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Full text of "Investigation of Communist propaganda among prisoners of war in Korea, (Save Our Sons Committee) Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session, June 18 and 19, 1956"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



ilvE 


lis 





GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 
AMONG PRISONERS OF WAR IN KOREA 

(Save Our Sons Committee) 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF EEPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JUNE IS AND 19, 1956 



Printed for the use of tlie Committee on Un-American Activities 



(INCLUDING INDEX) 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
81683 WASHINGTON : 1956 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARIC 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENl 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, JE., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN B. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Richard Arens, Director 
n 



CONTENTS 



June 18, 1956 : 

Testimony of— Pae« 

Anzelm A. Czarnowski 5085 

Mrs. Elizabeth Mitterer 5100 

June 19, 195G : 

Testimony of — 

Florence Cowgiel 5111 

Afternoon session : 

Florence Gowgiel (resumed) 5124 

Dale E. Jones 5125 

Erdis Spencer 5134 

Florence Gowgiel (resumed) 5139 

Mrs. Mary Phillips Buckner 5147 

Index i 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law GOl, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

RuxE X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

( q ) ( 1 ) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) Tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is autliorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (ii) 
the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 
♦ ♦**•♦* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress : 

« * * * • * * * 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make, from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session ) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG 
PRISONERS OF WAR IN KOREA 

(Save Our Sons Committee) 



MONDAY, JUNE 18, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 

COMMITI'EE ON Un-AaIERICAN ACTIVITIES, 

Washington^ D. C. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 2 : 07 p. m. in the caucus room, Old House Office 
Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Walter, Doyle, Willis, 
and Kearney. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

Let the record show that I have appointed a subcommittee consist- 
ing of Representatives Clyde Doyle, of California; Edwin E. Willis, 
of Louisiana ; Bernard W. Kearney, of New York ; and myself, Francis 
E. Walter, of Pennsylvania, as chairman. 

The purpose of this hearing is to investigate the extent, character 
and objects of un-American propaganda activities which emanate 
from foreign countries or are of a domestic origin and which attack 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Con- 
stitution. 

Call your first witness, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Czarnowski, will you come forward, please, sir. 

The Chairman. Mr. Czarnowski, will you raise your right hand, 
please. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give shall 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ANZELM A. CZARNOWSKI 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Czarnowski, will you spell your name please 
sir. 

Mr. Czarnowski. A-n-z-e-1-m. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your middle initial? 

Mr. Czarnowski. A. for August. 

Mr. Tavenner. And your last name is Czarnowski. Will you spell 
that, please? 

Mr. Czarnowski. C-z-a-r-n-o-w-s-k-i. 

Mr. Tavenner. "VSHien and where were you bom, Mr. Czarnowski? 

Mr. Czarnowski. In Poland, a former part of Germany. 

5085 



5086 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Tavenner. When? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. August 12, 1896. 

Mr. Tavennek. When did you come to the United States? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. In 1914. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe that you agreed to the request of the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation to perform a service for the United 
States Government by entering the Communist Party ; is that true ? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you become a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. In 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you remained in the Communist Party 
from 1944 until 1955 ? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time of the Lightf oot trial ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was because you were used as a witness in that 
case that your identity as a person working for the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation became known? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. By reason of that you had to terminate your serv- 
ices? 

]Mr. CzARNOWSKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t2nner. Will you tell the connnittee very briefly the cir- 
cumstances under which you became employed by the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation ? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. It was during the war. I have noticed Nazi 
propaganda, anti-American propaganda taking place which I re- 
ported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. I have done this from 
the time the war started until the war ended. Recognizing my in- 
terest in the service of my country, they asked me to help them out 
to counteract Communist subversion. 

(Representative Doyle entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat group or branch of the Communist Party 
did you become a member of ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. I attended meetings of the Communist Party in 
1944 after I became acquainted with Communist leaders who worked 
in the same plant that I did, but I was assigned to the Argo branch 
after, I believe, they felt I was acceptable. 

The Chairman. Argo ? 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. Is that Argo, 111. ? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this a branch of the Communist Party in Argo, 
111., where you then resided ? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you still reside in Argo ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t2nner. How long had you lived in Argo ? 
Mr. Czarnowski. Since 1927. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat was your employment at the time that you 
became a member of the Argo branch of the Communist Party ? 



COlVIMUlSriST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5087 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. I was a sign painter at the Electromotive Division 
of the General Motors Corp. and, being a sign painter, I had the 
right-of-way in every department of that plant. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us briefly about this branch of the 
Communist Party with which you were affiliated, that is, what type of 
people, were the people employed in industry, or what ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. The Argo branch was chiefly a community branch, 
but I also attended a Communist branch that had a nest in local 719, 
UAW-CIO. The Communists in the plant met separately. I at- 
tended both meetings for a while. 

Mr. Tavenner. So you attended meetings of a neighborhood branch 
and also of an industrial branch of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. I was a member of the community branch of the 
Argo branch, but I also attended the meetings called by Coimnunists 
in that industry. 

Mr. Tan^enner. I see. During the period of time that you were in 
the Communist Party from 1944: to 1955, did you at any time become 
familiar with an organization known as Save Our Sons ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta^-enner. I believe it was called Save Our Sons Committee. 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes. 

Mr. Ta^tsnner. Who was the head of that organization ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Florence Gowgiel, of Argo, 111. 

Mr. Ta^t:nner. Will you spell her last name ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. G-ow-g-i-e-1. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long had you Imown her before the formation 
of the Save Our Sons Committee ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I knew her as a member of the Communist Party 
since 1946, and I had known her before she was a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Ta^t^nner. What branch or organized group of the Communist 
Party was it that she belonged to ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. She belonged to the Argo branch of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that the same branch of which you were a 
member ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t;nner. Will you tell the committee, please, what you can 
recall about Mrs. Gowgiel's activity in the Communist Party prior to 
the time of the formation of Save Our Sons Committee ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Prior to this she was active in the PTA. She 
was chief organizer of a conspiracy with a local school board member 
against the school board, district 104, and succeeded in stopping the 
school funds of that school board for 1 year. She solicited the sup- 
port of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People because they charged the school board of segregation, but the 
NAACP lawyer, the lawyer of that organization, gave just one look 
at the situation and withdrew his organization, charging that this was 
a communistic conspiracy and this organization doesn't want to have 
anything to do with it. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. When was that ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. It was around 1949 or 1950, I believe. On this 
school board 104 won the case and the funds were restored. 

81683—56 2 



5088 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you know that Mrs. Gowgiel was engaged 
in Communist Party activities while she was doing this work with the 
PTA of which you have spoken ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. She reported these things at the Communist Party 
meetings. One meeting I recall in her house, she started the meeting 
with the playing of the Communist national anthem, the Communist . 
Internationale. She reported that she had discussed the situation 
with a particular school board member and the top Communist leader- 
ship, and then she proposed a plan of action that was to be taken. 

I had not taken part at those meetings at the school board. They 
attended school board meetings and heckled and disrupted, according 
to the people who attended. Because I didn't attend, I was bawled 
out by the section organizer of another section that had nothing to do 
with the section that she belonged to. What I mean is she belonged 
to one section and I belonged to the other section. 

The Chairman. By section you mean section of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. Of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do I understand, then, that she was not only a 
member of the Communist Party at that time, but that she was playing 
a leading role in this particular activity of the Communist Party? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. Yes, sir ; she was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there anj^ other organizations in which the 
Communist Party was active and in which Mrs. Florence Gowgiel took 
a leading part before the formation of the Save Our Sons Committee? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. She was active in the American Peace Crusade, 
and after she was busy with the Save Our Sons I have taken her place 
at the American Peace Crusade. I attended those meetings of the 
American Peace Crusade. I understand she still has some connection 
with it and works on it. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated she was active with the American Peace 
Crusade. How do you know that ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. She made a point at the meeting about the ac- 
tivities of the American Peace Crusade and asked aid and help from 
the Communist Party to distribute such literature — engage in card- 
writing to the President, Senators, the Congressmen, and distribute 
peace petitions and many other activities. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall when it was that the organization 
known as Save Our Sons Committee was formed ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. At meetings of the Argo branch when her son- 
in-law returned, who was paralyzed during the Korean campaign, she 
had mentioned several times about this war. It was in August or 
September of 1952 tjiat press releases were distributed announcing 
the establishment of an organization which was supposed to take place 
on October 25, 1952. She announced then that she was going to 
Springfield and help organize this organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a minute. You say she announced. 

Mr. Czarnowski. She told that to the branch members ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was at a meeting of the Communist Party, a 
branch meeting ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. And that she needed the Communist 
Party to furnish or pay her expenses. The Argo branch of the Com- 
mimist Party gave her $20 to cover the expense to Springfield. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5089 

Mr. Tavenner. For the trip to Springfield for the founding con- 
vention of Save Our Sons ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Ta^t:nner. You say that founding convention took place on 
October 25, 1952? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was during the period of the Korean war? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you tell the committee, please, if you know, 
what the Communist Party line was at that time, that is, in the fall 
of 1952, with regard to the Korean war ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. In that respect I would like to get back to the 
beginning when the Korean war started. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. 

Mr. Czarnowski. The Korean war started some time in June 1950, 
I believe. Soon after that there were meetings, emergency meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Of the Communist Party. I attended one of the 
Communist Party meetings in which Communist Party leaders said, 
admitted that the North Koreans have attacked South Korea for 
the purpose of liberating the South Koreans from the yoke of Ameri- 
can imperialism. Of course, we couldn't tell that to the people. We 
must tell the people to leave discussion on that because some of 
them didn't agree to the approach and they came to the conclusion 
that party members should tell the workers and the people, leave 
Korea to the Koreans, and since the Soviet Union has no soldiers there, 
our boys have no business there and should not be sacrificed. 

But, as Communist Party members, we knew that the North Koreans 
invaded South Korea or attacked South Korea for the purpose of 
liberating South Korea from the yoke of American imperialism. 

Soon after that the American Peace Crusade was organized for 
the purpose — you see, they had never expected the United Nations to 
intervene. They had to do something. Since this failed, they organ- 
ized the American Peace Crusade to sabotage the war effort here. 

Mr. Willis. You mean the Communists did not expect the U. N. 
to intervene ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. So they had to attack it via the American Peace 
Crusade. 

Mr. Czarnowski. That is correct. They organized American Peace 
Crusade to sabotage. To get public support of this organization they 
were seeking or offered top ]obs, such as chairman or president or 
something on that order to non-Communists or, if possible, naive or 
famous or noted people. One of these victims — I call them victims — 
one of these men was Robert Morss Lovett, former Governor General 
of the Virgin Islands, who headed the American Peace Crusade in 
its early days. To this day I do not believe he was a Communist. 

Then this boy came back maimed, paralyzed, from Korea 

Mr. Ta^t^nner. You are speaking now of the son-in-law of Mrs. 
Florence Gowgiel ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes. Soon after that the organization of the Save 
Our Sons was organized. 



5090 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Ta^^enner. Since you mentioned this son-in-law, do you have 
any information as to whether or not he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. No. According to Florence Gowgiel, who made 
some of the reports— and I know from other people — this is a won- 
derful couple. Her daughter is a wonderful girl, and his parents 
are nice people. They have nothing to do with communism. Florence 
Gowgiel admitted to us that her daughter telephoned to her pleading 
with her to leave her alone, not to connect her in any way with any 
Communist campaign. 

Mr. Tavenister. I will ask you to explain the Communist Party 
line as of the time of the fall of 1952, when Save Our Sons was 
organized. You have gone back to the beginning of the Korean war 
and you have told us about the formation of the American Peace 
Crusade for the purpose of sabotaging the war effort of the United 
States as a Communist Party objective. 

Now will you tell the connnittee, please, in wliat way the Communist 
Party thought it could sabotage the war effort? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. According to Florence Gowgiel, first of all, she 
reported that she had been corresponding with mothers, with parents 
of boys in Korea. She received addresses from these parents of 
their boys in Korea. So she corresponded with the boys in Korea, 
also with some GI's who were prisoners of war in China. One of 
the boys that returned here was asked by her 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. If you don't know that your- 
self. I don't know whether you are speaking now from your o'wn 
knowledge or not. 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. I was told about this boy returning. I know the 
name of the boy. She asked him to join the Communist Party, and 
he refused. 

But then there were campaigns such as the distribution of petitions 
and the organizing of delegates to Senators and Congressmen. I was 
a member of one of these delegations to Senator Paul Douglas. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had the Save Our Sons Committee been established 
at the time you are now speaking of ? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. Yes, sir. When we went to Senator Douglas' 
office in Cliicago we w^ere interviewed by a Mr. Anderson, the secre- 
tary of Mr. Douglas. Florence Gowgiel told Mr. Anderson that this 
committee, this delegation represents the fathers and mothers of boys 
in Korea. The fact is that as far as our community was concerned 
none of them knew they were going. In the second place, the ma- 
jority of this delegation were all Communists. 

Anderson said that he — pardon me. I am ahead of myself. 

Florence Gowgiel said that she represents the mothers and fathers 
and that thej want the war stopped, the firing stopped, right now 
and negotiate later, which was the Communist line of peace negoti- 
ations. 

Mr. Anderson, tactfully, said that the United States is doing its 
best to quit the war, to stop the war, but that the Soviet Union has 
its hands in it. 

A man by the name of Bernstein, who was a member of this dele- 
gation, said that that isn't true, that the fact is that the Soviet 
Union has not a soldier over there is proof enough for him or is 
enough proof that the Soviet Union hasn't anything to do with 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5091 

this war and that our boys are being sacrificed in Korea to protect 
the interests of the American monopolists and imperialists. 

Mr. Tax-enner. American monopolists and imperialists ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes ; their interests. 

To this Florence Gowgiel replied that the Soviet Union has no 
soldiers there, and that is about all I recall. 

The Chairman. How many people were in this delegation ? 

Mr. CzARxowsKi. There were five. 

The Chairman. How many were Communists ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. I would say 4, but I would swear to 3. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Now let us go back a moment. Let me interrupt 
what was being done after the Save Our Sons Committee was formed. 
Let us go back to the time that Mrs. Florence Gowgiel appeared at 
your branch meeting and obtained the $20 for expense money to the 
founding convention in October 1952. Do you recall what she said 
at that time as to the purpose of this organization, what it was to 
be formed for, what they sought to accomplish ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. She said that it was the intention to form the 
organization of sweethearts, mothers, and wives of servicemen who 
were in Korea and others who were about to be sent and any one who 
could support it. 

Mr. Tavenxer. What did she say they proposed to do or to try to 
accomplish ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. They proposed to end the war immediately. 

Mr. Willis. And negotiate later, you say ? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKi. Yes, negotiate later. 

Mr. Willis. That was the Communist Party line? 

Mr. CzARKOw^sKi. That was the Communist Party line; yes. I 
mentioned that before. 

Mr. Kearxet. You mean the Save Our Sons organization proposed 
to end the war immediately, is that it ? 

Mr. CzARXowsKi. Yes. That was the line proposed first by the 
American Peace Crusade and the Save Our Sons had the same pro- 
gram, to stop the war now and negotiate later. 

Mr. Kearxet. How did they intend to do that ? How did they in- 
tend to stop the war ? Did they want us to surrender ? 

Mr. CzARX^owsKi. Nothing else but. They wanted to have our 
troops withdrawn from Korea, leaving the South Koreans at the mercy 
of the Communists. 

Mr. Ta^^x^ner. How did they think they could help to bring that 
about ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. By influencing the people in the United States, 
by organizing. There is one thing I would like to explain. I was 
approached by two Communist members of the industrial branch 
where I was a member. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Who were they ? 

Mr. Czarxowski. Charlie Wilson and Ed Klinger. 

Ed Klinger was a close associate and collaborator in Communist 
activities in Argo Avith Florence Gowgiel. He attended with her 
the school board meetings and so on. 

Mr. Tavex^xer. Were these two Communist Party members that 
you spoke of members of the union ? 

Mr. Czarxowski. They were members of Local 719, UAW-CIO. 



5092 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Tavenner. It is safe to say that the Secretary of Defense, 
Charles Wilson, has never been a member of that union ? 

