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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the New Haven, Conn., area. Hearings"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA— PART 3 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



FEBRUARY 26 AND 27, 1957 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



(Including Index) 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
89407 WASHINGTON : 1957 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 
DEPOSITED BY THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House ob^ Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, JK., Tennessee GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

RicHAUD Arens, Director 

n 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 179 

February 26, 1957: 

Testimony of — 

Mrs. Mattie Sykes 183 

Verne Weed 191 

Harold L. Rogers 202 

Afternoon session: 

Mrs. Elsie Willcox 206 

Raymond T. Collins 224 

Samuel Richter 226 

February 27, 1957: 

Testimony of — 

Louise Zito 231 

Stanley J. Michalowski 239 

Ladislaus Joseph Michalowski 245 

Index i 

(Prior hearings on this subject, Investigation of Communist Activities in the 

New Haven, Conn., Area — Parts 1 and 2, were held September 24, 25, and 
26, 1956 respectively). 

in 



Public Law 601, TOni Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, T9th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * ♦ * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDINa COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda tliat is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation tliereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee of Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member desi^^nated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec 1;)G. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent 
reports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive 
branch of the Covernraent. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 

• •••••• 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

• •••*•* 

Rule XI 

POWEKS AND duties OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within tlie United States of subversive and mi-American propa- 
ganda that is insti,:.,'^ated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitut- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congi'ess in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorizetl to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subi>enas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of 
the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



SYNOPSIS 

111 New Haven, Conn., February 26 and 27, 1957, the Committee 
on Un-American Activities continued its investigation into Com- 
munist infiltration of labor unions and community groups. 

Due to a lack of time at the disposal of the committee members, as 
well as postponement of some witnesses, granted at their request, the 
committee did not complete its work at hearings held in New Haven 
in 1956. 

The following persons appeared at the public hearings in 1957: 
Mattie Sykes, Verne Weed, Harold Rogers, Elsie Willcox, Samuel 
Richter, Louise Zito, Stanley Michalowski, and Ladislaus J. 
Michalowski. 

All of these witnesses, except Harold Rogers, refused to answer any 
questions concerning Communist Party membership or Communist 
Party activities. Harold Rogers denied that he had ever been a 
member of the Communist Party or that he had ever attended closed 
meetings of the Communist Party. 

Mattie Sykes. a member of the United Electrical Workers from 
1913 to 1950, relied upon the fifth amendment and refused to answer 
numerous questions relating to Communist Party activities within that 
period. She also refused to discuss Communist Party decisions made 
on a national level and allegedly transmitted to the rank-and-file 
members for their guidance in union activities at the Bridgeport plant 
of General Electric Co. She denied Communist Party membership 
on and after Februaiy 13, 1957, but refused to answer all questions 
relating to prior membership in the Communist Party and the making 
of substantial donations to it. 

Verne Weed, assistant executive director with the Children's Serv- 
ices of Connecticut, 1940-56, was responsible for the foster home and 
adoption part of the agency services. In this capacity, she made the 
decision as to what homes should receive the children and what was 
the best plan for the child. ]Miss Weed invoked the fifth amendment 
when queried about Communist Party activities while employed by 
the Children's Services of Connecticut. She also relied on the fiftn 
amendment when asked as to present Communist Party membership 
and activities. 

Tender the protection of the fifth amendment, Elsie Willcox, execu- 
tive secretary of the Connecticut Peace Council, refused to testify 
about its organization, chapters, and activities. Mrs. Willcox also 
refused to say whether certain individuals, identified as members of 
the Communist Party, were the heads of various chapters of the Con- 
necticut Peace Council. She also refused to answer questions relat- 
ing to the attendance of Henry and Anita Willcox at the Asian-Pacific 
Conference of the World Peace Council at Peking, China, and their 
particijiation in the activities of the Connecticut Peace Council on 
their return to the United States. Mrs. Willcox refused to answer 

179 



180 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

questions regarding her present or past membership in the Communist 
Party on the ground that to do so might tend to incriminate her. 

Considerable testimony was taken at the hearing regardiiig the Con- 
necticut Vohmteers for Civil Rights. Application for Post Office 
Box No. 347, New Haven, Conn., was introduced in evidence showing 
tliat Bert MacLeech, previously identified as a member of the Com- 
munist Party, was chairman oi the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil 
Rights. The testimony disclosed that this post office box was used in 
connection with the dissemination of propaganda designed to influence 
the due administration of justice in the Smith Act trials, wliich took 
place in New Haven in 1956. 

Samuel Richter and Louise Zito wei-e questioned regarding their 
activities in this organization and the distribution of propaganda 
emanating from this organization. Committee investigation is con- 
tinuing regarding the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights and the 
Connecticut Peace Council. 

Stanley Michalowski and Ladislaus J. Michalowski, now employed 
in industry in New Britain, Conn., refused to inform the committee 
as to what took place at an alleged meeting of the Trade Union Com- 
mission of the Communist Party, held in 1953 and attended by dele- 
gates from the Communist Party groups in the New Haven area. 
Stanley Michalowski refused to affirm or deny that he was at one time 
head of the Communist Party at Hartford. Although he denied 
Communist Party membership at the time of his appearance before 
tlie committee, he refused to answer whether or not he was a member 
of the Communist Party on the day prior to his appearance as a wit- 
ness. Ladislaus J. Michalowski refused to state whether or not he 
is at the present time a member of the Communist Party. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA— PART 3 



TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1957 

United States House of Repiiesentatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

New Haven^ Conn. 
Public Hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Acivities met, 
pursuant to call, in the United States district court room, United States 
Courthouse and Post Office Building, New Haven, Conn., at 10 a. m., 
Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, and Bernard W. Kearney, of New York, 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel, and Ray- 
mond T. Collins, investigator. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

I have a brief statement to make before we proceed. 

This hearing today is held pursuant to action of the House Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities in a meeting held on January 22, 1957. 
The transcript of the minutes of the meeting on January 22, 1957, will 
be inserted in the record at this point. 

(The transcript follows:) 

A motion was made by Mr. Kearney, seconded by Mr. Willis, and unanimously 
carried, approving and authorizing the holding of hearings in the city of New 
Haven, Conn., to begin February 26, 1957, and the conduct of investigations 
deemed reasonably necessary by the staff in preparation therefor, the subject 
of which hearings and the investigations in connection therewith to include, 
in general, all matters within the jurisdiction of the committee and, iu partic- 
ular, Communist activities and influence within the field of labor and in the pro- 
fessions and Communist propaganda activities through front organizations. 

The following order was entered in the order book of the Committee 
on Un-American Activities relating to the appointment of a subcom- 
mittee to conduct these hearings : 

To the Clebk of the Committee on Un-Ameeican Activities of the House of 
Representatives. 

Order for Appointment of Subcommittee 

Pursuant to the provisions of law and the rules of this committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of 
Representatives, consisting of Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana, chainnan ; James 
B. Frazier, Jr., of Tennessee, and Bernard W. Kearney, of New York, to hold 
hearings in New Haven, Conn., beginning on February 26, 1957, on all matters 
vsdthin the jurisdiction of the committee, and to take testimony on said day or 
any succeeding days, and at such times and places as it may deem necessary, 
until its work is completed. 

181 

89457— 57— pt. 3 2 



182 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AKEA 

The clerk of the committee is directed to immediately notify the appointees 
of their appointment, and to file this order as an oflBcial committee record in the 
order book kept for that purpose. 

Given under my hand this 29th day of January 1957. 

FRANCIS E. Walter, 
Chaii-man, Committee on Un-American Activities, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Willis. By order of the chairman, pursuant to the action of 
the committee on that day, a subcoimnittee was appointed, composed 
of Edwin E. Willis, myself, of Louisiana, as chairman; James B. 
Frazier, Jr., of Tennessee; and Bernard W. Kearney, of New York. 
Mr. Frazier was unable to attend, but there being two here, a quorum 
is present. 

This hearing is essentially a continuation of the hearings conducted 
by the Committee on Un-American Activities of the House of Repre- 
sentatives in New Haven, Conn., on the 24th through the 26th of 
September, last year, 1956. 

Due to lack of time at the disposal of the committee members and 
due to the postponement of the appearance of some of the witnesses, 
granted at their request, the committee did not complete its work in 
New Haven in 1956. 

I call attention to the subject of the hearings as authorized by the 
committee action on January 22, 1957, and also to part of a statement 
of the subcommittee chairman made at the beginning of the hearings 
on September 24, 1956, which I now reiterate. 

In the recent past, criminal proceedings were held in this city involv- 
ing certain alleged violations of the Smith Act. The proposed hear- 
ings of this committee will not purport to cover the same subject 
matter. Rather, these hearings will show the general pattern of Com- 
munist Party activities in the State of Connecticut. 

This is a continuation of similar investigations and hearings held 
throughout the Nation by the committee. During the year, the com- 
mittee has held hearings in Charlotte, N. C. ; Denver, Colo. ; Chicago, 
111. ; Los Angeles, Calif. ; and St. Louis, Mo., where information was 
furnished to this committee on Communist activities in these particu- 
lar localities. 

These area hearings on the Communist conspiracy throughout the 
United States are to enable the committee to gain current knowledge 
of the operation of the conspiracy so as to enable us to formulate such 
legislation as the facts may warrant. 

"Wlien investigating Communists and Communist activities, this 
committee frequently has been met with the false and unfounded 
charge that the committee is merely seeking headlines, that we are a 

§roup of Fascists, that we are engaged in witch hunting, and the like, 
uch charges will not dissuade us from our task, I assure you. We 
seek the facts, and only facts. 

In the conduct of this hearing, we are not interested in any dispute 
between labor and management or between one union and another 
union. We propose to ascertain the facts on Communist activity, 
irrespective of the field in which it occurs, so that the Congress will be 
enabled to legislate more ably and comprehensively to protect the 
security of our Nation. 

It is a standing rule of this committee that any person identified as 
a member of the Communist Party during the course of the committee 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 183 

hearings be given an early opportunity to appear before this com- 
mittee, if he desires, for the purpose of denying or explaining any 
testimony adversely affecting him. 

I would remind those present that we are liere as Members of 
the Congress and as authorized and directed by the Congi-ess of the 
United States, to discharge a duty placed upon us by Public Law 601. 

Spectators are here by permission of the committee. A disturbance 
of any kind or audible comment during the testimony, whether favor- 
able or unfavorable to any witness or the conmiittee, will not be tol- 
erated. Any infraction oi this rule will result in the offender being 
ejected from the hearing room. 

Please observe the rules of the Federal court that there is no 
smoking in this room. 

There is one comment which I desire to add to the foregoing 
statement. 

This committee takes the position that every witness appearing 
before it should, if he desires, have counsel accompany him. In this 
connection, I desire to make it clear that the fact that a lawyer appears 
before this committee as counsel for a witness certainly should not, 
and cannot, be taken as disparagement of the lawyer for so doing. 
In fact, we invite counsel to be present. 

Mr. Kearney, would you care to supplement the statement ? 

Mr. Kearney. No, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Tavenner, please call your first witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Mattie Sykes. Will you come forward, please. 

Mr. Willis, Will you please rise and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the tnith, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you, God ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. MATTIE SYKES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CATHERINE G. RORABACK 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mrs. Sykes. Mattie Sykes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mrs. Sykes. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify herself for the record. 

Miss Roraback. Catherine G. Roraback, 185 Church Street, New 
Haven, Conn. 

I might also ask that Mrs. Sykes has requested there be no tele- 
vision or photographs during her testimony. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Sykes, are you a native of this area ? 

Mrs. Sykes. Bridgeport. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. Were you born here ? 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the State of Connecticut ? 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Ta^t^nner. How long have you lived in the State of Con- 
necticut ? 

Mrs. Sykes. Since 1938. 

Mr. Tavenner. 1938? 



184 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mrs. Sykes. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. What is your present occupation or employment? 

Mrs. Sykes. At the present 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I am unemployed. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your last employment? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. General Electric. 

Mr. Ta\'enxer. What was the nature of your employment? 

Mrs. Sykes. I was an assembler. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long had you been employed at General Elec- 
tric? 

Mrs. Sykes. Since 1943. 

Mr. Kearney. You say you are not employed now ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I am unemployed. 

Mr. Kearney. I did not hear you. 

Miss Eoraback. "I am unemployed." 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether during 
the period of your employment at General Electric you were a member 
of a labor union or unions ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of what unions were you a member ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. Of the lUE-CIO. 

Mr. TA^T.NNER. Were vou a member of any other union besides 
thelUE? ] 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What union ? 

Mrs. Sykes. The TIE. 

Mr. Tavenner. The UE? 

Mrs. Sykes. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period of time were you a member 
oftheUE? 

Mrs. Sykes. 1943. 

Mr. Tavenner. Until what date? 

Mrs. Sykes. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know the approximate date, do you not? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. Well, until the new union came in. Wlien it was. I 
don't remember; 1950, 1 think, but I don't know the date or the month. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold any position in either of the unions 
with which you were identified ? 

Mrs. Sykes. In the UE — in the lUE. I was a steward at one time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Which did you say ? 

Mrs. Sykes. In the lUE/ 1 was a steward at one time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you liold a similar position in the UE ? 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold any position in the UE? 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Sykes, the committee, during the course of 
these hearings, has received information indicating that, at the Gen- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 185 

eral Electric plant at which you worked, there was a concentration of 
Communist activity. Were you aware of the existence of such ac- 
tivity at the plant while you were employed there ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss RoRABACK. I am afraid she didn't understand the question. 
Will you rephrase it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. The committee has learned, during the course 
of this investigation, that the Communists centered and concentrated 
their efforts within the labor unions at the General Electric plant. 
Now I am asking you if you knew, of your own personal knowledge, 
that such activity was taking place. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I can't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. You can't remember ? 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me see if I can refresh your recollection. 

Was there an organized group of the Conununist Party, known as 
the General Electric group or cell of the Communist Party, made up 
of members employed at the plant? That is the General Electric 
plant where you were employed. 

Mrs. Sykes. Do you mean should I have known them through the 
company or through the miion ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am asking you if you knew whether there was such 
an organization. 

(The witness confers Avith her comisel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I didn't know of it. 

Mr. Tan^nner. You didn't know of any such organization ? 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of any ^oup of employees at 
the General Electric plant organized as a unit of the Communist 
Party ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I shall decline to answer that on the 1st and 5th amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Kearney. Just a minute. How does the witness reconcile her 
previous statement that she didn't know of any Communist cell in the 
General Electric Co. and now she declines to answer ? 

Mr. Tavenner. It is vei-y difficult for me to understand. 

JVIiss RoRABACK. Possibly her confusion is as to questions. I 
thought they were two separate questions. 

Mr. Kearney. Then let us clear it up. After all, the statements 
are so contradictory to each other, it doesn't make sense. 

Mr. TAVENNEit. Let me put it more directly to you. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party at any time while you 
were employed at the General Electric plant ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with a person by the name of 
Josephine Willard? 

Mrs. Sykes. I also decline to answer that on the first and fifth 
amendments. 



186 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Now I told you I would try to refresh your recollec- 
tion when you said you could not remember about an organized group 
of the Communist Party at the General Electric plant. 

Is it not true that Josephine Willard, while chairman of the City 
Committee of the Communist Party, was also the head of a Communist 
Party group at General Electric ? Is that not true ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I also decline to answer it on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were acquainted with Josephine Willard, 
were you not ? 

Mrs. Stkes. I also decline to answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know that she was one of the principal leaders 
of the Communist Party in the Bridgeport area ; do you not? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still decline to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Kearney. Are you a member of the Communist Party at the 
present time ? 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Kearney. What ? 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Kearney. You are not at present ? 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
your employment terminated at General Electric ? 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time between 1952 and 1954 ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I decline to answer that also. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you terminate your membership in the Com- 
munist Party before you left the employ of the General Electric Co. ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I decline to answer that on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me see if I can further refresh your recollec- 
tion about happenings at the General Electric plant. 

The committee is informed that there were two large meetings of 
leaders of the Communist Party, conducted by Martha Stone, a func- 
tionary of the Communist Party on a national level, and that these 
meetings were held in Bridgeport in 1953. 

Did you attend either of those meetings ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did not. 

Did Josephine Willard transmit to you at the General Electric 
plant the policy decisions that were made at either of those two 
meetings ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. No ; she didn't, 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she transmit those policy decisions to the cell 
generally in General Electric ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I refuse to answer that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 187 

Mr. Tavenner. You refuse to answer. You say she did not give 
those directions to you, but you will not answer as to whether or not 
she gave the directions to the cell at General Electric? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why do you refuse to answer? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Stkes. Because of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You feel that to answer that question might tend 
to incriminate you? Is that what you honestly feel? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not true that you learned of those policy de- 
cisions that had been made on the national level while you were em- 
ployed at General Electric ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still decline to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. You decline to answer on what grounds? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. On the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. TA%rENNER. During the course of this investigation, the com- 
mittee has learned that, at about this period in 1953, it became ap- 
parent that the Communist Party was taking a position in opposition 
to the UE at the Bridgeport plant. Do you know why that was, if it 
is true ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You decline to answer ? 

Is it not a fact that the policy was handed down from the national 
level of the Communist Party that the Communist Party members at 
the General Electric plant were not to openlj^ support the UE ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't that true ? 

