 
present. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you take any active part in the Civil Rights 
Congress? 

Mr. Cortor. No. I attended some of their meetings and was a 
member of the Civil Rights Congress, but didn't take too active a 
part in it. 

Air. Tavenner. You mentioned earlier in your testimony a person 
by the name of Dorothy Aukamp. Did you state that she later 
married? 

Mr. Cortor. Yes, su\ 

Mr. Tavenner. What is her married name? 

Mr. Cortor. Sage. 

Mr. Tavenner. Sage? 

Mr. Cortor. S-a-g-e. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with her husband? 

Mr. Cortor. Not at the time of their marriage, but I was later in- 
troduced to her husband by Mrs. Sage. And she introduced me to 
him as an oldtime party member, and she wanted me to meet her 
husband. I was introduced to him on that basis. He was known to 
me as a member of the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have heard of a cell or group of the Com- 
munist Party by the name of the Tom Paine Club of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Cortor. The Tom Paine Club was a neighborhood group that 
met out on — they had a store-front headquarters on either Hamilton 
or Hodiamont Avenue. I believe it is Hamilton; about the 1100 or 
1200 block. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that during the first period of your member- 
ship? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4759 

Air. CoRTOR. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever attend any of its meetings? 

Air. CoRTOR. I attended several of their meetings, yes, when I 
would be in town off the river vessel. 

Air. Tavenner. Are there any members of that club whose names 
3'ou can recall as members of the Communist Party? 

Air. CoRTOR. There is one by the name of Elsie Hauber. 

Air. Tavenner. Will 3^ou spell the last name. 

Air. CoRTOR. J believe it is H-a-u-b-e-r. 

Air. Tavenner. H-a-u-b-e-r, Hauber. 

Air. CoRTOR. I also met Aliss Hauber in my second period in the 
party. 

Air. Tavenner. So that her membersliip continued on through 
into your last period of membership? 

Air. CoRTOR. That is right. 

Air. Tavenner. I am not certain that I have exhausted your 
recollection of the membersliip in the Automotive Branch of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Air. CoRTOR. You have all the names that were in in the last period. 
In the early period they had several branches I was not connected 
\vith, but I knew one of the people, a fellow b}^ the name of Tom 
Schmidt. 

Air. Tavenner. S-c-h-m-i-d-t? 

Air. CoRTOR. That is correct. 

Air. AIoulder. That is a very common, general name. Could you 
give any more identification specifically to identify that person? 

Air. CoRTOR. I find it rather hard to give a physical description of 
an individual myself. 

Air. Tavenner. How was he employed? 

Air. CoRTOR. If I remember correctly, he was working at Ford's, 
and he participated in the strike of the Ford plant — -it was on Park 
Avenue at that time— m 1938, the fall of 1938. 

I also knew Air. Schmidt in my later period in the part^^ 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what I was going to ask you. That is 
between 1951 and 1954? 

Air. CoRTOR. That is right. 

Air. Tavenner. Can you give us any description or any accomit 
of his activities during that period? 

Mr. CoRTOR. In the later period, for a good proportion of the time, 
he had a job workmg nights, and he wasn't very active. He had a 
little bit of activity in the Civil Rights Congress, and some with the 
St. Louis Emergency Defense Committee; cjuite a bit of service with 
that. 

Air. Tavenner. What was the membership of the Communist 
Party advised with regard to the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, it was once put to me that the Civil Rights 
Congress was the legal arm of the Communist Party. 

Air. Tavenner. Was its membership encouraged to be active in 
the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. CoRTOR. It was. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what connection did you mention the name of 
Pearl Bernstein Starks? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Pearl Bernstein 

When I first knew Mrs. Starks — before her marriage — she was 
office secretary for the National Alaritime Union, and she would be 



4760 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

the person that the party members would contact when they came to 
St. Louis for what was going on in the local party in the way of social 
affairs, front organizations, or anything like that. Miss Bernstein 
would be the person we would contact. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with her husband? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I met her husband during the later period, through 
Miss Bernstein. She introduced me to her husband as one of the old 
timers over the river. She wanted me to know him as a party 
member. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell the committee of any activities in 
which she engaged in the latter period of your membership? 

Mr. CoRTOR. I met him several times at Civil Rights Congress 
meetings, and that is about the only organization I can pinpoint Mr. 
Starks on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with a person by the name 
of William Massingale? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes. I knew Mr. Massingale as a member of the 
party during the early period. And I met him several times in the 
later period that I was in the party. But his health was very bad, 
and he wasn't taking a very active part. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is in the latter period? 

Mr. CoRTOR. In the latter period. I knew him definitely as a 
member of the pai'ty in the early period. 

Mr. Tavenner. This committee received considerable evidence 
last year regarding the activities of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. To what extent did the Communist 
Party participate in that matter in this area? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Well, all party members were urged to support the 
Rosenberg committee and contact as many people as they could to 
ask them to write letters asking for justice for the Rosenbergs, and to 
help the Rosenberg committee distribute leaflets, which I did on two 
occasions. 

Mr. Tavenner. You participated hi that work yourself? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were funds raised for the work of that com- 
mittee? 

Mr. CoRTOR. Oh, through public donations, social affairs, movies, 
almost every means they could find to raise money they used. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been connected with the Communist 
Party in any way since 1954? 

Mr. CoRTOR. No, sir; I haven't. 

Mr. T.WENNER. Mr. Chairman, I think that is all I desire to ask 
the witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have any questions? 

Mr. Frazier. No questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Cortor, we are grateful to you, and appreciate 
very much your appearance before the committee in givuig us the 
information that you have given us concernuig your knowledge of 
the Communist activities. Thank you very much. 

The witness is excused, and again thank you very much. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. James Sage. 

Will you come forward, please. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Sage, will 3^ou hold up your right hand and 
be sworn. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES INT ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4761 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony wliicli you are about to 
give before the subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you, God? 

Mr. Sage. I do. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES H. SAGE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

GARNET W. TAYLOR 

Mr. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, I would like to enter my appearance 
as counsel. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

Mr. Taylor. Is now the proper time you do it? 

Mr. Tavenner. If you will wait a moment I will see that that is 
done. 

Will you state your name, please, sir. 

Mr. Sage. My name is James H. Sage. 

Mr. Tavenner. S-a-g-e? 

How do you spell your name? 

Mr. Sage. S-a-g-e. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel accompanying the witness please 
identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Taylor. My name is Garnet W. Taylor. I am a practicing 
attorney here in St. Louis. And the i-elationship of lawyer and client 
exists between Mr. Sage and myself. Mr. Sage was referred to me by 
the Bar Association of the City of St. Louis. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes, sir. And we wish to compliment you for your 
appearance. 

And, as stated by the committee this morning, your appearance 
here as counsel certainly is no reflection upon you, and we are pleased 
to have you present here as an attorney. 

Mr. Taylor. Thank you, Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Sage? 

Mr. Sage. I was born September L3, 192L 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Mr. Sage. In Shelby County. 

Mr. Tavenner. Missouri? 

Mr. Sage. Missouri. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. Sage. 6048 Stoneham JDrive in Berkeley, Mo. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been a resident of Berkeley, 
Mo.? 

Mr. Sage. Over 2 years, if I recall correctly. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you resided in St. Louis? 

Mr. Sage. Would you state the question again? 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you resided in St. Louis at any time? 

Mr. Sage. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period of time? 

Mr. Sage. Well, perhaps since 1948, I think. 

Mr. Tavenner. Up until about 2 years ago? 

Mr. Sage. Yes, that is approximately eon-eet. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been. 



4762 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Sage. I went through the grade school and the high school of 
Clarence, Mo. And I also have a bachelor's degree from Kirksville 
State Teachers College. And I also have a master's degree in edu- 
cational administration from Washington University. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you receive your master's degree at 
Washington University? 

Mr. Sage. In February 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say when you received your degree from 
Kirksville? 

Mr. Sage. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date, the approximate date? 

Mr. Sage. May 1943. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you serve in the Armed Forces of the United 
States. 

Mr. Sage. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Durmg what period of time? 

Mr. Sage. From September of 1943 until December of 1945. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
employment has been since 1945, since you returned from the service. 

Mr. Sage. Well, I have worked at various things; as a teacher of 
chemistry, as a teacher of general science, as a chemist. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the places and approximate dates, 
please. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that cjuestion, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination as guaranteed by the fifth amendment to 
the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question. I can't possibly see how telling us where he was 
employed would incriminate him unless he was employed in some 
criminal activity. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question 
propounded by counsel for the reason stated by Mr. Scherer, and the 
additional reason that the witness initially opened the subject by 
stating his occupation and employment and what he was doing. 

And the reason for this direction is, as you understand, that our 
courts have held that the witness should be advised of such direction 
in order that he might know of the dangers with which he might be 
confronted in connection with contempt proceedings. 

That is not stated in any spirit whatseover of a threat but so that 
you might be advised in that respect. 

Therefore, you are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. All right. 

Will you state the question? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read the question to the witness. 

(Wliereupon, the record was read by the reporter as follows:) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what j-our employment 
has been since 1945, since you returned from the service? 

Mr. Saoe. Well, I have worked at various things; as a teacher of chemistry, as 
a teacher of general science, as a chemist. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the places and approximate dates, please. 

Mr. Sage. When I retm-ned from the service I took a position as a 
teacher of general science at Brookfield, Mo. That was in January of 



COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4763 

1946. And I finished the term of scliooling there, wliicli ended in May 
1946. 

Mr. ScHERER. In what city was that? 

Mr. Sage. Brookfield, Mo. 

Mr. ScHERER. Tliank you, sir. 

Mr. Tavenxer. If vou will proceed, please. 

Mr. Sage. All right^. 

In September of 1946 I became an instructor of chemistry on tlie 
high school and college level at Kemper Military School in Booneville, 
Mo. 

Mr. Tavenner. Proceed, please. 

