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Full text of "Investigation of concentration of economic power; monograph no. 1[-43]"

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?6 3d Session 88 } SENATE COMMITTEE PRINT 



INVESTIGATION OF CONCENTRATION 
OF ECONOMIC POWER 

TEMPORARY NATIONAL ECONOMIC 
COMMITTEE 

A STUDY MADE FOR THE TEMPORARY NATIONAL 

ECONOMIC COMMITTEE, SEVENTY-SIXTH CONGRESS, 

THIRD SESSION, PURSUANT TO PUBLIC RESOLUTION 

NO. 113 (SEVENTY-FIFTH CONGRESS), AUTHORIZING 

AND DIRECTING A SELECT COMMITTEE TO MAKE A 

FULL AND COMPLETE STUDY AND INVESTIGATION 

WITH RESPECT TO THE CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC 

POWER IN, AND FINANCIAL CONTROL OVER, 

PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION 

OF GOODS AND SERVICES 



MONOGRAPH No. 19 

GOVERNMENT PURCHASING— AN ECONOMIC 
COMMENTARY 



Printed for the use of the 
Temporary National Economic Committee 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1940 



TEMPORARY NATIONAL ECONOMIC «. 'MITTEE 

(Created pursuant to Public Res. 113, 75th Cong.) 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Senator from Wyoming, Chairman 

HATTON W. SUMNERS, Representative from Texas, Vice Chairman 

WILLIAM H. KINO, Senator from Utah 

WALLACE H. WHITE, Je.. Senator from Maine 

CLYDE WILLIAMS, Representative from Missouri 

B. CARROLL REECE, Representative from Tennessee 

THURMAN W. ARNOLD, Assistant Attorney General 

•WENDELL BERGE, Special Assistant to the Attorney General 

Representing the Department of Justice 

JEROME N. FRANK, Chairman 

♦SUMNER T. PIKE, Commissioner 

Representing the Securities and Exchange Commission 

GARLAND S. FERGUSON, Commissioner 

♦EWIN L. DAVIS, Chairman 

Representing the Federal Trade Commission 

ISADOR LUB1N, Commissioner of Labor Statistics 

•A. FORD HINRICHS, Chief Economist, Bureau of Labor Statistics 

Representing the Department of Labor 

JOSEPH J. O'CONNELL, Jr., Special Assistant to the General Counsel 

•CHARLES L. KADE8, Special Assistant to the General Counsel 

Representing the Department of the Treasury 



Representing the Department of Commerce 

» » • 

LlfON HENDERSON, Economic Coordinator 
DEWEY ANDERSON, Executive Secretary 
THEODORE J. KREPS, Economic Adviser 
•Alternates. 



Monoobaph No. 19 
GOVERNMENT PURCHASING— AN ECONOMIC COMMENTARY 

MORRIS A. COPELAND DANA M. BARBOUR 

CLEM C. LINNENBERG, Je. 

II 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

The writing of this monograph in all its preliminary stages was under 
the direct supervision of 

MORRIS A. COPELAND 

Director of Research, Division of Statistical Standards 
Bureau of the Budget 

The monograph was written by 
CLEM C. LINNENBERG, Jr. 

Associate Economist, Division of Statistical Standards 
Bureau of the Budget 

and 
DANA M. BARBOUR 

Assistant Economist, Division of Statistical Standards 
Bureau of the Budget 

The Temporary National Economic Committee is greatly indebted 
to these authors for this contribution to the literature of the subject 
under review. 

The status of the materials in this volume is precisely the same as that 
of other carefully prepared testimony when given by individual witnesses; 
it is information submitted for Committee deliberation. No matter what 
the official capacity of the witness or author may be, the publication of 
his testimony, report, or monograph by the Committee in no way signifies 
nor implies assent to, or approval of, any of the facts, opinions, or recom- 
mendations, nor acceptance thereof in whole or in part by the members 
of the Temporary National Economic Committee, individually or col- 
lectively. Sole and undivided responsibility for every statement in 
such testimony, reports, or monographs rests entirely upon the respective 
authors. 

(Signed) Joseph C. O'Mahoney, 
Chairman, Temporary National Economic Committee. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

Letters of transmittal xi 

Preface .. xiii 

Introduction xv 

CHAPTER I 

Scope and characteristics of Federal purchasing 1 

1. Materials, supplies, and services, other than personal, purchased.. 1 

2. Distribution of purchasing by departments and independent 

establishments 3 

3. Geographical pattern of Federal purchases 4 

4. Legal limitations on Federal purchasing 5 

5. Types of purchasing procedure 6 

C. Development of centralized .control 9 

CHAPTER II 

Notes on State and local purchasing 17 

1. Volume of State and local purchases 17 

2. Extent of local purchasing and purchases under contract 20 

3. Character of purchases 21 

CHAPTER III 

Indications of disorderly timing of Federal purchase orders , 23 

1. Extent of unevenness of timing :_ 23 

2. Significance of timing 27 

CHAPTER IV 

Indications that some prices paid are unfavorable to the Government 31 

1. Extent of identical bidding on Federal procurement contracts 31 

2. Illustrations of Federal and municipal difficulties on prices 35 

3. Comparisons of certain prices and price movements 38 

CHAPTER v 

The problem of war procurement 43 

1. Experience during the World War — disorderly purchasing 43 

2. Attempts at centralized control 45 

3. Contracts and prices during the World War 49 

4. General characteristics of the war economy 52 

5. Criticisms of the World War procurement system 53 

6. Requisites of adequate procurement preparedness 54 

7. Steps toward preparedness 55 

8. Establishment of the Army Industrial College 56 

9. Improvements in procurement organization in the Army and 

Navy and in the information available as to war-time require- 
ments 57 

10. Designation of strategic, critical, and essential materials 58 

11. Stocking of selected strategic and critical materials 58 

12. Standardization and development of specifications for equipment _ _ 59 

13. Allocation of domestic facilities for the production of needed 

articles 59 

14. Educational orders 59 

15. Experimentation with various forms of contract 59 

16. Supervision of British-French military procurement 63 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER VI 

Page 

Cooperation with State and local governments in procurement 65 

1. Cooperation in State and local procurement 65 

2. Possibilities for Federal cooperation with State and local govern- 

ments 67 

CHAPTER VII 

Greater flexibility in procurement arrangements 77 

1. Procurement a service function 77 

2. Flexibility in procurement contracts with private suppliers 78 

(a) Long-term contracts and related devices 78 

(b) Slack-season and recession discounts 84 

3. Procurement by manufacture : 87 

4. Private operation of Federal plants 94 

5. Summary of proposed legislative changes for greater flexibility 96 

CHAPTER VIII 

Federal antitrust laws and other Federal regulatory devices as aids in 

procurement 99 

1. Antitrust actions and similar actions 99 

(a) Types of actions and some illustrative results 99 

(b) Actions arising out of unreasonably high prices 100 

(c) Actions arising out of unjustifiably discriminatory prices. 108 

2. Relationship of procurement officers to antitrust actions and 

similar actions 113 

CHAPTER IX 

Advance planning of procurement 117 

1 . Advantages of advance planning 117 

2. Advance procurement and cyclical declines in business activity 118 

3. Extent of advance planning today 122 

4. Inadequacy of existing information 125 

5 Proposed information on purchases and inventories 128 

6. Proposals for advance planning 130 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON GOVERNMENTAL PROCUREMENT 

1. Policies and procedures in procurement 132 

2. Data on (or used in estimating) volume of governmental purchases; 

additional quantitative data on governmental purchases 133 

3. Periodic reports of municipal and State purchasing agencies 133 

4. War procurement 134 

5. Governmental control of business 135 

6. Governmental control of business (court opinions and related legal 

documents) 135 

7. Periodical publications (including reports) not elsewhere classified. 137 



Note. — Appendixes I through V were taken from the study of Govern- 
ment purchasing activities made by the Procurement Division Group of the 
Treasury Department Subcommittee of the Temporary National Eco- 
nomic Committee, under the direction of Christian Joy Peoples, Director of 
Procurement, Treasury Department. 



APPENDIX I 



Diagrammatic representation of fundamental routings governing Federal 

purchasing 138 



APPENDIX II 



Distribution of bids and bidders by Federal agencies in Washington and in 

the field 139 



TABLE OF CONTENTS VII 

APPENDIX III 

Page 
Distribution of dollar volume of Federal purchases by classes of the Federal 
Standard Stock Catalog, by reporting agencies, by months: December 
1937 through November 1938___ _ 141 

APPENDIX IV 

Distribution, by Federal agencies, of experience with identical bidding 312 

appendix v 
Data on the practice of identical bidding, by industry groups and subgroups. 315 

appendix vi 
Federal Trade Commission activities arising out of Government purchasing. 318 



SCHEDULE OF TABLES AND CHARTS 



Page 
I. Types of commodities and services purchased by the Federal Gov- 
ernment, December 1937 through November 1938 3 

II. Value of purchases made by principal purchasing agencies and per- 
centages of total purchases for each, December 1937 through 
November 1938 3 

III. Estimated amount of purchases in the field by Federal civil agen- 

cies for the 1939 fiscal year 4 

IV. Amount of Federal purchases in the 1939 fiscal year by types of ' 

purch ase procedure 6 

V. Recent annual purchases and ratio of purchases to governmental 

cost payments for 88 cities 17 

V (a). Coverage by size groups of cities included in table V 19 

VI. Purchases and ratio of purchases to governmental cost payments 

for six States 19 

VII. Percent of purchases made locally as reported for 86 cities 20 

VIII. Percent of purchases under formal contract as reported for 54 

cities 21 

IX. Percentage distribution by type of commodity of the recent annual 

purchases of six cities 21 

X. Federal agencies issuing their maximum dollar-volume of purchase 

orders in June or Jul y 24 

XI. Federal agencies issuing their maximum dollar-volume of purchase 

orders in some month other than June or July 24 

XII. Commodity classes for each of which the maximum dollar-volume 

of purchase orders was issued in June or July 25 

XIII. Commodity classes for each of which the maximum dollar-volume 

of purchase orders was issued in some month other than June or 

July 26 

XIV. Federal agencies in which 10 percent or more of bid openings re- 

sulted in class I and II identical bids 32 

XV. Reported examples of identical bidding on Federal contracts in 

selected industry subgroups i 33 

XVI. Comparison of amounts paid for selected types of office furniture 
and equipment by State unemployment compensation agencies 

and by P ederal agencies 70 

XVII. Distribution of bids and bidders by Federal agencies in Washing- 
ton and in the field 139 

XV11I. Distribution of dollar volume of Federal purchases by classes of 
the Federal Standard Stock Catalog, by reporting agencies, by 
months: December 1937 through November 1938 (84 tables).- 141 
XIX. Distribution of expenditures, by Federal agencies, for purchases 

involving the receipt of identical bids 312 

XX. Distribution, by agencies, of number of Federal bid openings re- 
sulting in class I, II, and III identical bids 314 

XXI. Summary of examination of 25,610 reported examples of identical 

bids classified according to industry groups 315 

XXII. The characterization, by Federal agencies, of the practice of iden- 
tical bidding in certain industry subgroups 316 

XXIII. Distribution, by type of applicant, of certain Federal Trade Com- 

mission activities (relating to "Restraint of Trade" cases under 
sec. 5 of the Commission Act) in connection with which the ap- 
plicants included governments : 318 

XXIV. Certain Federal Trade Commission activities (relating to cases of 

alleged violation of any statute under Commission jurisdiction), 
irrespective of type of applicant 31& 

VIII 



SCHEDULE OF TABLES AND CHARTS IX 

CHARTS 

Page 

I. Prices of manila hemp at New York 1 28 

II. General Schedule of Supplies and Bureau of Labor Statistics 

wholesale price relatives — 29 selected commodities 39 

III. Ratios of General Schedule of Supplies to Bureau of Labor Statis- 

tics wholesale prices — 29 selected commodities 41 

IV. Ratio of prices paid by 16 cities to General Schedule of Supplies 

prices — 33 selected items 69 

V. Monthly variations in Federal purchases 120 

VI. Diagrammatic representation of fundamental routings governing 
activities of Federal governmental departments and offices in 

making purchases directly from suppliers face p. 138 

VII. Diagrammatic representation of fundamental routings governing 
acquisition of requirements by Federal governmental depart- 
ments and offices from Procurement Division contracts face p. 138 

VIII. Diagrammatic representation of fundamental routings governing 
activities of Federal governmental departments and offices pur- 
chasing from Procurement Division stock face p. 138 



LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL 

Hon. Joseph C. O'Mahoney, 

Chairman, Temporary National Economic Committee, 

Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Senator: I have the honor to transmit herewith a study 
on Government purchasing, one of unusual interest not only in that 
it breaks almost entirely new ground but because it reflects to some 
extent in its inception and conception the genius of the late Herman 
Oliphant, general counsel and initial representative of the Treasury 
Department on the Temporary National Economic Committee. 
With a passionate belief in the importance of preserving the competi- 
tive system of free enterprise he was struck by the fact noted in 
President Roosevelt's message that "even the Government itself is 
unable in a large range of materials, to obtain competitive bids. It 
is repeatedly confronted with bids identical to the last cent." 1 He 
wanted not only more mileage for the tax dollar but an intelligent use 
made of the leverage of Government purchasing to support free 
competitive enterprise. 

This raises interesting and disturbing problems. One must, first 
of all, have complete and current information, commodity by com- 
modity, on the amounts bought by Federal, State, and local govern- 
ments, including prices and terms of sale. In what markets is 
government an important factor? Is the Government a good 
bargainer? How can freedom be won from the restraints imposed 
by monopolies on the efficiency of Government purchasing? The 
President suggested in his message requesting the creation of the 
Temporary National Economic Committee that, in certain instances, 
"the Government might well be authorized to withhold Government 
purchases from companies guilty of unfair or monopolistic practices." 2 
If so, during what period of time? Within what range of prices? In 
view of the size of the order and certainty of payment what price is a 
fair price for materials sold to, or contracts performed by, the Govern- 
ment? What use can be made of cost studies? Of cumulated and 
centralized purchasing? Of flexibility, alternative specifications? 
Faced with identical and high bids, is the Government helpless? 
Under what conditions might actual or potential Government manu- 
facturing or producing, say, its own requirements of steel for arma- 
ment and ships, serve to restore and preserve free competitive enter- 
prise? How and in what manner does and may unintelligent 
Government purchasing bring about excessive costs and inflation in 
time of national emergency? These are a few of the questions toward 
the answering of which a measure of contribution is made in this study. 

Securing the services of Dr. Morris A. Copeland to "carry on" was 
highly fortunate. Dr. Copeland brought to this study not only 

' 8. Doc. No. 173, 75th Cong., 3d sess., April 20, 1938, "Strengthening and Enforcement of Antitrust 
Laws," p. 4. 
•Ibid., p. 8. 

XI 



XII LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL 

academic distinction and perspective but a practical knowledge gained 
from the extensive interdepartmental experience represented in the 
Central Statistical Board. To him and to the numerous officials in 
government who eagerly shared their counsel and information an 
especial debt of gratitude is hereby acknowledged. Especial thanks 
are likewise due to Mr. Joseph J. O'Connell, Jr., without whose 
persistence, tact, administrative skill, and guidance, a task requiring 
such extensive interdepartmental clearance and consultation as did 
this study could never have been performed. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Theodore J. Kreps, 

Ecomomic Adviser. 

September 13, 1940. 



Executive Office of the President, 

Bureau of the Budget, 
Washington, D. C, August 28, 1940. 
Mr. Dewey Anderson, 

Executive Secretary, Temporary National Economic Committee, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Anderson: I am transmitting a report requested on 
November 20, 1939, by Mr. James R. Brackett, then executive 
secretary of the Temporary National Economic Committee, in a 
letter to the Director of the Budget. The preparation of this report, 
entitled "Government Purchasing — An Economic Commentary," was 
undertaken with funds provided by the Committee. The report was 
outlined and written by three members of our staff, Messrs. Morris 
A. Copeland, Dana M. Barbour, and Clem C. Linnenberg, Jr., who 
have full responsibility for the opinions and recommendations ad- 
vanced. The work was under the detailed direction of Mr. Copeland. 
Sincerely yours, 

Stuart A. Rice, 
Assistant Director, in Charge of the 

Division of Statistical Standards. 



PREFACE 

This study was undertaken at the instance of the Treasury Depart- 
ment. Of the Temporary National Economic Committee agenda 
adopted on July 7, 1938, one part assigned to that Department was 
"Go^ *rnment purchases in relation to the general problem." A com- 
pilation of statistical information on Federal procurement in a recent 
12-month period was made in partial fulfillment of this assignment, 
by the Procurement Division Group of the Treasury Department sub- 
committee of the Temporary National Economic Committee. 1 The 
Report of the Procurement Division Group, embodying this informa- 
tion, w^,s transmitted to the committee on August 1, 1939. 

On November 20, 1939, the executive secretary of the committee 
wrote to the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, in part as follows: 

* * * there was made for the T. N. E. C. by the Treasury Department a 
factual survey, now available, which omitted an analytical discussion of the eco- 
nomics of Government purchasing together with suggestions of improvements 
whereby the purchasing policies and procedures of Federal, State, and local govern- 
ment might be better integrated with national policy. 

The tetter requested that the requisite services for such an analytical 
study be furnished by the Central Statistical Board (since succeeded 
by the Division of Statistical Standards of the Bureau of the Budget). 
The Board for. several years had been interested in the problem of 
more orderly governmental buying, in the current reporting of pur- 
chases data which would be necessary as a guide to more orderly 
buying, and in other aspects of procurement policy and procedure. 

On December 5, 1939, the Director of the Bureau of the Budget 
replied to the committee, agreeing to the proposal, but mentioning 
that, in the time available, only a brief treatment would be possible. 
It was agreed that funds would be allotted to the study by the 
T. N. E. C. from allocations already made to the Treasury Depart- 
ment. 

Principal initiative for organizing and directing the preparation of 
the report, including detailed supervision until June 15, 1940, was 
taken by Mr. Morris A. Copeland. More immediate responsibility 
was divided between Mr. Clem C. Linnenberg, Jr., and Mr. Dana M. 
Barbour, the other two authors, as follows: 

Preface Linnenberg 

Introduction Linnenberg 

Chapter I Barbour 

Chapter II Barbour 

Chapter III Linnenberg 

Chapter IV, section 1 Linnenberg 

Chapter IV, sections 2 and 3 Barbour 

Chapter V__ Barbour 

Chapter VI_ Barbour 

Chapter VII Linnenberg 

Chapter VIII - Linnenberg 

Chapter IX____:__ Barbour 

' Report of the Procurement Division Group, Treasury Department Subcommittee; Temporary ' Na 
tional Economic Committee: Study of Government Purchasing Activities; Part I, Magnitude and Charac 
ter sties of Government Purchasing; Part II, Survey of Practice of Identical Bidding for Government Pur- 
chase Contracts. Hereafter cited as Report of the Procurement Division Group 

XIII 



XIV PREFACE 

The three authors together have full responsibility for all opinions 
and recommendations set forth. 2 The appendix material, other than 
the information in Appendix VI, is taken from the text and appendixes 
of the Report of the Procurement Division Group, with no change 
except in certain titles and explanatory notes. The bibliography, on 
the other hand, emerged from the work done by the present authors. 
During the course of the undertaking, Mr. Joseph J. O'Connell, Jr., 
the Treasury Department representative on the Temporary National 
Economic Committee, supplied frequent and very constructive criti- 
cism. Mr. Harry L. Smith, now Chief of the Planning Division of 
the Procurement Division, Treasury Department, supplied a large 
quantity of valuable information and a generous amount of his time 
as an unofficial but authentic consultant. Mr. A. G. Thomas, of the 
Bureau of Employment Security, Social Security Board, Federal Secu- 
rity Agency, furnished much instructive fact and useful criticism, 
based on his wide experience relating to governmental procurement. 
Among those who kindly supplied information for and criticism of 
chapter VIII were Mr. Robert B. Dawkins, of the Federal Trade 
Commission staff and — in the Antitrust Division of the Department 
of Justice — Mr. Walton S. Allen, Mr. Allan A. Dobey (Special Assist- 
ant to the Attorney General), and Mr. Guy R. Hill (Assistant Chief, 
Economic Section). In connection with aspects of the study which 
bear on municipal procurement Mr. Paul V. Betters, Executive Di- 
rector of the United States Conference of Mayors, and Mr. Roy H. 
Owsley, of the American Municipal Association, were exceedingly 
helpful, The total number of persons who each rendered substantial 
service was too large for inclusion of a list of all of them; and even the 
Federal agencies and the non-Federal bodies by which they respec- 
tively are employed number about 20. Appreciation is here expressed 
for the varied and abundant aid which the authors received. 

* In June 1040, before any part of the manuscript had passed beyond the stage of a preliminary draft, Mr. 
Copeland was detailed to serve as an economic consultant in the Bureau of Bescarch and Statistics of the 
Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense. In conseouence, the study was at that time 
temporarily suspended. When it was resumed, no aspects of the subject for which a preliminary draft was 
not yet available were given attention. Except as otherwise indicated, it has not been possible, in revising 
the manuscript, to take account of developments since March 31, 1940. Nor has it been possible for Mr. 
Copeland to participate in making any of the revisions since June 15, 1940. The preface and introduction 
are written as of August 7, 1940. 



INTRODUCTION 

This study describes broadly the agencies and the procedures 
through which Federal purchasing is done. It analyzes two problems: 

(1) the promoting of orderliness in Federal procurement, as a con- 
tribution toward governmental economy and business ♦stability, and 

(2) the attainment of prices and terms in Federal procurement which 
would not be unfavorable to the Government. The study also includes, 
though in briefer and more fragmentary form, a descriptive and ana- 
lytical approach of a similar sort to State and local government pur- 
chasing. Recommendations are advanced on Federal procurement 
and on Federal relations to State and local government procurement. 

The information which was available for a study of Government 
purchasing was very meager, and uneven in usefulness. An instance 
of the inadequacy of available information was the fact that only for 
the period December 1937 to June 1939 were figures on the dollar 
volume of all of its purchases reported by every or nearly every Fed- 
eral agency to some one agency, and these data were then published 
only for the 12-month period December 1937 through November 1938. 
Likewise, on almost no aspects of governmental procurement were 
there, on hand, comprehensive compilations of nonstatistical informa- 
tion, such as a directory of Federal purchasing units and officers or a 
compilation of laws, Comptroller General's rulings, and court decisions 
on Federal purchasing. Much information which would be decidedly 
advantageous in a study of the sort here undertaken could have been 
brought together only through the use of many times the amount of 
personnel and time that was available. In the present study, the 
inadequacy of existing quantitative information on Federal procure- 
ment is analyzed. 1 The need is presented for periodic reporting to a 
single Federal agency, by all other Federal agencies, of quantitative 
information as to purchases and inventories. 2 Suggestions are made 
as to arrangements for such reporting. 3 

The study is exploratory, not definitive. Within the limitations 
imposed by the scarcity of available information and by other cir- 
cumstances, an attempt has been made to indicate some promising 
lines of action and some worthwhile areas of further inquiry. 

If the available personnel and facilities had been ampler, it would 
have been desirable to investigate a number of aspects of governmental 
purchasing which had to be passed over entirely, and to investigate 
much more fully some aspects which in this study have been merely 
touched upon or have been dealt with insufficiently. Among these 
are the following: 

1. Adequacy of advertising by the Federal Government pre- 
paratory to buying. Not investigated here. 

2. The organization and procedures by which each of a number 
of Federal departments and large independent establishments 

'Cb. IX. sec. 4. 
2Ch. IX, sec. 5. 
>Id. 

rv 



XVI INTRODUCTION 

carries on its procurement function. Chapters I and IX, which 
deal almost entirely with purchasing by the Procurement Division 
(in the Treasury Department) and are written from the viewpoint 
of purchasing for the Federal Government as a whole, contain also 
some information along these lines. But a detailed and compre- 
hensive survey is needed, covering specifications, inspection ar- 
rangements, and numerous other matters, in both the District of 
Columbia procurement and the field procurement of each such 
agency. 

3. Actual or estimated data on total dollar volume of State and 
local government purchases (for a recent year or years). The 
serious inadequacy of the basis used in arriving at the estimates 
of this in chapter II is clearly realized. In general, in the prepa- 
ration of this chapter the little information available was used, but 
no attempt was made to gather additional data. 

4. Timing of Federal purchase orders. Chapter III presents 
information showing prima facie that Federal purchase orders are 
not well enough timed, from the standpoints of the Government's 
benefiting from advantageous price situations and of its promoting 
business stability. But timing should be studied also by investi- 
gation of each of a large sample of instances of what appear to be 
distinctly bad or good timing. Among other things, the budgetary, 
market, and other circumstances in which each order was issued 
should be considered in such an inquiry. 

5. Comparisons between prices paid by Federal procurement 
; units located in the District of Columbia and prices paid by Fed- 
eral procurement units located in the field. Information for such 
comparisons is not on hand; the requisite data should be gotten 
for, and used in, such a comparative survey. One aspect of the 
survey should be a- comparison of the size of orders in the District 
of Columbia and the size of orders in the field. This comparison 
could be used in connection with ascertainment of whether quan- 
tity buying is more common in the District of Columbia than in 
the field, or vice versa, and whether quantity buying is reflected 
in the prices paid. 

6. Comparisons between prices paid by the Federal Govern- 
ment (both in procurement in the District of Columbia and in 
field purchasing) and prices paid by other buyers, particularly 
large industrial buyers. In chapter IV, section 3, there is some 
meager information comparing prices paid by the Federal Gov- 
ernment with Bureau of Labor Statistics wholesale prices. But 
it is realized that this information is worth while only in the 
absence of better. 

7. Experience of the Federal Government in receipt of identical 
and other actually or apparently collusive bids. It is believed by 
a number of Federal officers connected with procurement that 
there is collusive even though nonidentical bidding on a note- 
worthy volume of procurement. However, quantitative data 
are not available, and perhaps cannot be obtained, on bidding 
(on Federal contracts) that is nonidentical but is actually or ap- 
parently collusive. Important instances of nonidentical, collu- 
sive bidding have been found, by Federal agents, in connection 
with construction contracts for the expenditure of Federal funds, 
as is noted in chapter VIII, sections la and lb. But, fchfi snhiect 



INTRODUCTION XVII 

of such bidding on contracts for materials and supplies should be 
investigated, whether or not quantitatively. The available 
quantitative information concerning Federal contracts on which 
there is identical bidding would have been decidedly enhanced 
in usefulness if the bid openings had been classified (in terms of 
commodities) by dollar volume. It would also have been 
substantially more useful if the classification of those contracts by 
number of bid openings had applied to all of them rather than to 
a sample of which there is no assurance that it is representative. 

8. Price comparisons among governmental purchases under 
various types of contract. The information available on this 
was rather negligible. It would be desirable, for example, to 
compare the prices paid by the Federal Government under term 
contracts (indefinite-quantity contracts) with those paid by it 
under definite-quantity contracts, and to compare the prices 
paid by non-Federal governments under "wholesale price minus 
a stated percentage" contracts with those paid by such govern- 
ments under other types of contract. 

9. "Negotiated contracts" entered into by Federal procure- 
ment units. Especially in view of the fact that, under the- de- 
fense program, there has been an increasing use of negotiated 
contracts, it would have been desirable to investigate much more 
extensively than was possible in this study the Federal experience 
with such contracts (as to whether prices, terms, and time of 
delivery are satisfactory; whether there is less or more admin- 
istrative and legal complexity; what progress has been made 
under these contracts in breaking up collusion, etc.) and to in- 
vestigate the possibility and desirability of more prevalent use 
of such contracts. 

10. Inspection of Federal purchases. In this study no investi- 
gation was made of facilities and procedures for inspection of 
Federal purchases (as to whether the purchases conform to the 
specifications stipulated in contracts). There is reason to be- 
lieve that, in many Federal procurement units and particularly 
in the field, inspection is not always adequate. 

11. Suppliers' viewpoint on Government procurement. More 
inquiry as to this would be desirable. Some suppliers feel that 
there are needless difficulties in dealing with the Government. 
The allegation has been made that there are Federal specifica- 
tions that include extra or unusual, but unnecessary, features, 
with the result that the product has to be specially manufactured, 
to the greater expense of the Government and the vexation of the 
suppliers. Because of the multiplicity of Federal purchasing 
agencies, the necessity of submitting bids in proper form, and 
the complexity of the contracts, it is stated in some quarters that 
dealing with the Government has become an esoteric art, mastered 
by only a few specialists. The legal complexity, actual or appar- 
ent, of terms presented in the advertisement may discourage small 
concerns from bidding. Inadequacy of information available to 
bidders other than the successful bidder for the preceding period 
may further restrict the number of competing bidders, particularly 
on indefinite-quantity contracts. Thus, it is claimed, the Gov- 
ernment in many situations loses the advantage of wide competi- 
tion. Also, it is said, a considerable number of manufacturers, 

262342 — il— No. 19 2 



XVIII INTRODUCTION 

instead of dealing directly with the Government, are driven by 
complexity to work through middlemen, whose services result in 
an additional expense, which the Government bears in prices 
paid by it. 

12. Procurement through middlemen. Such procurement, for 
each of a number of commodities, might be a fruitful subject of 
investigation. The comparative advantages of direct buying 
and buying through middlemen, and also the trend toward the 
one or the other, might be surveyed. 

13. Cooperation between Federal agencies, in procurement in 
the field. Some instances'of this are considered in chapter IX. 
But a survey, covering a much larger number of instances and 
covering them in much more detail, should be made — with a 
view toward ascertaining the extent of the present use of such 
cooperation') acquiring more information as to advantages and 
disadvantages, and the fuller development of recommendations 
concerning such cooperation. There may well be possibilities of 
substantial economies through increased use of interagency co- 
operation in field purchasing. 

14 Market information service. A possibility in which in- 
terest has been manifested but which it has been impossible to 
investigate, because of limitations of time, is the establishment of 
a market news service to make available both to Federal puchas- 
ins: officers and to interested State and local governments infor- 
mation on prices, market conditions, and other matters relating 
to purchasing. At present it appears that the arrangements for 
making available to other Federal purchasing offices the experi- 
ence and information of the Treasury Department Procurement 
Division leave much to be desired. There is, for example, no 
machinery for warning: agencies of probable changes in price under 
forthcoming General Schedide of Supplies contracts; or for ad- 
vising them of seasonal fluctuations in the prices of commodities 
subject to such price fluctuations. If the suggestions made in 
chapter IX for greater control by the Procurement Division over 
procurement planning are adopted, the supplying of such infor- 
mation to Federal procurement offices other than that Division 
will become of less importance than it now would be. 

However, market information and especially quotations of 
prices paid by Federal agencies, might be of value to State and 
local authorities. 4 Such a service might also serve as a medium 
for making mutually available the results of the research and 
experience of the Federal Procurement Division in purchasing 
problems, and the experience of State and local purchasing officers. 
Other matters of general interest might be included^ for example, 
wider publicity might be given to the services of "the National 
Bureau of Standards to governmental purchasing agencies. 
These services now include: (a) assistance in the formulation of 
standards, specifications, and methods of tests for purchases; 

(b) publication of directories of standards and specifications; 

(c) preparation of lists of manufacturers who are willing to 
certify that the material supplied by them conforms to Federal 
specification or other appropriate standards; 6 (d) publication of 



* If such a service -were established, it probably should be on a subscription basis to State and local gov- 
ernments, but should be free to Federal purchasing offices. 

» Howard T. Lewis states that there are about 14,000 firms on these lists. Lewis, Industrial Purchasing: 
Principle and Practice (Business Publications, Inc., Chicago, 1940), p. 159. 



INTRODUCTION XIX 

directories of commercial testing and college research laboratories 
which are prepared to test commodities purchased by States and 
cities; (e) making of some tests itself of commodities purchased 
by States and cities. Because of lack of funds, this last-mentioned 
service has not been very extensive. 6 If the work done by the 
Bureau for non-Federal governments were more widely known, 
perhaps the results of tests would come to be made more gener- 
ally available. If a market news service is established, it should 
be preceded by a strengthening of the economic research staff of 
the Procurement Division. For example, there is at present 
very inadequate provision in that agency for study of price trends. 

It would be desirable to investigate the extent to which the 
Market News Service of the Department of Agriculture is used 
by— and useful to — Federal and other governmental purchasing 
officers, and whether it needs to be made more generally avail- 
able to such officers. 

The Federal Procurement Division perhaps should furnish 
lists of suppliers (actual or potential) to other Federal purchasing 
offices and to purchasing offices of State and local governments, 
for use in distribution of copies of bid invitations or for use in 
connection with other types of procurement procedure, such as 
negotiation of contracts. Such lists, as a complement to the 
privately compiled Thomas' Register (which charges a fee for 
listing), might well be built up through interchange of informa- 
tion among the participating governmental purchasing offices, 
with the Procurement Division serving as clearing house for the 
information. An even more promising line of development, 
perhaps, would be such an interagency clearance scheme for 
information as to the responsibility and dependability of suppliers 
who have proved themselves to be outstanding for these qualities 
or for the lack of them. 



* Although fe<>s are charged to cover the cost of making all tests for State and local governments, the law 
requires that this money be turned into the Treasury general fund, and it is not available to the Bureau 
of Standards. 



CHAPTER I 

SCOPE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF FEDERAL PURCHASING 

In considering the problems of procurement policy outlined in the 
introduction, it will be useful first to consider some of the principal 
facts regarding Federal procurement activities. What is included in 
procurement? What are the principal types of purchases? What is 
the relative importance of the various Federal agencies as users of 
materials, supplies, and services, other than personal?' To what 
extent are purchases made in the field; to what extent in the District 
of Columbia? What are the various forms and procedures under 
which a Federal agency may procure supplies and services other than 
personal? What general legal considerations affect the procurement 
problems with which we are concerned? By what process has the 
present organization of procurement activities developed? Answers 
to these questions are attempted in the following pages. 

1. MATERIALS, SUPPLIES, AND SERVICES, OTHER THAN PERSONAL, 

PURCHASED 

As a purchaser, the Federal Government appears in the market 
both directly through purchase by a Federal department or agency, 
and indirectly through purchase of supplies by contractors for use in 
products or in construction projects which are to be undertaken for 
the Government. Important as this indirect purchasing is, it is not 
possible to consider it in this study, except in certain respects noted 
in chapter VIII. Similarly, purchases made for purposes of regulating 
prices, as in the case of purchasing and storing farm-product surplus, 
are not included, even though they are direct Federal purchases. 1 
However, they are usually not made by the regular purchasing agencies 
of the Government and they are not purchases for the use of Govern- 
ment agencies. Nor does this study include purchases of real estate 
(which must be specifically authorized by statute), expenditures for 
printing and binding which are specifically appropriated for, or 
expenditures for travel. Contracts for building construction are like- 
wise not included, though purchases of material for force-account 
construction are. With these exceptions, the study covers the pur- 
chasing of materials, supplies, and services other than personal, for 
the use of Federal departments and independent agencies. 

The Federal Government purchases in the course of a year nearly 
a billion dollars' worth of these latter materials, supplies, and services 
other than personal. Such purchases embrace products from nearly 
every field of agriculture and industry. A recent study by the Pro- 
curement Division of the Treasury Department 2 found an aggregate 

' But seech. VII, sec. 2. and ch. IX, sec. 2, for 3 discussion of the possibilities of utilizing ordinary Govern- 
ment purchasing in stabilizing business conditions. 
1 Report of the Procurement Division Group, p. 3. 



2 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

of approximately 910,000 different items which might be purchased,, 
and this does not include special parts and products that are fur- 
nished in conformity with particular designs originated by the pur- 
chasing agencies. Of these something in excess of 155,000 items are 
listed in the Federal Standard Stock Catalog, which classifies all sup- 
plies regularly procured, stored, and issued by or for the various 
executive departments and establishments. 

Comprehensive data on the volume of Government purchasing are 
not collected regularly by any agency. The Procurement Division 
of the Treasury Department keeps records of materials and supplies 
purchased by it, and manufacturers holding general supply contracts 
are required to report monthly to the Procurement Division the dollar 
value of their sales for each item under their contracts. However, 
these sources together account for only about one-third of the total 
Government purchases. The Division of Public Contracts of the De- 
partment of Labor also keeps records on Government purchases which 
come under the Walsh-Healey Act, but this act applies only to con- 
tracts of over $10,000. Such purchases account for perhaps half the 
Government total and include an unknown proportion of the pur- 
chases by the Procurement Division and those made from the General 
Schedule of Supplies. The only reporting of Government purchases 
winch is substantially complete was that made for the special study 
of the Procurement Division 3 covering purchase orders during the 
12-month period from December 1937 through November 1938. This 
period should not be interpreted as representative for all types of 
purchases. Government purchases of certain classes of commodities 
remain fairly constant from year to year; others vary greatly. Thus, 
increasing appropriations for military preparedness and decreasing 
expenditures for relief will increase the percentage of the total spent 
for aircraft, guns, arms, and ammunition at the expense of such 
classes as building materials and textiles. However, it is interesting 
to see from the following table that 13 classes of commodities ac- 
counted for over 90 percent of the dollar volume of all Federal pur- 
chases during the 12-month period covered by the study. 4 

* Ibid., p. 3. The data presented in this report cover purchases of all of the 10 executive departments and 
35 of the independent establishments and Government corporations (including the District of Columbia 
government and the Panama Canal). The purchases of agencies not included in the study are estimated 
to represent less than 1 percent of the Government total. The data are broken down by the 74 broad classes 
of materials and supplies into which the 155,000 items of the Federal Standard Stock Catalog are divided 
and ij addition, expenditures for electricity, gas and water, telephone, telegraph, drayage, and miscel- 
laneous services were reported— the last class being a category which reporting agencies were'apparently 
left to define for themselves. The published report also includes a class very small in amount, "exchange 
allowances," and an "unclassified" category. Certain purchases and services, such as real estate and 
travel are not included, nor are expenditures under construction contracts included. However, if the 
Government itself constructs a building or builds a destroyer on force account, the materials going into 
that building or destroyer during the 12-month period covered are included. 

4 The 13 classes shown separately in this table comprise 46 of the Federal Standard Stock Catalog classes. 
Related commodities classes have been combined. For purchases by departments and independent 
establishments in each of the 83 classes see appendix III of the present report. For a break-down by classes 
of commodities purchased from the General Schedule of Supplies and those purchased from the Procurement 
Division, sen tables on pp. 760-7t>2, Hearings before the subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, 
House of Representatives, Treasury Department appropriation bill for 1941. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Table I. — Types of commodities and services purchased by the Federal Government, 
December 1987 through November 1938 



Class of commodity or service 



Percent 




Construction materials (includes asphalt, brick, cement, glass, granite, gravel, 
lumber, iron and steel, roofing material, pipes, hardware, etc.) 

Food and feed 

Contractual services (drayage, electricity, gas, water, telephone, telegraph, and 
miscellaneous) . . 

Machinery and equipment (including boilers; engines; pumps; tools; foundry 
apparatus; and railway, dock, and yard equipment) 

Textiles and dry goods (includes clothing, knitted goods, bedding, buttons, cur- 
tains, cushions, floor coverings, notions, oilcloth, upholstery materials, yarn, 
twine and rope, etc.) - 

Motor vehicles (includes accessories and parts) 

Arms and ammunition (includes instruments and accessories) 

Aircraft (includes aeronautic apparatus, accessories, and parts) 

Fuel (includes coal, gas, fuel oil, wood, and gasoline) 

Electric and radio apparatus and supplies (includes accessories and parts, sound- 
signal apparatus, electric cable and wire, etc.) 

Printed matter, stationery and office supplies (includes books, periodicals, maps, 
blank forms, paper bags, cartons, drafting-room and printers' supplies) 

Furniture and office equipment .. 

All other commodities 

Total 



19.4 
14.6 



100.0 



2. DISTRIBUTION OF PURCHASING BY DEPARTMENTS AND INDEPENDENT 

ESTABLISHMENTS 

When the purchases made during the 12-month period from Decem- 
ber 1937 through November 1938 are classified by agencies, the most 
striking thing which appears is that approximately three-fourths of 
the Federal purchases is for three agencies — the War Department, 
the Navy Department, and the Works Progress Administration. 
Such a tabulation, based on data in the Procurement Division Group's 
study, appears below: 

Table II. — Value of purchases made by principal purchasing agencies and per- 
centages of total purchases for each, December 1937 through November 1938 



Agency 



Value 
(millions) 



Percent 



War Department 

Navy Department 

Works Progress Administration 2 

Department of the Interior 

Department of Agriculture 

Treasury Department 3 

Veterans' Administration 

Post Office Department 

Tennessee Valley Authority 

The Panama Canal 

Department of Commerce 

All others.. 

Total 



$270. 5 
i 215. 1 
196.4 
55.7 
45.6 
26.0 
20.8 
17.6 
17.3 
9.5 
9.4 
29.5 



$913. 4 



100 



» Exclusive of contracts for construction of naval vessels: Pee footnote 3, p. 2. 

> In the present study's references to agencies covered by the Report of the Procurement Division Group, 
the name of each such agency is given in the form in which it appeared in that report, despite any changes 
in agency names since the period covered by that report. The transfers of parts of agencies, the consolida- 
tions of agencies, and the agency abolitions which have occurred would render confusing any attempt at 
applying new agency names in connection with data of a period prior to the reorganization orders. 

' Exclusive of purchases by the Procurement Division for an operating agency, which appear under the 
operating agency. 



4 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

3. GEOGRAPHICAL PATTERN OF FEDERAL PURCHASES 

Data on the subject of the geographical distribution of purchases 
are unsatisfactory for the Government as a whole. The data which 
are available indicate, however, that the greater part of the Federal 
Government, s purchasing is done in the field rather than in Wash- 
ington. 

In June 1939, in connection with order No. 73 of the Procurement 
Division, each agency was requested to make a report for each of its 
purchasing units. This report called for, among other things, the 
number of contracts and purchase orders from July 1, 1938, through 
December 31, 1938. Owing to the fact that the military and naval 
services were excluded from this order, no data on their purchases 
were received, and figures for certain other agencies were not tabu- 
lated. For each of the 35 agencies included, the Procurement Divi- 
sion estimated purchases for the entire 1939 fiscal year on the basis 
of the data received for the 6-mcnth period. These estimates have 
been supplemented for the following table by information from other 
sources on the purchases of the Works Progress Administration, the 
Tennessee Valley Authority, the Government Printing Office, and 
the District of Columbia. With these additions it is believed the 
following table covers all agencies having any considerable volume of 
purchases except the War and Navy Departments. 

Table III. — Estimated amount of purchases in the field by Federal civil agencies for 

the 1939 fiscal year l 



Agency 



Federal Works Agency 2 

Department of the Interior 

Department of Agriculture 

Tennessee Valley Authority 3 

Veterans' Adm inistration 

The Panama Canal, and Panama Railway Co. 

Department of Justice 

Treasury Department (including Coast Guard) 

Federal Security Agency 2 

Civil Aeronautics Authority 

Government Printing Office 

District of Columbia Government 

All other 

Total 



In field 



Value 
(millions) 



$236. 
43. 
25. 
17. 
14. 

6. 

6. 

4. 

3. 

1. 




< 2. 



361.8 



Percent 



78 

76 
UN) 
78 
59 
86 
54 
57 
29 


12 



Total 

value 

(millions) 



$239. 9 
56.1 
34.1 
17.3 
18.5 
11.0 
7.3 
8.2 
6.0 
3.4 
6.4 
4.6 
21.5 



434.3 



1 Table based on the Procurement Division's estimates from figures submitted to it covering the period 
from July 1, 1938, through Dec. 31, 1938, except for figures for the Works Progress Administration, Tennessee 
Valley Authority, the Panama Canal, Government Printing Office, and District of Columbia govern- 
ment, which were obtained either from annual reports or directly from the agencies themselves. 

' These agencies were actually not established until July 1, 1939. However, the tabulation was made after 
this date, and the Procurement Division classified the reports according to the existing scheme of organiza- 
tion. Since purchases of the constituent organizations of the Federal Works Agency and the Federal 
Security Agency were not shown separately, the Procurement Division's classification has been followed 
here. 

3 1939 figure not available; 17.3 million dollars is for the period from December 1937 to November 1938, 
inclusive. 

4 This figure undoubtedly understates field purchases, since no field purchases were reported for the Post 
Office, Commerce, Labor, and State Departments or for several small agencies. 



This table gives some indication of the magnitude and complexity 
of the problems involved in Federal purchasing. The limitations of a 
scheme of centralized purchasing become apparent. Purchases of 
perishables must be made in the localities where they are to be used, 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 5 

and the same is true for many bulky commodities for which transpor- 
tation charges are an important consideration. Provision must also 
be made for emergency purchases. Any attempt to develop a coordi- 
nated program of purchases is complicated by the geographically 
decentralized pattern of governmental purchasing. 

4. LEGAL LIMITATIONS ON FEDERAL PURCHASING 

At this point it may be appropriate to consider briefly the nature of 
the legal framework within which the purchasing of the Federal 
Government must be carried on. In general, there are requirements 
for advertising for proposals of bids, followed by proper notification 
and public opening of the bids received. 5 These requirements have 
been Construed to mean that awards shall be made to the lowest re- 
sponsible bidder offering to meet the advertised specifications. 6 To 
this procedure there are exceptions where the exigencies require im- 
mediate delivery or where the amount involved is small — usually 
under $100. In addition there is a general requirement that no con- 
tract for purchase is to be made except under an adequate appropria- 
tion. 7 

Along with the system of annual appropriations go certain restric- 
tions on the expenditure of these appropriations. No appropriated 
funds may be expended or encumbered prior to the beginning of the 
fiscal year to which they relate, unless an exception is specifically 
made in the appropriation act. 8 This prevents the placing of orders 
before July 1, when payment must be made from funds not available 
before July 1 , even when such orders are for delivery after July 1 . It 
is also unlawful, except as otherwise provided, for any executive depart- 
ment to make contracts for supplies for a longer term than 1 year from 
the time the contract is made. 9 Further, funds unencumbered at the 
expiration of the fiscal year return automatically to the Treasury and 
are not available for the following fiscal year unless reappropriated by 
Congress. 10 Hence, there frequently are unusually heavy purchases 
during the last month of the fiscal year to prevent the lapse of appro- 
priation balances which the agency may have been holding as a reserve 
throughout the year. 

Finally, mention should be made of two recent laws which affect 
Federal purchasing substantially, the so-called Buy American Act, " 
and the Walsh-Healey Act. 12 The first provides that unless the head 
of the department or establishment concerned determines it to be in- 
consistent with the public interest or finds the cost unreasonable, 
materials and supplies produced or manufactured in the United States 
are to be bought for public use. An exception is made for goods used 
outside of the United States or where goods are not produced in suffi- 
cient quantities in this country. Likewise, contractors are to use only 
supplies and materials produced in the United States in their construc- 
tion of Federal public works. The Walsh-Healey Act relates only to 
contracts for manufacturing or furnishing of materials exceeding 

8 TJ. S. Code, title 41, sec. 7. This is sec. 3709 of the Revised Statutes and is usually cited in this way by 
purchasing officers. 

« 5 Coinp. Gen. 330. See also Scott v 17. S., 44 Ct. CI. 524 (1909), and O'Brien v. Carney, 6 F. Supp. 761 
(1934). 

7 TT. S. Code, title 41, sec. 11. For a discussion of certain results of this provision seech. VII, p. 133 fl\, below. 

• U. S. Code, title 31, sec. 665. For a discussion of certain results of this provision, see ch. VII, p. 133 ff» 
below. 

» U. S. Code, title 41, sec. 13. For an explanation of this provision see footnote 5, p. 132, of ch. VII, below 

i" U. S. Code, title 31, sec. 712. 

» TJ. S. Code, title 41, sec. 10, p. 1805. 

» TJ. S. Code, Supp. Ill, title 41, sec. 35 IT., p. 472 f. 



6 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

$10,000 in value. Persons employed in filling such contracts are to 
be paid not less than the prevailing minimum wage for similar work 
as determined by the Secretary of Labor, are not to work over 8 hours 
a day or 40 hours a week, are not to be required to work under insani- 
tary or hazardous working conditions, and are not to be under 16 
years of age, if male, or 18, if female. Exceptions are made for goods 
which may usually be bought in the open market and for perishables 
and certain agricultural commodities. Moreover, the Secretary of 
Labor may modify the terms of the act respecting hours and pay on 
the joint recommendation of the agency concerned and the contractor, 
or may make exceptions to the whole act when the head of the con- 
tracting agency states in writing that the conduct of Government 
business will otherwise be impaired. 

5. TYPES OF PURCHASING PROCEDURE 

Five principal types of procedure in Federal purchasing may be dis- 
tinguished. The type which is utilized in each case is determined 
partly by the sort of materials or supplies needed and partly by the 
policies of the using agency. The five principal types are: (1) direct 
purchase by the using agency from suppliers; (2) purchase by the using 
agency under a contract made by the Procurement Division; (3) pur- 
chase by the using agency under a contract made by some other oper- 
ating department or establishment; (4) purchase by the using agency 
from warehouse stocks of the Procurement Division or another oper- 
ating agency; and (5) purchase by the Procurement Division for the 
using agency. A sixth type might be added for purchase of goods 
manufactured by another Federal agency, the chief examples being 
those goods made in Federal prisons; paper, which is cut by the Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, and ink, paste, and glue, which are made by 
it. However, since the total value of these purchases is small and the 
transaction a purely interdepartmental one, this type will not be con- 
sidered further. 

The following table represents an effort to show the actual or esti- 
mated purchases by each type. Due to lack of statistical data in the 
field of Government purchasing, it is far from satisfactory, and is pre- 
sented only in the belief that an approximation is better than nothing 
at all. 

Table IV. — Amount of Federal purchases in the 1939 fiscal year by types of pur- 
chase procedure 



(l) Direct purchase from suppliers ' 

(21 Purchase from General Schedule of Supplies 

(3) Purchase under contracts of another agency 2 

(4) Purchase from warehouse stocks of Procurement Division or another ageney. 

(5) Purchase from suppliers through the Procurement Division 3 



Total. 



1 This figure is an approximation derived by subtracting the total value of purchases by other types of 
procedure from the total reported in the Procurement Division Group's study. This study covered only 
the first 5 months of the 1939 fiscal year, the other 7 months falling within the 1938 fiscal year. Therefore, 
the two periods do not coincide, and some allowance for error must be made. 

1 Estimated. The principal items are lubricating oil, some gasoline and fuel oil purchased under Navy 
contracts, and envelopes purchased under Post Office contracts. 

5 Figure obtained by subtracting the sales from the Procurement warehouse to using agencies from the 
sales under the general supply fund of the Procurement Division, and adding to the remainder the pur- 
chases under the emergency program (as given in the hearings on the Treasury Department appropriation 
bills for 1940 and 1941, House Appropriations Committee). 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 7 

To estimate the proportion of total Federal purchases made by the 
Procurement Division, it is necessary to add types (4) and (5) as 
shown in the above table. This gives a figure of $264,000,000 — 
approximately 30 percent of the total Federal purchases — as the por- 
tion handled by the Procurement Division. 

There follows a brief discussion of each of the types of purchase 
procedure in the order in which they appear in table IV. 

1. Direct purchase from the supplier by the agency using the com- 
modity is still the most common method of procurement. Such 
purchase may be made either in Washington or in the field. If the 
amount involved is at all considerable, the typical procedure will be 
to advertise for bids, open them publicly, 13 and award the contract 
to the lowest responsible bidder whose product meets the specifications 
set forth in the advertisement. Such contracts may be either term 
contracts or contracts for definite quantity purchases (i. e., open- 
market purchases). As shipments are received under the contract, 
the vouchers are sent to the disbursing officers of the Treasury by the 
receiving agency. In the Treasury proper charges are made against 
the appropriation of the affected agency, a check is mailed to the con- 
tractor, and the voucher is forwarded to the General Accounting 
Office for audit. That office will verify the authority under which the 
purchase was made, ascertain that the expenditure was permissible 
under the terms of the applicable appropriation, and otherwise 
satisfy itself as to the correctness of the voucher. 

2. One of the principal functions of the Procurement Division is to 
act as a service agency in making contracts for goods for which there 
is sufficient demand to justify the creation of sources of supply avail- 
able at all times — usually goods used by several Federal agencies. 
Such contracts may be made for any length of time the Procurement 
Division may determine, except that they may t not exceed 12 months. 
These contracts are generally referred to as General Schedule of 
Supplies contracts, the function having been inherited by the Procure- 
ment Division from the old General Supply Committee. 14 For the 
benefit of the operating agencies, these contracts are classified accord- 
ing to the classes of the Federal Standard Stock Catalog and are col- 
lected in loose-leaf printed form. This General Schedule of Supplies 
enables the purchasing officer of a particular agency to know the price, 
approximate length of time required for delivery, and name of the 
contractor from whom he must order the particular commodity he 
needs. The General Schedule of Supplies was prepared primarily for 
the benefit of the agencies located in Washington on whom its use is 
mandatory, but it is also used to an increasing extent by field agencies. 
As to certain items — tires and tubes, furniture and office equipment, 
electric light bulbs — use of the General Schedule of Supplies is manda- 
tory throughout the country. 15 In recent years the Procurement 
Division has negotiated a number of consolidated service contracts in 
metropolitan areas for such services as electricity, gas, drayage, and 
repair of office machines. Once the contract has been made the 

'3 Advertisement and public opening of bids is characteristic of the other types of purchase procedure also, 
thouih this may not be done by the using agency itself. For a discussion of certain results of this provision 
see ch. VII below, pp. 78 ff. 

H See below, p. 11. 

18 Freight arrangements on deliveries to field services vary. The country is zoned for certain kinds of 
furniture, for example", and prices differ from zone to zone. The usual arrangement for other commodities 
is that on shipments weighing less than 100 pounds where transportation charges are not greater than to 
Washington, D. C, the contractor shall pay the freight. On other shipments the Government pays an 
1 . o. b. factory price and then pays the freight itself. 



g CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 

responsibility of the Procurement Division is at an end; the actual 
ordering, receipt, inspection, and payment for commodities purchased 
under the contract is left to the agency which uses the goods. 16 Pur- 
chases under these General Schedule of Supplies contracts have in- 
creased substantially during the last 4 years, as shown by the following 
figures : 

1936 $38,200,00011938 $60,368,000 

1937 54, 154,000| 1939 60,679,000 

3. Purchase under contracts of another operating agency is a varia- 
tion of the second type of purchase procedure described above, the 
difference being that the contract is made by some other agency than 
the Procurement Division. The advantage is that an agency using 
only a small amount of a commodity during a year is enabled to avail 
itself of the more favorable terms obtained by another agency which 
contracts for large quantities. Perhaps the best example of this is 
the purchase of lubricating oils. Since the Navy Department is the 
largest single purchaser, the Director of Procurement has delegated 
to it the responsibility of negotiating lubricating oil contracts but 
making their use mandatory upon all Federal agencies. 

4. In purchases by the using agency from stocks of the Procure- 
ment Division, the latter functions as a jobber or retailer financed by 
means of a permanently available revolving fund of $3,000,000. The 
Procurement Division makes the purchase, takes delivery of the 
merchandise, and makes pay aent from its revolving fund. It stores 
the merchandise in its ware iouse, from which shipment is made as 
orders are received from the operating agency. The Procurement 
Division is reimbursed by a transfer of funds from the operating 
agency to the revolving fund of the Procurement Division, the instru- 
ment by which this transfer is accomplished being called a transfer and 
counter-warrant. In addition to charging the agency the cost of the 
goods, the Procurement Division adds a surcharge of 5 percent to 
cover expenses of handling, storage, and inspection. Thus depletion 
of the revolving fund through charging it with administrative costs is 
prevented. 

There are also some purchases, particularly in the field, from the 
warehouse stocks of another Federal operating agency. Several 
agencies buy supplies from the Forest Service warehouses, 17 the Coast 
Guard frequently buys from navy yards, and other examples of inter- 
departmental purchases could be cited. 

At this point some explanation of this revolving fund, called the 
General Supply Fund, seems in order. It was established by Congress 
on February 27, 1929, and at first was only $300,000. The amount 
of the fund was increased from time to time and now stands at 
$3,000,000. It enables the Procurement Division to carry in stock 
around 2,000 items commonly used by the departments and establish- 
ments. As a result of consolidation of anticipated requirements, the 
Procurement Division is able to purchase in large quantities at whole- 
sale prices commodities which otherwise would be purchased in small 
lots, probably at higher prices, by the operating agencies. Purchases 
under this fund amounted to $30,449,165 in the 1939 fiscal year, 18 

i« An exception to this statement should be noted for cases (now infrequent) where the Procurement 
Division is asked by the operating agency, as a convenience to it, to handle the purchasing of articles listed 
In the General Schedule of Supplies and other articles. 

" See ch. IX, p. 124 for a fuller discussion of sales by the Forest Service to other Federal agencies. 

»« Hearings on the Treasury Department Appropriation Bill for 1941, p. 762. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 9 

indicating a very rapid turn-over. Judging by the rate for the first 
5 months, Captain Collins, Director of the Procurement Division, in 
his testimony before the House Appropriations Committee 19 esti- 
mated the expenditures from this fund for the 1940 fiscal year would 
increase to $40,000,000. However, these figures include not only 
purchases for its warehouse stock but also some purchases made by 
the Procurement Division for operating agencies where no storage is 
involved (type 5, below, as well as type 4). 

5. Purchase by the Procurement Division for the using agency 
differs from the preceding type of purchase procedure in that there is 
no storage or inspection by the Procurement Division. If the pur- 
chase is made by any of certain civil agencies in the District of Colum- 
bia, if it involves an expenditure in excess of $100, and if the commodity 
is not listed in the General Schedule of Supplies, it must (with certain 
exceptions for emergency purchases or specialized articles) be made 
through the Procurement Division. Or, even in the absence of a 
requirement to purchase through the Procurement Division, the 
operating agency, lacking the technical personnel required to make the 
purchase itself, may request the Procurement Division to make the 
purchase for it. The Procurement Division will prepare the proposal 
forms, circulate them to prospective bidders, award the contract, 
place the purchase order, and make the payment, being reimbursed 
by the operating agency. 20 In such a case, delivery may be either to 
the Procurement Division for reshipment or may be direct to the 
operating agency. For its service the Procurement Division makes a 
surcharge of 3 percent of the cost of the item. Even more important 
in terms of volume than purchases of this nature in Washington, is 
the purchasing which the Procurement Division does in the field 
under the emergency relief program. The Work Projects Administra- 
tion accounts for the bulk of these emergency purchases, but other 
emergency agencies such as the Farm Security Administration and 
the Civilian Conservation Corps also make purchases through the 
field offices of the Procurement Division. At one time there were 
field offices of the Division in each of the 48 States, Hawaii, Puerto 
Rico, and the Virgin Islands, but in the last 2 years there have been 
some consolidations of State offices. It should be noted that there 
is no surcharge directly attached to each purchase made under the 
emergency relief program, the administrative expenses of the Procure- 
ment Division for this function being provided for in the relief appro- 
priation acts. 

6. DEVELOPMENT OF CENTRALIZED CONTROL 

A brief account of the development of centralized control over 
the purchasing of the Federal Government, and particularly an ac- 
count of the establishment and growth of the Procurement Division, 
may contribute to a better understanding of the present system. 

While considerable thought had been devoted by various govern- 
mental boards and commissions to the matter of obtaining more 
uniform quality and better prices on supplies used in more than one 
department, not much was actually done about the problem until the 
establishment of a General Supply Committee in 1909. In that year 

'•Ibid., p. Tin. 

10 In some rases the operating agency is billed directly and makes the payment itself. 



JO CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

the President issued an Executive order directing that purchases of 
supplies by departments and independent establishments be made 
under contracts listed in the General Schedule of Supplies. This 
schedule, to include common supplies needed by the several depart- 
ments in Washington, was to be prepared by the General Supply 
Committee, which was composed of representatives of the departments 
and establishments. The Committee was also given the task of 
eliminating unnecessary grades and varieties. In 1910 this Executive 
order was given legislative sanction. Under the system set up by the 
General Supply Committee, bids were requested in January and 
February on about 20 classes of commodities. The bidders were 
informed roughly of the quantities purchased by the departments 
during the preceding fiscal year and were requested to bid on such 
quantities of each item as the departments might purchase during 
the coming fiscal year. This system had certain advantages, but 
there were also disadvantages. Since ( contractor was bidding for 
all the purchases of a particular item of the departments in Wash- 
ington, he had an incentive to quote lower prices. On the other hand, 
he did not know how great the quantity used would be, and he was 
compelled to gamble on market conditions for a period extending 15 
or 16 months from the time he submitted his bid. Accordingly, he 
was likely to play safe and protect himself by quoting rather high 
prices. From an administrative point of view, however, the system 
was a great advance, obviating a vast amount of work by individual 
agencies in preparing proposals, making awards, and so forth. 

This system was not adapted to wartime procurement, and after a 
period of initial confusion in 1917, was supplanted temporarily by an 
elaborate set of controls. 21 After the war attention was focused on 
the establishment of a budget system and the coordination of the rou- 
tine business of the Government. By direction of the President, the 
Director of the Bureau of the Budget established several interdepart- 
mental coordinating boards, generally composed of representatives of 
interested departments. One of these was the Federal Specifications 
Board, whose duty it was to adopt and promulgate standard specifica- 
tions for materials and services used by two or more Federal agencies, 
and bring such specifications into harmony with the best commercial 
practices. To date over 1,200 Federal specifications have been pro- 
mulgated. 22 Another was the Interdepartmental Board of Contracts 
and Adjustments, created to standardize contract forms as far as pos- 
sible, and also to promote uniform practices in negotiating, interpret- 
ing, and executing contracts. A third was the Federal Standard Stock 
Catalog Board, which determines the articles to be included in the 
Federal Standard Stock Catalog already described. 23 A fourth was 
the Federal Traffic Board, designed to promote economies in the rout- 
ing of freight and passengers by the various departments and estab- 
lishments. This Board has also been active in establishing uniform 
classifications on Government items and in attempting to secure lower 
rates on freight, express, and parcel-post shipments. The Federal 
Purchasing Board set up at this time will be discussed later. Mention 
should also be made here of the area coordinators, usually Army or 

n For a discussion of war purchasing see ch. V of this study. 

'* In addition the War Department has developed specifications for articles or services 'which are peculiar 
to the military service, or which are not covered by Federal specifications. Their use is mandatory upon all 
agencies of the Army. The Navy has also prepared certain specifications for its own use. 

M P. 2 above. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER U 

Navy officers, who were appointed by a Chief Coordinator, and whose 
function it was to do what they could to coordinate the purchasing and 
other institutional activities of the field services of the various depart- 
ments and establishments. In doing this they worked with the Fed- 
eral business associations, composed of all the Federal officials in a 
given locality. At one time there were about 300 of these associations 
throughout the country; their number has now dwindled to around 
125. For years considerable space in the annual report of the Direc- 
tor of the Budget was devoted to a recital of economies effected by 
them' and the area coordinators. With the abolition of the system of 
area coordinators, the Federal business associations have become rela- 
tively inactive. 

In 1922 the Chief Coordinator established a committee to study 
Government purchasing. This committee called attention to the 
speculative elements in the existing system of term or running con- 
tracts composing the General Schedule of Supplies, and recommended 
that the experiment of definite-quantity buying be tried for one class 
of supplies. This was done for tires and tubes, and invitations for 
bids on some 6,000 of each, representing the combined requirements 
of the civil agencies of the Federal Government for a 4-month period, 
were issued. The bids submitted showed a great reduction of prices 
over the contracts in the General Schedule of Supplies, the average 
being 35 percent. After this experiment the definite-quantity method 
was extended to cover a number of other important common items for 
which the market frequently presented considerable fluctuation. 
The Federal Purchasing Board, composed of a representative (usually 
the principal purchasing officer) of each department and independent 
establishment, interested itself in the possibilities of extending this 
system of definite-quantity buying not only to the departmental 
service in Washington but also to the field service. It recommended 
the establishment of a Federal warehouse in Washington where com- 
mon supplies bought in definite quantities for the use of all or several 
agencies could be received , inspected , and stored until needed. It also 
recommended a revolving fund to finance such purchasing. 

By the act of February 27, 1929, 24 such a warehouse was authorized 
and a revolving fund created. The next year the District of Columbia 
appropriation act provided that the District of Columbia should no 
longer prepare its own schedule of supplies but should purchase from 
General Supply Committee contracts and the stocks to be maintained 
in the new warehouse. Although the District purchasing officer op- 
posed the change at first, after a year's experience he reported large 
savings and an improvement in the quality of goods received. 

On June 10, 1933, an Executive order was issued 26 establishing a 
Procurement Division in the Treasury Department and transferring 
to it the functions of the General Supply Committee, the Govern- 
ment fuel yards of the Bureau of Mines (which had been purchasing 
fuel for agencies in the District of Columbia), and the Office of the 
Supervising Architect of the Treasury. With reference to procure- 
ment, the order read as follows: 

The function of determination of policies and methods of procurement, ware- 
housing, and distribution of property, facilities, structures, improvements, 
machinery, equipment, stores, and supplies exercised by any agency is trans- 
ferred to a Procurement Division in the Treasury Department, at the head of 
which shall be a Director of Procurement. 



« 45 Stat. 1341, ch. 354, 70th Cong., 2d sess. 
M Executive Order No. 6166. 



1 2 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

In respect to any kind of procurement, warehousing, or distribution for any 
agency the Procurement Division may, with the approval of the President, (a) 
undertake the performance of such procurement, warehousing, or distribution 
itself, or (b) permit such agency to perform such procurement, warehousing, or 
distribution, or (c) entrust such performance to some other agency, or (d) avail 
itself in part of any of these resources, according as it may deem desirable in the 
Interest of economy and efficiency. When the Procurement Division has pre- 
scribed the manner of procurement, warehousing, or distribution of any thing, no 
agency shall thereafter procure, warehouse, or distribute such thing in any manner 
other than so prescribed. 

It will be noted that foil discretion as to methods of purchasing; is 
allowed the Procurement Division; it will also be noted from the 
previous discussion that the Division has made use of them all. In 
compliance with this order the staff and property of the General 
Supply Committee and the Government fuel yards were transferred 
to the new division. The same order abolished the Federal Coordi- 
nating Service. Certain of its functions relating to procurement were 
taken over by the Procurement Division. Thus the activities of the 
Federal Specifications Board, the Interdepartmental Board of Con- 
tracts and Adjustments, the Federal Standard Stock Catalog Board, 
and the Federal Traffic Board were continued within the new Pro- 
curement Division. 

Since 1933 the work of the Procurement Division has expanded 
very substantially. The greatest expansion came in the summer of 
1935 when by Executive order the Procurement Division 26 took over 
the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration purchase 
offices. Using these offices as a nucleus the Procurement Division 
set up the system of field offices throughout the country for purchasing 
under the emergency program to which reference has already been 
made. 27 In addition the Procurement Division has extended the 
field of definite-quantity purchase, has increased the number of items 
carried in stock in the Federal warehouse, and has extended the utili- 
zation of Navy Department contracts and those of some other services 
by all or several field services. The volume and scope of purchases 
under the General Schedule of Supplies contracts has steadily in- 
creased. 28 Under the old General Supply Committee these contracts 
were made primarily for the benefit of the departments in Washing- 
ton, but now they are utilized also by field services throughout the 
country. In cases where it was found advantageous, term contracts 
for shorter terms than a year have been negotiated. The Procure- 
ment Division has also been active in arranging the consolidated 
term contracts for services in metropolitan areas previously men- 
tioned. 29 Finally, the Surplus Property Section of the Procurement 
Division has been active in effecting transfers and reissuing property 
declared surplus by agencies. 

Reorganization Plan No. I, effective July 1, 1939, divided the 
Procurement Division, leaving the supply activities in the Treasury, 
but transferring to the new Federal Works Agency the functions 
having to do with the construction and administration of public 
buildings. The title "Procurement Division" now refers solely to 
that pare of the old Division retained by the Treasury. 

Despite the gradual development of centralized purchasing during 
the last 30 years, almost two-thirds of the purchasing of Ihe Federal 

*> Executive Order No. 7034, May 6, 1935. 

" P. 9, above. 

28 For increase in this type of purchasing during the last 4 years, see p. 8, above. 

« P. 7, above. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 13 

Government is still on the decentralized basis of direct dealings 
between the operating agency and the supplier, outside even of the 
restrictions imposed by the General Schedule of Supplies. Prior to 
1939 the Procurement Division itself had been careful to emphasize 
that it intended to use existing procurement facilities of departments 
and field offices where practicable. 30 Thus in the hearings before the 
subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee considering 
the 1940 Treasury appropriation bill, 31 we find Admiral Peoples, then 
Director of the Procurement Division, testifying in answer to a 
question on purchasing of food for the public health hospitals, the 
marine hospitals, and the veterans' hospitals: 

* * * We could go into it, but our experience has taugh us this, Mr. McLeod, 
right from the very beginning, with respect to procurement, that sometimes it is 
advisable and sometimes it is not, and that when an agency is performing a special 
mission and doing it economically and well, it is better to let us recognize them 
as an agency, as a part of the general procurement plan of the Government and 
as an asency of the Federal Government. 

For instance, in that sense the Navy head buys the food and tin goods, and so 
forth, likewise the Army, and likewise the veterans' hospitals located around the 
country, and they can do so locally cheaper. It would duplicate cost and be 
more expensive for us to do it, and we have not been able to see any economy 
in centralizing food contracts here. 

However, later on in the testimony reference was made to a study 
which was then being made of various procurement activities with a 
view to determining what consolidations might be effected in the field, 
and Admiral Peoples admitted there was a possibility of substantial 
savings along that line. 312 At aii}^ rate, on June 10, 19.39, an order 
was issued by the Director of Procurement, which if it were to go into 
effect, would completely change the procrement system of the civil- 
ian services of the Federal Government. This was Order No. 73, 
and was approved by the Secretary of the Treasury and the President. 
The most important sections read as follows: 

2. The Procurement Division, Treasury Department, shall hereafter undertake 
the performance of procurement of all supplies for use either at the seat of Govern- 
ment or in the field for all existing Government agencies and such agencies here- 
after created: Provided, That any agency may perform such procurement itself 
to the extent permitted by the Director of Procurement until such dates as the 
Director ma} r designate with respect to specific agencies, specific kinds of procure- 
ment, or specific supplies. 

3. The offices of the Procurerhent Division now existing in the several States 
shall form the nucleus for the field activities of a general procurement service. 

The order further stated that records, property, and personnel engaged 
in the procurement of supplies for any agency were to be transferred, 
effective as of dates prescribed by the Director of Procurement. Un- 
expended balances of appropriations or funds to be used for adminis- 
trative expenses of procurement were likewise to be transferred, sub- 
ject, however, to the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury and 
the Director of the Budget. 

It will be noted that section 2 of the order allowed an exception to 
centralized control insofar as the Director of Procurement might per- 
mit. In the letter accompanying the order the Director stated that 

30 See testimony of Admiral Peoples before the Appropriation Committee of the House of Representa- 
tives during Hearings on the Treasurv appropriation bills— 1935, pp. 397 f., 402, 419; 1936, p. 650; 1937, p. 
829 f; 1938. p. 425. 

31 Hearings, House Appropriations Subcommittee, Treasury Department Appropriation Bill for 1940, 
p. 1247. 

33 Ibid., p. 1248 f.. also p. 1254. 

202342—41— No. 10 3 



"L4 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

until further notice the departments and establishments might con- 
tinue their respective procurement systems without change. Since 
issuance of this order the Procurement Division has moved to take 
over the purchasing of two of the new agencies set up by the Presi- 
dent's reorganization orders, namely, the Federal Works Agency and 
the Federal Security Agency. However, the necessary approval of 
the Director of the Budget for transfer of funds from the purchasing 
divisions of these two operating agencies to the Division of Procure- 
ment was not granted. 

Apparently the Procurement Division decided that additional infor- 
mation about Federal purchasing was desirable before any further 
steps were taken under Order No. 73. While the Division of Procure- 
ment is charged with the duty of making investigations and studying 
the possibilities of coordinating purchase of commodities by various 
agencies, this work has had to be put aside, for the most part, because 
of the additional burden imposed by the emergency relief program. 
Accordingly, the Division of Procurement requested an increase of 
$153,277 in its appropriation for 1941 to cover the cost of setting up 
a statistical unit. Captain Collins, who succeeded Admiral Peoples 
as Director of Procurement, explained the functions of the proposed 
unit as follows: 33 

The balance of the increase requested, $153,277, is to cover a statistical unit. 
Until such a statistical organization can be created the Procurement Division will 
be dependent upon other sources for information concerning markets, the volume 
of purchases to be made by the Government, the materials which may best be 
covered by term contracts and those which should be bought in definite quantities, 
and other information which is really essential to do a scientific purchasing job. 
It is proposed to create a unit which will receive from all governmental sources 
complete information as to just what i6 being purchased, how it is being purchased, 
what it costs, where it is used. From this information conclusions can be reached 
as to whether such materials should be covered by long- or short-term contracts, 
whether they should be bought in large or small quantities, where they can best 
be purchased, whether they should be carried in Government warehouses or issued 
as needed, and other conclusions, the net result of which should be reflected in 
dollars-and-cents savings to the Government far in excess of the comparatively 
small cost of such a unit. 

The Bureau of the Budget allowed this request, but it was denied by 
the Appropriations Committee of the House. 

On February 24, 1940, the Director of the Budget, in a letter to 
the heads of the departments, independent establishments and agen- 
cies, submitted for comment a proposal made by the Director of 
Procurement with respect to centralization of purchases for civil 
agencies within the District of Columbia. It was proposed to turn 
back to the operating agencies responsibility for making purchases 
under $100 in the open market, but to have the Procurement Division 
make purchases over this amount. Exceptions to this last were made 
in the case of emergency purchases, perishable commodities, and 
articles of a specialized and technical nature. No change was sug- 
gested in the method of procuring items stocked by the Procurement 
Division, or listed in the General Schedule of Supplies, and it should 
also be noted that the agencies were permitted to purchase through 
the Procurement Division in any case where they considered it to be 
to the Government's advantage. While no order embodying this 
proposal was formally issued, the Procurement Division has by letter 

» Hearings, House Appropriations Subcommittee, Treasury Department Appropriation Bill for 1941, 
p. 744. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 15 

put into effect these proposals with respect to each civil agency within 
the District of Columbia for which Order No. 73 was actually opera- 
tive. The Procurement Division still does not make purchases for 
the War and Navy Departments, which were not covered by Order 
No. 73 and which remain free to make purchases of any size in what- 
ever way they see fit, whether these purchases are made in the District 
of Columbia or in the field. Because of insufficient personnel all 
purchasing for civil agencies in the field, other than that under the 
emergency relief program, has been abandoned by the Procurement 
Division. Thus matters stand with respect to centralization of control 
of Federal purchasing at the interdepartmental level. 34 

Along with the development of centralized control at the inter- 
departmental level has gone a development of control within depart- 
ments. The situation may be briefly summarized with respect to the 
large purchasing departments and agencies. 

The War Department employees centralized control and decentral- 
ized operation in its purchasing. After the last war a Current Pro- 
curement Branch was created in the Office of the Assistant Secretary 
of War, with the duties of preparing general procurement policies, 
collecting information on procurement, dealing with complaints- of 
bidders and contractors, maintaining contacts with other departments 
and agencies including the Procurement Division of the Treasury, 
and in general exercising supervision over the current procurement of 
the Department. The Quartermaster Corps is responsible for obtain- 
ing all supplies of a commercial nature which are common to two or 
more arms and services. Special and technical articles are procured 
by the various technical services — the Air Corps, the Chemical War- 
fare Service, the Engineers, the Medical Department, the Ordnance 
Department, the Coast Artillery Corps, and the Signal Corps. The 
National Guard Bureau purchases for the National Guard. There 
are purchase and storage points throughout the country. Practically 
all the purchases involved are made in the field. 35 

Purchasing for the Navy is rather highly centralized under the 
Bureau of Supplies and Accounts. The stock of general supplies is 
financed by the Naval Supply Account Fund which is a revolving fund 
with a value of approximately $73,000,000. The quantity of supplies 
to be carried by supply yards is fixed by formula, and at certain speci- 
fied times these yards inform the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts as 
to their requirements for the coming 6-month period. When these 
requests reach the Bureau, they are checked against its excess-stock 
records, the quantities to be purchased are determined, and the re- 
quests forwarded to the Bureau's Purchase Division for action. 
Certain supply officers are authorized to make local contracts for 
provisions, etc., and the commandant of any activity is authorized to 
approve for purchase any emergency requisition, Arms, ammunition, 
and gun forgings are purchased by the Bureau of Ordnance. Pur- 

M On June 27, 1940, after the above was written, the Council of National Defense issued an order estab- 
lishing the Office for Coordination of National Defense Purchases. For a summary of this order see footDOto 
35 on p. 58, ch. V. The order centralizes in this office control over regular purchases as well as those occa- 
sioned by the national-defense emergency. The extent to which this control is to be exercised is not yet 
apparent. 

»« Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1938, p. 26. 



IQ CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWEEi 

chasing for the Marine Corps is under the jurisdiction of the Quarter- 
master, and is largely centralized in Washington for the east coast 
and in San Francisco for the west coast. 

It has already been pointed out that purchasing for the Work 
Projects Administration is under the direction of the Procurement 
Division. The bulk of the purchases are made through the State 
offices of the Procurement Division, but in some cases the purchasing 
facilities of other agencies have been utilized. 

These three agencies, as has been stated, 36 accounted for approxi- 
mately three-fourths of the Government's purchases from December 
1937 to November 1938, inclusive. Of the other important purchasers 
the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture 
are examples of largely decentralized departments with literally 
hundreds of field offices and agents throughout the United States, each 
engaged in making purchases for particular activities. Some control 
is exercised from Washington, however, by the purchasing officer in 
the Interior Department and the Office of Budget and Finance in the 
Department of Agriculture. Purchasing for the Treasury Depart- 
ment is largely decentralized. The Veterans' Administration pur- 
chases general supplies and equipment through a central office in 
Washington. Purchases of most medicines, fresh meats, fruit, and 
vegetables are made locally. The Purchasing Agent of the Post Office 
Department supervises the purchase of all supplies. Minor purchases 
are made in the field but are subject to supervision from Washington. 
Equipment, materials, and supplies for the Tennessee Valley Author- 
ity's projects are procured through the T. V. A. Materials Department. 
The principal purchasing office is maintained at Knoxville, with field 
procurement offices at several of the construction projects. The 
Panama Canal maintains a department of supply on the Isthmus, with 
an office in Washington which handles purchasing and other activities 
in the United States. There is a Division of Purchases and Sales in 
the Department of Commerce which exercises supervision over con- 
tracts and purchases made by field offices. 

m P. 3 above. 



CHAPTER II 

NOTES ON STATE AND LOCAL PURCHASING 

While statistics on the extent and character of Federal purchasing 
are far from satisfactory, they are much more complete than such 
statistics for State and local governments. In many cities and States 
purchasing is not centralized, but is carried on by the operating de- 
partments, boards, and institutions. Even where purchasing is 
centralized there are no published reports in many cases. Purchase 
expenditures are not segregated by the Bureau of the Census in its 
annual reports on Financial Statistics of States and Financial Statistics 
of Cities. This means that it is impossible to estimate with accuracy 
the effect of all governmental purchasing — Federal, State, and local — 
on particular industries, or the relationship for all commodities be- 
tween the volume of purchasing by all governmental units and that of 
private industry. 



1. VOLUME OF STATE AND LOCAL PURCHASES 

Data on the expenditures of some cities and States are available. 
Recently the International City Managers' Association, in cooperation 
with the National Association of Purchasing Agents, obtained reports 
from 83 cities of over 30,000 population on purchases made through 
their central purchasing departments during 1938. 1 A few other 
cities which report their purchases annually have been added to make 
up table V. 

Table V. — Recent annual purchases and ratio of purchases to governmental cost 

payments for 88 cities 



Cities i 


Purchases 2 
(thousands) 


G overn- 
mcntal 
cost pay- 
ments 3 
(thousands) 


Ratio of pur- 
chases to gov- 
ernmental cost 
payments 
(percent) 


New York 


$26, 641 

4,874 
6,419 
4, 525 
4,536 
3,173 
1,236 
« 3, 721 
2,838 
6,000 
3,000 
2,527 

"5,140 
5,000 


$718, 680 

60,248 
84, 975 
32, 864 

34, 098 

35, 498 
49, 935 

« 73, 747 
21,872 
58, 685 
29, 459 
38, 402 

45, 734 
29,824 


* i 


Other pities over 500,000: 

Philadelphia 


g 


Detroit 


8 


Los Angeles 


14 


C leveland 


13 


St. Louis. 


9 


Baltimore - 


2 


Boston. _ 


5 


Pittsburgh. _ 


13 


San Francisco 


10 


Milwaukee 


10 


Buffalo. 


7 


100,000 to 500,000: 

Washington, D. C 


11 


Minneapolis 


17 



Footnotes at end of table. 



1 Tables based on these reports are to be found in the Municipal Year Book 1940, International City Man- 
agers' Association. Chicago, pp. 194-201. Through the courtesy of the International City Managers' Asso- 
ciation and the National Association of Purchasing Agents, Governmental Group, the returns were made 
available to the writer. 

17 



18 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Table V. — Recent annual purchases and ratio of purchases to governmental cost 
payments for 88 cities — Continued 



Cities 


Purchases 
(thousands) 


Govern- . 
mental 
cost pay- 
ments 
(thousands) 


Ratio of pur- 
chases to gov- 
ernmental cost 
payments 
(percent) 


100,000 to 500,000— Continued. 

Cincinnati „., 

Newark 


» $4,165 

1,534 

3,766 

2,750 

3,300 

1,183 

8 726 

1,214 

8 406 

1,500 

1,846 

1,000 

2,452 

788 

825 

816 

2,243 

•3,000 

600 

2,000 

300 

642 

1,000 

446 

200 

1,500 

125 

8 186 

• l.'OOO 

1,250 


$18,901 
34,088 
23,538 
12.413 
24, 589 
7,869 
8 7,235 
6,788 
8 6,239 
10, 567 
6,861 
6,517 
14,098 
5,245 
4,012 
3, 61 1 
5.647 
6,870 
5,110 
6,415 
3.633 
3.083 
7,802 
3,199 
1,460 
6.482 
1,816 
8 2. 696 
2,249 
3,274 


22 
4 


Seattle 


16 


Indianapolis „ 


22 


Rochester 


13 


Portland, Oreg 


16 


Columbus 


10 


Toledo 


21 


Oakland 


6 


Atlanta 


14 


Akron.. 


27 


Memphis 


15 


Syracuse 


17 


Dayton... 


15 


Fort Worth 


21 


Flint 


23 


San Diego i 


40 


Bridgeport i. 


44 


Norfolk ■ 


12 


Jacksonville 


31 


Chattanooga 


8 


Spokane 


21 


Cambridge.... 


13 


Reading 


14 


Wichita 


14 


Miami 


23 


Peoria 


7 


El Paso 


7 


Evansville 


44 


Duluth 


38 






Total (cities over 100,000) 1 


122, 393 
» 15, 703 


1, 665. 218 
' 95, 074 


8 


44 cities (30,000 to 100,000) 


»16 






Grand total (88eities) 


138,096 


1, 660, 292 


8.3 







« Arranged in order of population according to the 1930 census. 
' Unless otherwise specified, purchases are for the year 1938. 

* Governmental cost payments are for 1937 for cities over 100,000, this being the last year for which figures 
were available. For cities from 30,000 to 100,000 no more recent figures than those given in Financial Sta- 
tistics of State and Local Governments (1932) were available. Accordingly figures for individual cities in 
this size group are not shown in this table, but an aggregate figure for the governmental cost payments of 
44 such cities is included. Comparison of 1937 and 1932 governmental cost payment figures for the 44 cities 
over 100.000 in this table shows that while there were great differences between the 2 years for individual 
cities, the aggregate figures were not far apart ($1,565,218,000 in 1937, $1,574,694,000 In 1932). It was felt 
that this probably justified use of the 1932 aggregate governmental cost figure for the cities from 30,000 to 
100.000 in computing a ratio between purchases and governmental cost payments. 

The governmental cost payments figures include only the city corporation; data for all overlapping units 
having been excluded. As here used the term "governmental cost payments" includes payments for opera- 
tion and maintenance of the general departments, capital outlays, and for most cities, public service enter- 
prises. However, where it appears that the central purchasing department does not purchase for such 
enterprises they have been excluded. Interest and debt payments are not included. 

* This low ratio is at least partly due to the fact that the libraries,- zoological gardens, art museums, and 
State agencies such as the board of education, board of elections, and surrogates, and supreme courts handle 
their purchasing independently. 

* Purchases and governmental cost payments are for 1935. 

* Purchases are for the year ending November 30, 1938, from the Report of the Procurement Division 
Group. 

7 Figure includes some purchases for Hamilton County, the Board of Education, the University of Cin- 
cinnati, and the Library. 

8 Purchases and governmental cost payments are for 1936. 

* Some of the figures reported are estimates of the city purchasing agent, and are probably overestimated 
in some cases. 



The above table shows the purchases of only 88 of the 310 cities in 
the United States which had a population of over 30,000 in the 1930 
census. However, the coverage of large cities is much higher, as is 
shown by table V (a). 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 19 

Table V (a). — Coverage by size groups of cities included in table V 



Size group 



Total 

number 

in United 

States 



Cities reported 



Number Percent 



New York City.. 

Other cities over 600,000... 

100,000 to 600.000 

30,000 to 100,000 

All cities over 30,000 



1 

12 
80 
217 



100 
02 
40 
20 



310 



28 



The wide range between cities in the ratio of purchase expenditures 
to governmental costs will be noted in table V. It is believed that 
this is chiefly due to two things — the entire exemption of certain 
boards, commissions, and departments from centralized purchasing 
in some cities and not in others; and the direct purchase of certain 
commodities and services (particularly the latter) by operating de- 
partments in some cities, in which case these items would not be in- 
cluded in data reported by central purchasing departments. The 
departments most generally exempted are schools, parks, and libraries. 
Frequently these are not supported from the city's general tax levy 
and in their organization are at least partially independent of the city 
government. In general, the city purchasing department seems to 
purchase for the publicly owned utilities, but where this is known 
not to be the case (as for the municipally owned street railway system 
of Detroit) the operating expenses of such utilities have not been 
included in the governmental cost payment figure. 

Table VI shows purchases, governmental cost payments, and the 
ratio between the two, for six States for which purchase reports were 
available. Here again, purchasing is not always completely central- 
ized, and contractual services are not uniformly included. Since 
liquor monopoly systems are the principal State public service enter- 
prises, 2 and since these systems usually purchase directly, the operat- 
ing expenses of public service enterprises have not been included in 
the governmental cost payments figures. 

Table VI. — Purchases and ratio of purchases to governmental cost payments for 6 

States 



State 



Purchases • 
(thousands) 



Govern- 
mental 
cost pay- 
ments 2 
(thousands) 



Ratio of pur- 
chases to gov- 
ernmental cost 
payments 
(percent) 



Alabama 

Illinois ... 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

Total 



8 $4, 144 
18, 637 
M.307 
'1,312 
8 2,990 
7 6, 171 



$39, 707 
167, 165 
16, 396 
10,830 
55, 035 
70,354 



37,561 



359,487 



10 



i Data taken from reports of State purchasing departments or financial officers. 

' Bureau of the Census, Financial Statistics of States, 1937 (Summary Bulletin), p. 11. As here used the 
term "governmental cost payments" includes capital outlays as well as operating expenses, but does not 
include interest or debt payments. It does not include operating expenses of public service enterprises. 

3 Figure is for the 1938 fiscal year. 

4 Figure is for the 1939 fiscal year. It includes rentals and other contractual services. 

4 This figure represents half the total reported by the State purchasing agent for the 1936-38 biennium. 
For comparability the purchases of alcohol, spirits, and wine for the Liquor Control Board have been sub- 
tracted from the total given in his report. 

8 Figure is for the 1939 fiscal year. 

' This figure represents half the total reported for the 1936-38 biennium. 

> Although in 1937 only 16 States operated alcoholic beverage monopoly systems, these 16 systems ac- 
counted for over 90 percent of both revenues and payments of all State public service enterprises. Bureau 
of the Census, Financial Statistics of States, 1937 (Summary Bulletin), pp. 16-18. 



20 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWEK, 

Any estimate of the total volume of State and local purchasing 
must necessarily be very rough. However, it may be interesting to 
attempt such an estimate, applying the ratios between purchases and 
governmental cost payments derived from tables V and VI to ex- 
penditure figures in the August 1939 Bulletin of the Treasury De- 
partment. Subtracting interest, debt payments, and operating ex- 
penses of public service enterprises, 3 governmental cost payments for 
all local governments during the 1938 fiscal year amounted to 
$6,557,000,000, while for all State governments the total was $3,379,- 
000,000. 4 Applying ratios of 10 percent to the State figure, and 12 
percent and 4 percent 5 to the local government figure, gives an 
estimated total of $1,064,000,000. Because of the omission of some 
departments and commodities in the reporting of purchases, these 
ratios are undoubtedly too low, and it is probable that the volume of 
State and local government purchases substantially exceeds this 
amount. 6 

2. EXTENT OF LOCAL PURCHASING AND PURCHASES UNDER CONTRACT 

In the survey of the International City Managers' Association and 
the National Association of Purchasing Agents already referred to, 7 an 
attempt was made to ascertain the percentage of purchases made 
locally. Table VII shows the distribution of the replies obtained 
from 86 cities. It should be noted that the term "local concerns" 
was defined to include local representatives of manufacturers or 
distributors whose main office was elsewhere. 

Table VII. — Percent of purchases made locally as reported for 86 cities 



Number of 
cities 

90 to 100 percent 28 

80 to 89 percent 22 

70 to 79 percent _" 19 



Number of 
cities 

60 to 69 percent 7 

50 to 59 percent 5 

Less than 50 percent 5 

The tendency for cities to make most of their purchases locally is 
even more evident among cities of over 500,000. Of the seven cities 
in this category answering the question, three reported 95 percent, one 
85 percent, one 80 percent, and two 75 percent. New York City did 
not answer this question. 

In the same survey a question was asked as to the percentage of the 
city's purchases made under formal contract. Table VIII shows the 
distribution of responses from 54 cities. 

' Operating expenses of public service enterprises are not reported in the Bulletin, hence it is impossible 
to in.iude them for local governments. 

4 These figures include expenditures from own sources and from intergovernmental grants received, but 
exclude grants paid other jurisdictions. 

6 Two ratios are used for local governments— 12 percent being the ratio derived from table V for all cities 
except New York and 4 percent being the ratio for New York. As explained in footnote 4, table V, the 
New York purchase figure includes only a part of the city's purchases, and to have included it in com- 
puting a ratio for all 8S cities would have made this ratio unduly low. Accordingly, governmental cost 
payments for New York City were subtracted from the $6,557,000,000 governmental cost figure, the 12 
percent ratio applied to the result, and the $20,041,000 worth of purchases for New York City added to the 
product to obtain an estimated local government purchases figure. 

9 Russell Forbes, in his book Governmental Purchasing (Harper, New York, 1929), estimates that ex- 
penditures for supplies, material, and equipment consume from 20 percent to 30 percent of the current oper- 
ating budget of the average government (p. 4). This book was published in 1929, however, and his esti- 
mate would probably be high today because of the larger proportion of governmental expenditures today 
in the form of direct payments to individuals and other subsidies of various sorts. 

' See above, p. 17. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



21 



Table VIII. — Percent of pitrchases under formal contract as reported for 54 cities 



Number of 
cities 

90 to 100 percent 

80 to 89 percent 3 

70 to 79 percent 6 

60 to 69 percent 6 

50 to 59 percent 6 



Number of 
cities 

40 to-49 percent 5 

30 to 39 persent 7 

20 to 29 percent ... 11 

10 to 19 percent 5 

Less than 10 percent 5 



Among larger cities there is, as might be expected, a tendency to 
make a greater proportion of their purchases under formal contracts. 

Of the eight cities of over 500, OOOreporting, one made 85 percent of its 
purchases under contract; three, 75 percent; one (New York City), 70 
percent; two, 50 percent; and only one less than 50 percent (Buffalo, 
30 percent). 

3. CHARACTER OF PURCHASES 

Even municipal purchasing departments issuing an annual report 
rarely give the amount of their purchases classified by commodities. 
However, it was possible to obtain such figures for six cities — from the 
annual reports of Detroit, Boston, Cincinnati, and Newark; from the 
Report of the Procurement Division Group for Washington, D. C; 
and from a tabulation for New York City furnished by Mr. Russell 
Forbes, Commissioner of Purchase for New York City. These re- 
ports cover different years, and the classification differs from city to 
city. Because of this last fact, some rather arbitrary decisions had to 
be made in devising a common classification. The following table 
shows the percentage distribution by type of commodity of the pur- 
chases of these six cities, together with the total purchases of each. 

Table IX. — Percentage distribution by type of commodity of the recent annual pur- 
chases of 6 cities 1 



Commodity 



New 
York 



Detroit 



Boston 


Cincin- 
nati 


Wash- 
ington 


New- 
ark 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


9.2 


20.1 


25.1 


24.4 


14.9 


14.5 


12.0 


14.9 


22.1 


7.5 


14.1 


18.8 


2.8 


6.2 


3.5 


7.8 


( 2 ) 


24.9 


10.2 


( 2 ) 


8.2 


6.2 


3.5 


8.3 


1.1 


2.1 


8.8 


5.9 


4.1 


4.2 


4.3 


2.7 


1.5 


2.3 


2.4 


2.5 


2 


1.0 


4.0 


1.5 


7.2 


11.0 


12.1 


13.2 


28.7 








$3, 721 


$3, 652 


$5, 140 


$1,534 



Total 



1. Building and paving materials (lumber, 

iron and steel, cement, pipes, paint and 
paint materials, hardware, etc.) 

2. Fuels and lubricants. 

3. Food, forage, and feed 

4. Motor vehicles, parts, and accessories 

5. Contractual services (including rentals) . . . 

6. Drugs and chemicals, surgical, hospital, 

and laboratory apparatus 

7. Printing and forms, books, stationery, and 

office equipment 

8. Textiles and dry goods 

9. Electrical equipment and supplies 

10. Furniture, fixtures, and office equipment.. 

11. All other 

12. Unclassified r 

Total purchases (thousands) 3 



Percent 
22.1 
18.9 
17.2 
8.6 
3.4 

7.7 

6.4 
2.0 
1.3 
2.4 
10.0 



Percent 
18.7 
23.4 
12.8 
9.6 
2.2 

6.5 

4.9 
2.4 
9.8 
1.4 
8.3 



$29, 082 



$6,099 



Percent 

21.0 

18.0 

16.0 

7.6 

5.2 

7.1 

5.7 
2.6 
2.6 
2.1 
10.0 
2.1 
$49, 228 



i The year for which data are reported differs from city to city. For Cincinnati data are for the 1939 calen- 
dar year; for Newark the 1938 calendar year; for Washington the year ending November 30, 1938; for 
New York the 1937 calendar year; for Detroit the 1936 calendar year; and for Boston the 1935 calendar year. 

3 No report; probably arranged for by the operating departments. 

3 Total purchases for New York, Detroit, and Cincinnati are different from those in table V, because the 
figures given in the 2 tables are for different years. 

Comparison of this table with that in chapter 1 8 showing the type 
of commodities purchased by the Federal Government discloses simi- 
larities not only as regards the commodities purchased but as regards 

9 P. 3. 



22 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

their relative importance in /terms of expenditure. Thus the largest 
expenditure both for the cities and the Federal Government was for. 
construction materials. Food accounted for 14.6 percent of all Federal 
expenditures and for 16 percent of the total for the six cities. Con- 
tractual services were important both to the Federal Government and 
the municipalities. Fuels and lubricants were a more important item 
for the cities, ranking* second in the municipal table, and ninth for the 
Federal Government. In both tables motor vehicles were important, 
ranking fourth in one case and ^ixth in the other. Likewise, textiles 
and dry goods, electrical equipment and supplies, and stationery and 
office supplies are major jtems in both Federal and municipal purchas- 
ing. The most striking difference between the two tables lies in the 
large expenditure of the Federal Government for military items. 
While police departments of cities buy some arms and ammunition, 
the amounts spent are almost negligible relative to other purchases. 
On the other hand, cities purchase some items, such as fire hose, recre- 
ational and athletic equipment, and traffic signals and street signs 
which the Federal Government either does not purchase at all, or 
purchases in small amounts. Certain articles used primarily in hos- 
pitals and other institutions, are purchased by both Federal and muni- 
cipal governments, but appear to be relatively more important for the 
latter. These include surgical, hospital, and laboratory equipment; 
drugs, medicines, and sundries; and tableware, kitchen ware, and house- 
hold equipment. Furniture and office equipment, and stationery and 
supplies are fairly important purchases at all levels of government. 

If reports were available for States, construction materials might 
bulk even larger and highway construction machinery would probably 
be a considerable item, because of the importance of the highway 
function. 



CHAPTER III 

INDICATIONS OF DISORDERLY TIMING OF FEDERAL 
PURCHASE ORDERS 

1. EXTENT OF UNEVENNESS OF TIMING 

Examination of purchase orders of 45 Federal agencies in the 
12-month period December 1937 to November 1938 reveals that such 
orders are by no means spread evenly through the year. 1 This fact 
means, that, at least potentially, the Federal Government can — by 
greatly expanding or contracting demand for particular commodities 
at a given time — cause unnecessary fluctuations in the prices paid by 
it and by private buyers. Even if all the 45 agencies involved be con- 
sidered together, it is found that, in June of the period studied, 13 per- 
cent of the dollar volume of purchase orders for the entire year was 
made. If it had happened that purchases had been distributed equally 
among the 12 months, the purchases in any one month would have 
been 8% percent of the year's total. An agency which has reserved 
part of its appropriation during the fiscal year to provide against pos- 
sible contingencies is ordinarily faced in June with the alternative of 
ordering something which it has needed but has done without, and 
the alternative of permitting an unencumbered balance to revert to the 
Treasury. 

Tables X and XI, considered together, show each Federal agency 
which, in at least 1 month of the 12 months surveyed, issued 15 per- 
cent or more of its total dollar volume of purchase orders for the period. 
In all, there were 21 such agencies. Table X shows that of the 21 
agencies there were 1 1 for which June was the maximum month. The 
Works Progress Administration (one of these 11) accounted for 21 
percent of all purchases made in the year by the 45 agencies studied. 
The Department of Agriculture accounted for 5 percent; the other 9 
of these 11 agencies, less than 1 percent altogether. Each of the 11 
agencies made purchases in June of more than twice the amount of 
its average monthly purchases. 

' See Report of the Procurement Division Group, p. 46 and appendix B. As has been stated above, in 
ch. I, it is estimated that the 45 agencies covered by the Report of the Procurement Division Group accounted 
for more than 99 percent of all Federal purchases in the period covered. In consequence, in chs. Ill and IV 
of the present report the purchases of these agencies are considered as constituting the entirety of Federal 
purchases for that period (unless the contrary is indicated). 

23 



24 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Table X. — Federal agencies issuing their maximum dollar volume of puchase orders 

in June or July * 

[December 1937 through November 1938] 



Agency 


June purchase 
orders ex- 
pressed as 
percent of 
monthly 
average 


July purchase 
orders ex- 
pressed as 
percent of 
monthly 
average 


Percent of 

year's dollar 

volume to total 

for 45 agencies 


Department of Agriculture 


263 

472 
252 
389 
234 

207 
332 
222 
256 
222 
218 


73 
122 
80 

38 
30 

94 
47 
63 

101 
62 

130 


5 


American Battle Monuments Commission . 


( J ) 
( 2 ) 

m 
m 

m 

( j ) 

(2) 


Civil Service Commission 


Federal Trade Commission.. ...... 


Home Owners' Loan Corporation .. 


International Boundary Commission, United States 
and Mexico 


National Archives 


Reconstruction Finance Corporation 


Rural Electrification Administration 


(2) 


Social Security Board 


( 2 ) 

21 


Works Progress Administration 






Total (11 agencies) 


227 


118 


26 







1 (a) No agency is included for which the maximum month's purchase orders amounted to less than 15 
percent of the 12-month total; (6) no agency had July as a maximum month. 

2 Less than 1 percent. 

Source: Report of the Procurement Division Group, p. 46. (See appendix III of the present report.) 

Table XI. — Federal agencies issuing their maximum dollar volume of purchase 
orders in some wnth other than June or July l 

[Decemb r 1937 through November 1938] 



Agency 



Maximum month 



Maximum 
month's pur- 
chase orders 
expressed as 
percent of 
monthly 
average 



Percent of 

year's dollar 

volume to 

total for 45 

agencies 



Alley Dwelling Authority 

Civilian Conservation Corps 

Commodity Credit Corporation 

Farm Credit Administration 

Government Printing Office 

Interstate Commerce Commission 

Library of Congress 

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. 

United States Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Authority 



February. 
May 

August 

March 

October... 

May 

October... 

do 

May 

August.... 



316 
363 
482 
191 
202 
185 
221 
213 
298 
211 



Total (10 agencies). 



i No agency is included for which the maximum month's purchase orders amounted to less than 15 per- 
cent of the 12-month total. 
' Less than Ho of 1 percent. 
8 One-tenth of 1 percent (0.1 percent). 

(Source: Report of the Procurement Division Group, page 46. (See appendix III of the present report.) 

Of the 1 1 agencies listed in table X as having each issued its maxi- 
mum dollar-volume of purchase orders in June, most made a rather 
small percentage of their respective purchases in July. But in the 
important case of the Works Progress Administration, the dollar 
volume of purchases in July was above the agenc}^'s monthly average. 

Striking evidence that purchases fall in an uneven time pattern can 
be found outside the months of June and July for the Tennessee 
Valley Authority and for several agencies whose procurement require- 
ments are, by comparison to those of the Authority, small. (See 
table XI.) The Commodity Credit Corporation made purchases in 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



25 



August almost five times as great as the Corporation's monthly 
average. In the case of the Alley Dwelling Authority's purchases in 
February, and in the case of the Civilian Conservation Corps' pur- 
chases in May, purchases amounted to more than three times the 
average monthly purchases of the agency. The Tennessee Valley 
Authority made purchases in August more than twice the amount 
of its monthly average, after having approached this ratio (2 to 1) 
in June and July. (T. V. A. figures for June and July are not shown 
in the tables.) 



Table XII. — Commodity classes for each of which the maximum dollar-volume of 
purchase o?ders was issued in June or July 1 

[December 1937 through November 1938] 



Federal Standard Stock Catalog commodity class > 



June purchase 


July purchase 


Percent of 


orders expressed 


orders expressed 


year's dollar- 


as percent 


as percent 


volume to 


of monthly 


of monthly 


total for 83 


average 


average 


classes 


288 


123 


( 3 ) 


336 


67 


(») 


241 


53 


(') 


169 


390 


(') 


192 


74 


1 


379 


121 


t 


180 


120 


(») 


227 


94 


(*) 


390 


56 


248 


139 


( 8 ) 


189 


142 


< 3 ) 


195 


114 


a 


191 


88 


t 


263 


114 


i 


201 


65 


l 


309 


149 


e 


82 


219 


( 3 ) 


206 


63 


i 


171 


176 


(') 


322 


105 


(«) 


310 


13 


(») 
(») 


278 


335 


282 


129 


20 



5. Flags and bunting 

10. Boilers and engines (boat, power) 

21. Cordage, hemp, and jute : 

24. Duck and canvas ..- 

26. Furniture 

27. Drygoods, floor coverings, and bedding 

28. Blank forms 

30. Bathroom fixtures 

32. Fire-surfacing and heat-insulating material 

34. Leather, belting, and harness 

37. Athletic equipment and apparel 

39. Lumber, barrels, and boxes 

42. Hardware 

54. O (lice equipment (including typewriters) 

57. nospital and laboratory apparatus and supplies 
59. Building material (including brick and cement) 

63. Tableware (including china and silver) 

67. Forage, trees, and seeds , 

70. Agricultural implements 

73. Caps, gloves, and furnishings 

74. Individual equipment (field and landing force) .. 
104. Exchange allowances 

Total (22 classes) 



i No commodity class is included for which the maximum month's purchase orders amounted to less than 
15 percent of the 12-month total. 

2 Iu the period indicated, the Federal Standard Stock Catalog had only 74 commodity classes (classes 
1-74). The Procurement Division Group, for the. purposes of its study, used also nine noncommodity 
classes (classes 101-105, 107, 108, 125, 126), including a miscellany labeled "Unclassified." Class numbers 
are shown in the left-hand margin of this table. 

3 Less than 1 percent. 



Source: Report of the Procurement Division Group, pp. 19-26 and appendix B. 
the present report.) . 



(See appendix III of 



Equally striking, and even more significant in considering the effect 
of Government buying practice on price levels and price stability, 
are the data on the percentages of particular classes of commodities 
bought in particular months. Tables XII and XIII present facts 
similar to those in tables X and XI, respectively, but on the basis of 
the 83 commodity classes of the Federal Standard Stock Catalog 2 
instead of by agencies. Considered together, tables XII and XJ1I 
present all of the 51 commodity classes in each of which, in at least 
one month, the purchase orders amounted to 15 percent or more of the 

2 In the period indicated, the Catalog had only 74 commodity classes. The Procurement Division Group, 
for the purposes of its study, used also nine noncommodity classes, including a miscellany labeled "Unclas- 
sified." Throughout the present report, in references to Procurement Division Group data broken down by 
the Catalog classes, the total of 83 classes is had in mind, i. e., the present report follows the earlier report's 
usage on this point. 



26 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



annual total for that class. These 51 classes accounted for 46 percent 
of all Federal purchases in the 12 months studied. Table XII shows 
that, of the 51 classes, there were 18 for which June was the peak 
month. Twenty percent of all Federal purchases in the 12 months 
fell in these 18 classes. July was the maximum month for 4 classes; 
viz, No. 24, duck and canvas; No. 63, tableware (including china and 
silver) ; No. 70, agricultural implements; No. 104, exchange allowances. 



Table XIII. — Commodity classes for each of which the maximum dollar-volume of 
purchase orders was issued in some month other than June or July 1 

[December 1937 through November 1938] 



Federal Standard Stock Catalog commodity class 3 



Maximum month 



Maximum 
month's pur- 
chase orders 
expressed as 
percent of 
monthly aver- 



Perccnt of 
year's dollar- 
volume to total 
for 83 classes 



Guns and mountings 

Arms, small 

Mines, nets, and torpedoes 

Ammunition and blasting apparatus . 

Anchors and ground tackle 

Boats 

Pumps - 

Boat and ship fittings.. 

Engine-room fittings. .., 

Electric cable and wire- 

Radio and sound-signal apparatus. ... 

Electric apparatus and accessories 

Precision instruments 

Submarine material 

Boat and ship utensils 

Toilet articles 

Musical instruments and music 

Brooms and brushes 

Bolts, rivets, and screws 

Metal shapes and structural metal . . . 

Aircraft 

Textile clothing and knitted goods. . . 
Railway, dock, and yard equipment . 

Boilers and engines (ship, power) 

Gyro-compasses 

Ovens and stoves 

Livestock 

Badges and medals 

Boots and shoes 



September . 

October 

May 

October 

May 

April 

October 

do 

August 

November- 
October 

September . 

October 

...do 

November . 
December.. 

August 

March : 

....do 

January 

February - . 

August 

September. 

January 

April 

October 

do 

August 

May 



347 
430 
402 
229 
862 
184 
229 
246 
243 
230 
317 
182 
190 
366 
257 
215 
36 1 
264 
230 
216 
301 
443 
188 
390 
401 
231 
232 
180 
454 



0) 
( 3 ) 

(') 
') 

(?) 
TO 

(0 



Total (29 classes) . 



300 



26 



< No commodity class is included for which the maximum month's purchase orders amounted to less than 
16 percent of the 12-month total. 

' In the period indicated, the Federal Standard Stock Catalog had only 74 commodity classes (classes 
1-74). The Procurement Division group, for the purposes of its study, used also 9 noncommodity classes 
(classes 101-105, 107, 108, 125, 126), including a miscellany labeled "Unclassified." Class numbers are shown 
In the left-hand margin of this table. 

* Less than 1 percent. 

Source: Report of the Procurement Division Group, pp. 19-26, and appendix B. (See appendix III of 
the present report.) 

Of the 18 classes in table XII having June as their peak month, 
there were 9 for which July was a less-than-average month (and 9 for 
which July was a more-than-average month). Yet it should be noted 
that one class which reached its peak in June but went above its 
monthly average again in July was No. 59, building material (including 
brick and cement). The importance of this item among Federal pur- 
chases is brought out sharply by the fact that 9 percent of the total 
dollar-volume of purchases in all classes, for the year considered as a 
whole, fell in this class. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 27 

Class No. 27, dry goods, floor coverings, and bedding, accounted 
for 3 percent of all Federal purchases in the period studied. In this 
commodity class, June purchases were almost 4 times as great as the 
montlily average. The same ratio (nearly 4 to 1) applies also to 
class No. 32, fire-surfacing and heat-insulating material. For each of 
4 additional classes, the ratio of June purchases to monthly average 
was greater than 3 to 1. Among these was the important No. 59, 
building material (including brick and cement). Of the total 18 
classes each having June as its peak month and each having June 
purchases equal to at least 15 percent of the class' total for the year, 
there were 13 each having June purchases at least twice as great as 
its monthly average. These 13 classes accounted for 15 percent of 
all Federal purchases made during the year. 

Of the four classes each having July as its peak month, each except 
one exceeded its monthly average in June also. In each of two of 
these four classes, the ratio of July purchases to the monthly average 
was greater than 3 to 1. 

Table XIII shows that uneven timing is by no means solely a 
matter of buj 7 ing heavily at the very end or the very beginning of the 
fiscal year. In class No. 6, anchors and ground tackle, the purchases 
in May were considerably over eight times the amount of the monthly 
average. The ratio of maximum-month purchases to the montlily 
average was more than 4 to 1 in No. 2, arms, small; No. 3, mines, 
nets, and torpedoes; No. 55, textile clothing and knitted goods; and 
No. 72, boots and shoes. Class No. 55 is quite important in Federal 
purchasing, as it accounted for 3 percent of all Federal purchases in 
the period as a whole. 3 

2. SIGNIFICANCE OF TIMING 

In interpreting the extent to which Federal purchases are concen- 
trated in 1 month out of 12, it should be remembered that uneven 
timing may represent either orderly buying practices or disorderly 
buying practices — depending upon the market situation. Moreover, 
the unevenness of timing may conceivably have been in some degree 
accounted for by sudden addition of new functions to particular 
agencies, or by emergency problems which required particular agencies 
suddenly to expand some of their activities. In general, the informa- 
tion is not available for full appraisal of the extent of disorderly buy- 
ing practices. However, the presumption is strong that June of 
1938 was not a peculiarly favorable month for purchasing all of the 
commodities the purchases of which were concentrated in that month. 