Can you assign to this committee any reason why the Communist 
Party should change or alter its policy in this regard ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it not because the UE" was under severe attack 
as a Communist-controlled union, and it was believed that the Com- 
munists would have greater difficulty working within that union be- 
cause of what they termed to be "redbaiting" ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still decline to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you and other persons working at the General 
Electric plant given Communist Party direction to infiltrate the lUE 
and work there quietly ? Weren't you given that direction ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I decline to answer that on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Assuming that this information is correct, that 
there was this change in policy on the part of the Communist Party 
as to the UE in the Bridgeport plant, do you know whether there was 
a similar change in policy in the Communist Party at any other place ? 

I\Irs. Sykes. I still decline to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 



188 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you learn, while an employee at the General 
Electric plant, what the purpose of the Communist Party was in con- 
centrating its efforts in the unions having contracts with that plant? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Actually both unions have contracts with that plant, 
have they not, at the same time ? Both are there today, both the UE 
andthelUE? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I think so, yes. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. The UE has the contract in the part called the 
powerhouse or the powerplant of General Electric. That is true; is 
it not? 

Mrs. Sykes. I don't know what department they are in. 

Mr. Tavenner. And the lUE, of which you were a member when 
your employment ceased, had the contract in the production phase 
of the work of General Electric. That is true; is it not? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. While you were employed at the General Electric 
plant, did you attend closed meetings of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I decline to answer on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you active in the raising of funds for use by 
the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Sykes. I decline to answer that on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Is it not a fact that in 1953 you made a pledge of at 
least $100 and, at the time that you made the pledge, you paid at least 
$50 of it in cash to Josephine Willard in your home? 

Mi's. Sykes. I still decline to answer that on the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Is it not a fact that that fund drive, and the money 
which you donated to it, was to be used for two principal purposes : 
One, by the Daily Worker of the Communist Partj' and, the other, for 
assistance in underground work of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still decline to answer that on the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not a regular contributor to the sustaining 
fund of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still decline to answer that on the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Kearney. Are you now a contributor to the sustaining fund of 
the Communist Party ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr, Tavenner. Now you have refused to answer the question as to 
whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party between 
1952 and 1954, and you said you were not a member of the Communist 
Party when you left the employment at General Electric. 

Will you refresh my mind, please, as to when you left the employ- 
ment of the General Electric? You stated it, but I did not clearly 
hear it. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. When I got laid off ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 189 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Sykes. This last time ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Sykes. February 13. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Of what year? 

Mrs. Sykes. 1957. 

Mr. Tavenner. 1957. I don't believe you stated that. I prob- 
ably 

Mrs. Sykes. You did not ask me. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said you were not a member of the Commu- 
nist Party on the day that your employment terminated ? 

Mrs. Sykes. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party the 
day before ? 

(The witness confers with her coimsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Ta-\t2nner. Then it is apparent, is it not, that you severed your 
connection with the Communist Party when you left your employment 
at General Electric? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still refuse to answer that on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you attended any meetings of the Communist 
Party since February 13^ 1957? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\Miat was the last date on which you did attend 
a Communist Party meeting? 

Mrs. Sykes. I refuse to answer that on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Tavenner. It has been ascertained by the committee, during 
the course of this investigation, that the leadership in the Communist 
Party directed the Communist Party members to help out in the de- 
fense of those being tried under the Smith Act as alleged members 
of the Communist Party who were brought to trial under the Smith 
Act. 

Did you receive any such direction ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still refuse to answer that on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Tavenner. It has come to the committee's attention that that 
assistance which was demanded of the membership consisted of a 
number of things, such as the sending of telegrams to the President 
of the United States; the signing of petitions addressed to Judge 
Medina; the writing of letters to the local press and other papers at- 
tacking the prosecution ; and the influencing of, as far as the members 
could, organizations to which they belonged. 

Did you engage in any of that type of activity ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still refuse to answer. 

Mr. Kearney. You what? 

Miss RoRABACK. Mr. Chairman, I wonder if the photogi'aphers 
could stop the taking of pictures while this is going on. It is throw- 
ing Mrs. Sykes off. 

Mr. KJEARNEY. I did not hear that answer. 

89457— 57— pt 3 3 



190 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Willis. She declined. 

Mr. Tavenner. On what grounds do you refuse to answer ? Wliat 
is your reason for refusing to answer ? 

Mrs. Sykes, On the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you honestly believe that to answer that ques- 
tion might tend to incriminate you? 

Mrs. Sykjes. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of the first page of 
the June 22, 1949, issue of the Daily Worker. In bold type across the 
top of the page is: "Unionists Call Conference on Medina's Jai lings." 

Then, bracketed in a square, is a heading : "Chicago Negro GOP, 
Demo (meaning Democratic) AVomen Protest the Jailing of Gil 
Green." 

Does that refresh your recollection as to any part that you played 
in that? 

Mrs. Sykes. I refuse to answer that on the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me hand you the document, and ask you to read 
the second paragraph appearing in the blocked-otf space. 

( The witness examines document. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read that paragraph aloud, please ? 

Mrs. Sykes. Where it starts my name ? 

Mr. Ta\'t:nner. Yes. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I refuse to. 

Mr. Tavenner. You refuse to read it ? 

Mrs. Sykes. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, it can't incriminate you to read it. I am not 
asking you yet whether it is true or not. I am just asking you to 
read it. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes (reading) : 

Mrs. Mattie Sykes, Negro, declared I am a Democrat — 

What is that? 

Mr. Tavenner. Read the rest of it. 
Mrs. Sykes. Wliat is that ? 
]\Iiss RoRABACK. Prcciuct. 
Mrs. Sykes (reading) : 

precinct captain, but I believe in right of Communists to defend themselves. 
Urge you give Gilbert Green the freedom to defend his democratic rights. I am 
opposed to your action jailing him. 

Mr. Tavenner. You didn't write that, did you ? 

Mrs. Sykes. No ; I didn't write it. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Who wrote it for you ? 

(There was no response.) 

Mr. Ta\tnner. Who wrote it for you ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I refuse to answer that on the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. You permitted it to be written in your name, 
didn't you ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Tax'enner. Actually you were doing just what the Communist 
Party asked you to do, namely, to engage in a propaganda campaign 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN,, AREA 191 

ill behalf of the interests of the Communist Party in permitting this 
to be done, were you not ? 

Mi*s. Sykes. I still refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\'\1io was it that came to you to make the arrange- 
ment to put this in the paper, in the Daily Worker, over your name? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still refuse to answer that on the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. T^^lat other activities of a similar character did 
you engage in ? Did you send telegrams, too ? 

Mrs. Sykes. I still decline to answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you go to other organizations of which you 
were a member and try to influence them to support the Communist 
Party position in that trial? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Sykes. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I believe that is all I desire to ask 
the witness. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Kearney ? 

Mr. Kearney. No questions. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss Verne Weed. Come forward, please. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Miss Weed. I do. 

I would appreciate no pictures or TV. 

TESTIMONY OF VERNE WEED, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
DAVID SCRIBNER 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please? 

Miss Weed. Verne Weed. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. 

Mr. Willis. How do you spell the name ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your name for the record? 

Miss Weed. W-e-e-d. 

Mr. Tavenner. And what is the spelling of your first name? 

Miss Weed. Verne, V-e-r-n-e. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Will counsel please identify himself. 

Mr. ScRiBNER. David Scribner, S-c-r-i-b-n-e-r, 9 East 40th Street, 
New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss Weed, will you tell the committee, please, what 
your present occupation or employment is ? 

Miss Weed. I am a doctoral student at the New York School of 
Social Work. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Are you a native of the area, of this general area 
3f the State of Connecticut? 

Miss Weed. No: I have lived here 15 years. I moved in the summer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born ? 

^liss Weed. In Columbus, Ind. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Connecticut? 

Miss Weed. I lived here 15 years. 



192 COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. ^^Hiere have you lived in Connecticut? 

Miss Weed. I Jived in Avon and in the Hartford area — Avon, 
Granby, and Hartford. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that considered, generally, as the Hartford area ? 

Miss Weed. Yes. 

Mr. Ta'S'enner. Over how long a period of time did you live there? 

Miss Weed. In the Hartford area ? 

Mr. Ta^tinner. Yes. 

Miss Weed, 15 years. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. When did you leave Hartford? 

Miss Weed. The middle of August. 

Mr. Taa^nner. 1956 ? 

Miss Weed. That is right. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Will you tell the committee briefly Avhat your 
formal educational training has been? 

Miss Weed. I have a master's degree from the School of Social 
Work, and I 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you receive your degree? 

Miss Weed. From the New York School of Social Work. 

Mr. Tavenner. The same place where you are attending school 
now? 

Miss Weed. That is right; where I am doing my doctoral work. 
And prior to that I graduated from the University of Colorado. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\^Tien did vou graduate from Colorado? 

Miss Weed. 1930 ; June of 1930. 

Mr, Tavenner. Do you recall the existence on the cam]:>us at Colo- 
rado University at that time, at the time you were there, of an or- 
ganized group of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Weed. No, 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not. 

The committee has recently held hearings, or within the past year, 
in Denver. And there was an organized group of the Communist 
Party there, though I am unable to recall the exact date, in which stu- 
dents were induced to leave college and enter industry to become Com- 
munist Party leaders in industry, or, that is. in labor organizations 
working in industry. 

Do you have any knowledge or know anything about that? 

Miss Weed. I went to college and went into social work. 

Mr. Tavenner. That would not bar you from having knowledge 
of that, certainlv, in itself. 

Miss Weed. Well, I don't. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. All right. What has been your employment since 
arriving in Connecticut ? 

Miss Weed. I worked for the Children's Services of Connecticut. 

Mr. Willis. ^Yh?lt year was that? 

Miss Weed. I came in 1940, in the fall of 1940, as a supervisor, and 
I had various supervisory positions there, and then was the assistant 
executive director for a number of years. Before I resigned, my work 
was responsible for the foster home and adoption part of the service 
under the executive, and for community work related to improving 
services to children. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Was that a statewide organization ? 

Miss Weed. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 193 

Mr. Tavennek. AVill you describe your duties a little more fully, 
please ? 

Miss Weed. Well, as I say, the agency has foster home, adoption, 
and institutional services. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the "foster home'" ? Does it go by a name ? 

Miss Weed. It means placing children in foster homes. 

Mr. TA^^:NXER. I see. 

Miss Weed. Who probably will be going back to their own families. 
And then an adoption program for cliildreu who will not be going back 
to their own families. And we also had an institutional program. 

Mr. TA^^;NXEK. AVhat was y^our responsibility? 

Miss Weed. My responsibility was for the foster home and adop- 
tion part of the agency services to the executive director. People 
worked under me who were making 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. You would make decisions as to what homes should 
receive what children ? 

Miss Weed. Yes; placing the children, working with the parents 
around, reestablishing the home around their decision as to whether 
or not they could reestablish a home, and what was the best plan for 
the child. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat was the Children's Village ? 

Miss Weed. That is the institutional part of the agency service. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Did you have any connection with that ? 

Miss Weed. My responsibility was for the foster home and adop- 
tion part of the service. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any responsibility in connection with 
the Children's Village? 

Miss Weed. I worked in there as a caseworker for a short period of 
time. 

Mr. Taat:nner. During what period of time ? 

Miss Weed. I think it was around 1951, maybe. We were short- 
staffed. So I went into it on an emergency basis to work directly with 
the children. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not 
in 1954 there was a group organized in Hartford known as the Con- 
necticut Volunteers for Civil Eights ? 

Miss Weed. Given the nature of this hearing, that is the kind of 
question I want to claim the fifth amendment on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you speak in a very general way about it. 

Miss Weed. I have done what I could for peace. That specific 
question I would claim the fifth amendment on. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Was the peace effort in any way connected with the 
Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Eights? 

Miss Weed. Well, I think I will say the same, that civil rights is 
something I am interested in as a general subject in terms that I 
would 

Mr. Tavenner. What does this peace matter that you spoke of have 
to do with the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Eights? 

Miss Weed. To get back to your question 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. No. I want to get baclv to your answer. 

Miss Weed. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the connection? 

Miss Weed. I misunderstood your question. 



194 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Oh. Well, all right. 

Mr. Willis. Will you pursue that a little bit. 

You said that took place in 1934, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Tavenner. 1954. 

Mr. Willis. I mean 1954. 

Mr. Tavenner. 1954, yes. 

Actually you were the local head of that chapter or organization, 
were you not, known as the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Eights? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were also head of the local group in the peace 
matter that you just spoke of, were you not? 

Miss Weed. Well, I will repeat again, I did what I could for peace. 
In terms of that particular question, given the kind of hearing this is, 
I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Kearney. What do you mean "the kind of hearing this is"? 

Miss Weed. You want to know my opinion ? 

I was subpenaed here. I was brought here. 

Mr. Kearney. That is right. You are here under subpena. 

Miss Weed. And I consider it an undemocratic committee inquir- 
ing into the area of opinions, ideas. 

Mr. Kearney. I have heard that line before. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of this peace organization that 
you said you got confused, or you misunderstood my question, and 
you started to answer? ^Vliat was the name of that organization? 

Miss Weed. I thought you had said — Whatever organization you 
said. I didn't catch it. I'm sorry. 

Mr. Tavenner. What organization was it that you had reference 
to? 

Miss Weed. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't know? Well, now, what was in your 
mind ? 

Miss Weed. I know — No, I can't 

Mr. Tavenner. You said that you endeavored to do wliat you could 
for peace when you thought I was asking you about your work in an 
organization. I want to know what organization it was you had in 
mind. 

Miss Weed. I am not able to say. I have no organization in mind. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are not able to say ? Wasn't it the Connecticut 
Peace Crusade that you had in mind ? 

Miss Weed. I just misunderstood you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not have it in mind? Or the American 
Peace Crusade ? 

Miss Weed. I had nothing in mind that I can put my finger on at 
this point. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you were at the head of the American Peace 
Crusade chapter at Hartford, were you not? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. I^arney. You understood that question all right. 

Miss Weed. He asked that clearly. What was in my mind 2 min- 
utes ago is something else. I can't remember what was in my mind 
when I misunderstood the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. You can't remember what was in your miud 2 
minutes ago? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 195 

Mr. ScRiBNER. It has happened to me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what the pur- 
pose of the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights was, if you know ? 

Miss Weed. Given the kind of hearing this is, I claim the fifth 
amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. There wasn't any secret about it, was there? 

Miss Weed. The same. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't the work of that organization done openly 
in the conmiunity of Hartford ? 

Miss Weed. Again, if this were a general discussion — not this kind 
of inquisitorial questioning about an organization — it would be a 
different question. In terms of this committee 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Wasn't that organization formed simultaneously 
at Bridgeport, Hartford, and New Haven in September of 1954? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it not the purpose of that organization to col- 
lect funds for the Smith Act case that was pending in the local 
courts here? 

Miss Weed. Again, I am in a general way for civil liberties. In 
terms of tying down answers to specific organizations which this 
committee — not necessarily I — have questions about, I assert the fifth 
amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, when you talk about the questions that this 
committee may have about it, we are trying to ascertain the facts 
regarding this organization. You are in a position, we believe, by 
which you could give this committee facts in regard to it, and that 
is what we are asking you to do. 

Mr. Willis. Do you believe that if you answered these questions 
you would be supplying information that might tend to incriminate 
you or to subject you to criminal prosecution ? 

Miss Weed. It might in terms of the witch-hunt kind of atmosphere 
that gets stirred up. 

Mr. Willis. I won't accept that answer, and you are bordering on 
contempt there. 

Let me make this statement, and you are represented by counsel. 
You have a perfect right to invoke the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment if you believe tliat the answer might tend to incriminate you or 
might supply information which could be used against you in a 
ci'iminal prosecution. You have that right. We respect it and we 
wouldn't have it otherwise. But, in order to invoke it, you must be 
honest. You must not be facetious ov contemptuous of a committee 
of the Congress by tying in your fear witli witch hunting and so forth. 

Now plead it, but don't hedge. That is my last admonition to you 
on the subject. 

Now I ask you again: Is the reason for your failure to answer 
these questions an honest fear 

Miss Weed, Yes. 

Mr. Willis. That you might be supplying information that would 
subject you to criminal proceedings? 

Miss Weed. Yes; that I might lay myself open to unfounded 
prosecution. 

Mr. Willis. To unfounded pi'osecution ? Is tliat the way you want 
to leave the record ? 



196 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

]Miss Weed. Let me confer. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Weed. Well, I am nsing the fifth amendment privilege here — 
and I wanted to say this a number of times — in the sense for which it 
was intended, as a protection to the innocent. I am not taking this 
on the basis that I think every time I take the fifth amendment priv- 
ilege that means that really is true, but I don't want to say it. I am 
taking it in that sense; that is, it is a protection to the innocent, and 
I am very grateful for it. 

Mr. Willis. We are all proud of it. But, unfortunately, it is a 
refuge for the guilty sometimes. 

Miss Weed. I take it as a protection for the innocent. 

Mr. Willis. Now, about the formation of this organization, do 
you know whether, simultaneously or about the same time — what is 
the name of that organization ? 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights. 

Mr. Willis. Tlie Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights sprang 
lip, mushroomed here in 1954? Do you know whether that 

Miss Weed. I claim tlie fiftli amendment privilege. 

Mr. WiLT>is. Do you know whether that organization came into 
being? 

Miss Weed. I clahn the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Willis. Do you know that the real genesis, the real crux, the 
lieart, the purpose of it was an inspiration by the Communists to band 
their members together to raise funds and to create a hullabaloo in 
connection with the contemplated Smith Act trials? Do you know 
that? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Willis. Because our information so indicates. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not also a fact that another purpose of the 
Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights was to conduct a campaign 
in the community to depreciate what the Communists called "con- 
gressional witch hunts." Wasn't that another purpose of that organi- 
zation ? 

