(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Buffalo, N.Y., area. Hearings"

L/. . r 



/ //(^ 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA— PART 1 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPEESENTATIYES 



EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

riRST SESSION 



OCTOBER 2, 1957 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



(INDEX IN PART 2) 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
97795 WASHINGTON : 1957 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBKARY. 
DEPOSITED 3Y THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee GORDON H. SCHERER, Oliio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Director 
U 



CONTENTS 



PART 1 

Page 

Synopsis vii 

October 2, 1957: Testimony of — 

Charles V. Regan (resumed)* 1604 

Charles T. Asque 1631 

Edward A. Wolkenstein 1638 

Afternoon session: 

Winthrop H. Phelps 1645 

Sidney Herbert Ingerman 1650 

David Martin Brownstone 1666 

Gilbert Cohen 1676 

James Annaccone 1685 

Julian Chazin 1691 

Gerald Thorner 1693 

Everett Sheldon Jones 1699 

Alexander Salmin 1701 

PART 2 

October 3, 1957: 

William H. Nuchow 1705 

Joseph Green , 1712 

Joseph A. Chatley 1716 

Joseph Green (resumed) 1716 

Joseph A. Chatley (resumed) 1717 

Max Stein 1730 

Sam Brook 1735 

Miroslaw Bogdon Zelman 1741 

Afternoon session: 

Joseph C. Scioli 1745 

Helen Mintz 1753 

Loyd E. Kinsey 1754 

Helen Mintz (resumed) 1755 

Loyd E. Kinsey (resumed) 1757 

Helen Mintz (resumed) 1758 

Loyd E. Kinsey (resumed) 1763 

Israel Levine 1 767 

Vincent Facile 1771 

Floyd F. Fried 1772 

Irving R. Cohen 1774 

October 4, 1957: 

Arthur Bolton 1779 

Hattie Lumpkin 1784 

Beverly Levine (Mrs. Israel Levine) 1787 

Ruth I. Bolton (Mrs. Arthur Bolton) 1789 

Frances L. Clune 1792 

Sylvia Tobin 1795 

Milton Rogovin 1799 

Nancv Hull Salmin (Mrs. Alexander Salmin) 1802 

Betty Thorner (Mrs. Gerald Thorner) 1804 

Index i 

1 See also Investigation of Communist Propaganda in the United States — Part 8 
(Buffalo, N. Y., area), October 1, 1957. 

nx 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Pubhc Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OP COMMITTEES 



(q) (I) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

Rule XII 

legislative oversight by standing committees 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent re- 
ports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch 
of the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85th CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

******* 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

(Investigation of Communist Activities in the Buffalo, N. Y., 
Area, October 2-4, 1957, Parts 1 and 2 

Public hearings held in Buffalo, N. Y,, on October 2 through Octo- 
ber 4, 1957, provided the Committee on Un-American Activities with 
valuable information regarding the tactics of the Communist Party in 
infiltration of vital industry. 

On August 19, 1957, Committee Chairman Francis E. Walter intro- 
duced an omnibus security bill (H. R. 9352), certain provisions of 
which deal with the falsification of social-security cards by Communist 
Party members. 

The need for enactment of legislation of this type was illustrated 
on several occasions during the course of the hearings in Buffalo. 
One of the witnesses, David Brownstone, had been employed as a 
laborer at the Bethlehem Steel plant in Lackawanna, a suburb of 
Buffalo, as part of the Communist program of colonization, the method 
whereby Communists, at the behest of the Communist Party, obtain 
employment in industry for the purposes of recruiting and/or in- 
fluencing coworkers. Generally, these individuals apply for a posi- 
tion requiring less training and education than they actually possess. 
Many are college graduates holding one or more degrees, 

Brownstone, a college graduate with 3 years of law study at Cor- 
nell University, had applied for a position as a laborer at Bethlehem 
Steel. When he moved to the Buffalo area, he assumed a completely 
new identity for himself and his family. Under the name of Fred- 
erick J. Werner, he obtained employment at Bethlehem Steel. In his 
application he falsified his place and date of birth, previous addresses, 
previous employment, his education (indicating only high school), 
and gave pseudonyms for all the members of his family. To complete 
that sham, he used a false social-security card. 

In previous hearings of the committee, Brownstone had been identi- 
fied as a member of the Communist Party by four individuals. In 
1954, the committee held hearings in Albany, N. Y. At the time, 
efforts were made to locate and subpena Brownstone as a witness. 
However, an extensive investigation failed to reveal his whereabouts. 
It came to light during the Buffalo investigation that at the very 
time the committee sought Brownstone he was operating in the under- 
ground under the name of Werner and was employed at Bethlehem 
Steel. 

Wien interrogated in the Buffalo hearings, Brownstone refused, on 
the basis of the fifth amendment, to give the committee any informa- 
tion concerning colonization or the Communist Party. 

Charles Regan, who had been an undercover operative in the ranks 
of the Communist Party for the FBI, showed the reasons for Brown- 
stone's deception. Mr. Regan identified a document which came into 



VIII SYNOPSIS 

his possession while a member of the Communist Party. The docu- 
ment was in the form of a directive to other party members. The first 
paragraph reads as follows: 

Three basic industries, steel, railroad, and mining. These are basic to the 
national economy ; that is, if any one or all three are shut down by strike our 
economy is paralyzed. It is necessary for a Marxist Revolutionary Party to 
be rooted in these industries. 

Mr. Re^an further described the importance to the Communist 
Party, of its inJBltration into industry in general and particularly the 
steel industry, in the Buffalo area. He cited numerous meetings he 
had attended at which the importance of infiltration and the tactics 
to be employed in such infiltration were discussed. 

During the course of his testimony, Mr. Regan identified approxi- 
mately Y5 persons he had known to be members of the Communist 
Party. 

The extent to which the Communist Party has gone to penetrate 
industry was brought out in evidence produced before the committee 
in interrogating other witnesses. Thirty-four persons were subpenaed 
as witnesses. Of these, more than one-half were, or had recently been, 
employed in basic industry in the Buffalo area. Many were college 
graduates primarily from New York City, who had moved to Buffalo 
to work in industry, particularly in steel plants. Of the 8 or 10 college 
graduates, some holding master's degrees, all had failed to indicate 
more than a high school education in their applications for employ- 
ment. Many of these persons had been successful in obtaining posi- 
tions of relative importance in their unions. 

Two individuals w^ho appeared as witnesses and who were employed 
in industry were Sam Brook and James Annaccone. Both held offices 
in their respective unions which required their signing non- Communist 
affidavits under the provisions of the Taft-Hartley law. However, 
both refused, on the basis of the fifth amendment, to state whether 
or not they told the truth when they indicated that thej were not 
members of the Communist Party in executing this affidavit. It was 
the recommendation of the subcommittee that these two cases be re- 
ferred to the Department of Justice for possible prosecution. 

Joseph Chatley, who, like Mr. Regan, served within the ranks of the 
Communist Party for the FBI, from 1949 to approximately 1952, 
provided the committee with valuable information concerning the 
Communist misuse of passports. Mr. Chatley testified that he was 
contacted by Irving Charles Velson, an identified Communist Party 
member, and was told that he had been selected as a delegate of the 
American Committee To Survey Trade Union Conditions in Europe. 
Mr. Chatley testified that the true purpose of this trip was for Com- 
munist propaganda. He also identified numerous persons he had 
known as Communist Party members, in many instances corroborat- 
ing the testimony of Mr. Regan. 

The committee has received testimony recently to the effect that 
a comparatively new device of the Communist Party is to instruct 
its members to penetrate "legitimate" organizations; that is, non- 
Communist and/or anti-Communist groups. Mr. Regan gave cor- 
roborative testimony of this. 



SYNOPSIS rx 

Four witnesses were called before the committee in its inquiry into 
this aspect of the party's work : Beverly Levine, Ruth Bolton, Nancy 
H. Salmin, and Betty Thorner. All w^ere active in the local YAVCA 
in Buffalo. However, all refused, claiming their privilege under the 
fifth amendment, to state whether they were or had been members of 
the Communist Party. 

Various other persons active in other civic and social organizations 
were called before the committee. They all invoked the fifth amend- 
ment rather than answer questions of the committee. 

Another witness who cooperated with the committee was Mr. Loyd 
Kinsey, who had been a functionary of the Communist Party in the 
Buffalo area until approximately 1948. He furnished corroborative 
information to the effect that one of the primary aims of the Commu- 
nist Party in that area was to penetrate basic industry, particularly 
the steel industry. Mr. Kinsey was also able to furnish the names 
of persons who had been known to him to be members of the Com- 
munist Party. 

One of the individuals named by Mr. Kinsey was Miss Helen 
Mintz, an attorney employed by the city of Buffalo. "VVlien interro- 
gated by the committee. Miss Mintz denied that she was or had been 
a member of the Communist Party. The subcommittee has recom- 
mended that the testimony of both Mr. Kinsey and Miss Mintz be 
referred to the Department of Justice for possible perjury prosecu- 
tion. 

A new ruse of the Communist Party came to light during the 
Buffalo hearings. Many persons who appeared before the commit- 
tee stated under oath that they were not members of the Communist 
Party at that moment but invoked the fifth amendment as to mem- 
bership immediately preceding their appearance. Several even in- 
voked the fifth amendment on anticipated membership in the future, 
the obvious conclusion being that they had resigned technical mem- 
bership in the Communist Party for the purpose of being able to 
appear before the committee and state that they were not then 
members of the Communist Party. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA— PART 1 



WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 2, 1957 

Unii'ed States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-Aivierican Activities, 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a. m. in room 600, United States Courthouse, 
Buffalo, N. Y., Hon Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, 
of Louisiana, and Gordon H, Scherer, of Ohio. 

Also present : Representative John R. Pillion. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director; George C. Wil- 
liams and W. Jackson Jones, investigators. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

This subcommittee consisting of Hon. Francis E. Walter of Penn- 
sylvania, Hon. Gordon H. Scherer of Ohio, seated here, and myself, 
Edwin E. Willis of Louisiana, has been duly appointed by the chair- 
man of the Committee on Un-American Activities, Hon. Francis E. 
Walter, to conduct hearings here in Buffalo, N. Y. Unfortunately, 
Mr. Walter is unable to be present because of a physical injury from 
which he is recuperating. There is, however, a quorum present and 
the subcommittee will accordingly proceed with its duties. 

Let the record at this point include the authorization by the com- 
mittee (July 10, 1957) for the holding of these hearings in Buffalo, 
N. Y., which I have designated appendix I. 

Appendix I 

Committee Authoeization foe Buffalo Hearings 

A motion was made by Mr. Jackson, seconded by Mr. Doyle and unanimously 
carried, approving and authorizing the holding of hearings in Buffalo, N. Y., 
beginning September 17, 1957, or on any other date determined by the chairman 
of the committee, and tlie conduct of investigations deemed reasonably necessary 
by the staff in preparation therefor, relating to the following subjects and having 
the legislative purposes indicated : 

1. Entry and dissemination in the Buffalo area of foreign Communist 
Party propaganda, the legislative purpose being to determine the necessity 
for, and advisability of, amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration Act 
designed more effectively to counteract the Communist schemes and devices 
now used in avoiding the prohibitions of the act ; 

2. Execution by administrative agencies concerned of laws requiring the 
listing of printing presses and machines capable of being used to produce 
or publish printed matter, in the possession, custody, ownership, or control 
of the Communist Party or Communist fronts, the legislative purpose being 

1601 



1602 COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

to assist Congress in appraising the adminstration of title 50, United States 
Code, section 786 (6), and in developing such amendments to the Internal 
Security Act of 1950, as it may deem necessary ; 

3. The extent, character, and objects of Communist infiltration into in- 
dustrial, civic, and political organizations of the Buffalo area, the legisla- 
tive purpose being to add to the committee's overall knowledge on the 
subject so that Congress may be kept informed and thus prepare to enact 
remedial legislation in the national defense and for internal security, when 
and if the exigencies of the situation require it ; 

4. Misuse of passports by subversives and concealment of material facts 
in applications for passports, the legislative purpose being to enact legisla- 
tion in the field of un-American activities relating to the misuse of passports, 
designed to amend and strengthen the provisions of H. R. 5612, now being 
considered by the Committee on the Judiciary ; and 

5. All other matters within the jurisdiction of the committee which may 
be developed in the course of the staff's investigation. 

Likewise, let the record reflect at this point the order of appointment 
of the subcommittee which order I have designated appendix II. 

Appendix II 

Appointment of Subcommittee fob Buffalo Hearings 

August 29, 1957. 
To : Mr. Richard Arens, director, House Committee on Un-American Activities. 
Pursuant to the provisions of law and the rules of this committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting 
of Representatives Gordon H. Scherer and Edwin E. Willis, associate members, 
and myself, Francis E. Walter, as chairman, to conduct hearings in Buffalo, N. Y., 
on October 1, 2, and 3, 1957, at 10 a. m., on subjects under investigation by the 
committee and take such testimony on said days or succeeding days, as it may 
deem necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 29th day of August 1957. 

Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Under the provisions of Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress, the 
Congress has placed upon this committee the duty of investigating 
the extent, character, and objects of un-American propaganda ac- 
tivities in the United States, the diffusion within the United States 
of subversive and un-American propaganda that is instigated from 
foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks the principle 
of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. Congress has also placed upon this 
committee the duty of exercising continuous watchfulness over the 
execution of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of this committee. 

For the past 2 years, the committee has engaged in an extensive 
investigation to ascertain the amount and variety of foreign Com- 
munist propaganda disseminated in the United States. The com- 
mittee has held hearings and taken testimony relating to the three 
principal ports of entry of this material, namely, New York, San 
Francisco, and New Orleans. The committee is vitally interested in 
the type and volume of material entering the United States from the 
Soviet and satellite countries through all ports of entry of the United 
States. Ports such as Buffalo do not have regularly constituted offi- 
cials whose sole and exclusive function is examining this material and 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1603 

confiscating that which enters this country illegally. However, at 
the request of the committee, the United States customs service has 
conducted a survey of this and other ports of entry along the Canadian 
border relating to Communist propaganda entering the country in 
this area and will give us the benefit of their fuidmgs today .^ 

We shall also receive testimony from individuals in this area con- 
cerning Commimist techniques and tactics of infiltration or attempted 
^aifiltration of basic industries. Without this information, it would 
be impossible for the committee to carry out its legislative duties as 
required of it by the Congress and the American people. In response 
to the mandate from the Congress to keep constant surveillance over 
existing security legislation, the committee is constantly surveying 
the operation of the Internal Security Act of 1950, the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act, espionage statutes, the Communist Control 
Act of 1954, and similar laws. 

The committee, operating through its staff, recently formulated an 
omnibus security bill, H. R. 9352, which represents the most compre- 
hensive effort ever made to deal with all problems in the field of m- 
ternal security. This bill combines numerous proposals for empower- 
ing the Government to combat the various aspects of the Communist 
conspiracy which are not dealt with adequately in our present laws. 

We hope to obtain here in Buffalo factual information which will 
help us in refining this omnibus security bill on which we will be 
working further as soon as the Congress convenes in January. 

It is a standing rule of this committee that any person named in 
the course of committee hearings be given an early opportunity to 
appear before this committee if he so desires, for the purpose of de- 
nying or explaining any testimony adversely affecting him. In the 
event there are such persons, they should immediately communicate 
with any member of the staff' and make their request known. 

I would remind those present that we are here at the direction of the 
Congress of the United States to discharge an important legislative 
function. You are here by permission of this committee, and I trust 
will conduct yourselves as guests of the committee at all times. A dis- 
turbance of any kind or audible comment during the course of testi- 
mony, whether favorable or unfavorable to any witness, will not be 
tolerated. 

In every hearing, the committee has encouraged witnesses to have 
counsel with them if they so desire, and has always welcomed the 
presence of counsel. In fact, the rules of the committee expressly 
provide that at every hearing, public or executive, every witness 
shall be accorded the privilege of having counsel of his own choos- 
ing- 

The participation of comisel during the course of any hearing and 

while the witness is testifying shall be limited to advising the witness 
as to his legal rights. Counsel shall not be permitted to engage in 
oral argument with the committee, but shall confine his activity to 
the area of legal advice to his client. 

I wish to say also, finally, that I admonish those present not to 
smoke in the courtroom. 

Counsel will call his first witness. 



1 See Investigation of Communist Propaganda in the United States — Part 8 (Buffalo. 
N. Y., area). October 1, 1957. 



1604 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Charles Regan, kindly come forward. 
May the record show, if you please, Mr. Chairman, that this wit- 
ness was sworn yesterday, and testihed at that time very briefly. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES V. EEGAN— Resumed ^ 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Regan, in order that this record, beginning today, 
may be perfectly clear, and may have a continuity to it, would you 
kindly identify yourself again by name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Regan. My name is Charles Regan. I live at 96 Norwood 
Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. I am employed at Harrison Radiator as a 
crib attendant. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Regan, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Regan. For 10 years. 

Mr. Arens. Beginning when and ending when, please, sir? 

Mr. Regan. 1943-53. 

Mr. Arens. Was your membership in the Communist Party solely 
and exclusively to serve your Government at the behest of the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you have testified subsequent to the termination 
of your service in the Communist Party at the behest of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation in the trial of John Noto here in the Buffalo 
area in 1956 ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. We should like, without any duplication of the ma- 
terial which was covered in that particular proceeding, if you please, 
Mr, Regan, to cover with you certain areas of your activity which are 
germane to the work of this committee. 

Would you kindly tell us first of all the first unit or group to which 
you were assigned when you joined the Communist Party? 

Mr. Regan. I was assigned to the Riverside Club of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. And where was the Riverside Club of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Regan. Located in a section of the city called Riverside. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat type of club was the Riverside Club ? 

Mr. Regan. Well, it was a neighborhood club, you could call it, an 
industrial club combined. There were industrial workers in it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you obtain a position of leadership as an officer in 
the club? 

Mr. Regan. I was president of the club. 

Mr. Arens. Were there people who were, to your certain knowledge, 
Communists who were members of the Riverside Club ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. People with whom you served in closed Communist 
Party meetings ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us the names now of people who to your 
certain knowledge were members of the Riverside Club of the Com- 



1 For Charles Regan's testimony on October 1, 1957, see Investigation of Communist 
Propaganda in tlie United States — Part 8 (Buffalo, N. Y., area), pp. 1560-61. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1605 

munist Party, of which you were president? Perhaps I could do this 
from the standpoint of facilitating our work here this morning, Mr. 
Eegan. You have conferred with us at length from time to time, staff- 
wise ; have you not ? 

Mr. Eegan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And in the course of those interrogations with you 
staffwise, you have given us a list of people and words of description 
of people who to your certain knowledge were Communists in these 
various units. 

Mr. Eegan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a copy of that list with you ? 

Mr. Eegan. I think I do. 

Mr. Arens. I thought from the standpoint of expediting our work 
here this morning, if you could allude to these lists and the various 
units to which you were attached in the Communist Party, it would 
be more expeditious. 

Could you now tell us the names of persons who to your certain 
knowledge were members of the Eiverside Club of the Communist 
Party, and, if you please, sir, give us a word of description or charac- 
terization of each. 

Mr. Eegan. Well, beside myself and my wife, there was John 
Touralchuk and his wife, Eose Touralchuk. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a word of description or character- 
ization of them ? 

Mr. Eegan. Well, they were people probably in their early thirties 
at the time, and probably in their thirties at this time. 

Mr. Arens. Where was John Touralchuk employed ? _ _ 

Mr. Eegan. He was employed at a sign company, Willis Sign Co. 
I am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. Did he have a post of responsibility ? Was he an officer 
in the work of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Eegan. He was very active with the IWO. 

Mr. Arens. International Workers Order ? 

Mr. Eegan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Was there another person who, to your certain knowl- 
edge, was a member of the Eiverside Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Eegan. Mrs. Mary Kustich and her husband. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a word of description of them ? 

Mr. Eegan. They were elderly people, probably 50 to 60 years of 
age. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know where he was employed ? 

Mr, Eegan. He was employed at the Wickwire Spencer Steel Co. 
at the time. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us just a word of the activity of the 
Eiverside Club ? What did the Eiverside Club do ? 

Mr. Eegan. It participated in neighborhood work for the Commu- 
nist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Did it disseminate Communist literature ? 

Mr. Eegan. Literature at plant gates. 

Mr. Arens. Did you recruit signatures for petitions, regular routine 
Communist Party work ? 

Mr. Eegan. That it did ; yes. 



1606 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. In 1944, the Communist Party, as we all know, Mr. 
Ilegan, became the Commmiist Political Association, is that right? 

Mr. Kegan. Eight. 

Mr. Arexs. About that time, did your career in the Communist 
Party take a different turn ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about it, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. The Communist Party was dissolved and the Commu- 
nist Political Association was formed. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, is it correct to say that in 1944, the 
Communist Party went through what the scientist might term a 
metamorphosis, a change in face, in facade, but the old conspiracy went 
right on, is that correct ? 

Mr. Regan. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Is that substantially what happened in New York City 
just a few months ago, when the Communist conspiracy undertook 
to fool the world by saying, "We are not any longer connected with 
Moscow. We are no longer a dynamic force as such. We are just 
going to be kind of a little study group" ? 

Mr. Regan. I believe so ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. It was a change in form, but not in substance; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Regan. Right. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Now, what club were you attached to in 
1944, when the Communist Party decided to put on new clothing for 
the outward appearance ? 

Mr. Regan. The small clubs were eliminated and large clubs formed. 
I was transferred to the Downtown Club. 

Mr. Arens. Did you obtain a position of responsibility in the Down- 
town Club ? 

Mr. Regan. I was elected treasurer of the Downtown Club, 

Mr. Arens. How many persons were there in the Downtown Club of 
the Communist Political Association ? 

Mr. Regan. Approximately 200. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately 200 ? 

Mr. Regan. To the best of my knowledge ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were all of these 200 in this particular club known to 
3^ou as Communists ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the names of the principal persons who, 
to your certain knowledge, were in positions of significance in the 
Downtown Club of the Communist Political Association ? ^Vlio was 
the president ? 

Mr. Regan. Robert Wilson. 

INIr. Arens. And you were the treasurer ? 

Mr. Regan. I was the treasurer. 

Mr. Arens. Were there other principal officials of the Downtown 
Club whose names come to your mind ? 

Mr. Regan. I don't know. I believe my wife was membership di- 
rector. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a word of description of Bob Wilson 
or Robert Wilson ? 

Mr. Regan. At that time, he was in his late twenties, probably 6 
feet tall, blond, slender. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1607 

Mr. Arens. Wliere was he employed ? 

Mr. Kegan. He was employed at the Chevrolet Motor Co. He was 
vice president of the miion there at the time. 

Mr. Arens. Apparently, Mr. Kegan, and I am saying this by way of 
trying to summarize what appears to be a situation, the Communist 
Party was becoming at that time more of a mass organization ; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Regan. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. It was expanding in numbers ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. During this period of time, was there another club of 
the Communist Political Association in the Buffalo area, other than 
the Downtown Club to which you were attached ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. There was the Fifth Ward Club on the East Side. 

Mr. Arens. And can you tell us a bit about that ? 

Mr. Regan. The Fifth Ward Club was composed mostly of Negroes 
in the fifth ward of the city. The leadership of this club was, I believe 
at the time, the Lumpkin family. 

Mr. Arens. I could not hear you. 

Mr. Regan. The Lumpkin family. 

Mr. Arens. Give us their names, please ? 

Mr. Regan. Mrs. Hattie Lumpkin. Mrs. Johnnie Ellis, her name 
is now. It was Johnnie Lumpkin at the time. 

Mr. Arens. Was Sam Lumpkin connected with that club ? 

Mr. Regan. No. He was in the industrial club. 

Mr. Arens. So that this record is clear, do you here and now iden- 
tify Hattie Lumpkin as a person who to your certain knowledge was 
a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there of the Fifth Ward 
Club? 

Mr. Regan. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is your best estimate ? 

Mr. Regan. Probably 100. 

Mr. Arens. In 1945, Mr. Regan, the Communist Political Associa- 
tion, as we know, changed its face again and reverted back to the 
Communist Party. That is correct, is it not ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What happened in your career as a result of that 
change ? 

Mr. Regan. The Communist Political Association was dissolved 
after the State convention in New York in 1945, and the Communist 
Party was reestablished as the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. And what happened to you ? To what club were you 
assigned ? 

Mr. Regan. I was reassigned to the Riverside Club, of which I be- 
came president. 

Mr. Arens. And you continued your duties as president; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 



97795— 57— pt. 1- 



1608 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Did the membership of the Riverside Chib, beginning 
in 1945, when they had the rechange, remain about the same as it had 
been prior to the Political Association days ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long, then, did you remain in the Riverside Club? 

Mr. Regan. Not too long. 

Mr. Arens. What is your best recollection ? 

Mr. Regan. The period is months. 

Mr. Arens. What is your best recollection as to the approximate 
time? 

Mr. Regan. Probably 6 months. 

Mr. Arens. Then tell us what happened. 

Mr. Regan. I was transferred to the Industrial Section, the section 
that was set up. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communist Party itself about that time go 
through another change, another reorganization ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that. 