Mr. Sage. On leaving Kemper Military School after 2 years of 
teaching there, I entered Alissouri University for a half semester on 
the GI bill of rights. And, after going there for one semester, I 
entered Washington University gi*aduate school of education. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was followed by your obtaining jour degree 
in 1950? 

Mr. Sage. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then what was your employment after receiving 
your master's degree in 1950? 

Mr. Sage. Well, for a few months after that I worked at Fisher 
Body. 

^I^. Tavenner. In St. Louis? 

xVIr. Sage. In St. Louis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the nature of your employment there? 

Mr. Sage. As a production worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. On the assembly line? 

Mr. Sage. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you continue to work there? 

Mr. Sage. It was about 3 months; approximately 3 months, I 
would say, or somewhere in that vicinity. 

Mr. T.WENNER. Do you recall the date when you left the plant? 

Mr. Sage. No; I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the month? 

Mr. Sage. It was in the month of November. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment? 

Air. Sage. My next employment was with H. and H. Machine 
Shop. 

Air. Tavenner. In St. Louis? 

Mr. Sage. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What date did that emplojonent begin? 

Mr. Sage. I am not sure, I think it was in January or February 
of 1951. 

Air. Tavenner. How were you employed between November 1950, 
and the date in 1951 which you just mentioned? 

Air. Sage. 1 was unempIoA^ed. There was a layoff at Fisher Body 
during — or I was laid off from there. There was a general shutdown 
of about 1 month in there. They are in the common habit of having 
shutdowns about that time of year. 

Air. Tavenner. Were you called back to work in November of 
1950? 

Air. Sage. I think I received a telegram to that nature calling me 
back. 

Air. Tavenner. Did you go back? 



4764 COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Sage. No, I did not. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Why? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make application in October of 1950 for 
the issuance of a passport by the State Department, a photostatic 
copy of which I hand you? 

(Document handed to the witness and his counsel.) 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I wish to reassert my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I ask that the photostatic copy be marked for 
identification pm'poses only as "Sage Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Moulder. So ordered. 

(The document referred to was marked "Sage Exhibit No. 1" for 
identification and filed in the committee records.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine Sage Exhibit No. 1, please, and 
state whether or not the signature appearing on the second page is 
your signatm'e. 

Mr. Sage. I wish to reassert my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. ScHERER. The record should show that the witness did not 
even look at the exhibit before he asserted his privilege. I ask that 
jou direct the witness at least to look at the signature. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes, the witness is dii-ected to examine the sig- 
natm'e to ascertain whether or not he desires to answer the question 

Let the record show that the witness is now examining Sage exhibit 
No. 1 as requested by Mr. Scherer. 

Now the question, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. The question was w^hether or not the signatm'e is 
his signature, on this document marked "Sage Exhibit No. 1." 

Will 3^ou now examine the document again, please, and state whether 
or not the photograph appearing on the second page of the docu- 
ment 

Mr. Moulder. I don't believe he has answered the first question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me. I thought he had refused. 

Mr. Sage. What is the question, please? 

Mr. Moulder. As to whether or not the signatm-e appearing upon 
the document is your signature. 

Mr. Sage. I thought I had already stated that I invoked the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you now decline to answer? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. By reasserting yoiu- privilege? 

Mr. Sage. By reasserting my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the document again, please, and 
state whether or not the photograph appearing on the second page is 
your photograph? 

Mr. Sage (after examining document). I refuse to answer the ques- 
tion, and claim the privilege against self-incrimination granted by the 
fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was your address in October of 1950? 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4765 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

^Ir. Sage. I refuse to answer the question, and invoke again, or 
assert again my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, at this point at least I cannot see 
how his telling us where he lived in October of 1950 could possibly 
incriminate him. He was still employed at that time, according to 
his testimony, by the Fisher Body Co. here in St. Louis. According 
to his testimony, he wasn't laid off until November. So I can't 
possibly see how telling us where he lived at that time could incrimi- 
nate him. And I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, do I have any right to speak in behalf 
of the witness? 

Mr. Moulder. Unfortunately, the rules of our committee do not 
permit counsel to address the committee. In controversies of this 
sort you are free at all times to confer with the witness and advise 
him on such questions in any manner you see it. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, aad assert my privilege 
against self-incrimination as guaranteed by the fifth amendment of 
the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Sage, I will read to you this part of Sage 
Exhibit No. 1: 

My travel plans are as follows: Port of departure: New York. Approximate 
date" of departure: November 10, 1950. Proposed length of stay abroad: 2 
months. Means of transportation: Plane or ship. Countries to be visited: 
England and France. Purpose of trip: Touring. 

Did you engage in any travel for the purpose of touring in 1950 
on the continent of Europe or England? 

Mr. Sage. \^'liat do you consider touring? 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us have your definition of it. You are the 
one who took the trip. 

(The wdtness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I reassert my privilege under the fifth amendment to 
refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by touring? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer the question, and assert 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, you didn't go to Europe for 
the purpose of touring at all in 1950, did you? 

Mr. Sage. I assert my rights under the fifth amendment to refuse 
to answer this question. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, you went to Europe for the 
purpose of attending the Second World Peace Congress which was to 
be held in Sheffield, England. Isn't that correct? 

Mr. Sage. I assert my privilege under the fifth amendment to 
refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your plane was not permitted to land in England, 
was it? And proceeded on to Paris? Isn't that true? 

Mr. Sage. Again I assert my privilege under the Constitution to 
refuse to answer this question, against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know, do you not, that the British Govern- 
ment would not permit the Second World Peace Congress to be held on 



4766 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

British soil because of the Communist participation or Communist 
delegates to that convention? You know that, do you not? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution. 

Air. Tavenner. You know that the Polish Government then 
invited the delegates to meet in Warsaw, and that you went to 
Warsaw. Isn't that true? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your expenses to Warsaw were paid by the Polish 
Government; weren't they? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that the Polish Government? 

Wasn't it the Communist Party of Poland that paid the expenses? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir; it was. 

You arrived in Warsaw on the 17th of November 1950, didn't you? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incriniination guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you go from Warsaw to Moscow? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You returned to the United States on the 8tli day 
of December 1950, on the Batory; didn't you? 

Mr. Scherer. The what? 

Mr. Tavenner. The Batory. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't that the same ship on which Eisler escaped 
from this country? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; the Batory was engaged for quite some period 
of time in work of that type. 

Mr. Sage. Are you asking a question or is this just a statement? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; I asked you a question — — 

Mr. Scherer. I was asking counsel a question. 

But do you know that the Batory you took was the same ship 
Gerhart Eisler used to escape? 

Mr. Taylor. Did you say counsel? You weren't addressing me? 

Mr. Scherer. No. Our counsel. 

Now I am asking the witness a question since he asked me one. 

Witness, do you know that the ship on which you returned to the 
United States was the same ship 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I think you are properly invoking the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you meet Dr. Willard Uphaus at Warsaw? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimmation guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Willard Uphaus testified before the Committee 
on Un-American Activities last week in Washington, in the course of 
hearings which the committee has been conducting relating to the 



CO]\IMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4767 

improper use of passports, with a view of recommending legislation to 
Congress on the subject. 

Dr. Uphaiis testified that he was one of the group who attended this 
conference in Warsaw. And I have before me a copy of a speech he 
made on that occasion. In the course of his speech he said this: 

Mr. Sa2;e, one of our delegates, was arrested and fined for circulating the 
Stockholm petition. 

Did you hear Dr. Upliaus make that statement? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was Dr. Uphaus lying when he made the statement 
that you were arrested for circulating that petition? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer your question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether an 
American trade union financed your trip from St. Louis to New York 
and from New York to Paris. 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, when you signed that application for pass- 
port you swore to the statements you made in that application, did 
you not? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Scherer. And isn't it a fact, Witness, that when you swore 
to the application saying that you were going to tour in Europe you 
were not telling the truth? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Scherer. You knew at the time you signed that application 
for passport and swore to the statements you made in that application 
that 3"0u were not going to Europe for the purpose of touring, but 
that you were going to Europe to attend this Communist peace 
conference in London, did you not? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Scherer. And the fact is that you obtained that passport by, 
first, committing perjiuy, and then by fraud in making false representa- 
tions to the State Department of this Govermnent, did you not? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination as guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution of the LTnited States. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. From whom did you get directions as to how to 
fill out this application for passport in such a way as to deceive the 
State Department as to the real purposes of your trip? 



4768 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination as guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. Isn't it a fact, Witness, that you got that informa- 
tion and were told how to do this by agents of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution of the United States. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Tavenner, does the applicant state his occupa- 
tion at the time he made the application for passport? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir; he does not. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, let me see it. I saw it. 

Mr. Moulder. How" is the application signed? 

Mr. Scherer. James H. Sage. 

Yes, he swore to it on the 27th of October 1950, and that is before 
he was laid off by the Fisher Body Co. 

So he knew very well at that time that he was going to this peace 
conference. 

Now the fact is, Witness, at the time you made this application 
you were living at 5673 Cabanne Street, St. Louis. 

Isn't that a fact? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question and claim the privilege 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. And living at that same address was William 
Sentner, who was convicted in this very courtroom for violation of the 
Smith Act. Isn't that right? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-uicrimination as guaranteed by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't that the reason you refused to tell this com- 
mittee a few minutes ago, when we asked where you were livmg 
during 1950, and you refused to give us the address? Isn't that the 
reason? That you were living at that time and collaborating with 
William Sentner? 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination as guaranteed by the fifth amendment of 
the Constitution. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you here in this courtroom during the time 
that Sentner was being tried for advocating the overthrow of this 
Government by force and violence? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination guaranteed by the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. wScherer. The fact is you were living with him at that address 
on Cabanne Street at that time, were you not? 

Mr. Sage. Would you restate the question again, please? 

Mr. Scherer. I ^\^1 withdraw the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I refer again to Sage Exhibit No. 1, the photo- 
static copy of the passport application signed by James Harold Sage, 
and read an affidavit appearing at the bottom of the document. 