]\Iiss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. TA^^EiSrNER. Do you know whether the leadership in the Com- 
munist Party gave a direction to its members to become active in that 
organization ? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Do you know whether Sam Richter was one of the 
leading personalities in the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Sam Richter? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Do you know whether Joe Barnes was another 
jn'omoter of the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights ? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege; and in addition, 
I certainly wouldn't want to subject anyone to harassment through 
my mentioning their name. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. You wouldn't be subjecting him to harassment. He 
has been here before this committee. He has had an opportunity to 
testify. He has refused to do so. You are not subjecting him to 
harassment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 197 

Now will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Kearney. I might say to the witness, Mr. Counsel, he tried 
to subject the committee to harassment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think the record shows that. 

Mr. Kearney. But he didn't get away with it. 

Miss Weed. My chief reason, I said, was I claim the fifth amend- 
ment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Joe Barnes? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Do you know whether Jake Goldring 

Miss Weed. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was also one of those leading personalities in the 
establishment of this organization? 

Miss Weed. Same answer. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Will you tell the committee, please, at the time 
that you were employed in the Children's Services that you described, 
and taking responsibility for the supervising of the placing of foster 
children, during that period of time did you secretly attend Com- 
munist Party meetings in New Haven ? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege for the purpose 
for which it was intended originally — protection of the innocent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you familiar with the address of 37 Howe 
Street, New Haven? 

Miss Weed. What did you have in mind ? That doesn't ring a bell 
offhand. I don't remember streets. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where 37 Howe Street is? 

Miss Weed. I can't say that I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. If I were to refresh your recollection and tell you 
that it was the headquarters of the Communist Party, would your 
mind be refreshed ? 

Miss Weed. I would claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend in 1953, in January 1953, a Com- 
munist Party fund meeting held at 37 Howe Street, New Haven ? 

Miss Weed. Again, given the nature of this hearing, I claim the 
fifth amendment privilege, and for the purpose for which it was 
intended — protecting the innocent. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest, after the admonition 
you have given to the witness as to her present statements about har- 
assment before answering the question, and in view of the aims and 
views of this committee, I ask you to direct the witness to answer 
this question. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer that last question. 

Miss Weed. What question ? 

Mr. Willis. Repeat it. 

(Whereupon, the record was read by the reporter as follows: 

"Did you attend in 1953, in January i953, a Communist Party fund 
meeting held at 37 Howe Street, New Haven?") 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Kearney. The reason I ask that, Mr. Chairman, is, if I remem- 
ber correctly, it was only a few seconds ago she didn't know where 
37 Howe Street was. 

89457— 57— pt. 3 4 



198 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Willis. Well, it is an odd situation, but apparently she is 
unwilling to 

Miss Weed. Perhaps some people remember streets better than I do. 

Mr. Tavennek. Well, let me put the question in anotlier way. 

Did you attend, in January 1958, a Communist Party fund meeting: 
in New Haven? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend a Communist Party fund meeting 
in New Haven at any time? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time that you held the responsible position 
in the Children's Services, did you secretly attend meetings of Freedom 
of the press? 

Miss Weed. The same answer. 

Mr. TA^^i:NNER. Held in New Haven ? 

Now will you answer that ? 

Miss Weed. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. During this same period of time, when you held this 
position, did you secretly attend statewide meetings of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Miss Weed. Same answer. 

Mr. TA^^:^^NER. In New Haven? 

Miss Weed. Same answer. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. Or let me put it this way : Did j^ou attend an^ 
Commmiist Party meetings in New Haven while you held this posi- 
tion with the Children's Services? 

Miss Weed, Same answer. 

Mr. Wiixis. I think, for the record, you had better clarify the 
Freedom of the Press organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with the organization Freedom 
of the Press ? 

]\Iiss Weed. The same answer 

Mr. Willis. That is a great institution here in America. 

Mr. Kearney. Do any local reporters or editors of various news- 
papers in this area belong to that organization? 

Miss Weed. Same answer. 

Mr. Kearney. I thought so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tliis was the branch of the work of the Commu- 
nist Party, of course, which dealt with support of the Communist 
publications. 

Did you ever make a contribution to any of the publications of the 
Communist Party through Freedom of the Press ? 

Miss Weed. Same answer. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Keaeney. Was your Freedom of the Press organization di- 
rected solely toward contributions to the Daily Worker ? 

Miss AVeed. Same answer. 

Mr. Kearney. Was it directed to any other newspaper ? 

Miss Weed. Same answer. 

]VIr. Kearney. If it was not directed to any other newspaper, would 
you so inform the committee ? 

Miss Weed. I don't understand that question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 199 

Mr. Kearney. If your efforts were not directed to any other news- 
paper besides the Daily Worker, would you inform this committee to 
that effect? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Weed. I don't understand the question at all. 

Mr. Kearney. You are a college graduate, ma'am, and I thought I 
made myself perfectly clear. You said the Freedom of the Press, this 
organization known as the Freedom of the Press, directed its interests 
to the press. Is that correct ? 

Miss Weed. That is a confusion. I did not say that. 

Mr. Kearney. What did you say ? 

Miss Weed. Counsel said that. I don't know — there was some such 
question. 

Mr. Kearney. Let's refer back and see what she said. 

Miss Weed. I said the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Kearney. That is right. That is what I was getting at. You 
took the fifth amendment privilege. 

Miss Weed. I didn't say what he said. 

Mr. Kearney. And then, when I asked you if it was directed toward 
the Daily Worker, you also declined to answer. 

Miss Weed. That is right. 

Mr. Kearney. Now I ask you again, was it directed to any other 
newspaper in this locality or in the State of Connecticut ? 

( The witness confers with her counsel. ) 

Miss Weed, I feel I will have to use the fifth amendment privilege 
on that. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. At the time that you held this responsible position 
with Children's Services, were 3'Ou under the discipline of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Miss Weed. Fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Kearney. If you were not under discipline of the Communist 
Party at that time, would you so tell this committee ? 

Miss Weed. I would use the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr, TAy'ENNER. Mr, Chairman, I believe that is all I desire to ask. 
But I would like to ask the witness to remain. A little later, I may 
want to ask another question or two. 

Mr. WiEos. The witness will remain under subpena. 

Do you want to take a 5-minute recess ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Miss Weed. May I go out for a few minutes ? 

Mr. Ta%t:nner. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will take a 5-minute informal recess. 

(Whereupon, a short recess was taken.) 

(Committee members present : Representatives Willis and Kearney.) 

(The committee was reconvened at the expiration of the recess. 
Committee members present: Representatives Willis and Kearney.) 

Mr. Wn.Lis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr, Tavenner. T would like to call Miss Verne Weed. 

Miss Weed, were you present in the liearing room, this same room 
that we are in now, on September 26, 1956, at which time Miss Rowena 
R. Paumi was a witness ? 

Miss Weed. No. 



200 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. At that time, she identified you as a person known to 
her as a member of the Communist Party. You learned of that fact, 
did you not, even if you Avere not here ? 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. That couldn't possibly incriminate you, to answer 
the question whether or not you learned after her testimony that she 
had identified you as a member of the Communist Party. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Weed. I claim the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. You claim the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Well, I will order her to answer that question. It is not 
incriminatory. It is very vital, obviously, to what the succeeding 
questions are going to be. She herself used the words about this com- 
mittee, about witch hunting and so on. And the next line of the 
witnesses is to say that we have information unrevealed to them and, 
therefore, they can't defend themselves. 

He is simply asking you did you learn. If you didn't learn say 
"No." If you learned say "Yes." 

The witness he has referred to, under oath, under the pains and 
penalties of perjury, just like you are, laid it on the line and swore 
that you were, or had been, a member of the Communist Party. 

The question is : Did you learn that she had so stated ? 

Mr. ScRiBNER. The witness is being directed to answer that ques- 
tion? 

Mr. Willis. Yes ; I have ordered her to answer that question. 

( The witness confers with her counsel. ) 

Miss Weed. I heard that she had said something like that in con- 
nection with the publicity that was given the trial in New Haven 
a year ago. In terms of 

Mr. Willis. You are not being asked about this trial. This is no 
trap question. 

Miss Weed. In terms of this recent thing, I don't know. 

Mr. Taat;nner. You didn't know ? But you did know that in the 
trial of the Smith Act cases she had so testified there ? 

Miss Webd. Publicity ; yes. It was in the paper. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Well, in fact, right after she so testified in that 
case, you went before the executive committee of the Children's Serv- 
ices, did you not ? 

Miss Weed. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. There you denied any participation in Communist 
Party activities, didn't you ? 

Miss Weed. Fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Taatnner. You also denied to your committee that you had 
attended any closed meetings of the Communist Party, didn't you ? 

Miss Weed. Fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. You weren't under oath then, were you ? 

(There was no response.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You weren't under oath, were you ? 

Miss Weed. Just a minute. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Weed. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. No; you weren't under oath when you denied it. 
Would you deny it under oath before any group authorized to take 
an oath at this time ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 201 

Miss Weed. That seems to me academic. In terms of this <(tm- 
mittee, I would assert the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. I^ARNEY. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. The question was whether she would deny it before 
any authority capable of administering an oath ? 

Mr. Kearney. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer that question. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Weed. Well, it still seems to me completely hypotlieticul. 

Mr. Kearney. I am not interested in what it seems to you. 

Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct her to answer. 

Miss Weed. The fifth amendment privilege then. 

Mr. I^ARNEY. That was a fine little speech you j ust made. 

Did this statement that you made not under oath appear in any of 
the local newspapers in this area ? 

Miss Weed. I believe a part of a board report appeared from the 
board of directors. Just what was in that, I can't recall. 

Mr. Kearney. I show you the Hartford Courant under date of 
Tuesday morning, April 17, 1956, and call your attention to this pic- 
ture, and ask you if that is your picture. 

(The witness examines document.) 

Miss Weed. Yes, it looks like me. 

Mr. Kearney. Is that the statement that you gave to the press not 
under oath at that time ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Weed. This is a release from the agency. It is not a statement 
from me to the press. 

Mr. Kearney. What is that ? 

Miss Weed. This is a statement from the agency to the press ; not 
from me to the press. I made no statement to the press at that time. 

Mr. Kearney. How did the agency get the statement to release to 
the press? Did you have anything to do with formulating that 
statement ? 

Miss Weed. This is the agency statement that I Avas resigning my 
position. 

Mr. Kearney. Why did you resign your position ? 

Miss Weed. In order to take further professional training. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you resign your position because they found 
that you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Weed. I resigned it to take further professional training. 

Mr. Kearney. I asked you, Did you resign your position because 
they learned that you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Weed. No. 

Mr. Kearney. Now I give you a chance to state under oath whether 
or not you are now, or ever have been, a member of tlie Communist 
Party. 

Miss Weed. Fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Kearney. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Were you acquainted with Sid Taylor ? 

Miss Weed. Fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. How well were you acquainted with Robert Ekins? 



202 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Miss Weed. Fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tav-ennee. Did you know Jim Tate? 

Miss Weed. Fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Joe Demow ? 

Miss Weed. Same answer. 

Mr. Tamsnnek. Did you attend a meeting of the Freedom of the 
Press on Bushy Hill Road at Granby, Conn. ? 

Miss Weed. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. WiLEis. Any questions, Mr. Kearney ? 

Mr. Kearney. Yes; I have, Mr. Chairman. It is concerning this 
portion of the story in the Hartford Courant under date of April 17, 
1956. The headline is: "Miss Weed Resigns Post with Children's 
Services." That is the paper that I just had counsel show you, where 
you identified the picture in the paper as being your picture. 

One portion of this story, you said, was released by your executive 
conmiittee. Is that right ? 

Miss Weed. I didn't read the story. So I would have to read this to 
see what exactly is quoted in it. 

Mr. Kearney. All right. Did you give any story to the papers ? 

Jkliss Weed. No. 

Mr. Kearney. Then I ask you this : 

Of course, as I say, this stoiy was not released under oath. 

Later, before the executive committee of Cliildren's Services, Miss Weed denied 
any participation in Communist Party activities. She also said she had not 
attended any closed meetings of the party. 

Is that true or not true ? 

Miss Weed. Well, I assert the fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Kearney. That is all. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, may I ask one other question. 

Our investigation shows that Stanley Michalowski is a resident of 
Hartford, Conn. Hoav well acquainted are you with Mr. Michalow- 
ski? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Weed. There is just a faint bell that rings to me. That is all. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is released. 

Will you call your next witness, Mr. Tavemier. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Harold Rogers. 

Mr. AViLLis. Will you please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you axe about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you, God ? 

Mr. Rogers. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HAROLD L. ROGERS 

Mr. Tavenner. You are Mr. Harold Rogers? 

Mr. Rogers. Correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are not accompanied by counsel. 
The committee follows the practice of advising every witness that he 
is entitled to have counsel with him if he desires. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 203 

Mr. EoGEKS. That I understand very well. 

Mr. TA^^iNNER. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Rogers. Charlotte, N. C, January 9, 1918. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Connecticut? 

Mr. Rogers. Well, I have lived tliree-fifths of my life in — I mean 
in North Carolina. And two-fifths — 15 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. You came here 15 years ago? 

Mr. Rogers. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere have you lived during that 15-year period ? 
That is, in what commmiity ? 

Mr. Rogers. I lived in Success Park. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that at 

Mr. Rogers. Bridgeport. 

Mr. TA^^^NNER. Have you lived there the entire period you have 
lived in Connecticut? 

Mr. Rogers. No. I have lived in other places. I lived there about 

13 years, 14 years. And I live now on Bunnell Street. 
Mr. Tavenner. But in the same general area ? 

Mr. Rogers. That is right. 

]Mr. Ta^'enner. That of Bridgeport ? 

Mr. Rogers. That is right. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Will you tell us, please, how you have been em 
ployed since you have been in Bridgeport ? 

Mr. Rogers. Well, the employment situation has been pretty rough 
according to a man with my specifications and qualifications. I have 
2 years of college, and I am rinding adequate employment has been 
a problem for me, up until lately. Things are changing now gradually. 
And, of course, I am a mechanic by trade, and have done mechanic 
Avork in different organizations and different trucking concerns. And 
tlie last job, I worked at Singer Sewing Machine Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you work there ? 

Mr. Rogers. Three years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your employment began in what year then? 

Mr. Rogers. In 1954. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to 1954, how were you employed? 

Mr. Rogers. Well, I was on the job training; the longest I was on 
the job training at garage woi"k. doing mechanical work. 

Mr. Taa-enner. For whom did you work? 

Mr. Rogers. Chris Tini, North Avenue, Bridgeport . 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. How long did you work there ? 

Mr. Rogers. About 4 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. That brings us back to 1950. How were you em- 
ployed prior to 1950? 

Mr. Rogers. Let me make a statement here about how long I had 
been in Bridgeport. I haven't been here quite 15 years. I would say 

14 years. I came here in 1943, see. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Now, prior to 1950, how were vou employed? 

Mr. Rogers. Prior to 1950? 

Mr. Taat:nner. Yes. You have taken us back to 1950, if I under- 
stood you correctly. You first said back to 1954 you worked for 
Singer. And from 1954 back to 1950 you worked in supervising this 
training of mechanics. 

Mr. Rogers. That is right. 



204 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, before 1950, where were you employed ? 

Mr. KoGERs. From 19 — Let me start it from the beginning. That 
is the best way to do. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Rogers. From 1943, I worked about 2 weeks out at AFCO; 
out at Chance- Vought. I only worked there 2 weeks. Then the next 
job I had— I think i went to work for the Bridgeport Aluminum Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you stay there ? 

Mr. Rogers. I stayed there probably a year and a half. 

Mr. Tavtenner. All right. And next ? 

Mr. Rogers. I worked for Lock Steel Chain Co. at Bridgeport. 
I stayed there about a year. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Rogers. Then from Lock Steel Chain I went to Associated 
Transportation. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you work there ? 

Mr. Rogers. I worked there a couple of years ; a year and a half or 
a couple of years. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. Next? 

Mr. Rogers. Bridgeport Rolling Mill. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you there ? 

Mr. Rogers. One year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any other employment between that 
time and the time you took your work in 1950 ? 

Mr. Rogers. I had no other employment. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right, sir. 

Were you present in the hearing room 

Mr. Rogers. At what time? 

Mr. Tavenner. On the 26th day of September 1956, when Miss 
Rowena R. Faumi was a witness here before the committee ? 

Mr. Rogers. No; I wasn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were not? 

Mr. Rogers. No. 

Mr. TA^^]NNER. Did you subsequently learn that she had identified 
you in her testimony ? 

Mr. Rogers. That I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rogers. I was never a member of the Communist Party then 
and at no time, to my knowledge, being a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend any meetings of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Rogers. Well, I wouldn't know because I don't have the nec- 
essary knowledge of what Communist Party meetings are really like. 
I have attended quite a few meetings of different origins, racial meet- 
ings, civil-rights meetings, and religious meetings as well. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you don't know whether you attended 
Communist Party meetings or not. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Rogers. That I don't. That I did say, yes. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Were you acquainted with Miss Paumi ? 

Mr. Rogers. Well, I have seen her. I saw her several times. But 
I am not what you say — might say, acquainted with her. 

IVIr. Tavennp:r. Did you attend any meetings at which she was 
present ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 205 

Mr. Rogers. I don't Iniow about any meetings, but I have been in 
quite a few outings that she was present. 

Mr. Tavenxeij. A few what? 

Mr. KoGERs, Outings like picnics, bazaars, and Avhat-not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Louise Zito ? 