Mr. Regan. The party w^as made up into various groups, the neigh- 
borhood groups and the industrial groups. 

Mr. Arens. Did the employment or place of employment of the 
individual comrade determine the club to which he would be 
assigned ? 

Mr. Regan. It did. There were clubs within, say, the Industrial 
Section. 

Mr. Arens. About how many clubs, if you know, were in existence 
in the greater Buffalo area ? 

Mr. Regan. Possibly 10 or 12 in the Buffalo area. 

Mr, Arens. "VNHiere were you employed at this time ? 

Mr. Regan. Harrison Radiator. 

Mr. Arens. Were you assigned to an industrial club ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. To what club were you assigned ? 

Mr. Regan. The General Motors Club. 

Mr. Arens. How many persons were in the General Motors Club? 
Just your best estimate or recollection. 

Mr. Regan. Possibly 6 or 8. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a vivid recollection of the names and 
identification of certain of those 6 or 8 who were in your particular 
club? 

Mr. Regan. I believe I recall most of them. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly for this record give us their names 
and a word of description or characterization ? 

Mr. Regan. Elmore Lumpkin, Sr. He was the husband of Hattie 
Lumpkin. Grady Martin, Grant Callahan, Joseph Wells, Joseph 
Patti. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us, please, where each of them was 
employed ? 

Mr. Regan. Chevrolet, outside of myself, Chevrolet, the West 
Delevan plant. 

Mr. Arens. Are those all of the persons whose names presently 
come to your mind whom you can to a certainty identify as people who 
were members of the General Motors Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Regan. That is all I recollect at this time, sir ; yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1609 

Mr. Arens. You said there were other chibs. You were assigned 
to the General Motors Club. What other clubs of the Communist 
Party were in existence at this time ? 

Mr. Regan. Well, there was the Bond Club, which was located in 
the American Radiator division. 

Mr. Arens. May I interpose this question : Did you know people 
who to your certain knowledge were in the Bond Club, or was there 
a cutout system in existence at that time ? 

Mr. Regan. No ; at that time I knew all of them. 

Mr. Arens. Let us then as we proceed identify the club and tell us, 
if you please, sir, the names of the people who to yovir certain 
knowledge were members of the club. Let us start with the Bond 
Club. Was that a club in existence at the Bond Clothing Co. ? 

Mr. Regan. No ; that was the Bond plant of the American Radiator. 
It was a foundry, one of the steel clubs. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us the names of persons who to your 
certain knowledge were members of this Bond Club of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Regan. The leader of the club was Mr. Joseph Green. 

Mr. Arens. As you tell us the name of the person, please give us, if 
you know, a word of description, where that individual was em- 
ployed, identification, and the like. 

Mr. Regan. Joseph Green; I think he was president of the club 
at the time. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere was he employed ? 

Mr. Regan. American Radiator at the time. These people were 
all employed by the American Radiator. 

Samuel Lumpkin, Rufus Frasier, Andy Berecz. I think that is 
tlie correct pronunciation. 

Mr. AptENS. Have you completed the names ? 

Mr. Regan. No ; there are others, if I can think of them. Robert 
Butcher. There are probably a half dozen more. I just can't recall 
their names. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall wliere Robert Butcher w^orked ? 

Mr. Regan. American Radiator. 

Mr. Arens. Was there a Westinghouse Club ? 

Mr. Regan. There was. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, on the basis of your experience in the Com- 
munist Party, come to know as comrades certain persons who were 
connected with the Westinghouse Club of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Regan. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us the name of any individual 
who, to your certain knowledge, was a Communist member of the 
Westinghouse Club, and give us a word of description of that indi- 
vidual ? 

Mr. Regan. In that period there was a large number of member 
of the Westinghouse Club during the time of the UE in Westing- 
house. Milton Kaplan, when he was employed there, was a member. 
Hyman Rosoff, Vincent Pacile, William Gandall, Arnold Miller, 
Diantha Hoag, Henry Ellis. I believe that is all I can recall right 
now. 

Mr. Arens. Each and every one of those persons was employed 
at Westinghouse ? 



1610 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Eegan. They were employed at Westingliouse Electric at one 
time ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. So this record may be absolutely clear, do you here 
and now, while you are under oath, identify each one of those per- 
sons you have named, as a person who to your certain knowledge was 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Keg AN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was there a Steel Club ? 

Mr. Keg AN. There was a Steel Club. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have names respecting certain persons who, to 
your certain knowledge, were members of the Steel Club of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Regan. The Steel Club of the Communist Party at the time 
consisted of members working in plants outside of Bethlehem Steel. 
Bethlehem Steel was a club by itself, in Lackawanna. The Steel 
Club consisted of the Kepublic Steel, Buffalo Steel, Hanna Furnace. 
I believe that is all the plants I can recall. 

Mr. Arens. Is the record clear that the Bethlehem Steel was in the 
Lackawamia Section of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kegan. Yes. 

Mr. Ajrens. There was a merger or combination of the two, then, 
apparently ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Kegan. It was in a section by itself, Lackawanna. 

Mr. Arens. Now, could you tell us, if you please, sir, the names of 
persons who to your certain knowledge were members of each of these 
several clubs which you have just named ? 

Mr. Kegan. Sidney Ingerman was active. Martin Birnbaum — I 
think he was employed at Buffalo Steel at the time, and he was also 
active in the youth section of the party. There was a Charles Brown. 
I believe he was employed at the Buffalo Steel. Charles Asque. I 
believe he was employed at Kepublic Steel. That is about all I recall 
right now, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was there a Fur and Leather Club of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Kegan. There was. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have knowledge as to the membership of the 
Fur and Leather Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kegan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us the names of persons who, to 
your certain knowledge, were members of the Fur and Leather Club 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kegan. Oscar Moore, Sewell Jackson. I believe they are the 
only two I recall. It was a small club, only five people. 

Mr. Arens. So that this record may be abundantly clear, do you 
here and now, while you are under oath, identify as persons who to 
your certain knowledge were Communists, each of the persons whom 
you have named in the course of your testimony here ? 

Mr. Kegan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you an officer of the General Motors Club ? 

Mr. Kegan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What post did you have ? 

Mr. Kegan. Secretary-treasurer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1611 

Mr. Arens. Were you also on the county committee of the Industrial 
Section? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Aeens. Were you also on the Industrial Section level ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Akens. What post did you hold there ? 

Mr. Regan. Literature director. 

Mr. Aeens. Who were in the Industrial Section of the Communist 
Party in Buffalo? Was Joe Green in the Industrial Section? 

Mr. Regan. He was, yes. He was at one time a full-time employee 
of the Communist Party in the Industrial Section. 

Mr. Arens. Oscar Moore, was he in it ? 

Mr. Regan. He was, yes. 

Mr. Arens. How about Elmore Lumpkin, Sr. ? 

Mr. Regan. Elmore Lumpkin, Sr., yes. 

Mr. Arens Milton Kaplan ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. DianthaHoag? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Sid Ingerman ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were there any other persons whose names come to your 
mind who were in the Industrial Section of the Communist Party 
in the greater Buffalo area ? 

Mr. Regan. I believe that is all I can recall at this time. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in the course of your work in the Communist 
Party learn of other groups in the Industrial Section, members of 
other groups in the Industrial Section ? 

Mr. Regan. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Arens. Did you learn that there were other members in the In- 
dustrial Section, even though you may not know their names? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How many would you say, in your best judgment ? 

Mr. Regan. I could not say. I would not know, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend any Communist Party meetings while 
you were in the party, other than meetings in the Industrial Club or 
Section ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us about those, please, sir ? 

Mr. Regan. I attended conferences and conventions. Any specific 
one? 

Mr. Arens. You were high in the echelons of the Communist Party 
in this area, were you not ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And did you learn the names of other key functionaries 
or officers, leaders of the Communist Party in this area, other than 
those whom you have already identified on this record ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us the names of some of those persons, 
please, sir, and a word of their identification. 

Mr. Regan, Samuel Coleman: He was county organizer for the 
Communist Party at one time in Buffalo, during my period in the 



1612 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

party. Loyd Kinsey : He was a Communist Party organizer. Donald 
Lester ; he was upstate coordinator at one time. His wife was secre- 
tary of the Communist Party. Svea Katz ; she was organization sec- 
retary of the Communist Party. Her name is now Sommers. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know James Annaccone ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know his wife ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, Marguerite, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us about them, what they did? 

Mr. Regan. Wlien I first met James Annaccone, he was an organizer 
for the UE. 

Mr. Arens. Was he a Communist, to your certain knowledge? 

Mr. Regan. I attended Communist meetings with him. I think I 
attended a class with him. 

Mr. Arens. Was his wife a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. That is where he met her. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of any other function or activity of James 
Annaccone ? 

Mr. Regan. James Annaccone was county chairman of the Amer- 
ican Labor Party for several years, and I believe he is active in his 
union at Westinghouse. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Richard Baum ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How did you know him? 

Mr. Regan. Through Communist activity. 

Mr. Arens. Was he a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. I believe he was. I met him at Communist affairs, but 
not a closed meeting. In fact, he made donations to the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Dominic Bortoluzzi ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How did you know him ? 

Mr. Regan. He was an organizer for a union, a public-workers 
union, he and his wife. 

Mr. Arens. Was he, to your certain knowledge, a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. He was. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Irving Cohen ? 

Mr. Regan. I don't believe so ; no. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Arthur Bolton ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know his wife ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know them as Communists? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. "V^^iat did you know about their activity ? 

Mr. Regan. They were active in the youth group o f the Communist 
Party. There was a section, a yovith section, at the time, and they were 
active in it, building it within the party, and so on. 

Mr. Arens. Incidentally, you, in the course of your work in the 
Communist Party, undertook to become particularly alert as to who 
was doing what within the operation, so that you could report that 
information to the Federal Bureau of Investigation ; isn't that correct ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1613 

Mr. Arens. And you made periodic reports to that intelligence 
agency ? 

Mr. Regan. Right. 

Mr. Arens. You made notes and the like, so that you midertook to 
be conscious of the identity of people who were operating within the 
conspiracy ; isn't that correct ? 
Mr. Regan. Right. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist, Joseph Czyrny? 
Mr. Regan. We called him Czyrny, Joseph Czyrny. 
Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Connnunist ? 
Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about him, please, sir. 
Mr. Regan. I believe he was Polish. He belonged to the Polish 
club, which was called the East Side Club, made up of Polish people 
on the East Side of Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist, Russell J. DePasquale ? 
Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about him, please, sir ? 
Mr. Regan. When I first met him, he was employed at Bethlehem 
Steel. He was president of the largest local out there in the union. 
He later became a paid organizer for the State Communist Party 
apparatus. 
Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist, Charles A. Doyle ? 
Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about him, please, sir ? 
Mr. Regan. Well, he was an organizer for the chemical workers in 
Niagara Falls, also at one time for the steelworkers in Buffalo. 
He was deported to Scotland. The last time I met him was in the home 
of Betty Rosoff, at 916 Niagara Street. I believe he was being indicted 
or at a trial, something similar to that at that time. He was trying 
to raise money. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a man by the name of 
Easling? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What was his first name ? Do you recall ? 
Mr. Regan. We called him Howard. 
Mr. Arens. Howard Easling ? 
Mr. Regan. Howard Easling. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word of description about Howard 
Easling ? 

Mr. Regan. He came here from near Corning. I believe he has a 
farm there. He first got a job at Chevrolet. I believe you would 
call him a colonizer. Later on he got a job at Bethlehem Steel. 

Mr. Arens. I expect to get into this subject of colonization with 
you in a little while, Mr. Regan. 
Mr. Regan. O. K., sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a man by the name of 
Emanuel Fried ? 
Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. He was on the payroll of the United Electrical Workers 
Union as district organizer. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a man by the name of 
Floyd Fried? 



1614 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Regan. Yes; he comes to my mind. I did. He worked at 
Westinghouse. 

Mr. Arexs. "Was he related to Emanuel ? 

Mr. Regan. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a man by the name of 
Luther Graves ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Please give us a word of description of him, 

Mr. Regan. He was employed at the Niagara Falls Smelting in 
Buffalo. The last I saw of this man he was an organizer for the Mine, 
Mill, and Smelter union. I think he went down to Bridgeport, Conn., 
or somewhere in that neighborhood. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a man by the name of 
Benjamin Franklin? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. I believe he was employed at Chevrolet. I am not sure. 
I have been in his home. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a woman by the name of 
Mattie Green, Mrs. Joseph Green ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of description of her, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. She was very active in the Communist Party. At one 
time she was treasurer of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Aeens. Of the Buffalo area ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Gunnar Hanson ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes; he was a Communist. Wlien he first came here, 
I think he went to the University of Buffalo. Later I believe he was 
expelled from the Communist Party for being a Trotskyite, a member 
of the Socialist Workers Party. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Gertrude Hassler ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. She and her daughter, Peggy. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist or meet in Communist 
Party meetings a person by the name of Ralph Hubbard ? 

Mr. Regan. Ralph Hubbard. I met him at several meetings. I 
don't know whether he is a Communist or not. I believe he was. 

Mr. Aeens. We don't want this record to reflect any identification 
unless you are absolutely certain. 

Mr. Regan. I am not certain about Ralph Hubbard ; no. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Joseph Infante ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a word of description of him ? 

Mr. Regan. He was an organizer for the United Electrical Workers 
Union. 

Mr. Ajrens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Doris Ingerman ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Akens. Was she Sidney's wife ? 



i 

1 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1615 

Mr. Eegan. She is Sidney's wife and she is a bus driver for the local 
NFT. 

Mr. Aeens. At the present time ? 

Mr. Regan. The last I heard of her ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Archie Jackson ? 

Mr. Regan. The name is f amilar. I believe he is a steelworker. 

Mr. Arens. May I suggest, Mr. Regan, in any of these instances in 
which you may not be absolutely certain, I would rather not have any 
information at all. 

Mr. Regan. I believe he is a steelworker. 

Mr. Akens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Regan. I believe he is a steelworker and a Negro. I am quite 
sure he is a Communist, or was at one time. 

Mr. Ajrens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Maxia James ? 

Mr. Regan. I believe that is the person who was called Maia 
James ? 

Mr. Abens. That is right. 

Mr. Regan. She was a colonizer. 

Mr. Aeens. Was she a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. I believe she has been arrested under the Smith 
Act in Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Edward Landy? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of description about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. He was an organizer for the UE. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Donald Lindquist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of description of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. When I first met Donald Lindquist, he was literature 
director of the Communist Party of Erie County. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of any other activity in which he was 
engaged or does it come to your mind ? 

Mr. Regan. I don't recall, no. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Paul Largy ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, he and his wife. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat was his wife's name ? 

Mr. Regan. Anna. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a word of description of them, 
please, sir ? 

Mr. Regan. He was in the Industrial Section. He was a warehouse 
employee. The last job he had, I believe, was Loblaw's. 

Mr. Arens, Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Elmore Lumpkin ? 

Mr. Regan. Repeat that, please. 

Mr. Arens. Elmore Lumpkin. 

Mr. Regan. Elmore. There was Elmore Limipkin, Jr., and Sr. 
They were both Communists. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist Frances Lumpkin? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 



1616 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of her. Was she Mrs. Sam 
Lumpkin ? 

Mr. Regan. Mrs. Sam Lumpkin. The last I saw of her she was 
a paid functionary of the Communist Party in the youth organi- 
zation. 

JNIr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist Albert Lutsky ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description about Albert Lutsky, please. 

Mr. Regan. He was Communist organizer of the Communist 
Party in Erie County. 

Mr. AitENS. Did you know as a Communist Frank Mayer? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. Pie was employed at Wurlitzer. He was formerly 
Avith the UE. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist Mary Murphy ? 

Mr. Regan. I did, yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of her, please. 

Mr. Regan. She was an attorney. I believe she is in New York 
City. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Robert Nosich ? 

Mr. Regan. Nosich, yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. He was a member of the club I belonged to, the River- 
side Club. He was employed at Wickwire Steel Co. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
William Nuchow ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr Arens And his wife ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was his wife's name, please, sir ? Do you recall ? 

Mr. Regan. It escapes me right now, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word of description of William 
Nuchow or identification as to his activity ? 

Mr. Regan. He was active in the youth section of the Communist 
Party and he was employed at Chevrolet's River Road plant at the 
time. General Motors, rather. I am sorry. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist Ann Rogovin, Mrs. 
Milton Rogovin ? 

Mr. Regan. Mrs. Milton Rogovin, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word of description about her ? 

Mr. Regan. She was active in her area, the North Park Section of 
the Communist Party, in Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist Milton Rogovin ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. The husband of Ann ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of him, please ? 

Mr. Regan. He was also active in the North Park Section of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Norman Ross ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BUFFAUO, N. Y., AREA 1617 

Mr. Regan. Yes. He was in Buffalo as the upstate coordinator of 
the Communist Party. As far as I know, he is in New York City now. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist Alexander Salmin ? 

Mr. Regan, Yes. 

Mr. iVRENS. Kindly give us a word of description of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. He was a member of the steel section and employed at 
the Bond plant of American Radiator Co. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know his wife, Nancy, as a Communist? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of her, please ? 

Mr. Regan. She was active in the youth group of the Communist 
Party. I believe her name was Hull at the time. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist Phyllis Scheer? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is that Mrs. Mort Scheer ? 

Mr. Regan. The wife of Mort Scheer. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of her, please ? 

Mr. Regan. She was active in the youth group. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist Joseph Scioli ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of him, sir ? 

Mr. Regan. He is an organizer for the Mine, Mill, and Smelter 
group. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist Hal Simon ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. He was director of the Trade Union Commission of the 
Communist Party of New York State. 

Mr. Arens. And did you know as a Communist Norman Sternbach ? 

Mr. Regan. I don't know, I believe his name was William Norman. 
Is that 

Mr. Arens. William Norman Sternbach, yes. 

Mr. Regan. Yes, I knew him. 

Mr, Arens. Did you know he was a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, he was a State official. 

Mr. Arens. Of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist John Sommers? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. He went to the University of Buft'alo. He belonged to 
the university group, a youth group of the Communist Party. He 
married Svea Katz, who was orgsec of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Svea Katz Sommers was his wife. 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Ajrens. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr, Arens, Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Tobin, I believe Robert Tobin. 

Mr. Regan. Yes, and his wife. 

Mr. Arens. Was his wife's name Sylvia ? 

Mr. Regan. Sylvia. 



1618 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N, Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word of description of them, please ? 

Mr. Regan. They were active in the North Park Section of the Com- 
munist Party and the ALP. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist Robert Williams? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. He lived in Lackawanna at the time I knew him, and 
was active in Lackawanna. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Clarence Zane ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. He was active in the youth group of the Communist 
Party and the East Side group of the Communist Party, the Polish 
section. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name of 
Jack Shore? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. Pie was a chemist in Buffalo here, and was active in the 
Communist Party and very active in the ALP and Communist Party 
fronts. 

Mr. Arens. I want to be certain that we have covered the names of 
those persons whom you have identified to your certain knowledge as 
Communists in our consultations. Did you know as a Communist 
Michael and Frances Clune ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of them, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. They were active in the North Park Section, mostly his 
wife Frances. She was active in her section, in her club, in North 
Park. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other persons whose names come to your 
mind to a certainty as people whom you knew as Communists, even 
though we may not have asked you their names ? 

Mr. Regan. I made a list of a few of them here coming down on the 
bus this morning. There are so many of them that I just can't recall 
them all. One of them was Richard Dowd. 

Mr. Arens. Let us be absolutely certain that we have that spelling 
correct. 

Mr. Regan. It was either Dow or Dowd, Richard. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of identification of him, please, 

Mr. Regan. He lived in the Kenmore-Tonawanda section of Buf- 
falo. I believe he was a chemist. He was a heavy contributor to the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge, was he a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes ; he was a member of the old Downtown Club. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have another name there of a person who to your 
certain knowledge was a Communist? 

Mr. Regan. Richard McClellan. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word of identification of him, please, 
sir? 

Mr. Regan. The last I saw of him he was employed at the Chevro- 
let Motor Co. He used to come to my house to pay his dues. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1619 

Mr. Akens. To the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kegan. That is right. 

Mr. Akens. Is there another person whom you knew as a Com- 
munist ? 

Mr. Regan. Bernie Sultz. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of her, please ? 

Mr. Regan. She was active in the youth and the UE. I think at 
one time she was employed at Westinghouse. She married Charles 
Van Tyne, a UE organizer, and a member of the Commimist Party. 

Mr. Arens. What was her husband's name ? 

Mr. Regan. Charles Van Tyne. 

Mr. Arens. Was he to your certain knowledge a Communist? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir; I 'have attended Communist Party meetings, 
conferences, in Syracuse and so forth with him. Then I recall a Mag- 
nus Nelson, who used to be in Buffalo. He was in the UE. 

Mr. Am:ns. Was he to your certain knowledge a Communist? 

Mr. Regan. Yes; he attended the 1945 State convention in New 
New York City with me. 

I believe I mentioned Grant Callahan and Henry Ellis ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Regan. Henry Ellis, by the way, was the husband of Johnnie 
Ellis who I believed to be in the top echelon of the Communist Party, 
such as the State level. 

Mr. Arens. Irrespective of the echelon in which Ellis operated, did 
you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Absolutely ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other persons who to your certain knowl- 
edge were Communists ? 

Mr. Regan. Walter Maltois. He was employed at that time in a 
radio corporation here, the Colonial — the name escapes me now. He 
was an engineer or something with a radio company. 

Mr. xVrens. You knew him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes ; that is right. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another name, please ? 

Mr. Regan. Collins, John Collins. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. He was, at the time I knew him, employed at Fedders 
Radiator Corp., and active in the youth group in the Communist 
Party. 

Then there was a Mrs. Theodosia Smith, who was active. 

Mr. Arens. Theodosia Smith? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. She was active in the Communist Party in one of the 
clubs in the fifth ward. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another name ? 

Mr. Regan. There was Ben Shulman, who was active in the North 
Park Club. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes ; I did. He is now gone. He is in California, I 
believe. Then there was Norton Putter. 



1620 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt the hearing for a 
moment ? 

I see coming into the hearing room this morning the Congressman 
from this area, Congressman John Pillion. Mr. Pillion, we know as 
one of the ablest Members of the House and a strong supporter of this 
committee. In fact, Mr. Counsel, you will remember the committee 
published the testimony of Dr. Charles Schwartz, the psychiatrist 
from Australia and a leading anti-Communist in Australia. It was 
through Congressman Pillion's efforts that the committee obtained 
that testimony. I think maybe j^ou will want to ask Congressman 
Pillion to come up and sit with us. 

Mr. Willis. I certainly concur in those remarks, and would like 
very much to have our colleague sit with us, as long as he can stay. 
We are glad to have you with us. 

Mr. Pillion". Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Regan, do you have still another name, a 
person who to your certain knowledge was a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Regan. A man by the name of Bill Bennett. I believe his 
first name was Wilbur. I am not sure, but I believe it was, but we 
called him Bill. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Absolutely ; yes, sir. He was very active in Communist 
Party fronts, and a heavy contributor to the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another name, please ? 

Mr. Regan. There was an Andrew Andenberg. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him to be a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of description of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Regan. He was not too active in the Communist Party, but he 
was a dues-paying member. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have another name ? 

Mr. Regan. I have one more, Nick Kosanovich. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes; his home in Lackawanna was the headquarters 
of the Communist Party in Lackawanna; 15 Wasam, or something 
like that, was the street. 

Mr. Aeens. Does that exhaust the list of persons whom you knew 
as Communists whose names come to you now as a certainty? 

Mr. Regan. That is true, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Regan, we should like to display to you a 
document and see if you can identify this document for us. It is 
entitled, "Steel Concentration," in which the recipients of this docu- 
ment are admonished to gain entry into three basic industries — steel, 
railroading, and mining — and on which there are set forth certain 
directives for the techniques to be engaged in by the reader, and the 
like. I would like to have you look at the photostatic copy of the 
original document and see if you can identify the document. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Regan. Yes ; it has my signature on it. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of description, identification of the 
document, if you please, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1621 

Mr. Regan. It is entitled, "Steel Concentration." ^ I received it 
from Russell DePasquale, who at the time was a functionary in the 
Communist Party, an organizer in the Steel Section in Lackawanna, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. And about what time was that received by you and 
transmitted by you to others 'i 

Mr. ReGxVn. I am sorry, I don't have the date here. There is a 
date on here of 5/9/56. I believe I received it much before then. 
This was an exhibit in the Noto trial, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Now may I ask you this : What was the pur- 
pose of that directive ? 

Mr. Regan. This is a form for directions for concentration in 
various industries, particularly the steel industry. Three basic in- 
dustries—steel, railroading, and mining. Steel is the biggest industry 
in the Bulfalo area. It sa;y^s "The steel union is also key to the policy 
of the CIO. The trends in steel determine Murray's policies." 

Mr. Arens. What was the purpose of the Communist Party ad- 
monishing its comrades to penetrate these three basic industries? 
Why would the party be interested in that operation ? 

Mr. Regan. Well, steel they considered as a basic industry, and it 
controlled the economy of the country. If you were in a position to 
control steel, you controlled the economy of the country. 