I, the undersigned, solemnly swear that I am a citizen of the United States; 
that I reside at the address written below my signature hereto affixed, that I 
know the applicant who executed the affidavit hereinbefore set forth to be a citi- 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4769 

zen of the United States; that the statements made in the appHcant's affidavit are 
true to the best of my knowledge and behef ; further, I solemnly swear that I have 
known the applicant personally for 4 years. 

Signed "Sol Nissen", N-i-s-s-e-n. 

Is that a correct statement, that Nissen had kno\\Ti you for a period 
of 4 years? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I refuse to answer that question, and claim the privilege 
against self-incrimination as guaranteed by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I suggest, if you like, that when you are 
relying on the fifth amendment, as you are, that you may state that 
you refuse to answer on the same grounds. It woidd save you from 
repeating it each time, and it is the customary practice before this 
committee. 

Mr. Sage. Thank you. I thought maybe you would advise us- 
pretty soon about that. 

Mr. Moulder. That will be permitted by the committee. 

Mr. Sage. What is the answer that you want? That I reassert the 
privilege? 

Mr. Moulder. If you wish to reassert yom* privilege under the 
Constitution you may, by merely saying that you decline to answer 
for the same reasons previously given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then we will understand what you mean. 

On the 27th day of October 1950, was Sol Nissen known to you to 
be a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a paper bearing date August 3, 1950,. 
piu'portedly signed by James H. Sage, and ask you to state whether 
or not that is a copy of your application for employment at Fisher 
Body Division of General Motors Corp. 

(Document handed to witness and his counsel.) 

(The witness confers with his coinisel.) 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean to take the position that an applica- 
tion for employment at Fisher Body might tend to incriminate you 
if you admit that it was your application? 

Mr. Scherer. I think so, Mr. Tavenner, in view of the fact that 
he has made all these perjurious statements in his application to the 
Government of the United States. 

It is conceivable he made a false application to Fisher Body. 

I think he is properly invoking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the application and state what 
it says as to educational qualifications of the individual. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I have to decline to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you return the document to me please? 

(Document handed to Mr. Tavenner.) 

Mr. Tavenner. This document is marked "Hardy Exhibit No. 1." 
This exhibit, together with Hardy Exhibits Nos. 2, 3, and 4, was 
introduced in evidence during the executive testimony of Mr. George 
V. L. Hardy. 



4770 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

I think, Mr. Chairman, it would clarify the record if I reoffered in 
evidence at this point "Hardy Exhibits Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4" and have 
them made a part of this witness' testimony. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes; Hardy Exhibits Nos. 1 through 4 are admitted 
in evidence as part of the record of the testimony of this witness. 

(The exhibits are as follows:) 

Habdy Exhibit No. 1 



rKHIK 9»0« 



APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT "^^ '*■*- 

riSHER BOOV DIVISION '^^* V^ . 

ION -v^:Cr t^. 






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f^r^ 






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/^. FA Em at Cci. .-.-.i_'^j^i7^/V 



?£JLlJlt*^ 







COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4771 



Hardy Exhibit No. 2 



APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT 

r.SHL'J B'-nV DIVISION 



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Ms. y4/>r /hJfcB 


















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4772 coMMuisriST activities in st. louis, mo., area 

Hardy Exhibit No. 3 

Cent 



b.i made <pptieilion for e^oyincnt »riib u^iod ttatM that b« «ru employed by you as 



Fro m /-£ / 






Bad|!« No._ 



.*n!l'w'rjl'rt!f ■"r^:^ •'*'<'* r" "perience with tbr appbc.nt. The informalioD will be treated coafide«lially 
and we wUJ be pleaaed u> recprocate. The apphcant-, eraployment may be delayed ontil we have your reply 



Date-. 



DATES or E 


MPLOYMENT 
T. 


UND OP VOKX 


1/17/51 


5/12/51 


Crate repairer 















FISHER BODY DIVISION 
General Moton Corporation 



Reaaon for 

L*a ving for another Job. 

fteaarka 



KATING 


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> on *CH ALONG THIS EDGE AND RETURN IN THE REPLY ENVELOPE 



HARDY' Exhibit No. 4 



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RETURN RECEIPT 



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V UibcA appeart m the fact <^ ihU Cerd. 



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Dott of delivery .-, , t^ _^, 



a, f. aovnmiiKT niMTiac orrKc >•— tM>t 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4773 

Mr. Tavexxer. The application marked "Hardy Exhibit No. 1" 
shows the name, in handwriting, of James H. Sage. It bears the date 
of August 3, 1950. It gives the address as 5673 Cabanne Street, St. 
Louis. And then it proceeds to state the educational training that 
the applicant has had. 

Mr. ScHERER. Up to the point of giving his address, he told the 
truth. 

Mr. Tavexxer. It merely lists "High school — 12", meaning 12 
grades, for his education. 

It does not indicate that the applicant has degrees from two uni- 
versities, or a college and a university, or that there had ever been an 
attendance at college. 

Why was it you omitted that information from your application? 

iVIr. Sage. I decline to answer the ciuestion on the grounds pre- 
viously given. 

Mr. Tavexxer. The committee, beginning with the witness, Mr. 
Herbert Philbrick of Boston, heard evidence of the Communist Party 
plan to colonize industry. He explained to the committee how people 
from the educational and professional world were being induced to 
<?olonize industry for the purpose of supplying leadership to the 
Communist Party. 

It was not until 1954, however, that the committee, at Flint, Mich., 
was able to get extensive proof of that type of procedure. 

Mr. Moulder. IVIay I add that that procedure indicated that 
people would be sent from New York and other points to sensitive 
and important defense-plant areas to work under the direction of the 
Communist Party leadership in New York. 

Is that correct, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavexxer. Yes, sir. 

There was one instance of an electrical engineer. There were 
instances of other persons with degrees in the type of work in which 
they had specialized, leaving college, or, immediately after completion 
of their college work, going to Flint, Tvlich., and taking positions on the 
assembly line and fm-nishing false information as to theu* educational 
qualifications. 

And, as shown there, witness after witness testified that they did 
that for the pm-pose of becoming leaders in the labor field and in the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. ScHERER. They made applications similar to the one that this 
witness made, and failed to include their educational qualifications 
so that they could obtain emplojTnent on the assembly line. 

I was at Flint, Mich., and I remember that testimony clearly. 

None of those applications with those plants disclosed that the men 
had degi'ees in engineering or master's degrees such as this witness 
has here. 

Mr. Tavexxer. And then information was obtained in the course 
of hearings conducted in Denver relating to the Colorado University, 
that young men in the com'se of their educational training were 
induced by the Communist Party to leave school and take up places 
in industry, falsely stating their educational qualifications, in order to 
assist them in getting that type of position. 

Mr. Moulder. In view of that as a basis, I wish to ask the mt- 
ness a question. 



4774 COAIMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Did the Communist Party leaders or any Communist Party member 
influence you to make application for employment at the Fisher 
General Motors plant for employment there on the assembly line? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now you knew before December 10 that you were 
gomg to be laid off, that there would be this temporary shutdown at 
the Fisher Body plant, didn't you? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously given. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have just made up your mind not to answer 
any question that I might ask you. Is that correct? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on the gi-ounds pre- 
viously given. 

Mr. Moulder. Of course we are not handwriting experts, but may 
the committee examine the documents referred to for the purpose of 
comparing the signatures on the application for passport and the 
application for employment at Fisher? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; I will very gladly hand you both exhibits. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Moulder. For the purpose of the record, it appears that it is 
the opinion of the members of the committee that the signatures 
appearing on both documents referred to as Hardy Exhibit No. 1 and 
Sage Exhibit No. 1 are identical signatures. The same person signed 
both documents. 

Mr. Scherer. May I ask the witness: 

Is the committee correct in its opinion that the signatures on both 
of the documents are the same? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Air. Tavenner. Mr. Sage, you actually received a notice by 
registered mail that you were to return for employment at Fisher Body, 
did you not? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

\h\ Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer that 
question. He has already partially answered that question in the 
early part of his testimony when he said he thougJit he received a 
notice by telegram. 

He certainl}' waived any privilege he might have. 

I call it now to his attention, that it was b}^ registered mail instead 
of telegram. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Air. Sage. I decline to answer the question on tlie grounds previ- 
ously given. 

Air. Scherer. I think we should state for the record that we do not 
accept his answer, and that in at least the opinion of this member of 
the committee the witness has subjected himself to possible contempt 
for not answering that question. 

Air. AIoulder. The witness is so advised, and has been previously 
advised of the possibility. 

I say that not in the spirit of a threat but in the spirit of 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4775 

Mr. ScHERER. The Supreme Court made it mandatorv that we 
state our feeling in order to predicate a possible action for contempt. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you direct the witness to answer? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes, the witness has been so directed. 

And, as I understand the record, he declines to answer for the 
reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Sage, after the receipt of a message to report 
back to Fisher Body for reemployment, did you report back? 

Mr. Sage. I declme to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you advise Mr. George V. L. Hardy, employ- 
ment manager of Fisher Body division, as to why you had been absent 
and could not report back at the time you were advised to report 
back? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think I should read into the rec- 
ord at this point the testimony of Mr. George V. L. Hardy, taken in 
executive session on that point, and give this witness an opportunity 
to reply to or explain any of the matters referred to here. 

Mr. George V. L. Hardy, after explaining that he was employment 
manager of the Fisher Body and in charge of applicants for positions, 
testified as to your application for employment, which he produced 
under subpena duces tecum issued by tliis committee. 

Mr. Hardy also advised that after the plant was ready to be put 
back in operation you were advised by registered mail to report for 
employment, but that you did not report. 

However, under subpena duces tecum, Mr. Hardy produced the 
''retm-n receipt" for his registered letter addressed to you. 

Mr. Scherer, Addi'essed to liim at what addrc^ss? Cabanne 
Street? 

Mr. Tavenner. The return receipt does not show the addi'ess. 

Mr. Scherer. \Mio signed the return receipt? 