Mr. CzABNOwsKi. Yes. These two men came over to my place and 
they ordered me — I mean ordered — to make a speech at the union, 
knowing that I had a boy in Korea. They came up to me and said, 
"Czar, you are going to make a speech at the next union meeting." 
I would try to wiggle myself out, and I said "I never made a speech." 
But knowing the Communist line that they don't take "no" for an 
answer and don't like anybody who would retreat, I suggested if you 
will write the speech for me, I will make it. I will study it and make 
it. So they wrote the speech for me, which I turned in to the Fed- 
eral Bureau, and then I made the speech at the local union. Florence 
Gowgiel and Henry Noyes was at that meeting also. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wait a minute. She was a member of the union ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. No; that is what I meant to explain. I was a 
member of the union. They could not refuse the floor to me, so I 
spoke. But they did not permit Florence Gowgiel and Henry Noyes 
to speak because they knew that this was a communistic campaign. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Florence Gowgiel and this man 

Mr. Czarnowski. Henry Noyes. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Noyes? N-o-y-e-s? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Endeavor to get recognition to speak at that union 
meeting ? Did they try to get it ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes. They talked to the union leadership, but 
they would not permit it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why wouldn't they permit it ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Because they knew it was Communist inspired, 
that there was something wrong. Even after I spoke they told the 
leader from the regional office of UAW-CIO, a man by the name of 
Bob Voss, said he sympathized with Czarnowski but he believes that 
this is Communist inspired and after all it is not union business, that 
this is business for somebody else. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why was it that these Coimnunist leaders in tliis 
union directed you to make this speech after Mrs. Florence Gowgiel 
and Henry Noyes were unable to get recognized ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. No ; I spoke first. I got recognition first. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Czarnowski. But they never spoke. I asked why they didn't 
speak. I asked the Commmiist leaders. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliy was it you were called upon to make this 
speech? What was the purpose of it? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I spoke asking them that I wanted to help my 
boy return from Korea and I want him to be returned in one piece. 
Before when they called on me they told me that after I make this 
speech they already have a resolution ready which they will intro- 
duce. In other words, this resolution that was drawn up was drawn 
up by Communists, which the union leadership didn't know anything 
about. 

Mr. Tavenner. So they were going to try to get a resolution of that 
kind adopted by a labor union through you ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Then they knew the labor union wouldn't recog- 
nize Mrs. Gowgiel ? 



COMMTINTIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5093 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. I wouldn't know that. All I know is that Mrs. 
Gowgiel and Henry Noyes did not get the floor. 

Mr. Tavenner. What connection did Mrs. Gowgiel have with work- 
ing out this plan, if you know, of making this appeal to the union 
for a resolution to bring the boys back from Korea? 

Mr. CzAENowsKi. "What connection she had — she must have had 
some connection with the Communist Party members of my local 
because how would she get down there ? I don't know the connections 
there. I was surprised to see Henry Noyes there. Henry Noyes to 
this day denies he is a Communist. Only through the Communist 
Party would he be identified to go down there and make that speech 
or make a speech, but he did not get the floor. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the resolution ofl'ered ? 

Mr. CzARNOWSKI. No. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. We have observed in connection with some of these 
peace movements, particularly the American Peace Crusade, that 
when resolutions were put through by certain labor unions — and I 
am referring particularly to one signed by John Gojack as one of the 
vice presidents of the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Work- 
ers, and which was announced publicly over the air from Pravda to all 
the satellite countries — they were represented as expressing the 
thought of the people in the United States. 

Mr. Czarnowski. Of the working class ? 

Mr. Tavenxer. Yes ; of the working class in the United States. 

Mr. CzARNOwSKi. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. So here was this effort to obtain Communist propa- 
ganda from your union in which these various persons participated or 
tried to participate. 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes. But they failed because our union was a 
rightwing union, and they were watching Communists pretty closely. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. But for that they would have succeeded. 

Mr. Czarnowski.- Without that they would have succeeded, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. As time went on after the formation of Save Our 
Sons Committee, did Mrs. Florence Gowgiel appear at your Commu- 
nist Party meetings and discuss the progress that was being made by 
Save Our Sons ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. She made reports to the Argo branch 
of all the activities that were going on in the Save Our Sons, and if 
there was any work to be done that she wanted the Communist Party 
members to do, naturally she reported that and asked us to do that. 
The same thing was the organization of those delegates that was 
brought up at the Communist Party meeting. That is how she got 
us to attend the delegation and visit Senator Douglas. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she also make any suggestions of things that 
Communist Party members were to do in order to help save our sons? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes. There are many suggestions, and I can't 
recall all of them. As I said, the signing of petitions and writing 
cards to Congressmen and Senators, to talk to the people about ending 
the Korean war. In our branch there were three different people, 
each one working in a different plant. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat type of plants were these ? 
Mr. Czarnowski. I worked at Electromotive, which was then man- 
ufacturing locomotives. Another worked in American Can Co. An- 



5094 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

other worked in the Corn Products Refining Co., where they manu- 
facture Argo starch. 

Mr. Tavenner. What kind of refining company ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Corn Products Refining Co. In each plant there 
were around 5,000 to 10,000 workers. If every Communist is real 
active and spreads around the workers about putting over a certain 
program, you realize that they can be quite successful. That is just 
what they had been doing. 

Mr. Tavenner. So those of you who represented those various in- 
dustries were supposed to go back into those industries and see that 
the people there got the slant that the Communist Party was trying to 
give to the Korean war ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes. But they were not to tell the people that 
this was the Communist Party, but that the Save Our Sons organi- 
zation was doing so-and-so. 

Mr. Kearney. How many members belong to this Save Oiu* Sons 
committee ? 

Mr. CzARNOwSKi. I don't think they had any members. I am not 
sure. 

Mr. Kearney. You don't think what ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I don't know if they had any members. All the 
work, I believe, was mostly done by telephone and correspondence. 
There were some meetings or things like that. I don't know if any 
member belonged to that organization. 

Mr. Kearney. You are trying to tell me, then, that any work that 
was done was done by the members of this Communist Party branch, 
the Argo branch ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. It is not only the Argo branch. It is the entire 
Communist Party system that supported the Save Our Sons. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, the Save Our Sons plan went through 
the entire Communist Party in this country? 

Mr. Czarnowski. It went through the entire Qiicago branch. Of 
course, according to the reports that Florence Gowgiel made, she cor- 
responded with people from away down to the West Coast, even, and 
at one time she had an awfully big telephone bill. She corresponded 
with boys, with motliers, and wives of these boys. I can point out a 
couple of people who were in the Save Our Sons but I couldn't tell 
you anything about membership because the only thing I know about 
Save Our Sons is the connection between Save Our Sons Committee 
and the Communist Party. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, they were one and the same? 

Mr. Czarnowski. No, it is not any more the same than American 
Peace Crusade is. 

Mr. Kearney. Wliat I am getting at is this : The Save Our Sons 
Committee were members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Czarnowski. Not all of them, no. You see, the Save Our 
Sons Committee is supposed to be organized by people, naive people, 
people who really have peace and everything at heart. Do you see 
what I mean? They don't know. I met a lady 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, the Communist Party members used 
those people ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. That is right. 

Mr. Kearney. To further their own ends. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGAXDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5095 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes, sir. I have talked to a lady. She did not 
believe me when I said that Save Our Sons had something to do with 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. You spoke of a large telephone bill. What did you 
you have in mind about that ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. I don't exactly know how the telephone bill 
occurred, but they brought it up, 

Mr. Tavenner. Brought it up where ? 

Mr. CzARNO"\vsKi. At the Communist Party meeting, at a branch 
meeting of the Agro branch, and asked that the-x^rgo branch pay this 
bill for her because the Save Our Sons work is a part of the Com- 
munist Party work. 

Mr. Kearney. How much was the telephone bill ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi, $40. These are her words. 

Mr. Tavenner. So she herself made the statement that the work 
of her committee was part of the Communist Party work ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. Yes, sir, and that the Communist Party should 
pay for it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did they pay for it ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. At that time they had the defense committee. 
I think they paid part of it, I am not sure. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. As part of this program that you and other Com- 
munist Party members were to take back into your shops among the 
laborers who didn't know you were members of the Communist 
Party 

Mr. Czarnow^ski. Or anybody that I contacted. 

Mr. Tavenner. Or anybody that you would contact. 

Were any representations made to your Communist Party group by 
Mrs. Florence Gowgiel regarding bacteria warfare? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes. She has accused the Americans of atrocities 
on Kojo Island, on the prisoners, of germ warfare, the massacre of 
women and children and so on. 

Mr. Tavenner, Was that in your Communist Party meetings ? 

Mr. Kearney, You heard her make those statements ? 

Mr, Czarnow^ski, Yes, sir, 

Mr, Tavenner, That is exactly the same thing that Hugh Hardyman 
was broadcasting from Peiping, China, just a few weeks prior to that 
to the organization of this Save Our Sons Committee, which has been 
the subject of investigation by this committee. He was a delegate to 
a peace conference at Peiping from the Southern California Peace 
Crusade, which was an adjunct of the American Peace Crusade, It 
all fits in the same pattern. 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. To use her own words as I recall them, she said 
that the Americans behaved like beasts, murdering and massacring 
the women and children in Korea, About the atrocities on Kojo 
Island, 

Mr. Taa'enner. You left the Communist Party at what time in 
1955? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi, In January 1955, 

Incidentally, if I may, since you mention when I left. Claude Light- 
foot, who was executive secretary of the Communist Party, used the 
same words at one of the meetings that Florence Gowgiel used about 
murderers and bandits, that the Americans are murderers and bandits 

81683 — 56 3 



5096 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

and massacrers of the people. The reason I mention Lightfoot here 
is that it is the same old Communist line from the top to the bottom, 
the same thing. 

Mr. Tavenner. About what time of the year 1955 was it that you 
withdrew from the Communist Party ? 

Mr, CzARNowSKi. In January 1955. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Was Florence Gowgiel a member of the Communist 
Party in Argo, 111., at the time that you withdrew from the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. CzARNOwSKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know anything about contacts that she may 
have had with Communist Party members on a higher level than 
branch or section groups ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. The only thing I know of is that at one time she 
did not attend the Argo brancli of the Communist Party. She men- 
tioned to me that the members of the Argo branch are not on the same 
level with her, that she associates with such people or meets with such 
people as doctors, lawyers, and scientists. 

Mr, Kearney. You mean they have class distinctions in the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. You may take it for what it is. That is what she 
said. She mentioned that to me also at a Communist Party meeting, 
and I then, being a good Communist, told him that she should be re- 
ported to a higher level. He then reported it to the section and after 
that she returned again to a branch meeting and continued the reports. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the Communist Party pay her any particular 
homage or recognize any particular distinction on her part for the 
work that she had done in the Save Our Sons Committee ? 

Mr, CzARNOwsKi. There was a party given in her honor by the sec- 
tion committee. 

Mr. Tavenner, Section committee ? What do you mean by section 
committee? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. There are so many branches that belong to a 
section of the Commnnist Party. So many sections to — I don't know, 
the region or whatever. 

Mr. Tavenner. So it was the chairman of the section, the level 
just under the State or district organization? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes. She had a party there in her honor. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Who was that section leader? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Wilma Gieben. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the first name? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. W-i-1-m-a. 

Mr. Tavenner. And the last name? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. G-i-e-b-e-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was in her honor? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend it? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Mrs. Gowgiel there? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. She spoke about her boy, her son-in-law 
and her daughter, about the horrors of war, that it should be stopped. 
Then they went on to games, played games. And I went home.^ 

Mr. Tavenner. If a letter campaign of this type was to be effective, 
one requiring the distribution of printed material, it would cost 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5097 

money. Do you know anything about the source of the money to 
defray the expenses of Save Our Sons ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. That was also part required by Communist 
Party members, to <^o out among tlie workers and collect money for 
any Communist activities, such as the American Peace Crusade, the 
Protection of Foreign Born, the Save Our Sons, and the Committee 
for Soviet-American Friendship, and so on. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Do you know of any single individual or any group 
of individuals who contributed substantially to that enterprise? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Florence Gowgiel succeeded in enlisting a person 
from — she was known for a while by the Argo branch as the Lady 
from Lemont. No names were given. Her identity was kept quite 
secret. I have this lady from Lemont at a reception of the Commu- 
nist Polish consulate in Chicago. At that time Florence Gowgiel in- 
troduced her to me as Mary Phillips Buckner. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Will you spell the last name, please? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. B-u-c-k-n-e-r. She has contributed quite a bit 
of money to the Communist Party. I could never establish whetlier 
she was a member of the Communist Party until a transfer was asked 
by her from the Argo branch to the North Side branch, and during 
the period of time when funds were very badly needed for such 
things as the Communist Party fund drive, the Worker, or others, 
and money was hard to get, Mary Phillips Buckner was contacted; 
they said, "let's get it from her. She has the dough." So they went 
and got the money from her. 

At this consulate where I was introduced io her she ordered a couple 
of signs for the Save Our Sons organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who ordered the signs? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. Mary Phillips Buckner. And Florence Gowgiel 
•was with her right there. They both talked to me about these signs. 

Mv. Willis. What Embassy was that^ 

Mr. CzARxowsKi. The Communist Polish Embassy. You know, 
there is no Polish Embassy. I mean consulate. 

IMr. Tavenner. x\11 right, Mrs. Buckner asked you about making 
signs ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. What did she ask you to do ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. To make a couple of signs saying "Save Our 
Sons,"' which were 

Mr. Tavenner. You were a sign painter by trade ? 

ISfr. Czarnowski. At that time, yes, sir. I made these sig-ns and 
delivered them either to the branch where Florence Gowgiel attended 
or to her place of business. 1 don't remember which one. 

Mr. Ta%t2nner. That was done at the instance of Mrs. Buckner ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes. 

Mr. Kearney. What happened to these signs? Did you put them 
up? 

Mr. Czarnowski. No. They used them and have never paid for 
them. They never paid for them. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know whether any letters were written to 
the troops in Korea by this Save Our Sons Committee? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, I can testify to that. 

Mr. Kearney. To individual soldiers? 



5098 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. Yes; she wrote to individual soldiers and to 
prisoners of war in Chinese prisoner camps. 

Mr. Kearney. Did she or the committee write to any Kepresenta- 
tives or Senators ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi, Yes. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know who they wrote to ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. To Senator Douglas, Senator Dirksen, and the 
Congressmen in our vicinity. 

Mr. Kearney. You refer to the State of Illinois ? 

Mr. CzARNOw^SKi. Yes, the State of Illinois. 

Mr. Kearney. No outside State? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. They wrote letters to President Truman and I 
believe to the Attorney General. 

Mr. Kearney. Did they have stationery printed with this "Save 
Our Sons" title on it? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I believe so. Any leaflets that they printed up 
were Save Our Sons. 

Mr. Kearney. How about the stationery on which they wrote to 
Senators and Kepresentatives ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I do not know, because you are supposed to write 
that yourself as a person individually. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you put on the bottom of any letter that you 
were a member of the Save Our Sons Committee? 

Mr. Czarnowski. If they wrote it. I don't know, I don't remem- 
ber. 1 know they encouraged correspondence by individuals to their 
Congn^ssmen. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Mrs. Buckner made any con- 
tribution of funds to Save Our Sons? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes. She was the chief contributor, as I under- 
stand, according to Florence Gowgiel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us whether Mrs. Gowgiel in her re- 
ports to the Communist Party meetings indicated that she was meet- 
ing with any success in attempting to influence public opinion to stop 
the war ? 

Mr. (Czarnowski. Every so often she mentioned that she has a 
wonderful letter from a mother downstate or from here or there, or 
from a boy, and so on. Every so often she mentioned that. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Ceiairman. Are there any questions? 

Mr. Willis. How long did you say you remained in the party? 

Mr. Czarnowski. About 11 years. 

Mr. Willis. During that time were you making regular reports to 
the FBI ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. How often? 

Mr. Czarnowski. After eveiy meeting. 

Mr. Willis. All or practically all that you have related to us today 
on the whole you have reported to the FBI during the course of these 
11 years? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir. Pardon me, Mr. Willis. The reports 
were not made alone about the Communist Party. The reports that 
I have made were every report, whether it was the Communist Party 
or any sub>ersive organization that I attended. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5099 

Mr, Willis. "VYliat I am driving at is that you were in contact with 
the FBI, and the FBI received your reports and studied them during 
the course of these 1 1 years. 

Mr. CzAKNOwsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. I ask j^ou tliat because I suspect that this lady will 
probably either deny everything or plead the fifth amendment, and 
I want to put your testimony in context with the fact that you were 
in contact with the FBI and the FBI received those reports from you 
of the things you related to us here today ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Just one more thing : Did you say you had disassoci- 
ated yourself from the Communist Party because you testified in a 
case, or something that exposed you as an undercover agent ? 

Mr. CzARNowsKi. Yes; in Claude Lightfoot's case in Chicago, a 
Smith Act case. 

Mr. Willis. After you were disclosed publicly as an undercover 
agent, then of course your usefulness was terminated as an FBI 
agent ? 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. Yes, sir. I would like to mention one more thing, 
since you mentioned about the fifth amendment. At the time when 
the congressional committee was in Chicago — I don't laiow for what 
purpose — I believe it was the UE or something — I put up the question 
at the branch meeting: In case they call one of us, what shall I do? 
Pie said it is the instruction of the Communist lawyers to plead the 
fifth amendment. I just wanted to bring that to your attention. 

The Chairman. Did they tell you who those lawyers were? 

Mr. CzARNOw^SKi. No ; they have good lawyers. That is what they 
said. 