There have been instances in which the Federal Government is 
alleged to have placed such large orders for particular commodities 
at a given time that the price sharply increased, but in which, it is 
said, any serious harm to the Government was forestalled by a change 
of plans. However, timing can be disorderly even if the Government 
does not c mse price rises by the timing of its purchases. A recent 
striking illustration of the need for better timing of Government pur- 
chases occurred in the market for manila hemp. The Strategic and 
Critical Materials Act 4 was approved June 7, 1939. The initial 
appropriation for purchases under it became available in August 

3 To illustrate that 3 percent of the aggregate of Federal purchases is no mean sum, it may be stated that 
the purchases in class No. 55 in the vear studied amounted to more than $27,000,000. 
* 53 Stat. 811, ch. 190, 78th Cong., 1st sess. See below, p. 58. 



28 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER, 



1939. 8 On August 22, 1939, the Procurement Division received from 
the Army and Navy Munitions Board the necessary authorization 

Chart I. — Prices of Manila Hemp at New York, Grade I (Fair, Current Shipment) 

[Cents per pound] 



12 


THM60AV 


MICC - AVERAGE OF 


HIGH ANO LOW 




10 


















8 




















to 










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at 










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£ 










u 










5 










Ml 










►- 








6 


< 


o 






tm 










m 


m ** 










m »- 








O 










J^^d 


m > 








u 


■a o 


















■1 


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< K M 








« 


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k 


■ 


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_ © 


B — O 






c » 










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ft. 


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e 


w o 










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w a *• 








a. 










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en 


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w 


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w n o 






2 












i i i i 1 i i i 1 i i i 1 i i i i 1 i i i 


i i i 1 I I i I 1 i I i 1 i l i 




Aug. 


Sept. Oct. 


Nov. Dec. 


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. 



1939 
Source : Journal of Commerce 



I9U0 



for it to invite bids on manila hemp, which it did after obtaining from 
the Secretaries of War and the Navy, approval of specifications as 

« "Third Deficiency Appropriation Act, fiscal year 1939" [sic] 53 Stat. 1301, ch. 633, 76th Cong., 1st sess., 
August 9, 1939, was the date of approval; and the funds became available immediately. 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWEH 29 

required by law. Weekly price data 6 show that on August 3, 10, and 
17, 1939, the price on the New York market was 5.31 cents per pound; 
on August 24 and 31 it was 5.38 cents per pound. (See chart I.) By 
September 21, presumably as a result of the outbreak of the European 
war, the price was 8.06 cents. On that date, the United States Pro- 
curement Division issued its bid invitation — for 2,531 long tons 7 of 
the commodity, to be delivered to the United States Army Supply 
Base, South Boston, within 6 months from the date of the purchase 
order. 8 By September 28, 1939, the New York price reached 9.50 
cents, 17 percent above the September 21 price and 76 percent above 
the August 24 price. The price on October 5 was 10.50 cents, or 30 
and 95 percent above the September 21 and August 24 prices, re- 
spectively. On October 3, the Federal invitation was withdrawn, 
with some reaction in the market. By February 1, 1940, the price 
had declined to 6.81 cents, an amount 27 percent greater than the 
price on August 24, 1939. Fortunately, this instance of the Federal 
Government's entering the market at a time spectacularly unfavor- 
able to it is not frequently equaled. But it serves as a warning. 

In those markets in which Government purchases represent an 
important proportion of the total demand, orderly marketing prac- 
tices are desirable both from the point of view of efficient procurement 
and from the point of view of promoting business stability. The 
importance of the Federal Government as a buyer, in some fields, 
may be illustrated by the fact that in a recent period (antedating the 
European war and the United States' 1940 defense program), the 
Government purchased ammunition costing more than 20 percent 
of the value of tl.e total rational output and purchased aircraft 
costing about 40 percent of the value of the total national outpiH. 9 
Because the Federal Government is a large factor in the bond market, 
the need for orderly marketing practices in that field has long been 
recognized. The case for an intelligent, carefully planned program 
of procurement in a number of other markets is also clear. 10 

Even where the Government is a minor factor in the total demand 
for a commodity, planned timing offers important opportunities for 
economy. Well-tuned buying calls for timing on the basis of market 
conditions rather than on the basis of exigencies arising primarily 
out of appropriation practices. 11 

• Kach mauila-hemp price referred to iu the above paragraph or in chart I is an unweighted average of the 
highest price and the lowest price quoted on the date mentioned, each date being a Thursday. The data 
from which these averages were computed were obtained frcm the Bureau of Labor Statistics, which uses 
as its source the Friday issues of the Journal of Commerce, New York. For -convenience, the price data 
on only one grade of manila hemp, viz, grade I (fair, current shipment), are used in the above paragraph 
and in the chart. 

? 21,000 bales of 270 pounds each. 

8 In the calendar j ears 1936-3N the average annual amount of manlia hemp imported into the United 
States was 30,700 long tons. (Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Foreign Commerce and Navi- 
gation of the United States, issues for 1936 and 1937; Monthly Summary of Foreign Commerce of the United 
States, issue for December 1938.) In that period, 1936-38, the Philippine Islands, where most manila hemp 
is produced, had an average annual export of 155,400 long tons of the commodity (Reports of the Philip- 
pine Insular Collector of Customs). 

• In the computation of these percentg? es, neither the national output figure on aircraft nor that on am- 
munition included the output of establishments operated by the Federal Government. Similarly, the 
figures on Federal purchases of the respective 2 commodities included no part of the output of such estab- 
lishments. 

Moreover, the figure on Federal purchases of ammunition covered only contracts awarded under the 
Walsh-Healey Act; i. e., all those contracts each of which had a value in excess of $10,000. This fact makes 
for understatement of the importance of the Federal Government as a purchaser of the commodity. 

10 It is of course true that, in the timing of governmental purchases, .neither economy nor business stability 
ncr a combination of the two is necessarily the most important consideration; but, on the other hand, econ- 
omy and even such a consideration as national safety are not necessarily alternatives to each other between 
which a choice has to be made. 

ii Sec. 2 of ch. VII includes, among other things, an analysis of some of the statutory factors which affect 
the timing of purchases, and a discussion of certain possibilities of statutory change directed toward im- 
provement in the timing of procurement. Still further aspects of improvement in timing are dealt with 
in ch. IX. 

262342 — 41— No. 19 4 



CHAPTER IV 

INDICATIONS THAT SOME PRICES PAID ARE UNFAVORABLE 
TO THE GOVERNMENT 

1. EXTENT OF IDENTICAL BIDDING ON FEDERAL PROCUREMENT 

CONTRACTS 

Included in the information presented in the Report of the Procure- 
ment Division Group are some data which establish a strong presump- 
tion that in a substantial number of instances the Government makes 
purchases at prices which are too high, because of the absence of 
genuinely competitive bidding. In the present study these data are 
further analyzed. 

The Procurement Division Group divided into three classes the 
Federal bid openings that resulted in identical bids. Two classes are 
of special interest: Class I— bid openings in which bids are identical 
in all respects; class II — bid openings in which, of all bids received, 
two or more which are the lowest are identical in all respects. In 
both of these types of case the presumption is strong that the Govern- 
ment, in order to buy at the most favorable price available to it, must 
choose among bidders who have combined to keep. the price above a 
competitive level. Prices thus arrived at are presumptively unfair 
to the Government even if there be no discrimination against it in 
comparison to other buyers (i. e., even if the unfairness applies against 
all buyers alike). Money lost to the Government is no less lost if 
other buyers of particular commodities are also paying more than 
they should have to pay. 

The third class of identical bids includes all other bid openings in 
which identical bids resulted. 1 There is not necessarily a presumption 
in such cases that — because of the absence of truly competitive bid- 
ding — the Government is paying more than it should. Indeed, if the 
lowest bid in such an instance is not the result of a collusive arrange- 
ment designed to give the mere appearance of price competition, the 
Government as a purchaser may well afford to be indifferent to any 
collusion among the higher bidders. 

Identical bidding of class I or II suggests, although it does not 
definitely prove, collusion. There may be some instances of identical 
bidding that involve no unlawful agreement. For example, patent 
protection may in some situations lawfully result in identical prices 
at several outlets. 2 On the other hand it has been alleged that there 
are instances of nonidentical bidding that do involve unlawful agree- 
ment as to the prices to be offered and even as to which bidder shall 

• Class III was defined in the Report of the Procurement Division Oroup as follows: "Of all bids received, 
two or more, which are identical in all respects, are higher than one or more of the other bids received." 
Class III was apparently not meant to include any bid opening in response to which there were two or more 
identical bids which were the lowest bids received and also two or more identical bids other than these. 
Apparently all such bids would be assigned to class II. 

' Even a patent does not provide a legal rieht to unlimited control of price. See the Supreme Court's 
important decision in Ethyl Gasoline Corporation el al. v. U. S. (309 U. S. 436) (March 25, 1940). 

31 



32 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



have the privilege of bidding lowest. 3 If class I and II cases of iden- 
tical bidding are taken as an index of effective collusion against govern- 
mental buying units, it is impossible to say whether we have an 
understatement or an overstatement of the unfavorable circumstances 
encountered by the Government as a buyer. 

Table XIV. — Federal agencies in which 10 percent or more of bid openings resulted 
in class I and II identical bids 

[December 1937 through November 1938] 



Agency 



Percentage 
of number 
of bid open- 
ings of each 
agency re- 
sulting in 
class I and 
II identical 
bids 



Dollar 

volume of 

all purchase 

orders 



Percent of 
dollar vol- 
ume of pur- 
chase orders 
to total for 
45 agencies 



Interstate Commerce Commission 

Commodity Credit Corporation 

Rural Electrification Administration- 
Department of Agriculture... 

Department of Justice 

District of Columbia Government 



Thousands 

$330 

96 

138 

45,596 

7,542 

5,140 



0) 



Subtotal (6 agencies) - 



»15 



58,8*2 



Federal Trade Commission 

National Training School for Boys 

Securities and Exchange Commission. 

Veterans' Administration. _ 

Department of the Interior 

Navy Department.. 

Home Owners' Loan Corporation 



Subtotal (7 agencies) . 



158 

133 

351 

20. 777 

55, 736 

215, 149 

1,275 



293, 579 



(0 



23 



Total (13 agencies). 
Other agencies (26) 3 



Total (45 agencies). 



2 10 

0-9 



352, 421 
560, 981 



913,402 



100 



' Less than 1 percent. 

2 Or more. 

3 Six agencies reported no bid openings; e. g., the procedures of the Works Progress Administration were 
and are handled by the Procurement Division. 

Source: Report of the Procurement Division Group, pp. 46 and 71. (See appendixes III and IV of present 
report.) 

Of the 45 Federal agencies 4 studied by the Procurement Division 
Group for the period December 1937 through November 1938, 39 
reported bid openings. 6 Of the three-hundred-and-thirty-thousand- 
odd bid openings of these agencies, 10 percent resulted in identical 
bids of class I or II. Twenty-three percent, or more than 76,000, 
resulted in identical bids of class I, II, or III. There was wide varia- 
tion among agencies in the percentage of bid openings resulting in 
identical bids. In class I (not shown by itself in table XIV) the 
range was from 0.5 percent for the Post Office Department to 34 per- 
cent for the Interstate Commerce Commission. In classes I and II 
considered together (see table XIV) there were 6 agencies in which 
the number of bid openings involving identical bids was at least 15 
percent, and 7 agencies having a percentage as great as 10 but less 
than 15. These 13 agencies each of which received class I or II 

3 Cf. U. S. v. William F. Hess et al. in ch. VIII, sec. 1, below. 

4 See appendix IV, table XX, of the present report. 

» One agency reporting no bid openings was the Works Progress Administration. As noted above, its bid 
procedures were and arc handled entirely by the Procurement Division. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



33 



identical bids in response to 10 percent or more of its bid openings 
accounted for 37 percent of the total dollar volume of purchase orders 
of the 45 agencies studied. 6 

For purposes of a "special study" within the Procurement Divi- 
sion Group's study, the group requested from the reporting agencies 
examples of bid openings resulting in identical bids, concerning which 
certain detailed information was to be supplied about each bid open- 
ing individually. Over 25,000 such bid openings, occurring between 
July 1, 1937, and May 1, 1939, were reported in that manner. (Some 
of these, of course, were included also in the seventy-six-thousand- 
odd bid openings referred to above, all of which occurred in the 
period December 1937 through November 1938.) Fifty-three per- 
cent of these twenty-five-thousand-odd examples were class I or II 
bid openings and 47 percent were in class III. Of the seventy-six- 
thousand-odd bid openings referred to above, 42 percent were in class 
I or II and 58 percent in class III. 

Concerning each of the twenty-five-thousand-odd examples of 
identical bidding, the Procurement Division Group asked whether 
the reported practice was "invariable," "common," "occasional," or 
"unusual." The most significant feature of the information available 
from this inquiry is probably that showing the number of bid open- 
ings of classes I and II in which the practice of identical bidding was 
reported as "invariable" or "common." Table XV presents the 
facts about identical bidding in selected industry subgroups in which 
such ratings were especially frequent. 



Table XV. — Reported examples of identical bidding on Federal contracts in selected 

industry subgroups 

[July 1, 1937, to May 1. 1939] 



Census index Number and industry subgroup 




Number of bid openings 



Classes I and II 



'.'Invari- 
able" or 
"common' 



Classes I, 
II, and III 



102. Bread and other bakery products 

104. Canned and cured fish, crabs, shrimps, etc 

105. Canned and dried fruits and vegetables 

106. Cereal preparations 

111. Condensed and evaporated milk 

117. Food preparations, n. e. c 

123. Meat packing, wholesale 

130. Sugar, cane, excluding products of refineries 

309. Furniture, including store and office fixtures 

407. Paper 

510. Printing and publishing: Newspaper and. periodical 

602. Ammunition and related products 

610. Compressed and liquefied gases - 

630. Salt - 

705. Petroleum refining 

802. Rubber goods, excluding tires, tubes, boots, and shoes. 

1002. Cement l 



110 

65 

185 

45 

104 

482 

103 

24 

102 

179 

94 

25 

58 

43 

295 

101 

910 



66 
29 

111 
29 
86 

250 
39 
15 
77 

167 
90 
24 
45 
33 

229 
61 

714 



169 

118 

350 

63 

148 

844 

186 

51 

207 

416 

166 

47 

79 

65 

425 

233 

1,271 



9 As has been explained in ch. I, all or some part of an agency's purchases may be made otherwise than 
as a result of its own bid openings. Hence, a large volume of purchases by an agency, coupled with an 
extensive experience in receiving identical bids, does not necessarily mean that all of this large volume is 
purchased under the unfavorable circumstances indicated by the agency's frequent receipt of identical 
bids. Even if we make a liberal allowance for this qualification, however, there is a strong presumption 
that, the Government, as a buyer, is in a substantial number of cases victimized by private price fixers. 

Conversely, an agency's bid openings may relate not only to purchases for itself but also to purchases for 
another agency. With respect to the first agency, the information on the frequency or infrequency of bid 
openings resulting in identical bids would thus relate to a greater volume of purchases than is at first glance 
evident. 



34 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Table XV. — Reported examples of identical bidding on Federal contracts in selecle< 
industry subgroups — Continued 

[July 1, 1937, to May 1, 1939] 





Number of bid ODeninus 


Census index Number and industry subgroup] 


Classes I and II 






Total 


"Invari- 
able" or 
"common" 


Classes I, 
II. and III 


1004. Clay products, other than pottery 


343 
395 
149 
331 
212 
72 
907 
209 
154 
7,854 


254 
272 
118 
242 
151 
54 
698 
125 
144 


607 


1015. Minerals and earths, ground or other . 


593 


1101. Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets .. 


325 


1114. Plumbers' supplies, excluding pipe 


978 


1122. Structural and ornamental metal work. 


564 


1207. Lighting equipment . 


142 


1303. Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies . 


1,774 


1318. Machine-tool accessories; machinists' precision tools 


424 


1407. Motor-vehicle bodies and parts - 


257 


Other industry groups 


15, 108 








Total number of bid openings reported on individually- 


13, 551 
32, 576 




25, 610 


Total, including bid openings not reported on individually 




76, 705 









Source: Report of the Procurement Division Group, pp. iv, 72-73, 105-107. (See appendix V of the 
present report.) 

The more than 25,000 bid openings were classified by industry 
subgroups. Unfortunately it is not possible to compare either the 
number of bid openings of classes I and II reported for any industry 
subgroup in the "special study," or their dollar volume, with the 
number or dollar volume- of all bid openings of the subgroup. 7 The 
best available indication as to the prevalence of tie bidding on Fed- 
eral contracts is the number of all bid openings in classes I, II, and 
III. For all industry subgroups combined, this represents over 23 
percent of the total number of bid openings (seventy-six- thou sand- 
odd, as compared to three-hundred-and-thirty-thousand-odd). 8 

In the "special study," in each of eight industry subgroups the 
number of bid openings reported in classes I and II for which iden- 
tical bidding was described as invariable or common was more than 
half the total number of class I, II, and III bid openings reported 
for the subgroups. These eight were No. Ill, condensed and eva- 
porated milk; No. 510, printing and publishing: newspaper and 
periodical; No. 602, ammunition and related products; No. 610, 
compressed and liquefied gases; No. 630, salt; No. 705, petroleum 
refining; No. 1002, cement; No. 1407, motor-vehicle bodies and 

7 The reporting agencies were not asked to break down the grand total of 330,000 bid openings by indus- 
try groups or subgroups or by commodity classes, as it was felt that the preparation of such a break-down 
would have placed an excessive burden on the agencies. Hence, It is also impossible to classify, by in- 
dustries or by commodities, the total number of bid openings resulting in identical bids (76,000), for the 
Information about these was gotten as an aspect of the information about the grand total of 330.000 bid 
openings. 

In the "special study" (the work relating to the 25,000 examples), the Procurement Division Group 
found it necessary in some cases where one bid opening related to various typos of commodities to make 
a somewhat arbitrary allocation (among the respective "industry subgroups"). 

As regards a dollar-volume comparison: the Report of the Procurement Division Group Includes a com- 
modity break-down of all purchases (a break -down by the classes of the Federal Standard Stock Catalog), 
but neither a commodity break-down nor an industry break-down of the total number of bid openings 
resulting in identical bids (76,0001. In the "special study" of 25,000 examples of bid openings resulting in 
identical bids, the information which would make possible a determination of the total value of commodi- 
ties in each of the 25,000 bid openings was collected; but this information was not tabulated. . Hence (even 
apart from the fact that the time period of the 25,000 bid openings is not the same as that of the grand total 
of 330,000 bid openings), one cannot make an exact comparison of the doUar volume of the 25,000 bid open- 
ings, with the dollar volume of the 330.000 bid openings, with or without a break-down by commodities. 

* These figures do not come from the Procurement Division Group's "special study," but from the other 
part of the Group's survey. (In the present report, any reference to the Procurement Division Group's 
studv applies to the Ornun's studv as a whole, unless a different meaning is plainly indicated.) 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 35 

parts. (See table XV.) In a sixth subgroup — No. 1303, electrical 
machinery, apparatus, and supplies— the ratio of "classes I and II: 
'Invariable' or 'common' " to "classes I, II, and III" is also out- 
standingly high. 

While these statistics regarding bid openings in which one or more 
unsuccessful bidders have made the same bid as the successful bidder 
leave much to be desired, nonetheless the conclusion seems inescapable 
that something is wrong. Some of the instances of identical bidding 
were doubtless trivial, and legitimate explanations probably could be 
produced for a substantial number of others. But it would require 
an undue reliance upon coincidence to explain away anything like 
the entire number of instances of class I and class II identical bidding 
disclosed by the Report of the Procurement Division Group. 

2. ILLUSTRATIONS OF FEDERAL AND MUNICIPAL DIFFICULTIES ON 

PRICES 

In addition to the data presented in the Report of the Procurement 
Division Group, there is other evidence to show that the problem of 
identical bidding is a serious one in governmental purchasing. Nor 
is the problem confined to Federal agencies. Municipalities have 
been plagued with identical bids for some time. The United States 
Conference of Mayors has asked municipalities to report instances of 
identical bids which may result from collusive price-fixing, givinsr the 
names and addresses of bidders and the amount of each bid. These 
data have been turned over to the Federal Trade Commission for 
investigation. Also 35 cases were reported to the Federal Trade 
Commission directly by the Cincinnati purchasing department in 1938. 

One example of action on the part of the Federal Trade Commission 
with respect to a •commodity important to the cities (city water de- 
partments*are extensive users of chlorine) was that taken as the result 
of a series of complaints about chlorine prices. The Federal Trade 
Commission on December 16, 1938, issued a cease-and-desist order 
aeainst nine firms which manufactured substantially all the liquid 
chlorine sold in the United States. The Commission found that these 
firms divided the business for the entire country into zones and charged 
uniformly augmented prices in these zones. According to the Com- 
mission the industry had conspired since 1931 to charge such prices 
in violation of the Federal antitrust acts. The firms were ordered to 
cease and desist entering into any agreement or understanding to fix 
uniform prices or to divide the United States into zones for the sale 
of their products at uniform prices. 9 

Four years as:o Secretary Iekes testified before the Senate Committee 
on Interstate Commerce as to the extent of, and the injury caused to 
the Government by, the practice of identical biddinsr. He reported 
that between June 1935 and March 1936 identical bids occurred at 
least 257 times in the Public Works Administration, the Reclamation 
Bureau, and the other bureaus of the Interior Department. 10 The 
expenditure involved was $2,866,252.97. He felt that— 

* * * As the result of identical bids, the work of the Bureau of Reclamation 
has been seriously hampered. The Bureau is acting as a trustee in building irriga- 

• Docket No. 3317— Federal Trade Commission. 27 F. T. C. 1413. Cf. below, pp. 107-109 and appendix 
VI for additional information concernir>g Trade Commission activity arising out of the buying experience 
of governments. 

10 To Prevent Uniform Delivered Prices— hearings before the Committee on Interstate Com ae-ce, 74th 
Cong., 2d sess., on S. 4055, n 286. 



36 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER, 

tion works for the farmers who will pay the cost of construction in the end. They 
are able to meet their payments only by great industry and self-denial and if costs 
go beyond a certain point, it will become necessary to give up the building of such 
projects. 

I might add that in the circumstances there does not seem to be much reason 
for continuing to ask for bids. If all prices are identical, we might as well bar- 
gain with a single firm. 11 

Three commodities of which the Federal Government has been a 
heavy purchaser are cement, steel, and tires. In each of them the 
problem of identical bidding has at times been acute. 

Over half of the cement purchased by the Federal Government is 
used by the Reclamation Service. In the hearings referred to above, 
complaint was made about identical bids for cement used in the Grand 
Coulee, Casper Alcova, Owyhee Reclamation, and other projects. 12 
Again, in connection with cement bids on the Colorado River project 
in Texas, bids were opened on January 28, 1936, for 365,000 barrels of 
cement divided into six items, delivery to be made at Beverly over a 
period ending in February 1938. Four companies submitted bids — ■ 
the Universal Atlas Cement Co., Republic Portland Cement Co., 
Trinity Portland Cement Co., and the Lone Star Cement Co. On 
each item the bid of the four companies was identical. Mr. B. F. 
Affleck, president of the Universal Atlas Cement Co., before the 
Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce testified that with a few 
exceptions it was the practice in the cement industry east of the 
Rocky Mountains to quote delivered prices — that it was impossible to 
buy cement on any other terms, 13 and that the basing-point system 
had been used by the industry for about 40 years. 14 Senator Wheeler 
noted that if the Universal Atlas Co., whose mill was nearest to 
Beverly, had made the same price at the mill to the Government as the 
Lone Star Co. whose mill was farthest away, the saving to the United 
States would have been $65,000, and that the order represented about 
half the annual output of the Universal Atlas mill at Atco. He then 
asked whether the Government had received any reduction by reason 
of the quantity purchased. Mr. Affleck, while admitting that the 
volume will reduce cost, 15 testified it was the policy of his company to 
charge the Government the same price as the little dealer who might 
buy only a carload a year, that if the price was cut this would almost 
certainly bring down the whole market. 16 

In an attempt to obviate this practice of identical bids the Reclama- 
tion Bureau asked for bids f. o. b. factory and was successful in one or 
two instances, but subsequently the companies refused to bid that 
way. 17 The Procurement Division of the Treasury Department has 
had the same experience, though in the far West it has been morp 
successful in getting; quotations f. o. b. mill. 

A similar situation is set forth in the testimony on steel prices. 
Outstanding instances of identical bids on steel were cited in connection 

11 Ibid., p. 287. Elsewhere he stated his conviction that when bids are identical they are higher than they 
should be, and that conseouently it takes more money to build a given project. In the case of the W. P. A. 
program he alleged that this has meant that employment could be given to fewer men with the money 
appropriated by Congress, and that it has also meant de'ay because of the necessity for readvertisine for 
bids. Even where this has been done it has been common to receive identical bids a second time; according 
to his testimony, "Seasoned bidders don't often weaken." He stated also that there has been an increasing 
tendency toward uniform bidding on the part of vendors and manufacurers. ne cited especially examples 
of identical bidding in steel and cement, but submitted a long list of materials and equipment on which such 
bids had been received. 

,s Ibid., p. 287. 

13 Ibid., pp. 467 f. 

'< Ibid., p. 465. 

15 Ibid., p. 475. 

'• Ibid., p. 474. 

" Ibid., p. 291. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER, 37 

with the huge Triborough Bridge project in New York, the Morehead, 
N. C, ocean terminal project, and the Miami, Fla., harbor project. 
In all these cases bids were identical to the second decimal point regard- 
less of the point of shipment.' 8 In the case of steel, however, there is 
reason for believing that instead of paying the same price as the 
private buyer, the Government pays more. Mr. D. A. Williams, 
president of the Continental Steel Corporation, explained why this 
might be the case. He stated that the published price in the trade 
papers was the starting point for his company in its price determina- 
tion, but that after that the company quoted a discount which it 
thought would meet competition. However, it did not care to make 
this selling price known, and it did not care enough about public work 
to quote anything below the full price in its bids on Government 
projects. 19 

The testimony of Mr. Eugene Grace, president of the Bethlehem 
Steel Corporation, before the Temporary National Economic Com- 
mittee, was also to the effect that the Government frequently paid 
more than the private buyer. Like Mr. Williams, Mr. Grace stated 
that his company departed from the base price when it became neces- 
sary to meet competition, and that such departures were common, 
but that when it came to sales to the Government his company nearly 
always bid the published prices. The following exchange then took 
place between Mr. A. H. Feller, Special Assistant to the Attorney 
General, and Mr. Grace: 

Mr. Feller. Is it correct, then, Mr. Grace, to say- that during this period when 
the base price was fictitious as far as the trade was concerned, that it wa a not 
fictitious as far as the United States Government was concerned? 

Mr. Grace. I have told you what our policy was in quoting to the United 
States Government. That is as far as I can go. 

Mr. Feller. Your policy was that the published base price was a real price? 

Mr. Grace. That is the basis upon which we quoted and undertook to get 
Government business. 20 

Finally, the Procurement Division has been confronted in the 
recent past with persistent tie bidding on rubber tires and tubes, at 
progressively higher prices, although it then found means of reducing 
this evil in very substantial measure. Where all bids were identical, 
the Division's practice had been to let the contracts to all the bidders, 
leaving each using agency free to choose among them. For the half- 
year ending March 31, 1938, bids identical to the penny were received 
on each of 82 or more sizes of t'res from 18 companies (including the 
major concerns) which had all likewise made identical bids on each 
of 82 or more sizes of tires for the two preceding half-years (with a 
progressive increase in the three periods). At tho suggestion of the 
late Mr. Herman Oliphant, General Counsel of the Treasury Depart- 
ment, these bids for the half year ending March 31, 1938, were re- 
jected and bids called for again. A second time the Procurement 
Division received identical bids for this period — -indeed, a precise 
repetition of the first set. Mr. Oliphant then suggested that these 
companies be disregarded and a contract be negotiated privately. 21 
It was the opinion of both the General Counsel and the Attorney 
General that identical bids, under the circumstances in the case, were 

» Ibid., p. 290. 
» Ibid., pp. 67 f. 

20 Hearings before the Temporary National Economic Committee, pt. 19, pp. 10596 ff. 

21 See ch. VIII, sec. lb, for discussion of the Government's treble-damage suit against the 18 identical 
bidders. 



38 CONCENTKATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

presumptively collusive and warranted the purchasing agent in as- 
suming that further attempts to follow section 3709 22 of the Revised 
Statutes would be futile (since the purpose of that section, that being 
to secure the benefits of price competition, could not be carried out), 
and that therefore negotiation with a seller was called for. 23 A con- 
tract for passenger automobile and certain kinds of truck tires was 
accordingly negotiated with S. irs, Roebuck & Co., the price agreed 
upon being lower than the tire companies had b'd. When in the 
early part of 1938 supplemental bids on other lines of tires were called 
for, the major tire companies' bids were not identical. Since that 
time tire bids have not been identical and have been substantially 
lower than either the identical bids previously received or the prices 
agreed upon under the negotiated contract with Sears, Roebuck & Co. 

3. COMPARISONS OF CERTAIN PRICES AND PRICE MOVEMENTS 

At this point certain rough comparisons of prices paid by the Fed- 
eral Government with wholesale prices paid by private buyers made 
in connection with this study may be of interest. Chart II shows 
movements of prices for 29 selected commodities 24 from the General 
Schedule of Supplies over a period of years, in comparison with move- 
ments of wholesale price quotations for the same articles reported to 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. No clear divergence in trend between 
the corresponding curves representing wholesale prices paid by private 
buyers and prices paid by he Federal Government, is apparent on 
the chart. However, the j ^ar-to-year fluctuations of the curves ap- 
pear to indicate that price., paid by the Government are sluggish in 
responding to changes in market conditions (as represented by Bureau 
of Labor Statistics wholesale price series). A certain amount of slug- 
gishness may be accounted for by the fact that bids on Government 
contracts may be made from 2 weeks to 5 months before the contract 
becomes effective. 

No very precise interpretation of this chart can be made. As far 
as possible, identical articles were selected from the General Schedule 
of Supplies and from Bureau of Labor Statistics data for comparison. 
However, it was not possible to get exactly the same size in each case, 
or to be sure the quality was the same. The latter particularly would 
have required considerably more investigation of the commodities 
than could be made in the time available. Nor was it always possible 
to be certain that there was no significant change from year to year 
in the quality of an article listed in the General Schedule of Supplies 
or covered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics price series. 

Furthermore, in selecting dates for comparing prices of items in- 
cluded there were several possibilities. One was to choose arbitrarily 
a given date each year as a basis for price comparison. However, 
since the price paid by the Government under a General Schedule of 
Supplies contract was fixed for a period of several months, during 

» Cf. ch. I. p. 5, footnote 5. 

23 Sec. ."5. title 41 of the United States Code provides that: "When immediate delivery or performance is 
required by the public exigency, the articles or service required may be procured by open purchase or con- 
tract, at the places and in the manner in which such articles are usually bought and sold, or such services 
engaged, between individuals." It was even indicated by the General Counsel and the Attorney General 

' that the purchasing agent might be without authority to accept an identical bid under the circumstances 
in this case. 

24 Sheet steel, steel bars, copper wire, southern pine flooring, fire-clay bricks, lampblack, shellac, white 
lead, linseed oil. turpentine, putty, litharge, soda-ash, anhydrous ammonia, lubricating oil, office desks, 
axes, hammers, leather belting, electric-light bulbs, cotton duck, unbleached cotton sheeting, blankets, 
dried beans, dried prunes, hominy grits, molasses, canned salmon, and canned peaches. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



39 



which the Bureau of Labor Statistics price quotation for the item in 
question might vary considerably, this procedure seemed unsuitable. 
Another possibility was to use for comparison the Bureau of Labor 

Chart II. — General Schedule of Supplies and Bureau of Labor Statistics Whole- 
sale Price Relatives — 29 Selected Commodities 



[1928-29 = 100] 



Per Cent 




100 



75 



50 



Median 


3.L.S, Wholesale 




• 
• 




*'\^ 


-.-*** 




Gen. Schedule < 


»f Supplies 




o 


i 


i 


i 




1932-33 33-3*+ 3^35 35-36 36-37 37-3* 33-39 39-*«> 



Statistics price for the month in which bids were opened and the 
General Schedule of Supplies contract awarded. The difficulty here 
was the practical one of ascertaining the date on which bids were 



40 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

opened for each class of commodities. The procedure adopted was 
to average Bureau of Labor Statistics monthly prices over the period 
of the General Schedule of Supplies contract. Thus if the contract 
for a particular item ran through the 1933 fiscal year, for example, 
an average was taken of the Bureau of Labor Statistics monthly 
prices from July 1932 to June 1933. 

A series of annual relatives with the year 1928-29 as a base, was 
constructed for each commodity for the period covered. The rela- 
tives for all commodities in each year were arrayed in order of magni~ 
tude, and the upper quartile, median, and lower quartile 26 charted on 
separate grids. It should be emphasized that no one of the three 
parts of chart II shows relative levels of Bureau of Labor Statistics 
prices and General Schedule of Supplies prices; notably, the median 
part of the chart and the lower quartile part of the chart do not mean 
that the Bureau of Labor Statistics prices (i. e., wholesale prices) were 
higher than the General Schedule of Supplies prices. 

A somewhat different way of presenting the same price comparisons 
is represented by chart III, which shows quartile ratios of prices from 
the general Schedule of Supplies to corresponding Bureau of Labor 
Statistics wholesale price quotations. In constructing this chart each 
General Schedule of Supplies price for an article. was divided by a 
corresponding Bureau of Labor Statistics quotation. The resulting 
ratios were then arrayed in order of magnitude for each year and the 
upper quartile, the median, and the lower quartile located. It should 
be emphasized that the ratios plotted on this chart are not, except by 
accident, for the same commodities for which price relatives are plotted 
on the preceding chart. 

This chart indicates that for the commodities studied the price 
level of the General Schedule of Supplies was above the wholesale 
price level. Moreover, the General Schedule of Supplies prices are 
actual, whereas unstandardized trade practices and discounts probably 
cause some of the price data reported to the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
to be overstatements of actual wholesale prices. This factor, to the 
extent that it exists, means that the wholesale price level is even farther 
below the General Schedule of Supplies price level than chart III 
indicates. It should be noted, however, that the same limitations 
apply to precise interpretation of this chart, which apply in the case 
of the preceding chart; also the comparison is based on price quotations 
from the General Schedule of Supplies only. As is pointed out in 
chapter 1 26 only a small proportion of Federal purchases are made from 
the General Schedule of Supplies and most of this small proportion 
represents purchases made in Washington. It would be desirable, 
therefore, to make similar price comparisons between prices paid by 
the Federal Government for definite quantity purchases and wholesale 
market quotations. 27 

25 The quartiles are those relatives which divide the total number of relatives for each year, arranged in 
order of magnitude, into 4 equal groups. Together they describe the degree and character of the variation 
of the relatives for each year. The median, nr second quartile, has certain advantages over the mean as 
a measure of central tendency In this case, in that it is not affected by the magnitude of extreme items and 
eliminates the problem of weighting. 

- 8 Sete p. 11 above. 

87 For comparisons between prices paid by the Federal Government and prices paid by cities, see ch. VI, 
pp. 68 ff. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER. 



41 



Chaet III. — Ratios of General Schedule of Supplies to Bureau of Labor Statistics 
Wholesale Prices — 29 Selected Commodities 



[B. L. S. = 100] 



Per Cent 

100T 




1932-33 33-3 1 * 3^-35 35-36 36-37 37-38 38-39 39-**0 



CHAPTER V 
THE PROBLEM OF WAR PROCUREMENT 

This study has thus far dealt with procurement under peacetime 
conditions. A study of Government purchases and the national 
economy would be incomplete without some reference to the procure- 
ment experiences of the World War and to preparations in connection 
with the Industrial Mobilization Plan for meeting our needs in the 
event of a future major war involving the United States. 

To some extent, the problems of procurement in wartime are the 
same as thos^ in peacetime. The need for an orderly program of 
purchasing would be even more urgent in the event of another major 
war than it is in peacetime. Development of sound peacetime pro- 
cedures for orderly purchasing, such as a system of procurement 
budgeting, of adequate procurement records, and of improved mecha- 
nisms of coordination are important steps toward industrial prepared- 
ness that are urgently needed. The objective of making purchases 
at the most favorable prices obtainable would also continue in the 
event of a major war involving the United States. But as in the first 
World War, it would be necessary to put a high premium upon prompt 
delivery and accurate conformity to specifications. Emphasis upon 
favorable prices might, in part, give way to specially designed taxes 
and other devices for the recouping of excess profits. Perhaps the 
most distinguishing characteristics of wartime procurement are (a) 
that it must take place in markets in which supply and demand con- 
ditions are rapidly changing and (b) that Government demand be- 
comes inevitably a major price-determining factor in a wide range of 
markets. 

Satisfying the wartime requirements of the Government and the 
need for governmental controls affecting industry and prices are 
matters so closely related that, with respect to many markets, pro- 
curement techniques and price and production controls must be 
operated together. After a period of initial confusion, such a joint 
approach was made during the World War. 

1. EXPERIENCE DURING THE WORLD WAR — DISORDERLY PURCHASING 

When the United States entered the war on April 6, 1917, it was 
almost completely unprepared. Despite the lessons of the war in 
Europe, there had been little effort to anticipate the problems of 
equipping and supporting huge modern armies. Information about 
even the commoner supplies was lacking. When Mr. Frank A. Scott 
organized the General Munitions Board immediately after the declara- 
tion of war, one of his first acts was to send to the General Staff for 
its studies in supply problems. In return he received a few pamphlets 
of no practical value whatsoever. When we faced the task of mobiliz- 
ing our industrial resources, it became apparent that, while we were 
undoubtedly a wealthy nation of highly diversified resources, we did 

43 



44 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

not know how much we had or where it was to be found. Mr. Benedict 
Crowell, Assistant Secretary of War and Director of Munitions from 
1917-20, holds that, "The lack of an inventory and catalog of 
American resources * * * was the most serious lack wh ch the 
war industrial program faced at the beginning, and the factor of most 
delay." 1 

Nor was there any central organization to coord'nate the tremendous 
task of war purchasing. The procurement system of the Army was 
the same decentralized system the ineffectiveness of which had been 
demonstrated 19 years before in the Spanish-American War. Pur- 
chases were made through five (later eight) separate agencies repre- 
senting the different operating bureaus. Bound by inflexible statutes, 
they operated independently of each other without even a central 
clearance office, buying in many cases the same classes of supplies for 
different uses. Thus, the Signa Corps bought certain kinds of 
blankets, the Medical Corps bought beds and blankets, and the Ord- 
nance Department bought horse blankets. Since the Army did not 
buy by commodities, but by technical military uses of commodities, 
it was difficult to translate military requirements into the language of 
industry, which is not divided into groups for the production of engi- 
neer supplies, quartermaster supplies, ordnance supplies, etc., but is 
organized for the production of commodities which may fall into any 
or all of the military classificat'ons. In addition each bureau main- 
tained its own warehouses and system of distribution. Each had a 
different coefficient of military demands, with the result that for an 
army of a given size one would demand supplies far in excess of what 
the others would hold sufficient. A better system existed in the 
Navy Department which had consolidated its procurement of sup- 
plies. There was also th? Shipping Board, and later the Railroad 
Administration, the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration, 
and the Housing Corporation. In addition there were several allies, 
also represented by purchasing bureaus, and their combined expendi- 
tures ran into billions. "With its entrance into the war," according 
to Clarkson, 2 "the United States Government added to the demand 
side of the already unbalanced scales the weight of eight billions of 
extraordinary demands in 1917 and $15,000,000,000 in 1918.' Each 
of the different purchasing agencies felt that its requirements were 
vital if the war was to be won, each was well supplied with funds, and 
each entered into competition with the others. 

In the early months of the war, confusion was rampant as a result 
of this competition. Certain agencies obtained excessive quantities 
of supplies while others could not get enough. Admiral Peoples tells 
about one of the expedients to which competition drove departments. 3 
At one time the Army, the Navy, and the Food Administration all 
wanted beans. The domestic supp'y was insufficient, but the Navy 
learned about a cargo of beans that was en route from Manchuria. 
Without waiting for the ship to dock, its cargo was commandeered 
500 miles out, and the Navy sent out a tug to see that it reported at 
Bremerton. The Navy then had a plethora of beans — so many that 
they were issued everywhere. Many agencies exaggerated their 
requirements, either through ignorance or excessive caution. Thus, 

1 Benedict Crowell and R. F. Wilson, The Giant Hand: Our Mobilization and Control of Industry and 
Natural Resources, 1917-1918, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1921, p. 13. 
' Grosvenor B. Clarkson, Industrial America in the World War, Houehton-Mifflin, Boston, 1923, p. 164. 
8 Hearings on the 1940 Treasury Appropriation Bill, House Appropriations Committee, p. 1254. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 45 

at one time the Army bought tents on the theory that there should be 
one large tent for each eight men, whereas for the most part the Army 
was in cantonments at home and billeted in houses or barracks abroad. 
The consequence of this was that the first bid opening for tents was 
for three times the country's productive capacity. 4 In some cases a 
desire to get ahead of competitive purchasers resulted in hoarding. 
Ex-Secretary of War Baker, in an address before the Cleveland Bar 
Association on March 29, 1921, told how he went down into the 
basement of the War Department one day and could not get through 
the corridors because they were piled to the ceiling with typewriters. 
On asking whose they were, he was informed that they belonged to 
The Adjutant General. When he went to that officer to find out just 
how many he had bought and why he had bought so many, he was 
told: "I bought every available typewriter in the United States. If 
I had not bought them, the Surgeon General would have; or, if the 
Surgeon General had not bought them, the Navy Department would 
have got them or the Treasury Department." 6 

The results of this competition might have been expected. Manu- 
facturers often became overloaded with orders. The original con- 
tractors not infrequently sublet a large portion of their contracts, 
thereby extending the confusion. At the same time, there were 
various instances of manufacturers in other parts of the country with 
unused production capacity, or with capacity devoted to nonessentials. 
As late as July 1918, Harold G. Moulton wrote: 6 

Until very recently it has been necessary for manufacturers who desired to secure 
war contracts to send a representative to Washington to "drum up business." 
This representative has had to make the weary round of innumerable purchasing 
divisions of the Government, and it has required a man of dauntless courage to 
succeed in his enterprise. Under such circumstances, it has obviously been 
impossible for the small manufacturer without connection to secure Government 
business. This has been unfortunate, not merely from the standpoint of the 
individual manufacturer, but also from the standpoint of the Government; for 
when the Government patronizps only the larger manufacturers, and those with 
established connections, it inevitably means a congestion of manufacturing en- 
terprise with the attendant evils of inadequate housing and retarded production 
of war supplies. 

Prices rose sharply, in part because of these conditions of competi- 
tive buying and congestion of orders. Shortages were revealed in 
many basic commodities, due in part to their purchase by speculators 
who were hoping for still higher prices. It soon became evident there 
must be central control over buying fo insure orderly purchasing and 
keep prices down. 

2. ATTEMPTS AT CENTEALTZFD CONTROL 

The first attempt to exercise such control grew out of the Council 
of National Defense, composed of the Secretaries of War, the Navy, 
the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor. This Council, 
together with an advisory commission of outstanding business and 
labor leaders, was the parent body from which many of the important 
war agencies grew. The three committees in the procurement field 
which were most important in the early days of the war were the 

4 Clarkson, op. cit., p. 447. 

6 Quoted in Russell Forbes, Governmental Purchasing, Harper, New York, 1929, p. 6. 
'Clark, Hamilton and Moulton, Readings in the Economics of War, University of Chicago, Chicago, 
1918, pp. 300 f. "The Regional Organization of Industry" by Harold O. Moulton. 

262342 — 41 — No. 19 5 



46 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

General Munitions Board, the Committee on Supplies, and the Com- 
mittee on Raw Materials, Minerals, and Metals. The General 
Munitions Board, composed of 17 Army and Navy officers and 7 
civilians, began to coordinate purchases of munitions for the Army 
and Navy, to assist in the procurement of raw materials, and to 
assign priorities to war orders. The Board itself had no authority 
to make contracts or issue purchase orders; it was purely a coordinat- 
ing body. The demarcation of functions between the General Muni- 
tions Board and the Committee on Supplies was not entirely clear, 7 
but generally the latter body performed about the same functions 
as the General Munitions Bo*ard in the procurement of clothing, 
equipment and subsistence. The Committee on Raw Materials, 
Minerals, and Metals concerned itself with discovering, encouraging 
and allocating these necessities and was the nucleus out of which the 
commodity sections of the War Industries Board later grew. 

The General Munitions Board attacked with some success com- 
petitive bidding by the Army and Navy for the same materials through 
its power to hold up conflicting purchases until the situation could be 
laid before the Secretaries of the War and Navy Departments. It 
located sources of and encouraged production of rifles and other small 
arms, machine guns, ordnance, ammunition, gun forgings, carriages, 
limbers, caissons, steel helmets, and gages, tools, and dies. 8 One of 
its greatest achievements was the handling of contractors for and the 
construction of the Army cantonments and in arranging for the vast 
quantities of building materials used. However, the Board failed to 
make sufficient headway against the industrial demoralization which, 
in the spring and summer of 1917, was threatening to wreck our 
whole war-supply program. 9 It did not have sufficient authority. 
Possessing no rights of initiation, it could only review and coordinate 
such purchasing activities as were voluntarily brought up for its con- 
sideration by the departmental bureaus. Far more contracts were 
placed independently than through the Board. It was alleged also 
that its organization was not satisfactory, being top-heavy with 
dignitaries, aides, committees, divisions, and branches, which were 
often poorly coordinated. 10 Some stronger method of control seemed 
Decessary. 

The Committee on Supplies was also having trouble. Unlike the 
General Munitions Board, it practically took over much of the pur- 
chasing of clothing and equipment from the Quartermaster's Corps, 
acting in cooperation with large trade organizations. When it 
turned out that representatives of these organizations were themselves 
interested in the contracts, there were many resignations. 11 

Recognizing the need for a broader control over industry, the 
Council of National Defense created the War Industries Board on 
July 28, 1917. This became, in time, an extremely powerful and 
effective agency of coordination although it possessed no legal author- 
ity over the executive departments. For the first few months after 
its formation, the War Industries Board was little more than a re- 
organized General Munitions Board and the confusion in industry 

7 Clarkson, op. cit., p. 35 f. 

8 P. W. Oarrett, Government Control over Prices, War Industries Board Price Bulletin No. 3, 1020, 
p. 198. 

• Crowell and Wilson, op. cit., p. 22. 
io Ibid., p. 23. 

" J. F. Crowell, Government War Contracts. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Prc- 
,!„,(„„„. vonncinir Kludies of the War, No W Ovfnrrl T 7 niversifv Press. New York 1920. n SO 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 47 

continued. Mr. Frank A. Scott, the chairman of the old Board, 
became first chairman of the new Board. As time went on, the new 
agency increased in efficiency, and with increased efficiency came 
increased power. The position of the War Industries Board under 
the Council of National Defense gave rise to difficulties, 12 and the 
President finally decided to enlarge its powers and give it independent 
status. This he did in a letter of March 4, 1918, to Mr. Bernard M. 
Baruch, who had become chairman, and an Executive order of May 28, 
which referred to the letter and declared that the functions and powers 
outlined there should be continued in full effect. In his letter the 
President had stated the Board's functions as follows" 

1. The creation of new facilities and the disclosing, and, if necessary, the open- 
ing up of new or additional sources of supply. 

2. The conversion of existing facilities, where necessary to new uses. 

3. The studious conservation of resources and facilities by scientific, commercial, 
and industrial economies. 

4. Advice to the several purchasing agencies of the Government with regard 
to the prices to be paid. 

5. The determination, wherever necessary, of priorities of production and of 
delivery and of the proportions of any given article to be made immediately 
accessible to the several purchasing agencies when the supply of that article is 
insufficient, either temporarily or permanently. 

6. The making of purchases for the Allies. 13 

The letter went on to state that except for decisions on prices, the 
ultimate decision of all questions was to rest with the chairman of the 
Board who was to "act as the general eye of all supply departments in 
the field of industry." One explanation of the power wielded by the 
War Industries Board lay in the fact that its chairman, Mr. Baruch, 
had the ear of the President, who reposed the greatest confidence 
in him. 

Various organizations were set up within the Board. The be- 
ginnings of commodity sections under the General Munitions Board 
have already been mentioned; there were to be 57 of them finally. At 
first they dealt solely with raw materials, but as the war progressed 
and other shortages became important, commodity sections were 
created to deal with them as well. The chief of each section had to 
know his commodity and yet have no business interest in it. In each 
section were represented all the official agencies which purchased that 
commodity. The representatives of these agencies came in touch 
with the particular problems of each branch of industry and thus were 
able to coordinate the purchasing activities of their several bureaus. 
The business of each section was to learn all there was to be learned 
about the existing production and stocks of the particular commodity, 
as well as the possibilities of future production. 

In order to facilitate relations with industry, various commodity 
sections frequently tried to encourage organization of the branches of 
industry with which they dealt. In this the Chamber of Commerce 
of the United States was of great assistance. Each industry was 
persuaded to appoint a committee qualified to speak for the industry as 
a whole and a number of trade associations thus got their start in life. 
"Thus, if the woolen knit goods section desired to curtail thecivilian 
consumption of knit goods or change the specifications of any of the 
Army's knit goods, it had to take up these matters not with all the 

12 ClarksoD, op. eft., cli III, passim. 

i3 War Industries Board, American Industr\ in the War— A Report of the War industries Board, 1921, 
p. 25. 



4g CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

wool knitters, but merely with a committee which represented them 
all. In general, each commodity section dealt with questions of 
what to purchase, where to purchase, and what prices to pay." u 

In making purchases, the Clearance Office which had been set up 
under the General Munitions Board continued to function under the 
War Industries Board, and in fact functioned more effectively. When 
a purchasing agency was ready to place an order, it sent it to the 
office, which passed it along to the appropriate commodity section. 
A clearance, when issued, might carry with it a restriction as to the 
area in which the order could be placed, thus avoiding freight or 
power congestion. Or it might only forbid the placing of the order 
with certain factories. So far as it could, under war conditions, the 
War Industries Board tried to allocate and time its orders so as to 
minimize the disturbances which Government purchases would 
create in the market. Likewise consideration was given to the effect 
that war orders would have on the prices and supplies of civilian 
goods. It should be noted, however, that the Clearance Office of 
the War Industries Board did not itself actually make any purchases. 

Involved in this control was the establishment of priorities. Since 
there was not enough of many things to go around, it was necessary 
to see that the most vital needs were taken care of first. Broad policies 
of priority were determined by a Priorities Board within the War 
Industries Board. One of the first acts of this Board was to publish 
its "Preference List No. 1," a list of 45 classes of industries, the opera- 
tion of which was deemed to be of exceptional importance to the 
Government. These industries were to be accorded preference in 
obtaining materials and machinery. A little later (September 1918) 
the Board issued a more specific list of plants. Industrial work was 
also graded into five classes — AA, A, B, C, and D in order of import- 
ance. Suppose, for instance, a wooden-wheel factory was working 
on three orders, one for artillery wheels, one for wagon wheels, and 
one for push-cart wheels. In the preference list the ratings might 
be A, B, and C. The obligation of the manufacturer was to concen- 
trate on getting out the artillery wheels first, then the wagon wheels, 
then the push-cart wheejs. If he refused, and this brings us to the 
question of sanctions, he was likely to find himself unable to get cer- 
tain necessary materials. Or the Government-operated railroads 
might refuse to transport his product. 

This system of control had to enlist the support of all governmental 
agencies exercising control over production. It would have been 
ruinous to the system if one of the bureaus of the Army or Navy had 
exercised its power to commandeer the output of a factory when the 
War Industries Board had already assigned this output to another 
unit. To prevent this, the President issued an order that no Federal 
agency was to commandeer anything except upon approval of the 
Chairman of the War Industries Board. Needless to say, this order 
greatly increased the power of that body. 

Closely allied to the work of the Priorities Board was that of the 
Conservation Division under the War Industries Board. This Divi- 
sion had the job of curtailing unnecessary production without too 
greatly dislocating our economic system. Industry cooperated by 
appointing war service committees, which worked out curtailment 
schedules. 

■h Crowell and WBeon, op. cit., p. 25, 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 49 

The task of the Resources and Conversion Section was to find 
facilities which could be converted to the making of war materials. 
Throughout the country there were regional advisers of the War 
Industries Board who worked with chambers of commerce and other 
local organizations on this problem. Before the war ended carpet 
manufacturers were set to making blankets and duck, refrigerator 
manufacturers were making field hospital tables and filing cases, toy 
makers were turning out packing boxes, vacuum cleaner manufac- 
turers were making parts for Liberty motors, and corset makers were 
producing Medical Corps belts. 

One of the functions of the War Industries Board was the coordi- 
nating of Allied purchases. The Purchasing Commission for the 
Allies, established on August 27, 1917, was brought under the authority 
of the Board. The name of the Commission was misleading since it 
made no actual purchases, but merely saw to it that the, Allies bought 
what they had to have and no more ; that they received the same treat- 
ment in respect to price and delivery that was given to the United 
States Government, and that they did not buy outside the authority 
of the Commission. The Purchasing Commission held frequent ses- 
sions at which representatives of the Allied Governments met with 
the heads of commodity sections, representatives of the priority 
organization, the Treasury, and the War Trade Board, which had 
been set up to exercise control over imports and exports. 

Steps were taken also toward synchronizing and coordinating the 
industrial efforts of the Allies, as Foch and the Supreme Command 
were coordinating their military efforts. An example was the estab- 
listment of the International Nitrate Executive in London in the fall 
of 1917. This was a pooling arrangement whereby the Allies and the 
United States dealt with the Chilean nitrate industry as a single 
agency. This organization was able to keep the prices down and 
make possible great savings to purchasers. Had the war continued, 
this industrial coordination would have been of great importance. 1 * 

It must not be supposed that the War Industries Board with its 
many subdivisions was the only Government organization concerned 
with marketing and prices. The Food and Fuel Administrations, 
unlike most of the war organizations, rested on a statutory basis. 
The Lever Act of August 10, 1917 ie among other things empowered 
the President to requisition foods, fuel, feed, and other supplies neces- 
sary to the Army and Navy; take over any factory, mine, etc., when 
necessary to secure an adequate supply for the common defense; and 
license importation, manufacture, and distribution of any necessities. 
Control over food and fuel was given by the President to the Food and 
Fuel Administrations, respectively. One of the duties of these organi- 
zations was the coordination of purchases of food and fuel by the 
various Government purchasing agencies and the Allies. Control 
over shipping was placed in the hands of the Emergency Fleet Corpo- 
ration. 

3. CONTRACTS AND PRICES DURING THE WORLD WAR 

Turning from the problem of bringing some degree of order out of 
the chaotic marketing of the early days of the war to the closely allied 
problem of prices paid, we find a variety of ways of determining prices. 

" Crowell and Wilson, op. cit., p. 143. 
'« 40 Stat. 276, en. 63, 65th Cong., 1st sess. 



50 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

In the early days of the war especially, each agency was a law unto 
itself in entering into contracts. In general, the system prior to the 
war was that of advertising for bids, opening them publicly, and 
awarding the contract to the lowest responsible bidder. This system 
of competitive bidding was not entirely superseded during the war. 
Even after January 1918 many contracts made by the Quartermaster 
General's office were made on this basis. 17 However, such a system 
was applicable only where there were several bidders who wer& willing 
to bid. Furthermore, the contractor who entered into a fixed-price 
contract requiring some time to fdl was gambling on the price of jaw 
materials and tabor. Accordingly, there was a tendency to get away 
from the fixed-price contract. 

Perhaps the most common type of contract was the cost-plus con- 
tract. The fields in which this typo figured most widely were camp 
and cantonment construction, building of dock and loading facilities 
and warehouse and storage facilities for the War Department, and 
shipbuilding. 18 Such contracts were also necessary in many untried 
fields. There was no experience, for example, as to what the cost of 
making steel helmets by a sheet-iron concern might be. Of the total 
of $1,750,000,000 in contracts entered into by the Ordnance Depart- 
ment up to December 31, 1917, the Chief of Ordnance testified that 
the great majority of these contracts were let on the cost-plus basis. 19 
This cost-plus system of contracts was particularly open to abuse if 
cost plus a fixed percentage of the cost was agreed on, since then the 
interests of the Government and the contractor were diametrically 
opposed. The interdepartmental conference of July 1917 on uniform- 
ity of contracts and cost accounting condemned this system and rec- 
ommended instead cost plus a fixed profit on each unit produced. 
Even this type of contract presented great administrative and ac- 
counting difficulties in determining costs and was open to grave abuses. 

In some cases materials were ordered or commandeered at prices 
set by the price-fixing committee of the War Industries Board. The 
National Defense Act of 1910 -° gave the President power, in case of 
war or imminent war, to place orders with any firm for products 
usually produced or capable of being produced by that firm. Com- 
pliance with the order was made obligatory under penalty of seizure 
of the plant plus fine and imprisonment. Prices were to be "fair and 
just." If the producer was not satisfied with the price fixed, he could 
liave recourse to the courts. Similarly, the President had the power 
to requisition finished products. These powers were the most drastic 
of the devices used to obtain war materials and were exercised spar- 
ingly on the whole. Their greatest importance lay in their existence 
as a club with which to threaten recalcitrants. However, the Shipping- 
Board did commandeer private ships, the War Department secured 
some $141,000,000 of supplies in this manner, and the Navy secured 
an even larger amount. 

Over considerable segments of the national economy prices were 
fixed, not in conncetion with particular contracts, but for all purchases. 
Prices, already high when we entered the war, climbed tremendously. 
By July 1917 the Bureau of Labor Statistics price index for metals 

17 Orowcll, op. cit., p. 21. 
" 8 Ibid., p. 37. 

15 Hearings before the Select Committee on Expenditures in the War Department, Willi Cong., 1st sess. 
Series I, pt. 5, |>. 188. 
" :t!t Stat. IfiO, eh. 134. 04 Hi Conp\, 1st ses«. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 5 J 

and metal products had risen to 178.4, from a 1913 average of 90.8 
and a figure of 144.5 for March 1917. The index for the food group 
showed a similar rise, the figures being 64.2 for 1913, 92.1 for March 
1917, and 105.3 for July. 21 Basic pig iron rose from $32.25 a ton in 
March to $52.50 in July; steel plates from $4.33 to $9; wheat from 
$1.98 to $2.58. It became apparent there would have to be some form 
of price control, at least for certain basic materials. A study of the 
subject had begun under the General Munitions Board early in the 
war. This body had considered the question of "a fair and just price" 
and had concluded that where a flat rate could not be agreed upon, a 
cost-plus percentage should be followed. In order to hasten deliveries 
held up because of delay over the determination of a fair price, the 
Board authorized the payment of actual cost plus a 10-percent profit. 
When price fixing was taken over by the War Industries Board, a 
price-fixing committee was named. Members were appointed directly 
by the President, who approved the prices and made them official. 
On this committee were representatives of the Army, the Navy, the 
War Industries Board, the Fuel Administration, the Federal Trade 
Commission, the Tariff Commission, and (toward the end of the war) 
the Department of Agriculture. This committee had no statutory 
authority, as had the Food and Fuel Administrations, but it was not 
without sanctions. As a last resort, it could always commandeer 
articles. It did not actually administer the prices it set, this function 
being in the hands of the commodity sections. In general, the policy 
of the committee was to fix prices at fairly high levels even though 
this meant that the most efficient producers in the industry would 
make large profits. The argument was that the Government had to 
be considerate of the less efficient in order to keep full capacity utilized. 
The War Industries Board was concerned first of all with stimulating 
production. It was hoped that much of the excess profit could be 
recovered through taxation. Prices were usually fixed, moreover, by 
agreement with the industry concerned. The fixing of steel prices is 
illustrative. 

Steel had been one of the materials for which prices had risen most 
rapidly. At first there was little interference with the industry. 
Each large Government purchaser dealt directly (and sometimes com- 
petitively) with the industry on the best terms it could obtain, and the 
market ran wild. The situation came to public attention when it was 
found that the Emergency Fleet Corporation was being charged $30 
a ton more than the Navy was paying for steel plates. The steel 
makers, threatened with Government control if not outright seizure, 
reduced the price on this particular contract. However, an investiga- 
tion had been begun by the Federal Trade Commission. According to 
the findings of tliis investigation, 3K cents a pound was enough for 
steel plates that had been selling at 16 cents a pound. The Price 
Fixing Committee called the steel men to Washington, laid the Govern- 
ment's proposal before them, and after a rather stormy session obtained 
their agreement to a schedule of prices ranging from $2.90 a hundred 
pounds for bars to $3.25 for plates. For low-cost producers, these 
prices were high and meant enormous profits in the aggregate. Yet the 
Board could see no practicable way to avoid this. 22 In addition to 

" 1926 = 100. 

21 Clarkson, op. cit ., p. 322. 



52 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

agreeing to a schedule of prices, steel producers agreed not to cut wages 
and to distribute their products according to priority orders. 

Copper prices, like those of steel, were fixed in consultation with 
representatives of the industry. The Board thought 22 cents a pound 
would be a fair price, basing this on a report of the Federal Trade 
Commission. The producers held out for 25 cents a pound. Because 
of the existence of many small, high-cost mines commandeering would 
have been difficult, and this the producers knew. Finally, a compro- 
mise price of 23 % cents was agreed on for 4 months. This was in the 
summer of 1917; a year later the price was advanced to 26 cents. An 
investigation by the Federal Trade Commission in 1918 showed that 
85 copper concerns producing over 95 percent of the United States 
total production had made an average profit of 28 percent on their 
investments. 23 

Some lumber prices were fixed; for example, prices on lumber lor 
cantonment requirements. Generally where a special kind of wood 
was required, the respective purchasing agencies made price arrange- 
ments themselves, however. 

The War Industries Board dealt almost entirely with prices of raw 
materials. In this respect it was unlike the Food and Fuel Adminis- 
trations, which controlled even retail prices. It should also be noted 
that prices fixed by the War Industries Board, like most prices fixed 
in this country during the war, were maximum prices. 24 Government 
purchasing agencies were free to try to contract for better prices. 
However, in general, they did not, but accepted the fixed price as the 
contract price. 

4. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WAR ECONOMY 

Before going on to a consideration of the criticisms of procurement 
policies made during and after the war, it may be well to summarize 
the characteristics of wartime procurement in 1917-18. One, as has 
been indicated by the previous discussion, was its ad hoc character. 
Controls were developed -gradually in response to particular needs. 
Another was in the variety of controls used. Thirdly, in obtaining 
wartime supplies, materials, and services other than personal, reliance 
was for the most part placed on the system of private enterprise, with 
care being taken to disturb that system as little as possible. There 
were exceptions to this generalization ; the railroads, which were taken 
over and operated by the Government, being the most conspicuous. 
But for securing the bulk of the materials and services it needed, the 
Government relied on privately operated industry. Moreover, as 
far as possible, the Government proceeded only after consulting 
interested parties and obtaining their consent to the necessary forms 
of control. Finally, with specific reference to purchasing, the tendency 
was for the Government to eliminate the middleman and purchase 
directly from the manufacturer. This was particularly true after 
some centralized control had been introduced into the system of 
procurement. 

« Cost Reports of the Federal Trade Commission— Copper, June 30, 1919, p. 5. 
M Garrett, op. cit., p. 240. 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 53 

5. CRITICISMS OF THE WORLD WAR PROCUREMENT SYSTEM 

Both during and after the war there was a good deal of criticism 
of the war supply system. This criticism may be summarized under 
three headings: (1) disorderly purchasing, (2) inefficiency and delay, 
and (3) excessive prices and profiteering. Evidence of disorderly pur- 
chasing has already been shown, particularly during the early period 
of the war. In his testimony before the War Policies Commission, 
Mr. Baruch, discussing what he calls the "organization of demand" 
under the War Industries Board said that — 

this system * * * did not get into really effective practice until the summer 
of 1918. 25 

Inefficiency and delay were especially apparent in the failure to equip 
the American Expeditionary Force with artillery, tanks, and air- 
planes. In his final report, General Pershing states that reliance was 
placed, on the French for 75's, 155 mm. howitzers, and 155 G. P. F. 
guns, and adds: 

The wisdom of this course was fully demonstrated by the fact that, although we 
soon began the manufacture of these classes of guns at home, there were no guns 
of American manufacture of the calibers mentioned on our front at the date of the 
armistice. 29 

The same report states that reliance was also placed on the English 
and French for tanks, and that at the end of the war only 16 light 
tanks were available on our own front for participation in the last 
great assault of November l. 27 America in 1917 had visions of a fleet 
of 25,000 American planes, but when the armistice was signed the 
American Expeditionary Force had received only 2,678. 28 

In spite of extensive price controls and of efforts to develop more 
satisfactory methods of price determination on wartime procurement 
contracts, profiteering was extensive. A report of the Federal Trade 
Commission, 29 made in response to a Senate resolution, stated that 
the net earnings of the United States Steel Corporation, expressed in 
terms of the total capital invested, had jumped from 5.2 percent in 
1915 to 24.9 percent in 1917, while the percentage of return on invest- 
ment for some of the smaller steel companies in 1917 was over 300 
percent. One of the two companies producing all the sulfur in this 
country made 236 percent on its investment for the 1 1 months end- 
ing October 31, 1917. Large profits were made by the producers of 
southern pine, the average profit for 48 companies in 1917 being 17 
percent on the net investment. The data secured by the Commission 
for ■ the petroleum-refining industry indicated an average profit of 
about 21 percent on the investment during the first quarter of 1918. 
Rates for individual companies ranged from losses up to 122 percent. 
In the 3 years from 1915 to 1917 the total profits of 4 of the big meat 
packers reached the figure of $140,000,000, of which $121,000,000 
represented an excess of profits over the pre-war years of 1912-14. 

15 Report of the War Policies Commission, H. Doe. 163, 72d Cong., 1st sess., December 4, 1931, p. 48. 

J « Final Report of Gen. John J. Pershing, Commander in Chief, American Expeditionary Forces, Sep- 
tember 1, 1919, p. 75. 

"Ibid., p. 76. 

2«Id. 

29 Taking the Profits Ou tof War — Hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Repre- 
sentatives, 74th Cong., 1st sess. (January 1935), on H. R. 3 and n. R. 5293. The report of the Federal 
Trade Commission is one of the exhibits, p. 604 17. 



54 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Even under the Food Administration's regulations, the Commission 
found that the average profit on 4,000,000 barrels of flour sold from 
September 1917 to March 1918 was 45 cents per barrel, or 3 times 
what the Commission had found was the normal profit for the 4 years 
ending June 30, 1916. The evils of the cost-plus system of contracts 
which were an important factor in profiteering have been generally 
realized. 30 

6. REQUISITES OF ADEQUATE PROCUREMENT PREPAREDNESS 

It is a striking commentary on our preparedness situation that as 
yet there are no generally available and generally accepted over-all 
records of our procurement during the first World War. Nonethe- 
less, on the basis of that wartime experience, we may, with some con- 
fidence, forecast several features which would characterize the pro- 
curement situation if the United States were to be involved in another 
major war: 

1. While the procurement requirements of the Army and Navy 
would be greatly expanded, the procurement requirements of the 
civil establishments would also be greatly expanded. Thus, if 
governmental operation of transportation facilities were to be 
undertaken, the procurement requirements of these facilities 
would be added to peacetime civil procurement requirements. 

2. Both military and civil requirements of any allies would 
need to be coordinated with our own procurement requirements. 

3. There would be need for extensive industrial controls both 
in the interests of the Government as a buyer and in the inter- 
ests of private buyers. These controls would seek to provide 
adequate volume at reasonable prices and terms and in conform- 
ity with appropriate specifications. They would also seek to in- 
sure that wages and working conditions should be fair to labor 
without making costs exorbitant. The rapid expansion of Gov- 
ernment procurement requirements is one of the factors which 
would make such industrial controls necessary. Consequently, 
the procurement program would need to be coordinated with the 
program of industrial controls. 

It is difficult, perhaps impossible, under peacetime conditions in a 
democracy to get experience in the types of wartime controls that are 
needed. Obviously it is impossible to experiment very far with joint 
procurement for ourselves and any allies we may have. However, it 
is possible to develop a program of peacetime procurement budgeting 
such as that proposed in chapter IX. The essentials of such a pro- 
curement system which would provide the basis for orderly and co- 
ordinated procurement in time of war are: 

1. That accurate and dependable records of purchases and in- 
ventories be maintained, on the basis of which reports can be 
made to a procurement coordinating office. Such records in war- 
time will necessarily be more detailed than in time of peace, but 
the data already available should be utilized. 

30 On tho subject of profits during the World War, see also Report of Special Committee Investigation on 
Munitions Industry, 73d Cong., 2d sess.; Report of the War Policies Commission, 72d Cong.; and Report 
and Recommendations on Aircraft Production Investigation, transmitted to Attorney General Gregory. 
October 25, 1918 (reprinted as appendix A to the Congressional Record, vol. 57, pt. 1, 65th Cong.. 3d sess., 
December 30, 1918, pp. 883-914). 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 55 

2. That such records and reports be used as a basis for develop- 
ing estimates to be submitted to the central procurement coordi- 
nating office. If this office is organized with commodity sections, 
similar to those of the War Industries Board during the last war, 
these estimates will be used by the commodity sections in their 
studies of conservation and increased production programs. 

3. That power be vested in the central procurement coordinat- 
ing office to disapprove or modify such estimates. 

4. In addition, that power be given to require, with respect to 
commodities for which it is deemed desirable, that purchase 
orders themseh'es be cleared by the central coordinating procure- 
ment agency. Through this means priorities would be assigned 
when necessary, and allocation of orders would be made to the 
best advantage. Many classes of commodities, of course, would 
continue to be purchased in the field, without clearance through 
the central office. 

Orderly purchasing procedure in the event of a war presupposes 
that something like an adequate supply of needed articles will be 
forthcoming. A still more basic requisite of procurement prepared- 
ness, therefore, is to determine what the important material require- 
ments of our entering upon a major war would be and to make sure 
that a supply of these materials will be forthcoming. For this pur- 
pose, there is need for rough contingent wartime estimates of pur- 
chases of essential materials and for developing and maintaining the 
industrial facilities needed to supply these materials. 

If peacetime preparation for orderly purchasing in the event of war 
is difficult, peacetime preparation designed to insure reasonable prices 
in the cv^i\t of a war is even more difficult. Competitive bidding pro- 
cedure is slow and, when markets are disorganized by wartime condi- 
tions, this procedure certainly does not provide any assurance that the 
prices the Government will have to pay as a buyer will be reasonable. 
Emphasis upon all possible speed and upon strict adherence to -certain 
specifications make a definite arrangement for continuing to deal with a 
concern which is a known quantity highly advantageous. If definite 
contractual arrangements are to be made, to go into effect upon the 
declaration of war, it would seem essential that some method should be 
devised for determining prices which shall be fair both to the seller 
and to the Government and which shall give an incentive to speedy 
delivery and adherence to specifications. The terms of any formula 
for such a price must clearly be matters of accounting record — 
operating costs, asset valuations, and rates of depreciation. Deprecia- 
tion allowances as applied to plants constructed for wartime purposes 
are likely to be especially important. An obvious measure of pre- 
paredness would be to practice the computation of prices in connec- 
tion with educational orders. This would involve the regular peace- 
time keeping of the necessary records in the necessary ways, and the 
use of the appropriate accounting items to determine "educational 
prices." 

7. STEPS TOWARD PREPAREDNESS 

The National Defense Act of 1920 3I charged the Assistant Secretary 
of War with "the assurance of adequate provision for the mobilization 
of material and industrial organizations essential to wartime needs." 

51 41 Stat. 759, cli. 227, 66th Cong., 2d sess. This act amended the National Defense Act of 1916; 



5(3 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWEB 

This function has been exercised through the Joint Army and Navy 
Munitions Board and has resulted in an Industrial Mobilization Plan 
which has been revised from time to time. 32 Preparedness consists 
partly in making plans for wartime organization and partly in specific 
steps, such as commodity studies, educational orders, etc. In part, 
too, preparedness for war involves plans and steps which cannot be a 
matter of full public record. For our present purpose it will suffice to 
consider briefly several major specific steps that have been taken 
toward procurement preparedness and that are matters of public 
record : 33 

(a) Establishment of the Army Industrial College. 

(b) Improvements in procurement organization in the Army 
and Navy and in the information available as to wartime require- 
ments. 

(c) Designation of strategic, critical, and essential materials. 

(d) Stocking of select strategic materials. 

(e) Standardization and development of specifications for 
equipment. 

(J) Allocation of industrial plants for the manufacture of arti- 
cles with respect to which shortages are anticipated. 
(g) Educational orders. 

(h) Experimentation vith various forms of contract. 
(i) Supervision of B tish-French military procurement. 

It will be observed that tLese steps are all confined to those phases 
of procurement which have to do with the requirements of the Army 
and Navy. Preparedness for wartime procurement of civil establish- 
ments has received scanty attention, although its importance under 
modern conditions is great. 

8. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ARMY INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE 

The Army Industrial College was established in 1924 to train Army 
officers in procurement planning- and the mobilization of indust^ for 
war. In 1939 it had a faculty of 10 full-time instructors, and a 
student body of 57 officers selected from the Army, Navy, and 
Marine Corps — the last two services having been invited to detail 
officers, although the college is an Army institution. The course lasts 
10 months — from September to June — and the subjects studied 
include the Industrial Mobilization Plan, fundamentals of business, 
basic industries, Government organization, war procurement and 
procurement planning, and utilization of economic resources in war. 
The instructing staff is drawn entirely from the military services, but 
some economists and businessmen have been brought in to deliver 
lectures. 

3J The most recent re vision was in 1939. 

33 Since the above was written in the latter part of March 1940, the President, acting under the authority 
of the National Defense Act of 1916, has appointed the National Defense Advisory Commission to supervise 
the national defense program. Mr. Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., who resigned as chairman of the United 
States Steel Corporation, serves as the raw materials expert on the Commission; Mr. William S. Knudsen, 
of General Motors Corporation, has charge of manufacturing and production problems; Mr. Ralph Budd, 
chairman of the board of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R., is in charge of transportation; Mr. Sidney 
Hillman, president of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, was chosen to handle labor problems; 
Mr. Chester C. Davis, a governor of the Federal Reserve System, deals with agricultural problems; Mr. 
Leon Henderson, a member of the Securities and Exchange Commission, advises on price stabilization in 
the raw materials field; and Miss Harriet Elliott, dean of women at the University of North Carolina, 
advises on consumer problems. Although its title would indicate that the Commission is merely advisory 
to the Council of National Defense, composed of the Secretaries of War, Navy, Interior, Agriculture, Com- 
merce, and Labor, the President has indicated that the members will act directly in their respective fields. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 57 

9. IMPROVEMENTS IN PROCUREMENT ORGANIZATION IN THE ARMY AND 
NAVY, AND IN THE INFORMATION AVAILABLE AS TO WARTIME REQUIRE- 
MENTS 

As a result of our wartime experience in 1917-18 the Army has 
made improvements in its procurement organization, and the Army 
and Navy Munitions Board has been established to coordinate the 
requirements of the two Services in time of war. The Quarter- 
master's Corps, the Medical Department, the Ordnance Department, 
the Corps of Engineers, the Signal Corps, the Chemical Warfare 
Service, the Coast Artillery Corps, and the Air Corps, each of which 
has its local procurement officers throughout the country, still pur- 
chase a large proportion of the Army's supplies on a decentralized 
basis. However, the War Department has attempted to avoid dupli- 
cation by assigning the procurement of particular commodities to each 
of the above arms of the Service. 

Nine years ago Mr. Bernard Baruch, testifying before the War 
Policies Commission, said: 

The War Department still clings to its plan of multiple purchasing agencies. 
They are prescribed by statute. While, in the opinion of most industrial observers, 
the method is unnecessary, archaic, and costly, there has as yet been no change 
and it is probable that change will be difficult. The War Department has 
attempted to coordinate these activities by providing that no two of the War 
Department's agencies shall be utilized for the purchase of the same thing. This 
same theory was applied during the latter part of the war, but never with com- 
plete success and, while it is probable that important difficulties will be raised in 
another emergency by this S3 r stem, I believe that they will be somewhat mini- 
mized by the steps the War Department has taken and the greater knowledge it 
now has of the trouble occasioned by its peculiar form of organization.* 4 

In addition the Current Procurement Blanch has been established in 
the Office of the Assistant Secretary of War with the duty of keeping 
records, promulgating general procurement policies, and reviewing 
complaints of bidders and contractors. 

The Navy's procurement system is more highly centralized in the 
Bureau of Supplies and Accounts. Requirements of various bureaus 
are pooled and purchased under the Naval Supply Account Fund, which 
is a revolving fund with a value of approximately $73,000,000. How- 
ever, the fund does not attempt to finance ship construction, ordnance, 
aviation, and other technical supplies and equipment. Materials 
whose prices are subject to rapid market fluctuations are purchased 
after a study of market trends indicates that prices are advantageous 
to the Government. 

Considerable study has been given by both the Army and the Navy 
to their needs in time of war, based on the mobilization plans for man- 
power. The Planning Branch of the Office of the Assistant Secretary 
of War is concerned with this problem for the Army. The Army and 
Navy Munitions Board is composed of the Assistant Secretary of 
War and the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, who direct an executive 
committee consisting of three Army officers and three Navy officers. 
Its duty is to study the wartime procurement requirements of both 
agencies and plan for their coordination. The Industrial Mobilization 
Plan is the work of this body. 

•« War Policies Commission, oi>. cit., p. 47. 



58 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Civil-military procurement coordination will be handled through 
the War Resources Administration set up by the Industrial Mobiliza- 
tion Plan rather than through the Procurement Division, although the 
latter would seem better qualified by experience than a new ad hoc 
coordinating agency. 

10. DESIGNATION OF STRATEGIC, CRITICAL, AND ESSENTIAL MATERIALS 34 

On the basis of careful studies of the needs for various basic mate- 
rials, the Army and Navy Munitions Board has designated three 
classes of materials, essential to the national defense, as involving 
special problems. "Strategic materials" are those which are scaree 
and must be, at least in part, supplied from abroad. "Critical 
materials" are materials for which procurement problems, while 
difficult, are less serious than they are in the case of strategic materials. 
The third class of essential materials are those "for which no procure- 
ment problems in war are anticipated," but which might subsequently 
require reclassification as strategic or critical and must, therefore, be 
watched. The lack of emphasis on civil procurement problems and 
problems of industrial controls which were important in the last war 
and would be likely to become important again, is indicated by saying 
that cotton, steel, paper, petroleum, sugar, and wheat are among 
those for which no procurement problems in war are anticipated, 
while coal is not regarded as an essential problem material. During 
the World War wheat and sugar were major concerns of the Food 
Administration, as were coal and petroleum for the Fuel Administra- 
tion, and a Steel Division, a Cotton Goods Section, and a Paper and 
Pulp Section were set up in the War Industries Board. 

11. STOCKING OF SELECTED STRATEGIC AND CRITICAL MATERIALS 

In order to be sure of a supply of the materials above referred to as 
"strategic" and "critical" Congress passed a statute approved June 7, 
1939, 36 authorizing the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, 
and the Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Army and Navy 
Munitions Board, to decide what materials to purchase. Such mate- 
rials are to be used only upon order of the President in time of war or 
threatened war. Purchases are to be made through the Procurement 
Division of the Treasury. Ten million dollars was appropriated for 
the purpose for 1940. Thus far the materials bought have been 

3« On June 27, 1940, an order was issued by the Council of National Defense setting up under it the Office 
for Coordination of National Defense Purchases, headed by a Coordinator of National Defense Purchases. 
The functions of this office are: to maintain liaison between the National Defense Advisory Commission 
and Federal agencies to insure coordination and efficiency in the purchase of supplies and material for 
national defense purposes; to assign the purchase function on items common to several agencies to the 
agency or agencies best qualified to perform it (provided that the War and Navy Departments are to have 
the authority to make purchases necessary for the national defense, subject to such coordination as may be 
necessary to establish priorities) ; to collect current statistics on purchases made by Federal agencies; to Co- 
ordinate research in procurement specifications and standardization; to ascertain immediate material 
requirements and estimate future requirements so as to facilitate purchases and cushion the impact of such 
orders on the national economy ; to make recommendations to the President relative to the granting of pri- 
orities to national-defense orders over private orders. Donald M. Nelson, vice president of 8ears, Roebuck 
A Co., was appointed Coordinator of National Defense Purchases. (See Federal Register, July 2, 1940.) 

88 53 Stat. 811, c. 190, 76th Cong., 1st sess. Since this was written the act of June 26, 1940 (Public, No. 664, 
76th Cong., 3d sess.), was passed, authorizing the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to make loans to 
corporations for the purpose of producing or purchasing strategic and critical materials, or to purchase the 
capital stock of any such corporation. It was also authorized to croate one or more corporations to produce 
or purchase those materials. The same act authorized the lending of funds for building plants to manu- 
facture arms and implements of war, and the operation of such plants by a Government agency if considered 
necessary by the President. Under the law a corporation has been formed to enable the Government and 
rubber manufacturers to cooperate in purchasing and stocking rubber. '(See New York Times, July 7, 
1940.) 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 59 

manganese, chromium, tungsten, tin, optical glass, quinine, manila 
fiber, and quartz crystal. 37 

12. STANDARDIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIFICATIONS FOR 

EQUIPMENT 

To facilitate quantity production in wartime, the Army has adopted 
the policy of designating at least one model of equipment as standard. 
Standard specifications have then been prepared for several hundred 
articles, so that the Planning Branch of the Office of the Assistant 
Secretary of War may plan for their procurement. The Navy also 
has prepared specifications for many articles, while for articles used 
by both the Air Corps of the Army and the Bureau of Aeronautics 
of the Navy, the Army and Navy Munitions Board has prepared 
specifications. 

13. ALLOCATION OF DOMESTIC FACILITIES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF 

NEEDED ARTICLES 

Recognizing the evils of competition between various Government 
purchasing agencies in the last war, plans for avoiding a recurrence of 
such evils have been made providing for allocation of selected indus- 
trial facilities in advance of war. Some 10,000 firms have been cata- 
loged and their output allocated to appropriate branches of the 
military and naval service. Many thousands of additional firms have 
now been surveyed, so that, if need should arise, tasks can be assigned 
to them promptly. Insofar as possible, joint use of allocated commer- 
cial plants by the Army and Navy is avoided by the Army and Navy 
Munitions Board, but in some instances an allocation has been neces- 
sary. The management of a plant which has been allocated to a 
particular supply service is asked to sign a schedule of production, 
thereby indicating willingness and ability to produce specified items 
at the prescribed rate of output after the outbreak of war. 

14. EDUCATIONAL ORDERS 

In order to make sure that the firms included in these arrangements 
for the allocation of procurement requirements are actually prepared 
to supply the goods required, the practice was begun in 1938 of placing 
educational orders. These orders are designed to give the plants 
experience in producing war materials according to specifications and 
to make sure that they will be provided at least with a minimum 
amount of the necessary dies and other equipment. Congress appro- 
priated the sum of $14,250,000 for this purpose for the 1940 fiscal year. 

15. EXPERIMENTATION WITH VARIOUS FORMS OF CONTRACT 38 

It has already been indicated that there is a tendency toward war- 
time abandonment of the principle of competitive bidding in letting 
contracts. While some contracts would no doubt continue to be let 
by competitive bidding in time of war, for the most part this method 

37 Hearings before the House Appropriations Committee on the Treasury Appropriation Bill for 194'., 
p. 729. 
3 * Cf. ch. VII, sec. 2. The discussion there is not intended to apply to the problems peculiar to wartime. 



(30 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER. 

would probably be set aside as a means of determining price. 39 Thus 
General Douglas MacArthur, former Chief of Staff, stated before the 
War Policies Commission, 40 "We plan to base wartime procurement 
upon allocation rather than upon the competitive-bidding standard 
properly prescribed in peace." Recently Admiral Stark expressed 
his dissatisfaction with the delays caused by the requirement of 
competitive bidding even in time of peace. 41 As has been pointed out, 
much work has been done in the allocation of plants, and the prin- 
ciples of allocation and competitive bidding are fundamentally incom- 
patible. It is not entirely clear what form of contract would replace 
that typical of peacetime. General MacArthur, discussing the advan- 
tages of the system of allocation, said "Prices will be determined by 
negotiation, controlled by the knowledge obtained in peacetime 
planning, of the items that make up costs and by all information that 
can be collected by the Government." 42 Aside from the fact that 
peacetime costs will not obtain, according to the Special Committee 
of the United States Senate Investigating the Munitions Industry, 
" * * * after 15 years of planning the War and Navy Departments 
have practically none of this information [information on costs, capital 
structures, and financial set-ups]. The Navy Department does not 
know what it costs private shipbuilders to construct naval vessels. 
The War Department is no better off." 43 The advantage on the side 
of industry will be particularly great in the case of allocated plants, 
since the owners are aware of the vital importance of their product 
in the general mobilization scheme. This is not to imply tjiat all 
contractors are out to gouge the Government in wartime, but in time 
of uncertainty it is natural to shift all risks onto the Government and 
take a liberal view of what should be included as cost items. Accord- 
ing to the Senate Committee Investigating the Munitions Industry, in 
the last war, "The shipbuilding companies almost without exception 
attempted to charge the Government for such items as entertainment 
expense, contributions, plant improvements and tools not required 
under the contract, income taxes, interest, and even in some cases 
dividends on preferred stock." 44 

Thus far, experimentation with contracts seems to have been some- 
what closely confined to attempts to improve the cost-plus model 
which was so unsatisfactory during the last war. Indeed, it is prob- 
able that some cost formula must be relied upon. Two kinds of con- 
tracts may be noted: (a) adjusted compensation contracts and (6) 

»• There is ample stalutory authority for this. Thus the act of March 2, 1901 (U. S. C, title 10, sec. 1201) 
authorizes purchase of supplies for the Army without advertising "in cases of emergency." The act of July 
5, 1884 (U. S. C, title 10, sec. 1364) waives the requirement of advertising in connection with purchases of 
transportation equipment by the Army "in cases of extreme emergency." Moreover, the President is au- 
thorized to take possession of any manufacturing plant refusing to give preference to Government contracts 
or manufacture for a fair price arms and ammunition or other necessary material in time of war or when war 
Is imminent (U. S. C, title 50, sec. 80). 

Since the above was written numerous exceptions to sec. 3709, Revised Statutes (which provides for com- 
petitive bidding — see ch. I, p. 15), have been made in connection with the emergency national defense pro- 
gram. See p. 37 of the Navy Appropriations Act for 1941 (Public, No. 588, 76th Cong., 3d sess., approved 
June 11, 1940) ; p. 31 of the Military Establishment Appropriations Act for 1941 (Public, No. 611, 76th Cong., 
3d sess., approved June 13, 1940); p. 5 of the National Defense Supplemental Appropriations Act (Public, 
No. 667, 76th Cong., 3d sess., approved June 26, 1940) . The acts of June 28, 1940 (Public, No. 671 , 76th Cong., 
3d sess., sec. 2), and July 2, 1940 (Public, No. 703, 76th Cong., 3d sess., sec. 1), are most sweeping. They au- 
thorize the Secretary of the Navy and the Secretary of War, respectively, to negotiate contracts without 
advertising. In the case of naval contracts the approval of the President is required. 

<° War Policies Commission, op. cit., p. 363. 

«i New York Times, January 21, 1940. 

43 War Policies Commission, op. cit., p. 364. 

« U. S. Senate, Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, Munitions Industrv, 
Preliminary Report, 74th Cong., 1st sess. (July 29, 1935), p. 30. 

« Ibid., p. 18. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER Q\ 

evaluated fee contracts. Under the adjusted compensation type of 
contract, the manufacturer receives the recorded cost plus a profit com- 
puted at the rate of a stipulated percent per annum upon the estimated 
value of that part of the manufacturer's plant used on the Govern- 
ment contract for the period of its use. Six percent has been proposed. 
This type of contract is suggested particularly where factories are con- 
verted to the manufacture of war materials and there is little informa- 
tion on costs. Where Government and company appraisers are not 
able to agree on the valuation of the plant, it is proposed that the case 
be submitted to arbitration. 

The evaluated fee contract provides for the payment of the actual 
costs of the work as it progresses. The fee is determined at the com- 
pletion of the work and varies between certain percentages of the cost 
of the work ( 1 to 6 percent) . The determination is to be made by the 
chief of the branch under whose supervision the work is performed, and 
he is instructed to take into consideration such things as speed of com- 
pletion, quality of workmanship and materials, diligence shown by 
the contractor in keeping costs down, watchfulness of United States 
interests, etc. 

If the Government is to avoid being charged exorbitant prices under 
either type of contract, detailed cost records are essential. Although 
the second type does not call for a return based upon valuation of 
plant, such a valuation would be necessary in fixing depreciation 
charges. If either of these types of contract is adequately to protect 
the Government against unfair prices, certain basic accounting infor- 
mation on costs and asset valuations becomes essential. In addition 
it is desirable that the Government have this information to protect 
it in negotiating fixed-price contracts, where such contracts are not the 
result of competitive bidding, and for use hi administrative price-fixing 
of the commodities involved. , 

If the safeguards of competitive bidding are to be laid askie, and 
certain firms are to be singled out by administrative decisions to par- 
ticipate in supplying essential supplies and equipment in the event of 
our being involved in a war, it may be suggested that a definite advance 
understanding with respect to the method of price determination is 
essential if profiteering is to be avoided. 45 Moreover, practice in such 
determination would seem to be as appropriate a part of an educational 

< s A note on efforts during peacetime to restrict the profits of military and naval contractors, especially in 
connection with the national defense emergency, may be added at this point. The so-called Vinson-Tram- 
mell Act (48 Stat. 503, 73d Cong., 2d sess., approved March 27, 1934) limited profits on the construction of 
naval vessels and aircraft to 10 percent of the total contract- price. Th „• method of ascertaining the amount of 
profit was left to the determinatioaof the Secretary of the Treasury in agreement with the Secretary of the 
Navy. Books of contractors were to be open for inspection and audit. The act of June 28, 1940 (Public, 
No. 671, 76th Cong., 3d sess.), which authorized the negotiation of contracts for the construction and repair 
of naval vessels and aircraft without advertising or competitive bidding, amended the rate fixed In the 
Vinson-Trammell Act, lowering it to 8 percent of the total contract price, or 8.7 percent of the cost of perform- 
ing the contract. Provision was also made for the extension of these rates to subcontractors. The act spe- 
cifically prohibited the use of the cost-plus-a-percentage type of negotiated contract, but allowed the cost- 
plus-a-fixed-fee form. However, the fee under this latter form was to be limited to 7 percent. The act Of 
July,2, 1940 (Public, No. 703, 76th Cong., 3d sess.), declared against the cost-plus-a-percentage-of-cost type 
of contract with reference to War Department contracts, but authorized the cost-plus-a-fixed-fe^ form. 
Nothing was said as to limitation of profits. Both the act of June 28 and that of July 2 authorize Govern- 
ment construction and operation of any plants and facilities necessary to the national defense prugram. 
The former act also authorizes the Secretary of the Navy to take over and operate any necessary plant or 
facility when he is unable to arrive at an agreement with its owners for use and operation. 

Editor's footnote: "I think it might be appropriate to point out at this point in the report tha the 
Congress is now considering (and will shortly adopt) legislation which will, among other things, suspend the 
operation of the Vinson-Trammell Act, impose a nondiscriminatory excess-profits tax, and will permit amor- 
tization of additional plant facilities necessary in connection with the national defense program, for tax 
purposes, over a 5-year period. It seems to me that the fact that very shortly there will be no legislation 
attempting to control profits (hence prices) directly is quite important and should be pointed out in this 
discussion."— Joseph J. O'Conncll, Jr. 

2'-j,';;r- 41— No. lf> 



(}2 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

order as practice in the production of the materials themselves. And 
for the proper protection of the public interest, in lieu of competitive 
bidding, it is urged that there is need — 

1 . To establish definite rules of procedure to be applied equita- 
bly to all contractors participating in the supply program; and 

2, To give publicity to the terms of contracts designed to 
reveal their fairness or unfairness while fully protecting military 
secrets. 

With these needs in mind, the following suggestions are offered : 

1 . The general terms applicable to war orders now contingently 
placed, including the method of determining the price, should be 
reduced to one or more standard contract forms and such forms 
should be published in the Federal Register. 

2. Regulations for the establishment and maintenance of the 
accounting records to be employed in the determination of the 
price should be prescribed and published in the Federal Register. 
It would be advisable in these regulations, as far as possible, to 
employ basic records maintained for other purposes such as 
records now used for the preparation of income-tax returns or 
in the case of registered corporations, records used in preparing 
the financial statements filed with the Securities and Exchange 
Commission. 

3. Financial repprts should be required of firms participating 
in the supply program, including reconciliations with returns to 
other Federal agencies. 

4. It should be possible to publish statistical compilations 
regarding costs, prices, and other matters pertaining both to 
educational orders and, in the event of war, to actual wartime 
orders. Such compilations could reveal the fairness or the un- 
fairness of the terms without disclosing either the participating 
contractors or the types of articles supplied. 

5. Remuneration for an educational order might consist of two 
parts — 

(a) A price determined in the manner to be employed in the 
case of a wartime order; and 

(b) A bonus to remunerate the contractor for costs incident 
to a small educational order but not taken into account in the 
price formula. 

6. In order to protect the interests of the contractor in case a 
Federal agency undertakes the regulation of the price of labor 
or of materials used by the contractor, it has been proposed that 
there be provision for necessary adjustments in the contract 
price where that is agreed to in advance. There is need also for 
including in contingent wartime procurement agreements provi- 
sions which would give the Government the benefit of such price 
regulation if applied to commodities covered by these contingent 
procurement agreements. Regulations making both types of 
provision should be prescribed and published in the Federal 
Register. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 63 

16. SUPERVISION OF BRITISH-FRENCH MILITARY PROCUREMENT 

While it is true that it is impossible to experiment in peacetime 
with coordinating the purchases of this Government and any allies 
we may have in time of war, it is interesting to note that somewhat the 
same problems have been raised by large British-French purchases of 
military supplies, particularly airplanes, in this country at a time when 
heavy demands are being made on domestic supplies by our own 
preparedness program. A House Military Affairs Subcommittee 
began on March 14, 1940, to investigate charges that military secrets 
have been given away. 46 In an attempt to prevent conflicts of interest 
the White House announced in January 1940 appointment of an 
interdepartmental committee composed of the Director of Procure- 
ment of the Treasury Department, the Quartermaster General of the 
Army, and the Paymaster General of the Navy. 47 The Secretary of 
the Treasury, who had already been investigating possibilities of 
increasing airplane production plants, acts as liaison agent between 
the President and this committee. 



« The Wall Street Journal, March 14, 1940, pp. 1-6. 
< 7 New York Times, January 24. 1940. 



CHAPTER VI 

COOPERATION WITH STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS 

IN PROCUREMENT 

Numerous developments evidence the economies to be obtained 
through large-scale purchasing. A large part of the advantage of 
chain stores and mail-order houses, as forms of distributive organiza- 
tion, is due to advantages in the purchasing field. Although con- 
sumer cooperative organizations have not developed as rapidly in this 
country as in others, cooperative purchasing at the wholesale stage 
has become a very important factor in distribution in recent years 
through the development of the so-called voluntary chains. Thus, 
in the grocery trade alone, it has been estimated that the net sales 
to members of various types of retailers' cooperatives amounted by 
1935 to 18 percent of the total business of the full-line grocery whole- 
salers. 1 Here, again, a large part of the advantage of this type of 
organization is that obtained through large-scale buying. 

It would seem that there are analogous opportunities to be obtained 
through the development of large-scale buying in the governmental 
field through various arrangements between the different levels and 
units of Government. 2 

1. COOPERATION IN STATE AND LOCAL PROCUREMENT 

In the field of State and local government, cooperative purchasing 
has taken a number of forms. Seven States have provided a system 
whereby municipalities or counties or both may purchase through a 
central State agency. These States, in the order of their adoption of 
such plans, are: Michigan and New Hampshire (1919), Virginia 
(1924), Wisconsin (1929), West Virginia (1935), Pennsylvania (1937), 
and Alabama (1939). 3 In all cases purchasing through the State 
agency is optional with the local authorities. Usually arrangements 
are similar to those in Wisconsin where the State central purchasing 
agency in making its own contracts provides that localities may buy 
at the same price if they so desire. The State agency provides in- 
formation on specifications and prices but assumes no further responsi- 
bility. New Hampshire, where the State assumes responsibility for 
the purchasing debts of the local governmental units, is an exception 
to this last statement. In general, local governments do not seem to 
have taken much advantage of the services of State purchasing agencies 

' This percentage is estimated on the basis of data presented in the 1935„Census of Business report on 
Voluntary Group and Cooperative Wholesalers— Groceries and Related Preducts. 

3 Of course there are circumstances under which large-scale buying may not be advantageous. Thus in 
the purchase of cement discussed in ch. IV, p. 36, the Government received no better price because of its 
large order. Even when there is no question of collusive price-fixing involved, the order may be so large 
that only one or no single supplier is able to fill it. Under such circumstances the decision as to whether 
the Government will receive the benefit of possible reductions in cost will depend upon the willingness of 
the supplier to forego a monopoly profit. 

3 Public Administration Clearing House, News Bulletin, November 21, 1939. 

65 



56 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

that have been made available to them. Virginia's State-local coop- 
erative plan has had the greatest use according to reports. Possibly 
this is because the statute makes it the duty of the State purchasing 
agent to disseminate facts about the savings possible through central- 
ized purchasing. It is then up to the local authorities to seek the 
cooperation of the State officer, whose assistance is apparently given 
without compensation. Supplies are to be delivered to and paid for 
by the local authorities directly. One county taking advantage of 
this State service reported price reductions in equipment for a home 
for the poor of from 20 to 33% percent. 4 

More activity in cooperative purchasing has been shown by cities 
acting through their municipal leagues in a number of States. These 
States are: Michigan, Nebraska, Wisconsin, Virginia, Oregon, South 
Dakota, Kentucky, Colorado, North Carolina, Missouri, and Arkan- 
sas. 5 In all of them this form of cooperative purchasing has been a 
development of the last 10 years. The movement seems to have 
started in Michigan, when a group of city managers decided they 
were paying entirely too much for the quality of fire hose which they 
had been purchasing and requested the Michigan Municipal League to 
investigate. The upshot of this was that five municipalities pooled 
their orders, getting a low bid of 64 cents per foot, whereas they had 
been paying $1.25 on the average. Since that time the League has 
bought fire hose for more than 100 municipalities, and now purchases 
many other Items as well. For some commodities it has been found 
most advantageous to establish a dealer relationship with manufac- 
turers. The League then quotes the lowest prevailing price to munici- 
palities and retains the dealer commissions. The Michigan Municipal 
League allows manufacturers to bill cities directly but prefers to be 
billed itself. This latter seems to be the general practice of municipal 
leagues. Delivery may be made directly to the cities, as is usually 
the case with bulky articles, or to the leagues. It is particularly 
interesting to note that the Michigan Municipal League has offered 
to handle purchasing for the leagues of other States which do not in- 
clude that activitity among their functions. The service is to be 
confined to fire hose and street name signs in its experimental stages. 6 
The League of Virginia Municipalities makes its cooperative purchas- 
ing service available not only to the cities and towns of the State but 
also to the counties. Cooperative action is being considered in other 
States, and Mr. Joseph W. Nicholson, president of the National 
Association of Purchasing Agents, writing in the Municipal Yearbook 
for 1939 stated that "One of the most encouraging trends in munici- 
pal purchasing is the growirg appreciation of the possibilities of in- 
termunicipal purchasing arrangements." 

In a number of cases school districts both in the United States and 
Canada have collaborated in making purchases. The largest asso- 
ciation formed for this purpose is the Kansas School Purchasing 
Association, which was established in 1930 and now includes over 
500 schools — some of them in Oklahoma and Nebraska. This organ- 
ization secures special prices from vendors but sells to members at 
the market prices. Then at the end of the year it declares a dividend 

* See the article by Stuart A. MacCorkle, "State-Municipal Cooperation in Purchasing," National Munic- 
ipal Review, vol. 27, September 1938, p. 441. 

J For a table on the commodities purchased through the municipal leagues in each State, together with the 
volume of purchases, see the article by Carlton Chute, "Cooperative Purchasing in the United State 1 " and 
Canada," National Municipal Review, vol. 27, October 1938, p. 503. 

• The Municipal Yearbook 1939, p. 36. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER Q7 

to its members. This dividend amounted to 20 percent of sales in 
1937. 

Another interesting cooperative arrangement is that of the city of 
Cincinnati, Hamilton County, the public library, the University c 
Cincinnati, and the city school district whose purchasing agents havt 
established the Coordinating Committee of the Purchasing Agents of 
Hamilton County. The volume of joint purchases by this Committee 
was estimated at $500,000 in 1937. Some 150 commodities were 
purchased cooperatively, including over 1,000,000 gallons of gasoline 
and 100,000 tons of coal. The saving on the latter item was conserva- 
tively estimated at $50,000 for 1 year. 7 The policy of the Committee 
is to hold weekly meetings of the purchasing agents of the cooperating 
governments for the purposes of combining their requirements when- 
ever possible and of discussing mutual problems. 

A natural form of cooperative buying is for small governmental 
units to rely on the facilities of a larger, better equipped purchasing 
organization in their vicinity. An illustration of this type of arrange- 
ment is recorded in the 1938 report of the Department of Purchase 
of the City of New York. According to this report, 17 agencies whose 
purchasing function is independent saved by taking advantage of the 
department's annual contract for lamp bulbs. The discount to the 
department, predicated on a volume of $100,000, was 38.26 percent. 
The purchases of the independent agencies ran from $2.24 to $34,777.26, 
and the discount range was from 20 to 35 percent. Savings were also 
made on the department's coal and fuel oil contracts,, of which several 
agencies took advantage. 

2. POSSIBILITIES FOR FEDERAL COOPERATION WITH STATE AND LOCAL 

GOVERNMENTS 

The question may be raised as to whether cooperative purchasing 
arrangements might not be worked out, not merely between State 
and local governments, but between the Federal Government and 
State and local governments. The similarity between the purchases 
of the Federal Government and those of six large cities, not only as 
to commodities purchased but as to the relative importance of those 
commodities in terms of dollar value, has been pointed out in chapter 
II. 8 It is probable that a study of State purchases would show a 
somewhat similar pattern. Such commodities as gasoline and motor 
oil, tires and tubes, lubricating oil and greases, fuel, typewriters, 
adding and bookkeeping machines, stationery and paper of all kinds, 
miscellaneous office supplies, brooms, brushes and mops, cleaning 
compounds, paint and paint ingredients, rope and cordage, furniture, 
tools and hardware are commonly used by all governmental units. 
Most governmental units buy building materials such as cement, 
steel, lumber, glass, electrical supplies, heating and plumbing supplies, 
etc. Likewise, paving material is bought at the local, State, and 
.Federal levels. At all three levels there are institutions to maintain, 
and these institutions require food, blankets, sheets, and other dry 
goods, drugs and medicines, tableware and kitchen utensils, clothing 
for inmates, and costly surgical and laboratory equipment in the case 
of hospitals. 

1 Chute, op. cit., p. 501; see also the annual reports of the Department of Purchasing, City of Cincinnati. 
8 Table IX, and text discussion, pp. 21-22. 



Qg CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

The advantages to be sought from Federal-State-local cooperation 
in purchasing are the same as those found in existing cooperative 
arrangements. The most obvious is reduction in prices due to in- 
creased volume of purchases. Such increased volume may warrant 
direct dealings with the manufacturer, eliminating the middleman 
and his commission. But improved quality may also be important. 
This may result from more carefully drawn specifications, closer 
inspection, and more through testing. Both lower prices and better 
quality may 'be secured when small agencies take advantage of the 
better trained personnel and more efficient techniques of larger 
agencies. In addition, cooperative action may make it possible to 
discover and deal with collusive bidding more effectively. It may 
also improve the market information, on the basis of which local 
governments may do their own purchasing. 

It is probable that State and local governments would profit most 
from such cooperative arrangements. Two studies indicate that the 
prices paid by municipalities and States are higher on the average 
than those paid by the Federal Government for similar commodities. 9 

The first involves a comparison between prices on items listed in 
the General Schedule of Supplies of the Federal Government and 
those paid by selected cities through the country, made for this study 
with the cooperation of the United States Conference of Mayors. 
A list of commodity items, selected from the current General Schedule 
of Supplies, with detailed specifications for each article, was furnished 
to the Conference of Mayors with the request that data be collected 
on prices paid by various city governments for each item. Informa- 
tion 10 was received from 16 cities — New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, 
Los Angeles, St. Louis, Boston, Pittsburgh, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, 
Newark, Louisville, Portland (Oreg.), Houston, Toledo, Atlanta, 
and Dallas. While none of these cities has a population of under 
250,000, they are geographically well distributed. 

The relationship between the prices paid for the selected commodity 
items by the reporting cities and those listed for the same items in the 
current General Schedule of Supplies for Federal agencies, is indi- 
cated by chart IV. For each commodity, the prices paid by the 
respective cities were arrayed and the upper quartile, median, and 
lower quartile were determined. Each bar on the chart represents 
the ratio between a city price (upper quartile, median, or lower 
quartile) for a particular article and the price listed for the same 
article in the General Schedule of Supplies. Upper quartile., median, 
and lower quartile ratios are shown on separate grids. 11 

It will be noted that even most of the bars representing the lower 
quartile are above 100 percent on the chart. Thus it appears that 
for most of the articles selected for study which are purchased both 
by large cities and by the Federal Government the price paid by the 
former is considerably higher. However, it is impossible to be cer- 
tain that the articles purchased by the cities were identical in quality 

s The validity of any price comparison of this sort is somewhat affected by the impossibility of obtaining 
identical items for comparison in most cases. However, care has been taken in both studies to select items 
that are closely similar, if not exactly identical, and it is believed that those items chosen afford a fair basis 
of comparison. 

'» The commodities for which usable data were obtained were gasoline, tires, grease, flashlights, type- 
writers, brooms, axes, steel bars, ash cans, metal polish, laundry soap, laundry soda, caastic soda, soda ash, 
paint, turiK-nf ine, pillowcases, rubber boots, bacon, coffee, rice, and canned tomatoes, apricots, and peaches. 
A total of 33 price items were used including quotations for different sizes and quantities in the case of 
several commodities. 

" For a brief explanation of the reasons for using these threo measures, see footnote 25, p. 40. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



69 



with those on the General Schedule of Supplies, and this may account 
for part of the price differential. 

Chart IV. — Ratios of Prices Paid by 16 Cities to General Schedule of Supplies 
Prices — 33 Selected Items 



[General schedule of supplies price = 100] 



Per Cent 




UOO Upper Quartile 



The second study was undertaken 2 years ago by the Bureau of 
Unemployment Compensation 12 of the Social Security Board in con- 
nection with the administration of grants to States under the Social 
Security Act. This was prior to the establishment, by the Board, of 



• Now the Bureau of Employment Security. 



70 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



procurement standards for State agencies and of minimum specifica- 
tions as to quality and construction. The study involved a com- 
parison between the amounts paid by State unemployment compen- 
sation agencies for selected office equipment most frequently pur- 
chased by them and the amounts paid by Federal agencies under the 
General Schedule of Supplies. The items selected for comparison 
were various types of desks, tables, chairs, files, typewriters, fans, 
and copy holders. Prices were compared for a sample of six States — 
two in each of the three zones for which prices were quoted separately 
in the General Schedule of Supplies. The following table shows the 
results of this study. The figures shown in columns 2 and 3 repre- 
sent all purchases made by the unemployment compensation agencies 
of the six States as reported up to the close of the first quarter of the 
1938 fiscal year. 

Table XVI. — Comparison of amounts paid for selected types of office furniture and 
equipment by State unemployment compensation agencies and by Federal agencies 



Item and State 



(1) 

Chairs, total 

State A, zone 1 

State B, zone 1 

State C, zone 2 

State D, zone 2 

State E, zone 3 

State F, zoneS 

Copy holders, total 

State A, zone 1 

State B, zone 1 

State O. zone2_ 

State D,zone 2 

State E, zone 3 

State F, zone 3 

Desks, total _ 

State A, zone 1 

State B, zone 1 . 

State C, zone 2. 

State D, zone 2 

State E, zone 3 

State F, zone 3 

Fans, total 

State A, zone l 

State B, zone 1 

State C, zone 2 

State D, zone 2 

State E, zone 3 

State F, zone 3 



Number 


Amount paic 










of units 






Percent 


bought 


State 


Federal 


State 
exceeds 
Federal 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


210 


$3,487.14 


$2,661.15 


31.0 


17 


353. 94 


318. 75 


11.0 


59 


836. 40 


633. 30 


32.1 


30 


221.80 


172. 80 


28.4 


21 


290.35 


224. 50 


29.3 


26 


473. 20 


390. 00 


21.3 


57 


1,311.45 


921. 80 


42.3 


47 


815. 12 


666.00 


22.4 


14 


238. 14 


212. 80 


11.9 


14. 


246. 55 


189. 60 


30.0 


12 


204.12 


159.60 


27.9 


6 


104. 44 


86.00 


21.4 


1 


21.87 


18.00 


21.5 


(0 


(') 


0) 


(') 


180 


8, 000. 32 


6, 359. 48 


25.8 


25 


1, 287. 14 


949. 20 


36.5 


59 


2, 081. 50 


1,689.73 


23.2 


24 


617. 76 


478. 74 


29.0 


16 


654.60 


606. 12 


8.0 


19 


1, 137. 28 


927. 20 


22.7 


37 


2, 222. 04 


1, 708. 49 


30.1 


71 


1, 259. 79 


1, 090. 50 


15.5 


9 


156. 24 


123. 00 


27.0 


( s ) 


( J ) 


( J ) 


(») 


27 


513. 80 


407.50 


.26.1 


( 3 ) 


( 3 ) 


( 3 ) 


(') 


W 


(*) 


(*> 


(«) 


35 


589. 75 


560. 00 


5.3 



1 Used copy holders were apparently purchased, affording no valid basis for comparison. 
3 No fans shown in available equipment inventory. 

3 Fans purchased from Tennessee Valley Authority at exceptionally low prices, consequently prices paid 
were not considered comparable. 
1 See (') above. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWEH 



71 



Table XVI. — Comparison of amounts paid for selected types of office furniture and 
equipment by State unemployment compensation agencies and by Federal agencies — 
Continued 



Item and State 



(0 



Files, total 

State A, zone 1. 
State B, zone 1. 
State C, zone 2. 
State D, zone 2 
State E, zone 3 
State F, zone 3. 

