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Full text of "Investigation of Communist propaganda in the United States. Hearing"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 




INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN 
THE UNITED STATES— PART 2 

(Foreign Propaganda — Entry and Dissem'inalion in Philadelphia, Pa., Area) 



HEARING 

BEFORE THH 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOUETH CONGEESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JULY 17, 195G 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
(Including Index) 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

OCT 20. 1956 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1956 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Repkeseittatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Richard Arens, Director 
II 



CONTENTS 



July 17, 1956 : Testimony of— PaB« 

Irving Fishman 5422 

Sergei Buteneff 5437 

Werner Marx 5442 

Afternoon session : 

Walter Lowenfels 5454 

Lewis C. Arnold 5455 

Index i 



in 



Public Law 601, T9th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * • 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWEKS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
!.« • * * • * « 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propoganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such, witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress ; 
• •**** * 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWEBS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make, from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN 
THE UNITED STATES— PART 2 

(Foreign Propaganda — Entry and Dissemination in 
Philadelphia, Pa., Area) 



TUESDAY, JULY 17, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Philadelphia^ Pa. 
public hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to notice, at 10 a. m., in district courtroom No. 5, United 
States Courthouse, Hon. Francis E. Walter, chairman, presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
of Pennsjdvania, Harold H. Velde, of Illinois, and Gordon H. Scherer, 
of Ohio. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, director; W. Jackson Jones, 
K. Baarslag, Richard S. Weil, and Mrs. Dolores Scotti. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

This morning the Committee on Un-American Activities begins its 
hearings on a subject directly related to the operation of the Com- 
munist conspiracy in the United States, and in the Philadelphia area 
in particular. 

We shall turn our attention to the vast quantity of Communist 
propaganda coming into this area from behind the Iron Curtain. 
The purpose of this material is to create unrest and division, and to 
further the subversive objectives of the Communist apparatus. More 
specifically it seeks to reembrace those persons who, because of fear 
and terror, succeeded in escaping from their native countries behind 
the Iron Curtain, and to bend them once more to the will of the 
Kremlin. 

The committee has previously heard testimony about this flood of 
illicit material. We have learned that during the past year more than 
5 million packages of propaganda leaflets have arrived in America. 

Some of these have been addressed to known members of the Com- 
munist apparatus for distribution among others already in the serv- 
ice of the Soviet Union whom the Soviet Union seeks to convert. 
A great proportion of this material, however, has been addressed, 
unsolicited, to Iron Curtain refugees who are greatly alarmed by the 
realization that even in the United States their identities and their 
whereabouts have become known to the governments of the very police 
states from which they fled. 

5421 



5422 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

The committee during its hearings here hopes to ascertain how much 
of this material is coming into the Pennsylvania area and who is 
receiving it, so that it may recommend legislation to end this abuse 
of our mails. 

It is indeed ironic that the operations of the Communist con- 
spiracy require the presence of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities in this historic city. But perhaps it serves as an illustra- 
tion of the fact that not even great historic traditions such as this 
city possesses brings exemption from the objectives of Communist 
tyranny. Freedom is a hard-won thing. Its preservation is even 
harder. It is the hope of this committee that through hearings 
such as these it may help to make freedom more secure for the people 
of this city and for the rest of the Nation as well. 

Call your first witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Irving Fishman. 

Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers the oath 
to you. 

The Chairman. Mr. Fishman, do you swear that the testimony you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Fishman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING FISHMAN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Fishman. My name is Irving Fishman. I live in the city of 
New York. I am deputy collector of customs at the port of New York. 
I also have under my supervision the operation of control units 
throughout the United States whose concern it is to examine and 
identify much of the political propaganda which enters the United 
States from the Soviet bloc countries. 

Mr. Arens. How many ports of entry are there in the United 
States through which Communist propaganda enters this country ? 

Mr. Fishman. Some 48 various ports of entr3^ 

Mr. Arens. How many control units are being operated by the 
Bureau of Customs ? 

Mr. Fishman. Only three. We have divided the country into three 
sections, so to speak. With the cooperation of the Post Office De- 
partment we arrange to have mail from the Communist bloc coun- 
tries intended for the eastern part of the United States directed to 
the port of New York, where we have a control unit. Mail which 
enters the west coast is handled at our San Francisco office. Much 
of the mail destined for the Illinois and Wisconsin areas is handled 
out of the Chicago office. 

Mr. Arens, Mr. Fishman, in summary form tell the committee for 
this record the applicable statutes of the United States which govern 
the screening procedures of your agency in undertaking to cope with 
the foreign Communist political propaganda. 

Mr. Fishman. Actually we recognized a niunber of years ago when 
the flow of this political propaganda. Communist propaganda, com- 
menced to assume some real shape, that there was no Federal leg- 
islation, no statutes which directly prohibited the importation of 
this type of material. So after a study of the entire problem with 



I 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5423 

the Post Office and Justice Departments, we found that it was pos- 
sible to ban most of this material or a good part of this material by 
using the Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

Mr. Arens. Give us the essence of the provisions of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act, if you please, sir. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Generalh' speaking, the Foreign Agents Registra- 
tion Act is a disclosure type statute. It contemplates that citizens 
of the United States who desire to read foreign political propaganda 
be made aware of the source of the material. The Foreign Agents 
Registration Act, therefore, in some substance — and I am not an ex- 
pert on the act itself — provides that a person in the United States who 
disseminates foreign political propaganda be registered with the De- 
partment of Justice, that it keep the Department of Justice posted 
on its activity, and the volume of business it does in the United States. 
It also provides something which is more pertinent to this problem 
we have, that much of this political propaganda be labeled correctly 
so that people who read it and who have no way of knowing its source 
may have an opportunity to evaluate it. Some of this material is so 
carefully worded and prepared that it is pretty clifficult on reading it 
to understand or to know whether it was printed in the United States, 
whether it is factual, whether it has the blessing of some Government 
agency here, for example. It is clear that the law contemplated that 
the material be labeled. As we understand the law, it does not pro- 
hibit an individual from reading a pamphlet or a booklet or any peri- 
odical which emanates from the Soviet bloc countries provided this 
individual has an opportunity to evaluate properly by knowing its 
source. That generally was the problem we faced, and we found that 
if this material itself on arrival here was not destined to a registered 
agent or it was not apparent that it had been solicited, that we could 
hold it up. Under an opinion of the Attorney General some years ago 
the Post Office Department declared much of this material nonmail- 
able, and we in the customs service, if this material arrived by means 
other than the mails, found that we could consider it subject to seizure 
as an importation contrary to law. 

That pretty much is the basis under which we operate. 

Mr. Akens. Mr. Fishman, under the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act, is there any limitation on the quantity of Communist propaganda 
from abroad which may be shipped into the United States provided it 
is destined to a registered agent of a foreign power ? 

Mr. Fishman. There is no limit. They can bring in tons of it. 
There is only one requirement, and that is that when this registered 
agent in turn disseminates the information, that he label it so that 
recipients be made aware of its source. 

Mr. Arexs. That is the same theory, is it not, Mr. Fishman, which 
permeates the philosophy of our food-and-drug laws, so that a person, 
if he reaches in the medicine cabinet will at least be on notice that he 
has his hand on a bottle of poison ? Isn't that true ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, how long have you been in the customs 
service ? 

Mr. Fishman. Some 29 years. 

Mr. Arens. You are thoroughly acquainted, I take it, with the 
personnel in the customs service who deal with this problem? 

82728— 5&—pt. 2 2 



5424 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Aeens. In the course of your long years of service in the cus- 
toms service and on the basis of your acquaintanceship with other 
people dealing with this problem in the customs service, have you 
or has any individual, to your knowledge, in the Bureau of the Cus- 
toms, ever seen a single piece of foreign Communist propaganda 
labeled as such pursuant to the requirements of the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I personally have never seen any except for the 
samples issued by the Department of Justice which serve as an ex- 
ample of how it should be labeled, but personally I have never seen 
any anywhere in commercial channels which was labeled. 

Mr. Akens. Is it also a fact that under the provisions of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act a person in diplomatic status or a person 
with the right of diplomatic pouch is not required to make any ac- 
counting of the propaganda material which comes into the country ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. They are exempt pretty much from 
all of these requirements. 

Mr. Arens. Is it also true, that under the Foreign Agents Registra- 
tion Act, an individual within the United States who is a willing re- 
cipient of the foreign Communist political propaganda can receive 
such without any limitation whatsoever? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Not without any limitation. The only restriction 
that we might 

Mr. Arens (interrupting). Without numerical limitation, I mean. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right, numerical limitation. If it is intended 
for dissemination he is bomid by the same requirements that the regis- 
tered agent is, and he should be registered with the Department of 
Justice. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Fishman, do you have anything to do with the actual 
labeling of this propaganda material? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No ; compliance with the law is administered by the 
Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The 
one situation that warrants a little exploration, perhaps, is the busi- 
ness of the registered agent determining what is political propaganda 
in order to label it. If he sends it in the mails after he gets it and he 
considers it political propaganda, he must label it properly. 

Mr. Velde. Or suffer the penalties of the law ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. If the agent himself doesn't think 
that the material is political propaganda, he probably doesn't label it. 

Mr. Velde. I am familiar with the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act. However, I don't recall whether any cases have been brought 
or any indictments made for violation of the law as far as labeling is 
concerned. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No ; I have never known of a case. I don't think 
there has been, at least not within my knowledge. 

Mr. Velde. You feel it would be a lot easier to catch this nonlabeling 
as it comes through customs than it would be to force labeling after 
it gets to the registered agent ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We do. Actually this is not the opinion of the 
Treasury Department. It is my own. I think if we could require the 
material to be labeled before it gets into the United States, and before 
it begins to get into interstate commerce we would be able to keep a 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5425 

heck of a lot of it out because they would never agree to labeling it as 
being Communist propaganda. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, may I inquire as to the other agencies 
wliicli participate in screening ]3rocedures of this foreign Communist 
political propaganda. You represent the Customs Bureau. Wliat 
other agencies of the Government participate ? 

Mr. Fishman. The Post Office Department. Since it is a joint ven- 
ture in many of these situations, I represent the Post Office Depart- 
ment, too. The Justice Department of course is our attorney, so we 
go to them from time to time for advice on what constitutes political 
propaganda, for example, although the law contains a very clear 
definition of it. 

Mr. Arens. Is foreign Communist political propaganda which 
comes through the mails, jfirst-class mail, subject in any way to screen- 
ing? 