Mr. Tavenner. But it does show on his application, which I read 
into evidence a few moments ago, as being 5673A Cabanne Street. 

The return receipt previously introduced as Hardy Exhibit No. 
4, shows that it was signed bv William Sentner, Jr., November 24, 
1950. 

Did Mr. William Sentner, Jr., live in the same building in which 
you resided? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on groimds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hardy further testified that you appeared in 
person in his office and gave the following explanation of the reason 
for youi- absence and your faihu'e to return at the time you were 
advised lo return. This is Mr. Hardy's testimony: 

He- 
referring to you — 

stated that he left work on November 3, 1950, and subsequently left St. Louis, 
driving to New York, arriving on November 10, 1950. He took a Curtiss-Reid 
airplane which stopped at Montreal and also Gander, Newfoundland. The 
plane landed in Paris. 



4776 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Is that a truthful statement up to that point? 

Mr. Sage. I deehne to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavennee (reading) : 

And he explained that the airline did not have a permit to land in London. So 
he took a local plane to London from Paris on the same day. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. 

Did he state his reason for his desire to go to Ijondon? 

Mr. Hardy. Yes. He gave me the information that the conference — he was 
supposed to go to some special conference there, but he didn't go into any further 
detail than that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall \\hat conference that was? 

(There was no response.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether it was the Second World Peace 
Congress? 

I\Ir. Hardy. Yes, I am quite sure that is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well, sir. If you will proceed, please. 

Mr. Hardy. On November 11 he returned to Paris where he stayed until the 
14th or 15th, on which date he stated he went to Brussels, Belgium, and then 
continued on the 15th to Prague. And he continued to Warsaw on the 17th, 
where he said he was unable to continue by plane. 

To what place did you continue after arriving at Warsaw? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was it Moscow? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing to read the testimony of Mr. Hardy) : 

He then went to a port in Poland and boarded a boat which he later identified 
as the Batory. 

This boat was due to land at some Gennan port which he did not name. But 
he stated it was so heavily laden that it docked at Southampton first and then 
proceeded to the German port. It touched at Le Havre and then docked at 
New York on Friday, December 8. And he then flew by TWA airline to St. 
Louis on the same date. 

Is there an}' error m that statement bv Mr. Hard}' as to what you 
told him on December 11, 1950? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the statements of any General Motors 
officials on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is anything said by this General Motors official,, 
namely, Mr. Hardy, about you untrue? Did he lie to the committee 
on Saturda}^ when he testified under oath as to these things that have 
been just read to you by Mr. Tavenner? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. ScHERER. Before we go any further, yom- passport specifically 
stated that jou were not allowed to travel in Iron Ciu'tain countries, 
did it not? 

Mr. Sage. What was the statement? 

Mr. ScHERER. As to your passport we have been discussing, that 
was issued to you as a result of the representations you made in your 
application; that passport specifically prohibited you from traveling 
in Iron Cm'tain countries, did it not? Yet you went to Prague. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4777 

Mr. Tavennek. It was at this time that you sought emploj^ment 
with H. & H. Machine Shop, was it not? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I dechne to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Scheker. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question with reference to his employment with H. & H. Machine 
Shop since in his early testimony he told us that he went to work for 
the H. & H. Machine Shop in St. Louis in January of 1951. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so directed. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Is there a dhection to answer the question? 

Mr. Taylor. I believe we did invoke the amendment when you 
made the original question as to the matter of employment. And 
then you directed us to answer. We answered. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right. 

Mr. Taylor. Since that time there have been many questions 
asked, and you are coming back now to his place of employment in a 
different way and in a different link. 

Mr. Moulder. The record will speak for itself in that respect. 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now I hand you Hardy Exhibit No. 2, and ask 
you to state whether you did apply for reemployment in 1952, and if 
in fact you were not reemployed by Fisher Body plant in August of 
1952. 

(Document handed to the witness and his counsel.) 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I refer now to the reverse side of Hardy Exhibit 
No. 2 where the previous employment given by the applicant James 
H. Sage is H. & H. Machine Co. from January 1951 to May 1951. 

Will you tell the committee, please, whether H. & H. Machine Co. 
was organized by the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. In February of 1951 were you employed as an 
organizer for the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of 
America? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
February 11, 1951? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive Communist Party encouragement 
and support in obtaining a position as organizer for the United 
Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess for a period of 
5 minutes, at the end of which period of time the witness will be recalled 
for further exammation. 

(Whereupon, a short recess was taken, there bemg present Repre- 
sentatives Moulder, Frazier, and Scherer.) 



4778 COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES EST ST, LOUIS, MO., AREA 

(The committee was reconvened at the expu'ation of the recess, 
there being present Representatives Moulder and Scherer.) 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you arrested on June 18, 1951, in connection 
with the showing of a moving pictiu-e at the home of Eddie Richardson? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds prev^iously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the course of the staff investigation it procured 
photostatic copies of certain papers alleged to have been in yom* car, 
in yoiu- possession at that time. That is, at the home of Richardson 
on June 18, 1951. 

I hand you photostats of these papers marked for identification 
pm-poses only as "Sage Exhibit No. 2" as one document. I ask you 
to identify them as copies of notebook paper material which was in 
your possession. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Sage Exhibit No. 2" for 
identification.) 

(Documents handed to the witness and his counsel.) 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner; Will you answer the question, please. 

Mr. Taylor. What was the question? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you identify these photostatic copies of 
papers found in your possession at the time of yom* arrest at the 
home of Richardson on June 18, 1951? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question 

I decline to answer the question on grounds previously given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the documents again and state 
whether or not they appear in yom' hand^aiting? 

(Documents handed to the witness and his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on groimds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Scherer. That is no answer. That is a refusal to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you engage in any work for the Communist 
Party in mass orgamzation relating to the peace movement in the 
summer of 1951? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you assist in the organization of a trip of 
delegates from St. Louis to a convention held on June 29 and 30 and 
July 1, 1951, sponsored by the American Peace Crusade in Chicago? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner (referring to Sage Exhibit No. 2). I will read from 
some of the notes on this note paper which are numbered as follows: 

No. 1. Hank Holland, H-o-l-l-a-n-d: 

Going for 3 daj's. Will take car and will try to make up his own group. 

Was that part of the delegation to this peace crusade convention 
in Chicago? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Hank Holland known to you at the Fisher 
Body plant as a member of the Communist Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4779 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on giounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Had Hank Holland been employed in the Fisher 
Body plant prior to November 3, 1950, while j'ou were there? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on gi'ounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenxer (reading) : 

No. 2: Romey Hudson, (R-o-m-e-y) 4954 Fountain. 

Would like to go on the 28th to be there for the opening of the meeting — 

is the notation appearing under it. 

Was Romey Hudson known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Both Hank Holland and Romey Hudson were 
identified by the preceding witness as members of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Taylor. Mr. Counsel, did you want an answer there? 

Mr. Tavexxer. Yes, if you would give one I would be veiy happy 
to have it. 

Mr. Taylor. I didn't know whether you put that in a question. 
I thought you were going on. Are you expecting 

Mr. Tavexxer. I live in hope always. 

Will you answer the question as to whether or not Mr. Cortor was 
correct in his identification of Hank Holland and Romey Hudson as 
members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on groimds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavexxer (reading) : 

No, 3: Loretta Waxman, Elliott Waxman, Marilyn Waxman, need transporta- 
tion. 

One of those names, Elliott Waxman, was identified by the preced- 
ing witness as the head of one of the automotive branch groups of the 
Communist Party. 

Was he known to you to be a member of the Communist Party? 

(Representative James B. Frazier, Jr., entered the hearing room at 
tliis point.) 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously given. 

Mr. Tavexxer (reading) : 

No. 6 is Elsie Hauber. 

Was she known to you to be a member of the Communist Party? 

Air. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavexxer. In addition to having identified her as a member 
of the Communist Party, Mr. Cortor also identified Orville Leach, 
who is listed under No. 9 of the notes, as a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Do you know whether Orville Leach was a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given . 



4780 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Another name appearing on the notes is Bill 
Massingale. 

Do you know whether Bill Massingale was a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Pearl Starks, S-t-a-r-k-s. Was she a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Bill Sentner? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Thelma Hecht? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Holland? 

Mr. Sage. I declme to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Maschoff, M-a-s-c-h-o-f-f? 

Mr. Moulder. Is there a first name in connection with that? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir; there is not. 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. A person by the name of Otto Maschoff was identi- 
fied as a member of the Communist Party, one of those who attended 
the fraction meetings in the industrial branches of the Communist 
Party. 

Ai'e you acquahited with Otto Maschoff? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. I also read a notation from the top of one of the 
notes which is underscored: 

Chicago convention scheduling. 

Does that refer to the Chicago convention of June 29 and 30 of the 
American Peace Crusade at Chicago? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. I see on another note a breakdown of names into 
groups, the heading of which is — 

Youth to Chicago. 

As the head of one of those groups is the name of Sol Nissen, 
N-i-s-s-e-n. That is the same name appearing as the identifying 
witness on your application for passport. 

Did Sol Nissen accompany you to Chicago? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
2;iven. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. On another page of these notes, there appears a 
breakdown of groups: 

Youth, 25; professional, 15; labor — • 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4781 

It is impossible to tell whether it is 30 or 50. 
Church groups, 15; other, 20; K. C, 50; out State 25. 

What does K. C. mean? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer that question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know that means Kansas City, don't you? 

Air. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Wliat does "Out-State" mean? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't that the term used in the official document 
of the Communist Party signed by Ray Koch as the organizational 
secretary under date of April 14, 1947, in which he refers to a group 
of the Communist Party as the Out-State group, and which it was 
testified here this morning meant that part of the Communist Party 
outside of the city of St. Louis? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chahman, as previously indicated, I ask that 
these notes be combined as one document, identified as "Sage Ex- 
hibit No. 2," to be retained in the files of the committee. 