Mr. Willis. That is our experience. 

Mr. Tavenner. That occurred just prior to one of our hearings, one 
of the hearings by this committee in Chicago ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. In Chicago, yes, sir. 

Mr. DoTLE. May I inquire, Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever learn the name of any person other than 
this one whom you identified as a member of the Save Our Sons 
Committee? I mean, how large a committee was it; do you know? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I have never inquired. I couldn't answer that. 

Mr, Kearney, Will the gentleman yield there ? 

Mr, DoYi.E, Yes. 

Mr. Kearney. I think you did say there were members of that 
committee outside the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. Yes, sir ; but I don't know how many there were 
or who they were, except 1 or 2 that I have met and they denied that 
it was communistic. 

Mr. Doyle, May I inquire this : Was there any publicity in your 
town that you saw giving the names of people who claimed to be mem- 
bers of this Save Our Sons Committee ? 

Mr, Czarnowski, No, 

Mr, Doyle, Didn't the newspapers carry any stories about it to your 
recollection? You didn't see any that you now recall? 

Mr, Czarnowski, I don't recall. There were some articles written 
by Florence Gowgiel in our local paper, which is a small paper, about 
10,000 or 12,000 circulation. She has made frequent visits to Mr. John 



5100 COMIMTJNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Knight, who is the chief editor of the Chicago Daily News, and at a 
Communist Party meeting she encouraged us to go and see him. He is 
a very nice man. 

Mr. Doyle. No other questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. You are discharged from further service with the 
thanks of this committee. You have made a very considerable con- 
tribution to the exposure of these groups who would destroy us, and I 
am sure that people who learn of your testimony, particularly those 
who made contributions, no matter how small, to this organization, 
Save Our Sons, will realize that in the future they ought to find out 
just exactly what they are helping before they engage in something 
which is not in the best interests of this great Kepublic. 

You are excused. 

The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

(Members of the committee present : Representatives Walter, Doyle, 
Willis, and Kearney.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Mitterer, will you come forward, please. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please. Do you 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. ELIZABETH MITTERER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. Elizabeth Mitterer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your last name ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. M-i-t-t-e-r-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you live. Miss Mitterer ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. 2741 North Leavitt Street, Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. Am I correct in referring to you as Miss ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs.? 

Mrs. Mitterer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born, Mrs. Mitterer ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Mitterer, the committee has obtained a photo- 
static copy of a signature card of Save Our Sons Committee from the 
Argo State Bank, Summit, 111. Will you examine it, please, and state 
whether or not your name appears there as secretary-treasurer of the 
organization ? 

(The witness examined the document.) 

Mr. Forer. Did you ask if that is her name or her signature ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I ask whether it is her name, first. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Mitterer. It is my name. 



COaiMUNIST PROPAG.\NDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5101 

Mr. Tavenner. It is your name. What is the name appearing just 
above yours ? 

Mrs. IMiTTERER. Florence Gowgiel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Florence L. — how do you pronounce it ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. Florence Gowgiel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Florence Gowgiel. Does the word "chairman" ap- 
pear after her name ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether that 
is your signature appearing there as secretary-treasurer of the Save 
Our Sons Committee ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. JMitterer. I refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Mitterer Exhibit No. 1" for identification purposes 
and filed in the records of the committee. 

The Chairman. It is so received and marked. What does it purport 
to be ? A deposit slip ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir ; a signature card. It is a card required by 
the bank for identification of those entitled to draw on an account. 

The Chairman. What is the name of this chairman ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Florence Gowgiel. 

The Chairman. Do you know Florence Gowgiel ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege — for 
the same reason that I stated before. 

Mr. Tavenner. The document I introduced in evidence, Mr. Chair- 
man, bears the date of October 30, 1952, and it shows that the account 
was closed October 30, 1953. It also shows an initial deposit of $35. 

Mrs. Mitterer, I hand you a Certificate of Authorized Signatures 
for Organization marked "Mitterer Exhibit No. 2" which purports to 
be an action taken by Save Our Sons Committee authorizing Florence 
Gowgiel as chairman and Elizabeth Mitterer as secretary-treasurer 
to sign checks and drafts for the withdrawal of funds. It is certified 
to by Elizabeth Mitterer, secretary -treasurer. Will you examine it, 
please, and state whether or not you executed that certificate in behalf 
of Save Our Sons Committee ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege un- 
der the fifth amendment not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Kearney. Would you answer this question ? Is this Save Our 
Sons a phony organization ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I don't know what you mean by a phony organiza- 
tion. 

Mr. Kearney. You know what the word "phony" means, don't you? 
Was this organization Communist inspired ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer on the basis — on the same 
grounds as I said before. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer in evidence Mitterer Exhibit No. 2. 

The Chairman. So ordered. 



5102COJVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 



MiTTEBEB Exhibit No. 2 

Certificate of Authorized Signctiues 
for Organization 

TO:._ ARQa..STAT.E....BANiK 

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT, at a meeting of the members of the orguiiiatioii known 

uSAii..£. o.y...r<^ s ^ /v^r a o /^, /^J / txA..^.. „ .._ 

duly held and convened on VcT.. ..a-....f....{..'f..J...}:Z. Jt which meeting members constituting a quorum 

were personally present, the (ollowing whose names are set forth below, were duly elected to the office* 
respectively designated and have duly qualified as such officers Pursuant to authority contained in the By- 
Laws of said organization the said officers have duly designated the above named bank as a depositary of 
the funds of said organization By virtue of said election, said By-Laws, and the designation aforesaid each 
of said officers is authorized to defv)5ii funds with siid depositary for the account of this organization and 
to endorse in the name ot this organization, checks, drafts or orders "for deposit with the bank." and such 
endorsement may be written or stamped ' without designation of the officer making the endorsement; and 
the bank is authorized to pay out funds on deposit with it from time to time to the credit of this organiza- 
tion upon checks, drafts or orders drawn on said depositary and signed in the name of this organiz.ition by 
the officers listed below including any checks, drafts or orders drawn to the individual order of any officer 
signing the same and/or tendered (or deposit to the individual account of any such officer, until furtfier 
notice is given to you in writing. 



Name 

(List below only 



Office 
of those autboritcd to sign) 



/=J.6 K £ A/c * 


(yocAi G/ £ i. 


ELf->M "BBy M 


*1 ilTB X t<. 













C HAf/^^ii 1/ 






S^c.-r-Cf ^f 

















Number of signatures required upon each check, draft or order for the withdraws! of *"~*« "<i 



Impression of 
Seal 



DATE ■- QizriBe/i. r^yf. />-.... 

ATTEST 



The undersigned hereby certifies that 3Lhe 

is .i4f*fr.5.(S:.fi.-3/?.^of the above named 
organization, and the keeper of its official rec- 
ords and seal, and is duly authonzed to make 
Ms certification on its behalf. 






SecTctzTy-T^f/tS. 



FORM 131 wt 



Mr. Tavenner. The documents that I have handed you relate to 
bank accounts at the Argo State Bank. Did Save Our Sons Commit- 
tee carry an account at any other banking institution besides Argo 
State Bank? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Weren't you elected treasurer of the organization 
at its first meeting in 1952 ? 

Mrs. MrrTERER. I refuse to answer on the same gromids. 

Mr. Ta's^nner. Aren't you treasurer of it now ? 



COIVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5103 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of the bank state- 
ment for the account from the time it was opened on October 30, 1952, 
until the time it was closed on October 30, 1953, at the Argo State 
Bank. Will you examine it, please, and state whether you can identify 
it as the bank account of Save Our Sons Committee ? 

(The witness examined the document.) 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to ofRer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Mitterer Exhibit No. 3" for identification purposes 
and filed in the records of the committee. 

The Chairman. Let it be so received. 

Mr. Tavenner. ]Mrs. Mitterer, an examination of this bank account 
over the period of its year's duration shows total deposits of $134. 
One hundred and thirty- four dollars wouldn't have covered the mail- 
ing expenses of your organization for a period of a week, would it, or 
a month ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer, as I did before. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did you handle the other funds of the com- 
mittee ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer the same as before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there anything secret about the source of your 
funds and the amount of your funds available for the purposes of your 
committee ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer the same as before. 

Mr. Tavenner. A subpena duces tecum was served on you, Mrs. 
Mitterer, requiring you to produce before this committee all bank 
statements and vouchers showing receipts and disbursements of funds 
used in behalf of Save Our Sons Committee from October 1952 to the 
present date. Do you have those statements with you ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't have them with you ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I don't have any. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where are they ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I just don't have any. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where are they ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I don't know. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. "V^^ien was the last time you saw them ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I never saw them. 

Mr. Tavenner. You never saw any of the record, any bank records 
of Save Our Sons Committee? 

Mrs. Mitterer. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't you sign the checks on the account at the 
bank? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you refuse to answer the question as to whether 
or not you signed the checks, you certainly cannot conscientiously say 
that you have never seen any of the vouchers of this organization. 

Mr. FoRER. No, no. You were referring to the bank statements. 

Mr. Tavenner. Statements and vouchers. 

Mr. FoRER. What do you mean by vouchers ? 

Mr. Tavbnner. Checks. 

81683—56 i 



5104 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Kearney. Counsel knows what vouchers are, doesn't he ? 

Mr. FoRER. Voucher could mean a dozen different things. 

Mr. Tavenner. If there is any possibility of misunderstanding, 
where are the checks which were issued on the bank account of Save 
Our Sons Committee ? 

Mr. FoRER. You mean canceled checks ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; canceled checks. 

Mr. Forer. The fact that she signed checks, if she did before, doesn't 
mean she got them back from the bank. 

Mr. Tavenner. That isn't my question. Will you answer my 
question ? 

Mr. Forer. The question is where are they, the canceled checks? 
Is that the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Forer. Do you know where they are ? 

Mrs. IVIiTTERER. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you last see them ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I never saw them. 

The Chairman. How" did your name get on them if you never saw 
them ? 

Mr. Forer. She never saw the canceled checks. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just let her answer the question. You do not have 
to help her on a factual situation. 

Mr. Forer. You are claiming an inconsistency. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. I probably will, but let's develop it first. 

You haven't seen the canceled checks ? Is that it ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Willis. Did you sign the original checks before they went to 
the bank and were canceled ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. To whom were the canceled cheeks delivered ? 

Mrs. JNIiTTERER. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Kearney. Did anyone else sign the checks besides you, Mrs. 
Mitterer? Did anyone else sign these checks besides yourself? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Mitterer, you were directed by the subpena 
duces tecum to produce copies of all correspondence of Save Our 
Sons Committee and officers and employees thereof with members 
of the Armed Forces of the United States who were prisoners of war 
in Korea. Do you have the records with you ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. No ; I never had them. 

Mr. Tavenner. You never had them ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. No. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Who does have them ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Mitterer. I don't know who has them. 

Mr. Tavennfji. When did you last see them ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I never saw them. 

Mr. Tavenner. You never saw copies of any letters to men in the 
Armed Forces, prisoners of war ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. No ; I never saw any. 

The Chairman. Did you ever write any letters to any prisoners of 
war? 



COIVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA AIMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5105 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No ; never. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Do you have in your custody copies of petitions 
that you had signed in Korea, tliat Save Our Sons had signed in 
Korea ? 

Mrs. INIlTTERER. No. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. Who does have them ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you hist see them ? 

Mrs. ]MiTTERER. I never saw them. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Let me hand you issue No. 2, page 1, of a bulletin 
entitled "Save Our Sons — While Row on Row the Crosses Grow," 
bearing date of February 1953. Will you examine it, please, and 
identify that as an issue of the official publication of your organization 
of Save Our Sons ? 

(The witness examined the document.) 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me read this paragraph to you : 

Thanks to our devoted SOSers, with special gratitude to Elizabeth Mitterer, 
our most overworked volunteer, we will present thousands of signatures on our 
cease-fire scrolls to add strength to our plea. 

You were one of the overworked volunteers in the obtaining of 
thousands of signatures. Can you tell us that you have never seen any 
of those petitions ? 

IMrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Actually you have seen the petitions and you helped 
in obtaining them, didn't you ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Were you at the founding convention on October 
25,1952? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta%t.nner. In other words, you have determined that you won't 
give this committee any inform.ation of any character that you have 
regarding Save Our Sons Committee? Isn't that in substance the 
position that you are taking ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Mitterer. I just don't understand what you mean. 

Mr. Ta\T':nner. You have so far refused to answer any question that 
I have asked you relating to Save Our Sons Committee. Had you 
determined before coming here that you would not answer any question 
relating to that organization ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Mitterer. I still don't understand. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, there is no need of my repeating it if you can't 
understand it. 

The subpena duces tecum required you to produce copies of all lettere 
from Save Our Sons Committee and officers and employees with 
parents of members of the armed services of the United States who 
were prisoners of war in Korea. Do you have copies of such letters ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. No. 

Mr. Tavtcnner. Were such letters written ? 

Mrs. ISIiTTERER. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't know whether letters were written to 
parents of prisoners of war in Korea ? 



5106 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 
Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not know? Do you know whether letters 
were written to prisoners of war in Korea ? 
Mrs. IMitterer. No. 
Mr. Tavenner. You do not know that? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know letters were received from prisoners 
of war in Korea by Save Our Sons Committee or Mrs. Florence 
Gowgiel acting as its chairman ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't know that ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't Save Our Sons Committee through its pub- 
lications and its bulletins quote letters received from veterans in Korea 
or prisoners of war ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. Would you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Isn't it a fact that Save Our Sons Committee, by 
its official publication or bulletin, published letters received from 
prisoners of war in Korea ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. MiTTERER. Not that I remember of. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't remember. What did Save Our Sons 
Committee do, then ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. How do you pronomice G-o-w-g-i-e-1 ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. Gowgiel. 

Mr. Kearney. What is the first name ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. Florence. 

Mr. Kearney. Was she cochairman of this committee ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did tlie Save Our Sons Committee have in its pos- 
session a list of prisoners of war in Korea ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you learn from Mrs. Gowgiel or any other per- 
son officially connected with Save Our Sons Committee where the 
names of prisoners of war in Korea were obtained ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. You never heard that? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you observe at any time letters being received 
from Shangliai ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did not? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there any correspondence from Save Our Sons 
Committee and any Shanghai newspapers or publications or individ- 
uals engaged in such work in Slianghai ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No ; I don't know nothing about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was your organization in correspondence with the 
National Guardian ? 

Mr. FoRER. You sa;^ "your organization" ? 

Mr. Taa^nner. I will change the question. 



COJVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA .VIMOXG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5107 

Was Save Our Sons Committee engaged at any time in corre- 
spoixleiice with National Guardian or its editor, Cedric Belfrage? 

Mis. MriTKRER. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

The CiiAiR:MAN. Were you in Washington on the 27tli of February 
1953 ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Kearney. What was the total organization in the Save Our 
Sons organization ? 

Mrs. MiTrERER. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearxey. As a matter of fact, Mrs. Mitterer, this Save Our 
Sons organization was a Communist front organization, wasn't it? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\t:nxer. Were j'ou one of the original sponsors prior to the 
founding convention of this organization ? 

Mrs. MiiTERER. Will you repeat that? 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Maj'be I can help you to answer it by showing you 
an advertisement issued prior to the founding convention which called 
for the holding of the convention. 

(The witness examined the document.) 

Mr. Ta\'enis'er. It solicits funds and it gives the names of the spon- 
sors. If you will look at the third or fourth one there, I think you 
will see your name. 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer that under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. Will you look at it, please, and 
state whether or not you see your name as one of the sponsors ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Mitterer. I see my name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Under the list of sponsors? Under the heading 
"Sponsors" ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. Yes. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Weren't you a sponsor ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Ta%'enner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Mitterer Exhibit No, 4'' for identification purposes 
and filed in the records of the committee. 

The Chairman. The document will be so received. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed in October 25, 1952 ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Mitterer. I wasn't employed at all. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed during the next 6 months 
after that date? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I wasn't employed. 

Mr. Tavenner. By that you mean you were not paid any salary? 

Mrs. Mitterer. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. What work did you do, whether for compensation, 
reward, or otherwise? In other words, were you paid for it or not, 
the work that you did do ? 

Mrs. Mitterer. I didn't do any work. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did no work with Save Our Sons Committee? 

Mr. Fdrer. Are you talking about holding a job ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No; I am asking whether she did any work with 
Save Our Sons. Anybody knows what work is. 

Mrs. Mitterer. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 



5108 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
October 25, 1952 ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time that I have not specifically asked you about? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions ? 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. DoYLE. Yes ; 1 or 2. 

May I ask you, please, madam — I take it from your answers that 
your relationship to this committee was merely one of a volunteer 
person ; is that correct ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Doyle. You stated that you did not have the correspondence 
file or any correspondence of the committee in answer to this subpena. 
Did you ever see that file ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No, I never did. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you know who did have it? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. DoYE. Was it ever in your possession ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you know to whom the bank which issued this photo- 
static card delivered the canceled checks after the bank honored them? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Were the committee funds to your knowledge ever 
audited by any bookkeeper or accountant, do you know ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I don't know. I know nothing about it. 