Mr. Fishman. No ; we respect the privacy of the mails except where 
there is some reason to suspect that the mailed article contains pro- 
hibited matter or anything which may be subject to the assessment of 
duty. 

Mr. Arens. What are the modes of arrival of this Communist for- 
eign political propaganda? 

Mr. Fishman. I should think about 75 percent of it arrives via ship, 
of course, but in the mails, in the worldwide mail system. 

Mr. Arens. Does the material come in bulk? 

Mr. Fishman. Bulk sacks for the most part. 

Mr. Arens. What are the other devices by which it arrives? 

Mr. Fishman. It arrives commercially by air and by freight. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I would like to ask you if you will give 
this committee an approximation of the amount of this Communist 
foreign political propaganda which arrives in the Pennsylvania area 
in the course of, let us say, a month. 

Mr. Fishman. We maintain our statistics on the basis of port 
arrival. In other words, we know what we get at New York, Chicago, 
and San Francisco, and we can tell you what we have, for example, 
for the month of May in these areas. So far as Pennsylvania is con- 
cerned, with the cooperation of the Post Office Department some time 
ago we selected a 4-week arrival consisting of 830 sacks of mail at the 
port of New York and broke it down statewide. We were interested 
at that time in determining how many control units to establish 
throughout the country. We found that the State of Pennsylvania 
ranked fourth in the receipt of this type of material. New York ranked 
first. The State of Pennsylvania had the fourth largest amount of 
political propaganda addressed to recipients in the State. 

Mr. Arens. It comes through the port of entry at New York, it 
comes through the port of entry at San Francisco, and it comes through 
the port of entry in Chicago to the control unit, is that correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Have you statistics reflecting the aggregate amount 
of items from all three ports of entry, which hit the Pennsylvania 
area in the course of a month ? 

Mr. Fishman. Using the figures at New York, there were 16,000 
packages of mail of this type of propaganda material destined for 
Pennsylvania through New York. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time ? One month ? 



5426 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. FisHMAN. During the 4- week period. I think we could double 
that or a little higher, possibly somewhere around 32,000 parcels of 
mail. 

Mr. Arens. How many individual items would be in a parcel? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. From maintaining statistics we consider the aver- 
age package contains between 4 to 6, We get higher runs. Some of 
them contain a dozen individual publications. 

Mr. Arens. That would mean, would it not, Mr. Fishman, over 
100,000 items of foreign Communist political propaganda are hit- 
ting Pennsylvania every month? 

Mr. Fishman. Every month. 

Mr. Velde. May I ask, since New York was first and Pennsylvania 
was fourth, are California and Illinois second and third? 

Mr. Fishman. Illinois is second and, surprisingly. New Jersey is 
third. This was during this test run. Of course the situation has 
changed somewhat. Additional countries have been added to the 
Communist bloc. I think California runs very high because of the 
Chinese material which hits our San Francisco control unit. 

Mr. Arens. What percentage of the Communist foreign political 
propaganda which arrives in the Pennsylvania area at the rate of over 
100,000 items a month is in a foreign language ? 

Mr. Fishman. About half of it, I would say ; maybe a little more 
than that. 

Mr. Arens. "V\^iat foreign languages predominate in the political 
propaganda emanating from Communist-bloc countries? 

Mr. Fishman. It is carefully prepared to take care of the populace, 
the background of the individual who resides in a given area. For 
example, I think in this vicinity we might have a lot of Hungarian, a 
lot of Czecholovakian, a lot of Russian, Polish, and Croatian languages 
probably. We do not have that type of information here at the 
moment, but I would say it gets a bit of almost everything. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us of the one hundred and twenty-odd 
thousand items of this Communist propaganda which hits the Pennsyl- 
vania area every month, liow many individual recipients are from 
abroad ? 

Mr. Fishman. The brief analysis that we made indicated that in 
this area you see a lot of single copies. I would say about 100,000 
people are involved in that situation. There will be 2 and 3 in some 
packages addressed to individuals. They cover complete communities. 
I think one of the popular ways of doing that I suppose is to pick up a 
telephone book listing the names of subscribers and so on and just 
blanket the entire gTOup. 

Mr. Arens. This one-hundred-and-twenty-odd-thousand items 
corning into this State every month are part of an overall aggregate 
which also includes material coming first class, isn't that correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Have you any way of estimating the amount of Com- 
munist foreign political propaganda hitting this State every month 
arriving by first-class mail ? 

Mr. Fishman. We couldn't estimate it. We can t«ll you, for 
example, that in the month of May at the port of New York we had 
over 210,000 packages of mail to process. 

The Chairman. Mr. Fishman, if I follow you, then the Govern- 
ment of the United States is absolutely helpless with respect to 
scrutinizing this material that comes first class? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5427 

Mr. FisuMAx. We are absolutely helpless. Because of the respect 
which is given the privacy of the mails, we do not ordinarily examine 
Hrst-class mail. 

The C'liAiioLAN. Is there anything to indicate in this first-class 
mail that it is propaganda ? 

Mr. FiSHMAx. We know that much of it is. We know it for this 
reason : Recently there has been much publicity about the "redefection" 
program, and our agency as well as all the other Government agencies, 
including the Congress, incidentally, receive much complaint from 
people throughout the country who are being blasted with this re- 
defection material. Most of these people were very much alarmed 
about it. They did not realize that tlieir addi'esses were known. They 
wrote to the Post Office Department. They wrote to everyone they 
could possibly think of. They sent us copies of this material, in most 
cases sending along the wrappers. We found that a good deal of this 
material was coming in first-class mail. We then found that it was a 
simple matter to detect it because we would get a complete sack of it. 
It would all look alike. The material was similar from the outside. 

The Chairman. Wouldn't that indicate that the Congress ought to 
devise some method for obtaining permission from the court, some- 
thing in the nature of a search warrant based on reasonable grounds 
and belief that the contents of the package are propaganda, and that 
the law with respect to the registration of propaganda is not being- 
complied with ? Obtain permission of the court to examine the first 
class mail. Do you think that would offer safeguards to the first-class 
mail and at the same time protect the United States, which is now in 
the very anomalous position of the taxpayers contributing toward the 
expense of the dissemination of the poison. 

Mr. FisHMAN. I imagine the entire situation could stand a little 
clarification and possibly some legislation would help. There is a pro- 
vision in the postal laws which permits us to go into the court and 
obtain permission to examine this mail. There is also another pro- 
vision in the law which permits us to ask the addressee to waive the 
privacy of the seal. But that is a long-winded and very cumbersome 
procedure. If you get 10,000 individual envelopes and you have to 
send 10,000 notices to addressees asking permission to look into their 
package you can see the cost of such an operation. 

Mr. Vei.dk. Mr. Chairman, Avould you apply that to all forms of mail 
emanating from behind the lion Curtain ? 

The Chairman. I don't know. We I'eceive a large amount of Com- 
munist foreigii propaganda coming from countries outside the Iron 
Curtain in which there are large Communist populations at this 
very moment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, do the recipients of this Communist for- 
eign political propaganda include schools, colleges, and libraries in the 
Pennsylvania area ? 

Mr. Flshman. Oh, yes; a heavy concentration of that. 

Mr. Arens. Does the individual librarian or recipient in the school 
or college or institution have any indication, other than the context 
itself, that he is receiving Communist political propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. Unless the college or university is engaged in a re- 
search program, they would have no opportunity to know that. Much 
of this material is addressed to the student groups rather than to the 
librarian or the university itself. 



5428 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. Before you begin to allude to some of the typical ex- 
hibits which I see you brought with you of this foreign Communist 
political propaganda, I would like to ask you on the basis of your 
backgi-ound and experience of many years in this work, what difference 
does it make to this Nation, what difference does it make to the security 
of this Nation, that there is this flood of Communist foreign political 
propaganda pouring all over the crossroads of this country ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. My observation, of course, is personal. You have all 
sorts of reaction to that type of inquiry. There are people who feel 
that the average American will not be injured by this material, that 
he should have access to it so he can determine how the program is 
being developed. But much of it is not destined to the average Amer- 
ican. It is not destined to people who have access to the radio and 
TV and newspapers as we do. Many of them don't read the American 
or the English-language newspapers. 

Mr. Arens. Did you say 60 percent of it is in foreign languages? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. They will read a lot of this material. 
A good deal of it takes up issues pertinent to us, current matters, and 
they will obtain the viewpoint of the writer rather than the actual 
truth. 

Mr. Arens. Is it not a fact that in addition to the impact upon the 
mind from Communist political propaganda in many of these publica- 
tions, we have the directive to the comrades as to the line they are to 
pursue within their local communities ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right, especially the organization issues — the 
periodicals published by the various organizations in all of these areas. 

Mr. Arens. And in the dialectics, or in the language of communism, 
the individual comrade or pro-Communist within this Nation will see 
the line he as a loyal comrade is to take ; isn't that correct ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully ask you if you have brought with you 
some typical illustrations of the type of Communist foreign political 
propaganda which is being disseminated over the length and breadth 
of this land from afar. 

Mr. FisHMAN. There are over 1,000 different types of periodicals 
which hit us regularly. I brought just a handful of them. These 
represent various countries. Some of them are from the Soviet Union. 
Some are from Hungary, Poland, Czechosloviikia, Rumania. I also 
have a group of publications and periodicals which deal specifically 
with the "return to the homeland." We have m.ade some translations. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I expect in a few moments to interrogate 
one of your associates respecting the "redef ection" campaign. I should 
like to lay before you a few of your exhibits and invite your atten- 
tion specifically to the nature of its foreign political propaganda. 

I see one entitled, "Around the World," in Polish, and ask if, on 
the basis of your techniques within the customs service, you are ac- 
quainted with the line pursued in that particular publication which is 
typical of the bulletins, magazines, and other political propaganda 
being disseminated in this country. 

Mr. Fishman. We selected at random one of the articles in this 
publication entitled "Around the World," in issue No. 17. This pur- 
portedly describes a trip made by a foreign correspondent to the 
United States. He visited San Francisco particularly. He, of course, 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 5429 

explains how unfortunate the people who live in San Francisco are in 
the way in which they have to live and their working conditions, and 
so on. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask — without undertaking to burden the record 
with a repetition of this question, but I want the record to be clear 
on it — is there any indication on this particular magazine which 
circulates to Polish nationals in this country, that the recipient is 
reading Communist political propaganda? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. There is no labeling at all. 

Mr. Arens. May I pause here so this record is clear. Is there a 
distinction, Mr. Fishman, between Communist political propaganda 
and, say, a Communist textbook on science or an objective treatise on 
some subject matter which does not embrace political action ? 