Tables, total 

State A, zone 1 
State B. zone 1. 
State C, zone 2. 
State D, zone 2 
State E. zone 3. 
State F, zone 3. 

Typewriters, total. 

State A, zone 1. 
State B, zone 1. 
State C, zone 2. 
State D, zone 2 
State E, zone 3. 
State F, zone 3. 

Grand total.. 



Number 
of units 
bought 



(2) 



20 



677 



Amount paid 



State 



(3) 



$2, 113. 15 



1, 002. 00 

(») 
1, 111. 15 

(*) 

(«) 

( ! ) 



1, 369. 24 



61.54 
216. 00 

58.50 
208. 80 

27.50 
796.00 



9, 930. 30 



1, 514. 70 
2, 762. 10 
1, 304. 10 
891. 00 
2,211.00 
1,247.40 



26, 975. 06 



Federal 



(4) 



$1, 659. 00 



811.50 

(') 

847. 50 

( ! ) 

(») 

( 5 ) 



1, 125. 33 



42.90 
141.36 

50.31 
179. 40 

17.23 
694. 13 



7, 770. 00 



1, 190. 00 
2, 170. 00 
1,050.00 

700. 00 
1, 680. 00 

980. 00 



21,331.46 



Percent 

State 
exceeds 
Federal 

(5) 



23.5 
31.1 



21.7 



43.4 
52.8 
16.3 
16.4 
59.6 
14.8 



27.8 



27.3 
27.3 
24.2 
27.3 
31.6 
27.3 



26.5 



* Federal Government pays relatively lower prices on certain filing equipment than it does on other items, 
consequently comparison of these items was not deemed advisable. 

Source: Administrative Standards Section, Grants Division, Bureau of Unemployment Compensation, 
Social Security Board. 

Four methods by which cooperative arrangements could be entered 
into between the Federal Government on the one hand and State and 
local governments on the other may be considered. The choice in,any 
particular case will depend upon a number of factors, one of the most 
important being the commodity involved, and, for this reason, wide 
discretion must be given to the procurement officials. The four 
methods are: (1) Opening up of the indefinite-quantity term contracts 
of one governmental unit to any other governmental unit which may 
wish to take advantage of them, (2) consolidation of purchases in large, 
definite-quantity orders, (3) purchase by one governmental unit 
through the agency of another government, and (4) purchase directly 
from the warehouse stocks of another government. These methods 
are not always distinct, and various combinations of them are possible, 
but for convenience they will be discussed separately. 

(1) Opening up of the indefinite-quantity term contracts of one 
governmental unit to any other governmental unit that may wish to 
take advantage of them is the simplest and most obvious method of 
intergovernmental cooperation. As we have seen, several States have 
made State contracts of this type available to their local governments. 
B\ analogy it has been proposed that contracts listed in the Federal 
-( neral Schedule of Supplies might be made available to State and local 
fcovernments which may wish to take advantage of them. This would 



72 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

involve inserting a statement in the advertisements for bids to the 
effect that State and local governments would be permitted to purchase 
under the contracts on the same terms as Federal agencies. It would 
also involve adding an appropriate clause to the contracts. The 
Federal Government would assume no special obligations in connection 
with any such arrangement and no identifiable expense would be 
involved. A statutory authorization to the Director of Procurement 
to make General Schedule of Supplies contracts which are open to State 
and local governments would presumably be necessary before this 
plan could be generally adopted. Moreover, wherever a State law 
requires that a State agency advertise for competitive bids, such law 
would need to be amended before the State could make use of Federal 
term contracts. Municipalities would probably be in a position to 
act without further special authorization more frequently than States 
since, in a number of instances, they are able, under existing legislation, 
to avail themselves of analogous State contracts. 

The device of making Federal term contracts open to State and local 
governments may decrease the number of bidders responding to a bid 
opening, or may increase their prices, if contractors are reluctant to 
undertake to supply the indefinite demands involved. This type of 
contract would leave State and municipal governments entirely free to 
order under the Federal contracts or not as they may choose. Con- 
sequently, if prices go up after a contract is let, State and local govern- 
ments may generally make use of the Federal contract; while, if prices 
go down, they will seek to make separate contracts entered into 
subsequently and at lower prices. On several occasions during the 
spring of 1938 the Procurement Division advertised for bids to supply 
cement under contracts to be open to contractors and others piu'chas- 
ing cement for use on projects constructed with the aid of Federal 
funds. The response to these advertisements was unsatisfactory, and 
uncertainties of demand were alleged to be responsible. 

In order to meet this objection to extending the facilities of Federal 
term contracts to State and local governments, it has been suggested 
that any participating local government or government agency should 
be required to elect whether or not it would participate in the con ti act 
prior to advertisement for bids, and that if it so elected purchase under 
the contract should be mandatory during the term of the contract. 
Such an arrangement, however, would involve complicated legal 
problems. 

It is probable that there are opportunities for opening up Federal 
term contracts to State and local agencies in which the uncertainties 
imposed upon the contractor are not of such a nature as to prevent 
obtaining satisfactory bids. Thus, a step toward opening up Federal 
term contracts to States was taken about 2 years ago when several 
Federal contractors agreed with the Social Security Board to give 
State agencies administering unemployment compensation plans the 
same prices given to Federal agencies under these contracts. The 
Board's object in making this arrangement was to see that Federal 
funds for grants in aid of State unemployment compensation plans 
are spent as economically as possible. 13 

13 This suggests the interest the Federal Government has in seeing that all grants made by it to State and 
local governments are spent economically. In the case of any grant which (in the discretion of a Federal 
agency or in the discretion cf the grantee) may he used either for administrative or for nonadministrative 
expenses, the smaller the proportion that is spent for administrative expenses, the greater the amount, which 
can be devoted more directly to the purpose for which the grant is made (i. e., can be spent for nonadminis- 
trative expenses). Federafgrants to State and local governments during the 1938 fiscal year amounted to 
$805,000,000, according to the Bulletin of the Treasury Department, August 1939, p. 4. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 73 

Thus far it has been suggested that Federal term contracts might 
be made available to State and local government agencies. There 
are some commodities for which a city, such as New York City, may 
be a larger purchaser than the Federal Government. Accordingly, 
it might be advantageous to empower Federal agencies, when in the 
opinion of the Director of Procurement it is economical to do so, to buy 
from any local term contracts which may be made open to them, 
provided, of course, that such contracts conform to such general 
Federal requirements as those in the Walsh-Healey Act. 

It has been noted that the extension of the availability of Federal 
term contracts to State and local government agencies and of State 
and local term contracts to Federal agencies is the simplest form of 
intergovernmental cooperation in the field of procurement. Possibly 
because of this, the advantages to be obtained seem likely to be 
distinctly limited But the limited character of the advantages is no 
reason for continuing restrictions v-hich interfere with the use of this 
device where it is advantageous. 

Indeed, it would seem, since procurement is an instrument 01 various 
public functions, that unless it can be shown that the public interest 
calls for a particular restriction upon the use of businesslike procedure 
in public procurement, that restriction should be removed. Par- 
ticularly is this the case if the restriction is of a character unparalleled 
in connection with private procurement. Failure to remove such 
restrictions imposed by the wording of existing procurement author- 
izations, except where such restrictions can be affirmatively justified, 
is tantamount to an unnecessary requirement of general inefficiency 
in the discharge of public functions-. 

Moreover, even though the term contracts of one government are 
not utilized extensively by other governments, the possibility that 
they may be so utilized will tend to prevent unreasonable prices. 
This threat of competition has been claimed as one of the principal 
advantages derived from the entrance of municipal leagues into the 
purchasing field. 

In view of these considerations, it is suggested (a) that the Director 
of Procurement be given a statutory direction to make term contracts 
open to State and local agencies where the effect of so doing is in the 
interests of procurement economy for all branches of government 
taken jointly and (b) that the Federal agencies be authorized to avail 
themselves of any State or local term contract which has been made 
open to them as a result of agreement between the Director of Pro- 
curement and the State and local governments, provided such contract 
conforms to necessary legal requirements and offers a reasonable 
expectation of saving. Analogous changes in laws covering State and 
local procurement, where necessary, would also seem to be desirable. 

(2) A second opportunity for cooperative action lies in the possi- 
bility of joint buying by representatives of Federal field agencies and 
institutions within a definite area and by State and local purchasing 
officers within that area who may combine their requirements to 
enable the placing of large, definite-quantity joint orders. A good 
example of analogous cooperation among local government agencies 
is that already referred to between Cincinnati, Hamilton County, the 
University of Cincinnati, the Cincinnati city school district and public 
library. There seems to be no reason why the Procurement Division 
and other Federal agencies and institutions should not also participate 



74 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

in such arrangements. Under this type of arrangement, deliveries 
and billings would presumably be made separately for each govern- 
mental unit. Assuming that there is suitable advertising for com- 
petitive bids for such purchases and that the contract is let to the 
lowest responsible bidder 14 no special Federal, State, or local leg s- 
lation would seem to be necessary to authorize such joint purchasing. 

(3) A third method of cooperation lies in using one government as 
an agent for others, not merely in negotiating contracts but in making 
purchases. In general, when one government agency undertakes 
procurement functions as agent for another, it incurs certain costs in 
the process. If, therefore, the Procurement Division is to serve as a 
purchasing agent for State and local government units, it would be 
necessary for it to be in a position either to absorb these costs or to 
obtain reimbursement from the units of government so served. 
Under present conditions if the Procurement Division were to perform 
the functions of a purchasing agent for State and local governments 
free of charge, the use of its services would probably have to be 
somewhat localized. It might be fairer, therefore, to provide statu- 
tory authorizations which would permit the Procurement Division to 
collect a reimbursement for service costs incurred in acting as pur- 
chasing agent and to authorize the State and local governments to 
make use of its services as a purchasing agent. 

(4) Finally, it would probably be advantageous if one government 
could make purchases directly from the warehouse stock of another. 
The Procurement Division carries in stock in the District of Columbia 
about 2,000 items commonly used by Federal agencies. If these were 
to be made available to local governmental units in the vicinity, the 
possibility of substantial savings might be opened up to them. 

If such an arrangement is to be put into operation, the Procurement 
Division should be in a position to receive reimbursement including a 
surcharge such as that now paid by Federal agencies to cover the 
service costs involved. It is possible that a graduated surcharge 
would be necessary if delivery at different distances were to be pro- 
vided. The act of February 27, 1929, 15 which is the present authori- 
zation to the Secretary of the Treasury for the purchase-to-stock type 
of procurement, explicitly limits the function to Federal departments 
and agencies. The extension of this service to local governmental 
units consequently would require additional authorization. 16 An 
addition to the revolving fund might also be necessary. 

It seems probable that various Federal field offices would be in a 
position to obtain materials and supplies more cheaply if they could 
draw upon stocks in nearby State and municipal warehouses. Author- 
ization to employ State and local governmental units as procurement 

14 Also that the contractor conforms to general Federal requirements such as the Walsh-Healey Act. 

" 45 Stat. 1341, ch. 354, 70th Cong., 2d sess. 

19 It is interesting to note that such authority is already granted to the Forest Service on the following 
terms: "Provided further, That the appropriations for the work of the Forest Service shall be available for 
meeting the expenses of warehouse maintenance and the procurement, care, and handling of supplies, equip- 
ment, and materials stored therein for distribution to projects under the supervision of the Forest Service 
and for sale and distribution to other Government activities and to State and private agencies who cooperated 
with the Forest Service in fire control under the terms of written cooperative agreements, the cost of such 
supplies, equipment, and materials, including the cost of supervision, transportation, warehousing, and 
handling, to be reimbursed to appropriations current at the time additional supplies and materials are pro- 
cured for warehouse stocks" (1940 Appropriation Act, Department of Agriculture, Public, No. 159, 76th 
Cong., 1st sess., p. 19). The Forest Service has a large warehouse in Missoula, Mont., where fire equipment, 
canned foods, and other articles are stored and sold to other bureaus of the Department of Agriculture 
and to the National Park Service. Sales might well be made from this and other Federal warehouses in the 
field to State and local governments. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER, 75 

agents, where economical, and to reimburse such governmental units 
therefor would seem clearly desirable. 

There are also possibilities of Federal -State-local cooperation in 
other aspects of procurement than the actual negotiating of contracts 
or placing of orders. Federal specifications are already widely used 
by States and cities, but there are some commodities, such as asphalt, 
for which the cities would like 1 specifications worked out. As indicated 
above, 17 the Bureau of Standards has done considerable work for 
States and cities in testing products, and might well do more. In 
addition, the facilities of the Bureau of Mines, the Department of 
Agriculture, and other Federal agencies might well be utilized for 
inspection and testing of commodities. Conversely, Federal field 
agencies and institutions might benefit from arrangements made by 
many State governments to have their supplies tested in State 
university laboratories. 

The above suggestions all concern possibilities for voluntary 
Federal-State-local cooperation. However, as a concomitant of 
grants-in-aid programs, certain Federal agencies have set procurement 
standards to which the States must measure up. The best illustration 
is furnished by the Social Security Board, which has prepared a 
suggestive manual of procedure for procurement of furniture, equip- 
ment, supplies, and contractual services, 18 and a schedule of approved 
equipment and furniture items, together with minimum specifications 
as to quality and construction of such items. 19 It has also required 
State agencies administering % unemployment compensation and 
employment service to adopt such regulations and procedures as will 
measure up to the standards contained therein, to the extent that 
such standards do not conflict with mandatory requirements of State 
laws. 



1 'See introduction, pp. XVIII-XIX. 

" Administrative Standards Bulletin No. 2, Social Security Board, Bureau of Employment Security, 
September 1939. 

'• Administrative Standards Bulletin No. 4, Social Security Board, Bureau of Employment Security, 
June 1940. 



CHAPTER VII 

GREATER FLEXIBILITY IN PROCUREMENT 
ARRANGEMENTS 

1. PROCUREMENT A SERVICE FUNCTION 

For the sake of economy, and to avoid undue disturbance of the bond 
market, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized by law to exercise a 
large degree of discretion as to the form and timing of public borrow- 
ing. Thus Treasury bills running for a few months or bonds running 
for decades may be issued. The decision as to when and on what 
terms the borrowing shall be done is one which rests on administrative 
judgment, a judgment reached at various times and varying with the 
circumstances. The object of vesting this wide discretion in the 
Secretary of the Treasury is to provide economical and well-ordered 
borrowing. Toward the same ends, economy and business stability, 
there is need for allowing Federal procurement authorities a wider 
range of discretion as to the means they shall employ in their task. 1 

Procurement is a service function, an activity undertaken pri- 
marily to implement other functions as widely different from each 
other as the work of the Department of State and the work of the 
Federal Security Agency. Decisions as to how this service function 
shall be carried on should rest primarily upon considerations of 
economy rather than upon more comprehensive considerations. It 
has, in some instances, been found desirable to take account of other 
considerations; witness the Walsh-Healey Act. But, in the main, 
the procurement function should be carried on independently of such 
broad questions of public policy as that of the appropriate relations 
between business and Government, since purchasing is simply inci- 
dental to those aspects of governmental activity which embody 
policies on social issues. 2 Here we have the simp^ questions, 
"Should the Government employ businesslike methods in its procure- 
ment?" and "Should the Government as a buyer have the same free- 
dom as private enterprise in the conduct of its procurement function?" 
If those questions can be answered with affirmatives, and if the Govern- 
ment were to consider making, 3 rather than buying, some of the 
commodities which it uses, the factors that should be taken into 
account are not intricately social. They are the same whether one 

i Cf. ch. TX, and also ch. Ill, sec. 2. 

2 Editor's footnote: "Succeeding passages of this chapter, as well as ch. VIII and other parts of I his I "port, 
make clear that the above statement is indubitably not intended to mean that the Government s!: f Id be 
indifferent to collusion among bidders on Government contracts. Intellicent procurement requires jme- 
thing more, in response to identical bids, than to put the names of the bidders in a hat and award the con- 
tract to the firm whose name is first drawn. It would seem that, where price competition apparently does 
not exist, those charged with the procurement of supplies should consider measuies directed toward the 
fostering of price competition and the discouragement of monopolistic praetk-cs. Illustrations of such 
measures are a search for substitutes and an examination of specifications with a view to broadening them 
if possible. It would seem that procurement officers would not be unduly burdened by the undertakine of 
such measures — wl ch would fuither not only the Government's interest as a buyer hut also the public 
policy of the Government as regard; the maintenance and encouragement of a competitive system in business 
in general." — Joseph J. O'Connell, Jr. 

3 Each such reference in this chapter is to production by nonprisor. labor. 

262342 — 41— No. 19 7 



78 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

favors less or more of "public ownership" than we already have in 
those fields— -such as the generation of electricity — in which almost the 
entire output of the principal governmental enterprises is intended for 
use outside the Government. In the field of Government purchasing, 
' 'procurement by manufacture" 4 is logically no more a social question 
than it is when a private manufacturer is left free to decide whether or 
not to produce some of his supplies and raw materials instead of 
buying them. Moreover, even the conduct of procurement so as to 
contribute toward business stability (an objective of public policy) 
does not necessarily imply that procurement should or should not be 
by manufacture. 

2. FLEXIBILITY IN PROCUREMENT CONTRACTS WITH PRIVATE SUPPLIERS 

(a) Long-term contracts and related devices. 

The existing procedures in Federal peacetime purchasing might well 
be supplemented by a more extensive use of long-term contracts, by 
other departures from the arrangements now typical in the purchasing- 
contract scheme, and by governmental production of selected com- 
modities. As has been indicated above, in chapter V, war would 
probably call for its own distinctive procedures. 

To keep the "using agencies" from improvidently spending their 
appropriations even before the year to which appropriations relate, 
there is — as has been mentioned above — a statutory prohibition 
against encumbrance of an appropriation before the fiscal year to 
which it relates. 5 So far as it pertains to procurement, the intent of 
this restriction could perhaps be served quite as well by a prohibition 
against delivery, before the new fiscal year, of goods or services pur- 
chased with funds appropriated for that year. The way could still 
be left open for purchasing agents to make contracts in the last months 
of the old fiscal year for delivery during all or part of the new fiscal 
year, if the market situation dictated that expediency lay in that 
direction. Authority for such contracts could be granted periodically 
in the respective appropriation acts. This suggestion does not 
envisage the encumbrance of any funds before the appropriation of 
such funds has been completed, although there is one civil agency 
which has such authority by virtue of a permanent enactment of 
1894. 6 

Within an industry in which there is unlawful collusive bidding or 
other formal or informal unlawful restraint of trade that causes the 
Government to pay more than it would pay in the absence of such 
restraint, 7 -there are two aspects of Federal buying procedure which — 
unintentionally — are a help in maintaining the unduly high prices 
thus established, whether these prices be identical among the various 

* There is an excellent chapter thus named, in Industrial Purchasing: Principles i. id Practice, by Howard 
T. Lewis. Business Publications, Inc., Chicago, 1940. The present chapterof this report hasatsome points 
made considerable use of Mr. Lewis' discussion. Mr. Lewis' book is focusscd upon procurement by 
business enterprises, but much of what he says is equally pertinent in governmental procurement. 

J 31 TJ. S. C 665. See ch. I, sec. 4, of this study. 

fl "The Commissioner of Indian Affairs is authorized to advertise in the spring of each year for bids, and 
enter into contracts, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, for goods and supplies for the 
Indian Service required for the ensuing fiscal year, notwithstanding the fact that the appropriations for stick 
fiscal year have not been made, and the contracts so made shall be on the basis of the appropriations for the 
preceding fiscal year, and shall contain a clause that no deliveries shall be made under the same and no 
iicbility attach to the United States in consequence of such execution if Congress fails to make an appro- 
priation for such contract for the fiscal year for which those supplies are required." [Italics supplied.] 
35 U. B.C. 99. 

1 1t is here assumed (on the basis of the data presented in ch. IV) that in numerous Instances unlawful 
-estraint exists without effective prosecution. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 79 

bidders or purposely divergent. (1) Usually ^ an appropriation act 
makes funds available for one specified fiscal year rather than for 
several such years. Moreover, "the executive departments" are for- 
bidden by statute to make supply contracts for a longer term than 

I year. 8 In addition, there is a general statutory' provision that a 
procurement contract cannot run for a period longer than that for 
which funds are already made avilable. 9 - (2) The bids are made 
public. 10 But a bidder on a Government contract may have an in- 
centive not to offer publicly a price lower than that established in his 
industry. Even if he gets a governmental contract large enough to 
keep his plant operating for a year, he may nevertheless happen to 
be in an industry in which he will at the year's end find most of the 
other firms in the industry acting together to discipline him for having 
underbid them. They may, for example, seek to keep him from 
getting customers by offering very low prices wherever he seeks 
business but retaining their habitual price arrangements elsewhere. 
Such a prospect, of brief benefit and lasting harm, is not an induce- 
ment to a potential supplier to bid independently. It is, instead, an 
inducement to "play along" with the dominant element in the in- 
dustry. In contrast to this situation, it may be noted that if. the 
potential buyer is a private concern, there is opportunity for at least 
temporary secrecy of price, and, in a substantial number of instances, 
opportunity for long-term contracts. 

The significance of publicity of bids in the existing system of award- 
ing Federal contracts was pointed out in the 1936 hearings before the 
Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce, on the antibasing point 
bill. 11 There has been mentioned above 12 a colloquy in which a 
witness 13 testified that his company always asks of the Government 
the full amount of the "market quotation" published in the trade 
journals, but that in sales to private buyers the journals' figure is 
simply a "starting point" in arriving at prices that are not that high 
"by a long shot." When asked whether there was any reason why 
the Government should pay a higher price than anyone else, he 
stated: 

Well, you ought to buy like some of the other buyers. * * * You should 
not advertise your price. 

In a study made by the 'National Association of Purchasing Agents, 
96 percent of the private purchasing agents covered said that they 
kept price quotations entirelv confidential. 

e See above (ch. I, sec. i). "It shall not be lawful for any of the executive departments to make contracts 
for stationery or other supplies for a longer term than 1 year from the time the contract is made." 41 
U. 5. C. 13. The United States Code Annotated has an editorial comment «n this, that "The words 'except 
as otherwise provided by law' or some similar qualification, should probably be inserted in thic section"; 
and it refers to some exceptions that occur elsewhere in the Code, most of which relate to contracts by the 
Postmaster General. 

' See above (ch. I, sec. 4). "No contract or purchase on behalf of the United States shall be made unless 
the same is authorized by law or is under an appropriation adequate to its fulfillment, except in the War 
and Navy Departments for clothing, subsistence, forage, fuel, quarters, transportation, or medical and 
hospital supplies, which, however, shall not exceed the necessities of the current year." 41 U. S. C. 11. 

The following statutory provision is also pertinent here: "No executive departmeni or other Govern- 
ment establishment of the United States shall * * * involve the Government in any contract or other 
obligation for the future payment of money in excess of * * * [appropriations made by Congress for 
the current fiscal year], unless such contract or obligation is authorized by law. * * • Any person vio- 
lating any provision of this section shall be summarily removed from ollice and may also be punished by a 
fine of not less than $100 or by imprisonment for not less than 1 month." 31 U. S. C 665. 

10 See above (ch. I. sec. 4). 

II Hearings before the Committee on Interstate Commerce, V. S. Senate, 74th Cong., 2d sess., on S. 4055 
p. 67, et seq. 

■» Ch. IV, sec. 2. 

13 D. A. Williams, president, Continental Steel Corporation, Kokomo, Ind. 



gO CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

When vendors generally recognize that a buyer deals confidentially with their 
quotations, they are much more apt to give him the benefit of their best price 
treatment. Conversely, if they have reason to believe their quotations are 
likely to become public property, they are bound to withhold certain concessions 
that might otherwise be extended. 

Good buyers are aware of this and endeavor to treat all quotations in the 
strictest confidence. * * * It is common and sound practice to tell an 
unsuccessful bidder that he has lost out on price, if this is actually the case, but 
it is probably better not to tell him, or even hint at, the margin by which he lost. 14 

Should the Government dispense with publicity as to the bids it 
receives and the prices it pays? To do this would require amend- 
ment of the basic statutory provisions governing Federal purchases. 
The amending legislation could provide for a permanent inspection 
committee charged with insuring the honesty 15 of such contracts — 
perhaps a committee composed equally of congressional and execu- 
tive members, and possessing a staff. But a secret shared by many 
is not a secret, and the successful bidder might still find his "com- 
petitors" too well informed as to what price he had bid. Moreover, 
it may well be that what is needed is not that the Government as a 
buyer adopt the secretive practices that now prevail among private 
buyers of large lots. Quite conceivably it would be desirable, on 
grounds more comprehensive than those of governmental procure- 
ment, to require by law publicity of prices throughout the economy, 
even where both buyer and seller are nongovernmental. 

It is possible that a contract for a period of several years might 
induce suppliers in industries having private price control to be more 
independent of each other in bidding on Federal contracts. The 
chance of such an outcome is, at all events, sufficiently promising 
that wider use of long-term contracts is worth a trial. 

Increased use of long-term contracts would be possible if appropria- 
tion acts provided, more frequently than they now do, procurement 
funds for a period longer than 1 fiscal year. Extensive use of an 
appropriation period of several years would preclude adequate 
budgetary control by Congress over the character and scope of 
administrative activity, if the long period were applied to all objects 
of expenditure. But the proposal here suggested would apply solely 
to materieK 

Another way to bring within the law a more extensive use of long- 
term procurement contracts would be a general statutory authoriza- 
tion for such contracts to extend beyond the respective periods for 
which funds are appropriated. The suppliers would in such an 
arrangement be asked, in effect, to undertake a risk as to whether 
Congress would appropriate funds for the time subsequent to the 
first year; but— on construction contracts particularly — that .risk 
would not necessarily be excessive. 

One relationship which would doubtless be useful on occasion is 
governmental loans to suppliers. There already is ample authority 
for this in the Keconstruction Finance Corporation. 1 * But if a 
Federal Procurement Corporation were established to carry out a 

m National \ssoeiation of Purcnasing Agents, Handbook of Purchasing Policies and Procedures, New- 
York, 1939, vol. 1, pp. 369-370. 

» In response to Mr. Williams' suggestion (supra) of secrecy of bids for Federal contracts, the committee 
chairman (Senator Wheeler) stated that secrecy would inevitably bring corrupt practices. 

is So far as regards enterprises producing strategic and critical materials or arms and implements of war, 
specific authorization of the RFC to mak" loaus is provided in 53 Stat. 811, 76th Cong., 3rd sess., approved 
June 25, 1910. See above, oh. V, see. 11, footnote 36, p. 58. But there is ample authorization with respect 
to business enterprises in general. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER g\ 

number of aspects of procurement, as is suggested below, 17 it should 
by specific provision in the statute creating it be given such authority. 
Offer of such loans might facilitate competition in industries inade- 
quately competitive. Reliable persons or firms with sufficiently de- 
tailed plans for constructing a new plant or reopening an old one might 
be permitted to bid, if in order to produce the commodities they 
merely needed capital. It could be provided that the loan so offered 
would be made only in case the prospective borrowers submitted the 
lowest bid. If the bids submitted by them were to bring the prices 
of other bidders from an excessive level down to a level below that 
of the prices asked by the prospective newcomers, the Government 
would benefit even without lending any funds. A recent incident in 
connection with the cement industry suggests what could be done 
along these lines, although the Government in this instance was not 
offering a loan and although, in the opinion of some Procurement 
Division personnel, the bids on Government cement contracts in the 
particular area involved had been competitive. 18 On May 1, 1939, 
the Procurement Division invited bids on 5,800,000 barrels of cement 
for the Central Valley Project's Kennett Division (Shasta Dam), 
located in this area. No one concern already producing cement in 
the area would have been able to supply the total amount needed. 
But among the bidders responding was the Permanente Corporation, 
which had not yet actually produced any cement or even built its 
plant but which did own the necessary raw materials, was inter- 
ested in getting the Federal contract, and was organized with that 
objective by persons who had hitherto not headed cement concerns 
but at least some of whom had been active in the companies which 
constructed Boulder Dam. (It may be added that the very extensive 
bidding of an apparently noncompetitive character, on cement used 
in Boulder Dam,#had given to the men here referred to a large ac- 
quaintance with the serious problem which the Government faces in 
buying cement. They themselves participated in the construction of 
that dam rather than in the supplying of cement.) Delivery, which 
was to begin September 1, 1941, was scheduled at 290,000 barrels per 
month for 6 months and 200,000 barrels per month thereafter, 19 the 
total period of time covered by the delivery schedule being about 2% 
years. A performance bond of $3,451,000 was required. The Per- 
manente Corporation made the low bid and was awarded the entire 
contract — which the company regarded as large enough by itself 
to warrant constructing a plant and beginning operations. 

In some circumstances where prices have been too high such arrange- 
ments by the Government, with new concerns, could also be used — for 
improvement of the price situation. Of course, bidding by concerns 
which have never demonstrated their ability to come up to acceptable 
quality standards in the field involved would have to be limited to 
fairly well standardized commodities. But a sufficient volume of Fed- 
eral purchases answers this description. Moreover, in any contract 
involving deliveries over a long period, the Government presumably 

" Sec. 3 of the present chapter. 

is At least 1 Federal official acquainted with the incident here related states that the prices previously 
bid on Government cement contracts in that area had not been competitive and had been too high; that 
successive bid openings had left the problem unsolved; and that, in the incident here related, at least the 
successful bidder did bid competitively. 

"This type of contract i - known ^ot „.- a term contract, but as a definite-quantity coutract with schedukd 
deliveries. 



§2 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

would protect itself, by requiring a performance bond. In General 
Schedule of Supplies contracts, a performance bond is invariably 
used. 20 

In some instances, another provision of a contract involving de- 
liveries over a long period might well be that the Government supply 
particular materials or particular services (such as electricity) to the 
manufacturer, especially if the Government already has available such 
materials or services or the facilities for providing them. For exam- 
ple, on public lands there may well be materials, of the right sort and 
conveniently situated, for the production of cement and bricks to be 
used by the Government. Federal sale of selected raw materials to 
the manufacturer at prices remaining constant throughout the term 
of the contract, is a potential means of reducing the extent to which a 
scheme of long-term contracts would be a request to suppliers that 
they gamble on price changes of several years to come. 

Long-term contracts for commodities subject to rapid change in 
specifications would need to take account of the possibility that such 
change would occur. Necessarily, one feature of this provision would 
be a scheme for reconsideration of price, since a change in specifica- 
tions might cause a substantial change, upward or downward, in the 
cost of production. 

The pricing arrangements in long-term contracts may well call for 
considerable ingenuity in varying these arrangements to suit the cir- 
cumstances. According to one possible formula, the price on term 
contracts is the wholesale price prevailing at .the time and place of 
each purchase, plus or minus a certain percentage or absolute amount. 
Such an arrangement was, for a time at least, used by the State of 
Washington in the purchase of tires, tubes, gasoline, lubricating oil, 
and batteries — with what Mr. Russell Forbes has described as con- 
spicuous success. 21 Purchases for State-owned cars were made from 
the successful bidder (minus a specified percentage discount) at any 
of its distributing and sales stations. The scheme has been used also 
by Fresno County, Calif., in the purchase of gasoline and lubricating 
oil. 22 A modification of this type of ''indefinite price" arrangement 
is that now used by the Federal Procurement Division in making 
term contracts for gasoline. For each of a large number of zones 
into which it divides the country, the Procurement Division con- 
tracts for gasoline at the posted price minus a stated number of cents 
(or the posted price, or the posted price plus a stated number of 
cents). But there is a proviso that the price shall not exceed a 
definite maximum stated in the contract. Almost invariably, the 
"maximum" is the lower of the two prices. The other alternative is 
included to enable the Government to benefit by any "price war" 
which may conceivably occur. The term used is 3 months. But this 
type of contract may well be useful in other circumstances and for 
commodities for which the term could be even longer than a year. 

"> On General Schedule of Supplies contracts, the bond amounts to "20 percent of the money value of 
previously reported purchases." 

Sec. 1 (a) of the Walsh-Healey Act (49 Stat. 2036, 74th Cong., 2d sess., approved June 30, 1936) requires 
that each Federal supply contract for an amount in excess of $10,000 shall be with "a manufacturer of or a 
regular dealer in" the supplies to be delivered. Ordinarily this is interpreted as a requirement that the bid- 
der already be operating in the business, as is also the statutory requirement that the award go to the lowest 
responsible bidder. (See ch. I, above.) But in the Permanente incident it apparently was assumed that 
such factors as the concern's organizers' previous acquaintance with the business and the" corporation's 
possession of abundant raw materials made the corporation a "manufacturer" or a "regular dealer," and 
that such factors plus the performance bond made the corporation adequately "responsible." 

2 > Russell Forbes, Governmental Purchasing, Harper, New York, 1929, pp. 197-198. 

" Idem. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 83 

According to another formula for a variable price, bids would be in 
terms of stated prices. But the bid invitation and the contract 
would stipulate that each price 2S be varied over time according to a 
composite index of the purchased commodity's current market price 
and of the respective current market prices of a number of commod- 
ities related to it in use or in production. The variation might well 
be limited. For example, it could be stipulated that only half of 
each change be taken into account; or that the price never fall below 
80 percent of the initial price or rise above 1^0 percent of the initial 
price. According to the first alternative, a 30-percent rise in the 
index 24 would bring a 15-percent rise in the price paid by the Gov- 
ernment. According to the second alternative, such a rise in the 
index would bring a 20-percent rise in the price paid by the Govern- 
ment. Any such limitations would need to be formulated separately 
for individual types of merchandise or services. It is of course an 
open question at best, whether an index would be adequately reliable 
for this purpose. Probably no further statutory authorization for 
using such a formula is needed, although of course it at present could 
not be applied to a term in excess of the period for which funds could 
be spent on definite-price contracts. 

An alternative way of making provision against price changes in 
long-term contracts is to use price formulas based upon cost. 25 26 
This presupposes a substantial degree of Federal inspection of the 
supplier's cost data and records relating to the incurring of costs. 
One such formula would take into consideration the accounting in- 
formation of the various bidders, for a year or other test period prior 
to the letting of the contract. The Government could then award 
the contract for each commodity desired by it, to the firm showing 
the lowest unit cost for that commodity, the contract price being the 
unit cost in the test period. The "unit cost" might include a return- 
on-capital fixed either as a percentage of the value of the property 
used, or as a percentage of the other cost elements; or the return-on- 
capital might be made a flat sum per unit of product. In order that 
the unit cost, according to a formula, would be independent of the 
varying degrees of capacity utilization of the various bidders during 
the test accounting period, the return on capital and other costs, such 
as depreciation and overhead salaries, might be spread over a volume 
of business determined as that which would show a percentage of 
capacity utilization stipulated in the bid opening advertisement. 
The applicability of such a formula is limited because it presupposes 
an industry in which cost-accounting problems are relatively simple 
arid in which all bidders use cost-accounting systems that would 
yield data by means of which a comparison between firms could be 
made for each commodity involved in the Government bid opening. 
At predetermined intervals during the term of the contract the Gov- 
ernment could, in accordance with explicit provisions agreed to by 

M A single contract may involve numerous commodities and hence numerous prices. 

21 A rise of 30 percent, with the index at the time of the contract taken as 100. 

» Our procurement experience during the first World War showed us the gross unwisdom of the "cost 
plus" schemes then used (see ch. V, above); but not all price formulas based on cost are so unpromising. 

29 Editor's footnote: "It is hardly necessary to point out the many problems inherent in any 'price-based- 
on-cost' scheme (as witness the rate-making problems of public service commissions), and, more funda- 
mentally, tho fact that s'7eh an approach is almost diametrically opposed to the principle that competi- 
tion operates as the best protection of any purchaser as regards price, and that it does so with a minimum 
)f Government participation in the situation. It sesms to me that, in general, application of governmental 
, trice fixing is undesirable, is compared with either enforced competition or other competition as the price 
i egulator or as compared with governmental ownership. In any event, I should not earn to encourage 
>rocurement on a price-based-on-cost basis."— Joseph J. O'Connell. Ji 



84 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

the supplier in the contract, reexamine his records and — disregarding 
any foolishly or dishonestly incurred elements — arrive at the unit 
cost for the most recent period and apply this to the ensuing period. 
Any extraordinary efficiency or inefficiency which the supplier then 
exercised would work automatically to his own advantage or disad- 
vantage. 

A price-based-on-cost scheme roughly similar to that used in public- 
utility rate making could be used. As it is here envisaged, there 
would be no examination of cost records of the various bidders at the 
time of the letting of the contract. For example, the term of the 
contract might be 8 years, with a provision that the price for the first 
year be arrived at through competitive bidding, with the successful 
bidder to have his prices determined, a year later, for the second 
year — and so on. Prices for each of the last 7 years could be arrived 
at by a prediction of cost, including depreciation of and a return on 
capital. As in the price-based-on-cost scheme outlined in the fore- 
going paragraph, the result of any unusual efficiency or inefficiency 
on the part of the supplier would accrue to him, not to the Government. 

In each of these price-based-on-cost schemes, the method of deter- 
mining the value of plant and equipment would — like the rest of the 
cost-computation formula — be determined in advance by the Govern- 
ment agency issuing the bid invitation and would not necessarily be 
identical for all bid openings. Without attempting to list all possible 
methods, it is here suggested that the agency might use the most 
recent value reported to the Government for some other purpose — 
such as income-tax returns, or reports required by the Securities and 
Exchange Commission. .Still another possibility would be fcc arrive 
at a valuation of the successful bidder's property by the "prudent 
investment" method of computation. If his construction of the plant 
were contingent upon his being awarded the contract (i. e., if the plant 
were actually not yet built), such an evaluation would be peculiarly 
simple. Whether the plant be new or old, two salient aspects of the 
prudent investment idea would be used. (1) Unwisely or dishonestly 
incurred elements of cost would be ignored; e. g., the part of the price 
of the site over and above what it was necessary to spend. (2) The 
valuation of the plant would remain untouched by the behavior of the 
market. It would be changed only by such factors as extensions and 
depreciation. 

In fairness to bidders in any price-based-on-cost scheme, description 
of the costing scheme (both the initial and the subsequent aspects of 
it) should be set forth in the bid invitation. Alternatively, if a single 
scheme were being used for various contracts, it could be published 
in the Federal Register or elsewhere and incorporated in bid invitations 
simply by reference. 

The statute under which the Procurement Division now operates is 
probably broad enough to enable it to use cost formulas such as those 
outlined above. However, any doubt as to this might well be pre- 
cluded — by clarifying the existing authorization to the Procurement 
Division in this respect. 

(b) Slack-Season and Recession Discounts. 

In addition to ample provision for long-term contracts, several other 
innovations in procurement contracts may be suggested. Among 
those is a system of soliciting slack-period discounts. Under existing 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER §5 

practice the purchase of goods to stock affords an opportunity to select 
the time of purchase so as to get the advantage of lower prices prevail- 
ing during periods of slack business. Such an opportunity is limited, 
hosvever, to markets whose prices, cither because of competition or 
because of a definite price policy on the part of the sellers, promptly 
reflect slackened demand. Even in such markets, definite-quantity 
orders, on a definite-price basis, placed either by the using agency 
directly or through the Procurement Division as agent, afford no 
opportunity to take advantage of slack-period bargains, so long as 
such orders are on a purely hand-to-mouth basis. And in the case of 
purchases under single-price, indefinite-quantity year contracts the 
Government necessarily foregoes any opportunity to get slack-season 
discounts. 

For as large-scale a buyer as the Federal Government, it would seem 
that there are untried possibilities in the way of slack-period price 
discounts. Indeed, slack-period discounts should serve both of the 
basic purposes with which this study is concerned : They should enable 
the Government to buy more cheaply by advance planning (see ch. 
IX) and they should foster business stabilization, both directly and 
through suggesting the wider use of slack-period discounts in sales to 
private users. Some of the procedures involved in such discounts may 
be outlined in general terms. Their working out in detail must neces- 
sarily be a matter for experiment and ingenuity in each particular case. 
It will be convenient to consider separately slack seasons and slack 
years because the former are easier to identify and to forecast. We 
shall also consider indefinite-quantity contracts and definite-quantity 
contracts separately. 

In the case of indefinite-quantity annual contracts covering orders 
calling for immediate delivery the Government might follow either of 
two general procedures in advertising a bid opening: (a) It might, on 
the basis of accumulated data about the market involved, designate 
several months as slack months for it, and simultaneously ask both 
for a bid for orders placed during the other months and for a bid for 
orders during the designated slack months. Under this plan one bid- 
der might be low for the slack months and another be low for the 
remaining months, and separate contracts might accordingly be made 
for the two periods. 

(b) The Government might advertise for two bids, one for slack 
months and one for busy months, but let each bidder designate the 
months himself. In this case, more than two contracts might be nego- 
tiated covering a year. In neither plan would a bidder be required 
to bid on both the slack-season and the busy-season contracts in order 
to be considered at all, but such a requirement might prove necessary, 
at first, to overcome inertia against this type of bidding. If, under 
either of these plans, the beginning of the contract year coincides 
approximately with the beginning of the slack season, the amount of 
the discount will afford a definite basis for inventory planning. If the 
discount is sufficient to cover any deterioration and the carrying 
charges involved, the Procurement Division or the using agencies 
should stock up during the slack season enough to provide for the 
entire year's requirements. 

In the application of the slack-season discount to definite-quantity 
purchases, as in its application to indefinite-quantity contracts, the 
physical specifications should be the same in the two orders, and the 



§6 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER; 

quantity in the slack-season, order should ordinarily be larger. With 
a well-developed system for planned procurement, there is no reason 
why such an arrangement should not be feasible. Here, too, advance 
buying during the slack season would presumably be carried on either 
by the Procurement Division or by agencies which are large users of 
the commodity in question. 

For our present purpose there are three important differences be- 
tween a seasonal slackening of trade and a slackening of trade due 
to a general business recession, (a) It is comparatively easy to estab- 
lish a rule which will enable us to say, at the start of each month (or 
even long before), whether a slack-season discount is to apply. It 
is much harder to establish a definite rule which will enable us to say 
at the start of each month whether during the month a recession dis- 
count is to apply. (6) At the start of a slack season the needs during 
the coming busy season can be estimated with much more assurance 
than, at the start of a business recession, the Government's needs for 
a commodity during the following period of brisk business can be 
estimated . This point limits the scope of a recession-discount scheme 
to goods that do not depreciate rapidly and which can be cheaply 
stored, (c) Each supplier knows, upon receiving a contract, exactly 
what part of the year is to be regarded as the slack season. No one 
knows, on the awarding of l contract, what part of the term (if any) 
will be regarded as a rece; sion. If a business concern gets a busy- 
season order from the Government but is not the successful bidder on 
season contract from the Government but is not the successful bidder 
on the slack-season contract, the Government's shift from one seller to 
the slack-season contract, the Government's shift from one seller to 
another does not add to the uncertainties of anyone's business oper- 
ations. But if there were a chance that the Government might shift 
from one seller to another who had made a lower bid for a "recession 
delivery," that chance would probably accentuate business uncer- 
tainty. This third point suggests that on definite-quantity contracts 
a recession discount should apply only to purchases which are in addi- 
tion to an amount definitely contracted for as to quantity, to be 
gotten from one or more specified suppliers and entailing no recession 
discount, regardless of business conditions. It suggests that, on in- 
definite-quantity contracts, a recession discount should apply only to 
purchases which are in addition to an amount stipulated in the con- 
tract, to be gotten from one or more specified suppliers and entailing 
no recession discount; but there would, of course, be no contract with 
anyone to purchase the stipulated amount, nor would the contractor or 
contractors at the higher price applicable to purchases before the stipu- 
lated total had been reached necessarily be the same as the contractor 
or contractors at the lower price for additional purchases. Very prob- 
ably the scheme of slack-season discounts would require no departure 
from the now prevailing language of appropriation acts, and no other 
statutory change. The scheme of recession discounts conceivably 
would require special statutory authorization, since the determination 
of the recession period would not occur until the arrival of the reces- 
sion. But, if a contract provided explicitly for a determination so 
timed, there is no readily apparent reason why the contract would be 
invalid. The President or a specially provided board of persons con- 
nected with procurement might, .in a statute designed to cover this 
matter, be authorized and directed to proclaim the existence of a re- 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER g7 

cession whenever he, or it, should determine the existence of a reces- 
sion as indicated by criteria stipulated in the proclamation, such as 
the volume of employment, the volume of retail sales, and the whole- 
sale price index. Such a determination could apply to the economy 
as a whole or to individual industries. 

The various suggestions in this section — as to slack-period dis- 
counts, long-term contracts, and other arrangements for greater 
flexibility in procurement contracts with private suppliers — are not 
to be regarded as a single series of mutually exclusive alternatives. 
As has been indicated, some are alternatives to each other. Some 
of the devices could be used in combination. Some, although not 
alternatives to each other, would not necessarily make a desirable 
combination with each other. Thus, it would in some instances be 
necessary to decide whether the slack-season feature, with its chance 
that no one bidder will be low with respect to the whole term of the. 
contract, might offset too much of the advantage which, as indicated 
in section 2a, might accrue to the Government from offering a contract 
of long duration. 

3. PROCUREMENT BY MANUFACTURE 

Existing Federal procedures in procurement probably should in 
some measure be supplemented not only by long-term contracts and 
other deviations from the now prevailing arrangements with manu- 
facturers and jobbers, but also by governmental production of goods 
and services for the Government's own use. The lack of a barrier in 
the Federal Constitution to municipally and State owned and operated 
enterprises for the sale of commodities and services to the general 
public has been recognized by the Federal Supreme Court at least 
as far back as Jones v. City of Portland (1917) 27 and Green v. Frazier 
(1920). 28 In Frothinghqm V. MeUon (1923)* the question was the 
very broad one of whether there is any constitutional barrier to the 
expenditure 'of funds by Congress for purposes not enumerated in the 
Constitution. The Court decided there is not. United States v. 
Butler (1936) 30 is thus far the lone instance in which the Court has 
held that there is a constitutional limitation as to the objects of 
Federal expenditure. This decision — especially in view of the 
Court's endorsement of the huge old-age insurance system in the 
following year — can hardly be taken as the Court's final word on the 
question of whether Congress is limited to particular objects of 
expenditure, or whether on the other hand the spending power may be 
utilized for whatever end Congress deems desirable. Presumably 
even the fifth amendment affords no basis whereby private business 
firms could forestall or end Federal competition with them; for the 
fourteenth amendment has not been regarded as a barrier to municipal 
competition (Standard Oil Company et al. v. City of Lincoln [1927]). 31 

If governmentally owned and operated business enterprise for the 
sale of goods and services to the general public is constitutional, 32 the 
far more modest work of governmental production for governmental 

>• 254 U. S. 217. 

» 253 U. S. 233. 

" 202 U. S. 447. 

" 297 U. S. 1. 

»i 275 ¥. S. 504. 

« Cf. Dexter M. Keezer and Stacy May, The Public Control of Business, Harper, New York, 1930, 
VIII; and Edward S. Corwin, The Twilight of the Supreme Court, Yale University Press, New Haven, 
1934, p. 179 and passim. 



gg CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

use presumably is constitutional. On April 29, 1940, the Supreme 
Court stated (italicized words are obiter dictum) that the Federal 
Government — 

* * * enjoys the unrestricted power to produce its own supplies, to determine 
those with whom it will deal, and to fix the terms and conditions upon which it 
will make needed purchases. [Italics supplied.] S3 

Production by the Government for its own use is, in the most precise 
sense of the term, incidental to other governmental activity. Of 
course there would probably need to be general or specific statutory 
authorization for almost any instance of such production, an authori- 
zation that does not now exist. 

Probably the most useful type of organization for the conduct of 
Federal "procurement by manufacture" 34 and for related activities, 
would be a Government-owned corporation. This could be created 
by a special act, endowing it with the authority necessary to the 
carrying out of its purposes. It would probably be desirable that 
such a Federal Procurement Corporation have on its board of direc- 
tors one or more representatives of the Procurement Division (for 
example, the Director of Procurement ex officio) and a representative 
of the Federal Works Agency. The act of incorporation might also 
provide for representation of the Military Establishment, and for one 
or more members to be appointed by the President subject to Sena- 
torial confirmation. 35 As has been noted in chapter I, section 2, the 
War and Navy Departments and the Work Projects Administration 
are very large users of materiel. There should be a provision in the 
act of incorporation that any function or functions of the Procure- 
ment Division may be exercised through the Procurement Corpora- 
tion, by either the order of the President or agreement between the 
Director of Procurement and the Corporation's Board of Directors. 

But many things are constitutional which fall far short of being 
advisable. Sundry factors should be considered in reaching a decision 
as to whether "procurement by manufacture" should be undertaken. 
Most of these are similar for the Government to those which a private 
business concern would need to consider. 36 Probably no line of pro- 
duction should be entered by the Federal Government unless the 
prospect is that the total Federal need for the commodity to be pro- 
duced is adequate for operation on an efficient scale, or unless a volume 
of such size could be reached through production not only for the 
Federal Government but also for any State and local governments 
voluntarily entering into long-term contracts whereby the Federal 

88 Frances Perkins individually and as Secretary of Labor of the U. S., et al. v. Lulcens Steel Co., Alan 
Wood Steel Co., South Chester Tube Co., et al., 310 U. S. 113 (1940). 

8< Rather, any procurement by manufacture beyond that already undertaken, such as the manufac- 
turing done in Federal arsenals. 

85 Preferably, the Presidential appointees would constitute a majority, in order to insure harmony be- 
tween it and any part of the Government with which, from time to time, the President would find it useful 
to coordinate the corporation. 

86 Editor's footnote: "The study assumes, and so states without further elaboration, that the considerations 
which should move the Gove -ment in determining whether or not to manufacture a given commodity for 
its own use would be the same as those which would move any private purchaser. It seems to me that the 
considerations are not the same and that the study does not demonstrate that they are. The stndy takes 
the position that whenever, in the judgment of the procurement agency, the Government could manufac- 
ture a needed commodity for a lesser price than that for which it can be obtained in the open market, that 
fact alone would be sufficient to justify Government manufacture. It seems to me that it would be more 
in line with our Government's policy as regards the maintenance of a privately operated competitive 
economy, if Government manufacture were to be considered only in connection with situations where, 
regardless of price, the Government finds itself confronted with what is essentially a monopolistic situation 
or, more narrowly, one in which price competition does not obtain. As has been indicated before, any 
proposal either of procurement on a price-based-on-cost basis or of a determination to enter or not to enter 
a field of manufacturing based solely on estimates of relative costs, not only poses a number of difficult 
and possibly unanswerable questions of cost accounting and the like, but also ignores the fact that our 
economy is presumed to be operated on the theory that where effective competition exists, matters of price 
tend to take care of themselves." — Joseph J. O'Connell, Jr. 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER g9 

Government would serve as supplier to the others. The only other 
way of building up a sufficient volume would be by sales to private 
buyers. So far as the problem of procurement is concerned, such 
sales should — if permitted at all — be only a minor part of the total 
output of the Federal enterprise. Any proposal for or against govern- 
mental production with sales primarily to private buyers would 
involve broader issues than those considered in this report. 

But what, in procurement by manufacture, is meant by "operation 
on an efficient scale"? The answer is simple. For the Government, 
as for any other user of supplies and materials, it is efficient to produce 
what might be bought, if production is cheaper than purchase. Thus 
it might be advisable to produce particular items instead of buying 
them, even if the plant that would be constructed would not be large 
enough to reach the lowest possible cost per unit of the commodities 
manufactured. 37 

Investigation should be made as to whether any proposed plant 
would be able to make joint use of some of the personnel or property 
of already existing governmental activities without a proportionate 
increase in the total salaries of the personnel or the cost of maintaining 
the property. That is, would the plant be able to share some over- 
head expenses with these other Government activities, to its and their 
common benefit? The manufacturing establishment ought as a 
matter of course to be charged with the cost of any added overhead 
services necessary to it. If it could also share part of the already 
existing overhead cost and still measure up to the 'if-production-is- 
cheaper-than -purchase" standard set forth above, that fact would, 
merit favorable consideration in deciding whether production should 
be undertaken. 

A further factor which, if present, points toward prccurement by 
manufacture is the exaction of excessive prices from the Government 
through collusive and other monopolistic practices. Mr. Lewis 
mentions the plight of industrial concerns which have been required, 
by collusive suppliers, to pay excessive prices for their materials, 
supplies, and parts. 38 He states that such a concern is in a strategic 
position to bargain with the suppliers if it will manufacture even a 
small part of its requirements. 39 He points out that the financial 
test which is appropriate is not a comparison of the concern's prospec- 
tive costs in producing its own materiel, and the outside suppliers' 
costs in producing such commodities. The proper item to compare 
to the concern's prospective costs in producing its own materiel is 
the price which it would have to pay the outside suppliers. 

In the hearings on the antibasing point bill, some attention was 
given to the possibility of the Government's utilizing this same prin- 
ciple of economy. As has been recounted in chapter IV, section 2, 
testimony was presented on identical bidding, including such behavior 

" Cf. John M. Clark, Studies in the Economics of Overhead Costs, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 
1923, pp. 37-38; discussion of Absolute Versus Alternative Costs. 

38 Howard T. Lewis, op. cit., p. 308. 

38 Editor's footnote: "It might be noted that the T. N. E. C record contains several instances, notably 
that of the Eord Motor Co. and the American Brass Co., illustrating the extent to which private industrial 
concerns will go (when en the buying side) if confronted with a situation which they feel is not com- 
petitive in the price sense. Ford has gone into the business of manufacturing a portion of his needs in 
steel (to an extent to implement his bargaining power in that field) and the American Brass Co. encouraged 
(and may have financed, or at least gave assurances of patronage to) a second company to enter the field of 
the manufacture of beryllium, a product the company purchases in some quantity. The two techniques 
are not as dissimilar as might at first appear, and are obviously both intended to reajh the same object- 
ive; namely, the benefits of competition (or its equivalent) in price to the buyer of the product. "—Joseph 
J. O'Connell, Jr. 



90 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

on cement contracts for the Bureau of Reclamation. The following 
question and answer are pertinent here : 

The Chairman [Senator Wheeler]. If this practice of holding up the Govern- 
ment with these high bids continues, don't you think it would be advisable and 
feasible for the Government to build some cement plants and use that as a yard- 
stick? 

Secretary Ickbs. Entirely so. 40 

In order that governmental production may not be undertaken 
without adequate inquiry into alternative costs, any general statutory 
authorization for governmental production probably should require, 
as a prerequisite to the undertaking of any particular manufacturing 
or service activity, a formal investigation and finding of fact by the 
executive in whom discretion is vested. Governmental production 
would be permissible only if the finding of fact were that there is a 
reasonable expectation that the proposed arrangement will supply 
the Government at an expenditure less than it would have to make 
in order to obtain the goods or services by some other arrangement, 
such as purchase from completely private contractors, or contract 
with a private operator of a governmental plant. Unless the expecta- 
tion were for a substantial period, such as 5 years, an affirmative 
finding of fact would nevertheless not permit procurement by manu- 
facture. There should be a further requirement that formal reinvesti- 
gations be made periodically to determine whether continuance of the 
particular manufacturing activity is financially justifiable. 

For the Government, as for a business concern, any proposal to 
produce a type of materiel which it has not previously produced must 
be weighed partly in terms of the administrative or technical skill 
peculiar to the processes involved. If this skill lies rather far afield 
from all of the Government's existing activities, the question becomes 
one of whether it will be feasible to acquire suitable personnel of each 
type needed. 

It is said that a business concern which undertakes procurement by 
manufacture can rarely afford enough research concerning this "side- 
line" to provide for continuous improvement of product and lowering 
of costs. 41 The Federal Government could and does carry on scien- 
tific research as an aid to industry, and finances this research by means 
of general revenue. In part, this work would benefit federally owned 
manufacturing plants. Alternatively, the Government could, like a 
business concern, consider whether the total output of a proposed 
plant would be large enough to absorb this species of overhead cost — 
the expense of research related to the plant. The particular arrange- 
ments for research would vary. To the extent that new legislation is 
necessary to authorize such research, the authorization might be 
made as a part of. the authorization of production. If States were 
contracting for part of the output of the Federal plant, they might 
desire the effectuation of arrangements between the Federal Procure- 
ment Corporation and the science and engineering departments in 
their respective universities such as are now made between industrial 

w Hearings (cited in footnote 11 of the present chapter), p. 291. Cf. sec. 2 of the Vinson-Trammell Act 
(« Stat. 503, 73d Cong., 2d sess., approved March 27, 1934). That portion of section 2 which relates to 
procurement of aircraft reads in part: 

■<• • * The President is also authorized to employ Government establishments in any case where— 

"(a) It should reasonably appear that the persons, firms, or corporations * * * bidding for the con- 
struction of any of said aircraft * * * have entered into any combination, agreement, or understanding 
the eflect, object, or purpose of which is to deprive the Government of fair, open, and unrestricted com- 
petition in letting contracts for the construction of any of said aircraft * * " * " 

<" Lewis, op. cit., pp. 311-312. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC "POWER 91 

corporations and such departments; e. g., the supplying of graduate 
research fellowships for inquiry into technical subjects of interest to 
the grantor of the fellowships. In any event, the Government is 
quite as able to employ inventive technicians on a salary or stipend 
basis as are large business corporations, which hav r e long since found 
that basis of rewarding such personnel a desirable one. 

Another potential problem to be faced is likewise an aspect of the 
question of efficient size. Production must be adequately coordi- 
nated with current requirements. This does not necessarily mean 
week j by-week or even month-by-month equality of the two. But it 
may nevertheless mean, for some commodities, that the. Government 
would have to make "runs" that would be too small from the stand- 
point of efficiency; (or that it would have to have an expensively large 
plant in order to handle the peak load) . The amount of the com- 
modity needed by the Federal Government and by any non-Federal 
governments associated in the venture doubtless should not be pica- 
yune; but the total governmental consumption would not necessarily 
be a large percentage of the national consumption. Moreover, the 
Procurement Corporation probably should have an authorization, 
subject to suitable restrictions as to terms, to sell a part of its output 
to private buyers. This would make additionally feasible the attain- 
ment of an efficient scale of operation, and it would provide against 
any unforseen contingencies which would make the inventory accumu- 
lation too large. Whether the overhead item of selling expense would 
be justifiable for a minor part of the whole governmental output 
would depend upon such circumstances as the selling procedures 
peculiar to the commodity. In any event, to prevent the conversion 
of "procurement by manufacture" into the production of merchandise 
to be sold chiefly to private users, it might be worth while to fix a 
maximum percentage of the Federal output of the commodity which 
could be sold to such buyers. 

Two objections commonly raised against governmental enterprises 
which sell to the general public are that, being tax-free, they are unfair 
competitors of private concerns, and they deprive of revenue those 
governments having jurisdiction in their area other than the govern- 
ment which owns them. The second objection is equally valid against 
tax-free governmental enterprises operated solely for procurement 
purposes. As to the first, it could but not necessarily would be a valid 
objection to tax-free procurement by manufacture. Certainly the 
Procurement Corporation should be charged (as one of its "direct 
costs") an amount equal to Federal, State, and local taxes (other 
than net-income taxes) upon plants and equipment similar to those 
of the Corporation but privately owned. 42 Whether the entirety of 
the money thus collected from the Procurement Corporation should 
be paid into the general fund of the Federal Treasury, or whether it 
should be divided among the several Governments concerned, is a 
question of public policy rather removed from the problem of procure- 
ment. 43 This question, as well as the general method of determining 
the amount of "taxes," should be dealt with, however, in any statutory 
authorization of procurement by manufacture. 

11 It would be all the more appropriate to levy this taxation if part of the plant output were sold to private 
buyers. 

* 3 Editor's footnote: "Without attempting to decide the broad question of policy her? posed, it might be 
pointed out that the T. V. A. has recommended to Congress that it be authorized to pay to the public 
bodies in which it operates sums in lieu of taxes— this representing at least one attempt to meet this prob- 
lem."— "Joseph J. O'Connell, Jr. 



92 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

The Federal Government, whether acting through a Procurement 
Corporation or otherwise, should not engage in procurement by manu- 
facture without using a well-developed cost-accounting system, with 
just and reasonable allocation of indirect costs. 44 Any statute creating 
a Procurement Corporation probably should lay down this require- 
ment. Any cost-accounting sj^stem in procurement by manufacture 
should most certainly include a provision for a depreciation charge. 
Another element of cost which should not be omitted is interest. 
This should not be computed merely at the rate actually paid to the 
persons lending capital to the Procurement Corporation. So long as 
Federal bonds are exempt from Federal and non-Federal taxation, the 
"interest rate" in the cost records of the Procurement Corporation 
should be sufficiently above the actual interest rate on the bonds 
issued for financing the Corporation, to offset that organization's 
advantage over a private concern, which would have to offer an 
interest rate that would cover taxation to be paid by the holders 
of the concern's bonds. 45 But even though the Corporation's costing 
system most certainly ought to be business-like, there would be no 
need for the Government's charging itself for a nonexistent process of 
selling its products to itself -— i. e., no necessity for the Procurement 
Corporation's paying into the Treasury an amount equal to the cost 
of such a process. 

In an administrative investigation and finding of fact to determine 
whether a proposed instance of Federal procurement by manufacture 
is financially sound, not only taxes and interest (as thej have been 
described here) should be charged to the proposed undertaking, but, 
of course, all other direct costs also. As to indirect costs, the amount 
to be charged should be the additional expenditure (for indirect costs) 
which the new production task would cause the Government to have 
to make. For example, if the new undertaking involved the use of a 
heating plant in common with other Federal activities, any additional 
cost of operating and maintaining the heating plant should be charged 
to the new procurement by manufacture. 

The costing scheme outlined in the foregoing paragraph should be 
used not only in the investigation of the financial soundness of each 
proposal for procurement by manufacture but also during the opera- 
tion of each procurement-by-manufacture plant, until the first rein- 
investigation of its financial soundness. However, the Procurement 
Corporation, like any other business concern, might find that some 
of its property would depreciate in value at a rate more rapid than 

44 Indirect costs (also called "overhead costs") are chiefly those not specifically and solely traceable to a 
particular department or activity of an organization having two or more departments or activities. For ex- 
ample, any manufacturing plant of the Procurement Corporation located near other Federal buildings might 
use a heating plant in common with them. For the manufacturing plant and for each of the other buildings, 
the cost of the heating plant would be an indirect cost. Direct costs are those specifically and solely trace- 
able' to a single department or activity of an organization having two or more departments or activities. 
For example, the wages of employees of the Procurement Corporation would be one of the Corporation's 
direct costs. 

Costs can also be distinguished as "sunk" or as "out-of-pocket" in each of these two, there is some direct 
and some indirect cost. Sunk costs are those made at one point in time for a considerable period in the future. 
They continue whether or not one is availing himself of what they are meant to provide. For example, the 
expenditure for purchase and installation of machinery in a factory is partly a sunk cost. The part of the 
expenditure that is a sunk cost is the total expenditure minus the price that could be gotten by resale of the 
machinery — and also minus any funds that have been set aside as an offset to depreciation. Out-of-pocket 
costs are those which are undertaken for rather short periods of time (e. g., wages) and hence are usually 
dispensed with readily enough when there is no longer a need for what they buy. 

45 Editor's footnote: "As regards the tax-exempt feature of Federal bonds, it might be pointed out that the 
best authority on the subject seems to be that the tax exemption at present accorded them does not reflect 
itself in any very substantial difference in the interest rate (indicating that this point is a minor one), and 
that the Administration has consistently recommended that the exemption, insofar as future issues are con- 
cerned, be removed (along with whatever exemption is now accorded the interest on State and municipal 
bonds)."— Joseph J. O'Connell, Jr. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER, 93 

that anticipated. For example, a marked improvement over the 
existing machinery in a plant might occur which would sufficiently 
cheapen the production process for owners of the new machinery that 
the old type of machinery (owned by the Corporation as well as by 
various private concerns) would decline sharply in resale value. 
Thereafter the depreciation on the machinery in the Corporation's 
plant should be reckoned on the basis of the reduced market value, 
not on the basis of the original cost. In the first reinvestigation of 
the financial soundness of procuring a particular commodity by 
manufacturing it, and in the current cost-accounting used for that 
commodity thereafter, the total cost of procuring it by manufacture 
should be computed as follows: The total cost would be the amount 
by which the Government could reduce its expenditures if it aban- 
doned production of the commodity; 46 plus the resale value of any 
machinery, equipment, buildings, and materials on hand and intended 
for use in producing the commodity. 47 If a rule of this sort were 
followed; it would be possible to decide accurately whether the com- 
modity should continue to be manufactured by the Procurement 
Corporation, or whether some other mode of procurement should be 
adopted to supersede manufacture. 

Lewis, the writer on private "procurement by manufacture" cited 
above, warns industrial concerns that the particular unit which carries 
on this type of procurement may come to feel that it has a "protected 
status" — i. e., that special concessions should be made to allow it to 
continue to exist. 48 He outlines such an experience in an industrial 
concern, in which the concern had its machine shop produce some of 
the concern's equipment. After a period of years in which outside 
bids were not called for on this equipment, the machine shop was ex- 
posed to outside competition. Apparently it had not managed to 
keep abreast of improvements in efficiency in the outside establish- 
ments; for it was unable to compete even when it came to be charged 
merely "with its direct, out-of-pocket costs. Counting only those 
costs seems too generous to the machine shop, rather than being a 
rigorous cost-accounting scheme, since there presumably could have 
been some reduction in current overhead (indirect, out-of-pocket 
costs) if the venture in procurement by manufacture were to have been 
abandoned — and conceivably the company would also have recouped 
something by sale of some equipment. On the other hand, it is as true 
5 years after a "procurement by manufacture" unit has been con- 
structed as it is when the plant is still only a proposal — that produc- 
tion is better than buying if buying calls for spending more money 
than the amount that can be saved by ceasing production. 49 

In part, the problem faced by the concern which Lewis describes — 
the problem of a procurement-by-manufacture unit which ceases to 
be able to meet outside competition — overlaps that (discussed above) 
of providing adequate developmental facilities and personnel for the 
organization which does the task of procurement by manufacture. 

The financing of governmental purchase or construction of factories 
would, if the safeguards outlined here were adopted, be on a self- 

u It should nevertheless be noted that this is intended to mean, among other things, that "taxes" would 
be a cost element throughout the life of the plant for procuring the article by manufacture. 

47 For an expression of the same idea, in application to private enterprise, see Clark, op. cit., pp. 49-50; 
and cf. pp. 04-C. r ). 

« 8 Lewis, op. cit., pp. 312-315. 

<• The "saving" includes the resale vajue of machinery, etc., on hand— as was noted above. 

262342— 41— No. 19—8 



g4 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

liquidating basis, since these safeguards include provision for a de- 
preciation charge and for interest. 60 Because of the self-liquidating 
character of the enterprises, Congress might find it appropriate to 
give general authorization to the Procurement Corporation to issue 
its own bonds (guaranteed by the United States, as to principal and 
interest). But to insure the inclusion of the safeguards with respect 
to each plant, there should be a statutory direction for clearance of 
each proposal with the Director of the Budget, and for issuance of 
the bonds only with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury. 
' In another respect besides taxation, governmental procurement by 
manufacture might conceivably bring harm to legitimate private 
business, but this difficulty could also be met quite effectively. If 
an industry already has entirely ample plant facilities, or more than 
ample, it would be hurtful to the industry in particular and wasteful 
for society in general, for the Government to build a plant instead of 
buying or leasing one. With respect to each proposal by the Procure- 
ment Corporation that it construct a plant, the Corporation should 
be authorized and directed by the statute creating it, to investigate 
whether an adequate amount of plant capacity, of reasonable effi- 
ciency, already exists. It should be directed that, if such be the -..^tse, 
it attempt, to lease or purchase the needed plant and equipment by 
negotiation or — that failing — to use eminent domain proceedings. 
In neither method should the Corporation be required to purchase a 
plant inconveniently far away from the place or places where the 
commodities would be needed or from the place or places where the 
raw materials for use in the plant were available. 

4. PRIVATE OPERATION OF FEDERAL PLANTS 

Federal ownership of a plant to fill the Government's own procure- 
ment needs at a reasonable cost would not necessarily involve Gov- 
ernment operation of the plant. Operation of a Government-owned 
plant by a private concern might, for example, be a means whereby 
the Government could have the advantage of both publicity and 
secrecy of prices: Publicity of the production cost per unit in the 
establishment, and secrecy with respect to the prices paid by the 
operator to persons furnishing him with materials and supplies. The 
only persons possessing the latter information would be the operator, 
his suppliers, and the Federal officers dealing with the operator. 

Contracts for private operation of Government plants would prob- 
ably need invariably to be long-term. If the operator had the right 
to sell to the Government but to no one else, the contractual scheme 
might well call for no payment of rent by the operator to the Govern- 
ment, but solely payment to him by the Government, of all lus ex- 
penses plus a margin of profit on either a per-unit or a percentage 
basis. If the industry were one with rather static technology, gov- 
ernmental inspection to insure a reasonable degree of efficiency would 
perhaps not have to be extremely minute or extremely frequent. 
Cost comparisons at intervals would also afford such a safeguard 
(i. e., the Government could at intervals buy a part of its supply on 

K Inasmuch as the Government would not default on the bonds issued for construction of any plant of 
the Procurement Corporation even if technological advance were to reduce greatly the value of the plant's 
machinery, it might be well to provide against such reduction in value by setting up as a reserve the funds 
errmarkpd as "taxes" and the funds that would be obtained by adding to the actual interest rate an amount 
i" offset the tax-free character of the bonds. This reserve could, if need be, supplement the other funds 
n mailable for servicing the bonds which had been issued for construction of the plant. 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER _ 95 

the open market in order to compare prices) if the industry were 
adequately competitive. 

But the prices paid by the operator to his own suppliers probably 
could not be safely left secret if he were to use any cost-plus system 
fixing the price paid by the Government in terms of actual costs. 
With such secrecy, the operator would probably not have a sufficient 
incentive to efficiency and honesty unless instead a periodic reckoning 
of what the costs would probably be in the ensuing period were used 
in setting the price. If he were then peculiarly efficient or peculiarly 
inefficient, the benefit or harm would accrue to him, not to the Gov- 
ernment. In any arrangement whereby the Government would be 
the operator's sole customer, probably an indefinite-quantity contract 
with a stipulated minimun would be the most desirable arrangement 
from a procurement standpoint. In any arrangement in which the 
Government would not be the operator's sole customer, either an 
indefinite-quantity contract or a definite-quantity contract might be 
used; and, in either one, a slack-season discount could be provided. 

If the operator were allowed to have other customers besides the 
Government, an outright leasing arrangement might be suitable, with 
the lease including a provision for sale of some of the plant's output to 
the Government either on a definite-quantity basis or on an indefinite- 
quantity basis. 

Some safeguards desirable in governmental operation of procure- 
ment plants should have their counterparts here. Thus, the Pro- 
curement Corporation should be required to make a formal investiga- 
tion of the financial soundness of any proposal to acquire and lease a 
plant, and to make periodic reinvestigations. The law establishing 
the Corporation should require that an adequate cost-accounting 
system, with just and reasonable allocation of indirect costs, be used. 
The law should also require that procurement by the leasing of a Gov- 
ernment plant and its equipment to a private operator be abandoned 
whenever the current outlay (plus any money that could be gotten 
by sale of the plant, equipment, raw materials on hand, etc.) exceeds 
what would have to be paid for the commodities if gotten by an 
alternative method, such as purchase from private suppliers. So, too, 
provision should be made for tax-burden equality between the Gov- 
ernment-owned plant and privately-owned plants. Each scheme for 
acquiring and leasing a plant should be subject to the approval of the 
Director of the Budget; and any securities should be issued only with 
the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury. Finally, no plant 
should be constructed without regard to existing plant capacity. 

The Government's acquisition (by construction or purchase) of 
plants and equipment for lease to suppliers probably should be a func- 
tion of the Procurement Corporation. Here, as in the case of procure- 
ment establishments not only owned but also operated by the Govern- 
ment, assurance that the establishments would be self-liquidating 
might well be regarded by Congress as justifying the authorization 
of the Corporation to issue its own securities, 51 within its discretion as 
channelled by statute, to finance such plants and equipment. 

Procurement by means of Government-owned, privately operated 
plants and equiDment may or may not be permissible under existing 
law. But statutory authorization of the floating of securities would 
be necessary, irrespective of whether the acquisition and ownership 

81 Guaranteed by the United States as to principal and interest. 



gg CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

of such property be vested in a Procurement Corporation. The use of 
a long term for the contracts involved would also have to be authorized, 
through appropriation acts or otherwise. 

A factor affecting prices paid by the Federal Government which 
relates to all of the types of wider discretion for purchasing authorities 
discussed in this chapter involves the application of patents, copy- 
rights, and trade-marks to dealings with the Government. It may 
be questioned whether the Government should permit a monopoly 
granted by it to be used against it. If the patent laws function in a 
manner promotive of science and the useful arts, there is as good reason 
for patent protection against tile Government as for patent protection 
against anyone else. But if it should appear that inventors are not in 
general the recipients of patent-monopoly profits, and that invention 
would continue quite satisfactorily without the exaction of these 
profits, then the Government should probably authorize itself, by 
statute, to make use of patented processes and devices without pay- 
ment of royalties. 62 To get this benefit might prove to be unduly 
complicated in contracts with completely private suppliers except in 
cases where the contracts are of a type relating price directly to cost. 
Under contracts relating price directly to cost, thoroughgoing cost 
accounting under federally, prescribed regulations would be necessary 
and would afford an opportunity for omission of the monopoly profit 
which patent rights make possible. In federally owned enterprise, 
whether operated by the Government or not, it apparently would be 
simple enough to leave out such profit to the patent owner if an 
adequate cost-accounting system is maintained. But the question 
of public policy on patents is outside the scope of this study. So 
also are the questions of public policy on copyrights and trade-marks, 
respectively. 

5. SUMMARY OF PROPOSED LEGISLATIVE CHANGES FOR GREATER 

FLEXIBILITY 

Because the Federal procurement system is but partly centralized 
and because it is flexible on the score of centralization versus decen- 
tralization, the manner of authorization most suitable to the existing 
pattern would be an authorization for the President to act directly or 
through Federal agencies or officers designated by him. It would 
thus be possible for the utilization of the granted authority to be 
varied within the executive branch in accordance with changing needs 
and the changing degree of centralization or decentralization of pro- 
curement. Ad hoc choice could be made as to the scheme of procure- 
ment to be used and as to which agency or officer should carry it out. 

Many of the departures, discussed in this chapter, from the most 
typical procurement practices now in use would require congressional 
action. Because procurement is incidental to other affairs of govern- 
ment, Congress might be willing to confer a general authorization upon 
the Executive to handle this service function along such lines as those 
indicated in this chapter, instead of going at the matter contract by 
contract or plant by plant. However, it is obvious that any such 
authorization would not necessarily be granted in a single statute, 
especially in view of the fact that part of it might well be granted in 

M Even under the present laws no patentee rould sue the Government for infringement w ithout its own 
consent. But assuredly the Government should not take advantage of this fact in any instance in which the 
patent has been acquired by its owner through proper methods. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 97 

appropriation acts. Legislation along the following lines would pro- 
vide the Government with the authority to use all, or any suitable 
combination of, the devices for greater flexibility in procurement that 
have been described in this chapter: 

(1) Authorization of encumbrance of materiel appropriations 
prior to the beginning of the fiscal year to which they relate. 

(2) Making materiel funds available for a period longer than 1 
fiscal year. This obtains in some appropriation acts but should 
be included in more of them than at present. 

(3) Permanent authorization to make procurement contracts 
(with approval of Director of the Budget) for a period longer 
than the availability of the materiel funds. 

(4) Permanent authorization 63 of the Secretary of the Interior 
to furnish materials which are already owned by the Government 
and which are under his jurisdiction, to concerns contracting to fill 
Government procurement needs. 

(5) Permanent authorization of the President to determine 
methods of procurement (whether by purchase, by production, or 
otherwise), warehousing, conservation, distribution, and sale of 
materiel or services other than personal, or of property (real or 
personal) for procuring, warehousing, conserving, distributing, or 
selling of materiel or services other than personal; provided that 
the President (or any person or organization through which he 
shall act) shall, in choosing among alternative modes of procure- 
ment, be guided by objectives stipulated by the authorizing 
statute, e. g., (a) that he shall seek economy in procurement 
(including the functions ancillary to it) and (6) that he shall 
attempt to promote business stability. 

(6) Establishment of a Federal Procurement Corporation for 
the conduct of procurement by manufacture and other procure- 
ment activities; with the authority to issue securities for the 
financing of- procurement; the authority to lend fimds; the 
authority to purchase property (both real and personal, by emi- 
nent domain proceedings or otherwise) ; the authority to be lessor 
or lessee of property (both real and personal) ; and the authority 
to sell materiel and services other than personal to other Federal 
agencies, to governments and organizations other than the 
Federal Government, and to individuals. 

(7) Limitations applying to any authority newly granted along 
the lines of (5) or (6): 

(a) That the purchase or production of any commodity or 
service shall be primarily for use by the Federal Government, as 
distinguished from sale by the Federal Government to some other 
prospective user or vendor. 

(b) That the Government shall not undertake any project of 
procurement by production, or of procurement by lease of a 
Government plant and equipment to a person or organization 
outside the Government, unless there shall have been a formal 
invest' gation and finding of fact that such project will provide 
(for a substantial period) materiel or services at a cost lower than 
that otherwise available; and provided that there. shall be a peri- 
odic reinvestigation to discover whether continuance of the project 
is financially advisable. 

" In the event that the discretionary authority now vested in the Secretary of the Interior with respect 
to such materials is insufficient for the purposes here contemplated. 



98 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

(c) That in any such project as the types envisaged in (7) (6) 
there shall be reckoned as a cost an amount equal to Federal, 
State, and local taxes (other than net-income taxes) upon similar 
property privately owned. 

(d) That in any such project as the types envisaged in (7) (6) 
there shall be used a well-developed cost-accounting system, with 
just and reasonable allocation of indirect costs. 

(e) That, in any such project, the initial computation of costs 
shall include (among other things) depreciation, actual interest, 
and a sum representing the advantage possessed by the project 
over establishments whose securities are not tax exempt. 

(f) That each such project shall be planned with a view toward 
sell-liquidation. 

(g) That each proposal of such a project shall be cleared with 
the Director of the Budget, and that no securities shall be issued 
for financing it unless they be approved by the Secretary of the 
Treasury. 

(h) That purchase or construction of a "procurement plant" 
shall be preceded by an investigation as to ampleness of 
existing capacity; and that (if capacity be ample) lease or pur- 
chase be undertaken. 

As first steps in the legislative program here suggested, points (1) 
and (2) would be decidedly worth while. It would be vastly better to 
have the entirety of the program. The types of authority suggested 
would doubtless be of service even if never used. 



CHAPTER VIII 

FEDERAL ANTITRUST LAWS AND OTHER FEDERAL REGU- 
LATORY DEVICES AS AIDS IN PROCUREMENT 

1. ANTITRUST ACTIONS AND SIMILAR ACTIONS 

(a) Types of Actions and Some Illustrative Results. 

In chapter IV, facts were presented which indicate that some prices 
paid by the Federal and non-Federal governments are unfavorable to 
them. In the present chapter consideration will be given to the 
recourse in the courts or before the Federal Trade Commission 
available, or potentially available, to governments in instances in 
which prices appear to be unreasonably high or unjustifiably dis- 
criminatory. In general, such recourse takes the form of an action for 
violation of the antitrust acts or related laws. 

There is a very imposing collection of Federal antitrust and similar 
actions which the Federal, State, and local governments can make 
use of where governmental procurement furnishes some or all of the 
evidence. 1 Further, there are additional actions of this type which 
are now available as a help to private buyers and after which legisla- 
tion might well be patterned to aid governments. As aids to non- 
Federal buyers, some actions under Federal antitrust and related laws 
must be brought by the aggrieved individuals or organizations them- 
selves, whereas some are brought by the Federal Government. Some 
can be brought by either the Federal Government or, on the other 
hand, private persons or non-Federal organizations. 

There is a further possibility of antitrust actions based upon evidence 
obtained otherwise than through governmental procurement. Such 
actions may benefit governments as buyers, but their benefit is usually 
meant to have such wide application that they need not be considered 
in this study, except to the extent that experience with them casts 
light on the possibilities and the limitations of antitrust actions as 
an aid to procurement. 

In order that governmental procurement may be aided it is not 
always necessary that an antitrust or other action be carried to a 
definitive conclusion. There is reason to believe that even in the 
initial stages of such actions they may have lavorable results upon 
the prices paid by the Government. Thus in connection with the con- 
struction-industry investigation wliich the Department of Justice 2 has 
been conducting in numerous parts of the country, various electrical 
contractors in Pittsburgh were indicted on November 3, 1939, for 
conspiracy to defraud the United States (U. S. v. William F. Hess et 

i The principal Federal antitrust actions that are usable in this manner are described in this chapter; 
but the list here given is not exhaustive. Moreover, by far the greater number of States have antitrust 
provisions in their respective statutes, or constitutions, or both. 

1 In Pittsburgh and certain other places there was a substantial degree of cooperation between the Depart- 
ment of Justice and the Public Works Administration's Division of Investigation. 

99 



lOQ CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

al.). 3 In the indictment it was stated that in connection with each 
of 84 Public Works Administration projects, the bids received were 
nonidentical. But, according to the indictment, the electrical con- 
tractors comprising the Electrical Contractors Association of Pitts- 
burgh, Inc., met to consider their respective bids on each of the proj- 
ects, averaged these bids, and assigned to the contractor whose bid 
was nearest the average the privilege of being low bidder on the 
particular project. Bids lower than his were then adjusted to make 
his bid the lowest. The indictment went on to say that five of the 
persons indicted, including three officers of Local Union No. 5, Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, used strikes, other 
means of intimidation, and bribes to prevent nonmembers of the 
association from submitting bids on the projects and to prevent 
members from departing from the association's scheme of bidding. 
Thus, it was charged, the Government was defrauded. 

In Pittsburgh on August 10, 1939, and September 1, 1939, bids 
were received on a new P. W. A. -financed municipal hospital, the 
respective low bids being $150,125 and $144,100. Each set of bids 
was, in turn, rejected. Then the grand jury began the proceedings 
from which the November 3 indictment emerged. In response to a 
third bid invitation, bids were received on October 19, 1939, in which 
the low was $117,859. Thus the low bid received during the grand 
jury proceedings was 18 percent under the low bid on the second bid 
opening. 4 Another saving to the Government which came from the 
construction-industry investigation in the Pittsburgh area appears to 
have been a far greater sum. On a single Housing Authority project 
it is indicated that there was a saving of $1,250, 000, 5 or over 11 
percent. 

(b) Actions Arising out of Unreasonably High Prices. 

Wherever there is reason to believe that a Government or any 
other buyer is paying unduly high prices for articles because of a 
monopoly or a contract, combination, or conspiracy in restraint of 
interstate commerce, the Federal Government may through criminal 
or equity proceedings seek to remove the cause of the unduly high 
prices. 

The Sherman Act 6 declares monopolies 7 and ''Every contract, 
combination * * * or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or com- 
merce * * *" 8 to be unlawful. Participation in any of these 
activities is a misdemeanor, punishable by a maximum fine of $5,000, 
or maximum imprisonment of 1 year, or both. The Department of 
Justice has the authority to institute criminal or equity proceedings 

3 U. S. District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, No. 10462 Criminal. For information 
as to availability of copies of indictments and copies of other legal documents, see below, bibliography, sec. 
6, pp. 135 ff.F 

4 The 58 persons and corporations indicted in the Hess case each entered a plea of nolo contendere and 
accordingly were convicted. On February 6, 1940, they were fined— a total of $154,150. 

8 Presentment of the May 1939 Federal grand jury of the western district of Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh, 
March 25, 1940. The project referred to was Terrace Village 2, Pa.-l-3. The estimated total development 
cost at the time of the loan contract was $10,975,000. Then the investigation got under way. Meantime, the 
number of dwelling units in the plan was increased from 1,750 to 1,850. Bids were taken, and on the basis 
of them the estimated total development cost was now $10,159,572, or $815,428 less than formerly. A proper 
comparison, however, would involve a scaling down of the $10, 159,572 even further, to allow for the difference 
in number of dwelling units. Such a computation was used by trie grand jury in arriving at the figure in the 
text. 

« Act of July 2, 1890, 26 Stat. 209, ch. 647, 51st Cong., lstsess. (as amended). 

' Sec. 2: This section applies only to interstate and foreign commerce. 

8 Sees. 1 and 3: The Sherman Act, the Clayton Act, the Robinson-Patman Act, and the Federal Trade 
Commission Act concern only that part of trade or commerce which is interstate, or foreign, or within the 
District of Columbia or any Territory, or between the District (or any Territory) and any other area. For 
convenience and except as otherwise indicated, the Clayton and Federal Trade Commission Acts' practice 
ofsimplj using the word "commerce" to sum up this definition will be followed here. Sec. 1 of the Sherman 
Act concerns interstate and foreign commerce. Sec. 3 concerns the remainder of "commerce." 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 1Q1 

to enforce the act. Thus, in the construction investigation an indict- 
ment was returned by the Pittsburgh grand jury on February 23, 
1940, against the Lumber Institute of Allegheny County and others 
on a charge of conspiracy in unreasonable restraint of commerce in 
millwork. 9 In the same city, various consent decrees 10 have resulted 
from the construction-industry investigation. (Neither the indict- 
ment nor the consent decrees here cited refer to a governmental 
agency as a victim of the unlawful actions alleged.) 

Government-owned and municipal corporations which are com- 
pelled to pay unduly high prices, but perhaps not the Federal and 
State Governments themselves, may bring civil suit for damages if 
the prices resulted from violations of the Sherman Act. Section 7 of 
the Sherman Act provides: 

Any person who shall be injured in his business or property by any other person 
or corporation by reason of anything forbidden or declared to be unlawful by 
this act, may sue therefor * * *, without respect to the amount in contro- 
versy, and shall recover threefold the damages by him sustained, and the costs 
of suit, including a reasonable attorney's fee. [Italics supplied.] 

In section 8 the word "person" is defined — 

* * * to include corporations and associations existing under or authorized 
by the laws of either the United States, the laws of any of the Territories, the 
laws of any State, or the laws of any foreign country. 

It is by no means always true that, where collusion can be proved, 
it is possible also to establish the amount of damage. Some buyers 
damaged by Sherman Act violators have, however, successfully sued 
under section 7. One of these was the city of Atlanta, which had 
had to pay an excessive price for pipe. 11 Municipal corporations 
(cities, etc.) and Government-owned corporations are as clearly within 
the protection of section 7 as are private corporations. Whether gov- 
ernmental bodies other than such corporations are entitled to this 
type of protection is a question now being determined in the courts. 
In the Procurement Division tire-purchase incident related above, 12 
the damage which the Federal Government had been experiencing at 
the hands of identical bidders was adequately measurable. 13 On 

• U. S. v. Lumber Institute of Allegheny County et al.—V. S. District Court for the Western District of 
Pennsylvania, No. 10529 Criminal. The numerous defendants (except one) filed separate demurrers. On 
July 30, 1940, the district court overruled the demurrers. 

10 Among these are: (1) U. S. v. Voluntary Code of the Heating, Piping, and Air Conditioning Industry for 
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, etal., December 8, 1939; (2) U. S. v. Western Pennsylvania Sand and Gravel 
Association et al., February 21, 1940; (3) U. S. v. Marble Contractors' Association et ah, February 29, 1940; 
(4) U. S. v. Pittsburgh Tile and Mantel Contractors' Association et al., February 29, 1940— U. S. District Court 
for the Wpstern District of Pennsylvania, Civil Actions Nos. 698, 780, 805, 806, respectively. 

11 Chattanooga Foundry and Pipe Works v. City of Atlanta, 203 U. S. 390 (1906). 

12 See ch. IV, sec. 2. 

li The half-year for which there was a negotiated contract with Sears, Roebuck, & Co. was that 
ending March 31, 1938. As has been indicated in ch. IV, sec. 2, for the succeeding half-year, the half-year 
ending September 30, 1938 (and indeed for at least one additional succeeding half-year, that ending March 
31 , 1939) , the Government received from the defendants in the Cooper case nonidentical bids (on tire con- 
tracts) in which the low bid on each item that had also been bought from Sears, Roebuck under the nego- 
tiated contract was substantially lower than the price which had been paid under the negotiated contract. 
The difference between these prices paid by the Government in the half-year ending September 30, 1938, 
and the prices negotiated with Sears, Roebuck for the half-year ending March 31, 1938, was used by the 
Government in its complaint against the Cooper Corporation et al., as a minimum measure of the damages 
sustained by the Government in the half-year ending March 31, 1938; for each item, the quantity considered 
in the computations was the quantity purchased under the Sears, Roebuck contract. The figure thus 
arrived at ($351,158.21) was of course trebled. 

The total period in controversy is the 2 years ending September 30, 1938. Of this period, the first 2 half- 
years were those immediately preceding the half-year for which the Sears, Roebuck contract was negotiated. 
(See ch. IV, sec. 2.) During the period in controversy no drop occurred in the retail prices of tires to the 
general public. Hence, even if the Cooper case defendants could establish that they experienced a reduc- 
tion in costs as between the half-year for which the Government seeks damages, and the succeeding half- 
year (for which the defendant concerns offered, to the Government, bids in which the low prices on the 
respective items were less than the previous half-year's corresponding Sears, Roebuck prices), the Govern- 
ment could nevertheless argue that the drop in costs does not adequately explain why the defendants' 
prices to the Government were not as low in the earlier half-year as in the la* r; for stability of the prices 
offered to the general public, occurring simultaneously with a decline in costs, would indicate that the 
defendants' costs and their prices do not necessarily parallel each other. 



1Q2 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

February 20, 1939, the Federal Department of Justice brought a 
civil action 14 against the 18 identical bidders to recover treble dam- 
ages of over $1,000,000, this being the first such suit ever brought by 
it. The Government argued that it is a "person" within the mean- 
ing of section 7, irrespective of whether it is covered by the section 8 
definition. 15 It also argued that it is a "corporation" "existing under 
* * * [and] authorized by the laws of * * * the United 
States" and hence covered by the section 8 definition of "person." 
In a decision rendered February 16, 1940, on motions by the defend- 
ants to dismiss the complaint, the District Court rejected both these 
arguments and held that the United States cannot sue under section 
7. 16 The line of reasoning followed by this court would probably ap- 
ply likewise to State governments or at least to those not created by 
act of Congress. Conceivably it would not apply to subdivisions of 
any State, even those subdivisions which are not municipal corpora- 
tions in the ordinary sense. In any event, if the District Court were 
upheld on appeal by the Supreme Court, it would be highly desirable 
to extend, by an amending statute, the protection of section 7 to 
the Federal Government and to all other governments within the 
continental United States and its Territories and island possessions. 

From a reading of section 8 it is obvious — and there is nothing in 
the decision of the district court in the Cooper case to contradict this 
view — that Government-owned corporations have the right to sue 
under section '. There are various such bodies at present; and a 
Federal Procui ement Corporation such as is suggested above " might 
find section 7 decidedly useful. 

The Wilson Tariff Act 18 contains provisions somewhat similar to 
those in the Sherman Act, but relating solely to articles imported or 
intended to be imported and to manufactures into which such articles 
enter or are intended to enter. Even as regards these manufactures, 
interstate commerce in the articles need not be directly involved. A 
further point of difference from the Sherman Act is that, under the 
Wilson Act, every combination, conspiracy, trust, agreement, or con- 
tract that is intended to increase prices (of articles to which the act 
relates) is explicitly made unlawful per se. Section 73 reads, in part: 

* * * every combination, conspiracy, trust, agreement, or contract is hereby 
declared to be contrary to public policy, illegal, and void when the same is made 
by or between two or more persons or corporations either of whom, as agent or 
principal, is engaged in importing any article * * * into the United States, 
and when such combination, conspiracy, trust, agreement, or contract is intended 
to operate in restraint of lawful trade, or free competition in lawful trade or com- 
merce, or to increase the market price in any part of the United States of any article 
or articles imported or intended to be imported into the United States, or of any manu- 
facture into which such imported article enters or is intended to enter. [Italics 
supplied.] 

Violation is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine (maximum, $5,000) 
or by such a fine plus imprisonment (maximum, 1 year). Enforce- 
ment by criminal and equity proceedings is vested in the Department 
of Justice. 

14 U. 8. v. The Cooper Corporation et al.. 31 Fed. Sup. 848 (1910) U. S. District Court for the Southern 
District of New York. 

15 See the Government's Brief in Opposition to Defendants' Motions to Dismiss the Complaint (filed 
May 13. 1939) and its Reply Brief in Opposition to Defendants' Motions to Dismiss the Complaint. 

'• On May 21, 1940, the case was argued, on appeal, before the Circuit Court of Appeals (Second Circuit). 
On August 8, 1940, that court upheld the trial court, in a 2-to-l decision, Judge Charles E. Clark dis- 
senting. See Brief for the Appellant (before C. C A.); also, opinion of the CCA. and dissenting opinion. 
The Government will probably appeal to the Supreme Court. 

"Ch. VII, p. 88. 

is Act of Aug. 27, 1894, 28 Stat. 509, ch. 349, 53d Cong., 2d sess., as amended by act of Feb. 12, 1913,37 Stat. 
667, ch. 40, 62d Cong., 3d sess. See especially sees. 73-77. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 2Q3 

In addition, section 77 provides for recovery of triple damages by — 

Any person who shall be injured in his business or property by any other person 
or corporation by reason of anything forbidden or declared to be unlawful by 
this act * * *. [Italics supplied.] 

Whether or not the protection which this section affords to other 
buyers is available to governmental bodies l9 does not necessarily de- 
pend upon the ultimate outcome of the Cooper case. The Wilson Act, 
unlike the Sherman Act, contains no definition of "person." The sig- 
nificance of this difference is, for example, that the Sherman Act de- 
clares each of a number of types of entity to be a "person," while 
failing to state explicitly that the United States is a "person," and 
that act thus allows the opportunity for insistence that the explicit 
mention of other types of persons implies the omission of the United 
States from the definition of "person," an opportunity of winch the 
Cooper case defendants have availed themselves. The Wilson Act's 
lack of any definition of "person" precludes any such plea. More- 
over, in the argument before the district court on the defendants' 
motions to dismiss the complaint in the Cooper case, both the Govern- 
ment and the defendants made substantial use of the Sherman Act's 
legislative history (i. e., its history while a bill); and the district court 
also included a reference to the legislative history as one part of its 
reasoning. 20 That history of course cannot be regarded as pertinent 
to the Wilson Act until and unless shown to be. 

An ultimate decision in the Cooper case favorable to the Federal 
Government would definitely insure to governments the protection 
which section 77 of the Wilson Act now affords to other buyers — at 
least if both of these things were true : (a) That the decision were not 
dependent on the Sherman Act's legislative history, and (b) that the 
decision were dependent on a holding that the Government, whether 
or not a "corporation," is nevertheless a "person." An ultimate deci- 
sion against the Federal Government in the Cooper case might or 
might not require that, in order for such protection, to be given section 
77 of the Wilson Act be amended. 

Such amendment of both the Wilson Act and the Sherman Act, if 
undertaken, might well be made simply through alteration of the 
Clayton Act. 21 Section 4 of that law reads in part: 

* * * any person who shall be injured in his business or property by reason 
of anything forbidden in the antitrust laws may sue therefor * * *, without 
respect to the amount in controversy, and shall recover threefold the damages by 
him sustained, and the cost of suit, including a reasonable attorney's fee. [Italics 
supplied.] 

This relates to the Clayton Act itself, the Sherman Act, and the 
Wilson Act antitrust provisions, for "antitrust laws" is defined in the 
Clayton Act 22 as "including" those statutes. The Clayton Act 23 
defines "person" in preciselv the same language as does the Sherman 
Act. 



"Inasmuch as the Wilson Act, like the Sherman Act, provides treble-damage protection only to "per- 
sons," but, unlike the Sherman Act, does not state that "corporations" are "persons," it is probably true 
that Government-owned and municipal corporations have no more (and no less) protection under the 
Wilson Act than other governmental bodies have, except that the courts may be willing to regard "per- 
sons," in treble-damage provisions such as those in the Sherman and Wilson Acts, as including such cor- 
porations even if not so defined — just as the courts have long held that private corporations are, equally 
with natural persons, entitled to the protection which the fifth and fourteenth amendments to the Consti- 
tution confer upon "persons." 

" The Government's view is that the act's legislative history fails to establish that Congress intended 
to grant to or deny to the Government the remedy of treble-damage suits. 

" Act of Oct. 15, 1914, 38 Stat. 730, ch. 323, 63d Cong., 2d sess. (as amended). 

" Sec. 1. 

« Ibid. 



104 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

The Federal Trade Commission Act 24 also provides a means of 
bettering the position of governments as buyers. Section 5 reads in 
part: 

Unfair methods of competition in commerce, and unfair or deceptive acts or 
practices in commerce, are hereby declared unlawful. 

Enforcement is vested in the Trade Commission. Sixty days after 
service of a Trade Commission cease-and-desist order upon a respond- 
ent under the Trade Commission Act, the order becomes final; i. e., 
each violation of the order committed thereafter subjects the respond- 
ent to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000, recoverable by the 
United States. But if, within the 60 days, the respondent petitions 
the Circuit Court of Appeals to review the order, the order does not 
become final until and unless that court or the Supreme Court has 
affirmed the order. 26 

Action by the Commission under section 5 can be based on unfair 
methods, etc., which are harmful to a private person (either a rival of 
the violator, or a consumer) or* to a government — whether the Federal 
Government or a State or local government. Not all unfair methods 
of competition and unfair or deceptive acts or practices in commerce 
are of direct concern to governments as buyers. For example, govern- 
ments and other large buyers are less likely than are ultimate con- 
sumers to be deceived by the use of containers having an ostensible 
volume greater than the actual volume. However, the typical prac- 
tices condemned as unfair in the Trade Commission's cease-and-desist 
orders do include some which are of direct concern to governmental 
purchasers, among these being the following: 

14. Cooperating with others in the use of schemes and practices for compelling 
wholesalers and retailers to maintain resale prices fixed by a manufacturer or dis- 
tributor for resale of his product. 

15. Combinations or agreements of competitors to enhance prices, maintain 
prices, bring about substantial uniformity in prices or to divide territory or busi- 
ness, to cut off competitors' sources of supply, or to close markets to competitors, 
or otherwise restrain or hinder free and fair competition. 

3ft a|e s£ $ $ $ $ 

22. Use by business concerns, associated as trade organizations or otherwise, 
of methods which are calculated to result in the observance of uniform prices or 
practices for the products dealt in by them, with consequent restraint on or 
elimination of competition, such as various kinds of so-called standard cost sys- 
tems, price lists, or guides, or exchange of trade information. 26 

As was noted above, in chapter IV, section 2, municipalities have 
been asked by the United States Conference of Mayors to report to it 
all uniform bids which may be the result of collusion. The information 
is then submitted to the Federal Trade Commission as a basis for 
investigations. 27 The Commission has done a substantial amount 
of work relating to commodities of concern to city purchasing 
departments. 

M Act of September 26, 19H, 38 Stat. 717, ch. 311, 63d Cong., 2d sess. (as amended March 21, 1938). Prior.'to 
amendment, the quoted provision read: "Unfair methods of competition in commerce are hereby declared 
unlawful." 

25 Prior to the passage of the Wheeler-Lea Act (52 Stat. Ill, 75th Cong., 3d sess.; approved March"21, 
1938), no cease-and-desist order issued by the Commission under the Commission Act became final until the 
Commission had applied to the circuit court of appeals for enforcement of the order (or the respondent had 
petitioned that court to set aside the order), and until the circuit court or the Supreme Court had affirmed 
the order. Violation after affirmance was punishable by contempt proceedings, under which there'is no 
statutory maximum fixed for fines. The largest fine for contempt ever assessed in connection with enforce- 
ment of section 5 of the Commission Act was $10,000; Federal Trade Commission v. Pacific States Paper 
'Trade Association et al., 88 Fed. (2d) 1009, March 17, 1937; United States Circuit Court of Appeals (Ninth 
Circuit). 

26 Annual Report of the Federal Trade Commission for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939, p. 82, et seq. 
•' Municipal Year Book 1939, International City Managers' Association, Chicago, p. 38. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



105 



* * * Among the cease-and-desist orders issued by the Commission during 
1939 were those to four leading glass distributors and two Pittsburgh labor-union 
organizations of glaziers; to five manufacturers and distributors of concrete pipe 
and other concrete products; to three surgical-dressing manufacturers; to the 
principal manufacturers of wood-cased lead pencils; to six manufacturers of type- 
writers; and to three large jobbers of electrical equipment. 28 

The Cincinnati Department of Purchasing (which, as noted in ch. IV, 
sec. 2, reported 35 cases in 1938 directly to the Commission), declares 
that among the commodities with respect to which it reported tie- 
bid data were — 

* * * paper drinking cups, gauze and bandages, copper water tubing, 
liquid chlorine, quicklime, cable, blueprint paper, pencils * * *. 2fl 

The Department of Purchasing claims that — 

Since this procedure of cooperation between the City anl the Federal Trade Com- 
mission was begun, there is a marked decrease in the cases of identical biddina. 
[Italics in original.] 30 

Unfortunately it is not possible to say whether collusion diminished 
as much as identity of bids. 

The most frequent charge in restraint-of-trade cases under the 
Trade Commission Act, section 5, is price fixing. Of the 283 restraint- 
of-trade investigations which were on the Commission's calendar in 
the fiscal year 1939, one-fourth resulted from "applications" 31 filed 
by governments (chiefly municipal governments), as is shown in the 
following tabulation: 32 



Type of applicant 


Number of 
investigations 
active in fis- 
cal year 1939 


Percentage of 
number of in- 
vestigations re- 
sulting from 
applications by 
each type of 
applicant 




71 
28 
173 
11 


25 




10 




01 




4 






Total 


283 


100 







The number of governmental applications in that year showed an 
increase over the number in the preceding year. 33 

Collusive price-arrangements are equally violative of the Sherman 
Act and of the Trade Commission Act. However, it is probably 
true that with respect to some instances of such collusion, it would 
be easier to obtain a Trade Commission cease-and-desist order which 
(if reviewed by a court) would be affirmed, than it would be to obtain 
criminal conviction under the Sherman Act. This is partly because 
the former alternative does not involve a jury at any stage; and it is 
partly because the Trade Commission's findings as to the facts, "if 
supported by testimony, shall be conclusive," 34 whereas in criminal 
proceedings it is necessary to establish guilt beyond reasonable doubt. 

>* Municipal Year Book 1940, International City Managers' Association, Chicago, p. 177. 

28 City of Cincinnati Department of Purchasing Annual Report, 1938, p. 3. 

30 City of Cincinnati Department of Purchasing Annual Report, 1939, p. 5. 

" In cases before the Federal Trade Commission, every formal complaint is issued by the Commission 
itself, and any other organization or person complaining is officially merely an "applicant." No applicant 
is specified in any complaint issued by the Commission. 

32 Annual Report of the Federal Trade Commission for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939, pp. 41-42. 

as Ibid, pp. 41-42. Cf. appendix VI. 

« Federal Trade Commission Act, sec. 5. (Italics supplied.) 



106 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

On the other hand, it has on occasion been intimated that a concern 
whose behavior can equally be regarded as a transgression against 
both the Trade Commission Act and the Sherman Act would prefer 
a cease-and-desist order rather than a criminal conviction. If this 
is true, municipal governments would be well advised to avail them- 
selves of the Sherman Act in preference to the Trade Commission 
Act, whenever both statutes are applicable and provided that — in the 
particular situation at hand — both offer a substantial chance of 
success. 

For governments as well as other buyers, the "Miller-Tydings 
Act" 36 renders section 1 of the Sherman Act and section 5 of the 
Trade Commission Act almost wholly useless in combating resale 
price maintenance schemes for the commodities to which such schemes 
are usually applied. To the former it adds these words: 

Provided, That nothing herein contained shall render illegal, contracts or agree- 
ments prescribing minimum prices for the resale of a commodity which bears, or 
the label or container of which bears, the trade-mark, brand, or name of the producer 
or distributor of such commodity and which is in free and open competition with 
commodities of the same geneial class produced or distributed by others, when 
contracts or agreements of that description are lawful as applied to intrastate 
transactions, under any statute, law, or public policy now or hereafter in effect in 
any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia in which such resale is to be made, 
or to which the commodity is to be transported for such resale, and the making of 
such contracts or agreements shall not be an unfair method of competition under 
section 5 * * * of the * * * [Trade Commission Act]. [Italics sup- 
plied, except in "Provided".] 

Within the past decade, each of 40-odd States has adopted a so-called 
Fair Trade Act, whereby contracts for resale price maintenance are en- 
forceable. Hence there remains only a very small volume of interstate 
business in commodities to which resale price maintenance schemes are 
usually applied but which are neither sold in nor transported to a State 
having a Fair Trade Act. Each of the 44 State Fair Trade Acts in 
force in early 1939 had a provision substantially as follows: 

No contract relating to the sale or resale of a commodity which bears, or the 
label or container of which bears, the trade-mark, brand, or name of the producer or 
distributor of such commodity and which commodity is in free and open competi- 
tion with commodities of the same general class produced or distributed by others 
shall be construed to violate any provision of the general statutes by reason of 
* * * [the contract's providing for resale price maintenance]. [Italics 
supplied.] 36 

I. e., no such contract is violative of any antitrust law of the State. 
Each of the State statutes also has a section which makes violation of 
any such contract "unfair competition" and actionable at the suit of 
any person damaged thereby. 37 

Criminal suits for conspiracy to defraud the United States are, 
from one standpoint, a decidedly more useful weapon against collusive 
suppliers than are actions under the antitrust laws. In conspiracy-to- 
defraud cases, it is unnecessary to establish that the business activity 
concerned is in foreign or interstate commerce or in the District of 
Columbia or a Territory. The United States Code contains a general 
provision concerning conspiracy to defraud the Government, which 
reads as follows: 

If two or more persons conspire either to commit any offense against the United 
States, or to defraud the United States in any manner or for any purpose, and one 

3 « 50 Stat. 693, 75th Cong., 1st sess., title VIII. A rider to the District of Columbia Revenue"Act of 1937 
(Aue. 17, 1937). 

M Quoted from the model fair trade statute of the National Association of Retail Druggists, in S. Chester- 
field Oppenheim, Recent Price Control Laws, West Publishing Co., St. Paul, 1939, pp. 9-21. 

> 7 Idem. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 107 

or more of such parties do any act to effect the object of the conspiracy, each of the 
parties to such conspiracy shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned not 
more than 2 years, or both. 38 

It was under this law that the indictment and conviction were obtained 
in U. S. v. William F. Hess et at. for collusion in the bidding on 
electrical-work contracts on 84 Public Works Administration projects 
in and near Pittsburgh. 39 

Each of various Emergency Relief Acts has contained a somewhat 
similar provision, relating solely to the funds appropriated in the 
particular act. Thus the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 
1935 w contains the following provision: 

Sec. 9. Any person who knowingly and with intent to defraud the United States 
* * * diverts, or attempts to divert, or assists 'in diverting for the benefit of 
any person or persons not entitled thereto, any moneys appropriated by this joint 
resolution *• * * shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be 
fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both. 

It was for alleged violation of this provision that, on December 2, 
1939, a Federal grand jury in New Orleans indicted the New Orleans 
Chapter, Associated General Contractors of America, Inc., and others. 41 
It was charged that the defendants, the only bidders on the contract 
for a part of the work on Charity Hospital, agreed that each ''would 
arbitrarily add to the amount of his bid on said contract a sum in 
excess of seven thousand five hundred dollars ($7,500.00) which 
sum represented the estimating, quantity survey, and chapter fees 
of all of the bidders on said contract * * *." To the Associ- 
ation Chapter, the indictment continued, the successful bidder paid 
$7,620, the Chapter in turn paying $6,720 to the other eight bidders 
in equal shares of $840 each. According to the indictment, the 
Association Chapter's rule requiring the addition, to each bid, of 
"the association fees then in force" applied to all jobs, Federal, State, 
or other. 42 

The Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1939 ^ contains such 
a provision which, by virtue of the words here shown in italics, is 
even more drastic than that in the 1935 act. It reads.: 

Section 28. Any person who knowingly and with intent to defraud the United 
States * * * diverts, or attempts to divert or assists in diverting, for the 
benefit of any person or persons not entitled thereto, any portion of * * * 
[the appropriations in this joint resolution], or who knowingly, by means of any 
fraud, force, threat, intimidation, or boycott * ' * *, deprives any person 
of any of the benefits to which he may be entitled under any such appropriations, 
or attempts so to do, or assists in so doing * * * shall be deemed guilty 
of a felony and fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than two years, 
or both. The provisions of this section shall be in addition to, and not in substitution, 
for, any other provisions of existing law, or of this joint resolution. [Italics 
supplied.] 

In connection with all the antitrust-law provisions bearing on 
collusion to raise or keep up prices, it would be highly desirable that, 
by statute, identical bidding be made prima facie evidence of collusion. 
The rule should likewise apply in conspiracy-to-defraud cases. Per- 
haps this would only force the collusionists to be more ingenious, 

»« U. S. C. (1934 edition), title 18. sec. 88. 

3 » See above, section la of this chapter. 

<o 49 Stat. 115, ch. 48, 74th Cong., 1st sess. 

41 U. S. v. New Orleans Chapter, Associated General Contractors of America, Inc., ct al.; U. S. District Court 
for the Eastern District of Louisiana. New Orleans Division, No. 1984.''. Criminal. 

« The case was disposed of by a consent decree. Se< 'complaint (filed January 15, 1940), and decree (entered 
on same date); U. S. v. New Orleans Chapter, Associated General Contractors oi simerica, Inc.; U. S. Dis- 
trict Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana, New Orleans Division. Civil Action No. 249. 

« 53 Stat. 927, 76th Cone., 1st sess. 



103 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

but as an effort at diminishing collusion it is certainly worth a trial. 
The rule should apply to any two or more persons or organizations 
bidding identically on one or more items. 44 If it be objected that this 
net would catch some very small fish not worth the bother, the answer 
is that no governmental agency would put itself in the ridiculous and 
painfully assailable position of spending its limited funds to prosecute 
bidders whose only law violation is in connection with an order 
amounting to only a few dollars. 

c. Actions Arising Out of Unjustifiably Discriminatory Prices. 