Mr. Doyle. Did the committee have a bookkeeper so far as you 
know? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Doyle. You understand the question. Did the committee have 
a person who kept a record of the incoming money and outgoing 
money ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I don't know. 

Mr. Doyle. Your answer is that you don't know ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No, I don't know. 

Mr. Doyle. Who in the committee, so far as you know, did have 
possession of those committee records of moneys received and ex- 
pended, if you didn't have ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No, I don't know. 

Mr. Doyle. Did any member of the committee ever tell you that 
they had those books and records ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. No. 

Mr. Doyle. What person of the committee, if any one, asked you to 
sign any committee reports or records as secretary-treasurer ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer that on the basis that I did 
before. 

Mr. Doyle. You remember signing some documents for the commit- 
tee, do you ? 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5109 

Mr. Doyle. Who presented any committee papers or documents for 
you to sign and which you did sign as secretary-treasurer? Who 
presented those papers to you to sign ? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Do^oE. Did you ever attend a meeting of the committee? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Doyle. Did the committee have an office at which you were 
ever present? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. DoYLE. Did you yourself ever solicit any funds for the com- 
mittee ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

The Chairman. Is that all, Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. I think one more question. 

I take it, then, that your relationship with the committee was about 
this : That, while your name was used as secretary-treasurer, you were 
not a business person employed in any occupation during that period 
of time, but were a housewife; is that correct? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. I am a housewife. 

Mr. Doyle. You are and you were during this period of time; is 
that correct? 

Mrs. MiTTERER. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. So your relationship was that you allowed your name 
to be used but did not actively take part in the committee's affairs; 
is that correct ? 

]\Irs. MiTTERER. I refuse to answer that for the same reason as before. 

Mr. Doyle. I thank you. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

The witness is excused from further attendance under the subpena, 
and <:he committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 

(^Vliereupon, at 3:50 p. m. Monday, June 18, the committee was 
recessed to reconvene at 10 a. m. Tuesday, June 19, 1956.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG 
PRISONERS OF WAR IN KOREA 



TUESDAY, JUNE 19, 1956 

House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. G. 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 a. m. in the caucus room, Old House Office 
Building, Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman of the subcommittee) presid- 
ing. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
Clyde Doyle, and Bernard W. Kearnej^ 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel, and George 
C. Williams, investigator. 

( Committee members present at the time of convening : Representa- 
tives Doyle and Kearney. ) 

Mr. Doyle. The subconimittee will please come to order. 

By reason of appointment of the subcommittee by the chairman of 
the full committee, the subcommittee consistin^of Mr. Kearney of 
New York, IMr. Willis of Louisiana, and Mr. Doyle of California, 
acting as chairman, and a quorum of the subcommittee being present, 
we will proceed. 

I am informed Mr. Willis will be here shortly. 

Who is your first witness, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Gowgiei. 

Mr. Doyle. Would you please raise your right hand and be sworn ? 
Please rise. 

Do you solenmly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

JVIrs. Gowgiel. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FLORENCE GOWGIEI, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FOEER 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 
Mrs. GowGiEL. Florence Gowgiei. 
Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your last name ? 
Mrs. GowGiEL. G-o-w-g-i-e-1. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel accompanying the witness please iden- 
tify himself for the record ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 
Mr. Tavenner. Where do you live, Mrs. Gowgiei ? 
Mrs. GowGiEL. In Argo. 
Mr. Tavenner. Argo, 111. ? 

81683—56 5 5111 



5112 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mrs. GowGiEL. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived there ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. All my life. 

Mr. Tavennek. What was your name prior to marriage ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. This is my single name, my father's name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you use any other name at this time ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I certainly don't. 

Mr. Tavenner, Are you the chairman at this time of an organization 
known as Save Our Sons Committee ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege under 
the fifth amendment, not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Taahenner. Notwithstanding you take that position before this 
committee, j'^ou have this morning circulated among the press state- 
ments indicating that you are the present chairHian of Save Our Sons 
Committee. Isn't that true ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Kearnet. In other words, Mrs. Gowgiel 

Mrs. Gowgiel. On the same grounds. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, it is easy enough to make a statement 
to the press when you are not under oath. When you come here it is 
a different story. Is that it? 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Counsel, here is a letter I received in the mail 
signed by a Mrs. Florence Gowgiel, cliairman. Save Our Sons Com- 
mittee. This is dated June 15, 1956. I present that to you. Counsel. 
Maybe that will help refresh the witness' memory. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your address, Mrs. Gowgiel ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. 6159 Archer Road, Argo. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you an envelope addressed to Mr. Clyde 
Doyle, House of Representatives, Wasliington, D. C, and a typewritten 
letter, presumably mailed in that envelope, signed Mrs. Florence Gow- 
giel, chairman. Save Our Sons Committee, and showing the address 
of 6159 Archer Road, Argo, 111. 

Will you examine it, please, and state whether or not you mailed that 
letter? 

( Document handed to the witness. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. To Congressman Doyle ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the letter again, please, and state 
whether or not there is an ink signature at the bottom of the letter? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer — ^ 

Mr. FoRER. He just asked you if there is something in ink written 
there. 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Yes, there is something written in ink. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine it, please, and state what name 
appears there? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Florence Gowgiel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Below that signature,is there typewritten this lan- 
guage: "Chairman, Save Our Sons Committee"? 
"Chairman, Save Our Sons Committee" ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you type it there ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5113 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Is that your signature, the name Florence Gowgiel ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Keaknet. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer. 

Mrs. Gowgiel. For the same reason, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. DoYiji. I instruct the witness to answer. We cannot accept 
your answer. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I still refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment, not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Doyle. I might state, Counsel, at this point, that I received 
those two sheets of typewritten material yesterday in the envelope 
which I handed you, on which the postage was paid and received 
here at Washington in my office. 

ISIr. Kearney. Yes; and I think every other member of the com- 
mittee received one. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Gowgiel, I hand you a photostatic copy of a 
call to an emergency Midwest assembly. Will you examine it, plea?e, 
and state whether that was a call which you issued for the founding 
convention of Save Our Sons Committee? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I desire to introduce tlie document 
in evidence and ask that it be marked "Gowgiel Exhibit No. 1," for 
identification purposes and filed in the records of the committee. 

Mr. Doyle. It will be received and so marked. 

(The document referred to was marked "Gowgiel Exhibit No. 1" 
and filed for the information of the committee.) 

Mr. Tavenner. And I will read parts of it. 

A call to all patriotic Americans who have loved ones in Korea, in uniform, 
or about to be drafted : 

Mothers, fathers of Americans in Korea, in the frontlines, in prison camps, 
and in hospitals. * * * All organizations whose members have sons in the 
armed services or in Korea come to an emergency IMidwest assembly Saturday, 
October 25, 11 a. m., in Springfield, III., to save the lives of our sons and loved 
ones; to stir the conscience of America; to tell all puldic officials and all 
candidates for office that we want an immediate end of the senseless slaughter. 

1. For a cease-fire in Korea on both sides NOW ! 

2. Continue negotiations to settle remaining question of repatriation of 
prisoners. 

Was the founding convention held pursuant to this call on Octo- 
ber 25, 1952, in Springfield, 111. ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Mr. Czarnowski, in his testimony before the com- 
mittee yesterday, advised the committee that you reported to the Argo 
branch of the Communist Party in August or September of that year 
the proposal to form this organization of Save Our Sons Committee, 
and after discussing its purposes with the Communist Party branch 
you asked for financial assistance from that branch of the Commu- 
nist Party to pay your expenses to this founding convention in 
Springfield. 

Was any part of his testimony insofar as it related to you in con- 
nection with your appearance before that group true? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 



5114 coMMinsriST propaganda among korean war prisoners 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. Actually, didn't you make the keynote address 
at tlie founding convention of Save Our Sons assembly in Springfield, 
on October 25 ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I abide by my refusal to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer. We cannot accept that aa 
a satisfactory ansAver. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

ISh'. Doyle. Do you still refuse to answer ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. Yes ; under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't you, just a few moments ago, hand to the 
press in this room the program of that founding convention which 
shows keynote address, Mrs. Florence Gowgiel, Argo, 111., for spon- 
soring committee ? 

And I hand 3'ou the printed program to refresh your recollection. 

(Document handed to tlie witness.) 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

!Mrs. Gowgiel. No ; not a few minutes ago, I didn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you hand it to them ? 

Mr. Forer. You are assuming she did. 

(Tlie witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Kearney. I suggest that counsel let the witness testify. 

(Tlie witness confers with her counsel.) 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Did you deliver it to the press for publication ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner, Is the document which I hand you a program of 
the founding convention ? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Taatrnner. I desire to introduce the document in evidence and 
ask that it be marked "Gowgiel Exhibit No. 2," for identification 
purposes and filed in the records of the committee. 

J\Ir. Do-i-LE. It is so recei ved and so marked. 

(The document referred to vras marked "Gowgiel Exhibit No. 2" 
and filed for the information of the committee.) 

j\Ir. Tavenner. ]Mi"s. Gowgiel, I have before me a photostatic copy 
of an article appearing in the Illinois State Journal and Register, 
Springfield, 111., published Sunday morning, October 26, 1952. 

The heading is : 

"Plead for Cease Fire. 'Save Our Sons' Group Meets Here." 

In the course of this article it stated : 

A plea for an immediate cease fire in Korea was drafted yesterday by about 
170 niidwestern men and women gathered in the Theater Guild Building, 107 
East Lawrence Avenue in a "Save Our Sons" assembly. 

Is that a correct statement as to the representation of midwestern 
men and women at the founding convention ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a couple of questions con- 
cerning this letter ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, Mr. Kearney. 

Mr. Kearney. Tliis letter that was produced a moment ago, ad- 
dressed to Mr. Clyde Doyle, House of Representatives, Wasliington, 
D. C, I received exactly the same letter. 

Did you receive my answer ? 

There is no need of signaling, Mr. Counsel. 



COIilMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5115 

Mr. FoRER. I am not signaling. If I want to talk to the witness 
I will talk to her. 

Mr. Kearney. I can see the motion on the arm. I am not blind. 

Mr. Forer. Are you checking on my consulting with the witness? 

Mr. Kearney. Not at all. 

Mr. Forer. Then what is the problem ? 

Mr. Kearney. You are signaling. 

Mr. Forer. I don't understand you. 

Mr. Kearney. Would the witness answer the question ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. You refuse to answer as to whether you got an an- 
swer from me or not ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. You are taking the fifth amendment on receiving an 
answer from me to this letter allegedly written by you. How could 
you incriminate yourself ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Kearney. All right. 

You say in this letter, or state in this letter : 

Save Our Sons Committee was as American as the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence and the Constitution of the United States. 

Is that correct ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you mean to say that by making a statement 
"Save Our Sons Committee was as American as the Declaration of 
Independence and the Constitution of the United States," by your 
answering you may incriminate yourself in a criminal action? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Is it true, as far as the statement in this letter is 
concerned. [Reading:] 

We issued a call to an assembly in Springfield on October 25, 1952. 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Kearney (reading) : 

We asked the radio stations to announce the meeting. 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Kearney (reading) : 

We got from the newspapers lists of the prisoners of war from Illinois, Wis- 
consin, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri with their home addresses. 

^Irs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Kearney (reading) : 

We sent to the mothers and fathers of these prisoners announcements of the 
meeting, about 3,000 of them. 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

JSIr. Kearney. In other words, were you chairman of this so-called 
Save Our Sons Committee ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know anything about Save Our Sons Com- 
mittee? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, I take it from your answers that this 
committee is just as phony as your testimony here this morning. 



5116 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. FoRER. Is that a question or an accusation ? 

Mr. Kearney. That is an accusation, if you want to make it that 
way. 

Mr. FoRER. Then the witness doesn't have to answer. 

Mr. Kearney. Then I will ask her that question. 

Mr. FoRER. I don't see how you can expect a witness to answer a 
question as vague and loaded as that. 

Mr. Kearney. She can answer all these questions if she feels like it. 

Mr. Forer. Sure, if she feels like it she will claim the constitutional 
privilege. I don't see how you can answer a question that has just a 
suggestive meaning. 

Mr. Kearney. Were you active at all in this Save Our Sons 
organization ? 

Sirs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you hear the testimony of Mrs. Mitterer yes- 
terday ? 

( The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. Yes ; I was here. 

Mr, Kearney. Do you know Mrs. INIitterer ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. As a matter of fact, Mrs. Mitterer was secretary- 
treasurer of this organization; was she not? 

]\Irs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. You were the cochairman, or chairman of the com- 
mittee. Is that not a fact ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney, Is it true that you made known to everybody your 
activities for peace and your views on it? 

Mrs. GowGiEL, I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Are you an advocate of peace regardless of your ac- 
tivities with the Save Our Sons Committee? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I would like to hear the question again. 

Mr, Kearney, Will the reporter repeat it, please? 

Mrs, Gowgiel. If you ask whether I believe in peace, my answer 
is "Yes." 

Mr, Kearney. Do you know of anybody that does not in this coun- 
try of ours ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. That does what ? 

Mr. Kearney. You understand English ; do you not ? 

Mrs, Gowgiel, Repeat the question, 

Mr, Kearney, Do you know of anybody who does not believe in 
peace in this country of ours ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel,) 

Mr. Kearney. Surely that does not take active consultation with 
your attorney to answer that question. 

Mr. Forer. I think it is a hard question to answer. 

Mr. Kearney. A hard question to answer ? 

Mr, Forer, Yes, because it is an ambiguous, vague question. What 
do you mean, do you know — everybody says they are in favor of peace. 
But then what is peace? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5117 

Mr. IvEARNEY. Let US put it this way : Does the witness know of 
anybody in this country that is in favor of a war? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. No; I don't know. 

Mr. Kearney. Now we are getting somewhere. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Kearney, and Counsel, it will be necessary for the 
committee to recess for about 15 minutes. There is another major 
committee that has a matter before it which I have to participate in 
for about 15 minutes. I am sorry to cause this inconvenience. 

The committee will stand in recess for about 15 minutes. 

(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken, tliere being present at the 
time of taking the recess Representatives Doyle and Kearney.) 

(The subcommittee was reconvened at the expiration of the recess, 
there being present Representatives Walter and Kearney.) 

The Chairman-. The committee will be in order. 

The subcommittee will be reconstituted, consisting of Messrs. Kear- 
ney, Doyle, and myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Gowgiel, will you return to the witness stand, 
please? 

Mrs. Gowgiel, were you acquainted with an organization in St. 
Louis by the name of St. Louis Emergency Defense Committee? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Well, were you acquainted with an individual in 
St. Louis by the name of Brockman Schumacher, S-c-h-u-m-a-c-h-er? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gov.'GiEL. The name is not familiar to me. 

Mr. Tamlnner. Mr. Schumacher, according to testimony we re- 
ceived in St. Louis on June 5 of this year, was chairman of the St. 
Louis Emergency Defeixse Committee, a committee formed in St. 
Louis for the defense of certain persons being prosecuted under the 
Smith Act in St. Loius. 

Does that refresh your recollection ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. No; it doesn't. 

]SIr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether there were present at the 
founding convention on October 25, 1952, a representation from St. 
Louis? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. You mean the founding convention of the Save Our 
Sons ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the testimony received by this com- 
mittee in St. Louis it was tlie purpose of this defense committee to 
raise funds for the defense of defendants in the Smith Act case there, 
and for propaganda purposes. 

Do you know, can you tell us whether or not the Save Our Sons 
Committee Avas requested to make any contribution of funds or serv- 
ices to the defense of the Smith Act defendants in St. Louis? 
(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I have no knowledge. 

]Mr. Tavenner. You have no knowledge. 



5118 COMMUNIST PROPAG.^NDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr, Schumacher was a witness before the committee and he was 
asked, this question : 

Were you interested, Mr. Schumacher, in the forming of an organization 
designed to circulate propaganda regarding the return of our soldiers in Korea 
in 1952 when this country was in the middle of its fight in Korea? 

Mr. Schumacher refused to answer the question, asserting as the 
reason for it the fifth amendment. 

And then this question was asked him : 

Did you suggest to Mr. Cortor that he attend a founding meeting of the Save 
Our Sons Committee in Springfield, 111., in 1952? 

Mr. Schumacher again refused to answer. 

Do 3'ou recall whether Mr. Cortor did attend the founding con- 
vention? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. The name Cortor is not familiar to me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Mr. Lou Kiminel, 
K-i-m-m-e-1, of St. Louis or near St. Louis? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You refuse to answer. 