Mr. Fishman. There is a definite distinction. As with other coun- 
tries, we have many imports of scientific and technical material from 
these countries which do not contain political propaganda, and we 
make no detention or hold. 

ISlr. Arens. So long as the material which is received in the United 
States does not fall within that category of incitement to sedition, 
subtle propaganda, following of the Marxist Communist line, it is 
completely beyond the purview of your inquiry, is it not? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. So this particular document, which you have described 
as typical of the Communist foreign language propaganda hitting the 
United States, is in that category of political propaganda ? 

Mr, Fishman. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arens, may I interrupt at this point. The 
thing that is strange to me is, how approximately 5,000 copies of that 
publication found its way into the coal region of northeastern Penn- 
sylvania. "Wliere did the names come from ? 

Mr. Fishman, Mr. Chairman, we think, or at least we think that 
we have pretty good control over this material, but because of the 
way in which the international mails are prepared for shipment to the 
United States, it is sometimes possible for a complete sack of mail to 
be destined or addressed to a given State and be forwarded directly 
to the city without customs treatment. We have made every attempt 
of course to stop that, but that will happen. We have these three con- 
trol units and we think we get much of it sent there, but there is a 
lot of it arriving in the city mail or in the sacks which contain mail 
for all over the United States, and it is not segregated but sent on 
to its destination without any detention anywhere along the line. 

The Chairman. Have you made any attempt to ascertain how the 
recipients' names were obtained ? 

Mr. Fishman, We have never made too much investigation into 
that, although we have a pretty good idea that they have access to 
the listings of members of various organizations, some of these organ- 
izations the members of which have their heritage in a foreign 
country. 

Mr. ScHERER, Organizations in this country that have been in- 
filtrated by Communist agents here, 

Mr. Fishman. Not necessarily. For example, the Polish- American 
Congress has some 250,000 members, I think. If they could have ac- 
cess to the members' names they would have 250,000 addresses, to 
whom they would send Polish material. 



5430 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. ScHERER. I meant they get .access to these lists, to tliese names, 
by Communist infiltration into local organizations. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. Personally I have heard that such 
information is not available, that you can't have access to listings 
of members, but I suppose if someone got into the organization they 
would get that list of members. 

Mr. Arens. I invite your attention to another exhibit you have 
brought here and which appears to be beautifully gotten up. I would 
appraise it myself as comparable in appearance and beauty to some 
of the finest magazines which we have here in the United States. It 
is entitled "Soviet Union." Will you in your own way, on the basis 
of your techniques, describe for this record the essence of the line 
which is enunciated in that magazine? 

Mr. FiSHMA?<r. This magazine is printed in half a dozen languages. 
This one happens to be printed in Russian, which is not my language, 
but I have a translation here. It explains how heavy industry de- 
velops in greater strides in the Soviet Union than it does in the 
United States, the way in which foreign visitors to the U. S. S. R. 
are received. It goes into a great deal of detail on the great visits 
of friendship to London and the anticipation of what will happen 
when Tito gets to the U. S. S. R. Generally speaking, the thing de- 
picts life as being a very happy business over in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. Of course there is no indication in it, as the law re- 
quires, that the recipient is receiving Communist political propa- 
ganda; is there? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, there is a wholesale violation of the law, 
is there not ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. If it is disseminated without any indication of its 
source, it would be a violation. 

Mr. Abens. I ask you facetiously so this record is clear, there is 
nothing in this magazine depicting the glories of life in the Soviet 
Union which alludes to the slave labor camps ; is there? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. None. None that I have been able to read. 

Mr. Arens. I would respectfully suggest, Mr. Fislnnan, in view of 
the fact that you are thoroughly conversant with your exhibits, that 
you select another typical exhibit, perhaps of a different character, 
and describe it for the purpose of this record for the enlightenment 
of the committee. 

The Chairman. Before you go into that, what would be the approxi- 
mate cost of that magazine ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I think it compares very favorably to Life maga- 
zine in this country. That same publication in the same format is 
printed in almost every one of the Soviet bloc countries. There is some 
reason to suspect that they are all pi'obably prepared by the same edi- 
tors and by the same group. This is for Rumania. There is one for 
Poland. There is one for Czechoslovakia. But they all come in about 
the same. They look pretty much like Life magazine. 

The Chairman. In other words, it costs a lot of money to dissemi- 
nate tliat information. It seems to me that is nearly a violation of 
some international arrangement to have a foreign government at its 
expense attempt to disseminate propaganda into this country. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I imagine it is a very expensive proposition since 
they have no advertising at all. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5431 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fisliman, I respectfully suggest that you select 
another typical illustration of your exhibits. 

Mr. ScHERER. May I interrupt for just a minute. Would the lack 
of advertising indicate to you, Mr. Fisliman, that it was propaganda ? 
Would that fact itself represent such to your mind ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No, not by itself. We would want to be satisfied 
that the articles 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes, but published for use perhaps in the United 
States. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. It might indicate that. These are, of course, all 
Government-sponsored. They are printed at the instance of the 
Government. Of course none of these we have been looking at recently 
has any advertising at all, except that you can buy some of these 
booklets. They give you the names of the agents throughout the 
United States, throughout all the countries actually, where you can 
subscribe to or buy these publications. That is the only form of 
advertising. 

Mr. ScHERER. The lack of advertising would indicate that they were 
not published for use in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Not for domestic consumption. I should think not. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I invite your attention specifically to 
magazine No. 2 of 1956, entitled "Bulgaria." I assume it is typical 
of the type of propaganda which is received from that Communist- 
controlled country, and ask if you would kindly describe that pub- 
lication for this record. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. This is printed in the English language. It also, of 
course, is printed in several other languages. It contains a greeting 
and explains that this publication has been printed now for 10 years. 
It asks that the readers write in and say what they like or dislike about 
the publication. It contains some articles on the Prague Session of 
Peace. It indicates that Western warmongering is the cause of much 
of the war around the world, that the U. S. S. R. strives for peace and 
happiness, provides opportunities to advance under the Communist 
regime. Everyone has an opportunity to earn more money and to 
advance. It gives examples of peaceful cooperation. Other articles 
stress peaceful life and progress and the happiness of Bulgarians. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, do you have exhibits here typifying the 
type of Communist foreign political propaganda which is directed 
specifically at youth groups in the United States ? 

Mr. Fishman. We have some. 

Mr. Arens. Could you describe 1 or 2 of them, please sir ? 

Mr. Fishman. Most of the bulletins directed to students throughout 
the United States are published by the lUS, the International Union 
of Students, I believe it is. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any indication on these bulletins that the Inter- 
national Union of Students is controlled by the Communist con- 
spiracy ? 

Mr. Fishman. There is quite a bit of indication to that effect. 

Mr. Arens. I mean, is there any labeling to that effect ? 

Mr. Fishman. No, no labeling. Here is one. Young Generation, 
No. 5, published in German, issued from East Germany. The articles 
are headed "No One Is Excluded From the Communist Reconstruc- 
tion Plan," and tell how the trade union youth of East Germany fights 

82728— 56— pt. 2 3 



5432 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

for the interest of youth, how they send the young industrial workers 
to the country, and so on, helps the reconstruction of communism. 

We have quite a few of those. Here is one, the World Student News, 
published by the International Union of Students, a complaint issued 
against Paraguay's police. 

Mr. Arens. In what language is that published ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. This is printed in English. It is also printed in 
half a dozen other languages. This particular issue tells the story 
of the fight that was made against Paraguay's police, for example. 
The lUS members are concerned about the plight of the American 
students. Then there is the story about Autherine Lucy in the United 
States and how she was discriminated against, and so on. 

Another type of publication of course and one that we talked about 
a little while ago deals with these homeland publications. This is 
one entitled "Home" (DOMOV), published May 19, 1956, published 
by the Czechoslovak Foreign Institute, wherein the Western Powers 
are accused of creating a cold-war atmosphere in order to continue 
remilitarization while the U. S. S. K. is reducing its armed forces by 
1,200,000, Atoms for Peace exposition of the latest Russian design 
nuclear development, and so on. 

Mr. Arens. Do you also have exhibits which are specifically di- 
rected at women groups in the United States ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Here is one of the popular ones, Soviet Woman. 
The general line of this magazine is the struggle of the women for 
equality. Women in capitalistic countries are paid much less than 
men. Soviet women are paid better than anywhere in the world. It 
stresses the need for international friendships of people. The visit 
of Bulganin to England was a turning point in international rela- 
tions. The women of Hiroshima demand banning of atom and H- 
bombs; care of children in the U. S. S. R. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fislnnan, do you, in addition to information which 
you have supplied this committee today with reference to the written 
propaganda, have information respecting Communist films which 
have been sent into this country from behind the Iron Curtain? 

Mr. Velde. Before we get into that, Mr. Chairman, I would like 
to make an inquiry. 

Have you made any investigation to find out where these various 
magazines are printed? You mentioned the one that you compared 
to Life magazine, which looked as if it were printed on the same 
press. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Invariably the indication is that it is printed in the 
country of origin. For example, this publication of News, No. 12, 
says published by Trud, Gorlr^ Street, Moscow. We have our own 
suspicion that much of this is printed in Russia and then sent to the 
various countries for dissemination throughout the world. I don't 
think that some of these countries are capable of printing the type of 
periodical that they ship here. 

Mr. Velde. I would imagine that it would be scientifically possible 
to determine whether or not some of them were printed on the same 
press. It is my suspicion, too. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I agree. Congressman, but as you know, we are only 
in the enforcement end. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5433 

Mr. Velde. The Soviet Union has control over its satellites and 
could force them to send out something. At least the postmark is 
from the satellites, is it not ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is correct, except where they find it a little 
difficult to get in here and then they ship it around through some 
other country. 

Mr. Velde. I would suggest that it is possible, as I said, to ascertain 
scientifically whether they are printed on the same press. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respectin^^ Communist films, 
motion pictures, which have been sent into the United States ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That has never been neglected. There is a regis- 
tered agent in the East, for example, who handles all of the film that 
is shipped from the Soviet bloc countries. These are regular current 
shipments of motion picture film which are shown around the country. 

Mr. Arens. Have you seen some of the films from behind the Iron 
Curtain which purport to show the horrible crime committed allegedly 
by the United States in using germ warfare ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Oh, yes. We had quite a bit of that a couple of years 
ago. 