Mr. Arens. Did you pass that directive on to the other comrades? 

Mr. Regan. There are many of them issued. This is one that I 
had. I kept it and turned it over to the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation. 

Mr. Arens. I mean, did you pass the essence of that directive to 
the comrades ? 

Mr. Regan. It was discussed ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. What is colonization ? 

Mr. Regan. As I know it, it is a term for people who come into an 
area to take over jobs and try to build the Communist Party within 
the corporations or companies, wherever they work. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your experience in the Commu- 
nist Party as an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation, did you acquire knowledge respecting colonization, a coloniza- 
tion program or emphasis for the greater Buffalo area ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us just a word of elaboration on that 
program ? 

Mr. Regan. The first I came in contact with anything like this was 
during the war. They sent young w^omen up here. I recall 5 or 6 of 
them that came up here from New York City. After the war, young 
men came up here and got jobs in various industries. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend an upstate convention of the Communist 
Party in July of 1946 held at the Hotel Touraine in Buffalo ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat was the purpose of that convention ? 

Mr. Regan. That convention was where the upstate district of the 
Communist Party was formed. 

Mr. Arens. With whom did you attend this conference ? 

1 See p. 1627. 



1622 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Kegan. I attended this conference as a delegate, an elected 
delegate. 

Mr. Arens. Was John Noto there ? 

Mr. Regan. He was. 

Mr. Arens. How about Hal Simon ? 

Mr. Regan. He was. 

Mr. Arens. Who was Hal Simon ? 

Mr. Regan. He was chairman of the Trade Union Commission of 
the Communist Party in New York State. William Z. Foster, I be- 
lieve, was there, and Robert Thompson. 

Mr. Arens. What was the purpose of this conference ? 

Mr. Regan. To build this section in the upstate area. 

Mr. Arens. Did the conference have any objective announced to 
infiltrate the United Automobile Workers ? Was that discussed ? 

Mr. Regan. Not at this time. 

Mr. Arens. Did that come subsequently, that there was an emphasis 
on infiltrating the United Auto Workers ? 

Mr. Regan. I attended a conference in New York City at Commu- 
nist headquarters at 35 East 12th Street, where I met Hal Simon and 
a half dozen other people whom I did not know their names, but they 
iust were introduced by their first names. The only one I can remem- 
ber was an elderly woman and she was called Dora. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Counsel, we have been going for an hour. I would 
suggest a 10-minute recess at this point. 

(Present at the time of taking the recess: Representatives Willis 
andScherer.) 

(Short recess.) 

(Present at the time of reconvening: Representatives Willis and 
Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, before we proceed with this witness, 
I would like to call attention of the committee to a statement and 
release just given to the local press by the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee. That statement reads as follows : 

"Hearings by the Un-American Activities Committee are being held in open 
disregard of the Supreme Court's ruling," said Clark Foreman, director of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. 

Mr. Foreman has been in the hearing room since the beginning of 
these hearings yesterday morning. 

Mr. Foreman is in Buffalo to observe the hearings. He said further: "Mr. 
Willis, of Louisiana, and his Ohio colleague are showing the same disregard for 
law and order as is Governor Faubus of Arkansas. If they are interested in 
upholding the American Constitution, they can do more good in the South than in 
Buffalo." 

Mr. Foreman's full statement on behalf of the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee is as follows : 

"The Supreme Court in deciding the Watkins case denounced the very kind of 
hearing that is being held here in Buffalo. Condemning the vagueness of the 
committee's authorization, the majority of the Supreme Court said, 'It would 
be diflScult to imagine a less explicit authorizing resolution.' 

"Again, the Chief Justice, speaking for the majority, said, 'Who can define the 
meaning of un-American?' 

"Mr. Willis, of Louisiana, and his Ohio colleague are showing the same dis- 
regard for law and order as is Governor Faubus of Arkansas. If they are 
interested in upholding the American Constitution, they can do more good in 
the South right now than in Buffalo. The hearing by Un-American Activi- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1623 

ties Committee, over which Mr. Willis is presiding, are being held in open dis- 
regard of the Supreme Court's ruling. The Supreme Court is our greatest con- 
stitutional authority, and to disregard its decisions is to invite chaos in this 
country. The House Un-American Activities Committee should be abolished." 

Of course, we could answer the Emergency Civil Liberties Commit- 
tee, but Fulton Lewis, Jr., answered the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee in his broadcast of just a week ago Friday. Let us see 
just what the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee is. 

Fulton Lewis, Jr., said in this broadcast : 

In just about about 1 hour from this moment at which I am speaking these 
words, ladies and gentlemen, the doors of the famous and distinguished Car- 
negie Music Hall in New York City will be opened for a public gathering under 
the auspices of an organization that calls itself the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee. I have in my hand the program of that meeting and some back- 
ground on some of the leaders who are listed as its officials. 

Purportedly, the idea is to commend the Supreme Court for its recent con- 
troversial decisions, but the real purpose, as the literature and advance notices 
frankly state, is to start a nationwide campaign to abolish the House Un-Ameri- 
can Activities Committee. 

The program to be set up calls for a campaign to visit Members of the House 
of Representatives in their home districts during the present congressional 
recess, to pressurize them by letter writing campaigns and the like, and to get 
commitments from the Members of Congress promising to vote against any 
appropriations for the committee when the new session convenes, and to vote 
the committee into oblivion as a standing committee of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

Also the campaign will include legal challenges of the authority of the 
committee on the basis of the Supreme Court decisions, barnstorming tours 
of the Nation to stimulate the "Abolition Campaign." (I'm reading from their 
own literature, here.) "Community meetings — large and small — should be held 
in cities and towns across the country. Organizations should call special meet- 
ings for their members. Civil liberties discussion sessions should be held with 
those responsible for editorials in newspapers and periodicals which have failed 
to comment on the Watkins decision by the Supreme Court, or which have 
commented negatively. 

"The organization will contact every possible interested organization, having 
headquarters in New York, Philadelphia, or Washington, to urge participation 
in the 'Abolition Campaign' or such similar cooperation as the organization is 
able to undertake. 

"The organization will prepare a progress report every 3 weeks to be mailed 
to members and other interested parties and these reports" (I am still reading) 
"will contain reprints of editorials, cartoons, resolutions, petitions, and other 
informational material developing out of the campaign. 

"Since copies of the Watkins decision are no longer available from either 
the Supreme Court or the Superintendent of Documents, the organization has 
undertaken to reprint 5,000 copies for national distribution, which are available 
at 15 cents each." 

The schedule for the barnstorming tours starts in Cleveland on September 
30, and goes from there to Toledo, Chicago, Detroit, Yellow Springs, Ohio, Cin- 
cinnati, St. Louis, Kansas City, Denver, Boulder, Salt Lake City, Provo, San 
Francisco, Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle, Montana, Idaho, Minneapolis, Madison, 
Wisconsin, Milwaukee, and back to New York City. 

The principal speaker tonight will be Dalton Trumbo, one-time Hollywood 
screen writer who served 1 year in jail for contempt of the House Un-American 
Activities Committee and who has been identified at least four times as a 
member of the Communist Party. 

The letterhead of the organization, which gives the address 471 Seventh 
Avenue, New York City — 

and, by the way, that is the same address, I believe, given on the 
release — 

shows the chairman to be Harvey O'Connor, identified as a member of the 
Communist Party, by Benjamin Gitlow, former general secretary of the Com- 
munist Party, and proud possessor of a long string of Communist-front affiliations. 
97795 — 57— pt. 1 3 



1624 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

The vice chairman is listed as Corliss Lament, who has a long list of front 
affiliations and has been a long-time financial angel of the Communist cause. 

So the big drive to put the handcuffs on the House Un-American Activities 
Committee, as a result of the Supreme Court decision in the Watkins case, 
holding that witnesses can challenge the authority of congressional investiga- 
tions and not be in contempt. 

Watkins was a labor leader who admitted to the committee Communist affilia- 
tions, but refused to name other persons he had known as Communists. He did 
not plead the fifth amendment, but the Court held that the fifth amendment 
covered him anyway, whether he invoked it or not, and in effect held that the 
first amendment — the freedom of speech amendment — also covered him, whether 
he invoked it or not. 

The House committee chairman, Francis Walter of Pennsylvania, told me 
tonight that he considers this campaign being kicked off at Carnegie Hall to be 
an accolade of achievement for the committee in that it shows that the "pigs are 
squealing." Another speaker tonight will be Hugh H. Wilson, Princeton pro- 
fessor, who signed a petition in behalf of the Rosenbergs, and has an extensive 
additional Communist front record. 

This morning's New York Daily Worker carries a notice of the meeting on 
its front page. 

That is the conclusion of Fulton Lewis, Jr.'s comments on the 
recent activities of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. I be- 
lieve it has been cited by the Senate Internal Security Committee. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. I have in my hand a copy of House Document 
No. 226, entitled, "Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publica- 
tions." Here is the way the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 
is characterized as a type listed in this volume. It says : 

"To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been devised 
making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and reaching out far beyond 
the confines of the Communist Party itself. Among these organizations are 
the * * * Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. When the Communist Party 
itself is under fire, these fronts offer a bulwark of protection." 

Mr. ScHERER. The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, then, is 
nothing more than the Communist Party speaking through a 
designated front. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Eegan, just prior to recess, you had given us the 
names and a word of description of each of several persons whom 
you knew to a certainty to be members of the Communist Party. 
During the recess, you indicated to me that you wanted to make a 
slight clarification with reference to Benjamin Franklin. I should 
now like to ask you: Did you serve in a closed Communist Party 
session with a person known by you to be Benjamin Franklin ? 

Mr. Regan. I have been in the man's home several times, which were 
Communist Party functions. "VVliether they were closed meetings, I 
don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Were they Communist Party meetings ? 

Mr. Regan. Communist Party meetings ? I believe they were. 

Mr. Arens. But you have never seen a Communist Party card or 
other identification on Benjamin Franklin? 

Mr. Regan. No. 

Mr. Arens. Therefore, you are not in a position, while j^ou are 
under oath, to say to a positive certainty that you knew Benjamin 
Franklin to be a Communist, and within the apparatus ? 

Mr. Regan. No ; I am not. I believe he was, but I am not 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1625 

Mr. Akens. Therefore, Mr. Chairman, in view of this situation, I 
respectfully suggest that the record now reflect the fact that Benja- 
min Franklin has not, by this witness, been identified to a certainty 
as a Communist. 

Mr. Willis. The record should so indicate, because it is a policy 
of this committee not to name people in the party without sworn 
testimony. 

Mr. Kegan". May I add to that ? I did not submit this man's name. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Regan. I did not submit this man's name, Benjamin Franklin. 

Mr. Arens. I see. Now, Mr. Regan, may we proceed with the 
theme of your testimony ? In the spring of 1947, I believe you were 
in a conference in New York City, is that correct ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Could you pick up the theme of your testimony and 
tell us what transpired in that conference ? 

Mr. Regan. The conference in New York City in 194T was in 
the Communist Party headquarters at 35 12th Street. I met with 
a group there headed by Hal Simon, who was chairman of the Trade 
Union Commission of the Communist Party in New York State. I 
went down there with the purpose of discussing infiltrating the 
United Auto Workers Union in the New York State area. 

Mr. Arens. Did Simon give you any indication as to how this in- 
filtration was to be effected ? 

^Ir. Regan. By having people from New York City apply for 
employment and try to get jobs in the plants. One plant specifically 
mentioned was Chevrolet Motor Co. of Tarrytown, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Is this the technique of colonization which you were 
discussing a little while ago ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall any particular plans of infiltration of 
General Motors here in the Buffalo area ? 

Mr. Regan. They said that people eligible for employment would 
come up to Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. Were these people Communists ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What were they to do ? 

Mr. Regan. They were to get jobs in these various plants and at- 
tempt to build the Communist Party in the plants, and, if necessary, 
do their utmost to take over the union. At this particular time there 
was continual, considerable animosity between the Communist Party 
and Walter Reuther. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend a conference in April of 1948 presided 
over by John Noto ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us what transpired in that conference ? 

Mr. Regan. We discussed plans to infiltrate General Motors in 
Buffalo. John Noto said that comrades from New York would come 
to Buffalo and try to get jobs within the General Motors plants in 
Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. Did you get any information from him respecting the 
underground operations of the Communist Party ? 



1626 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Regan. Yes. At that time he reported on the national con- 
vention and said that there were, I believe, 13 people at the national 
convention who were elected to leadership in the national convention, 
and part of them functioned as leaders in the national convention, 
and the others would go underground in case the active people were 
jailed or something like that. The ones that were underground would 
come forward and give leadership. 

Mr. Arens. From whom did you procure this document which you 
have identified as a directive, channeled in Communist Party routes, 
to penetrate basic industry ? 

Mr. Regan. Russell DePasquale. 

Mr. Arens. Who was he? 

Mr. Regan. He was a paid organizer of the Communist Party, at 
the Bethlehem plant in Lackawanna. 

Mr. Arens, I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the body of 
this document be incorporated in the record. I should like just for 
the purpose of present revelation of the document if Mr. Williams of 
our staff could read certain excerpts from the document for the 
record now. 

Mr. Williams (reading) : 

Three basic industries, steel, railroad, and mining. These are basic to the 
national economy, that is if any one or all three are shut down by strike our 
economy is paralyzed. It is necessary for a Marxist Revolutionary Party to be 
rooted in these industries. 

(The document follows:) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1627 



r/^/i^ 



Regan Exhibit No. 1 
krmC OOBC^tT RATIO! 



tr^T CLffll SHOULD 0X300 iS :)it» TOTIR ITSxr (TTlSO iiJD Zp:- ClVr 

n.MT ..STJir'R c. LL ftr'. opnctor^ anfY. 

!• 1ii»*« Baflle laAMtrlcSf 8ft««l, RcHjroad mkA m&alas* !>&••« av« 

basic Co th'i Ba«ica»£l ecooft^ff the« Ic if a&y od« vf «11 tbr«« mv9 

•hut dM'Q bj 4;%pites oer eaooon; is pa9«l;s«d« Z4 1« B«®@s««>r7 fWP a 
itoFxisfe R«vola(i«aai>y fmrtj to to* rootad &a tnasa tadoatriaa* 

£• Sta«I is tha biecast iadaat?:^ ia tha Baffalo ar«a* Tha stMl 
eaian ia aX^ lea; to tha polia^ ef tha a* I* 0. TbM tvaada in at«al 
datanaiaa ft(iu»r«;>a pdlioiaa* iiota tha aatimis of Il«k Kigaa aa Ai«» 
austad ia Oilnatoais rapopt* (saa o« w, !«a4«( ass* B) 

S« ^a ausl buiXd a bsss 09iM»i*t Part; r«oted ia tha vofteiac clsaa 
and paptieularl? in tha b»aia iadoatplaa baaanea tha adlitsaaj amt 
aolld aorkios olaas oricstation of thasa «orkai« is vitai to tht 
lifa ttad (pMoth of ottr party* 

4* ('llat ia OOBoantratlQiat It staeoa that th^ ahola pa?tn la 
aoDtiaUiill? ecaueloes in »11 its work of building tha popt; aicag 
tha ataal worka?a. It also oasuui that aosM of <yaf b<98t pasplo aM 
assignad to work diraotl? ia tha axistia^ atavl alalM or In buiidiaf 
aa« ona^ 



aciMity aetHSttaa 



6* rha following propoaala mmri TOta€ (m bj tha 
t# b« 4i»a aaa o< «•« a«t«« o^on la m^ v r j oivik* 

a* ^.'leh olob aftor diaouasioc piak t*^ paopla to bO 

aasifinad to st^al acoceatpat ioa^ oad giva nanaa to IhNO 
fov asfligaMBat* 

b*- itaah aoie^aiity alob anould 4ra* tip a liat of atool vovkovo 
ta thair alob aad alao elT« this to Rewa* 

•• Raeogaisias that aKae^iaa oa Ookoaaity iaaooa attratt 
4v otaal aopksvo tha oo&Juuait> aleb should ba paytioaiarlf 

oaaseiooB of Wildiac tns farty aaoafi tfea Stool votritoM 

la tholv •T^*, 

d« Spooial attaatiOB bust ba paid to variooa Nat'l sro«9 

ovgaaiaatioaa ia Cotsitsaity werkf at«oa6 «hoa aro a 
aaobar of otaal workava* 

0» Clttba taka Mapoiaaibility for kay ahop in thaiv aroo, 
for l«a^^t diatribatioa, ata« Diaausa with Koos* 

!*90^T^m<s haa baaa aida ia tha Itiat yoar* a aav alub has bo«a 
aatabliahad ia i^apoblio, ataady aala of 76 Rorkara^ aoro roaaSav 
alob taaatia^a^ aro* Ooala ara eo nav raaruita and aala of 116 
(JOfkara by tha ■*n6 of Aognat and tha ot^anicatlaa of eloaaos la 
{«ak««*aaa» 



1628 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend a conference in Rochester, N. Y., in 
1949, of the high echelons of the Communist apparatus? 

Mr. Regan. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat transpired there ? 

Mr. Regan. The meeting was presided over by Bill Norman, a 
person we know as Bill Norman. John Noto spoke at this meeting 
and discussed concentration. The conference was called the Concen- 
tration Conference. Noto specifically singled out steel and the elec- 
trical industry, particularly Westinghouse, in Buffalo, as concen- 
tration points at the time. 

Mr. Arens. Concentration points for this colonization ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend a conference at the Hotel Diplomat in 
New York City in 1949 ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about that conference ? 

Mr. Regan. This conference was called For Concentration in In- 
dustry. The discussion at this conference concerned the policy of 
concentration by the Communist Party, which would be, as they 
described it, a policy of concentration. 

Mr. Arens. Were any particular techniques discussed? 

Mr. Regan. Members of the Communist Party would endeavor to 
get jobs in key plants and get to know, if possible, the personnel 
within the plants, the makeup of the plants, the various departments, 
the key departments of the plants, if you please, and endeavor to 
get jobs within the key departments of the plant, so that in case of an 
emergency they could control the functioning of the plant, by con- 
trolling the key departments of the plant. 

Mr. i\.RENS. Did you have a meeting at the home of Betty Rosoff 
in 1949 ? 

Mr. Regan. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us what transpired in that meeting? 

Mr. Regan. We discussed the building of a railroad club by the 
Communist Party at that time with several people. 

Mr. Arens. And did you at that time procure information that 
the Communist Party was sending colonizers into the railroad in- 
dustry ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall an upstate meeting of the Communist 
Party held in 1951? 

Mr. Regan. An upstate meeting of the Communist Party in 1951? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, at which Noto discussed a "united front" tactic? 

Mr. Regan. I believe it was in the home of Samuel Lumpkin. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what transpired at that meeting. 

Mr. Regan. At that meeting they discussed the "united front." 

Mr. Arens. What did they mean by a "united front" ? 

Mr. Regan. Infiltration. 

Mr. Arens. Infiltration in what? 

Mr. Regan. All types of organizations, including the church. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, the "united front" as discussed by Noto 
was a technique which the Communist Party uses to send its com- 
rades into non-Communist and anti-Communist organizations to un- 
dertake to influence or penetrate them ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Regan. That is correct. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFAUO, N. Y., AREA 1629 

Mr. Arens. And it was a strategy devised in 1951 in this area for 
that operation to be put into effect? 

Mr, Regan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever at any time in what we call the Com- 
munist Party underground? Or were you in contact with those who 
were in the underground ? 

Mr, Regan. Yes. 

Mr, Arens. Can you tell us about any incidents of particular sig- 
nificance in which you were in contact with the underground operation 
in your Communist Party work? 

Mr. Regan, During the summer of 1951 or 1952, I am not sure, a 
person by the name of Mike lived at my home all summer long, 

Mr. Arens, He was a comrade? 

Mr. Regan, He was a comrade. He represented the New York 
State organization, 

Mr. Arens, Of the Communist Party? 

Mr, Regan, That is right. He functioned all over the State, the 
upstate area. I did not get his true name, but I believe his first name 
WHS Jack. The rest of his name I could not get. But lie resided at 
my home all summer. 

Mr, Arens, And what happened? Were you under a mandate of 
the party to shelter him ? 

Mr, Regan, Yes. 

Mr, Arens, Where did you obtain the material that you distributed 
as literature director of the party in this area ? 

Mr, Regan. From the Communist Party organization, 

Mr, Arens, From whence did it come? What entity of the Com- 
munist Party, what area ? 

Mr, Regan, At first it came from New York City, up until prob- 
ably 1950, It was mailed or it was by express. Later on it was carried 
by the Communist Party leadership in their travels back and forth 
between Buffalo and New York City, 

Mr, Arens, You have identified as persons known by you to be Com- 
munists, Michael and Frances Clune; is that correct? 

Mr. Regan. Yes, 

Mr, Arens. Can you tell of any particular activity in which they 
were engaged in the dissemination of Communist propaganda or 
literature ? 

Mr, Regan, I received a call from the Communist Party chairman 
of Erie County to go to Clune's on a literature question. The Clune 
home, their basement was loaded with literature. They asked us to 
pile it up and band this literature and put it in containers and mail 
about 50 percent of it to Rochester, Syracuse, and Binghamton, The 
remainder of the literature was distributed to Johnnie Ellis' home in a 
back shed on the property here in Buffalo, I just forget the address 
right now, 

Mr, Arens, How was this literature prepared ? 

Mr, Regan. We put it in cartons, tied it up, and took it to the post 
office and mailed it. 

Mr, Arens, Did you have occasion in your service in the Commu- 
nist Party at the behest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to 
obtain knowledge respecting underground printing or duplicating 
machines used by the comrades ? 



1630 CX)MMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Regan. The last duplicating or printing machine that I saw 
was in the attic of Lumpkin's home. 

Mr. Arens. Hattie Lumpkin's home? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Was that operated at the behest of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Regan. Right. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communist apparatus during the course of 
your experience in the party have local leaders or were the leaders 
sent in here from out of State or from out of this area? 

Mr. Regan. Until the last few years, most leaders, practically all 
the leadership, came from out of State. 

Mr. Arens. From where did they come ? Did you know ? 

Mr. Regan. Not from out of State. From New York City. Out 
of Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. Principally from New York City ? 

Mr. Regan. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communist Party in your experience here 
maintain its own finances, raise its own funds, or was it subsidized? 

Mr. Regan. It was subsidized. The local organization was con- 
tinuously in the red. 

Mr. Arens. From whence was it subsidized ? 

Mr. Regan. New York City, the State office. The literature that 
they got, they could not pay for half of it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Regan, we have interrogated you here at consid- 
erable length this morning. I don't want to have the record repeti- 
tive. Is there any other item of information which we may not have 
asked you about, which comes to your mind that you feel significant 
to incorporate into this record ? 

Mr. Regan. I don't believe I recall anything just now at this 
time. 

Mr. Arens. We thank you very much for your cooperation with 
us. Mr. Chairman, that will conclude the staff interrogation of this 
witness. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Regan, on behalf of the committee, I want to thank 
you for the contribution that you made in this constant fight against 
the machinations of the Communist conspiracy. I know you are a 
devoted American citizen, and you have proven that in connection 
with the work which you have voluntarily undertaken as an under- 
ground agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to serve your 
Government. I commend you for your efforts, and thank you very 
much on behalf of the Congress, and I think the entire people of our 
country. 

Mr. Regan. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Charles T. Asque. Will you kindly come forward ? 

(Members of committee present: Representatives Willis and 
Scherer). 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. You do solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing by the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. AsQUE. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFTALO, N. Y., AREA 1631 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES T. ASQUE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
MARTIN R. BRADLEY, JR. 

Mr. Aeens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. AsQUE. Charles T. Asque, 503 Masten Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y., 
employed at Eepublic Steel Corp., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities ? 

Mr. Asque. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Asque. That is right, 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Bradley. Martin R. Bradley, Jr., 900 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the gentleman who just left the witness 
stand ? 

Mr. Asque. Do I know him ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Asque. Actually I don't know him. 

Mr. Arens. Did you hear his testimony when he identified you as 
a Communist? 

Mr. Asque. I heard his testimony, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was he correct or was he in error ? 

Mr. Asque. Well, listen, here is something I want to press upon you 
right now. As far as this gentleman is concerned, and as far as what 
he stated, actually I don't know the man, and I really — knowing the 
man and seeing the man, I don't think that he knows me. I think that 
everything that he has participated in here now is actually something 
that has been given to him. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a Communist ? 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. 

Mr. Asque. First of all 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute, Mr. Witness. Mr. Chairman, I ask 
you to direct the witness to answer Mr. Arens' question as to whether 
or not the previous witness was telling the truth when he identified 
him as a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Willis. That is the pending question which you have not an- 
swered. 