Mr. Moulder. Very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand j^ou Hardy Exhibit No. 2, wliich was your 
application for reemplojTiient at Fisher Bodv, bearing the date 
of August 13, 1952. 

Pm'suant to that application were you again given a job at the 
Fisher plant? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. What emplovment have you had since August 
13, 1952? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of an organized group of the 
Communist Partv at the Fisher Body plant at any time between 
August 3, 1950, and November 1, 1950? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVere you a member of such an organized group of 
the Commmiist Party at any time after August 13, 1952? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previouslj^ 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a photostatic copy of a document 
over the name of the Communist Club of Washington University, 
Post Office Box 1006, St. Louis, AIo. I hand you this document, and 
I will ask you if j^ou have ever seen it before. 

(Document handed to the witness and his counsel.) 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you play any part in the dissemination of that 
document? 



4782 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. ]Mr. Chairman, the committee's investigation 
discloses that Post Office Box 1006, which appears at the bottom of it, 
was rented by Ralph Shaw and Jim Forrest. 

Do you know Ralph Shaw? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on gi-ounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Ralph ShaAv in 1951 a Communist Party 
organizer in this area? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to anwser the question on gi'oinids previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do 3-ou Ivtiow whether Jim Forrest, mentioned 
here, is the Jim Forrest who was one of those convicted under the 
Smith Act in 1954? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the ciuestion on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the committee's investigation 
shows that a reference to "William Sentner was given when this post- 
office box was obtained. 

Mr. Moulder. Do we have am' information on Ralph Shaw? 

Air. Tavenner. I am certain that Ralph Shaw was identified as a 
functionary of the Comnnmist Party by Mr. Schoemehl in executive 
testunony, and I am confident also that he will be further identified 
during the course of this hearing. 

I ask that this document be marked "Sage Exhibit No. 3," for 
identification purposes only, and retained in the committee files. 

Mr. IMoulder. The document will be so marked. 

(The document referred to was marked "Sage Exhibit No. 3" for 
identification.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I shall read into the record only one paragraph. 

The campuses of the Nation do not exist in a poHtical vacuum and we will find 
that the evils embodied in this law will strangle the free exchange of ideas which 
is the primary function of an institution of higher learning. 

And then this part of it is underscored: 

It must do this in order to capture the minds and bodies of the campus youth 
who are one of the major supplies of cannon fodder which is so desperately needed 
by Emperor MacArthur at the moment to further his fascistic aims of subjugating 
the people of Asia to the imperialistic exploitation of Wall Street. 

Mr. Scherer. Subjugating the people of Asia? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

The reference is to the "McCarran Act," which was a term used in 
1951 to describe the Internal Securit}' Act of 1950, which was origi- 
nated by this committee. This is not the McCarran- Walter Act. It 
is the AlcCarran-Wood Act. Mr. Wood was chairman of this com- 
mittee, and Mr. McCarran of the Senate committee. And the correct 
name was realW the McCarran-Wood Act. But it is the Internal 
Securitv Act of 1950. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4783 

Was there an organized group of the Communist Party on the cam- 
pus of Washington University while joii were in attendance and 
obtained your master's degree? 

Mr. Sage. I declme to answer the question on grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. I forgot, Witness. In what field did you receive 
your master's degree? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer the question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask you direct tlie witness to answer. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. In vrhat field? 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Taylor. Congressman Moulder — Mr. Chairman, couldn't we 
search the record and get that? 

Mr. Moulder. You mean it lias already been stated in the record? 

Mr. Taylor. It seems to me like it was, in the first. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think it was. That is the reason I was so flabber- 
gasted that he invoked the fifth amendment. I just forgot it. 

Mr. Taylor. Congressman, j^ou know 

Mr. Moulder. You are directed to answer. 

Mr. Taylor. You directed him to ansv\-er tluit one particular 
question for the Congressman? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes; as requested by Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Taylor. Will you read the ciuestion then? 

Mr. Scherer. I will repeat it. 

In what field did he get his master's? 

Mr. Sage. In educational administration. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all I wanted to know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the facts relating to 
the preparation of this document and the dissemination of it from thft 
post office with reference to Post Office Box 1006? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer that question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. How are you presently employed? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

!NIr. Sage. WlU you state the question again, please. 

Mr. Tavenner. WiU j^ou read the question, please. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Sage. As a chemist. 

Mr. Moulder. As a what? 

Mr. Sage. As a chemist. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Sage. I decline '^ to answer that question on the grounds 
previously given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist 
Party at any time other than those about which I have specifically 
asked you? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer that question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Scherer, do you have any questions? 



4784 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. You said in your earlier testimony that j-ou for a 
time service! in the Armed Forces of the United States. I forget what 
years that service covered. Would j^ou tell me? 

Mr. Sage. It covered from August 1943, or September 1943, until 
December of 1945. 

Mr. Scherer. In what branch of the armed services? 

Mr. Sage. United States Ai-niy Air Corps. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you see service outside of this country? 

Mr. Sage. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Scherer. \Vhere? 

Mr. Sage. In Italy. 

Mr. Scherer. What were your specific duties? 

Mr. Sage. WeU, I suppose my classification was that of a supply 
clerk. 

Mr. Scherer. What did you do in the Air Corps? 

Mr. Sage. That is mainly what I did, was supply work. Just how 
I was classified I don't remember. 

Mr. Scherer. Did j^ou have a commission? 

Mr. Sage. I did not. 

Mr. Scherer. W^ere you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time that you were serving this country in the Ai'med Forces? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer that question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Scherer. When j^ou were in Italy did you have any contact 
with members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Sage. I decline to answer that question on grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions, Mr. Chau'man. 

Mr. Moulder. Any questions, Mr. Frazier? 

Mr. Frazier. No questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. I have no questions, Mr. Tavenner. 

The witness will be excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenjser. Mr. Elliott Waxman. 

Will you come forward, please, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear the testimony which you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you, God? 

Mr. Waxman, I do. 

Mr. Moulder. jVIr. Taylor, we wish to thank you for your conduct 
and appearance here as a member of the legal profession, as an at- 
torney, at the request of the Bar Association of St. Louis, representing 
the witness Mr. Sage, and express our appreciation for the manner 
in which you have represented him as a duty on your part as a member 
of the legal profession. 

Mr. Taylor. I have had the pleasure of knowing our Congi'essman 
for some years. 

TESTIMONY OF ELLIOTT WAXMAN 

Mr. Waxman. Mr. Chairman, I would like to submit a statement 
for the committee at this time. I would like to read it. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes, you may present your statement and file it. 
Mr. Waxman. Can I read it? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4785 

Mr. Moulder. The rules of the committee do not permit the read- 
ing of a statement, but you may 

Mr. Waxman. May I insert it in the record? 

Mr. Moulder. You may file the statement as a part of the files of 
this proceeding. The statement will be duly filed for the committee 
records. 

Mr. Waxman. Thank you. 

(The statement referred to was filed for the records of the com- 
mittee.) 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you state your name, please, sir. 

Air. Waxmax\ \ly name is Elliott Waxman. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Mr. Waxman, you probably heard me state, when 
the first witness appeared, that each witness has the right to have 
counsel with him if he desires. 

Mr. Waxman. That is right. 

Mr. Tavexxer. It is noted that you do not. But, of course, you 
may have counsel at any time durmg the course of your testimony if 
you see fit. 

When and where were you born, Mr. Waxman? 

Mr. Waxmax. I was born and raised in New York City; November 
29, 1919. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. Waxmax. I reside at 5867A Highland. 

Mr. Tavexxer. St. Louis? 

Mr. Waxmax. That is right. 

Mr. Tavexxer. How long have you lived in St. Louis? 

Mr. Waxman. Since I was discharged from the Army in 1945. 

Mr, Tavenner. Prior to 1945 where did you reside? 

Mr. Waxman. Well, I was in the Army for a period of time. 

Mr. T.wENNER. I meant prior to the time you were in the Army. 

Mr. Waxman. New York City. 

W^ell, I was working in Washington for a time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Washington, D. C? 

Mr. Waxman. Yes; that is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. For what period of time were you working in 
Washington? 

Mr. Waxman. I went from New York City to Washington, D. C, 
and then I was there a year or two, I guess, on a job. 

Mr. Tavenner. What date? 

Mr. Waxman. Well, I don't know the exact dates, but about 1938, 
I guess; 1938 or 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. By whom were you employed in Washington? 

Mr. Waxman. I was employed by the Federal Government. 

Mr. ScHERER. Would the witness mind talking just a little louder. 

(Representative Morgan M. Moulder left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Waxman. I was employed by the Federal Government. 

Mr. Tavenner. By what branch or agency of the Federal Govern- 
ment? 

Mr. Waxmax. Defense Housing. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you tell the committee, please, how you have 
been employed in St. Louis since your discharge from the Army? 

Mr. Waxmax. Well, I would rather take the fifth amendment, and 
decline under the fifth amendment. 



4786 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, you refuse to answer in the beHef 
that b}^ answering the question it might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. ScHERER. What was the question? 

Mr. Tavenner. As to his employment in St. Louis since he was 
discharged from the Army. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask you du"ect the witness to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Frazier (presiding). You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Waxman. I reassert the privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you honestly feel, Witness, and honestly com- 
prehend that if you answered the question as to that employment that 
such an answer might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Waxman. I would like to answer all the questions. I really 
would, but, the way I see it, I don't see how you can answer anything. 

Therefore, I reassert my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. It is very simple to answer how you were employed 

Now will you answer my question? 

Do you honestly believe if you told this committee how you have 
been employed since you left the Army that those answers might 
subject you to prosecution in a criminal case? Do j^ou honestly 
believe that? 

Mr. Waxman. I reassert the privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I hand j^ou an application for emplo3"ment 
at the Fisher Body plant under date of March 28, 1949, and ask you 
whether or not you have been employed there since 1949. 

(Document handed to the mtness.) 

(Representative Morgan M. Moulder returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Waxman (after examining document). I refuse to answer the 
question on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. There has been evidence produced before the com- 
mittee this morning that you were the head of one of the automotive 
branches of the Communist Party in St. Louis while employed at the 
Fisher Body plant. Do you wish to deny that? 