Mr. Arens. Are those films likewise to your knowledge used over 
the world ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We suspect that some of these films got through. 
We had held one or two prints. 

Mr. Scherer. Didn't we have Mr. Chairman and Counsel, one of 
the registered agents before our committee in Washington who sells 
and distributes this film and this literature? His name was Smith, 
wasn't it, a former member of the National Labor Relations Board ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Edwin S. Smith, I believe. He imports still film, 
news film. 

Mr. Scherer. He was for many years one of the members of the 
National Labor Relations Board. 

Mr. Arens. Do you also have information, Mr. Fishman, respect- 
ing the importation into this country of the prints — I don't know 
that I am using the right phrase — the prints from which they make 
other reproductions? "Plate" I believe is the word. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Printing plates. We have had a number of ship- 
ments of printing plates during the period of time that we were some- 
what bogged down. A lot of this material was slow in getting 
through. They attempted to bring the printing plates here and print 
the material here and get it out a lot faster that way. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I would like to invite your attention to 
the subject of how this committee, in your judgment, can develop 
legislation which would insure better weapons to the customs and to 
the other enforcement agencies in undertaking to cope with this flood 
of foreign Communist poison. May I specifically invite your atten- 
tion to the question as to who may act as an agent of a foreign power 
under the present law ? Is there any suggestion you can make which 
might strengthen the law in that respect ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The Treasury Department has come to no con- 
clusion that I know of as to what changes in legislation it would 
like to see come to pass. The help that we could use 



5434 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN V. S. 

Mr. Velde. Why the Treasury Department? Shouldn't it be the 
Justice Department? I see. You are talking about your own de- 
partment. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Speaking personally, we would like of course to 
have our hand strengthened. As I mentioned earlier in the testi- 
mony, there is no specific legislation which prohibits this material 
from coming into the United States, and we would have to go about it 
by attempting to determine whether this material is intended for dis- 
semination. 

Mr. Arens. You are not asking, Mr. Fishman, that there be a pro- 
hibition, are you ? You are asking only that it be labeled ? 

Mr. Fishman. We are asking that it be labeled, and labeled at its 
inception, at least when it enters the United States, rather than leave 
it to the registered agent to determine what is political propaganda 
and when he shall label. 

The Chairman. It seems to me that that is just slapping him on the 
wrist. During recent weeks we have been reading all the statements 
made concerning the desire of the Communist countries for peace and 
cooperation. Certainly it seems to me that this very situation would 
call for the Secretary of State to say to these Communist governments : 
"Here is an opportunity for you to demonstrate your bona fides. Just 
stop sending propaganda to the United States as a concrete indica- 
tion of your desire to practice what you preach." 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, you are conversant with the fact, are you 
not, that in 1932 or 1933 when the United States gave diplomatic 
recognition to the Soviet Union, one of the conditions upon which 
there was a recognition was that the Soviet Union at that time prom- 
ised with great solemnity that it would discontinue its propaganda 
activities within the United States. Isn't that correct? 

Mr. Fishman. Absolutely. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, are there any other areas in which you 
feel the law could be strengthened with reference to attempts of the 
Customs Bureau and Post Office Department to deal with this serious 
problem ? 

Mr. Fishman. We would like to see, for example, that the law define, 
or rather assign, this enforcement problem to a specific agency. Right 
now, of course, it is a 3-agency proposition. I think if the law 
charged an agency specifically with the enforcement of this part of 
the act, we could arrange to handle the work a lot easier by way of 
appropriation, for example, and establishing additional control units. 
We would like to see that the law strengthen our hand in permitting 
those people who merely want to study this material to have access to 
it without any difficulty. 

The Chairman. Before you proceed, I think, Mr. Fishman, you 
spoke of the joint venture, at least I made a note at the beginning of 
your testimony. Is that what you meant by divided responsibility? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. Right at the present time the work 
is being done by Customs and Post Office. 

The Chairman. And the Justice Department, also ? 

Mr. Fishman. Justice serves as counsel, so to speak. We go to 
Justice for advice in many instances, but they do not supply any of 
the actual people for the operation. 

The Chairman. I thought in a recent appropriation bill we wrote 
a provision that was designed to cover this joint venture so that funds 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5435 

would be available for personnel engaged in this particular type of 
work. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The Treasury Department did get some money to 
handle the mail part of this work. 

Mr. ScHERER. Which agency do you think is best equipped to handle 
it? I admit it should not be a divided responsibility between two 
or more agencies. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I am from Customs, as you know, so I don't want to 
make it appear as though we are searching for this work. The only 
reason we are in it at all is because we have first access to it. It comes 
to us before it gets into the United States. So it would be a natural 
place for it to be developed. The Post Office Department, of course, 
is the means for turning it over to us. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, here is a man, we will say, who is in the 
Russian Embassy in Washington, and engaged full time in receiving 
this type of material from abroad and disseminating it over the coun- 
try, picking out foreign language groups, people in schools and col- 
leges and libraries and churches. Is that man under the present law 
required to register under the Foreign Agents Registration Act ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. He is exempt. I do know, however, that sev- 
eral attempts have been made to amend the Foreign Agents Registra- 
tion Act to more clearly define the act. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be helpful on the basis of your personal expe- 
rience in the Customs if the law said that anyone, irrespective of diplo- 
matic status or semidiplomatic status, who is engaged principally in 
disseminating Communist foreign political propaganda must regis- 
ter with the Department of Justice and must label the material which 
he disseminates? 

Mr. Fishman. It would be extremely helpful. 

Mr. Arens. We have that loophole in the present law, have we 
not? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. At the present time how many translators do you have 
in the Customs who are in a position to translate this flood of ma- 
terial which comes in and to make some kind of an appraisal of 
it? 

Mr. Fishman. About a dozen people all told throughout the 
country. 

Mr. Arens. That includes those assigned on the west coast, does it 
not? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Translating Chinese. And part on the east coast? 

Mr. Fishman. And part in Chicago and the group on the east 
coast. 

Mr. Aj?ens. Do you have a deficiency in the number of translators 
to cope with this flood of material ? 

Mr. Fishman. Not at the three control units we now have estab- 
lished. If we decided that we would like to look at more material 
which enters the southern part of the United States, for example, we 
would have a deficiency. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have, in addition to the Communist propaganda 
which is destined to the United States from abroad, transshipments 
of Communist propaganda which originate in one area controlled by 



k 



5436 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Communists and destined to some area, but transshipped through the 
United States? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Oh, yes. In a little exploratory investigation we 
made in the South we found that that was a very common practice; 
that tons of this material was carried through the United States. 

Mr. Arens. As a matter of fact, that material which is carried 
through the United States is paid in part by the United States tax- 
payers, is it not? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes ; it is carried through the United States mails. 

Mr. Arens. And the United States mails are not self-sustaining. 
Therefore, it is paid in part by the United States taxpayers ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge have the nations of the world at any 
time sat down and undertaken to arrive at some conclusion satisfac- 
tory to all of them as to how to cope with transshipments of Com- 
munist propaganda through the free world ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I have no knowledge of that. 

Mr. Arens. Has there been any international agreement bearing 
upon the mailability or transportability to and through one country 
from another of Communist political propaganda? 

Mr. FisHMAN. International agreement? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I am not aware of it. There is a proviso in the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act which might help cope with this 
problem if the laws of the country to which this material is sent were 
similar to ours in banning the dissemination of this material. But 
that is a long-range proposition. We frequently are unaware of such 
foreign internal laws. It is pretty difficult to make any investigation 
to see whether the country it is going to has any objection to receiving 
it. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any suggestions to make on a personal 
basis, on the basis of your background and experience, as to how we 
could adequately deal with the transshipment of Communist po- 
litical propaganda through the United States destined to other 
countries ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I am afraid I haven't given that very much thought. 
It is a separate and distinct problem. We made this investigation 
which developed the fact that a good deal of it is coming through. 
We reported those facts to the agencies concerned. Just what they 
have done about it I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, this part of the hearing today is only 
one segment of an overall project of the committee with respect to 
Communist propaganda. I want to ask you if on the basis of your 
experience in this field, you are cognizant of the fact that there are 
also in the United States a number of propaganda mills which de- 
velop domestic Communist propaganda. You are aware of that fact, 
are you not ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I am very much aware of that because these are 
recipients of a good deal of this material. 

Mr. Arens. Do the domestic mills of Communist propaganda and 
the Communist publishing houses which operate in this country re- 
produce and follow the line enunciated in the exhibits which you have 
displayed to the committee today ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. There is no question about that. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5437 

Mr. Arens. There is a close proximation or following of the line, 
is that correct ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. It is just reprinted, verbatim, most of it. 

Mr. ScHERER, Chiefly by the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. There are other publications similar to that. 

Mr. Arens. Can you transfer custody of some of these exhibits 
to the committee at this time so that the committee will have them 
available for further study with reference to this overall project on 
Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. FisHMAN, Yes ; we will leave them here. 

Mr. Arens. We would appreciate it ever so much. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Fishman, am I to understand that you know that 
there is a lot of Communist propaganda coming through first-class 
mail? 

Mr. Fishman. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Velde. Which you cannot open of course. The only way you 
know that is that the recipients of it have complained ? 

Mr. Fishman. As a result of this redefection program we did make 
this test of sending requests to addressees for permission to open 
their mail. Many of them gave it to us gladly. In a month in New 
York we had some 5,000 articles without trying too hard. That was 
just the type of material we could readily identify. We don't know 
what else there may be. 

Mr. Velde. None of the material that you have shown us here this 
morning came through first-class mail ? 

Mr. Fishman. None of it with the possible exception of 1 or 2 of 
these specific homeland publications which we had permission to take 
from the mails. All of the others are commercial imports. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that while Mr. 
Fishman is present one of his associates, Mr. Sergei Buteneff, a trans- 
lator, be now sworn because we would like to interrogate him spe- 
cifically with reference to the redefection campaign. 

The Chairman. I think this would be a good time to take a recess. 
The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your next witness. 

(Members of the committee present : Representatives Walter, Velde, 
and Scherer.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that in the pres- 
ence of Mr. Fishman, Mr. Sergei Buteneff be sworn. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Buteneff. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP SERGEI BUTENEIT 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Buteneff. My name is Sergei Buteneff. I live in New York. 
I am the assistant to Mr. Fisliman in charge of the Book Section of the 
Restricted Merchandise Division in the United States Customs in 
New York. 



5438 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Akens. Mr. Buteneff, you are a translator in charge of the 
translating work under Mr. Fishman, is that correct ? 

Mr. Buteneff. That is correct. 