Was Mr. Lou Kimmel known to you as a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Mr. Kimmel elected or appointed at the found- 
ing convention as one of the continuation committee of the Save Our 
Sons Committee ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

]Sir. Tavenner. Was he requested to go back to Missouri to form 
chapters or groups of your organization ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Cortor was also a witness at St. Louis — Mr. 
William W. Cortor. Unlike Mr. Schumacher, Mr. Cortor testified 
that he had been a member of the Communist Party, that he was under 
employment by the Federal Bureau of Investigation during a part of 
his Communist Party membership and that he had been assigned by 
the Communist Party to work with the St. Louis Emergency Defense, 
and he worked right under Mr. Schumacher. 

Mr. Cortor advised the committee that Mr. Schumacher directed 
that he go to St. Louis to attend the founding convention of the Save 
Our Sons Committee. 

Mr. Forer. You mean Springfield. 

Mr. Tavenner. I mean at Springfield, 111. 

He further testified that Mr. Lou Kimmel, also a Communist Party 
member in St. Louis, also attended that convention. There were 
other members of the Communist Party who, he said, did attend but he 
could not recall their names. 

Do you know whether any organizational work was done by Save 
Our Sons Committee in St. Louis after the organization was founded 
on October 25, 1952 ? 

(Representative Clyde Doyle returned to the hearing room at this 
point.) 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5119 

(]Members of the committee present : Eepresentatives Walter, Doyle, 
and Kearney.) 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Gowgiel, I have before me a pliotostatic copy 
of the national codirectors' report of the American Peace Crusade, 
national policy meeting at Chicago in March 1953. I want to read 
to you as a basis for questioning one paragraph of this report. 

According to this report of the ximerican Peace Crusade we find this 
paragraph : 

The activities for which we do not claim credit, l)ut which we helped to 
stimulate, include the three great inter-faith meetings for peace in Korea held 
in New York in the fall of 1951, the statement of the 52 prominent Americans, 
including our Honorary co-Chairman, Professor Anton Carlson, calling for nego- 
tiations between the major powers for world peace, the statement of the 4(55 
Americans, which included Dr. Emily Balch Greene, Nobel Prize Winner, calling 
for a cease-tire in Korea, the Easter-Passover prayer, issued by a group of 
leading clergymen and rabbis fiom the various denominations. One of the 
most significant developments, which APC forces have supported, has been the 
formation of the Save Our Sons Committee. The Save Our Sons Committee 
organized in Illinois during the election campaign by parents of men now 
serving in Korea or in prisoner of war camps, has today developed a movement 
which reaches into seventeen other States. 

Now, that date is March 1953, just about 6 months after the forma- 
tion of Save Our 3ous Committee. Will you tell tlie committee, 
please, what 17 States by that time had been organized by Save Our 
Sons Committee? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

;Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenxer. You refuse to answer? 

JNIrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer. 

ISIr. Ta\^nner. On the grounds that to do so might tend to incrimi- 
nate 370U. Is that what you mean ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Yes; based on my privilege under the fifth 
amendment. 

The Chairman. Were you a member of the American Peace 
Crusade? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

]\Irs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. In other words, I understand you to take the posi- 
tion that if you admitted you were a member of the American Peace 
Crusade you might be prosecuted criminally. Is that it? 

(Tlie witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. That is a possibility. 

The Chairman. That is because the American Peace Crusade is a 
Communist organization; is it not? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Xo; I just wish to claim my constitutional rights. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Czarnowski testified here yesterday that you 
were an active participant in the work of the American Peace Crusade 
and made regular reports to the Argo branch of the Communist Party 
regarding the activities of the American Peace Crusade. And when 
you became active in Save Our Sons Committee he relieved you from 
that responsibility in the American Peace Crusade and took over 
your duties. 



5120 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONER 3 

Is that correct? I mean by that, was Mr. Czarnowski testifying 
truthfully insofar as it affects you? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, in how many 
States of the Union the organization did finally become active? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

( Members of the committee present : Representatives Walter, Doyle, 
and Kearney.) 

Mr. Tavt:nner. Has the work of your organization been nation- 
wide or has it been confined merely to the 17 States that exist according 
to the American Peace Crusade report of March 1953? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Could the witness speak up? I cannot hear you. 
I cannot hear your answer. Would you speak a little louder? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. Do you want me to repeat the statement? 

Mr. Kearney. No, I would like to have you speak a little louder. I 
cannot hear you. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has procured a photostatic copy of 
an application for a post office box at Argo, 111. I hand you a photo- 
static copy of such an application mr.rked "Gowgiel Exhibit No. 3". 
On it appears signature of applicant, and the name in handwriting, in 
ink handwriting is "Florence Gowgiel." 

Before I hand it to you, let me ask you, what was your occupation, 
yonr business in August of 1952? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. A beautician, at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. You operated a beauty shop? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Yes. 

'Mr. Tavknner. What was your residence in August of 1952? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. 6159 Archer Road, Argo. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did yon live at 5554 Archer Road? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. For a little while. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you live there at any time in August of 1952? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I don't know, exactly. I probably did.^ 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Was that a residence address or was it a business 
address? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Residence. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you this application and ask you to examine 
it, please, and state whether or not the name of the applicant ap- 
pearing there is Florence Gowgiel. 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is? 

Mr. FoRER. That is what it says. 

Mrs. Gowgiel. That is what it says. 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. Is the business of the applicant designated as a 
beauty shop ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. No. 

Mr. Forer. Yes. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AJMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5121 

Mrs. GowGiEL, Wliere? 

Mr. FoRER. Here. 

Mrs. GowGiEL. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat address is given? 

Mi's. GowGiEL. 5554 Archer Eoad, Summit. 

Mr. Taa'enner. Did you sign the name Florence Gowgiel on the 
application ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will 3^ou look at the foot of the application and 
see whether or not box 95 was assigned to the applicant? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner, 95 was j'our post office box, wag it not ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer in evidence "Gowciel Exhibit No. 
3." 

The Chairman. So ordered. 



'r^.l^' APPLICATION FOR POST-OFFICE BOX 



Gowgiel Exhibit No. 3 



<-^ 
The undersigned hereby applie* for the tsw i>/ s b<ii in the {xiBf offirr at . ^/C/ft.t4a^. 

_ . _.. . vy-- and ap'eee 

to c |'l\ with thr |H>Bta! regulations and ruled relative In the renting and use of poaf-office boxes. 

If ihc I MIX i4 rented for a curporation. tlie appliiant should write on the lines below the name of I lie 

roriMiratixii; if for a firm, the name of the firm and ihc full rume of each of its members whoee mail is 

to lie plai ril in the box. 



_ ;...(r-LOREWC£ GOWGJELl 

.Signature of applicant ....>^;,A:,-fi'~'2je^i^->--'t-^^ ^ ,/l!l?^/^>T?^>.^ '*t*rr:4^. 
Character of biuii 
Hiisiness addreas . 
Kesii 

Befr 



Character of biuincM C^.'i^z-^rr-r^ « a fL- ^^-r^:-«'~'Or?. 

HesidcDce addreaa ..^..^.£..*r.~....^T*rtr>^<frr^'^:^^^..i^ *-rr^ .^. 



No. .^..™_ ..., ^..JfO^P^'<^Jt^^ 



Assigned Box N 



^ 



Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Gowgiel, in what banks were the funds of 
the Save Our Sons Committee deposited ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\^enner. Were funds always deposited in the name of the 
committee or were they deposited in your jjersonal name? 

Mrs. GowGEEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. It has been noted from material that we have ex- 
amined, and some of which will be introduced in evidence before we 
complete this hearing, that many solicitations were made for funds. 
Did 3^ou put those funds in your personal account? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did not. 

Where did you put them ? 



5122 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

(The witness confers with her counseL) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavennee. In whose account did you put them ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Our investigation has been successful in showing, 
or in finding only one account, that is at the Argo State Bank, and 
it was infinitesimal in amount. It was opened on October 80, 1952, 
by a $35 deposit. It was closed on October 30, 1953, and only $134 
was deposited to that account. 

Does that represent, that $134 represent, all the money that you 
received as a result of the solicitations made for Save Our Sons 
Committee ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Our investigation discloses that there were hun- 
dreds of letters mailed by Save Our Sons Committee from Argo per 
week from 1952 up until a recent date. Where did you obtain the 
funds for the mailing of tliat material ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta^tjnner. Where did you receive the funds for the stationery 
used '^ 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Taven^ner. We have one statement here which you made to a 
committee member in a letter just a few days ago in which you said 
that you had gotten in contact with 3,000 parents of men serving in 
Korea. Who financed the project? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Kearney. I think, Mr. Counsel, I would like to call attention 
to counsel of the committee that the witness refused to acknowledge 
writing that letter. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, she did. She would not answer a question 
as to whether slie had written the letter previously mentioned by 
Mr. Doyle as having been received by him, which letter bears the 
name of Save Our Sons Committee, bears her name as its chairman, 
and bears her address as the address from which the letter was sent. 

So I am asking now, who defrayed the expenses for the purchase 
of the stationery and the mailing of all these letters ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, I would like to make an observation 
at this point. From the testimony of the witness, I think the answers 
she has given the committee are as phony as a three-dollar bill. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee staff has been successful in obtain- 
ing from various sources, in some instances, parents of persons serving 
overseas in Korea, copies of various issues of a bulletin entitled "Save 
Our Sons," which has at the top of it the picture of an Army cemetery 
with crosses, and it has the statement ""Wliile row on row the crosses 
grow." 

(Representative Francis E. Walter left the hearing room at this 
point. Members of the committee present: Representatives Doyle 
and Kearney.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of issue 1, pageis 1 
and 2, issue 3, issue 4, and issue 8. Will you examine them, please, 
and state whether or not they were prepared and published by you ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5123 

(Documents handed to the witness.) 

(The witness confers with her counseL) 

Mrs. GowGiEf.. I refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I desire to offer for identification 
purposes only the several issues of Save Our Sons as one document, 
marked "Gowgiel Exhibit No. 4." . 

Mr. Doyle. They are so received and so marked. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Gowgiel Exhibit No. 4" 
for identification.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I call your attention to issue No. 4 to which is at- 
tached an envelope and I advise you that we procured this issue from 
the person to whom this envelope is addressed, Mr. and Mrs. V. R. 
Slater, 1030 Harris, Huntington, Ind. It appears from our investi- 
gation that Mr. and Mrs. Slater are the parents of a colonel who served 
in Korea and was a prisoner of war. 

Did you address that particular envelope to the parents of Colonel 
Slater? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted in issue 4 3'ou quoted from letters al- 
legedly received from various prisoners of war in Korea. One I see 
is from Pvt. Bobby R. Degrew, D-e-g-r-e-w. 

Will you tell the committee, please, how you obtained this letter 
from Private Degrew ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in correspondence with him while he was 
a prisoner of war ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you give the information that he 
was a POW, Camp DPRK, whatever that means. When the staff 
obtained from Mr. and Mrs. Slater the document which I have shown 
you, there was also included a letter under date of February 17, 1953, 
allegedly written by Dale E. Jones, prisoner-of-war camp, North 
Korea, and at the bottom of the letter you have "circulated by SOS, 
Box 95, Argo, 111." 

Will you examine that letter, please, and state how you procured 
that letter from a prisoner of war in Korea '^ 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did disseminate; you sent that letter every 
place that you thought you could serve any purpose by sending it, 
did you not? Is that not right? 

(The witness confei^ with her counsel.) 

Mi-s. Gowgiel. I refuse on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. I move that we adjourn until 2 o'clock. 

Mr. Doyle. Then the committee will stand in recess imtil 2 as the 
House is just convening at 12. It is just a minute or two before 12 
now. 

The witness will please return. All witnesses that are subpenaed 
today will please return. 



5124 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 55 a. m., the subcommittee was recessed to be 
reconvened at 2 p. m., this same day, there being present at the time 
of taking the recess Representatives Doyle and Kearney.) 

ATTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, JUNE 19, 1956 

(The subcommittee was reconvened at 2 p. m. at the expiration of 
the recess, there being present Representatives Francis E. Walter 
(chairman) , Clyde Doyle, and Bernard W. Kearney.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your witness, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Gowgiel. 

TESTIMONY OF FLORENCE GOWGIEL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
JOSEPH FOEER— Resumed 

Mrs. Gowgiel, you stated in one of the letters to the Congressmen, 
that you obtained a list of prisoners of war, and their addresses, from 
newspapers. From what newspapers did you obtain them? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you subscribe to the China Monthly Review, of 
which John Powell was editor? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. What publications did you receive from Red China ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I never received any. 

Mr. Tavenner. Our previous investigations disclosed that the Na- 
tional Guardian seemed to have access to the list of prisoners of war 
before they were made public by the War Department, or any official 
group. Did you obtain a list of the prisoners of war from the National 
Guardian, or from its editor, Cedric Belfrage? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you correspond with Mr. Cedric Belfrage or 
the National Guardian regarding prisoners of war in Korea? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I don't think so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, by that, you are uncertain? You mean you 
are uncertain whether you corresponded with them in ie<j,ccia to 
prisoners of war ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I don't remember doing anything like that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you receive information relating to pris- 
oners of war from the Continent of Europe? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I don't remember ever receiving any information. 

Mr. Tavenner. From what source did you receive information relat- 
ing to prisoners of war in Korea ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you receive it from the Commimist Party in 
this country ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. No. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5125 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you receive information from the daily 
press, relating to the prisoners of war to whom you wrote, or their 
families? 

Mr. FoRER. Does that include reading about it ? Did you say from 
prisoners to whom she wrote ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, at this point I would like to call 2 
other witnesses, and I would like for this witness to step down until 
I finish with those 2, and we will then recall her. 

The Chairman. All right. You may call those witnesses. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. If you will step aside, please ? 

(Witness temporarily excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Jones? 

Mr. Jones, will you come forward, please, sir ? 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please, Mr. Jones? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Jones. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DALE E. JONES 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. "What is your name, please ? 

Mr. Jones. Dale E. Jones. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dale E. Jones? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Jones ? 

Mr. Jones. On February 5, 1932, in luka. 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. How far is luka. 111., from Argo, 111.? 

Mr. Jones. I would say approximately 300 miles. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you serve in the Armed Forces of the United 
States? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you enter the service ? 

Mr. Jones. May 9, 1949. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Will you tell the committee, please, when you went 
to Korea, if you did ? 

Mr. Jones. September 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. What outfit were you in? 

Mr. Jones. 7th Infantry Division. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tth Infantry? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell the committee where you landed in 
Korea for the first time ? 

Mr. Jones. Inchon. 

Mr. Tav^enner. You were in the Inchon landing ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you then engage in military operations north 
of the 38th parallel? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period of your service were you 
captured ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir ; I was. 



5126 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you captured by the North Koreans or the 
Chinese ? 

Mr. Jones. Chinese. 

Mr. Tavenner. Chinese. What was the phxce of your capture ? 

Mr. Jones. It was Changsong Reservoir in North Korea. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were in the fighting for that reservoir ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the approximate date of your capture ? 

Mr. Jones. November 29, 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was the first appearance of the Chinese Com- 
munists in the war, I believe, was it not ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir ; about that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you taken, and just what happened 
after you were taken prisoner ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, I was taken from the reser^^oir up to Camp 1, into 
North Korea by the Yalu River. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you march up? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did it take ? 

Mr. Jones. I would say it took about better than a month. Well, 
we got in that camp about in March of 1951 ; so it took longer than a 
month to get up to that camp. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was Camp No. 1 ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where that was located ? 

Mr. Jones. I can't remember the name of the town, the village that 
it was in. It was something like Changsong, or something like that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it south of the Yalu River ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes ; south of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Southeast, I believe, of the Yalu River ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a prisoner there ? 

Mr. Jones. Two years and eight months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, just how the 
Chinese Communists endeavored to indoctrinate you and other mem- 
bers of the Armed Forces of the United States who were prisoners of 
war? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner, Just begin at the beginning and tell us as much as 
you can recall about it. 

Mr. Jones. Well, the first thing they done, they started to bring 
these articles on papers that were wrote on it, and they would bring 
them to us, and have us to read them, and make us discuss them among 
ourselves, and ask each other questions, and like that, on papers, the 
Shanghai News. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Shanghai News. Do you recall a paper known as 
China Monthly Review ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes ; I believe I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were given these things to read and study ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, then, was any other form of instruction given 
you in Communist principles ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. Well, they gave us lectures on them, too. They 
would get us all in a group and give us lectures on them. Then, after 



COMIMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5127 

they would give us the lectures, they would send us back to our rooms, 
and there they would make us discuss them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did they send Coimnunist Party leaders or officers 
there to conduct these courses and direct you in the study ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. About how many hours a day were you required to 
engage in study of that type ? 

Mr. Jones. I would say from 2 to 4 hours a day they would give 
us that. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many days a week ? 

Mr. Jones. Five days a week, or six days a week, pardon me. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean all but 1 day ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that 1 day, a Sunday when you were not re- 
quired to do that work? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir; it was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over how long a period did that type of instruc- 
tion continue ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, it went on all the time I was there, for 2 years 
and 8 months, from 1951 until 1953. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. As near as you can tell, what were they endeavoring 
to teach you. 