The remedies thus far considered are appropriate in instances in 
which it can be established that particular prices are too high, even 
though they may or may not involve discrimination (to the disadvan- 
tage of one buyer, as against another buyer) . Action is open to non- 
governmental buyers, but probably not to governments, in certain 
cases of discriminatory prices. In general, price discrimination as 
between two private buyers of "commodities of like grade and quality" 
is unlawful if it results in injury to competition in any line of "com- 
merce" and is not justified by cost differences to the seller, and 
provided that the seller has not made the lower price "in good faith to 
meet an equally low price of a competitor." Section 2 of the Clayton 
Act as amended in 1936 by the Robinson-Patman Act 45 reads in part: 

Sec. 2. (a) That it shall be unlawful for any person engaged in commerce, in 
the course of such commerce, * * * to discriminate in price between differ- 
ent purchasers of commodities of like grade and quality, where either or any of the 
-purchases involved in such discrimination are in commerce, where such commodities 
are sold for use, consumption, or resale within * * * [any] place under the 
jurisdiction of the United States, and where the effect of such discrimination may be 
substantially to lessen competition or tend to create a monopoly in any line of com- 
merce, or to injure, destroy, or prevent competition with any person who either 
grants or knowingly receives the benefit of such discrimination, or with customers 
of either of them: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall prevent differen- 
tials which make only due allowance for differences in the cost of manufacture, 
sale, or delivery resulting from the different methods or quantities in which such 
commodities are to such purchasers sold or delivered: Provided, however, That 
the Federal Trade Commission may, after due investigation and hearing to all 
interested parties, fix and establish quantity limits, and revise the same as it 
finds necessary, as to particular commodities or classes of commodities, '-where it 
finds that available purchasers in greater quantities are so few as to render differ- 
entials on account thereof unjustly discriminatory or promotive of monopoly in 
any line of commerce; and the foregoing shall then not be construed to permit 
differentials based on differences in quantities greater than those so fixed and 
established * * *. 

(b) Upon proof being made * * * that there has been discrimination in 
price or services or facilities furnished, the burden of rebutting the prima-facie 
case thus made by showing justification shall be upon the person charged with a 
violation of this section * * *: Provided, however, That nothing herein con- 
tained shall prevent a seller rebutting the prima-facie case thus made by showing 
that his lower price or the furnishing of services or facilities to any purchaser 
* * * was made in good faith to meet an equally low price of a competitor, 
or the services or facilities furnished by a competitor. 

******* 

(f) That it shall be unlawful for any person engaged in commerce, in the course 
of such commerce, knowingly to induce or receive a discrimination in price which 
is prohibited by this section. [Italics supplied, except in phrases "Provided" 
and "Provided, however."] 

** An exemption of some sort would be necessary for any supplier of goods or services the price of which 
is determined by a government. 

« 49 8tat. 1526, c. 592, 74th Cong., 2d sess., approved June 19, 1936. Sec. 1 of the Robinson-Patman Act 
Is, by its terms, made an amendment to (and it supersedes completely) the former sec. 2 of the Clayton Act. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 109 

Administration of section 2 of the Clayton Act is vested jointly in 
the Federal Trade Commission 46 and in the Department of Justice. 47 
In practice, decidedly the greater part of section 2 enforcement activ- 
ity is conducted by the Commission. The agencies' respective reme- 
dies are a Trade Commission cease-and-desist order, and equity 
proceedings in the district courts. If the Commission decides, in 
any case under the Clayton Act, that the law has been violated, it 
orders the respondent to cease and desist from the violation. Such 
an order is subject to review by the circuit court of appeals upon 
petition of the defendant, or on application by the Commission for 
enforcement. Prior to court affirmance, violations are not punish- 
able; but any violation thereafter may be punished through contempt 
proceedings. 48 Irrespective of any proceedings by Federal agencies, 
violation of the Clayton Act affords grounds — as has been noted 
above 49 — for private suit by any person injured in his business or 
property by such violation. 60 

There have been 94 complaints issued by the Commission under the 
amended section 2 of the Clayton Act. 61 Sixty-two of these cases 
have been closed or are pending. Thirty-two orders to cease and 
desist have been issued. In reply to only 5 of these have the 
respondents appealed to the courts, but each case involved a different 
circuit court of appeals. Each appeal has been on a subsection 
2 (c) case. 52 Four of these appealed cases 53 have been decided, each 
in favor of the Commission. In only two 64 of the 4 cases was 
petition made to the Supreme Court for certiorari, which was denied 
in both instances. 

Even if one uses, as a base for comparison, onty those Robinson- 
Patman cases in which the Commission issues a complaint, it is excep- 
tional for a Robinson-Patman case to have gone to hearings; i. e., 
to have been contested. Respondents have been reluctant to have 
cases go to hearings, partly because they do. not wish to build up an 
extensive public record of a type which would subsequently be useful 
in treble-damage suits against them by the persons whom they are 
alleged to have damaged. (A substantial number of concerns regard 
the possibility of Robinson-Patman private treble-damage suits 
against themselves, made feasible in this way or otherwise, as an 
extremely serious matter.) Moreover, the respondents find that 
Robinson-Patman hearings are very expensive, by reason of the 
intricacy of the economic and accounting problems involved. 65 Appeal 
from the Commission to the courts on a Robinson-Patman case is, on 

46 Clayton Act, sec. 11. For enterprises under their respective jurisdictions, the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, and the Federal Reserve Board serve in lieu of the 
Federal Trade Commission. 

47 Ibid., sec. 15. 

48 As can he seen, cease-and-desist orders have the same role in the enforcement of the Clayton Act as they 
had in the enforcement of the Federal Trade CommissionAct prior to the passage of the Wheeler-Lea Act. 
See sec. lb of this chapter, above. 

49 It has been noted in sec. lb of the present chapter that the remedy of a treble-damage suit applies to the 
Clayton Act in its entirety. 

« n Clayton Act, sec. 4. 

•i This and the succeeding figures in this paragraph are as of April 12, 1940. 

J ' Subsecs. 2 (c), 2 (d). and 2 (e) of the act relate to specific types of price discrimination which are used 
against nongovernmental buyers but are not adaptable for use against governmental buyers. 

« (1) Blddle Purchasing Company et al. v. Federal Trade Commission, 96 Fed. (2d) 687 (1938). (2) Oliver 
Brothers, Inc. ,etal.\. Federal Trade Commission. 102 Fed. (2d) 763 (1939). (3) The Great Atlantic and Pacific 
tea Company v. Federal Trade Commission, 106 Fed. (2d.) 667 (1939). (4) Webb-Crawford Company et al. 
v. Federal Trade Commission. 109 Fed. (2d) 268 (1940). The fifth, Quality Bakers of America et al. v. Federal 
Trade Commission et al. (F. T. C. Pocket 3218), was argued April 30, 1940, in the first circuit; on August 2. 
decision had not been announced. 

» 4 The Piddle case and the A. and P. case. 

« The Commission itself finds that on the average it spends three times the number of man-hours on a 
Robinson-Patman case as it does per case in the remainder of its work. 

262342— 41— No. 19 9 



HO CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

the whole, not peculiarly expensive, as compared to appeals from the 
Commission to the courts in other types of cases, inasmuch as the 
record in Robinson-Pa tman cases, as in Trade Commission cases under 
other parts of the Clayton Act and under the Trade Commission Act, 
is made in the Commission hearing's, not in the proceedings before the 
Circuit Court of Appeals. But appeal is not possible in Trade Com- 
mission cases disposed of by stipulation 86 or by an admission answer ; 67 
it is possible only in cases which have gone to hearings — i. e., contested 
cases. Thus the fear of treble-damage suits, and the prospect of 
heavy expenses in the building of the record, not only account directly 
for the fact that it is exceptional for cases to go to hearings, but also 
account indirectly for the fact that court cases on the Robinson- 
Patman Act are very few. 

The Commission has found that the proving of price discrimination 
is easy, even without the use of subpenas. Yet it frequentlv is 
difficult to demonstrate satisfactorily the nature and extent of injury 
to. competition. On the other hand, the respondent's defense of 
"meeting competition" may be very difficult for it to establish, par- 
ticularly — as may well be true in a small concern — if the concern's 
record keeping is rather meager. The respondent's defense that the 
price discrimination is based on a difference in cost is an absolute one; 
but use of it is at present greatly limited by the undeveloped character 
of distribution-cost accounting. In the early period of the Robinson- 
Patman Act, a significant number of concerns investigated by the 
Commission appear to have changed their respective pricing systems 
either because they anticipated being unable to justify price differ- 
ences that had been challenged, or because thev chose not to incur the 
expense of more elaborate cost accounting. On the other hand, some 
concerns at that time substantially expanded the scope of their cost 
accounting. 

In cases in which a government is the buyer it probably would be 
especially difficult to show why discrimination would substantially 
lessen competition. Moreover, the Attorney General rendered an 
opinion 58 holding that section 2 of the Clayton Act has no application 
to sales to the Federal Government, and the Trade Commission has ac- 
cepted and followed this opinion. In large measure, the reasoning of 
this opinion would hold equally in respect of sales to State and local 
governments; and the success of a proceeding under section 2 based 
on discrimination against such a government would appear quite 
doubtful. 

If sales to the Federal Government at prices unjustifiably dis- 
criminatory against it are not unlawful, it has no opportunity to 
recover treble damages for such discrimination — even if the Govern- 
ment is a "person" within the meaning of the treble-damage section. 

It should be noted that section 3 of the Robin son-Patman Act 
inter alia makes price discrimination per se unlawful, if the two or 
more sales involve goods of like grade, quality, and quantity and if 
the buyers are competitors of each other. This section, which is not 
a part of the Clayton Act, carries criminal penalties 89 for violation; 

M H6wever, the Commission regards the disposition of a case by stipulation as a privilege, not a right; 
and it does not grant this privilege in Robinson-Patman matters. For explanation of settlement of esses by 
stipulation, see Federal Trade Commission Rules, Policy, and Acts, 1938, pp. 22-S3. 

» 7 For explanation of admission answer, see ibid., p. 7. 

•» Letter from the Attorney General to the Secretary of War, December 28, 1936. 

* Maximum fine of $5,000, maximum imprisonment of 1 year, or both. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER H\ 

enforcement is vested in the Department of Justice. Thus far, no 
actions have been brought under section 3. 

It probably would be very desirable to enact, for the benefit of the 
Federal Government and State, Territorial, and local governments, 
a law somewhat comparable to the Robinson-Patman Act. There is 
a relatively small number of types of price differentials (for sales of 
like articles by the same seller)" which are not based on differences of 
cost, but which nevertheless have a clear claim to be regarded as con- 
sistent with the public interest. The number of these justifiable 
cases in which a government is the larger of two customers and pays 
the higher price (or the same price) for the same article is certainly 
small. Conceivably, the other customer may be a member of a 
consumer group which the Government desires to aid, as some urban 
purchaser of milk. Or the Government may be indirectly subsidizing 
the seller, as in air mail contracts. Or the Government may be seeking 
to aid labor, as by the Walsh-Healey Act. But in the vast majority of 
cases if the Government buys goods of given physical specifications 
and some other buyer gets a smaller quantity of goods of substantially 
the same physical specifications for a lower net sales realization per 
unit bought, the Government has been unfairly discriminated against, 
unless there have been cost changes between the dates of the two sales, 
or cost differences in connection with the terms of sale or delivery, or 
both, sufficient to account for the price differential. 

Accordingly, it would seem appropriate, by legislation, to make it 
unlawful to charge the Federal Government or any State, Territorial, 
or local government more per unit for substantially the same article 
than the charge to some other buyer, or more than the charge to the 
Government itself on some other sale, when the two sales are made no 
more than 6 months apart ; provided that the price differential would be 
lawful (1) if the seller could prove that the differential was justified by 
differences or changes in cost, including costs of delivery and of ex- 
tending credit; or (2) if he had applied in advance to the Federal Trade 
Commission and obtained a finding with respect to the commodity that 
exceptional circumstances justified exemption from the rule and that 
such exemption is in accord with recognized public policy. In this 
connection the Commission might well consider, but should not be 
limited to, "the meeting of competition" as an adequate basis for 
exemption. For example, soon after selling some goods to the Govern- 
ment a supplier might have an opportunity to sell an identical or 
smaller quantity of the same type of goods to a private buyer, but only 
by meeting the competition of a rival offering a price lower than that 
which the first supplier had charged the Government. If the two 
suppliers had not acted collusively with respect to prices offered on 
the Government contract, this "meeting of competition" in negotia- 
tions with a private buyer might conceivably be in accord with recog- 
nized public policy. 

The act might well provide that proceedings under it be conducted 
by the Federal Trade Commission, patterned after those in t! e 
Robinson-Patman Act and with the same sanctions; viz, treble dam- 
ages; a fine in the event of violation of a cease-and-desist order that 
has become final ; fl0 and criminal penalties. 

* However, it would be desirable that cease-and-desist orders become final as they do under the Trade 
Commission Act (as amended) rather than as they do under the Clayton Act. 



\\2 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Section 22 of the Clayton Act relates to punishment of persons held 
in contempt for violation of court orders issued under the act. 

* * * Such fine shall be paid to the United States or to the complainant or 
other party injured by the act constituting the contempt, or may, where more than 
one is so damaged, be divided or apportioned among them as the court may 
direct, but in no case shall the jfine to be paid to the United States exceed, in case the 
accused is a natural person, the sum of $1,000 * * *. [Italics supplied.] 

If the United States and the State, Territorial and local governments 
were to be given the protection of a "Robinson-Patman" rule, this par- 
ticular maximum limitation on fines, which is very low, should not be 
carried over to the new statute., The Federal Government should be 
allowed as effective means of protection as private buyers are allowed. 
Several comments may be made on the proposal of a "Robinson- 
Patman" rule for the benefit of governments: 

(1) The proposal differs from the Robinson-Patman Act in not 
requiring the Government to prove injury to competition, but solely 
the fact of a price differential. 

(2) The defenses offered the respondent are one of the Robinson- 
Patman defenses (difference in cost) and one which includes but is 
much broader than the other Robinson-Patman defense ("meeting of 
competition"). But application for exemption (unlike the Robinson- 
Patman defense of "meeting competition") could not be an 
afterthought. 

(3) It may be protested that the defense of "difference in cost" 
is, from the seller's standpoint, not adequately helpful — because of the 
difficulty of making comparisons of the total cost of a particular con- 
signment of a commodity and the total cost of another consignment of 
it. Since a differential or the lack of one is the issue at hand, some 
satisfactory scheme of comparison might be adopted that would take 
into account only selected elements of cost; notably, some or all of the 
costs of production as distinguished from distribution. 

(4) If the rule were to be applied to all purchases of commodities 
and all purchases of services other than personal, the need for additional 
bases and procedures of exemption might conceivably be disclosed. 
An investigation to determine whether such a need exists should be 
made if further consideration is to be given to the proposal. 

(5) It may be urged that, in periods of rapidly changing prices, a 
period of 6 months would be too long; that consequently many sellers 
would be forced to assume a burden of proof which should not be 
imposed upon them. Under such circumstances the Government 
would presumably, be limited in the number of suits it could bring, by 
limited appropriations if in no other way, and, in any event, the part 
of wisdom would usually be to bring only those cases (involving 
presumably a period shorter than 6 months) which promised a 
successful outcome. 

(6) The requirement that the commodity involved in the two or 
more sales be identical might be distorted, to the disadvantage of the 
Government. But within a broad range of purchases there are (with 
respect to many commodities) fairly standardized specifications to 
which the Government can, make its requirements conform. 

Another variant of the Robinson-Patman principle would be to 
make it prima facie unlawful to sell to a government at the same price 
as that given another buyer, or at a price not substantially lower, pro- 
vided that the government concerned buys in lots substantially larger 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER H3 

than does the other buyer. It might be well to make application of 
such a rule contingent upon the determination (by the Federal Trade 
Commission) of quantity limits for the commodity involved; i. e., 
a schedule of quantities. This would be analogous to the function 
given the Commission in subsection 2 (a) of the amended Clayton Act. 
Such an arrangement could preclude litigation as to the quantities 
schedule, but the door would still be open to extensive litigation as to 
what is a substantially lower price. 

The two variants of the Robinson-Pa tm an principle here described 
should not be regarded as exhausting the ossibilities of extending to 
governments the benefits of that princip 1 . J1 

2. RELATIONSHIP OF PROCUREMENT OFFICERS TO ANTITRUST ACTIONS 

AND SIMILAR ACTIONS 

The degree of usefulness, in procurement, of antitrust and similar 
prosecution depends in an obviously vital way on the relationship of 
procurement officers to such prosecution. A vigilant attitude on their 
part, and a habit of reporting in a usable form evidence of activity 
calling for such prosecution, must exist if the Government as a con- 
sumer is to be protected against excessively high prices, and if it is to 
be protected against joint action by sellers that results in keeping the 
quality or efficiency of the commodities from being what it would be in 
the absence of such action. 62 If the procurement organizations them- 
selves accept the market as a "given" factor, to which governmental 
procurement must be adjusted but which is not to be adjusted to give 
greater fairness to public and private purchasers, antitrust legislation 
is of no use whatever to the Federal Government, the largest of all 
buyers in this country, or to the State and local governments. 

On June 20, 1936, the President requested 63 procurement officers 
throughout the Fe'deral Government to report periodically to the 
Department of Justice identical bids received by them. This arrange- 
ment was followed for 8 months or more by practically all agencies 
and by others for longer periods. File case after file case of data was 
accumulated; but there was a diversity of usefulness of the informa- 
tion. Some was in a form admirably suited to the purpose con- 
templated. But a very great deal of it was so sketchy as to be 
worthless. Furthermore, in many of the reports there was not even 
an effort to distinguish between instances in which the tie-bidding 
involved only a few dollars, and instances of a magnitude which might 
have made prosecution worth while. It is difficult to see how the 
numerous useless reports could have been submitted by organizations 
interested in obtaining a better market in which to buy, except that 
understaffing may conceivably have accounted for some measure 
of poor reporting of data. 

■ The School Code of the State of California includes provisions which are of interest at this point. Every 
publisher "desiring to offer one or more books for official listing" must file a bond two of the conditions of 
which are as follows: 

"6.402. First. That the publisher will furnish said book or books offered by him and listed by the State 
board of education, to any high school district at a price which shall not exceed the lowest price the publisher 
has made for such book or books offered anywhere in the United States under similar conditions of trans- 
portation and marketing. 

"6.403. Second. That the publisher will reduce such price automatically to purchasers within the State of 
California, whenever reductions are made elsewhere in the United States, so that at no time shall any book 
so filed and listed be sold to school authorities in California at a higher net price than is received for such 
book elsewhere in the United States; and that upon failure or refusal of the publisher to make such reduc- 
tion all contracts for such book or books shall become null and void." 

•> There are, of course, means in addition to antitrust prosecution, for such protection. See ch. VII, above. 

« By letter. 



114 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

The position on procurement-and-antitrust relations taken by the 
Conference of Mayors and by some cities has been noted above, in 
section 2 of chapter IV; and, in section lb of the present chapter, 
there has been further mentioned certain Federal Trade Commission 
activity arising out of applications (informal complaints) by cities. 
The ingenuity of the New York City Department of Purchase in 
attempting to improve the market in which it buys is illustrated by 
ts attack on "nuisance" patents. 

An activity, fairly new during 1938 but which rapidly assumed greater propor- 
tions, was the struggle to unmask apparently reputable manufacturers, who, by 
the use of so-called "nuisance" patents, had succeeded in curtailing competition 
through intimidation of prospective bidders. Our buyers, when they had reason 
to doubt the relevancy of a manufacturer's patent claims in connection with a pur- 
chase transaction, consulted with the Law Department and enlisted the aid of 
their patent expert * * * in conducting a thorough search. In some 
instances these suspicions were well founded, for the Corporation Counsel's office 
has rendered several opinions in which patents were declared invalid. 64 

A large manufacturer of street lamps announced patent claims on a 
type of luminaire which the Department had been buying but on 
which it knew of no patent, either granted or pending. The city 
brought suit to test the validity of the claims. 

* * * testimony was elicited * * * that this manufacturer verbally 
notified prospective bidders, of course only in a "friendly way," that bidding on 
our proposal was fraught with patent litigation * * *. 

The suit brought by the city gave enough confidence to the potential 
suppliers that bids of a vastly improved sort were secured while the 
suit was not yet even decided. Awards were made that totaled 
$102,781— an estimated saving of $27,217, 65 or 21 percent. 

An interesting supplement to the efforts of New York City's 
Department of Purchase to get competitive prices is a policy suggested 
by Mayor LaGuardia early in his administration. Preference in tie 
bids is given, first, to local producers and, second, to New York State 
producers. 66 This is an adaptation of procurement to other ends, but 
it does no harm to procurement. 

The Federal Government would doubtless be benefited by a con- 
tinuing and active selection (on the part of all of its procurement 
units) of cases to be reported to the Antitrust Division of the Depart- 
ment of Justice and to the Federal Trade Commission. A copy of each 
report should be sent to each of the two agencies. Selection should 
be on such bases as the apparent seriousness of offense, the apparent 
adequacy of evidence, and the absolute magnitude of Federal pur- 
chases of the commodity. 67 The last-mentioned standard, of course, 
presupposes some such system for collecting information on Federal 
purchases as that proposed in chapter IX, below. Preferably, the 
reports to the antitrust agencies should relate both to identical bidding 

M Report to Mayor F. H. LaGuardia on the Work of the Department of Purchase, City of New York, 
for the Year 1938, p. 21. 

"Ibid., pp. 31-32. 

M Report to Mayor F. H. LaGuardia on the Work of the Department of Purchase for the Year 1935, p. 12. 

« 7 Conceivably this last-mentioned standard might well be ignored with respect to any commodity 
regarded by the Trade Commission or the Antitrust Division as especially important from a standpoint 
more comprehensive than that of Federal procurement; i. e., if a commodity were so regarded, it would 
perhaps be desirable that procurement offices report instances of actually or apparently collusive bidding 
on Federal contracts for it, even if the Federal Government were buying very little of the commodity. 
But that possibility lies outside the scope of this study. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER H5 

and to other types of actual or apparent violation of antitrust laws 
and similar statutes. 

Procurement officers should attempt a constant development of 
remedial measures to complement or supersede antitrust and similar 
actions as devices for bettering the markets in which they buy. The 
tire-purchase incident previously referred to 68 provides two illustra- 
tions of departure from customary procurement practice; viz, (1) 
negotiation of a contract instead of determination of the awarding of 
the contract to an identical bidder, by lot, and (2) a suit for treble 
damages, under the Sherman Act. Only the latter, of course, is of 
the general type of remedy with which this chapter is especially con- 
cerned. Another such illustration is afforded by the construction- 
industry investigation in Pittsburgh. 69 The United States Housing 
Authority was confronted in Pittsburgh with a maze of apparently 
collusive bids and the word of some of the contractors themselves 
that in some branches of the construction industry in that city there 
had been no noncollusive bidding for 15 years. At the Housing 
Authority's request, the Department of Justice — which had already 
launched its Nation-wide construction-industry investigation — sent a 
"team" to Pittsburgh, with results of the sort mentioned above. 69 
The money-saving aspect of such procedures is indicated by the fact 
that the Antitrust Division's appropriation for the fiscal year 1940 was 
$1,300,000, while, as has been noted, $1,250,000 was saved on a single 
U. S. H. A. project. 

M Sec. 2 of ch. IV and subsec. lb of this chapter. 

•* Some of the cases resulting from the investigation in Pittsburgh are referred to In sees, la and lb of 
this chapter. 



CHAPTER IX 
ADVANCE PLANNING OF PROCUREMENT 

In this chapter the possibilities for advance planning of procurement 
for the Federal Government as a whole will be considered. The term 
used to describe this process by many writers on industrial purchasing 
is "purchase budgeting." x It includes systematic estimates of re- 
quirements both in terms of total dollar volume and in terms of 
volume of individual commodities, for definite periods in advance; 
planned consolidation of orders on the basis of such estimates; and 
planned timing and placing of purchases to take advantage of favor- 
able market conditions. The advantages of such procurement plan- 
ning will be pointed out; the possibilities of utilizing Government 
procurement as a means of stabilizing business conditions, considered; 
and the extent to which procurement planning exists in the Federal 
Government at the present time, discussed. Since any intelligent 
planning is impossible without adequate information as to current 
purchases and inventories, the adequacy of existing data on these 
subjects will be appraised and proposals for improved information 
made. Finally, a possible form of advance planning, or procurement 
budgeting, for the Federal Government as a whole, will be briefly 
sketched - 

I. ADVANTAGES OF ADVANCE PLANNING 

Advance planning of procurement offers two kinds of advantages: 

(a) the possibility of realizing substantial procurement economies and 

(b) opportunities for directing procurement plans toward the stabil- 
ization of business conditions. Advance planning offers economies 
through making possible consolidation of orders and through making 
for better timing and placing of orders. Consolidation of orders 
enables the Government to get the advantages of large scale buying- 
quantity discounts, savings on shipment and handling charges and 
on billing, and in some instances direct purchase from manufacturers. 
Administrative costs of procurement will be reduced. Better timing 
of. purchases is also made possible by advance planning of procure- 
ment. On the one hand this means that through provision of a 
central stock smaller local inventories may become possible and hence 
inventory turn-over may be increased. On the other hand advance 
planning increases the time interval within which the actual time of 
placing the order must be selected. In conjunction with adequate 
market information, it thus makes it possible to place orders when 
market conditions are most favorable. 2 Much of what has been said 
about the improved timing of Government orders applies also in 

i See H. T. Lewis, Industrial Purchasing, Business Publications, Chicago, 1940, ch. XVII; J. O. McKin- 
sey, Budgetary Control, Ronald, New York, 1922, chs. X, XIV, and XV; J. H. MacDonald, Practical 
Budget Procedure, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1939, ch. VII; National Association of Purchasing Agents, 
Handbook, vol. II. ch. XIII. 

> This may presuppose greater flexibility in procurement arrangements. See above, ch. VU, sec. 2a. 

117 



118 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWEE 

respect to different geographical markets. Advance planning gives 
a greater freedom of choice to the procurement agency in determining 
the market in which to buy. 

It has sometimes been objected, since choosing a favorable market 
may involve some stocking up, that such a practice involves a pur- 
chasing agency in speculation. It is true that the increased oppor- 
tunity for the exercise of sound judgment involves necessarily an 
increased opportunity also for making mistakes. And it will be 
conceded that advance planning must be well done if economies are 
actually tc be realized. But it should be noted on the other side of 
the case that the absence of advance planning and the consequent 
close approach to hand-to-mouth buying is certainly not a way of 
avoiding market risks. 

If the economies of advance planning of procurement are to be 
realized, it is clear that some increase in the centralization of procure- 
ment functions may be called for. This need not mean centralization 
of actual purchasing since not all consolidated orders need be handled 
by the Procurement Division. However, the Procurement Division 
should participate in bringing consolidations about. Similarly it 
should play an important role in the improved timing and placing of 
orders although it need not in all such cases do the actual ordering 
itself. 

The extent to which procurement plans may be effectively directed 
toward stabilizing business conditions has already received some con- 
sideration. 3 In general it is much easier to adjust procurement to a 
slack season than to employ it in checking or moderating cyclical 
declines in business activity. A policy of purchase during slack 
seasons may prove to be both a matter of economy and one of public 
policy. The possibilities for arranging procurement so as to serve as 
a stabilizing factor in connection with cyclical declines in -business 
activity call for special consideration. 

2. ADVANCE PROCUREMENT AND CYCLICAL DECLINES IN BUSINESS 

ACTIVITY 

On November 27, 1937, the President, by letter, requested the 
various agencies of the Government to advance procurement orders 
wherever possible in order that Government demand might serve as 
a partial offset to the sharp decline in demand from other sources 
which was then in progress. Existing records are not definitive, but 
it does not appear that the President's request resulted in any con- 
siderable volume of advance procurement. The accompanying chart 
shows the monthly variations for that part of the Federal purchases 
for which data are available currently — namely, contracts reported 
under the Walsh-Healey Act plus the monthly purchase orders of the 
Procurement Division under the emergency relief program. It also 
shows the value of purchase orders for the 12 months covered by the 

» Ch. VII, sec. 2b. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER H9 

Report of the Procurement Division Group. 4 It will be noticed that 
there was an increase of about $10,000,000 in purchases from December 
1937 to January 1938, followed by a falling off in March and April. 
Thus while there was a slight bunching of orders in January and Feb- 
ruary, the Walsh-Healey plus emergency relief purchases curve shows 
that the level during the first 5 months of 1938 was about the same as 
during the year 1937. Opinions of various observers also are to the 
effect that there was no considerable volume of advance procurement. 
A number of explanations are offered, some of which may have been 
merely excuses offered by the agencies to justify their inertia. Among 
them are: (1) inadequate information as to current purchases and future 
requirements, especially among departments with decentralized pro- 
curement systems; (2) insufficient funds to make large advance pur- 
chases, particularly in the case of agencies which were uncertain as to 
whether they would obtain deficiency appropriations; (3) insufficient 
storage space; (4) administrative difficulties on the part of purchasing 
officers in concentrating their year's work; (5) contractual obligations 
already entered into, particularly on construction projects, calling for 
delivery throughout the remainder of the fiscal year. 

The volume of Federal procurement would probably be large enough 
to be a significant stabilizing factor in the business situation, pro- 
vided as much as half of our annual billion-dollar total of procurement 
could be shifted forward a year or more. If such a shift is at all 
possible, two important changes in existing procedures would appear 
to be essential: 

1. Funds must be made available to finance advance procure- 
ment in large volume. 

2. Either the agencies using the goods must be given an in- 
centive to undertake procurement in advance, if they are to do 
the necessary planning and make the necessary provisions for 
storage, or else such advance procurement for stabilization 
purposes must be made a function of the Procurement Division, 
or both. 

There follows an outline of a plan designed to conform to these two 
requirements which might be used although, as will be pointed out, 
the difficulties inherent in any attempt to use Government purchasing 
to check or moderate cyclical business declines are very great. An 
appropriate sum, say $500,000,000, might be appropriated for the 
establishment of a procurement stabilization revolving fund. This 

• In this chart the figures on which the curve for total Federal procurement is based were obtained from 
the Report of the Procurement Group, p. 46. (See ch. I. p. 2, for an explanation of what purchases were 
reported to the Procurmenr Division.) To construct the Walsh-Healey emergency relief curve, figures were 
obtained from the-DivL-ion of Public Contracts of the Department of Labor for the value of contracts re- 
ported for each month under the Walsh-Healey Act. Since contracts for construction, alteration, and repair 
of naval vessels were not reported under this act until the 1939 fiscal year such contracts have been excluded 
entirely to make the figures comparable from year to year, as well as to put them on the same basis as the 
figures of the Procurement Division Group study. From these Division of Public Contracts figures were 
subtracted the value of contracts over $10,000 reported to the Division by the W. P. A. To the resulting 
monthly figures were added all purchases under the emergency relief program reported by the Procurement 
Division. 

The W3lsh-Healey plus emergency relief curve is not a very satisfactory index of monthly purchases for 
two reasons. The first is that its principal ingredient— the Walsh-Healey figures— represents contracts 
entered into rather than purchase orders. This means that in the case of term contracts one report is made 
for purchases which may actually be spread over a period of several months. The second i« that while 
agencies generally report definite-quantity contracts under the Walsh-Healey Act during the month in which 
they are negotiated, there have been some cases, particularly during the first months after the act went into 
effect, when they were not reported until sometime after negotiation. A further defect in the Walsh- 
Healey plus emergency relief curve is that some types of purchases, e. g., of foods, are very inadequately 
represented. 



120 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 



fund might be used to finance purchases during any period adminis- 
tratively proclaimed as a period of general business decline or depres- 
sion. The fund might be used to finance purchases only from lines 
of business administratively designated as depressed and only pro- 



Chart V.— Monthly Variations in Federal Purchases 
[In millions of dollars] 



120 



100 




■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . 

JM1IJSNJMMJ SHJMkJSNJUMJS 
1937 1938 1939 1940 

vided suitable price concessions could be obtained, or might be used 
without such restrictions. One method of arranging for such con- 
cessions is discussed elsewhere, 6 a method referred to as "recession 
discounts." 

8 See ch. VII, sec. 2, above. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 121 

The revolving fund might be used by the Procurement Division to 
finance purchases to be stored in its warehouse (to the extent that 
space is available) in addition to those made possible with the existing 
procurement revolving fund. It might also be used to finance pur- 
chases, for which storage would be provided by the using agency. 
Among the items for which the storage problem would not be acute, 
and which offer considerable scope for flexibility in timing, are office 
machines and appliances (such as typewriters, calculating machines, 
stapling machines, and telephone indexes) and motor vehicles. 
Advance purchasing might also be feasible with respect to certain 
essentials for military preparedness. To induce the prompt making 
of a large volume of such purchases, Congress might be willing to 
authorize making money available from the procurement stabilization 
revolving fund, with the approval of the Director of the Bureau of the 
Budget, for purchases in excess of funds already specifically appro- 
priated to the buying agency and apportioned therefor; upon the 
condition that the buying agency would seek in the next year, or years, 
appropriations with which to repay the revolving fund. In the event 
of subsequent failure to obtain an appropriation, the supplies and. 
materials purchased would presumably revert to the Procurement 
Division. 6 In order further to induce such advance procurement by 
using agencies, it might be provided that 10 percent of the cost of such 
purchases made during a period proclaimed to be one of recession or 
depression would be absorbed by the procurement stabilization 
revolving fund. 

Even under such favorable circumstances it is unlikely that such 
an amount of purchases as half a billion dollars could be shifted for- 
ward and concentrated in a few months. Eorty to fifty percent of the 
total purchases in 1937-38 consisted of food, building materials and 
equipment for installation in new structures, utility, and other services. 
Some of these items could not well be stored. Others, such as a large 
proportion of building "materials and new equipment installations, 
could be included no more rapidly than a construction program could 
be gotten under way, because of uncertainties as to requirements and 
places of delivery. Purchases of items which could be included might 
have to be trebled to increase total procurement during a 6-month 
period by $500,000,000. In addition there are. other difficulties. 
Agencies might be reluctant to purchase large stocks of supplies and 
materials or equipment when their work programs had not received 
legislative approval in the form of specific appropriations. If they 
did lay in such stores, their action might subsequently be open to 
severe attack by Members of Congress. This danger would be 
enhanced if there were a change in the party compositior. of Congress 
between the time when the purchases were made and an agency's 
appropriation to reimburse the revolving fund was voted on. The 
resulting problem of securing space where supplies and materials 
could be stored might prove to be a knotty one. 

There is the further possibility of making the fund available for 
purposes of State and local government advance procurement. Such 
a plan would involve additional administrative problems particularly 
since it would presumably be necessary to determine accurately 

'• Despite provision for purchases reverting to the Procurement Division, there would be some loss if 
appropriations were not made subsequently to reimburse the revolving fund for the advance procurement 
of a particular agency. 



122 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

whether the procurement financed in this way was actually in addition 
to the procurement which would otherwise have taken place. 

If the device of advance procurement is to be used as an antidote 
to a business recession it is not intended to suggest that it should be 
operated alone. On the contrary, it could only be safely used if 
complemented by such a program as one of public works. If addi- 
tional procurement is to be used as a recession antidote, its usefulness 
would appear to lie in the fact that it could be gotten into operation 
while a works program is being developed. Making the highly 
optimistic assumption that half a billion dollars of purchases could be 
shifted forward for a year or more, let us consider the effect of such a 
shift, assuming that in its absence purchases would be half a billion 
each 6 months. We might have then, in several succeeding 6-month 
periods, the following procurement expenditures: First period, half a 
billion; second period, a billion; third period, half a billion; fourth 
period, half a billion; next four periods, a quarter of a billion each. 
It is clear that the advance procurement in the second period would 
give a temporary impetus to business but that during the third and 
succeeding periods, it would need to be replaced by a works program. 

While advance procurement is a possible device for business stabili- 
zation, it is important that its limitations should be clearly understood. 

3. EXTENT OF ADVANCE PLANNING TODAY 

In general there is at present very little procurement planning for 
the Federal Government as a whole either by way of estimating needs 
for periods in advance, consolidation of purchases on the basis of such 
estimates, or timing of purchases. In connection with the preparation 
of the annual Budget and the monthly apportionments, there is a very 
rudimentary form of procurement estimating. In the preparation of 
the Budget this does not go beyond the submission of estimate under 
the main headings of the Classification of Objects of Expenditure 
prescribed by the General Accounting Office, such as "02 Supplies 
and Materials" and "30 Equipment." Each appropriation must be 
apportioned by months, but since the apportionment is merely for the 
total appropriation, there is little planning of purchases involved in 
this process. Moreover as is pointed out elsewhere 7 these categories, 
02 and 30, by no means include all supplies and materials and equip- 
ment. 

As regards certain elements of advance planning — estimating of 
purchase requirements for particular commodities, consolidation of 
purchases for articles commonly used by more than one agency, and 
timing of purchases — the situation differs as between the depart- 
mental and field services. The extent of advance planning will 
therefore be discussed separately for each, according to the five types 
of purchase procedure stated in chapter l. 8 

Far more has been done toward planning for the procurement of 
supplies, material, and equipment common to more than one agency 
in the District of Columbia than has been done in the field. As 
pointed out in chapter Pa General Supply Committee was set up as 
far back as 1909 to arrange term contracts for supplies common to 

' Below, pp. 126-127. 
» Pp. 6 ft. 
• Pp. 10 ff. 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 223 

more than one department in the District. The General Schedule of 
Supplies, as these term contracts are collectively called, has been 
expanded since that time, and contracts have been negotiated for 
some classes of commodities for shorter periods thaD a year. However, 
this General Schedule of Supplies is still the principal source for 
purchases of supplies common to more than one agency in the District 
of Columbia. Such purchases are made by the using agency as 
needed, without any control from the Procurement Division. 10 

Indefinite-quantity term contracts realize a part, but only a part, of 
the advantages of centralized procurement and none of the advantages 
of advance planning of procurement. They make it possible for 
various agencies to benefit by the superior technical knowledge of a 
specialized buying organization in the formulation of purchase 
specifications, in the preparation of advertisements for bid openings, 
and in contacting the most promising prospective bidders. They 
also realize the advantages of superior technical knowledge in con- 
nection with the writing of contracts. But indefinite-quantity term 
contracts do not in general realize the important advantages of 
advance planning, especially the advantages of consolidation of 
orders from different users, of closer inventory controls, and of the 
better timing and placing of orders. Under the usual type of in- 
definite-quantity term contract no advance planning in procurement 
is necessaiy on the part of the using agency, and indeed the using 
agency has no incentive whatever to time its orders so as to take 
advantage of any favorable pripes which might prevail in the open 
market during off-seasons. In interpreting the significance of 
indefinite-quantity term contracts, it is important to distinguish 
between the advantages of a large, single, definite-quantity order on 
the one hand, and a large indefinite-quantity contract of uncertain 
amount and of less certain delivery dates on the other. Uncertainty 
incident to. a large indefinite-quantity term contract may be so large 
as to discourage many possible bidders. 11 

Certain supplies in common use by several agencies within the 
District of Columbia are stocked by the Procurement Division ware- 
house. Here there is an opportunity for buying in large quantity lots 
for the consolidated needs of the Government in Washington, and 
also an opportunity for the timing of purchases. Advantage has 
been taken of these opportunities within the limits of the revolving 
fund. Large orders are placed, and buyers of the Procurement 
Division watch the market. Thus in the fall of 1939, when the price 
of flour was rising, a large order for stock was placed under a 6-month 
term contract which was about to expire. However, the normal 
inventory of the Procurement Division warehouse is around $500,000 
or $600,000, and since the stock is estimated to turn over five or six 
times a year, it will be seen that on the average only about a 2-month 
supply is stored, and that the opportunities for large-scale purchases 
are consequently limited by physical circumstances as well as by 
financial considerations. 12 

10 P. 13 ft. Even when the operating agencies ask the Procurement Division to make purchases for them 
from contractors listed in the General Schedule of Supplies, the Procurement Division exercises no control 
-over the purchases. 

11 These uncertainties exist for all bidders, except possibly the bidder who was successful in the previous 
year's contract. 

12 A substantial part of the money in the General Supply Fund is used in other ways, thus limiting the 
financing of purchases to stock. 



124 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

In addition to purchases for stock, the Procurement Division makes 
purchases in Washington for other agencies amounting to several 
million dollars annually. These purchases may best be characterized 
as "hand-to-mouth," no effort being made by the Procurement Divi- 
sion to obtain estimates of needs for a definite period in advance or to 
consolidate orders. However, legal authority to request such esti- 
mates is provided by the act of February 27, 1929, and the Executive 
order of June 10, 1933. 13 

The last type of purchases in Washington is that made by the using 
agency directly from the suppliers (without arrangement of the con- 
tracts by the Procurement Division). Included in this group are 
specialized and technical supplies and equipment, and supplies and 
equipment of all kinds under $100 in value and not listed in the Gen- 
eral Schedule of Supplies, as well as those over $100 for most agencies. 14 
The extent of advance planning for this type of purchases varies from 
agency to agency. 

In the field little attention has been paid to procurement planning 
for articles used by more than one agency, particularly since the aboli- 
tion of the area coordinators and the decrease in the number and ac- 
tivity of Federal business associations throughout the country. 15 
A few commodities are purchased by field services either under Gen- 
eral Schedule of Supplies contracts or the term contracts of another 
operating agency. 16 As has already been pointed out, while such con- 
tracts may have certain advantages, they do not represent planned 
procurement. 

Since the Procurement Division has no warehouses in the field, 
there is no opportunity for consolidated purchases for stock by the 
Division. However, there are a few instances in which one agency 
purchases from the warehouse stocks of another operating agency. 
Thus the Civilian Conservation Corps, the National Park Service, the 
Indian Service, and several agencies within the Department of Agri- 
culture purchase some of their supplies and equipment from the ware- 
houses of the Forest Service at Missoula, Spokane, Milwaukee, and 
Alameda. A surcharge, averaging about 7 percent, is made to cover 
the costs of this service. In addition, there are instances in which the 
Forest Service places the order and delivery is made directly to the 
using agency. In either case the Forest Service makes the payment 
and is reimbursed by the using agency. In making its purchases the 
Forest Service plans quite carefully in advance, calling periodically 
for estimates of requirements and timing its purchases. During the 
fire-fighting season it is called on to supply large quantities of canned 
goods, and its representatives make the rounds of the canneries on the 
Pacific coast, finding out about the packs and the most propitious 
time to buy. Goods are then stocked during the winter and are 
ready for the opening of the fire-fighting season in the spring. 

There is very little advance planning in connection with the Pro- 
curement Division's field purchasing for operating agencies. How- 
ever, there have been some instances of estimating of needs and 
quantity purchasing for individual agencies. An important example, 

> 3 The act of February 27, 1920, provides: "That each executive department and establishment shall furnish 
from time to time when called on to do so, estimates of its requirements for inclusion in purchases which it is 
proposed to have made by the Secretary of the Treasury, and there shall be reserved) from proper appropria- 
tions sufficient amounts in each case to reimburse the general supply fund hereinafter created * * * "' 
For the Executive order of June 10, 1933, see ch. I, pp. 11-12. 

» See ch. I. p. 9. 

'•Seech. I, p. 11. 

« See ch. I, pp. 7 ff. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 125 

referred to in both the 1939 report of the Secretary of the Treasury 
and progress reports of the W. P. A., is the purchase of textiles for the 
Work Projects Administration. Requirements of the various States 
were pooled and supplies purchased for 6- and 9-month periods. The 
1939 report of the Secretary of the Treasury estimates a saving of 
$1,733,962 as a result of consolidated purchase procedure, large orders 
being placed directly with the textile mills. 17 Credit for estimating 
requirements for textiles in tins case apparently belongs primarily 
to the Work Projects Administration. 

The last type of purchases in the field is that made directly from 
suppliers by the using agency. Here the amount of advance planning 
varies greatly from agency to agency. The procedure prescribed by 
the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts, with respect to stores used by 
more than one bureau in the Navy, exemplifies a considerable degree 
of advance planning. Such stores are divided into five arbitrary 
groups, each of which comes up for replacement twice yearly. Subor- 
dinate yards send in their requests to the main yards, of which there 
are eight. The main yards send in their requests to the Bureau of 
Supplies and Accounts in Washington. The Bureau checks the pro- 
curement requests against its excess-stock records, determines- the 
quantities to be purchased, and forwards the requests to its Purchase 
Division for action. An effort is made to time purchases to take advan- 
tage of favorable market conditions. Commodities such as tin, cop- 
per, and shellac, prices of which are subject to market fluctuations due 
to speculative conditions or irregularity in supply and demand, are 
purchased after a study of the market trend indicates that prices are 
advantageous, while tinned provisions are purchased annually at the 
packing season for each product. It is believed, however, that further 
study would show that such planning is the exception rather than the 
rule among Federal agencies, and at best it is planning on a depart- 
mental rather than an interdepartmental basis. Apparently exigencies 
arising primarily out of appropriation practices, as discussed in chapter 
III, are more significant than market conditions for the timing of 
Government purchases. A former president of the United States 
Steel Corporation, testifying before the Senate Committee on Inter- 
state Commerce as to the reason why the Government did not get 
better prices on its purchases of steel, stated the situation with respect 
to that commodity. 18 He said: 

Well, the Government does not have very large orders to place at any time. 
When they come into the market for a little here and elsewhere, that is the end of 
it and then they are out of the market. 

4. INADEQUACY OF EXISTING INFORMATION 

There are at present five sources of information as to the purchases 
of the Federal Government: (1) the Procurement Division, (2) the 
Division of Public Contracts of the Department of Labor which col- 
lects data on purchases coming under the Walsh-Healey Act, (3) the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, which collects information on purchases 
for construction projects financed from Federal funds, (4) the annual 
Budget, which presents figures according to the classification of objects 

i" Report, p. 192. Pee abo Keport on the Progress of the W. P. A. Program. June 30, 1938, p. 54. 
18 To prevent Uniform delivered pnYes- Jlearinps before the Committee on Interstate Commerce, U. S. 
Senate, 74th Co on S. 4055, p. 007. 



226 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

of expenditure prescribed by the General Accounting Office, and (5) 
individual agencies, which may compile statistics on their own pur- 
chases. Each of these sources will be discussed and evaluated. 

(1) The Procurement Division does not now collect any kind of 
information on the purchases of the Federal Governme nt as a whole, 
although it did collect such information monthly from December 1937 
to June 1939. 19 The Procurement Division does collect monthly 
information currently on certain types of purchases (irresnective of 
where made) — those made pursuant to the General Schedule of Sup- 
plies contracts, and all those it makes itself under the emergency 
program and for the regular 'departments and establishments. It 
receives copies of all pm chase orders issued in the District of Columbia, 
irrespective of whether issued under General Schedule of Supplies 
contracts. All contractors having contracts included in the General 
Schedule of Supplies are required to make monthly reports to the 
Procurement Division, giving for each item under their contracts the 
dollar value of sales to the Government. However, there is some 
reason to believe that reports are not always complete. Moreover, 
as pointed out in chapter I, 20 the purchases under,the General Schedule 
of Supplies account for only a small proportion of the Federal total. 
The Procurement Division tabulates all of the information it now 
receives, by classes of the Federal Standard Stock Catalog and — within 
each class — by items or groups of items. Tabulation is by months. 21 

The criteria for drawing up the classification of the Federal Standard 
Stock Catalog were similarity of utilization or storage requirements. 
While the classification is very useful in the storage and issuance of 
stock in Government warehouses, it is of limited value for the forward 
planning of procurement. Important commodities are lumped to- 
gether into one class such as "building material," or "fuel," or "food." 22 
Information is not available without a special tabulation on the dollar 
value of purchases for a number of important commodities, including 
cement, tires, and tubes. Moreover, classes are not mutually exclu- 
sive; although "bolts, nuts, screws, rivets, and washers" constitute a 
separate class, these items also appear in 17 other classes. 23 Inci- 
dentally, there are 5 different commodity classifications used bv Fed- 
eral agencies collecting data on Government purchases: (1) That of 
the Federal Standard Stock Catalog, (2) that of the Division of Public 
Contracts of the Department of Labor, (3) that used by the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics in reporting purchases on construction projects 
financed from Federal funds, (4) that used by the General Accounting 
Office, and (5) that of the Work Projects Administration. Diver- 
gences among procurement data reported by States and municipalities 
have been noted elsewhere. 24 

(2) Since the Walsh-Healey Act became effective September 28, 
1936, the Division of Public Contracts of the Department of Labor 

•• n ee ch. I, pp. 2 Q. Although these reports were made to the Procurement Division until the end of the 
1939 'seal year, no data were published except for the period from December 1937 to November 1938, 
inclu >ve. 

» P. 11. 

" Note added August 7, 1940- After its proposed appropriation for statistical work during the fiscal year 
1941 had been disapproved, the Procurement Division discontinued within the last few months of the fiscal 
year 1940 the tabulation of all statistical information except reports of contractors under the Oeneral Schedule 
of Supplies. Dates of discontinuance were not identical for all types of data. 

n On the other hand, "flags and bunting," "badges, insignia, and medals" and "gyro-compasses, acces* 
sories. and parts" are separate classes. 

» Report of the Procurement Division Group. See appendix A. "Correlation of Classes of the Federal 
Standard Stock Catalog with the Various Oroups and Indexes of the Census of Manufactures." 

« See ch. II, sec. 3. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER J 27 

has collected data on the number and value of contracts awarded 
within the scope of this act, which it publishes periodically. A classi- 
fied list of contractors, together with the value' of each contract, is 
published in bulletin form each week and, in addition, quarterly and 
annual summaries are reported in Employment and Payrolls and the 
Annual Report of the Secretary of Labor. Data are classified by 17 
major industries and 135 commodity groupings within the major 
industries, and also by agencies in the annual reports. The classifi- 
cation by industries is closely similar to that of the census of manu- 
factures. The greatest limitation of these data is that only purchases 
over $ 1 0,000 are reported. In addition agencies are no't. always prompt 
in reporting, and there are complications in the time of reporting under 
indefinite-quantity term contracts. The exact amount of purchases 
under such contracts cannot be known until some time after the term 
has expired. 

(3) Monthly reports are collected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
on the value of purchase orders placed for construction projects 
financed from Federal funds. Projects included are those of the 
Public Works Administration, the United States Housing Authority, 
the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, the Work Projects Adminis- 
tration, and the regular construction projects of Federal departments 
and establishments. Material purchased by contractors as well as 
that purchased by agencies in force-account construction is included, 
and published data do not distinguish the two. The classifications of 
these orders for material and that of purchases for the Work Projects 
Administration are very similar. However, the former is more de- 
tailed, having about 90 categories as against 27 of the W. P. A. 

(4) In its annual budget estimates and monthly report of expendi- 
tures to the General Accounting Office each agency presents figures 
according to the two-digit object classification of the General Account- 
ing Office. However, as at present reported, materials purchased for 
construction and repair of buildings are charged to such accounts as 
"structures and parts" and "repairs and alterations." Thus only a 
part of purchases of supplies and materials is charged to "supplies 
and materials." Moreover the categories of the two-digit classifica- 
tion are too broad to be of value for procurement planning. 

(5) Finally, some individual agencies, of which the Work Projects 
Administration is one, collect and publish statistics on their own 
purchases. 

Unsatisfactory as the situation is with respect to information on 
purchasing for the Federal Government, it is better than that with 
respect to the supplies, material, and equipment stored or owned. 
Except for information on the stock stored by the Procurement Divi- 
sion in Washington, which comprises only a very small fraction of the 
Government's purchases, there is no information on inventories for 
the Federal Government as a whole. No doubt the larger warcnouses 
for individual agencies have stock records, but the information is not 
generally available in any one place. Nor does the Procuremtut 
Division maintain records of capacity and use of warehouse facilities 
of other Federal agencies. It would thus be impossible to say accu- 
rately whether there are adequate facilities to take delivery on an 
order of commodities purchased in advance of needs, if any large 
procurement program were involved. 



128 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

5. PROPOSED INFORMATION ON PURCHASES AND INVENTORIES 25 

As has been pointed out in chapter I 26 the Procurement Division 
had made plans for the provision of improved procurement informa- 
tion, but its request for $153,000 to set up a statistical unit was not 
granted by Congress. 27 

The Procurement Division might obtain information about Govern- 
ment purchases in either of two ways. It might obtain from the 
various departments and establishments a copy of each purchase 
order, contract, or other appropriate document not handled by it and 
make tabulations from these documents and its own purchase orders. 28 
Or monthly reports to the Procurement Division might be required 
from the various departments and establishments. Since each 
agency must post .its purchase orders to its accounts currently, it 
should be able to provide the necessary reports as a byproduct of 
maintaining its own accounting records and thus avoid the necessity 
of a duplicate tabulation by the Procurement Division. However, 
this plan would require revisions in the General Accounting Office 
classification of accounts, devised to meet the Procurement Division's 
informational requirements. 

The general nature of procurement information needed as a basis 
for advance planning may be appropriately indicated at this point. 
There is need for monthly reports for the principal purchasing depart- 
ments and establishments on value of procurement and of inventories 
of materials and supplies, classified according to a well-designed 
standard commodity classification. Such monthly reports for the 
principal purchasing departments and establishments might be 
supplemented by annual reports similarly classified for smaller agen- 
cies. For purposes of inventory control and advance planning of 
procurement, there is also need for monthly information at least for 
the principal purchasing agencies on leading individual commodities. 
Such individual commodity data on volume purchased (both in terms 
of physical volume and dollar value) and on inventories should be 
obtained for each of the chief localities at which delivery is called for. 

All agencies might be asked to report annually on a longer list of 
individual commodities than are covered monthly. Annual reports 
might also call for various additional details, such as number of pur- 
chase orders by commodities, value of purchases by method of pur- 
chase, etc. 

Particularly in the field of construction materials, it is important 
to have information not only on Government procurement but also 
upon procurement by contractors in connection with Government con- 
tracts. Such information would presumably continue to be collected 
by agencies other than the Procurement Division. Accordingly, 
arrangements should be made for a uniform plan for the collection 
of the information, including a uniform scheme of commodity classi- 
fication. 

If the Federal Government is to enter effectively into cooperative 
arrangements with State and local governments in the procurement 

25 Since the above was written the Office (or Coordination of National Defense Purchases hasheen setup. 
One of its Functions is to "collect, compile, and keep current statistics on purchases made by Federal 
agencies." Ses Federal Register, Julv 2, 1940. 

Learings on the Treasury Appropriation Bill tor 1941, House Appropriations Committee, p. 749. 
!8 The Procurement Division apparently proposed in the plan for a statistical unit prepared in connection 
•with its budget estimate for 1941 to put each purchase order issued by a civil agency on a separate punch 
card and provide tabulations mechanically. This would have involved some 6,000,000 punch cards per 
annum. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 129 

field, 29 it is highly desirable to have information on such State and 
local government procurement as might be involved in these coop- 
erative arrangements. Such information should be compiled on a 
basis comparable to the Federal procurement information above 
proposed. 

In addition to the regular collection of information on a standard- 
ized basis, the Procurement Division would presumably have occasion 
to make various special collections of information from time to time. 
Such studies might aim to determine for selected additional com- 
modities and selected areas the possibility of economy through extend- 
ing advance planning of procurement to the procurement of these 
commodities in these areas. Various general questions might also 
be carried on special reports; for example, reports on total warehouse 
capacity of Federal agencies by areas and types, on the use of delivery 
equipment, etc. 

In general, the informational system should serve broadly to aid in 
improved procurement practices. It should be so designed as to serve 
the following purposes: 

(1 ) Provide information on possible economies through improve- 
ment of timing of purchases, both in the District of Columbia 
and the field. 

(2) Provide information as to where consolidation of orders 
can best be effected, both in the District of Columbia and the 
field. 

(3) Provide information as to where procurement facilities of 
one agency can profitably be utilized by others, especially in the 
field. 

(4) Aid in determining what commodities should be carried in 
stock by the Procurement Division. 

(5) Aid in arriving at a determination as to whether purchases 
of particular commodities or classes of commodities should 
continue to he made under term contracts or be made in definite 
quantity lots. 

(6) Aid in the development of term contracts, especially for 
the field service, if this appears economical and efficient. 

(7) Concentrate attacks on identical bidding on significant 
items. 

(8) Be of use to the Procurement Division in handling a number 
of administrative problems, such as a closer determination of 
the low bidder in awarding contracts, 30 and a better estimate of 
the size of performance bonds required. 

(9) Be of use to the Bureau of the Budget in preparing financial 
estimates. 

(10) Be important in establishing priorities and possibly other 
types of control in time of war. 31 

(11) Provide information on the role of Government purchases 
in the demand for certain important commodities, which informa- 
tion would be useful in determining the possibilities of business 
stabilization. 

*« Seech. VI. 

30 When awarding indefinite-quantity terra contracts, it is often necessary to consider bids on a large 
number of specifications in order to determine the lowest bidder. In such cases, it is important to know 
the probable needs for the different items if the bidder that is in fact the lowest is to receive the contract 
rather than a bidder who is low on a large number of inconsequential items. 

31 See ch. V, p. 55 and passim. 



130 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

6. PROPOSALS FOR ADVANCE PLANNING 

The first step in procurement planning is estimating needs for a 
period in advance. Over-all estimates of the total value of procure- 
ment during a coming period would be valuable chiefly for purposes 
of financial budgeting. However, such estimates by commodity 
classes should be useful as over-all procurement controls, and would 
be particularly valuable in the event of our participation in a major 
war. They'would also be essential to the use of advance procurement 
for business stabilization purposes. 

In addition to such over-all estimates, it would be necessary to have 
separate estimates for each commodity or type of equipment of suffi- 
cient importance to be included in the scheme of detailed advance 
planning; such estimates to be in terms of both physical volume and 
dollar value. Moreover, for each such commodity there should be a 
separate estimate for each delivery area for which conditions require 
separate planning. The nature of such delivery areas would have to 
be determined in each case in the light of such considerations as 
perishability of the commodity, cost of transportation, etc. The 
purchase estimates for any commodity and delivery area should be 
submitted on a comparable basis with information reported on actual 
purchases and inventories of preceding periods. 

The original estimates should presumably be prepared by the using 
agency in most instances and submitted to the Procurement Division 
"as the central agency responsible for procurement of tne whole 
Government." 32 

Ordinarily the Procurement Division would be expected to approve 
estimates of requirements as presented but in case of a major shortage, 
downward revisions might be required in consultation with the using 
agency. Also for purposes of business stabilization there might be 
occasion for upward revision in some instances. 

Such estimates should not be difficult to make. The majority of 
large industrial concerns operate under purchase budgets drawn up for 
varying periods of time, the most common being 12 months. 33 Rus- 
sell Forbes in his book Governmental Purchasing points out that the 
requirements of a Government can be estimated more closely and with 
less effort than the requirements of a private business which is subject 
to unexpected increases or decreases in sales and sudden changes of 
plan due to the exigencies of competition. 34 On the basis of improved 
records for past periods and in the light of their future work program, 
agencies should be able without difficulty to estimate their future 
requirements. However, it would be essential to provide adequate 
flexibility in any such budget scheme. If the requirements were to be 
estimated on an annual basis, revisions might be made quarterly or 
semiannually. In some instances it might be advisable to provide for 
maximum and minimum estimates of requirements, the agency to be 
required to stay within the maximum estimate as determined at the 
beginning of each quarter and to obligate, at the start of the quarter, 
funds to provide for the minimum estimate. It might also be advis- 
able, particularly where the Procurement Division does not stock an 

32 Executive Order No. 6166, June 10, 1933. 

m Lewis, op. cit., p. 477. SeeN. A. P. A. Handbook of Purchasing Policies and Procedures, p. 163, for 
the results of a survey which showed that 60 percent of the "large" industrial concerns surveyed ("large" 
being denned as those whose annual purchases totaled over $10,000,000) gave an affirmative answer to the 
question, "Do you operate on a budget or on a forecast which controls the extent of purchasing?" 

»* Forbes, op. cit., p. 122 ff. 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 13 J 

article, to obtain estimates of inventories as well as estimates of 
requirements. 

It is to be assumed that such a system of advance planning of pro- 
curement would be confined to a somewhat shorter list of commodities 
than that for which regular monthly reports of purchase orders placed 
would be required. These more comprehensive records of past pur- 
chases would then provide a basis for expansion of the budget system 
to additional commodities, as occasion may require. In order to 
insure coverage of all commodities for which there is real occasion for 
advance planning, it might be advisable to require, before an agency 
can make purchases of a commodity not included in the detailed plan 
in excess of a stipulated maximum volume involving say a 100 per- 
cent increase over the corresponding quarter in the preceding year, 
that an estimate be submitted to the Procurement Division by this 
agency for the purchasing of the commodity involved. 

When monthly estimates are available from the various using agen- 
cies, it should be possible for the Procurement Division to provide for 
such consolidations of orders as are economical, and for such advance 
purchases as would actually obtain economies from favorable market 
conditions. It should also be possible, so to plan the procurement 
program and the distribution of inventories as to avoid any needless 
and wasteful stocking up. This need not mean that the Procurement 
Division would itself undertake the purchasing in all cases where 
consolidation of orders, a central inventory, or forward buying may be 
found to be economical. 

If genuine economies are to be realized such steps as consolidation of 
orders, delayed or advanced purchasing in order to buy in what appears 
to be the most favorable market, and decreases in local inventories, 
should be preceded by careful study. The dangers of excessive 
storage costs, and'deterioration and obsolescence of goods on the one 
hand, and the dangers of delay to the using agencies on the other, 
must be weighed against the advantages which any such step is ex- 
pected to gain. "In some cases establishment of additional common 
Federal specifications 35 may be needed. .As noted briefly in the 
introduction to the study 36 improvements in the collection of market 
information and in market research may be called for. Greater 
flexibility in purchasing procedures may be required. A system of 
procurement estimates may thus be but one of several conditions 
necessary to the realization of economies. What such a system con- 
tributes is improved information centrally assembled regarding the 
magnitude and timing of procurement needs, information which 
should make possible more careful planning of Government purchases. 

>s According to the 1939 annual report of the Secretary of the Treasury (p. 193) 1,232 specifications on 
articles commonly used had been prepared up to June 30, 1939. Federal specifications represent the final 
step in the process of standardizing the requirements of different agencies for commonly used articles. 
Such standardization is a prerequisite to consolidation of orders. For a discussion of this, see Forbes, Gov- 
ernmental Purchasing, ch. V. 

" See pp. XXVIII-XIX. 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON GOVERNMENTAL 
PROCUREMENT 

This is no means intended as an exhaustive list for any one of the 
categories represented. 

The classification scheme here used is based on the relationship of 
the respective works to topics in connection with which they were 
found pertinent in the present study. 

1. POLICIES AND PROCEDURES IN PROCUREMENT 

American Municipal Association. Memorandum on the Purchasing Service of 
the Michigan Municipal League. Public Adm. Service, Chicago, 1936. (Pur- 
chasing series, No. 2, August 1, 1936.) 4 p. mimeo. 

Chute, Carlton. Cooperative Purchasing in the United States and Canada, 
National Municipal Keview, vol. 27, p. 503. October 1938. 

Clark, J. M. Studies in the Economics of Overhead Costs. University of 
Chicago Pr., Chicago, 1923. 502 p. 

Forbes, Russell. Governmental Purchasing. Harper, New York, 1929. 370 p. 

Forbes, Russell. The Organization and Administration of a Governmental 
Purchasing Office. National Association of Purchasing Agents, New York, 
1932. 44. p. 

Forbes, Russell. Purchasing for Small Cities. Municipal Administration 
Service, New York, 1932. ii, 18 p. (Municipal Administration Service. 
Publication No. 25.) 

Forbes, Russell. Purchasing Laws for State, County, and City Governments. 
National Association of Purchasing Agents, New York, 1931. 32 p. 

Forbes, Russell, and Others. Purchasing for Small Cities. 2d ed. Public 
Administration Service, Chicago, 1939. 22 p. (Public Administration Service 
Publication No. 66.) 

Harriman, N. F. How the Federal Government Does Its Purchasing. Reprint- 
ed from the United States Daily, October 28-31, 1930. 29 p. 

Lewis, H. T. Industrial Purchasing. Business Publications, Inc., Chicago, 1940. 
586 p. 

MacCorkle, S. A. State-Municipal Cooperation in Purchasing. National Mu- 
nicipal Review, vol. 27, September 1938, p. 441. 

MacDonald, J. H. Practical Budget Procedure. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 
1939. 326 p. 

McKinsev, J. O. Budgetary Control. Ronald Pr. Co., New York, 1922. 

National Association of Purchasing Agents. Handbook of Purchasing Policies 
and Procedures, vol. I. New York 1939. 450 p. 

Thomas, A. G. Principles of Government Purchasing. Johns Hopkins Pr., 
Baltimore, 1919. 275 p. (Inst, for Government Research. Principles of 
Administration.) 

U. S. Bureau of the Census. Business: 1935. Voluntary Group and Cooperative 
Wholesalers; Groceries and Related Products. Washington, 1935. 38 p. 
mimeo. 

V. S. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Hearings on the 
Treasury Appropriation Bill, 1935 to 1941 Fiscal Years. Washington, 1935-41. 

U. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Education and Labor. Purchase of 
Supplies and the Making of Contracts by the United States. Hearing before a 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Education and Labor. United States 
Senate (75th Cong., 1st sess.) on S. 1032, a bill to amend the act entitled "An 
act to provide conditions for the purchase of supplies and the making of con- 
tracts bv the United States," and for other purposes. Mav 13, r8, and 19, 
1939. Washington, 1939. 

U. S. General Accounting Office. Classification of Objects of Expenditure. 
Washington, 1927. (Bulletin No. 1, May 11, 1922, revised Aug. 26, 1927.) 

132 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 133 

U. S. General Accounting Office. Decisions of the Comptroller General of the 
United States. Washington, 1928. (Decision A-21012, vol. 7, p. 547. March 
5, 1928.)' 

(Decision A-28003, vol. 9, p. 23. Julv 23, 1929.) 

(Decision A-56726, vol. 14, p. 313. October 17, 1934.) 

(Decision A-65592, vol. 15, p. 286. October 9, 1935.) 

■ (Decision A-24103. September 8, 1928. Unpublished.) 

U. S. National Archives. Federal Register Division. Code of Federal Regula- 
tions of the United States of America, title 41. 1939. Washington, 1939. 

U. S. National Bureau of Standards. Services of the National Bureau of Stand- 
ards to Governmental Purchasing Agencies. Letter circular, LC-497. May 
12, 1937. Washington, 1937. 12 p. mimeo. 

U. S. Social Security Board. Bureau of Employment Security. Administrative 
Standards Bulletin No. 2. — A Draft Regulation Relating to Procurement of 
Furniture, Fixtures, Equipment, Supplies, Printing and Binding, and Con- 
tractual Services by State Agencies Administering Unemployment Compensa- 
tion and Employment Service. Washington, September 1939. 14 p. 

U. S. Social Security Board. Bureau of Employment Security. Administrative 
Standards Bulletin No. 4 — Schedule of Approved Furniture and Equipment 
Items. Washington, June 1940. iv, 206 p. 

U. S. 'Treasury Department. Procurement Division. General Schedule of 
Supplies for the following years: 1929, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 
1939, and 1940. Washington, 1929, 1932-40. 

U. S. Treasury Department. Procurement Division. Schedule of Stock Items, 
Revised to March 1, 1940. Washington, 1940. 

2. DATA ON (OR USED IN ESTIMATING) VOLUME OF GOVERNMENTAL PURCHASES; 
ADDITIONAL QUANTITATIVE DATA ON GOVERNMENTAL PURCHASES 

Illinois Dept. of Finance. Twentieth Annual Report, July 1, 1936, to June 30, 
1937. Springfield, 1937. 79 p. 

U. S. Bureau of the Census. Financial Statistics of Cities, 1935, 1936, and 1937. 
Washington, 1937. (The Summary bulletin and individual city releases were 
used for 1937, the final report not having been published.) 

U. S. Bureau of the Census. Financial Statistics of State and Local Govern- 
ments. Washington, 1932. (Wealth, public debt, and taxation, 1932.) 

U. S. Bureau of the Census. Financial Statistics of the States, 1937. Washing- 
ton, 1937. (Summary bulletin and individual State releases.) 

U. S. Public Works Administration. Division of Information. America Builds, 
the Record of the P. W. A. Washington, 1939. vii, 298 p. 

U. S. Temporary National Economic Committee. Report of the Procurement 
Division group, Treasury Department Subcommittee, Temporary National 
Economic Committee. Study of Government Purchasing Activities, Part I. 
Magnitude and Characteristics of Government Purchasing, Part II, Survey of 
Practice of Identical Bidding for Government Purchase Contracts. Washing- 
ton, 1939. 

U. S. Works Progress Administration. Report on Progress of the W. P. A. Pro- 
gram. June 30, 1938. Washington, 1938. (Available only at W. P, A., 
Washington, D. C.) 

June 30, 1939. 

3. PERIODIC REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL AND STATE PURCHASING AGENCIES 

Boston Supply Dept. Annual Report for the Year 1935. Boston, 1935. 3 p. 

table. 
Cincinnati Dept. of Purchasing. Annual Report. 1938. Cincinnati, 1938. 

10 p. 

1939. 9 p. 

Detroit Dept. of Purchases and Supplies. Annual Report for the Year 1936. 

Detroit, 1936. 7 p. mimeo. 
New York (City) Dept. of Purchase. Report to Mayor F. H. LaGuardia on the 

Work of the" Department of Purchase for the Year 1935 Herald-Nathan 

Pr., Inc. New York, 1936. 85 p. 
1937. 112 p. 

1938. 63 p. 

1939. 88 p. 

1 This decision and Hip. four listed immediately after it concern disbarment of bidders (on Federal pro- 
curement contracts) as "not responsible." 



134 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Newark (N. J.) Dept. of Central Purchase. Report of Materials, Supplies, and 

Equipment Purchased, 1938. Newark, 1938. 
Vermont Dept. of Purchase. Biennial Report of the Purchasing Agent for the 

Two Years Ending June 30, 1938. Montpelier, 1938. 14 p. 

4. WAR PROCUREMENT 

Baker, C. W. Government Control and Operation of Industry in Great Britain 
and the United States During the World War. Oxford Univ. Pr., New York, 
1921. (Preliminary Economic Studies of the War, ed. by David Kinley. 
No. 18.) 

Cherne, L. M. Adjusting Your Business to War. Tax Research Institute of 
America, Inc., New York, 1939. 238 p. 

Clark, J. M., Hamilton, W. H., and Moulton, H. G., eds. Readings in the 
• Economics of War. Univ. of Chicago Pr., Chicago, 1918. 668 p. 

Clarkson G. B. Industrial America in the World War. Houghton Mifflin Co., 
Boston, 1923. 573 p. 

•Crowell, Benedict and Wilson, R. F. The Giant Hand — Our Mobilization and 
Control of Industry and Natural Resources, 1917-18. Yale Univ. Pr., New 
Haven, 1921. 191 p. 

Crowell, J. F. Government War Contracts. Oxford Univ. Pr., New York, 1920. 
357 p. (Preliminary Economic Studies of the War, ed. by D. Kinley. No. 25.) 

Garrett, P. W., assisted by Lubin, Isador, and Stewart, Stella. Government 
Control Over Prices. Published by the War Trade Board in Cooperation 
With the War Industries Board. Washington, 1920. 834 p. (Price Bulletin 
No. 3.) 

U. S. A. E. F., 1917-19. Final Report of General John J. Pershing, Commander 
in Chief, American Expeditionary Forces, September 1, 1919. Washington, 
1919. 

U. P. Army and Navy Munitions Board. Industrial Mobilization plan — Revi- 
sion of 1939 (76th Cong., 2d sess.). Senate Document No. 134. Washington, 
1939. 

U. S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Educational Orders for 
Peacetime Munitions Production. In Domestic Commerce, vol. 25, No. 3, 
January 30, 1940. p. 47. 

U. S. Congress. House. Committee on Military Affairs. The National 
Defense Act, approved June 3, 1916, as amended to March 4, 1929. Washington, 
1929. 

U. S. Congress. House. Committee on Military Affairs. Strategic and 
Critical Raw Materials. Hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs, 
House of Representatives (76th Cong., 1st sess.). H. R. 2969, 3320, 2556, 
2643, 1987, 987, and 4373, to provide for the common defense by acquiring 
stocks of strategic and critical raw materials in time of national emergency, 
and for other purposes. Febiuary 21, 28; March 1, 2, 3, and 7, 1939. Wash- 
ington, 1939. 232 p. (See especially, p. 108 et seq.) 

U. S. Congress. House. Committee on Military Affairs. Taking the Profits 
Out of War (74th Cong., 1st sess.). Hearings on H. R. 3 and H. R. 5293, 
January 23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 1935. Washington, 1935. 

U. S. Congress. House. Select Committee on Expenditures in the War De- 
partment. Hearings before Subcommittee No. 4 (Quartermaster Corps). 
House of Representatives (65th Cong., on war expenditures). Washington, 
1921. 

U. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Hearings on the 
1st Supplemental National Defense Appropriation Bill for 1941 (76th Cong., 
3d sess.). H. R. 10005. Washington, 1940. 

U. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Military Affairs. Report on Aircraft 
Production in the United States (65th Cong., 2d sess.). Report No. 555. 
Washington, 1918. 

U. S. Congress. Senate. Special Committee to Investigate the Munitions 
Industry. Munitions Industry. Hearings before the Special Committee 
Investigating the Munitions Industry, U. S. Senate (74th Cong.), Pt. 15. 
Hearings December 14, 1934. Old Hickory contract (continued) and indus- 
trial organization in war (examples in World War and plans for next war). 
Washington, 1935. 

U. S. Congress. Senate. Special Committee to Investigate the Munitions 
Industry. Munitions Industry (74th Cong., 1st sess.). Report No. 944. 
Washington, 1935. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 135 

V. S. Federal Trade Commission. Cost Reports. Copper, June 30, 1919. 

Washington, 1919. 
U. S. General Staff. The War with Germany, a Statistical Summary, by Leonard 

P. Ayres, Colonel, General Staff, Chief of Statistics Branch of the General 

Staff. Washington, 1919. 
U. S. War Department. Annual Report of the Secretary, 1938. Washington, 

1938. 

1939. 

U. S. War Industries Board. American Industry in the War. A Report of the 

War Industries Board, by B. M. Baruch. Washington, 1921. 421 p. 
U. S. War Policies Commission. Report, Message of the President, and Hearings 

(72d Cong., 1st sess.). House Document No. 163 (Report), 264 (Message) 

and 271 (Hearings). Washington, 1931. 
The Wall Street Journal (New York). October 13, 17, and 23, 1939. Articles 

by Thomas W. Wilson on industrial mobilization. 

6. GOVERNMENTAL CONTROL OF BUSINESS 

Arnold, T. W. Statement of Thurman W. Arnold, Assistant Attorney General 
of the United States, before the Temporary National Economic Committee. 
On unjustified price increases, Department of Justice construction-industry 
investigation, etc. Washington, December 8, 1939. 21 p. mimeo. 

Clark, J. M. Social Control of Business. 2d ed. rev. McGraw-Hill, New 
York, 1939. 

Corwin, E. S. The Twilight of the Supreme Court. Yale Univ. Pr., New 
Haven, 1934. 237 p. 

Keezer, D. M., and May, Stacy. The Public Control of Business. Harper & 
Bros., New York, 1930. 267 p. 

Lyon, L. S., Watkins, M. W., and Abramson, Victor. Government and Economic 
Life, vol. II. Brookings Inst., Washington, 1939 (Inst, of Economics Publica- 
tions, No. 79). 

Oppenheim, S. C. Recent Price Control Laws, Fair Trade (resale price mainte- 
nance) Acts, Statutes Prohibiting Sales Below Cost, State Anti-discrimination 
laws, Robinson-Patman Act. West Pub. Co., St. Paul, 1939. (Supplement to 
Oppenheim, Cases on Trade Regulation, American Casebook Series, 1936.) 

U. S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Interstate Commerce. Hearings on 
S. 4055 (74th Cong., 2d sess.). To Prevent Uniform Delivered Prices. Wash- 
ington, 1936. 

U. S. Department of Justice. The Federal Antitrust Laws With Summary of 
Cases Instituted by the United States and Lists of Cases Decided Thereunder. 
Washington, 1938. 

Supplement. April 1940. 

U. S. Federal Trade Commission. Annual Report of the Federal Trade Com- 
mission for the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1939. Washington, 1939. 

U. S. Federal Trade Commission. Federal Trade Commission Rules of Practice, 
Statement of Policy, Acts of Congress from which the Commission Derives 
Its Powers. Washington, 1938. 

U. S. Temporary National Economic Committee. Investigation of Concentra- 
tion of Economic Power. Hearings before the Temporary National Economic 
Committee, Congress of the United States (75th Cong., 3d sess.) pursuant to 
Public resolution No. 113. Part 1, Economic prologue, December 1, 2, and 
3, 1938. Washington, 1939. 

U. S. Temporary National Economic Committee. Verbatim record of the proceed- 
ings of, vol. IX (Steel Industry), October 26 to December 8, 1939. The 
Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Washington, 1940. 

6. GOVERNMENTAL CONTROL OF BUSINESS (COURT OPINIONS AND RELATED 
LEGAL DOCUMENTS) 

(a) Court Opinions 

Biddle Purchasing Company et al. v. Federal Trade Commission. 96 Fed. 2d. 
687 (1938). 

The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company v. Federal Trade Commission. 106 
Fed. 2d. 667 (1939). 

Oliver Brothers, Inc. et al. v. Federal Trade Commission. 102 Fed. 2d. 763 (1939). 

United States v. The Cooper Corporation, et al. Opinion on defendants' motions 
to dismiss the complaint (February 16, 1940). United States District Court 
for the Southern District of New York. Civil action No. 2-396. 1940^ (Rec- 
ord open to public in New York, but copies not available for distribution.) 



136 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

United States v. The Cooper Corporation et al. Opinion and dissenting opinion on 
appeal from district court decision concerning defendants' motions to dismiss 
the complaint (August 8, 1940). United States Court of Appeals (2d circuit 
court) No. 363. 1940. (Record open to public in New York, but copies not 
available for distribution.) 

United Slates v. Lumber Institute of Allegheny County et al. Opinion on demurrer 
(July 30, 1940). United States District Court for the Western District of 
Pennsylvania. No. 10529 criminal. Washington, 1940. 6 p. (Not yet 
published.) 

United Slates v. Marble Contractors' Association et al. Complaint (filed February 
29, 1940) and consent decree (entered February 29, 1940). United States 
District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania. Civil action No. 
805. Washington, 1940. 21 p. (Record open to public in Pittsburgh, but 
copies not available for distribution.) 

United States v. New Orleans Chapter, Associated General Contractors of America, 
Inc. Complaint (filed January 15, 1940) and consent decree (entered January 
15, 1940). United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana, 
New Orleans Division. Civil action No. 249. Washington, 1940. 8 p. 
(Record open to public in Pittsburgh, but copies not available for distribution.) 

United Stales v. Pittsburgh Tile & Mantel Contractors' Association et al. Com- 
plaint (filed February 29, 1940) and consent decree (entered February 29, 
1940). United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania. 
Civil action No. 806. Washington, 1940. 18 p. (Record open to public in 
Pittsburgh, but copies not available for distribution.) 

United States v. Voluntary Code of Heating, Piping, and Air-conditioning Industry 
for Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, et al. Complaint (filed December 8, 1939) 
and consent decree (entered December 8, 1939). United States District 
Court for the Western District < Pennsylvania. Civil action No. 698. Wash- 
ington, 1939. 22 p. (Record open to public in Pittsburgh, but copies not 
available for distribution.) 

United States v. Western Pennsylvania Sand and Gravel Association et al. Com- 
plaint (filed February 21, 1940) and consent decree (entered February 21, 1940). 
United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania. Civil 
action No. 780. Washington, 1940. (Record open to public in Pittsburgh, 
but copies not available for distribution.) 

Webb-Crawford Company et al. v. Federal Trade Commission. 109 Fed. 2d. 268 
(1940). 

(b) Related Legal Documents 

Quality Bakers of America et al v. Federal Trade Commission. Brief of respondent 
(case argued April 30, 1940). United States Circuit Court of Appeals (first 
circuit). No. 3481. Washington, 1940. 87 p. (Record open to public in 
New York, but copies not available for distribution.) 

United States v. The Cooper Corporation, et al. Brief in opposition to defendants' 
motions to dismiss the complaint (filed May 13, 1939). United States District 
Court (second district). Civil action No. 2-396. Washington, 1939. 30 p. 
(Record open to the public in New York, but copies not available for distri- 
bution.) 

United States v. The Cooper Corporation et al. Reply brief in opposition to 
defendants' motions to dismiss the complaint. United States District Court 
(second district). Civil action No. 2-396. Washington, 1939. 9 p. (Record 
open to the public in New York, but copies not available for distribution.) 

United States v. The Cooper Corporation el al. Brief for the appellant (case 
argued May 21, 1940). United States Circuit Court of Appeals (second cir- 
cuit). No. 363. Washington, 1940. 32 p. (Record open to public in New 
York, but copies not available for distribution.) 

United States v. Lvmber Institute of Allegheny County et al. Indictment (returned 
February 23, 1940). United States District Court for the Western District of 
Pennsylvania, Grand jury. No. 10529. Washington, 1940. 25 p. (Record 
open to public in Pittsburgh, but copies not available for distribution.) 

United States v. New Orleans Chapter, Associated General Contractors of America, 
Inc., et al. Indictment (returned December 2, 1939). United States District 
Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana, New Orleans division, Grand jury. 
No. 19843 criminal. Washington, 1939. 10 p. (Record open to public in 
New Orleans, but copies not available for distribution.) 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER ^37 

United States v. William F. Hess et al. Indictment (returned November 3, 1939.) 
United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, Grand 
jury. No. 10462 criminal. Washington, 1939. 34 p. (Record open to public 
in Pittsburgh, but copies not available for distribution.) 

United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, Grand jury. 
Presentment (March 25, 1940). Washington, 1940. 6 p. (Record open to 
public in Pittsburgh, but copies not available for distribution.) 

U. S. Federal Trade Commission. In re Biddle Purchasing Company et al. Order 
to cease and desist (July 17, 1937). F. T. C. Docket No. 3032. Washington, 
1937. 3 p. mimeo. 

U. S. Federal Trade Commission. In re The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Com- 
pany. Order to cease and desist (January 25, 1938). F. T. C. Docket No. 
3031. Washington, 1938. 2 p. mimeo. 

U. S. Federal Trade Commission. In re Oliver Brothers, Inc., et al. Order to 
cease and desist (December 31, 1937). F. T. C. Docket No. 3088. Washington, 
1937. 2 p. mimeo. 

U. S. Federal Trade Commission. In re Quality Bakers of America et al. Com- 
plaint (August 28, 1937). F. T. C. Docket No. 3218. Washington, 1937. 7 p. 
mimeo. 

U. S. Federal Trade Commission. In re Quality Bakers of America et al. Brief 
for the attorney for the Commission (September 15, 1938). F. T. C. Docket 
No. 3218. Washington, 1938. 45 p. mimeo. 

U. S. ^ederal Trade Commission. In re Quality Bakers of America et al. Order 
to cease and desist (April 27, 1939). F. T. C. Docket No. 3218. Washington, 
1939. 3 p. mimeo. 

U. S. Federal Trade Commission. In re Walter Kidde & Company, Inc., et al. 
Complaint (October 18, 1939). F. T. C. Docket No. 3929. Washington, 1939. 
5 p. mimeo. , «, 

U. S. Federal Trade Commission. In re Walter Kidde & Company, Inc., et al. 
Order to cease and desist (March 20, 1940). F. T. C. Docket No. 3929. Wash- 
ington, 1940. 2 p. mimeo. 

U. S. Federal Trade Commission. In re The Webb Crawford Company et al. 
Order to cease and desist (October 20, 1938). F. T. C. Docket No. 3214. 
Washington, 1938. 2 p. mimeo. 

7. PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS (INCLUDING REPORTS) NOT^ ELSEWHERE CLASSIFIED 

International Citv Managers' Association. The Municipal Year Book, 1938. 

Chicago, 1938. * 

1939. 587 p. 

1940. 629 p. 

Journal of Commerce (New York). All Friday issues from August 3, 1939, to 

April 4, 1940, and issue of Saturday, February 24, 1940. 
Public Administration Clearing House. News Bulletin. November 21, 1939, 

April 1, 1940. Chicago, 1939-40. 
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Wholesale Prices, 1929 to date. Washington, 

1929 to date (monthly). 
U. S. Congressional Record (various issues). 
U. S. Department of Labor. Annual Report of the Secretary of Labor, Fiscal 

Year Ending June 30, 1937. Washington, 1937. 

1938. 

1939. 

U. S. General Accounting Office. Annual Report of the Comptroller General of 
the United States for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1939. Washington, 1939. 

U. S. National Archives. Federal Register. Washington* 19 — (various issues). 

U. S. Treasury Department. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Treasury 
on the State of the Finances, 1938. Washington, 1939. (Administrative re- 
port of the Procurement division in above.) 

1939. 

U. S. Treasury Department. Bulletin, August 1939. Washington, 1939. 

Note. — Appendixes I through V were taken from the study of Government 
purchasing activities made by the Procurement Division Group of the Treasury 
Department Subcommittee of the Temporary National Economic Committee, 
under the direction of Christian Joy Peoples, Director of Procurement, Treasury 
Department. 



APPENDIX I 

DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNDAMENTAL 
ROUTINGS GOVERNING FEDERAL PURCHASING 

138 



Chabt VI 



DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNDAMENTAL ROUTINGS GOVERNING ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL 
GOVERNMENTAL DEPARTMENTS AND OFFICES IN MAKING- PURCHASES DIRECTLY FROM SUPPLIERS 



CJNGOESS AH? THE EXECUTIVE. 




OPEBATing Determination of ,-> 

UNIT — tequinements «< 



ccessfui Bidder Contractor ^ Ter 



mtmWM//M MU w&^-~ 



• *hich opprop 
available. 

Single delivery contract illustrated lor convenience; 
multiple delivery contract covering delivery either 
during ore.<tenrjing beyond the fiscalyeor could 
just as wen nave been employed. 



PgEVIOUS FISCAL YEAR y 



CASE H 

rnij t>pe ofcontract 
maybe A ' -tely liquidated during 

, contractor 
during the fiscal year but finol payment by 
Government not mode until ne'*t fscalyeo^or 
the contrac* may continue, fully operative, 
during aporton of the succeeding fiscalyear. 

ANY FISCAL YE.AP. 



CASE 



and payments mode 
ENDS 



m 



Single or multiple deli* :ry contract arranged near 
end of fiscal yeor Such situations arise in agencies 
which may bavebosbo 'ded avoilable funds in 
anticipation ofcond'tia ?s which foiled to materialize 
ind : sneenrrated Co n m tmenta r i- urrencumben 3 
balances atthc end oft it fiscal year with the '•npiratiori 
of which the opproprio lion wo'iidlopse.Note deliveries 
"■*" ii 1 the ensuing fiscal year. 

Lbecins 



NEXT FI5CALYEAP. 



NOTE: THIS CHABT IS EHTIB ELY 0IAGBAMMATtC,ISNOTT0 iCALt,AMO DOES MOT PUBPOBT TO POBTBAY SPECIFIC INI .'f.SPECT TO THE OPEBATIONS Of ANY DEPABTrlENTOB INDEPENDENTOFFICE OFHEB. 

THAU THE CENEBAL BOOTING Alb SEQUENCE Of PUBCHASIMG TBAH5ACTlOhS.THL MULTITUDINOUS DETAILS, C0NT8 01'., AND CHICKS EMPLOYED ID SAftOUABD THE COVEBNMINTS INTEEESTS ABE NECES5ABILY OniTTtB 



2G2342-11— No. 19 (Face p. 13S) No. 1 



Chabt VII 



DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNDAMENTAL ROUTINGS GOVERNING ACQUISITDN OF REQUIREMENTS BY 
FEDERAL GOVERNMENTAL DEPARTMENTS AND OFFICES FROM PROCUREMENT DIVISION CONTRACTS 



CONGgESS AND THE. EXECUTIVE. 



PREVIOUS FISCAL YEAC.; 




ANY FISCAL YEAR- 



NEXT FISCAL YE-AE 



TEAYSPLCIFICINFOEMATIONWITKElSPCCTTOTHLOPLSATIONSOFANYDLPAETmHTOEIND^^ 

an COKTIACTS AEEANCLP BY Tht 5UPPLY BEANCH, PEOCUBtMLNT DIVISION, FOE. THE. BINIHT OF ALL ACLHCILS OF THL FLDLE.AL. 



:THiS CKAET IS tNTIPLLY DIACEAMMATIC,IS"OTTOSCALL,AND Dots HOT PUBPOET TOWETEA 
EOUTIMC AHO SLOUINCL OF OPLEATIONS IS CONNECTION WITH OUOCHA5LS MAOL UPON "rLEM 
GOVLENMtNT. THL MULTITUDINOUS DLTAI'.S, CONTEOLS, AND CHICKS EMPLOYED TO JAFE.GUAEO THE. INTtEtSTS OF THLGOVEENMtUT AEL NE.CESSAEILY OMITTLD. 

262342— 41— No. 19 (Face p. 138) No. 2 



Chakt VIII 



DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNDAMENTAL ROUTINGS GOVERNING ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL 
GOVERNMENTAL DEPARTMENTS AND OFFICES PURCHASING FROM PROCUREMENT DIVISION STOCK 



C0N&CE55 AND THE E.X EXUTIVC 





iglf£ TT 

f ^, ^,-, TOl i *,. i , ^,-. wi.4- v r> •■ " fr lffi E jr 



SIM J il 



r^ra 



•Hill! &Hii m 



I I I Prospective^ 2i.2| Prospect.*^ II I J | Prospect.*; [ip -S| I I | 

/<%) ,1 Bidder — Contractor Bidder 



»| 111 111 I !|i| 1 »:,, 

c l Se. e! Pro5pecrrye(?gi g 1 °| Prose* 

If 






^^^^^mi^^^mzzzgz^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



ruw'% 1 1 1 

^—Contractor i . . 



Voopecrive(/^ "' °l Prospective 

Bi&rsigl -||-| Bidders,™ uj 

Successful^ "I "I Successful VW7//, 
Bidder t..-j , , Bidder "■"-"''-' 



Ikife 



-^Contractor 



PeiVIOUS FISCAL YLAB. 



ANY FISCALYEAE. 



YEAC 

tOTf. THIS CHAP.T I5E.NTIELLY DIAGEAnMATIC.IJrlOl T0SCAIL,AND DOLS NOT PUEPOET TO POETBAY SPtCIFIC INFOOMATION WITH EE.3PLCT TO THE. OPLEATIONS OF AMY DLPAETM LNT 00. UIDLPLNDLMT 0FF1CL OTHtO. 
THAN THL CE.NLEAL OOUTING AND SEQULNCL OF OPLOATIONS INVOIVLD IN THE. FUCIIISHIHC OF MATLOIALS AND SUPPLILS WHICH THL SUPPLY BBAHCH, P20CUEEME.N1 DIVISION, PUECHAS13 FOE. BIDISTEIBUTION 
AMONG ACLNCIL5 AVAILING THEttSLLVLS OF THAT DIVISIONS 3EEVICL5. THE. MULTITUOINOUJ DETAILS, C0NTEOl.3,AHD CHLCK.S EMPLOYED TO SAFtGUABO THL IHTLBISTS Of GOVEBNMENTABL NECISSABIIY OMITTED. 

262342 — 41— No. 19 (Face p. 138) No. 3 



APPENDIX II 

DISTRIBUTION OF BIDS AND BIDDERS BY FEDERAL 
AGENCIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN THE FIELD 



Table XVII. — Distribution of bids and bidders by Federal agencies in Washington- 

and in the field 

[December 1937 through November 1938] 



Agency 



Washington 



Bids 



Bidders 



Field 



Bids 



Bidders 



Total 



Bids 



Bidders 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce -- 

Interior 

Justice 

Labor 

Navy 

Post Office 

State 

Treasury 

War 

Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Authority. 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion. 

Federal Reserve Board... 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 

Home Owners' Loan Cor- 
poration 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration... _. 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
S ates and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress.. 

Maritime Commission 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics.. 

National Archives 

National Labor Relations 
Board.. .- 



49,831 
25,944 
23,595 
39,240 

447 
60,450 
21,279 

Nil 
483, 124 

Nil 



Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

130 

69 

69,390 
Nil 

632 

422 

219 

1,352 
360 

19 

63 

15, 562 

5,331 

Nil 



NU 

349 

33 

5,301 

240 
2,122 

Nil 



16,327 

10. 303 

9,438 

3,626 

153 

12.000 

18,501 

Nil 

88,155 

Nil 



ND 

NU 

NU 

130 

64 

12,275 
NU 

632 

252 

146 

81 
360 

30 

53 

10,466 

2,630 

NU 

NU 

177 

33 

1,023 

60 
595 

NU 



300, 955 

62, 910 

71.130 

142,984 

3,000 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

2, 709, 917 

2,500,000 



NU 

Nil 

NU 

NU 

NU 

NU 
NU 

432 

64 

41 

61 
Nil 

NU 

NU 

NU 

NU 

NU 

14,941 

3 

Nil 

43,141 

28,980 
NU 

NU 



91,909 

37.581 

28,452 

34,061 

600 

NU- 

Nil 

Nil 

883.689 

175,000 



NU 
NU 
NU 
NU 
NU 

NU 

NU 

338 
53 
33 

62 

NU 

NU 
Nil 
Nil 

NU 
NU 

2,249 

3 

Nil 
2,695 

6,930 
NU 

NU 



350,786 

88,854 

94,725 

182.224 

3.447 

60.450 

21,279 

NU 

3. 193. 041 

2,500,000 



Nil 
NU 
Nil 
130 
69 

69,390 

Nil 

1,064 

486 

260 

1,413 
360 

19 

53 

15,562 

6,331 

NU 

14,941 

352 

33 

48,442 

29,220 
2,122 

NU 



108,236 

47,884 

37,890 

37,690 

753 

12.000 

18,501 

Nil 

971,844 

175,000 



Nil 

NU 

Nil 

130 

64 

12, 275 
NU 

970 

305 

179 

133 

360 

30 

53 

10,466 

2,630 

Nil 

2,249 

180 

33 

3,618 

6,980 
595 

NU 



139 



140 



CONCEiNTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Table XVII. — Distribution of bids and bidders by Federal agencies in Washington 
and in the field — Continued 



Agency 


Washington 


Field 


Total 


Bids 


Bidders 


Bids 


Bidders 


Bids 


Bidders 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments—Continued. 
National Training School 


3,224 
20, 493 

349 

53 

54 
453 
665 
Nil 

Nil 
100, 743 

Nil 


478 
9, 969 

321 

53 

54 
386 
428 
Nil 

Nil 
25,116 

Nil 


Nil 
Nil 

Nil 

3 

Nil 
Nil 
227 
Nil 

82, 578 
687, 876 

Nil 


Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

3 

Nil 
Nil 
227 

Nil 

33, 896 
119,917 

Nil 


3,224 
20, 493 

349 

56 

54 
453 
892 
Nil 

82, 578 
788, 619 

Nil 


478 


Panama Canal. 


9,969 
321 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 


56 


Securities and Exchange 
Commission. .. 


54 


Smithsonian Institution . . 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration. 
Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


386 
655 
Nil 

33, 896 
145, 033 

Nil 


Total. 


931, 528 
12.29 


224, 308 
13.67 


6, 649, 243 
87.71 


1,416,588 
86.33 


7, 580, 771 
100.00 


1, 640, 896 


Percent of grand total 


100. 00 









APPENDIX III 

DISTRIBUTION OF DOLLAR VOLUME OF FEDERAL PUR- 
CHASES BY CLASSES OF THE FEDERAL STANDARD STOCK 
CATALOG, BY REPORTING AGENCIES, BY MONTHS: DE- 
CEMBER 1937 THROUGH NOVEMBER 1938 

(In the list of tables, page vii of the present report, this appendix 
appears as set of tables XVIII.) 

Table XVIII 

Explanatory note. — The dollar volume of Federal purchases by the 83 
classes of the Federal Standard Stock Catalog is recorded in the following tables. 
The class designations by numbers and by descriptions (in some instances, 
condensed) appear at the tops of the tables. In order to provide ready reference, 
the complete titles of the respective classes are reproduced below. 

FEDERAL STANDARD STOCK CATALOG 

Class No. . Title 

1. Guns (anti aircraft, boat, coast-defense, drill, field, machine, main-battery, 

secondary-battery, siege); gun mounts; instruments (fire-control, optical); 
and their parts. 

2. Arms, small; and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

3. Mines, nets, torpedoes, torpedo tubes, and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

4. Ammunition; ammunition details; blasting-apparatus; bombs. 

5. Flags, bunting. 

6. Anchors, anchor chains, and other ground tackle (boat and ship) . 

7. Fuel: Charcoal, coal, coke, dust fuels, gas, gasoline, oil (fuel), wood, etc. 

8. Motor vehicles; bicvcles; trailers; and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

9. Boats. 

10. Boilers and engines (boat, power) ; and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

11. Pumps and their parts. 

12. Boat and ship fittings. 

13. Engineroom and fireroom fittings, supplies, and tools. 

14. Oils (illuminating and lubricating), greases, and all lubricants. 

15. Electric cable and wire (insulated). 

16. Radio and sound-signal apparatus and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

17. Electric apparatus and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

18. Instruments of precision and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

19. Blocks; rigging; and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

20. Submarine material. 

21. Cordage: Hemp; jute; oakum; twine; including manufactured articles. 

22. Rope, wire, and wire, bare; including manufactured articles. 

23. Boat and ship utensils. 

24. Duck; canvas; tentage; including manufactured articles. 

25. Tobacco products: Cigars; cigarettes; and all accessories, outfits, and sup- 

plies. 

26. Furniture. 

27. Dry goods: Bedding, buttons, curtains, cushions,, draperies, findings, floor 

coverings, linoleum, notions, oilcloth, textiles, trimmings, upholstery 
materials, yarns, etc. 

28. Blank forms." 

29. Toilet articles and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

30. Bathroom and toilet fixtures; and all accessories, outfits, and p^rts. 

31. Lighting apparatus (nonelectric) and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

32. Fire-surfacing and heat-insulating material. 

33. Gaskets; hose; packing; rubber (sheet and strip); hose fittings; tubing (flexi- 

ble); including manufactured articles. 

202-342— 41 — No. 19 11 141 



142 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Class No. Title 

34. Leather: Belting, harness, saddlery, including manufactured leather articles. 

35. Books, blueprints, charts, drawings, libraries, maps, newspapers, periodicals, 

professional publications, etc. 

36. Musical instruments; music; and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

37. Athletic equipment, recreational apparatus, sporting goods, special wearing 

apparel. 

38. Brooms, brushes. 

39. Lumber; timber; barrels, boxes, cases, crates — wooden; railroad- ties; includ- 

ing manufactured lumber. 

40. Tools, machine (bending rolls; drop hammers; drills; grinders; lathes; 

milling machines; planers; presses; punches; riveters; rolling-machines; 
saws; shears; etc.); and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

41. Tools, hand. 

42. Hardware (builders'; general). 

43. Bolts, nuts, rivets, screws, washers. 

44. Pipe, tubes, tubing (nonflexible) . 

45. Pipe fittings. 

46. Metal in bars (flat, hexagon, octagon, round, square) ; billets, ingots, pigs, 

slabs. 

47. Metal in plates and sheets. 

48. Metal shapes (angles, channels, half-rounds, I-beams, tees, zees, etc.) ; 

structural metal. 

49. Aircraft; aeronautic apparatus; and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

50. Foundry apparatus; and all accessories, outfits, and supplies. 

51. Acids; chemicals; drugs; gases; soaps; abrasive materials; cleaning, cutting, 

and polishing compounds. 

52. Paints; paint ingredients. 

53. Stationery: Bags, paper; books, blank; boxes, paper; cartons; drafting-room, 

office, and printers' supplies. 

54. Office equipment: Adding machines, cash registers, file cases, numbering 

machines, typewriters, etc. 

55. Textile clothing; knitted goods. 

56. Food: Groceries, ice, provisions, subsistence. 

57. Hospital, laboratory, and surgical apparatus; and all accessories, outfits, 

parts, and supplies. 

58. Railway, dock, and yard equipment; including fire-fighting (and meteoro- 

logical) apparatus. 

59. Building material: Asphalt, brick, cement, glass, granite, gravel, lime, mill- 

work, roofing material, sand, stone, tar, tiling, etc. 

60. Boilers and engines (power-plant, ship) ; and all accessories, outfits , and 

parts. 

61. Gyro-compasses and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

62. Articles of special value: Bullion, jewelry, museum collections, paintings, 

precious metals and stones, statuary, works of art, etc. 

63. Tableware (barracks, crews' mess, hotel, hospital, officers' mess, ship-saloon): 

Aluminumware; chinaware; glassware; silverware. 

64. Bake shop and kitchen apparatus and utensils: Aluminum utensils; galley 

gear; tinware; and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

65. Ovens, ranges, and stoves; and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

66. Machinery and equipment. 

67. Forage; bulbs and roots} plants, shrubs, and trees; seeds. 

68. Livestock. 

69. Vehicles (animal- and hand-drawn) ; and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

70. Agricultural implements and all accessories, outfits, and parts. 

71. Badges, insignia, medals, etc. 

72. Boots; shoes; leather and rubber clothing. 

73. Caps; hats; gloves; men's and women's furnishings. 

74. Individual equipment (field and landing force). 

101. Electric service. 

102. Telephone service. 

103. Miscellaneous services. 

104. Exchange allowances. 

105. Gas service. 

107. Water service. 

108. Telegraph service. 

125. Drayage services. 

126. Unclassified. 



144 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Total, all 



Month 



Agency 



December j January February 
1937 I 1938 1938 



March 
1938 



April 
1938 



May 
1938 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture.-. .-. 

Commerce 

Interior 

Justice 

Labor 

Navy 

Post Office 

State 

Treasury. 

War 

Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity - 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion -.. 

Federal Reserve Board. .. 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion .- 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 

Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation. 

Inland W-aterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. . 

National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 

National Training School 
for Boys 

Panama Canal... 

Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration.. 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission 

Smithsonian Institution. . 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 

"Works Progress Admin- 
istration 

Total 

Percent of grand total 



$3J48,832.97 

833, 613. 03 

3, 752, 383. 04 

491, 893. 95 

107, 162. 78 

15,960,152.95 

1, 810, 408. 36 

31, 282. 39 

2,016,104.95 

20,158,777.00 



2, 214. 82 
108. 01 

3, 442. 76 
9, 160. 71 

682.87 

362, 928. 88 
85.71 

26, 689. 96 

17,821.72 

29, 275. 15 

12,725.79 
53,114.64 

22,311.82 

30, 189. 87 

94, 099. 27 

106, 799. 19 

109, 649. 22 

48, 035. 18 



30, 595. 

1,001. 

224, 972. 

23, 266. 
5, 586. 



21, 770. 20 



9, 784. 
802, 683 



724. 15 



40, 724. 

12, 890. 

26, 079. 

10, 508. 

133, 692. 

3, 716. 

1, 076, 061. 
1,417,590. 



$3,236,085.30 

669, 837. 48 

4, 753, 281. 75 

723, 129. 93 

87, 266. 52 

17,068,291.61 

1, 403, 937. 98 

27, 987. 85 

2,081,481.63 

20,912,131.00 



2, 050. 52 
115.14 

1, 226. 82 

6, 365. 07 

449. 38 

401,670.91 
140. 23 

17, 204. 82 

14, 662. 80 

47, 547. 67 

7, 273. 12 
41,411.48 

3, 825. 28 
24, 791. 04 
93, 009. 37 

105. 932. 88 
114,247.74 

45, 172. 96 



29, 139. 

1,150. 

201,955. 

26, 512. 
5, 694. 



$2,985,901 
550,500. 

3, 570, 548. 
423, 629. 
81,017. 

25,191,653, 

1, 282, 673. 
31,460. 

1, 658, 883. 

19,927,533, 



22, 452. 87 

124.76 

2, 100. 28 

7, 233. 67 

2, 793. 08 

366, 769. 95 
■ 79. 02 

29, 873. 13 

7, 400. 97 

59, 802. 67 

14, 576. 32 
30, 426. 59 

6, 661. 46 

24, 528. 05 

96, 486. 89 

98, 972. 14 

130, 257. 30 

40, 348. 26 



69 23, 744. 
40 1,356. 
42 334,449. 



22, 263. 85 



00 10. 773. 00 
33 989, 517. 07 



8, 366, 092. 46 



61,446,962. 
6. 



29, 059. 

7, 286. 

18,324. 

20,511. 

166, 159. 

2, 080. 

935,717. 
2, 257, 838. 



14,203,850.38 



20,319.31 
4, 920. 79 

24, 598. 00 



9,191. 
963, 530. 

27, 090. 

3,741. 

22, 878. 

10, 965. 

221,080. 

1,775. 

783,861. 
1. 584, 327. 



$3,853,740.89 

916,609.18 

4, 150, 095. 17 

497, 465. 34 

78, 240. 12 

14,714,134.77 

1, 174, 648. 70 

41,350.80 

2,021,841.46 

17,113,783.00 



4. 985. 78 

244.07 

3, 171. 08 

10, 813. 03 

1,685.61 

443, 420. 62 
48.43 

49, 929. 48 

14, 788. 90 

43, 173. 89 

17,601.05 
33, 165. 45 

6, 687. 49 

19, 740. 04 

43, 747. 16 

157,844.26 

109,751.69 

31,033.99 



$3,427,855. 

820, 500. 
5, 722, 286. 

882, 268. 
70, 493. 
12,872,435, 
1,109,001. 
35, 937. 
2, 005, 049. 
18,688,069, 



36 $5,359,690.51 
89,1,026,045.92 
75 3,880,332.16 
72i 608,323.73 
71 80,634.08 
03| 12,033,659.34 
67 j 1,362, 752. 75 
67 26,828.06 
85 1,645,037.94 
00 28,857.479.00 



9,763,671.00 



70,808,362, 

7. 



60,70,446,189 

75! 7. 



31,559. 

1,946. 

248, 572. 

26, 524. 
3, 918. 



10, 742. 
714,511. 

38, 982. 

3,719. 

24, 848. 

11,927. 

266, 674. 

2, 935. 

783, 942. 
1,616.714. 



12,117,472.33 



22 61,469,665, 
601 6. 



643.41 
561. 59 

2,353.23 
10, 792. 20 

2, 236. 24 

387, 710. 78 
87.92 

25, 668. 18 

20, 205. 51 

50, 381. 43 

9, 460. 26 
52, 385. 83 

4, 740. 34 

21,808.65 

52, 579. 99 

124, 702. 10 

109, 375. 82 

39,349.18 



39, 846. 

1, 698. 

231,255. 

21,414. 
6, 714. 



10, 207. 
823, 968. 

56,900. 

4,560. 

32, 776. 

15, 240. 

520, 270. 

2, 492. 

970, 270. 
1,907.436. 



786. 04 

563. 12 

7, 230. 55 

12, 394. 53 

1, 724. 30 

418,190.90 
98.86 

26, 050. 00 

13, 405. 81 

48, 697. 30 

4, 516. 87 
24,769.72 

43, 397. 10 

23, 250. 58 

47, 383. 65 

111,530.71 

149,851.95 

33, 723. 62 

50, 649. 88 

2, 250. 14 
230, 108. 48 

31,609.51 
7, 837. 47 



10, 960. 43 
604, 762. 26 

94, 863. 15 

5, 934. 22 

22, 529. 81 

10, 250. 21 

168,006.90 

9, 837. 90 

741,646.71 
1,403,318.35 

16,087,133.66 



56,799,796. 
6. 