Mr. Asque. First of all 

Mr. Willis. I suggest that you answer it, and then if you want to 
explain later on, it will be in order. But I direct you to answer that 
question. It is a very simple one. He was under oath, just like you 
are under oath. If you contradict him, obviously one is not telling 
the truth. He is just as much subject to perjury as you are. He laid 
his liberty right down on the table. He took an oath. He swore to it. 
Now you are under oath, and you are asked if the previous witness told 
the truth or was he in error, did he falsify, did he lie. That is the 
simple question. You are ordered to answer. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Did he tell the truth or was he in error, or did he lie 
when he was under oath in identifying you as having been a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



1632 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. AsQUE. Well, I will testify to this committee over a period 
from 6 to 7 years wliicli I have a bright recollection. Beyond that 
particular period, I feel that any question that is submitted to me at 
this point beyond 6 or 7 years, that actually I have a faint recollection, 
I camiot answer properly. 

Another thing, gentlemen, is I feel that the resolution which created 
this committee is vague. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, you have directed this witness to an- 
swer the question and he has not answered the question. It is the 
opinion of this member of the committee, at least, that this witness is 
in contempt for refusing to answer the question. I suggest we pro- 
ceed to the next question. 

Mr. Arens. Are you at this moment a Communist ? 

Mr. AsQUE. At this moment I am not a Communist. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a Communist ? 

Mr. AsQUE. As I stated before, Mr. Director, if this question — the 
question you submitted to me is extended back even my lifetime, and 
I don't know what happened. If your question lies within the realm 
of 6 or 7 years of which I have clear recollection, I am sure that I can 
give you a correct answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member 

Mr. Scherer. Just a moment, Mr. Counsel. Mr. Chairman, I sug- 
gest that you direct the witness to answer the question directed to him 
by our counsel, namely, has he ever been a Communist. He has not 
answered it and I ask for a direction. 

Mr. Willis. Of course I direct him to answer the question, for this 
very obvious reason. The previous witness for 10 years was em- 
ployed by, or under the supervision of, the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation. I don't know of a finer organization on earth. I don't 
think they are a bunch of numbskulls, either, as to whom they would 
want to operate or seek information that would preserve, protect, and 
perpetuate our form of government here in America. Your evasion 
does not do you justice and does him an injustice. I am going to 
insist that you answer the question. You can't pussyfoot, you can't 
ride the fence. The question is this. You were asked, "Are you now 
a member of the Communist Party ?" And you said "No." You were 
then asked, "Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?" 
You have not answered that question. I order you to answer it under 
the pains and penalties of the consequences of your refusal to answer. 

Mr. AsQUE. Mr. Chairman, I will answer all questions within the 
realm of 6 or 7 years. Other than that, I have no recollection, and 
I could not answer you truthfully. So, therefore, if you will direct 
your questions within this particular area, I say from 7 or 8 years, I 
will gladly answer them, and I will answer them truthfully, because 
I feel that any questions beyond that particular period is pertinent. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. AsQUE. Is not pertinent. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I submit the witness has had ample 
opportunity to answer the question as you have directed him to an- 
swer. I suggest we proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Willis. Let it be noted that he was in consultation witli his 
counsel. I think he understands. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1633 

Mr. ScHERER. And that we have again told him that it is the opinion 
of this subcommittee that his refusal to answer would place him in 
contempt of this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. AsQUE. I was born in Cleveland, Ohio, April 1, 1910. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about your education, please. 

Mr. AsQUE. I don't have too much education. Of course, I have a 
high school education. That is all. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend Howard University ? 

Mr. AsQUE. I was supposed to, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Well, did you attend Howard University in Wash- 
ington, D. C. ? 

Mr. AsQUE. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Then you weren't quite frank with us a moment ago 
when you said you had a high school education and that is all. 

Mr. Asque. Well, I do have a high school education. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have something beyond high school education? 

Mr. Asque. Not very much, because Negro schools at that particu- 
lar time were very, very low, and of course you take a Negro that 
goes to college in the South, in a Negro Jim Crow school, when he 
comes to the North, actually he is only classified as a high school 
graduate. 

Mr. Arens. Now, please tell us 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. Howard University in Washington 
is one of the fine educational institutions in this country. I would not 
want the testimony of this witness that it is an inferior educational 
institution to stand on the record unchallenged. 

Mr. Arens. When did you attend Howard University ? 

Mr. Asque. Well, I could not answer that question, because actually 
I don't know the date. I never graduated from Howard University. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you attend Howard University ? 

Mr. Asque. Two years, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And what course did you take ? 

Mr. Asque. What is that? 

Mr. Arens. What course did you take at Howard University? 
Was it a specialized course of some kind ? 

Mr. Asque. I majored in political and social science. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Asque. No. 

Mr. Arens. Where else did you attend school ? 

Mr. Asque. I did not attend school any more. 

Mr. Arens. Was that all of the formal education you have had ? 

Mr. Asque. That is all, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the approximate year in which you con- 
cluded your education at Howard University ? 

Mr. Asque. I would say about 1925. 

Mr. Arens. Then what was your first principal occupation after 
you concluded your studies at Howard University ? 

Mr. Asque. Well, I was a dispatcher for the Terminal and Trans- 
portation Co. for 11 years. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mr. Asque. Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to Buffalo ? 



1634 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. AsQUE. Wlien did I come to Buffalo ? 

Mr, Arens. Yes. 

Mr. AsQUE. I come to Buffalo about 30 years ago. 

Mr. Arens. And what was your next employment after your dis- 
patcher job? 

Mr. AsQUE. "Wliere was I employed ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, your next employment. 

Mr. AsQUE. My next employment was for Wickwire Spencer Co. 

Mr. ScHERER. I can't understand the witness. Witness, would you 
mind taking your hand away from your mouth ? I can't understand. 

Mr. AsQTJE. I was employed at Wickwire Spencer Co. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is better. 

Mr. Arens. And in what capacity ? 

Mr. AsQUE. As a laborer, as all Negroes are in these industries, 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed there ? 

Mr. Asque. I don't know exactly how long I was employed there. 

Mr. Arens. Your best estimate, please, as to how long you were 
employed there. 

Mr. AsQTJE. I could not estimate. 

Mr. Arens. Were you employed there as much as a year ? 

Mr. Asque. I imagine about a year. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Asque. The American Car & Foundry. 

Mr. Arens. About how long were you employed there ? 

Mr. Asque. Well, I was employed there until it closed. I don't 
know. That was in 1945. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment? 

Mr. Asque. Republic Steel Corp. 

Mr. Arens. In what job? 

Mr. Asque. What job ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Asque. Laborer, 

Mr. Arens. What jobs have you held at Republic Steel since you 
assumed your first employment there ? 

Mr. Asque. Well, I have held keeper in the blast-furnace depart- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been continuously employed in Republic 
Steel ever since ? 

Mr. Asque. That is right, from 1945. 

Mr. Arens. When you made application at Republic Steel, did you 
tell them your background, your education, where you had been em- 
ployed ? 

Mr. Asque. Well, actually it didn't make very much difference at 
that particular time, because I 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Asque. The only thing I could get was laborer anyhow, and I 
was not too cautious about what information I would give them. All 
I was after was a job to work for my family. 

Mr. Arens, Now kindly answer the question. Did you give them a 
full disclosure of your background, where you had been employed, 
your education ? 

Mr. Asque. I did. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BUFFAIX), N. Y., AREA 1635 

Mr. Akens. Did you tell them about your education at Howard 
University ? 

Mr. AsQUE. It would not have did very much good anyhow. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell them about your education at Howard 
University ? 

Mr. AsQUE. I told them I had a high-school education. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell them about your education at Howard 
University ? 

Mr. AsQUE. No. 

Mr. Arens. Were you at that time a high-school graduate ? 

Mr. AsQUE. At that time ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. AsQUE. I was, supposedly. 

Mr. Arens. How many years did you attend high school? 

Mr. AsQUE, Well, I spent about 8 years in high school. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell them that you had been 8 years in high 
school ? 

Mr. AsQUE. They never asked me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you fill out a form with respect to your educa- 
tion? 

Mr. AsQUE. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you a photostatic copy of 
that form and invite your attention to the second page. See if that 
refreshes your recollection with reference to what you told them at 
the steel company with respect to your education. Mr. Williams, of 
this staif, is going to display that to you. See if that refreshes your 
recollection. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Does that refresh your recollection as to what you told 
them at Republic Steel with reference to your background? 

Mr. AsQUE. Well, actually since I saw that, that is my writing, of 
course. But actually, knowing exactly what I told them on that 
application, it has been too long. I can't recall. 

(Document marked "Asque Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. As of the time you filled out that application, you 
knew, of course, that you had had 8 years of high school; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Asque. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And you knew on that application, you knew at the 
time you filled out the application that you had spent 2 years at How- 
ard University ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Asque. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. But you did not feel that it was something that you 
wanted to tell anybody ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Asque. Mr. Chairman, I felt at that time it did not mean 
anything. I could be a doctor of philosophy degree, and if I ap- 
plied at Republic Steel, I would only get laborer. I would only get 
laborer anyhow. So I felt it is just filling that application out and 
getting a job. That was what I was interested in, a job, and not going 
through this. They would have laughed at me. If I had applied 
for something else besides laborer, tliey would have laughed at me 
anyhow. 



1636 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Wlio told you to apply at Republic Steel for a job? 

Mr. AsQUE. Wlio told me? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. AsQUE. My own economic status at home with five children, 
that was the answer to that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, during the course of your career in Re- 
public Steel, become an official, a member of the executive board of 
the United Steelworkers of America ? 

Mr. AsQUE. Become an executive? 

Mr. Arens. Were you on the executive board of Local 1743, United 
Steelworkers of America? 

Mr. Asque. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute, Mr. Chairman. I am looking at 
this. Didn't this witness just tell us that all he ever was was a 
laborer, that that was the only job he could get. Was that his tes- 
timony ? 

Mr. Asque. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Why is it in your application, then, for employment 
with Republic Steel you listed previous employment with Minnesota 
Atlantic 

Mr. Asque. Minnesota & Atlantic Transit Co. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes; and there you held the position of foreman; 
did you not ? At least you say so in your application. 

Mr. Asque. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. You are not a laborer, if you are a foreman. 

Mr. Asque. Yes ; it all amounts to about the same. 

Mr. Scherer. Then you also said you worked at the Wickwire 
Spencer Steel Co., and you have listed the nature of your work as 
an operator. I can't read what it is. A derrick operator? 

Mr. Asque. No ; that was a crane operator, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. And you list your employment with the American 
Car & Foundry Co. as a crane worker; is that right? 

Mr. Asque. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. And when you told us before the only job you could 
get and had was that of an ordinary laborer, you were not telling 
the committee the truth ; were you ? 

Mr. Asque. I was telling the truth. Wliat is the difference between 
a crane operator ? Even as a dispatcher. You said I was a foreman, 
but I was a dispatcher. 

Mr. Scherer. I did not say you were a foreman. You said you 
were a foreman. 

Mr. Asque. That is right. I was a foreman, and that is the dis- 
patcher. 

Mr. Scherer. And a few minutes ago you were telling this com- 
mittee, "The only job I could get was an ordinary common laborer." 

Mr. Asque. That is all I could get. 

Mr. Scherer. You know you are under oath ; don't you ? 

Mr. Arens. Could you tax your memory and tell us whether or 
not you were a member of the executive board of Local 1743, United 
Steelworkers of America? 

Mr. Asque. I was a member of the bargaining committee, if you 
want to call it that — well, it is up to you. I was a member of the 
bargaining committee of 1743. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALIO, N. Y., AREA 1637 

Mr. Arens. And when were you a member of the bargaining com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. AsQUE. That I don't know. I have not participated in the 
labor movement in quite some years. 

Mr. Arens. Did you run for public office in the course of the last 
several years ? 

Mr. AsQUE. I certainly did. 

Mr. Arens. What office did you seek ? 

Mr. AsQUE. I ran for the United States Congress on the American 
Labor Party ticket. 

Mr. Arens. And when was that ? 

Mr. AsQUE. I believe 1952. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a vivid recollection of your activities 
in 1952 when you ran for public office? 

Mr. AsQUE. Do I have? 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the incidents of your campaign ? 

Mr. Asque. I think so ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist, a member of the Communist 
Party as of the time you were a candidate for a public office ? 

Mr. Asque. The answer to that question is "No." 

Mr. Arens. Were you under Communist Party discipline ? 

Mr. Asque. The answer to that question is "No." 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a Communist any time in the course of 
the last 10 years ? 

Mr. Asque. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Chatley, Joseph 
Chatley? 

Mr. Asque. Do I know a man by the name of Joseph Chatley ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Asque. No. 

Mr. Arens. Joseph Chatley, in addition to Mr. Regan, identifies 
you as a person known by him to be a Commimist. Was Chatley in 
error likewise ? 

Mr. Asque. If I know him — Mr. Chairman, in fact, I don't know 
Mr. Chatley, and if I would meet Mr. Chatley right now, I don't 
know. 

Mr. Arens. He said he knew you as a Communist when he was in 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Asque. I don't know what he said. I don't know him. He 
could Imow me. 

Mr. Arens. He said he knew you as a Communist. Was he mis- 
taken about that ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Asque. Well, Mr. Chairman, I would say if Mr. Chatley knew 
me in the last 6 or 7 years, as I stated before, I can't dispute the man, 
but actually my own knowledge and my own recollection, I know noth- 
ing about the man. 

you as a person known by him to be a Communist. Was Chatley in 
mistaken when he said he knew you as a Communist? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Asque. Well, I don't know, Mr. Chairman. If Mr. Chatley 
says he knew me in the last 6 or 7 years years and knew me in any 
capacity 



1638 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer the question of whether Mr, Chatley was in error when he 
identified this man as a Communist. He has not answered the 
question. 

Mr. Willis. You have not answered the question; I order you to 
answer it. 

(The witness conferred with his counseh) 

Mr. AsQuE. Mr. Chairman, this is not a pertinent question, and 
I can't answer it. I have no answer for that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness has had sufficient time to answer the 
question. I suggest we proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Bradley. Is the witness excused ? 

Mr. Willis. Just a moment. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I move that this portion of the record 
dealing with the testimony of this witness and the other witness' testi- 
mony in regard to this last witness be referred to the Department 
of Justice to determine whether or not perjury has been committed. 

Mr. Willis. That course will be followed by the action of the 
committee. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Edward A. Wolkenstein. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP EDWARD A. WOLKENSTEIN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MARTIN R. BRADLEY, JR. 

Mr. Akens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Wolkenstein. Edward A. Wolkenstein, 470 Marilla Street, 
Buffalo 20. I am a gager at Bethlehem Steel Co. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Wolkenstein, in re- 
sponse to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Bradley. Martin R. Bradley, Jr., 900 EUicott Square, Buffalo, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wolkenstein, give us, if you please, just a word of 
your personal background. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. When was I born? I was born January 21, 
1925. I was born in Binghamton, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of your education, please. 

Mr. Wolkenstein. My education? I will decline to answer that 
question, sir, on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1639 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, Mr. Wolkenstein, if you 
told this committee truthfully about your education, you would be 
supplying information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. I am sorry, sir, I have already answered that 
question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. You are very much ordered and directed to answer the 
question. You have not answered it. You have not invoked any 
constitutional privilege. I warn you that you must answer the 
question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wolkenstein. There is a possibility, sir, that it may. 

Mr. Ajrens. Mr. Wolkenstein, I should like to display to you a photo- 
static copy of your application for employment at the Bethlehem 
Steel Corp. on which your signature appears, and on which under 
"Education" appears this : Boys High School at Brooklyn, N. Y., gen- 
eral course. Kindly look at that photostatic copy of your applica- 
tion and tell this committee while you are under oath whether that is 
a true and correct copy of the apj)lication you made for employment 
at Bethlehem Steel. 

Mr. Wolkenstein. Yes, sir ; it is. 

(Document marked "Wolkenstein Exhibit No. 1.") 



97795— 57— pt. 1- 



1640 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 



WOLKENSTEIN EXHIBIT NO. 1 



J 



Subsidiary CsKspaiiies of BetbleJbem Sleel Corpor«ili©« 



A.ppi<iCAi"rON F<,u< K>-si'J.rnN;ENT 






. S A- <M (S 

I 



N< ,;;, 



YiTS 



% 



lA-/ j £-~5sr 



'■K f.'/i*;^ £^ t-W *. fMf^'T ,i?'^^i ^/~ c 



S«yt* ■ S*)u<«**^ 







!J>«Vi^ «f ^»rfi. 



.LC...l-iiicJi.^sj 



Nc-.'f* 



""R^f-oc-K^^o^ ^ •■ '^ f/Ttrri^vt *>rij<>»y 



^ v^^. .St.., R a^ ■ 






• s.v(4$«4a 1>K.*-»- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. t., AREA 1641 






i I ! 



JJlg 



^t 






R: 






|li>?^ 



i ^ 


>. 


! ^' 


2 


>- 


z 


^ 




«6 


x^ 






?)t Six 

< t 



|-~T. 



9 



! ! 















fi 

I I 



Ills 



iS »i . « I a 1 4 I 




1642 COJMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Was the information which you gave to Bethlehem 
Steel with respect to j^oiir background honest, true, and correct? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. WoLKENSTEiN. I decline to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. The fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens, Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not the information in that application which 
you gave Bethlehem Steel Co. is truthful, you would be supplying 
information which might be used against you in a criminal pro- 
ceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wolkenstein. It might. 

Mr. Arens. I have here a photostatic copy of the transcript at New 
York University, furnished this committee at our request by the office 
of the registrar, with respect to the scholastic attainments there of 
Edward A. Wolkenstein, 118 East Fourth Street, New York, N. Y. 
Kindly look at that transcript and tell us whether or not that is a 
true and correct representation of the courses, attainments, of your- 
self at New York University. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Wolkenstein. I prefer not to answer that, sir. I take the 
fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Wolkenstein Exhibit No. 2.") 



COMMUNIST AOriVmES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1643 



WOLKENSTEIN EXHIBIT NO. 2 



!|3;«!j 



»:fs;r 



'15=*; 



id^*^?! 



mm 



NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 

GRADUATE SCHOOL 
OF ARTS AND SCIENCE 



RECORD OF 



EdwRRD RLURNOtR WoLKtNSTtm 



MS E.- 4- SmtET 

N • V- s. N- y- 



•'i-. ft R Oct iquk, N^■^ York UrnytRsin (VJSf ^ 



'Mom p 



M5 



yyyy.'a — 



LQuil. 



LiA. 



LsJ. 



^ 



Hiisr 



JIU^ 



ac\n ^ 



A\y.T 






\t^^T renouiNC 



n^uq^up^Rv i s^D 



3L3d_ 









r*Tt 






ucpi 



^V-\-\lKl >.0\JT-H 



(\F THF P[r^^R\eRrt Q.\Vl 



3A?, 



2AX 



tOftyj U\SAriKV FPwQtj \f>i>f> Tr>\lfea 



arvT 



P>Lr>Nl I.RTtC\N <SF VATAfcRveft 



aos-<e 



\n'^-<n 



?^ 



tftftL^t^AS. >r« V\»A^R\ 0ftr4 V4ts.roR 






^ 



fcHv \t4-mfc!ilS>L 



fc 



?^<\\VATft\T^\rAa V\ftT1R\<LU^«\vQH 



.^f1WSiTftVit.T\Qt^ 



m 



HaiE: 



^ 



UkUi 



^BM 






WLF; 



EiiU. 



£uu. 



' cowrBBiign 



SEP 20 W57 



H6MRy F . >?osti 



1644 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Willis. Your preference has nothing to do with it. 

Mr. WoLKENSTEiN. Well, I stated I was taking the fifth amendment 
on it, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wolkenstein, in addition to the bachelor of arts 
degree which is indicated here, and the master of arts attainments 
scholastically, we see reference to certain courses taken by this indi- 
vidual, Edward A. Wolkenstein, looking toward a master's degree in 
college. I invite your attention particularly to that part of the regis- 
trar's compilation of information. Tell us whether or not you did 
pursue these courses looking toward a master's degree. 

Mr. Wolkenstein. My answer is the same, sir, the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. ScHERER. He said his answer was the same. Do you mean you 
decline to answer the question ? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. Let me clarify that, sir. I take the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't take the fifth amendment. You decline 
to answer the question on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Wolkenstein. As you wish, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Not as I wish. 

Mr. Arens. Was your employment at Bethlehem Steel suggested to 
you by any person known by you to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wolkenstein. I decline on the basis of the fifth amendment, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. I decline on the basis of the fifth amendment 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. You were a member of the Communist Party until you 
were served with your subpena to appear before this committee, isn't 
that true ? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the 
basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you at this moment technically a member, and I 
emphasize the word "member" — are you technically at this moment a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. I am not now a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time in the course of the last month ? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. I decline to answer that, sir, on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you resign technical membership from the Com- 
munist Party after you received your subpena to appear before this 
committee so you could take an oath and say, "I am not now a member 
of the Communist Party" ? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the 
ground of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Communist Party discipline ? 

Mr. Wolkenstein. I am not. 
_ Mr. Arens. Were you under Communist Party discipline at any 
time during the course of the last month ? 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1645 

Mr. WoLKENSTEiN. I decline to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliy ? 

Mr. WoLKENSTEiN. On the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. ScpiERER. Were you a member of the Communist Party yester- 
day? 

Mr. WoLKENSTEiN. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. WiLus. The witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until 1 : 45. 

(Members of the committee present at the time of taking the recess : 
Representatives Willis and Scherer.) 

(Thereupon at 12: 20 p. m., a recess was taken until 1 :45 p. m., the 
same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 2, 1957 

(The House Subcommittee on Un-American Activities reconvened 
at 1 : 45 p. m., with the following committee members present : Eep- 
resentatives Willis and Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. Counsel will 
call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Lieutenant, will you kindly stand while the chairman 
administers an oath to you, please ? 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WINTHROP H. PHELPS, LIEUTENANT, CITY POLICE, 

BUFFALO, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Lieutenant Phelps. My name is Winthrop Phelps. I live in the 
city of Buffalo. I am a lieutenant in the Buffalo Police Department, 
hi charge of the subversive squad of the department. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so engaged ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Approximately 4 years. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been a member of the police force 
of this area, of this community ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. I have been a member just about 19 years. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of the last 4 years. Lieutenant, have 
you had occasion by techniques, which we shall not probe publicly, to 
acquire information respecting the operation of the Communist appar- 
atus in this community ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us first of all, on the basis of the infor- 
mation which you have acquired in the course of your police techniques 
in this community, about the colonization operations here of the Com- 
munist Party ? Tell us, if you would, please, about the methods of 
operation in colonization and tecliniques employed, and the like. 



1646 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Lieutenant Phelps. We have in this area gained information and 
knowledge on a great number of persons who fit into the description 
of persons known as colonizers. They have come into this area from 
other outside areas, other outside cities, and have come here with in- 
structions to become a part of the community. 

IVIr. Arens. These are all comrades you are speaking of ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Yes, they are. They are instructed to seek 
employment. It is a double-barreled order. They are given orders 
to build up what is known as a work record, to seek employment in any 
place that they can get it, to become model employees, to do a good 
job, to build up a good work record, and then to use that work record 
when they seek employment elsewhere in some of the industries after 
they have been established as residents and members of this com- 
munity, to try to seek employment in industry known as steel, automo- 
bile production plants, and other heavy industry in this area. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting techniques in 
the use of social-security cards by comrade Communists who have 
been sent in here as colonizers ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Yes, we do. We have evidence of colonizers 
being here and assuming a completely different identity, a completely 
different name, even to changing the names of their entire family. 
Assuming a complete new identity in the applications for their social- 
security cards and records, and using those false social-security cards 
in seeking employment in these various plants. 

Mr. Arens. Have you observed on the basis of your police tech- 
niques and sources of information any pattern of educational back- 
ground of these Communist colonizers ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Yes. Most of the cases that we have un- 
covered show that the colonizers have a very good educational back- 
ground. Most of them have college degi-ees, and some have 2 and 3. 

Mr. Arens. And do they reveal that educational background to the 
prospective employers ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. No; they do not reveal that education when 
they make out their applications for employment. They falsify those. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have. Lieutenant, information which you have 
acquired in police techniques respecting any other accentuation by 
the Communist Party on a particular project or projects or programs? 

Lieutenant Phelps. There seems to be a definite pattern of these 
colonizers fitting into legitimate organizations. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt you there ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. By legitimate organization, you mean an organization 
which is basically a patriotic, good organization ; do you not? 

Lieutenant Phelps. That is right. When I am speaking of that, 
I mean such organizations as the YMCA, the YAVCA, the PTA 
groups, the NAACPj the various other political party groups, differ- 
ent branches of political party groups, and groups such as that. 

Mr. Arens. Would you proceed with an explanation of this pattern 
of which you have spoken. 

Lieutenant Phelps. They become members of these various legiti- 
mate groups and become good members. They w^ork hard to gain the 
confidence and good feeling of the other members in it, and to try to 
seek and become the officers or the leaders in such groups, and while 
they are there, to spread as much of the doctrine as they can to others. 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVrriES IN THE BUFFALO, N. T., AREA 1647 

Mr. Akens. By "as they can," you mean as they can without arous- 
ing a suspicion as to their identity as Communists; is that correct? 

Lieutenant Phelps. That is right ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. How extensive is that penetration in this community ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. That penetration is quite extensive in this com- 
munity. We have uncovered various colonizers in 15 to 18 different 
legitimate organizations in this area. 