Mr. Rogers. I probably have seen her. I couldn't say under oath 
that I do know her. I have seen her. "Where and when, that I don't 
know. But I know I have seen her some place. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Did you attend any meetings which were attended 
by Miss Paumi and Louise Zito? Can you remember them at the 
present time ? 

Mr. Rogers. The meetings I attended: there was a lot of people 
there. I don't remember any two particular persons. Probably 
chances are that the meetings I was at, they was there, the two were 
there at the same time. 

In my knowledge, they wasn't, under my knowledge, as being Com- 
munist meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. A^^at is your wife's name ? 

Mr. Rogers. Addie Rogers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Addie. 

Do you recall the holding of a Communist Party meeting in your 
home? 

Mr. Rogers. Communist Party meeting in my home ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Rogers. No, I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Composed of women? 

Mr. Rogers No, I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Any questions, Mr. Kearney? 

Mr. Kearney. No, I have no questions. 

Mr. Willis. That is all. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the next witness, I believe, will take 
considerable time. I don't know whether you want to start in before 
lunch or not. 

ISIr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess until 1 : 30. 

(Whereupon, at 11:45 a. m., the committee was recessed, to be 
reconvened at 1 : 30 p. m., this same day. Connnittee members present : 
Representatives Willis and Kearney.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1957 

(The subcommittee was reconvened at 1 : 30 o'clock p. m. Com- 
mittee members present: Representatives Willis and Kearney.) 

Mr. Willis. The subconnnittee will come to order. 

Counsel will call his next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Elsie Willcox. 

Will you come forward, please. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
wnll be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mrs. Willcox. I do. 

Could I request that there be no picture taking during my testimony. 

89457 — 57 — pt. 3 5 



206 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. ELSIE WILICOX, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOHN E. CUNEO 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. Elsie Willcox. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. CuNEO. John K. Cuneo, 91 Washington Street, South Norwalk, 
Conn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere do you live, Mrs. Willcox ? 

Mrs. Willcox. I live at 36 Dock Road, South Norv\-alk, Conn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived there all your life ? 

Mrs. Willcox. No. I moved there. We built our own home there 
in 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. 1950? 

Mrs. Willcox. The latter part of 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\^^^ere were you born ? 

Mrs. Willcox. I was born in Gary, Ind. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you move to Connecticut ? 

Mrs. Willcox. At the time we built our home is when I came. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1950? 

Mrs. Willcox. In 1950, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were not a resident of Connecticut prior to 
that time ? 

Mrs. Willcox. No, I was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your maiden name ? 

Mrs. Willcox. Elsie Van Bueren, B-u-e-r-e-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you are the executive secretary of the 
Connecticut Peace Crusade, are you not ? 

Mrs. Willcox. I decline to answer that question, respectfully, sir, 
on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Kearney. Do you feel by answering that question that your 
answer may give information that will tend to incriminate yourself 
in a criminal action ? 

Mrs. Willcox. I do, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Actually the Connecticut committee of the Peace 
Crusade was reorganized, was it not, some years ago, and it is now 
known as the Connecticut Peace Council ? Isn't that true ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willcox. I don't know what you mean by the Connecticut 
Peace Crusade. I am not familiar with that organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I was in a little doubt about that myself, and 
that is the reason I wanted to get these two organizations clearly 
defined. 

You have never been connected then with an organization known 
as the Peace Crusade, Connecticut Peace Crusade? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willcox. I am not familiar with that organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you are 

Mrs. Willcox. The name of that organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you are familiar with the organization known 
as the Connecticut Peace Council ? 



COA'IMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 207 

( The Avitness confers with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. WiLLcox. I am aware of the fact, sir, that such an organization 
existed. 

Mr. Tavenner. You helped organize it, didn't you ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Taatjnnek. The committee, from time to time, has made investi- 
gations of various peace crusade movements. In each instance, the 
testimony has developed that they were affiliated with the American 
Peace Crusade. 

The committee wanted at this time to interrogate a person who has, 
or probably still is holding, an official position in the Connecticut 
Peace Council to determine various facts relating to it. Now you 
are in a position to give the committee that information if it is true 
that you are now, or have recently been, its executive secretary. So 
I want to call on you to give the committee such facts as you have 
regarding it. For instance, how many chapters are there in the State 
of Connecticut of the Connecticut Peace Council ? 

Mrs. AViLLCox. Sir, I would like to state here that I am perfectly 
happy to cooperate with this committee on legislative functions as 
long as it doesn't violate my rights or in any way put me in jeopardy. 

Mr. Kearney. Then all you have to do is answer the questions. 

Mrs. "WiLLCOx. I believe I have already answered the question, that 
I decline to answer any questions relevant to that organization on the 
grounds I previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that because there is something inherently wrong 
with that organization which you believe might subject you to criminal 
prosecution m the event you admitted your official connection with it 'I 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I have already declined to answer any questions 
about that organization on the grounds of the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. But the committee is entitled to know whether 
you are basing your claim of immunity on a sound basis or whether 
you are just raising that objection as a whimsical objection to the 
answer. 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I believe that question was asked before by Mr. 
Kearney, and I answered the question. 

Mr. Willis. How did you answer it ? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. Well, phrase the question again that Mr. Kearney 
asked me. I believe I answered it. I answered that I refused to 
answer questions about this organization on the grounds of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. I think you know, and certainly your counsel does 
know, that in order to invoke the privilege of the "fifth amendment, 
a person must honestly fear or apprehend that to testif}^ or answer 
the question may lead to self-incrimination or to supplying informa- 
tion that might be used against that person in a criminal proceeding. 
And only a person so fearful, honestly fearful, is entitled to invoke 
the privileges of the fifth amendment. 

You have a right to invoke it. But we hnve a perfect right to test 
your sincerity and your honesty in its invocation. It cannot be in- 



208 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

voked facetiously or whimsically or capriciously. If that were so, 
then all proceedings could be stifled and the only thing a witness would 
have to say is "I just don't want to answer." 

Those questions are perfectly proper, not as to your right to invoke 
the fifth amendment, but to test whether you are lawfully invoking it. 
So the question is, I repeat: 

Do you refuse to answer the question ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. Mr. Chairman, a witness has testified about this 
organization. I think I am using my grounds in good faith when I 
refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth. And I might 
add that the Supreme Court has said about the fifth amendment, that 
it protects a person's conscience and their dignity, as well as their 
safety. 

Mr. Willis. What case is that? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I believe it was the Ullmann case. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Ullmann case involved the constitutionality of 
the Immunity Act and went to the Supreme Court, and the act was 
declared to be constitutional. And the defense that was raised in that 
case, that you could not compel the witness to answer, was not consid- 
ered a valid defense. 

Will you tell us how many chapters 

Mr. Willis. You started to answ^er the question, and you were on 
the right track in my opinion, just testing your honesty. You said 
you did not want to testify, to answer the question, because you said a 
witness testified about that organization. 

What do you mean by that ? 

Mrs. WiLLcox. I will stand on my previous answers, sir. I have 
answered the question, that I refuse to answer the questions about this 
organization on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. Did you mean that a w^itness testified under oath, under 
the pains and penalties of perjury if not telling the truth, that that 
organization was something less than American ? Or the objectives 
of it or at least the sponsors of that organization ? Is that what you 
had in mind ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I understand there was testimony about this organ- 
ization. I read about it in the newspapers. I do not know the full 
details of that testimony, and I believe I am sincerely invoking both 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. I will say this to you, that our record is replete with 
testimony along the lines you have indicated. Would you care to 
challenge that and say the testimony is true or false? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. In other words, would you care to give us your opinion 
of that organization, the Peace Crusade [Connecticut Peace Council] ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I am sorry. You are a laAvyer. I am just a layman. 
I am trying to understand these questions. 

Mr. Keakney. You ai-e represented by counsel. 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I know. 

Mr. Kearney. He can advise you. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLGox. Would you repeat the question, please? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 209 

Mr. WiLixs. I said tliat there has been much testimony directed 
against the Peace Crusade, painting it as, to say the least, un-American. 

I ask you now, do you know enough about it to say that that evidence 
is not true ? Or would you care to talk about it at all ? We would 
like to know all you know about it. 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. You are just asking me a question again about the 
Peace Council, and I have indicated previously that I am going to 
decline to answer that question for the reasons I have stated. 

Mr. Wnxis. Well, now, did you say whether vou were a member 
of it? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I said I am going to decline to answer that question 
about the organization as well as to give you information. 

Mr. Willis. Why do you decline to answer? 

Mrs. WiLLcox. On the grounds of the first and fifth amendments, 
sir. 

Mr. Keakxey. Would you be a member of any organization that 
has been cited, we will say, for instance, by the Attorney General of 
the United States as being disloyal to this country ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. As being what ? 

Mr. Kearney. Disloyal to this country. 

Mrs. AViLLCox. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Keakxey. Do I take it from j'our answer that you do not want 
to be known as a loyal American ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. Sir, I believe that invoking the rights of the fifth 
amendment is not an act of a disloyal citizen. 

Mr. I^arxey. All right. Then let me ask you this question : If you 
had any information concerning any organization in this country 
which had for its objectives, or was alined w^ith any organization 
which had for its objectives, the overthrow of our Government, wotdd 
you give that information to this committee ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. I am trying to understand what your question means. 

Mr. Kearxey. I stated it in simple language. 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I think the answer would be "Yes." 

Mr. Kearney. You think the answer would be "Yes" ? 

Mrs. WiLLcox. If I understand your question correctly, my answer 
would be "Yes." 

Mr. Kearxey. Give me your understanding of my question. If you 
are not correct, I will repeat it. 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. Maybe you could repeat the question for me, please. 

Mr. Kearxey. What is your understanding of my question? 

(The witness confers with her coimsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLcox. I believe what you asked me was that if any organi- 
zation was engaged in any criminal activity, that I would report it. 
I think my answer would be "Yes." I think chances are I would report 
it to the legal authorities, to the police rather than this conunittee. 

Mr. Kearney. You would not report it to this conunittee? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I didn't say I wouldn't, sir. I don't kiiow. 

Mr. Kearney. If you wouldn't — you mean by your prejudice 
against this committee ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. No : I didn't sav that, sir. 



210 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Kearney. If you had any information concerning any Com- 
munists in this country who were engaged in a conspiracy to overthrow 
our Government, would you report that to the proper officials, either 
the police or the FBI or any other organization even outside of this 
committee ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I am afraid I am going to have to decline to answer 
that question on the grounds of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, you are just a lot of talk. 

Mr. Willis. All right, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Willcox, did you in 1953 attend the United 
Nations as a peace delegate? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willcox. I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of an excerpt from 
the Daily Worker of March 6, 1953 (p. 8), entitled "Peace Delegates 
Bring Cease-Fire Plea to U. N.,'' and in the description of those who 
attended appears the name Mrs. Elsie Willcox, Connecticut Peace 
Council. 

Will you examine it, please, and state whether or not you are the 
person referred to in that article of the Daily Worker. 

(The witness examines document.) 

Mrs. Willcox. "Peace Delegates Bring Cease-Fire Plea to U. N."? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. You will see a name underscored with red. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willcox. I am not responsible for what goes in the Daily 
Worker, and I have already declined to answer that question about 
whether I was on that delegation, 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the Daily W^orker right in this instance? 

Mrs. Willcox. I have declined to answer the question when you 
put it to me previously. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Were you, on the date mentioned in 1953, a delegate 
from the Connecticut Peace Council to the United Nations ? 

Mrs. Willcox. It just seems to me you are asking me the same 
question again. And I give you the same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mentioned a few moments ago that there was 
some testimony relating to the Connecticut Peace Council ; that you 
had not read it ; you did not know exactly what it said. Let me read 
it to you. This is the testimony of Miss Paumi, taken before this 
committee on September 20, 1956, in this room. This question was 
asked her : 

Have you information as to any fronts whicli were controlled by the Communist 
Party during your experience in Connecticut? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. Tliey were the Civil Rights Congress, the Connecticut 
Peace Council — 

and then she goes on to describe other organizations — 

and also the recent one was the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Eights and the 
Connecticut Peace Council. 

Is that the testimony to which you referred ? 

Mrs. Willcox. I don't know, sir. I read just what I read in the 
newspaper, which referred to some testimony of hers. I assume 
that is it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 211 

Mr, Tavenner. Well, is there anything wrong about her testimony? 
Is there anything incorrect insofar as I read it to you ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. AViLLCOx. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Will you tell us, please, whether or not Lois Barnes 
was the head of the chapter of the Connecticut Peace Council at 
Bridgeport, Conn. ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I will not be a witness against other people, and I 
decline to answer that question on the grounds of the first and fifth. 

Mv. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Lois Barnes? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I have answered that question. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us whether or not Miss Verne Weed 
was the head of the chapter of the Connecticut Peace Council at 
Hartford? 

Mrs. Wii.LCOx. I will not be a witness against other people. I de- 
cline to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, in the light of the way the witness 
put the answer, I ask that she be directed to answer the question. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. WiLEis. I order and direct you to answer that question. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, sir. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Verne Weed? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I decline to answer, sir. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee whether Marge Schire 
was the head of the chapter at New Haven ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Marge Schire? 

]\Irs. WiLLCOx. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

^Ir. Tavenner. Was a person by the name of Duter, D-u-t-e-r, Hall 
the head of the chapter at Westport, Conn. ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

]\Irs. WiLLCox. The same answer, 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Are you acquainted with Duter Hall? 

Mrds. WiLLCox. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Between October 2 and October 8, 1952, there was a 
very important meeting known as the Asiatic-Pacific Conference of the 
World Peace Council at Peiping, China. The investigation of the 
committee has disclosed that consideration was being given to the send- 
ing of a delegate, or the sponsoring of a delegate, to that conference. 
Do you know anything about it ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLi.cox. Are you talking about October, sir, of 1952 ? 

Mr. Tavenner. October 2 to 8, 1952. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. When was this preparation supposed to be taking 
place, sir? In sending a delegate? Was it October 2 to 8, the time 
of the conference ? 



212 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. That was the time of the conference, yes. 

Mrs. WiLLcox. The preparation was sometime before that. Is that 
what you are talking about ? 

Mr. Tavenner. If you are going to send a delegate in time to get 
there it would have to have been before the 2d. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. The reason I am having problems with that is I 
really don't recall. I was in Vancouver, British Columbia, during 
the entire summer of 1952. And I just don't recall preparation for 
that conference. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Tell us when you went to Vancouver in 1952 and 
when you returned. 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I believe it was sometime in the middle of May. 

Mr. Tavenner. That you went to Vancouver i 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. That I went to Vancouver. And I returned the 
middle or end of September. I don't recall exactly what the dates 
were. 

Mr. Tavenner. Sometime during the month of September. Very 
well. Do you have any knowledge of the discussion regarding the 
sending of a delegate to that conference, or the sponsoring of one to 
that conference? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I think I will decline to answer, sir, on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. Wliat conference was it? 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. It was the Asian-Pacific Conference of the World 
Peace Council at Peiping, China. 

Mr. Willis. What was the question you asked her? 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliether she had any knowledge of a discussion, 
which the committee has found from its investigation occurred, with 
regard to the sending of a delegate to that conference, or the sponsor- 
ing of a delegate to that conference. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you married ? 

Mrs. Wilcox. October 19, 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with a person by the name of 
Hugh Hardyman? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know^ that Hugh Hardyman was one of the 
delegates to that convention? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. An investigation conducted by this committee on 
the west coast disclosed the fact that Mr. Hugh Hardyman was spon- 
sored as a delegate to that convention by the Southern California 
Peace Crusade. 

Mr. Hardyman worked behind the Iron Curtain, so to speak, at 
Peiping. During the very time that our prisoners of war in Korea 
were being compelled to broadcast to the Armed Forces of this country 
that our own troops were using bacteria warfare, Hugh Hardyman, as 
a member of this peace conference, made speeches broadcast to the 
entire Iron Curtain countries charging our own country with the use 
of bacteria warfare, which he repeated from the International News 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES UST THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 213 

Service in Budapest on liis return, and which he repeated again in 
public speeches in this country. 

Now it is our information that your father-in-law and mother-in- 
law, Mr. Henry Willcox and his wife, Mrs. Anita Willcox, w^ere also 
delegates to that convention in Peiping. 

Tliat is true, is it not, that they were delegates ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willcox. You are asking me to testify on my family, sir ? 

Mr. Tamsxner. I am asking you a question as to whether or not 
they w^ere delegates to that convention, regardless of who they are. 

(The witness confers wdth her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavexner. There is no immunity given them. They are not 
any better than Hugh Hardyman. 

Mrs. "Willcox. I don't know. I don't know w^hether they were 
delegates. 

Ml'. Tavenxer. You know they went there. 

Mrs. Willcox. I think that is a matter of public knowledge 

Mr. Tavenner. You know they went there, do you not ? 

Mrs. Willcox. Yes. I didn't know at the time. 

Mr. Taatexxer. When did you first find out ? 

Mrs. Willcox. When I returned home from Vancouver. 

Mr. TA^^EXNER. You found that they were gone when you returned 
in September ? 

Mrs. Willcox. I knew they were on a trip. I didn't know where 
they were going. 

Mr. Tavenner. How is that? 

Mrs. Willcox. I knew^ they were on a trip to Europe. I didn't 
know where they were going until I returned home. 

Mr. Tamcnxer. What was the purpose of their trip to Europe? 

Mrs. Willcox. You will have to ask them these questions, it seems 
to me. I don't see why I should be required to answer questions about 
my family. 