Mr. Waxman. I reassert the privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the testimony truthful when you were identi- 
fied as the head of that gi'oup of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

^Ir. Moulder. May I intervene by saying that it is often heard 
that in proceedings had before this committee a witness has been 
accused or charged with having been a member of the Communist 
Party or having engaged in Communist activities and is not given an 
opportunity to face his witness or to confirm or deny the charges that 
are made against him. 

You are now being accorded that privilege and that opportunity. 

Mr. Waxman. I don't feel that you have an opportunity. 

I feel it would be better to go into court and have somebody proceed 
to put charges against you. 

i\lr. Moulder. Counsel has asked you a question now 

Mr. Waxman. I declined to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. Giving you an opportunity to deny or affirm, and 
you have declined to answer the question, claiming the privilege under 
the amendment. Is that the way I understand you? 

Mr. Waxman. That is right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4787 

Mr. Tavenner. Can't you tell the truth here as well as you could 
tell it in any other place? 

Mr. Waxman. I would be glad to teU the truth anywhere. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then tell us. 

Mr. Waxman. But I decline on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you are not glad to tell the truth. 

Mr. Scherer. You submitted, at the opening of your testimony, 
Witness, a prepared statement that you have asked this committee to 
make a part of your testimony. 

Who prepared this statement? 

Mr. W\a.xman. Who prepared it? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Mr. Waxman. I did. 

Mr. Scherer. You prepared this statement? 

Mr. Waxman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You know you are under oath now. 

Mr. Waxman. I did. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact that this statement was prepared at 
least in part with the help of some functionary of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Waxman. What is that question again? 

Mr. Scherer. Wasn't this statement prepared at least in part by 
the help or with the help of some member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Then you didn't prepare this statement? 

Mr. Waxman. I did prepare the statement. 

Mr. Scherer. You mean you typed it? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I am not asking 3^ou in this next question about who 
typed this statement, but did you actuall}'^ prepare the language con- 
tained in this statement? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
previous amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Were j^ou telling us the truth a few minutes ago 
when you said that j*ou prepared this statement? 

Mr. Waxman. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact that you were lying just a few minutes 
ago 

Mr. Waxman. No; I am not lying. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact that you were lying just a few minutes 
ago when you said that you prepared this statement? 

Mr. Waxman. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. You refuse to tell us whether or not a few minutes 
ago you were either lying or telling the truth? 

Mr. Waxman. A minute ago I asked you to have the same oppor- 
tunity in court. 

I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been. 

Mr. Waxman. That I will be glad to tell. 



4788 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Graduate, high-school graduate. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Mr. Waxman. Well, I was graduated in New York City. I went 
to a trade school in order to learn something about graphic arts. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any other type of schooling? 

Mr. Waxman. Yes, I had religious schooling. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any Communist schoolmg? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee, in the course of its investigation, 
has found a great many things that the Communist Party has been 
interested in doing in mass organization, and the different methods 
by which the Communist Party has endeavored to propagandize the 
public. 

Did you take part in activity of that type? 

Mr. Waxman. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not sure that you understand what I mean. 

Did you at the instance of the Communist Party, become active in 
any type of Communist-front organizations or mass organizations, as 
the Communists refer to them? 

Mr. Waxman. Sir, I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Haven't you been secretary of a group known as 
Freedom of the Press Committee? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Here in St. Louis? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a paper marked for identification 
purposes only as "Waxman Exliibit No. 1," and I ask you to identify 
it. 

(The document referred to was m.arked "Waxman Exhibit No. 1" 
for identification.) 

(Docmnent handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Read what appears at the beginning. 

Mr. Waxman. You mean Freedom of the Press Committee 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Waxman. Of St. Louis, Box 4473, Wade Station, St. Louis, 
Mo. Mr. Elliott Waxman, secretary. 

Then you don't want the whole thing read, do you? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 

That says that you were secretary of that organization. Did you 
prepare that as secretary? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were secretary, though, weren't you? 

Mr. Waxman. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is marked for immediate release. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliat is the date of that? 

Mr. Tavenner. It is not dated, but it shows that it relates to 
the year 1956 because at the bottom it says: 



COMMUNIST ACTR'ITIES IN ST, LOUIS, MO., AREA 4789 

Mr. Morris, labor editor of the Daily Worker, will speak in St. Louis on Sunday, 
January 15, 1956. His subject will be, Labor and the 1956 Elections. He will 
appearat the Belo Hall, 1229 North Leonard Avenue, at 8 p. m. The public is 
'invited. 

Mr. George Morris was the labor editor of the Daily Worker, 
wasn't he? 

Mr. Waxmax. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
previousl}' stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. What connection did you have witli the Daily 
Worker? 

Mr. Waxman. I have issued a statement, and I believe the state- 
ment tells my connection. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am asking a question. 

Mr. Waxmax. At the present time I decline on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. The man files a statement and tells us about his 
connection with the Daily Worker. He certainly has waived any 
privilege in that respect. 

Mr. Moulder. I don't believe the document asserts any connec- 
tion with the Daily Worker. It merely comments about the Daily 
Worker. 

Mr. Scherer. It says [reading]: 

For some time now I have been the representative of the Daily and Sunday 
Worker, the only working-class paper in this area. 

And then: 

The Daily and Sunday Worker has always been on the side of the people. 
Many things which this paper fought for are now the cornerstone of the American 
way of life. 

And so on and so on. 

He wasn't under oath when he gave this. 

Mr. Waxman. Yes, I was, sir. I was sworn in. 

Mr. Scherer. I think I have tlie right to ask him questions. So 
much the better if he was under oatli then. 

What is your connection with tlie Daily Worker?' 

Mr. Waxman. I refuse to — decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. He was under oath when he submitted his statement. 
If he has any privilege he certainly has waived it. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer. 

Mr. Scherer. I certainly have a right to cross-examine him on the 
statement. 

Mr. Waxman. I am a representative of the Daily Worker in this 
area. 

Mr. Scherer. You are what? 

Mr. Waxman. I am representative of the Daily and Sunday 
Worker in this area. 

Mr. Scherer. For how long? 

Mr, Waxman. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question as to how long he 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so directed. 

Mr. Waxman. I reassert the privilege. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, let me tell you in all sincerity — j^ou do not 
have counsel, but I do think that you subject yourself to contempt 



4790 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

proceedings in view of the record if you refuse to answer now questions 
about your connection with the Daily Worker. 

I am asking you now how long you have been connected with the 
Daily Worker. I am not trying to trap you because I do think you 
would be in contempt if you refused to answer questions in view of the 
fact that you have voluntarily submitted this statement to the com- 
mittee. 

This statement contains references to the Daily Worker and your 
connection therewith. 

I have the right to ask you then about those statements, and test 
the validity of those statements and the truth of those statements be- 
cause this statement of yours will be a part of the records of the com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Waxman. Well, I have been associated with the Worker for 
about a period of 7 or 8 years. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wliile we are talking about the preparation of 
documents, what part did you play in the issuance of a document 
which is dated May 26, 1956, just last week, entitled "The St. Louis 
Defender," issued by the St. Louis Emergency Defense Committee? 
WTiat part did you play in the 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question on the gi"0unds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Isn't it a fact you were one of those who prepared, 
either prepared this document or participated in the distribution of 
this document? 

Mr. Waxman. I reassert the privilege, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. What help did you have from employees of the Daily 
Worker in the preparation of this document? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. The fact is that the document was prepared and 
written by the editors and employees of the Daily Worker, was it not? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Scherer. Is it not a fact that j^ou are a member of the Emerg- 
ency Defense Committee? 

Mr. Waxman. I reassert the privilege, sir, under the fifth amend- 
ment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact that the directuig force of the St. Louis 
Emergency Defense Committee is the Communist Party and the 
Daily Worker? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Waxman, in view of the fact that you have 
represented the Daily Worker in this area, and due to the fact that 
you were the secretary of the Freedom of the Press Committee of St. 
Louis you are in a particularly favorable position to give this commit- 
tee information as to how the Communist Party manipulates support 
to the Daily Worker through the Freedom of the Press Committee, if 
that be a fact. And I want you to tell this committee what you know 
about the operations of the Freedom of the Press Committee of 
St. Louis. 

Mr. Waxman. Well, sir, I decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United 
States. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4791 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you selected as secretary of the Freedom of 
the Press Committee by action of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Waxman. I reassert the privilege, sir, 

Mr. Tavenner. To what extent does the Communist Party control 
the activities of the Freedom of the Press Committee? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. AIouLDER. Maybe I was absent, but do we have some definite 
explanation as to the Freedom of the Press Committee of St. Louis? 
Was that while I was out of the room? 

Mr. Tavenner. The Freedom of the Press Committee is a national 
organization with chapters or groups established at various places 
in the United States like in Minneapolis, St. Louis, and other places. 
And the activities of these various groups may be somewhat different. 

The Attorne}^ General of the United States, in a memorandum 
dated July 15, 1953, designated the National Committee for Freedom 
of the Press under Executive Order 10450. 

Did your Freedom of the Press Committee of St. Louis give financial 
support to the national organization? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have a record before me of two contributions to 
the national organization, one from the Philadelphia Freedom of the 
Press Committee of $60; and one from the St. Louis Freedom of the 
Press Committee for $5. 

Do you know the circumstances under which that money was sent 
from St. Louis? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline — I decline to answer that question, sir, on 
the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it the purpose of this organization, the Freedom 
of the Press Conimittee, to give financial aid and support to the Daily 
Worker so that the Communist Party may continue to publish it? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Moulder. Do I understand then that this committee, the 
Freedom of the Press Committee, is a recent organization specially set 
up for the purpose of defending the right of the Daily Worker to con- 
tinue its publication and distribution? 