Mr. Arens. Lieutenant, at this point I think it might be well for 
you to express yourself as to whether or not you or the police depart- 
ment have subpena power, such as does the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities. 

Lieutenant Phelps. No, we do not. 

Mr. Arens. You have no power, such as this committee has, to call 
before it people and elicit from them information that can be used 
for the public good in undertaking to combat this conspiracy, is that 
correct ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. That is correct, we do not. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, your function is a police function, as 
distinct from the functions of this committee. 

Lieutenant Phelps. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you, of course, have no legislative power, do you ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us, please, sir, on the basis of your back- 
ground and experience just how serious is the Communist operation 
in this community ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. The seriousness is very difficult to evaluate at 
this present time. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Because the methods that are used are so very 
hidden and undercover. It is difficult to determine where individuals 
who are Conmiunists are, due to the fact 

Mr. Arens. Is the party pretty well underground here ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Yes ; it is. 

Mr. Arens. I have just 1 or 2 further questions, please. Lieutenant. 
To what extent do the Communists of this community seek out nerve 
centers so that they caUj by their operation, affect numbers completely 
disproportionate to their own membership ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. They are very deliberate in seeking out nerve 
centers and key positions within unions and within these various in- 
dustries themselves, so that they have a power far greater than their 
numerical numbers would ever indicate. They have the control that 
is in many ways dangerous to the industry and economy of this area. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a fair appraisal of the Communist operation in 
the community to undertake to estimate its strength or its effectiveness 
on the basis exclusively of its numerical strength ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. No; it is not. The actual strength is far 
greater than the numbers would ever indicate. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, there is a fallacy in undertaking to 
appraise the threat of this operation on the basis of the numbers ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. I will ask you a question almost with tongue in cheek 
now, but this record ought to reflect it. Is the Communist Party 
a political party ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. No ; it is not. 



1648 COIVDMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. What is it? 

Lieutenant Ppielps. It is a conspiracy that is being used to bring 
about a control of our economy that is foreign to what we as Amer- 
icans would like to see. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a rough estimate of the number of 
those persons in this community who in the last 4 years you have 
been able by police techniques to learn were members of this con- 
spiratorial apparatus operating in the Buffalo area '( 

Lieutenant Phelps. Over the periods you spoke of, the past 4 or 
5 years, it would run into a few hundred, possibly five to six hun- 
dred that we have uncovered in that period of time. 

Mr. Arens. And you do not presume, I am sure, to assert that you 
have uncovered all of them ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. No ; that is true. As the colonizers come into 
this area and then move on out, there are others who come in whom 
we have not been able to detect, up to the present time, that is. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, those are the only questions that we 
wanted to pose to Lieutenant Phelps at tliis time. I do think that 
the record ought to reflect publicly here the deep appreciation which 
we of the staff of the Committee on Un-American Activities have for 
the splendid cooperation which has been rendered to us over the course 
of a very considerable time by the unit of the local police department 
which Lieutenant Phelps heads. 

I personally express to you our deepest appreciation and highest 
commendation for the splendid work which you are performing. We 
want that to be a matter of public record. 

Lieutenant Phelps. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Lieutenant, you say you have been engaged as a lieu- 
tenant for the last 4 years ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. I have been in charge of the subversive squad 
for the last 4 years. 

Mr. Willis. And you have been engaged in police work for about 
how long ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Just about 19 years. 

Mr. Willis. Did you start out as a lieutenant ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. No; I did not. I started out as a patrolman. 

]Mr. Willis. As a cop ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. That is the way we used to refer affectionately to 
police officers. 

Lieutenant Phelps. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. On the street ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. On the street. I was walking a beat. 

Mr. Willis. You refer to the fact that to measure the Communist 
threat in numbers of people who are the active core of members is 
not a good yardstick. As a matter of fact, you know that even in Rus- 
sia today I think the card-carrying Communists are something less 
than 5 percent of the total population ; isn't that true? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. Now, about the threat of this worldwide conspiracy, 
we will spend here in the United States this year $38 billion for na- 
tional security and national defense. Am I correct in saying that we 
are securing and defending ourselves against one threat and that is 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1649 

the threat of worldwide communism ? Aren't those the troublemak- 
ers in the world today ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. They certainly are in this area, as far as we 
have been able to determine here through our investigations. 

Mr. Willis. Thirty-eight billion dollars is a lot of money to spend 
for national security and national defense against a common enemy of 
the democracies of the world, known as worldwide communism. To 
give you an idea of the significance of that figure, if I remember cor- 
rectly, 1 billion minutes have not ticked by yet since the birth of 
Christ, 1 billion minutes have not gone by yet. We spend $38 billion 
a year. Against what? Who are the troublemakers? Who are we 
defending and securing our Nation against today if not the worldwide 
Communist conspiracy? Do you agree with me tliat that is it? 

Lieutenant Phelps. I agree with you 100 percent. 

Mr. Willis. This outfit, the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, 
whose officers, whose head people, are Communists, want to abolish 
us, liquidate us, and liquidate your department here. 

Lieutenant Phelps. I am sure of that. 

Mr. Willis. Suppose that would happen. Suppose we would not 
have them under the surveillance and study on their operations. Sup- 
pose Congress should yield to them and say, "Well, we will disband 
the Committee on Un-American Activities und we will disband the 
police subversive forces throughout the United States,'' what would 
happen to the movement overnight? Would it pass out? Would 
it mushroom ? What do you think would happen ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. Do you mean the Communist movement? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Lieutenant Phelps. Well, it certainly would not pass out. It would 
certainly mushroom overnight, because they would then have a free 
hand with the great industrial concentration in this area, known as 
the Niagara frontier. 

Mr. Willis. Do you think that the people in this great area who 
I think are celebrating their 125th anniversary as a port, and who 
are looking forward to greater achievements through the St. Lawrence 
seaway, with economic improvement, do you think that the people 
here should take seriously this trashy kind of publicity and abolish the 
committees, the Intenial Security Committee of the Senate and this 
committee ? Maybe I am wrong or maybe the whole Senate is wrong ; 
maybe the whole Congress is wrong. But from year to year we get 
our appropriations from the Democrats and Republicans. Here is 
my friend from Ohio, and I am from Louisiana. He is a Republican 
and I am a Democrat. There must be sometliing to this thing. Other- 
wise, it seems to me that someone representing the people — ^and let me 
tell you. Members of Congress ultimately respond to the will of the 
people — there must be something to this work or we would not have 
the unanimity of approval in the Congress from year to year; don't 
you agree with that ? 

Lieutenant Phelps. I do. 

Mr. Willis. I do want to commend you and your department and 
the people of this city for choosing you, an ordinary American citizen 
who started out as a cop — and I understand you studied in between 
your duties during those 10 years and improved yourself education- 
ally 

Lieutenant Phelps. That is right. 



1650 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Wu.Lis. You have been a great help to our committee and you 
are all right in my book and the book of this committee. I salute you, 
sir. 

Lieutenant Phelps. Thank you very much, sir. 

Mr. Akens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, is Sid- 
ney H. Ingerman. Kindly come forward. 

(Members of committee present: Representatives Willis and 
Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SIDNEY HEUBERT INGEEMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, PETER L. PARRINO 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Ingerman. My name is Sidney Herbert Ingerman. I live at 
334 Idth Street, in the city of Buffalo. I am a production worker. 

Mr. Scherer. Where ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Tube Manifold Corp. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Ingerman, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Parrino. Peter L. Parrino, 466 Ellicott Square Building, Buf- 
falo. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and when were you born ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., November 8, 
1928. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about your education, please, sir. 

Mr. Ingerman. I attended the Brooklyn High Scliool for Specialty 
Trades, and while I was attending that school, I attended the Brook- 
lyn Evening Technical High School. I attended Champlain College, 
in Plattsburg, N. Y., for 2 years, and I attended the University of 
Buffalo for approximately 2 years. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your formal education? 

Mr. Ingerman. I have not completed my formal education. 

Mr. Arens. I say when did you complete it? "Wlien did you com- 
plete that which you did acquire ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I am still attending school. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are you attending school ? 

Mr. Ingerman. The University of Buffalo Evening School. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived in the Buffalo area ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I have lived in the Buffalo area since 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Now, kindly give us, if you please, sir, just a brief 
sketch of the principal employments you have had since you reached 
adulthood. 

Mr. Ingerman. Well, when do you consider adulthood, sir? 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1651 

Mr. Aeens. Well, the principal jobs after you were able to support 
yourself. We will put it that way. 

Mr. Ingerman. I see. I worked for the Buffalo Steel Corp. for a 
period of about a year. 

Mr. Arens. Beginnin<r when, please ? 

Mr. IxGERMAN. I think it was in early 1960. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Ingerman. From there I worked on the Great Lakes for one 
season as a seaman. From there I worked at the Fedders Manufac- 
turing Corp. for a few months, on the second shift, and from there I 
went to work at the Hanna Coke Corp. I worked there until 1953. 
In 1955 I think it was, I went to work at Tube Manifold, and I am 
presently employed there. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been continuously employed at Tube Mani- 
fold since you first started there in 1955 ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had a period of service in the armed services ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And what was the period of your service in the Armed 
Forces ? 

JMr. Ingerman. From July 1953 to December 1954. 

Mr. Arens. And did you receive an honorable discharge ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir, I did not receive an honorable discharge. 

Mr. Arens. What type of discharge did you receive ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, I would like to know what the purpose and 
pertinency of this particular question is. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. This Committee on Un-American Activities has 
pending before it a considerable amount of legislation dealing with 
the Communist Party and the Communist conspiracy, principally in 
the United States, which threatens the United States. One of those 
bills is H. R. 9352, which has probably 50 to 75 specific provisions 
dealing with communism. This Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties likewise, under Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress, is under a 
mandate to maintain a continuing surveillance over the administra- 
tion and operation of numerous laws dealing with the internal secu- 
rity matters, such laws as the Internal Security Act of 1950 and the 
Communist Control Act of 1954, the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act, espionage statutes, and the like. 

Pursuant to that duty, this committee is constantly undertaking to 
develop the facts respecting the operation of the Communist Party, of 
Communists, of Communist tecliniques, and the like. 

In this j)articular bill, H. R. 9352, part of the provisions deal with 
security within the Armed Forces, techniques that the Government 
may use in separating from the Armed Forces people who are secu- 
rity threats to this Government. It is on that basis that I feel that 
the question which I have asked you is pertinent. 

Therefore, I ask you again, kindly answer the question as to the 
nature of the discharge which you received from the Armed Forces. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, the discharge I received was neither honorable 
nor dishonorable. It is what is called an undesirable discharge. At 
present in courts these types of discharges are being questioned. 



1652 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of the imdesirability which 
caused the discharge, do you know ? 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. Ingerman. While I was in the Army, I was presented with a 
series of allegations regarding certain of my activities prior to en- 
trance into the Army. Some of these allegations dealt with things 
that happened before I entered the Army. 

Mr. Arens. What kind of things ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Well, I can just generally indicate the type of alle- 
gations. I don't remember them specifically. 

Mr. Arens. Well, do that, if you please, sir. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. There were certain allegations as to membership. 

Mr. Arens. Certain allegations as to membership in what, please? 

Mr. Ingerman. The Communist Party. There were allegations 
as to the selling 

Mr. Sciierer. May I interrupt at that point. Were the allegations 
true insofar as membership in the Communist Party was concerned? 

Mr. Ingerman. At the time that these allegations were presented 
to me, while I Avas in the Army, I made clear that at that time I was 
not a member of the Communist Party while I was in the United 
States Army, and at that time I refused to answer on the basis of 
the appropriate regulations in the Uniform Code of Military Justice. 

Mr. Arens. Did you disassociate yourself from the Communist 
Party so that you could be in technical status as a non-Communist 
while you were in the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you resume membership in the Communist Party 
after the termination of your service in the Armed Forces? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a membership in the Communist Party 
prior to your service in the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, if you please, sir, the period of membership by 
yourself in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Ingerman. From 1948 until 1957. 

Mr. Willis. Fifty what? 

Mr. Ingerman. Seven. 

Mr. Arens. You were in the Armed Forces, you said 

Mr. Ingerman. With the exclusion of that period. 

Mr. Arens. Then you were not a technical member of the Commu- 
nist Party during the period of time you were in the Armed Forces, 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Would you explain to me what you mean by tech- 
nical member ? 

.Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the time you were in the Armed Forces? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Then your period of membership in the Communist 
Party was not from 1948 to 1957. There was a hiatus there, is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I stand corrected. 

Mr. ScHERER. ISIr. Arens, he started to tell us what allegations were 
made by the Army against him. He got to the first one, namely, the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1653 

allegation of Communist Party membership. Then I interrupted 
him. He was in the process of telling us what the otlier allegations 
were in the discharge proceedings from the Army. Will you continue ? 
Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. As best I can remember, it involvecl 
membership, it involved the sale of the Daily Worker, it involved 
payment of dues. Possibly — I don't recollect too clearly — I think it 
involved contributions. That is the substance, I think, of the allega- 
tions. 

Mr. Aeens. Let us, if you please, then, start with the first period 
of your membership in the Communist Party and bring it down to the 

time of 1957 when you say 

Mr. Willis. 1956, 1 think he said. Did you say 1956 or 1957? 
Mr. Ingerman. 1957, sir. 

Mr. Arens. To 1957, when your membership in the Communist 
Party terminated. 
Where were you when you joined the Communist Party in 1948? 
Mr. Ingerman. Plattsburg, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. And what unit or cell of the Communist Party did you 
join ? 

Mr. Ingerman. To the best of my understanding and recollection, 
it was no unit, but I joined — I did not join any specific unit at that 
time. 

Mr. Aeens. Wliat did you join? 
Mr. Ingerman. I just joined. 
Mr. Arens. Did you receive a membership card ? 
Mr. Ingerman. I think I received a membership card, yes, sir. 
Mr. Arens. And did you pay dues ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I really can't remember at this time whether I did. 
Mr. Arens. Where did you join within the city? What club? 
What edifice did you go to, to join ? 

Mr. Ingerman. As far as I know, where I participated — there was 
no club or edifice at that time I joined the function. 

Mr. Scherer. When you joined the Army, did you notify the Com- 
munist Party that you were withdrawing temporarily ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir, I just notified the Communist Party that I 
was withdrawing. 
Mr. Scherer. You did notify them ? 
Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. For the period you were in the Army. Did you 
withdraw because you were familiar with the oath that a member of 
the Commmiist Party takes in this country upon becoming a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Would you repeat the question ? 
Mr. Scherer. Did you withdraw from the party because you were 
familiar with the oath a member of the Communist Party takes when 
he joins the Communist Party in the United States ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I am sorry, sir, I am not familiar with any particu- 
lar oath. 

Mr. Scherer. Can I read it to you and see if this refreshes your 
recollection : 

I pledge myself to rally the masses to defend the Soviet Union, a land of 
victorious socialism. I pledge myself at all times to remain a vigilant and firm 
defender of the Leninist line of the party, the only line that insures the triumph 
of Soviet power in the United States. 



1654 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Do you remember that oath ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, to the best of my recollection, I never took any 
such oath, nor have I ever until this very moment heard of such oath, 
nor do I think I ever would subscribe to such oath. 

Mr. ScHERER. You have never heard that ? 

Mr. Ingerman. To the best 

Mr. ScHERER. Such an oath would prevent you from serving, though, 
in the Armed Forces of the United States, would it not ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Arens. How long were you allied with this group within the 
Communist Party which you first joined ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I left Plattsburg shortly after I joined. As I say, 
there was no — I did not miderstand there was the existence of a group 
at this time. 

Mr. Abens. All right. What was the next entity within the Com- 
munist Party to which you were attached ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I was attached, to the best of my recollection, to 
the Jolin Reed Club of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mr. Ingerman. At the University of Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. When were you attached to the Jolin Reed Club ? 

Mr. Ingerman. To the best of my recollection, from mid-1948 — I 
would say some time toward the latter part of 1948 through 1950. 
Yes ; through 1950, until I left the university. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there in the John Reed Club 
of the Communist Party at the University of Buffalo ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. I will give you the closest estimate that I can make. 
I would say there was about 5 or 6 members. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you there? Until 1950, did you say? 

Mr. Ingerman. Actually until the end of 1949. 

Mr. Arens. All right. Wliat was the next entity of the Commu- 
nist operation to which you were attached ? 

Mr. Ingerisian. I believe it was the Buffalo Steel Club. 

Mr. Arens. And when was that ? 

Mr. Ingerman. From 1950 until I — I can't be too sure, but I assume 
it was until I left the employment of the Buffalo Steel Co. 

Mr. Arens. And what was the approximate date on that, please, 
sir? 

Mr. Ingerjian. I seem to recollect it was December of 1950, but I 
am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there of the Buffalo Steel 
Club in 1950 when you were a member ? 

Mr. Ingerman. To the best of my recollection, 3 or 4. 

Mr. Arens. Were there other steel clubs besides the one to which 
you were attached ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, I respectfully ask, would you make the ques- 
tion a little clearer? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Did you have laiowledge of the existence of other 
Communist steel clubs, other than the one to which you were attached ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I find it difficult at this time to recall if at that time 
I had such knowledge. I may have, and I may not have had at that 
time. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1655 

Mr. Arens. Was your employment at Buffalo Steel suggested to you 
by any person known to you to be a Communist ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir, it was not. I clon't recall that it was. 

Mr. Arens. Did you confer with anyone known by you to be a 
Communist in anticipation of your employment at Buffalo Steel? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir, not to my recollection. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us the next entity of the Communist Party 
to which you were attached, after your disassociation from the Buf- 
falo Steel Club. 

Mr. Ingerman. The next entity I recall it was the Steel Section 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Would you pardon an adversion to the Buffalo Steel 
Club ? Did you hold a post of responsibility in that particular club ? 
Were you a leader ? 

Mr. Ingerman. To be quite honest, I am not sure. I don't recall 
too vividly. 

Mr. Arens. Then let us proceed with the Steel Section. Wlien did 
you become associated with the Steel Section of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I would say roughly the early part of — some time 
during 1951. 

Mr. Arens. And how long did you maintain the connection with 
the Steel Section of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ingerman. To the early part of 1953. 

Mr. Arens. How many members were there in the Steel Section of 
the Communist Party to which you were attached ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Would you make clear to me what you mean by 
members, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. How many other persons in like status were there in the 
Steel Section of the Communist Party, to your certain knowledge? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Did they come and go during that time ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Excuse me, sir ? 

Mr. Willis. Did they come and go during that time ? Is that what 
is causing you the concern as to an approximation ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I am not able to decide whether I was even aware 
of the full information. Therefore, I am hesitant in quoting a figure. 

Mr. Arens. "What is your best statement as to the number? 

Mr. Ingerman. I would estimate — I would say possibly 6 or 7.. 
This is a very hazy and rough estimate. 

Mr. Arens. What was the next entity to which you were attached 
in the chronology of your service in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I was attached to no other — well 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. To the best of my recollection, I formally belonged 
to no other entity. 

Mr. Arens. Was it about this time in 1953 when you disassociated 
yourself from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I disassociated myself from the Communist Party 
prior to my entrance into the United States Army. 

Mr. Arens. That was in 1953, was it not? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Then you were out of the Communist Party for a 
period of some year or more, is that correct ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

97795— 57— pt. 1 5 



1656 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. SciiERER. I am interested in knowini;- Avliy he disassociated 
himself from the Commnnist Party npon his entrance into the Army, 
and "svhy he resnmed membership immediately after he got out. 
Would you tell ns why you got out of the party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. As simply as I can explain it to you, sir, when I 
was drafted, I felt that for the period of my service in the United 
States Army, my whole and entire obligation was to the United States 
Army and to the mission that the Army was to accomplish, and I felt 
when I took the oath to join the Army that I meant to take it in the 
fullest and freest fashion I could, and I felt that encumbrances with 
any type of active political movements would be — well, it was just not 
in place with my complete 

Mr. ScHERER. Actually you felt, then, as I understand, that your 
obligation to the Government of the United States as a member in 
the Armed Forces conflicted with your obligations and loyalties to 
the Communist Party. There Avas a conflict of interest ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, at that time, I did not feel that way. I felt, 
as an American citizen who was fulfilling my obligations, that I had 
to serve and serve in the best interest 

Mr. ScHERER. Don't you think you could have fulfilled those obli- 
gations to the Government of the United States and still remained a 
member of the Communist Party, if you say there is no conflict of 
interest? 

Mr. Ingerman. I would like to sort of bring you back to that time. 
There was a great deal of storm and hysteria surrounding this type 
of political affiliation, which I at that time had seen no evil in, and 
rather than to allow any shadow to be cast upon my willingness to 
serve fully as a soldier, I disassociated myself. 

Mr. Scherer. When did you begin that service ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I believe it was in July of 1953. 

Mr. Arens. After you were discharged from the United States 
military as, I believe you said, an undesirable, or something of that 
type, what group did you ally yourself with in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Ingerman. When I returned from the service, I rejoined the 
Steel Section. 

Mr. Willis. And when was that, about ? 
. Mr. Ingerman. I would say a few months after I returned. 

Mr. Willis. Would that be 1954 ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Actually, sir, I think it was already in 1955, early 
1955. 

Mr. Arens. It is the information of this committee that at that pe- 
riod of time, 1955, there were no longer party cards or membership 
records, as such. Kindly tell us how you realined yourself with the 
Communist Party. What were the mechanics which you ]:)ursued in 
accomplishing that objective of reaffiliation with the Steel Club of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ingerjian. I assumed that when I again paid dues, that I was 
again a member. 

Mr. Arens. Did you approach a person who was known to you 
to be a leader in the Steel Club, and let him know your intent and 
purpose of again assuming membership? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, would you please repeat the question? 



COMMUNIST ACnVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1657 

Mr. Akens. Did you approach a person of your own volition who 
was a Communist to your knowledge and solicit him to cause you to be 
reafRliated with the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And what were the mechanics of that reaffiliation ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I paid my dues and I assumed I was a member of 
that Steel Section. 

]\lr. Arens. I did not get that last comment, please, sir. 

Mr. Ingerman. Mainly the payment of dues was sufficient at that 
time. 

Mr. Arens. Wei*e you given any credentials ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was any record entry made of your reaffiliation, to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. This disassociation which you caused to come about 
prior to the time you went into the Army, was it precipitated or caused 
by an instrument in writing or was it an oral disassociation ? 

Mr. Ingerman. This was an oral disassociation I meant. 

Mr. Willis. Did you communicate that disassociation orally to 
someone, or just to yourself ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir. I communicated it orally to the person I 
thought was the appropriate person to communicate with. 

Mr. Arens. Was that person your superior in the Communist appa- 
ratus ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I wish you would explain what you mean by my 
superior. 

Mr. Arens. Was he an officer of the club with which you were identi- 
fied at that time, prior to the time you went to the Army? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. It was not an officer of the club, of the section, but 
it was an officer of the county. 

Mr. Scherer. At that time, if members of the Communist Party 
went into the armed services, didn't the party provide that they 
would be relieved of paying dues at the time they were serving in the 
armed services ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I am sorry, sir 

Mr. Scherer. Aren't you familiar with that regulation? 

Mr. Ingerman. Not specifically familiar with such regulation. 

Mr. Scherer. You did not pay any dues, of course, while you were 
in the armed services ? 

]\Ir. Ingerman. I had no association with the Communist Party 
while I was in the armed services. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand, but wasn't there a rule or a practice 
whenever a Communist entered the armed services that he would be 
relieved for the duration from paying his dues to the party? Isn't 
that the reason you notified a Communist Party official that you were 
going to be in the Armed Forces and therefore you would be relieved 
from paying dues? In other words, you would not be delinquent? 
Wasn't that the notification you gave ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I have already stated the reasons why I disassoci- 
ated myself from the Communist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. What I said is not true, then, is that right ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



1658 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't deny that that was a rule or regulation or 
practice of the Communist Party insofar as the members of the 
armed services were concerned, do you ? 

Mr. Ingerman. To the best of my recollection, such specific in- 
structions were never given to me. 

Mr. ScHERER. Without being specific instructions, that was pretty 
generally known. 

Mr. Ingerman. Nor did I understand that this was the case with 
every single Communist who went into the armed services. 

Mr. ArajNS. The week after you disassociated yourself from the 
Communist Party in 1953 and joined the Armed Forces, or were 
drafted into the Armed Forces, the week after you did that, were 
you against the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Ingerman. When I entered the armed services, as I have indi- 
cated, I felt my full duties, allegiance, and energies were to be and 
would be devoted to this job, and so they were. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you resign from any other organizations to 
which you belonged when you went in tlie Army ? 

Mr. Ingerman. To the best of my recollection, I don't really re- 
member belonging to any other organizations to which such action 
would be necessary. 

Mr. Arens. Now, kindly answer the outstanding question on the 
record. Were you against the Communist Party a week after you 
resigned from it, and went into the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Ingerman. I feel this is a question involving my beliefs, sir. 
I wish you would explain the pertinency of this question. 

Mr. Arens. The purpose of it is to ascertain whether or not your 
disassociation from the Communist Party was in good faith. Now, 
kindly tell us, were you against the Communist Party the week after 
you disassociated yourself from the Communist Party, or were you 
for it? 