53,75,348,096.38 
23 8. 26 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 



145 



classes 



I 
1 




Month— Contimu'd 






Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


1 

June 
1938 


July 

1938 


Aupust 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


; $9,982,584.50 

1,321.349.00 

5,013,663.10 

574,115.13 

138, 183. 37 

19, 455, 365. 36 

1,661,009.67 

43, 345. 08 

3.124,163.81 

33, 955, 458. 00 

1 


$2,761,854.27 

588, 964. 00 

3, 656, 727. 19 

618, 028. 00 

61, 246. 81 

16, 792, 073. 28 

2, 391, 694. 46 

46, 947. 75 

2, 455, 719. 85 

18, 599, 093. 85 


$2. 715, 414. 98 $2, 509. 078. 63 $2, 498, 589. 32 

948, 332. 00 575, 147. 00 616, 881. 84 

3,282.569.89 6,708,101.80 4,461,502.22 

583,706.18 635,511.66 829,453.05 

66,631.471 63,348.52| 82,187.21 

17, 379, 846. 09 20, 765, 121. 58117, 189, 566. 52 

1,252,894.70 1,216,501.46 1,620,327.34 

23,627.52 15,645.17 27,931.97 

2, 047, 840. 91 2. 231, 782. 27 3, 01 8, 855. 73 

15, 165, 122. 86 30. 453. 837. 46 26, 437. 973. 00 


£3, 1 16. 238. 76 $15, 595, 866. 49 

528, 623. 031 9, 396, 403. 79 

6, 784, 355. 121 55, 735. 906. 77 

674,740.72 7,542,265.46 

77,426.84 993.838.51 

25, 736, 495. 70 21.5, 148. 794. 37 

1, 198.05S. 00 17,574,508.21 

36,483.51 388,827.99 

1,719,329.09 26,026,090.58 

20, 193. 122. 69 j 270. 462. 379. 86 


4.98 

1.03 

6.08 

.82 

.19 

23.26 

1.92 

.04 

2.85 

29.99 


269.88 


758. 40 


14,370.63 


19,886.86 


15, 804. 40 


1,054.50 


85,278.11 


.01 


3, 129. 56 


810. 86 


1,070.26 


342. 91 


139.50 


749. 95 


7, 959. 73 


Nil 


1,661.12 


275. 88 


273. 39 


1,032.57 


551.00 


565. 42 


23, 884. 10 


Nil 


38, 690. 93 


12,340.48 


11,910.44 


15. 925. 12 


33,221.11 


15.564.95 


184,412.24 


.02 


24, 224. 49 


3, 570. 60 


38, 668. 40 


5,630.17 


12. 518. 73 


2. 138. 25 


96,322.12 


.01 


625, 880. 63 
158. 65 


469, 103. 37 
60.54 


528. 798. 68 
92.94 


376, 180. 52 
107.40 


426. 063. 87 
169. 51 


333. 587. 06 
154.81 


5,140,306.17 
1, 284. 02 


.56 
Nil 


14, 765. 15 


32, 516. 96 


14, 526. 60 


27,241.46 


30, 398. 72 


18, 853. 96 


313, 718. 42 


.03 


20,371.17 


17, 918. 30 


8. 598. 67 


10,062.17 


8, 866. 70 


9. 350. 41 


163,453.13 


.01 


31,363.18 


41. 205. 33 


61. 157. 25 


81, 104. 32 


51, 392. 06 


46, 564. 72 


591,664.97 


.05 


12,871.19 
25,521.65 


8, 927. 77 
28, 715. 89 


11, 809. 56 
31,124.62 


12,042.19 
29, 863. 31 


15,825.27 
24, 808. 44 


14,215.55 
25, 619. 25 


141,844.94 
400, 926. 87 


.01 
.04 


51, 100. 36 


4, 984. 93 


3, 539. 52 


1, 463. 99 


3, 457. 02 


5, 395. 03 


157, 564. 35 


| .02 


34,811.91 


21, 687. 75 


20. 625. 84 


24, 665. 74 


23,011.16 


25, 884. 58 


294,995.21 


.03 


132,393,68 


60, 943. 74 


41,178.13 


61,183.69 


159.726.47 


64, 363. S3 


947, 095. 87 


.10 


248, 104. 23 


31,490.97 


57, 299. 45 


103, 389. 82 


62, 297. 51 


66, 807. 67 


1.275,170.93 


.14 


189, 051. 09 


115,815.97 


135,945.68 


126,735.08 


130, 580. 64 


97, 784. 51 


1,519,046.69 


.16 


122,858.29 


56,031.33 


59, 069. 70 


68, 549. 20 


83,928.11 


84, 734. 22 


712, 834. 04 


.08 


47,941.33 

2, 773. 02 

219, 694. 90 


11,984.12 

2,731.47 

345, 843. 94 


12,126.97 

1,618.65 

260, 584. 07 


16, 246. 30 

950.15 

323, 275. 94 


16, 567. 48 

4, 330. 96 

225, 413. 01 


19, 026. 56 

1, 760. 42 

225,411.72 


.329, 729. 89 

23, 568. 19 

3, 071, 536. 81 


.03 
Nil 
.33 


32, 757. 52 
20, 426. 58 


50,211.93 
2, 866. 51 


19. 987. 49 
7,491.29 


18,689.60 
3, 222. 38 


62, 161. 32 
2, 365. 04 


17,361.36 
2. 713. 48 


350, 815. 88 
73, 757. 70 


.04 
.01 


27, 484. 19 


13,904.58 


13, 794. 12 


11,446.73 


11,067.80 


9, 774. 88 


202, 459. 77 


.02 


14, 701. 54 
577, 028. 18 


10, 689. 52 
737, 578. 49 


9, 697. 08 
827, 984. 28 


12, 546. 57 
810, 393. 56 


12, 344. 64 
973, 426. 04 


11.768.60 
709, 616. 77 


133, 406. 77 
9, 534, 999. 95 


.01 
1.40 


123,342.55 


35, 046. 02 


4/,; 79. 08 


48, 290. 67 


63, 354. 31 


60, 575. 26 


665, 408. 34 


.07 


29, 395. 24 


11,647.35 


12, 732. 73 


13,040.95 


18, 398. 59 


14. 617. 24 


137, 966. 14 


.01 


27, 083. 81 

17,894.51 

545, 022. 62 

3, 558. 16 


38,527.13 

10, 798. 37 

152,092.06 

2, 786. 05 


29, 496. 43 

14. 345. 27 

190,791.28 

2, 233. 69 


32, 076. 23 

12,419.65 

176. 56s'. 69 

1, 183. 31 


33, 514. 78 

15,164.87 

183, 706. 34 

2. 079. 90 


42, 369. 21 

10, 996. 91 

221. 999. 25 

4, 896. 14 


350, 504. c ' 

161,023.36 

2, 946, 060. 74 

39, 574. 77 


.04 
.02 
.32 
Nil 


2, 596, 120. 37 
1, 630, 653. 28 


2, 096, 356. 32 
2, 059, 539. 95 


3, 036, 786. 52 
1, 677, 490. 15 


1,573,645.07 
1,209,524.35 


827, 397. 35 
2, 077. 095. 70 


1, 253, 752. 49 
1, 935, 721. 14 


17. 275, 557. 96 
20,777,250.11 


1.81 
2.24 


35, 744, 275. 42 


21,239,857.12 


23, 383, 568. 71 


14, 796, 543. 03 


19, 948, 085. 16 


15, 256, 785. 37 


196, 405, 459. 75 


21.22 


118,507,217.38 
13.02 


76,301,969.46 
8.37 


74, 053, 953. 17 
8.10 


85,199,601.25 
9.34 


82, 342. 501. 71 
9.03 


80, 677, 408. 93 
8.84 


913, 401, 724. 91 
100.00 


" "ioaoo 



146 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Guns {all types, excluding small arms), gun mounts, instruments 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$13.65 


$14.28 


$30.00 


$21.70 


$88.87 


$29, 093. 68 


riommfiroe 






66.10 


10.71 


767.60 




111. 73 


Justice.. 






Labor.. 




4.10 
1, lfl, 040. 18 








3. 33 
1, 518, 156! 89 




326, 740. 66 


89, 085. 25 


820,079.65 


969,833.46 


Post Office 


State 














Treasury 














War 


14,711.00 


175,771.00 


15,381.00 


32, 183. 00 


21, 212. 00 


22,452.00 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission . 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps -. . 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration. 














District of Columbia 
Government 














Export-Import Bank 














Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 














Federal Power Commis- 
• sion.. 














Federal Reserve Board... 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office ... . 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 










































^National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Trailing 






















13.50 






Reconstruction Finance 












Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 






















194.00 


19.80 












4.15 














Tennessee Valley Au- 


940.36 








175.00 














Works Progress Admin- 






.20 




















Total 


341, 405. 46 


1. 346, 884. 66 
3.92 


104, 507. 16 
0.30 


853, 269. 35 
2.48 


991,329.13 
2.89 


1, 569, 821. 78 
4.57 


Peroont of grand total 


0.99 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
{fire control, optical), and their parts — Class No. 1 



147 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$6.6£ 






$5.0C 



$1.52 
94.02 
11. OC 




$29, 275. 38 

209.03 

1, 223. 17 


09 




$115. 0C 




Nil 


127.33 


$135.00 


4.8C 




Nil 














89. 0C 
5, 828, 494. 3C 




$11. 76 
9, 288, 905. 25 


108. IS 
27, 652, 674. 2C 


Nil 


1, 109, 841. 45 


2, 168, 203. 68 


2, 436, 342. 27 




1, 926, 951. 2f 


80.68 




















3, 781. 39 
193, 949. 10 


3, 740. 38 
60,865.33 


3, 740. 4C 
4, 088, 830. 18 


3, 771. 1£ 
1, 919, 998. 0C 


3, 740. 39 
15, 268. 00 


18, 773. 72 
6, 585, 481. 61 


05 


24,861.00 


19.18 


































































































i 












































































































































































































































































































13.50 


Nil 




























































213.80 
4.16 


Nil 














Nil 




























1, 115. 25 
9.19 


Nil 




5.49 






3.50 




Nil 












1, 134, 836. 48 
3.31 


2, 366, 074. 66 
6.90 


2, 501, 062. 99 
7.30 


9, 921, 163. 68 
28.93 


3, 850, 830. 46 
11.24 


9,307,925.40 
27.17 


34, 289, 101. 19 
100.00 


100.00 



148 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Arms, small; and all accessories, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


Februarv 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture . . _ 


$21.00 


$40. 78 
50.29 
63.32 


$38. 13 
50.00 
50.00 


$55. 15 


$48. 42 

36.60 

1, 072. 25 


$159. 42 
250.00 
56.07 


Interior 

Justice 


490.95 


165. 30 


Labor.. 

Navy 

Post Office 


40.69 
403, 408. 88 


264. 73 
91,447.00 


137. 56 
10, 455. 22 


444. 78 
67, 252. 74 


35.41 
31,891.90 


21.95 
12, 218. 50 


State ... 














Treasury 

War - 


90.62 
191,191.00 


484. 40 
36, 726. 00 


3, 087. 40 
26, 134. 00 


4, 094. 61 
20, 798. 00 


5, 820. 50 

6, 729. 00 


638.74 
9, 769. 00 


Independent offices, and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity. 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 




970. 74 




7.01 


481.45 










Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














Oeneral Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 










































National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training School 




















23.95 


17.64 




17.64 


Reconstruction Finance 








Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
















2.50 




1.50 


13.44 




























Tennessee Valley Au- 




























AVorks Progress Admin- 






.88 


9.50 




905.05 










Total 


596, 064. 64 
30.25 


130, 047. 26 
6.60 


39, 978. 64 
2.03 


92, 858. 17 
4.71 


46,115.53 
2.34 


24, 036. 37 
1.22 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

outfits, and parts — Class No. 2 



149 



Month —Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$59. 54 

24.00 

412. 27 


$0.60 

7.00 

178. 45 


$29. 43 
43.00 
37.00 


$42. 67 
43.00 
6.00 


$49. 07 

25.00 

255. 92 


$257. 25 


$801. 46 

528. 89 

2, 805. 99 


0.04 
.03 


18.46 


.14 


19.06 
1, 939. 38 


66.00 
862.00 


1.58 
19,286.30 


27.55 
137,100.61 


535. 58 
657, 278. 19 




1, 594. 89 

1, 463, 643. 17 

8, 375. 00 


.08 


30, 502. 45 
8, 375. 00 


74.30 
42 














4, 698. 19 
45, 790. 00 


4, 273. 99 
24, 089. 62 


2, 707. 35 
20,711.99 


18, 387. 89 
10, 377. 32 


5, 466. 34 
42, 192. 00 


2, 331. 54 
2, 023. 00 


52, 900. 57 
436, 530. 93 


2.68 
22.15 




































































36.00 


193. 95 






16.19 


1, 705^34 


.09 


































































































































































































































403. 35 


149. 18 


552. 53 


.02 
































































9.50 




3.30 


17.64 


89.67 


Nil 




















































17.44 


Nil 




































22.00 








22.00 


Nil 


















11.38 


1.40 


48.00 


39.40 


1,015.61 


.05 








52, 942. 44 
2.68 


29, 5 3. 66 
1.50 


43, 053. 48 
2.18 


165, 986. 44 
8.41 


706, 256. 75 
35.86 


43,730.11 
2.22 


. 1,970,583.49 
100.00 


"156766 



150 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Mines, nets, torpedoes, torpedo tubes, and all 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 




$52.50 




$13.25 






















$123.00 






$595. 60 






















$49.00 






$11, 401. 27 








29, 278. 00 


Post Office 










State 
















4.80 












War 


18, 813. 00 






2, 247. 00 


3, 266. 00 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 








American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 




























Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 










































National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 




























Reconstruction Finance 














Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 




























Works Progress Admin- 




























Total 


11,406.07 
11.53 


18, 865. 50 
19.07 


123.00 
0.12 


13.25 
0.01 


2,296.00 
2.32 


33, 139. 60 
33.47 


Percent of tTand to^al 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
accessories, outfits, and parts — Class No. S 



151 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 














$65.75 


0.07 
















$479. 70 




$145. 00 


$23.60 






i, 366. 90 


1.38 






















49.00 
64, 684. 11 


06 




$1,363.64 


9, 609. 20 


1,245.00 


$622.00 


$11,265.00 


65.35 
























1, 187. 67 


1, 187. 66 
137. 51 


1, 189. 26 
792.80 


1, 187. 66 
562.00 


1, 187. 66 


5, 944. 71 
26, 843. 31 


6.00 


1,035.00 


27. IS 




























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































3.61 








3.61 


NU 














1, 514. 70 
1.S3 


2,551.31 
2.58 


10, 982. 98 
11.10 


3,250.66 
3.28 


2,361.66 
2.39 


12, 452. 66 
12.60 


98, 957. 39 
100.00 


100.00 



152 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Ammunition; ammunition details; 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


Februarv 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$19,806.55 

81.99 

13, 101. 53 


$33, 157. 7S 

123. 64 

34, 627. 52 


$28, 107. 02 

121.50 

10, 360. 59 


$28, 987. 53 

80.96 

24,301.68 


$52, 690. 35 

96.35 

13, 954. 86 


$79, 487. 80 

437.28 

19, 661. 99 


Commerce 




Justice 




25.00 

381,614.12 

155. 55 


39.39 

513, 520. 25 

47.60 


24.90 

210, 559. 76 

29.44 


83.13 

1, 596, 948. 95 

121. 58 


1,200,368.73 


66.85 
1, 174, 169. 22 




Post Office 


State ._ 








22.10 

473, 144. 00 


2, 354. 61 
295, 980. 00 


623.62 
54,179.00 


1, 058. 24 
340, 978. 00 


6, 386. 16 
190,156.00 


1, 778. 38 
72,011.00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 1 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 












j 


District of Columbia 
Government 


17.26 


223. 07 


8.94 


6.42 


746. 78 


i 
6.50 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration... 














Federal Communications 
Commission _ 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 














Federal Power Commis- 
sion 














Federal Reserve Board ... 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 














General Accounting 
Office... 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' -Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 










































National Advisory Corn- 



























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 






















17, 818. 50 




66.18 


Reconstruction Finance 










Rural Electrification Ad- 















Securities and Exchange 






















11.00 




11.94 


























Tennessee Valley Au- 




12, 406. 00 


8, 725. 83 
57.75 

81.604.84 


5, 594. 86 
47.00 

90, 457. 29 


2, 396. 80 
18.50 

30,291.01 


7, 939. 06 
102. 60 

126, 333. 87 






Works Progress Admin- 


73, 356. 91 


135. 979. 45 






Total 


961, 325. Olll, 028, 459. 32 
4.81 5.15 


394, 403. 19 
1.97 


2, 106, 495. 14 
10.55 


1,497,105.54 
7.49 


1,482,072.67 
7.42 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
blasting-apparatus, bombs — Class No. 4 



153 



Month— Continued 



June 
1938 



July 
193S 



August 
1938 



$111,092.34 

380. 00 

15,861.98 



$15,003.17 

137. 00 

20, 277. 57 



$14,421.53 

125.00 

16, 948. 55 



September 
1938 



October November 
1938 1938 



$14, 904. 55 $17, 437. lOi $29, 489. 10 
254.00 1,592.20 327.51 

13,832.04 17,166.23 13,184.1 



Total, 12 
months 



$444, 584. 83 

3, 757. 43 

213, 278. 68 



Percent 

of grand 

total 



44. 32 
962, 422. 87 



277. 79 
, 169. 00 



242. 70 
1.026,618.24 



13.50 
674, 922. 00 



10.84 

1, 334, 059. 20 

213. 26 



1.553,610.99 
29.00 



828. 42 
12,525,983.33 

596. 43 



3.441.2 
449. 767. 00 



1, 796. 19 
299, 092. 88 



3, 899. 68 
260,573.13 



1.587.04 12,608.90 
576,678.23 2.248,796.00 



l,563.9t 
23, 894. 00 



37, 120. 16 
5, 285. 249. 24 



109. 70 



157.43 



31.70 



6. 88 



1,853. li 



268. 29 
8.00 



17.938.18 



40.001 



3.00 



2.50 



43.75 



116.30 



10,432.00 
50. 15! 



7,417.27 



11,805.86 
8.15 



36, 533. 51 
180:75 



1.047.91 
29.10 



112,765.47 
494. 00 



104,547.58 181,318.83 128,976.40 



145. 231.21! 123,981.72 1, 332. 858. 60, 



1,658.206.80; 2,422,647. 13. 1,460,343.30, 1.404.794.741 3, 814. 611. 28 1,747,236.99; 19,977,701.11 
8.30, 12.13 7.31 7.03: 19.09! 8.75 100.00 



100.00 



154 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Flags, bunting — 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 


$480. 77 

48.40 

10, 313. 52 


$140. 99 
229.54 
112.24 


$137. 20 
316.00 
213. 19 


$710. 22 

104.24 

2, 969. 23 


$145. 52 
246. 30 
174. 19 


$99.48 

79.00 

1, 914. 23 


Commerce 






Lnbor 




988. 30 








62.28 

242.00 

6, 157. 00 

267.43 

1, 132. 76 

2, 925. 00 


Nsivy.. 


3, 437. 50 

154.88 

6.00 

43.83 

2,112.00 








Post Office 


652.00 

5.79 

1, 939. 23 

1,340.00 


137. 74 






State.... 


338.35 
1, 097. 43 
4, 241. 00 




Treasury 


48.30 
6, 382. 00 


2, 629. 02 
8, 569. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 
Government-. 


368.17 






133.56 


71.50 


56.68 


Export-Import Bank 






Earm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Eederal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 












Eederal Power Commis- 
sion , 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














Oeneral Accounting 
Office..- 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' 'Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


19.35 


1.75 


354.13 


19.35 
16.00 




170. 52 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 


10.75 


Interstate Commerce 
























Maritime Commission. . . 
National Advisory <~!om- 


101.95 


108.00 


38.75 


98.00 


192.55 


85.00 
















National Labor Rela- 














National Training 














PftnHTnB Cfmn,] 


195. 18 


86.70 


187. 49 


30,52 


• 465.67 


404.96 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority. . 




















8.25 
853.64 


10.80 
875. 98 


2.00 
106.50 


6.30 
2, 816. 16 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


265.86 


1, 078. 83 




Total 


17, 547. 41 
•9.27 


6,683.37 
3.52 


8, 676. 69 
4.58 


10, 644. 68 
5.62 


$12, 613. 00 
6.65 


16, 418. 80 
8.67 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 



155 



Class No. 5 









Month- 


Continued 






- Total, 12 
months 


Percent 




June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 




$287. 9' 
69. 0( 
184. 15 


I $179. 7 
64.01 
183.4- 


) $3,748.69 $1,693.6* 
1 29. 00 7. 0( 
i 169.68 104.0" 


) $1,333.32 $102.69 $9,060.18 4.78 
) 245.00 284.55 1,722.03 .91 
r 198.44 187.70 16,722.10 8.83 




194. 3C 
23, 720. 73 





539. 0( 
) 596. 4( 
I 967. a 


) 




2 0( 
) 12, 319. 1 


) 1,785. a 
5 40, 586. 3 
21,407.1 
) 919. 1 
! 14,697.6 
) 36,711.7 


3 94 




225. (X 

13, 338. 5 

._ 


) 


45. « 


i 21 41 




) 


1 11 30 




163. 0C 

794.21 

2,156.00 




10.80 127. a 
2,694.69 1,351. a 
1,683.00 3,906.0( 


J 49 




874. a' 
2, 038. or 


1 1, 072.5^ 
! 1,182.8] 


1.018.91 
1.176.9C 


! 7.75 
! 19. 37 
















552.81 


.20 




552. 89 






















































116.00 


994. 18 


6.64 


35.93 


1,789.18 


.94 




6.52 


























6.64 










6.64 


Nil 




























































30. 00 

5.94 




48.00 


78.00 
9.15 


.04 












Nil 








3 21 




















5.08 
337.03 


5.08 
1,198.85 

26.75 


Nil 








276.36 




1.25 


.63 




19.11 






.01 




































106.00 


184.00 


745.20 


180.00 


279.36 


468.44 


2, 587. 25 


1.36 
















































16.00 
251. 39 




16.00 
2, 335. 48 


.01 




32.49 


61.50 


591.65 


27.93 




1.23 




















































6.82 






6.82 
1.14 


Nil 














Nil 




1 14 . 
















82.91 
3.00 

2,131.63 


75. 87 


102.54 
1,257.63 

5, 509. 471 


25.00 
1,634.00 - 

276.23 


37.50 


323. 82 
18, 888. 82 

18, 197. 15 


.17 


1 


15, 966. 84 
1, 204. 24 j 


9.95 


1 


932. 88 


2, 145. 73 


9.59 


1 


45,458.58! 
23. 95i 


19, 373. 20 
10.21 


11,046. 29 1 
5.83 


12,115.08! 
6.40 


8, 698. 72 
4.58 


20, 359. 48 
10. V2 


-189, 635. 30 . 
100.00 


"loo.'oo 



156 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Anchors, anchor chains, and other ground 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce _ _ 


$52. 35 

834.23 

70.89 


$70. 50 

1,615.31 

132. 99 


$76.24 

200.00 

21.12 


$103. 82 

346. 45 

13.00 


$24.15 
1, 776. 46 


$249, 066. 13 

3, 346. 12 

45.10 




















Navy 

Post Office.-. 


2, 092. 87 




2, 896. 00 


922.00 




1, 000. 00 






State 












Treasury 

War 

Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


249. 00 
1,491.00 


379. 34 
10, 542. 00 


139. 05 
938. 00 


96.121 2.422.08 
5,967.00 10.760.00 


592.00 
2, 639. 00 


American Battle Monu- 












Civilian Conservation 








i 




Civil Service Commis- 
sion__.. .. -_- 








1 
1 




Commodity Credit Cor- 








1 




District of Columbia 
























Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration. 








1 




Federal Communications 












Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 














Fcderal Reserve Board 














Federal Trade Commis- 














Qeneral Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


5.22 


4.92 


870. 51 


344. 74 


104. 52 


28.76 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 


Interstate Commerce 






























943. 55 




259. 04 




400.00 




National Advisory Corn- 




















National Labor Rela- 














National Training 














Panama Canal 


411.79 


27.00 


2, 629. 01 


90.00 




21, 648. 00 


Reconstruction Finance 




Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 




















20.00 








Works Progress Admin- 




61.25 






4.00 










Total 


6, 150. 90 


12, 833. 31 
3.31 


8,048.971 7 R83. 13! 15 487.21 


278,369.11 
71.87 


Percent of grand total 


2.07 


" 2.03 


3.97 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

tackle (boat and ship) — Class No. 6 



157 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 




$148. 09 
50.00 
174.46 


$245. 42 
105.00 


$42. 38 
287.00 


$102. 95 

336. 95 

95.42 


$136. 72 
692. 13 
240.08 


$250. 105. 21 

10, 606. 65 

891. 17 




$36. 46 

1,017.00 

98.11 


2.74 
23 






















8, 407. 45 


100.00 




1,171.00 


4, 422. 00 


1,463.00 


22, 474. 32 


5.80 




















317.14 

2, 865. 00 

! 


i, 516. 30 
2, 395. 59 


987. 49 
18, 140. 61 


980.94 
852. 54 


1, 263. 89 

2, 346. 00 


975. 81 
500. 00 


9,919.16 
59, 436. 74 


2.56 
15.32 


















1 
















































1 
















1 . 
















i_ 
















i 
































































1 
1 
















1 "" 

| .. 
















































..... 

99.93 


104.88 


1, 929. 89 


2, 433. 63 


108.29 


13. 30 


6, 048. 59 


1.56 












































1, 424. 25 


3, 026. 84 


.78 






























""' """ 












































24, 805. 80 


6.41 






























• 










































i 




































2.28 






7.60 
146. 70 


29.88 
226. 67 


.01 






14.72 




.06 


I -- ■ - 






. 


: 12,841.09 4,489.32 
3.31 1.16 


21, 410. 69i 5, 782. 21 
5.52 1.49 


8, 675. 50 
2.24 


5,899.59 

1.44 


387,571.031... 

100.00 100.00 



262342— 41— No. 19- 



12 



158 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Fuel; charcoal, coal, coke, dust fuels, gas, 





Month 


, 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March i April May 
1938 1938 1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture . . 


$408, 967. 38 

65, 575. 60 

332, 609. 52 

31, 134. 25 

15, 256. 88 

1, 185, 006. 65 

237, 670. 95 

47.27 

149, 912. 17 

1,240,291.00 

107. 24 
115. 93 


$429, 872. 59 

70,701.09 

361, 387. 40 

33, 848. 00 

14,841.05 

1, 281, 469. 47 

220, 923. 52 

52.94 

156, 433. 25 

3,131,484.00 

465.44 
207. 97 


$388, 738. 71 

56, 978. 35 

261, 539. 89 

33, 456. 00 

11,231.71 

1, 362, 044. 05 

249, 235. 87 

59.78 

135, 257. 16 

1, 314, 729. 00 

182.11 
305. 10 


$438, 072. 55 

66. 293. 82 

408, 580. 98 

33, 848. 00 

15,637.62 

1, 465, 274. 40 

164, 570. 40 

53.73 

113, 638. 39 

895, 522. 00 

361.62 
290.60 


$415,152.30 

79, 722. 25 

286, 783. 76 

30, 455. 43 

11,580.65 

1, 169, 575. 60 

147, 524. 25 

59.53 

145, 943. 02 

1,268.695.00 

119.60 
302. 51 


$650, 961. 85 

69, 514. 50 

282, 100. 77 

21, 507. 93 

11, 152. 88 

1,266,673.10 

101,287.591 

42.46 

131.817.25 

1, 507, 743. 00 

1 
183. 24 1 

280. 26! 




Justice 


Navy 

Post Office --. --- 


State 




War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
Civilian Conservation 


Civil Service Commis- 


Commodity Credit Cor- 












| 


Distriet of Columbia 


57,751.92 


121, 462. 8? 


41,746.25 
63.24 


18, 473. 42 


46, 907. 73 


1 
66, 532. 99 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 


360.57 

771. 56 

44. 05 
25.41 

1. 237. 47 
795. 52 


36.90 

43.78 

58. 26 
32.30 

746. 05 

1, 002. 25 

15.75 

54,721.06 

2, 929. 80 

120. 68 

24.00 

117,470.84 

6.00 


40.36 


Federal Communications 
Federal Housing Admin- 






Federal Power Commis- 


55.68 
22.72 

22.62 

955. 94 

1, 248. 68 


61.35 
23.37 

909. 59 

771. 16 

18.90 

42, 978. 00 

2, 435. 08 
123.05 


65.37 
25.00 

1,136.38 

778. 39 

22.41 

46, 063. 36 

2, 790. 60 

407. 97 

23.50 

228, 224. 37 

1,489.90 


53.88 
27.42 


Federal Reserve Board. .. 
Federal Trade Commis- 


General Accounting 
Office 


425.20 

282. 16 

11.25 

53, 734. 46 

2, 281. 55 

306. 72 

23.00 

108, 709. 43 

1, 564. 40 


Government Printing 
Office -.- --. 


Home Owners' Loan 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 


58, 526. 63 

874. 82 
191.79 


55, 429. 85 

2, 850. 56 
517. 55 




Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. 


124, 476. 46 
2, 035. 88 


86, 798. 41 
295. 73 


117,077.07 
426. 65 


National Labor Rela- 














National Training 
School for Boys 


2, 407. 00 
82, 004. 44 


1, 975. 00 
121, 363. 37 


1, 625. 00 
18, 073. 02 


1, 883. 00 
84, 040. 71 


1, 504. 00 
186, 163. 13 


1, 063. 24 
16, 190. 45 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 














Smithsonian Institution.. 


690.04 
14.14 


2, 648. 66 
13.44 


416. 66 


569. 93 
18.80 


1, 089. 92 
24.00 


53.69 
35.00 






Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 
Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


36,017.38 
117, 919. 68 

237, 700. 16 


35, 353. 12 
108,261.20 

499, 564. 61 


22, 039. 41 
132, 146. 36 

258,486.18 


32, 231. 16 
91, 167. 74 

214, 117. 77 


28,191.59 
122,378.02 

167,129.67 


25, 803. 21 
65, 398. 30 

401, 337. 53 


Total 

Percent of grand total 


4, 389, 610. 82 6,726, 743. 64'4, 569, 381. 10 4, 224, 182. 90 4, 286, 509. 63 4, 787, 139. 07 
8.30! 12.72; 8.65! '8.00! 8.11 9.061 

1 ill 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

gasoline, oil (fuel), wood, etc. — Class No. 7 



159 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




| June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$507, 109. 63 

76, 922. 0C 

242, 902. 25 

19, 743. 28 

10, 040. 1C 

461, 080. 84 

112,501.98 

74.78 

132, 324. 48 

1 1, 893, 495. 00 


$342, 522. 58 

54, 562. 0C 

207, 489. 92 

14, 287. 21 

9, 624. 04 

1, 303, 293. 32 

195, 828. 84 

30.19 

96,851.35 

764, 905. 49 


$403, 840. 73 

57, 762. 00 

166, 730. 11 

19, 553. 69 

11,520.04 

1, 001, 729. 69 

121, 894. 84 

49.39 

108, 214. 61 

714, 512. 35 


$362, 895. 49 

59, 714. 00 

294, 494. 33 

20, 353. 38 

9, 219. 63 

1,359,181.57 

117,223.68 

40.20 

99, 124. 61 

1,205,077.30 

126. 77 


$379, 388. 88 

73, 073. 78 

381, 175. 28 

22, 619. 09 

12, 873. 15 

1, 459, 277. 87 

208, 729. 08 

48.78 

92, 445. 36 

1, 031, 338. 00 

125. 82 


$434, 163. 65 

61, 056. 61 

260, 772. 36 

27,141.95 

8, 972. 22 

1,147,981.34 

173, 835. 31 

39.91 

91, 085. 23 

913, 920. 00 

54.22 


$5, 161, 686. 34 

791, 876. 00 

3, 486, 566. 61 

307. 948. 21 

141. 949. 97 
14, 462. 587. 90 

2, 051, 226. 31 

598. 96 

1, 453, 046. 88 

15,881,712.14 

1, 726. 05 


9.78 

1.50 

6.60 

.58 

.27 

27.39 

3.88 

Nil 

2.75 

30.05 

Nil 








263. 48 


27.22 


27.22 


330. 12 


145. 75 


90.28 


2, 386. 44 


Nil 


















25, 954. 42 


25, 010. 40 


87, 927. 54 


37, 832. 79 


42, 411. 49 


22, 914. 04 


594, 925. 87 


1.13 














501. 07 


Nil 


















16.39 

83.05 
22.57 

43.31 

67.50 

251. 60 


19.06 

121. 83 
19.81 

15.51 

67.50 

637. 26 


22.93 

244.76 
31.56 


105. 62 

154. 72 
40.42 


218. 55 

225. 14 
16.63 


1, 198. 49 

1, 286. 28 
322. 36 

81.44 
6. 837. 80 
9, 063. 28 

68.31 
690,119.76 

30,717.55 

4,418.28 

204.50 

1,397,181.90 

9, 848. 67 


Nil 


118. 19 
35.15 


Nil 
Nil 

Nil 


453.63 

771. 96 


67.50 
674. 91 


389. 66 
654.64 


381. 38 
1, 194. 75 


.01 
.02 
Nil 


100, 376. 69 

2, 099. 99 

1.47 

23.00 

116,675.42 

1, 020. 02 


54, 663. 51 

1, 947. 25 

721. 30 

23.00 

113,804.65 

9.50 


59, 460. 96 

2, 210. 18 

526. 32 

23.00 

119,745.89 

423.50 


52, 824. 83 

2, 846. 02 

440. 79 

22.00 

80,251.62 

1,196.19 


65, 501. 82 

3, 172. 57 

407.00 

20.00 

81,125.74 

365. 40 


45, 838. 59 

4, 279. 13 

653.64 

23.00 

102, 822. 00 

1, 015. 40 


1.31 

.06 

.01 
Nil 
2.64 

.02 


















i "" 

713.84 
14, 395. 75 


537. 45 
91,053.20 


536. 93 
17,503.85 


896. 81 
13,303.20 


1, 257. 28 
182, 167. 90 

88.29 


1, 137. 00 
15,336.23 

108.87 


15, 536. 55 
841,595.25 

197. 16 


.03 
1.59 

Nil 




























198. 39 


45.72 
4, 752. 40 


41.94 
7.01 


848. 39 


936. 98 
6.75 


1,439.50 
3.02 


8, 979. 82 
4, 874. 56 


.02 
.01 








37,903.341 
41, 259. 29 

274, 095. 02 


38, 693. 30 
91,403.97 

417,640.15 


25, 698. 95 
48, 006. 13 

373, 234. 09 


37, 016. 46 
58, 866. 24 

268, 252. 72 


41,308.72 
117,042.65 

469, 127. 82 


27, 482. 14 
178,965.74 

332, 488. 40 


387, 738. 78 
1,172,815.32 

3, 913, 174. 12 


.73 
2.22 

7.40 


4, 072. 553. 43 
7.71 

I 


3, 830, 212. 38 
7.25 


3, 342, 062. 53 
6.33 


4, 083, 420. 80 

7.74| 


4, 667, 526. 31 
8.83 


3. 855, 656. 23 
7.30 


52, 834, 998. 84 
100.00 


"ioo.'oo 



160 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Motor vehicles; bicycles; trailers; and all 



Agency 



Executive' departments: 

Agriculture.. 

Commerce 

Interior 

Justice.. 

Labor 

Navy 

Post Office. -.. 

State 

Treasury — 

War.. 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity '— 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission. 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 

District of Columbia 
government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Administra- 
tion 

Federal Communications 
Commission ._. 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion 

Federal Reserve Board... 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office -- 

Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission. _. 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics 

National Archives. 

National Labcr Rela- 
tions Board : 

National Training 
School for Boys 

Pajiama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation.. 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority.. 

Veterans' Administration 

Works Progress Admin- 
istration 1' 

Total. 

Percent of grand total 



Month 



Deoember 
1937 



$375, 467. 15 

26, 998. 50 

243, 461. 81 

148. 56 

3, 087. 30 

23, 373. 54 

145, 456. 09 

. 19. 75 

129, 186. 14 

1,139,105.00 



1,013.20 



31, 824. 54 



17.49 



17.95 
20. 65 



1.515.79 



260. 43 
347. 90 



687. 14 



41.76 
.80 



7.00 
15,119.23 



January 
1938 



$409, 610. 04 

8, 878. 18 

174, 936. 45 

4, 289. 71 

3,105.04 

86, 492. 34 

54, 197. 00 

18.35 

37, 230. 92 

507, 795. 00 



26. 85 



5, 688. 93 



1.50 
9.50 



February March 
1938 I 1938 

I 



$415, 633. 51 

7, 208. 84 

217, 466. 67 

3, 135. 47 

2, 419. 66 

66, 360. 73 

81,754.16 

74.22 

31,464.53 

943, 220. 00 



210.01 



17.88 



455. 61 
648. 18 

1, 277. 36 
201. 79 



85.85 



155. 73 
720. 47 



12.50 

587. 22 

2, 658. 15 
94.55 



13. 00J 
10,088.70 



33.00 
10, 052. 68 



68. 58 



23.20 
12.97 



25. 42i 



660. 01 



27,305.02; 24,660.47 
10, 857. 52! 13, 464. 45, 18, 265. 17 



2, 835, 575. 57 3. 408, 193. 01 1. 752, 548. 68 



4, 984, 482. 97i4, 755, 012. 26 3, 587, 074. 15 
8.60! 8.20 6.18 



$560, 453. 95 

5, 584. 62 

297, 988. 05 

3, 476. 07 

2, 634. 95 

33, 361. 02 

44, 966. 43 

521. 59 

70, 158. 29 

449,163.00 



28.15 



25.15 
809. 78 



38.75 
1,111.89 

1,437.77 
43. 73 



854. 56 
232. 51 



18. 18 
5, 932. 02 



3.35 
79.61 



32, 664. 88 
8, 897. 06 



3,018,818.11 



4, 545, 994. 95 
7.82 



April 
1938 



$477, 152. 82 

8, 753. 43 

272, 778. 48 

6, 077. 72 

3, 179. 49 

28, 273. 40 

48, 707. 64 

83.00 

42, 350. 08 

587,771.00 



19.86 



12.94 
81.36 



26.95 
658. 07 

370. 25 
33.88 



188.22 
219. 92 



46. 33 

4. 825. 91 



20. 05 



40, 462. 97 
11,855.70 



1,212, 174.20 



2. 756, 071. 90 
4.74 



3.853,283. 14 



5. 349, 718. 80 
9.20' 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

accessories, outfits, and parts — Class No. 8 



161 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
193S 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$1,134,999.81 

44, 459. 00 

490, 348. 02 

187. 74 

3, 468. 46 

99,201.92 

S3, 879. OS 

42.47 

54,134.49 

635,613.00 


$406, 384. 60 

13,115.00 

292, 149. 39 

18.65 

2. 403. 48 

44, 977. 84 

62, 715. 78 

9.76 

35, 024. 54 

511.006.39 


$432, 737. 87 

22, 347. 00 

356, 426. 27 

2, 096. 89 

2, 896. 74 

288, 430. 02 

11,363.56 

22.84 

27, 357. 57 

379, 877. 93 


$405, 512. 32 

21,920.00 

224,039.96 

4, 045. 74 

2, 068. 58 

208,051.53 

23,728.51 

2.92 

29, 546. 45 

501,903.07 


$428, 605. 23 

33, 755. 44 

305, 825. 24 

1,707.07 

3, 548. 18 

240, 962. 75 

82, 068. 34 

29.58 

38,381.38 

786,241.00 


$467, 439. 90 

8, 689. 01 

337, 143. 55 

2, 647. 08 

3, 606. 40 

91,276.69 

59,581.68 

65. 65 

29, 143. 24 

450, 502. 08 


$5, 814, 967. 31 

212, 093. 99 

3,508,037.71 

29. 760. 91 

34, 806. 46 

1,270,149.43 

758, 331. 17 

1,008.06 

555,012.16 

7, 548, 987. 47 


10.02 

.37 

6.05 

.05 

.06 

2.19 

1.31 

Nil 

.96 

13.00 


82.94 
54. 93 










G90. 27 


773. 21 
2, 016. 10 


Nil 










Nil 






























46, 566. 43 


3, 582. 86 


12,211.32 


12. 620. 95 


12, 253. 24 


4, 903. 05 


178,553.15 


.31 


67.46 




14.72 
28.97 
69. 52 






82.18 

458.11 

1,385.98 

19.45 
45.55 


Nil 


1.78 
58. 01 


67.56 
81.04 


16. 52 
65.38 


191.63 

20.00 




Nil 


77.65 


Nil 
Nil 











Nil 












732. 67 


1.5. 61 




.86 


14.41 


33.17 


2, 355. 92 


N" 






900.96 

2, 237. 30 
6, 129. 72 


75.88 
641.91 

567. 43 
134. 51 


28.45 
311.33 

2, 454. 24 
373. 23 


3,321.26 

1,446.98 

58.28 
20.00 
107. 40 

89.49 
108. 76 


29.00 
1,048.95 

2, 203. 55 
408. 28 




2, 199. 47 
12,300.80 

19, 180. 27 

8, 224. 07 

20.00 

3, 334. 86 

3, 808. 18 
862. 86 


Nil 


1, 796. 56 

1, 226. 46 
371.91 


.02 

.03 

.01 

Nil 


203.01 
1,729.00 


128.55 
28.44 


79. 85 
117.35 


643.98 

148. 55 
20.40 


170.04 
12.43 


.01 

.01 
Nil 








1.00 
11,074.57 


34.29 
8, 947. 79 


136. 50 
26, 830. 70 

4.44 


24.24 
186. 68 


32.90 
2, 549. 74 


92.61 
215. 12 


443. 14 
108, 783 06 

73.02 

3.35 

2,065.54 


Nil 
.19 

Nil 












Nil 




4.25 


82. 15 


41.33 


1.065.58 


19.08 


Nil 


14.72 




10.70 




19.96 


69. 95 


48.00 


4, 086. 73 


.01 


3, 925. 06 

27,416.16 
33, 377. 48 

2. 751, 228. 19 






84, 677. 02 
5, 273. 26 

3, 305, 632. 93 


95,854.17 
5. 215. 26 

3, 244, 732. 67 


43, 450. 33 
5, 427. 52 

3, 360. 034. 91 


35, 768. 05 
10, 336. 51 

4, 562, 650. 22 


38, 245. 64 
12, 273. 74 

4,028,143.83 


470, 794. 73 
149, 115. 98 

37,333,015 46 


.81 
.26 

64.33 


5, 432, 153. 24 
9.36 


4, 777, 620. 65 
8.24 


4,912,101.36 
8.47 


4, S47, y26. 63 
8.35 


6, 550, 450. 02 
11.30 


5, 538, 548. 91 
9.54 


58,037,155.84 
100.00 


100.00 



162 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Boats — 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 


$7, 148. 55 

4, 088. 98 

296.81 


$488. 34 
1, 239. 66 

874. 45 


$265. 36 

29, 260. 90 

229.75 


$188. 39 

4, 271. 87 

311. 67 


$442. 78 

4, 300. 33 

513. 66 


$1, 045. 09 
5, 717. 46 
1, 252. 80 






Justice 


Labor 


34.89 
2, 942. 50 










56.94 


Navy 


48.19 


25. 37 






Post Office 








State 














Treasury ... 


2, 046. 26 
9, 545. 00 


1, 096. 05 
28, 239. 00 


2, 880. 23 
27, 636. 00 


861. 99 
177, 179. 00 


3, 041. 26 
271,852.00 


24, 219. 02 
77,371.00 


War._ 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 
Government 








9.40 






Export-Import Bank 












Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration_ 














Federal Power Commis- 














Federal Reserve Board... 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 














Inland Waterways Cor- 




449. 36 










International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 










369. 79 


Interstate Commerce 
Commission 


























Maritime Commission. .. 


3, 988. 00 










870.00 


National Advisory Corn- 






















National Labor Rela- 














National Training 














Panama Canal 


6, 513. 00 






23, 469. 00 




106.20 


Reconstruction Finance 








Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 


60.60 


274.00 


587.21 


340.00 












Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


22, 202. 65 


16,471.50 


15, 957. 94 


8, 840. 30 


4, 357. 00 


4, 679. 00 




Total 


58,867.24 
3.18 


49, 180. 55 
2.66 


76, 842. 76 
4.15 


215, 471. 62 
11.62 


284, 607. 02 
16.36 


116,687.30 
5.25 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



163 



Class No. 9 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 1 September October 
1938 1938 1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$3, 693. 50 

6, 429. 00 

262. 96 


$562. 91 

2, 899. 00 

53.70 


$7, 109. 26 

37, 816. 00 

1,368.16 


$389. 91 

10, 046. 00 

132. 45 


$402.98 

31,279.64 

598. 99 


$408. 73 

52, 589. 26 

378. 36 


$22, 145. 80 

189, 938. 10 

6, 273. 76 


1.19 

10.25 

.34 


56.94 
3. 000. 00 


10.17 
236.00 






.64 

217.00 




159. 58 
72, 582. 32 


.01 


292.00 


42.00 


65, 779. 26 


3.92 


















14, 604. 74 
80, 527. 00 


1,598.82 
163, 196. 86 


1, 632. 59 
65, 610. 71 


3, 001. 99 
143, 555. 24 


2, 852. 66 
159, 019. 00 


2, 090. 99 
134, 436. 00 


59, 926. 59 
1, 338, 166. 81 


3.24 
72.21 




















































. ... .. 




















9.40 


Nil 






























1 
















I 
















































































































449.36 
619. 79 


.02 




250.00 










.03 
















, 


^* 












j | 


11,610.00 






864.00 


17,332.00 


.94 


! 








































i 
















5, 180. 00 












35, 268. 20 


1.90 














































































I 










168.85 


554.34 


62. 64 32. 51 


5, 780. 25 
234.00 

1,044.65 


7, 860. 40 
234.00 

102, 238. 40 


.42 








.01 


1,851.00 


7, 958. 70 


2, 753. 50 


6, 778. 15 


9, 344. 01 


5.52 


115,605.14 176,935.01 
6. 25 9. 54 


' 128, 746. 56 
6.95 


164, 008. 38 
8.85 


203, 747. 43 
10.98 


263, 605. ,50 
14.21 


1,853,204.51 
100.00 


" 100.00 



164 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Boilers and engines (boat, power); and all 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 


$1, 134. 14 
4, 899. 44 
4, 829. 39 


$11,045.33 
6, 689. 06 
5, 376. 67 


$579. 01 

3, 909. 03 

994. 14 


$1,538.92 
2, 718. 06 
1. 338. 96 


$238. 22 

11,598.96 

140. 72 


$1,094.62 

4, 509. 76 

289.37 










1.12 

9, 605. 34 














92, 860. 00 


13, 607. 00 


28, 284. 59 


34, 869. 86 


65, 278. 55 


Post Office 


State _ 














Treasury... 


1, 110. 33 
114,290.00 


1, 509. 08 
18, 365. 00 


5, 405. 45 
57, 203. 00 


914. 14 
21,951.00 


5, 570. 20 
21, 767. 00 


489. 97 
22, 201. 00 


War.. 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity .. 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 




























Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 












1 
















Federal Trade Commis- 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


1, 205. 74 


20, 743. 69 


8, 793. 84 


3, 209. 94 


1, 958. 33 


4,109.03 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 


Interstate Commerce 






























434. 77 


24, 482. 83 










National Advisory Corn- 






540. 62 
















National Labor Rela- 














National Training 
















4, 040. 03 


8, 032. 33 


1,647.50 


2, 213. 38 


2, 651. 64 


2, 022. 94 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securitics and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 






258. 00 
76.30 

• 2,417.40 






178. 89 
15.68 

1, 783. 16 








.89 

474. 98 


8.16 
41.49 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


2, 081. 50 


398. 39 




Total 

Percent of erand total 


143,631.80 
7.88 


189..502. 38 
10.41 


94, 890. 67 
5.22 


62, 644. 86 
3.44 


79, 385. 20 
4.36 


101,972.971 
5.60J 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

accessories, outfits, and parts — Class No. 10 



165 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$6, 494. 34 

141, 253. 00 

1, 318. 14 


$1. 086. 31 
4,161.00 
1, 140. 58 


$233. 76 

4, 990. 00 

442.90 


$339. 54 

22, 025. 00 

1,608.84 


$649. 81 

48, 628. 78 

967.84 


$6,211.72 

20,241.74 

697.00 


$30, 645. 72 

275, 623. 83 

19, 144. 55 


1.68 

15.14 

1.05 


1.82 
303, 237. 24 


7.65 

50, 648. 68 










10.59 
807, 163. 99 


Nil 


57, 773. 65 


42, 915. 02 


87, 181. 00 


20, 903. 06 


44.37 


















14, 703. 01 
31,026.00 


1,387.80 
34, 575. 73 


2, 985. 66 
25, 306. 95 


2, 385. 97 
31, 700. 42 


24, 083. 66 
23, 375. 00 


6, 349. 67 
36, 218. 00 


66, 894. 94 
437, 979. 10 


3.68 
24.07 














































































































































































. 




































































5, 154. 09 


4,611.31 


2, 896. 39 


5, 847. 99 


9, 906. 8J 


2, 893. 92 


71,331.08 


3.92 














































24, 917. 60 
732. 22 


1.37 






191.60 








.04 














































2, 194. 24 


2, 100. 40 


2, 500. 50 


2, 626. 79 


5, 137. 57 


20, 616. 30 


55, 783. 62 


3.07 




















































































120.02 
69.80 

1, 853. 93 


623.70 
76.78 

2, 847. 06 


3, 157. 24 
163. 53 

401.97 


996.94 
649. 36 

1,156.67 


2, 958. 50 
164. 16 

2,886.26 


8,293.29 .45 


1. 162. 27 
2, 427. 59 


2,386.93 .13 
18,770.40 1.03 


508,971.74 
27.96 


101, 763. 21 
5.60 


100, 868. 95 
5.55 


113,172.31 
6.23 


202, 733. 44 
11.14 


120. 140. 33 
6.61 


1,819,677.86 
100.00 


100.00 



166 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Pumps and their 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


Mav 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$76, 029. 0i 
1, 216. 8C 
9, 129. 7C 


$5, 378. 11 

3, 722. 87 

24, 045. 46 


$15,556.5: 

928. 8? 

28,513.30 


$15,025.21 

1, 240. 4S 

128,339.90 


$12, 910. 8C 

2, 184. 21 

33, 599. 50 


$26, 483. 13 
3,237.31 
13,061.28 






Justice 


Labor 


78. 91 
57, 464. 46 




1.04 
32, 732. 92 


57.40 
77, 056. 70 


5. 95 
69, 985. OS 


11.03 
19, 607. 75 




334, 945. 70 


Post Office 


State 
















1,948.67 
126,764.0(1 


1, 908. 70 
26, 305. 00 


1,406.81 
44, 209. 0(1 


2, 504. 98 
49, 315. 00 


6, 793. 00 
56 942 00 


2, 983. 42 


War.. 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Allev Dwelling Author- 
ity 




American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
C orps. 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion.. _ ... 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration -_ 














District of Columbia 
Government. 




50.96 




195. 14 


22.25 


442. 25 


Export-Import Bank 






Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Federal Communications 
Commission 




^ 










Federal Housing Admin- 
istration. . .. 














Federal Power Commis- 
sion 














Federal Reserve Board. _. 














Federal Trade Commis- 














Qencral Accountins 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


405.81 

73.84 


887.48 
31.42 


952. 09 
186.29 


130.94 


1,186.27 


1,342.56 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 


Interstate Commerce 


















| 


Maritime Commission.. . 
National Advisory Corn- 


162. 85 
349. 34 


665.40 
281. 16 


644. 96 


3,650.65! 417. 66 
139.76 433.00 


697. 42i 
40.75 










National Labor Rela- 














National Training 










1 

i 






596. 22 


1,597.24 


3, 764. 64 


171.97 


572. 76! 




Reconstruction Finance 






Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 












1 










































I 


Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 


3, 834. 93 


383. 39 


1,605.08 
267. 72 

15,793.83 


1 
5, 065. 80 ' 1.210.60' 


9. 956. 47 




1,097.40 
33, 271. 69 


1,439.39 146.96; 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


22, 626. 44 


28,214.19 


7, 917. 25 49, 355. 53! 






Total 


300,671.05 
7.70 


428, 417. 72 
10.98 


146, 563. 09 
3.76 


316,663.11 
8.12 


195,619.05 181,897.861 


Percent of grand total 


5.02| 4.65! 




i 1 > 


' ' 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

parts — Class No. 11 



167 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


Julv 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$62, 035. 96 
9, 546. 00 
15,061.91 


$33, 549. 79 
2, 367. 00 
15, 573. 61 


$18, 718. 11 
2, 030. 00 
8, 232. 42 


$5, 736. 38 
3, 490. 00 
27, 147. 59 


$3, 590. 50 
2, 773. 46 
15,697.67 


$14,959.81 
2, 558. 28 
13, 284. 21 


$289, 974. 03 
35, 295. 34 
331, 686. 55 


7.43 

.91 

8.49 


270. 11 

122, 229. 05 

1 


121.51 
37, 603. 50 


21.81 
181, 946. 46 








667. 78 
1, 776, 715. 61 


.02 


373, 035. 83 


388. 317. 59 


81, S00. 54 


45.53 




1,791.75 
89, 524. 21 


5, 402. 16 
59, 235. 26 


2,121.30 
55, 507. 80 


3, 800. 47 
291, 449. 00 


2,122.60 
46, 775. 00 


40, 930. 98 
963,190.27 


1.05 


8, 147. 12 
62, 632. 00 


24.70 
















































































54.60 


34.81 


418. 61 


479. 45 


551. 10 


1, 192. 32 


3, 441. 49 


.09 


















































































































































943.60 


150.52 
24.50 


5, 480. 08 


2, 385. 52 


937. 27 
32.18 


79.98 


14, 882. 12 
348. 23 


.38 
.01 












1 
















1, 648. 00 


1, 571. 80 
10.00 


810.05 
35.31 


875.60 
31.63 


731.73 

15.89 


835. 67 


12,111.13 
1,336.84 


.31 

.03 








































1, 502. 00 




636. 00 


977. 16 






9,817.99 


.25 














































9.00 






9.00 


Nil 






























5, 054. 13 
548. 05 

31, 812. 65 

321, 485. 18 
8.24 


18, 499. 75 
441. 59 

31,209.17 


20, 203. 30 
3G9. 82 

24, 416. 55 


5.991.23 

715.68 

24, 755. 31 


3, 419. 70 
750,48 

31.078.73 


9, 145. 68 
891.04 

30, 049. 85 


84, 370. 06 
6, 668. 13 

330, 501. 19 


2.16 

.17 

8.47 


232, 473. 51 
5.95 


327, 955. 94 
8.40 


503, 259. 48 
12.90 


743, 145. 77 
19.06 


203,694.98 3,901, 846. 74 L 

5. 22 100. 00: 100. 00 



168 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Boat and ship 









Month 






Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce _ . 

Interior 


$1,816.39 
3, 232. 37 


$339. 62 

1,453.34 

11.21 


$1,355.01 
3, 399. 24 
3, 025. 58 


$219. 64 

2, 098. 61 

5.25 


$258. 36 

20, 961. 66 

725. 46 


$725. 78 

8, 761. 97 

405.01 


Justice 




Labor. .__ 

Navy 

Post Office 


1.34 

25, 809. 50 


20.57 
30, 020. 60 


28.55 
8, 102. 60 


9.33 

13, 926. 47 


69.70 
3, 574. 00 


43.36 
36, 654. 94 


State 














Treasury 

War 


17, 592. 47 
37, 377. 00 


39, 529. 47 
26, 637. 00 


21,046.99 
36, 479. 00 


34, 981. 65 
20,891.00 


48, 139. 79 
19,060.00 


40, 696. 24 
16, 182. 00 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps _.. _ ._ 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion. 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 








4.20 


19.80 


272.56 










Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 


















. 








Federal Trade Commis- 












Qeneral Accounting 
Office 






295. 52 






Government Printing 
Office 




1 






Home Owners' Loan 












Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 


590. 79 


270. 75 


5, 363. 74 


664. 96 


118.73 


4, 025. 27 


Interstate Commerce 


1 




















835. 86 


367. 08 


166.04 






190.011 


National Advisory Corn- 
















--| 


National Labor Rela- 











| 


National Training 












i 




667. 95 


1, 166. 80 


1,326.20 


115.43 


510.75 


732. 81 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 






















.44 
































Tennessee Valley Au- 




4, 581. 34 


121.87 


308. 66 


371.96 
2.05 

118.90 










Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


133. 90 


119.83 


711.44 


718. 42 


112.86 


Total 

Percent of grand total 


88, 057. 57 
6.50 


104,517.61 
7.71 


81.126.26 
5.98 


74, 239. 58 

5.47 


93,931.16 
6.93 


108, 802. 81 
8.02 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



fittings — Class No. 12 



169 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$1,010.89 

12, 538. 00 

291. 59 


$213.32 

4, 482. 00 

137. 32 


$250. 53 • $688. 68 

1,171.00; 1,519.00 

26. 05 73. 12 


$67.48 

3, 245. 24 

189. 89 


$456. 43 

1.152.69 

29.73 


$7,402.13 

61.015.12 

4, 920. 21 


0.55 

4.72 

.36 


28.19 
45, 464. 51 


4.17 
51,671.90 


304. 42 49. 85 
29, 475. 64 15, 104. 89 


619. 08 
193, 857. 64 


.90 
40, 281. 30 


1,179.46 
496, 943. 99 


.09 
36.65 
















67, 093. 19 
21,892.00 


34, 284. 78 
32. 086. 29 


34, 167. 20 
19,110.36 


34, 376. 06 
18.419.03 


33, 645. 13 
15.280.00 


33, 524. 40 
10, 199. 00 


439, 377. 37 
273,612.68 


32.42 
20.19 




































































187.75! 50.00 
__| . .. 


2.50 


2.03 


538. 84 


.04 












i 




























1 














i 












:::::: ::::.:i: :::::: \_ 


































295. 52 


.02 






1 




















1,177.27 


731.89 


807. 54 1,109.27 

! 


1, 365. 68 
34.33 


594.52 


16. 820. 41 
34.33 


1.24 
Nil 




































2, 853. 24 


1,317.80 




5, 730. 03 


.42 




























































521.81 


49.64 


81.57 


116.25 


93.51 


93.13 


5, 475. 85 


.40 














































.44 


Nil 
































245. 42 


156. 28 
12.91 

415.30 


136. 79 
.88 

81.88 


10.08 


27, 658. 30 
12.74 


2,281.59 
23.45 


35, 872. 29 
52.03 

3, 448. 67 


2.65 

Nil 


37.20 


219.88 


117.20 661.86 


.25 


150, 300. 07 
11.08 


127, 245. 80 
9.40 


86,101.61 
6.35 


74,589.35 277,506.521 89,301.03 
5.50 20.471 6.59 

1 1 


1, 355, 719. 37 
100.00 


"ioO.OO 



170 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Engineroom and fireroom fittings, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$341. 11 
2, 421. 06 
1, 278. 68 


$511. IE 

2, 638. 37 

801. 97 


$632. 64 
1,753.51 
5, 664. 93 


$632. 17 
2, 528. 65 
1, 252. 8J 


$302. 7C 
2, 460. 77 
7, 408. U 


$207. 65 
2, 019. 97 
1,315.94 


Commerce 








51.56 

12,345.11 

4.43 


7.16 

962. 78 

.80 


.53 

1, 530. 2C 

1.02 




5.00 

17, 071. 79 

4.36 




6, 401. 86 
.32 


6, 887. 26 
.96 


Post Office 


State 




1,682.47 
13,099.00 


1, 801. 56 
10, 064. 00 


601. 76 
24, 619. 00 


1, 235. 67 
7,351.00 


1, 619. 6S 
10, 047. 0C 


1, 172. 11 
11, 328. 00 


War 

Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity .- -. 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 








98.56 


8.03 


3.72 










Farm Credit Adminis- 












Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 










3.48 


3.48 


Federal Power Commis- 
























Federal Trade Commis- 














Qeneral Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office . - 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


318. 46 


251. 03 


511.59 


80.85 




253. 80 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 




Interstate Commerce 












11.08 














Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Corn- 


4,061.41 
15.98 


1, 869. 58 
32.67 


3, 838. 00 


3, 628. 66 
1.34 


3,097.33 


2, 485. 90 










National Labor Rela- 














National Training 












19.80 
145. 01 


Panama Canal 


296.57 


180. 10 


172. 11 


152. 64 


150.50 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification 














Securities and Exchange 
















140. 93 




11.25 
















2.30 














Tennessee Valley Au- 




707.50 






2,012.47 
1,051.21 

2.37 








239.60 
19.45 


178. 87 
11.07 


224.68 
108.23 


Works Progress Admin- 


36. 65 


32.64 




Total 


30,094.50 31,091.611 39,034.58 
6. 68| 6. 90. 8. 67 


18, 683. 95 
4.15 


35, 051. 90 


36, 382. 82 


Percent of grand total 


7. 78! 8. 07 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
supplies, and tools — Class No. IS 



171 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August September 
1938 1938 


October 1 November 
1938 1938 


of grand 
total 


$6, 456. 96 
2, 400. 00 
2, 156. 66 


$129. 81 
1, 397. 00 
2,827.41 


$172. 85 
1,682.00 
1, 033. 62 


$838.38 

2, 360. 00 

525. 70 


$259. 31 
1,603.04 
3, 124. 22 


$498. 52 
5, 078. 34 
1, 593. 76 


$10, 983. 25 
28, 342. 68 
28, 983. 88 


2.44 
6.29 
6.44 




.60 

1, 075. 46 
247. 12 




5.19 

9, 992. 40 

2.23 




13.56 
14, 832. 10 


83.60 

182, 763. 44 

298.58 


02 


9. 292. 90 
2.30 


75, 728. 20 
.81 


26, 843. 38 
34.23 


40.55 
.07 








1,526:60 
11,011.00 




904.33 
9, 543. 24 


1,561.24 
8,154.54 


946. 15 
6, 691. 65 


1,206.24 
15, 370. 00 


815. 54 
6, 224. 00 


15, 073. 05 
133, 502. 43 


3.34 
29.65 
































! 








1.22 




1.22 


Nil 














74.51 






4.62 


21.40 


230. 90 


441.7' 


.10 










1 
































i 












6.96 


Nil 


1 






























I""" 


































































121.14 


115. 00 


344. 80 


4.70 




2,001.37 


.45 


1 


















11.08 


Nil 














2, 872. 72 


3. 206. 12| 1, 874. 80 


1, 707. 93 


2, 092. 26 
1, 163. 00 


2, 382. 09 


33, 116. 74 
1, 212. 99 


7.35 
.27 






























370.24 
124. 85 

I 


403.60 
126. 19 


25.00 
129.14 








818.64 
1, 856. 89 


.18 


127. 51 


124.83 


127.44 


.41 






























43.70 




4.45 




18.51 




218. 84 
2.30 


.05 








Nil 




















115. 10 
450.43 

19.57 


10.20 
561.51 

9.00 


6.64 
665.88 

2, 517. 31 


2, 851. 91 
4, 905. 11 

3, 028. 77 


.63 


438. 11 
134.48 


298. 62 
41.37 


796.20 
96.63 


1.09 
.67 


1 36, 905. 03 
8.21 


20, 322. 01 
4.51 


91,374.48 24,131.66 52,447.05 34,985.88 
20.28 5.35 11.64 7.76 


450, 505. 47 
100.00 


100.00 



172 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC! POWER 

Oils {illuminating and lubricating), 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


1 1 
February March 1 April 
1938 1938 1938 


May 

1938 


Executive departments: 


$39, 579. 15 

8, 024. 40 

32, 632. 95 


$58, 312. 74 
8, 854. 09 
25, 929. 78 


$43, 904. 52 $62. 950. 65 


$62, 293. 02 

6, 234, 52 

32.411.52 


$73, 896. 30 
8, 184. 22 
40, 500. 09 


Commerce. .. 


4, 305. 30 
24,416.56 


5, 993. 51 
44, 658. 82 






211.28 
174,213.47 
24, 535. 69 


447.12 

237. 386. 38 

1, 849. 84 


413.90 

16,784.65 
735. 17 


375. 30 

39, 186. 36 

421.46 


523. 47 

34,021.17 

272. 32 


480. 33 

161,076.17 

707. 05 




Post Office 


State 




3, 664. 52 
44, 573. 00 


8, 086. 54 
71,833.00 


7, 208. 88 
67,919.00 


6, 121. 58 
97, 225. 00 


7, 890. 47 
115, 168.00 


8, 028. 49 
119,738.00 

.52 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 












Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 












1 


Commodity Credit Cor- 












: 


District of Columbia 


850.30 


1,043.13 


819. 43 


1, 894. 26 


2, 824. 95 


2. 288. 85 ' 


Export-Import Bank . 
Farm Credit Adminis- 


...... 










Federal Communications 












' 


Federal Housing Ad- 


7.19 


395. 60 


4.09 




12.06 


.90 


Federal Power Commis- 










12.80 


9.61 






Federal Trade Commis- 


.30 
4.15 






2.00 


Oeneral Accounting 
Office 


1.60 






5.08 


Government Printing 
Office 






Home Owners' Loan 




.70 
884. 09 

574. 23 
36.72 


579. 57 

500.27 
57.74 


36.91 
5, 087. 84 

985. 23 
92.37 


3.06 
998. 41 

658. 57 
45.07 


3.88 
1, 422. 85 

577. 93 
48.84 


Inland Waterways Cor- 


2, 195. 63 

377. 81 
18.95 


International Boundary 
Commission. United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 


Maritime Commission . . _ 
National Advisory Corn- 


1,411.48 
24.65 


1,508.96 

35.93 
7.10 


1, 704. 36 


1,626.74 


689. 35 
17.20 


1, 231. 20 

14.40 
1.89 








National Labor Rela- 










National Training School 


7. 00 
12,155.92 

4. 13 


15.00 
10,076.30 


10.00 
1, 195. 20 


34.00 
698. 02 

2.80 

.25 
52.68 


2.38 
4,141.23 


9.00 

1, 923. 94 


Panama Canal. 

Reconstruction Finance 

Rural Electrification Ad- 


Securities and Exchange 










Smithsonian Institution. . 


8.40 


29.59 


24.61 
15.36 

158. 26 
2, 366. 50 

23. 933. 33 


9.08 


3.62 


Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 
Works Progress Admin- 


4, 818. 61 
2, 558. 96 

24, 940. 37 


265. 78 
3, 007. 91 

53. 936. 66 


9, 651. 61 
3, 082. 17 

26, 047. 67 


9, 479. 89 
3, 405. 57 

13, 395. 69 


4, 698. 03 
2, 998. 84 

46, 488. 23 






TotaL.. .... 

Percent of grand total . 


376, 818. 3l| 484,518.79' 197,069.50 
7.82: 10.08 4.10 


306, 234. 84 
- 6.37 


294, 502. 08 
6.13 


474, 325. 57 
9.86 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
greases, and all lubricants — Class No. 14 



173 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$107, 332. 30 

7, 329. 00 

33, 668. 21 


$37, 152. 25 
4, 482. 00 
25,739.63 


$47, 113. 70 
5,600.00 
19, 690. 75 


$42, 006. 38 

5,981.00 

28, 047. 58 


$46, 483. 10 

6, 833. 12 

57, 646. 32 


$54,110.38 

5, 519. 78 

31, 043. 82 


$675, 134. 49 

77, 340. 94 

396, 386. 03 


14.08 
1.61 
8.25 


479. 91 

51, 287. 99 

701. 71 


253.34 
162,730.11 
24, 542. 26 


423.93 

179, 865. 11 

823.95 


475. 52 

170, 199. 70 

279.93 


404.27 

194, 818. 40 

653.34 


556.50 

184, 262. 54 

594.93 


5, 044. 87 

1, 605, 832. 05 

56,117.65 


.10 

33.37 

1.17 


8, 529. 81 
147, 223. 00 


52, 256. 97 
72, 118. 36 


5, 706. 59 
55, 289. 74 


7, 307. 38 
82, 120. 26 


6, 738. 13 
70, 416. 00 


8, 192. 16 
68, 059. 14 


129, 731. 52 
1, 011, 682. 50 

.52 


2.70 
21.05 

Nil 
































































914. 92 


2, 168. 82 


2, 992. 56 


522. 7G 


2, 150. 87 


1, 272. 55 


19, 743. 43 


.41 






















.11 






1.80 
.17 


1.91 
426.84 


Nil 


6.75 






.08 


.01 


















6.43 




28.84 

2.07 

101.96 


Nil 










1.77 
5.67 


Nil 


5.18 


.70 


16. 70 




60.88 


Nil 






12.47 
1, 139. 86 

1, 550. 69 
32. 64 








23.38 

4, 406. 92 

904.92 
100.61 




80.40 
24, 599. 43 

8, 569. 24 
783.97 


Nil 


2, 556. 28 

448.84 
65.07 


1,959.40 

407. 41 
51.63 


2, 322. 44 

433.06 
95.63 


1, 046. 14 

1, 150. 28 
138. 70 


.51 

.18 
.02 


1,845.95 
79.45 


2, 185. 00 

43.40 
2.65 


2, 364. 25 
6.53 


875.20 


507.39 

21.25 
2.09 


558.27 
24.00 


16, 508. 15 

266.81 
13.73 


.34 
.01 




Nil 










35. 16 
1,473.18 


16.72 
1, 204. 64 


14.57 
6, 304. 51 


1.48 

4, 553. 83 


17.71 
3, 901. 92 




163. 02 
51, 131. 17 


Nil 


3, 502. 48 


1.07 














6.93 

2.25 

194. 43 

19.59 


Nil 










2.00 
46.56 




Nil 


3.64 
.36 






.75 
1.34 


15.50 
2.53 


Nil 






Nil 










4, 948. 76 
3, 510. 85 

36,131.03 


6, 106. 54 
3, 289. 83 

50,841.65 


10, 058. 91 
3, 382. 02 

150, 225. 81 


10, 794. 77 
3, 677. 83 

72, 313. 94 


10, 358. 53 
4, 078. 03 

56,183.64 


8, 386. 92 
2, 867. 96 

53, 619. 11 


79, 726. 61 
38, 226. 47 

608, 087. 13 


1.66 
.80 

12.66 


408, 242. 82 
8.51 


448, 205. 06 
9.33 


492, 298. 18 
10.24 


432, 010. 81 
8.99 


466, 765. 89 
9.71 


424, 963. 10 
8.85 


4, 805, 954. 95 
100.00 


100.00 



262342 — 41— No. 19- 



-13 



174 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Electric cable and wire 



Month 



Agency 



December 
1937 



January 
1938 



February 
1938 



March 
1938 



April 
1938 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce 

Interior 



$7, 239. 38 
1, 753. 67 
17, 036. 78 



$7, 288. 69 

2, 157. 19 

34, 116. 39 



$16, 222. 64 $17, 239. 44 
1,992.75 4,022.18 
10, 851. 72 14, 519. 



Justice 

Labor 

Navy 

Post Office- 
State -. 

Treasury. ~ 
War 



17 
66, 223. 59 



34.40 
10, 233. 76 



81.93 
81,812.42 



1, 140. 40 
54, 704. 00 



1, 405. 25 
76,161.00 



846.07 

6, 587. 00 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 



ity. 



American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 



Corps 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion. 



Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
trat.JE — 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 



906.97 



465.84 



518. 89 



.72 



55.55 



75.40 



Federal Reserve Board.. 
Federal Trade Commis- 



sion- 



General Accounting 



Office. 



Government Printing 



Office. 



Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and MexioTT 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress. 

Maritime Commission... 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics . 

National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 

National Training 
School for Boys 

Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission. 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 

Works Progress Admin- 
istration 



298. 93 

46.98 

1.17 

""66." 48 

122.23 



4, 229. 31 



Total 

Percent of grand total. 



321.00 



53, 207. 37 
26, 064. 90 



.50 
327. 10 

3.65 

1.15 

"98." 70 

61.90 



113.85 



17, 514. 54 



3.00 



233, 38t. 05 
4.08 



142, 306. 45 
39, 755. 42 



67.47 
128, 174. 41 



5, 114. 65 
57,811.00 



2, 287. 52 



472. 80 



5.17 
288. 98 

19.48 



$18, 639. 58 
1, 962. 84 
11,009.13 



27.92 
158, 849. 93 



6, 214. 64 
170, 568. 00 



1, 539. 07 



102. 55 



39.20 
41.50 

5.67 



169.04 
579. 71 



?, 577. 87 



7.00 
21.25 



34, 939. 28 
2, 196. 21 

23, 980. 30 



8.00 
1, 559. 20 



8.05 



10.80 
21.80 



44, 934. 75 
623.36 



51, 736. 02 



389. 71 



383. 38 
6, 523. 08 



162. 50 
125. 25 



241.09 
372. 65 



7, 552. 01 



331, 990. 48 
5.80 



550, 197. 56 329, 673. 81 
9. 61 -5. 75 



399, 751. 38| 



232, 319. 67 
4.06 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
(insulated) — Class No. 15 



175 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$57, 904. 84 
14, 537. 00 
36, 203. 71 


$7, 954. 34 
2, 225. 00 
16, 107. 88 


$17, 536. 59 
3, 475. 00 
14, 368. 29 


$11,421.86 
4, 732. 00 
34, 981. 75 


$16, 310. 95 
3, 306. 85 
13,907.11 


$23, 267. 81 

1.091.68 

19', 207. 70 


$253, 205. 75 
49, 158. 51 
241, 492. 12 


4.42 

.86 

4.22 


22.76 

506, 341. 94 

13.56 


18.03 
36, 101. 84 


103. 72 
32, 521. 75 


8 50 

204, 370.' 40 

4.50 


15.56 
79, 317. 84 


11.13 

938, 854. 50 


411.63 

2, 305, 363. 07 

18.08 


.01 

40.18 
Nil 












8, 515. 64 
96, 880. 00 


166, 483. 70 
39, 891. 25 


4, 179. 35 
15, 241. 87 


78, 510. 63 
37, 916. 62 


3. 819. 88 
186, 776. 00 


2, 449. 53 
52, 180. 00 


279, 233. 54 
1, 196, 139. 74 


4.88 

2a 91 


































































1, 256. 59 


2, 426. 10 


1, 230. 09 


1, 519. 34 


996.80 


1,027.14 


14,822.84 


.26 














2.40 
322.15 
937.32 


NO 








320.15 
63.02 


2.00 
1.84 




.01 


19.90 


39.30 


46.16 




.02 








































6.51 




3.00 


8.00 




17.61 


Nil 












4.19 




3.00 
238.2 






52.06 

1,644.88 
376.48 

2.32 


Nil 




101. 40 
16.03 


47.37 
23.72 


89.95 
189. 95 


.03 


39.45 




.01 






Nil 
















375.05 
82.92 


43.60 
1, 775. 31 


51.05 
124.51 


125. 10 
928.09 


105.00 


30.00 


1, 683. 30 
3, 674. 67 


.03 
.06 


























31.09 
4,011.64 


11.42 
2, 877. 69 


3.96 
7, 315. 96 






440.25 

67, 206. 71 

33.96 

17.05 

21.40 
931. 24 
966.30 


.01 


2, 416. 79 
33.95 


3, 456. 99 


4, 516. 58 


1.18 

Nil 


9.00 












Nil 


8.10 


6.30 
168.91 
114. 25 










Nil 


208.00 
2.55 


60.43 
4.36 


197. 97 


108.38 


.02 


187.00 


.02 








285, 741. 12 
673.26 

28, 088. 01 


14, 480. 83 
310.28 

45,091.68 


65, 663. 77 
1, 139. 58 

19, 998. 03 


213, 125. 62 
122. 40 

13, 202. 41 


46, 589. 49 
667. 19 

33, 318. 42 


30, 175. 18 
1, 622. 91 

20, 778. 03 


952, 315. 48 
11, 149. 62 

344, 330. 42 


16.65 
.20 

0.02 


1, 039, 350. 60 
18.16 


337,291.93 
5.89 


178,896.85 608,746.91 
3. 12! 10. 63 


388,767.98! 1,095,600.47 
6. 80 19. 13 


6,725,968.69 

100.00 IOC. 00 



176 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Radio and sound-signal apparatus and all 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$5, 455. 39 

267, 777. 51 

1, 321. 67 


$3, 877. 95 

22, 003. 16 

1,425.80 


$3, 375. 60 

21, 622. 85 

962. 42 


$11,200.38 

45, 909. 15 

3, 699. 35 


$11, 708. 77 

34, 907. 61 

3, 463. 64 


$8, 670. 84 

259, 141. 76 

3, 474. 98 










230.60 
1. 599, 342. 25 


119. 65 
94, 919. 68 


361. 36 
651, 926. 47 


392. 59 
282, 379. 46 


1, 103. 85 
18, 185. 19 


1, 818. 26 
667, 849. 49 




Post Office 


















1, 217. 25 
404. 764. 00 


18, 035. 63 
267, 167. 00 


2, 030. 86 
96, 701. 00 


7, 901. 15 
102, 420. 00 


12, 559. 51 
349, 264. 00 


2. 597. 06 
629, 45^. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 


18.45 


285.79 




60.65 


22.70 


24.65 






Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 




772.29 


729.27 


41.31 

5.49 

136.00 


6, 000. 58 
11.16 


1,766.99 


Federal Housing Admin- 




Federal Power Oommis- 






















Federal Trade Commis- 














Oenerai Accounting 
Office 










-_ 




Government Printi,ivg 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


220.00 


153. 35 

* 

24.00 


119.60 


91.09 


349. 51 


1, 230. 62 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 


Interstate Commerce 




























15.60 


152.50 
85.64 




67.80 
27.97 


15.20 




National Advisory Corn- 


102. 43 
40.40 


248. 35 
12.50 






244.10 


National Labor Rela- 








National Training 
School for Boys 


9.00 
1, 882. 94 








23.00 
760.03 




1, 008. 88 


1, 597. 15 


934. 15 


435.27 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 




643. 25 


417. 31 
213. 30 




221.02 

268.85 

118.45 


894. 48 
491. 11 

962. 15 






408. 15 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


84.73 


1, 011. 94 


439.00 1,476.55 


Total 


2, 282, 319. 39 


411.686.51 


780, 639. 02 457. 451. 24 


439, 227. 17 
2.93 


1,579,073.41 
10.53 


Percent of grand total 


15. 23 2. 74 


5.22 


3.05 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
accessories, outfits, and parts — Class No. 16 



177 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$39, 568. 61 
76, 991. 00 
9, 314. 88 


$21, 126. 72 
39, 333. 00 
7, 838. 06 


$7, 796. 54 

166, 527. 00 

2, 188. 70 


$8, 876. 64 
55, 783. 00 
2, 745. 85 


$4, 500. 10 
15, 498. 50 
4, 320. 90 


$9, 099. 71 
13, 168. 50 
4, 501. 55 


$135, 257. 25 

1, 018, 663. 04 

45, 257. 80 


0.90 

6.79 

.30 


3, 536. 35 
661, 056. 19 


406.56 
153, 056. 15 


623.32 
292, 201. 15 


614..608. 74 


262.16 
805, 609. 58 


669. 55 
503, 915. 68 


10, 198. 20 
6, 245, 050. 03 


.07 
41.66 


















157, 048. 14 
669, 527. 00 


638.90 
18, 708. 68 


6,208.23 
28, 481. 97 


262, 921. 10 
439, 169. 78 


1, 755. 90 
3, 116, 366. 00 


596.50 
808, 618. 00 


473, 510. 23 
6, 930, 642. 43 


3.16 
46.25 


































































572. 62 


41.34 


472.48 


27.32 


700.62 


1, 518. 45 


3, 745. 07 


.02 


















8, 800. 71 


997.4© 


726.42 


369.60 


58.21 
4.91 


78.63 
3.80 


20, 341. 40 
25.36 

136.00 


.14 
Nil 










Nil 




1 




















32.86 




32.86 


Nil 














































450.56 


2, 674. 25 


256. 91 


2, 367. 86 


4, 764. 15 


325. 31 


13, 303. 21 
24.00 


.09 
Nil 




































8,850.00 
137. 81 




43.75 
57.61 


748. 48 


9, 893. 33 

1,586.85 
1, 876. 50 


.07 


124.47 
1, 579. 50 


729. 41 


73.16 


.01 




.01 














8.75 
1, 457. 70 




23.37 
882.07 


70.64 
860.32 






134. 76 
11,015.61 


Nil 


619. 85 


314. 49 


262.76 


.07 


































445.00 












445.00 
61.47 


Nil 








61.47 




Nil 














1, 413. 45 
: 254. 47 

3, 014. 98 


784.97 
118. 82 

1,881.93 


32, 043. 41 
198.66 

3, 795. 85 


14, 138. 43 
29.39 

340. 33 


104.27 
857. 34 

106. 57 


1, 068. 26 
564.96 

827. 21 


51, 728. 85 
3, 405. 05 

14, 039. 69 


.35 
.02 

.09 


1,635,164.38' 248,956.13 
10. 90 1. 66 


551, 413. 89 
3.68 


1,303,056.11 
8.70 


3,955,419.39! 1,345,967.35! 14,990,373.99 
26.38' 8.98 100.00 


100.00 



178 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Electric apparatus and all accessories, 









Month 






Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$38, 698. 13 
30, 294. 10 
84, 170. 80 


$121, 443. 57 
36, 193. 34 
75, 003. 91 


$33, 540. 93 
35, 728. 57 
45, 662. 79 


$50, 705. 22 
39, 997. 09 
57, 483. 26 


$60,356.11 
61, 026. 37 
79,979.95 


$81, 845. 18 
28, 569. 71 
61, 600. 57 






Justice 




408.64 

168, 047. 50 

4, 714. 68 


2, 325. 98 

299, 308. 84 

3, 827. 68 


1,680.97 

2,631,157.85 

2, 896. 00 


493.99 

1, 579, 807. 16 

3, 247. 66 


559. 62 

542, 381. 84 

8,344.43 


455. 85 

492, 925. 91 

4, 407. 06 


Navy 


Post Office 


State 


Treasury 


22, 601. 44 
178, 319. 00 


34, 913. 08 
352, 985. 00 

12.00 


53, 392. 00 
279,174.00 

4.00 


48, 709. 05 
403, 267. 00 

.96 


47, 186. 99 
278, 672. 00 


39, 214. 60 
266, 203. 00 

1.46 


War 


ndependent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling author- 
ity... 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 






Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 


2.15 






.72 






Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 










District of Columbia 
Government 


3, 309. 34 


5, 340. 07 


3, 967. 74 


7, 944. 99 


13, 396. 15 


10,551.49 


Export-Import Bank .. 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 


97.93 

41.56 

585.72 

42. 5i 
26.76 


82.52 
80.72 

1, 460. 13 

12.57 
801.22 

25.80 


15.75 

713.99 

214. 77 

506.53 
221. 23 

1,884.23 

5.86 


94.12 

7.40 

634.98 

41.16 
9.05 


2,384.68 

109.90 

1, 033. 64 

95.30 
392. 61 


437. 15 

52.08 

2, 473. 11 

5.85 
21.74 

1,783.02 

42.59 


Federal Communications 
Commission 


Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 


Federal Power Commis- 
sion 


Federal Reserve Board... 
Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 


General Accounting 
Office 


82. 2C 


50.04 


499.54 


137.66 


Government Printing 
Office 




Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 




327. 10 
796. 77 

958.91 


257. 26 
1,856.02 

184.53 
1.53 


280.49 
814.74 

73.22 

115. 16 


292.54 

1,378.38 

262. 26 

254. 06 

3.65 

1, 517. 21 

379. 41 


325.78 
632. 95 

204. 16 

774. 10 

4.87 

2, 245. 08 

1, 558. 21 
1.43 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration . 


403.91 

111.88 
57.97 


Internationa] Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico. . 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 


Library of Coneress 




Maritime Commission.. 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics 
National Archives 


2, 149. 50 

767.46 
189. 43 


1, 066. 16 

1,909.46 
.48 


1,854.09 

1,737.88 
168.74 


2, 665. 26 

1,029.87 
35.94 


National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 




National Training 

School for Boys. 
Panama Canal 


19.00 
16, 359. 37 

67.69 

374. 07 

206.00 
189. 29 
456. 87 


45.00 
26, 216. 26 

19.72 

.65 

338. 84 

484.57 

1, 938. 47 


6.00 
38, 623. 45 

12.87 

11.86 

197. 10 

258.27 

1,343.05 


153.20 
20, 005. 72 

18.05 

4.80 

1, 376. 66 
63.14 

1,481.76 
13.11 

116,310.60 
6, 632. 34 

80,111.90 


119.64 
12, 215. 81 

111.91 

41.24 

2, 703. 23 

646.21 

11,661.68 

3.99 

67, 288. 70 
7, 775. 12 

21, 106. 95 


80.37 
20, 101. 80 

56.22 

39.77 

44.99 

217.31 

2, 805. 01 


Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation... 


Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration. 


Securities and Exchange 
Commission. . 


Smithsonian Institution., 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 


Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority... . 
Veterans' Administration 


107, 969. 96 


287, 056. 21 


340, 937. 94 
8, 540. 17 

48, 424. 81 


103, 054. 58 
12, 168. 54 

68, 248. 98 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration. 

Total 

Percent of grand total... 


48, 090. 25 


60, 382. 41 


708, 855. 19:1, 315, 407. 38^, 535, 082. 78 2, 423, 129. 19|j, 223, 819. 24Jl, 193, 156. 52 
2.46 4.57J 12.261 8.42, 4.25 4.14 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
outfits, and parts — Class No. 17 



179 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$176, 685. 62 
120,310.00 
179, 675. 21 


$43, 977. 08 

32, 689. 00 

604, 383. 48 


$44, 141. 89 
79, 847. 00 
133, 661. 35 


$32, 738. 77 

19, 135. 00 

2, 989, 387. 46 


$40, 852. 63 
37, 550. 51 
133, 671. 74 


$43, 295. 61 

16, 640. 70 

2, 380, 266. 68 


$768, 280. 64 

537, 981. 39 

6, 824, 747. 10 


2.67 

1.87 

23.68 


1, 680. 55 

759, 702. 78 

33, 107. 38 


734.K4 
914, 014. «; 
14, 943. 27" 


1, 870. 37 

354, 735. 22 

-• 22,970.51 


130. 79 

721, 955. 19 

12,000.73 


1,071.91 

282, 658. 33 

3,553.11 


799.62 

356, 059. 26 

3, 466. 27 


12,113.13 

9, 102. 754. 08 

117, 478. 58 


.04 

31.63 

.41 


74, 326. 86 
947, 604. 00 


36, 391. 20 
216, 256. 99 


30, sSi. 13 
235, 018. 20 


31, 120. 07 
265, 604. 47 


33, 407. 58 
255, 373. 00 


34, 147. 11 
290, 406. 10 


485, 762. 11 
3, 968, 882. 76 


1.69 
13.78 




49.00 




4.43 






71.84 


Nil 






936.50 








939. 37 


Nil 














33,119.03 


2, 567. 97 


8, 275. 22 


4, 685. 02 


5, 742. 24 


4, 709. 85 


103, 609. 11 


.36 


606.16 


32.22 


23.19 


114. 14 


33.72 


154.93 


4,076.51 


.01 


52.73 


186.50 


38.88 


18.72 


305.29 


38.99 


1, 646. 76 


.01 


89.09 


1, 280. 61 


1, 536. 34 


1, 792. 06 


87.50 


243.06 


11,431.01 


.04 


13.86 
695. 04 


269. 77 
151. 75 


95.73 
106. 89 


52.64 
221. 22 


56.52 
148. 21 


18.44 
135.28 


1, 210. 95 
2, 931. 00 


Nil 
.01 


1, 227. 00 
1,383.18 


59.96 
130. 45 


16.75 
419. 41 




616. 84 
131. 79 


.26 
112. 19 


5, 613. 86 
3,093.14 


.02 


98.23 


.01 


1, 148. 27 


244. 92 


136.28 


92.42 


117.73 


206.45 


3, 429. 24 


.01 


530.03 


1, 036. 11 


491.06 


967. 01 


901.56 


261.33 


10, 068. 87 


.04 


136.26 


327.94 


329.03 


673.41 


164.12 


229.46 


3, 655. 19 


.01 


32.73 

17.13 

3, 100. 76 


40.67 


386. 08 

14.00 

3, 677. 30 


12.45 


16.15 


60.75 


1,751.64 

39. 65 

31, 488. 19 


.01 

Nil 


1, 520. 45 


340.00 


7, 994. 05 


3, 358. 33 


.11 


3, 434. 10 
380.24 


791. 65 


1, 279. 01 
32.00 


1, 218. 47 
73.43 


287.51 
54.54 


575. 61 


14, 968. 64 
936. 23 


.05 
Nil 










76.16 
16, 030. 81 


296.74 
26, 787. 31 


44.51 
22, 573. 17 


30.65 
41, 626. 70 


75.78 
29, 302. 97 


947. 05 
276, 396. 79 


Nil 


6, 553. 42 


.96 


485. 31 


248. 31 


212. 10 


41.60 


28.02 


28.53 


1, 332. 33 


Nil 


1, 276. 29 


1,294.28 


129.60 


324. 18 


201.17 


153.29 


S, 851. 20 


.01 






410.80 
1, 876. 17 
1, 703. 22 


299.69 
271.56 
439. 79 


289. 85 

82.95 

1, 027. 80 


316. 06 
72.83 

415.15 
48.95 

639, 529. 51 
9, 976. 09 


6. 183. 22 

5. 059. 72 

32, 356. 29 

208. 67 

5, 550, 504. 55 
88, 550. 19 


.02 


421.74 

7, 770. 84 

46.62 

857, 651. 68 
7,291.45 


475.68 

1,311.65 

96.00 

720, 762. 34 
5, 955. 32 


.02 
.11 

Nil 


1, 954, 288. 87 
13, 942. 84 


191, 835. 23 
6, 759. 66 


164, 818. 93 
9, 608. 66 


19.26 
.31 


90, 634. 21 


138, 774. 42; 


67, 136. 81 


58,129.00 


61, 043. 34 


90, 097. 50 


822, 180. 58 


2.85 


3, 311, 189. 57 
11.49 


2, 757, 105. 00 
9.56 


2, 987, 074. 80 
10.38 


4,363,154.52 
15.15 


1,083,354.65 
3.76 


3, 905, 202. 74 
13.56 


28, 806, 531. 58 
100.00 


100.00 



180 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Instruments of precision and all 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$3(7, 397. 51 
7, 848. 39 
18, 173. 52 


$134, 651. 44 
3, 840. 80 
27, 185. 60 


$56, 585. 95 
8, 057. 78 
16, 588. 39 


$86, 292. 95 

9, 694. 33 

26. 685. 70 


$93, 877. 09 
17,511.35 
21, 599. 96 


$120, 671. 11 
26. 179. 18 
30, 464. 00 


Commerce •- 


Interior 




Labor 


4, 837. 08 

347, 548. 89 

274. 87 


947. 15 

235, 945. 34 

146. 35 


453. 38 

111, 822. 99 

227. 68 


399.23 

389, 088. 04 

214. 77 


1, 052. 54 

272, 135. 14 

521. 04 


959. 09 

81, 937. 27 

311. 13 


Navy . 


Post Office 


State. 




15, 860. 87 
118, 662. 00 

4.00 
3.25 


22, 955. 22 
82,711.00 


23, 651. 23 
101, 190. 00 


20, 159. 82 
148, 576. 00 


28, 508. 30 
70, 848. 00 


24, 001. 82 
71,415.00 

18.13 
1.18 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 


5.72 




155. 23 


203.99 


Civilian Conservation 




Civil Service Commis- 


938. 34 






7.70 


465. 30 


62.76 


Commodity Credit Cor- 






District of Columbia 
Government 


1, 932. 90 


1, 492. 35 


2, 402. 85 


1, 949. 65 


1, 137. 21 


4, 164. 74 




Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 


115.91 

13.90 

481.41 


149. 71 

266. 62 

2, 017. 80 

1, 181. 87 
164. 48 

40.22 

4.31 

1, 349. 13 

1, 338. 89 

3.00 

105. 30 

20.08 
570. 64 
581. 63 

828.58 
75.23 


21.14 

92.16 

2, 367. 24 

78.75 
50.08 

503. 41 

814.50 

965.48 

552. 40 

2, 365. 85 

99.05 

476. 38 

589. 02 

2,273.11 

5. 957. 21 
289.01 


125. 12 

' 157.74 

841. 74 

364. 37 
36.85 


132. 15 

133. 54 

10, 500. 97 

453.50 
157.90 

12.68 

815.00 

981.03 

534.75 


477. 48 

309.22 

1, 795. 43 

86.93 
352. 20 

21?. 72 


Federal Communications 
Commission 


Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 


Federal Power Commis- 
sion 






Federal Trade Commis- 


74.08 

466. 83 

1, 031. 40 


General Accounting 
Office . 


135. 95 

3, 103. 86 

167. 33 


Government Printing 
Office 


64.95 

781. 26 

10.35 

353.44 

6, 866. 14 

1, 165. 77 

181.32 

3, 493. 99 
108.00 


Home Owners' Loan 


Inland Waterways Cor- 


13.20 

599.32 

381. 78 

32.05 

352. 71 

2,241.70 
60.00 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 


574. 78 

572. 11 
680. 06 
360.94 

2, 327. 77 
427. 03 


178. 10 

288.36 
761. 01 
292. 60 

1, 923. 46 
150.13 


Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission... 
Natonal Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. 

National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 


National Training 








30.00 
3, 074. 98 

4.87 

497. 81 

3,319.55 

227. 81 

1, 022. 16 

8.16 

1, 484. 67 
1, 94fi. 06 

23, 146. 66 


27.25 
4, 186. 22 

20.42 

150.93 

395. 46 

425. 65 

2, 202. 88 

145. 06 

3, 461. 24 
913. 05 

11, 949. 87 


50.00 
1, 400. 69 

9.26 

55.99 

202.83 
266. 33 


Panama Canal 


1, 587. 38 

1.95 

1, 819. 14 

173. 44 
94.31 

2, 826. 03 


1,711.72 

5.74 

157. 74 

3, 462. 27 

12.00 

738. 30 


976. 39 

1.20 

33.69 

89.84 

264. 27 

2, 726. 83 

51.53 

1, 695. 27 
506.42 

16, 152. 69 


Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation... 


Rural Electrification 
Administration 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission 

Smithsonian Institution.. 
Social Security Board 


54.72 

1, 133. 66 
1, 743. 54 

24, 603. 28 


Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 


724. 49 


4, 904. 18 




Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


12, 136. 83 


18, 510. 80 


Total 


578, 709. 48 
8.00 


548, 081. 21 
7.58 


360, 973. 17 
4.98 


727. 861. 69 
10.06 


549, 053. 13 
7.58 


405, 968. 91 
5.61 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
accessories, outfits, and parts — Class No. 18 



181 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$267, 379. 81 
97, 595. 00 
71, 550. 68 


$57, 109. 62 

3, 642. 00 

22, 786. 68 


$42, 805. 91 

' 18,558.00 

16. 065. 12 


$51, 988. 35 
97. 743. 00 
20, 557. 80 


$67, 233. 55 
13, 807. 65 
42, 022. 82 


$87, 034. 98 
14, 550. 70 
21, 320. 39 


$1, 103, 028. 27 
319, 028. 18 
335, 000. 66 


15.25 
4.40 
4.63 


3,089.77 

134, 612. 39 

595.35 


453.73 

103, 204. 59 

471.79 


331. 35 

97, 614. 37 

262. 21 

10.60 

14, 792. 46 

103, 996. 01 


568.93 

126, 516. 27 

217.26 


518. 72 

263, 381. 60 

673. 69 


896.05 

309, 663. 07 

876. 74 

66.65 

10, 580. 52 

102, 178. 60 


14, 507. 02 

2, 473, 370. 07 

4, 792. 88 

77.15 

276, 353. 86 

1, 930. 575. 24 

22.13 
2,696.11 


.20 

34.16 

.07 

Nil 


60, 477. 00 
167, 156. 00 


22,148.30 
131,101.46 


15, 107. 24 
179, 251. 17 


18, 111. 08 
653, 490. 00 


3.79 
26.68 

Nil 


2,324.82 








1.92 




.04 












2, 485. 47 
14, 575. 14 
4, 499. 18 


465.30 

88.56 

4, 656. 72 


5.41 
10,671.88 
3, 406 64 


1 105.46 
1, 740. 46 
2, 306. 07 


424.30 
2, 221. 48 
15, 937. 05 


465. 30 


5, 425. 34 
29, 297. 52 
43,885.36 


.07 
.40 




.61 






283.96 

1, 934. 81 

900.96 

518. 10 
210.58 

3, 101. 39 

1, 891. 78 

1,961.14 

1, 335. 33 


137. 78 
118. 41 

2, 571. 07 

375. 07 
1, 624. 03 

6.28 

697. 36 

3. U51. 53 
211. 44 

10.33 

525. 09 

473.00 
168. 72 
163. 78 

1, 769. 31 
364.40 


58.25 

169.66 

3, 085. 04 

387. 75 
44.72 

27.89 

6.86 

1, 396. 28 

219. 44 


235.08 

96.85 

3, 599. 02 

137. 17 
202.98 


256.64 

278. 05 

2, 797. 18 

595. 05 
188.67 

11.00 

1, 403. 90 

3,799.18 

576.96 

107.02 

182. 22 

1, 972. 35 

2, 012. 26 
3,373.15 

791. 37 
124. 04 


139. 17 

37.94 

1, 248. 16 

520.46 
43.94 

627.05 


2, 132. 39 

3,608.90 

32, 206. 02 

4, 699. 02 
3, 076. 43 

4, 620. 72 

6. 629. 15 

29, 838. 82 

6. 613. 13 

2, 661. 92 

4, 273. 87 

13, 449. 88 
8, 867. 19 
9. 438. 41 

24, 790. 10 

5, 974. 53 


.03 

.05 

.45 

.06 
.04 

.06 


392.66 

12, 845. 33 

781. 89 

7.50 

981. 18 

37.40 
266. 11 
840.00 

1, 497. 65 
437. 24 


.09 


289.51 
115. 44 
144. 67 

261. 71 

1, 771. 64 
384.80 
619.42 

909.70 
447.09 


.41 
.09 
.04 


201.62 

557. 79 

1, 881. 32 

228.90 

1, 660. 87 
3, 328. 40 


212.06 

32.85 
355. 43 
170. 85 

1, 388. 49 
163. 96 


.06 

.19 
.12 
.13 

.34 
.08 


8.40 
1,618.41 

11.16 

309.63 

2, 936. 36 

576. 35 

66, 831. 16 

46.53 

7, 468. 90 
348.06 

26, 760. 16 


35.10 
2, 305. 14 

86.04 

1, 129. 47 

526. 61 

132. 42 

4,126.31 

50.43 

4, 595. 41 
4, 988. 20 

40, 927. 62 


12.44 
2, 263. 57 

1.50 

815. 14 

224. 13 

115.56 

2, 099. 73 

24.02 

18, 762. 44 
1, 683. 64 

35, 446. 63 


29.61 

2, 306. 21 

27.08 
336. 48 

3, 430. 44 
116. 18 

1, 742. 10 


55.65 
2, 431. 24 

50.48 

2, 807. 28 

246. 91 

82.75 

816. 43 

2.04 

5, 137 37 
1, 727. 14 

39, 297. 28 


91.00 
1, 965. 96 

4.32 

410.24 

3, 105. 52 

76.01 

1, 971. 44 

349. 25 

5, 590. 43 
1, 051. 42 

38, 063. 09 


339. 45 
25, 827. 91 

224. 02 

8, 523. 54 

18.113.36 

2, 389. 64 

87, 103. 37 

731. 74 

67, 835. 47 
15, 732. 75 

313, 496. 43 


Nil 
.36 

Nil 

.12 

.25 
.03 
1.20 
.01 


12, 877. 51 
825. 23 

26, 501. 52 


.94 
.22 

4.33 


953, 250. 79 
13.16 


418, 199. 10 

5.77 


377, 688. 19 
5.21 


566, 752. 43 
7.83 


1, 146, 947. 47 
15.82 


607. 772. 38 
8.40 


7, 241, 257. 95 
100 00 


" 100.66 



182 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Blocks; rigging; and all accessories, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


Mav 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$496. 62 

53.40 

2, 704. 15 


$909. 53 
1, 402. 37 
2, 336. 64 


$582. 29 
552.80 
407.53 


$419. 81 
729.25 
923. 65 


$446.72 
58.28 
305.00 


$1, 373. 40 
460.31 
108. 67 


Commerce...,. 

Interior 


Justice 


Labor 
















240.47 


2, 492. 00 


1.20 


2, 607. 50 


4.00 


14,714.21 


Post Office 


State 














Treasury 


83.54 
3,400.00 


521. 74 
2, 257. 00 


3, 246. 90 
3, 899. 00 


2, 142. 22 
2,515.00 


2, 539. 52 
3, 146. 00 


216.28 
1, 967. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity.- 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District- of Columbia 


49.80 


156.26 




















Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 
sion.- 














Federal Reserve Board . 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


39.47 


122.29 


58.94 




13.86 


18.20 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 




Interstate Commerce 




























Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Corn- 


491.50 


406. 85 


1, 281. 56 


1, 262. 53 


1, 005. 74 


1, 008. 27 
















National Labor Rela- 














National Training 














Panama Canal. 


4, 206. 42 


216. 13 


506.64 


1, 439. 06 


2, 786. 73 


191.20 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 






















3.60 
































Tennessee Valley Au- 








219. 26 
.56 

656. 98 




219.50 
33.85 

608. 60 








56.85 
846.65 




Works Progress Admin- 


590.83 


765.44 


120.31 




Total 


12, 356. 10 
8.45 


11,585.24 
7.92 


11, 440. 36 
7.84 


12, 919. 42 

8.85 


10,426.16 20,919.39 


Percent of grand total 


7.14 


14.31 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
outfits, and parts — Class No. 19 



183 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
19o8 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$2, 438. 73 
85.00 
183. 78 


$511.47 
951.00 
232.46 


$442.63 
398.00 
185.00 


$647.88 
321.00 
262. 16 


$261. 73 
609.78 
601. 37 


$1, 181. 59 

2, 100. 22 

428. 14 


$9, 712. 30 
7, 721. 41 
8, 678. 55 


6.65 
5.28 
5.94 








6.96 
113.80 






6.96 
24, 751. 18 


Nil 


2, 624. 00 


150.00 






1, 804. 00 


16.94 
























506.80 
2, 464. 00 


265.34 
2, 175. 07 


294.64 
3, 653. 68 


307. 86 
6, 678. 78 


295.59 
4, 340. 00 


330. 78 
1, 542. 00 


10, 751. 21 
38, 037. 53 


7.36 
26.06 




































































22.93 


23.15 




90.34 


2, 557. 68 


2, 899. 15 


1.99 


















































































































4.12 


4.12 


Nil 
































29.55 


128.21 


35.72 


77.44 


20.91 


644.69 


.37 






































1, 445. 87 


827.30 


645.03 


1, 635. 46 


1, 769. 35 


2,092.11 


13,871.57 


9.48 


















































705. 72 


'•"1. 43 


949. 72 


653.28 




431. 26 


12, 507. 59 


8.56 


















































3.60 


Nil 
































3, 612. 50 
1.60 

759.77 




309. 15 
2.51 

1, 802. 53 


270. 94 
13.67 

476. 09 


254.32 
14.60 

1, 450. 17 


206.38 
133. 21 

1, 901. 89 


5, 092. 05 
272. 34 

11,250.34 


3.48 


15.49 
1,271.18 


.19 
7.70 


14,827.77 6,873.22 
10.15 4.70 


8, 834. 25 
6.05 


11,425.60 
7.82 


9, 764. 69 14, 734. 29 ' 146, 104. 49 
6.68 10.09' 100.00 


100.00 



184 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Submarine material 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
* 1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture.. 


$10.00 






$6.59 






Commerce 


$16. 14 


$22.00 






Interior 








$687. 05 


Justice 












Labor.. 














Navy 


59, 233. 57 


10, 273. 00 


16,960.00 


6,069.00 


$5, 010. 00 


15, 742. 20 


Post Office 


State 














Treasury 


73.50 
3, 137. 00 


17.81 
336.00 






30, 158. 19 
420.00 


467.61 
436.00 


War 


19.00 


159.00 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity... 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion . 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 
Onvernrrmnt. 














Export-Import Bank 














Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration . 














Federal Power Commis- 
sion ... . 














Federal Reserve Board .. 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation.. . 














Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico .. 














Interstate Commerce 
Commission. 










































National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 
School for Boys 














Panama Canal . 














Reconstruction Finance 














Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 




























Social Security Board 














Tariff Commission 














Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 


























4.00 


Works Progress Admin- 
























Total 

Percent of grand total 


62, 454. 07 
14. 69 


10, 642. 95 
2.52 


17, 001. 00 
4.00 


6, 234. 59 

1.47 


35, 588. 19 
8.38 


14, 336. 86 
3.37 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



—Class No. SO 



185 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 








$0.48 
128.00 


$2.86 




$19. 93 
3, 734. 14 
2, 239. 55 


Nil 


$291.00 


$3,232.00 




$45. 00 


0.88 




1, 552. 50 


.53 






























2, 550. 00 


9, 378. 00 


$8, 405. 00 


22, 082. 41 


123, 923. 80 


85, 590. 27 


362, 217. 25 


85.26 


















90.03 
574.00 


3, 702. 78 
111. 70 


3, 990. 23 


3, 682. 67 
156. 82 


4, 048. 67 
2.00 


3, 682. 67 
967.00 


49, 914. 16 
6, 318. 52 


11.72 
1.49 










































































































































" 






































































































































" '" 





















































































































































































































































11.00 

119.28 


225. 40 


9.81 


131.23 


3.02 


14.75 


399.21 
119. 28 


.09 

.03 














3, 635. 31 
.86 


16, 649. 88 
3.92 


12, 405. 04 
2.92 


26, 181. 61 
6.15 


129, 532. 85 
30.48 


90, 299. 69 
21.24 


424, 962. 04 
100.00 


100. 00 



186 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Cordage: Hemp; jutq oakum; twine, including 









Month 






Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture.- 

Commerce - 


$3, 163. 02 

473. 28 

1, 552. 83 


$4, 052. 38 
2, 429. 60 
2, 236. 23 


$3, 405. 22 
1, 981. 16 
1, 620. 69 


$3, 336. 17 
1,481.00 
2, 837. 08 


$15, 289. 40 

768. 37 

1, 770. 57 


$6,065.31 
1, 622. 51 
3, 942. 06 






64.50 
31, 182. 93 


262. 35 

12, 041. 64 

170.50 


265. 39 

73, 598. 26 

1, 323. 37 


277. 80 
3, 298. 28 
15, 680. 65 


71.62 
3, 854. 76 
4, 795. 15 


•11.06 

44, 127. 25 

13. 47 




Post Office 


State.. -. 






3, 038. 34 
56, 750. 00 


3,713.07 
17, 732. 00 


2, 187. 01 
18, 163. 00 


2, 141. 65 
17, 683. 00 


9, 541. 37 
20, 157. 00 


965. 78 
24, 399. 00 


War -. 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 










1.56 




Civilian Conservation 












Civil Service Commis- 


19.50 








34.00 




Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 










District of Columbia 


696. 36 


233.52 


234.53 


427.00 


779. 81 


157. 57 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration -_ --. . 


18.40 
32.00 


17.20 


21.16 


17.57 




91.33 

13.00 


Federal Communications 




Federal Housing Admin- 


289. 55 

7.68 






75.00 


Federal Power Commis- 










Federal Reserve Board. . 












Federal Trade Commis- 


51.00 
200.00 


14.00 
30.00 






56.00 
330.00 




General Accounting 
Oflce 


330.00 




310.00 


Government Printing 
Office 




Home Owners' Loan 




62.50 




152.80 
6.35 

5.00 


13.00 




Inland Waterways Cor- 


7, 480. 44 

7.84 


15, 175. 66 


7, 643. 74 


International Boundary 
Commission. United 


.20 

98.00 
133.00 
195. 04 




Interstate Commerce 


13.00 


116. 48 










101. 92 
5, 666. 75 




3, 766. 42 
15.00 


12.12 


61.15 




National Advisory Corn- 






23.04 






13.10 




National Labor Rela- 










National Training School 


23.00 
6, 721. 21 




4.00 
16, 263. 47 




3.00 
4, 303. 37 






736.10 


818. 99 


427. 89 
53.20 


Reconstruction Finance. 


Rural Electrification Ad- 




4.47 






17.28 


Securities and Exchange 


35.00 






26.00 
24.05 




5.00 

366. 18 

20.10 

7, 812. 57 


6.28 


8.04 
75.00 


50.25 
13.10 


Social' Security Board 


21.00 






Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority ..- - 


305. 76 


4, 267. 23 
142.28 

7, 132. 63 


15, 475. 47 
2, 646. 54 

9, 352. 12 


7, 341. 76 
152. 49 

3, 612. 44 


1, 776. 69 
223. 27 

10, 516. 52 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration..- --- 


5, 528. 66 


7, 842. 46 


Total. - 

Percent of grand total 


121, 146. 47 
8.26 


60, 528. 38 
4.13 


146, 146. 46 
9.97 


75, 781. 66 
5.17 


73, 160. 88 108, 178. 37 
4.99 7.39 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

manufactured articles — Class No. 21 



187 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$7, 096. 54 
1, 129. 00 
1, 852. 47 


$5, 664. 62 
1, 736. 00 
2, 663. 04 


$6, 970. 19 
345.00 
957. 03 


$4, 944. 91 

372.00 

1, 246. 98 


$2, 745. 35 
1, 309. 87 
2, 565. 32 


$2, 380. 17 
2, 267. 19 
1, 683. 31 


$65, 113. 28 
15,914.96 
24, 927. 61 


4.44 
1.09 
1.70 


157. 69 
17, 971. 27 
28, 295. 13 




57.30 

35, 775. 00 

254.40 




125.37 
82, 298. 91 
15, 812. 42 


18.34 
88, 270. 31 
4, 720. 92 


1,311.42 

459,040.24 

71, 077. 82 


.09 


900.00 


65, 721. 63 
11.81 


31.34 
4.85 






17, 902. 32 
186, 218. 00 


2, 821. 72 
26, 376. 91 


5, 252. 46 
19, 340. 35 


2, 857. 20 
16, 160. 12 

2.05 


3, 074. 40 
17, 029. 00 


3, 030. 40 
12, 153. 12 


56, 525. 72 
432, 161. 50 

2.05 
2.34 


3.86 
29.46 

Nil 


.78 










Nil 














3.90 


39.00 




27.30 






123.70 


.01 










28.07 
2.28 

10.62 


779.27 


303.34 


520.61 


237.77 


191. 61 


4, 589. 46 
2.28 

194,30 

84.00 

531. 74 
23.16 


.31 
Nil 








15.02 
13.00 


3.00 


.01 




26.00 
55.73 
9.36 


63.96 
1.44 


.01 




47.50 




.04 


4.68 






Nil 










84.00 
280.00 












205.00 
2, 416. 18 


.01 


258.08 




678.00 


.10 




.16 








83.60 
5, 601. 73 






154.00 
64.19 






465.90 
50, 224. 00 

13.04 

248. 48 

353. 92 

37, 274. 51 

90.61 
54.86 


.03 


29.% 


11,018.64 


56.49 


3, 146. 80 


3.43 

Nil 






21.00 








.02 




119.00 
5, 521. 98 








.02 


4,538.80 

3.12 
18.72 


3, 918. 16 


3, 802. 28 


5, 444. 52 
72.49 


4, 347. 29 


2.54 
.01 










Nil 
















4.75 
1,091.09 




55.84 
4, 568. 46 






90.59 
57,933. 2o 

113.40 

40.45 

65.80 
193.22 
625, 56 

70.86 

45, 344. 94 
6, 762. 86 

131,913.00 


.01 


9, 837. 08 
14.00 


3, 234. 58 


5, 450. 05 
28.00 


4, 480. 96 
18.20 
10.80 


3.95 
.01 






7.90 


Nil 




4.80 






Nil 


38.90 
145.00 


9.44 


50.00 


1.26 
5.28 




.01 






.04 




7.56 

1,831.56 
151. 23 

15, 064. 88 




43.20 

990.93 
256. 33 

18, 061. 57 


Nil 


735. 40 
981.50 

10, 923. 28 


1, 416. 14 
806.57 

14, 429. 41 


1, 529. 96 
184. 94 

11,547.35 


1, 861. 47 
1, 217. 71 

17, 902. 07 


3.09 
.46 

9.00 


293, 957. 88 
20.02 


64, 709. 84 
4.42 


104, 603. 21 
7.14 


114.572.93 
7.82 


157,265.87 
10. 73 


146, 074. 45 
9.96 


l r 466, 126. 40| 
100.00 


100.00 



188 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Rope, wire, and wire, bare; including 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: -•' 


$10, 782. 66 

1, 045. 55 

17,531.38 


$38, 842. 05 
10, 603. 04 
19,317.37 


$37. 052. 72 
4, 283. 69 
14, 446. 07 


$37, 354. 76 
4, 168. 60 
15, 033. 50 


$59, 072. 15 

1, 086. 94 

14,211.84 


$74, 557. 56 
2, 244. 05 
19, 849. 34 


Commerce i.;-..x„. 


Labor 


13.14 

7, 666. 49 
24.96 


7. 33 

52, 188! 42 

1.06 


24.00 

12, 614. 38 

186. 98 


.75 
8, 724. 89 
2, 637. 55 


6.90 

4, 868. 01 

624. 97 


28.02 

132, 733. 47 

39.16 




Post Office. ....... 


State 




751. 61 
76, 755. 00 


7, 958. 87 
39, 005. 00 


4, 044. 40 
86, 334. 00 


3, 949. 70 
49, 817. 00 


3, 843. 35 
66, 746. 00 


1, 790. 81 
69, 253. 00 


War 

Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 


112.23 


392. 73 


134. 51 


71.54 


79.25 


245. 55 


Farm Credit Admin- 
istration 














Federal Communications 
Commission 




14.11 
3.96 
6.00 


41.13 
655. 84 


1.35 
2.50 




93.68 
8.15 


Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 






Federal Power Commis- 
sion 






Federal Reserve Board .. 












Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 










4.62 




General Accounting 
Office 












Government Printing 
Office _. 














Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 






2.46 
708. 12 

251. 20 








Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration. 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 


1, 532. 88 
212. 24 


1,115.04 


1. 892. 95 

1. 220. 96 


1, 395. 82 
1, 011. 80 


2, 343. 19 
636. 32 


Interstate Commerce 
Commission 




Library of Congress . . 
















3, 663. 59 


8, 564. 19 
79.07 


4, 627. 54 


7, 887. 83 
28.92 


4, 887. 87 




National Advisory Corn- 


12.82 


National Archives . 




8.00 




National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 












National Training School, 
for Boys 










5.00 

7, 834. 87 


63.21 
959. 80 


Panama Canal 


1,589.94 


1, 983. 07 


23, 606. 66 


801.29 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
















5.50 


19.00 




10.81 
88 


7.99 








.70 












Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 




5, 070. 38 


4, 040. 16 
351. 72 

15,381.05 


7, 393. 08 
380. 92 

15, 198. 28 


6, 293. 66 
272.00 

4, 005. 40 


17, 853. 93 
359. 60 

14, 125. 77 


Veterans' Administration. 




Works Progress Admin- 
istration. 


7,281.01 


10, 523. 56 




Total 


128, 968. 18 
5.02 


195, 694. 25 
7.60 


208, 794. 63 
8.13 


156, 578. 12 
6.10 


176, 259. 34 
6.86 


337, 198. 13 
13.11 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

manufactured articles — Class No. 22 



189 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


| 

July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$123, 230. 32 
8, 968. 0C 
22, 939. 91 


$14, 335. 13 
2, 138. OO 
6,911.23 


$21, 751. 59 

1, 192. 00 

10, 204. 77 


$17,146.74 
1, 051. 00 
8, 014. 53 


$11, 354. 75 

3, 935. 20 

46, 234. 82 


$15,047.69 
3, 889. 99 
14, 126. 05 


$460, 528. 12 

44, 606. 12 

208, 821. 41 


17.92 
1.74 
8.13 


52. 50 

34, 616. 89 

60.97 


1.75 

10, 677. 00 

145. 63 


3.48 
66, 427. 00 


1.54 
48,301.45 


20.19 
65, 701. 26 


8.23 
77, 934. 29 


167.83 

522, 453. 55 

3, 721. 28 


.01 

20.31 

.14. 












7, 488. 95 
87, 830. 00 


10, 069. 19 
70, 191. 31 


9, 765. 80 
59, T-> 58 

1 


9, 264. 69 
61, 575. 36 


9, 779. 91 
93, 643. 00 


12, 739. 59 
60, 048. 36 


81, 446. 87 
820, 950. 61 


3.16 
31.96 


































































305.83 


425.75 


152.94 


266.35 


463.84 


130.27 


2,780.79 


.11 




















17.60 
64.00 




4.19 

89.24 

.22 




13.80 
1.92 


185.86 

906.16 

6.22 


.01 


1.68 


76.62 


2.25 


.04 
Nil 


















2.74 




31.50 




38.86 


Nil 
































5.36 
7, 120. 97 

3, 055. 80 








7.82 
25, 550. 39 

27, 853. 90 


Nil 


1, 445. 80 
1, 678. 22 


1, 989. 10 
472. 15 


1, 412. 88 
10, 377. 38 


2, 558. 88 
7, 332. 70 


2, 034. 76 
1, 605. 13 


.99 
1.08 


















2, 164. 35 

34.00 
2.10 


1, 700. 00 
12.40 


1, 920. 95 
15.50 


1, 280. 28 
351. 78 


907. 02 
24.26 


1, 513. 87 
55.61 


39, 117. 49 

614. 36 
10.10 


1.52 

.02 
Nil 














14.90 
8, 461. 78 


25.47 
6,821.1? 








2.40 

2, 441. 38 


110.98 
80, 393. 69 


Nil 


4, 322. 65 


7, 683. 46 


13, 887. 66 


3.12 


























39.00 

30.15 

1.53 




39.00 

80.85 

121.63 

5.50 

98, 575. 02 
4, 021. 16 

147, 750. 79 


Nil 










7.40 


Nil 


114.00 


1.32 




3.20 


Nil 




5.50 

5, 052. 67 
484.50 

15,443.53 


Nil 


23, 043. 75 
386. 36 

8, 533. 92 


6, 475. 67 
186. 68 

20, 136. 77 


5. 497. 351 10, 308. 38 
408.97 512.59 

11.868. 94| 13,927.85 


7, 545. 99 
612. 92 

11,324.71 


3.83 
.16 

5.75 


331, 374. 23 
12.89 


152, 797. 28 ! 
5.94 


203, 606. 01 1 194,573.11 
7.921 7.45 


275, 431. 54 
10.71 


212, 591. 54 
8.27 


570,866.36 
100. 00 


100. 00 



262342 — 41— No. 19- 



-14 



190 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Boat and ship utensils 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1037 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture- 




$442.94 
316. 18 






$35. 30 

304.00 

68.75 






$153. 00 
7.50 


$183. 94 
12.76 


$280. 58 
637.50 


$575. 30 
1*5. 15 








Labor 




4. 35 
18, 310l 00 












20, 558. 24 


32, 707. 11 


4, 305. 00 


22, 048. 35 


6,445.00 


Post Office 


State 
















391. 81 
503.00 


65.57 
1, 617. 00 


200.48 
1, 756. 00 


885.36 
3, 794. 00 


2, 350. 50 
1, 832. 00 


66.00 
2, 164. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps. 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion. 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 
Government 














Export-Import Bank 














Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration -. 














Federal Communications 
Commission .. 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 














Federal Power Commis- 
sion _ 














Federal Reserve Board... 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 














Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration -.- 


2.39 






1.50 




533.06 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 








Interstate Commerce 
Commission 














Library of Congress 














Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics 


295.97 


813. 80 


181. 36 


652. 76 


667.13 


725.10 


National Archives.. 














National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 














National Training 
School for Boys 














Panama Canal 




14.80 


16.39 


132. 98 


36.75 


28.66 


Reconstruction Finance 




Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 














Securities and Exchange 
Commission.. 










































Tariff Commission 














Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority . 










566.38 
















Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


442.00 


186. 89 


23.68 


218.08 


22.50 


145.28 




Total 


22, 353. 91 
5.57 


21,771.53 
5.43 


35, 081. 72 
8.76 


10, 907. 76 
' 2.70 


27, 921. 66 
6.95 


10, 827. 55 
2.70 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



191 



— Class No. 28 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 














$478.24 
3, 701. 66 
1, 633. 16 


0.01 


$427.00 
532.00 


$173. 00 


$75.00 
198.50 


$265.00 


$433. 45 


$515. 21 
41.00 


.92 
.40 












3.50 
32, 573. 80 










7.85 
334, 201. 37 


Nil 


50,631.00 


337.25 


25, 350. 27 


7, 018. 00 


68, 917. 35 


83.62 


















1, 219. 02 

2, 701. 00 


708. 52 
1, 861. 92 


69.78 
846. 53 


563.10 
1, 405. 47 


535.90 
3, 558. 00 


1, 103, 78 
852.00 


8,159.82 
22, 890. 92 


2.15 
' 5.57 


















































































































































































































































285.4.7 


228.01 


100.13 


51.48 


12.11 


99.10 


1, 313. 25 


.33 


































475. 70 


1, 005. 68 


848.48 




2, 487. 34 


669.68 


8, 823. 00 


2.20 






















































286.05 


16.08 


24.54 


36.34 


14.79 


12, 610. 72 


13, 218. 10 


3.30 










































2.00" 




2.00 


Nil 




































71.00 
24.00 

559.62 


181.04 
23.28 

22.75 


63.60 


30.98 


913.00 
50.86 

5, 875. 17 


.02 




3.58 
97.50 


Nil 


250.46 


2, 851. 16 


1, 055. 25 


1.48 


56, 807. 70 
14. 07 


36, 671. 59 
9.12 


48, 154. 83 
11.90 


27, 898. 73 
7.20 


16, 976. 35i 85 895. 07 
4.23| 21.37 

1 


401, 268. 40' 

ldO. O0 ; 100. 00 



192 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Duck; canvas; tentage; including 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


.Executive departments: 


$12, 073. 07 

700.28 

3, 601. 55 


S3, 408. 72 

349. 73 

7, 299. 97 


$3, 802. 71 
1, 087. 72 
3, 533. 52 


$7, 806. 18 

660.88 

2, 299. 47 


$7, 071. 52 
1, 277. 85 
1,850.37 


$8, 824. 90 

736. 65 

2, 360. 67 






Justice 


Labor? 


100.56 

1, 917. 76 

72, 057. 92 


7.20 

140, 837. 50 

30.00 


4.50 

44, 604. 41 

5.00 


133.55 
39, 640. 91 
6, 139. 21 




38.55 

16, 404. 67 

102 803. 12 




13, 003. 70 
15.00 


Post Office 


State 


Treasury 


653.51 
26, 857. 00 


3, 305. 45 
7,284.00 


2, 614. 84 
14,061.00 


4, 440. 85 
144, 022. 00 


3, 586. 40 
10, 228. 00 


632.54 
18, 950. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity... — 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion... 















Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration. 














District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 


2,068.42 


610.00 


9.50 


346. 10 


55.96 


210. 55 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration -. 














Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration. . 


31.80 






18.50 




16.95 


Federal Power Commis- 
sion 








Federal Reserve Board... 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 














Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation.. 










49.95 
549.94 




Inland Waterways Cor- 


2, 135. 68 
81.00 


2, 958. 19 
10.00 


1, 620. 82 
53.06 


4, 157. 16 
38.20 


280.03 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 


Interstate Commerce 
Commission 




















Maritime Commission. . . 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics- 


780.60 


987. 78 


574.04 


1, 228. 39 


512. 82 
46.80 


750.40 


National Archives . 




38.00 








National Labor Rela- 












National Training 














Panama Canal 


2, 233. 34 


909.27 


7, 790. 50 


966.90 


448.48 


1,079. i4 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration . 






139.50 






25.00 


Securities and Exchange 
Commission 














55.72 


67.70 
42.75 








Social Security Board 








1.00 












Tennessee Valley Au- 
thor! tv 




474. 00 


37. 50 
635. 95 

5, 716. 42 


143. 70 
1, 240. 41 

4, 783. 10 


260. 40 


1. 248. 00 






158. 61 485. 66 
942.58 5,748.45 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration ..1 

Total 

Percent of grand total- 


5, 374. 04 


19, 469. 75 


130, 666. 53 
5.99 


188, 035. 28 
8.27 


86, 401. 44 
3.80 


218, 065. 51 
9.60 


40, 058. 381 
1.76 


160, 596. 18 
7.07 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

•manufactured articles — Class No. 24 



193 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 

months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$31, 910. 86 
1,011.00 
6, 947. 20 


$21, 174. 00 

315.00 

4, 929. 63 


$9,281.34 

271.00 

1, 722. 95 


$9, 044. 65 

259.00 

1,981.18 


$3, 887. 88 
1, 589. 39 
6, 836. 04 


$17, 704. 29 

581. 19 

5, 781. 52 


$135, 990. 12 
8, 839. 59 
49, 144. 07 


6.15 

.40 

2.16 






146. 76 

874. 92 

19.25 


117. 85 

25, 143. 90 

17.00 


20.00 

25, 081. 15 

116. 30 




568.97 
682, 653. 80 
733, 746. 05 


.02 


62, 159. 13 
£.45 


146, 756. 00 
552, 537. 80 


166, 229. 75 


30.25 
32.42 






2, 568. 69 
205, 842. 00 


1, 076. 01 
5, 045. 35 


2, 317. 22 
7, 212. 09 


1, 251. 53 
5, 636. 96 


849. 70 
17, 709. 00 


1, 141. 27 
7, 398. 00 


24, 438. 01 
470, 245. 40 


1.08 
20.04 


































































131. 96 


357.80 


552.90 


607. 96 


123.60 


400.80 


5, 475. 55 


.20 














































67.25 


Nil 




























































































49.95 
19, 229. 73 

202.66 


Nil 


1, 535. 03 


27.56 
20.40 


2, 127. 81 


482. 73 


2, 386. 57 


968.21 


.85 
.01 





























1, 638. 50 


488.50 


355. 00 620. 14 


2, 738. 01 


2,164.87 


12, 839. 05 

46.80 
38.00 


.56 
Nil 














Nil 
































598. 86 


1, 132. 22 


3, 533. 14 


354. 48 


2, 750. 65 


660.92 


22, 457. 90 


1.02 














164.50 


Nil 




























123.42 
43.75 


Nil 














Nil 
















30.00 
400.91 

4, 866. 74 


288. 97 
288. 25 

5, 476. 15 


21.25 

1, 128.80 

6, 454. 62 


88.00 
690. 50 

6,523.66 


406. 05 
284.51 

18, 036. 85 


501. 85 
112. 57 

17,629.80 


3, 499. 72 
5, 426. 17 

101,022.16 


.15 
.24 

4.45 


319,646.33! 739,913.64 
13. 86j 32. 48] 


36, 019. 05 ( 52, 819. 54 
1. 57 2. 31 


82, 815. 70 ! 221, 275. 04 
3. 64 1 9. 65 

! 


2, 276, 312. 62 
100.00 


100.00 



194 



CONCENTRATION OF. ECONOMIC POWER 

Tobacco -products: Cigars; cigarettes; and all 1 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$60.42 


$66.57 


$295. 47 


$5.42 


$53.46 


$229.01 


Commerce 




2, 431. 32 


3, 695. 50 


4, 187. 63 


2, 720. 96 


1, 159. 50 


2, 287. 22 


Justice 


Labor 


13.68 
133, 506. 91 


28.69 
127, 102. 70 






81.00 
53, 752. 03 




Navy 

Post Office 


153, 787. 66 


53, 071. 26 


64, 010. 03 


State 














Treasury 


1, 612. 52 
126, 642. 00 


1, 203. 28 
147, 996. 00 


1, 452. 41 
96, 532. 00 


1, 896. 33 
110, 407. 00 


1, 397. 87 
150, 153. 00 


2, 600. 80 
175, 169. 00 


War... 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity.- .- 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps. 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 


872.50 


650.00 


1, 101. 00 


1, 184. 80 


1, 622. 00 


1, 073. 80 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration__ 














Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration. 














Federal Power Commis- 
sion. 














Federal Reserve Board... 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion... 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate_ Commerce 




























Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Corn- 


3, 529. 47 


2, 543. 64 


2, 302. 86 


3, 149. 05 


2, 673. 93 


2, 751. 08 
















National Labor Rela- 














National Training 
School for Boys 




110.00 
19, 309. 85 


120.00 
24, 722. 54 






120.75 
12,665.66 


Panama Canal 


29, 172. 89 


16, 581. 32 


20,088.66 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 








4, 289. 73 
6, 152. 67 

19.60 


151.96 
32, 808. 79 

3.25 


294.57 
1, 446. 41 


Veterans' Administration . 
Works Progress Admin- 


11, 399. 38 
48.47 


33, 788. 47 


11,525,72 
9.60 






Total 


309, 289. 56 
8.78 


336, 494. 70 
9.53 


296, 036. 89 
8. 68 


199, 478. 14 
5.86 


263. 945. 45 
7.88 


252, 648. 33 
7.35 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTKATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 

accessories, outfits, and supplies — Class No. 25 



195 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1038 


of grand 
total 


$901. 91 


$2, 362. 59 


$3, 584. 35 


$495. 15 


$765.00 


$147. 17 


$8, 966. 52 


0.26 


4, 285. 43 


2, 843. 67 


4, 614. 70 


3, 719. 33 


679. 67 


6, 178. 16 


38, 803. 09 


1.13 


16.68 
82, 037. 03 










95.90 
71, 140. 07 


235.95 
1, 018, 173. 56 


Nil 


63, 188. 56 


79, 140. 87 


102, 064. 83 


45, 371. 61 


29.65. 


















1,106.53 
166, 660. 00 


1, 178. 87 
164, 960. 80 


1, 521. 64 
133, 638. 23 


1. 533. 88 
210, 789. 38 


1. 425. 41 
164,831.00 


1, 556. 26 
183, 917. 00 


18, 485. 80 
1, 831, 695. 41 


.54 
53.25- 




































































1, 167. 50 


2, 406. 80 


1, 733. 25 




2, 792. 64 


14, 604. 29 


.43- 










































3.00 


3.82 


4.65 






11.47 


Nil 


























































































































































3, 582. 00 


3, 465. 35 


2, 836. 10 


2,874.60 


2, 049. 71 


3,792.93 


35, 550. 72 


1.01 




































194. 81 
18, 942. 15 








194. 81 
5, 143. 29 


740. 37 
247, 350. 85 


.02 


18, 105. 51 


18, 441. 62 


32, 780. 68 


31, 396. 68 


7.18 


































































■ 
















6, 453. 21 
2, 410. 31 

77 


3, 009. 06 
31, 538. 74 

.50 


2, 196. 22 
21, 656. 43 


3, 277. 48 
12, 344. 10 


2, 872. 41 
15, 790. 52 


1, 982. 00 
17, 694. 53 


24, 526. 64 
198, 556. 07 

82.19 


.7* 
6.80 

Nil 












285, 559. 38 
8.30 


292, 855. 60 
8.56 


270, 040. 78 
7.87 


371, 617. 33 
10. 78 


265, 182. 01 
7.78 


294, 634. 76 
8.63 


3, 437, 782. 93 
100.00 


100.00. 



196 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Furniture — 



Ageney 



Month 



December January 
1937 1938 



Februarj 
1938 



March 
1938 



April 
1938 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce ... r 

Interior 

Justice -. 

Labor... 

Navy 

Post Office _ 

State 

Treasury 

War 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion... 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration. -. 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export- Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration. _ 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion 

Federal Reserve Board. .. 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion. 

•General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 

Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission . . . 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. 

National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 

National Training 
School for boys... 

Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission 

Smithsonian Institution.. 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 

Works Progress Admin- 
istration 



$279, 559. 49 

1, 287. 07 

64, 513. 90 

10, 639. 19 

5, 009. 41 

50, 788. 82 

53, 286. 68 

18, 228. 55 

196, 321. 52 

54, 770. 00 



25.23 
743. 31 
808.25 



15, 772. 55 



653. 81 

2, 309. 54 

4, 243. 24 

2, 078. 48 
8, 794. 42 

3, 433. 13 

2, 734. 66 

2, 399. 21 

641. 86 

25.48 

239. 76 

6, 462. 62 



4, 490. 74 

5.00 
3, 468. 98 

2, 041. 95 

5.00 
7, 354. 93 

555. 86 

2, 233. 04 

997. 56 

249. 52 

41, 496. 22 

287. 94 



8, 298. 55 
11,418.13 



Total 

Percent of grand total . 



867, 673. 60 
9.61 



$30, 821. 7 
2, 483. 43 
45, 532. 26 
21, 642. 53 
1, 606. 83 
26, 527. 33 
38, 830. 98 
16, 440. 59 

113,818.16 
31,616.00 



88.00 
740. 37 



9, 093. 68 



504.10 

1,062.60 

4, 258. 04 

730. 19 
481. 67 

468.33 

657. 31 

290.44 

927. 96 

100.72 

54.00 
1, 571. 86 



1, 075. 96 



1, 322. 86 
2, 003. 82 



371. 29 



7, 755. 04 

613. 45 

42.74 

306. 03 

1, 267. 91 

89, 589. 98 

261. 22 

168.95 
10, 456. 53 

16, 096. 70 



$36, 275. 64 
2, 939. 08 
32, 647. 07 
18, 224. 18 
3, 040. 70 
24,002.54 
60, 241. 14 
23, 513. 46 

155, 765. 18 
54, 654. 00 



15.00 
108.56 



2, 402. 64 



1, 230. 03 

324. 16 

4, 511. 94 

1, 638. 19 
3, 457. 80 

1, 880. 61 

1,007.11 

1, 542. 48 

175. 71 

11.47 

287.68 

1,878.87 



4, 810. 32 



291. 25 
1,949.06 



145. 00 
7, 032. 39 

580.02 

17.00 

2, 730. 86 
346. 73 

3, 893.74 
266. 04 

880. 79 
3, 349. 43 

19, 878. 00 



$39, 371. 57 
9, 944. 91 
74, 652. 26 
22,069.12 
2, 022. 58 
54, 185. 24 
40, 137. 90 
17, 630. 43 

154, 930. 72 
45, 513. 00 



102. 25 



416. 86 
124. 40 



5, 024. 97 



508.12 

584.73 

1, 157. 09 

2, 384. 18 
438. 21 

3, 193, 08 
462.28 
523.56 

1, 167. 66 



211. 35 
2, 046. 27 



481, 681. 63 1 
5.44, 



479, 347. 87 
5.41 



2,411.95 



89.02 
725. 31 



657.00 



4, 175. 34 

875. 31 

233. 14 

2, 049. 47 

890. 25 

12, 161. 32 

139. 23 

1, 494. 70 
17,091.87 

17,409.43 



539, 206. 08 
5.95 



$37, 243. 69 

9, 527. 70 

55, 380. 58 

29, 384. 55 

2, 324. 35 

23,941.60 

29, 892. 75 

27, 347. 26 

330, 741. 66 

145, 972. 00 



115. 48 



23.15 
1,712 



11,329.93 



873. 92 

1, 102. 21 

3, 713. 83 

530. 17 
23, 213. 12 

2, 067. 28 

536. 43 

853. 15 

807. 26 

61.74 



5, 009. 08 



1, 193. 25 

93.93 
292. 83 

1, 580. 80 

96.56 
6, 322. 27 

823. 61 

26.25 

11,308.24 

318. 22 
128, 068. 92 

199. 04 

319. 37 
17, 866. 03 

8, 312.^61 



920, 557. 10 
10.26 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



197 



Class No. 26 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$327, 872. 78 

18, 232. 00 

192, 258. 56 

29, 310. 16 

13, 396. 33 

76, 876. 76 

54, 734. 94 

16, 400. 62 

253, 349. 48 

238, 352. 00 


$23, 330. 59 
1, 745. 00 
29, 521. 95 
35, 308. 01 
4, 718. 71 
45, 167. 07 
72, 481. 64 
21,306.67 

161, 598. 60 
56, 934. 43 


$24, 905. 70 

903.00 

32, 446. 88 

54, 678. 01 

1, 808. 17 

125, 770. 33 

98, 724. 66 

5, 965. 56 

223, 193. 01 

58, 980. 21 


$30, 782. 74 

1, 276. 00 

23, 020. 13 

52, 364. 30 

4, 273. 03 

55, 227. 22 

67, 570. 20 

3, 297. 70 

135, 688. 86 

258, 446. 06 


$27, 211. 57 
8, 126. 42 
38, 689. 93 
47, 802. 57 
6, 520. 24 
91, 714. 49 
70, 615. 05 
14, 659. 38 

219, 079. 38 
82, 224. 00 


$33, 684. 12 
2, 032. 58 
42, 914. 10 
51, 243. 15 
7, 286. 74 
71, 014. 80 
50, 344. 4ft 
23, 100. 39 
137, 059. 89 
183, 972. 55 


$969, 274. 05 

66, 208. 06 

694, 152. 98 

384, 713. 85 

54, 379. 09 

699, 544. 04 

678, 372. 69 

189, 565. 93 

2, 258, 169. 81 

1,280,082.25 


10.78 
.74 
7.72 
4.27 
.60 
7.73 
7.64 
2.12 
25.19 
14.22 


9.75 




217. 52 


26.25 




178. 15 


663.18 
25.23 

4, 740. 71 
24, 806. 74 


.01 






Nil 


75.49 
6, 115. 32 












.05 


451.98 


561.74 


1, 351. 49 


11,982.73 


274.45 


.30 




267.67 
5, 914. 45 




456.76 
4, 775. 25 


219.27 
15,005.36 


634.58 
2,901.71 


1, 578. 27 
112, 391. 41 


.02 


15, 271. 74 


10, 994. 84 


1.24 


332.86 


1, 377. 55 


3, 585. 73 


8, 963. 15 


9, 875. 97 


2, 421. 56 


30, 509. 02 


.32 


318.29 


1,078.15 


551.25 


539.98 


381.40 


3.48 


9, 352. 41 


.10 


1,406.44 


5, 988. 19 


7, 185. 69 


8,383.20 


5, 380. 51 


4, 250. 21 


62, 326. 95 


.69 


2, 218. 16 
361.50 


i, 818. 93 
106.90 


1, 008. 82 
257.37 


6, 081. 62 
299.62 


823.90 
217. 52 


2, 261. 62 
1, 336. 39 


21, 574. 26 
39, 046. 44 


.24 
.43 


16, 552. 52 


17.30 


407.27 


79.65 


334. 07 


113.08 


33, 376. 61 


.37 


740.23 


1,009.88 


512.09 


183. 47 


492.31 


1, 224 87 


10. 019. 89 


.10 


2, 481. 82 

3, 730. 33 


1, 258. 18 


776. 37 




1, 612. 35 


6, 494. 72 


18, 605. 13 


.20 


1, 210/03 


1, 886. 35 


1, 400. 05 


1,063.41 


732. 67 


14, 312. 02 


.10 


47.27 


142.68 


236. 32 


40.22 


25.55 


154.86 


2, 033. 46 


.02 


178. 69 


234.0* 


627.61 


511.11 


396.66 


452. 10 


3, 372. 54 


.03 


8, 660. 62 


787.93 


:?t85 


552.93 


999.31 


1, 354. 29 


34, 860. 05 


.40 


6, 775. 40 


5, 808. 13 


9, 323. 08 


31, 523. 31 


3, 924. 24 


4, 826. 84 


83, 404. 14 


.92 




210. 30 
462. 01 


285.66 
805.99 


610. 67 
197. 65 


395. 35 
883.53 


16.70 
1,010.17 


4, 030. 76 
20, 053. 27 


.04 


1, 742. 88 


.20 


3, 299. 27 


1, 347. 36 


826. 69 


1, 124. 85 


1, 686. 32 


240.07 


18, 154. 03 


.20 


647.50 
3, 223. 26 




112. 95 
12, 471. 30 


7.28 
29, 037. 91 


285.42 
4, 264. 73 




1, 299. 71 
93, 246. 27 


.01 


3, 904. 27 


2, 124. 27 


1.03 


6, 725. 76 


3, 482. 78 


3, 623. 59 


2, 430. 38 


3, 318. 76 


2, 926. 17 


31,041.00 


.34 


8, 954. 26 


1,003.96 


840.65 


1, 529. 07 


2, 328. 04 


2, 125. 86 


19, 588. 04 


.21 


51.93 

856.99 

43, 471. 27 

303. 48 


906.05 

532. 30 

2, 692. 43 

148. 72 


10, 821. 70 

1,027.08 

9, 209. 48 

420.99 


10, 490. 10 

836.40 

2, 767. 72 

272. 89 


4, 420. 51 

60.98 

4,317.35 

724. 38 


6, 281. 44 
393.00 

5, 079. 61 
109.14 


53, 230. 77 

7, 580. 62 

351,038.63 

3, 936. 95 


.58 

.08 

3.92 

.04 


8, 652. 21 
32, 787. 88 


1, 052. 42 
2, 333. 23 


1, 422. 07 
3, 481. 66 


303. 01 
10, 060. 17 


5, 073. 19 
18, 716. 86 


1,078.94 
21, 453. 09 


23, 624. 45 
195, 077. 17 


.26 
2.16 


44, 872. 83 


60, 387. 59 


29, 905. 01 


26, 769. 26 


78, 466. 34 


36, 607. 01 


403, 347. 79 


4.48 


1, 441, 649. 58 
15.90 


558 048. 11 
6.17 


741, 267. 25 
8.21 


783, 551. 65 
8.68 


784,319.35 
8.79 


711,713.85 
7.85 


9, 006, 710. 67 
100.00 


100.00 



iy« 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Dry goods: Bedding, buttons, curtains, draperies, findings, floor 



Agency 



Month 



December 
1937 



January 
1938 



February 
1938 



March 
1938 



April 
1938 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce...,. 

Interior 

Justice 

Labor 

Navy... 

Post Office... 

State 

Treasury 

War 



[ndependent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity - 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion. 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion .- 

Federal Reserve Board... 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 

Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation... 

inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission . . . 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics . . 

National Archives. 

National Labor R e 1 a - 
tions Board 

Natioral Training 
School for Boys 

Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration.. 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority _ 

Veterans' Administration. 

Works Progress Admin- 
istration 



$8, 849. 91 

1, 766. 96 

32, 107. 21 



$12, 323. 29 

5, 284. 09 

36, 913. 80 



$11,417. 
3, 561. 24 
20, 567. 98 



126.80 

1, 197, 047. 84 

6, 249. 33 



1, 320. 29 

138, 464. 74 

4, 524. 71 



874.24 

112,695.45 

2, 970. 28 



10, 533. 98 
507, 735. 00 



2.80 

14.50 

173. 26 

335.50 



8, 879. 27 



1, 380. 73 

85.04 

1, 363. 23 



696. 36 

14.60 

589. 17 

10, 354. 74 



494. 43 
189. 19 



1,094.81 



25.00 
107. 18 



Total 

Percent of grand total. 



280.00 
23, 042. 77 

75.40 

38.64 

138. 92 

221. 60 

37.32 



30, 849. 57 
208, 443. 00 



2.90 



16, 504. 21 
251, 842. 00 



8.52 



3.15 
79.72 



5, 733. 07 



259.00 



450.74 

114.54 
3, 041. 08 

105.00 

85.88 

8, 439. 42 

461, 52 

254.50 

63.86 
23.45 



1, 574. 42 



3.05 
11.80 



365. 00 
21, 738. 22 



11.51 
26.70 



35.50 
1, 160. 23 



5.06 
11.00 



4, 879. 42 



102.51 

36.00 

115. 93 

275. 92 
247. 67 

347. 43 

128.96 

8, 354. 47 
92.48 

2, 414. 24 

310. 81 

100. 82 



$12, 863. 33 

3, 529. 69 

46, 710. 76 



$11,357.24 

6,711.07 

56, 629. 46 



387. 09 

210, 591. 37 

6, 542. 43 



278. 93 

294, 079. 06 

7, 412. 63 



21, 802. 30 
431,275.00 



23, 232. 17 
291, 807. 00 



3.26 



4.05 
1.44 



3.36 
8.74 



9, 124. 97 



4, 161. 60 



3, 661. 59 
187. 15 



23, 352. 80 
65.58 



4, 639. 80 
79, 286. 40 



60, 217. 82 



199, 836. 34 
199, 600. 25 



1,958,546.52 1, 

7.55 



881, 604. 34 
7. I 1 ? 



150.29 
66.62 

744. 57 
22.00 



70, 732. 89 
617, 912. 20 



1, 154, 760. 22 
4.40 



97.73 

21.20 

181.42 

285.70 
23.01 

97.30 

128.00 

7, 230. 19 

276. 25 

92.17 

1, 125. 80 

17. 



2, 648. 48 

9.66 



233.00 
39, 116. 58 



231. 16 
2.56 



126. 62 
560. 86 



70, 523. 22 
753, 553. 61 



364. 36 
38.50 

618. 77 

25.21 
584. 76 

126. 96 

82.57 

14,811.61 

169. 31 

26.88 

104.00 
63.00 



1, 829. 49 



23.60 
295.90 



1,618,413.37 
6.15 



23, 956. 22 

103. 62 

11.00 

428.23 
240. 99 
326. 51 
67.20 

2, 246. 58 

21, 267. 58 

103, 203. 09 



866, 700. 45 
3.28 



1, 428, 183. 33 
5.43 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
coverings, notions, textiles, trimmings, yarns, etc. — Class No. 27 



19P 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$37, 306. 03 

4, 643. 00 

111, 994. 01 


$11, 574. 55 
4, 890. 00 
27, 034. 91 


$21,615.95 

1, 789. 00 

84, 635. 51 


$22, 590. 50 

2, 373. 00 

46, 332. 00 


$17, 755. 37 

2, 695. 71 

21, 698. 84 


$15, 725. 58 

2, 081. 44 

31,101.29 


$200, 537. 54 

44, 132. 31 

608, 714. 47 


0.76 

.17 

2.31 


688.60 

292, 668. 75 

8, 767. 85 


23.70 
87,119.41 
13, 975. 93 


340. 76 

193, 938. 88 

10, 878, 59 


2, 016. 55 
32, 407. 36 
14, 784. 89 


800.63 

152, 630. 59 

4, 237. 77 


744.80 

1,060,112.92 

5, 661. 23 


7, 717. 27 

4, 047, 352. 81 

95, 373. 56 


.03 

15.28 

.36 


24, 199. 67 
684,768.00 


19, 735. 94 
2, 186, 208. 55 


11, 229. 25 
701, 508. 90 


17, 782. 82 
732, 778. 30 

2.70 


25, 448. 32 
308, 654. 00 

2.70 


17, 746. 18 
1, 271, 635. 95 

2.70 


241, 448. 95 
8, 229, 250. 70 

26.93 

15.04 

198.44 

1, 357. 22 


.92 
31.11 

Nil 




.54 




Nil 


4.74 
334. 95 










Nil 


17.48 


26.22 


55.41 


486.76 




Nil 






17, 133. 58 
2.00 

14.00 

14.40 

10.60 

12.40 


11,080.99 


8,797.48 


6, 789. 33 


17, 128. 32 


5, 386. 81 


106, 657. 78 
2.00 

3,676.21 

297.75 

7, 794. 60 

1, 322. 97 
6, 095. 88 

23, 594. 66 
1, 674. 75 

89,341.81 
3, 046. 85 

11,052.96 

5, 929. 62 
2, 354. 32 


.40 
Nil 


842.89 

29.90 

227. 25 

106. 73 
174. 36 

11.80 

134.90 

3, 940. 74 

70.86 

19.25 

18.00 
43.92 


16.24 




143.00 

31.57 

455. 74 


257. 45 


.01 


41.14 

310. 02 

91.36 
76.70 


Nil 


268. 63 

29.38 
125. 89 

8.75 

5.52 

8, 301. 28 

717. 12 

567. 36 

63.38 
30.02 


3, 244. 42 
376. 73 


.03 
Nil 




.02 


13, 230. 04 

81.88 

2,668.83 

730. 95 

814. 66 

406.83 
1, 718. 98 


60.00 

5.93 

6, 461. 43 

66.92 

245.92 

383.28 
13.00 


29.30 

147. 74 

7, 287. 40 

13.00 
1, 752. 98 

133. 65 
43.92 


.10 


159.88 
3,891.54 

34.08 
1, 191. 67 

2, 767. 70 
48.84 


Nil 
.34 
.01 
.04 

.02 
.01 


4, 115. 30 


48, 075. 42 

11.97 
17.48 

207.41 

260.89 
25, 485. 05 

1.84 

69.44 

57.76 

22.40 

1, 386. 66 

21.67 

7, 642. 50 
35, 858. 75 

183, 994. 97 


17, 512. 33 
28.35 


15, 362. 62 


6, 221. 08 

123.36 
8.50 


1, 822. 07 

90.50 
2.60 


105, 997. 19 

1, 203. 62 
630.54 

207.41 

3, 554. 19 
419, 068. 79 

1, 524. 34 

310.22 

6, 829. 75 

1, 268. 30 

19, 069. 15 

163. 87 

59, 770. 68 
807, 001. 51 

11, 215, 102. 60 


.40 
.01 


129.28 


2.60 


Nil 




Nil 


1, 448. 91 
22, 940. 06 

419. 74 

23.46 

1,331.67 

108. 14 

11,612.41 

13.00 

12, 494. 70 
47, 760. 98 

7, 034, 033. 95 


247.44 
117,143.43 

2.08 


183. 55 
33, 564. 88 

120.78 

73.68 

1, 227. 74 

12.82 

481. 76 


411.80 
37, 497. 90 

227.82 

19.00 

149. 21 

24.35 

696. 44 


123.60 
28, 766. 87 


.01 

1.18 

.01 


23.24 

1, 637. 55 

9.48 

727.17 

40.00 

781.64 
102, 464. 88 

655, 613. 50 


Nil 


1, 572. 92 
272. 78 
807. 69 


.03 
Nil 
.07 
Nil 


10, 086. 29 
111,007.74 

95, 522. 82 


9, 058. 68 
12, 492. 70 

118,912.56 


12, 820. 49 
13, 364. 17 

138, 855. 91 


.23 
3.35 

42.40 


8,388:652.15 
31.85 


2, 670, 396. 81 
9.80 


1, 399, 087. 98 
5.30 


1, 078, 010. 06 
3.84 


769, 725. 83 
2.92 


3, 215, 588. 49 
12.31 


26, 379, 669. 65 
100.00 


100.00 



200 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Blank forms — 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1«38 


February 
1938 


Match 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 
Agriculture 


$2, 988. 75 


$2, 259. 92 
11,765.00 
6, 826. 58 


$2, 618. 07 


$6, 932. 50 

41.20 

3,342 2 


$1, 778. 53 

20.00 

2, 212. 49 


$3, 001. 39 
1,368.00 
7,113.80 




Interior 


4, 261. 26 


3, 291. 81 


Justice .. 


Labor 


1, 746. 25 
SiJO.OO 




118. 75 
321. 00 


327. 00 
1, 136.00 


867.66 


673. 75 
10.50 


Navy 




Post Office 






State-. 
















81, 257. 39 
5, 618. 00 


49, 837. 27 
1, 305. 00 


49, 980. 62 
2, 021. 00 


58, 896. 28 
3,001.00 

3.72 


22, 862. 55 
1, 134. 00 

27.18 
.57 


8, 794. 69 
1, 256. 00 


War.. -. 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 


1.38 


5.57 


1.44 


.25 


Civilian Conservation 




Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration _. _ 




25.16 
1, 714. 70 


1,558.71 
2, 026. 47 


1,454.40 
2, 867. 37 


649.94 
8, 540. 03 


474. 00 
4, 343. 05 


District of Columbia 


4, 142. 06 




Farm Credit Adminis- 


2, 495. 95 1. 206. 98 


9, 555. 84 
531. 30 


23, 034. 95 

5, 893. 82 

512. 55 

203.40 
644.81 


5, 069. 00 

3, 230. 00 

45.50 

2, 486. 95 
371. 10 


2, 035. 80 

3, 735. 00 

2.00 

572. 49 
229.83 


Federal Communications 
Commission . . 


2, 702. 97 

1, 799. 35 

637.00 
904.81 


1, 001. 69 


Federal Housing Admin- 


Federal Power Commis- 


261.58 
1, 370. 70 


755. 70 
704.22 


Federal Reserve Board.__ 
Federal Trade Commis- 


Oeneral Accounting 


5, 268. 20 


7,395.04 


5, 917. 54 


1, 773. 00 


5, 634. 27 


2,396.11 


Government Printing 
Office . 


Home Owners' -Loan 


2, 234. 05 
589.73 

150.00 


11,634.85 
2, 471. 53 

6 r 00 


7, 453. 26 
320.95 

66.75 


26, 195. 30 
162.66 

140.00 


8, 248. 22 
570. 33 

68.05 


10, 065. 93 
381.43 

73.00 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration __ 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 


















42.09 


3, 045. 40 


41.27 




1, 767. 25 


1, 185. 80 
2.18 


National Advisory Corn- 
















National Labor Rela- 


322. 59 


264.93 


589.00 


110.00 


129. 22 


616. 28 


National Training 
School for Boys 
















Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 


14, 698. 57 


6, 610. 88 


5, 865. 47 


6, 923. 63 


26, 981. 24 


28, 400. 55 
536. 45 


Rural Electrification Ad- 


Securities and Exchange 


























Social Security Board 


21,390.79 


3. 930. 48 


50, 149. 62 


98, 500. 78 


67, 101. 16 


4, 256. 64 


Tennessee Valley Au- 








5,099.44 


132. 20 
320. 00 

100.24 


225. 44 
1, 003. 00 

602. 80 










Works Progress Admin- 


179. 89 


1, 156. 55 


79.25 


148. 75 




Total 


154, 221. 08 
6.88 


114, 154. 81 
5.08 


143, 968. 04 
6.43 


247, 344. 58 
11.02 


160, 347. 68 
7.23 


83, 356. 16 
3.72 


Percent of grand total. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



201 



■Class No. 28 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$1, 643. 35 

138.00 

10, 679. 26 


$1, 023. 86 


$4, 209. 49 

102.00 

3, 499. 70 


$920. 22 

282.00 

5, 477. 20 


$2, 087. 64 
1, 219. 00 
2, 751. 96 


$2, 884. 79 


$32, 348. 51 
14, 935. 20 
59, 845. 93 


1.44 
.67 


9, 922. 10 


477. 75 


2.65 


1, 269. 05 


31.00 
536. 29 


3, 022. 36 

4, 560. 00 


430. 26 
1,426.00 


686. 00 
1, 006. 00 


25.00 
766.00 


9, 197. 08 
10, 561. 79 


.41 
.47 






















166, 424. 46 
1, 233. 00 


139, 584. 78 
1, 789. 00 

24.92 
.57 


128,995.31 
1, 392. 52 

74.93 
.50 


137, 784. 46 
952. 93 


113, 229. 54 
1, 368. 00 

17.47 
58.85 


74, 301. 92 
4. 750. 00 

161. 30 
1.93 


1,031,949.27 
25. 820. 45 

309.52 
71.06 


46.18 
1.15 

.01 




Nil 
























2, 456. 89 
6, 234. 41 


1, 440. 43 
28, 233. 66 


26, 367. 02 
9, 143. 73 


434.35 
9, 398. 10 


2, 531. 63 
4, 521. 67 




37, 392. 53 

86, 040. 93 
60.19 

69, 262. 10 

25, 046. 36 

2, 359. 40 

8, 269. 09 
5, 899. 53 


1.67 


4, 875. 68 
60.19 

1, 218. 40 

2, 668. 20 


3.84 
Nil 


1, 764. 15 


18, 004. 58 
1, 618. 00 


1, 299. 89 
555.80 


1, 627. 22 
2, 108. 70 


1, 949. 34 
1. 000. 88 


3.09 
1. 12 




.10 


27.92 
604.03 


826. 96 
151. 99 




362.00 
188. 66 




2, 135. 09 
220. 26 


.38 


273. 11 


236. 01 


.26 


4, 821. 92 


5, 055. 19 


5, 218. 71 


7, 620. 34 


4. 423. 80 


3, 614. 00 


59, 138. 12 


2.74 


17,383.08 
219.23 

440.00 


6. 233. 37 
414. 10 

76.60 


5, 103. 91 
335.39 

122.90 


16, 191. 73 
213.08 

179. 72 


7, 869. 22 


6, 427. 10 
149. 61 

128.35 


125, 040. 02 
5, 828. 04 

1, 541. 37 


5.56 
.26 


31.00 


.07 


















1, 609. 95 


2, 123. 75 


1, 820. 12 


1,886.50 


5, 608. 56 


1, 266. 00 


20, 396. 69 

2.18 


.91 

Nil 
















302.93 




163. 61 


30.00 


25.20 


47.80 


2, 601. 56 


.12 






















18, 009. 96 


6, 371. 71 


15,019.07 


6, 031. 98 


7, 608. 23 


12, 131. 72 


154, 653. 01 
536. 45 


6.78 
.02 
















25.40 
99, 384. 03 


80.25 
122. 78 










105. 65 
433, 191. 16 


Nil 


12,391.33 


7, 076. 08 


14, 830. 88 


54, 056. 59 


19.30 


678. 17 
92.50 


471. 03 
1.50 

47.69 


138. 34 


510.07 
192.90 

972. 75 


1, 798. 93 
195.00 

985. 65 


207.28 
62.50 

2, 082. 71 


9, 260. 90 
1, 867. 40 

6, 863. 33 


.41 
.08 


507. 05 


.31 








335,441.69 
14.90 


224, 186. Ill 224,316.79 
10 00 10. 00 


202, 297. 25 
9.11 


176, 040. 46 
7.85 


174, 720. 17 
7.78 


2, 240, 394. 82 
100.00 


100.00 



202 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 

Toilet articles and all accessories-,. 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$1, 923. 66 

40. 0C 

2,473.11 


$1, 582. 31 

190.05 

10, 834. 75 


$2, 887. r 

239.3S 

5, 130. 21 


$3, 613. 55 

202.61 

14, 397. 64 


$2,361.05 

230.11 

2,811.91 


> $2, 336. 70 

! 604.65 

1, 405. 34 










640.04 

96, 404. 65 

6, 447. 65 

22.72 

1,953.17 

131,568.00 


20.97 

36, 757. 61 

271. 85 

35.66 

4, 721. lfl 

24, 802. 00 


113. 67 

71, 035. 53 

399.66 

28.74 

2, 407. 67 

31, 845. 0C 


636.86 

1,745.76 

7, 233. 33 

37.34 

1, 879. 73 

24, 188. OC 

2.17 


257. K 

13, 960. 95 

.13 

22.44 

2, 659. 4S 

46, 266. 0C 


56.97 

11,396.00' 

108. 63 

46.80 

3, 053. 70 

185, 108. 00 1 




Post Office 


State 




War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 












Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 


607.63 


904.26 


545.62 


1, 411. 75 


606.70 


1, 136. 89 


Export-Import Bunk 


Farm Credit Adminis- 


358.00 








434.00 
65.10 




Federal Communications 


108.50 
265.00 
26.04 








Federal Housing Admin- 




4.00 






Federal Power Commis- 




26.04 
















Federal Trade Commis- 














General Accounting 
Office 


240.00 






225.00 


230.00 


230.00 


Government Printing 
Office 






Home Owners' .Loan 




169. 05 


113.66 
59.39 

2.96 


102. 02 


262.35 


143. 62 
107.25 


Inland Waterways Cor- 




International Boundary 
Commission, United 






21.56 


9.39 


Interstate Commerce 






















Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Corn- 


160.35 


64.02 

288.14 
11.00 


90.91 


65.16 


37.50 


102.50 














National Labor Rela- 












National Training 
School for Boys 


30.00 
7,011.86 






' 43.00 
7,017.41 






5, 390. 60 


6, 581. 84 


11,499.57 


7, 382. 701 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 


86.50 
37.60 




108.50 




108.50 
126. 30 
554.00 
151.90 

3,011.45 
9, 954. 84 

2, 291. 67 


108. SO 
332.00 




117.84 


15.20 
809.02 




120.00 










Tennessee Valley Au- 












Veterans' Administration . 
Works Progress Admin- 


7, 373. 72 
3, 960. 01 


12, 234. 33 
7, 676. 84 


6, 658. 37 
4, 985. 44 


20, 386. 14 
6, 835. 90 


7, 230. 60 
9, 256. 09 




Total 


260, 238. 69 
17.91 


106, 472. 01 
7.34 


132, 357. 81 
9.13 


90, 895. 19 
6.25 


97, 912. 49 1 
6.81; 


230, 046. 94 
16.81 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

outfits, and parts — Class No. 29 



203 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


Juno 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$4, 052. 06 

146.00 

12,158.71 


$2, 470, 85 

94.00 

4, 147. 42 


$946. 64 

163.00 

1, 866. 69 


$1, 302. 86 

73.00 

16, 179. 98 


$814. 66 

198.00 

2, 966. 73 


$1,581.38 

258.25 

. 1, 834. 45 


$25, 872. 93 

2, 339. Ofl 

76, 206. 94 


1.78 

.16 

6.27 


531.44 
646.73 


227.39 
8, 068. 55 
11, 073. 60 
29.26 
4, 391. 11 
19, 670. 57 


313. 02 

1, 382. 00 

619.33 

36.52 

2, 730. 36 

13, 761. 25 




185.80 

1, 757. 08 

46.80 

29.67 

3. 000. 76 

22, 514. 00 


694.41 
4, 680. 53 
8, 112. 60 
39.20 
2, 082. 49 
17, 533. 32 


3, 677. 67 
247, 961. 40 
34, 414. 40 
377. 31 
34, 536. 08 
663, 480. 66 

3.98 


.24 


1,126.00 

100.82 

26.68 

2, 473. 76 

40, 860. 61 

1.81 


16.95 
2.37 


23.28 

3, 181. 66 

95, 374. 00 


.02 

2.38 

45.12 

Nil 






























11.40 








18.23 




29.63 


Nil 












662. 47 


7, 777. 10 


889.61 


767.72 


474.51 


932.32 


16, 706. 68 


1.16 


20.00 






.26 

. 38.60 

2.96 

23.16 


480.20 


6.80 

17.90 


1,299.26 
289.20 
321.24 
157.60 


.09 


59.10 




.02 




2.96 


46.32 
23.16 


.02 


36.04 


23.16 




.01 
























279.00 


148.24 


19.00 


466.80 


199.60 


217.00 


2,254.64 


.16 


47.32 




228.76 


100.51 


11.58 


182. 48 
100.87 

3.40 


1, 361. 34 
267.61 

43.06 


.09 




.01 




1.95 


3.80 






Nil 



























88.10 


88.10 


130.50 


160.25 


43.80 
66.00 


148.25 


1,179.44 

344.14 
11.00 


.07 
.02 












Nil 
















34.00 
4. 274. 13 

1,085.00 


74.00 
6, 678. 82 

18.00 






9.65 
15, 671. 43 




190.65 
105, 516. 79 

1, 495. 40 


.01 


8, 350. 46 
6.40 


14, 453. 99 


11,203.98 
386.00 


7.30 
.10 










96.50 
48.20 
434.00 


96.60 




117.60 
87.34 




722.50 
1, 005. 08 
3, 795. 47 

151.90 

5,831.68 
145, 497. 48 

84, 741. 51 


.05 


165.00 
514.00 




75.60 
681.00 


.07 


102.00 


581. 45 


.26 




.01 




955. 67 


98.90 


463.84 
10, 951. 88 

7, 113. 60 


414. 76 
21,274.47 

9, 657. 57 


887.06 
19, 912. 46 

7, 819. 74 


.40 


12,641.44 
8,900.41 


10,861.94 7,017.29 
8, 069. 84 J 8,174.40 


10.02 
5.84 


144,872.19 
9.96 


85, 507. 37 
6.88 


46, 939. 29 
3.23 


97,249.43| 
6.70 


80, 099. 52 
6.52 


79,391.49 
5.46 


1,451, 982. 42 
100.00 


100.00 



204 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 

Bathroom and toilet fixtures; and all 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$8, 896. 53 
1, 238. 25 
6, 043. 80 


$13, 230. 30 

601.60 

13,914.49 


$9, 393. 06 

349. 75 

3,931.43 


$12,375.44 

350.94 

9, 707. 45 


$8, 266. 71 

229.57 

16, 280. 42 


$13,660.82 

751.63 

15, 989. 96 








Labor - 

Navy. 

Pet Office 


8.30 
18, 009. 64 


21.64 
9. 993. 75 


21. .56 
5, 370. 91 


37.08 
14, 344. 99 


.49 

4, 468. 68 


18.60 
8, 6C9. 02 


State 














Treasury. . .. 

War 


1,807.03 
13,697.00 


3, 966. 15 
18, 624. 00 


1, 586. 12 
16, 263. 00 


2, 819. 82 
43, 587. 00 

2.60 


2, 867. 68 
44,113.00 

3.40 


1.809.57 
47, 626. 00 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 










Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion. 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 
Govern ment 


712.52 


342. 92 


383.90 


524.50 


411.30 


589. 40 


Farm Credit Admiois- 


2.70 








2.70 




Fedoral Communications 










Federal Housing Admin- 












.79 


Federal Power Commis- 




2.00 




1.50 


5.00 










Federal Trade Commis- 














General Accounting 
Office... 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 




72.50 
3.70 


16.20 

6.66 






2.88 

8.95 

6.62 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 


4.81 
169. 01 


60.01 


32.82 
6.62 


Interstate Commerce 






















Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics.. 


33.20 
8.40 


38.60 
142. 34 


21.80 
277. 14 


42.20 
266.70 


37.65 
63.90 


86.10 
38.88 


National Labor Rela- 














National Training 




120.00 
1,208. 50 


7, 287. 61 


111.00 
1, 862. 74 


40.54 
1, 169. 14 


199.50 
5, 067. 98 


Panama Canal 


4,713.03 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
















12.00 
1.00 


2.20 
9.84 




27.21 
50.78 


14.98 
41.58 




Social Security Board 


2.37 


19.64 


Tennessee Valley Au- 






756. 65 
1, 263. 24 

18,227.06 














3, 101. 42 
13.70P.75 


3,492.11 
7,013.01 


1, 874. 33 
23, 395. 35 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration. 


14, 914. 59 


15,820.87 




Total 


70,271.81 
5.68 


78,115.40 
6.33 


65, 158. 46 
5.26 


103, 040. 13 
' 8. 35 


88, 561. 40 
7.16 


119, 816. 02 
9.68 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

accessories, outfits, and parts — Class A T o. 30 



205 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
193S 


ol grand 
total 


$41,514.05 
1,281.00 

16, 488. 63 


$7, 035. 50 

409.00 

9,991.66 


$8, 835. 00 
1,997.00 
5, 200. 21 


$2, 716. 60 
1,348.00 
4, 677. 76 


$3. 010. 16 

756.28 

11,949.00 


$2, 948. 63 
1, 885. 48 
10, 689. 83 


$131, 882. 80 

11, 198. fO 

124, 864. 64 


10.69 

.92 

10.08 


99 

io, on! 39 

.42 


13, 583. 10 


99.24 
15, 739. 69 


106. 18 
20, 603. 31 


5.10 
18, 907. 50 


12.68 
19, 556. 41 


331.86 

159, 264. 39 

.42 


.03 

12.89 

Nil 














1, 632: 54 
108, 517. 00 


1, 498. 20 
23, 570. 16 


1,503.71 
11,242.24 


1,749.63 
42, 509. 82 

15.70 


2, 991. 70 
19,110.00 


1, 713. 73 
16, 107. 00 


25, 945. 88 
404, 966. 22 

21.70 


2.09 
32.68 

Nil 






























































265. 24 


286.55 


1,800.05 


2, 013. 89 


681.89 


370. 37 


8, 382. 53 


69 














5.40 


Nil 
















3, 662. 75 


2.00 


2.00 








3, 667. 54 
8.50 


.29 








Nil 


































14.68 


4.39 




15.37 


.51 


34.95 


Nil 








20.90 
57.11 


33.54 
9.51 


33.54 


10.50 




7.80 


197. 86 
190.95 

277. 33 


.01 


7.38 
95.08.. 


.01 








.02 
































116.45 






38.70 


1, 006. 85 


211.17 


1, 632. 72 
797. 36 


.13 






.06 


































3.60 
4, 323. 67 


1.94 
4, 057. 44 

2.00 


46.67 
4, 158. 97 


341. 08 
3, 793. 35 


34.00 
3, 544. 75 


898. 43 
44, 890. 08 

2.00 


.07 


3, 702. 90 


3.63 

Nil 






















9.42 

152. 12 
.42 


1.38 
25.52 
19.32 


10.80 
413.31 
172.83 


Nil 


57. 66 
26.30 


12.00 




109. 62 
1.58 


.03 




.01 








1,039.51 
3, 928. 31 

41,911 56 


909. ?7 
1, 554. 88 

33,451.43 


1, 273. 58 
7, 964. 99 

18,816.32 


613. 14 

2, 979. 33 

30,798.371 


1,289.34 
13,012. 11 

21,723.76 


885.20 
2, 817. 50 

28, 022. 06 


6, 766. 69 
42, 048. 22 

267,801.13 


.56 
3.42 

21. 69 


234,240.71 
18.96 


96, 688. 75 78, 573. 34 114, 497. 77 1 98. 857. 91 
7.811 6.36 9.26 7.98 

1 1 1 


88. 853. ?A 
7.17 


1,236,675.04 
100.00 


100. 00 



26_ , :J4:>— 41— No. 19 15 



206 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Lighting apparatus (nonelectric) and all 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$1, 219. 64 
528. 45 
738. 66 


$1,181.30 

1, 782. 57 

641.25 


$1, 639. 21 

1, 645. 57 

621. 72 


$772. 59 
1, 050. 44 
1, 123. 84 


$2, 425. 10 

1,480.04 

482. 73 


$1,869.05 

1, 825. 88 

858. 69 










7.20 




2.00 
422.00 




6.43 
2.21 


2.35 
1.993.85 




166. 00 


28.30 


Post Office 




State -. 
















48.42 
3, 292. 00 


61.17 
1, 350. 00 


70.74 
1, 262. 00 


44.74 
1, 276. 00 


225.11 
1,422.00 


30.58 
6, 528. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 


10.46 


262. 80 




520. 80 


8.56 


127.00 






Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














Oeneral Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 




1.20 
60.77 

1 25 


2.50 
134. 35 








Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 


19.53 


23.47 


10. 65 


147. 04 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 


Interstate Commerce 










































National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 














Panama Canal 


403. 03 


556. 01 


394. 36 


463. 83 2. 379. 74 

i 


1.431.11 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 








! 




Securities and Exchange 












Smithsonian Institution 




























Tariff Commission 














Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority _ ... ... 















Veterans' Administration 






9.24 

11. 177. 3(1 6.73S. 49 


10.55 1.35 
3.702.33 6,695.15 


Works Progress Admin- 


4,151.70 


9. 236 28 






Total 


10,422.09 15, 301 20 

4. 55: B. 70 


17,681.05 12,044.50 


12.155.45! 21.513.05 




7. 74J 5.27J 5.33J 9.42 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

adcessories, outfits, and parts — Class No. 31 



207 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$6, 478. 10 
9, 536. 00 
1, 044. 21 


$7, 003. 74 
3, 846. 00 
1, 087. 63 


$3, 898. 28 

6, 825. 00 

932. 77 


$2, 010. 82 

1, 358. 00 

816. 89 


$1, 673. 70 
1, 341. 34 
1, 682. 80 


$1, 500. 15 
1, 180. 75 
1, 403. 25 


$31, 671. 68 
32, 400. 04 
11,434.44 


13.61 
14.41 
4.93 




68.70 
544.00 
599. 37 








4.00 
1, 786. 00 


90.68 

12,112.36 

617. 01 


Nil 




1, 786. 00 


3, 428. 00 


1, 956. 00 
17.64 


5 34 




.30 












272. 57 
2, 087. 00 


19.52 
1, 242. 53 


348. 31 
1,917.91 


123.04 
1,876.99 


65.39 
2, 493. 00 


64.92 
2, 252. 00 


1, 374. 51 
27, 599. 43 


.60 
12.12 












































16.30 


16.30 


Nil 














201. 60 


699.28 


38.10 


397. 85 


52.80 


6.30 


2, 225. 55 


.98 














































































































































3.70 
1,091.01 

219. 25 


Nil 


2.34 


13.77 


94.66 


12.09 


28.78 
218.00 


243.56 


.44 
. 10 












































































































1,860.44 


1, 497. 29 


1, 372. 50 


1, 291. 33 


252.82 


298.74 


12, 206. 80 


5.39 






































1.80 






1.80 


Nil 




























13.90 

17.76 

13, 755. 89 


234.62 
68. 68 

7, 068. 01 


142. 82 
2.38 

8, 431. 20 


42.351 54.89 
16. 16 117. 24 

8,158.611 7,113.19! 


488. 58 
254. 77 

94,176.94 


.20 


11.41 
7,945.73 


.10 
41.48 


30, 039. 40, 
13. 21 


30,309.381 
13. 41 1 

1 


24,586.64 
10. 73| 


19, 891. 41 1 

8.711 


17.999. 39 j 

7.881 

i 


16,041.29! 

7.C5! 


227,984.85 
100.00 


100.00 



208 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Fire-surfacing and heat- 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$8, 713'. 49 

298.44 

2, 246. 4S 


$3, 317. Of 
1, 051. 5J 
6, 784. 34 


$1, 725. 12 

748.53 

12, 945. 8S 


$2, 807. 9/ 

325. 8S 

3, 568. 74 


$3, 676. 0£ 

433. 23 

3, 491. 78 


$6, 932. 73 

358. 89 
4, 636. 97 






Justice 






11.90 
'5,272.70 




53.68 
24, 079. 67 








12, 463. 16 




36,528.02 


69,789.11 


37, 710. 55 


Post Office 


State 
















1, 627. 12 
11,080.00 


3,257.43 
13, 778. 00 


420.35 
14, 549. 00 


679. 50 
12, 006. 00 


1, 442. 88 
13, 770. 00 


750.87 
23, 392. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 












t 
1 


Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 












" 


District of Columbia 
Government 


169.40 


741. 01 


4.80 


1, 060. 18 


263. 65 


109.81 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Federal Communications 

("!nmmissir>n 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 
sion 














Federal Reserve Board.. 














Federal Trade Commis- 














Oeneral Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office _.. 














Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


10.26 


179.00 

2.54 


2, 912. 36 
144.00 


901.26 


279. 91 


133.23 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 


Interstate Commerce 
























Maritime Commission . 


8.91 












National Advisory Corn- 








8.53 
















National Labor Relations 














National Training 




5.00 
4,251.00 




17.00 
2, 457. 31 




34.38 
2, 469. 17 


Panama Canal." . . _ 

Reconstruction Finance 


640.70 


1, 053. 58 


1, 860. 98 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
















72.56 






































Tennessee Valley Au- 




439. 75 


271. 25 


"""724." 88 
6, 393. 80 


928. 30 


385. 45 


Vetsrans' Administration. , 

Works Progress Admin- 1 

istration 


8. 214. 24 


1,067.88 

13, 307. 33 J 12, 032. 57 


502. 32 3, 775. 40 
1. 439. 90| 7, 441. 88 


Total 1 

Percent of grant total 


45. 544. 771 52, 398. 61 
3. 95 4. 47 


84, 403. 35 
7.25 


55. 076. 27 
4.721 

i 


97,886.58| 88,131.33 
8. 42 7. 53 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

insulating material — Class No. 82 



209 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


Aueust 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
193S 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$14,546.60 

251.00 

3, 310. 22 


$324. lfi 

706.00 

1, 558. 01 


$1, 302. 25 
768.00 
644.50 


$882. 93 

1,265.00 

12, 408. 48 


$2, 026. 81 

865.69 

5, 078. 80 


$1,048.61 

254. 19 

4, 406. 62 


$47, 303. 72 
7, 326. 40 
61,080.84 


4.05 

.63 

5.24 














65.58 
618, 812. 75 


Nil 


239, 646. 38 


28, 121. 99 


25, 517. 85 


45, 493. 73 


24, 903. 13 


69, 286. 45 


53.20 


















2, 042. 72 
94, 853. 00 


984.00 
6, 191. 43 


1, 345. 93 

5, 875. 84 


1, 662. 20 
12,006.25 


1,011.69 
10, 000. on 


173. 91 
19, 660. 00 


15,399.00 
237, 161. 52 


1.32 

20.22 


































































487. 05 


1, 022. 00 


1,181.00 


2, 763. 73 


260.81 


1, 558. 60 


9, 622. 04 


.83 




































1.25 


1.84 


2.43 


17.99 




23.51 


Nil 








































































-►-- 
















238.80 


953.58 


200.26 


199.82 


257. 09 


144.60 


6, 410. 17 
147. 49 


.55 
.01 






































8.91 
169.28 


Nil 






93.88 


66.87 






.01 






























1.50 
1,137.83 




30. 00 
1,595.50 






87.88 
21.205.90 


Nil 


20). 00 


2, 139. 42 


1,617.81 


1, 781. 60 


1.82 


































127.89 


149. 14 










349. 59 


.02 










1 














1, 404. 60 
6, 121.06 

15,341.15! 


3, 124. 28 
i, 083. 05 

8, 923. 86 


232. 741 
4, 610. 09i 

10, 043. 40 


4. 038. 40 
1,588.58 

5, 799. 41 


1,180.37 
2, 219. 85 

6, 7*-". 43 


1,838.23 
2, 290. 85 

5, 944. 36 


14, 443. 27 
23, 983. 96 

101.651.33 


1.26 
2.11 

8.73 


378,571.38! 54,282.08 
32. 65, 4. GO 

i 1 


53, 957. 00 
4.55 


90, 403. 33 
7.76 


56, 210. 42j 

4.74 


108, 388. 02 
9.30 


1, 165, 253. 14 
100 00 


100.00 



210 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Gaskets', hose; packing; rubber; (sheet and strip); hose fittings, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$7, 223. 59 
2, 080. 26 
4, 342. 25 


$11,088.96 

2, 576. 70 

3, 529. 45 


$5, 841. 79 
1,893.68 
3, 524. 97 


$6,607.11 
1,703.66 
2, 872. 59 


$6, 497. 84 
1, 457. 49 
4, 356. 74 


$9, 830. 53 
2, 117. 51 
10, 525. 93 










2.67 
48,940.67 


174. 54 

78, 025. 34 

.50 


31.49 
38, 552. 95 


245. 43 
122,543.48 


32.97 
64, 177. 86 


110.78 

142, 334. 94 

16.35 




Post Office 


State 












3, 509. 85 
23, 340. 00 


5,022.41 
31,403.00 

8.30 


6, 422. 74 
21,778.00 


7, 721. 65 
45, 497. 00 


11, 629. 96 
30,902.00 

3.77 


10,042.13 
23,288.00 

31 


War.. 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 








Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 


671. 79 


258.78 


209.24 


629.53 


144.28 


3,431.51 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 




15.90 




.75 






Federal Power Commis- 
sion 










Federal Reserve Board... 














Federal Trade Commis- 










80.00 




Oeneral Accounting 
Office 


1.28 










Government Printing 
Office _ 












Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


495. 39 
92.80 


1,301.00 


854. 37 

32.74 
2.45 


1, 735. 06 
49.20 


1,138.11 
14.83 


487.68 
156.17 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 


Librarv of Congress 












Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. 


1,005.60 
88.24 


687.83 
132.30 


1, 946. 74 

301.64 
.50 


1, 793. 63 
52.82 


1,750.36 
76.45 


1,385.30 


National Archives 




National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 












National Training 
School for Boys 




1.00 
2, 977. 98 




2.44 
533.64 


6.00 
2,621.22 


23.82 
673.53 


Panama Canal... 


8, 330. 33 


4, 164. 84 


Koconstruction Finance 
Corporation.. 


Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 














Securities and Exchange 
Commission 








.69 






Smithsonian Institution- 


1.20 


16.50 






4.80 


Social Security Board 








Tariff Commission 






.60 

558. 05 
2,391.59 

6, 111. 14 








Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 




1,318.61 


1,176.62 
799.03 

8. 218. 74 


2, 733. 87 
2, 495. 93 

3, 590i 94 


1,935.80 
1, 691. 37 

12,045.00 


Veterans' Administration.. 




Works Progress Admin- 
,< istration.. 


4, 409. 32 


4, 723. 27 






Total 


104, 535. 24 
5.65 


143, 262. 37 
7.75 


94,619.52 
5.10 


202, 183. 07 
10.69 


133, 710. 62 
7.25 


220, 112. 46 


Percent of grand total 


11.76 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

tubing (flexible), including manufactured articles — Class A T o. 33 



211 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$41, 457. 88 
2,259.00 
7, 37a 81 


$21, 531. 04 
4, 106. 00 
5,565.08 


$14, 567. 53 

978.00 

8, 174. 83 


$4, 921. 91 
1, 174. 00 
4, 636. 59 


$10, 666. 14 
1, 991. 01 
6,644.04 


$5, 058. 63 
1, 675. 30 
6, 781. 89 


$145, 292. 95 
24, 012. 61 
68, 333. 17 


7.80 
1.29 
3.62 


3.69 

50, 796. 99 

21.73 


13.97 

49, 074. 13 

4,684.26 


66.15 

56, 175. 82 

15.50 


49.89 
55, 420. 70 


47.65 
97, 044. 74 


28.79 
104, 057. 41 


808. 02 

907, 145. 03 

4, 738. 34 


.04 

48.80 

.26 










10, 686. 93 
35, 807. 00 


4, 159. 36 
21, 663. 46 


3, 278. 87 
72, 363. 99 


5, 950. 92 
25, 628. 38 


4, 817. 02 
31, 360. 00 


2, 719. 70 
30, 303. 00 


75, 961. 54 
393, 333. 83 

23.38 


4.24 
21.10 

Nil 










































21.94 


21.94 


Nil 














1,217.49 


426.30 


858.24 


1, 116. 55 


157.60 


1, 102. 49 


10, 223. 80 


.52 






















2.24 
15.00 








2.24 
64.35 


Nil 




12.80 


17.20 


2.70 




Nil 




























40.00 








120.00 
9.28 


NO 


4.00 






4.00 




Nil 




























908.98 
11.00 


1, 741. 51 
60.22 


754.12 
20.11 


956.13 
13.65 


467. 65 

254.02 
.34 


842. 56 
184.94 


11,682.56 

889.68 
2.79 


.61 

.04 
Nil 














1, 824. 80 


2, 310. 60 
81.28 


1, 738. 48 

29.43 


1,296.90 
39.93 


1, 759. 07 


1, 121. 42 
19.26 


18, 620. 73 

821. 35 
.50 


1.05 
.04 






Nil 
















33.20 
3, 129. 58 


40.67 
1, 120. 61 


19.71 
1, 494. 55 






4.67 

1, 720. 70 


131. 51 
30, 560. 99 


Nil 


2, 232. 67 


1, 561. 34 


1.94 




























2.40 


3.09 

160.92 
13.71 


Nil 


96.14 
2.65 




35.08 
4.00 


2.00 
5.26 


4.20 


.01 


1.20 




Nil 








3, 406. 93 
693.30 

14, 613. 29 


3, 207. 86 
965.30 

14, 549. 07 


3, 344. 82 
4, 021. 86 

16, 397. 47 


3, 150. .13 
692.40 

12, 734. 29 


3, 446. 99 
1, 706. 06 

8, 843. 29 


4, 422. 12 
1, 545. 10 

8, 107. 78 


28, 702. 20 
17,001.94 

114, 343. 60 


1.57 
.92 

6.15 


174, 353. 39 
9.42 


135, 314. 72 
7.30 


184, 395. 80 
9.95 


120, 040. 90 
6.48 


170, 777. 86 
9.55 


169, 720. 10 
9.10 


1, 853, 026. 05 
100.00 


100.00 



212 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Leather: Belting, harness, saddlery, including 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$2, 886. 40 

493. 94 

1, 223. 65 


$2, 305. 82 

508.78 

2, 203. 46 


$2, 387. 57 

635. 96 

1, 170. 19 


$1, 626. 64 

724. 52 

2, 405. 99 


$2, 207. 92 

1,026.02 

18, 104. 09 


$3, 352. 13 

340.72 

2, 946. 43 


Commerce 




Justice. -. 


Labor 


295. 03 
6, 437. 70 
1, 610. 80 


88.01 

26, 721. 19 

1, 437. 93 


114.97 

1,353.18 

27.00 


12.69 
17, 465. 45 


153. 16 

1,526.52 

47.12 


52.63 

4, 224. 00 

353. 10 




Post Office 


State 






1, 252. 46 
10, 900. 00 


495. 99 
7, 848. 00 


523.77 
6, 289. 00 

1.12 


619. 51 
19, 468. 00 


1, 342. 70 
17, 863. 00 


590.97 
8, 937. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 












Civilian Conservation 
Corps 


25.20 
39.80 


9.89 


16.17 


5.00 




2.28 


Civil Service Commis- 
sion 




Commodity Credit Cor- 












District of Columbia 
Government 


607.33 


257. 62 


68.16 


128. 01 


190.80 


74.15 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration... 


65.18 
102. 75 


58.49 


34.55 


21.80 


28.57 

49.49 

621. 36 

11.64 


100.37 
2.50 

695. 69 
3.93 


Federal Communications 


Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 


631.44 

27.86 
11.87 

10.00 


112.80 
10.16 


112.80 
40.29 


Federal Power Commis- 
sion... . ._ 


40.00 
70.78 

63.00 


Federal Reserve Board 


Federal Trade Commis- 


100.02 
49.65 






8.45 


General Accounting 
Office 






Government Printing 
Office 












Dome Owners' Loan 




111.30 
31.53 


167. 15 
1.82 

5.64 


44.40 


165. 13 


2.69 


Inland Waterways Cor- 




International Boundary 
Commission, United 


54.45 
43.81 


3.16 
185. 78 


42.46 


j 
1.13 

163. 97 


Interstate Commerce 


42.60 

3.98 

51.54 

9.36 








Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Corn- 


46.07 

2.94 
1.35 


62.25 
1.94 


48.06 


28.11 


25.50 
19.55 




7.86 




National Labor Iiela- 










National Training 

School for Boys _ 

Panama Canal 


141.00 
561. 95 

1.18 


165. 00 
1, 796. 67 

15.30 


5.00 
3, 212. 76 

8.00 


249. 00 
5, 859. 77 

35.53 


66.00 
1,523.66 

1.18 


247. 10 
1, 880. 81 


Reconstruction Finance 

Corporation.. . 

Rural Electrification Ad- 




Securities and Exchange 










155.58 
34. 56 
102.00 






9.36 

153. 28 

7.16 


12.86 
65.30 

1,331.44 




45.95 
38.40 

75 

1,064.62 
73.14 

2,333.91 




Social Security Board 


46.80 
6.40 

26.25 
157.68 

3, 022. 75 


214. 34 
7. 20j 


Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority .. 


1, 400. 51 
51. 63 

771.23 




128. 19 
2, 074. 33 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


1,860.50 


3, 649. 60 


Total 

Percent of grand total 


28,997.07 49,902.83 
4. 84 8. 33 


19, 618. 71 
3.28 


52,621.03 
8.79 


47,514.44 
7.95 


26, 449. 16 
4.42 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

manufactured leather articles — Class No. 34 



213 







Month— Continued 






Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
193S 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$7, 305. 76 

284.00 

14, 090. 37 


$5, 614. 67 

158.00 

2, 842. 88 


$3, 382. 06 

307.00 

2,524.06 


$4, 603. 46 

134.00 

1, 662. 17 


$1, 629. 87 

180. 65 

2, 321. 78 


$2, 622. 42 

151. 13 

1, 458. 78 


$39, 924. 72 
4, 944. 72 
52, 953. 85 


6.67 

.83 

8.85 


915.95 

9, 243. 10 

774.44 


12.14 
26, 470. 32 
13, 945. 83 


41.30 

2, 822. 00 

12.00 


26.41 

6, 426. 12 

52.85 


294.93 

7, 268. 28 

2.57 


63.87 
20, 416. 20 


2, 071. 09 
130, 374. 06 
18, 263. 64 


.35 
21.78 
3.05 






1, 295. 35 
82, 675. 00 


697. 46 
8,072.12 


709.24 
12,644.04 


951.43 
57, 997. 98 

1.70 


757. 18 
10,192.00 


1, 207. 72 
6, 882. 24 


10, 443. 78 
249, 768. 38 

2.82 


1.74 
41.72 

Nil 


























58.54 
122.78 


.01 


2.00 


41.67 


3.60 


3.93 


31.78 




.02 






263.34 


255.97 


540. 97 


935. 10 


668.89 


55.84 


4,046.18 


.68 


45.71 


38.40 


13.57 
3.93 




7.64 


33.25 
20.00 


447.53 

182.60 

.2, 174. 09 

447.91 
82.65 

610. 43 

74.05 


.07 


3.93 


.03 








.36 




7.60 


13.12 


45.06 


176.89 


71.36 


.07 




.01 


422.60 
10.96 




6.36 








.10 


5.76 


7.68 






.01 










116.48 
14.14 




.50 

7.74 


2.85 
11.58 


7.68 
10.47 

5.55 
144.58 


10.73 
22,16 


628.91 
111.16 

124. 61 

1, 129. 00 

10.85 

626. 07 

140. 01 
25.89 


.11 


11.72 
12.22 


.02 
.02 


460.68 

2.50 

214.00 


17.75 




69.83 
4.37 


.19 






Nil 


50.60 


87.20 
4.32 




12.74 

92.85 
16.68 


.10 


6.30 


2.75 


.02 






Nil 
















254.99 
1, 567. 56 

31.50 


123.68 
3,206.11 

64.92 


7.20 
3, 442. 43 

86.20 


239.52 
1,792.22 

4.43 


8.80 
1, 989. 01 

17.40 

30.77 


1,507.29 
28, 880. 48 

272. 51 

30.77 

934. 40 

125. 87 

2, 021. 87 

124.27 

7, 604. 89 
2, 142. 34 

35, 308. 39 


.25 


2, 047. 53 
6.87 


4.83 
.04 
.01 


11.32 


170. 76 

13.42 

548.31 


81.77 


115.80 

2.07 

369.20 

11.82 

386.23 
208. 95 

2, 155. 32 


399. 17 
5.50 
4.39 


.16 


2.15 
2.34 


.02 


459. 03 
73.84 

1,181.59 
114.25 

1, 487. 61 


18.48 
17.10 

210. 37 
431.64 

2, 892. 24 


.34 
.02 


264. 62 
192.90 

8, 141. 12 


344. 91 
253.95 

3. 689. 95 


1, 394. 35 
530.01 

3, 229. 83 


1.27 
.36 

5.89 


123.518.42 
20.61 


69. 422. 54 
11.59 


30, 187. 07 
5.04 


79, 657. 77 
13.31 


30, 557. 05 
5.10 


40,297.31 
6.74 


598, 743. 40 
100.00 


100.00 



214 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Books, blueprints, charts, drawings, libraries, maps, newspapers, 



Agency 



Month 



December 
1937 



January 
1938 



February 
1938 



March 
1938 



April 
1938 



May 
1938 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce 

Interior - 

Justice 

Labor 

Navy 

Post Office..,. 

State 

Treasury 

War 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 

Federal Communications 
Commission. 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion 

Federal Reserve Board.. . 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion ... 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 

Home Owners' Lean 
Corporation 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration. 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission. . 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics 

National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 

National Training 
School for Boys 

Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation... 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 

Works Progress Admin- 
istration 



Total 

Percent of grand total. 



$56, 500. 60 
11,196.67 
19, 283. 05 
40, 882. 93 
1,434.11 
16, 330. 39 

464, 676. 79 

393. 94 

53, 928. 89 

85, 187. 00 



$22, 551. 47 
12, 850. 09 
16, 667. 34 
33, 447. 47 
604.92 
23, 316. 99 

397,613.14 

255. 66 

12, 532. 14 

48, 797. 00 



33.91 



$52, 614. 41 
12, 333. 56 
15, 964. 69 
35, 143. 85 
769. 12 
99,141.38 

237,117.77 

458 63 

11,672.78 

182, 243. 00 



34.25 

25.24 

15.00 

7, 944. 07 



27.90 
2.08 



315.00 
29.05 



8, 552. 67 



12, 925. 85 



708. 44 

173. 14 

1,485.01 

2, 697. 72 
10, 300. 42 

343. 41 

681.08 

348.34 

813. 40 

108. 22 

651.28 
87.90 



1, 516. 68 

42.20 
351. 78 

9, 847. 12 

45.00 
1, 409. 98 

593. 77 

155. 57 

1, 525. 67 
857. 37 

1, 080. 90 
691. 14 



12, 595. 20 



150.31 

323.17 

279. 43 

1,331.40 
9, 149. 56 

203.72 

173. 50 

1.40 

6, 767. 87 

139. 22 

621. 80 
69.56 



286.88 

32.29 
615. 18 

13,398.14 

12.00 
351. 43 

1, 776. 41 

100.02 

2,013.13 

130. 78 

2, 554. 09 

65.07 

5, 205. 88 



206.05 

298.23 

220.21 

2,171.01 
3, 849. 98 

119.75 

139. 59 

26.75 

3, 959. 93 

287.68 

210. 41 
22.56 



$251,899.02 
12, 622. 19 
27, 266. 12 
51,954.03 

866. 84 

19, 403. 04 

246, 770. 16 

859. 78 
16, 780. 10 
74, 469. 00 



55.99 
.20 



102. 15 



$38, 533. 00 
13, 744. 93 
25, 672. 59 
30, 387. 01 
896. 66 
35, 938. 47 

436, 556. 40 

359. 38 

18, 143. 88 

72, 857. 00 



5.63 
512. 40 
32.53 



38, 446. 74 



769. 62 



52.35 
84.01 



13, 926. 00 



285. 46 
974. 24 
260.80 

7, 346. 83 
134. 92 

4,914.52 
329. 92 

10, 243. 05 
63.30 

23, 422. 53 



806, 943. 67 
9.56 



642, 802. 29 
7.62 



735, 048. 79 
8.72 



124. 23 

604.10 

660.83 

7, 794. 73 
3, 887. 52 

244.66 

67.75 

35.00 

7, 277. 12 

171. 10 

124. 73 
32.32 



13, 816. 45 



427. 45 

2, 307. 57 

630.73 

1,617.80 
2, 076. 90 

66.05 

80.00 

9.73 

6, 040. 42 

82.89 

210. 04 
68.48 



2, 104. 87 

27. 89 

89. 65 1 

1,018.00 

7.00 
910. 13 

944.55 

124. 58 

1, 196. 39 

153. 39 

5, 126. 54 

33.25 

27,118.48 
2, 323. 96 

18, 038. 72 



822, 546. 65 
9.74 



346. 69 



43. 51 
35.10 



39. 55 
311.44 

997. 73 

127. 98 

1. 320. 95 

260.92 

15,152.84 

191. 89 

8, 155. 22 
2, 849. 01 

7, 572. 07 



738, 641. 95 
8.74 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

periodicals, professional publications, etc. — Class No. SB 



215 



Month— Continued 



June 
1938 



$115,712.49 

16, 095. 00 

58, 595. 13 

37, 088. 05 

2, 394. 61 

51, 680. 41 

471,120.80 

7, 247. 01 

12, 073. 10 

109, 976. 00 



93.00 

.30 

382.45 

465. 89 



July 
1938 



$14, 042. 18 
10,961.00 
29, 810. 49 
25, 562. 83 
2, 590. 92 
31,105.97 

113,328.53 
9, 945. 03 
36, 689. 68 

165, 304. 96 



70.68 
693. 72 
44.85 
73.30 



8,177.891 84,798.87 



252. 94 > 

1,921.23 

708. 52 1 

4,320.471 
3, 149. 83 

959.53 

14.85 

27.121 

7, 357. 47 

497. 43 

1, 839. 89 
105. 94 



August 
1938 



$22, 761. 07 

14, 397. 00 

35, 050. 33 

23, 87). 61 

665. 56 

302, 489. 25 

173,733.54 

723. 08 

25, 686. 65 

42, 551. 24 



54.12 
97.07 
39.85 
66. 5S 



September 
1938 



$10, 465. 78 
11,432.00 
27, 190. 33 
28, 743. 56 
1, 452. 23 
29, 243. 04 

302, 521. 53 

417.81 

14.412.53 

51,667.33 



99.48 



1,118.12 

3, 475. 33 

805.80 

1,916.11 
1,817.34 

1, 326. 17 

225.75 
116.75! 

2, 334. 05 j 

84. 27' 

518 09 

3, 179 44 



17, 660. 56 
9.05 

127.29 

172. 95 

954.47 

618.05 
4, 295. 20 

223.07 

89.92 

60.20 

1, 032. 34 

341.48 

384.13 
696. 22 



90.00 
145.26 



15,027.86 
8.50 

120.62 

176. 05 

1, 103. 14 

335. 17 
5, 139. 37 

140.30 

371.00 

8, 254. 13 

936. 61 

470. 81 

493.23 

866. 04 



Otober 
1938 



$24, 329. 76 
13, 487. 23 
24, 922. 52 
24, 926. 90 
1, 558. 82 
39, 107. 87 

320, 840. 50 

832. 84 

14, 928. 27 

57, 734. 00 



15.60 

.65 

6.20 

133. 11 



November 
193S 



I Total, 12 
months 



13, 022. 40 
25.00 

186. 43 

150.02 

803. 36 

8, 637. 90 
3,118.97 

347. 75 

2.75 

3.09 

1, 470. 00 

138.99 

885.16 

482.88 



$16, 587. 82 
13, 752. 95 
21,304.11 
33, 323. 78 
2,093.15 
27, 164. 77 

155, 681. 59 

479. 81 

17, 449. 86 

49, 000. 63 



32. 15 1 



20.001 
12,065.41 



299.601 
172. 80 ! 

557.151 

2, 750. 92 
2, 248. 82 

293. 65 j 

435. 40 1 

48.00 1 

1,858. 36 

57.37! 

! 
503. 67 ' 

504. 60 



$638, 520. 75 

156, 986. 50 

376,181.92 

394, 799. 34 

16, 425. 88 

702,112.95 

3,651,821.94 

22, 073. 17 

248, 382. 86 

1,012,302.16 



454. 93 

1, 497. 57 

2, 881. 66 

1,117.05 

35.00 

265, 004. 03 
42.55 

3, 829. 33 

9, 897. 24 

8, 557. 54 

35, 084. 23 
51, 786. 69 

4, 498. 23 

2, 422. 79 

8, 98K 93 

•58. 95 

2. 441. 46 

6, 555. 97 
6, 462. 15 



Percent 

of grand 

total 



594.85! 

60.60 
339.52 

137. 10 J 

308. 41 . 
1,819.90 

1, 868. 36 

366.33 

I 

8,214.97 

152. 92, 

15.621.39 

104. 17 

6. 988. 39 
7,104.44 



137.491 
468.75 



55.37! 



.5, 350. 41 ; 
6, 369. 22 

325. 33 > 

! 

1,303. 80 1 
1,035.84 
4,919.76 
1,576.91 

6,456.08! 
1,6,-1.48! 



616.40, 

4.20 
188.351 

39.94! 

293.33 
6, 8-50. 75 

1, 803. 42 

720.79 

634. 24 

105. 36 

3,357.89' 

42.60. 

6,250.62 
60.39 



229. 01 



61.80 
4.50 



375. 67 
5, 670. 50 

955. 11 

1, 948. 19 

916. 37 

220. 66 

2,029.491 

79. 30 

23,000.75! 
3,437.37! 



2, 556. 53 

38.35 
412.63 

85. 07 1 

169.941 
4, 923. 15| 

799. 59| 

139. 98 

1, 426. 25 
130. 52 

2. 789. 45 
309. 45 

37, 908. 49 
4, 858. 89 



28,316. 62 ; 48,252.50 23.977.82 28.486.25; 33,090.31 



1.004,235.35; 
11.89! 



620,356.73; 

7.35 



714,497.98 

8.46j 



579,522.80, 
6.861 



641,797.57 
7.20 



528.91; 

41.25J 
25.05: 

1.027.90 1 

82. 361 
525. 60 

935.55| 

450.38; 

731. 06' 

512. lit 

1,518.17 

230. 51 

43, 337.86J 

4, 108. 88' 

41,493.211 



12, 658. 60 



639. 76 
2, 704. 85 



1,335.79 
36, 759. 61 

17, 945. 64 

4, 904. 45 

27. 581. 20 

3,917.64' 
73,509.60 
3,856.61! 

202,699.13 

31,009. 3o 

308, 155. 93 ' 



3.67 



454,251.81 
5.38 



8,442.625.39, 
100. 00 1 



-216 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Musical instruments; music; and all acces 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$601. 9( 

l.« 

1, 671. 51 


1 $62. 9" 
) 


$25. 55 $35. 33 $14. 61 


$642.80 


Commerce 




! 1, 483. 2£ 


620.0" 


' 991. Of 


1 264. 3C 


1, 249. 77 


Justice 


Labor 














Navy - 


12, 452. 6S 


5, 612. 8£ 


2, 404. 35 


2, 342. 51 


2, 491. 97 


2,435.83 


Post Office 


State 
















195. 55 
1.995.0C 


405.02 

19, 777. 00 


316.68 
3, 287. 0C 


128. 4£ 
4, 437. OC 


27.91 
2, 951. 0C 


712. 39 
6,421.00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 
Government 


972. 47 


1. 546. 00 


28.00 


372.00 


105. 05 


65.45 




Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 

Federal Communications 


398. 85 


616. 67 


37.50 


90.00 


25.50 


168.00 


Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 










































National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 






15.00 
36.21 


124.15 
40.06 






Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 


538.23 


423. 43 


1, 434. 25 


191. 52 


Rural Electrification Ad- 










39.65 


15.00 


Securities and Exchange 




















































Tennessee Valley Au- 










12.44 














14.80 
2, 891. 94 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


2,400.20 


2, 989. 78 


3, 484. 23 


2, 987. 35 


555. 17 


Total. 


21, 127. 37 

8.98 


32,916.98 
14.00 


10, 254. 57 


11, 547. 97 


7, 921. 88 


14, 808. 50 


Percent of grand total 


4. 36 4. 91 


3. 37 6. 30 

1 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

sories, outfits, and parts — Class No. 36 



217 



Month -Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 

$297. 50 


July 
1938 


August 

1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 

$30.04 


of grand 
total 


$7. 82 




$11.94 

9.00 

571. 01 




$1, 730. 62 

10.00 

16, 550. 45 


0.74 






Nil 


6, 075. 50 


99.84 


$422. 51 


$1,299.21 


1, 902. 36 


7.04 


















2, 612. 47 


3, 495. 00 


5,114.63 


4,040.22 


2, 258. 98 


2, 992. 10 


48, 253. 56 


20.51 


















1, 044. 50 
8, 183. 00 


168.81 
899.10 


172. 18 
59, 576. 51 


168. 79 
2, 074. 34 


228.97 
4, 745. 00 


168.79 
2, 424. 00 


3, 738. 01 
116, 769. 95 


1.59 
49.60 










































69.48 




69.48 


.03 














622.02 


359. 85 


892. 05 


906.26 


597. 67 


1, 870. 90 


8, 337. 72 


3.54 


78.00 






56.00 






1, 470. 52 


.62 
































































































































































































1, 150. 00 


165.23 


23.20 


1, 338. 43 


.57 




















































448.64 
547. 95 


587. 79 
4,426.22 


.25 


40.50 


4.00 


716.26 


405. 87 


47.94 


1.88 


95.66 


42.61 


146.55 








339. 47 


.14 
















9.28 






9.28 


Nil 
































62.00 
28.00 

3, 459. 18 




83.25 
57.00 

1, 881. 25 


37.62 

28&00 

2, 136. 19 


81.85 
67.00 

2, 452. 92 


277.16 
587.44 

30, 823. 39 


.12 


119.64 
1, 898. 00 


12.00 

3, 687. 18 


.25 

13.12 


21, 066. 79 
8.96 


8, 626. 21 
3.67 


70, 739. 87 
30.01 


11,424.21 
4.86 


11,875.29 
5.05 


13, 009. 75 
5.53 


235, 319. 39 
100.00 


100.00 



218 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Athletic equipment, recreational apparatus, sporting 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 


$526. 2C 


$479. 71 


$621.02 $376.9! 

41.51 5.3( 

3, 257. 49 2, 295. 2( 


I $321. 9t 
) 


5 $479. 49 

9.00 

( 3, 100. 53 


Commerce 


Interior 


5, 092. OS 


1, 734. 7t 


> 2, 305. 3* 


Justice 


Labor... 




58.48 

41,039.94 

.37 


2.8£ 
18, 900. 24 




7.5f 

99, 290. 3C 

1.21 




Navy 


46, 006. 78 


30, 460. 91 


37, 363. 58 


Post Office 


State 










Treasury 


1,418.89 
1,106.00 


160. 15 
2,115.00 


729.88 
451.00 


872. 36 
2,119.00 


2, 053. 0{ 
2, 464. 0C 


3,001.35 
1,877.00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 















Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 
government 


4,266.11 


1, 473. 31 


1, 649. 25 


1, 709. 19 


268.71 


1, 806. 95 


Export-Import Bank-. 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration.. 














Federal Power Commis- 
sion.. .... ... 












1.08 


Federal Reserve Board . . 












Federal Trade Commis- 
sion _ 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners* Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 












Interstate Commerce 








































National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 


15.00 
1, 920. 22 






142.00 
3, 013. 99 


118.00 
4, 232. 94 


2, 617. 29 




1,455.53 


1, 597. 57 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 










































Tennessee Valley Au- 

Veterans' Administration. 
Works Progress Admin- 
istration..... . 1 


7,521.65 
15, 571. 72 


7,291.03 
34, 746. 67 


2, 896. 39 
33.271.78 




11.85 

7, 857. 87 

9, 433. 17 




9, 161. 76 
37, 084. 52 


6, 467. 42 
34,567.43 


Total ... j 

Percent of grand total. 


83, 444. 65 
5.93 


90. 554. 98 1 
6.43 


63, 418. 98 
4.50 


87, 241. 28 
6.19 


128, 366. 02 
9.11 


91,291.12; 

6.48' 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

goods, special wearing apparel — Class No. 37 



219 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$1, 790. 50 

46.00 

3, 809. 44 


$30.26 


$125. 8f 

15. 0C 

1,924.32 


$261.99 

10.00 

6, 394. 09 


$207. 89 

55.00 

3,900.58 


$494.99 

2. Of 

1, 784. 22 


$5, 716. 79 

183. 81 

39, 387. 70 


0.45 


3, 699. 58 


2.79 


161, 283. 98 


40, 665. 00 


118. 337. 90 


7.92 
7, 559. 24 


34.58 
20, 294. 08 




143. 12 

662, 364. 36 

1.57 


.01 


41, 162. 31 


47.01 
Nil 


1,711.06 
1, 959. 00 


430.20 
14, 712. 94 












713. 13 
3, 790. 86 


395. 77 
4, 549. 49 


585. li 
9, 070. 00 


548.93 
1, 633. 00 


12, 619. 89 
45, 847. 29 


.89 
3.25 


































































4, 885. 94 


4, 147. 90 


8, 489. 02 


966.64 


477. 13 


504. 51 


30, 644. 66 


2.17 






























































1.08 


Nil 
























































































































































1, 903. 07 


700. 42 


2, 603. 49 


.18 
















































145. 60 
6, 308. 26 


11.80 
6, 079. 39 






432. 40 
53, 693. 83 


.03 


5, 219. 66 


14,117.77 


3, 732. 26 


2, 798. 95 


3.81 










































2.62 




2.62 


Nil 






























435. 75 
43, 233. 75 

45,312.97 


3.111.39 
2, 728. 90 

42, 228. 31 


1,850.29 
2, 229. 25 

39, 389. 66 


2, 046. 21 


6.090.51 


13. 546. 00 
. 124, 598. 70 

417,036.20 


.96 


9, 990. 36 
31,259.06 


13.990.60 11,229.72 
39. 250. 27 i 54. 920. 64 1 


8.84 
29.60 


221, 9S6. 73 
15.75 


166, 786. 12 
11.84 


187,918.49 
13.34 


70, 305. 53 
4.99 


95, 639. 41 1 
6. 79j 


121.870.201 
8.65J 


1,-408, 823. 51 
100.00 


100." 00 



220 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Brooms, brushes — ■ 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$1, 690. 75 

727. 46 

12, 277. 95 


$2,114.35 

914.07 

2, 112. 04 


$2, 401. 77 

873. 93 

3, 038. 60 


$2, 864. 35 

339. 72 

3, 182. 90 


$3, 735. 15 

799.64 

4, 016. 49 


$4. 556. 18 

620.23 

5, 153. 00 










149.60 

311.98 

4, 096. 85 


61.65 

3, 700. 72 

393. 80 


130. 78 
1,060.88 
2, 190. 78 


132. 23 

233, 035. 64 

468.66 


143. 83 

10, 790. 01 

1, 104. 12 


65.41 

438. 37 

1, 360. 04 




Post Office 


State 




2, 947. 39 
20, 717. 00 


5, 344. 04 
37, 529. 00 

1.46 


2, 156. 67 
90, 619. 00 

2.69 


5, 423. 69 
57. 702. 00 

.90 


3, 535. 44 
68, 727. 00 

.28 
.96 


1,815.62 
35. 740. 00 

.84 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 




Civilian Conservation 


.76 
6.72 










Civil Service Commis- 




.42 








Commodity Credit Cor- 










District of Columbia 


352. 06 


837.50 


767. 71 


737. 21 


1, 844. 07 


640.25 


Export-Import Bank... . 


Farm Credit Adminis- 


1.14 


14.85 
5.40 
48.25 


8.74 


1.44 
1.92 
1.95 


2.85 


4.71 


Federal Communications 


Federal Housing Admin- 


16.14 


19.48 

18.71 
144. 18 

6.18 

9.50 


19.16 
1.02 


Federal Power Commis- 






137. 52 
2.10 


11.76 
2.19 
12.00 


79.12 


71.37 


Federal Trade Commis- 




General Accounting 
Office 


6.65 




18.92 


Government Printing 
Office 






Home Owners' Loan 






11.34 
298. 83 

8.56 


16.46 
4.03 

20.80 
4.88 


21.58 
17.86 

8.00 
4.44 


.42 
154.60 

9.18 
3.61 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 


26.85 
21.96 


9.08 

9.18 

.82 


Library of Congress 






Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics 


338.51 
20.22 


272. 45 
2.34 


422. 76 
9.60 


867. 90 

328. 84 
4.49 


455. 14 

159.68 
2.37 


385. 40 
21.37 


National Labor Rela- 
tions Board.. 










National Training School 
for Bovs ... ... 






22.00 
1,304.95 


15.00 

1,953.68 


2, 479. 21 


77.80 
8, 427. 07 

1.37 


Panama Canal 


1,251.23 


5, 206. 69 


Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 


Rural Electrification Ad- 












Securities and Exchange 








1.46 

21.12 

657. 70 

1.92 






Smithsonian Institution.. 
Social Security Board 


3.33 


70.06 

1.15 


73.26 
50.61 


164. 16 

39.16 

5.76 

156.00 
15, 328. 52 

3. 056. 45 


20.52 
46.42 






Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority _ 








606. 48 
7, 780. 74 

12,727.63 


Veterans' Administration 
Works Progress Admin- 


7, 373. 71 
4, 706. 31 


12,234.33 
13, 777. 2J 


4, 558. 00 
10, 208. 30 


6, 971. 31 
7,711.52 






■*" Total 


57,161.40 84.686. 43 


120, 322. 09 
8.20 


322,545.09 116.796.22 


80, 6%. 36 


. ercent of grand total 


3.8? 


1 5.77 


21.97 


7.95 


5.50 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



221 



Class Xo. SS 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June Julv 
1938 1938 


August 

1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


|of grand 
total 


$5,854.97 

997. 00 

6, 834. 79 


$5, 038. 30 

485. 00 

2, 207. 72 


$2, 940. 32 

792. 00 

2,160.29 


$3, 355. 23 

341.00 

2, 454. 01 


$2, 717. 92 
1.063.26 
5, 528. 56 


$3, 277. 65 

567. 94 

4, 487. 01 


$40, 546. 94 
8,521.25 
53, 453. 36 


2.76 

.58 

3.64 


249. 62 
12,075.04 
21,244.02 


1.10 

395. 45 

21, 509. 87 


156. 58 

53,516.00 

295. 93 


368. 46 

91,045. 13 

994. 51 


62.46 
14, 819. 75 
6, 823. 01 


66.68 
262. 44 
520. 88 


1, 588. 40 

421,451.41 

61,002.47 


.11 

28.70 
4.16 


3, 069. 48 
60, 522. 00 


4. 815. 05 
80, 276. 66 


4, 205. 64 
8, 409. 27 


3, 592. 22 
34,612.42 

15.29 


2, 919. 93 
9, 601. 00 

1.35 


842.23 
11, 404. 28 

.21 


40, 667. 40 
515,859.63 

23.02 

3.18 

.76 

7.14 


2.77 
35.13 

Ni' 


2.22 


' 




Nil 












Nil 














Nil 
















655.42 


2, 294. 49 


3, 704. 87 


3, 029. 58 


497. 30 


1,022.86 


16,383.32 


1.12 


32. 43 


3.90 

,21 

33.97 

1.44 
67.67 


4. 14 

1.54 

39. 88 


7.19 

2.36 

45. 70 

1.32 


.24 
7.21 
2.80 


19.88 


101. 51 

21.64 

274. 42 

22.49 
577. 41 

26.44 

152.04 


.01 

Nil 


3.36 
19.49 


43.64 


.02 

Nil 




46.30 

3.93 

23.56 




.04 




10.08 
3.46 


1.96 
7.26 


Nil 


1.61 


39.02 


30.06 


.01 


2.70 


2.20 
4.99 

45. (JO 
5.76 


1.49 
193. 15 

40.42 


3.75 
19.96 


16.00 
17.35 

22.56 

.76 


9.00 
156. 53 

79.42 
3.12 


84.94 
903. 23 

284. 52 
24.12 


.01 
.06 


19.44 
.73 


.02 




Nil 










1,060.27 
9.00 


827. 18 


641.78 
59.52 


608. 36 

35.64 
1.10 


351. 48 


6,881.83 

646. 21 
14.27 


.47 


650.60 
631 


.04 






Nil 












39. 57 
1, 305. 04 


59. 52 
7, 057. 83 


16.08 

4, 988. 13 

1.42 


43.78 
958. 28 


53. 28 
1,931.13 


3.36 

724. 88 


330. 39 
37, 588. 12 

2.79 

.66 

2.14 
903. 61 
964. 54 

7.68 

4, 193. 96 
126, 002. 18 

128,682.25 


.02 
2.56 

Nil 










.66 


Nil 








.68 

64.22 

.13 




Nil 


310.38 
667. 00 


102. 72 
11.92 


.84 
85.03 


15.94 
36.99 


57.06 
28.76 


.06 
.07 
Nil 


7,844 43; 
10, 800. 37 


719. 17 

16.313.83 

13.818.79 


440. 57 

7, 735. 10 

14, 603. 26 


374. 33 
6, 899. 79 

10,356.09 


995. 38 
19, 577. 46 

12,736.69 


901. 73 
13, 384. 96 

14.179.59 


.29 
8.58 

8.77 


132. 547. Col 
9.03 1 


156,384.151 105.189.19 
111 65 7. If,' 


I59,3u0.36 

10.85 


80, 167. 22 
5.46 


52,405.47| 1,468,201.67 
3.57 100.00 


106.66 



>fi2342 — 41 — No. 19- 



-16 



222 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Lumber; timber; barrels, boxes, cases, crates — wooden; 



Agency 



Month 



December 
1937 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce --. 

Interior 

Justice 



Labor. 

Navy 

Post Office. 

State 

Treasury... 
War 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity - - — 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 



Corps 



Civil " Service Commis- 
sion 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion..- 

Federal Reserve Board. .. 

Federal Trade Commis- 



Oeneral Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 



Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 

Commission. United 

States and Mexico . . . 

Interstate Commerce 

Commission 

Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics . 

National Archives. .. 

National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 

National Training 

School for Boys 

Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 

• Corporation 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 

Securities and Exchange 

Commission 

Smithsonian Institution 
Social Security Board — 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 
Works Progress Admin- 
istration 



$144, 774. 02 

8,111.87 

99,418.00 



277.83 

95, 743. 52 

3, 206. 54 

353. 17 

8, 380. 14 

377, 819. 00 



124.14 



10, 086. 36 
352. 56 



407.11 



877. 01 



2, 766. 33 

2, 137. 29 
22.64 



5, 665. 24 



136. 05 
62.33 



Total 

Percent of grand total . . . 



75.00 
115,727.75 



107.15 



Januarv 
1938 



$182,418.14 

10,943.21 

118,881.16 



465. 53 

72, 701. 13 

952. 15 

346. 74 

14, 794. 07 

276, 653. 00 



10.38 



6, 889. 43 



1,121.10 



2, 020. 61 



78.03 
2, 437. 49 

4, 617. 70 
61.40 



6, 772. 47 



1,465.10 
114.98 



415.00 
79, 130. 53 



February 
1938 



March 
1938 



$123,436,851 $147,571.56 
10,935.32 11,488.10 
75, 830. 79 130, 319. 56 



125. 31 

51, 884. 24 

1, 064. 76 

96.59 

16,191.49 

252, 781. 00 



121.50 



10, 246. 98 



219. 84 



385. 71 

125, 053. 77 

272. 48 

684. 57 

12,009.56 

373, 130. 00 



6, 548. 80 



April 
1938 



$116,113.60 
16, 633. 24 
95, 072. 48 



183. 62 

181,491.81 

299. 17 



12, 037. 69 
504,212.00 



72.60 



8, 818. 61 



176. 35 



1,641.54 1,244.1 
7.35 "'."'"". 



2.18 



514.91 
2, 569. 33 

1,841.54 
25.56 



1. 513. 89 
4.00 



473.00 



267. 29 
1,280.77 

2, 020. 32 
11.42 



3,071.39 



596. 73 1 

54.84 



4, 047. 12 



7, 247. 73 
115.95 



720. 94 
3, 572. 29 

362. 77 
72.21 



24, 218. 00 



1,255.36 
27. 66 



7.00! 
89,585.46! 



272. 05 
174.88 



10. 56 



909. 48 
253. 55 



16.00: 
4,163.60 



25.68' 
4.58! 



188. 00 
1,253.54 



27. 50 
2.40 



5.48; 

241.30| 

2,081.951 



270.49! 
161.40: 



626.20 
305.90 



34,700.36! 20,186.38 
I 4,490.17 



22.413.81 
267,909.761 470,501.971 436,191.12 



14, 186. 39; 
3,480.47] 

J 



31,236.84| 
8, 101. 04 : 



440,131.07 146,624.82 500.827.32 



1,167,401.55 1,289, 
6.27 



28. 27 j 1 106,081.21 1 
6.93: 5.94 



286. 621. C0I1, 155, 224. 53 t, 647, 303. 45 
6.91 6.21 8.84 

I 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
railroad-ties; including manufactured lumber — Class No. 39 



223 



Month —Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$615,846.14 

16.999.00 

186, 891. 42 


$75, 104. 18 
27,451.00 
116,041.10 


$95,131.93 
16. 973. 00 
66, 030, 43 


$90, 889. 44 

17,630.00 

108, 859. 68 


$76,485.11 

17, 075. 77 

199, 722. 77 


$137, 849. 15 

26. 373. 73 

150, 243. 55 


$2,045,149.85 

194, 560. 95 

1,480,119.89 


10.98 
1.05 
7.95 


1.091.44 

198, 065. 43 

179.07 

105. 10 

218, 999. 84 

1,316,410.00 


431. 55 

341, 273. 64 

4, 848. 89 

164.20 

13,915.89 

373, 246. 28 


195. 39 

180, 676. 30 

344. 73 

288.39 

44. 930. 27 

262, 636. 76 


139. 42 

328, 058. 88 

911.64 

175.90 

10, 574. 58 

371,772.66 


241.45 

199, 103. 56 

1,742.67 

263. 92 

18, 430. 88 

282, 513. 00 


213. 03 

340. 850. 01 

3, 689. 00 

209.84 

12, 534. 12 

260, 829. 75 


3, 927. 80 

2, 198, 732. 18 

20,001.13 

2. 688. 42 

220, 519. 72 

5, 214, 303. 40 

32.31 


.02 

11.81 

.12 

.01 

1.19 

28.02 

Nil 


































72.60 






93.00 


153.12 


647.34 


Nil 










23, 100. 67 


15, 201. 24 


8, 302. 31 


6, 948. 89 


5, 213. 76 


9, 147. 17 


119,808.83 


.64 


36.31 

7.13 

475. 73 

34. 15 






8.25 


13.79 

2.50 

650.00 

24.00 


5.35 

55.00 

488.97 


917. 16 

283.63 

8, 849. 03 

70.03 
149. 65 

42.62 

8, 737. 41 


Nil 




216.50 

144. 27 

3.94 
106. 77 


Nil 


120.50 


168.05 


.05 
Nil 


24.22 


11.31 




Nil 


42.62 
468.90 




Nil 


1,206.44 


928.84 


443.02 


735. 00 


832.41 


.05 


3, 920. 08 

3, 584. 35 
31. 95 

3,015.42 

371. 82 
407. 03 


1, 425. 23 

2, 555. 16 

50.32 


1.35 
5, 001. 67 

7.316.11 
13.<0 


335. 17 

2, 725. 97 

3, 659. 46 


47.42 
2, 034. 93 

3, 902. 67 

92.30 

19.00 

2, 945. 32 

45.28 


55.71 
1, 434. 49 

7, 370. 84 


2, 516. 25 
30,714.11 

41,534.50 

392. 92 

19.00 

82,831.23 

18, 250. 06 
898. 99 


.01 
-.17 

.22 
Nil 






Nil 


5, 829. 22 
1,325.00 


6, 371. 86 

659. 35 
66.40 


11,638.15 

202.28 
49.80 


3, 544. 61 
710.50 


.45 

.10 
Nil 










743. 61 
962. 70 


191.02 
31,311.94 

82.90 

35.82 




474. 83 

37, 558. 73 

248. 30 

55.90 

1,205.00 

379. 83 

23.85 


93.09 

47, 427. 46 


300.00 
51,745.11 


2, 589. 20 
468,910.11 

411.88 

925. 42 

1,210.48 
6. 896. 35 

3, 853. 93 


.01 


687.42 


2.52 
Nil 


.70 




705. 43 




Nil 




01 


1, 594. 42 
351.53 


97.10 
15.00 


297.00 


1, 394. 60 
13. 25 


358. 54 
161. 53 


.04 
.02 






17,651.52 
13, 548. 83 

585, 727. 26 


41,351.74 
5. 141. 87 

704, 743. 88 


58, 809. 36 
12,314.57 

567, 239. 54 


91,109.96 
8. 345. 90 

564, 54S. 53 


33. 557. 58 
17,211.11 

585. 590. 23 


34. 460. 41 
13,456.61 

622, 484. 55 


417, 327. 35 
97, 579. 90 

5, 892, 523. 05 


2.40 
.52 

31.64 


3, 022, 207. 02 
16.24 


1,762,980.28 
9.47 


1, 345, 202. 34 
7.22 


1,659,445.36 
8.91 


1, 497, 167. 37 
8.04 


1,679,563.10 
9.02 


18, 618, 926. 08 
100.00 


"too. 66 



224 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Tools, machine (all kinds of 'power-driven, including rolling-mill 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


•February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce..- 


$10, 770. 44 

605. 80 

11,595.97 


$14, 443. 15 
1, 425. 32 
8, 745. 83 


$12, 712. 29 
2, 138. 26 
7, 780. 37 


$15,083.64 

1,721.24 

17. 986. 23 


$11,747.13 
7, 544. 35 
9, 966. 79 


$26, 730. 49 

1, 776. 74 

12,661.32 










14.00 

154,010.05 

6,015,88 


17.14 

262, 436. 66 
19, 585. 96 


119.93 

251, 989. 43 

6, 713. 93 


66.68 

234,582.15 

3, 440. 49 


32.83 

124, 324. 76 

6,245.64 


20.94 


Navy... 

Post Office. 


169, 442. 20 
12, 983. 18 








1,681.91 
55, 018. 00 


3, 747. 56 
59, 357. 00 


4, 116.99 
65, 018. 00 


4, 620. 57 
124, 368. 00 


3, 226. 34 1 7,707.87 


War . 