Mr. Kearney. For the benefit of the witness who is now testifying, 
I can say this, that if she is in any doubt, we can furnish her with a 
transcript of the testimony of Mr. Willcox before this committee. 
And if there was ever an individual, in my humble opinion, who should 
have been indicted as a traitor to this country, he is one of them. 

Mrs. Willcox. I am not responding. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenxer. What was his purpose in 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you tell the conuuittee, please, wdiat his pur- 
pose was in going to Europe ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willcox. I really don't know. 

Mr. TA^^EXXER. Do you know anything about his application for 
a passport to Europe? 

Mrs. Willcox. I didn't know anything about that, no. 

Mr. TA\rEXNER. Did you ever discuss with him before you left in 
May to go to Vancouver his proposed trip to Europe ? 

Mrs. Willcox. Not as far as I can recall, sir. 
(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you hear anything in your family about the 
necessity of Mr. Henry Willcox going to any certain place in Europe? 



214 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I have answered that question, sir. I don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know anything about the circumstances — 
and when I say "do you know," I mean has Mr. Willcox told you — or 
do you know by any other method how it was that Mr. Willcox applied 
to the State Department for a passport to Turkey and, instead of 
going to Turkey, went to Peiping, China ? 

Mrs. Willcox. Sir, you are asking me about a period of time when 
I wasn't home. I didn't have conversations with my father-in-law. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. You did not have conversations with him as to 
why he went or where he went ? 

Mrs. Willcox. Not as far as I can recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. xlctually when he and Mrs. Anita Willcox returned, 
didn't you make arrangements in and about the area in which you live 
for them to have conferences, to make lectures, to appear at public 
places and make speeches regarding their trip ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willcox. Now you are asking me another question. You 
were asking me about prior arrangements. Now you are asking me 
about post arrangements afterwards. That is another question. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVill you read her the question? 

(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

Mrs. Willcox. You are asking me about after they returned? 

Mr. Tavenner. You certainly can understand that question. 

Mrs. Willcox. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. All right. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. After the return of Mr. Henry Willcox and Mrs. 
Anita Willcox, did they spend a period of time in this community or 
in your community ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Ta\t,nner. Can't you understand that? 

Mrs. Willcox. I am not a lawyer, sir. I have to discuss this. 

Mr. Tavenner. I should think anybody could understand that. 
Did they spend any time at your home or in your vicinity after they 
came back from Peiping ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willcox. I am going to decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Kearney. Then you did understand the question. 

Mi's. Willcox. I had to have it explained to me, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that if the witness wouldn't 
take the question of counsel in such a facetious manner, she might 
understand these very simple questions. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Didn't you discuss with Mr. Henry Willcox or Mrs. 
Anita Willcox or both of them the circumstances under which they 
had made this trip to China after they returned? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willcox. The same answer. 

Mr. Willis. Wliat is that ? 

IMrs. Willcox. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then actually you know all those circumstances, but 
you are refusing to tell this committee because, if you are honestly 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ILWEN, CONN., AREA 215 

relying on the fifth amendment, you are afraid that it might tend 
to incriminate you? 

(The witness confei-s witli her counseh) 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. The same answer. 

Mr. Kearney. You said a minute ago you took the first and the 
fifth. What do you mean by that ? First and fifth what ? 

Mre. Wii-Lcox. Sir, under the first amendment, the first amend- 
ment is designed to protect my rights and, I think, the rights of other 
people to freely believe and associate. Under the fifth 

Mr. KearxeV. You left the answer wide open. You just said "I 
take the first and fifth." Now, as far as tiie record is concerned, that 
is not any answer. You take the first and fifth what ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. Amendment of the Constitution of the United 
States, sir. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Ta\tenner. The committee has ascertained information during 
the course of this investigation tliat, in the summer of 1958, you told 
various persons in attendance at a meeting of the Peace Council that 
the House Un-American Activities Committee was coming to Con- 
necticut, and that they were not to give any information to the person 
subpenaing them if they were subpenaed, but to say that they wanted 
to see their lawyer. 

Did you make any such statement as that ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you advise any persons affiliated with the Con- 
necticut Peace Council that, in event they were subpenaed by this 
committee, they should report that fact to Sam Richter ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I decline to answer for all the reasons I have previ- 
ously stated, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you also advise them that they sliould go to 
see the Council's attorney, Sam Gruber? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. You, according to our information, are in. a posi- 
tion where you could give this committee very detailed information 
regarding the activities of this organization called the Connecticut 
Peace Council ; and I hope yon will tell the committee whether or not 
it is a fact that among the projects that your group had was the cir- 
culation of petitions to obtain the signatures of people either in favor 
or in opposition to many different things. And among those things, I 
ask you about the following : A^liether or not your organization was 
responsible for circulating a petition against universal military 
training. 

Mrs. WiLLCox. Are you asking me? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. "WiLLcox. I have already stated that on all questions relevant 
to the Connecticut Peace Council, I am going to decline to answer for 
the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, I cannot understand the answer to 
that question for this reason, that there are many, many organizations 



216 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAA'EN, CONN., AREA 

in this country who are opposed to universal military training. Why 
the answer to' any question like that would tend to incriminate you, I 
cannot understand. We had Members of the Conoress who were op- 
posed to universal military training. Wh}^ shoidd you decline to 
answer for fear it might incriminate yon, as far as your own organ- 
ization is concerned, when you know in your own mind that no such 
answer would tend to incriminate you ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. Is that a question, sir ? 

Mr. Kearney. Pardon? 

Mrs. WiLLCox, Is that a question? Are you asking me a question? 

Mr. Kearney. It is a statement of fact for you. You can take it 
as a question if you want. But why do you decline to answer ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. As I understand it, counsel didn't ask me what my 
opinions were on universal military training. He asked me specifi- 
cally the question about an organization which I previously declined 
to discuss. 

Mr. Kearney. An organization which you declined to identify. 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. I have answered that question, yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Yes, I know you did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you personally, as an individual, take 
any part in the circulation of such a petition ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. You are speaking of a petition initiated by this 
organization ? 

Sir. Tavenner. I don't know by whom it was initiated. Say a peti- 
tion which opposed universal military training. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLGOx. Do you have the petition ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question, please? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. The same answer, sir. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you personally take part in the circulation of 
a petition advocating the removal of the Seventh Fleet from Formosa? 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't you personally, or did you personally take 
part in the circulation of a petition advocating that this country get 
rid of the H-bomb ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. The same answer. 

Mr, Tavenner. Did I pronounce it incorrectly or something? I 
noticed you are smiling about it. Is there anything ridiculous about 
that? 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. No, I am not smiling because — it is my way. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you take part in the circulation of a petition 
opposinir the rearming of Western Germany ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you circulate a petition against the so-called 
persecution of the Smith Act defendants ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Young lady, let me suggest to you these questions are 
not picked out of the air. Certain petitions were distributed. You 
realize that, don't you ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. I am sorry. I didn't hear what you said. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 217 

Mr. Willis. I said you have been smiling at some of these questions. 

Mi-s. WiLLCOx. I am not smiling at the questions, sir. It is a nervous 
habit of mine. I am very sorry. 

Mr. Willis. I assure you that it is not the habit of our counsel or 
this committee just to pick wild questions out of the air to embarrass 
anybody, if that person could be embarrassed. We ask questions about 
things that happened; and we want to know who initiated them, 
whether you had a part in them. And if you didn't, just say so. That 
is how simple it is. 

Mr. Kearxey. Yes. And may I add, Mr. Chairman, to go back to 
my former statement to the young lady, that on these questions that 
have been asked b}^ counsel in the last 2 or 3 minutes, thousands 
of good Americans have joined in these petitions. Now, you as an 
individual decline to answer for fear it might incriminate you. In- 
criminate you of what ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. As I understand it, counsel is speaking of a specific 
petition ; not a general viewpoint. 

Mr. Kearney. He is asking you if you had any part, as I under- 
stand the question, in promoting these various petitions. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) • 

Mr. Kearxey. Is that right, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Ta\txxer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Why do you hesitate to answer that? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the basis 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Let me ask you one then. Did you have charge of a 
busload of people that went from here to Washington to picket the 
Capitol and protest the execution of the Rosenbergs ? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment and the first amendment. 

Mr. Willis. I think the record should explain what General 
Kearney had in mind when he said that thousands of people signed 
such petitions. 

The reason for that is because they are wrapped up with such 
beautiful words as "peace crusade.*' And what the people should know 
is that those who are responsible for tliose petitions we are talking 
about are hard-core members of the Communist Party. You have a 
lot of do-gooders, a lot of honest people who lend themselves to these 
movements, which, as I say, are described with such words as "the 
movement to do justice in the case of the Rosenbergs," "the peace 
crusade," and all such things. They never forget to wrap the Ameri- 
can flag around a veiy ugly piece of business. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you have any part in raising funds for the de- 
fense of the Rosenbergs ? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I decline to answer that question, sir, for the pre- 
vious reasons stated. 

Mr. Kearney. I recollect some time ago in answer to one of my 
questions you said, if you had any information concerning the wel- 
fare of this country, joii would give it to us. Now when we ask you 
questions about the Rosenbergs, who were convicted traitors and were 
executed, you again hide behind the fifth amendment. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 



218 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Kearney. Did you have anything to do with any group going 
to Washington to picket the White House? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I have ah-eady answered that question, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Answer it again so that I will get it. 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth, which protects the innocent, 

Mr. Tavenner. You also refuse to answer as to whether you had 
any part in raising funds for the defense of the Rosenbergs? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. That is true. I answered that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me make this observation in this open hearing : 

If you had any part in this movement, you should be proud of 
yourself because, out of the thousands and thousands of dollars that 
were collected, the children of the Rosenbergs got a little over a 
thousand dollars. 

Mr. Willis. It ran into the hundreds of thousands. The Rosen- 
berg children got twelve hundred, and they were used as fronts to 
pick up the money for the Communist machinations. 

Mr. Kearney. If you had any connection with any such movement, 
you certainly should pat yourself on the back, 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Willcox, did you take part in any way in the 
preparation or circulation of a petition advocating trade with the 
Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Kearney. Why do you decline to answer that on the first and 
fifth amendments ? Thousands and thousands of people in this coun- 
try have advocated such a position. 

Mrs. Willcox. Counsel is speaking of a specific petition, I believe. 

Mr. Kearney. Ask another one, Mr. Counsel. See if we can get 
a truthful answer here. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you another question first, if you will, 
please. 

Did you take part in any way in the preparation or circulation of a 
petition to admit Red China into membership in the United Nations? 

Mrs. WiLLcox. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Are you in favor of admitting Red China to the 
United Nations? 

Mrs. Willcox. As a personal opinion ? 

Mr. Kearney. Yes. 

Mrs. Wilcox. Yes, sir. I think all nations should be admitted to 
the United Nations. 

Mr. Kearney. All nations ? 

Mrs. Willcox. Yes, sir. All nations. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Have you appeared at any time on a mission to the 
United Nations ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willcox. The same answer, sir. 

Mr, Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not 
the leadership of the Communist Party of the State of Connecticut 
played a part in the dissemination of petitions, the petitions which I 
have mentioned, by the Connecticut Peace Council ? 

Mrs. Willcox. The same answer, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 219 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Mr. Sam Richter work closely in the activities 
of the Connecticut Peace Council ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are acquainted with Mr. Richter, are you not ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Lois Barnes work closely with you in connection 
with peace matters generally ? I am not speaking of any particular 
peace organization, if that is the thing that offends you. 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I believe you have asked me that question before. 

Mr. Tavenner. No. No, I haven't. 

Mrs. "WiLLCOx. In any case, I am not going to be a witness against 
otliers, and in this connection I — I give you the same ground. 

]Mr. Tavenner. 'Then I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 
It is not a valid excuse that somebody may be involved. 

Mr. Willis. It is not a valid excuse, as has been said by the 
Supreme Court. You are ordered and directed to answer. 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I decline to answer on tlie grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew that Lois Barnes was a member of the 
City Committee of the Communist Party at Bridgeport? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I'm sorry. Would you repeat that question? 

Mr. Tavtsnner. Are you acquainted with the fact, or do you know, 
that Lois Barnes was a member of the City Committee of the Com- 
munist Party for Bridgeport? 

^Mrs. WiLLCOx. I decline to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

]\Irs. WiLLCOx. I am not a Communist. 

Mr. Kearney. Are you now a Communist ? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I am not a Communist. 

Mr. Kearney. Were you a Communist yesterday ? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the work of the various organizations with 
which you were identified, did you at any time submit problems with 
which you were confronted to the Communist Party for its recom- 
mendation and decision ? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been the nature of your employment or 
your occupation since 1953 ? Beginning with 1953. Other than being 
a housewife ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I am the mother of two children. My first child 
came in 1953. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Counsel, may I interrupt? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. I want to follow up my two questions with this one : 

You testified that you are not a Communist today. When I asked 
you if you were one yesterday, you declined to answer. "Wlien you 
leave this room, will you become a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness confers w4th her counsel.) 

Mr. Kearney. Allien you leave this room today or tomorrow, will 
you become a member of the Communist Party ? 



220 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mrs. WiLLCox, Of course not. 

Mr. Kearney. Will you become a member of tlie Comrauinst Party 
next week ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. Would you repeat the question, plea se ? 

(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I don't intend to. 

Mr. Kearney. Pardon ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I don't intend to ; no. 

Mr. Kearney, You say you are not a member of the Conmiimist 
Party today, and you decline to answer as to whether you were 
yesterday. Would you mind telling the committee why you got 
out of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I am going to decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. That is all. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am interested to know Avhy you would not join 
tomorrow if you say you are not a member todav. You say you will 
not. Why not? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLcox. No answer on tliat. 

Mr. Tavenner. No answer? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I don't have any answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. No reason at all ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you haven't changed your views in any 
respect, any material respect, about Communist Party activities and 
the part that the Communist Party is playing in world domination? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I really don't see why I have to answer your ques- 
tions, sir, about what my politics are or why I should choose not to 
be a member or choose to be. 

Mr. Tavenner. I haven't asked you any political question. You 
said you would not join 

Mr. Willis. I think what Mr. Tavenner had hoped you would say 
is that you don't expect to join the Communist Party, and not only 
will you not do that but the reason for it is that you abhor the Com- 
munist conspiracy. That is what we had hoped you would say, or he 
was giving you a chance to say. 

Mr. Tavenner. But she said she had no reason. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Kearney. She didn't say it. 

Mr. Willis. We certainly can hope. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. I think you started to say a while ago, at the very 
beginning of your testimony, something about your willingness to- 
supply us with information for legislative purposes. 

Mrs. Willcox. Are you asking me a question, sir ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mrs. Willcox. I said as long as you don't violate my rights as an 
American citizen or place me in jeopardy, I would be very happy to 
cooperate with a legislative purpose. 

Mr. Willis. All right. Let's see now. You have invoked the 
privilege of the fifth amendment in many instances, the reason being — 
because that is the only lawful reason for it— that to speak would give- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 221 

testimony against yourself or tend to incriminate yourself or to sup- 
ply information that might be used against you in a criminal pro- 
ceeding. 

Now this committee was responsible for the passage of an act of 
Congress just 2 or 3 years ago to meet that very proposition. That 
is, we have a right — without going into the details of it — to initiate 
proceedings and to obtain an order from a Federal judge to grant 
you immunity from prosecution or from self-incrimination. In other 
words, to remove the fear which is the only thing upon which you can 
honestly not talk. You said you would be willing to cooperate with 
us in all areas where your constitutional rights would not be impaired. 
If we granted you that immunity, would you then give us the infor- 
mation which we are convinced you have which would be of value to 
this committee and to the Government? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. And, by the way, if you agree to it, we would not press 
it right now. We could call an executive session, or we could examine 
you later. Would you be willing to freely answer all questions, per- 
tinent questions, if we grant you that immunity ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. Sir, I answered my previous questions on two 
grounds : On the grounds of the first, as w^ell as the fifth. And I con- 
sider my constitutional rights include the first amendment, the right 
to free belief and association without interference of government. 
And I would have to consult with my attorney before I could come 
to a conclusion on this other aspect of the question. You are talking 
about something that might happen. 

Mr. Willis. No ; that is a very practical thing. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. And that is a weapon we have devised in order to pro- 
tect honest witnesses who perhaps have been involved in the past. 

As you said right now, you are not presently a member of the Com- 
munist Party, but you won't talk about the past. "WTiere else can we 
develop the pattern tliat fits the total picture, the mosaic of the Com- 
munist conspiracy unless we can have people who, like yourself, as we 
believe, can supply information ? This is very practical. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, may I make a suggestion? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. In view of the importance of this matter, and par- 
ticularly in light of the witness saying that she wanted to confer with 
her counsel, may she step down from the witness chair and have time to 
confer with counsel and come back here a little later in the afternoon, 
say in the next 15 or 20 minutes or half hour if she needs that much 
time, she and counsel, and we will see definitely ? 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, I concur with counsel, and I recom- 
mend it. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. We are not seeking to force you to do this. Do you 
want that time? We could call a recess and then call another wit- 
ness. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Let me make it plain to you 

Mrs. WiLLcox. Are you asking me a question about 

Mr. Willis. No; because you indicated that you might want to 
consult with counsel. 



222 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mrs. WiLLCOx. I think I need a little bit more time than just 15 or 
20 minutes because evidently there are a number of legal questions 
involved in this. 

Mr. Willis. Let me say this to you, that this committee will not take 
steps to grant immunity to a witness unless, as I said, the witness will 
freely and truthfully answer all questions propounded which, accord- 
ing to our counsel, are pertinent to the jurisdiction of this committee, 
developing facts within the knowledge of the witness. You under- 
stand that. We could not have an area of 6 months, 2 months, or 3 
months of time over which to develop the facts. 