Mr. Jones. Well, they wanted us to believe in their ways, commu- 
nism and Marxism, and wanted us to go against our Government and 
to sign treaties and all that, to enable the war to come to an end, and 
so we could get home sooner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your edu- 
cational training has been ? How much schooling have you had ? 

Mr. Jones. I have 8 yeare of grade school. 

Mr. Tavenner. Eight years of grade school? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, during the period of your captivity, did you 
at any time hear of an organization known as Save Our Sons Com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee how you first learned of that 
organization? 

Mr. Jones. Well, me and another boy in the camp, we got into a 
little scrap. So the Chinese caught us and took us down to their 
headquarters and there they criticized us and they told us that we 
would be punished for fighting amongst the other POW's. So they 
sent us back to our rooms, then, and I was called back down and the 
Chinese had a petition there that was to do with the Save Our Sons 
Committee, and they asked me if I would sign it, and if I did, well, 
they would go a little easier on their punishment. 

So I signed my name to it, and they sent me back to my room and 
then I got to thinking it over, and I was kind of worried about it. 
So I told some of the guys about me signing it, and how I come to 
sign it. So I got worried about it and so I went back down there and 
told them to take my name off. So they scratched through it. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. They scratched through it. But did they remove 
your name from the petition ? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir ; I couldn't say that they removed it. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. They scratched through it ? 



5128 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir ; I saw them do that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall what was on this petition ? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir; I can't. All I know it was just a petition to 
do with the Save Our Sons Committee. That is all I know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, you went back to your squad room and talked 
to some others about what you had done, and that you were dissatisfied 
about it ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you reported to your Communist captors 
about that? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What happened as a result of it ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, they came and got me, the Chinese did, and took 
me up to their regimental headquarters, and there they put me in a 
room by myself. It was a room with no heat. And they kept me in 
there practically all night long and made me write a self-criticism 
saying that they didn't tell me to sign that and that they wouldn't 
go easier on my punishment if I did sign it, and so I wrote the self- 
criticism and then they told me that they were going to make me read 
it before the whole group of POW's. But somehow they never did 
do that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say they put you in a room by yourself ? Was 
that a form of punishment that was given to you and other prisoners 
of war who refused to do what you were told. 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir ; that was one way. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the punislunent about being put in a 
room by yourself ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, they just put you in there, with no heat and left 
you in there by yourself. And you get kind of cold staying in a room. 

Mr. Tavenner. How cold was it at the time that you were put in 
there for punishment ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, it was in the wintertime, and it gets about 30 
below there, sometimes. It was pretty darned cold. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you think it was about that cold when you were 
put there? 

Mr. Jones. I would say it was close to it. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you kept there ? 

Mr. Jones. About all night long — all one night. 

Mr. Ta^tenner. Was that the first time you ever heard of Save Our 
Sons Committee? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was anything else said about Save Our Sons by 
the Chinese at any later time? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. They would mention it every so often in their 
lectures that they gave us. They would mention the Save Our Sons 
Committee. They would mention Mrs. Florence Gowgiel, they would 
mention her name. And they would tell us that her — Mrs. Gowgiel — 
and many others in the United States were fighting to get world peace 
in the Korean war, to get the American troops home quicker. And 
they would suggest that we follow their steps and do our part, too, 
by signing petitions. 

Mr. Tavenner. To sign petitions, as prisoners of war, to be sent 
back to the United States? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5129 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, did they explain to you how signing these 
petitions would help end the war and get you boys home ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, they told us if there was enough people got to- 
gether and would go against the President or the Government and 
put pressure on them, why they would have to stop the war in Korea, 
and that way it would make us return home quicker. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that is the reason they wanted you to sign this 
petition ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the Save Our Sons group ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall how many names were on this peti- 
tion when you signed it ? 

Mr. Jones. No; I can't say that I do know how many there was. 
There were a few on there, but I can't recall just how many there were. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have given to me the names of some prisoners 
of war that you know signed such petitions, haven't you ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. But I do not want to ask you in public session any- 
thing about that until the staff has had some opportunity to make an 
investigation. 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell us what means were used by the Com- 
munists to get prisoners of war to unite in this program to try to influ- 
ence people back home to bring an end to the war? I mean would 
boys just go up voluntarily and sign these petitions, or was any pres- 
sure brought to bear on them ? Just how did they maneuver it ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, they used to ask us to do things like that. They 
told us that we weren't forced to do nothing like that, but we were in no 
position to refuse. 

Mr. TA^^CNNER. You mean they told you that you were in no posi- 
tion to refuse ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by that ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, it meant just that — if you did go against them and 
refused them a lot of times, be reactionary toward them, you might 
just some night disappear out of the camp, like a lot of boys did. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say boys just disappeared ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. From the camp ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. The result was that many of you young men really 
felt that you were not in a position to refuse them ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir ; we did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever learn what happened to any of those 
who disappeared ? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any explanation ever made to you as to what 
happened to them ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, sometimes they would tell us that they was took 
to a reactionary camp, and sometimes they wouldn't tell us nothing 
about none of them. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by a reactionary camp ? 



5130 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Jones. They called it a place where the POWs that was really 
hard toward the Chinese Communists would be taken to a certain 
camp, a reactionary camp, they called it, and put on hard labor, they 
called it. There they would try to reform them from being reaction- 
aries. But nobody knowed where that camp was at or never had saw it. 

Mr. Kearney. You laiew some of these boys personally that dis- 
appeared ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Since your return from prison camp have you ever 
heard of any of these boys being alive ? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir ; I haven't. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. I might say, Mr. Chairman, the witness has given 
me the names of several people, but that has just been within the past 
24 or 48 hours, and we have not had an opportunity to make any 
investigation. 

Now, were those who conducted this camp No. 1 where you were 
Chinese or Koreans ? 

Mr. Jones. Chinese. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did they tell you anything about, or try to get you 
to believe that the American troops or the American forces were using 
germ warfare against them ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir ; they did. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did they ever ask you to write anything back to the 
United States about that ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say the Save Our Sons Committee and Mrs. 
Florence Gowgiel were mentioned in the course of these lectures given 
to your group by Chinese officers ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

]SIr. Tavenner. Can you tell us how these Communist officers learned 
of the existence of Save Our Sons Committee ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, I don't know exactly how — well, I did know that 
she Avrote to a number of POWs that were in the camp. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you know that ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, when they would get the letters from Mrs. Gowgiel 
the Chinese would have them to read the letters over a loudspeaker 
so all the rest of the POW's could hear it. 

Mr. Tavenner. So this was a campaign then among your group 
based upon the letters from Mrs. Gowgiel ? 

Mr. Jones, Yes, sir ; I guess so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever hear from Mrs. Gowgiel ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir : I received one letter from her. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. Tell us, please, the circumstances under which you 
received it? 

Mr. Jones. Well, the Chinese called me to their lieadquarters one 
day and told me I had a letter. I thought maybe I had got a letter 
from liome. Occasionally there were just maybe 1 or 2 letters come 
in, and they would call the individual to headquarters and give it to 
him. But when they handed the letter to me it was from Mrs. Gowgiel, 
the Save Our Sons Committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, when they handed you the letter, what did 
you do ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, I started to walk out with it, but they wanted me 
to read it right there in their headquarters. So I did. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5131 

Mr, Tavenner. Then what happened ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, then they asked me to read it over the loudspeaker 
so the rest of the POW's could hear it. And I refused and wouldn't 
do it, told them I didn't want to. So they never asked me to no more. 

Mr, Tavenner. But you say there were a number of instances in 
which those letters were read ? 

Mr. ,IoNES. Yes, sir, 

Mr, Tavenner. Can you recall now anything that was in the letter? 

Mr. Jones. Vf ell, it said — Mrs. Gowgiel put it to me that she and 
many others like her were fighting for the end of the Korean war, 
and they wanted to bring us home, back to our home, back to our 
families quicker, and wanted me and others to do our part in ending 
the Korean war. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did they say how you should do your part in ending 
the Korean war, when you were prisoners of war in Korea? 

Mr. Jones. Well, by speaking out, and writing petitions, and get- 
ting petitions signed, you know, drawing up petitions our own self 
and getting otlier POAV's to sign tliem and send them in to Washing- 
ton, or the Govermnent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you at any time write a letter to Mi's. 
Gowgiel ? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir ; I never did. 

Mr. Tavenner. You never wrote a letter ? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, the committee, in the course of its investiga- 
tion has secured an envelope from Mr. and Mrs. V. E. Slater, at Hunt- 
ington, Ind., which contained issue No. 4 of Save Our Sons and a 
letter bearing date of February 17, 1953, at the end of which is typed 
"Dale E. Jones, POW Camp, North Korea, circulated by SOS Box 
95, Argo, 111." 

Our investigation shows that Mr. and Mrs. Slater's son was a colonel 
and had been captured and was a prisoner of war at that time. 

Now, I am going to hand you this letter and ask you to read it into 
the record. 

( Document handed to the witness. ) 

Mr. Jones (reading) : 

Dear Mrs. Gowgiel: I am taking the great pleasure to write you that even 
we, who are over 5,000 miles away from home, know about the great work 
you have started in the United States. It is my belief that the Save Our Sons 
Committee will be a great help to us POW's, and to the front-line troops who 
are fighting over here in Korea. It will also help bring about an early conclusion 
to the Korean question. I, for one, and I know the other POW's here with me, 
wholeheartedly support and encourage you to carry on your great work in the 
future. 

You see, Mrs. Gowgiel, I am also from the State of Illinois and it makes me 
feel 100 percent better to know people like you are working for peace in my State, 
as well as in the rest of the States and countries over the world. I am also doing 
what I can, along with the other POW's, to bring about an early conclusion to 
this Korean war. Although I know it is such a small amount right at the present 
time, but we all know the peace movements in the States are growing stronger 
every day. So. therefore, we are hoping for the same thing over here in the POW 
camps. Once that all the people united together, then we can have everlasting 
world peace. 

I have read in the papers many times about the Save Our Sons Committee and 
also about your son-in-law's terrible incident. I deeply sympathize with him, 
for I know the horrible exi>erience he must have gone through. 

It is up to you, Mrs. Gowgiel, to me and the other peace-loving people of the 
world to put a stop to this awful bloodshed over here in Korea. I am certain 



5132 COMAIUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

that the majority of the American people know that this war over here in Korea 
is useless and inhuman. Thousands of people are dying just because there are 
a few individuals who want a little more for themselves. They even kill their 
own people in order to make it that way. That is why the American people must 
urge President Eisenhower to keep his promise and put an end to the Korean 
war, peacefully. If the people of America don't join together and force him to 
do so, it might be extended into a third world war. You and I and millions of 
other people of the world must prevent this. 

The war over here in Korea could have been settled long ago if the American 
side would show some sincerity in the peace talks. But they always put in some 
unreasonable proposals, such as voluntary repatriation. You know, Mrs. Gow- 
giel, no one wants to stay away from his own home and loved ones and not never 
return to be with them again. That is what the American side keep saying about 
the Korean and Chinese POW's. They are always talking about them instead 
of about the American POW's and front-line troops. We want to return to our 
loved ones very bad, even though we have always been treated with the best of 
care. We never have a dull minute here in this camp, but we want to come home. 

The Chinese volunteers are ready to have a cease fire right now and then talk 
about repatriation of all POW's in order to save lives, but the other side says 
"no" — the fighting must go on. That can plainly show who wants peace and who 
doesn't. The Chinese people don't want to kill and cripple the American boys, 
but they have no other choice. They are here to protect their own country from 
being invaded. 

So, Mrs. Gowgiel, it is up to all the peace-loving people of the world to make 
more and more people see how they are being fooled by these handful of * * * 
until the great day comes when war will be done away with and everlasting peace 
the world over 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. The word that is not plainly writ- 
ten there is "profiteers." May I see your copy a moment ? 

No, it is "profit makers" — profit makers. The stencil was not very 
clear. 

Mr. Jones (continuing reading) : 

are being fooled by these handful of profit makers until the great day comes 
when war will be done away with and everlasting peace the world over. 

So, once again we encourage you to carry on your great work in the future. 
It will be a hard, bitter struggle, but peace will be ours in the end. 

I would be more than glad to receive a letter from you letting me know how 
you are coming along with your work. In the meantime I always will look for 
the news about the SOS Committee in the papers. I also would appreciate very 
much if you would contact my mother and tell her to join in with us. I am sure 
she would be glad to help us. 

I wish you all the best luck and wishes in your great work. Remember, peace 
will be our victory. 

Sincerely yours, 

Pfc. Dale E. Jones, 
POW Camp, North Korea. 

Mr. Ta^^enner. You tell this committee you never wrote such a 
letter? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir ; I never. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you write to Mrs. Gowgiel at all ? 

Mr. Jones. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you write that letter to anyone ? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir ; I never. 

Mr. Walter, "\\niat address is on that letter of Mrs. Gowgiel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, this letter was enclosed in an enve- 
lope sent to Mr. and Mrs. V. R. Slater, and at the top of the envelope 
in the lefthand margin is "Save Our Sons Committee, Box 95, Arso, 
111." and the staff has presented testimony that box 95 was applied 
for by Mrs. Gowgiel. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask, is that the envelope in which it was received 
by those people in Illinois ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5133 

Mr. Taat:xner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. That appears to be on a nameplate, an addresso<^raph 
machine of some kind, does it not? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. DoTLE. Under what date is that envelope postmarked ? 

Mr. Tavenner. June 26, 1953. 

You say you have had eight grades in school ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is a well-written letter, and I doubt that it 
could be composed in as good English as it is by a person who had 
received no greater educational training than that. 

Did you ever get anyone to write a letter for you to Mrs. Gowgiel? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir. If I ever wrote, 1 would write it myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. You didn't participate in any way in writing a 
letter to Mrs. Gowgiel, or for her ? 

Mr. Jones. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. After your return to your home, did you meet Mrs. 
Gowgiel ? 

Mv. Jones. No, sir ; I didn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether members of your family re- 
ceived letters from her during the period you were a prisoner of war ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir; my mother did. She told me. I don't know 
about while I was in service, but I know she did after I came home, 
because I saw them myself. They was from Mrs. Gowgiel, the Save 
Our Sons Committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is after you returned from Korea? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did you do with those letters ? 

Mr. Jones. Destroyed them. We never — wouldn't even open them 
up. I told my mother not to ever open them and read them, so she 
didn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did you tell your mother not to open them and 
read them? 

Mr. Jones. Well, I knew it was no good, and I didn't want her to 
read anything like that. I didn't want nothing to do with it. 

I received some after I got home, too — 1 or 2, I don't remember 
which, and I destroyed them also. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, did you receive any communication from Mrs. 
Gowgiel after you were subpenaed to come here as a witness — ^you 
or your mother? 

Mr. Jones. My mother did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that what she received? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir; it is. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to oflPer this document for identification 
purposes only, and have it marked "Jones Exhibit No. 1." 

(The document referred to was marked "Jones Exhibit No. 1" 
for identification.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I will read the first paragraph. 

This bears date, or rather, has the heading, "Save Our Sons." It 
has the date April-May 1956. 

The heading : 

Can Talking Help Prevent War? 

Recently, because of your, and my, work in SOS, I received an invitation to 
attend the CJonference of the International Committee of Mothers. This confer- 



5134 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

ence, in Lausanne, Switzerland, was attended by 62 delegates representing organ- 
izations in 36 nations. 

And then it continues to describe that meeting. And on the second 
page of the document considerable space is given to her being called, to 
Mrs. Gowgiel being called as a witness before this committee. And at 
the bottom of it is a solicitation for funds for her defense and to carry 
on the work of SOS. 

Did your mother also receive this envelope and tlie document at- 
tached to it? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have it, please ? 

This envelope is addressed to Mrs. Jones, luka. 111. It was post- 
marked in Berlin, West Germany. It is from the Permanent Interna- 
tional Committee of Mothers, and there is attached to it a letter bear- 
ing date of March 27, 1956, which I desire to offer for identification 
purposes only, and ask it be marked "Jones Exhibit No. 2." 

The Chairman. It will be so marked. 

(The document referred to was marked "Jones Exhibit No. 2" for 
identification.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know how your mother's name was given 
to that organization ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, the only way I know that Mrs. Gowgiel could have 
got it was after I was captured I wrote and asked my mother to 
put my name and address of the POW camp in the newspapers, so 
that I could receive letters from people here in the United States. 
And I guess, no doubt she put her name and address in the paper, 
too. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long ago was it that you received that last 
document ? 

Just a moment. The postmark from Berlin is April 24, 1956 — or 
April 16, 1956, 1 believe. 

I believe that is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Mr. Kearney ? 