Mr. Tavenner. The national organization was formed by a group 
of 22 people in 1951. And the general purpose of it was to assist the 
Daily Worker. Just in what way it is assistmg we don't know. This 
witness could tell us to what extent it represents concerted action by 
local membership of the Communist Party, or how they may induce 
non-Communists to participate in it. We don't know. This witness 
could tell us. 

Mr. Scherer. In connection with what you say, Mr. Coansel, I 
wouJd like to make this observation and say this to the witness: 

You have refused — and, I think, properly so — to answer the ques- 
tions that have been asked 3^ou by counsel on the grounds that to do 
so might tend to incriminate you, or might tend to subject you to 
criminal prosecution. 

I point out to you that during the 83d Congress a law was passed 
which gives to this committee, with the approval of a Federal court, 
the right to grant immunity from prosecution. 



4792 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

In other words, if we grant you that immunity you can answer 
freely any question asked you because after that immunity is granted 
you could not possibly be subject to prosecution. 

Now, as Mr. Tavenner indicated, we feel, because of your position 
with the Daily Worker, because of your position as secretary of this 
committee, you do have valuable information that would aid the 
Congress and aid this committee. 

Now I am going to ask you this: 

If we granted you immunity would you then answer the questions 
that have been asked you? 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. How could that incriminate you? How could an- 
swering my question, whether you would answer those questions, 
incriminate you if you were granted immunity? 

I am saying that under no condition could you be prosecuted. 

Mr. Waxman. I would reassert the privilege, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. 

You are refusing to answer these questions, I presume in good 
faith, on the ground that to answer them, if you did answer them, you 
might be prosecuted. 

If you can't be prosecuted, if you can't be incriminated by answering 
the questions, we are asking you then whether you would answer them. 

Mr. Waxman. It is not whether I would be proscuted; it is a ques- 
tion of whether we have a free press in the country or not, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that the reason for your refusal to answer these 
questions? 

I thought it was because you feared that you might be subjected 
to criminal prosecution if you answered those questions and not be- 
cause of the question whether we have a free press or not. 

You can't refuse to answer 

Mr. Waxmax. We can't have a free press with people thrown in 
jail and intimidated and advertised as being attacked and everything 
else, people being told they can't read it and all that. 

Mr. ScHERER. If those are your reasons for refusing to answer the 
questions then you are improperly invoking the fifth amendment, and 
not invoking it in good faith. 

You can't sit here and refuse to answer questions asked by this 
committee on the grounds that you feel this committee is interfenng 
in some way with freedom of the press. That doesn't give you the 
right to refuse to answer these questions. 

You do have a perfect constitutional right to refuse to answer these 
questions on that ground if you conscientiously and in good faith 
feel that you might be prosecuted as a result of your answer. 

I am beginning to wonder, from your recent answers, whether or 
not you actually fear criminal prosecution and whether you actually 
are in good faith invoking the fifth amendment. 

But assuming that you are invoking the fifth amendment in good 
faith, and we thought you were up to this point, then if we relieve 
you from any possible criminal prosecution, my question is then, if 
you will not answer these questions. 

Mr. Waxman. How was that last part of the question, sir, again? 

Mr. ScHERER. If you are reheved from any criminal prosecution as 
the result of your answering the questions we ask, and are granted 
immunity, would you then answer the questions? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST, LOUIS, MO., AREA 4793 

Mr. Waxman. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer. 

Mr. Waxman. I reassert the privilege, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you understand what I have been trying to say 
to you? 

Mr. Waxman. I believe so. 

Mr. Scherer. You understand that. All riglit. 

Mr. Tavenner. I suggest that the photostatic copy of the press 
release of the Freedom of the Press Committee of St. Louis be marked 
"Waxman Exhibit No. 1" for identification purposes only. 

Mr. Moulder. The exhibit will be so marked as requested by 
counsel. 

(The document referred to, marked ''Waxman Exhibit No. 1," 
was filed for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Moulder. Have you any more questions of this witness? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir; I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Any questions, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Any questions, Mr. Frazier? 

Mr. Frazier. I have no questions. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness, please. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you be sworn, Mr. Davison? 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear the testimony which you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Davison. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF LESLIE S. DAVISON, DEPUTY UNITED STATES 

MARSHAL 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your full name, please. 

Mr. Davison. Leslie S. Davison. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are a deputy United States marshal for this 
district? 

Mr. Davison. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have asked you to produce before the committee 
any evidence that you have of the correct address of William Sentner 
nt the time of his arrest in connection with the charge against him 
under the Smith Act in this court. 

Mr. Davison. All right, sir. 

On September 24, 1952, William Sentner was arrested in Peoria, 111.^ 
and removed to the eastern district of Missomi, which is at St. 
Louis, on the 25th day of September 1952. 

I fingerprinted Mr. Sentner, and on this fingerprint card which we 
have to make out he gave his address as 5673 Cabanne Avenue, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chahman, that is exactly the address given 
by Mr. James Harold Sage as indicated on his passport application. 
It also is the same address which he gave on his application for 
employment at Fisher Body on August 3, 1950. 

Thank you very much, sir. 



4794 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Moulder. Any questions, Mr. Frazier? 

Mr. Frazier. No questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Thank you very much, Mr. Davison. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Sol Nissen. 

Will you come forward, please, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Will you hold up yom' right hand and be sworn, 
please. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony which you are about to give 
before the subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth, so help you, God? 

Mr. Nissen. I do. 

Mr. Moulder. Be seated please. 

TESTIMONY OF SOL S. mSSEIST 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Nissen. Sol S. Nissen. 

Mr. Frazier. I didn't get the name. 

Mr. Nissen. Sol S. Nissen, N-i-s-s-e-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Nissen, it is noted that you are not accom- 
panied by counsel, but I think you heard the explanation I made to 
the previous witness about his right to counsel, did you not? 

Mr. Nissen. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Nissen? 

Mr. Nissen. I was born in St. Louis, 1920. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation? 

Mr. Nissen. I am going to assert the privileges under the Constitu- 
tion and refuse to answer. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Nissen. I am going to reassert the privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you an application for employment bearing 
date of April 26, 1949, at the Fisher Body division of the General 
Motors Corp. Will 3^ou examine it, please, and state whether or not 
it is your application for employment. 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question, please. 

Mr. Nissen. I am going to reassert the privilege and decline to 
answer. 

^ Mr. Tavenner. This shows that your present or last place of 
employment was cabinet work at Modernday, Inc., in St. Louis, from 
1948 to 1949. Were you so employed? 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert the privilege, 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you direct the witness to answer the question. 
I don't see how being employed as a cabinetworker could possibly 
incriminate him. I don't believe the witness is invoking the fifth 
amendment in good faith. 

I ask you direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. As requested by Mr. Scherer, the witness is directed 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Nissen. I feel that this possibly might deprive me of due 
process guaranteed under the fifth amendment, and I have to reassert 
it. 



COIVIIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4795 

Mr. ScHERER. You say jou feel that it might deprive you of due 
process? 

Do you sincerelj^ and honestly believe that to answer the question 
propounded by Mr. Tavenner might tend to incriminate you and lead 
to a prosecution in a criminal case? 

Mr. NissEN. I feel that the previous witness has testified against 
me without opportunity with full benefit of counsel to cross-examine 
that witness, and I feel that that question might in the future serve 
to aid that testimony in depriving me of due process. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said a previous witness has testified against 
you. I don't recall. To which witness are you referring? 

Mr. NissEN. I reassert my privilege and decline to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Whoever the witness may have been, was anything 
he said about you untrue? 

Mr. NissEN. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. ScHERER. You just said you do not have the right to cross- 
examine this witness or face this witness. Now here you are given 
the opportunity under oath to say ■ 

Wliatever this witness said against you, and I don't know what he 
said, I don't know what \\'itness you are talking about, and I don't 
recall — whatever this witness said about you, j^ou are here given the 
opportunity^ under oath to say that that witness either told the truth 
about you or lied about you, or explain anything you want to about 
his testimony. And you refuse to do so. 

Mr. NissEN. I am afraid I cannot. I am not able to cross -examine 
him myself, and have to reassert the privilege under the Constitution, 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let's get an answer to my question again now. 

Is there anything that this witness, whom you ssij testified against 
you- — -is anj'thing that witness said about you untrue? 

Mr. NissEN. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask you direct the witness to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so directed. 

Mr. NissEN. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. Scherer. To which witness is he referring? 

Mr. Tavenner. He is referring to the fh"st witness this morning — 
Mr. Cortor. 

Mr. Scherer. What did Mr. Cortor testify about Sol Nissen? I 
don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Cortor testified that he was a member of the 
Automotive Branch of the Communist Party while emplo3'ed at 
Fisher Body, and that he was in Mr. Waxman's group or cell. 

Mr. Scherer. Were 3^ou present in the hearing room this morning 
when Mr. Cortor testified? 

Mr. Nissen. I was present; yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you hear his testimony? 

Mr. Nissen. I heard his testimony. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you hear his testimony about you? 

Mr. Nissen. Yes; I heard his testimony about me. 

Mr. Scherer. Is there anything Mr. Cortor said about you under 
oath to this committee this morning that is untrue? 

Mr. Nissen. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. What did he say? 



4796 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. NissEN. I will have to reassert my privilege. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, Mr. Chairman, he said something Mr. Cortor 
testified about him was untrue. So he has opened it up. And I ask 
that you direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so directed to answer the question. 

Mr. ScHERER. What Mr. Cortor said about you is untrue. 

Mr. NissEN. I feel I am not able to cross-examine the witness. 
I am not prepared; I have no training to. 

Mr. Moulder. Would that enable you to ascertain whether he 
was telling the truth about you? You said a moment ago, in response 
to Mr. Scherer's question, that he did say something that was untrue. 
What did you have in mind when you answered that question by 
saying yes he did say something that was untrue? 

Mr. Nissen. I would like to have proper counsel cross-examine this 
witness under oath in a proper court of law. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said he said something about you that was un- 
true. I want you to tell us. And if you do not tell us it is my honest 
belief that you will be guilty of contempt of this committee. 