(The witness confers with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. You placed a question to me, sir ? 

I think if your questioning were along lines of legislation, what I 
consider valid legislation, and were not in the area of questioning me 
about my family or my friends, I certainly would cooperate. But I 
will not cooperate in discussing my family or those things which I 
consider protected by the first amendment, namely, ]3rotecting other 
people, as well as myself, to freely engage in political activities, 
whether they are popular or not. 

Mr. Willis. In other words 

Mrs. WiLLCox. That is the first amendment right. 

Mr. Willis. You are not restricting your objection to family only. 
It would be your friends and acquaintances and anybody you know, 
or who possibly you would know, something about. You would not 
reveal information along that line at all. 

Mrs. Willcox. I said, sir, previously that if I Avere aware of anyone 
engaged in criminal activity, I would report it to the proper authori- 
ties. 

Mr. Willis. You mean somebody committing murder, somebody 
running over someone, somebody robbing someone. Is that what you 
are talking about? We have nothing to do with that. Don't talk 
about criminal law. You know what we are talking about. We are 
talking about the Communist conspiracy. 

As I say, you are not forced to do it. You brought it about by 
the nature of your first ansAver. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. If you are going to except from your discussions peo- 
ple, all people, family, friends, we will have nothing left to talk about, 
lam afraid. 

Mrs. Willcox. I am sorry. I think I have answered your question, 
sir. 

Mr. Willis. And I say that to you because I don't want to mislead 
you. If you agree to immunity, you would have honestly to disclose 
all answers, you would have honestly to answer all questions put to you 
that we think are pertinent. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willcox, Then I couldn't accept immunity because I do not 
feel I could answer all questions. 

Mr. Kearney. Could I ask another question. You said a few min- 
utes ago that you didn't want to be examined on your political beliefs, 
your family's thoughts. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 223 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Ej}arney. Are you so naive as to think that the Communist 
Party is a political party ? 

Mrs. WiLLCOX. Is it my belief that it is a political party? 

Mr. Kearney. Then you haven't 

Mr. Willis. Wait a minute. She didn't answer. 

Mr. Kearney. She did. She said it was her belief that it is a 
political party. 

Mrs. WiLLCox. It is my understanding that it is. 

Mr. ICearney. It is your understanding. Then you haven't read 
the writings of Mr. Foster, the head of the Communist Party, or any 
of the 12 Communists who were convicted in the State of New York 
several years ago, or other leading members of the Communist Party 
in this country, because it was definitely shown by their own words 
that this is a revolutionary party, and it takes its orders from Mos- 
cow. It is not a political party. 

And you are an intelligent young lady. You are not so naive as 
to believe that. Is that what you want to try to convince this com- 
mittee of ? 

Mrs. WiLLCox. I am not trying to convince the committee of any- 
thing. 

Mr. Kearney. I thoroughly agree with you there. 

Mr. Willis. You mentioned something about legislative purpose. 
And I don't want to detain you, but I think this should be put in the 
record. 

Every year we render an annual report to the Congress, reviewing 
the work of the previous calendar year and making legislative recom- 
mendations. On January 2 of this year, we made our report to Con- 
gress; and, based upon hearings in 1956 and before, I see here we 
made some 8 or 10 pages of legislative recommendations. And you 
should know that the hearings we are conducting now, and every 
hearing we conduct, have to do with bringing up to date the various 
laws on the books to combat the Communist conspiracy and the 
plugging up of loopholes. For instance, this committee was responsi- 
ble for the Smith Act, or sponsored it or inspired it. I don't know 
whether you agree with the Smith Act, but it is the law of the land. 

We are responsible for the Foreign Agents Registration Act, which 
requires agents of foreign governments in the United States to regis- 
ter. We are responsible for the Communist Control Act which was 
enacted not many years ago. And so on down the line. So the hear- 
ings we are conducting today — that is, all our hearings — are con- 
ducted with these legislative purposes and recommendations that we 
make to Congress every year. 

Is there anything further? 

Mr. Kearney. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Willis. That is all. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, I move we take a 10-minute recess. 

Mr. Willis. We will stand in recess informally for about 10 minutes. 

("V^Hiereupon, a short recess was taken, Cornmittee members pres- 
ent : Eepresentatives Willis and Kearney.) 



224 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

(The committee was reconvened, at the expiration of the recess. 
Committee members present: Representatives Willis and Kearney.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Comisel, will you call your next witness, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Collins. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Collins. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EAYMOND T. COLLINS 

Mr. TA^^NNER. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Collins. Raymond T. Collins. 

Mr. Tavenner. How are you employed, Mr. Collins ? 

Mr. Collins. Investigator, House Committee on Un-American 
Activities. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Collins. Approximately 2I/2 years. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Prior to that time, what was your employment ? 

Mr. Collins. I was a special agent of the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a representative from the stail of 
the Committee on Un-American Activities working in connection with 
these hearings ? 

Mr. Collins. Yes, sir ; I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. I requested you to make an investigation regarding 
a certain post-office box number. 

Mr. Collins. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make that investigation ? 

Mr. Collins. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the number of the box ? 

Mr. Collins. Post Office Box No. 347. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Mr. Collins. New Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. New Haven. 

From the investigation that you made, did you find the name of the 
organization to which that post-office box had been issued ? 

Mr. Collins. I did, sir. 

Mr.TA^^NNER. What was the name of that organization ? 

Mr. Collins. The Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you procure a copy of the application card for 
that box ? 

Mr. Collins. I did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did 3^011 have it photostated ? 

Mr. Collins. I did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have that photostat in your possession ? 

Mr. Collins. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer it in evidence, Mr. Chairman, and 
ask that it be marked "Collins Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Willis. Let it be so marked and incorporated in the record. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES DST THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 225 

(The document referred to marked "Collins Exhibit No. 1," fol- 
lows:) 




-■■mmmmsm 



226 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Tavennek. Will you read it, please ? 
Mr. Collins (reading) : 

Application for Post-Office Box 
Assigned box No. 347. 
Date opened : October 1, 1954. 

The undersigned hereby applies for the use' of a box in the post office at New 
Haven, Conn., and agrees to comply with the postal regulations and rules rela- 
tive to the renting and use of post-office boxes. 

If the box is rented for a corporation, the applicant should write on the lines 
below the name of the corporation ; if for a firm, the name of the firm and the 
full name of each of its members whose mail is to be placed in the box. 

Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights. 
Bert MacLeech, Chairman. 
Mrs. Paula MacLeech, ^Secretary. 

The signature of the applicant appears liereon : Bert-MacLeech. 

Character of business : Civil rights. 
Business address : 23 Temple Street, room 211. 
Residence address : 757 Iranistan Avenue, Bridgeport. 

References : Dr. Willard Uphaus, Edgewood Avenue : Nancy Harder, 323 
Winthrop Avenue, New Haven, Conn. 

Frank A. Lattanzi, P. M., Actg. 
By F. A. Coleman, Asst. Supt. of Mails. 

Mr. Tavennek. That is all. 

Mr. Samuel Richter, please, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Rtchter. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL RICHTER 

Mr. Tavenne]?. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Richter. Samuel Richter. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think I should at this time state, 
to refresh your recollection, that this witness appeared before the 
committee in September 1956 in this room; that he was identified as 
a member of the Communist Party and holding various functionary 
positions in the Communist Party by several witnesses ; that when he 
took the stand, questions were asked him regarding his positions in 
the Communist Party and his membership; and that he refused to 
answer all material questions reUiting to those subjects, relying on the 
fifth amendment as the grounds for his refusal. 

It is not my purpose to review any of that testimony with the wit- 
ness or to go back over any questions that were asked him. But, since 
he was on the witness stand, the investigation, which has continued, 
has developed a matter which 1 feel the witness should be asked about. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed along that line. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Richter, in the course of this investigation, the 
committee has run across an organization which seems to have been 
active, very active, during the period of the trial of the Smith Act 
cases here; and the indication has been that you should have some 
knowledge regarding the activities of that group. The ^roup is the 
Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights. Our investigation discloses 
that this organization was formed in September 1954 at three places 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 227 

in the State, simultaneously : in New Haven, in Bridgeport, and at 
Hartford. 

Is our information correct about that ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. I will invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. And refuse to answer? 

Mr. RiCHi-ER. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. For what reason? 

Mr. Keaknet. I suggest that you answer the questions in the usual 
manner. You remember we had a little rumpus here with you last 
year, and it can be still carried on. 

Mr. Richter. The rumpus? 

Mr. Kearney. Whatever you call it. 

Mr. Richter. Mr. Kearney, I don't know why you are calling me 
here again, although what Mr. Tavenner says seems to indicate you 
think I have some connection with a certain organization he has 
mentioned. 

I don't see why you harass me in this way, Mr. Kearney. I thought 
when we parted last time that it was mutually acceptable. That is, 
the parting. I was never expected to be here again. But, as long as 
I am here, I will answer the questions in my own way, Mr. Kearney. 
You realize that. 

Mr. Kearney. No, you won't answer them in your own way. 

Mr. Richter. As long as I keep within my legal limits of my answer, 
I will answer them in the way I wish to express them, not in the manner 
which you ^^•ould like to have me express them. This is my right. I 
think you will concede it. If you wish me to state more completely 
what my gi'ounds are in refusing to answer, I will do so. 

Mr. Kearney. Go ahead. 

Mr. Richter. If you wish me 

Mr. Kearney. Go ahead. 

Mr. Richter. I refuse to answer on — I invoke the fifth amendment 
on the grounds that it might incriminate me, and also to point out to 
this committee 

Mr. Kearney. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Richter. The fifth amendment is a protection for the innocent. 

Mr. Kearney. We will take your answer without making a speexjh. 

Mr. Richter. You asked me a question. If you are going to ask 
for a complete answer, I insist on being permitted to give it without 
your interrupting me. 

Mr. Kearney. You are not going to be allowed to make a speech. 

Mr. Richter. You want a complete answer, Mr. Kearney ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you present at the organizational meeting 
of this committee in Bridgeport ? 

Mr. Richter. Do you want a complete answer, Mr. Kearney, or is 
it sufficient for me to say the same answer ? 

Mr. Kearney. Answer counsel's question. 

Mr. Richter. Same answer. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Did you have a discussion prior to the formation 
of that organization with Miss Paumi, in which you outlined the 
plans of operation of this committee-to-be which you proposed to 
organize, and that those plans included two things : ( 1 ) Solicitation 
of fmids for the purpose of defending the Smith Act defendants on 
trial ; and (2) to disseminate information among the people generally 



228 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

in order to depreciate Avliat you called the "congressional witch 
hunts"? 

Now will you tell the committee, please, whether that occurred, and, 
if so, I want to ask you other questions about it. 

Mr. RiCHTER. I will invoke the fifth amendment on the grounds 
that the answer may tend to incriminate me and to point out to this 
committee that the fifth amendment was put into the Constitution 
as a shield for the innocent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you claim to be innocent in that regard, as far as 
this organization is concerned ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. By invoking the fifth amendment, do you honestly 
feel that to answer that question might tend to subject you to criminal 
prosecution ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted here from the application card for Post 
Office Box, Collins Exhibit No. 1, that a person by the name of Bert 
MacLeech was the chairman of the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil 
Rights on October 1, 1954. 

Are you acquainted with Mr. MacLeech ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you confer with Mr. MacLeech regarding the 
procedure that was to be followed and to elfectively carry out the 
purposes of that organization ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the head of the chapter of this organiza- 
tion in Hartford ? 

Mr. RiCHTER. I will invoke the fifth amendment on the grounds 
that the answer may tend to incriminate me and to point out to the 
committee that the fifth amendment is a shield for the innocent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it also a purpose of this organization during 
the trial of the Smith Act cases to attempt to influence public opinion 
in favor of Communist contentions and issues in that case? 

Mr. RiCHTER. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you three documents. The first one is en- 
titled "This Man is a Spy," any typewritten at the bottom there is 
"Issued by the Connecticut Volunteers, P. O. Box 347, New Haven, 
Conn.," which I will ask to be marked for identification as "Richter 
Exhibit No. 1." 

(The document referred to was marked "Richter Exhibit No. 1," 
and filed for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Tavenner. And a second document entitled "Pieces of Silver I" 
and above it is written "Seven Thousand," and at the end appears the 
statement "Issued by the Conn. Volunteers as a public service, P. O. 
Box 347, New Haven, Conn.," which I will ask to be marked for identi- 
fication as "Richter Exhibit No. 2." 

(The document referred to was marked "Richter Exhibit No. 2," 
and filed for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Tavenner. And a third paper entitled "That Woman in Your 
Hair," typewritten at the bottom, "Issued by Conn. Volunteers for 
Civil Rights, P. O. Box 347, New Haven, Conn.," which I will ask 
to be marked as "Richter Exhibit No. 3." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 229 

(The document referred to was marked "Richter Exhibit No. 3," 
and filed for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Willis. Let the documents be so marked. 
(Documents placed on the witness table.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Have j'ou examined the documents I handed you? 
("Witness examines documents.) 

IVIr. Tavenner. Do they look genuine ? 

Mr. Richter. Do they look genuine? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Richter. Genuine of what, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the original. 

Mr. Richter. Well, I will have to invoke the fifth amendment on 
that, Mr. Tavenner. 

Do you want me to read them out loud perhaps? 

Mr. Ta\t3nner. No. 

Mr. Richter. I didn't think so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just keep them a moment. I am not through. Will 
you turn to the one marked "This Man is a Spy," and I believe that is 
exhibit No. 1. 

Did you distribute copies of that leaflet at the gates of the General 
Electric Co. at Bridgeport, Conn., on January 12, 1956? 

Mr. Richter. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who is Jake Goldring? 

Mr. Richter. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't he present in this courtroom ? 

Mr. Richter. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was one of the defendants in the Smith Act 
case, was he not ? 

Mr. Richter. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tui'u to exhibit No. 2, entitled "Seven 
Thousand Pieces of Silver." 

Do you know whether Jake Goldring and Frank Peterson dis- 
tributed that particular circular at the gates of the General Electric 
plant at Bridgeport on January 18, 6 days later? 

Mr. Richter. What year was that, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Ta\t3nner. How is that? 

Mr. RiCHTEi?. What year was that? 

Mr. Tavenner. 1956. 

Mr. Richter. Fiftl> amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am curious to know why you asked me about the 
date. Would the date make any diiference in your answer? 

Mr. Richter. I was just curious about the year, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Taat:nner. Do I have the date wrong? 

Mr. Rich'it:r. I will have to invoke tlie fifth amendment, Mr. 
Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. 1 will ask you now to turn to the third document 
entitled "That Woman in Your Hair," and I want to ask you what 
knowledge you have about the mailing of that document to various 
beauty ])ar]ors in Connecticut after Miss Paumi, a beautician, had 
testified in the Smith Act case? 

]Mr. Richter. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is true, is it not, that you were one of those who 
concocted the idea of setting up an organization designed to affect 
the due administration of justice in that Smith Act case ? 



230 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. EiCHTER. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\t3nner. Mr. Chairman, I believe that is all I want to ask 
the witness. 

Mr. Kearney. I am sure I haven't any questions to ask the witness. 

Mr. Willis. No questions. 

Mr. Tamenner. Mr. Chairman, that is all this afternoon. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess until tomorrow 
morning at 10 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 3 : 15 p. m., Tuesday, February 26, 1957, the com- 
mittee was recessed, to be reconvened at 10 a. m., Wednesday, Febru- 
ary 27, 1957. Committee members present : Representatives Willis and 
Kearney.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA— PART 3 



WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 27, 1957 

United Sta tics House or Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

New' Haven^ Conn. 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, in the United States district courtroom, United 
States Courthouse and Post Office Building, New Haven, Conn., at 
10 a. m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the subcommittee) pre- 
siding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, and Bernard W. Kearney, of New York. 

Staff members present : Frank ^. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; and Ray- 
mond T. Collins, investigator. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order, and comisel will 
call the first witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss Louise Zito, will you come forward, please. 

Mr. Willis. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you, 
God? 

Miss Zito. I do. 

Miss RoRABACK. May we request that there be no television, please. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUISE ZITO, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CATHERINE G. ROKABACK 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Will you be seated. 

Will you state your name, please. 

Miss Zito. Mrs. Louise Zito. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Will you spell your last name ? 

Miss Zito. Z-i-t-o.^ 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Will counsel please identify herself for the record? 

Miss RoRABACK. Catherine G. Roraback, 185 Church Street, New 
Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside? 

Miss Zito. 835 Broad Street. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Miss Zito. Bridgeport. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your maiden name? 



^Incorrectly spelled "Slto" In p. 2 of this series of hearings. 

231 



232 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Miss ZlTO. Zito. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are Miss Zito? 

Miss Zito. Yes ; but I am divorced. 

Mr. Tavenner. I beg your pardon. 

How long have you lived in Bridgeport ? 

Miss Zito. Since 1917. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live prior to that? 

Miss ZiTO. On Hallett Street. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. AVliere? 

Miss ZiTO. 818 Hallett Street, Bridgeport. 

Mr. Tavenner. In Bridgeport? 

Miss ZiTO. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you born and raised in Bridgeport? 

Miss Zito. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born? 

Miss Zito. In Italy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you come to this country ? 

Miss Zrro. In 1907. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen? 

Miss ZiTO. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you naturalized? 

Miss ZiTO. In Bridgeport. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Vhen? 