Mr. Ingerman. I will answer you in this fashion. Prior to my dis- 
association with the Communist — the fact of my disassociation at 
that time did not involve the question of my beliefs. It involved the 
question of my duty. So I will answer your question directly by 
saying that my beliefs had not changed in that 2- or 3-week or 4- week 
period. 

Mr. Arens. Now, let us revert to 1955, when you have come out of 
the Army, reaffiliated yourself with the Steel Club of the Com- 
munist Party here in Buffalo. Did you assume a post of respon- 
sibility in the Steel Club? 

Mr. Ingerman. To the best of my recollection, no, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was your association with the Steel Club a voluntary 
act of association on your part? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you solicited to join the Steel Club or did you 
solicit someone to line you up in the Steel Club ? 

Mr. Ingerman. To be quite honest, I really am not sure exactly 
which way it went. 

Mr. Arens. So that we may have your employment activity and 
your Communist Party activity running parallel, from the stand- 
point of chronology, kindly tell us where you were then employed 
in 1955, as of the time you reaffiliated with the Steel Club. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1659 

Mr. Ingerman. I was employed at the Tube Manifold Corp. 

Mr. Akens. What ^Yas your next official connection with the Com- 
munist Party or the next entity to which you were attached ? 

Mr. Ingerman. To the best of my recollection there were no others. 

Mr. Arens. How did you maintain a connection with the Steel Club, 
the 1955 steel connection? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. Pardon me, sir. You keep referring to the Steel 
Club. I think I made the point 

Mr. Arens. Steel Section — I beg your pardon. Yes, Steel Section. 

Mr. Ingerman. Would you repeat the question again? 

Mr. Arens. How long did you maintain your connection with the 
Steel Section of the Communist Party, which connection began in 
1955? 

Mr. Ingerman. I no longer considered myself a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the end of July of this year. I formally disas- 
sociated myself at the end of August of this year. 

Mr. Arens. Of 1957? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. But were you until July of 1957 connected with the 
Steel Section of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. lNGER]vrAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And was there in addition to the Steel Section of the 
Communist Party to which you were attached another steel section of 
of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. For the largest part of the time following my re- 
association in 1955, I was not aware of the existence of any but the 
Steel Section that I belonged to. Toward the end, I began to hear 
of — I would describe it as murmurings of the existence of this other 
section. 

Mr. Arens. What caused you to disassociate yourself from the Com- 
munist Party in July or August of 1957 ? 

Mr. Ingerman. The events that preceded, really beginning in late 
1955, made me come to question very seriously many of the policies 
of the American Communist Party. The main points of disagreement 
and the main points of questioning and the issues around which I could 
not longer feel as I had once felt about the program of the Communist 
Party centered primarily around the inability and unwillingness of 
the American Communist Party to forthrightly condemn the inter- 
ference of the Soviet Union in the affairs of Poland, to forthrightly 
condemn the interference in the affairs of the Hungarian working 
people, and because there was not an unequivocal condemnation of, 
what was then apparent to me, the serious acts of anti-Semitism that 
existed in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. Was your disassociation from the Communist Party in 
July or August 1957, without equivocation, complete and final? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Arens. Did you go to the Federal Bureau of Investigation or 
any intelligence agency of this Government and reveal to them such 
information as you possessed respecting the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir ; I did not. 



1660 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens, Are you now against the Communist Party of the 
United States? 

]\Ir. Ingerman, I at this time do not agree with the program of the 
Communist Party. I do not feel that it is in the best interests of 
the American working people. 

Mr. Arens. Would you like to see the Communist Party resisted, 
exposed, defeated in its objectives, purposes, and designs in the United 
States? 

Mr. Ingermax. I believe in our country that in the market place of 
ideas, that the healthy and democratic ideas will win, and I feel in this 
way that any program, any ideology which is counter to our great 
democratic traditions will be defeated. 

Mr. Arens. Will you tell this committee the names of persons who 
in 1957 were known by you to a certainty to be members of the Com- 
munist Party so that this committee can undertake to elicit from them 
information respecting the operation of this very entity which you 
would like to see defeated '( 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, I respectfully request that you explain to me 
the pertinency of this question. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. I will be very glad to. This Committee on Un- 
American Activities is under a mandate, it has been for many years, 
from the United States Congress, to develop facts and recommend leg- 
islation to cope, so far as we can legislatively, with the Communist 
conspiratorial apparatus in the United States. 

In order to acquire information, facts upon which intelligent legis- 
lation may be enacted, it is necessary for us to procure that information 
from people who have been in the apparatus itself, including such 
persons as yourself. If you tell us the names of persons who, to your 
certain knowledge in July of 1957, were members of the Communist 
apparatus here in the Buffalo area, where you have been a member of 
this apparatus, we propose to cause them to be subpenaed to appear 
before this committee, and we shall undertake to elicit from them 
information about the operations of this conspiracy that we may more 
intelligently recommend to the United States Congress legislation, 
so that we can more intelligently appraise this voluminous proposed 
piece of legislation, H. R. 9352, which is 141 pages long, dealing with 
many, many ramifications of this conspiratorial operation. With 
that explanation of pertinency, I respectfully ask you again: Will 
you here and now tell this Committee on Un-American Activities under 
its mandate from the United States Congress the names of persons 
who, to a certainty, were known by you to be members of the Com- 
munist Party at the time you disassociated yourself from the Com- 
munist Party in 1957? 

Mr, Scherer. Might I add to that, Mr. Arens, that it is particularly 
important that we have that information, since it is current informa- 
tion. It is reasonable to assume that the members of the Communist 
Party who were members just 3 months ago when he severed his con- 
nection are still members of the conspiracy today. It is less than 3 
months ago. So we are bringing it down almost to yesterday or today. 
We are not asking about persons who were members 2, 3, 4, or 5 years 
ago, but who are obviously members at the present time. 

Mr. Arens. Is the record absolutely clear that there is outstanding 
now a question and an explanation of the question ? The question is, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1661 

Please tell this committee now the names of persons Avho to a cer- 
tainty were known by you to be members of the Communist Party in 
1957 or at about the time you disassociated yourself from the Com- 
munist Party. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. I would like to bring to the chairman of the com- 
mittee's attention that in the last year, almost each and every day, 
]ieople who have come to be in disagreement with the Communist 
Party have been leaving the Communist Party based on their honest 
disagreements with the 

Mr. Willis. Based on what ? 

Mr. Ingekman. On their honest disagreements and lack of alle- 
giance to it. I, myself, as a result of this hearing, have been sub- 
jected to a great deal of hysteria, intimidation where I work, and 
have brought grave tension upon my family. I would, therefore, feel 
that this question is not pertinent to the inquiry, and I also believe 
that it is beyond the valid legislative scope of this committee. I would 
like to invoke in this instance, as it regards association with people, 
my rights under the first amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
now be ordered and directed on this record to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, I am sorry. For the aforementioned reasons I 
will not answer this question. 

Mr. Scherer. Let me ask an additional question. In view of what 
you said about persons disassociating themselves with the Commu- 
nist Party, perhaps for the same reasons you did, will you give us 
the names, then, of those individuals who remained in the Communist 
Party after you left it for the reasons you stated, and eliminate the 
names of those who resigned or withdrew at the same time you did 
for ostensibly the same reasons? 

Mr. Arens. Let the record show at this point, Mr. Scherer, if you 
please, that this question that you are now posing does not consti- 
tute a waiver of the insistence of this committee on the information 
sought to be elicited by the principal question. 

Mr. Scherer. I will agree that the record should so show. 

Mr. Willis. This is an additional line of examination. 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, I 

Mr. Scherer. I was testing his good faith in view of his state- 
ment. 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, I have no way of knowing, actually, prior to 
my leaving or after my leaving what other individuals have taken 
such action and feel as I do. I will, therefore, have to stand on the 
same grounds as I have in answer to that question. 

Mr. Willis. Of course, you are contradicting your own testimony. 
As a reason that you assign for not answering the previous question, 
you said that to your knowledge, or so I understood, many other peo- 
ple throughout the United States had left the party. You are now 
being asked to name those people who, to your knowledge, left the 
party, and you don't know that any people did leave. That is the 
net effect of the record, as I understand it. 

I will ask this question. Mr. Scherer calls my attention that tech- 
nically he asked for the names of those who remained in the party. 
I will ask you to name some of those who left the party. 



1662 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. You can see, Mr. Chairman, that it is terribly im- 
portant that we know who is in the party today, because those that 
remained in the party after all that has transpired, after Korea, after 
the incidents which this witness himself talks about, are the hard core 
of the Communist Party and are nothing but agents of a foreign 
power, dedicated, as we know they are, to the destruction of all free 
countries of the world. 

Mr. Ingerman. I am sorry, sir, but in answer to your question, I 
would have to repeat that I believe that this question is beyond the 
scope of this inquiry, and not pertinent to any valid legislative pur- 
pose. I will have to again maintain my rights under the first amend- 
ment not to answer. 

Mr. Arens. May the record be abundantly clear by another direc- 
tion, Mr. Chairman, so that there can be no question about the 
insistence of this committee wanting the information which we are 
now seeking. 

Mr. Willis. That is right 

Mr. Arens. Now, kindly tell us, sir, if you please, what did you do 
as a member of the steel section of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. InCxERman. As you have indicated, sir, this covers a considerable 
period of time. Could you be a little more specific so that I could 
answer you ? 

INIr, Arexs. What were your activities on the Steel Section of the 
Communist Party? What were your duties, your responsibilities, 
your functions ? 

Mr. Ingerman. At what particular period, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Any period. If it would be helpful to you, let us 
take the more recent period, the period of your reassociation with the 
Steel Section. ^Vhat did you do from 1955 to 1957 on the Steel Sec- 
tion of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ingerman. The greatest part of my activity in this period, 
the major part, was involved in a bitter, long, difficult fight for the 
kind of policies — against the kind of policies that I felt were in exist- 
ence and for positions for the Communist Party to oppose action 
such as the interference m Hungary, the anti-Semitism in the Soviet 
Union, the interference in Poland, and other things that I came to 
disagree with in the program, and policies of the Comniunist Party. 
This was, I would say, the major bulk of my activities in this period, 
devoted solely to this. 

Mr. Arens. Did you coordinate any of the activities of the com- 
rades engaged in the steel industry in this community ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, I feel this is a pretty general question. Could 
you be more specific ? 

Mr. Arens. What did you do with reference to the functions or 
activities of the comrades in the steel industry here ? 

Mr. Ingerman. In the main as I have stated, my activities took 
place in meetings, in discussions with people, specifically and for the 
most part around these very issues, for the bulk of the time in this last 
year and a half or two. 

Mr. Arens. Then let us antedate the last year and a half or two. 
Let us move on back. Wliat did you do as a member of the Buffalo 
Steel Club? 



COMMUNIST ACmVITIES EST THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1663 

Mr. Ingerman. To the best of my recollection, and this is in 1950, 
mainly we would discuss some of the problems that existed in the 
plants, unsafe work conditions, methods of improving the strength 
of the union, and we discussed ways which we thought this could 
be 

Mr. Arens. You don't want to leave the impression on this record 
that you just belonged to a little discussion group that met in secret, 
do you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) ^ 

Mr. Ingerman. This particular club I sincerely doubt if it met 
3 or 4 times. It met very sporadically. I doubt if this particular 
club had any clear and hewn out purpose, any clear objective. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did it study Marxism and Leninism ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No. No, while I was in this club, no such studies 
took place. The main areas of discussion was what was going on in 
the plant, what was going on in the union, and what role could the 
members of the club play in these things. 

Mr. Arens. You were a member of the Communist Party accord- 
ing to notes I have been making here, attached at one time or another 
to 4 or 5 different entities within the Communist Party for about 10 
years. Can't you tell us what you did in the Communist Party other 
than philosophical discussions ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, I am willing and desirious of answering any 
specific question that you will ask me. 

Mr. Arens. Then tell us what you did actively in the Comniunist 
Party at the behest of the Communist Party during your service in 
the party, when you were transferred from club to club and group 
to group, and then got to be in the Steel Section of the Communist 
Party. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. Sir, would you like me to begin from the beginning 
and relate to you as I recall those thing I remember ? 

Mr. Arens. We can try it and see how far we get. We want in- 
formation. We think you have information. It is obvious we are 
not getting very much. You are now on record as opposing the Com- 
munist conspiracy, wanting to destroy it, that which menaces our 
Christian civilization. Thus far you have told us that you wouldn't 
tell us the other operators in this field, and thus far you tell us you 
have just been engaged in some innocent philosophical discussions 
which curiously enough have been held in secret. 

Tell us, if you please, sir, if you are sincere, and if you are willing 
to help this Government and this committee with the mandate from 
the Congress of the United States, tell us what you know, sir, about 
the operations of the Communist Party, and what you did in the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Ingerman. I will sketchily indicate, try my best to answer your 
question. While a member of the John Keed Club, most of the ac- 
tivities of that club and myself centered around highlighting ques- 
tions of academic freedom. I contributed at that time to a newspaper 
that the club printed and distributed. I participated 

Mr. Willis. Do you mean contributed articles ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir; I think I contributed one article. 

Mr. Willis. What publication was that ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Well, it was called If This Be Treason. 



1664 CORIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Was that by Angus Cameron ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir. This was simply something that was put 
out by the club of which I was a member. Later when I left this 
club and was in the Steel Club, I sold the Communist Party press 
on the streets of Lackawanna. 

Mr. Arens. That was in 1950 ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No. sir; I am not sure if it was in 1950. It might 
even be prior to that. I am not sure exactly when this was. 

Mr. Arens. Stof) when you get to 1950, because I have a question 
to ask you. 

Mr. Ingerman. O. K. I will stop there. 

Mr. Arens. Go up to 1950 and then stop. I would like to ask you 
a question. 

Mr. Ingerman. This is about 1950. 

Mr. Arens. In 1950, the Congress of the United States, after ex- 
tensive hearings, found that the Communist Party was not a political 
party as such, but it was a conspiratorial operation. There were a 
series of findings. It was a foreign controlled conspiratorial opera- 
tion on American soil. That was given publicity far and wide. Sub- 
sequently a number of Communist traitors were tried and convicted 
by a jury. There was a series of appeals, as far as the United States 
Supreme Court. They were lodged in jail, because they were charged 
with being a part of the conspiratorial apparatus in this country. 

Did you, about that time, realize that you were in a conspiracy, or 
did you feel that you were in a meditation circle ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir; I did not realize or feel that I was in a 
conspiracy. 

Mr. Scherer. You say that you contributed to a publication an 
article or two. As I understand it, then, you are pretty familiar with 
Communist ideology and party structure. You were more interested 
in that phase of the Communist Party activity ? 

Mr. Ingerman. No, sir; if I recall it was about this time that the 
Smith Act trials were beginning, and my main interests were at that 
time directed towards civil liberties, problems of discrimination. If 
I recall, and it is not too clear in my mind, I think the article I contrib- 
uted to this sheet was one that dealt with the right of all ideas to 
be heard. 

Mr. Scherer. You were selling, I believe you said, literature at 
that time? 

Mr. Ingerman. It may have been a little later than that, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Or around that time? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. And you have a fairly good educational background ; 
do you not ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes ; I think so. 

Mr. Scherer. At that time, just about that time, William Z. Foster 
was the chairman of the Communist Party of the United States; 
was he not ? You knew that he was the chairman ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You were familiar with his writings, were you not? 

Mr. Ingerman. To some extent, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1665 

Mr. ScHERER. To some extent. Didn't you know, at the time Mr. 
Arens was talking about, William Foster said : 

When a Communist heads the Government of the United States — and that 
day will come just as surely as the sun rises — the Government will not be a 
capitalistic government but a Soviet government, and behind this government 
will stand the Red Army to enforce the dictatorship of the proletariat. 

Were you familiar with that statement by the chairman of your 
party ? 

Mr. Ingerman. At that particular time I had never heard that 
statement made. Later, in the course of some of tlie trials, I did hear 
it. If I had heard it, and if I would be asked if I agree with it, I 
would say surely no. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you know about the statement of Dimitri Z. 
Manuilslvy, one of the top Russian leaders, Communist leaders ? You 
know about him ; don't you ? 

Mr. Ingerman. The name is not familiar to me, sir. Possibly I 
don't recognize the pronunciation. 

Mr. Scherer. Maybe I have it wrong. He was one of the teachers, 
instructors in the Lenin School of Political Warfare. 

Mr. Ingerman. I am sorry. 

Mr. Scherer. You never heard of him ? 

Mr. Ingerman. To this moment. This is the first moment that I 
can recollect that I heard of him. 

Mr. Scherer. You have read the statements in your studies of 
Lenin, have you not : 

We must practice deceit, lies, every technique, device. There is no morality 
in communism. 

Mr. Ingerman. Many of these statements I am not familiar with. 
Some I have heard. 

Mr. Scherer. You have been one of the philosophers of commun- 
ism. ^ We thought perhaps if you did study the philosophy of com- 
munism, you might have run onto some of these statements of the 
leaders of communism. 

Mr. Arens. I was going to ask him about Manuilsky on political 
warfare. Do you remember when he said, in 1931 : 

War to the hilt between communism and capitalism is inevitable. Today, of 
course, we are not strong enough to attack. Our time will come in 20 or 30 
years. To win, we shall need the element of surprise. The bourgeoisie will have 
to be put to sleep, so we shall begin by launching the most si>ectacular i>eace 
movement on record. There will be electrifying overtures and unheard of con- 
cessions. The capitalist countries, stupid and decadent, will rejoice to cooperate 
in their own destruction. * * * As soon as their guard is down, we shall smash 
them with our clenched fist. 

Do you mean today is the first time you heard that statement ? 

Mr. Ingerman. Yes, sir. This is the first time I heard of that 
statement. I would like to say to the committee that my interest, the 
thing that motivated me to my association with the Communist 
Party, was only with the most meticulous interest of what was hap- 
pening at that time in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now thoroughly disgusted with the fact that 
you have been associated with the Comminiist ideology, which is 
atheistic, which is the very antithesis of Christian morality as we 
know it in this country? Aren't you disgusted that for 10 years of 



1666 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

your life you have been enmeshed in tliat operation, even though 
you feel now, innocently ? Aren't you disgusted with that ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ingerman. I am sorry, sir. I don't think that this questioning 
of my beliefs is a proper question. 

Mr. Aeens. ]\Ir. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the stail interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

I suggest we taken a 10-minute recess at this point. 

(Committee members present at the time of taking the recess: 
Representatives Willis and Scherer.) 

(Short recess.) 

(Committee members present at reconvening of session: Repre- 
sentatives Willis and Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel, call your next witness. 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. David Martin Brownstone, kindly come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID MARTIN BROWNSTONE, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Brownstone. I am David Martin Brownstone, 403 Ocean 
Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., salesman. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Brownstone, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Brownstone. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, New York. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I assured Mr. Rabinowitz that we would 
cause to be inserted here the essence of the request which he posed 
yesterday to the committee that this witness be taken in executive 
session. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. I wonder whether it would be possible to have 
the telegram put into the record and the ruling of the committee on 
the request? 

Mr. Arens. The request is that the witness be taken in executive 
session. I can read the telegram. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. ^Vliy don't you do that? 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

On behalf of Witnesses Cohen and Brownstone, I request executive session 
instead of public session. This will serve full legislative purpose and avoid 
unnecessary exposure of witnesses. 

I respectfully request, Mr. Chairman, that the request be denied. 
Mr. Willis. The request is denied. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1667 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Brownstoiie, liave you ever been known by 
any name other than the name Brownstone ? 

Mr. Brownstone. As I do not believe that this committee has the 
right nor the legishitive purpose behind it to inquire as to my beliefs 
or associations, I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used the name Frederick Jonathan 
Werner as an alias ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brownstone. I refuse on the same grounds. 

]\ii*. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Emmanuel Ross 
Richardson ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Emmanuel Ross Richardson took an oath and laid his 
liberty on the line before this committee, and if he lied to us he will 
be prosecuted for perjury. He testified that he knew you as a Com- 
munist, as a member of the Communist Party. Was he in error or 
was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I do not feel in good conscience that I can answer 
that question on the basis of the aforementioned amendments to the 
Constitution, the first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question. 

Mr. Brownstone. I decline. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Brownstone. On the basis of the first and fifth amendments to 
the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told us truth- 
fully whether or not Mr. Richardson was telling us the truth, you 
would be supplying information which might be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I believe that if I answered that question I might 
subject myself to an unjustified prosecution. 

Mr. Arens. Was ]Mr. Richardson lying when he identified you as a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I will not answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. A man by the name of Mr. John Marqusee testified 
before this committee and laid his liberty on the line, and if he is lying 
to this committee, he will be prosecuted for perjury. He said that 
while he was a member of the Communist Party, he knew you as a 
Communist. Was he telling the truth or was he in error ? 

Mr. Brownstone. In refusing, I invoke the protection of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. A man by the name of Homer Leroy Owen likewise laid 
his liberty on the line, and if he was falsifying before this committee, 
he will be prosecuted for perjury. He said that while he was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, he knew you as a Communist. Was he 
lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I will not, sir, answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a Communist now, this minute ? 

Mr. Brownstone. As I do not believe this committee has the right 
in our democracy to ask me about my beliefs or my affiliations, I refuse 



1668 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

to answer that question on the basis of the first and fifth amendments 
of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born, please, sir ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I was born August 7, 1928, in New York City. 

Mr. Arexs. And give us, if you please, sir, a word of your education- 
al background. 

Mr. Brownstone. Bachelor of arts, 1948, Cornell Law School, 1948 
through 1951. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, a brief description of your em- 
ployment after you completed your law training at Cornell. 

Mr. Brownstone. I do not choose to answer that question on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told us where 
you were employed after you concluded your training at law school 
in 1951, you would be supplying information which might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Brownstone. I am interested, sir, in shielding myself from an 
unjust prosecution. Therefore, I refuse to answer that question on 
the basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to display to you, if you please, a photo- 
static reproduction of an application for employment made by your- 
self with the Bethlehem Steel Corp. Kindly look at this application 
and see if you wouldn't help this Committee on Un-American Activ- 
ities by verifying the authenticity of that application that you 
made 

Mr. Brownstone. I beg your pardon, sir. I was conferring with 
counsel. Would you repeat that? 

Mr. Arens. Kindly look at that application, if you w^ill, sir, and tell 
us if you will not help this Committee on Un-American Activities by 
verifying the authenticity of that application for employment at the 
Bethlehem Steel Corp. here. 

( Document handed to witness. ) 

(The witness conferred wdth his counsel.) 

Mr. Brownstone. I refuse to identify or otherwise recognize this 
application form, if that is what it is, as you state, on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States. 

(Document marked "Brownstone Exhibit No. 1.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1669 



Beownstone Exhibit No. 1 



r — - 






,....yy^^. 



$ub»«BAr? Uocsji&nies of BetlUehein $te«l Ccrpor&tion 

iifnviiThtJkt. aar^ATHoss »xPAB'i'«K,N'r 

V 



-!!«?"•"" "TSSSSC- 









« CiM* *S ta»*«fg^env9 ^ 



J0 ^^■■:^,*f M / ■ 



u .. ; . - -^- 






^^ J E*,«t*4& 






.>xt><^.l.ir. 








Z. f' > 


Unttta Ift 









fir^rniU o* -■WxlcS 



v^jr^wjip t V ^ ^^ yi w ^ t ^afc^ ^ t jfc ^^ gggtto*. j^^ 



K^*i*{!>*« )n * -^i^r*'^ fn*i>i*or 



u^^ 



l&i)illB > M li> n i ifL> '*>^<»* a w »4 i m i «i 



ii , !V ■ 




'~ ( ; 

^^-^'''' 




i ' i.*» r -^ 




u-"^"^ — ~'i:' 





1670 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 



I 



l^ 



I 



%".^ 






$ 




^ 






< 






V 






'^ 


i 


'^- 




' 






' 


^C 






V, 




i 

2 


X 




t 


«i 


^ 



I I 



II 






ih 






! I 



I I I 



u;- 



i 




COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1671 

Mr. Arens. You did not tell them in the application that you had 
a college education and a law school education, did you ? 

Mr. Brownstone. Pardon me, sir. Is that a question or a state- 
ment ? 

Mr. Akens. Yes, that is a question. 

Mr. Brownstone. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens You have not broken from the Communist Party like 
the man who preceded you on the witness stand, have you? 

Mr. Brownstone. Sir, there are many questions which one might 
like to answer but one's convictions preclude one from cooperating to 
that extent with this committee, as I do not believe the committee has 
the right in our democracy to ask me that question. Therefore 

Mr. Willis. Is that the basis of your refusal ? 

Mr. Brownstone. Therefore, I refuse on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments to answer that. 

Mr. Wn.Lis. Your cute little speech there addressed itself to the 
first amendment, but you wind up by invoking the privilege of the 
fifth amendment. The only right to invoke the privilege of the fifth 
amendment is that you have an honest fear that if you would answer 
a question you would subject yourself to criminal proceedings. Do 
you have that honest fear 

Mr. Brownstone. Sir 

Mr. Willis. Aside from your dislike for this committee? 