Mr. Aeens. In the course of your duties have you ascertained the 
contents of letters and material being sent into the United States from 
behind the Iron Curtain, in what we commonly refer to in these days 
as the redef ection campaign ? 

Mr. Buteneff. Yes. We have seen actually thousands of these 
letters coming through. 

Mr. Arens. What did these letters contain? What is the essence of 
these letters? 

Mr. Buteneff. The essence of these letters — actually the purpose 
of these letters is trying to stimulate nostalgia for the homeland of 
particular people now living in the United States as refugees, calling 
them to return, very sentimental articles, sometimes addressed by 
relatives and printed in these papers, hoping that their relatives will 
maybe receive such a copy and will read it ; and also asking them to 
return to their mothers and fathers and sons and so on. 

Also a lot of material in this redefection propaganda states that 
those who will return will be guaranteed complete safety and also 
will be guaranteed work, housing, and even money upon arrival to 
their homeland. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had occasion in the course of your work to 
sense and develop the effect of this redefection campaign in which 
these thousands of letters are sent to people in the United States to 
return to their homeland ? 

Mr. Buteneff. The effect is very difficult to analyze actually be- 
cause you have to think about various kinds of refugees now in the 
United States. Some of them are just simple laborers and some of 
them are intellectuals. Of course the effect of this propaganda will 
be different depending on who reads it. 

Mr. Arens. What would be the general typical effect in each of the 
various groups that you describe ? 

Mr. Buteneff. I would say by stages that the first effect is a tre- 
mendous scare that they have received such propaganda, because most 
of these people are hiding, and some of these people have changed their 
names in order to escape detection by the Soviet agents. Wlien they 
receive such material they really get scared because they receive it 
under their new name. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, the recipient in the United States thinks 
that he has pretty well hidden his identity and his address from the 
Soviet masters ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Buteneff. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien he receives a letter addressed to him perhaps in a 
new name at a new address, he wonders with fright as to how the 
machinery of the Communist conspiracy was able to detect his presence 
at his new address and under his new name ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Buteneff. That is right. I wouldn't say he wonders. He 
would be actually quite frightened. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other effect which you have been able to 
sense in your work in this comiection ? 

Mr. Buteneff. Of course, the other effect would be what, I think, is 
actually the purpose of such propaganda: Not only to disturb and 
disrupt the happiness of the refugees who arrive over here but actually 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5439 

to hope that maybe a couple of them, maybe a family or two families 
will redefect. That, of course, will give the Soviets ample food for 
propaganda in order to scream all over the world that people are 
being oppressed over here because as soon as these refugees return to 
Soviet Russia or to a satellite country they immediately are told to 
say that they had been forbidden to return, that we had been trying 
to stop them but that finally they have reached heaven and happiness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Butenelf, have you had occasion in the course of 
your work to study the tenor or type of Communist political propa- 
ganda which is hitting our shores in comparison to the type which 
hit our shores, say, a few years ago ? 

Mr. BuTENEFF. Yes. Definitely there is quite a bit of difference. 
Quite a bit of difference in the type of propaganda received during 
the life of Stalin and a short period after his death. Since the coming 
to power of this new collective leadership it has changed to the worse 
from our point of view because in the Stalin period the propaganda 
was extremely rough, crude, very easy to notice when looking through 
the material. As a matter of fact, most of that political type of 
propaganda addressed against the United States was actually laugh- 
able because they would say that people are starving here, that people 
couldn't buy themselves a pair of shoes, and things like that, which 
obviously for Americans is of no effect. Since the death of Stalin 
somehow, maybe also together with that general attitude of the Soviets, 
the propaganda changed, too, and became quite subtle. Now in look- 
ing through all these magazines, sometimes we, even at first glance 
wouldn't think that it contained propaganda, and then slowly, ana- 
lyzing deeper, we see that actually it does contain propaganda. It is 
milder. Now they are more friendly toward the United States people, 
sort of pitying them that they are being led by a group of warmongers 
or Wall Street Draculas, and so on, into an abyss. 

Actually, I would say that one copy nowadays is of no effect. It is 
the continuous, week-by-week, month-by-month receipt of such mate- 
rial which certainly is a very dangerous type of propaganda. 

Mr. Arexs. Does it condition the mind so far as you can ascertain ? 

Mr. BuTENEFF. Yes, there are definitely publications which are 
meant for simple people and some of them are meant for intellectuals. 
Particularly the type of propaganda received nowadays is conditioned 
to be swallowed very slowly and sort of breathed in, not even swal- 
lowed but to sort of impregnate your lungs slowly. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged in this work, Mr. 
Buteneff? 

Mr. Buteneff. I have been engaged in this particular work for 3 
years. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of your experience you have examined 
great quantities of this Communist literature, have you not? 

Mr. Buteneff. That is correct, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever seen a single piece of literature from 
the Communist-controlled regime which was labeled Communist po- 
litical propaganda pursuant to the provisions of the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act? 

Mr. Buteneff. No, sir, I have not. 

Mr. Arens. I don't wan't to press upon your time beyond the sub- 
ject matter for which you were called. Are there any comments 



5440 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

which either you or Mr. Fishman would like to make on this redef ec- 
tion campaign? 

Mr. BuTENEFF. I would like to say one more thing : That all of what 
I have said before on this campaign is, of course, my personal obser- 
vation and my personal viewpoint. It is not necessarily that of the 
Treasury Department. 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge has the Customs Service or any 
agency of our Government undertaken to publicize the fact that a 
person who is wooed back behind the Iron Curtain by this redefection 
campaign under the law existing behind the Iron Curtain becomes 
again a citizen of those countries and is burdened immediately with 
all the obligations of citizenship in that Communist-controlled re- 
gime ? 

Mr. BuTENEFF. No, I am not aware of it. 

Mr. Arens. Do you care to comment on that issue, Mr. Fishman? 

Mr. Fishman. I would like to comment on the overall effect of the 
committee's interest in this redefection program, as we have seen it. 

As I mentioned earlier many of the people who received this ma- 
terial thought that they had been singled out — that they were the 
only ones who were getting it. They were of course very much 
alarmed. The fact that this had so much publicity in Washington 
during the hearing before this committee has helped immeasurably. 
Many of these people now know that it is a concerted effort — that it 
is not a single venture, that many people are receiving this material. 
They feel a lot better about it. 

We have had a very marked lessening in the number of letters which 
have been written to us asking about it. I think many people have 
read the story and are now satisfied that they are just part and parcel 
of the entire overall propaganda program. 

The Chairman. Don't you feel, Mr. Fishman, that a greater effort 
was made in the United States than elsewhere to prevail upon these 
people to come back because over one-third of all the refugees were 
brought to the United States under the Displaced Persons Act ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes, I think a very concerted effort was made in this 
country rather than anywhere else, apart from the fact that it has 
publicity value in propaganda to say that Mr. So-and-So of such and 
such city, from New York, came home with his family. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, you say one-third of all the refugees? 
"\^niy are there so many people in this country, Mr. Chairman, com- 
plaining about our policy on immigration ? 

The Chairman. That is a long, long story. Sometime when we 
have plenty of time I will explain it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr, Chairman, I respectfully suggest thatwill conclude 
the staff' interrogation of these two gentlemen. 

The Chairman. I am interested in this phase of the problem, Mr. 
Fishman. Yesterday the Senate passed a bill which I introduced on 
behalf of a former Kussian spy. I think his name was Nikolai Khokh- 
lov. He was one of the topflight espionage agents. He came to the 
United States and defected, and within a week after he arrived under 
an assumed name, having changed his address twice, he was con- 
tacted. That would indicate a very complex and competent espionage 
scheme, would it not ? 

Mr. Fishman. There is every evidence to that effect. These people 
aren't here very long when they immediately have a series of cor- 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5441 

respondence addressed to them. Of course, we don't know where the 
shippers get the information. There is no question that a good deal 
of money is expended in following these people around the country 
and pinning them down. One of the things that was commented on, 
was the reaction of some people who had come here from abroad un- 
der sponsorship. A lot of them felt that tliis mail being sent to them 
was a reflection on their sponsors to some extent, because here they 
were being fed a lot of propaganda material to come home which 
might plaster them to some extent with the label of being interested 
in the Communist movement. 

But there is no question that they are followed vei-y carefully. At 
least, tlieir current whereabouts are known almost at any given time. 

The CiiAiRisrAN. Then it has another effect. Under the Eefugee 
Eelief Act a number of refugees were given numbers to come to the 
United States. The people whom proponents of the legislation said 
thej^ wanted to help have not been moved in numbers, largely because 
of the lack of sponsors. I have come to the conclusion that interest in 
sponsoring does not exist because they do not want to be annoyed by 
the efforts of people after they get here to prevail upon them to leave 
again. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I think your assumption is correct. They just don't 
want to get involved. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I think our record should also reflect this 
information. 

Approximately how many foreign agents are presently registered 
with the Department of Justice as agents of a foreign power engaged 
in the dissemination of foreign political propaganda in the United 
States ? 

Mr. Fishman. All foreign governments? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. FiisH3iAN. It seems to me that there are some sixty, as I recall. 
Of course, the record is there with the Department of Justice to be 
explored. I don't know offhand. I know that in the New York area, 
for example, there are three major registered agents representing the 
Soviet bloc countries, and our concern is strictly with that field rather 
than the overall registration of foreign agents. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know if there are any registered agents in the 
Philadelphia area ? 

Mr. Fishman. None that I know of in this area. 

Mr. Arens. That concludes the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chaiuman. Any questions, Mr. Velde ? 

Mr. Velde. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman. I want to say that 
I appreciate the cooperative testimony these two fine gentlemen have 
given us, I am sure they are both fulfilling their duties to the fullest 
extent under existing law. 

Mr. Fishman. Thank you very much. Congressman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Fishman, it would appear that the solution to 
this problem would lie in having the activities of this so-called joint 
venture itself incorporated in the Central Intelligence Agency. 

Mr. Fishman. It is my understanding that their operation is out- 
side the United States and not so much inside the United States. I 
think it would be out of their sphere. 



5442 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

The Chairman. At the moment, but I am talking about bringing 
it within their sphere. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That probably would be a very good agency to 
connect up all of the missing links. 

The Chairman. It would seem to me that agency would probably 
be able to tap sources much easier than an agency of government which 
functioned only in the United States. 

Mr. FisHMAN. That would be of considerable help. There is no 
question about that. 