95. 557. 00 80. 397. 00 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 




1 

1 

! 
i 


American Battle Monu- 












I 


Civilian Conservation 












! 


Civil Service Commis- 






26.46 


7.60 




i 


Commodity Credit Cor- 










District of Columbia 
Government.. _. 


475. 79 


840. 16 


794. 85 


767. 24 


981. 91 


8, 806. 59 


Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 






5.89 
250. 70 

13. .54 
92.40 


6.73 
89.67 




" 


Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 


358.32 


191.81 
11.55 


239. 26 


29.07 












Federal Trade Commis- 








13.50 
6.86 


j 


General Accounting 
Office 






21.42 
! 


Government Printing 
Office 










Home Owners' Loan 




11.55 
206.23 


7.05 
196. 49 

1.59 


37.60 
307. 13 

15. 75 


35.60 




Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 


87.79 
13.80 


185.53! 

! 

14. 01 


607. 18 




530. 43 

405. 46 
106. 25 


579. 02 
14.76 




412. 77 

867. 67 
65.29 


1,839.57 
2, 014. 20 




375. i6! 


National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics 


507. 63 
5.00 


407. 491 


National Labor Rela- 






j 


National Training 








""i," 184.97 


5.50 
1,418. 14 


1 
2.00| 


Panama Canal. __ 

Reconstruction Finance 


2, 036. 06 


4, 542. 72 


1, 496. 79 


1, 390. 00| 
1 


Rural Electrification Ad- 












1 


Securities and Exchange 


238.64 










: 




6.903 


26.00 




30.40 

160. 53 

.72 

4,610.04 
832. 76 

15, 280. 48 








17.93 


617.54 










2.88, 


Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 
Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


2 , 720. 38 
33, 726. 42 


8, 567. 16 
".2, 637. 74 


6,301.81 
1, 033. 87 

36, 957. 76 


8, 079. 39 
1,948.81 

50, 034. 44 


6, 698 OS 
2,412.58 

68, 676. 37 


Total. 

Percent of grand total 


304,411.39 
5.27 


437, 430. 35 

7.57 


398, 307. 03 
6.89 


465,717.99 
8.06 


286,721.49! 
4. 96; 


401,358.38: 
6.94 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 

■and forge-shop) : all accessories, outfits, and parts— Class No. 40 



225 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


Df grand 
total 


$57. 180. 71 
0, 426. 00 
19, 977. 30 


$13, 940. 71 

1, 757. 00 
12. 705. 13 


$10,406.41 
1,951.00 
4, 290. 23 

57. 93 

258, 569. 87 

8, 455. 83 

"12,438.79 
47, 483. 64 


$13, 872. 99 
1, 147.00 
6, 631. 57 


$15,695.51 
2, 475. 28 
13, 777. 39 


$15, 009. 42 

351. 12 

13, 024. 88 

31.83 

273, 351. 37 

4, 335. 89 

""5,366.69 
69. 808. 00 


$217. 592. 89 
29,319.11 
139, 143. 01 


3.7ft 

.51 

2.41 


237 17 

427,751.67 

5,081.31 


8.05 

266, 967. 55 

15,131.70 

"""3,727.60 
229. 946. 37 


74.91 

279, 064. 27 

5, 174. 76 

4, 635. 31 
98, 293. 07 


32.91 

384,331.32 

2, 843. 16 

""3,451.51 
98, 183. 00 


714.22 

3, 086, 821. 30 

96,013.73 

"62,960.08 
1,126,475.08 


.01 

53.41 
1.66 


8, 238. 94 
103. 046. 00 

! 


1.09 
19.48 


1 
































2.95 












3,701 


Nil 














1, 580. 96 


4,956.11 


1, 366. 29 


1, 236. 74 


948. 62 


603.76 


23, 359. 02 


.40 


i 
























.75 
22.20 




13.37 

1, 446. 73 

11.55 
1, 713. 54 

121.65 

35.04 


Nil 


3.99 


66.02 


77.61 


89.20 


28.88 


.03 
Nil 


1, 700. 00 
15.75 












.03 












Nil 


2.61 


2.06 


2.09 






Nil 














61.94 
241. 76 


121.32 




5.76 
33. 92 

15. 75 


280.82 
1,831.93 

870. 87 


Nil 


265. 59 
36.25 


221.60 
50. 65 


82.89 
115.89 


.03 




.01 


135. 08 

781.21 
4, 246. 00 


350.00 

115.95 
113.00 


625.60 

346. 52 
19.00 


705. 43 
172. 64 


1,521.02 

127. 91 
5.10 




5,761.44 
4, 559. 64 


.10 




.08 








4.97 
4, 470. 18 


170.45 
2. 6X0. 70 


4 29 
3, 490. 65 


3,567. 11 


172. 84 
3, 245. 15 




360. 05 
33,301.92 


.01 


3, 839. 45 


.58 


















158. 98 

65. 57 

1.94 

1, 729. 15 

134.88 

96.441.43 


21 60 
20.32 


8.28 
71.22 


38.00 
1.92 


27 
14.76 




238. 91 

358. 58 

969. 79 

5.54 

92, 209. 90 
15.852.69 

329,969.88 


Nil 


6.29 


.01 
.02 
Nil 


7. 092. 49 
1, 559. 66 

181,434.70 


3, 675. 72 
2, 268. 31 

78, 688. 87 


12, 502. 00 
4,928.38 

58, 834. C7 


4.821.70 
405.01 

67, 427. 23 


1,412.00 
328. 43 

89, 829. 47 


1.60 
.27 

14.36 


739,714.581 743,039.97 
12.79i '2.85 

1 


434, 604. 82 
7.52 


491, 153. 58 
8.50 


599,701.42 
10.37 


478, 175. 69 

8.28 


5, 780, 336. 69 
100.00 


100.00 



226 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Tools, hand — 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$32, 458. 73 

1,918.53 

30, 238. 84 


$37, 148. 46 

2, 188. 27 

24, 936. 75 


$38, 840. 07 

1, 982. 72 

18, 021. 98 


$44, 540. 03 

2, 599. 58 

33,373.87 


$34, 245. 92 

2, 814. 59 

23,484.99 


$52, 246. 16 

2, 868. 96 

25, 609. 69 




Interior 




165.18 

263, 623. 29 

2, 070. 74 


111.60 
87,356.11 
2, 639. 39 


302.26 

195, 819. 03 

2, 092. 09 


217. 39 

28, 858. 48 
1, 840. 35 


84.73 
26, 627. 10 
3, 509. 75 


66.50 

27, 310. 78 

1,389.32 




Pos^t Office - 


State 




3, 696. 44 
41, 433. 00 


3, 705. 58 
63, 118. 00 

2.93 


6, 009. 19 
47, 143. 00 

4.05 


6, 744. 42 
90,644.00 

1.46 


4, 393. 40 
88,761.00 

1.75 


5, 536. 14 
79, 815. 00 


War.. 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 






Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 


5.20 




.35 


36.45 


4.68 




Commodity Credit Cor- 






District of Columbia 


849.94 


2, 375. 89 


1, 247. 50 


3, 180. 97 


1, 794. 23 


1, 184. 06 




Farm Credit Adminis- 


4.19 




.56 

23.77 

346. 93 


18.63 

1.63 

154.93 

10.53 


4.40 

9.02 

203.78 


1.83 


Federal Communications 


Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 


91.44 


375. 98 


82.87 

.96 
50.71 

.49 


Federal Power Commis- 










84.80 

6.98 

17.70 

3, 839. 76 

10.23 

162. 12 

215. 30 
36.00 


Federal Trade Commis- 


1.58 

23.98 

2, 993. 43 


3.62 

6.05 

2, 735. 02 

4.20 

284.44 

89.02 
2.07 






Oeneral Accounting 
Office ' 




5.00 

2, 464. 96 

32.30 

339.44 

367. 43 

5.78 


Government Printing 
Office 


2, 787. 19 

9.38 

547.62 

536.71 

.77 




Home Owners' Loan 


56.68 
780.68 

573.60 
7.30 


Inland Waterways Cor- 


125.10 

47.14 
.11 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 




Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics- 
National Archives. 

National Labor Rela- 


981. 12 

149. 57 
18.00 


950.43 

68.62 
1.60 


391. 49 

81.54 
25.28 


541.03 

662.20 
.85 


590. 46 

446. 37 
.90 


625.25 

120.50 
8.00 


National Training 






12.00 
3,951.32 

1.02 


7.00 
2, 952. 00 

.34 


9.36 

3, 869. 74 


80.95 
4, 073. 55 

.76 

2.25 

1.97 

13.00 

103. 71 

5.60 

1, 261. 58 

2, 474. 07 

316, 010. 81 


Panama Canal.. 

Reconstruction Finance 


6,551.93 


11,697.45 


Rural Electrification Ad- 




2.34 

4.64 

178. 84 
38.08 


3.75 

5.90 

59.56 
19.83 


Securities and Exchange 
Commission 


5.33 

39.61 
64.19 


3.46 
53.00 
14.63 


6.08 
67.54 
22.53 


Smithsonian Institution .. 
Social Security Board 


Tennessee Valley Au- 




7, 447. 96 


4, 527. 76 
744. 82 

257, 729. 50 


4, 592. 49 
1, 090. 45 

360, 995. 91 


4, 104. 78 
10,621.12 

92, 157. 78 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration. 


59,311.86 


156, 039. 64 


Total 


446, 868. 47 
7.16 


413, 502. 98 
6.62 


583, 250. 99 
9.34 


586, 376. 05 
9.40 


302, 190. 78 
4.84 


521, 362. 63 
8.35 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



227 



Class No. 41 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$122,007.49 
4, 647. 00 
31, 807. 32 


$41, 957. 88 

2, 673. 00 

23, 543. 34 


$43, 637. 93 

1, 776. 00 

10, 615. 73 


$38, 003. 44 

1, 937. 00 

20, 297. 90 


$34, 883. 98 
3, 130. 38 
25,955.91 


$51, 769. 80 
3, 106. 78 
30, 124. 24 


$571, 739. 89 

31,642.81 

298, 010. 56 


9.15 
.51 

4.78 


253.29 

228,119.35 

2, 985. 80 


21.06 
97, 153. 18 
10, 393. 97 


82.36 

36,261.11 

1,414.35 


98.83 

41,806.00 

1, 198. 18 


108. 91 

44, 852. 13 

1, 868. 13 


185.90 

40, 481. 66 

1, 398. 31 


1, 698. 01 

1, 128, 268. 22 

32, 800. 38 


.03 

18.08 
.53 


8, 234. 18 
99, 370. 00 

3.70 


2, 878. 22 
150, 556. 07 

4.75 


3, 432. 57 
51, 660. 26 


8, 276. 09 
48,126.71 


1, 485. 65 
57, 557. 00 

2.60 


3, 945. 22 
46, 277. 02 


58, 336. 10 
864, 461. 06 

21.30 


.94 
13.85 

Nil 


























7.44 


9.27 




11. 18 


3.72 




81.29 


Nil 








2, 356. 27 


6, 204. 59 


2, 227. 03 


3, 221. 12 


1, 655. 49 


2, 064. 35 


28, 361. 44 


.45 


5.57 

1.30 

174. 05 




26.98 
61.00 
137.29 




1.46 

10.35 

114.80 

12.001 
47.27 

.22 

30.64 

3,028.11 

19.97 

324.29 

690. 23 


2.45 


66.07 

107. 77 

2, 139. 11 

28.58 
1, 396. 99 

27.45 

254. 67 

27, 897. 15 

244.28 

5, 636. 59 

4, 121. 63 

58.25 

14.68 

8, 926. 12 

2, 103. 17 
2, 878. 63 


Nil 




.70 
160.40 


Nil 


114.18 

5.09 
135.66 


182. 46 


.03 
Nil 


758. 13 

5.83 

12.47 

2, 861. 92 

4.48 

950.53 

107.28 
1.79 


48.52 

1.02 

2.30 

1, 945. 65 

51.03 

997.90 

382.30 

2.26 

14.68 

387.25 

16.25 

2, 582. 46 


223.60 

.15 

4.14 

1,948.37 

27.85 

281.24 

373.09 
.45 


48.30 
8.56 
20.22 
1,911.29 
17.85 
204.48 

490. 30 
1.72 


.02 
Nil 


132. tf 

1, 381. 45 

10! 31 

648.75 

249.33 


Nil 
.45 
Nil 
.09 

.07 
Nil 






Nil 


860.27 

75.54 
157. 07 


418. 30 

16.42 
.62 


275.20 
87.72 


1, 583. 18 

320. 98 
21.55 


1, 322. 14 

67.46 
62.30 


.14 

.03 
.05 








8.17 
4, 170. 30 


29.52 
4, 474. 32 

.79 


3.12 
4, 277. 09 

3.76 


.94 
4, 255. 10 


5.76 
4, 324. 95 

8.07 


156. 82 
58, 353. 45 

16. 59 

14.84 

90.75 

1, 519. 37 

638.60 

8.54 

60, 747. 81 
27, 026. 25 

3, 022, 615. 56 


Nil 


3, 755. 70 
1.85 


.94 
Nil 


6.50 




Nil 


27.60 

114.26 

96.04 

2.94 

3, 767. 34 
2, 776. 23 

206, 405. 01 


29.41 

89.57 
32.85 






6.36 
26. 43 
28.97 


Nil 


62.70 
67.10 


761. 67 
118. 57 


53.19 
32.10 


.02 
.01 
Nil 


4, 162. 40 
900.05 

365, 473. 12 


10, 773. 02 
1, 730. 17 

355, 134. 00 


6, 246. 62 
2, 312. 49 

269, 154. 80 


6,014. 19 
2, 085. 22 

283, 380. 98 


7, 849. 67 
2, 291. 63 

301,822.15 

500, 056. 80 
8.01 


.97 
.43 

48.43 


722, 715. 04 
11.58 


713, 357. 95 
11.42 


530, 057. 88 
8.49 


449, 240. 48 
7.20 


473, 530. 73 
7.59 


6, 242, 510. 78 
100.00 


100.00 



228 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Hardware (builders'; 









Month 






Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$39, 942. 55 
3, 303. 38 
32, 565. 12 


$46, 914. 79 

4, 786. 54 

35, 043. 81 


$57, 942. 27 

2, 621. 39 

31,261.33 


$58, 714. 85 

6, 777. 93 

44, 588. 90 


$59, 874. 84 

5, 003. 56 

33, 032. 25 


$116,460.10 

5, 971. 67 

69,391.95 










66.20 

31, 523. 68 

4, 236.- 18 


192. 52 

41, 533. 85 

1, 267. 84 


128. 08 

146, 305. 65 

1, 072. 04 


224. 33 
79, 491. 63 
4,801.44 


90.73 

36, 992. 16 

37.87 


135. 93 

50, 377. 12 

641.63 




Post Office 


State 


Treasury.. 


10, 714. 61 
75, 278. 00 

7.00 


9, 270. 66 
82, 442. 00 

10.77 


9,751.82 
76, 434. 00 

5.06 


13, 627. 60 
117,276.00 


16, 668. 68 
146, 806. 00 


13, 748. 81 
159, 324. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 








Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 


29.75 


7.48 


14.25 


19.02 






Commodity Credit Cor- 






District of Columbia 
Government .. . 


1, 541. 45 


1, 868. 10 


589. 41 


5, 003. 38 


846.96 


3, 567. 83 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration. 

Federal Communications 


33.32 
43.38 
93.99 


22.96 


62.70 

11.64 

380. 64 


122. 96 

4.91 

265. 56 

19.65 
572. 12 


92.25 


125. 53 


Federal Housing Admin- 


149. 30 


143. 58 

1.50 
524. 51 

27.00 

81.01 


100.79 

10.71 
98.10 

272. 00 

1.10 

1, 382. 08 

160. 27 

362. 23 

1,422.86 
135.00 


Federal Power Commis- 


Federal Reserve Board... 
Federal Trade Commis- 


107. 79 
79.80 
57.28 


211.52 

28.48 
3.90 


208. 15 


General Accounting Of- 
Government Printing Of- 


29.60 


263.93 


Home Owners' Loan 




196. 17 
410.02 

3, 654. 79 
30. 00 


45. 05 
338. 95 

286.33 
41.51 


162.05 
433. 66 

2, 949. 16 
98.71 


71.48 
450. 34 

1, 392. 36 
.50 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration _•_ .... 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission. 


280. 30 

192. 96 

30. 52 

6.04 

848. 63 

150. 12 
61.06 


Maritime Commission . . _ 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics.. 

National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 


380. 25 

396. 80 

55. 50 


404.60 

168.81 
10.59 


1, 202. 20 
462. 73 


1, 170. 24 

880. 71 
4.08 


517. 10 

250. 97 
5. 19 


National Training School 

for Bovs .. 

Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 


11.00 

10, 858. 19 


15.00 
8,312.98 

8.51 


4.00 
4, 768. 19 

13.88 

27. 50 


10.00 
1. 593. 70 

1.33 


4.95 
2, 852. 07 

32.21 

.48 

6.30 
61.11 
37.63 


3.73 
1,135.61 

28.18 


Rural Electrification Ad- 


.38 

42.50 
64. 39 
38.67 


Securities and Exchange 






67. ill 
121.84 


Smithsonian Institution.. 
Social Security Board 


41.11 
493. 43 

4, 009. 38 


224. 30 

147.67 

17.16 

5, 878. 87 
5, 384. 59 

75, 864. 38 


256. 95 
108. 83 


Tennessee Valley Au- 


7,102.81 
3, 719. 04 

105, 195. 83 


4, 296. 35 
4, 303. 88 

33,017.74 


5, 782. 57 
5, 455. 09 

114,433,42 






Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


67, 174. 98 


100,708.83 


Total 


279, 383. 82 
4.94| 


343, 068. 36; 

6.07 


420, 444. 41 
7.43 


455, 073. 34 
8.04 


348, 805. 33 
6.17 


551, 490. 63 
9.75 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

general) — Class No. J^2 



229 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July August 
1938 1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$212,473.01 

5, 467. 00 

83, 252. 56 


$41,049.12 
5, 799. 0(J 
50, 847. 55 


$69, 777. 28 

7,321.00 

44, 006. 02 


$39, 486. 71 
5, 932. 0C 

49, 478. 11 


$38, 663. 51 

8, 014. 26 

68, 354. 67 


$47, 037. 37 

5, 660. 94 

67, 032. 84 


$828, 336. 4C 

66, 658. 67 

598, 855. 75 


14.65 

1.18 

10.60 


343.00 

71, 107. 40 

828.71 


57.41 

25, 695. 70 
5,441.04 


61.09 

155,069.69 

137. 43 


71.21 

59, 077. 04 

47.38 


335. 57 
54, 200. 13 


313. 02 

38, 488. 92 
123.63 


2, 019. 09 

789, 862. 97 

18, 635. 19 


.04 

13.97 

.33 






13,723.30 
357, 008. 00 


8, 225. 94 
97, 647. 38 

82.00 


10, 867. 70 
94, 933. 61 


8, 736. 89 
118,457.22 

8.75 


14, 030. 70 
97, 128. 00 


8, 514. 97 
107, 230. 88 


137, 88r. 68 
1, 529, 965. 09 

115.71 


2.44 
27.01 

Nil 


































141.50 


33.48 


4.15 


249.63 


Nil 










4, 425. 34 


3, 212. 85 


1,794.67 


5, 649. 91 


2, 282. 80 


1,713.17 


32, 495. 87 


° .58 


44.64 


48.75 

8.00 

82.13 

1.19 
183.47 


4.40 


11.39 


4.20 

6.96 

274. 98 

1.27 
975. 32 


9.66 

6.96 

74.15 

20.72 
99.09 


582. 76 

81.85 

1,895.84 

71.61 
3,391.52 

535. 31 

1,019.03 

1, 382. 08 

1, 507. 68 

3, 540. 81 

33, 787. 20 

436.50 

18.84 

10, 114. 59 

4, 056. 99 
491. 76 


.01 

Nil 


142.02 


90.27 


98.42 

16.57 
211.18 


.03 
Nil 


40.48 
128.03 

4.98 


159.68 


.06 
.01 


132. 6J 


82.44 


21.31 


62.66 


278. 21 


.02 
.02 


431.33 

226.66 

3, 223. 38 

29.00 

12.80 

848.34 

467. 67 
159.01 


12,75 
180.32 

1,198.29 


12.75 
104.41 

2, 534. 28 
4.07 


91.12 
131.96 

4, 261. 25 
4.09 


81.39 
475. 73 

9, 569. 37 
29.50 


243. 32 
146.23 

3, 102. 17 
33.60 


.03 
.06 

.60 
.01 




Nil 


635. 10 

88.65 
2.20 


198. 48 

629.38 
2.72 


880.38 

163.92 
181.28 


1,682.98 

243. 92 
7.85 


1, 345. 29 

153.25 
1.68 


.18 

.07 
.01 


44.49 
1,427.62 

21.02 


33.06 
1,327.73 

29.53 


101.87 
7, 722. 88 

24.03 


19.57 
3, 577. 61 

7.99 


81.06 
4, 174. 88 

31.74 

1.20 

19. 10 
97. 89 
105. 88 


10.60 
4, 604. 37 

51.50 

6.75 
168.03 
46.40 


339. 33 
52, 355. 83 

249. 92 

29.56 

109. 93 

1,207.84 

1,384.37 

17. 16 

73, 727. 45 
60, 145. 25 

1,399,157.70 


.01 
.93 

Nil 

Nil 


11.69 
85.67 
180.62 




9.62 

99. 04 
18.17 


13, 97 

9.75 
24.52 


Nil 


32.49 
60.71 


.02 
.02 
Nil 


4, 848. 64 
7, 478. 65 

131, 377. 94 


3. 308. 35 
3, 097. 10 

164, 159. 16 


5, 340. 39 
7.175.03 

142, 492. 86 


5, 303. 59 

6, 854. 04 

167, 493. 31 


16,373.55 
9, 312. 93 

155, 752. 87 


10,882.95 
7, 364. 90 

141,486.38 


1.30 
1.06 

24.75 


899, 863. 00 
15.91 


412,679.58 

7.30 


550, 775. 26 
9.74 


476, 464. 58 
8.42 


482,410.35 

8.52 


436, 256. 10 

7.71 


5, 656, 714. 76 
100.00 


" 100.00 



230 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 

Bolts, nuts, rivets, screws, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$11,793.13 

1, 389. 77 

10, 076. 87 


$16, 333. 17 
3, 278. 02 
7, 384. 84 


$12,781.38 
1, 042. 37 
6, 294. 92 


$14, 849. 94 

1, 949. 52 

11,144.52 


$11,598.30 

1, 487. 28 

13, 099. 99 


$18, 291. 66 
1,671.88 
8, 576. 16 






Justice 




26.97 

44, 833. 64 

1, 980. 77 


57.93 

23, 845. 77 

296. 93 


69.60 

7, 430. 98 

180. 19 


9.95 

253,025.12 

571. 58 


43.53 

21, 137. 23 

431. 72 


34.39 

19, 713. 32 

325. 10 




Post Office 


State 




2, 473. 91 
28, 856. 00 


3,231.43 
27, 951. 00 


2, 184. 18 
21,553.00 

7.49 


5, 194. 13 
39, 222. 00 


1, 894. 94 
29, 457. 00 


2, 845. 13 
47, 879. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 












Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion .. 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














Distriet of Columbia 

Government 

Export-Import Bank_ ... 


340.70 


686.92 


318.23 


173.99 


332. 89 


947.88 


Farm Credit Administra- 






.34 


1.33 




.47 


Federal Communications 








Federal Housing Admin- 
istrat ion 

Federal Power Commis- 


20.52 


111.57 


81.99 


25.94 


60.73 


15.33 
















Federal Trade Commis- 








.96 






General Accounting Of- 


1.93 






1.65 


1.86 


Government Printing 
Office 








Home Owners' Loan 






3.85 
318. 22 

158.37 


26.34 
533. 37 

102. 76 


25.53 
298.44 

212. 25 


1.50 
508.80 

74.38 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration .. 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 


69.05 

22.61 
3.01 


368. 35 

32.23 

.75 












Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics.. 


219. 15 

223.78 
17.67 


156. 83 

63.37 
5.35 


260.99 

48.48 
1.96 


644.97 

281. 72 

2 S2 


522. 69 

419.31 
5.91 


217. 44 
21.93 


National Labor Rela- 






National Training 
School for Boys . 


35.00 
8, 826. 39 


20.00 
7, 907. 00 


1 "" 

25. 001 5. 00 


43.00 




20,672.401 674.81 3,080.34 


1, 305. 78 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 












Securities and Exchange 






.14 

2.83 

49.78 


52. 78 156. 35 
13. 34 17. 07 


. 321 

1 




23.33 


82.10 
14.36 




7.86 






Tennessee Valley Au- 




2, 247. 75 


1,117.97 
532. 59 

8, 893. 29 


2, 902. 84 1, 477. 70 
1,073.91 827.16 

9, 863. 00| 3, 328. 17 


4,031.35 
606. 79 

9, 668. 28 






Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


5,200.68 


12, 272. 30 


Total 

Percent of grand total. 


116,434.88 
6.52 


106, 347. 97 
5.% 


84, 030. 54 
4.72 


342,346.641 89,959.18 
19.18 4.99 


116,746.61 
6.54 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

washers — Class No. 43 



231 



' 




Month —Continued 






Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$28,976.41 
1,701.00 
7, 597. 22 


$9, 196. 42 
1. 472. 00 
7,501.84 


$12,271.20 

952.00 

7, 572. 15 


$9, 973. 39 

715.00 

8, 330. 19 


$S. 594. 53 

1, 151. 73 

12,255.05 


$11,217.70 

1,337.16 

11,396.79 


$165, 877. 2?. 

18, 147. 73 

111,230.54 


9.29 
1.02 
6.22 


142. 88 

13, 226. 97 

324. 44 


16.02 

20, C42. 59 

1, 457. 68 


35.38 

121,342.58 

44.88 


27.92 

143,095 56 

253. 98 


69.81 

68, 900. 46 

363. 41 


77.08 

71, 837. 80 

151.48 


611.46 

809, 032. 02 

6. 382. 16 


.03 

45.33 

.36 


5, 36fi. 53 
64. 378. 00 


3,531.23 
28, 998. 03 


9, 770. 99 
20,017.13 


3, 725. 41 
24, 876. 75 


2, 585. 75 
26, 406. 00 


3, 490. 85 
24, 978. 00 


46, 294. 48 
384,571.91 

7.49 


2.59 
21.54 

Nil 
















1 
















































496. 42 


900.74 


841.06 


412.16 


432.44 


601. 14 


6, 484. 57 


.36 








.55 






2.69 


Nil 


1 












15.57 


42.50 


50.35 


58.20 


27. 94 


35.38 


546.02 


.03 






















5.85 
.50 








6.81 
11.03 


Nil 


I 


3.41 


.43 


1.25 




Nil 








2.32 




50.10 
544.07 

117.23 
1.35 




.58 
163.03 

302.55 


4.80 
101.96 

356. 75 


115.02 
3, 599. 14 

2, 207. 89 
5.11 


.01 


195.57 
424.30 


269.63 
353. 70 


228.65 
50.76 


.20 

.12 
Nil 












480.90 

194. 11 

12.16 


75. 43 
79.89 


28.67 
733.69 


278.11 
43.78 


1,039.68 

103. 26 
1.40 


804. 87 

20.40 
.46 


4. 729. 73 

2, 233. 72 
47.73 


.26 

.12 
Nil 










14.48 
2, 332. 22 




7.45 
1,781.04 


2.90 

1,823.77 


13.06 
2, 177. 94 


.80 
3,931.71 


■ 166. 69 
56.015.98 


.01 


1,502.58 


3.14 




8.34 


.18 


2.23 


.90 


16.20 


27.85 

.16 
358. 54 
295. 86 


Nil 




Nil 


4.07 
23.19 


30.74 
138. 48 




.80 

1.75 




5.54 
18.87 


.02 


10.28 


.88 


.02 


1,541.41 
5.58. 41 

12.946.05 


2, 677. 92 
605. 62 

24. 187. 91 


4, 248. 61 
789. 66 

10,711.49 


3, 333. 73 
572. 15 

9, 854. 30 


3. 403. 31 
1,009.41 

10, 437. 63 


3, 819. 58 
513. 60 

11,263.39 


30, 802. 17 
7, 089. 30 

128,626.49 


1.73 
.40 

7.20 


140, 954. 63 
7.90 


103, 692. 70 
5.81 


191,927.89 
10.75 


207, C62. 47 
11.64 


139,442.00 

7.81 


145, 982. 31 
8.18 


1, 785, 527. 82 
100.00 


100.00 



232 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Pipe tubes, tubing (non 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce . 


$23, 093. 41 
8, 009. 61 
61, 190. 11 


$35, 1 51.45 

2, 015. 57 

76, 079. 14 


$33,009.71 $61,339.51 

2, 263. 50 5, 874. 47 

57, 522. 33. 189, 939. 62 


$82, 990. 44 

2, 476. 00 

82, 858. 41 


$95, 275. 05 

3. 312. 24 

85, 376. 30 


Interior 


Labor 


.50 

426,768.79 


3 79 
237, 374^ 09 


47.66 

289, 233. 43 

49.60 


9.58 
47, 416. 50 


290.56 

107, 634. 30 

17.61 




Navv 


74, 196. 10 


Post OflBce 


State - 










Treasury 


2, 677. 79 
163,811.00 


2,984.51 
109, 496. 00 


1, 159. 40 
136, 378. 00 


4, 096. 57 
107, 773. 00 


3, 016. 96 
128, 535. 00 


2, 719. 43 
157, 300. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
'Corps __ 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 
Government 


13, 335. 35 


17, 539. 47 


15, 114. 79 


24, 574. 70 


57,913.06 


ll,674.08i 


Export-Import Bank.. .. 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration ... 














Federal Communications 












Federal Housing Admin- 




55.00 




3.97 
75.00 


300.29 




Federal Power Commis- 
sion 








1 
j 














Federal Trade Commis- 












i 


General Accounting 
Office . 






12 






I 


Government Printing 
Office 










| 


Home Owners' Loan 






4.85 
181.54 

743. 62 




6.44 
44.00 

366. 47 




Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 


18.57 
1,030.81 


983. 48 
411.54 


33.31 
153. 36 


356. 92 

i 
387.64! 
















Maritime Commission. .. 




195. 60 
44.00 


249. 57 
93.41 


584. 39 
774. 81 


480. 45 
112.29 


145. 70; 
269. 21 j 


National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. . 


74.03 


National Labor Rela- 












i 


National Training 


47.00 
12, 602. 66 




86.00 
24, 213. 27 


20.00 
1, 039. 62 


112.00 
5, 225. 58 


" 1 

64.02] 
1,435.26 


Panama Canal 


13, 484. 79 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 












| 




20.86 


102.00 
97.20 


135. 52 
260. 40 




405. 16 
97.20 


I 






67.90 










Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 




15, 487. 55 


61, 796. 62 
2, 827. 98 

843, 040. 58 


26, 876, 41 
5, 795. 81 

918,447.21 


70,813.48 
4, 749. 08 

251, 273. 87 


1 
11, 436. 90 1 






8,973.41' 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration.. 


333, 353. 14 


841, 874. 24 


1 
935, 156. 65, 


Total 

Percent of grand total _ 


1, 046, 033. 63 
5.68 


1, 353, 379. 12, 

7.34 


1,468,411.90 
7.97 


1, 394, 827. 84 

7.57 


799, 718. 65 
4.341 


1,388,146.81 
7.531 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

flexible) — Class No. 44 



233 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


Julv 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$276, 552. 95 

9, 032. 00 

117, 962. 80 


$25, 923. 55 
10, 960. 00 
60, 421. 34 


$27, 678. 70 

5, 907. 00 

54, 841. 45 


$27, 185. 85 

4, 603. 00 

92, 541. 50 


$17, 206. 67 
13,956.30 
96, 459. 81 


$27, 242. 93 
13, 134. 18 
67, 543. 97 


$732, 649. 92 

81, 543. 87 

1,042,736.78 


3.98 
.44 

5.66 


4.99 
203, 303. 08 




23. 40 
230, 796! 10 




3.75 

287, 887. 89 


58.32 
196, 202. 56 


442. 55 

2,384,712.16 

67.21 


Nil 


101, 686. 00 


182, 213. 32 


12.95 
Nil 
















3, 355. 94 
367, 833. 00 


1, 355. 65 
105v 749. 98 


2. 476. 23 
102, 149. 05 


3, 034. 57 
124, 678. 92 


5,071.12 
198, 228. 00 


i, 558. 75 
137, 239. 00 


33, 506. 92 
1,839,170.95 


.18 

9.98 


































































17, 935. 39 


24, 706, 59 


74, 643. 88 


20, 924. 59 


18, 685. 38 


23, 747. 43 


320, 794. 71 


1.74 


































29.48 








19.76 




408.50 
75.00 


Nil 










Nil 


































19.81 




6.00 






25.93 


Nil 
























11.29 
2, 964. 49 

7, 042. 09 


Nil 


187. 43 
1,100.31 


319. 85 
159. 08 


527.57 
1, 114. 49 


105. 85 
287.77 


127.00 
1, 154. 12 


78.97 
132.88 


.02 
.04 


















1, 007. 65 

272. 42 
1 


9, 999. 70 
323.41 


1, 685. 38 
254.43 


1, 685. 45 

12.47 
2.00 


398. 37 
24.80 


1, 006. 17 
97.67 


17, 438. 43 

2, 352. 95 
2.00 


.09 

.01 
Nil 


1 












465. 30 
4, 914. 36 

2.91 


30.78 

2i 100. 37 


12.74 
8,014.36 

2.70 


178. 18 
8, 195. 98 


8.63 
44, 308. 85 


172.00 

5, 884. 50 


1,196.65 
131,419.60 

5.61 

1.73 

.70 

1,493.04 

844.09 


.01 
.71 

Nil 










1.73 


Nil 






.70 




Nil 


235.81 187. 8S 
207.70 113.29 


270. 46 


135. 38 




.01 




.40 


Nil 










I " ; 

21.136.27, 22,179.02 
19,488.76 2.382.62 

j 1, 532, 772. 65J 2, 269. 006. 61 


47, 162. 11 
10, 463. 09 

803,834.45 


28. 506. 02 
5, 233. 25 

782, 644. 91 


26, 267. 70 
15,523.08 

857, 138. 30 


34. 279. 54 
14, 326. 27 

1, 000, 286. 84 


365.941.62 
89, 763. 35 

11,368,829.45 


1.99 
.49 

61.70 


1 2,577,801.20 
I 13. 98 


2. 637, 625. 50 
14.32 


1,371,857.59 
7.45 


1, 282, 040. 33 
6.96 


1, 582, 604. 91 
8.59 


1,522,994.11 
8.27 


18, 425, 441. 59 
100.00 


100.66 



234 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 













Pipe fittings — 




Month 


Agency 


December January 
1937 | 1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$5, 373. 31 

1, 74S. 20 

23, 591. 01 


$18. 178. 90 
2,166.36 
17, 288. 21 


$8, 242. 27 

2,152.09 

31, 120. 56, 


$13,435.20 $11,950.27 

2.735.56 1,913.88 

38, 290. 98 41, 638. 76 


$19, 134. 86 

2, 839. 13 

34,911.74 










49.88 
109, 975. 09 


120.10 
180, 912. 48 


31.54 
75, 377. 84 


52.07 
190, 188. 46 


530. 3C 
286, 529. 14 


25.87 
59, 780. 39 




Post Office - 


■ State. 
















6, 441. 39 
43, 243. 00 


5, 128. 23 
55, 433. 00 


5, 818. 29 
63, 217. 00 


4,691.42 
70. 722. 00 


7, 092. 49 
93, 992. 00 


15, 640. 42 
82, 794. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 

Government... 

Export-Import Bank 


6, 698. 34 


9, 386. 07 


86, S24. 27 


12, 870. 98 


14, 807. 95 


6, 908. 92 


Farm Credit Administra- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 


.20 


1.01 


183. 22 


9.02 


327. 14 


6.97 


Federal Power Commis- 
















Federal Trade Commis- 












i 


General Accounting Of- 
fice. 














Government Printing Of- 














Home Owners' Loan Cor- 






66.67 

684. ;o 

179.96 








Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission. United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 


239.94 
323.82 


2/524.27 
251. 30 


247.46 
104.66 


499.01 
540.75 


321.82; 
536. 36 
















Maritime Commission.. 
-National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics- 


740. 75 
71.13 


822. 72 
48.68 


399.30 
43.96 


1, 449. 94 
508. 92 


493.26 
265. 00 


580.30 
285.89 


National Labor Relations 














National Training School 
for Bovs . . 


23.00 
8, 702. 48 


60.00 
6, 239. 02 


25.00 
14,183.59 


108.00 
2, 049. 86 


59.00 
1,533.48 


65.00 
4,385.02 




Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Senurities and Exchange 














Smithsonian Institution. 
Social Security Board 


5.10 
8.00 


79.41 

.14 


5.00 
8.92 


301.29 
17.50 


230. 49 
.28 


63.20 
23.00 


Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority. 


7, 532. 93 


2, 775. 70 


724. 01 
6, 7C8. 92 


4, 184. 94 
4,485.61 

51, 190.' 63 


10,275.13 
9, 336. 87 

35. 387. 31 


fi, 742. 25 

7, 788. 40 

1 

88,361.68! 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration .... 


49. 073. 15 


89, 946. 01 1 


83. 353. fi?J 


Total 

Percent of grand total 


262,841.32 
5. 62' 


391, 361. fil| 379, 410.87 397, 644. -50 
8.37! 8. Ill 8. do 


517, 402. 51 1 331,195.221 
11. 0~| 7. OS 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



235 



Class No. A5 



Month — Continued 


* Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$46,071.1 

3. 4iy (X 

44, 121. h 


5 $9,858.6! 
) 3,811.01 
\ 21, 257. 2( 


$ $13,436.5- 
) 3, 927. « 
1 23,301.1' 


r $10, 478. » 
) 2. 605. W 
r 31, 566. 1' 


J $8, 520. 4 
> 4, 544. & 
\ 37, 817. 82< 


L $15,733.05 $180,412.93 3.86 
I 4,247.70 36, 109.46 .77 
I 41,855.67 386,760.46 8.26 


147. 6^ 
30,065.95 


103. 71 
> 137,871.6" 


> 32. 2( 
47, 205. 81 


> 119, 391. 4* 


I 11. 8( 

1 176, 751. 82 

8.1! 


) 10. 1( 
! 78,610.0( 
I 


» 1,115.7? 

) 1, 492, 660. 21 

8.1! 

98,992.11 
989.389.81 


.02 

31.92 
Nil 










! 6, 173. 01 
66, 791. 0C 


7. 553. K 
233, 717. 0( 


5, 232. 81 
61, 653. 71 


15, 284. 62 
49, 948. 3" 


8, 123. 54 
79, 605. 67 


11,812.02 
83, 273. 0( 


2.12 
21.17 


































































9,877.12 


4,924.27 


13,049.35 


10,685.13 


7, 671. 35 


9, 042. 56 


191, 746. 31 


4.10 


































2.15 












529.71 


.01 












































8.27 


9.67 


.15 


.79 


13.66 


.57 


33.11 


Nil 








1.32 
367. 26 

37.74 






67.99 

7, 885. 64 

3, 034. 74 


Nil 


559.24 

93.46 


620.57 
367. 15 


137.08 
281.18 


1, 073. 76 
163. 44 


410.44 
149. 92 


.17 
.06 


















1,711.63 
235.43 


326.08 
19.30 


301. 30 
69.93 


475. 80 
73.55 


1, 093. 26 
93.19 


763.99 
215. 51 


9, 158. 33 
2, 020. 49 


.20 

.04 




1 














87.14 
3,412.11 


108.40 
3, 254. 88 


39.82 
3,711.92 

3.99 


88.11 
3, 488. 53 


35.54 
5, 681. 33 


79.46 
4, 288. 29 


778.47 
60, 930. 51 

3.99 


.02 

1.30 

Nil 






























57. 32, 


141.68 


91.01 
10.59 




127. 35 
1. N) 


156. 24 


1, 258. 09 
70.13 


03 




Nil 












2, 677. 85 
12, 141. 70 

109, 020 09 


12, 293. OS 
4, 436. 20 

100, 421. 59 


9, 5.54. 60, 
16,461.21 

103,015.74 


14, 615. 37 
12, 689. 49 

131. 372.91] 


7, 291. 91 
16, 401. 81 

76, 417. 79 


10, 965. 55 
12, 663. 68 

98,621 34] 


89,633 32 
103, 173. 89 

1,021,181.91 


1.92 
2.21 

21.82 



509, 9S4. 26 
10.90 



366,711.85 
7.84 



305, 163. 65 
6.53 



425, 666. 53 
9.10 



438, 805. 08 
9.38; 



350,778.18 4,676.955. 58' _ 

7.50, 100.00' 100.00 



236 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Metal in bars (flat, hexagon, octagon, round, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January February 
1938 1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$13, 182. 01 

2, 574. 19 

180,111.96 


$17,007.89 

2, 372. 04 

153, 250. 25 


$13,887. If 

2, 212. St, 

112,207.48 


$18, 655. 04 

3, 902. 27 

152, 074. 86 


$16,198.69 
2, 045. 8£ 
74, 299. 07 


$28, 381. 30 

3, 574. 69 

105, 451. 53 


Commerce 


Interior - .. 


Justice 


Labor. 


66.60 

210, 810. 94 

129.03 


69.08 

494,970.11 

774. 51 


107. 05 

598. 853. 16 

12, 851. 70 


42.72 

604, 605. 00 

21,520.34 


50. 2C 
1,640,265.08 


4.80 
215, 329. 86 




Post Office 


State 


| 


Treasury 


90, 266. 91 
101, 922. 00 


79, 713. 54 
326, 326. 00 


10, 515. 29 
158, 169. 00 


41, 745. 97 
1 10, 908. 00 




War 


276,012.00 


112,556.00 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration _. 














District of Columbia 
Government. ... 


5, 842. 32 


1, 160. 81 


2,581.07 


9, 423. 13 


11,928.00 


3, 453. 54 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 




13.00 




27.64 


3.95 


1. 10 


Federal Power Commis- 
sion 






Federal Reserve Board 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 














General Accounting 
Office 




2.52 
2, 600. 00 










Government Printing 
Office 


4, 496. 50 


524.00 


1,093.25 


3, 814. 82 




Home Owners' Loan 




Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 


72.76 
277. 06 


815. 12 
2, 035. 94 


51.42 
62.66 


642. 55 
554.91 


25. 14 
161. 58 


150. 96 
306. 39 
















Maritime Commission..- 
National Advisory Corn- 


138. 81 

337. 74 
104. 85 


110.94 
985. 59 


71.03 


27.57 
1,620.44 


638. 10 
426.60 


25.00 

489. 32 
1.20 






National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 










National Training 








17.00 
1, 170. 26 


20.00 
3, 023. 18 


128.02 
1, 825. 99 


Panama Canal 


29, 532. 48 


6, 577. 20 


52, 429. 13 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securiiies and Exchange 














Smithsonian Institution .. 


17.00 


56. 14 


29.50 


40. 30 


47.12 


86. 38 
















Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 






2, 034. 59 
729.93 

269. 989. 50 




7. 2.54. 03 
:,660.49 

43. 469. 59 


4. 363. 66 
2, 150. 06 

201. 747. 73 








825. 89 
147, 058. 07 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


143, 826. 81 


173.850.81 






Total 


783, 769. 97 
5.26 


1,262, 691. 71 1 

8.48 


1.237,306.57 
8.31 


1,115.961.21 
'7.49 


t, 089, 693. 28 681. 426. 47 


Percent of grand total 


14. 03 


4.56 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

square); billets, ingots, pigs, slabs — Class No. Jfi 



237 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


1 
Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$64, 940. 87 

4,521.00 

104, 462. 85 


$11, 236. 30 

6,269.00 

109, 614. 18 


$18, 106. 42 

1, 551. 00 

82, 248. 23 


$13, 515. 16 

2, 781. 00 

408, 391. 12 


$21, 047. 64 

4, 146. 73 

109, 816. 92 


$36, 945. 17 

2, 562. 72 

77, 551. 69 


$273, 103. 65 

38, 513. 38 

1, 669, 480. 15 


1.83 

.26 

11.21 


196. 31 

327, 615. 99 

233.54 


74.33 
1,000,501.49 


20.46 

376, 359. 49 

13.33 


51.39 
669, 009. 86 


179. 12 
254, 728. 92 


83.09 

250. 830. 57 

1, 204. 32 


945.15 

6, 643, 880. 47 

41, 900. 07 


.01 

44.61 

.28 










38, 300. 09 
514, 499. 00 


6, 013. 67 
178. 294. 38 


90, 504. 87 
319, 841. 33 


4, 165. 72 
227, 906. 91 


41, 278. 10 
265,441.00 


107, 933. 09 
192, 837. 00 


515, 018. 68 
2, 834, 712. 62 


3.46 
19.03 


































































13, 540. 00 


7, 965. 35 


24, 928. 36 


2, 748. 73 


5,741.60 


3, 278. 19 


92, 591. 10 


.62 










1.00 


-— 


1.00 


Nil 














1.56 


1.92 


2.28 


7.80 


7.42 


66.67 


Nil 


















































2.52 

22, 032. 10 

9.00 

2, 383. 06 

20, 386. 46 


Nil 


3, 294. 00 


1, 143. 25 


3, 181.-51 




1, 166. 25 


718. 52 


.15 


9.00 
140.58 

1,336.92 


Nil 


77.79 
103.09 


41.92 
3, 747. 38 


29.07 
4, 422. 09 


131. 69 

3, 908. 87 


204.06 
3, 469. 57 


.02 
.14 


























252. 89 
26.50 


211.84 


1, 476. 18 

5, 639. 07 
168.45 


.01 


186. 92 


748. 48 


449.74 


367. 74 
2.40 


.04 




Nil 














414.90 
1,960.19 


20.24 
12, 037. 50 




2.60 




5.19 
4, 334. 35 


607. 95 
113, 843. 16 


Nil 


473. 39 


479. 49 


.76 






































120.911 




6.86 


136. 86 
.31. 


21.86 




562.93 
.53 


NU 






Nil 


1 












2, 158. 81 1 
2, 297. 37 

218, 680. 72 


48, 949. 61 
1, 076. 19 

290, 517. 60 


54, 565. 14 
3, 880. 38 

269, 847. 18 


12, 209. 79 
2, 414. 64 

237, 316. 45 


13, 148. 91 
3, 018. 48 

232, 571. 17 


26, 305. 57 
2, 409. 25 

196, 445. 41 


170,990.11 
20, 462. 68 

2, 425, 327. 04 J 


1.15 
.14 

16.28 


1,297,610.35' 1,678,252.43 
8.72i 11.28 

1 


1, 250, 430. 77 
8.39 


1, 632, 509. 46 
10.96 


957, 114. 94 
6.43 


907, 337. 02 
6.09 


14, 894, i04. 18.. .' 

100.00 100.00 



262342— 41— No. 19- 



-17 



238 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Metal in plates and 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture. . . . 


$12,921.09 

1,565.41 

25, 246. 75 


$10, 677. 03 

1,483.80 

18,678.63 


$13, 439. 77 

922.56 

8, 112. 18 


$10, 828. 87 
4,521.48 
17, 721. 51 


$8, 949. 15 

679. 35 

49, 055. 80 


$21,600.24 
2, 775. 38 
6, 758. 96 








17.85 

822, 300. 49 

4,901.75 


18.34 

1,010,951.83 

243.21 


176. 66 

1,129,856.38 

4, 645. 00 


39.56 

310, 256. 53 

230.97 


.15 

211, 992. 68 


25.00 

113,119.35 

4, 640. 00 




Post Office 


State 






1, 490. 30 
120, 390. 00 


1, 910. 73 
192, 964. 00 


1, 329. 32 
66, 065. 00 


2,593.01 
88, 219. 00 


3, 574. 96 
252, 680. 00 


8, 955. 71 
135,051.00 


War 

Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 
Government 


939. 21 


2, 704. 43 


251.35 


746.70 


1,000.29 


12,168.00 


Farm Credit Adminls- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 




89.75 




36.60 






Federal Power Commis- 
























Federal Trade Commis- 














Oeneral Accounting 














Government Printing 














Home Owners' Loan 












3.20 
1,219.69 

30.41 


Inland Waterways Cor- 


32.79 
132. 74 


516.40 
364.22 


226.13 
118. 34 


54.14 
10.06 


122.10 
244.77 


Interaational Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
















Maritime Commission. . . 
National Advisory Corn- 


66.10 
227.00 


146.66 


33.33 
503.41 


383.00 

638.40 
2.14 


104.96 

418. 85 
1.70 


80.00 
653.89 






National Labor Rela- 










National Training 








13.00 
2, 258. 72 




42.36 
65.64 




13, 245. 80 


46, 980. 29 


106, 208. 00 


26, 997. 84 


•Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 


















336.32 






76.60 


231. 26 
























Tennessee Valley Au- 




625.82 


2, 285. 83 
468.25 

14, 630. 02 


29, 803. 55 
749. 33 

18, 006. 22 


11,433.15 
711.75 

3, 240. 09 


9, 328. 15 
625.60 

19. 095, 94 






Works Progress Admin- 


9, 532. 89 


13, 714. 17 




Total 


1,013,010.17 
! 10.99 


1,302,405.63 
14.14 


1,349,271.42 
14.64 


487,-112.79 
6.29 


571, 184. 09 
6.20 


336, 369, 78 
3.65 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

sheets — Class No. 47 



239 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1838 


July 
1938 


August September 
1938 1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$34, 289. 05 
3, 180. 00 
13, 364. 48 


$11, 249. 20 
3, 078. 00 
14, 461. 07 


$12, 416. 68 

1,474.00 

38,704.01 


$9, 027. 44 

993.00 

19, 389. 70 


$10, 645. 82 
2,550.11 
25, 236. 79 


$22, 515. 25 

1,942.19 

33, 408. 14 


$178, 559. 69 

25, 165. 28 

270, 138. 02 


1.94 

.27 

2.93 


290.19 

258, 892. 09 

9,161.30 






28.50 
120, 784. 23 




39.20 

454, 642. 98 

214. 51 


644.34 

5, 433, 132. 89 

23, 971. 30 


.01 


420, 126. 39 


210, 882. 23 
34.56 


369, 327. 71 


68.98 
.26 










4, 954. 38 
949, 052. 00 


2, 798. 12 
301,881.47 


15, 804. 68 
59, 367. 83 


3, 098. 21 
104, 258. 48 


836.61 
205, 994. 00 


3, 912. 20 
99, 438. 00 


51,258.13 
2, 575, 260. 78 


.56 
27. 95, 


































































3, 045. 96 


1, 788. 46 


674. 86 


317. 33 


1, 150. 24 


3, 362. 36 


28, 149. 19 


.31 










































4.90 


49. 30 


180.55 


Nil 


















































2.22 


1.63 


1.92 


5.67 


Nil 










14.76 

188.85 

417.67 


93.73 

3,483.23 

171. 02 


16.50 
280.79 

925. 49 






1.00 
21.13 

326.59 


129.19 
6, 921. 41 

3, 206. 33 


Nil 


148. 95 
233.38 


627. 21 
231.64 


.05 
.03 


























13.85 
471. 69 


116.99 
944.32 


944.89 

4,866.81 
903.84 


~"^*6i 


111.09 
900.00 


673.93 


224.33 




.05- 




.01 
















15.62 
15.14 










70.98 
233,211.80 


Nil 


5, 628. 54 


11, 038. 64 


3, 524. 00 


6, 887. 65 


10,361.54 


2.53 










100.00 




100. 00 


NQ 
















119.54 






48.40 




812.02 


.01 




























8, 709. 32 
4,011.49 

19,121.62 


2, 345. 81 
1,640.03 

17,077.94 


4, 593. 41 
2,560.64 

23, 603. 06 


15,541.10 
1, 744. 94 

53, 777. 67 


4, 558. 18 
1, 139. 32 

41,186.09 


4,963.66 
2, 515. 28 

33, 151. 85 


94, 187. 98 
16, 166. 63 

266, 137. 56 


1.02 
.IS 

2.89 


1,315,341.79 
14.25 


781, 018. 70 
8.48 


382,601.61 
4.15 


332, 869. 15 
3.61 


671,011.64 
7.28 


671. 928. 41 
7.29 


9, 214, 125. 18 
100.00 


100.0 



240 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Metal shapes (angles, channels, half-rounds, I-beams r 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$11, 346. 94 

1, 522. 76 

55, 715. 79 


$8,261:40 

4, 026. 40 

1, 482, 405. 68 


$19, 818. 13 
3, 100. 90 
18, 918. 92 


$8,911.43 

8,895.89 

100, 172. 72 


$22,765.47 

1, 923. 82 

497, 331. 67 


$63, 378. 51 

5. 877. 84 

39, 816. 69 










19.67 
42, 089. 41 






2.62 
272, 343. 91 


2.02 
15, 171. 19 






8/, 618. 41 


38,476.84 


46, 755. 39 


Post Office -. - 


State 
















710. 13 
175, 969. 00 


1, 127. 92 
116. 364. 00 


4, 938. 42. 


1.809' 34 


1, 102. 19 
89, 185. 00' 


1, 149. 34 
173, 837. 00 


War --. - 


97, 001. 00 318. 968. Oft 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 






American Battle Monu- 
ments rinmmifssinn 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 


838. 55 


101.80 


30.08 


425.93 


312.22 


579.07 






Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 










12.18 




Federal Power Commis- 
























Federal Trade Commis- 












22.20 


Qeneral Accounting 












Government Printing 














Home Owners' Loan 












4.20 
2,478.29 

616. 55 


Inland Waterways Cor- 


403. 55 
1, 516. 00 




320.88 
6, 800. 39 


151.68 
650.61 


87.31 
1, 186. 75 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 


554.34 


















243. 50 
137.38 


102. 77 
67.71 


361. 66 


. 


4, 638. 37 
3.00 


13, 278. 00 
1, 733. 60 


National Advisory Corn- 


137. 97 






National Labor Rela- 














National Training 
















6, 410. 57 


7, 148. 51 


257. 93 


229.42 


7, 744. 96 


13, 385. 81 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
















19.80 


4.22 






109.68 


38.60 






















Tenessee Valley Au- 




12, 702. 10 


23, 938. 47 
4, 045. 46 

204, 544. 52 


27, 338. 81 
489. 07 

48, 521. 48 


177.026.30 
5, 445. 27 

158, 973. 01 


162, 957. 48 
1, 427. 57 

48, 703. 52 






Works Progress Admin- 


33, 481. 31 


97. 430. 62 




Total 


330, 361. 36 
3.28 


1,811,915. bS 


422, 553. 60 


789, 048. 88 

7.85 


983, 020. 41 
9.78 

1 


5/6, 039. 66 
5.73 


Percent of grand total. 


18.01 


4.20 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

lees, zees, etc.); structural metal — Class No. 48 



241 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$103, 458. 21 

1, 745. 00 

49, 290. 18 


$41,751.01 
2, 705. 00 
99, 555. 36 


$82, 409. 12 

6, 906. 00 

237, 580. 47 


$13, 705. 86 

7, 538. 00 

48, 082. 49 


$7, 746. 37 

7, 639. 12 

61, 447. 24 


$18, 297. 94 

2, 265. 28 

35, 553. 46 


$347, 850. 39 

54, 146. 01 

2, 725, 870. 67 


3.46 

.54 

27.12 




.28 
94, 456. 08 


7.76 

151, 481. 25 

13.09 


7.49 
374, 303. 47 


2 48 
79, 843! 81 


22.44 

246, 263. 00 

17.69 


64.76 

1, 520, 187. 48 

30.78 


Nil 


77, 384. 72 


15.13 

Nil 












509.99 
120, 760. 00 


23,011.95 
133, 883. 47 


598. 51 
409, 134. 99 


7, 198. 31 
269, 510. 07 


1,111.58 
518, 693. 00 


762. 04 
116,776.00 


44, 029. 72 
2, 540, 081. 53 


.44 
25.27 


































































50.70 


602.40 






498. 17 


380.40 


3, 819. 32 


.04 








































48.50 












60.68 


Nil 










































22.20 


Nil 












































4.20 
4, 449. 33 

32, 425. 47 


Nil 




54.22 
18.24 


890.88 
186. 22 


62.52 
1, 526. 48 






.04 


3, 526. 94 


12, 695. 91 


3, 147. 04 


.32 


























68.22 
103. 16 




18, 692. 52 
2,901.89 


.18 


80.11 


190.56 


102. 65 


95.92 


249.83 


.03 


















9.61 
1, 786. 16 












9.61 
111, 963. 99 


Nil 


6,123.28 


42, 868. 75 


5, 678. 79 


11,879.34 


8, 450. 47 


1.11 


































63.00 






8.71 






244.01 


Nil 




























348,171.66 

2,537.37 

112,011.87 


375, 709. 93 
1, 302. 52 

121,365.17 


132, 786. 28 
2, 036. 52 

105, 452. 84 


93, 599. 93 
1, 825. 84 

91, 225. 23 


62, 084. 90 
3, 113. 28 

40, 724. 97 


69,744.11 
2, 857. 03 

74, 708. 69 


1, 486, 059. 97 
25, 079. 93 

1, 137, 080. 23 


14.78 
.26 

11.32 


821,434.02 900,729.47 
8. 17 8. 96 


1,118,455.33 
11.13 


914, 369. 11 
9.10 


807,651.55 
8.03 


679, 495. 42 
5.76 


10, 055, 074. 69 
100.00 


100.00 



242 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Aircraft; aeronautic apparatus; and all 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 
Agriculture 


$41.32 
11,125.92 


$21.22 

13, 942. 27 

375.63 


$68.78 

4, 091. 69 

7.92 


$101. 55 
119,343.08 


$14.00 
709.77 


$8, 389. 97 
65, 084. 41 


Commerce 




Justice 














.16 

2,34P,009.18 










Navy 


2, 882, 247. 80 


11,995,601.95 


761,880.15 


453, 799. 33 


324,461.63 


Post Office 


State 
















46, 181. 86 
3, 624, 226. 00 


45, 944. 42 
2, 758, 705. 00 


42, 140. 99 
1, 972, 479. 00 


37, 763. 71 
1, 609, 722. 00 


26, 957. 72 
978, 171. 00 


21. 694. 14 
4, 812, 809 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration _ 














District of Columbia 
Government 














Export-Import Bank 














Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Federal Communications 
Commission , 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 














Federal Power Commis- 
sion... 














Federal Reserve Board.. 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 








































National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. . 


9, 577. 16 


12,858.90 


1, 621. 26 


1, 347. 46 


4, 321. 32 


4, 096. 34 


National Labor Rela- 














National Training 




























Reconstruction Finance 














Hural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 






3.091.45 


174. 69 


147. 11 












Works Progress Admin- 




46.50 


120. 95 


63.18 


21.00 


23.00 






Total 


6, 573, 400. 06 
11.76 


6, 1', 1, 903. 27 
9.26 


14,019,223.99 
25.10 


2, 420, 375. 82 
4.34 


1, 464, 141. 25 
2.62 


5, 226, 558. 49 
9.37 


Percent of grand total. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

accessories, outfits, and parts — Class No. 49 



243 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$222.41 

5,061.00 

44.00 


$611. 12 

5,131.00 

5.89 


$1, 183. 45 


$1, 126. 48 


$277. 22 


$153. 69 


$12, 211. 21 

214, 489. 14 

3, 583. 52 


0.02 
.38 




3, 087. 59 


47.49 


15.00 


.01 


















.15 
32, 949, 512. 25 


Nil 


5, 427, 608. 13 


1, 610, 063. 47 


3, 366, 491. 72 


1,623,037.10 


1, 130, 001. 21 


1,044,410.58 


58.99 


















100, 473. 66 
5, 580, 326. 00 


17, 389. 79 
4, 833. 44 


27,571.00 
2, 492. 90 


14, 066. 83 
462.57 


890, 255. 96 
1, 502. 00 


2,052.97 
1, 173. 00 


1,272,483.06 
21, 246, 901. 91 


2.28 
38.05 


































































































































































































































































































































14,631.46 


31, 940. 97 


3, 869. 65 


2, 427. 43 


51, 157. 75 


5, 697. 73 


143, 547. 43 


.26 




















































































































































16.71 
2.05 


271.04 
4.80 








3, 701. 00 
12.56 

1, 457. 13 


.01 




.36 


3.86 


1.49 


Nil 


1, 192. 50 


Nil 














11,129,459.16 
19.93 


1, 669, 994. 44 
2.99 


3, 401, 884. 56 
6.09 


1, 644, 208. 36 
2.95 


2, 073, 245. 49 
3.71 


1, 053, 504. 46 
1.88 


55, 847, 899. 35 
100.00 


100.00 



244 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Foundry apparatus; and all accessories, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive department: 

Agriculture - 


$1,304.72 

30.46 

710. 18 


$578. 34 
118. 73 
356. 13 


$156. 67 
90.26 
513. 92 


$1, 025. 41 
201.32 
880.63 


$203. 84 
493. 98 
752.94 


$689.54 
132. 96 
488. b8 


Commerce 




Labor 
















9,211.00 


19, 742. 33 


3, 803. 00 


11, 616. 40 


3, 923. 25 


12,835.00 


Post Office -- 


State 
















777.48 
2, 862. 00 


414. 00 
7, 053. 00 


67.00 
17, 128. 00 


1, 899. 00 
16, 100. 00 


1, 833. 73 
20, 018. 00 


1, 417. 24 
25, 034. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 


164.95 








63.00 


230.80 










Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office --- 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 




65.31 


159. 52 


110. 22 


115. 21 


504.96 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 




Interstate Commerce 










































National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














Na tional Training 




20.00 
6, 459. 00 


162.00 
2, 409. 71 










1,980.08 


1, 134. 59 


2, 402. 81 


4, 035. 74 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 






















50.59 
6.00 


46.30 




Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


16.50 


28.10 


2, 321. 90 








Total 

Percent of grand total 


17, 057. 37 
3.92 


34,834.94 
8.00 


26, 811. 98 
6.16 


33, 024. 16 
7.58 


29,853.06 45,368.921 

6. 85 1 10. 42 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

outfits, and supplies — Class No. 50 



245 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 

ofgraml 

total 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


$1,096.29 
133.00 
560.94 


$212. 65 

204.00 

2, 100. 55 


$360.97 
250.00 
240.10 


$503. 51 
79.00 
229.03 


$287.94 

856.57 

1,074.63 


$4, 696. 30 

1, 061. 30 

897.83 


$11,116.18 
3, 651. 58 
8, 805. 56 


2.56 

.84 

2.02 








7.02 
22, 687. 00 






7.02 
213, 515. 62 


Nil 


41, 186. 00 


25, 191. 29 


20, 521. 00 


21, 085. 00 


21, 714. 35 


49.02 












• 






5, 636. 00 
11,884.00 


490,59 
3, 018. 44 


6, 987. 65 
4, 419. 54 


3, 307. 65 
1,214.01 


407.46 
1, 868. 00 


5, 956. 15 
14, 986. 00 


29, 193. 95 
125. 584.-99 


6.70 
28.85 






































































612. 21 


433.41 




251.72 


1,756.09 


.40 


























































































































































144. 19 


138. 54 


148. 05 


692. 74 


648.13 


183.96 


2, 910. 83 


.67 


































































































33.71 

1, 345. 37 










11.50 

3, 078. 35 


227.21 
34, 251. 72 


.05 


2, 180. 79 


2,534.28 


3,541.00 


3,150.00 


7.87 




































.18 


1.50 








1.68 


Nil 






























159. 70 
13.02 

150.85 


31.90 
2.06 

18.75 


723.63 
10.00 

2.70 




24.00 
65.97 

208.74 


939.23 
220.19 

3, 281. 05 


.22 


2.16 


30.09 
527.51 


.05 
.75 






62,021.66 
14.24 

1 


33, 860. 60 
7.78 


36,128.01 
8.30 


33, 430. 70 
7.68 


29, 935. 33 
6.87 


53, 136. 17 
12.20 


435. 462. 90 
100.00 


"ioo.'oo 



246 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Adda; chemicals; drugs; gases; soaps; abrasive materials; 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$38, 495. 0! 

9, 607. a 

30, 483. 2( 


! $52, 807. 32 
i 13, 076. 11 
) 36, 320. 01 


$53, 237. 91 
8, 354. 96 
27, 604. 30 


$61, 721. 10 

9, 145. 72 

37, 188. 52 


$107, 798. 04 
8, 788. 57 
36, 031. 93 


$96, 394. 67 
12, 407. 42 
66,860.91 


Commerce 








1, 073. & 

140, 718. 41 

5, 002. 1( 


[ 1, 026. 62 
> 263, 075. 57 
1 2,358.80 


330. 16 

432, 397. 47 

5, 619. 79 


560. 48 

167, 862. 36 

2, 792. 96 

50.64 

101, 900. 23 

268, 326. 00 

1.90 


504.56 

102, 509. 02 

2, 726. 63 

191. 14 
80, 719. 92 
138, 363. 00 

1.42 


782. 31 

140, 918. 08 

3,299.63 




Post Office 


State 


Treasury 


81, 971. 1( 
116, 936. (X 


> 116, 605. 41 
) 156, 995. 00 


73, 656. 12 
146, 152. 00 


89, 600. 43 
315, 684. 00 


War... 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 








.89 


Civilian Conservation 
Corps 












Civil Service Commis- 


161.54 


1.37 


28.64 




11.88 


19.64 


Commodity Credit Cor- 




District of Columbia 


10.891.9C 


12,983.65 


2, 446. 24 


10, 529. 57 


4,641.94 


8, 551. 02 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 


163. OS 

59.12 

12.19 

22.59 
128. 96 

13.79 

177. 85 
54.98 


67.68 

23.03 

719. 01 

111. 12 
115.53 

6.74 

68.65 

23.94 

419. 21 

1, 331. 50 

60.46 

29.30 

15.29 

2, 267. 23 

476. 47 
10.35 


119.47 

6.58 

114. 25 


73.38 

9.20 

65.02 

66.75 
149.24 

13.19 

36.43 

74.30 

205.41 

1, 019. 69 

66.41 

82.52 

41.30 

1, 366. 66 

352.63 
70.69 


150.34 

14.02 

63.42 

124. 39 
169.03 

43.37 

68:56 
22.60 
382.41 
712. 21 

84.46 

23.37 

1.66 

1, 352. 60 

167.88 
61.80 


146. 99 

63.90 

35.53 

3.77 
165.85 

66.80 

76.97 

59.48 

130.76 

1, 642. 00 

119. 75 

675. 61 

410. 13 

1, 645. 70 

175.28 
17.96 


Federal Communications 
Commission 


Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 


Federal Power Commis- 
sion. 


Federal Reserve Board... 
Federal Trade Commis- 


118. 21 

16.82 

35.49 

4.50 

342.99 

1, 334. 77 

79.16 

14.20 

9.68 

1, 738. 81 

215. 47 
6.46 


Qeneral Accounting 
Orfice... 


Government Printing 
Office 


Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 


929. 42 

166.76 

19.60 

300.00 

1, 695. 86 

373. 62 
70.63 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 


Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics.. 

National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 


National Training 

School for Boys.. 

Panama Canal 


60.00 
13, 838. 15 

22.93 

68.39 

7, 336. 00 
178.-81 
145. 67 


200.00 
32, 542. 85 

75.91 

19.69 

65.25 

210. 22 

277.44 

7.77 

78, 896. 34 
143, 209. 04 

52,391.80 


121.00 
7, 593. 44 

103.05 

12.31 

118. 12 
63.60 
195. 39 


32.00 
10, 444. 26 

7.24 

11.10 

74.48 

111.71 

336. 50 

2.00 

6, 520. 17 
82, 844. 31 

27, 910. 81 


164.00 
11, 141. 69 

18.95 

.48 

227. 95 

330.88 

392. 02 

6.96 

16,316.28 
123, 988. 94 

5, 440. 03 


34.30 
8, 987. 18 

67.76 

8.70 

58.27 

22.17 

926. 77 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission- 

Smithsonian Institution.. 

Social Security Board 


Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration. 
Works Progress Admin- 


13, 773. 15 
84, 529. 67 

24, 387. 89 


11,900.99 
58, 307. 58 

25, 504. 51 


44,371.77 
35, 569. 65 

40, 432. 99 




Total -.... 

Percent of grand total 


683, 869. 39 
6.69 


968, 890. 68 
9.45 


857, 803. 44 
8.56 


782, 056. 88 
7.64 


643, 648. 24 
6.27 


863, 236. 04 
8.34 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

cleaning, cutting, and polishing compounds — Class No. 51 



247 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$270, 070. 15 
14, 122. 00 
65, 495. 15 


$89, 073. 48 
5; 965. 00 
34, 616. 54 


$40, 168. 24 

6, 693. 00 

31, 748. 60 


$49, 974. 37 
5t 173. 00 
34, 492. 41 


$52, 063. 57 
10, 341. 17 
62, 455. 27 


$92,838.56 

7, 236. 99 

57,551.04 


$994, 642. 48 
110,908.96 
513, 847. 88 


9.70 
1.62 
5. 00 


645.05 

192, 100. 19 

3, 012. 56 

23.09 

106, 834. 78 

297, 987. 00 


366.69 

482, 186. 23 

23, 949. 83 


331. 87 

371, 767. 73 

3, 209. 87 

655.44 

76, 040. 43 

159, 570. 87 


324.83 

300, 064. 03 

5, 685. 08 

41.72 

71,251.11 

240, 338. 86 


1,117.02 
160, 593. 12 

2, 349. 29 

205.97 

110, 398. 74 

216, 394. 00 


927.40 

190, 645. 38 

3, 293. 46 


7, 990. 83 

2, 944, 837. 63 

63, 200. 09 

1, 168. 00 
1, 062, 923. 09 
2, 379, 426. 75 


.07 

28.69 

.62 

.01 


94, 976. 96 
175, 477. 68 


59, 067. 80 
147, 202. 34 


10.08 
23.21 








.14 






3.46 
2.56 


NO 


.76 


.36 




.55 




Nil 










88.75 


105. 85 


7.20 


44.09 


43.60 


13.70 


526.16 


Nil 


17, 293. 34 


13, 723. 26 


10, 139. 60 


9, 783. 75 


15, 208. 50 


6, 163. 59 


122, 256. 36 


1.10 


75.74 


32.31 


46.20 


141.49 


110. 35 


178. 46 


1, 306. 60 


.01 




25.89 
89.26 


44.62 
99.84 


159.40 
110. 42 


40.44 
210.64 


65.67 
291.87 


610.87 
1, 924. 57 


Nil 


113. 12 


.02* 


72.82 
323.83 


179. 42 
49.94 


4.32 

201.88 


47.27 
173. 15 


29.19 
73.29 


40.68 
91.80 


692. 32 
1, 750. 71 


Nil 
.02 


230.67 
175.20 




5.30 
65.38 


74.54 


7.04 
33.17 


6.37 
214. 32 


410.09 
1,112.05 


Nil. 


85.49 


.01 


36.18 


21.34 


61.03 


39.00 


79.44 


23.96 


500.65 


Nil) 


264.71 


215. 55 


188.05 


231. 21 


241.82 


467. 37 


3, 090. 49 


.03" 


711.16 


1, 106. 37 


1, 270. 57 


536.35 


1,060.07 


1, 221. 96 


12,776.07 


.12' 


108. 16 


236.77 


206.58 


176.80 


315.00 


384. 18 


2, 004. 48 


.02 


84.54 

25.66 

1, 743. 25 




64.81 


11.05 


44.94 

1.38 

2, 381. 26 


167.64 

90.93 

2, 864. 31 


1, 217. 58 

906.53 

22, 350. 21 


.01 


10.50 
1,006.90 


Nil 


675. 45 


3, 612. 18 


.23 


212. 61 
1, 568. 64 


1, 386. 19 
27.39 


3, 526. 59 
47.22 


353.30 
1.00 


402.62 
21.35 


239.42 
61.75 


7, 881. 98 
1, 965. 24 


.07 
.02 


145. 62 
5, 109. 26 


94.42 
6, 106. 24 


447.60 
8,420.90 


200.84 
5,091.64 


261.00 
6, 796. 48 


240.17 
7, 328. 87 


2, 000. 95 
123, 400. 96 


.02 
1.22 


519. 75 
2.50 


11.24 
28.92 




102. 78 
14.05 


128.43 
48.06 


4.81 
16.00 


1, 062. 85 
256.34 


.01 


26.15 


Nil 


107.40 

1, 205. 08 

327.54 

17.18 

93, 381. 44 
86,611.97 


58.44 
356. 65 
418.89 

11.68 

17, 932. 18 
105, 678. 62 


33.70 

64.36 

437.47 

6.54 

15, 357. 60 
87, 424. 22 


148.42 
174.20 
387. 01 


78.20 

97.42 

526.31 

10.80 

9,211.71 
98, 869. 39 


141. 74 
79.20 

211.10 
46.13 

7, 376. 78 
95, 676. 38 


8, 447. 97 

2, 894. 30 

4,582.11 

109.08 

324, 701. 42 
1, 082, 796. 68 


.08 
.02 
.04 

Nil 


9, 663. 01 
80, 086. 91 


3i 16 
10.58 


36, 194. 33 


61, 066. 67 


37, 679. 76 


26, 999. 41 


39, 213. 18 


47, 231. 56 


424, 452. 93 


4.12 


1, 197, 041. 18 
11.67 


1,116,679.15 
10.90 


856, 738. 99 
8.47 


845, 708. 82 
8.26 


791, 463. 57 
7.64 


729, 702. 68 
7.11 


10, 236, 839. 06 
100.00 


100. 00 



248 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Paints, paint ingre 





Mon.h 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$19, 794. 25 
10, 477. 27 
23, 065. 53 


$37, 696. 02 
8, 615. 71 
19, 356. 38 


$23, 725. 86 
4, 326. 64 
14, 032. 84 


$36, 597. 17 

8, 582. 03 

31,615.27 


$39, 207. 34 
13, 816. 27 
30, 197. 07 


$54, 797. 20 
15, 492. 70 
77, 233. 02 


Commerce.. 


Interior 




Labor 


63.68 

22, 535. 33 

574.57 


494. 94 

294, 941. 44 

871. 03 


315.63 

62, 509. 28 

2, 584. 26 


272. 67 

84, 881. 7C 
2, 922. 4C 


94.86 

47, 685. 3S 

528.73 


93.07 

33, 228. 89 

3, 100. 56 


Navy 


Post Office 


State 


-Treasury 


8, 709. 03 
119, 067. 00 

160.54 


10, 904. 57 
92, 444. 00 


10, 382. 58 
99, 963. 00 


17,842.95 
160, 101. Of. 


20, 013. 87 
228, 691. 0C 

18.98 


13, 006. 22 
180, 985. 00 

26.06 
6.98 


War.... 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 


1.00 






Civilian Conservation 


1.26 
4.89 








Civil Service Commis- 




4.00 




4.00 




Commodity Credit Cor- 








District of Columbia 
Government 


2, 665. 59 


3, 168. 27 


1, 061. 95 


972.06 


3, 591. 48 


3, 304. 31 




Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 


4.30 
11.14 
20.97 
10.79 


8.44 

5.04 

377.64 


7.66 

.76 

2, 235. 77 


29.66 


6.60 

7.00 

420.04 

36.00 
75.35 

4.33 

5.12 


6.75 


Federal Communications 


Federal Housing Adrhin- 

istration 

Federal Power Commis- 


226. 27 

35.00 


561. 81 

.31 
94.63 








Federal Trcde Commis- 


4.60 


1.76 
12.00 




2.52 
3.00 


Oeneral Accounting 
Office 


1.26 


2.00 


■Government Printing 




Home Owners' .Loan 






8.95 
655.39 

93.78 
10.68 


48.66 
318.00 

89.88 
10.08 


46.40 
4,419.11 

148. 05 
2.45 


20.95 
1, 803. 15 

97.65 
15.72 


Inland Waterways Cor- 


1, 571. 15 

202.19 
13.58 


1, 635. 00 
205.14 


International Boundry 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 






Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. 


3, 073. 54 

176. 52 
10.45 


6, 084. 44 

104.28 
4.00 


4, 357. 61 
88.05 


7,068.22 

356.23 
.82 


5, 933. 95 
8.90 


5, 598. 60 

221. 69 
8.81 


National Labor Rela- 






National Training 

School for Boys 

Panama Canal 


62.00 
2, 107. 63 

.21 

11.56 

64.00 

488.20 

24.69 


75.00 
55, 009. 25 

19.62 

.67 


105.00 
15, 653. 02 

.07 


170.00 
3, 431. 18 

6.43 




355. 09 
44, 949. 72 


10, 488. 18 
13.46 


Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 

Rural Electrification Ad- 


16.75 


Securities and Exchange 




9.79 
527.22 
157. 15 




Smithsonian Institution.. 
Social Security Board 


127. 30 
5.70 


81.44 
58.54 
12.46 

1, 593. 15 
4, 994. 76 

83, 742. 88 


79.90 
75.25 


39.09 
37.44 


Tennessee Valley Au- 




1, 826. 87 


1, 899. 06 
3, 817. 89 

55, 020. 37 


2, 551. 01 
5, 212. 49 

24, 939. 19 


1, 344. 94 
28, 030. 82 

79, 090. 88 






Works Progress Admin- 


44, 909. 63 


81, 906. 22 




Total.. 


259, 886. 09 
4,52 


615, 931. 73 
11.13 


332, 607. 27 
5.94 


417, 014. 78 
7.50 


438, 321. 76 
7.88 


543, 570. 81 
9.76 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

dients — Class No. 52 



249 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$97, 246. 30 
13, 962. 00 
43,282.13 


$18, 240. 00 
16, 044. 00 
27, 688. 63 


$27, 547. 47 
5, 996. 00 
31, 549. 34 


$24, 568. 01 
8, 930. 00 
20, 015. 59 


$18, 824. 79 
17, 331. 44 
32, 992. 26 


$22, 890. 66 

9, 025. 37 

24, 214. 08 


$421, 135. 07 
132, 599. 43 
375, 242. 14 


7.56 
2.38 
6.75 


130. 68 

39, 662. 60 

1,066.74 


52.21 
50, 154. 04 
3, 650. 15 


82.10 

108, 906. 62 

3. 974. 36 


205. 92 

124, 982. 85 

1, 788. 23 


74.93 
45, 208. 74 
3, 467. 83 


99.72 

82, 680. 55 

2, 844. 61 


1, 980. 41 

997, 377. 42 

27, 373. 53 


.03 

17.88 
.49 


15, 838. 57 
378, 407. 00 

29.34 


9, 274. 75 
109, 959. 04 


9, 960. 05 
252, 188. 07 

19.30 
1.00 


9, 691. 77 
134, 322. 04 

5.27 


11, 600. 54 
106, 369. 00 

1.40 


5, 308. 19 
87, 159. 24 


142, 533. 13 
1,949,655.39 

260.89 

9.82 

1.26 

31.79 


2.57 
34.95 

Nil 


.84 




Nil 










Nil 
Nil 


16.80 








2.10 














4, 444. 95 


7, 587. 87 


3, 865. 72 


4, 672. 77 


2, 752. 91 


1,258.00 


39, 345. 88 


.71 


30.34 


4.50 

10.45 

143. 95 




15.59 


11.87 

10.27 

248.44 


29.38 


155.09 

44.66 

5, 087. 73 

119.49 
322. 41 

30.16 

34.95 


Nil 




Nil 


13.05 
21.71 


168. 26 


192. 57 

1.68 
5.44 


478. 96 
14.00 


.09 

Nil 


93.55 


14.25 
1.80 


°9. 19 

1.05 


Nil 


6 22 
4.24 


7.88 


Nil 


3.24 


4.09 


Nil 










32.39 
597.80 

10.36 


6.93 
545. 40 

193.23 


29.55 
236.84 

608.74 
1.22 


15.00 
477.99 

53.23 


3.93 
1, 956. 55 

191.84 

6.72 

.70 

9, 992. 83 

26.70 
1.71 


11.78 
442.62 

220.22 


224.54 
14, 689. 00 

2, 114. 31 

60.45 

.70 

118,498.41 

1, 570. 54 
136.08 


Nil 

.26 

.04 
Nil 










Nil 


5, 649. 86 

277.84 
91.70 


4, 564. 91 

74.28 
2.00 


3, 982. 74 

57. 83 
15.15 


55, 0S0. 15 
81.02 


7,111.56 

97.20 
1.44 


2.12 

.03 
Nil 






261. 70 
3, 928. 61 

23.07 

1.25 


136. 74 
6, 020. 38 

2.80 

159.60 

9.79 
221. 80 

644. 42 


49.65 
11,048.14 

1.50 


477.29 
17,016.77 


30.68 
6, 136. 94 


65.58 
7, 133. 95 


1, 788. 73 
182, 923. 77 

67.16 

299.97 

101.16 

2, 913. 74 

] , :;68. 52 

18. 15 

26,212.60 
111,830.22 

1,023,249.89 


.03 
3.28 

Nil 


27.00 


79.12 

7.79 

520. 36 

87.01 

1.39 

2, 424. 02 
8, 120. 58 

85, 947. 39 


4.02 

9.79 

151.56 

84.23 

4.30 

4, 798. 32 
10,135.07 

86,950.17 


Nil 




Nil 


307. 88 
45.61 


303.22 
78.60 


65.77 
69.88 


.06 
.02 
Nil 


1, 477. 49 
21, 822. 35 

147, 725. 81 


2, 525. 59 
6, 637. 74 

143, 745. 52 


3, 031. 30 
11, 529. 20 

99, 886. 65 


2, 740. 85 
11,529.32 

89, 385. 18 


.47 
2.01 

18.30 


776, 416. 39 
1,3.95 


4=08, 398. 35 
7.34 


575, 134. 67 
10. 3P 


506,421.27 
9.10 


354.473.02 
6.30 


353,232.45 
6.28 


5, 581, 408. 59 
100.00 


100.00 



250 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWFH 

Stationery: Bags, paper; books, blank; boxes, paper; cartons; 



Agency 



Month 



December 
1937 



January 
1938 



February 
1938 



March 
1938 



April 
1938 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture.. 

Commerce 

Interior 

Justice 

Labor 

Navy 

Post Office 

State. 

Treasury 

War 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps . 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion 

'Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 

Federal Communications 
Commission.. 

Federal Housing, Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion 

Federal Reserve Board... 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion..- 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 

Home Owners' "Loan 
Corporation 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration -. 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission. .. 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. . 

National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 

National Training 
School for Boys 

Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission 

Smithsonian Institution.. 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 

Works Progress Admin- 
istration 



Total 

Percent of grant total. 



$101, 346. 69 
16, 346. 46 
36, 329. 33 



$148, 802. 85 
20, 191. 09 
49, 594. 21 



$104, 177. 10 
25, 805. 48 
43, 606. » 



$125, 405. 72 
36, 287. 35 
43, 719. 85 



$185, 620. 49 
25,981.73 
38, 336. 61 



11,798.56 
80, 350. 06 
78, 433. 15 
7, 441. 07 
222, 822. 56 
90, 199. 00 



26.65 

1.56 

372.08 

1, 563. 91 

53.86 

5, 473. 94 
9.44 

2, 778. 29 

5, 577. 74 

4,982.11 

3, 783. 78 
4, 187. 09 

1,721 

3, 262. 16 

1, 380. 11 

24, 304. 84 

5, 109. 56 

853.46 

7, 585. 04 

245.39 

1, 940. 00 

357.26 
173. 26 

2, 039. 63 

25.00 
11,681.94 

1, 704. 33 

2, 588. 70 

3, 379. 81 
278.43 

6, 563. 54 
625. 46 

12, 904. 38 
13, 990. 73 

128, 690. 85 



905, 282. 90 
5.74 



10, 544 55 
107, 410. 23 

84, 970. 38 

4, 792. 33 

367, 095. 73 

177, 358. 00 



42.87 
75.61 

268.70 
1, 573. 42 

141.00 

8, 936. 37 
64.69 

6, 537. 60 

5, 773. 54 

19, 616. 54 

1, 029. 34 
2, 058. 71 

1, 913. 51 

6, 309. 77 

1, 432. 79 
24, 496. 13 

6,344.83 

121.74 

10, 189. 14 
420.74 

2, 904. 42 

365. 75 
662. 31 

1, 892. 17 

160.00 
23,881.27 

1,444.21 

1, 376. 22 

6, 400. 48 
518. 84 

14, 206. 97 
936. 74 

8, 001. 07 
24, 585. 00 



16, 433. 90 
103, 803. 41 

59, 756. 58 

3,481.11 

157, 993. 16 

154,144.00 



68.11 

20.72 

280.65 

2, 816. 41 



10, 937. 19 
57, 179. 18 
45, 653. 61 
12, 761. 00 
328, 009. 97 
164, 270. 00 



272.02 

1.36 

281.10 

3, 645. 39 



5, 262. 57 



7, 174. 63 

972.66 

10, 327. 

1, 745. 33 
2,111.32 

415. 78 
5, 044. 90 

970. 93 
35, 717. 36 
10, 766. 28 

338. 43 

5, 551. 37 

275.49 

2, 869. 12 

1, 048. 50 
303. 80 

1, 357. 00 

112.00 
19, 596. 17 

1, 553. 06 

126. 85 

6, 426. 76 

179. 89 

37, 634. 85 

72*91 

4, 450. 07 
8, 661. 19 

128,372.46 



6, 510. 36 

13, 414. 91 

34, 365. 64 

3, 310. 56 

228, 022. 40 

227, 413. 00 



51.25 

74.84 

254. 18 

2, 150. 41 



20, 309. 22 



9, 383. 07 



6,044.72 

3, 266. 06 

6, 408. 07 

867. 24 
'4, 744. 32 

2, 160. 43 

6, 280. 92 

1, 948. 01 

21, 941. 50 

5, 048. 66 

474. 45 

8, 465. 40 

588.64 

2, 053. 85 

824.12 
403. 86 

2, 393. 00 

105.00 
18, 573. 00 

2, 893. 89 

212. 54 

7, 171. 36 

575.00 

25, 666. 29 

865. 51 

9, 102. 74 
21, 312. 30 

216, 181. 65 



, 359, 029. 88 
8.61 



972, 480. 43 
6.16 



224, 305. 49 
7.76 



4, 953. 48 

3, 247. 

11,236.20 

1, 789. 20 
957. 95 

516. 31 

5, 817. 32 

1,683.97 

24, 750. 71 

7, 964. 93 

377. 19 

8, 712. 47 

260.19 

3, 528. 08 

665.15 
1, 180. 23 

2, 919. 12 

100.00 
17,194.90 



1, 157. 14 

8, 544. 96 

673. 84 

44,414.05 

958. 66 

12, 073. 22 
49, 520. 50 

73, 119. 31 



067, 055. 05 
6.77 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

drafting-room, office, and printers' sup-plies — Class No. 63 



251 







Month — Continued 






















■ Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 


Jnly 


August 


September 


October 


November 


of grand 
total 


1938 


1938 


1938 


1938 


1938 


1938 






$210, 936. 23 


$115,928.1.! 


$113, 772. 7{ 


$150,118.52 $101,752.7 


$101, 482. 8E 


$1,582,119.72 10.03 


47, 485. 00 


7, 54a oc 


41,610.0C 


8, 069. OC 


> 17, 798. & 


I 35, 295. 51 


308, 560. 11 


1.95 


58, 430. 72 


59, 141. 47 


57, 572. 5C 


47, 654. 4? 


77, 019. 21 


59, 863. 7£ 


645, 954. 86 


4.10 


17, 603. 07 


7, 857. 16 


8, 832. 62 


4, 905. 1£ 


13, 329 4f 


12, 687. 88 


128, 485. 5S 


.81 


123,931.80 


165, 172. 77 


81, 819. 76 


158, 955. 56 


55, 784. 16 


28,988.60 


996, 453. 98 


6.33 


26, 077. 20 


661, 158. 84 


203, 649. 67 


176,483.11 


388, 902. 94 


210, 733. 16 


2, 003, 783. 83 


12.69 


8, 428. 72 


2,511.91 


13, 646. 76 


8,612.87 


6, 724. 84 


6, 563. 63 


83, 272. 83 


.63 


223, 863. 93 


474, 749. 18 


198, 291. 35 


356, 297. 58 


309, 133. 73 


150,800.53 


3, 174, 155. 80 


20.05 


342, 570. 00 


366, 125. 97 


129, 103. 25 


140, 319. 80 


146, 330. 00 


175,025.53 


2, 302. 298. 55 


14.50 


89.62 


1.59 


46.82 


46.97 


74.90 


19.23 


809.43 


NU 


7.81 


1.64 


13.64 


292.46 


7.96 


11.15 


622.40 


Nil 


203.84 


59.01 


59.02 


40.45 


150.50 


36.58 


2, 360. 97 


.01 


3, 742. 26 


3, 375. 30 


2, 694. 15 


5, 721. 65 


6,657.78 


3, 157. 74 


38, 852. 27 


.25 


5, 513. 67 






227.90 


5, 819. 93 


335.26 


12, 091. 62 


.08 


16, 558. 79 


25, 705. 99 


11,894.47 


16, 069. 79 


11,627.31 


10,699.25 


150, 320. 58 


.95 


69.09 
2,900.25 


7.94 
4, 214. 72 


4.42 
1,993.51 




.82 
3, 787. 46 




153. 74 
51, 732. 61 


Nil 


3,665.79 


4, 454. 42 


.33 


3, 246. 38 


2, 690. 94 


2, 781. 28 


3..318.62 


2, 262. 13 


3, 201. 69 


38, 203: 56 


.24 


6, 643. 28 


13, 878. 56 


16,653.88 


19, 429. 20 


16,756.25 


10, 748. 13 


143, 252. 57 


.91 


2, 251. 08 


535. 83 


4, 017. 41 


698. 09 


2, 448. 93 


2, 045. 20 


21, 812. 65 


.13 


658.90 


1, 102. 27 


2, 040. 66 


3, 909. 17 


1,900.77 


2,097.42 


27, 268. 45 


.17 


5, 569. 27 


191. 39 


388.21 


97.72 


264.22 


3, 057. 47 


27, 628. 93 


.17 


7, 349. 70 


3, 490. 74 


5, 256. 51 


4, 478. 88 


4, 636. 66 


7, 672. 18 


66, 121. 92 


.42 


913.44 


705.46 


508.58 


2, 6S7. 86 


2, 105. 67 


1, 333. 17 


16, 322. 83 


.11 


42, 654. 24 


3, 410. 54 


9, 931. 91 


12, 240. 67 


10, 499. 65 


12, 146. 97 


247, 125. 78 


1.57 


6, 126. 35 


10, 190. 46 


6, 220. 78 


4, 884. 89 


4, 762. 23 


10, 198. 14 


84, 328. 99 


•.63 


742. 75 


631.96 


337. 33 


432.29 


492.88 


548.99 


5, 663. 29 


.03 


3, 576. 97 


759.88 


3, 973. 76 


6, 172. 29 


6, 217. 26 


6, 873. 26 


76, 615. 34 


.49 


248.76 


1,850.00 


620.30 


126.04 


856. 95 


559. 15 


6, 100. 88 


.03 


2, 344. 20 


2, 492. 52 


2, 180. 45 


4, 004. 79 


4, 666. 03 


1, 803. 47 


35, 237. 61 


.22 


1,568.55 


988.74 


1, 050. 97 


1, 205. 67 


296.12 


831.09 


10, 050. 62 


.06 


2, 683. 40 


96.85 


205.32 


216. 10 


169. 92 


201.45 


6, 428. 30 


.04 


6, 598. 76 


3,016.81 


3, 105. 77 


3, 392. 61 


2, 936. 00 


1, 294. 18 


35, 194. 81 


.22 


80.70 


227.33 


40.76 


263.80 


262.18 


48.52 


1, 469. 72 


.01 


14, 423. 45 


18, 675. 08 


18,873.29 


10, 217. 21 


19, 006. 16 


12,626.78 


195, 691. 15 


1.24 


37, 929. 29 


3, 892. 12 


2, 199. 21 


3, 483. 88 


7, 920. 66 


6, 946. 90 


87, 167. 54 


.65 


2, 590. 82 


1, 693. 35 


3, 119. 78 


309.67 


2, 535. 87 


j 4, 169. 06 


20, 962. 62 


.13 


8, 452. 44 


25, 553. 61 


7, 656. 04 


4, 190. 58 


18, 064. 83 


11, 405. 80 


115, 422. 25 


.73 


1,216.30 


203.27 


309.40 


1, 714. 81 


353. 13 


301.00 


6, 633. 61 


.04 


80, 637. 78) 


8,997.84 


11, 707. 33 


12, 878. 34 


14, 106. 54 


27, 128. 81 


303, 736. 01 


1.92 


1,094>17 


823.75 


918. 65 


228.45 


602.79 


2, 899. 19 


12, 106. 27 


.07 


10, 063. 87| 


8, 874. 77 


6. 926. 09 


20, 007. 57 


11,084.95 


16. 851 40 


144, JM1. 13 


.90 


48, 178. 94 


2i, 732. 95 


8, 453. 65 


19, 521. 71 


49, 550. 27 


35, 183. 05 


328, 214. 30 


2.38 


192,092.81 


226, 785. 46 


232, 274. 57 


179, 726. 53 


235, 131. 41 


220, 921. 75 


2, 227, 980. 10 


14.08 


'1, 578, 348. 60 


2,260,042.11 


1, 216, 686. 62 


1, 397, 318. 67 


1, 564, 793. 07 


1,203,152.32 


15,773,080.01 . 




10.01 


14.32 


7.71 


8 86 


9.94 


7.62 


100.00 


100.00 



252 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Office equipment: Adding machines, cash registers, file cases, 



Agency 



Month 



December 
1937 



January 
1938 



February 
1938 



March 
1938 



April 
1938 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce. 

Interior 

Justice ". 

Labor. 

Navy 

Post Office 

State 

Treasury 

War 



$65, 652. 30 
10, 862. 56 
45, 535. 70 



$95, 318. 42 
11,572.57 
23, 776. 78 



$83, 918. 68 
9, 663. 67 
27, 900. 27 



$107, 192. 69 
12, 244. 83 
29, 391. 45 



$102,257.61 
35, 121. 54 
27, 504. 48 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps.. 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration..- 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion 

Federal Reserve Board. .. 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 

Hon»e Owners' Loan 

■ ' Corporation 

Inland Waterway Corpo- 
ration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission... 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. 

National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 

National Training 
School for Boys 

Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 

• Corporation.. 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration-- 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission. 

Smithsonian Institution.. 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority. 

Veterans' Administration. 

Works Progress Admin- 
istration 



4, 176. 84 
14, 488. 20 
90, 100. 11 

1, 567. 93 
115, 837. 08 
73, 845. 00 



4, 217. 69 
23, 862. 19 
29, 856. 56 
433. 03 
65, 397. 80 
58, 482. 00 



5.94 



145.60 
1, 253. 67 

570.20 
3, 910. 65 



117.50 

284.08 

104. 46 

7, 583. 22 



10, 884. 49 

2, 606. 31 

1, 549. 26 

2, 217. 22 
195. 35 

7, 309. 78 

10, 331. 72 

3, 046. 96 

6, 941. 71 

135. 53 

1, 870. 45 

3, 605. 35 

47.60 

2, 350. 24 

53.98 
115. 25 

1, 067. 47 

54.00 
7, 122. 15 

176. 58 

2, 596. 27 

2, 453. 26 

19.95 

10, 088. 68 

250.45 

3,901.80 
8, 298. 55 

36, 896. 39 



1, 889. 02 

1, 332. 98 

1, 884. 29 

1,461.30 
2, 096. 89 

180.71 
1, 081. 00 
2, 822. 13 
8, 539. 41 

585. 15 



2. 510. 77 
6.75 

4, 688. 08 

61.95 
518. 11 

663.81 

70.00 
3, 830. 65 

479.25 

3,114.08 

1. 078. 78 
271. 14 

24, 139. 68 
257.00 

1, 607. 44 
10, 456. 53 

39, 563. 77 



4, 149. 05 
18, 494. 56 
39, 406. 12 
831. 83 
65, 502. 78 
79, 368. 00 



301. 70 

242.63 

36.88 

3, 042. 66 



4, 931. 34 

1, 355. 55 

14, 088. 46 

1,932.09 
1, 308. 44 

211.50 
3, 477. 12 

614. 12 
3, 940. 54 

196.00 

262.15 

2, 224. 82 

81.67 

2, 414. 70 

670. 89 
1, 267. 40 

1, 038. 00 

18.00 
4, 739. 26 

1,009.83 

592.53 

1, 613. 56 

124.12 

11,702.47 

131. 67 

642.30 
3, 173. 85 

54, 044. 48 



4, 347. 13 
34, 529. 99 
58, 335. 99 

4, 990. 01 
74, 903. 49 
71, 133. 00 



15.50 

1.22 

686.00 

521.29 

145.00 

4, 344. 70 
1.00 

6, 775. 18 

677.98 

4, 616. 88 

3, 982. 35 
975. 03 

88.97 

2, 125. 44 

1, 276. 56 

19, 689. 08 

121. 73 

470. 05 

2, 255. 25 
259.09 

1,774.04 

92.45 
1, 003. 58 

658.00 

56.00 
5, 488. 04 

3, 225. 17 
620.18 

4, 586. 77 

42.45 

24,619.98 

850. 29 

2, 224. 48 
7, 626. 27 

53, 983. 70 



4, 006. 66 
60, 099. 67 
32, 716. 89 

1, 627. 72 
48. 007. 19 
79. 451. 00 



5.30 

11.87 

426.94 

401.46 

8.30 

5, 779. 73 
3.00 

4, 434. 26 

1, 545. 38 

4, 510. 06 

558.11 
1,141.61 

363.30 

864.46 

550. 53 

5, 303. 48 

314. 70 

542.57 

8, 493. 70 

15.50 

3, 581. 50 

41.20 
237.17 

5, 676. 62 

8.00 
2, 637. 02 

4, 075. 55 

364.92 

1, 888. 30 

241. 62 

149, 340. 45 

197. 65 

3, 240. 53 
7, 294. 38 

27, 681. 44 



Total 

Percent of grand total . 



554, 132. 59 
6.36 



436, 202. 91 
5.00 



458, 665. 69 
5.17 



552, 948. 28 
. 6.33 



632, 673. 37 
7.25 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

numbering machines, typewriters, etc. — Class No. 54 



233 



1 




Month — Continued 






















Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$531, 593. 11 
48, 869. 00 
88, 180. 16 


$35, 201. 79 
34, 612. 00 
26, 356. 18 


$40, 684. 12 

6,640.00 

28, 945. 30 


$53, 825. 71 

3, 597. 90 

35, 023. 90 


$56, 162. 99 
14,711.02 
65, 774. 94 


$54, 939. 18 
25, 829. 74 
66, 979. 65 


$1, 349, 971. 77 
226, 268. 18 
504, 213. 98 


15.51 
2.68 
5.77 


31, 109. 20 
107, 688. 66 

35, 720. 18 

9, 305. 07 

216,954.68 

301, 717. 00 


3, 269 27 
123. 708. 44 
144, 788. 80 

8, 717. 32 
83, 095. 78 
147, 795. 47 


1, 705. 95 
61,541.40 
85, 838. 15 
335. 33 
91, 496. 39 
119, 326. 73 


6, 320. 93 
43, 967. 36 
112,945.80 
101. 70 
71,510.95 
126, 212. 24 


4, 947. 40 
43, 796. 19 
102, 706. 02 
971. 73 
71, 422. 34 
120, 940. 00 


4, 383. 68 
59, 706. 50 
93, 009. 43 

1, 738. 19 
58, 820. 38 
107, 361. 52 


78,294.61 

697, 783. 69 

891, 457. 97 

46, 777. 51 

1, 016, 147. 30 

1, 375, 103. 96 


.90 

8.05 
10.02 
.54 
11.71 
15.83 




139. 50 




.95 
2.85 
15.89 




60.97 


457.66 

29.11 

2, 754. 98 


Nil 






1.00 
17.83 


Nil 


127.90 


15.89 


15.89 


264.84 


.03 


19, 447. 28 


834.63 


1, 375. 20 


868. 12 


8, 449. 40 


18.00 


35, 007. 79 


.40 


1, 215. 21 


273.10 


905.52 


1, 198. 61 


592. 12 


210.00 


5, 623. 97 


.06 


15, 149. 81 


18, 973. 24 


3,961.11 
3.02 

792.31 


4, 394. 43 
1.50 

5, 718. 08 


5, 575. 46 


3, 975. 48 
1.75 

3, 535. 90 


83, 959. 30 
10.27 

49, 660. 78 


.96 
Nil 


2, 016. 33 


1, 316. 23 


4, 682. 63 


.67 


1, 100. 90 


2, 401. 96 


529.96 


■602.01 


916. 95 


222.05 


15,113.00 


.17 


1,985.61 


8, 067. 71 


9, 735. 67 


11, 403. 64 


7, 229. 02 


4, 727. 34 


74, 247. 57 


.85 


1,353.99 
140.71 


1,025.17 
4, 327. 90 


4, 787. 92 
2, 320. 83 


2, 619. 25 
198. 71 


1,815.47 
534.69 


2, 289. 29 
758. 85 


24, 094. 23 
14, 824. 04 


.28 

.17 


5, 655. 74 


529.07 


888.05 


165. 95 


418.29 


148. 72 


27, 443. 98 


.31 


5, 586. 42 


7, 515. 84 


6, 179. 97 


7, 599. 66 


8, 791. 19 


9, 003. 48 


66, 996. 03 


.77 


429.80 


35,611.85 


459. 70 


1, 751. 59 


324.15 


1,066.93 


48, 857. 04 


.55 


66,691.65 


1, 012. 76 


8, 416. 45 


1, 990. 53 


6, 491. 28 


2, 120. 00 


135, 697. 88 


1.55 


515. 21 


509.37 


571. 56 


262.05 


231.61 


196. 48 


4, 391. 27 


.04 


273.74 


45.85 


303. 79 


182. 75 


1,238.80 


105. 39 


6, 727. 50 


.07 


12, 792. 32 

83.78 

4, 656. 00 


2, 392. 57 

101. 75 

2, 781. 91 


1,463.82 

98.75 

1, 346. 50 


1, 145. 95 

42.70 

5, 181. 84 


1,937.84 

946.20 

6, 049. 56 


1, 420. 64 

80.84 

5,986.11 


53, 097. 97 
• 1,782.98 
43, 140. 08 


.61 
.02 
.50 


692. 49 
1,095.96 


828.10 
642.92 


121. 73 
565.68 


504.65 
540.58 


284.60 
205.68 


75.75 
346.72 


6, 733. 44 
6, 968. 46 


.08 
.08 


9, 938. 20 


1, 126. 33 


2, 996. 53 


377. 85 


481.24 


876. 75 


26, 806. 54 


.31 


838.40 
4, 716. 62 


18.00 
4, 100. 97 


320.95 
5, 046. 57 


44.56 
4, 032. 17 


84.55 
4, 217. 89 


8.43 
4, 040. 21 


1, 671. 49 
52, 818. 39 


.02 
.61 


27, 524. 76 


6, 025. 41 


S, 915. 72 


11,915.43 


6, 818. 39 


10, 378. 22 


96, 315. 04 


1.08 


13, 259. 77 


2, 127. 63 


2, 747. 69 


4, 793. 37 


5,881.81 


3, 433. 80 


40, 503. 76 


.46 


302.34 

767. 21 

90, 669. 14 

340.00 


4, 739. 66 

134. 10 

2, 963. 65 

33.34 


2, 767. 01 

289.95 

14, 715. 04 

68.99 


4, 770. 19 
213. 10 

8, 905. 89 
225.60 


2, 555. 15 

192. 65 

8, 180. 73 

64.43 


5, 697. 64 

60.48 

4, 870. 15 

594.89 


34, 281. 40 

2,440,83 

351, 803. 58 

9, 507. 58 


.39 

.03 

4.05 

.11 


10.06 
28, 400. 45 


2, 670. 54 
2, 044. 56 


4, 117. 07 
2,204.60 


3, 933. 42 
1,613.36 


1, 847. 69 
9, 290. 72 


7, 875. 16 
10, 909. 83 


39, 726. 36 
103, 435. 10 


.46 
1.08 


220, 876. 33 


105, 072. 27 


89, 285. 13 


122, 167. 50 


145, 887. 52 


119, 762. 54 


1 J)69. 428. 08 


12.32 


1,509, 791. 19 
21.96 


827, 949. 43 
9.50 


615, 832. 05 
7.06 


662, 920 31 
7.60 


723, 669. 17 
8.29 


677, 891. 90 
7.78 


8,^22,376.45 
100.00 


100.00 



262342— 41— No. 1J 



254 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Textile clothing; knitted 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$286. 53 

78.00 

15, 049. 02 


$1, 092. 08 

110. 16 

8, 979. 83 


$4, 082. 45 

8.33 

26, 603. 01 


$1,967.03 

11.00 

6, 514. 76 


$2, 342. 58 
2,091.33 
5, 821. 60 


$5, 660. 70 

36.44 

68, 775. 36 










237.17 
18, 400. 28 


71.02 
376, 494. 90 


104. 18 
114, 696. 68 


20.84 
171, 415. 84 


185. 54 
147, 443. 46 


29.89 
8, 692. 68 


Navy. 


Post Office 


State 


43.78 

9, 724. 33 

324, 978. 00 




150.10 

17, 994. 03 

2, 331, 070. 00 


37.19 
16, 474. 45 
73, 542. 00 


1.15 

18,152.04 
200, 456. 00 


13.76 

12,271.81 

2, 721, 280. 00 




28, 665. 46 
93, 362. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commqdity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 
Government 


4, 149. 84 


1, 952. 38 


15, 470. 34 


7,943.92 


137. 86 


4,717.06 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
ist ration ;... 








3.48 






Federal Communications 




9.84 








Federal Housing Admin- 






.54 






Federal Power Commis- 












Federal Reserve Board . . . 












969. 79 


Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 












General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan Cor- 














Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration. 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 




























Maritime Commission. . . 
National Advisory Corn- 


607.42 


608.19 


322.32 


594.54 


314. 75 


475.50 
















National Labor Rein- 














National Training 

School for Boys 

Panama Canal 


4, 925. 00 
8, 415. 78 


150.00 
3, 263. 87 


158.00 
4, 703. 63 


265.00 
3, 209. 67 


121.50 
3, 083. 38 


137. 70 
3, 974. 66 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 


















66.95 


75.25 


24.93 


3.08 
























Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 




2, 095. 52 


159.00 
2, 235. 50 

5, 393. 94 


1, 777. 56 
259, 000. 67 

5. 261. 00 


1, 658. 72 
3, 973. 00 

756.06 


510. 95 
28, 172. 06 

4, 591. 88 






Works Progress Admin- 


22, 105. 16 


5, 187. 67 




' 


Total 


409, 000. 31 
1.50 


522, 109. 87 
1.91 


2, 523, 226. 76 
9.25 


548, 064. 42 
2.02 


386, 542. 05 
1.41 


2, 860, 310. 24 
10.20 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

goods — Class A T o. 55 



255 



Month — Co ntinued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June July 
1938 1938 

I 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$3,914. 46' $2,549.50 

439.001 1,443.00 

17,644.56 11,115.71 


$3, 151. 72 

783.00 

70, 003. 64 


$344. 22 

477.00 

4, 170. 86 


$378. 61 
1,277.00 
3, 568. 24 


$13,332.51 

84.38 

8, 991. 54 


$39, 102. 39 

6, 838. 64 

247, 238. 13 


0.14 
.03 
.91 


184.80, 22.08 
256, 300. 60 201, 434. 82 


48.84 
28, 617. 60 


66.99 
22, 446. 07 


59.31 
19.434.05 


25.85 
613, 557. 40 


1,056.51 
1, 978, 934. 38 


Nil 
7.34 


5.20 










16.41 
13.571.76 
75,171.00 


267. 59 

396, 242. 65 

8. 491, 351. 34 


Nil 


21,644.80 
1, 070, 274. 00 


142, 135. 52 
546, 772. 73 


25, 876. 08 
13, 740. 88 


11,176.04 
1,005,410.73 


78, 556. 33 
35, 294. 00 


1.50 
31.02 












































8.25 


8.25 


Nil 














12,661.57 


1,505.49 


4, 6S4. 80 


28, 933. 06 


10,684.19 


8, 497. 85 


101,338.36 


.37 








3.48 






6.96 

9.84 

86.04 


Nil 












Nil 




24.00 


28.50 


33.00 






Nil 








24.01 








68.18 




1,061.98 


Nil 




























































































































625. 35 


460.33 


5, 517. 25 


3. 060. 15 


379.28 


614.26 


13, 579. 34 
359. 13 


.05 

Nil 
































151. 50 

2. 967. 39 


580.50 
6, 706. 76 


196.50 
2, 167. 79 


422.98 
7, 747. 36 


615. 10 
2, 717. 17 


409.00 
2, 042. 63 


8, 132. 78 
51,000.09 


.03 
.19 




































37.50 


79.77 
.50 


40.60 






328.08 
2.50 


Nil 






2.00 


Nil 










30. 40 ! 926.40 
21,146. 70 : 821.00 

34,914. 57 j 6,398.36 


520.92 
60,201.90 

9, 884, 064. 49 


1,879.97 
236. 64 

521,910.54 


1, 199. 14 
9, 482. 44 

4, 674, 186. 30 


1,221.96 
93, 546. 67 

354, 638. 98 


11,980.54 
478, 816. 58 

15,519,408.95 


.04 
1.76 

56.62 


1,442. 928 91 
5.25 


922, 933. 70 
3.37 


10,099,684.18 
36.95 


1, 608, 359. 69 
5.94 


4, 837, 899 34 
17.80 


1, 185, 732. 45 
4.40 


27,347,151.05 
100.00 


100.00 



256 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Food: Groceries, ice provisions, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture . . - . 


$64, 457. 85 

14, 941. 51 

312, 884. 55 

89, 438. 80 

3,311.06 

2,934,521.22 

1,000.00 


$52, 459. 04 

57, 890. 67 

241, 775. 40 

118,445.00 

486. 86 

2, 331, 800. 18 

1,395.00 


$67, 142. 01 

34, 144. 1C 

144, 809. 77 

79, 373. 00 

520.17 

2,356,124.63 

2,011.00 


$75, 668. 41 

40, 066. 2fj 

215, 961. 41 

79, 403. 00 

523.92 

2,067,981.27 

2, 808. 45 


$65, 872. 6? 

37, 513. 7C 

221,093.34 

147, 226. 74 

462. 57 

2, 241, 486. 82 

5, 143. 00 


$155, 466. 50 

35, 737. 23 

229, 225. 85 

96, 363. 17 

350.07 

2, 254, 157. 31 

7, 484. 00 


Commerce 








Navy. 