Wliat did he say? When he said that you were a member of the 
Communist Party; was that untrue? 

Mr. NissEN. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. ScHERER. And you are refusing to tell us in what respect he 
lied about you? 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert my privilege. I can't answer that. 

Mr. ScHERER. When he said that you were a member of a Com- 
munist cell at Fisher Body; was that untrue? 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was anything he said about yom* membership in the 
Communist Party and your activities in the Communist Party untrue? 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. Scherer. I am coming back once more, giving you the oppor- 
tunity, Witness, to answer. I honestly feel that you are guilty of 
contempt. And if you persist in not telling us in what respect, what 
part of ins testimony about you is untrue, I am going to recommend or 
move that you be cited for contempt of this committee. 

You have charged a man with committing perjury before this com- 
mittee this morning. You have charged Mr. Cortor with committing 
perjury. You now have the opportunity to say in what respect. 
And then I will ask that the testimony of Cortor and your testimony 
be referred to the grand jury or the Department of Justice to deter- 
mine which of you was telling the truth. 

In what respect did he lie about you this morning? You have 
charged a man with committing perjury here this morning. 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, I might say that we would have no alternative 
now since you have charged a witness before this committee with 
perjury and then have not been willing to say in what respect he did 
commit perjury. I think that is about the worst smear, to come in 
and talk about people smearing, and this committee smearing, as you 
put it forth in this paper that you publish here, and here you come 
before this committee and charge a former member of the Communist 
Party with perjury and then do not have the intestinal fortitude to 
tell this committee in what respect he committed perjury. That is 
about the worst smear I have heard. And I am going to move, when 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4797 

this committee gets in executive session, that you be cited for contempt 
of this committee because I am convinced that you are in contempt of 
this committee. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your application for employment shows that your 
second last place of employment was McDonnell Aircraft Corp. The 
kind of work was sheet metal riveting and assembling. And the date 
of such employment was from 1945 to 1948. 

Is that a correct statement of that employment? 

Mr. NissEN. I reassert my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your application for employment shows also that 
you served in the Air Force between 1942 to 1945. Is that correct? 

Mr. NissEN. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are of the opinion that to tell this committee 
that you served in the Armed Forces of the United States might tend 
to incriminate you? 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a passport appli- 
cation by James Harold Sage, bearing date the 27th day of October 

1950, at the end of which there is an affidavit of an identifying witness. 
(Sage Exhibit No. 1.) 

Will you examine that, please, and tell the committee whether or 
not the signature of that identifying witness is your signature. 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which Mr. Sage applied for a passport to travel in 
Europe for touring when his actual purpose was to go to Sheffield to 
attend a Communist-sponsored, so-called peace convention? 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your name was one of those names appearing in 
a notebook of Mr. Sage at the time that he was arrested on June 18, 

1951, as the head of a group to take others to an unnamed destination. 
Was that destination the city of Chicago? 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. And did you agree to take people to Chicago to 
attend a convention sponsored by the American Peace Crusade? 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend the Joseph Weydemeyer School 
of Social Science in 1949? 

Mr. Nissen. I decline to answer that question for the same reason. 

Air. Tavenner. Are you at this time a member of an organized 
group of the Communist Party in this city? 

Mr. Nissen. I decline to answer that for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the work that the 
Communist Party is doing now to extend its organization within an 
industrial plant in this city? 

Mr. Nissen. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party at 
this time? 

Mr. Nissen. I decline to answer; same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time as to which I have not already asked you? 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert my privilege. 



4798 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO,, AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman, 

Mr. Moulder. Any questions, Mr. Frazier? 

Mr. Frazier. No questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, I don't recall whether counsel asked you at 
the beginning of your testimony, but where were you born? 

Mr. NissEN. St. Louis. 

Mr. Scherer. And when? 

Mr. Nissen. 1920. 

Mr. Scherer. And have you lived in St. Louis continuously'since 
1920? 

Mr. Nissen. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you ever been out of the country? 

Mr. Nissen. With the exception of my 3 years' service in the 
Armed Forces. 

Mr. Scherer. When did you serve in the Armed Forces? 

Mr. Nissen. From December of 1942 to December of 1945. 

Mr. Scherer. What has been your educational training? 

Mr. Nissen. 12 years in the St. Louis public school system. 

Mr. Scherer. No other educational background? 

Mr. Nissen. No formal educational background any more. 

Mr. Scherer. In what capacity did you serve in the Armed Forces 
of this country? 

Mr. Nissen. In the ground forces of the Air Force. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you receive a commission? 

Mr. Nissen. No. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you were in the Army Au- Force? 

Mr. Nissen. I reassert my privilege. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused, and may claim his witness 
fees. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. John Simpson. 

Mr. Moulder. Hold up your right hand and be sworn, Mr. 
Simpson. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony which you are abou t to give 
before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Simpson. I do, 

Mr. Moulder. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN W. SIMPSON 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Simpson. John Simpson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have a middle initial? 

Mr. Simpson. W. 

Mr. Tavenner. John W. Simpson. 

It is noted that you are not accompanied by counsel, I think you 
have been present in the hearing room and have heard the explanation 
I made to other witnesses about their right to counsel. 

You have? 

Mr, Simpson, Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOIHS, MO., AREA 4799 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Simpson? 

Mr. Simpson. I decline to answw on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I ask a direction. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wait a minute. 

I ask you direct the mtness to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. The ^\■itness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Simpson. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I think we should say to the witness, as we are re- 
quhed to say by the court decisions, that we do not accept your 
answer. 

We feel that to refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment as to where you were born is not a proper invocation of the fifth 
amendment. It couldn't possibly incriminate you in any way, shape, 
or form to tell this committee as to when and where you were born. 
And if you persist in refusing to answer the question you are in con- 
tempt of this committee. 

I ask that you direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so advised and dhected, and further 
advised that the statement by Mr. Scherer is not in the spirit of a 
threat but is to advise you of the dangers which you risk in being 
guilty of contempt by refusal to answer the question. 

Therefore, you are specifically directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Simpson. I am surrounded by a bunch of shck operators, and 
I am supposed to answer your question and have it twisted all to 
pieces? 

I continue to decline to answer that question or any other questions 
on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Or any questions we ask you? 

Mr. Simpson. If I answer the question you twist it. 

Mr. Scherer. You saj^ you are surrounded by a bunch of "slick 
operators." 

Mr. Simpson. By a bunch of "slick operators." 

Mr. Scherer. If that is the reason for refusing to answer, the 
witness is certainly in contempt of this committee, and obviously is 
not invoking the fifth amendment in good faith. He doesn't even 
believe he is incriminated, subjecting himself to incrimination by 
answering the question. 

Mr. Moulder. Any more questions, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Where do you live? 

Mr. Simpson. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you direct the witness to answer the question. 
And, without repeating what I have said before. Witness, what I said 
with reference to your refusal to answer the other question, applies 
with equal force to this question. 

Mr. Moulder. And you are so directed. 

Mr. Simpson. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Ivlr. Tavenner. Mr. Shnpson, do you want the advice of an attor- 
ney before we proceed further? 

Mr. Simpson. I can't afford it. 



4800 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ST, LOUIS, MO., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that the bar association: 
be called upon to give this man assistance. 

Mr. Moulder. The Bar Association of the City of St. Louis has 
offered its services in providing counsel for witnesses if you so desire. 

Do you so desire? 

Mr. Simpson. I don't have the money. 

Mr. Moulder. Well, do you so desire if, without charge, the bar 
association provides you with counsel without charging you any fee 
for that service? Do you so desire counsel under such circumstances? 

Mr. Simpson. I have no objection. 

Mr. Moulder. I ask you do you so desire. 

Mr. Simpson. Not particularl3^ 

Mr. Moulder. Or so request? 

Mr. Simpson. Not particularly. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let's pursue this a little fm'ther, if you don't mind, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Surely. 

Mr. ScHERER. You knew, did you not, before you came into this 
room today, from the great amount of publicity that the press has 
given to the fact that the bar association has made available lawyers 
to witnesses; you knew that fact, did you not? 

Mr. Simpson. I think I had better start refusing to answer on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct 

Mr. Simpson. Because I may incriminate myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Moulder. You are so directed to answer. 

Mr. wSimpson. I am going to rely on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you read the newspapers? 

Mr. Simpson. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment, that I don't want to incriminate myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. ScHERER. I suggest we proceed. 

The witness is obviously 

Mr. Moulder. I should first make this statement: 

The committee will request the Bar Association of the City of St. 
Louis to appear and represent you 

Mr. ScHERER. No; I wouldn't agree to that. Not after what this 
witness said. He said he doesn't want any particularly. He won't 
tell us whether he knew about the fact that lawyers were available. 
We don't have to go that far, to call a lawyer in here to represent this 
man when he says, when he indicates that he doesn't want any, and 
when he won't even tell us whether he knew about the offer of the bar 
association to represent individuals who didn't have money. 

Mr. Chairman, I don't think that we are in a position under these 
circumstances to stop this investigation and force a counsel upon this 
man, or practically force him. 

(The committee confers.) 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Simpson, you are advised that the Bar Asso- 
ciation of the City of St. Louis has offered its services, providing 
counsel without charge for witnesses who so request. Therefore, 
you are temporarily excused as a witness until tomorrow morning, 
giving you an opportunity to make such a request of the bar associa- 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN ST. LOUIS, MO., AREA 4801 

tion, at which time you are directed to reappear with counsel if you 
so desire. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Tavenner. 

That is at 9 o'clock in the morning. 

Mr. Simpson. Do I get to collect some dough? 

Mr. Moulder. No; you are not excused yet. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is going to take a little time. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess until tomorrow 
morning at 9 a. m. 

(Whereupon, at 5:10 p. m., Monday, June 4, the committee was 
recessed, to be reconvened at 9 a. m., Tuesday, June 5, 1956, there 
being present at the time of taking the recess Representatives Moulder, 
Frazier, and Scherer.) 



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