Mr. Brownstone. Sir, I am interested in shielding myself against 
an unjust prosecution. Therefore, I invoke both the first and fifth 
amendments to the Constitution in answer to that question. 

Mr. Willis. Three witnesses who did not feel like you about it, 
and who felt an obligation truthfully to answer questions, answered 
imder oath, subjecting themselves to the pains and penalties of per- 
jury if they were not telling the truth, and said that you were a Com- 
munist. What are you talking about unjust prosecution if three wit- 
nesses swear that you were a Communist? If you want to invoke the 
privilege of the fifth amendment, don't give us the usual act of being 
cute around here. Are you invoking the protection of the fifth amend- 
ment because you feel that to honestly answer the questions might 
subject you to criminal proceedings? 

Mr. Brow^nstone. I am answering under the first and fifth amend- 
ments of the Constitution. In relation to the fifth amendment, I am 
attempting to shield myself against an unjust prosecution. 

Mr. Arens. Would the prosecution of yourself as a Communist be 
unjust? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. You found yourself a good word now. 

Mr. Brownstone. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Willis. You found yourself a good word, that unjust prosecu- 
tion. Give us an answer to that last question. 

Mr. Brownstone. The last question will be answered in this way. 
1 refuse to answer that question on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of a foreign controlled organi- 
zation which has as an objective the overthrow of the Government of 

97795— 57— pt. 1 6 



1672 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

ilie United States and the destruction of the Constitution of the 
United States ? 

Mr. Brownstone. Sir, would you be more specific 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respecfully suggest that the witness 
be directed and ordered to answer tliat question forthwith. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Brownstone. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Although you are today appearing under the name of 
David Martin Brownstone, on this application which you submitted 
to the Bethlehem Steel Corp., we see it is made out under the name of 
Frederick Jonathan Werner. Kindly look at that application again 
and tell us whether or not you used the name of Frederick Jonathan 
Werner, although your true name is David Martin Brownstone? 

Mr. Broavnstone. I will not answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly fear, sir, that if you told us whether 
or not, when you made your application for Bethlehem employment, 
you used the name "Werner, Frederick Jonathan,-' you would be 
supplying information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I very honestly feel that I might be subject to an 
unjust prosecution as a result of answering that. 

Mr. Arens. Would the prosecution be unjust ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you used various social-security numbers in the 
course of your life ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I refuse to answer, sir, on the same grounds, the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you falsified social-security applications? 

Mr. Brownstone. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you taken out social-security applications in a 
name or names other tlian your true name ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I must again refuse to answer that question on 
the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Are you a member of the bar ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Scherer. Are you a lawyer admitted to practice? 

Mr. Brownstone. I am not a member of the bar. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you finish your law school education ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever lived at 213 Jay Street in Rochester? 

Mr. Brow^nstone. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Has any member of your family, to your knowledge, 
used a false name ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brownstone. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, I put it to you as a fact that you were sent 
into Buffalo by the Communist Party from Brooklyn for the purpose 
of being a colonizer in the industries in this area. 

Mr. Brownstone. Sir, are you putting that to me as a question? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1673 

Mr. Brownstone. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the 
same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER, Tliat is the reason you used a fraudulent name and 
misrepresented your educational attainments in that application 
which Mr. Arens showed you, isn't that right ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brownstone. Pardon me. Would you mind repeating this 
question, the last section of it ? 

Mr. SciiERER. I say isn't that the reason, namely, that you came 
here as a colonizer for the Communist Party, that you falsified or used 
a fraudulent or fictitious name when you made application for em- 
ployment in this area. 

Mr. Brownstone. I will not answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you presently employed ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brownstone, Commerce Clearing House. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Brownstone. One and one-half months. 

Mr. Arens. Where is that establishment located ? 

Mr. Brownstone. New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your employment immediately prior to your 
employment with the Commerce Clearing House? 

Mr. Brownstone. I worked as a laborer. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere? 

Mr. Brownstone. Besburns, Inc., or & Co., I don't know which. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mr. Brownstone. 11th Avenue and 43d Street, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. And how long ? 

Mr. Brownstone. To the best of my recollection, from November 
until a month and a half ago. That would be the middle of August. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment prior to that time ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I do not choose to answer that question on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment prior to the time of this era 
of darkness that you can't tell us about ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I was a student. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been engaged in any employment since you 
concluded your studies until the employment which you told us about 
a few moments ago, concerning which you can tell us without reveal- 
ing information that could be used against you in a criminal prose- 
cution ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. In other words, is there any nonsensitive employment 
that you have been engaged in since you left school up until the time 
you can tell us about it ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us in what cities you have lived since you 
concluded your formal education. 

Mr. Brownstone. I decline to answer that question on the basis 
of the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution. 



1674 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. What was the pending question ? 

Mr. Arens. "What cities he has lived m since he got out of school. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brownstone. I am now living in New York City. Otherwise, 
I decline to answer that question on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, so that the record may be absolutely 
clear, I respectfully suggest that the witness be now ordered and di- 
rected to tell this committee while he is under oath the cities in which 
he has lived since he concluded his formal education at Dartmouth. 

Mr. Brownstone. Cornell. 

Mr. Willis. You are ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Brownstone. I decline on the basis of the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you lived in Buffalo ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brownstone. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you lived in Schenectady ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brownstone. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. You have not lived in Schenectady, have you? 

Mr. Brownstone. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you lived in Kansas City ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question, and I say for the 
record, on the basis of our staff investigation, this witness has never 
lived in Kansas City, Mo, It is obvious that he is invoking the Con- 
stitution of the United States and the sacred rights contained therein 
facetiously. I respectfully suggest that the witness now be ordered 
to answer the question, to show his good faith, of whether or not he 
ever lived in Kansas City, Mo. 

Mr. Willis. You are ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Brownstone. I wish to consult counsel. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brownstone. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments, and further state that if staff investi- 
gation discloses that I never did live in Kansas City, then the ques- 
tion can have no valid legislative purpose. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. I made it clear that 
the purpose of the question was to test his good faith in the invocation 
of the sacred rights of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Willis. You are ordered and directed to answer the question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. T., AREA 1675 

Mr. Brownstone. I must decline on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Brownstone. Brooklyn — New York City. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you were in the armed services of the United States? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brownstone. I was never in the armed services of the United 
States. 

Mr. Scherer. Why did you say on your application for employment 
with the Bethlehem Steel Corp. that you were in the armed services 
of the United States? 

Mr. Brownstone. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. I think you are properly invoking the fifth amend- 
ment because that certainly would incriminate you for misrepresenting 
service in the Armed Forces of the United States. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact, Witness, that on tliis application you 
even give dates for when you were in the Army ? That is, during the 
period you claim you were in the Army. When you filed this applica- 
tion, you were employed in the business which you have just refused 
to tell us about. Isn't that right ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. Where were you between June 1945 and September 
1946, when you say you were discharged from the Army? Where 
were you? 

Mr. Brownstone. Between June 1945 and September 1946 ; is that 
the question? 

Mr. Scherer. That is the question ; yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brownstone. I was a student. 

Mr. Scherer. Then I am going to ask you why you said on this 
application, "Entered military service. How entered? Drafted. 
Date. June" — I can't read the day in June "June 1945. Rank. Pri- 
vate, first class. Branch of service" and it looks like the Army. 
"Left military service. How left. Discharged. Date. September 
1946." 

Why did you put that in your application ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I wish to point out, sir, that I have never identi- 
fied myself with that application before this committee, and that I 
refuse to answer your question on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. You say you have never identified this application. 
Do you deny that you made this application ? 

Mr. Brownstone. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

^ Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that if and when this witness 
signs a voucher for his witness fee in this case, that the voucher be 



1676 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

made a part of the record for comparison of signatures and hand- 
writing. 

Mr. Willis. Very well. The witness is excused. 

(Document marked "Brownstone Exhibit No. 2," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Gilbert Cohen. 

Mr. Willis. Eaise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear that 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Cohen. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF GILBERT COHEN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VICTOR RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Cohen. Gilbert Cohen, 135 Johnson Avenue, Newark, N. J., 
clerk. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Cohen, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Cohen. I am. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Cohen. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, New York. 

May the record show that the telegram that referred to the pre- 
vious witness was sent also in connection with this. I assume the rul- 
ing will be the same ? 

Mr. Willis. The ruling will be the same. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Cohen, you have a prepared statement of some kind 
there before you ? 

Mr. Cohen. I do not. They are merely notes. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Cohen. January 2, 1929, in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. And give us, if you please, sir, a word of your education. 

Mr. Cohen. Well, I have attended these sessions for the past couple 
of days, and I am of the conviction that questions pertaining to past 
education can only lead to an inquiry into my beliefs and associations. 
Therefore, I refuse to answer that question on the following grounds. 
First, because it affects my freedom of speech and association under the 
first amendment. Second 

Mr. Arens. Your pursuit of education has not been interfered with 
by this committee in any way, has it ? 

Mr. Cohen. As I stated, the purpose of asking me a question about 
my education on the basis of what I have observed here yesterday in 
the questioning of the witness Turoff and — I can't remember the names 
of the other witnesses — this line of questioning can only lead to one 
purpose, which is the purpose of this committee, and that is to investi- 
gate my beliefs and associations. Therefore, if I may be allowed to 
state my grounds for not answering that question, I would like to pro- 
ceed. I refuse to answer the question on the following grounds : 



COMMUNIST ACnVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1677 

First, because it affects my freedom of speech and association under 
the first amendment. Second, tlie resohition creating this committee 
is too vague. Third, this inquiry is outside the committee's jurisdic- 
tion. Fourth, the question is not pertinent to any subject within the 
committee's jurisdiction. Fifth, that Congress did not delegate to 
this committee the authority it claims. Sixth, my rights under the 
due-process clause are violated. Seventh, that this investigation in- 
volves exposure for the sake of exposure. Eighth, I believe that all 
this is discussed in the Watkins decision, and finally, I believe that, as 
Judge Frankfurter said in the Sweezy case, this kind of investigation 
is injurious to American democracy and I believe that it is my duty 
to do what I can to resist. 

INIr. Arens. You are reading from a prepared document there; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Cohen. These are notes which I took to answer your questions. 
I am no lawyer. I cannot pull these answers out of the sky. I re- 
quired preparation with counsel. 

Mr. Aeens. You asserted there something at the last about a duty 
you had. I take it that duty stems from some moral compulsion ; is 
that correct? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Cohen. I believe that it is my obligation to resist 

Mr. Arens. I don't want to pursue your beliefs. I just want to find 
out whether or not this duty that you are speaking of is a moral com- 
pulsion that you have, some patriotic moral compulsion that causes 
you to assert a duty before this committee. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cohen. I feel it is my duty to resist. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any feeling of duty to give information to 
the United States Congress respecting a Communist conspiracy which 
may be operating in this country ? Do you have any duty along that 
line that looms up in your conscience? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. CoiiEN. Not to this committee which the Supreme Court has 
said is illegally constituted. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any duty you feel toward the FBI to tell 
them anything you might know about the Communist conspiracy ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Cohen. I don't think I am under any obligation to talk to the 
FBI. 

Mr. Arens. You do not feel any duty to either ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Cohen. That is just what I said in different words. 

Mr. Arens. You have declined to tell us about your education. We 
will come back to that in a moment. Tell us where you have lived in 
the course of your life. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cohen. Again, I believe that this line of inquiry can only lead 
to the same thing, namely, an investigation into my — on the basis of 
what I have seen here yesterday and today, and on the basis of, I 
suppose, the history of this committee, that it can only lead, as I said 
before, in relation to the question about my education, that it can 
only lead to an inquiry, an interrogation, what have you, a probing, 
into my beliefs and associations. 



1678 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. No, no. We do not want to get into your beliefs at all. 

Mr. Cohen. I believe that you do, and that this is the purpose of 
this committee. I have already stated my reasons for not answering 
the questions. If 3^ou wish me to go through it again, I shall. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever lived in Buffalo ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cohen. I refuse for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to display to you a few documents here 
and see if you can help this Committee on Un-American Activities 
which is undertaking to develop facts on which legislation might be 
evolved to protect you and others of this country who have the protec- 
tion of the flag of the United States against this awful thing called 
communism. 

First of all, we would like to display to you, if you please, on this 
matter of education, a transcript which we received from Queens 
College, in Flushing, N. Y., of one Gilbert Cohen's educational attain- 
ments there. 

Mr. Williams, kindly display that document to the witness and see if 
he feels any sense of duty to tell us whether or not the registrar of that 
college was lying when he told us that he had all of those educational 
attainments at Queens College. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Cohen. I decline to answ^er for the reasons already stated. 
If you wish me to state them again, I shall state them again. 

(Document marked "Gilbert Cohen Exhibit No. 1.") 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1679 



Gilbert Cohen Exhibit No. 1 
TuANsciiTPT Fuoji Queens College, Indicating Receipt of BA Degree 



1680 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. No. We will not burden the record again with that. 

"We should like to display to you, if you please, sir, an application 
for employment at the Bethlehem Steel Corp. made by Gilbert Cohen, 
in which application Gilbert Cohen not only fails to list his educa- 
tional attainments as revealed here from Queens College, but the 
interviewer writes "Applicant states he had no college." 

Look at that application and see if you can't help us now, please. 
See if you feel a sense of duty to help this committee and say whether 
or not that is a true and correct reproduction of your application for 
employment here. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Cohen. As I have stated before, in my opinion any question 
is 

Mr. Arens. We don't want to probe your opinion at all. 

Mr. Cohen. No. 

Mr. Arens. Just tell us whether or not that is a true and correct 
representation of your application. 

Mr. Cohen. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds 
as before ; namely, that any inquiry as to the nature of my past work 
record or where I have worked, considering that I observed where 
these questions have led to, yesterday and today, with other witnesses, 
that such questions can only lead to an investigation, a probing, an 
exposure of my beliefs and associations. Therefore I refuse to answer 
that question on the following grounds 

(Document marked "Gilbert Cohen Exhibit No. 2.") 



COMMUXIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1681 



Gilbert Cohen Exhibit No. 2 
Application fopw Employment Dated May 26, 1952 



GA 



SUBSIDIaIy COMPANifS OF KTHEtHM STEEL COtPORATION 



awk 



FEB lb 1956 







>«4» c«..i » l n .< 






2^7 

~ Vow L»>l rodtiM 






•<fL ^t^r . ^orr^^^ 



^Yf^f/ KS. 




1SS=" 



^ j ^A"& 






Wmt CUmmT 



/;f^ 






n Aad»»tion froM IUae»*» St*t»M 



Cr«4*or Rank 






Crad* or lUnk 



Crad««#_R«Kk 



1 »a»fell*« S^rric^ ri«— l&aad. 



^ ^f= 



PjL: ct—lftc«UoB <«p<W 



Nun* 


lUUUomklp 


D^t. »n«, »W. 


▼— -•--■ 


: 








1 












































*f"r.. 



Oi — mn 



H y T sci^ff fcgt. 



^^^^ r "JfrieA^sU. 



^ 



\ ph>irf/f5 



^\A=rHk^ 



TVU^^f^ ^/: 



;i»k><f ^ .^^^iW 



f/rey ytgjgg- 



w^tcr^msr 



1682 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 




iiiJi 



I s 








'K 


I J 




. ^ 




l^ ^ 


'4i 








t 


^ 


f 


> 




- 1 > 


-s 




f ' ' 






^1^ 


•< 




* fc 


} 


'^ 


J. I 




^ 


■k> M 




^ 


"f 




. ^ 


ij- 




E 


]k 




t 






•iJ. 




^ 


n\ 




1 





COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1683 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, it will lead to an exposure of you being a 
colonizer for the Communist Party in this area. It has nothing to 
do with your beliefs. That is what this evidence indicates, that you 
were sent here by the Communist Party, that you have made a fraudu- 
lent application for the purpose of getting a menial job so you could 
promote the Communist Party line in the industries in this area. 
That is what we are asking about. 

Mr. Cohen. Is that a question ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you concluded your reasons for declination? I 
want to be certain whether or not you are invoking the privilege of 
the fifth amendment against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Willis. That is the exact question I was about to ask. I do 
not think he did up to now. 

Mr. Cohen. I would like to clear up your uncertainty, Mr. Di- 
rector. That is, that I am not claiming the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to whether or not 
that document which is displayed to him is a true and correct repro- 
duction of an application which he made for employment at the 
Bethlehem Steel Corp. I say to him now the pertinency of the query is 
this : that we have information, abundant information, on this record, 
respecting a practice of Communists, those under Communist disci- 
pline, of high educational attainment, coming into this area, being 
sent here as colonizers for the Communist Party, secreting and failing 
to disclose their educational attainments — all for the purpose of 
undermining this great Republic. 

Kindly answer the question. 

Mr. Cohen. Again, I refuse to answer on the grounds already 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the record now show an 
order. 

Mr. Willis. I oi-der and direct you to answer the pending question. 

Mr. Cohen. Well, I state again that I refuse to answer the question 
on those grounds. 

Mr. Willis. Let the record show, make it abundantly clear, that if 
I understand you correctly, the witness has not, and is not now, in- 
voking the protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Of the self-incrimination clause of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. What other part ? 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Due process. He already referred to the due 
process clause which is also in the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Cohen. I am not invoking 

Mr. Arens. You are not invoking the fifth amendment against 
self-incrimination; is that correct? 

Mr. Cohen. That is correct. 

IVIr, Arens. Now, sir, you refused to tell us your educational at- 
tainments and you refused to tell us where you have lived. Would 
you tell us where you have been employed since you completed your 
formal education? 



1684 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Cohen. I think I stated before, and my memory is not the 
best, I believe I answered that question in saying that any inquiry 
leading along these lines, on the basis of what 1 have seen here yester- 
day and today, can only lead to an investigation of my beliefs and 
associations, and therefore I refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds already stated. If the committee wishes to hear the grounds 
again, I will so state them. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Cohen. I am not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cohen. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds already 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party any time 
in the course of the last year ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cohen. I was not a member of the Communist Party at the 
time that I was served with the subpena and any time since, and T 
decline to answer 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party the day 
before you were served with a subpena to appear here? 

Mr. Cohen. Pardon ? I didn't catch the question. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party the day 
before you received your subpena to appear before this committee? 

Mr. Cohen. I decline on the grounds stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you resign technical membership in the Com- 
munist Party so that you could proclaim to the world in a public 
hearing that you were not a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred Avith his counsel.) 

Mr. Cohen. I have not resigned for the purpose of testifying at 
this hearing. 

Mr. Scherer. Why did you resign ? You said you had not resigned 
for the purpose of testifying at this hearing. 

Mr. Cohen. I decline to answer that question on grounds already 
stated, 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Communist Party discipline ? 

Mr. Cohen. I am not. 

Mr. Arens. Did j^ou know or learn of the proposed hearing here in 
Buffalo by the Committee on Un-American Activities prior to Sep- 
tember 24, 1957, the time you were served with your subpena to appear ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Cohen. I had heard that there was going to be an investiga- 
tion, but did not know that I was going to be served. 

Mr. Arens. And you knew that, prior to the time that you were 
served with your subpena '( 

Mr. Cohen. I did. 

Mr. Arens. AVere you a member of the Communist Party on Sep- 
tember 24, the day on which you were served with a subpena to ap- 
pear before this committee? 

Mr. Cohen. I was not. 

Mr. Arens. And were you a member of the Communist Party on 
September 23, the day before you were served with your subpena? 

Mr. Cohen. I was not. 



COMMUNIST ACOTVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1685 

Mr. Arens. Were you a nieniber of the Communist Party at any 
time during the month of September? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. That is, 1957. 

Mr. Cohen. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you learned that this committee proposed to have hearings in 
Butfalo,N. Y.? 

Mr. Cohen. I was not. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

JNIr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

]Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will 
be Mr. James Annaccone. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. You do solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Annaccone. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES ANNACCONE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

CARL GREEN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Annaccone. James Annaccone, 306 Myrtle xi venue. What do 
you mean, occupation? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question as to his occupation. 

Mr. Annaccone. I just want a point of clarification. What I was 
educated for or what I am doing now ? 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the witness now be ordered 
and directed to answer the question as to what is his occupation. 

Mr, Willis. You are ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Annaccone. I work at Westinghouse Electric. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Annaccone, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Annaccone. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Annaccone. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Green. Carl Green, 35 Court Street, Bufi'alo. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Annaccone, are you a Communist ? 

Mr. Annaccone. No, I am not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a Communist ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. I decline to answer the question on the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist any time in the course of the 
last year ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. I decline to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 



1686 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist any time in the course of the 
last 6 months ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. I decline to answer, the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist any time in the last 3 months ? 

Mr. Annaccone. I decline 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. On the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist any time in the course of the 
last month ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. I decline on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist any time in the course of the 
last 2 weeks ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. No ; I was not. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist any time in the course of the 
last 3 weeks ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. I decline on the basis of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist any time in the course of the 
period of time intervening since you were served with a subpena to 
appear before this committee? 

(The witness conferred v/ith his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. No ; I was not. 

Mr. Arens. Were j^ou a Communist any time in the course of that 
period of time when you knew the committee was contemplating hear- 
ings here in Buffalo ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. No ; I am not. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you a photostatic copy of an 
Affidavit of Non-Communist Union Officer signed by James Annac- 
cone, treasurer. This is dated, subscribed, and sworn to, January 31, 
1950. Kindly look at that affidavit and tell this committee whether 
or not that is a true and correct reproduction of an affidavit by yourself 
under the Taft-Hartley Act. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. I decline to ansAver that under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

(Document marked "Annaccone Exhibit No. 1.") 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1687 



Annacconb Exhibit No. 1 

r*ria NUIB-IMI 

(6-4t) 

UNITED STATIS OF AMERICA 
NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD 

AFFIDAVIT OF NONCOMMUNIST UNION OFFICER 

(S«a liutrwdleni mi r«*«fM)^ 

The Undersigned, being duly sworn, deposes and says: 

1. I am a responsible officer of the union named below. 

2. I am not a member of the Communist Party or affiliated with such party. 

3. I do not believe in, and I am not a member of nor do I support any organization that beiieves in 
or teaches, the overthrow of the United States Government by force or by any illegal or uncon- 
stitutional methods. 

■JjLliteii. r.1 PPtT-i rral , — Harlin •/ Maf'Sinn i.r>rlfor-g nf Kjn^y^ na (I'V.) I- ffT^ ^I 3?^ 

(Full Him* of union, luludlni loal namo •lul nunbor) 

Jniteij aleetri cal. Radio U Mac nine "o rkers of America, (U£ ) 

(Full nmm« oi national or inUrnatlonal unloB of which It la an affltlaU or eooatltuont unit) 

Signature >]-<^'>-»<Xt' LX-*'%-'*^^A^».^ .^*^ 

, yaines innaccone, Treas'j*er 



Address 3''>6. Myrtle Avenue 

<Stiw<) 

Buffa lo, New ^ork 

(Clt7 aad SUia) 
CDia Mtwy public or otkci piiisn au<lioiii«4 by lov (o •Jminiitar o«4Ki null* Kit ia conpUfcly all bloak ipectl b<lair.) 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this ... Jisl-... day of _ .^anuaciL- 19S.Q._ 

A notary public or other person authorized by law to administer oaths and take acknowledgments in and 

for the county of , State of i'g»?...i.ork _ _ 

My commi.-;sioii L'Xpiruj l'\' ,"1/5Q 

_ r:^-^5^ .<^^-^^u^ 

(SIGNAfiiRE) 

^o-TTi. or ^aeds' Oity.of '^'uffalo 

[SEAL] 



WARNING. — The attention of persons filing this form with the Board is directed to Section 35 (A) of the criminal code, 
which piovidi-a that any person willfully making or causing to be made any false or fraudulent utatementa or representationa 
in any matter within the jurisdiction of the Board shall b« fined not more than {10,000 or imprisoned not more than 10 
years, or both. 



97795— 57— pt. 1 7 



1688 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. That is your signature, is it not ? 

Mr. Annaccone. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. This affidavit says a man takes an oath here, James 
Annaccone, treasurer. He says, "I am not a member of the Com- 
munist Party or affiliated with such party," and "I do not believe in, 
and I am not a member of nor do I support any organization that be- 
lieves in or teaches, the overtlirow of the United States Government 
by force or by any illegal or unconstitutional methods." That is 
sworn to by James Annaccone. Did you swear falsely when you 
signed this affidavit ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. I decline to answer under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that if, as, and 
when this witness signs his voucher for reimbursement of his witness 
fee, that that part of the voucher bearing his signature be incorporated 
in the body of this record for the purpose of comparison of signatures. 

Mr. Willis. That procedure will be followed.^ 

Mr. Arens. I have still another document I would like to display 
to you. It is another non-Communist affidavit of a union officer. This 
one is signed August of 1957, this year. "I am not a member of the 
Communist Party or affiliated with such party." Signed "James 
Annaccone, Chief Steward" of the International Union of Electrical, 
Radio and Machine Workers, Local 315. And that is sworn to, like- 
wise. Kindly look at that affidavit and tell this committee while you 
are under oath whether you lied pursuant to the provisions of that 
affidavit which you signed. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. I decline to answer that under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

(Document marked "Annaccone Exhibit No. 2.") 