The Chairman. This committee is appreciative of your efforts, Mr. 
Fisliman. You and your staff have done a fine job. It is not easy. 
Surprisingly enough, the American people are not aware of the rami- 
fications and how deeply the infiltration has actually been. We are 
very appreciative of your help. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, would you indulge me for one more 
question, please ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, on the basis of your background and 
experience, would you care to give an appraisal of whether or not it 
would be more effective from the standpoint of controlling the opera- 
tions in which you are engaged if there were an office located at the 
seat of government in Washington, which would be in closer proximity 
to other agencies ? 

Mr. Fishman. I think so. 

Mr. Arens. At the present time there is no central location at the 
seat of government of this operation, is there ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. 

The Chairman. You are excused, Mr. Fishman and Mr. Buteneff. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Werner Marx, please come forward. 

Kindly remain standing, Mr. Marx, while the chairman administers 
an oath to you. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand. Do you swear that 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Marx. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WERNEE MARX, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

W. WOOLSTON 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Marx. My name is Werner Marx, 4518 Smedley Street, pres- 
ently occupied as a waiter. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Marx, are you appearing today in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Marx. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Marx. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. WooLSTON. W. Woolston ; W-o-o-l-s-t-o-n. 

Mr. Arens. You are engaged in practice in Philadelphia ? 

Mr. WooLSTON. That is right. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5443 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Marx, where were you born ? 

Mr. Marx. Frankfurt, Germany, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And when? 

Mr. Marx. May 9, 1923. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, just a brief sketch of your 
early life prior to the time that you came to the United States. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. Well, up until 1933 my life was that of any normal Ger- 
man youngster. I went to school, grammar school. I did the normal 
things any youngster would do up until that time. In 1933, as you 
know, the Nazis came to power in Germany and from there on my life 
quite radically changed insofar as I experienced quite a bit of pre- 
judism, and numerous times have been severely beaten up in school 
and other places. 

I left school in 1937. I went to work for a little while. I was 
thrown out of a job because of my religious background. In 1938, 
on November 9, I believe, I was interrogated by the Gestapo at home, 
and a few days later my father was arrested and sent to a concen- 
tration camp. We escaped, my brother and I, to Holland, and there 
we stayed for a vear, were interned in a camp, left for the United 
States in 1940. Or, rather, I think it was late December 1939. I 
Ix'lieve that is about the date. 

Coming to tlie TTnited States, I began to work in a hotel as a bus- 
boy. 

Mr. Arens. Where did vou land when you entered the United 
States? ■ ■ 

Mr. Marx. In New York, sir. 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. I began to work as a busboy in a hotel. Later on I 
became a waiter. I tried since 1942 innumerable times to get into the 
United States Armed Forces, but because of my status as an enemy 
alien at that time I could not be recruited. For that reason I left 
Hartford, Conn., and came to Philadelphia because I understand 
that recruitment was easier in Philadelphia. I continued working 
in Philadelphia for a little while and was recruited into the Navy. 
I believe the date was November 1943. I served on active duty for 3 
years in various theaters of war. 

Mr. Arens. Were you commissioned ? 

Mr. Marx. No, I was not. I was a seaman first class. 

After the war I Avent to high school, finished my high school diploma, 
tlien finished my college, and Avent on to the university for a while. 
I finished the university. 

Mr. Arens. The University of Pennsylvania? 

Mr. Marx. That is riglit, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you graduate from the University of Penn- 
sylvania ? 

Mr. Marx. I believe it was in 1951, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What degree did you receive ? 

Mr. Marx. Master and bachelor of arts. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Pick u[) tlie thread of your life there, if you please, sir, 1951. 

Mr. Marx. I continued working during all that time in my pro- 
fession as a waiter. I went to school. 

Mr. Arens. What degree did you i-eceiAo from the TTniversity of 
Pennsvlvania i 



5444 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. IMarx. I believe I stated it was master of arts, sir. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you more specifically, what was your 
specialty ? 

Mr. Marx. I see. I was in the field of dramatics, interested in 
linguistics, philosophy, comparative European literature, and litera- 
ture in general. 

Mr. Arens. Did your master of arts decree at the University of 
Pennsylvania complete your formal education ? 

Mr. JVIarx. It did, yes. 

Mr. Arens. After you graduated in 1951 where did you get your 
first job ? 

Mr. Marx. My first job was in a — well, in 1950 I think I should 
mention, my wife and I took a trip to Europe for a short summer 
visit. After we came back I studied for a little while. Then I con- 
tinued working in a machine shop — I believe it was, for several years — 
several machine shops. I left there and then about 2 years ago I took 
a job as a waiter and continued in that occupation up to the present 
time. 

Mr. Arens. Where did your brother settle ? 

Mr. Marx. He is in Hartford, Conn., sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where? 

Mr. Marx. Hartford, Conn., sir. 

Mr. Arens. Of what organizations were you a member when you 
left Germany? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. WooLSTON. Will you rej)eat the question for the witness ? 

Mr. Arens. What organizations were you a member of when you 
left Germany in 1939, I believe you said ? 

Mr. Marx. No organizations^ sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat organizations were you a member of when you 
left Europe ? 

Mr. Marx. No organizations, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was your leaving Europe at the direction of any person 
other than on the basis of your consultation with your brother ? 

Mr. Marx. I don't think you could call it a consultation with my 
brother. My brother was only 10 or 11 years old at that time. 1 
was only a youngster of about 16 or 17 myself. No. The reason 
was that we had no visible support. My father was still in a concen- 
tration camp at that time, so there was nothing else for us to do but 
to leave. 

Mr. Arens. Before we proceed further I want to touch upon this 
trip to Europe. Wliere did you go in Europe ? What was the date ? 
Was it in 1950? 

Mr. Marx. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You and your wife took a trip to Europe ? 

Mr. Marx. That is right, sir. We flew to England, from England 
we went to Belgium, the Netherlands. We were in Germany quite 
extensively. We were in France. That is about the extent of my 
trip. 

Mr. Arens. You of course went on a United States passport ? 

Mr. Marx. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a naturalized citizen ? 

Mr. Marx. I am, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When were you naturalized ? 



rm'^ESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5445 

Mr. Marx. In 1944, sir. Do you want the exact date? I believe 
it was in May 1944. 

Mr. Arens. When you applied for your United States passport, did 
you sign an affidavit to the effect that you had never been a member 
of an organization dedicated to the overthrow of the Government of 
the United States by force and violence ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ;NL4lRx. I don't recall that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. To what clubs did you belong when you attended the 
University of Pennsylvania ? 

Mr. Marx. I feel that my associations as far as clubs or organizations 
are concerned, sir, is not within the prerogative of this committee and 
because of my previous experience with investigating committees I 
would rather not go into any associations at all. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that for two reasons. I do not choose 
to be a witness against myself, and I do not care to curtail my freedom 
to talk, read, or associate, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, Mr. Marx, if you told the 
committee the truth respecting the clubs of which you were a member 
or with which you were affiliated when you went to the University of 
Pennsylvania, you would be supplying information which could be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Marx. I do, sir, on the basis that I had such an experience 
previously in Germany. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you think you would have such an experience in 
this country as you had in Germany ? 

Mr. ]NL\Rx. From my reading knowledge, I am afraid I do, sir. 

The Chairman. This isn't Germany. 

Mr. Arens. During your experience at the University of Pennsyl- 
A'ania, did you know a person by the name of Minnie Jessie Schneider- 
man? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. To the best of my knowledge, no, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you, or have you ever been, registered as a foreign 
agent under the Foreign Agents Kegistration Act ? 

Mr. ]Marx. I have not been, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you, in the course of your residency in Philadel- 
phia, ever solicited foreign political propaganda from any source? 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds already 
stated, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever received foreign political propaganda 
since bein^ a resident of Philadelphia ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. Well, sir, as I told you before, I am a student of com- 
parative European literature, and I have done some extensive work 
in that field which necessitates my reading material from all countries. 

The Chairman. Then the answer is "Yes." 

Mr. Marx. Would you repeat the question, please ? 

Mr. Arens. The question was, have you received during your resi- 
dency in Philadelphia foreign political propaganda? 



5446 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Marx. I object to that "political propaganda" and therefore 
refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Ahens. Have you receiAed World Youth ? 

Mr. Marx. The same answer on tlie grounds formerly stated. 

Mr. Arj^ns. Have you received Information Service in French? 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to ansAver that question on the grounds already 
stated. 

Mr. vScherkr. Do I understand when he says he refuses to answer on 
the grounds previously stated that he is invoking the fifth amendment 
against self-incrimination i Is that correct, Witness ( 

JNIr. Marx. I refuse to answer for the two reasons, as I said before : 
I do not choose to be a witness against myself and I do not care to 
curtail my freedom to talk, read, or associate. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer my question. When it is not clear, the courts hold we must in- 
fjuire as to whether the witness is invoking the amendment against 
self-incrinnnation. Certainly by his answer it is not clear to me 
whether or not he is invoking the hf th amendment. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer for two reasons : I do not choose to 
be a witness against myself and I do not care to curtail my freedom 
to talk, read, or associate. That is my answer, sir. 

The Chairman. You came to the United States under a refugee 
program which extended protection to people who were persecuted, is 
that not the fact? 

Mr. Marx. I don't belieA^e it was a progi-am, sir, that I came to the 
TTuited States under. 

The Chairman. You came to the United States for that purpose. 
You became a citizen of the United States by virtue of your service in 
the United States Navy, is that not correct ? 

Mr. Marx. Yes, sir.' 

The Chairman. You were educated under the GI bill at the ex- 
pense, in part, of the United States ? 

Mr. Marx. As a result of my service ; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Don't you think that because of all these fine 
things — I almost said blessings and maybe they are — that have come 
to you and many thousands of other people similarly situated, the 
least you could do would be to tiy to cooperate with this committee in 
preserving the blessings of our Republic? 

Mr. Marx. I am trying to, sir. 

The Chairman. Yes, by reading from something about your re- 
fusal to answer. Well, try a little harder. Did you receive any of 
this foreign propaganda? 

Mr. INIarx. I must refuse to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

The Chairman. You. are not under any compulsion at all. You say 
"must refuse." 

Mr. Marx. Yes, sir; I am under a compulsion of my conscience be- 
cause I know what has happened to me previously on that, on occasions 
of that sort, and it cannot be wiped out, sir. 

Mr. Velde. May I inquire, Mr. Chairman ? 

Did you come to this country directly from Holland ? 

Mr. Marx. Yes, sir : I did. 



FNTVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAG.iNDA IN U. S. 5447 

Mr. Velde. Was that in 1939? 

Mr. Marx. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Velde. That was under what circumstances? You had no 
money of your own, I take it? 

Mr. Marx. No, sir ; I didn't. 

Mr. Velde. Who paid your passage? 

Mr. Marx, The money was advanced to me. 

Mr. Velde. Who paid it ? 

Mr. Marx. Someone who is now deceased, sir, a relative of mine. 

Mr. Velde. Here in the United States? 

Mr. Marx. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Wl\o was that relative? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. A gentleman by the name of Arthur Halm. 

Mr. Arens. Do you receive the Democratic German Report? 

Mr. Marx. Again I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
formerly stated. 

The Chairman. ^\^iat crime do you think you would be committing 
if you admitted you received this periodical ? It is no crime to receive 
that paper. 

Mr. Marx. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a moment, Mr. Arens. He said he doesn't know. 
How can he properly invoke the fifth amendment ? 

The Chairman. That is his hard luck. Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arexs. Since you have been a resident of Philadelphia have 
you been receiving from abroad and disseminating in this area Com- 
munist political propaganda? 

Mr. Marx. I again refuse to answer that on the grounds formerly 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that since you have been a resident of Philadelphia, without 
being registered as a foreign agent pursuant to the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act, you have been receiving foreign Communist politi- 
cal propaganda and be^n a nerve center for the dissemination of that 
political propaganda in this community. If that isn't so, you deny 
it under oath. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. Sir, I have received literature, as I stated before, and 
I have passed it around to friends but 

Mr. Arens. Have you received World Youth ? 

Mr. Marx. On any specific type of literature, I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you received Communist foreign political propa- 
ganda ? 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that on the grounds formerly stated. 

Mr. Arens. To how many of these friends have you circulated this 
literature which 3'ou have received from abroad of the non-Commu- 
nist political variety ? 

Mr. Marx. I will not mention any of my associates to this commit- 
tee, sir. 

Mr. Arens. To how many of them have you actually given or sent 
this literature which you have described as receiving from abroad ? 

Mr. Marx. The same answer to that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 



5448 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. To how- 
many people have you given or sent this literature ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds for- 
merly stated, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When you entered the Navy to serve your country, did 
you take an oath of allegiance to support and defend and protect the 
Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and 
domestic ? 

Mr. Marx. I most certainly did, sir. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you took that oath of allegiance were you 
a member of the Communist conspiracy designed to destroy the Con- 
stitution, designed to destroy this Government? 

Mr. Marx. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer for the two reasons I mentioned be- 
fore : I do not choose to be a witness against myself and I do not care 
to curtail my freedom to talk, read, or associate, sir. 

The Chairman. Just a moment, so we get the record straight. You 
said, "I don't choose to be a witness against myself." What do you 
mean by that? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer because I do not want to be a witness 
against myself. 

The Chairman. In other words, you refuse to answer. It isn't a 
case of not choosing to answer. 

Mr. Marx. All right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you at this moment a m.ember of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that on the grounds formerly stated, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you under Communist discipline ? 

Mr. Marx. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photograph of a number of 
people. There is a sign carried by one particular person, entitled, 
"Prevent American Fascism, Dismiss Indictments Against Communist 
Leaders." Under that, "Civil Rights Congress." I ask youif you 
can identify that individual in that photograph who is carrying the 
sign ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Marx. I see a picture in front of myself. That is all, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can't you identify that individual whose photograph 
appears there carrying that sign bearing the language of which I 
just read to you? 

Mr. Marx. I just see a picture there, sir, that is all. 

Mr. Arens. You have no trouble with your eyes, have you. 

Mr. Marx. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recognize tliat individual ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. There is nothing wrong with my eyes, but I still just 
see a picture there, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a picture of you ? 

Mr. Marx. It appears to be, but I don't know. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5449 

Mr. Arens. If this appears to be a picture of you, can you tell the 
committee where and when that picture was taken ? 

Mr. JVLvRx. I have no recollection of it at all, sir. 

Mr. Arens. That picture is a picture of the Civil Rights Congress 
picket line in front of the Federal Building in Philadelphia, back in 
September 1948 ; is it not ? 

Mr. ]\LvRx. You stated so, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any recollection of engaging in a picket 
line before the Federal Building in September 1948 ? 

Mr. IMarx. I have done many things in my career 

Mr. Arens. Just answer that question. 

Mr, Marx (continuing). Fighting against nazism and fascism, sir; 
yes ; many things, 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in that picket line before the Fed- 
eral Building in September 1948 ? 

Mr. ]\Iarx. I have no recollection of that, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You say you have no recollection ? 

Mr. Marx. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that when you attended the University of Pennsylvania 
you were in the youth and student section of the Communist con- 
spiracy. 

Mr. ]\L4Rx. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds formerly 
stated, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the American Youth 
for Democracy ? 

Mr. ISIarx. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you were a member of the American Youth for Democ- 
racy, a Communist-controlled youth organization in the Philadelphia 
area. 

Mr. Marx. There is no question, sir. 

Mr. Aeens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that you were active in the American Youth for De- 
mocracy and the Labor Youth League, both Communist-controlled 
organizations. 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that on the grounds formerly stated, 
sir, 

Mr, Arens. In 1950 did you participate in a festival and rally in 
commemoration of Lenin and honoring Joseph Stalin ? 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that on the grounds formerly stated, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. In viev, of what has happened in the last year or so, the 
last several months of dehonoring Stalin, has your attitude changed 
toward Joseph Stalin ? 

Mr, Marx. I think, INIr. Chairman, that my relationship or so-called 
alleged relationship with Mr. Stalin is not in the interest of this com- 
mittee. What I feel, what I believe 

The Chairman, We know what it is. Go ahead with the next 
question, 

Mr. Marx. I think this is a very unfair question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you active on behalf of the Rosenbergs when the 
Rosenberg case was up ? 



5450 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Marx. I have no recollection of that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You said a moment ago, if I didn't misinterpret your 
remarks, that you have been active against fascism most of your adult 
life. 

Mr. Marx. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Fascism is a horrible thing ; isn't it ? 

Mr. Marx. I think that my experience bears that out, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Tell the committee what you have done against com- 
munism, which is equally horrible, during your adult life. 

Mr. Marx. Again, sir, I think that my political views and my po- 
litical beliefs are not to be discussed here by this committee. 

Mr. Arens. You had no hesitancy at all a moment ago in denounc- 
ing fascism and telling the committee that you have been active in 
protesting and fighting fascism. Can you tell us why it is that you 
have no hesitancy talking about fascism, but you are just a little 
reluctant to talk about communism or anything you might have done 
in that arena ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. The slave labor camps in Kussia perhaps were not 
quite so bad as the slave labor camps in Germany. 

Mr. Marx. Sir, I have been against all kinds of enslavements of 
people all my life, regardless of where they occur, and against any 
kind of curtailment of civil liberties wherever they occur. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you spoken out against the slave labor camps 
operated by the Communists in Russia ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. Would you repeat that question again, sir ? 

Mr. Scherer. Have you spoken out at any place against the slave 
labor camps that were operated in Russia or are operated in Russia? 

Mr. Marx. I have no personal knoAvledge of that, sir. I have per- 
sonal knowledge of what has been mentioned here before, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Even in view of the admissions now by the present 
Russian regime that there were such things ? 

Mr. Marx. I must just repeat my answer. 

Mr. Scherer. Yet you having been a member of the Communist con- 
spiracy, say you have no knowledge of it. 

Mr. Marx. That is your allegation, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Is my allegation incorrect, that you are a member 
of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What year were you naturalized as an American 
citizen ? 

Mr. Marx. 1944, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In 1944 when you were naturalized as a citizen you 
took an oath of allegiance to this country, did you not ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. I assume so, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You assume so. Did you not in fact? Do you not 
remember that you took an oath of allegiance ? 

Mr. Marx. Oath of allegiance: yes, sir. I am son-y, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you took that oath of allegiance ? 

Mr. Marx. No, sir. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5451 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party, then, 
in 1945? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that on the grounds formerly stated, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party imme- 
diately after you took your oath of allegiance to the United States 
and procured your citizenship. 

Mr. Marx. I was in the United States Navy, sir. I served for 3 
years. 

Mi-. Velde. That doesn't answer the question. 

Mr. Marx. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Well, were you a member of the Communist Party in 
January 1945 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. No. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Conununist Party in June 
of 1945 ? 

Mr. Marx. No. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party in De- 
cember of 1945 ? 

Mr. Marx. No. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party in Janu- 
ary 1946? 

Mr. Marx. No. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party in De- 
cember of 1946 ? 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds formerly 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party in June 
of 1946? 

Mr. Marx. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party in Febru- 
ary of 1946? 

Mr. Marx. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party on Janu- 
ary 15, 1946? 

Mr. Marx. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party on Janu- 
ary 4, 1946? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. I was not a member of the Communist Party as long 
as I was in the United States Navy, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When did you actually get out of the United States 
Navy? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. January 4, 1946, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time prior to the time that you were released from the United States 
Navy ; any time in your life prior to January 4, 1946 ? 

Mr. Marx. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any period since January 4, 1946, in which you 
have not been under Communist discipline up to the present moment? 



5452 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds formerly 
stated, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever resigned from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Marx. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Since you received your subpena have you discussed 
your proposed appearance before this committee today with anyone, 
who to your certain knowledge, was a member of the Communist con- 
spiracy ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that on the grounds formerly stated, 
sir. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Counsel, I would like you to follow up this nega- 
tive testimony of the witness as to just exactly when he did join the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. I think the record reflects Mr. Velde, that from January 
4, 1946, to the present day the witness, if he is in good faith invok- 
ing the fifth amendment, apprehends that if he gave us a truthful 
answer to the facts, he would be supplying information which could 
be used against him in a criminal proceeding. 

Mr. Velde. What I mean is this, Mr, Counsel. I think he took the 
fifth amendment when you asked him whether he was a member on 
February 15 or February 1. He said he was not a Communist before 
January 4. 

Let me ask you Witness, were you a member of the Communist Par- 
ty on January 5, 1946 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. WooLSTON. We are trying to get the date. Your Honor. 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer any questions after I left the Navy, 
and that was on January 4. 

Mr. Arens. Is your present occupation as a waiter, your sole full- 
time occupation ? 

Mr. Marx. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under directives by any person re- 
specting any activity other than your activity as a waiter ? 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the grounds form- 
erly stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Steve Nelson ? 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds formerly 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Was your trip to Europe at the behest or direction of 
anyone known by you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Marx. Not to the best of my knowledge, sir ; no. 