Mr. Kearney. I haven't any questions, Mr. Chairman, but I think it 
should be on the record that there is no stigma attached whatsoever to 
this young man's testifying here today. 

The Chairman. Indeed not. He is continuing to do a very fine, 
patriotic service to his country. 

Thank you. 

Mr. Ta\t3nner. That is all. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Spencer. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Spencer. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP ERDIS SPENCER 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Spencer. Erdis Spencer. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Spencer ? 



CJOMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5135 

Mr. Spencer. Bryan, Ky., November 13, 1928, 1 was born. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. And where? 

Mr. Spencer. Bryan, Ky. 

Mr. Ta VENNEK. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Spencer. Summit, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. How far is Summit, 111., from Argo, 111. ? 

Mr. Spencer. Just a matter of a few blocks. They adjoin each 
other. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived at Summit ? 

Mr. Spencer. Well, I have lived in and around Argo and Summit 
since 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you inducted ? 

Mr. Spencer. I enlisted in August 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you serve in Korea ? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVith what division ? 

Mr. Spencer. 24th Infantry Division. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. 24th Infantry Division. When did you join the 
24th Infantry Division? 

Mr. Spencer. I believe it was in January of 1951. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of 1951. Can you give us the name of the place 
where you joined it? 

Mr. Spencer. No, sir — it was just south of the parallel in the central 
part of South Korea. That is about all I know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you take part in the advance to the 38th paral- 
lel and beyond ? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Were you captured? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you captured by the North Koreans or the 
Chinese ? 

Mr. Spencer. Chinese. 

(Committee members present: Representatives Doyle and Kear- 
ney.) 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the place of your capture, or the front, 
as nearly as you can describe it ? 

Mr. Spencer. I think it was near a small place called Chingree. 
It was approximately 20 miles north of the 38th parallel, the central 
part of Korea. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you captured? 

Mr. Spencer. April 22, 1951. 

Mr. Tavenner. After you were captured, where were you taken? 

Mr. Spencer. Well, we were taken a few miles behind the lines for 
a few days. I was wounded. I couldn't walk so I stayed there a few 
days, and we went on farther. And we kept joining larger gi^oups 
of GI's until we came to this place they called Death Valley. We 
stayed there for a week or so, maybe 2 weeks, something like that, and 
started to the PW camp farther north. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat PW camp were you in ? 



5136 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Spencer. Camp 1. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. That is the same camp that Mr. Jones was in ; is it? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become acquainted with him while you 
were in camp ? 

Mr. Spencer. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. About how many prisoners of war do you think 
were in that camp ? 

Mr. Spencer. Well, it varied. At one time I believe we had over 
2,000, and at the end, I think there was around 1,200, maybe 1,600. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you released as a prisoner of war? 

Mr. Spencer. In August of 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period of time that you were a prisoner 
of war, did you hear anything about an organization known as the 
Save Our Sons Committee ? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just tell the committee how you first learned about 
it, and ail you know about it. 

Mr. Spencer. Well, I first learned about it — the Chinese instructor 
called me into his headquarters one day and asked me if I knew a 
Mrs. Florence Gowgiel. And, you know, the name didn'f mean any- 
thing to me at the time. So I said — well, you know, when he give 
me the address and everything, then I remembered I had saw her be- 
fore — several years, in fact, I had seen her around before I went in 
the Army. By the address, I knew where it was at, because I only 
lived a block or so from there myself. So that was the first I had heard 
about it. And he asked me if I would like to write a letter to her, 
and I said, "No, why should I write her a letter and what for?" 

He didn't say much about it then, at that time. Then the following 
day I saw in these newspapers, Shanghai News, I saw an article in 
that nbout the Save Our Sons Committee being formed in Argo, 111., 
and then it was several articles in the Shanghai News periodically, 
al'out the Save Our Sons Committee, what it was doing, and stuff like 
that. 

Mr. Tavenner. And were you called back again by the Chinese 
officers ? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes, sir. I was called the following day. 

Mr. Tavenner. And Avhat did they tell you ? 

Mr. Spencer. They wanted me to write her a letter, write to her. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did they say they wanted you to write to 
her? 

Mr. Spencer. They didn't say why. They just wanted me to write 
her a letter. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did they show you any documents, or anything 
from the Save Our Sons Committee ? 

Mr. Spencer. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. That you can recall ? 

Mr. Spencer. No, not that I know of. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course, by that time you knew what type of 
work was being done by Save Our Sons Committee? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes, I had a pretty good idea. I mean, it was the 
fact that the Chinese were interested in it, and they were trying to 
get us interested in it, why, it was only logical what type of organiza- 
tion it was. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5137 

Mr. TA^^;NNER. Now, j^ou refused for 2 or 3 days to sign it? 

Mr. Spencer. To write her a letter ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I mean, to write her a letter ? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What induced you, or what led you to write the 
letter? 

Mr. Spencer. "Well, I had one personal reason, and then I wanted 
the Chinks, the Chinese, to leave me alone, quit bothering me, quit 
pestering me. 

Mr. Tavenner. "We have found a letter which was reproduced in is- 
sue No. 4, June 1953, of Save Our Sons, and was attributed to you. 

By the way, how much schooling have you had ? 

Mr. Spencer. Grammar school, 8 years. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Grammar school ^ 

Mr. Spencer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you issue No. 4 of Save Our Sons and I will 
ask you to read the letter appearing there into the record, please. 

And then my next question will be : "What part or parts of that letter 
you really wrote and what parts you didn't write. 

Mr. Spencer (reading) : 

I want to thank yon for yonr good work. Myself and other POWs are most 
grateful to you for trying to end this war here in Korea. If everyone at 
home would speak out their desire for peace, I'm sure it would be attained 
at an early date. I have been a POW for almost 2 years and sure would like 
to go home. 

If you should wish to have this letter or any part of it published, go ahead ; 
maybe it would help your campaign. 

Ebdis Spencer, POW Camp. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. The last paragraph refers to publishing the letter, 
doesn't it ? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. You did actually write that in the letter, did you 
not? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes — part of it. The last, from where it says "Go 
ahead, maybe it would help your campaign" — that I didn't write. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did not write that ? 

Mr. Spencer. No. But I wrote the first part — "if you should wish 
to have this letter or any part of it published '' but not — I don't remem- 
ber how I finished the original letter, but this isn't the way I finished 
it, I know. 

Mr. Ta%^nner. Now, were you told by the Communists to add 
anything to the letter when you first completed it? 

Mr. Spencer. Oh, yes. I wrote 3 or 4 letters before one was final — 
the one that was sent. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean the type letter that you wrote wasn't 
satisfactory to the Communist officers, and you had to keep writing it 
until you got one that was ? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes. The first couple — well, hardly any of it was 
acceptable, so I wrote another one, and that was a little better, and I 
finally wrote the last one, and that one was all riglit. 

Mr. Tavennp:r. Tlien after you finished the last one did they tell 
you what to add to it ? Did they tell you to add to the part about 
publishing it ? 

Mr. Spencer. I don't know. T don't believe so. 



5138 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

I believe I put that in there — well, the letter was written a sentence 
at a time, more or less, with the instructor right at hand. So I don't 
remember just exactly how it was, you know. I believe probably that 
it was dictated to me, more or less, but I won't say for sure, because 
I don't remember. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. We heard here a little while ago about men being 
sent to the reactionary camp if they were too much opposed to what 
the Communists were trying to get you to do. Were the prisoners of 
war known by the name of "reactionaries" at times? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there others who had a different name at 
times ? 

Mr. Spencer. Oh, yes. There was — the Pros, I guess — wait a 
minute. 

Mr. Tavenner. Progressives? 

Mr. Spencer. Progressives, that is it — Progressives. And reaction- 
aries, and there was, I guess you could say about four groups 
altogether. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether other persons wrote similar 
letters to Mrs. Gowgiel, or letters of any kind to her? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes; there was other letters written. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did others receive letters from her? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever receive a letter from her? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall now anything about it ? 

Mr. Spencer. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did the Communist officers want you to sign 
these letters? Did they ever say? 

Mr. Spencer. You mean to write them? 

]Mr. Tavenner. To write them. 

Mr. Spencer. Well, to help the peace campaign, I guess, or help 
Mi'S. Gowgiel's campaign. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask a question, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you write these letters with pen and ink or pencil 
or what? Did you write it in longhand or was it a printed form or 
mimeographed form, or what? 

Mr. Spencer. In longhand. 

Mr. Doyle. Longhand ? 

Mr. Spencer. Yes, sir. With pen when available, and if not, if 
pens wasn't available, we used pencil. 

Mr. Doyle. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. Spencer. They were written in longhand with a pen — if you 
could get hold of a fountain pen. Otherwise we wrote in pencil. 

Mr. Doyle. Did they give you any sample to follow, any copy to 
follow ? 

Mr. Spencer. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. After your return to your home, did you hear any- 
thing further from Mrs. Gowgiel ? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5139 

Mr. Spencer. Yes, sir; I received one post card saying to the effect 
that she would like to get in touch with me, and it was a post-office 
box number on it, on the post card. 

Mr. Ta VENNER. Do you remember what post box number ? 

Mr. Spencer. No, sir ; I don't. 

Mr. Ta VENNER. Did you get in touch with her? 

Mr. Spencer. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have not had any comiection with Save Our 
Sons since you returned, have you ? 

Mr. Spencer. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Mr. Kearney ? 

Mr. Kearney. No questions. 

The Chairman. I want to thank you for your contribution here. 
If there would be more people like you come forward, perhaps the 
American people would not be so naive as to permit these parasites 
to play on the perfectly normal and natural feelings of the decent 
people of America. 

You are excused with our thanks. 

( Witness excused. ) 

The Chairiman. The committee will recess for 5 minutes. 

(A\niereupon, a brief recess was taken, tliere being present at the 
time of the recess Eepresentatives Walter, Doyle, and Kearney.) 

(The subcommittee was reconvened at the expiration of the recess, 
there being present Representatives Walter, Doyle, and Kearney.) 

The Chairman. Are you ready ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mrs. Gowgiel, will you come forward, please ? 

TESTIMONY OF FLORENCE GOWGIEL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
JOSEPH EOEER— Eesumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Gowgiel, I hand you issue No. 4 of Save Our 
Sons publication, and point out to you a letter appearing there over 
the name of Erdis Spencer, POW camp. W^ill you examine that, 
please, and state whether or not that is a correct copy of a letter re- 
ceived from him or whether the letter which ^vas received from him 
was changed ? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer, on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a letter received by Mr. and Mrs. Slater, 
m an envelope on the outside of which is a return address of Save Our 
Sons, bearing date of February 17, 1953, at the end of which is the 
name Dale E. Jones, and I will ask you whether or not that entire 
letter is fictitious, and if you wrote it ? 

(Document handed to die witness.) 

Mr. Forer. Is the question whether Mrs. Gowgiel wrote that letter? 

Mr. Iaa^nner. 1 es. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. No ; I didn't write the letter. 



5140 COMJMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive that letter ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who did write it ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, you know who wrote it, but you 
won't tell the committee, because to do so might tend to incriminate 
you ? Is that your answer ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. That is a different question. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Tamsnner. Will you read her the question ? 

(The record was read by the reporter.) 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. No ; that isn't my answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is that? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. No ; that is not the answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, isn't that true ? 

Mrs. Gow^GiEL. No ; that Avasn't the answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your answer was you would not tell the committee 
who wrote this letter because you relied on the fifth amendment. That 
is correct, isn't it? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you relied on the fifth amendment because to 
tell the truth about it might tend to incriminate you ? 

(The witness confers with here counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Well, I think that is possible. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that means that you know who did write it, 
doesn't it? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Czarnowski testified before the committee that 
you made many statements before the Argo branch of the Communist 
Party indicating that bacterial warfare had been used by the Ameri- 
can troops in Korea and that the American troops were guilty of 
various types of atrocities. Is that true or false that you did do those 
things ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. It is false. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is false? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you did actually circulate propaganda for 
the purpose of getting people to believe that the United States did 
engage in germ warfare, didn't you ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I am very sure I never did, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't you send to Congressman McVey from Illi- 
nois this document. Bacteria Warfare, Threat to World Peace? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't remember. 

Mrs. Gowgiel. No, sir. 



COMIVIUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5141 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever seen that document before or one 
like it? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't remember. Did you send to Congress- 
man Mc Yey the April 23, 1952, issue of the National Guardian, at 
which appears on page 3 an article entitled "Are We Dropping Disease 
on China and Korea. Germ warfare : the facts and the evidence." ? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't remember ? 

Mr. Kjearney. Will you say you didn't send it ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I don't remember, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. What did you send to Congressman McVey ? 

Mr. FoRER. She didn't say she sent anything. 

Mr. Tai'enner. I am asking her. What did you send to Congress- 
man McVey '? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. Congressman McVey is your Congressman; isn't 
he? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. Yes. 

Mr. Ta%t:nner. Did you send him anything ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't remember. 

Mr. Kearney. When was this material supposed to be sent Mr. 
Tavenner ? 

Mr, Tavenner. I hand you a publication entitled "United Nations 
POW's in Korea." Will you examine it, please, and state whether 
or not you circulated that document ? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I remember getting two copies of that, but I don't 
know or remember sending it to anyone. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you advise the readers of your publication to 
procure it ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. You said "your publication" ? 

Mr. Taat^nner. Yes. Save Our Sons. I think it would be fair to 
call it hers. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you change your answer if, instead of say- 
ing "your publication," to state whether or not the publication Save 
Our Sons advised its readers to procure that document? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. No ; that wouldn't change my answer. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Will you examine it and see how many pages it 
contains. 

^Irs. Gowgiel. Ninety-two. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me read to you from issue No. 4 of Save Our 
Sons, as follows : 



5142 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Report on Care of U. N. POW's 

An SOS member sent us this news item from the Chicago Tribune : 
"Geneva, Switzerland, May 23 (AP).— Mrs. Lu Teh Chun, health minister, 
delegate to League of Red Cross Societies, astonished delegates with a glossy 
92-page brochure on life of United States Eighth Army prisoners in Communist 
hands, published by Chinese People's Committee for World Peace, Peipiug, 
China." 

We wrote for a copy of the brochure and suggest that any person who is 
anxious to know how POW's are being treated in North Korea write to the 
Chinese People's Committee, China, for this reassuring brochure. Your own. 
POW's photograph may be there. 

Didn't you write that in the fourth issue of Save Our Sons ? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

(The committee and Mr. Tavenner confer.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, during the course of testimony be- 
fore this committee in October 1953, the committee heard a former 
prisoner of war by the name Lieutenant Ray M. Dowe, Jr. Lieutenant 
Dowe was handed this very document, this 92-page document, pub- 
lished by Chinese People's Committee for World Peace, Peking, China, 
and was asked this question : 

Does that document, without going into great detail here, and without taking 
it up point by point, give an accurate picture of prisoner-of-war life in Korea, 
as you knew it, or is it entirely false and fictitious and misleading? 

Lieutenant Dowe. Many instances in this book portray an artificial situation 
which was created by the Chinese right at the end, and the purpose of that was 
twofold : One, to attempt to make the prisoners forget what had happened in 
their early days, and, two, to create a propaganda situation which they could 
utilize in this world propaganda. 

As far as its relation to the situation in 195.3 in the prison camps and the situa- 
tion prior to that time, as you look back it grows steadily worse, and to take 
a book which is a compilation of posed photographs, for the most part, which is 
exactly what this is, at a stage when things had been changed entirely from the 
situation which had existed the majority of the time we were PW's, you can't 
in any way state that that is a picture of conditions in PW camps run by the 
Communists. 

Did you know that this was a propaganda product of the Commu- 
nist Party in China at the time you recommended it to readers ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I haven't testified that I recommended it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, it is in the publication, the fourth issue of Save 
Our Sons, which bears the Post Office Box 95, Argo, 111., which was 
your post office box. You were chairman of Save Our Sons. Do you 
mean that you deny responsibiliy for the appearance of that article 
in your paper ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. In the paper. Save Our Sons ? 

Mr. Forer. Is that the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Do you deny responsibility for it ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I also, Mr. Chairman, would like for the record here 
to include a reference by Sgt. John Spivey, another witness who ap- 
peared before this committee. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5143 

The testimony was given on October 23, 1953, in which he was asked 
this question : 

I have in my hand a booklet entitled "The United Nations POW's in Korea," 
which has already been introduced in evidence in previous hearings in connec- 
tion with the subject that is before us today. I hand you this document, and 
ask if you have seen it before? 

Mr. Spivey replied that he had. 

He was asked if it was an accurate picture of the life that the i)ris- 
oners of war led in Korea. The reply was : 

Sergeant Spivey. No, it doesn't. It shows a picture of the fellows before and 
after. That is a lot of malarkey, because they can rig up those pictures the way 
they want to rig them up. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know as a fact that they did rig up the pictures? 

Sergeant Spivey. Yes. 