* Voucher not received at time of printing of testimony. 



COMMUNIST ACnVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1689 



Annaccone Exhibit No. 2 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD 

AFFIDAVIT OF NONCOMMUNIST UNION OFFICER 

<S»imH llmth nPY •*')'■ Bthn tamphHmt, rmaJ tif /mfnicMoM en ttt» kati.) 

The undersigned, being duly sworn, deposes and says: 

1. I am a responsible officer of the Union named below. 

2. I am not a member of the Ck>nununist Party or afiUiated with such party. 

8. I do not believe in, and 1 am not a member of nor do I support any organization that believes in or 
teaches, the overthrow of the United States Government by force or by any illegal or unconstitutional 
methods. 

Internatipnal.ynion qf Jilec 

(PBII nmme of Union. Ineludlni loe«l number If (nr) 

International Union of Slectricai,uadio^ 

(Full nam* of national or InUmatlonal union of whtefa this Union U an affillaU or eomtltucnt unit) 

Americ an Federation of Labo r-Congress of Industrial ^^0^^^^ 

(Han* of national federation of which thla Union, or lu national or InUmatlonal, le an afHllaU or eonetltuent unit) 

Signature ...~::pflt-?*A4«<«K '^:rfr^i..t,,,,.u^udf,-rtitir<::df:hi. 

■ ■' • ■ y^L 

Title of oflSite ...(L^:A.<Jf^L../.\^.^f,.<t,;i^^ 
Residence ...■Ji.^..yt...j/^<^*<LA. :^:^ 

(Mmlnt aail ■treat) 



\rjmMBomg ana euvaif # 

.iinv^:4^SS....± /L.1/... 

/ / (Cltj %a4 8UU) ^ 



(Til* notary public or other person outkofiicd by low fo sdminittcr ootht mutt fill in completely oil blank ipocct below.) 



Subscribed and sworn to before me this ../^. day of .L*:^^i^f^*4Ji' _ 19»^ 

A notary public or other person authorized by law to administer oaths and take acknowledgments in and 

for the county of Jj-*r<:<_ _ , State of 

My conunission expires j!n/*!tsAj...-.Si}^..t4^2'j^ — 

S4*^?^- L<^^ ■::/ \: 



[SEAL] 



^ 



WARNING. — The mttention of persona filine this form with the Board is directed to U. S. Code, Title 18, Sec. 1001 (formerly 
Sec. 80), which provides that any person willfully making or causing to be made any false or fraudulent statements or repre- 
aenUtions in any matter within the jurisdiction of the Board shall be fined not mors than tlQ.OOO or imprisoned not more than 
5 years, or both. 



1690 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE USE OF THIS FORM 



WHO MUST FILE This affidavit must be filed by each officer of a labor organization that wishes to 

use the facilities of the National Labor Relations Board. An affidavit must be on file for each officer 
. listed in your constitution and bylaws. Where an officer holds more than one office, a separate affidavit 
for each office must be filed by him. 

WHERE TO FILE.— NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATIONS must file this 
affidavit with the Affidavit Compliance Branch, National Labor Relations Board, Washington 25, D. C. 

L(OCAL LABOR ORGANIZATIONS must file this affidavit with the Regional Office of the National 
Labor Relations Board with which they usually file cases. 

WHEN TO FILE. — This affidavit is good for only one year from the time it is signed and must be renewed 
each year. Each time a new officer assumes office, whether elected or appointed, he must file this 
affidavit. If an officer is reelected or reappointed, it is not necessary to file a new affidavit unless or 
• until the affidavit on file with the National Labor Relations Board is one year old. 

HOW TO PREPARE THIS AFFIDAVIT: 

a. Read carefully items 1, 2, and 3 of this affidavit. 

b. Fill in the full name of your labor organization, including the local number if any. 

c Give the full name of the national or international union with which your organization i» 
affiliated. If none, check the box. 

d. Enter the national federation, such as AFL-CIO, Confederated Unions of America, National 
Independent Union Council, etc., with which your organization directly, or its national or 
international, is affiliated. If none, check the box. Do not list State or local federations. 

Example : 

Plastic, Button and Novelty Workers Union, Local 506 

(Full nAm« of Union, Inciudinir local number If any) 

t _. International Ladles Garment Workers Union If none, check Q 

Vruli'nuMoV national' or VnuraaVioWal'unio^^ 

; AJ?L-CIO If none, cheek a 

* (NMMof natlonal'VadaraUon'of which ihia UiiionVor iu nationaVorinteraatiouiriVan afflYlata orcenJUUMBt imK) 

e. The officer must sign his name in the presence of a notary or other person authorized by law 
to administer oaths. 

f . The officer must give his title of office and full home address, including number, street, city 
^i«nd SUte. 



COMMUNIST ACnVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N". Y., AREA 1691 

Mr. ScHERER. What was the date of that last affidavit ? 

Mr. Arens. It is the 14th day of August 1957. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member of the party, Witness, on August 
14,1957? 

Mr, Annaccone. I decline to answer that under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr, Arens. Have you occupied the post of chief steward of Local 
315, lUE? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Annaccone. Pardon ? 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Annaccone. What was the question ? 

Mr. Arens. The question is were you chief steward of Local 315, 
lUE? 

Mr. Annaccone. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. While you were chief steward of the local of lUE, 
were you responsive to the will of the Communist conspiracy as a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Annaccone. I decline to answer under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been identified, or been a member of, the 
ALP, the American Labor Party here, too ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Annaccone. I decline to answer under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information at the present time respect- 
ing persons who are known by you to a certainty to be members of 
the Communist Party here in the Buffalo area? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Annaccone. I decline to answer that under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness, but I suggest respect- 
fully that this subcommittee make a recommendation to the full 
committee that his case be referred to the Department of Justice for 
consideration and recommendation by the Department of Justice for 
criminal prosecution for violation of section 9 (h) of the Taft- 
Hartley Act. 

Mr. Willis. That course will be followed. 

The witness is excused. 

(Committee members present : Representatives Willis and Scherer.) 

Mr, Arens, The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Julian Chazin. 

Mr. Willis, Haise your right hand. You do solemnly swear that 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Chazin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JULIAN CHAZIN, ACCOMPANIED EY COUNSEL, 
MARTIN E. BRADLEY, JR. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

97795 — 57— pt. 1 8 



1692 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. CiiAziN. My name is Julian Chazin. I own my own home at 
139 Point Street, Lackawanna, and I work for the Bethlehem Steel 
Co. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena wdiich 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Chazin. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

JMr. Chazin. I am. 

Mr. Bradley. I am Martin R. Bradley, Jr. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chazin, are you now, or have j^ou ever been, a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Chazin, I would like to invoke my privilege under the first 
and fifth amendments, in that my associations and my rights under 
the first amendment are not the fit subject of this committee, and, 
under the fifth amendment, the due-process clause. 

Mr. Arens. Are you this minute a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Chazin. My answ^er is the same. 

Mr. Willis. Let me get that straight. You are only invoking the 
due-process clause of the fifth amendment, and not that portion which 
protects you against self-incrimination? That is what you said. I 
want to get the record straight. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Chazin. I am claiming both, that is, the due-process clause and 
the part which protects me from self-incriminating myself. 

Mr. Arens. How^ long have you been employed at Bethlehem Steel ? 

Mr. Chazin. Five and a half years. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, just a description of the employ- 
ment you have had, a Avord about it. 

Mr. Chazin. Well, I have held various jobs there, from the class of 
labor, I guess, up to the class of operator, machine operator. 

Mr. Arens. Did you start in as a laborer ? 

Mr. Chazin. That is right. That is necessary for all employees 
starting in. 

Mr. Arens. Please give us a word about your education. 

Mr. Chazin. Well, I graduated from public school, high school, and 
I received a bachelor of science degree in social science from the 
College of the City of New York, with a major in social work. I 
would like to point out — I am sorry 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your formal education? 

Mr. Willis. He was about to point out something. You were about 
to say something? 

Mr. Chazin. Well, I guess when the time comes, it will occur. 

Mr. Arens. In your application for employment at the Bethlehem 
Steel Corp., did you tell them about your college education? 

Mr. Chazin. No, I did not, and I would like to state the reason 
why. 

Mr. Arens. Please do. 

Mr. Chazin. Yes. Fii-st of all, I would like to say that during my 
years of employment, I have known several employees at Bethlehem 
Steel who were college graduates, and who found themselves in the 
same position as I did when I graduated college. That is, that their 



COMMUiSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1693 

college training did not prepare tliem sufficiently enough for work in 
the field which they prepared. For example, I majored in social 
work, but it was necessary to receive a masters's degree in social work 
in order to work in the field. Therefore, having a family and a child 
and family at the time, it was necessary for me to go to work. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
went to work there ? 

Mr. Chazin. Well, my answer to that question is the same as be- 
fore, that is, I invoke my privileges under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Was your employment at Bethlehem suggested to you, 
or counseled with you, by any person or persons known by you to 
be Communists ? 

Mr. Chazin. No. 

Mr. Arens. What groups have you belonged to here? I am not 
speaking now of the Communist Party, What groups have you 
belonged to here in the course of the last few years, the last year or 
two? 

Mr. Chazin. .Well, I belong to the First Ward Democratic Club. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held an office there ? 

Mr. Chazin. I am a secretary to the First Ward Democratic Club. 

Mr. Arens. That is a political club ; is it not? 

Mr. Chazin. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. As of the time you were secretary of this First Ward 
Democratic Club were you simultaneously a member of the Commmiist 
conspiratorial api^aratus? 

Mr. Chazin. My answer is the same. I refuse to answer that 
on the bas!6 of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will 
be Mr. Gerald Thorner. 

Mr. Willis. Kindly raise you right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you ai'e about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Thorner. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF GERALD THORNER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ROBERT B. FLEMING 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Thorner. My name is Gerald Thorner. I live at 165 Norman 
Street, Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. Please keep your voice up, Mr. Thorner. 

Mr. Thorner. And I work for Bethlehem Steel. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Thorner. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Thorner. Yes, sir. 



1694 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Fleming. Robert B. Fleming, of Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, Mr. Thorner, of your education. 

Mr. Thorner. I attended high school and college. 

Mr. Arens. What college did you attend ? 

Mr. Thorner. Queens College. 

Mr. Arens. And did you graduate ? 

Mr. Thorner. I did. 

Mr. Arens. When did you graduate from Queens College ? 

Mr. Thorner. I believe it was 1946. 

Mr. Arens. And what was your first employment after you grad- 
uated from Queens College ? 

Mr. Thorner. I believe I worked for Pan-American World Air- 
ways. 

Mr. Arens. How long ? 

Mr. Thorner. Nine months to a year. I am not quite sure. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere was that ? 

Mr. Thorner. LaGuardia Airport. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next employment ? 

Mr. Thorner. I w^orked for the New York City Welfare Depart- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. Thorner. I am not too sure. I think it was approximately 
2 or 3 3^ears. 

Mr. Arens. And then your next employment ? 

Mr. Thorner. I worked for the New York City Housing Authority. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. Thorner. Approximately 2 years. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Thorner. I also was in the United States Army during part of 
this. 

Mr. Arens. "\^nien did the United States Army service intervene ? 

Mr. Thorner. That was 1942 to 1946. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment after you came out of the 
Army? 

Mr. Thorner. Well, that is when I went back to Queens College. 
I was discharged in April of 1946, and I returned for a short few 
months to complete my education. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us, if you please, sir, the employment in 
which you engaged after you completed your employment at the Hous- 
ing Authority in New York City. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Thorner. I worked for Pratt & Letchworth here in Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. How long ? 

Mr. Thorner. About 3 or 4 months. 

Mr. Arens. And then your next employment? 

Mr. Thorner. Bethlehem Steel. 

Mr. Arens. Have you b-een continuously employed at Bethlehem 
Steel ever since ? 

Mr, Thorner. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make application for employment on a formal 
application form? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Thorner. I must decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1695 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you now the application form 
of the Bethlehem Steel Corp., which is in the possession of this com- 
mittee, in which you made application for employment and listed your 
educational attainments as high school. Kindly look at tliat applica- 
tion form and tell us whether or not that is a true and correct repro- 
duction of the application form filed by yourself for employment at 
Bethlehem. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Thorner. Would you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell this committee whether or not that is a true 
and correct reproduction of the application filed by yourself for em- 
ployment at Bethlehem. 

Mr. Thorner. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Gerald Thorner Exhbit No. 1.") 



1696 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 



Gerald Thorner Exhibit No. 1 



il774ft l3.a-BSCo 



BC 



TH0:?:JER GERALD M 



'.-UttlifT h>^^^tJAj >Je. I 



Subsidiary Companiei of BethleKein Steel Corporation 



I»DUilTlUAI. BBLATION8 UBPABTMElfT 



APPUOATION FOH EMPLOYMENT 

PI.... (in «.it cjt^uiif 



ZJHAhaB^.. .A^fLk^ 



t^fiR^nnLL. 




• C«M «i Ejn»ri«ncy Notify 

6err y ._T_Mo^£^ _. 



^/o 



Mi>.-0., 


Ym> 


S./8- 


'-1/ 


QU>«i 





y^ y __ I 

it^iipfi 









r»d« C«inpl*t^i 



r L«st EmplojTM 



- ^g He HAL 



_ua5^ 



/ftl±t__ft*:» _ 4 e.T^lLhLP3.rtL L/f8oH£R 

Lanfftb oTriini 



/ Cff,/. T> _ 

Childrwi 
Owl* 






fi<i To M et^/jtfP/^ St. 




Phr«lc«t DvfwtM 
WmtGUmmTi 



;^^ 



lUrwi MTTit 

Uuctlan B^toU»tin«nl Q A«ll..ll<>ii I ron. R «.«^« Sl.tu. J D.l. //^ 3/ /y >, OrtJ. .r R.nt .Xy_Z/ B».ncli . ( S»^».. OfDtf^ H C£ 

rfi Miiiw, s«ri... Tn. . .1 Ditch.,... )\^}(ttiARlp D.I. v/y/y ^ o^. ^ R..A -j. I ith »,...h rf » ..Tto./iy f i|y p ?y 

»».. OmnlMUwi No p Si.lu.i »cU.. P In.c ll.. Q Cr.d. o. R.pk ■r«t.«h rf »».to. 

■ p....nt S>l.ctl.. S.f.ic cU..tfic.tlnn D.t. cl.wlftc.Hofi .«plr. 





RalatlvM In Cvrnpanr Cmpler 


D.PU 






M.n. 


R«l*Uon*hip 


T.ntf jaita 


























































N.n.. 


Addrw* 


O.W1W.U. 




Le£ 8f?A->£^ K 


// P t Af;?;^^ Sf,/?v/-V. 


Uie/>f < 




«-5-7 Tf^KfiU/i^tBM.M 


£.Hec>f0fi 


is*" ^*<-i> /3of ^"^ 


MUveK 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1697 







}| 



lli 



^11 

t 

I 1 \M 



'II 



I 

I 

Si 



i \ 

ill 
ii| 

i 



hi 



1698 COMJMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Akens. Do you honestly feel that if you told us truthfully 
whether or not that is an accurate reproduction of the employment 
application filed by yourself you would be supplying information 
which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Thorner. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist when you filed that applica- 
tion for employment at the Bethlehem Steel Corp. ? 

Mr. Thorner. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
same grounds as before. 

Mr!^ Arens. Do you mean the self-incrimination provision of the 
fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Thorner. I mean the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. The self-incrimination provisions of the fifth amend- 
ment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Thorner. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a Communist, a member of the Com- 
munist Party, at any time in the course of the last 2 months? 

Mr. Thorner. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the Communist Party at 
any time in the course of the last month? 

Mr. Thorner. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the Communist Party at 
any time in the course of the last 5 weeks? 

Mr. Thorner. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the Communist Party any 
time since you were served with your subpena to appear before tliis 
committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Thorner. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
any time since you first learned of the probability of this committee 
holding hearings in Buffalo ? 

Mr. Thorner. No. 

^.Ir. Arens. Have you resigned from the Communist Party? 

Mr. Thorner. I decline to answer that question on the grounds I 
stated before. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Connnunist Party discipline ? 

Mr. Thorner. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information now which you could, if you 
were so disposed to do, furnish your Government respecting Com- 
munist operations in the Buffalo area as current as 6 weeks ago? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Thorner. I decline to answer that question on the grounds I 
stated before. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

]\Ir. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Everett Sheldon Jones. Come forward, if you please, Mr. Jones. 



COMMimiST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1699 

Mr. Willis. Eaise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear that 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Jones. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EVERETT SHELDON JONES, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, CARL GREEN 

Mr. Aeens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Jones. My name is Everett Sheldon Jones. I reside in the city 
of Buffalo, and I work for the Bethlehem Steel Co. in Lackawanna, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Jones. Since December 23, 1951. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your education. 

Mr. Jones. I completed sophomore year in high school. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you come to the Buffalo area ? 

Mr. Jones. It was either December 21 or December 22, 1951. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make an application for a job at Bethlehem 
Steel Corp.? 

Mr. Jones. I did. 

Mr. Arens. And at the time you made your application for a job 
at Bethlehem Steel Corp., were you a member of the Communist 
Party « 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 

Mr. Jones. For the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you invoking the provisions of the fifth amend- 
ment against self-incrimination? 

Mr. Jones. Certainly ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you right now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jones. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the Communist Party any 
time since you were served with your subpena to appear before this 
committee ? 

Mr. Jones. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
any time in the course of the last year ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jones. I was not a member of the Communist Party on the day 
before I received the subpena, but I decline to answer the question as 
to past membership beyond that point on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. That is a little bit of a qualification, isn't it, from what 
you said a moment ago? I just want to get the record clear. Have 
you been a member of the Communist Party any time since you were 
served with your subpena to appear ? 

Mr. Jones. No. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party the day 
before you were served with your subpena to appear? 

Mr. Jones. No. 



1700 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party any time 
in the course of the last 2 months ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, I apologize. I forgot to ask you to identify 
yourself. Would you kindly identify yourself on the record? 

Mr. Green. Carl Green, 35 Court Street, Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently have information respecting the Com- 
munist Party operations in the Buffalo area, which information is as 
current as a month and a half ago ? 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer the question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Now, was your employment suggested to you at Bethle- 
hem Steel by any person known by you to be a Communist ? 

Mr. Jones. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a man by the name of DePasquale ? 

Mr. Jones. No ; wait a minute. Would you give me the first name, 
please ? 

Mr. Arens. Frank DePasquale. 

Mr. Jones. Frank DePasquale ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Jones. I know the gentleman in question ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he has ever been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jones. To the best of my knowledge, he has never been a mem- 
her of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been connected with the Young Progressives 
of America ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. AiiENS. Who is Mr. S. Nelson at San Cristobal Eanch, New 
Mexico ? Could you help us on that ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. That is not the notorious Steve Nelson, is it, the Inter- 
national Cominform agent? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. On your application for employment at Bethlehem 
Steel Corp., you give as a reference Mr. S. Nelson, San Cristobal 
Ranch, New Mexico, do you not ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jones. May I see that document, please ? 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Jones. Would you repeat that question again ? 

Mr. Arens. Who is this man Nelson you give as a reference on your 
application, S. Nelson? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jones, I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1701 

Mr. Jones. On tlie grounds of the first and fifth amendnients. 

(Document marked "Jones Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. Tell me, did you have a meeting with other employees 
of Bethlehem Steel, that is, those who testified here today and yester- 
day, some time before this hearing ? 

Mr. Jones. No. 

Mr. Willis. It looks like there has been a wholesale resignation 
from the party. 

Mr. JoxES. I have never admitted membership, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Well, it comes close to it. Are you a member of tlie 
party now ? 

Mr. Green. May I ask what the question is that is now being 
asked ? I missed the first part of this. 

Mr. Willis. I asked whether there was a meeting with all the 
witnesses who have testified today and yesterday some time prior to 
our hearings, to which he said "No." I understood you to say you 
are not now a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Jones. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. Are you out for good ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer that on the grounds that it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Jones. Am I excused ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Kindly come forward Mr. Alexander Salmin. 

(Committee members present : Representatives Willis and Scherer.) 

Mr. Willis. Kindly raise your right hand. You do solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give wnll be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ^ 

Mr. Salmin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ALEXANDER SALMIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ROBERT B. FLEMING 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Salmin. My name is Alexander Salmin. I live in the city of 
Buffalo, and I work at American Radiator. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Salmin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Salmin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Fleming. Robert Fleming, Buffalo. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Salmin, where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Salmin. I was born in the Bronx Hospital, in the Bronx, N. Y., 
January 1, 1924. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about your education, please ? 



1702 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

Mr. Salmin, I completed high school and have had some college. 

Mr. Arens. "VNHiere did you attend college ? 

Mr. Salmin. I attended college at Brookljm College. Brooklyn, at 
Texas A. and M. in Texas, Mohawk College in Utica, N. Y., and the 
University of Bufi'alo, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a quick sketch, if you please, sir, a thumbnail 
sketch of your employment record. 

Mr. Salmin. I worked at^ 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Salmin. I worked at Ohrbach's Department Store in New York 
City in 1942. I worked as a draftsman for 2 weeks. I have for- 
gotten the name of the corporation. I have worked with the New York 
Roofing Co. in Utica, at the Haxton Canning Co. in, I think 
it is Springfield. I don't recall. I also worked at the Utica Knitting 
Mills. I am trying to recall. I worked in many places. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you worked at the American Radiator 
Bond plant? 

Mr. Salmin. Eight years. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to this 
employment ? 

Mr. Salmin. If I recall correctly, I think I worked at the Larson 
Steel Corp. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Salmin. iSir, I decline to answer that question on the ground 
of tlie first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Salmin. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of Local 1194, United 
Steelworkers ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. 1199. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Saljviin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What post did you hold there ? 

Mr. Salmin. I don't recall holding any post, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever a trustee of the local ? 

Mr. Salmin. I was elected, but I was not officially installed — is 
that the word ? 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently in the Steelworkers ? 

Mr. Salmin. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been in that capacity ? 

Mr. Salmin. What capacity, sir ? In the Steelworkers ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Salmin. The exact length of time, sir? There is some ques- 
tion in my mind. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately. 

Mr. Salmin. Well, definitely 8 years at American Radiator. 

Mr. Arens. Wliy weren't you installed as an officer when you were 
elected there in the United Steelworkers? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Salmin. Sir, I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
that it might tend to incriminate me. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 1703 

Mr. Arens. The truth is that the reason you were not installed was 
because you would have to sign a non-Communist affidavit ; isn't that 
correct ? 

Mr. Salmin. No, sir. I — excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Salmin. Sir, what was the last question again ? 

Mr. Arens. Why were you not installed when you were elected as 
an officer in the United Steelworkers local ? 

Mr. Salmin. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Charles Regan ? 

Mr. Salmin. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Regan took an oath before this committee today 
and swore that while he was a member of the Communist Party, 
serving his Government as an undercover agent of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, he knew you as a Communist. If Mr. Regan lied 
to us on that, he will be prosecuted for perjury. Was he lying or was 
he telling the truth? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Sal]min. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a meember of the John Reed Com- 
munist Club ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Salmin. I decline, sir, on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Dante Council or Dante Club 
at the present time, Dante Tenants Council ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Salmin. I decline to answer that question under the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I have in my hand a photostatic reproduction of a 
newspaper article in 1954 respecting the newly elected officers of the 
Dante Tenants Council, and the officers of that organization include 
Alexander Salmin, secretary. Is this newspaper account truthful, 
correct, and accurate ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Salmin. I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds of the first 
fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Salmin Exhibit No. 1," retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I would just like to make an observa- 
tion at this point. We have reached about the halfway point in these 
hearings. I think it should be said that the lawyers who have ap- 
peared with the witnesses before this committee yesterday and today 
have represented those witnesses, in our opinion, ably and well. They 
have adhered strictly to the rules of this committee and have fol- 
lowed the canons of ethics of the American Bar Association. We 
understand that the Buffalo Bar Association has used its position 



1704 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BUFFALO, N. Y., AREA 

to iir^-e members, reputable members of this bar, to appear with wit- 
nesses who have indicated that they could not obtain counsel. We 
appreciate that cooperation on the part of the bar association, because 
this committee is always interested in having witnesses who want 
counsel to be able to have them. It facilitates the hearing. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the Chair 
announce the termination today of the public session, and the require- 
ment that all witnesses who have not been heard in public session, 
but who are under sub])ena to appear today, keep themselves in 
readiness at the summoning of the United States mai'shal, and that 
we now proceed in executive session. 

Mr. Willis. All witnesses who have been summoned for appearance 
today but who have not been sw^orn or who have not testified up to 
now will please remain in the corridor to be called later by the marshal. 

The committee will now go into executive session. Our guests will 
retire. 

(Thereupon at 4:57 p. m. Wednesday, October 2, 1957, the commit- 
tee concluded the public session and proceeded to executive session 
with the following committee members present at recessing: Repre- 
sentatives Willis and Scherer, the public session to reconvene on 
Thursday, October 3, 1957, at 10 a. m.) 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

lllllfilillliliilllli 

3 9999 05706 3172