Miss ZiTO. 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss Zito, I hand you Collins Exhibit No. 1, and 
ask you to look at a name appearing on this application. It is an 
application for a post office box to be issued to the Connecticut Volun- 
teers for Civil Rights. Will you examine it, please, and state whether 
you see there the name of Bert MacLeech ? 

(The witness examines document and confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you see it? 

Miss ZiTO. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. MacLeech made application on that card for 
the issuance of the post office box, as I mentioned. Do you know Mr. 
MacLeech ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Zito. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. The fifth amendment? 

My question was, Do you know Mr. MacLeech ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss ZiTO. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. On the grounds of the fifth amendment. Is that 
what you mean? 

Miss ZiTO. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner, Mr. Chairman, I think I should refresh her recol- 
lection that Mr. Bert MacLeech was identified by Mr. Harold Kent in 
the testimony here in September of 1956 as a person known to him to 
be a member of the Communist Party. 

Miss Zito, the information of the committee is that you were present 
at the time of the organization of this group known as the Connecticut 
Volunteers for Civil Rights ; that the meeting took place in Bridgeport 
in September of 1954. 

Do you recall being present at the organizational meeting of that 
group ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 233 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Zrro. I refuse to answer on tlie grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. We can scarcely hear you. 

Miss ZiTO. I can't — I have a cold. 

Mr. Taatenner. Then will you move the microphone closer to you 
so we may pick up what you say. 

What was your answer? 

Miss ZiTO. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. The information of the committee is that this or- 
ganization, known as the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights, 
was organized for two principal purposes: (1) was to raise funds for 
the defense of those being tried under the Smith Act and (2) to give 
the public certain information regarding what the Communists refer 
to as the "witchhunting activities" of the congressional committees. 

Does that express accurately the purposes of that organization, if 
you know? 

Miss ZiTO. May I consult m}'- lawyer? 

Mr. Taatenner. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. What is your answer? 

Miss ZiTO. I decline to answer, and take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. JNIr. Bert MacLeech is sliown on the application to 
have lived in New Haven. You lived in Bridgeport. Do you know 
whether or not this committee was organized simultaneously in New 
Haven and in Bridgeport and in Hartford? 

Miss ZiTo. I have no idea. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have no idea ? 

Miss ZiTO. No. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Do you know who the leaders of that group were 
in Hartford? 

Miss ZiTO. No. 

Mr. TA^"ENNER. Do you know who the leaders of that group were 
in New Haven? 

Miss ZiTO. No. 

Mr. Ta"\t:nxer. The reporter can't get the shake of your head. You 
will have to answer. 

Who were the leaders of that group in Bridgeport? 

Miss ZiTO. I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Ta^t;nner. Assuming that you do not know, as you say, who 
Avere the leaders present at the time tlie organization was formed? 

Miss ZiTO. I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Ta\t:xner. You don't Imow. Weren't you present? 

Miss ZiTO. I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not remember? 

Miss ZiTO. No. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Did vou attend a meeting in September 1954, at 
the apartment of Miss f*aumi, at which Joe Barnes and Sam Richter 
were among those j^resent ? 

Miss ZiTo. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not know ? You do not remember ? 

Mr. Willis. You will have to answer. The record must reflect your 
Avords. 

What is 3'our answer ? 

Miss ZiTO. I don't know. 



234 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner, You do not know — by that you do not deny that 
you were there. You just do not remember. Is that correct? 

Miss ZiTO. I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not remember ? 

Let me see if I can refresh your recollection. 

Do you recall that at a meeting at her apartment the matter was 
discussed of circulating pamphlets and distributing leaflets for some 
purpose ? Do you remember about that ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss ZiTO. I don't remember. 

Mr. Willis. Do you remember ever being in her apartment ? 

Miss Zrro. No. 

Mr. Willis. She so testified, didn't she ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir, that is not in the testimony. 

Mr. Willis. It was not ? Then it is evidence we have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

You did help to distribute leaflets of that organization, did you 
not? 

Miss ZiTO. I take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Wliat is your answer? 

Miss ZiTO. I take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta^t:nner. You mean you refuse to answer on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment? 

Miss ZiTo. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. By that, do you mean that to answer that question 
you feel it might tend to subject you to criminal prosecution ? 

Miss ZiTO. Yes. 

Mr. Kearney. Can you speak up ? I can't hear a word she says. 

Miss Roraback. She said "Yes." 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you Richter exhibit No. 3, marked for 
identification. It is a leaflet entitled "That Woman in Your Hair." 
It shows that it was issued by the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil 
Rights, Post Office Box 347. It was disseminated just a few days after 
Miss Paumi was on the witness stand in the Smith Act case. 

I hand it to you and ask you to examine it and tell this committee, 
please, whether or not you disseminated that in the place where Miss 
Paumi had her place of business and in other places. 

(The witness examines document and confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, it is rather apparent that the witness 
is not seeking advice of counsel. But counsel is, rather, imposing her 
advice upon the witness. 

IVIiss Roraback. Might I speak, JNIr. Chairman ? 

I think that is a misstatement of just what occurred between counsel 
and client, and I don't think it was called for. 

I certainly liave to consult with my client freely or I can't give her 
the advice that she needs. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Roraback. Could the question be read again ? 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Yes. 

Will you read the witness the question, please. 

(The pending question was read })y the reporter.) 

Miss ZiTo. I Hidn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did not? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 235 

MissZrro. No. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Did you pass out that leaflet at any place? 

Miss ZiTO. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Not at any time^ 

Miss ZiTO. I never saw this before. 

Mr. Tavenner. You never saw it before? 

Miss Zrro. No. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Did you pass out any other leaflet ? 

Miss Zrro. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Different from that one? 

Miss ZiTo. No. 

Mv. Ta\t;nner. You did not? 

Miss ZiTo. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have never seen that leaflet before? 

Miss Zrro. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Or a copy of it ? 

Miss Zrro. No. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Have you seen any other leaflet issued by the 
organization, the Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights? 

Miss ZiTO. I don't know what leaflet you are talking about. 

Mr. Willis. What is the answer ? 

Miss EoRABACK. She said "I don't know what leaflet you are talking 
about." 

Miss ZiTO. I don't know what leaflet he is talking about. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you know that the organization, Connecticut 
Volunteers for Civil Eights, was engaged in passing out leaflets? 

Miss ZiTO. I never did any of that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did 3^ou know they were doing it ? 

Miss ZiTO. I don't know. No; I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any part in it in any way ? 

Miss ZiTO. No. No ; I didn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did vou assist in the preparation of any such 
leaflets? 

Miss Zno. No. 

Mr. Ta\:enner. Did you confer with anyone regarding the putting 
out of those leaflets ? 

Miss ZiTo. No. I am not smart or anything. I mean I didn't have 
much schooling, you know. I wouldn't take part in anything. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say "not much schooling." Did you have any 
schooling in the Communist Party ? 

Miss ZiTo. No. I mean regular school. I mean grammar school. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. I mean Communist Party school. 
Miss ZiTO. No ; I wouldn't know anything about that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You never attendecl any training within the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Miss ZiTO. No ; never. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you in January or February 1953 attend courses 
in the work of the Communist Party ? 
Miss ZiTo. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did not? Were you acquainted with Bob 
Ekins? 
Miss ZiTo. No ; I don't know him. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not know him ? You do not know who he 
was? 



236 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Miss ZiTO. No; I don't know him. 

Mr. Taatinner. Were any ediicationals of the Communist Party 
conducted in your own home in 1953 ? 
(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss ZiTO. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Tavenner. Repeat your answer, please. 

Miss ZiTO. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has information that there were 5 
educationals of the Communist Party held in 1953 in Bridgeport, 
several of them in your home, and the rest of the 5 in the home of Lois 
Barnes. Does that refresh your recollection 'i 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss ZiTO. I think I will refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. I merely asked you whether that refreshed your 
recollection. 

Miss ZiTO. I wouldn't know. I had people come to the house. I 
don't know what they were talking about. 

Mr. Tai-enner. People came to your house and you did not know 
what they were talking about? 

Miss ZiTO. No. I mean I wouldn't know what — If I invite friends 
I wouldn't know what — I wouldn't know Avhat anybody talks about. 
I am not that intelligent. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were intellioent enough to know Avhether or 
not it was a Communist Party meeting; weren't you? 

Miss ZiTO. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. What? 

Miss ZiTo. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. No; you were not? 

Miss ZiTO. No. 

Mr. Ta"s^nner. Didn't you go to meetings of the same kind at Lois 
Barnes' house? 

Miss ZiTO. No. 

Mr. Tavener. Are you acquainted with Lois Barnes ? 

Mr. Willis. Do you know her ? 

Miss ZiTO. No ; I don't. I have heard about her. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you do not know her. Do you know Harold 
Kent? 

Miss ZiTO. I take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. What is your answer ? 

Miss ZiTO. I take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Harold Kent one of those who came to these 
meetings at your house when you say you did not know what they 
were talking about? 

Mr. Willis. Make that question more direct. Just: Did Harold 
Kent ever go to your house. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss ZiTO. I take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. You take the fifth amendment. 

Ask her questions about that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Miss Paumi ? 

Miss ZiTO. I take the fifth on that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Miss Paumi on any occasion come to your 
house? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 237 

Miss ZiTo. The fifth. 

Mr. Willis. What? 

Miss ZiTO. The fiftli amendment. 

iNIr. Ta\t:n-xer. You mean you refuse to answer ? 

Miss ZiTO. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. During the course of the testimony here in Sep- 
tember, Miss Paumi was asked various questions regarding her knowl- 
edge of Communist Part}* activities in Bridgeport. She was asked 
this question : 

Give us the names of those who, to your certain knowledge, were members of 
tlie Bridgeport Club and were Communists. 

And her answer was : 

There were Josephine Willard, Fi-ank Peterson, Louise Silo [Zito] — 

and certain other persons. 

Was slie telling the truth about that? I mean by that, were you a 
member of the Communist Party in Bridgeport? 

Miss ZiTo. I take the fifth on that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You refuse to answer? 

Miss ZiTO. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. Are vou now a member of the Communist Party ? 

IMiss ZiTO. The fifth. 

Mr. Willis. You refuse to answer 

Miss Zito. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. On the grounds of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss Paumi was asked a question regarding the 
membership of certain otlier gi'oups. One was at Success Park, and 
a group that was called the 12-B group of the Communist Party. 
She was asked this question : 

Do you have a recollection of those who, to your certain knowledge, were Com- 
munist members of that unit? 

mentioning the Success Park, the East End group, and the 12-B group 
all together. And her reply was : 

Yes; they were Louis Barnes in this latter group, Louise Sito [Zito]. * * * 

(The witness confers with her comisel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Miss Paimii correct in stating that you at 
one time were a member of this other group of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Zito. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Our investigation here has shown that the members 
of the Communist Party were directed by the leadership of the Com- 
munist Party to become active in certain groups or organizations. 

Did you receive any such advice or direction? 

Miss Zito. No. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Did 3'ou make any contributions to the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Zito. No. 

Mr. TA^•ENNER. Did you solicit funds for the Communist Party? 

Miss Zito. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you affiliated with the IWO ? 

Miss Zito. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you here a photostatic copy of a nominating 
petition for November 1946 elections under the title and designation 



238 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

of Communist Part}^, and will ask you to look at the fourth line from 
the bottom and state whose name appears there. 

(The witness examines docmnent and confers with her counsel.) 

Miss ZiTO. You said the fourth line from the bottom ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. Whose name appears on the fourth line from 
the bottom ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavexner. My question was just whose name appears there. 

(The witness confers with her counsel. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. Read the name, please. 

MissZiTO. Louise Zito. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Louise Zito ? 

MissZiTO. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is your name ; is it not ? 

MissZiTO. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that your signature ? 

MissZiTO. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is. 

I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask that it be marked 
"Zito Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Willis. Let it be so marked. 

(The document referred to was marked "Zito Exhibit No. 1" and 
filed for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1946 at the time that you signed that Communist election petition ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss ZiTO. I take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You refuse to answer. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1944 when you were 
naturalized at Bridgeport ? 

Miss Zno. I didn't know of anything. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is that? 

Miss Zito. I don't know of anything in 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not know ? 

Miss ZiTo. In no way political. 

Mr. TA^•ENNER. Just a moment. 

Miss ZiTO. I never heard of anything in 1944. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Then answer my question specifically instead of 
indirectly. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1944 when you 
were naturalized ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel. ) 

Miss ZiTO. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. TAMi:NNER. Then you do know something about what the situa- 
tion was in 1944 if you are taking the fiftli amendment. That is con- 
trary to what you said a moment ago. If you knew nothing about it, 
there could be no possibility of your believing that you are in danger 
of prosecution for anything that occurred at that time. 

(The witiiess confers with her counsel.) 

^Ir. Ta\enner. What did you mean when you said you didn't know 
anything in 1944? 

Miss ZiTO. I didn't understand the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 239 

Are you now a member of the Commimist Party ? 

Miss ZiTO. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Taa^nner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Kearney? 

Mr. Kearney. No questions. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

The committee will take an informal recess. 

(Wliereupon, a short recess was taken. Committee members pres- 
ent: Representatives Willis and Kearney.) 

(The committee was reconvened at the expiration of the recess. 
Committee members present: Representatives Willis and Kearney.) 

Mr. W1L1.TS. The subcommittee will resume hearings, and counsel 
will call the next witness, 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Stanley Michalowski. 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I do. 

I have a request here, a written request to the committee, that no 
pictures be taken. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF STANLEY J. MICHALOWSKI, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JEROME CAPLAN 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I noticed also, Mr. Chairman, that you 
granted the request of the last witness, but they were taking pictures. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. Mr. Chairman, is my request granted 
on the pictures ? 

Mr. Willis. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. Stanley MichaloAvski. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your last name, please. 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. M-i-c-h-a-1-o-w-s-k-i. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel accompanying the witness please iden- 
tify himself for the record? 

^Ir. Caplan. Jerome Caplan, C-a-p-1-a-n, 37 Lewis Street, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and where were you born, JNIr. Michalowski ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I was born in New Britain, July 27, 
1918. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I reside in New Britain. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation or profession ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I am a lathe operator. 

Mr. Tavenner. At what plant? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. Pratt- Whitney in West Hartford. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what type of manufacturing are they engaged ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. They build lathes, milling machines, 
gages, and so forth — plug gages. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been employed there ? 



240 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Stanley Mkjhalowski, 1 have been there for the past 15 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly, what 
your formal educational training has been. 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I spent 8 years in a parochial 
school — Sacred Heart, of New Britain. I spent 4 years in the New 
Britain High School. I am a graduate of New Britain Senior High 
School. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. During the 15 years of your work at that plant, 
were you a member of the union having contractual rights with that 
company ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel). 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What union is that ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. The UAW-CIO. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any official position in the union ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I did not hold any elective position 
in the union. 

Mr. Tavenner. What other positions have you held ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I had a position as chairman of the 
FEPC committee. I was chairman of the constitution committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Michalowski, are you acquainted with an ad- 
dress in New Haven, 37 Howe Street ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley^ Michalowski. No, I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you attended any meetings of the Communist 
Party in New Haven at 37 Howe Street ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. To the best of my knowledge, I have 
not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you attended any Communist Party meeting 
in New Haven? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. To the best of my knowledge, I have 
not. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say to the best of your knowledge ? 

Mr, Stanley' Michalowski. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. By that, do you mean you are in doubt as to whether 
or not you did ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley^ Michalowski. I have no present recollection of ever 
attending any meetings of such type in New Haven. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you attended a meeting of that type in 
Hartford? 

(Tlie witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I decline to answer that question on the 
ground of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me see if I can refresh your recollection as to 
New Haven. Or, rather, let me put it this way because I may be 
wrong as to where the meeting was held : 

Do you recall in 1953 that there was a meeting of the Trade Union 
Commission of the Communist Party, the purpose of which was to 
arrive at some decision as to the delegates to be sent to the CIO con- 
vention ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 241 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I decline to answer that on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Taatenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether such a 
meeting was held in New Haven. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I decline to answer that on the fifth 
amendment — on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavexner. A moment ago you told us that you did not recall 
ever having attended a Communist Party meeting in New Haven. 
Do you still stick to that, that you do not recall? Or has your mind 
now been refreshed by my reference to the Trade Union Commission 
meeting of the Communist Party ? 

( The Avitness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I still don't recall any meetings in New 
Haven. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then was the meeting of the Trade Union Com- 
mission held in Hartford instead of New Haven ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. Mr. Chairman, I did not say that. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Will you now say it ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I decline to answer on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Will you tell the comimttee, please, whether or not 
the leadership in the Communist Party in 1953 endeavored to have 
appointed as delegates by the union, CIO union, to the CIO conven- 
tion in that year persons who were members of the Communist Party, 
or, if they could not succeed in getting their own membership elected 
as delegates, then to get sympathizers with the Communist Party m 
the CIO, or at least persons who could be influenced by the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I refuse to answer the question because 
of the rights granted me by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. The information that the committee has is this : this 
was not just merely a meeting of representatives from Communist 
Party groups organized within trade unions, but that it was a meeting 
of persons selected as delegates from all groups of the Communist 
Party in the area, which means that the Communist Party decisions 
reached were that of the Communist Party itself, not of any special 
group within the Communist Party. 