I hand you a document entitled "Out of Their Own Mouths, Revela- 
tions and Confessions written by American soldiers of torture, rape, 
arson, looting and coldblooded murder of defenseless civilians and 
prisoners of war in Korea," put out by the Red Cross Society of 
China, Peking, 1952. I will ask you to examine it and state whether 
or not you urged the reading of that document. [Hands document to 
witness.] 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I don't remember seeing this. 

Mr. TaM':xner. Did you I'ecommend the reading of any documents 
published by the Red Cross of China ? 

Mrs. GowoiEL. I don't remember. 

Mr. TA^^5N>fER. You don't remember. 

I read into evidence here a few moments ago a statement in your 
April-May issue of 1956 of Save Our Sons, regarding an invitation that 
had been extended to you to go to Switzerland as a delegate from the 
United States to a convention of the International Committee of 
Mothers. Did you attend such a convention ? 

(The witness confers w^ith her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenxer. At Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1956 ? '• 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer, on the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. What is the name of the organization ? 

Mr. Tavenner. International Committee of Mothers. 

The Chairman. You refuse to answer a question as to whether or not 
you were invited to attend that meeting on the grounds that to do so 
might incriminate you ? Is that it ? • 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. She was asked whether she attended that meeting and 
she refused to answer under the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. Did you receive an invitation to attend this meet- 
ing? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GoAVGiEL. I refuse, on the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. You refuse, because the International Committee 
of Mothers is a Communist organization, is it not ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. No. 

The Chairman. It is not ? 
- Mrs. GowGiEL. I didn't say that. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 



5144 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA A]\IONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Then your answer is changed from "No" to you refuse 
to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment ; is that so ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I haven't changed my answer. 

Mr. Kearney. Didn't you say "Xo" a minute ago ? 

Mr. FoRER. She said "No" in answer to a question of : Did she refuse 
for this reason ; and she said "No," she refused for another reason. 

Mr. Kearney. She is saying "No" for a lot of reasons, all right. 
There is no question about that. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I hand }■ ou a photostatic copy of an application for a 
passport, which purports to be an application signed by Florence 
Gowgiel, bearing date of August 10, 1955. Will you examine it, please, 
and state whether or not it is your application. [Hands document 
to witness.] 

(The witness confers with her comisel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer, on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the signature appearing at the bottom of the 
application your signature ? 

Mrs. Gow^GiEL. I refuse to answer, on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine it again, please, and state whether 
or not the photograph appearing on the second page is your photo- 
graph ? 

Mr. GowiEL. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Gowgiel Exhibit No. 5," for identification pur- 
poses only. 

(The document referred to was marked "Gowgiel Exhibit No. 5" 
for identification in the files of the committee.) 

The Chairman. Has the passport been issued ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir ; it is our information. 

The Chairman. In view of that, did you have that passport issued 
to you ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I refuse to answer, on the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer that question, because it is 
inconceivable that anybody could be prosecuted for admitting that 
the United States Government issued a passport. You are directed 
to answer that question. Have you had a passport issued to you ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Yes. 

The Chairman. You have ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Yes. 

Mr. Taa^nner. That is a valid passport at this time ; is it ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. You could travel to any country in the world, unless 
there is some prohibition in the passport itself, right at this time, under 
that passport, could you not ? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I think so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you traveled under that passport to any for- 
eign country ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5145 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question, as to whether 
you have used the passport. 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I will abide by my refusal. 

Mr. Ta\t^nner. It is noted from the application for passport that 
it is stated that the countries to be visited are Paris, France — did you 
go to Paris ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you fjo to any other place in France ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Actually, you never intended to go to France at 
all. You wanted to go to Switzerland for an entirely different pur- 
pose than that named in your application ; isn't that true ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. Your application says that the purpose of the trip 
is visiting and touring. That was false, too ; was it not ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. The document which I read in evidence shows that 
you did actually attend a convention of the International Committee 
of Mothers, in Switzerland. Why did you not state on your appli- 
cation that you proposed to go to Switzerland to attend this particular 
meeting ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I haven't identified that application. 

Mr. TA^*ENNER. I say: Why did you not advise the State Depart- 
ment when you obtained your passport that the real purpose of 
your desiring a passport was to go to Switzerland instead of going 
to France ? 

Mr. FoRER. Your question is assuming a fact that is not in evidence. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think the question is perfectly plain. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Wasn't there a reason for your concealing the real 
purpose of your trip ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. Will you repeat it ? 

Mr. Ta^t:nner. Wasn't there a reason for your failure to give the 
State Department correct information as to the purpose of your 
trip ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that the affidavit of the identifying 
witness on your application was signed by Elizabeth Mitterer, 
M-i-t-t-e-r-e-r. Was Elizabeth Mitterer the same person who ap- 
peared as a witness here yesterday ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 
(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavennfji. Was Elizabeth Mitterer the secretary-treasurer of 
Save Our Sons Committee ? 



5146 COIMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KORE.\N WAR PRISONERS 

JMrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer, on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, how the Inter- 
national Committee of Mothers possessed in Germany a list of the 
names of persons in this country to be circularized by that organi- 
zation ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you give the name of Mrs. Jones, of luka. 111., 
to the International Committee of Mothers, for the purpose of having 
her circularized with literature ? 

Mrs. GowGiEL, I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
the 25th day of October 1952', which was the date of the fomiding 
convention of Save Our Sons Committee ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time in February or March 1956? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta%^nner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. GowGiEL. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time that I have not specifically inquired about? 

Mrs. Gow^GiEL. I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Kearney. On this organization, known as the Save Our Sons, 
did you have a son in the service ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GowGiEL. Will you repeat that? 

Mr. Kearney. Did you have a a son in the service ? 

Mrs. Gow^GiEL. A son? 

Mr. Kearney. Yes. This organization is Save Our Sons. 

Mrs. Gow^giel. I had a son-in-law. 

Mrs. Kearney. You had a son-in-law in the service ? 

The Chairman. Wlien were you born, Mrs. Gowgiel. 

Mrs. Gowgiel. November 14, 1914. 

The Chairman. In Chicago? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. No, in Argo. 

The Chairman. Not in Chicago? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Is your first name "Florence"? 

Mrs. Gowgiel. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. This application for a passport certainly demon- 
strates the need for this legislation. You are excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I have another question or two. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Ta^tsnner. First of all I would like to have introduced for 
identification a document entitled "Bacteriological Warfare,"^ ob- 
tained from the office of Congressman McVey, and ask that it be 
marked "Gowgiel Exhibit No. 6" ; and also the April 23, 1952, issue 
of the National Guardian, and ask that it be marked for identification 
purposes as "Gowgiel Exhibit No. 7." 

(The documents referred to were marked "Gowgiel Exhibits, Nos. 6 
and 7," for identification in the files of the committee.) 



COJMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AjMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5147 

Mr, Ta\tenner. I have called your attention, prior to this, Mrs. 
Gowgiel, to the fact that each of the issues of Save Our Sons con- 
cludes with a request to send in contributions to Save Our Sons. Did 
Save Our Sons organization or you comply with any law of the State 
of Illinois with regard to solicitation of funds? 
(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. GrowGiEL. I refuse to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether the State of Illinois has a 
statute requiring the licensing of organizations seeking, or soliciting 
funds ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Gowgiel. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Some States have such laws. The State of New 
York does, for instance. The State of California does. If the State 
of Illinois had such a law% you would have had to qualify the Save 
Our Sons organization under such a law before you were licensed to 
solicit funds. 

The Chairman. That would not necessarily follow as to her or- 
ganization. I do not suppose it would bother registering, for obvious 
reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. There is one reason, Mr. Chairman, that some 
thought might well be given to restrictions of some type for organi- 
zations of this kind, in soliciting funds, such as through licensing, or 
maybe by congressional action. 

The Chair3ian. There is a Federal statute, if you attempt to solicit 
through the mails. 

Mr. Tavenner. On the grounds of fraudulent use of the mails. 

The Chairman. Any further questions? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Buckner. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Buckner. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MES. MARY PHILLIPS BUCKNER, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please ? 

Mrs. Buckner. ISIary Phillips Buckner. 

Mr. Tavenner. B-u-c-k-n-e-r? 

Mrs. Buckner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. It is noted that the witness is accompanied by coun- 
sel, who accompanied the preceding witness. 

Where do you live, Mrs, Buckner ? 

Mrs. Buckner. Lemont, Cook County, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. At Lemont, Cook County, 111. Please speak a little 
louder as I do not believe the committee members can hear you. 

Mrs. Buckner. I will try. 

Mr. TA^^3NNER. How long have you lived at Lemont ? 

Mrs. Buckner. Seventeen or eighteen years. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\Yliat was your maiden name ? 



5148 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mrs. BucKNER. Phillips. 

Mr. Tavenner. Phillips. Mrs. Buckiier, were you present in the 
hearing room when Mrs. Mitterer testified. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. BucKNER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. A subpena duces tecum was served on her as the 
secretary-treasurer of Save Our Sons Committee, requiring her to 
produce certain records. Among them were the canceled checks and 
bank statements. Do you know where the canceled checks and bank 
statements of Save Our Sons Committee are ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. BucKNER, I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever known ? 

Mrs. BucKNER. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not know in whose custody they are ? 

Mrs. Buckner. No, sir ; I don't know a thing about them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where any of the records of Save Our 
Sons Committee are, at this time ? 

Mrs. Buckner. I know nothing about any records. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Buckner, were you at one time a member of 
the Argo Branch of the Communist Party in Argo, 111. ? 

(The witness confers with, her counsel.) 

Mrs. Buckner. I refuse to answer that question under the privilege 
of the fifth amendment, not to testify against myself, and on the right 
of the first amendment of free press and free speech and free exercise 
of my religion. 

Mr. Tavenner. It has been testified here that, when the Argo branch 
of the Communist Party became hard up for money, that they called 
on the lady from Lemont to contribute tinanciall}^ to the cause of the 
party. 

Mr. FoRER. You mean there were times when they weren't hard up. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of occasions when that occurred? 
When the lady from Lemont w^as called upon for financial aid ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer on the privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. I would like to ask the witness if this hearing is a 
joke to her ? 

Mrs. Buckner. It certainly is not. It has caused me too much grief 
to call it a joke. 

Mr. Kearney. I am glad to hear you say that because, by your at- 
tude, I thought maybe it was. 

Mrs. Buckner. No, sir ; it isn't. 

Mr. Kearney. Proceed. 

Mr. Ta\t3Nner. Were you active in the work of the American Peace 
Crusade prior to the formation of Save Our Sons Committee ? 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
above stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a copy of the minutes of sponsors' 
meeting of the American Peace Crusade, held March 15, 1951, in Wash- 
ington, D. C. Did you attend that meeting of sponsors ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer, on the grounds above stated. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 5149 

Mr. TA^TiNNER. FroiTi the minutes, it appears that proposals were 
:inade for a slate for the planning committee of the American Peace 
Crusade, and the names of those persons who were proposed appear 
there. 

Your name is not among those slated for the planning committee, 
but in a paragraph below appears this : 

Other suggestions included — 
then a number of names — it looks like 15 or 20, and among them — 
Miss Mary Phillips. 

Will you explain to the committee how it was that the minutes of 
that meeting show that your name was being suggested for the plan- 
ning connnittee? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. Would you mind explaining that question ? * 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Yes. If it will help her, I will show her a copy of 
^he minutes. 

Mr. Forer. What is the question? We understood what you said 
was in the minutes. 

]Mr. Tavenner. The question was : Can you explain to the commit- 
tee how it is that your name appears as one of those suggested for the 
planning committee ? 

(Tlie witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer on the grounds above stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you ever selected for the planning committee ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. BucKNER. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you been active with Mrs. Florence Gowgiel 
in the work of the American Peace Crusade prior to the formation of 
the Save Our Sons Committee ? 

(The witness confers with lier counsel.) 

Mrs. BucKNER. I decline to answer on the grounds above stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you were in the hearing room at the time 
Mr. Czarnowski testified that you gave him an order for the painting 
of two signs of Save Our Sons, to be used in some advertising work in 
which that committee engaged. Now, you expressed considerable 
surprise at that. Was it because you did not hear that testimony 
or because there is no truth in it ? 

Mr. FoRER. Wait a minute. You say she expressed surprise. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; considerable surprise when I asked the 
question. 

Mr. Forer. You mean just now ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am addressing the witness. 

Mr. FoRER. I am soriy. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you are having difficulty understanding 
me. I think I heard that. I will repeat it. 

Mrs. BucKNER. I had difficulty understanding that man yesterday. 
I don't know half of what he said. I couldn't understand him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me explain what he said. 

Mr. FoRER. I don't think it is fair for you to say that she showed 
surprise. I don't know how you could read her mind. 



5150 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA AMONG KOREAN WAR PRISONERS 

Mr. Tavenner. There was no trouble in the world of seeing that. 

It was testified by Mr. Czarnowski that on one occasion you gave 
him an order for the painting of two signs of Save Our Sons. I do 
not recall what those sign?, were used for. I am reminded that it 
was for the State fair in Illinois. Do you recall that ? 

Mrs. BucKNER. I decline to answer on the grounds above stated. 

The Chairman. Did you ever give him an order to prepare any 
signs ? 

(The witness confers with her comisel.) 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer on the grounds above stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have shown here that a very small sum of 
mone}^ went through the bank account of Save Our Sons organiza- 
tion, notwithstanding considerable work was done by that organiza- 
tion. Do you know anything about that, as to how the funds were 
handled ? 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer on the grounds above stated. 

Mr. Taat:nner. Did you help finance the operation of Save Our 
Sons? 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer that question also, on the 
grounds above stated. 

The Chairman. Did you ever make any financial contributions to 
any so-called peace organizations? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer on the grounds above stated. 

The Chairman. "WHiat criminal prosecution do you fear for ad- 
mitting that you are supporting peace movements? Everybody is for 
peace. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Ta^-enner. "Were you transferred from the Argo branch of the 
Communist Party to the Northside branch of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer such a question on the grounds 
above stated. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
above stated. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Have you at any time been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mrs. Buckner. I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the past ? 

Mrs. Buckner. On the grounds stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. Have you any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. No. 

Mr. Kearney. No. 

The Chairman. There are no further questions. The witness is 
excused. 

The committee will recess, to meet at 10 tomorrow morning. 

("Wliereupon, at 3 : 65 p. m., June 19, the committee recessed until 
10 o'clock a. m., Wednesday, June 20, 1956, there being present Repre- 
sentatives Walter, Doyle, and Kearney.) 

X 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Belfrage, Cedric 5107, 5124 

Bernstein 5090 

Buckner, Mary Phillips 5097, 5098, 5147-5150 (testimony) 

Carlson, Anton 5119 

Chun, Mrs. Lu Teh 5142 

Cortor, William 5118 

Czaruowski, Anzelm A 5085-5100 (testimony), 5113, 5119, 5140, 5149, 5150 

Degrew, Bobby R 5123 

Dowe, Ray M., Jr 5142 

Forer, Joseph 5100, 5111, 5139, 5147 

Gieben, Wilma 5096 

Gojack, John 5093 

Gowgiel, Florence 5087-5099,5101,5102,5106,5111-5125 (testimony), 

5128, 5130-5134, 5136, 5138, 5139-5147 (testimony), 5149 

Greene, Emily Balch 5119 

Hardyman, Hugh 5095 

Jones, Dale E 5123, 5125-5134 (testimony), 5139 

Kimmel, Lou 5118 

Kiinger, Ed 5091 

Kni&ht, John 5100 

Lightfoot, Claude 5095, 5096, 5099 

Lovett, Robert Morss 5089 

Mitterer, Elizabeth 5100-5109 (testimony), 5116, 5145, 5148 

Noyes, Henry 5092, 5093 

Powell, John 5124 

Schumacher, Brockman 5117, 5118 

Slater, V. R 5123, 5131, 5132, 5139 

Slater, Mrs. V. R 5123, 5131, 5132, 5139 

Spencer, Erdis 5134-5139 (testimony) 

Spivey, John 5142, 5143 

Voss, Bob 5092 

Wilson, Charlie 5091 

Organizations 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 5097 

American Peace Cru.sade 5088, 5089, 5091, 5093, 5097, 5119 

Auto Workers, United. CIO, Local 719 5087 

Chinese People's Committee for World Peace 5142 

International Committee of Mothers 5133, 5134, 514.5, 5146 

Communist Party, Illinois : 

Argo: Argo Branch 5086-5088,5093-5097 

Chicago: Northside Branch 5097 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 5087 

National Council of American Soviet Friendship 5007 

Save Our Sons Committee 5087-5091, 5093-5095, 

5097-5099, 5101-5103, 5105, 5118, 5119, 5122, 5127. 5128, 5130, 5136 
St. Louis Emergency Defense Committee 5117,5118 

Publications 

National Guardian 5124 

United Nations POW's in Korea 5141,5143 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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