Mr. Scherer. Where did you get the money to go to Europe ? 

Mr. Marx. I saved it, sir. 

Mr. Arens. While you were in Europe were you in contact with any 
person known by you to be a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Marx. Again I answer that question and refuse to answer on the 
grounds formerly stated. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you under oath now 
to affirm or deny the fact, that you are presently an agent of the Com- 
munist conspiracy engaged in the dissemination of foreign political 
propaganda in this area. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. WooLSTON. Would you repeat the question ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5453 

Mr. Arens. Would you read the question, please, Mr. Reporter. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
formerly stated. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Just one parting question : You recognize of course, do 
you not, Mr. Witness, that you are presently under oath and that if you 
lie to this committee you might be subject to pains and penalties of 
perjury ? 

Mr. Marx. I do, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you expect when you are relieved of the pains and 
penalties of this oath you are now under to step outside in the hall or 
step over to the press table and tell these representatives of the Ameri- 
can people "Of course I am not a member of the Communist conspiracy 
but I wasn't going to tell that witch-hunting committee that I was not 
a member of the Communist conspiracy" ? 

Mr. Marx. Would you repeat the question? You made a speech, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. After you have been relieved of the pains and penalties 
of your oath, the obligation to tell the truth, do you intend to announce 
to the world that of course you are not a member of the Communist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. Marx. Sir, I have always told the truth and I shall continue to 
do so. 

Mr. Arens. Then tell this committee the truth as to whether or not 
you are presently a member of the Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Marx. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
f onnerly stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that that will con- 
■clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Mr. Velde ? 

Mr. Velde. No questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. No, except that I am going to ask that the testimony 
of this witness be referred to the Department of Justice with the sug- 
gestion of this committee that denaturalization proceedings be com- 
menced against this man. He has no business being a citizen of the 
United States. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess, to meet at 2 
o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 05 p. m., July 17, 1956, the committee recessed, 
to reconvene at 2 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, JULY 17, 1956 

(Members of the committee present : Representatives Walter, Velde, 
and Scherer.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Walter Lowenfels, please come forward and remain 
standing while the chairman administers an oath to you. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 

five will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
elp you God ? 
Mr. Lowenfels. I do . 



5454 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

TESTIMONY OF WALTER LOWENFELS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOSEPH S. LORD, 3d 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. LowENFELS. My name is Walter Lowenf els. I am a writer and I 
live in Philadelphia, 4510 Regent Street. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today, Mr. Lowenfels, in response 
to a subpena served upon you by the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities ? 

Mr. Lowenfels. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Lowenfels. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself. 

Mr. Lord. Joseph S. Lord 3d. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lowenfels, under date of June 1955, you wer& 
convicted under the Smith Act, were you not ? 

Mr. Lord. I advise you to decline to answer that on the ground, 
first of all, that that is a judicial proceeding presently pending and 
undecided in the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. 

Mr. Lowenfels. I decline to answer on the grounds stated. 

Mr. Arens. Since June of 1955 — and I propose to interrogate you 
exclusively, Mr. Lowenfels, with reference to a few items since June 
of 1955 — have you received Communist political propaganda from 
abroad ? 

Mr. Lord. I advise you not to answer that, Mr. Lowenfels, on the 
ground that the Smith Act case is presently pending and undecided 
before the United States Circuit Court of Appeals involving similar 
material. Secondly, I advise you to refuse to answer on the ground 
that you refuse to be a witness against yourself within the fifth amend- 
ment, and thirdly, because the question relates to the protection of the 
first amendment. 

Mr. TjOwenfels, I decline to answer on those grounds. 

The Chairman. On what grounds ? 

Mr. Lowenfels. On the grounds stated by my counsel. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question, Mr. Lowenfels, 

Mr. Lord. I advise you not to, Mr. Lowenfels. 

Mr. Lowenfels. I decline to answer on the grounds which I can 
restate if you want. 

Mr. Lord. Restate them. 

Mr. Lowenfels. Because the questions relate directly to matters 
which are the subject of litigation pending and undetermined in the 
United States circuit court of appeals 

The Chairman. As Mr. Arens told you, the questions he is asking 
you do not relate to anything which occurred before you were 
convicted. 

Mr. Lowenfels. I have three grounds. Let me finish the sentence — 
for the third circuit between me and tlie Government of the United 
States; second, because I refuse to be a witness against myself 
within the limitations of the fifth amendment; and thirdly, because 
the question relates to matters within the protection of the first 
amendment, guaranty of freedom of beliefs, speech, and association. 

The Chairman. All riffht. 



ESrVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 5455 

Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Do yon know of a publication known as Agerpres? 

Mr. LowENFELS. I decline to answer on the same three grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of a publication known as the Democratic 
Oerman Report ? 

Mr. Lowenfels. I decline to answer on the same previously stated 
gi'ounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a publication known as Xew Rumania? 

Mr. Lowenfels.* I decline to answer the question for the same 
reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Have you since your conviction in June of 1955 been 
engaged in the dissemination of Communist propaganda in the Phila- 
delphia, Pa., area ? 

Mr. Lowenfels. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently have a post-office box number? 

Mr. Lord. Decline to answer. 

Mr. Lowenfels. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you, Mr. Lowenfels, photostatic copies of 
two applications for a post-office box for the Pennsylvania Worker, 
Daily Worker, with the signature of Walter Lowenfels. I ask you 
if you would identify those documents as photostats of documents 
signed by yourself (post-office box Nos. 5544 and 4517, for 1951 and 
1954, respectfully) . 

Mr, Lowenfels. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact that you are presently the conduit via the Daily Worker 
and the Pennsylvania Worker for Communist foreign political prop- 
aganda which you disseminate in the Pennsylvania area. 

Mr. Tx)WENrELs. I decline to answer for the same three reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Communist discipline ? 

Mr. Lowenfels. I decline to answer for the same three reasons ? 

Mr. Arens. Are you persently a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lowenfels. I decline to answer for the same three reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this witness 
now be excused, and that Mr. Lewis C. Arnold, of the post office, be 
called. 

The Chairiman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Lowenfels. Thank you. 

Mr. Lord. I hope I didn't hold you up too much. 

The Chairman. That is all right, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lewis C. Arnold, will you please come forward. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arnold, will you raise your right hand please? 
Do you swear the testimony you are about to give shall be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Arnold, I do. 

TESTIMONY OP LEWIS C. ARNOLD 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Arnold. My name is Lewis C. Arnold. I live at 4610 North 
Ella Street, Philadelphia, postal clerk in the personnel section. 

Mr, Arens. How long have you been so engaged? 

Mr. Arnold. Thirty-nine years. 



5456 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Arnold, do you have in your custody or possession 
the original applications for post-office boxes made by one Walter 
Lowenf els ? 

Mr. Arnold. I have. 

Mr. Arens. Would you please produce those before the committee 
and describe them in this record before we actually mark them and 
incorporate them by reference in the record? 

Mr Arnold. On October 19, 1951, Mr. Lowenfels signed an appli- 
cation for a box at the Kingsessing station, zone 43, box No. 5544, 
and signed his name as Walter Lowenfels, Daily Worker, Pennsyl- 
vania Worker. The character of business, newspapers. Business ad- 
dress, 35 East 12th Street, New York City. Residence, 4510 Regent 
Street, Philadelphia. This application calls for witnesses, that is, ref- 
erences. Would you want those references ? 

Mr. Arens. No, thank you; not as of the moment. 

Was a post-office box issued pursuant to that application ? 

Mr. Arnold. Yes. 

There is another one issued on the date of July 22, 1954, at West 
Park station, also under the heading of the Pennsylvania Worker, 
signed by Walter Lowenfels, newspapers, giving the address of 4510 
Regent Street, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Arens. Has the post-office box which was issued pursuant to 
the application of October 19, 1951, of Walter Lowenfels been main- 
tained in his name ? 

Mr. Arnold. It has so far as I know, because these applications are 
retained in the active file until there is a replacement. 

Mr. Arens. Has there been any replacement since July of 1954? 

Mr. Arnold. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were these applications made prior or subsequent to 
Lowenfels' conviction? 

Mr. Arens. They were made prior to his conviction, Congressman, 
but they have been maintained since to the present date. 

Thank you very much, Mr. Arnold. 

That concludes the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Chairman, we had two other witnesses who were to be heard 
today. One was Mr. Gilford. Due to a slight personal mishap his 
appearance has been set over until tomorrow. Another witness who 
was sought by the committee apparently has fled the jurisdiction, and 
we are unable to get him under subpena. We have no other witnesses 
for the balance of the afternoon. 

The Chairman. The committee is in recess until 10 o'clock tomor- 
row morning. 

(Whereupon, Tuesday, July 17, the committee was recessed, to re- 
convene at 10 a. m. Wednesday, July 18, 1956.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Arnold, Lewis C 5455-5456 (testimony) 

Bulganin 5432 

Buteneff, Sergei 5437-5440 (testimony) 

Fishman, Irving 5422-5437 (testimony), 5438, 

5440-5442 (testimony) 

Hahn, Arthur 5447 

Khokhlov, Nikolai 5440 

Lord, Joseph S., 3d 5454 

Lowenfels, Walter 545^5455 (testimony), 5456 

Lucy, Autherine 5432 

Marx, Werner 5442-5453 (testimony) 

Nelson, Steve 5452 

Schneiderman, Minnie Jessie 5445 

Smith, Edwin S 5433 

Woolston, W 5442 

Organizations 

Civil Rights Congress 5448, 5449 

Czechoslovak Foreign Institute 5432 

International Union of Students (lUS) 5431, 5432 

Polish American Congress 5429 

Trud 5432 

United States Government : 

Central Intelligence Agency 5441 

Justice Department 5423, 5424, 5425, 5434, 5441 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 5424 

National Labor Relations Board 5433 

Post Office Department 5422, 5425 

Treasury Department: Customs, Bureau of 5422 

Publications 

Agerpres 5455 

Around the World 5428 

Bulgaria (No. 2, 1956) 5431 

Daily Worker 5455, 5456 

Pennsylvania 5455, 5456 

Democratic German Report 5447, 5455 

Home (Domov) 1956 5432 

Information Service 5446 

New Rumania 5455 

News (No. 12) 5432 

Soviet Union 5430 

Soviet Woman 5432 

World Student News (Bulletin) 5432 

World Youth 5446 

Young Generation (No. 5) 5431 

o 



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