I want to check on that. I want to ascertain if that is correct. 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. The same answer as previously. I de- 
cline to answer on the fifth amendment, on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a "nominating 
petition for November 1946 elections under the title and designation 
of Communist Party." It purports to be a petition "for Representa- 
tive at Large Michael A. Russo." The beginning paragraph is this: 

The undersigned being duly qualified electors of the State of Connecticut 
pursuant to the provision of the law and the statutes of said State of Connecticut, 
hereby petition and request the foregoing names of candidates and the fore- 



242 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

going enumeration of office, together witli ttie designated nominees therefor be 
regularly placed upon the ballot or ballot labels for voting machines at the elec- 
tion to be held November 5, 1946 under the party designation of Communist 
Party. 

Will you examine the copy, please, and advise the committee as to 
whose name appears on the second line. 

(The Avitness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. My name appears on this petition. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that your handwriting? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. Yes, that is my handwriting. 

I would like to say that thousands of people signed the same petition 
for this candidate. 

Mr. Tavi^nner. That is correct. 

I would like to ask you, at the time you signed tliat petition in 1946, 
were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. And refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. And refuse to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. T offer the document in evidence and ask that it be 
marked "Stanley Michalowski Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. WiLi.is. The document will be received in evidence and so 
marked. 

(The document refen'ed to was marked "Stanley Michalowski Ex- 
hibit No. 1," and filed for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe during the course of the Smith Act case 
you were identified by a witness by the name of Antonio Pires as 
having been a member of the Communist Party. You recall that; do 
you not ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. Yes ; I recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was his identification of you correct ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. That was in 1954. 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I invoke the fifth amendment and 
refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Taat2nner. Were you acquainted with Antonio Pires ? 

Mr. Stanley Michai-owski. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were active, were you not, in the International 
Workers Order? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I wish to invoke the fifth amendment 
and refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Weren't you, in the year 1947, elected as a delegate 
to the national convention from Lodge 934 of the International Work- 
ers Order ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I refuse to answer on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Taatinner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1947? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I refuse to answer on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tamsnner. Do you have knowledge at this time, this very year, 
of activities of the Communist Partv in Hartford ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 243 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Caplan. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Tavennek. Very well. I will repeat the question. 

Mr. Caplan. The question is 

Do 3'^ou mean present activities? Or does he have present knowl- 
edge of present or past activities ? 

Mr. Ta\t,nner. I will restate the question. 

Do you have knowledge today of Communist Party activities in 
Hartford today, at this time ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Maybe I can make the question a little easier. 

Mr. Caplan. We do understand it now. 

Mr. Tavenner. You understand. All right. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley JMichalowski. No, I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know who the present head of the Com- 
munist Party in Hartford is ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. No, I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wlio was the head of the Communist Party there 
last year, in 1956 ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley ISIichalowski. I would like to invoke my privilege 
in the fifth amendment and refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at any time the head of the Communist 
Party in Hartford ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. No, I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1956? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I wish to invoke the fifth amendment 
on that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
September of 1956 when these hearings were held by this committee 
in New Haven ? 

Mr. Stanley JVIichalowski. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party 
yesterday ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean you refuse to tell this committee whether 
or not you were a member yesterday ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. The same answer, 

Mr. Ta\-enner. You mean by that, that you refuse to answer? 

Mr. Stanley JMichalowski. Just a minute. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I wasn't a member of the Communist 
Party yesterday. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
January 1 of 1957? 



244 CORIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley ISIichalowski. I refuse to answer on the gi'ounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party last 
week? 

(The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. This is a tortuous way to get at the facts, but unless 
you will just 

Mr. Stanley IMichalow^ski. I will have to use the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party day 
before yesterday ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I will have to use the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now^, you were not a member of the Communist 
Party yesterday, but you will not state whether you were a member 
of the Communist Party day before yesterday. 

Well, what happened night before last or day before yesterday that 
would make your decision hinge on this particular time? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. Mr. Chairman, I would like to state 
that I did not state I was a member of the Communist Party at any 
time. I just stated that I refused to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment in regard to my past activities, and I stated I am not 
a Communist Party member now. 

You are implying that I am a Communist, I was a Communist Party 
member yesterday, or the day before yesterday, and so forth. I say 
that is not the case, and I made no such statement. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am assuming that you are acting in good faith 
in saying that you refuse to answer whether you were a member of the 
Communist Party day before yesterday because to do so might tend 
to incriminate you. 

I want to know what has happened to make your answer different 
as to the following day. That tests your good faith in the claim that 
you are making. 

Mr. Stanley JSIichalowski. But you are implying that I was a 
Communist Party member in the past. I have not admitted to such 
a thing. And j^our question implies that I was, 

Mr, Tavenner. Were you a member of the Coimnunist Party day 
before yesterday ? If there is any question about it, let's answer. 

Mr. Stanley JVIichalowski. I decline to answer the question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. And yesterda}^ you were not a member. 

Now what happened either yesterday or the day before yesterday 
to make that difference in your answer ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I decline to answer on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. In light of your answers, I must ask whether there 
is any plan or scheme on your part or the Communist Party — leave 
the Communist Party out of it and say on your part — to deny member- 
ship in the Communist Party for the purposes of this hearing before 
the committee. 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I would like to say that you are imply- 
ing it again, and I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 245 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, will you be a meinber of the Communist Party 
tomorrow ? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I don't know if I will be alive tomor- 
row. How can you tell the future ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I think we can assume that you will be in good 
liealth tomorrow as you are today. 

If you are in good health, will you be considered a member of the 
Communist Party tomorrow? 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. No, I won't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stanley Michalowski. I decline to answer on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Kearney ? 

Mr. Kearney. No questions. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LADISLAUS JOSEPH MICHALOWSKI, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, ROBERT SATTER 

Mr. Taatenner. May I ask you to exchange seats. 

Mr. Satter. The witness has a bad ear, and he says he can't hear. 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. My ear is defective, and I have asked 
fo exchange with counsel. 

I have a request that there be no photographs or TV pictures taken 
while I am testifying. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please. 

Mr. Satter. May I just inquire wliether the photographers heard 
this request and whether it is granted or not, please? 

Mr. Kearney. The rules of the committee in that respect are only 
while the witness is testifying. There is no rule to prevent pictures 
being taken prior to testimony. 

Mr. Willis. That is right, for this very simple reason : before a 
witness starts to testify, we have no jurisdiction or control over him. 
The free press must operate. 

However, when the witness commences to testify, then he is under 
our jurisdiction; and if he has asked for the privilege of not being 
photogi-aphed, it will be accorded him. The rules will be enforced. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please. 

Mr. Ladislaus jNIiciialowskt. Ladislaus Michalowski. 

Mr. TAiTiNNER. Will .you spell your name, please. 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. Jj-a-d-i-s-l-a-u-s ALi-c-h-a-1-o-w- 
s-k-i. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you ha\-e a niidilk' iniliul i 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. J. Joseph. 



246 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I was born in New Britain, Conn. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you have counsel accompanying 
you. Will counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Satter. Robert Satter, Hartford, Conn. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER, Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
occupation is. 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I am a machine operator at the Fenn 
Manufacturing Co., in Newington. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state the name of the company again. 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. Fenn Manufacturing Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what business are they engaged ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. They, I believe, make helicopter parts 
as a subcontractor for another outfit, primarily I believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where is that located ? In Hartford ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. In Newington, Conn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you move forward a little. Then I think 
the microphone will pick up your voice. 

Will you tell the committee briefly what your formal educational 
training has been. 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I went to parochial school in New 
Britain, through 6 grades, and then to the junior and senior high 
schools in New Britain, and I graduated from senior high school in 
1933. And that has been the extent of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been employed at the plant 
where you are now working ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. Approximately 21/2 years. 

Mr. Ta^t<:nner. Prior to that how were you employed ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I worked as a machine operator at 
the Sessions Clock Co. in Forestville, Conn. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over how long a period of time ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. Oh, perhaps 2 or 3 years. I don't 
remember exactly. Roughly 2 or 3 years. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you give me the date when you were working 
at Forestville ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. It would be 1952, 1951 I believe; 
around that time. Between 1950 and 1952. 

Mr. Tam5nner. 1952 to 1954. And then from 1954 on you were 
employed where ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. At the Fenn Manufacturing Co. I 
m ay not be exactly right. Let me just think of the dates. 

Mr. Willis. The dates don't have to be fully accurate. We want 
a chronology of your employment to the best of your recollection. 
That is all. 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. It is the correct chronology, but I 
would say 2i^ years would bring me to 1954, roughly. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where is that plant located ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. It is located in Forestville, Conn. 

Mr. Tavenner. The second plant is? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. The second plant. 

Mr. Tavenner. How far is that fi-om New Hartford — Forestville? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. Forestville from New Britain, you 
mean ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 247 

Mr. Tavtnner. Well, from both ? 

Mr. Ladislaus JMichalowski. Well, New Hartford. I don't know, 
because I don't know how far New Hartford — I know it is a small 
town in Connecticut, but I don't know its exact location. From New 
Britain it is about 8 or 9 miles. 

Mr. Ta\t:xxer. Mr. Michalowski, were you a delegate from a Com- 
munist Party group organization to a Trade Union Commission of the 
Communist Party in 1953 ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer that question on 
the grounds of the priveleges granted me by the hfth amendment. 

Mr. TAVENNjnt. Well, I am not asking you now whether you were 
present, but I will ask you whether 3'ou know wliere such a meeting 
was held, whether in New Haven or Hartford. 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer that question on 
the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\texner. Did you at any time attend a Commmiist Party 
meeting in New Haven ? 

]Mr. Ladislaus IVIichalowski. I decline to answer that question on 
the grounds of the fifth amendment, the privileges granted me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever attend a Communist Party meeting 
in Hartford? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer that on the same 
grounds, 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a nominating peti- 
tion to place the name of Michael A. Russo on the ticket in 1946 for 
Representative at Large under the party designation of Communist 
Party, and I will ask you to look at the 12th line in that petition and 
state whose name appears there. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ladislaus IVIichalowski. I decline to answer that question 
based on the 

Mr. Ta\'enner. My question was merely whose name appears there. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. The name that appears there is Lad- 
islaus Michalowski. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. You didn't read all of the name. Didn't you leave 
out the middle initials? 

Mr. Ladislaus JVIichalowski. Ladislaus J. Michalowski. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. That is precisely your name, is it not? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. Yes, that is my name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that your signature? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer that question on 
tlie grounds of the first amendment and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. On the date that the petition was signed in the year 
1946, were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Ladislaus IVIichalowski. I decline to answer that question on 
the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta^t:nner. I offer the document in evidence and ask that it be 
marked "Ladislaus Michalowski Exhibit No, 1." 

Mr. Willis, The document will be leceived in evidence and so 
marked. 

(The document referred to was marked "Ladislaus Michalowski 
Exhibit No. 1," and filed for the information of the committee,) 



248 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Tavennek. Are you acquainted with an address in New Haven 
known as 37 Howe Street ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer that on the 
grounds of the privileges granted me by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavexner. Have you attended meetings of any kind at 37 Howe 
Street in New Haven ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer that on the same 
gromids. 

Mr. Ta"\t3nner. Are yon acquainted with Mike Eusso? 

Mr. Ladislaus jMiciialowski. I decline to answer that on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Robert Crane, C-r-a-n-e? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. Not to my knowledge, no. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Are you acquainted with Pearl Russo? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Mike Russo and Pearl Russo 
or either of them conducted training courses in the Communist Party 
at 37 Howe Street? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I don't know whether they did 
or not. 

jSIr. Tavenner. Did you take part in any conference of the Com- 
munist Party designed to influence the selection of delegates from 
the CIO union to the CIO convention in 1953 ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer that on the 
groimds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVill you tell the committee, please, who the head 
of the Communist Party in Connecticut is today? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I know fi-om newspaper reports that 
Sidney Taylor speaks as the head of the Communist Party in Con- 
necticut. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Do you have any direct and personal information 
of your own on that subject? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer on tlie grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party at this 
time? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer tluit question on 
the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what knowledge 
you have regarding the activities of the Communist Party in your 
particular area at this time ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalow^ski. I decline to answer that on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. By that I mean in what fields are tliey concentrating 
their effort? That is the principal thing that I want to know at this 
time. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 249 

M7\ Ladislaus Michalowski. My answer is the same. _ 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the strength of the Communist Party in 
your immediate area? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer it on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tamsnnek. In other words, you refuse to talk anything about 
communism at all. That is virtually the position that you are taking ; 
is it not? 

(The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. If you ask me any specific question 
like that I would 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Yes. If I ask you any specific question, you will 
refuse to answer. That is really what you mean ; is it not ? 

Mr. Ladislaus JSIichalowski. You will have to ask me the question, 
and then I would have to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not think it is of any use. 

I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Do you know Sidney Taylor to be in this room today ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. I decline to answer that on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Did he hand you or others in the corridor this morning 
any literature of any kind ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. No. 

Mr. Wilms. He didn't hand any to you ? 

Mr. Ladislaus Michalowski. He handed nothing to me. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Kearney ? 

Mr. Kearney. No questions. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. As indicated at the beginning of the hearing yesterday, 
the testimony we received yesterday and today was a continuation 
and completion of the hearings commenced here in September of last 
year. At that time, because of the press for time and requests by 
witnesses for nonappearance that we regarded as meritorious, it was 
impossible to complete the hearings. Hence, the purpose of the hear- 
ings we had yesterday and today. 

The witnesses who took the affirmative on the question of com- 
munism and the operations and machinations of the conspiracy in 
this area took the stand and disclosed their knowledge last year. As 
I said, the purpose of these 2 days' hearings was to complete the in- 
vestigation in this area at this time. 

I want, on behalf of the committee, to thank Federal Judge 
Anderson for the use of his courtroom, the marshal and his assistants, 
and the f)ress, radio, and TV people, and particularly do I want to 
thank and, moreover, to commend the United States attorney in this 
area, Mr. Cohen, who cooperated so very kindly and effectively witli 
us and the members of our staff. 

This w^ill complete tlie list of witnesses we are going to examine at 
these hearings. 



250 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Kearney, would you care to make any kind of a statement? 

Mr. Kearney. No, I have notliing further to say, only to reiterate 
what the chairman has already stated, that j'ou have mj' thanks also, 
the individuals named and the press. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Counsel, is there anything else 1 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Is there anything further we should saj' for the record? 

Mr. Tavenner. I think not. 

Mr. Willis. Then that completes the hearing. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 25 a. m., Wednesday, February 27, 1957, the 
subcommittee was recessed subject to the call of the Cnair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Barnes, Joe 196. 197, 233 

Barnes, Lois 211, 219, 236, 237 

Caplan, Jerome 239 

Collins, Raymond T 224-226 (testimony) 

Crane, Robert 248 

Cuneo, John R 206 

Demow, Joe 202 

Eldns, Robert 201, 235 

Goldring, Jake 197, 229 

Green, Gilbert 190 

Gruber, Sam 215 

Hall, Duter 211 

Hardyman, Hugh 212, 213 

Kent, Harold 232, 236 

MacLeech, Bert 180, 225, 226, 228, 232, 233 

MacLeech, Paula (Mrs. Bert MacLeech) 225,226 

Marder, Nancy 225, 226 

Michalowski, Ladislaus Joseph 179, 180, 245-249 (testimony) 

Michalowski, Stanley 179,180,202,239-245 (testimony) 

Paumi, Rowena R 199, 204, 205, 210, 227, 229, 233, 234, 236, 237 

Peterson, Frank 229, 237 

Pires, Antonio 242 

Richter, Sam 179, 180, 196, 215, 219, 226-230 ( testimony ), 233 

Rogers, Addie (Mrs. Harold Rogers) 205 

Rogers, Harold L 179,202-205 (testimony) 

Roraback, Catherine G 183, 231 

Rosenberg, Ethel 217, 218 

Rosenberg, Julius 217, 218 

Russo, Michael A 241,247,248 

Russo, Pearl 248 

Satter. Robert 245 

Schire, Marge 211 

Scribner, David 191 

Stone, Martha 186 

Sykes, Mattie 179,183-191 (testimony) 

Tate, Jim 202 

Taylor, Sid 201, 249 

Uphaus, Willard 225, 226 

Van Bueren, Elsie. {See Willcox, Elsie.) 

Weed, Verne 179,191-202 (testimony), 211 

Willard, Josephine 185, 186, 188, 237 

Willcox, Anita 179, 213, 214 

Willcox, Elsie (Mrs. Roger Willcox ; nee Van Bueren) __ 179, 206-223 (testimony) 

Willcox, Henry 179, 213, 214 

Zito, Louise 179,180,205,231-239 (testimony) 



ii INDEX 

OKGANIZ ATIO.N S 

American Peace Crusade . 2<>7 

Hartford 194 

Asian-Pacific Conference. (See Peace Conference of the Asian and Pa- 
cific Regions.) 

Children's Services of Connecticut lid, 102, 200, 202 

Children's Village 193 

Civil Rights Congress, Connecticut 210 

Communist Party, Connecticut 248 

Bridgeport : 

Bridgeport Club 237 

Cell within General Electric Co 185-187 

City Committee 186, 219 

East End group 237 

12-B group 237 

Hartford 243 

New Haven 197 

Trade Union Commission 240,241,247 

Connecticut Peace Council 179,206,207,210,211,215 

Connecticut Peace Crusade 206 

Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights— 180, 193-196, 210, 224-226, 228, 232, 233 
Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, United : 

Bridgeport, Conn 187, 188 

Electrical Workers, International Union of, CIO 184, 187, 188 

Freedom of the Press Committee 198 

General Electric Co., Bridgeijort, Conn 179, 184, 185, 18S 

Peace Conference of the Asian and Pacific Regions (Peiping, China, 19.52) _ 211, 

212 

Southern California Peace Crusade 212 

University of Colorado 192 

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