State 


Treasury 


213,005.40 
5, 938, 120. 00 


232, 006. 37 
6, 005, 032. 00 


206, 825. 76 
5, 702, 583. 00 


215, 520. 85 
5, 657, 820. 00 


203, 916. 51 
6, 191, 980. 00 


190, 235. 78 
7, 003, 998. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity... ; 


t American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion.^. 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 
Government 


58, 859. 65 


64, 028. 41 


43, 831. 00 


78, 638. 02 


53,220.60 


62, 174. 53 


Export-Import Bank... 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration.. 








» 






Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 
sion 














Federal Reserve Board 














Federal Trade Commis- 


17.60 












General Accounting 
Office 




40.39 








Government Printing 
Office 












Home Owners' Loan 












.56 

9, 263. 53 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration... 


11,917.51 


11,821.84 


5, 510. 52 
12.20 


8, 847. 77 


17, 166. 04 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 


Interstate Commerce 


























Maritime Commission. .. 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics.. 


28, 430. 34 
28.20 


24,211.26 

16.50 


27, 438. 27 
16.50 


20, 945. 07 
21.68 


22, 925. 49 
27.98 


22,006.40 
34. 59 


National Labor Rela- 














National Training 




5, 350. 00 
233, 692. 09 

3.45 

81.63 


4, 490. 00 
239, 085. 07 

2.25 

298.59 


4, 814. 00 
305, 174. 50 

1.80 

78.36 


4,879.00 
258, 553. 98 

1.95 

136. 75 


5, 636. 50 
250, 520. 45 

1.95 

237.83 


Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration ... 

Securities and Exchange 


224, 177. 79 

3.15 

60.89 


Smithsonian Institution.. 


2, 235. 09 


2, 473. 49 


1,795.84 


2, 224. 71 


2, 249. 53 


2, 184. 50 
2.35 














Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 
Works Progress Admin- 
istration. 


32.673.89| 
601,618.56 

159, 586. 63 


37, 888. 39 
1,130,794.63 

162,348.24 


16,325.97 
772, 066. 86 

173,991.22 


24. 738. 91 
509, 240. 98 

172,561.45 


21,811.56 
908,351.83 

86, 344. 86 


18,511.85 
559,415.76 

188, 836. 07 


Total 


10,691,289.99; 

8.37 


10,714,000.45 9.878.438.12! 


3,483,040.88 10,490,364.93 


11,161,845.08 


Percent of grand total 


8.40 


7.76 


7.431 


8 21 


8.76 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

subsistence — Class No. 56 



257 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$263, 640. 54 

41, 329. 00 

300, 604. 74 

96, 914. 23 

400. 77 

2, 761, 503. 40 

8, 563. 73 


$178, 020. 41 

63, 305. 00 

177, 835. 07 

149, 131. 15 

1, 166. 88 

2, 268, 265. 22 

3, 792. 46 


$172, 818. 47 

54,206.00 

234, 871. 14 

96, 447. 90 

1, 264. 35 

2, 067, 668. 73 

4, 162. 13 


$136, 066. 94 

55, 563. 00 

189, 845. 31 

94,854.31 

1, 326. 60 

2, 303, 173. 72 

3, 706. 92 


$73, 671. 18 

40, 349. 81 

254, 884. 13 

146, 941. 8S 

917. 62 

2, 252, 388. 05 

1,238.22 


$223, 776. 21 

46, 240. 31 

241, 902. 52 

, 96, 281. 22 

1, 006. 31 

2, 274, 819. 65 

1, 585. 49 


$1, 529, 060. 30 

521, 286. 5fl 

2,835,693.23 

1, 290, 820. 41 

11,737.19 

28,113,890.20 

42, 880. 40 


1.19 
.41 
2.22 
1.81 
.01 
22.07 
.04 


200, 049. 80 
6, 630, 778. 00 


116, 844. 22 
6, 066, 863. 99 


155, 588. 23 
4, 432, 389. 24 


155, 765. 89 
8,811,723.83 


157, 639. 67 
6, 079, 126. 00 


159, 406. 38 
6, 456, 848. 00 


2, 206, 804. 86 
74, 977, 262. 06 


1.73 
58.73 


































.11 












•11 


Nil 














52, 127. 71 


62, 231. 65 


61, 549. 39 


67, 117. 88 


42, 097. 28 


77, 591. 85 


723, 467. 97 


.66 






























































































17.60 
40.39 


Nil 














Nil 






















14.20 
14, 820. 46 

76.65 






14.76 
139, 133. 95 

366.60 


Nil 


8, 790. 20 
44.30 


14,351.85 
' 73. 25 


13, 703. 25 
77.28 


13, 790. 20 
14.60 


9, 150. 78 
68.32 


.11 
Nil 


















23, 627. 84 
91.30 


. 24,838.04 


26, 372. 11 
12.68 


24, 598. 86 
74.45 


18, 498. 60 


31, 120. 57 
35.25 


295,012.85 
359. 13 


.23 

Nil 
























4, 747. 84 
271, 086. 41 

5.55 

166.22 


4, 951. 00 
320, 629. 67 


4,841.17 
208, 887. 77 

1.46 


5, 373. 16 
305, 541. 37 

2.14 

75. 92 


5, 477. 58 
324, 545. 00 

2.47 

159. 16 


5, 941. 72 
321, 576. 65 

2.59 

393. 45 


56,501.97 
3, 263, 470. 75 

28.76 


.05 
2.56 

Nil 




1, 688. 80 Nil 






I 


2,179,10 


2, 282. 42 
17.32 


1, 918. 01 
16.20 


2, 124. 70 


2, 353. 53 


2, 451. 55 


26, 47:. 77 
35.87 


.02 
Nil 












19, 232. 86 
540, 871. 01 

139,596.12 


15, 399. 58 
1, 275, 464. 03 

262, 162. 42 


14, 426. 75 
772, 684. 44 

176, 399. 68 


22, 795. 63 
485, 981. 54 

143, 626. 64 


10, 796. 65 
1, 031, 732. 16 

159, 924. 17 


12, 933. 76 
686, 576. 67 

168, 792. 43 


247, 535. 80 
9, 274, 748. 77 

1,994,169.93 


.19 
7.27 

1.58 


11, 366, 350. 78 
8.92 


11,007,625.64 
8.64 


8, 500, 296. 38 ! 
6.68 


12, 824, 200. 12 
10.01 


10, 616, 547. 97 
8.34 


10, 818, 501. 68 
8.48 


127,552,142.89 
100 00 


100 00 



258 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Hospital, laboratory, and surgical apparatus; and all 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$17, 168. 82 

4, 919. 05 

38,048.17 


$27, 300. 56 

4, 591. 21 

28, 515. 68 


$18, 216. 18 
5, 555. 12 
11, 488. 49 


$21, 252. 04 
9,317.98 
34,870.55 


$23, 074. 09 

1, 904. 73 

25, 123. 74 


$30,486.45 

890.12 

27, 229. 22 






Justice 




131. 84 
63, 407. 84 


63.01 

166, 960. 85 

.31 


97.25 
39, 724. 63 


53.78 
37,805.72 


8.48 
21, 835. 86 


53.22 
18, 828. 00 




Post Office 


State 














48, 712. 36 
107, 068. 00 


48, 358. 81 
76, 950. 00 


50, 573. 77 
51,911.00 


62, 462. 46 
61, 977. 00 


71, 721. 45 
135, 398. 00 


59, 343. 10 
94, 098. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 


2.11 








26.00 


7.25 


Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 








District of Columbia 


4,503.81 


4, 393. 57 


1, 279. 77 


5, 164. 72 


4,524.65 


2, 340. 69 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 


1.28 


4.00 
17.90 
10.96 
11.54 


1.59 
12.00 
46.46 


5.80 


.26 

2.00 

21.56 

106.77 


5.14 


Federal Communications 
Commission 


Federal Housing Admin- 


26.98 
6.74 


8.37 
.80 


65.87 


Federal Power Commis- 
sion - 


Federal Reserve Board.... 






Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 


41.20 




1.97 

5.00 

229.84 

39.63 


17.04 
5.54 

34.55 
5.53 




39.44 

3.08 

94.84 

26.20 


General Accounting 
Office 




4.25 
18.75 
18.37 


Government Printing 
Office 


72.52 


66.79 

5.96 


Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation. 


Inland Waterways (Cor- 
poration 




International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 


50.70 


2.22 
10.46 


39.78 
20.02 




18.69 

1.56 

14.64 

175. 69 

176. 79 
101. 17 


.60 

207.76 


Interstate Commerce 
Commission 


34.73 


Library of Congress 




Maritime Commission. .. 


102. 31 

2.10 
4.82 


84.92 

84.33 
14.50 


105. 67 


117. 52 

89.54 
8.21 




National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. 


11.07 
14.50 


National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 
tions Board. 


3.06 


National Training 
School for Boys 


50.00 
4,601.90 

16.00 




20.00 
8, 257. 71 

2.50 


8.00 
2, 591. 41 

13.94 

1.78 

5.98 
148. 32 
27.09 






Panama Canal 


2, 706. 81 
18.00 
4.90 


3, 392. 48 

1.68 


10, 354. 92 


Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 


Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 




Securities and. Exchange 
Commission 


8.71 

368.27 

16.27 




58.00 
66.89 
29.59 


1.36 

14.60 
322. 08 


Smithsonian Institution.. 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 


300.23 
.48 


88.48 
139. 56 


Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 




3, 165. 41 
121, 427. 56 

23, 255. 10 


2, 125. 06 
98, 372. 48 

26, 943. 43 


1, 302. 65 
96, 724. 28 

33, 089. 97 


2, 590. 19 
126, 714. 70 

14, 642. 51 


1, 026. 05 
102, 640. 29 

42, 013. 13 


Veteran's Administration. 
Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


98, 908. 58 
17, 660. 63 




Total 


405,901.01 
7.26 


497, 316. 06 
8.88 


315, 300. 45 
6.64 


367, 145. 29 
6.56 


430, 763. 54 
7.69 


390, 116. 88 
6.98 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

accessories, outfits, parts, and supplies — Class No. 57 



259 







Month— Continued 






Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$60, 343. 69 

8, 965. 00 

126,895.81 


$16, 867. 32 

% 531. 00 

13,632.68 


$18, 378. 84 

1,506.00 

19, 701. 80 


$15, 423. 25 

1, 320. 00 

19, 153. 49 


$10, 274. 77 

1, 548. 57 

18, 612. 75 


$16, 017. 78 

1, 337. 36 

26, 693. 73 


$274, 803. 79 
44, 386. 14 
388,866.11 


4.91 

.79 

6.95 


40.07 
30,835.04 


26.84 
6, 550. 00 


31.03 
66, 321. 00 


5.41 
117, 857. 19 


31.92 

193, 576. 60 

4.60 


148.01 
75, 260. 05 


690.86 

827, 961. 76 

4.81 


.01 

14.79 

Nil 














331, 511. 18 
116,998.00 


71, 652. 22 
26,836.96 


70, 804. 64 
19,876.96 


47, 813. 84 
53, 762. 84 


42, 675. 93 
155, 577. 00 


39, 998. 07 
90, 854. 00 


945, 527. 83 
989, 300 'o 


16.90 
17.68 


































289.80 






5.66 






330. 82 


.01 












6, 813. 24 


9,098.77 


2, 635. 35 


3,759.83 


6,842.31 


6, 121. 22 


56, 277. 93 


1.01 


2.15 

2.00 

. 12.79 

26.71 
13.92 

267.51 

3, 597. 55 

35.28 

7.09 


8.55 


6.30 

.68 

7.37 

10.22 


6.60 
21.36 
9.14 
5.51 


2.78 


2.47 

2.05 

37.14 

7.87 


46.92 

57.99 

280.23 

179. 86 
13.92 

397.20 

3, 642. 82 
811.71 
257. 46 


Nil 
Nil 


5.61 
4.70 


27.98 


.01 
Nil 




Nil 




26.27 

4.11 

86. 13 

16.83 


3.77 

5.84 

31.72 

2.80 






.01 


17.45 
33.60 
89. 17 






.07 


78.86 
24.91 


28.84 
20.97 


.01 
Nil 








16.48 
2.05 


12.50 

4.74 

4.36 

977.76 

62.09 
2.79 


77.60 


238.07 

357. 79 

19.00 
2,190.91 

523. 11 
241.22 


Nil 


19.70 
10.75 




66.72 


.01 






Nil 








627.05 

6.20 
1.35 


.04 




56.15 
60.91 




34.84 


.01 


23.19 


6.72 


Nil 






8.50 
8, 162. 20 

27.32 


19.30 
2,688.38 

3.90 


29.51 
4,511.44 

3.90 


73.64 
1,929.63 

49.77 

2.04 

.62 

269.94 
88.82 


78.29 
2, 384. 04 

36.72 

12.20 

7.52 
61.34 
90.17 

9.60 

28, 625. 90 
146, 857. 65 

58, 451. 74 


54.78 
6, 626. 02 


342. 02 
58, 206. 84 

173. 73 

20.92 

153. 02 

2, 123. 62 

1, 403. 12 

18.72 

53, 035. 53 
1, 429, 426. 75 

612, 682. 09 


.01 
1.04 

Nil 




Nil 


.96 
148.77 
177.94 


15.20 
39.00 
141.29 


52.39 
513.61 
328.64 


2.28 

114. 17 

41.19 

9.12 

4, 052. 62 
148, 304. 39 

55, 425. 13 


Nil 
.04 
.03 
Nil 


4, 922. 72 
196, 118. 79 

41,394.99 


1, 556. 74 
86, 575. 82 

67, 065. 63 


1, 466. 38 
109, 168. 55 

76, 283. 06 


2,211.81 
100, 613. 67 

56, 456. 77 


.95 
25.56 

9.16 


935,671.66 
6.72 


304, 477. 19 
6.44 


390, 842. 45 1 
6.99 


420, 938. 23 
7.52 


665, 657. 28 
11.90 


470, 871. 34 
8.42 


5, 695, 001. 38 
100.00 


100.00 



260 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Railway, dock, and yard equipment; including fire- 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 


$2, 115. 36 
1, 214. 68 
4, 788. 99 


$1, 694. 16 

746. 46 

3, 828. 92 


$2, 211. 62 
2, 037. 95 
4, 329. 97 


$3, 738. 66 
9, 749. 37 
9, 145. 31 


$1, 493. 21 
2, 909. 40 
9, 181. 08 


$7, 943. 48 

532. 79 

11,910.96 


Commerce ... 


Justice 


Labor. 








19.87 
39, 579. 97 








4, 757. 35 


8, 466. 15 


34, 113. 25 


122, 105. 64 


39, 610. 65 


Post Office... '. 


State .' 














Treasury 


6,889.11 
33, 751. 00 


2, 015. 47 
72, 576. 00 

994.24 


1. 402. 94 
34, 312. 00 


2, 986. 68 
18, 528. 00 


1,016.19 
25, 069. 00 


2, 376. 62 
28,881.00 

10.38 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 










Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 
Government 


455.80 


44.04 


306.25 


1.17 




17, 711. 67 


Export-Import Bank 




Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 




665.00 








29.36 
3.67 
11.76 


Federal Communications 
Oninmission 










Federal Housing Admin- 
istration.. 












Federal Power Commis- 
sion 












Federal Reserve Board... 














Federal Trade Commis- 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


923.15 
188.00 


132.36 
7.34 


29.81 


1, 635. 87 
45.46 


149. 67 


670.24 

13.16 

367.00 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 


Interstate Commerce 
Commission 


















Maritime Commission... 


25.00 






481.84 
13.26 




9,949.00 


National Advisory Corn- 






289.76 
6.20 












National Labor Rela- 












National Training School 














Panama Canal. 


1, 485. 71 


4, 417. 61 


966.25 


5, 874. 97 


3, 050. 99 


1, 293. 48 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
















9.10 
14.40 






1.25 
23.68 




11.01 


Social Security Board 




48.23 










Tennessee Valley Au- 




2, 007. 60 


263. 84 
146.30 

20, 408. 47 


533.60 
214. 30 

31, 601. 57 


211,164.87 
2, 409. 40 

25, 714. 99 


5, 004. 89 
531. 74 

43, 282. 06 






Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


65, 395. 43 


89, 326. 47 




Total.. 

Percent of grand total 


122,013.08 
4.58 


186,711.82 
7.00 


100, 576. 88 124, 174. 83 

3.77 4.65 


404, 560. 39 
15.16 


170, 044. 82 
6.37 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
fighting (and meteorological) apparatus — Class No. 58 



261 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


Jane 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$18, 263. 40 
4, S«6. 00 
9, 612. 19 


$1, 179. 90 
2, 750. 00 
7, 002. 80 


' $699. 47 
2, 459. 00 
6, 073. 67 


$2, 531. 54 
11,080.00 
7, 581. 61 


$1, 482. 71 

726.00 

13, 616. 53 


$5, 865. 57 

883.76 

8, 017. 01 


$49, 219. 08 
40,086.41 
94, 889. 04 


1.84 
1.60 
3.56 


31.77 
135, 532. 03 








12.32 
82, 638. 40 




63.96 

829, 993. 58 

12.70 


Nil 


17,092.60 


133, 607. 24 


150,591.18 
12.70 


61, 999. 12 


31. 10. 
Nil 














13, 916. 38 
41, 088. 00 


1, 457. 84 
46, 115. 95 


7,110.58 
42, 122. 12 


2,467.07 
211, 174. 99 


2,091.45 
24, 045. 00 

9.60 


1, 192. 31 
32, 178. 00 


44, 922. 54 
609, 841. 06 

1,014.22 


1.69 
22.87 

.04 






























































78, 172. 59 


118.23 


66.16 


351.45 


732.70 


148.10 


98, 108. 16 


3.68 








.31 






684.67 

6.75 

, 11.76 


.03 






3.08 






Nil 












Nil 
















































220.00 




3.21 






9.63 


232. 84 


.01 


























26.59 


204.81 
78.89 


63.98 
6.29 


17.19 


800.00 
33.88 


21.15 


4,674.82 

373. 02 
367.00 


.18 
.01 








.01 






















1, 310. 40 
151.20 


3, 281. 28 
13.00 




15, 047. 52 

799.01 
6.20 


.56 


230.56 




21.04 


80.20 


.03 




Nil 
















198.87 
7, 733. 79 








307. 41 
5, 386. 82 




506.28 
62, 359. 99 


.02 


4, 967. 41 


5, 219. 41 


5, 973. 55 


15, 990. 00 


2.34 


39.36 












39.36 


• Nil 




















2.10 
3.08 


342.20 


422. 31 
468.74 


787. 97 
709. 33 


.03 




151.20 




.03 










2, 202. 20 
824.27 

37,031.85 


94, 917. 05 
342.42 

32, 737. 79 


15, 587. 79 
2, 039. 42 

25, 649. 65 


3, 968. 30 
822.99 

19, 040. 00 


4, 997. 99 
983.50 

25, 969. 75 


4, 007. 02 
466. 58 

43,321.47 


344.655.15 
8, 780. 92 

459, 479. 50 


12.92 
.33 

17.22 


350, 119. 85 
13.13 


209,116.89 
7.84 


240, 732. 11 
9.02 


417,079.66 
15.64 


167,470.54 
6.28 


175,070.97 
6.56 


2,667,671.84 
100.00 


100. 00 



262 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Building material: Asphalt, brick, cement, glass, granite, gravel, lime, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 


$160, 592. 96 

5, 383. 64 

626, 316. 88 

117, 176. 66 

353. 78 

69, 772. 05 

5.17 


$135, 925. 50 

5, 056. 32 

457, 169. 75 

255, 680. 16 

694. 05 

73, 470. 25 

92.60 


$102, 489. 80 

5, 444. 73 

604, 550. 25 

73, 597. 27 

47.59 

43, 804. 33 


$113, 216. 49 

14,341.51 

426, 425. 65 

77, 310. 55 

61.35 

145, 641. 05 

27.41 


$126 078 28 


*99ft 47fi SO 


Commerce _ 

Interior 


11,643.53 79! 657. 41 
449,164.101 425,662.03 


Justice 


Labor 


12.47 
64, 316. 38 


27.72 

69, 640. 01 

20.66 


Navy.. 


Post Office.. 


State 






Treasury 


9, 189. 20 
292, 250. 00 


9, 835. 77 
301, 382. 00 


16.410.81 
499, 768. 00 


21, 350. 83 
614, 329. 00 

6.28 


11,602.19 
742, 973. 00 


16, 935. 78 
994, 924. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity.. 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 












Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 












29.00 


Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 












District of Columbia 
Government 

Export- Import Bank 


27, 908. 38 


25, 879. 73 


15, 338. 85 


15, 408. 67 


24, 358. 86 


33, 531. 25 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 


2.54 


1, 850. 83 


428.87 

15.59 

957. 17 


1, 464. 61 

21.20 

622.72 

130. 92 
9.70 


876. 10 

2.26 

681.62 


4, 952. 00 


Federal Communications 


Federal Housing Admin- 
istration ... ._ 


292.88 


380.05 


1, 158. 82 


Federal Power Commis- 
sion... _ 








113.06 


636.83 

430. 92 

4.73 

1, 522. 48 

22.60 

376. 01 

15, 195. 60 
11.20 


52.08 
419.22 
24.10 
3, 238. 82 
24.75 
45.89 

7,967.11 


Federal Trade Commis- 
sion.. 






General Accounting 
Office 


44.66 
2, 424. 60 


10.08 
2, 594. 63 


52.03 
2, 354. 17 




Government Printing 
Office 


2, 084. 75 


Home Owners' Loan 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration. 


59.75 
8, 093. 39 


387.18 
10, 617. 42 


396.41 
11,713.19 


66.82 

7, 428. 84 
3.58 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 














1, 123. 50 

877. 07 
7.40 


518.26 
123.28 


579. 18 

308.41 
33.97 




1, 329. 11 

168.35 
42.67 


648.88 
398.42 


National Advisory Corn- 






40.96 


National Labor Rela- 






National Training 

School for Boys 

Panama Canal 


4.00 
4, 338. 02 




75.00 
2, 828. 22 

2.50 


23.00 
3, 188. 24 


157.00 
52,461.62 


44.57 
1. 425. 00 


55, 235. 42 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 












Securities and Exchange 




11.54 

939. 98 
13.91 






23.94 

460. 84 
10.00 


2.51 
186. 37 
214.87 


Smithsonian Institution.. 
Social Security Board 


113.11 
25.12 


333. 14 
20.09 


216. 38 
36.92 


Tennessee Valley Au- 
thoritv 


277, 299. 12 


37, 216. 35 


34, 829. 14 
19, 314. 25 

2, 335, 918. 92 


15, 193. 96 
21, 703. 52 

2, 618, 393. 75 


75, 140. 16 
29, 070. 30 

1, 605, 809. 11 


17, 777. 21 
50, 547. 20 

5, 466, 131. 46 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


1.607,388.82 3,429,720.32 


Total 


3, 211, 042. 70'4. 808. 805.38 


3,771,724.94 
4.40 


4, 098, 748. 66 
4.78 


5,550,018.70 
4.14 


7,593,387.65 
8. 86 


Percent of grand total . 


3.751 


6.61 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

millwork, roofing material, sand, stone, tar, tile, etc. — Class No. 59 



263 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
3938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$855, 019. 63 

21, 095. 00 

713, 963. 72 

138, 825. 23 

386. 09 

52, 005. 13 

5, 029. 60 


$103,184.38 

12, 550. 00 

396, 692. 53 

101,285.20 

10.50 

62, 442. 09 

48.66 


$86, 997. 98 

31,603.00 

380, 699. 89 

103, 799. 17 

321. 39 

372,039.70 

64.34 


$83, 408. 07 

16,185.00 

608, 485. 65 

123,385.51 

2.45 

1,247,730.44 

56.41 


$120,770.50 

24, 586. 46 

869, 854 97 

230, 167. 33 

83.25 

267, 944. 43 

694.60 


$118,472.57 

21, 749. 42 

987. 524. 29 

140, 479. 21 

431.16 

342,411.63 

6.86 


$2, 232, 632. 06 

253, 296. 02 

6, 946, 509. 61 

1,888,367.45 

2, 431. 80 

2,811,217.49 

6, 046. 21 


2.61 
.30 

8.10 
2.20 

Nil 
3.28 

.01 


41,090.01 
1.822,094.00 

1 


149, 979. 29 
952, 216. 12 

33.60 


133. 096. 93 
1,068,137.21 

13, 825. 98 


137,561.24 
1, 156, 179. 55 


138,082.93 
1,068,376.00 

15,144.06 


138, 263. 91 
828, 160. 60 


823, 398. 89 
10, 340, 789. 38 

29, 009. 92 


.96 
12.06 

.03 






































29.00 


Nil 
















68, 553. 78 


31,846.81 


46, 472. 49 


34,897.11 


96, 059. 29 


36, 822. 46 


457, 077. 68 


.53 


526. 16 


2, 298. 18 


4, 535. 21 


2, 821. 57 


5,096.49 


1,094.36 


25, 946. 92 

39.06 

5,092.90 

169. 86 
1,418.27 

1,121.29 

185. 31 

24, 889. 83 

308. 42 

2, 744. 28 

135, 298. 63 
20.35 


.03 

Nil 


6.63 

1 10.00 
1 


29.72 


34.17 

3.74 
26.27 


38.62 

12.60 
34.26 


216. 65 

12.60 
369. 75 

142.20 

18.71 

1, 467. 27 

4.65 

204. 83 

4, 772. 46 
5.57 


673.86 


.01 

Nil 




90.39 


85.93 


Nil 


1 

128.95 

11.28 

1,681.98 

194.32 

254.10 

10, 936. 26 


Nil 


13.68 

1,113.18 

22.73 

115.04 

13, 555. 86 






6.04 

2, 985. 27 

3.49 

198.78 

11,538.90 


Nil 


1, 759. 13 

15.54 

233.36 

19, 695. 19 


1, 663. 55 

20.44 

406.11 

13, 784. 42 


.03 
Nil 
Nil 

.16 

Nil 














780. 40 

494. 45 
202. 11 


29, 698. 10 

18.75 
12.03 


882. 10 

96.80 
88.96 


5, 746. 00 


1, 181. 87 

53.50 
35.88 


5, 455. 53 

42.32 
5.03 


47, 942. 93 

2,581.35 
472.11 


06 
Nil 


3.10 


Nil 


801. 76 
11,565.25 

2.50 




242. 70 
7, 582. 25 






301.00 
7, 407. 76 


1,649.03 
212, 042. 44 

7.50 

237.82 

491. 89 

3, 092. 22 

621. 10 

12.51 

648, 561. 71 
447, 199. 74 

58,382,861.26 


Nil 


.3,279.42 


55, 255. 00 


7,475.64 

2.50 

201.60 


.25 

Nil 


13.48 


21.14 


1.60 

.39 
116.62 




Nil 


453. 51 

200.07 

19.90 




Nil 


266. 49 
65.85 


156. 30 
76.22 


102. 92 
10.00 
12.51 

21,773.63 
71,649.86 

3, 517, 873. 62 




Nil 


128. 22 


Nil 




Nil 


25, 968. 08 
102, 770. 43 

18,169,359.67 


13,382.42 
9, 456. 20 

8, 749, 422. 72 


81, 766. 10 
38, 288. 40 

3, 295, 655. 74 


30, 913. 28 
56, 009. 76 

4, 228, 796. 26 


17,302.26 
48, 389. 82 

3, 358, 390. 87 


.76 
.52 

68.10 


22,044,430.00 

25. 72 


10, 633, 143. 41 
12. 38! 


5, 688, 218. 00 
6.63 


7,803,514.91 
9.11 


6, 464, 448. 43 
7.54 


6,068,331.44 
7.08 


85, 735, 814. 22 
100.00 


100.00 



264 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Boilers and engines (power-plant, ship); and 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 


$1, 569. 30 
7, 956. 81 
1, 707. 33 


$1, 242. 63 
3, 287. 78 
5, 824. 52 


$737. 58 

2, 105. 46 

586.61 


$1, 937. 14 
2, 269. 79 
1, 124. 74 


$757. 82 
2, 865. 96 
11, 329. 83 


$2, 539. 02 

954.33 

1,648.76 


Commerce 


Interior 


Justice. 


Labor 








21.50 
44, 951. 70 






Navy 


128, 299. 02 


2, 248, 917. 85 


304, 142. 16 


28, 353. 25 


140, 429. 31 


Post Office. 


. State.. 














Treasury. 


19, 457. 08 
10,043.00 


8, 294. 72 
969, 678. 00 


20, 860. 17 
12, 487. 00 


876.22 
14,754.00 


265.05 
31, 217. 00 


780. 50 
41, 784. 00 


War.... ;.. 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity...'. 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 
Government 


537.03 


263.30 




496.71 


303.48 


1, 167. 45 


Export-Import Bank 




Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration.. 














Federal Power Commis- 
sion 














Federal Reserve Board... 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' , Loan 
Corporation .'. . 














Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 




. 


5, 351. 02 


4, 450. 25 


2.04 


29, 086. 69 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 






Interstate Commerce 
Commission 














Library of Congress 














Maritime Commission 






11, 802. 44 


30, 564. 36 


2, 026. 26 
64.23 


5, 595. 00 


National Advisory Corn- 






National Archives.. 












National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 














National Training 










35.40 




Panama Canal 












Reconstruction Finance 














Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 












3,999.00 














Social Security Board 




























Tennessee Valley Au- 




592. 62 


3, 177. 16 
443.23 

15, 250. 82 




613. 11 
2, 500. 53 

2, 844. 47 








387. 21 
15, 316. 65 


456.83 
15, 860. 97 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


18, 165. 33 


26, 775. 45 




Total 


187, 734. 90 
2.58 


2, 364, 876. 87 
32.51 


376, 943. 65 
5.18 


117, 150. 27 
1.61 


83, 178. 43 
1.14 


244, 301. 86 
3.36 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

all accessories, outfits, and parts — Class No. 60 



265 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$2, 531. 99 

3, 027. 00 

324.25 


$37.95 

5. 790. 00 

157.29 


$285.20 

45, 042. 00 

1, 207. 27 


$24.93 
3, 530. 00 
1, 589. 57 


$418. 97 

9, 819. 03 

875.84 


$2, 527. 40 
1, 308. 70 
3, 705. 60 


$14, 609. 93 
87, 956. 86 
30, 081. 61 


0.20 
1.21 
.41 












161. 19 
890, 513. 43 


182. 69 

6, 292, 479. 49 

354.00 


Nil 


149, 672. 88 
354.00 


807, 492. 44 


764, 989. 87 


65, 679. 62 


719, 037. 96 


86.51 
Nil 














38,611.75 
88, 390. 00 


75.00 
27, 276. 19 


1, 453. 00 
13, 412. 56 




367.46 
25, 984. 00 


44.95 
21, 970. 00 


91,085.90 
369, 787. 18 


1.25 


12, 791. 43 


5.09 


































































3.00 


415.00 


355.26 


2, 069. 14 


510.46 


1, 042. 72 


7, 163. 55 


.10 


















































































































































35, 101. 61 


3, 167. 76 










77, 159. 37 


1.06 














































11, 982. 00 






374.90 




62, 344. 96 
64.23 


.86 










Nil 


































162.64 










198.04 


Nil 
















































245.00 


245.00 








4, 489. 00 


.06 
































695.64 

2.25 

2, 165. 88 

6, 204. 04 








695.64 

4, 840. 03 
15, 542. 70 

215,241.09 


.01 








14.00 

1,418.67 

11,841.73 


440.89 
4, 482. 90 

25, 069. 82 


.07 


258.65 
31, 858. 81 


813. 87 
26, 196. 37 


2, 614. 93 
19,856. 63 


.21 
2.96 


350, 133. 94 
4.82 


883,811.51 
12.15 


836, 057. 97 
11.49 


108, 156. 25 
1.49 


770, 663. 02 
10.59 


951, 267. 60 
13.08 


7, 274, 276. 27 
100.00 


100.00 



266 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Gyro-compasses and all accessories, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$73.(50 
18.13 


$5.50 












$62.00 






$29.00 
26.21 






$18. 72 


$34.00 


























3, 195. 75 


93, 106. 25 


33, 445. 00 


46, 974. 10 


346, 185. 00 


10, 014. 17 


Post Office 


















423.76 


2, 777. 64 


341. 79 
4,090.00 


4, 927. 66 


720. 33 
43.00 


1, 092. 34 
90.00 




Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 






41.50 


American Battle Monu- 












Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commqdity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 




























Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














General Accounting 














Government Printing 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 










































National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 






















1.65 






Reconstruction Finance 












Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 




























Works Progress Admin- 




























Total 


3,711.24 
0.36 


95, 889. 39 
9.23 


37, 938. 79 
3.65 


51, 963. 63 
4.99 


346, 982. 33 
33.41 


11, 251. 72 
1.08 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

outfits, and parts — Class No. 61 



267 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 














$79. 1C 
214. 13 
100.93 


01 


$21.00 








$84.00 




02 








$22.00 
































259. 46 


$19, 583. 00 


$66, 471. 00 


$5,000.85 


314, 304. 30 


82, 703. 75 


1,021,242.63 


98.28 


















1 222. 66 
199.00 


197.12 
180.00 


179.08 
4.00 


202.08 


197.08 
228.00 


197.08 
149.00 


12, 478. 62 
4, 983. 00 

41.50 


1.20 

48 




Nil 
































































































































































































- 


































































































































































































9.18 




5.25 






16.08 


Nil 


































































































































8.65 


22.65 




31.30 


Nil 












1, 702. 12 
0.16 


19, 969. 30 
1.92 


66, 654: 08 
6.41 


5, 216. 83 
0.50 


314, 836. 03 
30.30 


83,071.83 
7.99 


1,"039, 187. 29 
100.00 


100.00 



268 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Articles of special value: Bullion, jewelry, museum collections, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 


$9, 065. 12 
192. 57 
597.56 


$7, 644. 79 
199.20 
788.75 


$7, 485. 1C 
229.97 
548.54 


$7, 203. 98 
175. 7« 
498.38 


$11, 775. 32 
457.66 
702.85 


$5, 406. 98 

303.66 

1, 986. 18 


Commerce.. 


Justice 




682.36 
4, 732. 50 


773. 67 
4, 990. 98 

231.00 
2, 059. 50 
2, 659. 33 
7, 231. 00 


1,206.00 
21, 308. 00 


623.56 

6, 216. 88 

13. OC 


912. 32 

15, 973. 60 

283.00 

43.00 

4, 782. 19 

6, 965. 00 


645.53 

10, 108. 30 

22.00 

608.78 

2, 615. 45 

9, 781. 00 

41.67 

11.75 

12.50 

107.60 


Navy 

Post Office _ 


State 


6.00 
4, 153. 70 
7, 641. 00 

41.50 
10.60 
22.25 


52.50 
1, 903. 32 
4, 145. 00 




2, 049. 67 
4, 913. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 


14.25 
9.00 
6.25 


5.00 
9.JXf 
15.00 


8.75 
10.00 
14.59 


9.25 
10.00 
28.50 


Civil Service Commis- 


Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration. 




District of Columbia 

Government 

Export-Import Bank ... 


4, 683. 00 


3, 694. 55 


876. 80 


1, 147. 65 


2,598.25 


1, 024. 50 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration : 




507.00 
82.50 


29.85 
40.00 


14.54 


482. 57 
40.00 
25.00 
24.00 


76.41 


Federal Communications 
Commission 


6.00 


Federal Housing Admin- 


14.04 

10.00 
61.00 


37.20 
18.60 


Federal Power Commis- 










104.00 






Federal Trade Commis- 


83.00 








General Accounting 
Office.. __ 


41.67 










Government Printing 
Office 












Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission. United 














Interstate Commerce 




























Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Corn- 


183.08 

110.50 
46.67 

20.00 


1.12 


68.25 


73.70 


51.00 


17.00 


National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 


5.00 
20.00 


5.00 
16.00 


5.75 
25.00 


47.92 
25.00 


5.00 
18.75 


National Training 


Panama Canal 


248.38 


841.53 


285.94 


304.72 


808.33 

8.00 

442.26 


419.26 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 




39..50 


5.00 


27.23 


122.98 


Securities and Exchange 






182.50 

250.00 

10.00 


93.30 

795.00 

12.50 






496.00 

251.25 

12.50 


56.80 

192.50 

10.00 


Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Ati- 


286.00 
93.33 


213. 75 
10.00 










75.00 
32, 595. 64 


5,098.00 
16, 458. 29 


75.00 
50, 821. 14 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration- _ 


23, 727. 36 


42, 356. 09 


18, 843. 03 


Total 

Percent of grand total 


56, 758. 22 
6.06 


75, 138. 90 
8.02 


57, 456. 63 
6.13 


55 305. 43 
5.90 


68, 810. 95 
7.34 


84, 546. 43 
9.02 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

paintings, precious metals and stones, statuary, etc. — Class No. 62 



269 



Month— Continued 


• Total. 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$6,175.97 

3, 436. 00 

588.80 


$4, 979. 9S 

375.00 

1, 456. 21 


$4, 368. H 

242. 0C 

1, 382. 9C 


$4, 976. 7{ 

451. (X 

1, 078. 21 


$8, 952. 9C 

1 891. 8f 

668. 6S 


$7, 715. 84 
168.41 
743. 72 


$85, 751. 22 9. 15 
7, 122. 95 . 76 
11,040.77 1.18 


2, 422. 55 

12, 587. 20 

75.00 

20.04 

3, 205. 93 

22,292.00 


319.24 
5,666.00 
13.00 
2, 435. 50 
4,050.11 
4, 834. 65 


408. 38 

. 6, 279. 00 

213.00 




796.21 
29, 517. 85 


384.75 

4, 847. 93 

6.50 

609.84 
4, 382. 79 
6, 151. 00 

41.67 
3.75 
10.00 


9, 174. 57 

128, 296. 47 

869. 5C 

5, 864. 16 

42, 705. 5fi 

91, 727. 30 

166.51 
108.50 
142.75 
337. 15 


.98 

13.68 

09 


7.068.2C 

13. a 




29. 0C 
3, 708. 03 
6, 257. OC 


.63 
4.56 
9.79 

02 


4, 689. 50 
5, 480. 37 

41.67 
5.00 

12.50 
5.00 


4, 415. 57 
6, 036. 26 


11.75 
12.50 
31.58 


5.00 
10.00 
56.25 


17.25 
12.50 
6.25 


6.25 
12.50 
66.23 


.01 
.02 
.04 






1, 379. 75 


1,134.00 


1, 253. 50 


1, 003. 70 


1, 096. 75 


1, 981. 13 


21,873.48 


2.33 








94.59 


60.81 
40.00 

147. 75 


97.00 


1, 362. 77 
248.50 

568.42 

62.60 
454.00 

166.25 

189.00 


.15 




40.00 
94.05 
10.00 




.03 




104.06 


114. 07 


32.25 


.06 




.01 


66.00 


105.50 


52.50 


65.00 




.05 




83.25 


.02 


83.33 








64.00 


.02 




























































































88.45 

70.50 
5.00 

25.00 


75.00 


53.50 


128.00 
2.50 


100.00 


44.75 
77.00 


883.85 

260.50 
120.34 

247.25 


.09 
.03 








.01 


25.00 


25.00 


25.00 


11.25 


11.25 


.03 


213.28 
33.00 
147. 67 


459.40 


958.23 

8.00 

23.90 


3, 907. 55 


233.28 
8.00 

262. 07 


655. 41 

8.00 

21.15 


9, 335. 31 

65.00 

1, 472. 50 


1.00 
.01 


191.67 


188.99 


.w 


82.35 
467.88 
93.33 


236.70 

206.25 

12.50 


1, 099. 75 
168. 75 
10.00 

38.58 


125.10 
220.00 
10.00 

36.00 


185.00 

185.50 

12.^50 


113. 50 

347. 33 

93.33 

1.70 
3,300.00 

31,431.08 


2, 671. 00 

3, 584. 21 

379.99 

76.28 
16, 399. 11 

493, 530. 16 


.29 . 

.38 

.04 

.01 


75.00 
39, 374. 09 


6,400.00 
44, 984. 15 


1,376.11 
63, 469. 00 


1.75 


71, 075. 67 


58, 394. 62 


52.62 


93, 153. 95 
9.94 


78, 069. 67 
8.33 


98, 052. 24 
10.46 


88, 377. 70 
9.43 


118, 223. 51 
12.61 


63, 364. 33 
6.76 


937, 257. 96 . 
100.00 


100.00 



262342 — 41— No. 1J 



270 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Tableware (barracks, crews' mess, hotel, hospital, officers' mess, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$1,911.72 

419. 13 

1, 750. 79 


. $3,333.39 

166.95 

1, 494. 55 


$1, 258. 57 

341. 98 

4, 274. 13 


$2, 184. 92 

549. 97 

2, 884. 83 


$1, 738. 55 

623. 20 

4, 996. 01 


$6, 722. 18 

469. 86 

5, 990. 26 




Interior.... 




16.39 

. 5.00 

65.00 


11.12 

69, 976. 60 

90.00 


1.76 
73.22 
5.64 






151.98 
3, 604. 44 




13, 697. 93 
71.84 


1, 234. 05 
49.03 


Post Office 


State 




Treasury 


6, 010. 90 
26, 158. 00 


7, 680. 35 
3, 599. 00 


4,818.86 
5, 809. 00 


16, 109. 29 
65, 389. 00 


13, 487. 35 
23, 322. 00 


11, 433. 48 
4, 822. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 
Government 


377.22 


238.33 


648.20 


1, 020. 46 


1, 016. 69 


201.69 


Farm Credit Admmis- 


5.50 
2.50 


1.05 

15.40 

1.10 

1.65 
204.04 

5.64 

7.50 


1.05 


.60 

40.85 

9.55 

8.05 
191.92 






Federal Communications 


6.30 

131. 52 

6.55 
1.53 

120.00 

13.58 




Federal Housing Admin- 


2.55 

7.60 
178. 15 


6.00 


Federal Power Commis- 


7.15 
42.73 


Federal Reserve Board. _ 
Federal Trade Commis- 


68.75 


General Accounting 
Office 


6.39 


5.64 




965.64 


Government Printing 




Home Owners' Loan 




51.25 
19.23 

316.00 


.45 
471. 48 




61.00 
158.25 


6.75 
145.58 


Inland Waterways Cor- 






Internaticnal Boundary 
Commission, United 






Interstate Commerce 


5.61 






3^00 














Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Corn- 


241.51 


172. 27 


317. 51 


43.25 


296.56 


165.40 


National Archives.,. 

National Labor Rela- 


16.50 




26.20 


10.15 












National Training 

School for Boys 

Panama Canal .__ 


60.00 
1,966.31 




92.00 
774. 10 


42.00 
1, 993 76 




103. 02 
4, 484. 10 

241.00 


4, 938. 62 


3, 577. 78 
6.30 
2.65 


. Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 










Securities and Exchange 


21.40 

2.70 

315. 45 


10.80 

2, 710. 07 

6.24 


10 78 

286.80 

112. 19 

3.00 




6.55 

22.70 

1,121.36 


Smithsonian Institution.. 
Social Security Board 


33. 00 
94.33 
32.75 


213.99 
114.56 


Tennessee Valley Au- 






1,009.42 
34, 170. 79 

2, 699. 96 




Veterans' Administration. 
Works Procress Admin- 
istration 


11,399.38 
4, 471. 98 


33, 788. 46 
3, 571. 31 


14, 219. 72 
1,811.03 


25, 176. 56 
2, 482. 01 


8,815.51 
4, 576. 91 


■ Total 


55, 279. 26 
4.50 


132, 410. 92 
10.77 


35,551.61 
2.89 


132. 067. 02 
10.74 


89, 060. 62 
7.24 


54, 125. 16 
4.40 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

ship-saloon): Aluminum, china, glass and silverware — Class No. 63 



271 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$22, 247. OC 
1,771.00 
5, 749. 87 


$9, 391. 18 

133.00 

1, 691. 08 


$1, 847. 48 

132.00 

3, 515. 24 


$4, 289. 18 

81.00 

2, 692. 33 


$691. 34 

311.00 

2, 095. 47 


$2, 888. 34 

60.35 

3, 619. 66 


$58, 503. 85 

5, 059. 44 

40, 754. 22 


4.76 

.41 

3.31 


498. « 

2, 345. 3C 

2.64 


7.55 

104, 916. 97 

317.50 




424.08 

29, 966. 46 

100.04 


13.48 
5, 755. 61 


15.76 

10, 121. 48 

27.28 


1, 140. 53 

258. 656. 26 
744. 35 


.09 


16, 959. 20 
15.40 


21.05 
.05 






12, ifi 26 

15, 976. 00 


16,118.08 
5, 061. 70 


9, 004. 43 
52, 827. 44 


5, 789. 49 
25, 984. 42 


2, 239. 62 
6, 686. 00 


10, 202. 68 
33, 819. 77 


115, 068. 79 
269, 454. 33 


9.35 
21.91 








































165.64 


9.02 




174. 66 


.02 












1,826.68 


2, 449. 64 


447. 81 


607.25 


472. 86 


427.38 


9, 734. 21 


.79 








2.00 




414. 60 

7.58 

54.70 

17.15 


424.80 

86.58 

624. 76 

88.63 
869. 83 

131. 10 

1,341.27 


.03 




9.70 

124. 88 

13.10 
11.96 


4.25 

138. 82 

1.50 




.01 


2.88 


152. 76 
6.55 




.05 


19.33 
170. 75 


.01 




.07 


5.46 
3.25 








.01 


18.04 


304.00 


7.35 


4.41 


5.47 


.11 


7.15 
62.09 


8.05 
47.66 


234.79 

157. 17 


6.55 




17.00 
172.04 


392.99 
1, 258. 96 

316.00 
32.40 


.03 


25.46 


.10 




.03 


4.50 






13.82 


5.47 




Nil 










175. 86 


34, 267. 24 


1, 183. 40 


35, 846. 10 


3, 782. 83 


419. 53 
1.28 


76,911.46 

1.28 
75.35 


6.26 
Nil 


5.50 




8.50 


4.25 


4.25 


.01 








5.61 
2, 247. 68 


77.28 
2, 288. 54 

12.00 

3.56 

21.80 


147. 52 
3, 658. 84 


73.81 
5, 496. 96 

11.14 


20.58 
1, 306. 14 


90.54 
2, 229. 52 


712. 36 
34, 962. 35 

270.44 

869.33 

278.18 

3, 316. 44 

10, 412. 08 

48.55 

3, 530. 59 
253, 564. 13 

79, 728. 60 


.06 

2.84 

.02 




863. 12 

26.20 

19.84 

323. 74 






.07 


13.10 

9.92 

5, 746. 46 


26.20 

5.12 

340. 98 

1.80 

324.75 
12, 757. 54 

9, 601. 60 




141. 35 
9.92 
1.25 


.02 


2.38 
160.00 


.27 


2, 075. 52 
11.00 

464. 70 
32, 538. 12 

12, 114. 15 


.85 
Nil 




824. 16 
31, 739. 28 

15, 076. 32 


48.85 
16, 730. 11 

10, 013. 92 


858.71 
23, 510. 61 

8, 794. 33 


.29 


8, 718. 05 
4, 515. 08 


20.62 
6.49 


84,113.74] 
6.84i 


224, 194. 00 
18.23 


139. 460. 45 1 
11.34 


134, 779. 18 
10.97 


50,568.88 
4.11 


97, 928. 26 
7.97 


1, 229, 539. 10 
100.00 


"ioo'oo 



272 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Bakeshop and kitchen apparatus and utensils: Aluminum utensils; 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture 


$3,897.94 

115.31 

2,477.51 


$1, 832. 54 

481.18 

1,336.99 


$6, 018. 73 

141.66 

2, 055. 04 


$3, 340. 68 

136. 74 

4,959.66 


$2,112.40 

933.06 

4,000.55 


$11, 480. 29 

405.60 

3, 148. 21 


Commerce 


Interior - 




Labor 


1.87 
4,483.64 


18.46 
24, 115. 89 






14.10 
23, 431. 71 


9,579.81 




34,877.11 


3,972.73 


Post Office... 


State 
















2, 808. 55 
57, 459. 00 


3, 448. 19 
15, 768. 00 


3, 371. 10 
41,322.00 


5,228.08 
23,291.00 


4,048.03 
73,244.00 


2, 576. 30 
42, 981. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity _ 


.American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps -. 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 


746. 71 


98.06 


39.23 


269.61 


134.10 


139. 53 


Export-Import Bank.. .. 


Earm Credit Adminis- 














Eederal Communications 
Commission.. 














Federal Housing Admin- 








1.08 


1.77 




Federal Power Commis- 
























Federal Trade Commis- 


1.00 












General Accounting Of- 
fice 








1.55 




Government Printing Of- 
fice . . 












Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


35.10 




13.96 


82.60 


9.95 


248.21 


International Boundary 
Commission. United 




Interstate Commerce 
























17.00 
303.73 




Maritime Commission . . . 
National Advisory Corn- 


507.47 


783.06 


553.01 


517.60 


440.60 












43.22 




National Labor Rela- 












National Training School 


15.00 
3, 518. 20 


12.00 
7,513.83 


7.00 
1,581.17 


40.72 
4,940.99 




^ 


Panama Canal 


6, 156. 09 


4,942.17 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
















2.65 


118.80 


.94 


1.89 
1.92 




1.10 
1.20 




65.12 










Tennessee Valley Au- 














Veterans' Administration 
Work Projects Admin- 


8,298.65 
1, 267. 80 


10, 456. 53 
1, 725. 00 


3, 490. 15 
1,840.50 


7, 815. 73 
1,673.94 


6, 486. 60 
846.35 


9, 185. 45 
4. 287. 61 




Total 


85, 636. 30 
8.79 


67, 697. 53 
6.94 


96,211.60 
9.87 


56, 274. 87 
5778 


121, 849. 33 


89, 417. 08 


Percentage of grand total 


12.50 


9.18 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

galley gear; tinware; all accessories, outfits and parts — Class No. 64 



273 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$9, 037. 83 

766.00 

12, 187. 63 


$4, 154. 84 

312.00 

2, 312. 90 


$4, 473. 93 

406.00 

1, 192. 36 


$6, 030. 63 

147.00 

2, 079. 44 


$1,344.20 

250.94 

3, 325. 05 


$2, 467. 24 

236.48 

4, 667. 10 


$56, 191. 25 

4, 331. 97 

44, 641. 44 


5.77 

.44 

4.58 












5.79 
11,770.05 


40.22 
220, 656. 14 


Nil 


6, 966. 45 


53, 447. 05 


19, 664. 60 


13, 525. 14 


14, 821. 96 


22.66 


















4, 265. 16 
31, 734. 00 


1,015.71 
4, 931. 15 


10, 754. 69 
5, 115. 02 


2, 788. 45 
14, 904. 01 


2, 928. 38 
23, 164. 00 


829.77 
38, 013. 00 


44, 062. 41 
371, 916. 18 


4.52 
38.17 


































































87.30 


1,200.50 


1, 189. 15 


435.08 


402.96 


148.56 


4, 890. 69 


.50 






















1.30 


1.30 






2.60 

4.88 


Nil 


.48 






1.55 


Nil 






















25.00 


25.00 
1.43 
3.25 


Nil 


.43 
1.70 










Nil 












Nil 














3.98 
37.78 


2.01 






1.34 
44.73 




7.33 
718. 79 


Nil 


167.06 


7.56 


71.84 


.07 


































17.00 
13, 020. 00 


Nil 


470. 85 


650.40 


210. 66 


4, 408. 04 


3, 782. 84 


391. 74 


1.34 














43.22 


Nil 
















56.52 
3, 087. 99 


75.60 
3, 049. 84 




2.36 
7, 210. 13 




7.66 
3, 748. 70 


216.86 
66, 062. 66 


.02 


17, 665. 30 


2,648.25 


6.78 










63.49 




63.49 


.01 
















1.10 


425.78 


47.40 


5.40 
2.40 




605.06 
70.77 


.16 


13 




. .1 














96.50 
2,517.81 

12. 530. 56 


107. 34 
2, 330. 36 

8, 953. 05 


231.17 
4, 667. 29 

5,538.68 


58.70 
9, 493. 38 

3, 395. 26 


177.50 
17,447.68 

5, 338. 15 


671. 21 
92, 289. 99 

53, 809. 43 


.07 


10, 100. 46 
6, 412. 53 


9.48 
5.52 


85, 217. 22 
8.74 


86, 297. 97 
8.86 


72, 656. 60 
7.46 


62, 023. 68 
6.37 


65, 733. 28 
6.75 


85, 347. 81 
8.76 


974, 363. 27 
100.00 


100.00 



274 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Ovens, ranges, and stoves; and aU 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$8, 340. 98 
1, 706. 87 
8, 609. 89 


$6, 690. 71 
1, 335. 20 
7, 171. 52 


$3,094.21 

1, 166. 69 

13, 087. 68 


$3, 313. 78 

1,394.30 

16,018.73 


$7,052.61 

930.48 

3, 124. 32 


$9, 437. 19 
1, 519. 68 
7,739.46 












2.94 
8,238.75 


6.57 
8, 146. 18 


5.82 
4,686.80 








13,663.49 


17,222.40 


21,894.82 


Post Office 


State 
















1, 092. 13 
68,065.00 


303.06 
51, 479. 00 


1, 219. 46 
23,837.00 


1, 701. 79 
41,485.00 


2, 550. 84 
59, 856. 00 


3, 589. 20 
20, 890. 00 


War . 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Coi- 














District of Columbia 


66.47 






40.75 


1,111.37 


909.69 








Farm Credit Adminis- 




7.14 










Federal Communications 












Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














General Accounting 














Government Printing, 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 


322.44 
284.16 


87.94 


.80 


308.90 


8.60 


411.86 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 


Interstate Commerce 


























Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Corn- 


59.23 


12.00 


40.15 


47.10 


150.51 


75.40 
















National Labor Rela- 














National Training 






146.00 
13, 849. 21 


42.18 
2, 247. 90 


32.00 
3, 496. 22 




Pftnnmft Canal 


4, 419. 62 


2,087.46 


1,876.46 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 




















16.85 


68.55 


354.79 


























Tennessee Valley Au- 




1, 374. 35 
16,684.80 

31,946.01 






1, 002. 00 
9,234.84 

518.83 


75.00 
11,656.63 

1, 937. 84 


Veterans' Administration. 
Works Progress Admin- 
istration.. 


12,447.83 
9,48101 


4, 829. 42 
2, 367. 93 


10,029.43 
2,394.44 




Total.. 


118, 449. 12 
8.72 


125, 419. 87 
9.24 


71, 807. 16 
5.29 


83, 675. 47 
6.16 


106, 645. 81 
7.86 


82, 012. 12 
6.04 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OP ECONOMIC POWER 
accessories, outfits, and parts — Class No. 65 



275 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 

months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$21,871.36 

1,816.00 

20, 160. 13 


$10, 679. 36 

790.00 

5,779.46 


$4, 431. 12 

1,640.00 

939. 57 


$5, 654. 49 
1,580.00 
8, 018. 67 


$7, 392. 89 
1, 795. 92 
9, 062. 12 


$9, 262. 15 
1, 887. 63 
9, 928. 72 


$96, 120. 85 

17, 562. 77 

109, 640. 26 


7.08 
1.29 
8.07 










7.00 

9, 314. 48 

393. 13 


105. 60 
15, 089. 21 


127.93 
141, 128. 97 
• 393. 13 


01 


13, 246. 21 


3, 515. 00 


14, 536. 00 


11,775.63 


10.39 
03 














1, 764. 12 
107, 647. 00 


326.42- 
18, 890. 04 


808.14 
13, 612. 74 


667.08 
45. 641. 82 


425.22 
186,974.00 

99.90 


382. 71 
30, 181. 00 


14, 820. 17 
658, 458. 60 

99.90 


1.09 
48.49 

.01 
































































1,054.60 


431. 16 


968.54 


66.34 


422.66 


5,061.38 


.37 


















7.14 


Nil 


























































































































9.12 
206.32 


9.12 
2, 812. 08 

602. 85 


Nil 




223.66 


441.02 


749.30 


51.24 
318. 69 


.21 




.04 






























88.40 








69.10 


60.40 


602.29 


.04 










































25.90 
4, 014. 28 












245. 08 
69, 229. 12 


.02 


4, 510. 66 


13,082.39 


3,115.86 


9, 745. 02 


6, 785. 15 


6.10 










66.44 




66.44 


NO 














4.20 


17.50 






23.23 




475. 12 


.04 


























664.51 
12, 721. 26 

1, 973. 07 


62.30 
3, 247. 68 

6, 810. 41 


194. 53 
3, 340. 00 

6,864.21 


412. 60 
4, 006. 86 

9, 385. 69 


622.58 
10, 220. 84 

25, 242. 62 


642. 95 
15, 102. 41 

24, 290. 62 


5. 050. 82 
112, 522. 00 

123, 201. 68 


.87 
8.28 

9.07 


186,986.44 
13.69 


55, 806. 89 

4.11 

1 


60, 310. 88 
4.44 


91, 876. 54 
6.77 


261, 890. 76 
19.27 


114,356.65 
8.42 


1, 358, 237. 70 
100.00 


100.00 



276 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Machinery and equip 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 

Agriculture . 


$123, 801. 35 

71, 585. 97 

319, 357. 90 


$101, 097. 27 

85,600.00 

250, 290. 18 


$268,011.37 

78, 567. 48 

810, 921. 36 


$141, 050. 67 

70, 267. 81 

643, 840. 59 


$123, 645. 62 

33, 945. 38 

2, 286, 341. 29 


$201, 875. 69 

51,800.50 

355,063. 49 


Commerce .. 

Interior 


Justice 


Labor ._ 


294.74 

' 157,309.74 

60, 089. 34 


7.00 
33,498.15 
-1,869.08 


293.96 
20, 292. 48 
4, 738. 10 


196.56 

610, 096. 02 
2, 984. 15 


41.10 

508, 858. 62 
5, 790. 50 




Navy . . 

Post Office .-- 


" 407,021.66 
232, 604. 38 


State 


Treasury 


13, 603. 06 
440, 475. 00 


10, 890. 27 
515, 969. 00 


8. 328. 47 
517, 743. 00 


9, 725. 10 
487, 520. 00 


12, 671. 73 
522, 430. 00 


11, 742. 37 
489, 786. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity... 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission..... 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion ... 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 

government 

Export-Import Bank 


4, 993. 93 


6, 330. 62 


22, 712. 29 


3, 994. 81 


4, 463. 16 


5, 744. 20 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration ._ 














Federal Communications 
Commission '_.. 














Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 








75.78 




10.30 


Federal Power Commis- 
sion 










Federal Reserve Board.. 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 














General Accounting 
Office 






25.00 
70, 459. 52 








Government Printing 
Office 

Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation.. 


55, 636. 80 


57, 561. 21 


8, 392. 04 
383.38 
911.47 

1, 412. 02 


15, 645. 18 

- 126. 61 

1,220.23 

7, 279. 80 


23, 085. 57 

1.75 

298.33 

5, 207. 97 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

(International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission _ 


213.04 
23,199.05 


262. 13 
10, 866. 99 


358.23 
4, 058. 68 


Library of Congress 




















5, 082. 00 


5, 345. 40 






National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics 


80.40 














1.00 






National Labor Rela- 












National Training 
School for Boys . 


32.00 
29, 640. 21 




13.00 
63, 210. 70 


25.07 
23, 242. 34 


23.56 
32, 465. 83 


412. 89 
29, 167. 32 

3, 796. 50 




48, 883. 24 


Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 


Rural Electrification Ad- 








52.25 




Securities and Exchange 














38.46 
260.07 




1, 299. 78 


58.20 
215. 95 


76.50 
14.25 


12.00 
.19 




19.95 






Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration. 

Works Progress Admin- 
istration ! 


450, 026. 99 
16, 597. 10 

566, Sf!3. 00 


68, 993. 59 
20, 913. 06 

I, 266, 739. 86 


69, 539. 91 
8, 628. 65 

605,481.35 


171,505.64 
17, 799. 98 

906, 237. 00 


52, 332. 31 
15, 248. 88 

373, 828. 58 


77, 303. 76 
17, 667. 16 

1. 175. 637. 92! 






Total 


2, 334, 108. 15 


2. 479. 791. 60 2. 559. 765. 33k 105. 332. 97 


3, 996, 449. 13 3, 088, 239. 35 
9.29 7.18 


Percent of grand total 


5.43| 5. 76J 5.95| 7.22 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

merit — Class No. 66 



277 



Month — Continued 


Total. 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$411,023.66 
90, 516. 00 
385, 974. 52 


$102, 857. 20 

40, 493. 00 

296, 508. 35 


$84, 755. 59 
174, 720. 00 
114,011.93 


$94, 350. 81 

23,996.00 

265, 931. 84 


$134, 415. 33 

18, 769. 23 

270, 101. 36 


$98, 656. 24 

21, 523. 96 

303,.811. 33 


$1, 885, 540. 80 

761, 785. 33 

6, 302, 154. 14 


4.38 
1.77 
14.65 


264.47 
964, 074. 19 
405, 487. 25 


38.56 

50, 162. 32 

1, 052. 81 


75.22 
140,056.12 
100, 844. 86 


241.55 

241,178.07 

5, 851. 49 






1, 452. 90 

3, 768, 572. 75 

837, 358. 87 


Nil 


273, 700. 58 
5, 668. 29 


362, 325. 40 
10, 378. 62 


8.76 
1.95 


194, 389. 39 
1, 434, 047. 00 


20, 958. 08 
663, 452. 20 


17, 399. 98 
923, 383. 69 


26, 247. 65 
2, 254, 879. 06 

19, 326. 92 


24, 910. 92 
1,380,113.00 


39, 415. 29 
2, 496, 921. 00 


390, 282. 21 
12, 126, 718. 95 

19, 326. 92 


.91 

28.19 

.05 






























































36, 644. 38 


1,853.25 


6, 641. 55 


1, 699. 58 


7, 438. 42 


2, 366. 53 


104, 782. 72 


.24 


































100.00 








46.90 


55.89 


288.87 


Nil 














































191. 39 
19,413.27 








216. 39 

551, 768. 35 

537.64 

22, 495. 98 

226, 516. 40 
730.00 


Nil 


107, 773. 11 

18.40 

505.31 

79, 932. 31 


11,414.81 


17, 202. 35 


133, 687. 45 


31, 497. 04 

7.50 

3, 703. 69 

34, 019. 95 


1.28 
Nil 




328.28 
5,288.40 


13, 854. 85 

17, 570. 20 
730.00 


840.42 
18, 665. 11 


.05 


19, 015. 92 


.53 
Nil 

















3,460.90 
1, 699. 20 


5, 510. 00 

607.15 
671.00 




5, 609. 50 


1, 140. 46 


26, 148. 26 

4, 039. 62 
672.00 


.06 




1, 652. 87 


.01 








Nil 














273.84 
28, 195. 38 

3, 490. 74 


228.44 
22, 468. 92 


94.20 
93, 152. 22 


377. 94 
20, 858. 59 


219. 43 
38, 098. 84 


272.68 
23, 423. 09 


1,973.05 
452, 796. 68 

7, 287. 24 

204.96 


Nil 
1.05 

.02 






87.50 




65.21 


Nil 












309.74 


38.00 
580.50 


50.00 


22.50 
25.00 


20.00 


6.00 


1,931.18 

1,115.91 

25.00 

2, 991, 615. 58 
179, 002. 04 

12, 36P, 568. 50 


Nil 
Nil 


25.00 

201, 627. 72 
22. 344. 52 

1, 694, 412. 96 








Nil 


1, 028, 583. 12 
6, 152. 10 

1, 128, 228. 25 


157, 105. 03 
7, 298. 93 

824, 108. 42 


552, 222. 35 
7, 709. 13 

1, 435, 862. 02 


43, 738. 48 
16, 554. 67 

1, 249, 215. 07 


118,636.68 
22, 087. 86 

1, 133, 944. 07 


6.95 
.42 

28.73 


6, 061, 429. 89 
14.08 


3, 399, 235. 93 
7.90 


2, 675, 607. 23 
6.22 


5, 001, 878. 17 
11.62 


3,621,813.00 
8.42 


4, 704, 258. 49 
10.93 


43, 027, 909. 24 
100.00 


100.00 



278 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Forage; bulbs and roots; plants 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


71, 946. 75 
182.86 
48, 064. 42 
-5,092.16 
67.67 
2, 357. 61 


$141, 517. 25 

108.00 

22, 888. 68 

18, 334. 00 


$71, 833. 48 

116.54 

21, 650. 68 

6, 553. 00 

8.45 

2, 209. 90 


$142,.815.67 

1, 094. 31 

46, 167. 78 

12, 100. 00 

13.20 

3, 618. 79 


$161,731.42 

925.20 

44, 717. 85 

6, 619. 52 


$228, 193. 95 

161. 62 

37, 529. 25 

3,. 062. 88 

188.00 

6, 439. 75 








Labor 




1, 044. 04 


1, 730. 40 


Post Office 














m 




4, 710. 81 
220, 889. 00 


9, 983. 53 
19, 962. 00 


5, 102. 71 
448, 075. 00 


5, 896. 12 
240, 306. 00 


7, 909. 71 
99, 030. 00 


3, 176. 52 
258, 676. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commqdity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 
Government.-.. 


3, 761. 64 


4, 585. 42 


5, 039. 91 


8, 266. 87 


1, 889. 68 


6, 029. 81 


Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 
























47.10 


Federal Trade Commis- 












General Accounting 














Government Printing 














Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 

Inland Waterways Cor- 


























International Boundary 
Commission United 








9.00 






Interstate Commerce 












Library of Congress 


























National Advisory Corn- 










19.00 


19.00 


National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 






















National Training School 


745.00 
7, 557. 13 


770.00 
8, 293. 20 


820.00 
2, 132. 42 


967.00 
7, 076. 28 


898.00 
3, 929. 08 


655. 70 
6, 791. 68 




Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 














Smithsonian Institution.. 


803. 38 


865. 69 


594. 28 


739.90 


1, 612. 25 


723. 17 
















Tennessee Valley Au- 




161.00 
10, 738. 43 

26, 827. 67 


119. 75 
6, 642. 39 

26, 669. 78 




8.00 
17, 072. 43 

71, 172. 80. 




Veterans Administration. 
Works Progress Admin- 
istration...- 


4, 795. 12 
54, 097. 03 


9, 606. 41 
57, 681. 82 


5, 761. 99 
55, 970. 75 


Total 


425, 070. 58 
7.46 


266,078.91 
4.67 


597, 568. 29 
10.49 


536,359.15 
9.43 


419,265.341 612,427.17 


Percent of Grand Total 


7.36 


10.76 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 
shrubs, and trees; seeds — Class No. 67 



279 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$663, 368. 90 

312.00 

32, 889. 62 

3, 063. 05 

34.50 

1, 978. 61 


$84, 51 S 02 

446.00 

22, 677. 47 

13, 255. 45 


$60,226.69 

350.00 

15, 062. 36 

8, 638. 35 

13. 94 

2, 334. 00 


$59, 935. 39 

636.00 

15, 319. 15 

5, 478. 07 


$43, 858. 44 

462. 10 

41, 693. 67 

14, 664. 79 

83.97 

3, 248. 20 


$105, 204. 89 

117. 01 

43, 129. 37 

4, 516. 93 

21.66 

3, 073. 06 


$1, 835, 150. 85 

4,911.64 

391, 790. 30 

101, 378. 20 

431. 39 

31, 968. 91 


82.23 

.09 

6.88 

1.78 


604.00 


3, 330. 55 


.56 














"* 




2,920 39 
224, 673. 00 


2,179.73 
141, 836. 95 


2,371.18 
265, 523. 32 


2, 367. 71 
161, 974. 97 


2, 534. 45 
82, 502. 00 


2, 994. 18 
323, 108. 00 


52, 147. 04 
2, 486, 556. 24 


.92 

43.65 
























T 








































2,113.29 


3, 461. 50 


4, 583. 51 


1, 319. 88 


7, 062. 34 


4, 018. 97 


51, 132. 82 


.90 


















« 
















* 










































47.10 


Nil 




























i 




























































9.00 


Nil 








































254.82 




254.82 
38.00 


Nil 












Nil 
































797.41 
6, 089. 56 


646.72 
7, 660. 69 


591.82 
6, 920. 88 


872.40 
11, 600. 92 


770. 82 
2, 380. 69 


591.20 
9,118.24 


9, 126. 07 
79, 550. 77 


.16 
1.40 


































637.74 


464.33 


718.11 


543.49 


761. 66 


703. 77 


9, 167. 77 


.16 


















475.00 
10, 034. 89 

29, 828. 47 


51.25 

8, 562. 72 

12, 548. 51 


292.89 
9, 145. 78 

34, 357. 45 


381.31 
15, 316. 12 

62, 009. 91 


2, 406. 06 
9, 218. 20 

55, 841. 91 


552.00 
5, 595. 37 

36, 753. 81 


4, 447. 26 
112, 489. 85 

523, 759. 91 


.08 
1.98 

0.20 


979,216.43 
17.19 


298, 913. 34 
5.25 


411, 130. 28 
7.22 


341, 085. 87 
6.99 


267,744.12 
4.70 


539, 498. 46 
9.48 


5, 694, 357. 94 
100.00 


100.00 



280 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Livestock — 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$1,185.99 

82.97 

18, 875. 45 


$1, 633. 31 

56.90 
5, 862. 66 


$1, 353. 56 

95.20 

8, 907.. 69 


$2, 086. 26 

290.32 

21, 794. 85 


$4, 122. 26 

1, 808. 24 

17,451.11 


$4, 884. 15 

178. 71 

19,013.38 


Commerce 




Justice 


Labor , 














Navy 














Post Office. 














State 
















4, 403. 21 
32, 372. 00 


6, 448. 46 
16, 608. 00 


4, 951. 41 
21, 564. 00 


5, 716. 35 
35, 599. 00 


9, 374. 39 
52, 699. 00 


4, 795. 89 
61, 410. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 














Clvilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commqdity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 




3,308.08 


60.00 


47.50 


249.00 


21.13 






Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Ad- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners'- Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 








































National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 
School for Boys 


























Reconstruction Finance 














Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 


















150.00 




730.00 


13.00 


957. 50 


Social Security Board 


















Tennessee Valley Au- 




























Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


27.00 


192.00 


139.80 


77.20 


.30 






Total 


56, 946. 62 
4.66 


34, 159. 40 
2.80 


37, 071. 66 
3.04 


66, 341. 48 
5.43 


85, 717. 30 
7.02 


91, 260. 76 
7.48 


Percent of grand total. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



281 



Cto*» No. 68 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$7, 230. 51 

455.00 

20, 335. 91 


$4, 346. 07 


$2, 867. 60 


$2, 538. 32 


$1, 458. 46 


$4, 465. 70 


$38, 072. 08 

2, 967. 34 

175, 453. 35 


3.12 
.24 


4, 206. 79 


18, 887. 78 


6, 160. 80 


31, 374. 01 


2,582.93 


14.37 


































































5,225.08 
49,444.00 


4, 329. 54 
22, 863. 30 


7, 642. 62 
86, 713. 55 


3, 514. 66 
66, 999. 62 


5, 660. 07 
85, 338. 00 


4, 773. 23 
73,956.00 


66, 834. 91 
605, 566. 47 


5.47 
49.59 












































332.00 


332.80 


.0J 














615.00 


12.10 


8.45 


63.20 


94.50 


83.25 


4, 561. 21 


.37 


































































































































































































































































1 
































































































905.00 


24.00 


50.00 


187.00 




465.00 


3, 481. 50 


.29 






































21.43 
734.43 






3.50 
103, 128. 90 






24.93 
323, 857. 51 


Nil 


346.00 


45.50 


111,916.18 


107, 250. 20 


26. 52 


84,966.36 
6.96 


36, 127. 80 
2.96 


116,215.50 
9.52 


182, 595. 90 
14.95 


235, 841. 21 
19.30 


193, 907. 31 
15.86 


1,221,151.30 
100.00 


100.00 



282 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Vehicles (animal- and hand-drawn); and all 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1837 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$507.66 

86.46 

1, 314. 91 


$1, 982. 57 

28.25 

335.30 


$2, 098. 73 

5, 535. 31 

340.<95 


$3, 553. 54 

5.75 

561.48 


$2, 824. 38 

163.72 

1, 183. 21 


$4,283.72 

525.07 

1, 679. 84 






Justice 


Labor.. 








22.50 

27.59 

281.16 








50, 570. 00 
200.27 


289.80 
15.45 


4,345.36 
549.27 


8,819.00 
17.90 


2, 749. 05 
331.68 


Post Office 


State 




309.83 
2, 867. 00 


389.13 
2, 214. 00 

5.46 


648.84 
21, 302. 00 


520.99 
15, 436. 00 


704.68 
13, 183. 00 


910. 71 
13,070.00 


War. 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 












Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion .-_ 






72.60 








Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 












District of Columbia 

nnvprnmfnt 


610. 62 


975.68 


144.49 


533. 73 


12.70 


106.48 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 














Federal Communications 


4.86 






19.60 






Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 




21.60 






Federal Power Commis- 
sion 












Federal Reserve Board. .. 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion._ -__ ------- 






66.70 


42.00 


85.60 




General Accounting 
Office , 








Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' • Loan 




39.20 




13.00 


47.40 




Inland Waterways Cor- 


134. 41 






International Boundary 
Commission, United 












Interstate Commerce 


51.00 




24.75 


21.17 




























National Advisory Corn- 


















312.00 






666.00 




National Labor Rela- 








i 


National Training 








.50 
237.89 




5.00 
197. 16 

21.40 


Panama Canal. -_ 


119. 72 


261. 61 


86.40 


134. 21 
53.58 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 










Securities and Exchange 




35.90 














1.54 
31.04 










118. 30 




25.40 




101. 60 








Tennessee Valley Au- 














Veterans' Administration 






268.71 
23, 987. 19 


2, 873. 05 
67, 205. 38 


482. 32 
23, 293. 03 


3, 768. 56 
89, 428. 30 


Works Progress Admin- 
istration... 


6, 738. 17 


9, 211. 99 


Total 


63,533.11 
6~46 


16, 096. 24 
1.64 


59, 525. 48 
6.05 


91, 380. 73 
9.29 


51, 670. 71 
5.26 


117, 178. 57 
11.91 


Percent of grand total. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

accessories, outfits, and parts — Class No. 69 



283 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$11, 120. 05 

131.00 

2, 537. 78 


$2, 290. 52 

87.00 

1, 795. 86 


$1,155.69 

279.00 

1, 781. 00 


$1, 953. 82 

117.00 

1, 451. 72 


$845.28 
202. 70 
854.94 


$1, 145. 24 
136.60 
669.55 


$33, 761. 18 
7,297.86 
14, 506. 54 


3.43 

.74 

1.47 


76.12 

1, 303. 23 

27.89 




5.33 
593.00 
290.62 




3.85 

770.80 

7.38 




107.80 
71, 057. 41 
3, 407. 21 


01 


5.49 
1, 347. 83 


683.49 
140. 91 


900.60 
196.85 


7.22 
.36 


4, 773. 40 
24, 942. 00 


1, 042. 00 
6, 315. 23 


3, 381. 06 
21, 145. 38 


1, 307. 24 
13, 568. 86 


339. 97 
7, 488. 00 


1, 273. 94 
3, 882. 00 


15, 601. 79 
145, 413. 47 

5.46 
203.94 


1.69 
14.78 

Nil 










131. 34 




.02 














































312. 69 


282.63 


67.66 


461.66 


21.65 


491. 48 


3, 921. 27 


.40 












8.44 


8.44 
24.46 
61.52 


NU 












Nil 




39.92 










.01 






























272.40 












466.70 
49.43 


.06 








49.43 




.01 














46.00 








22.90 




145.60 
134.41 


.01 










.01 




























96.92 


.01 


























































1.62 


979.62 


.10 


















15.00 
112.60 








20.50 
2. 368.53 

74.98 


Nil 


102. 00 








1, 116. 94 


.24 








.01 
















51.20 

33.20 

2, 532. 15 






10.40 

22.90 

678.00 


76.80 
2, 262. 00 




174. 30 

2, 342. 54 

3, 512. 69 


.02 


22.90 






.24 


26.20 




.36 












273. 47 
77.87 

86, 863. 26 


334.68 
1, 070. 67 

78, 819. 89 


114. 14 
1, 051. 39 

69, 970. 32 


21.45 

821. 67 

• 78,678.02 


15.00 
100.50 

60, 878. 71 


758.74 
13, 789. 47 

663, 036. 82 


.08 


3, 274. 73 
67, 962. 56 


1.40 
67.44 


119,498.40 
12. 15 


100, 443. 98 
10.22 


109, 077. 78 
11.08 


91,531.85 
9.31 


92, 598. 18 
9.42 


70, 817. 47 
7.21 


983, 329. 60 
100.00 


100.00 



284 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Agricultural implements and all acces 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$15, 898. 51 

28.89 

5, 659. 56 


$6, 227. 12 

69.16 

1,011.39 


$19, 977. 16 


$33,859.11 

39.15 

12, 947. 96 


$40, 462. 16 

529.67 

7, 638. 20 


$36, 657. 03 

250. 30 

18, 426. 15 






5,841.11 








5.69 

1, 231. 50 

21.94 


22.34 
1, 768. 66 


6.30 

1, 498. 05 

225. 72 


9.06 

3, 642. 68 

16.07 


9.69 

5, 432. 65 

24.42 




4, 044. 27 
222. 05 


Post Office 


State. -. 






98. 103 
14, 347. 00 


2, 184. 26 
3, 930. 00 

8.07 


731.73 
6, 133. 00 


1, 266. 47 
30, 613. 00 

1.09 


2, 124. 55 
15. 521. 00 


1, 551. 70 
10. 875. 00 

3.97 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity. 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 








Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 

Government 

Export-Import Bank 


857.00 


1, 986. 40 


540.10 


922. 85 


1, 490. 57 


2, 016. 97 


Farm Credit Administra- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 














Federal Reserve Board.. . 














Federal Trade Commis- 
sion. 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office . 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration __ .. 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 
Commission 














Library of Congress 


























805. 50 : 


National Advisory Com- 
mission, Aeronautics. __ 










69.99 














National Labor Rela- 
tions Board . . 














National Training 
School for Boys 


36.00 
2, 693. 89 


15.00 

4, 184. 82 


105.00 
1,064.32 




8.40 

1, 838. 74 


53.65 
449. 55 


Panama Canal 


443. 11 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 














Smithsonian Institution.. 


9.50 






4.50 


41.58 


1.38: 








Tariff Commission 














Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 






235.00 
5, 776. 29 

38, 712. 39 


819. 35 
6, 415. 48 

105, 088. 32 


1, 288. 42 
7, 730. 29 

26, 202. 40 




Veterans' Administration- 
Works Progress Admin- 


30, 536. 30 
95, 154. 36 


27, 600. 07 
70, 219. 27 


7, 502. 13 
155, 515. 95 




Total 


170, 468. 36 
8.85 


118,694.69 
6.16 


80, 907. 10 
4.21 


194, 150. 46 
10.08 


108, 613. 78 
5.64 


239. 576. 04 
12.44 


Percent of grand total ._ . 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

sories, outfits, and parts — Class No. 70 



285 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 

0/ grand 

total 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


$85,097.11 

6.401.W 

25, 132. 8( 


$45, 754. 4$ 

» 380. 0C 

8, 098. 74 


$7, 698. T 

179. 0( 

13, 687. 4{ 


' $12, 897. 36 $12, 672. 83 
) 359. 00 275. OC 
! 2, 447. 92 3, 136. 38 


$9, 491. 3" 

227. 2C 

2, 439. 05 


$327,293.01 16.99 

8, 738. 40 . 45 

106, 460. 79 5. 52 


8.7! 





• 5" 

11, 978. 0( 

854. 5f 




10. 65 
) 10,519.96 
» 34.99 


13.27 

8, 743. 0« 

1.71 


86. 3f 
71,005.94 
4,648.27 


Nil 

3.69 

.24 


6, 065. Oi 
328. 86 


5, 287. 0C 
2, 885. 14 


► 10, 794. 4( 
32. 7S 


1,723.5." 
16, 728. 00 


1,014.81 
8,010. 50 


1, 585. If 
7, 603. 9t 


2. 100. 01 
5, 445. 74 


496. 81 
4, 032. 00 


6, 847. 57 
5, 975. 0C 


22. 607. 67 
129,214.31 

13.13 


1.17 
6.71 

Nil 






























































604.52 


514. 89 


324. 03 


483. 77 


83.28 


86.90 


9,911.28 


.51 






























































































































































































































805. .50 
71.79 








1.80 








Nil 






























51.24 
380.12 




29. 65 
790.00 


1, 325. 28 
2, 376. 60 


43.32 

1,585.25 


2.13 
839.03 


1.669. C7 
17,453.93 


09 


808. 50 


.91 




































7.20 


57.40 






39.00 


160.56 


01 


























271.26 

9,471.79 

121,042.79 


254.67 
3, 575. 07 

206, 314. 22 


89.50 
7, 45?. 72 

58, 102. 99 


257.22 
3. 371. 79 

63,251.49 


ZG5. m 
8, 572. 80 

88, 932. 60 


1. 127. 42 
14, 624. 24 

60, 634. 10 


4, 60S. 45 
132, 630. 97 

1,089,170.88 


.24 
6.88 

. 56. 55 


273. 907. 50 
14.22 


282, 905. 31 1 110,437.63! 
14. 68 5. 73 


105,143.39 
5.45 


130,661.49 
6.78 


111,091.15) 

,76l 


1, 926, 556. 90 L. 

100. 00 1 100. 00 



262342— 41— No. 19- 



-20 



286 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Badges, insignia, medals, 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$1,913.90 
23.15 
64.98 


$45.24 
16.33 
97.75 


$517. 14 


$1,715.53 

42.00 

213. 65 


$352. 24 


1 $470. 29 
406.00 
112. 12 






54.00 


79. 6C 


Justice 


Labor 
















4, 080. 00 


3, 055. 00 
69.25 


3, 055. 00 


17, 295. 45 


3, 517. 55 


9, 651. 75 


Post Office 


State. __ 














254. 48 
1,951.00 


318.40 
8, 803. 00 


15.58 
356.00 


1, 482. 10 
8, 763. 00 


127.11 
4, 270. 00 


117.00 
12,711.00 


War.. 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commisson 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion _- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 


82.66 








429.00 


152. 65 


Export-Import Bank 








Farm Credit Admipis- 
tration ._ 














Federal Communications 






18.50 








Federal Housing Admin- 












Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 
sion ... 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 








219.20 






Inland Waterways Cor- 






8.08 






International Boundary 
Commission, United 












Interstate Commerce 
































1.65 










National Advisory Corn- 


























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 
















100.00 


16.21 




24.65 


288.00 


357. 02 


Reconstruction Finance 




Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
















7.75 


1.50 


5.00 






























Tennessee Valley Au- 




























Works Progress Admin- 


95.25 


234.82 




125. 70 




499.26 








Total 


8, 573. 17 
3.81 


12,659.15 
5.61 


4, 029. 30 
1.79 


29,881.28 
13.25 


9, 063. 50 
4.02 


24, 477. 09 
10.85 


Percent of grand total 





CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



287 



■etc. — Class No. 71 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1C38 


of grand 
total 


1 

$2, 437. 50 

5.00 

119. 26 


$400. 42 


$417. 73 
20.00 
31.82 


$4.21 


$89.72 


$407. 13 

18.75 

141. 95 


$8, 771. 05 

531.23 

1, 637. 74 


3.89 
.23 


168.05 


83.50 


471.06 


.73 


















3, 375. 00 


6, 329. 50 


2, 771. 00 


7, 433. 50 


9, 454. 60 


7, 989. 25 


78, 007. 60 
69.25 


34.61 
.03 
















424. 43 
849.00 


237.69 
23, 408. 90 


569. 97 
28, 364. 65 


1, 850. 30 
6, 159. 48 


480.70 
3, 322. 00 


$23.40 
22, 767. 00 


6, 101. 16 
121.725.03 


2.72 
53.96 






































































689.74 


3.50 


68.70 


31.55 


1,457.80 


.64 






























17.75 






36.25 


.02 










































































































242. 10 
30.58 


.11 










22.50 




.01 


























































1.65 


Nil 




















45.00 








45.66 


.02 
























47.42 


47.42 
842.63 

78.00 


.02 








3.75 

43.50 


53.00 


.37 


34.50 








.04 






























8.00 






48.75 




71.00 


.03 
































458.50 


124. 05 


813.80 


64.50 
8.96 

803. .0 


1.55 


1, 462. 40 
8.96 

4, 334. 90 


.65 




Nil 


321.00 


548.65 


834. 82 


330. 25 


541.45 


1.92 


7, 565. 69 
3.36 


31, 559. 71 
13.99 


33,868 78 

15.02 


16, 743. 54 
7.42 


14,888.19 
6. X) 


32,169.45 225,501.75!.. 

14.28, 100.00 100.00 



288 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Boots; shoes; leather and 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$628.49 

61.40 

4, 557. 49 


$357. 57 

59.^9 

3, 107. bi 


$1, 562. 73 

177.26 

3, 067. 00 


$405.44 

288.27 

3, 695. 27 


$202.50 

370.29 

6,390.97 


$2, 136. 94 

188.98 

6, 094. 37 










66.10 
48, 442. 06 


11.14 

299, 407. 00 

11.74 


17.43 
30, 753. 08 


12.00 
39, 052. 88 


29.02 
8, 156. 60 


8.83 
264,844.00 




Post Office 


State 














1, 249. 84 
83,406.00 


1, 642. 06 
1,012,391.00 


2,017.94 
165, 126. 00 


2, 385. 91 
110,736.00 


1, 274. 57 
30, 173. 00 


645.27 
2, 654, 369. 00 


War . . 


r ndependent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 

Civil Service Commis- 


























Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 
Government . 


1, 072. 61 


5, 104. 47 


189. 37 


849.95 


14.42 


491. 38 


Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 


6.00 
.20 












General Accounting 
Office 












Government Printing 
Office 












Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 


12.25 

12.88 


6.75 
110.26 


16.30 


21.95 






71.52 


43.53 


Interstate Commerce 


















Maritime Commission . . . 
National Advisory Corn- 


23.35 


4.50 


198. 51 


220.62 
100.00 


152. 67 
111.90 


175. 25 
10.50 










National Labor Rela- 














National Training 




55.00 
13, 698. 96 




293.00 
28, 402. 58 


246.00 
13, 859. 73 


405. 03 
8, 905. 66 




4, 556. 68 


25, 892. 47 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 






















23.84 




41.56 


























Tennessee Valley Au- 




767. 46 


21.00 


2, 715. 00 


763.32 


736.78 






Works Progress Admin- 


8. 206. 39 


23, 946. 72 


23,232.11 


41,355.53 


8, 624. 93 


25, 972. 02 






Total 

Percent of grand total 


152,301.74 
1.95 


1,360,681.96 
17.38 


252,271.20 
3.22 


230, 558. 24 
2.95 


70,441.44 
0.90 


2, 965, 069. 10 

37.87 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

rubber clothing — Class No. 72 



289 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




| 
June July 
1938 1938 


Aueust 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$1, 287. 98 

217.00 

6, 109. 08 


1 
1 

$2, 169. 49 

113.00 

2, 552. 47 


$794. 75 

948.00 

3, 376. 95 


$496. 52 

978.00 

2, 710. 18 


_ $178. 70 

461. 42 

2, 814. 55 


$2, 366. 31 

673. 16 

5, 372. 81 


$12, 587. 42 
4, 536. 47 
49, 848. 78 


0.16 
.06 
.64 


19.35 
45, 309. 00 


9.63 
5, 928. 70 


12.57 
8, 429. 00 


14.26 
16, 574. 60 


32.53 
48, 478. 50 


31.31 
30,381.00 


264.17 

845, 756. 42 

11.74 


Nil 

10.80 

Nil 
















623.20 
186,651.00 


190.49 
39, 307. 51 


2, 167. 19 
409, 458. 48 


1, 303. 20 
654. 797. 52 


2, 984. 90 
27, 182. 00 


1,004.47 
596, 657. 00 


17, 489. 04 
5, 970, 254. 51 


.22 

76.25 


































































3, 894. 22 


455. 56 


12, 223. 35 


474. 15 


1, 648. 21 


254.94 


26, 672. 63 


.34 






















7.65 








7.66 


Nil 














































5.40 












11.40 
.20 


Nil 












Nil 
































24.75 








8.82 


15.49 
143.04 


106. 31 

361. 70 
43.53 


Nil 


24.00 






Nil 










Nil 
















369. 85 
7.25 


138.60 


275.10 


256.40 


106. 97 


166. 63 


2, 088. 45 
229.65 


.03 
Nil 






























307.26 
25, 537. 63 


386. 40 
20, 483. 01 






352.80 
20, 429. 96 


30.60 
5, 468. 39 


2, 076. 09 
243, 860. 19 


.03 


36, 160. 12 


40, 465. 00 


3.12 


























5.30 




5.30 
65.40 


Nil 












Nil 
























1.52 
812.80 




1.52 

15, 336. 17 
8, 704. 50 

628, 948. 10 


Nil 




2, 673. 781 2, 545. 26 
93.60 99.44 

■29, 560. 91 1 18,263.69 


1, 993. 49 
71.52 

34, 636. 37 


2, 307. 28 
3.67 

191, 432. 41 


.20 


8, 436. 27 
17, 598. 15 


.11 


206,118.87 


8.04 


296, 397. 39 
3.78 


104,087.15 494,761.55 
1.33; 6.32 


754, 771. 21 
9.64 


311,617.85 
3.98 


836, 308. 51 
10.68 


7, 829, 267. 34 
100.00 


100.00 



290 



CONCENTRATION OF~ECONOMIC POWER 

Caps; hats; gloves; men's and 









Month 






Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$68.05 


$47.46 

23.24 

5, 584. 89 

37, 551. 00 

89.67 

211.90 


$70. 49 


$295. 41 


$454. 95 

9.00 

834.85 

39, 947. 60 


$269. 08 

41.11 

911.23 

42, 952. 85 


Commerce 


Interior 


1, 761. 28 

33, 605. 20 

39. 50 

4, 296. 45 


133.98 

31, 540. 00 

1.69 

15.90 


194.47 

34, 551. 00 

5.65 

19, 237. 80 






Navy 


3, 000. 70 


12.99 


Post Office 


State 














Treasury 


1, 121. 18 
188. 925. 00 


211. 97 
5, 135. 00 


697. 25 
79, 636. 00 


193.81 
174, 490. 00 


247.64 
17, 948. 00 


1, 355. 43 
63, 146. 00 


War 


Independent offices and ex- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


• American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














Distriet of Columbia 
Government 


267.44 


128.55 


195. 20 


705.34 


63.52 


308.09 




Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration _ 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














Qeneral Accounting Of- 
fice 














Government Printing Of- 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 






























16.82 


8.24 






47.50 


National Advisory Corn- 
























National Labor Rela- 














National Training School 




35.00 
9, 546. 79 










Panama Canal 


5, 630. 22 


11,174.71 


19, 568. 58 


16, 388. 78 


5.009.09 1 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
















35. 65 


6.90 








49. 81 
























Tennessee Valley Au- 




















640.00 
466. 75 


2, 795. 45 
614. 71 






Works Progress Admin- 


186.22 


251.78 




157. 11 








Total-. 


235, 953. 0! 
10.95 


58, 830. 35 


124, 480. 21 


252, 652. 22 
11.72 


78, 895. 04 
3.66 


104,260.29 
4.84 


Percent of grand total 


2.73 


5.77 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

women' s furnishings — Class No. 73 



291 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July August 
1938 1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1338 


of grand 
total 


$298. 70 

5.00 

841.46 

25, 351. 27 

66.72 

18, 440. 65 


$40.74 

4.00 

1, 576. 78 

40, 178. 03 


$117. 74 


$69. 30 

28.00 

134.09 

38, 359. 99 

98 

1, 484! 73 


$111.98 

12.00 

9, 423. 25 

60, 259. 42 

2.94 

12, 277. 50 


$690. 31 

1.00 

1, 270. 37 

55, 215. 75 

.50 

119. 50 


$2, 534. 21 
123. 35 

30. 124. 18 

479, 748. 33 

207. 90 

63, 390. 12 


0.12 

.01 


7, 457. 53 

40, 236. 22 

.25 

4, 292. 00 


1.40 

22.26 

.01 




2.94 




















576.28 
623, 295. 00 


2, 064. 61 
124, 192. 89 


1, 403. 55 
1,616.86 


641. 13 
196, 918. 43 


111.44 
6. 636. 00 


980. 25 
1, 126. 00 


9, 604. 54 
1, 373, 065. 18 


.45 
63.72 


































































199. 97 




647.96 


1, 071. 16 


1, 430. 30 


263.20 


5, 280. 73 


.24 














































































































































































































' 








48.53 


17.65 


28.40 
2.00 


74.28 






247. 62 
2.00 


.01 






Nil 
































19.87 




6.20 
21, 632. 87 




28.52 
7, 651. 40 


89.59 
131,813.44 


Nil 


7, 934. 73 


7, 640. 55 


8, 769. 88 


10, 865. 84 


6.12 


























- 






1, 321. 65 


5.70 






79.92 




1, 499. 63 


.07 


























518. 36 


858.24 

11, 288. 47 

380. 25 


774. 80 

5,361.84 

268.15 


1, 044. 78 


485. 14 


319. 80 

26.83 

1, 193. 13 


4,001.12 
20,012.59 
32, 897. 77 


.19 

.93 


66.38 


760.22 


28, 563. 07 


1.53 


578, 964. 70 
26.88 


188, 267. 78 
8.74 


70, 977. 18 
3.29 


262, 216. 16 
12.17 


130, 258. 80 
6.05 


68, 886. 56 
3.20 


2,154,642.30 
100.00 


100.00 



292 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Individual equipment (field and 









Month 






Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$80.37 




$18. 69 
60.95 
140. 34 


$210. 60 
4.12 
2.50 


$304.64 
52.98 
169. 17 


$228.56 
297.88 


Commerce. . _ 


$773. 40 
108.00 


Interior 


178.64 


Justice 




Labor 














Navy 


163.24 


460.50 


16.00 


3, 788. 00 




1, 662. 00 


Post Office 




State 














Treasury _ 






345. 00 
16, 976. 00 




1, 100. 00 
106, 772. 00 




War 


7, 337. 00 


89. 192. 00 


80, 603. 00 


41, 969. 00 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion____ 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 










42.50 


230.00 












Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade- Commis- 














General Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission. United 














Interstate Commerce 










































National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 




























Reconstruction Finance 














Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 


























19.36 
327.68 


Works Progress Admin- 






197.66 


197.92 


79. &0 








Total 


7, 759. 25 
1.18 


90, 533. 90 
13.80 


17. 754. 64 
2.71 


84,806.14 
12.93 


108,521.09 
16.55 


44, 734. 48 
6.82 


Percent of grand total.. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

landing force) — Class No. 74 



293 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


Oetober 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$352. 71 
8.00 
21.25 


$30.14 


$4.00 






$21.00 


$1,250.71 
1,204.33 
1, 082. 35 


19 


$7.00 




18 


96.15 


231.00 


$116. 15 


19.15 


17 
































50.00 


6, 139. 74 


.94 






























9.00 
168, 989. 00 










15.43 
32, 096. 00 


1, 469. 43 
641, 560. 30 


.22 


6, 702. 38 


14, 857. 66 


64, 523. 26 


11, 543. 00 


97.83 














































































272.50 


.04 




















































































































































































































































































































































































































14.50 


39.00 


4.00 


60.50 


118.00 
19.36 

2, 717. 08 


.02 






Nil 


130. 78 


328.82 


653.08 


208.86 


309.40 


283.08 


.41 


169, 510. 74 
25.85 


7, 157. 49 
1.09 


15. 760. 24 
2.40 


64, 778. 12 
9.88 


11,972.55 
1.83 


32, 545. 16 
4.96 


655, 833. 80 
100.00 


""166.66 



294 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Electric service — 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$31,441.95 
55, 998. 23 
91, 638. 67 


$32, 124. 03 
67, 061. 79 
99.991.38 


1 $33, 225. 01 
57, 506. 71 
93. 778. 60 
19, 038. 33 
1, 393. 13 
39, 894. 80 
241, 196. 14 


$34, 883. 23 
61, 282. 82 

103,141.92 
21 917 80 


$37, 467. 22 
65 372 84 


$29, 237. 75 






104,572.531 105,244.52 
oi im »4 99 nn is 




26, 026. 69 23 246 52 




2, 026. 23 
40,618.59 
267, 230. 26 


1,813.45 
41, 100. 96 
218, 910. 10 


2, 115. 891 1 ?19 fio 


1, 071. 49 
40,791.43 
208, 924. 23 


Navy .... 


41,045.19 
224, 362. 13 


43, 128. 55 
218, 518. 33 


Post Office 


State 


Treasury 


68, 426. 01 
283, 569. 00 

359. 02 


64, 851. 16 


63. 546 62 71 490 09 


64, 630. 29 
310, 257. 00 

41.45 


53,503.31 
314, 654. 00| 

37.84 


War 


298, 463. 00 270 387 1 284 125 OO 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity. _ 


36.70 


1.60 


55.53 


American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 


Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 
sion _ 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 






271.50 
28, 273. 91 








District of Columbia 


15, 378. 66 


20, 595. 16 


100, 309. 76 


31, 947. 09 


25, 723. 57 


Export-Import Bank 


Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 
Commission 


75.00 

835. 97 

51.43 
4, 172. 46 


70.25 

710. 57 

72.00 
982. 90 


233. 58 

951. 50 

87.00 
1, 017. 40 


252. 91 

768/05 

59.00 
1, 134. 30 


225.00 
253. 45 


221.50 

618.50 

153.00 
1, 131. 30 


Federal Housing Admin- 
istration ... 


Federal Power Commis- 
sion 


Federal Reserve Board - . . 
Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 


994. 45 


General Accounting 
Office 


828.83 
7, 594. 58 
5, 721. 07 
3, 013. 24 

141. 75 
39.03 


821. 95 
12, 313. 52 
6, 216. 56 
2, 749. 69 

15.00 
70.49 


892. 48 
6, 261. 27 
6, 337. 66 
2, 894. 81 

52.60 
56.90 


853.24 
14, 043. 85 
7, 250. 32 
2, 893. 38 

61.00 
114. 13 


866. 56 
6, 767. 16 
6, 338. 90 
2, 546. 65 

65.00 
61.51 


780. 77 
9, 392. 98 
6, 141. 42 
2, 917. 82 

69.75 
82.17 


Government Printing 
Office 


Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico. .. 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 


Librarv of Congress 


Maritime Commission... 
National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics.. 
National Archives 


209.76 
2,600.00 


200.00 
2,600.00 


150.00 
3, 061. 00 


150.00 
3, 862. 00 


271. 33 
3, 862. 00 


225.00 
3, 990. 00 


National Labor Rela- 
tions Board .. 


1.50. 65 

100.00 
12.75 

2, 227. 27 


98.35 


219.00 

400.00 
11.90 

577. 82 


244.00 

348.00 
12.50 

"2, 251. 33 


248. 16 

340. 37 
10.50 

1, 525. 94 


228. 50 

297.17 
10.50 

1, 609. 38 


National Training 


Panama Canal 


12.44 
1, 527. 03 


Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 


Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 


Securities and Exchange 
Commission 


282.90 
1, 758. 00 
2, 198. 63 


314.06 

1, 758. 00 

2, 782. 84 


320.37 
1, 748. 00 
3, 004. 67 


288.33 
1, 738. 00 
3, 887. 04 

462. 70 


339.% 
1, 745. 45 
3, 472. 56 


340.00 
1, 764. 18 
3, 210. 99 


Smithsonian Institution.. 
Social Security Board 


Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 


150.00 
154, 880. 65 

65, 137. 46 


125.00 
168, 616. 61 

74, 005. 59 




25.00 


75.00 


50.00 
132, 239. 77 

63, 087. 68 


Veterans' Administration. 
Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


158, 966. 38 
62. 873. 24 


145, 133. 42 
83, 591. 97 


146, 641. 59 
64, 370. 14 






Total 


1, 134, 894. 54 
8.54 


1, 143, 257. 10 
8.62 


1, 098, 630. 93 


1, 214, 162. 76 


1, 132, 580. 42 1. 088. 650. 45 


Percent of grand total 


8.25 


9.13 


8.50 


8.16 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



295 



Class No. 101 







Month— Continued 






Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$32, 674. 84 
49, 054. 00 

111,665.79 

33, 102. 89 

1, 168. 27 

39, 186. 33 

223, 096. 36 


$22. 323. 06 
8, 443. 00 
111,391.71 
28, 440. 63 
1, 044. 54 
35, 453. 00 
183, 706. 45 


$23, 758. 85 
11,387.00 

118, 935. 79 

28, 362. 39 

1,421.91 

58, 903. 00 

183, 883. 55 


$24, 770. 61 
12, 048. 00 

116, 517. 51 

27, 960. 45 

1, 910. 39 

73, 218. 27 

197, 795. 40 


$25, 758. 09 
13,611.76 

115, 289. 77 

25, 070. 61 

1, 169. 98 

64, 364. 50 

216, 682. 33 


$29, 563. % 
12, 763. 23 

112, 577. 75 

25, 442. 67 

1, 336. 01 

63, 893. 57 

203, 682. 60 


$357, 228. 60 
473, 259. 16 

1, 284, 745. 94 
305, 182. 97 

17, 690. 89 
581, 607. 19 

2, 587, 887. 88 


2.69 
3.56 
9.59 
2.64 
.13 
4.37 
19.41 


55, 807. 71 
344,614.00 

34.97 


42, 808. 79 
299, 509. 14 

34.10 


54, 521. 22 
269, 326. 05 

30.63 


56, 364. 31 
411,954.50 

31.13 


60, 864. 96 
339, 177. 00 

33.10 


61, 217. 08 
290, 962. 00 

42.22 


718,031.48 
3, 716. 997. 69 

738.29 


5.41 
27.95 

Nil 














































271.50 

357, 888. 13 


Nil 


27, 850. 26 


10, 9S9. 30 


30, 490. 14 


21, 511. 96 


21, 367. 27 


23, 451. 05 


2.69 


















204.90 

580.00 

131.24 
1.26S. 70 


185. 75 
1, 781. 47 


168.34 

272.96 

50.00 
1, 754. 55 


159.16 
506.00 

53.50 

3, 587. 78 


160.60 
516.00 
66.45 


279.14 

475. 25 

56.16 
1, 271. 10 


2, 236. 13 

8, 269. 72 

779. 78 
18, 685. 79 


.02 
.06 
Nil 


1, 370. 85 


.14 






696.01 
6,807.08 
4, 765. 16 
3, 028. 02 

65.00 

52.38 


763. 39 


984.81 
2, 591. 74 
5, 369. 27 
2, 646. 66 

222.97 
48.52 


914. 95 
9,612.48 
3, 794. 04 
3, 434. 59 

140.37 
110.04 


896.53 
6,610.46 
3, 867. 05 
2, 737. 81 

154.68 
69.03 


877. 57 
8, 929. 12 
7, 056. 74 
2,968.28 

181.88 
125. 67 


10, 176. 89 
90, 924. 24 
63,600.41 
34, 693. 12 

1,318.51 
845.40 


.07 
.69 


1, 742. 22 
2, 862. 17 

148.51 
15.53 


.48 
.26 

.01 
Nil 


200.00 
3, 028. 00 


200.00 
3,680.00 


150.00 
2, 596. 00 


200.00 
3, 816. 00 


200.00 
3, 816. 00 


450.00 
4, 587. 50 


2, 606. 09 
41, 498. 50 


.02 
.31 


203.86 

334. 97 
51.43 

1, 966. 62 


211.00 

298.37 
52.60 

1,340.86 


186.19 

307.27 
48.89 

1, 464. 77 


230.00 

281.27 
49.11 

619. 91 


205.00 

349.97 
32.60 

1, 464. 44 


225.00 

409.47 
49.11 

3,064.08 


2, 449. 71 

3, 466. 86 
354.23 

19, 629. 45 


.02 

.03 
Nil 

.14 


295.39 
1, 753. 00 
3, 195. 48 


295.70 
1, 693. 97 
3, 535. 18 


300.00 
1, 827. 92 
4,501.56 


292.92 
1, 827. 92 
3,606.50 


304.32 
1, 808. 33 
3, 213. 18 


428.41 
1, 768. 33 
3, 035. 49 


3, 802. 36 

21, 191. 10 

39, 644. 12 

462.70 

1, 356. 75 
1, 761, 998. 91 

757, 794. 00 


.03 
.16 
.30 
NO 




200.00 
139, 884. 87 

59, 799. 91 


25.00 
139, 336. 72 

60, 476. 75 


75.00 
140, 717. 34 

61, 308. 28 


225.00 
149, 223. 50 

61, 342. 10 


406.75 
155, 876. 90 

62,604.66 


.01 


130, 481. 16 
59, 196. 22 


13.10 
5.71 


1, 136, 560. 04 
8.56 


964, 206. 07 
7.25 


996, 351. 42 
7.49 


1', 179, 419. 69 
8.94 


1, 120, 642. 32 
8.45 


1, 079, 958. 75 
8.12 


13, 289, 314. 49 
100.00 


100.00 



296 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Telephone serviee- 



Agency 



Month 



December 
1937 



January 
1938 



February 
1938 



March 
1938 



April 
1938 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce 

Interior 

Justice 

Labor. 

Navy. 

Post Office 

State 

Treasury 

War 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration. 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion 

Federal Reserve Board . . 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 

Home Owners' "Loan 
Corporation _. . 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress 

Maritime Commiss'on... 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics.. 

National Archives.. . 

National Labor Relations 
Board 

National Training School 
for Boys 

Panama Canal.. 

Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation. . . 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration ._ . 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission _. 

Smithsonian Institution.. 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority "_ 

Veterans' Administration. 

Works Progress Admin- 
istration 



$90, 934. 77 
11,488.12 
34, 917. 92 
24, 374. 50 
13, 800. 35 
13,115.44 
2, 450. 00 
1,715.99 
55, 086. 27 
55, 600. 00 



14.02 
27.30 
132. 18 
790.00 



6,217.05 
58.62 

1, 702. 71 

1, 075. 15 

9, 619. 20 

188.80 
1, 162. 10 

656. 03 

625. 75 

861. 34 

26, 307. 33 

2, 353. 14 

230.00 

1,281.31 

370.00 

5,200.00 

208.90 
382. 34 

3,668.00 

53.00 
199.71 

9, 596. 35 

1,851.20 

3, 500. 00 
244.00 

11,709.99 
262. 10 



15,204.85 

200, 600. 41 



$85, 437. 89 

4, 735. 50 

37, 445. 15 

44, 378. 38 

11,342.77 

13, 337. 30 

3,423 37 

1, 567. 20 

69, 563. 90 

56, 282. 00 



14.52 

12.39 

124. 38 

800.00 



1,110.20 

8, 666. 01 

531. 53 
1, 103. 85 

606.58 

565. 70 

24, 095. 23 
2, 138. 33 

265.22 
3, 965. 57 



2, 400. 00 



240.90 
390.18 



3, 513. 31 



203. 91 

6, 401. 00 

1,351.60 

3, 406. 07 

314.54 

15, 636. 75 

220.00 

95.10 
15, 954. 73 

200,481.27 



Total 

Percent of grand total. 



609, 836. 30 
8.36 



$79, 754. 25 

11,494.94 

33, 480. 2« 

37, 220. 10 

9,921.94 

13, 228. 62 

5. 468. 47 

1, 309. 40 

59, 367. 45 

53, 049. 00 



14.03 

38.68 

135. 86 

800.00 

676. 85 

6, 336. 99 
66.34 

1, 703. 71 

1, 057. 20 
16. 010. 27 

868.67 

2, 700. 40 

910. OS 

547.73 

435. 25 

14, 557. 06 

1, 897. 75 



276. 85 

1, 357. 89 

375.00 

5, 000. 00 

217. 90 
407.16 

3, 283. 00 

60. Of) 
202.21 

5, 610. 20 

1,400.00 

3,301 19 
244.00 

14, 840. 33 

18.50 

4, 610. 98 

15, 479. 66 

154, 620. 37 



625, 699. 55 
8.59 



564, 356. 54 
7.74 



$97, 665. 81 
15, 537. 06 
36, 773. 33 
44,110.51 
9, 198. 26 
13. 196. 74 
3, 662. 87 
1, 286. 21 
58, 651. 36 
54, 625. 00 



14.03 
44.25 
115. 74 
800.00 



5. 864. 94 
44. OS 



2, 813. 30 



7, 505. 92 

654. 94 
957. 78 

731.76 

555. 73 

436.50 

26. 438. 06 

2. 169. 29 

314.20 

2, 622. 12 
375.00 

6, 800. 00 

178.90 
448. 79 

3,412.00 

57.00 
202.50 

10, 372. 92 

1, 112. 27 

3, 447. 77 
245.00 

17,555.72 
33.50 



14, 697. 38 
213, 097. 67 



659, 815. 01 
9.05 



$88, 716. 22 

12, 230. 37 
33,144.09 
36, 962. 26 
10, 792. 46 

13, 240. 88 
3, 559. 85 
1, 393. 85 

56,971.17 
61,410.00 



19.81 

20.74 

92.80 

900.00 

297.01 

3, 674. 80 
74.14 

1, 475. 16 

1, 100. 48 

5, 683. 03 

725. 63 
1, 354. 65 

627. 41 

582.50 

843. 51 

26, 829.311 

I 

2, 299. 58| 



327. 19 

2, 663. 77| 

375. 00; 

2, 500. 00 

280.90 
385.24 



74.03 
177.28 

7, 916. 54 

1, 506. 04 

3,518.041 

244.00 

13, 718. 49! 

317.87; 



15, 803. 49 
130, 376. 63 



548, 720. 04 
7.53 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



297 



Class No. 102 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 

1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$99, 065. 33 
11,570.00 
31, 746. 02 
39, 302. 74 
11,303.09 
17,325.70 
3, 618. 49 
858.63 
59, 180. 55 
58, 390. 00 


$66, 881. 79 

41, 669. 00 

37, 358. 73 

14, 767. 02 

7, 242. 47 

13, 500. 00 

3. 249. 97 

1, 533. 33 

43, 159. 53 

64, 356. 60 


$77. 273. 57 

4, 992. 00 

25, 121. 39 

42, 907. 01 

11,130.46 

13, 503. 00 

3,611.94 

1, 395. 68 

46,871.37 

58, 948. 43 


$74,891.83 

4, 424. 00 

18, 874. 23 

41, 955. 04 

8, 883. 86 

15,131.65 

3, 578. 87 

1, 268. 61 

54, 503. 13 

68, 184. 33 


$84,459.11 

6, 559. 84 

34. 002. 92 

49, 513. 97 

9, 933. 03 

13, 694. 84 

3, 444. 35 

1.591.18 

57, 472. 56 

55. 576. 00 


$82, 408. 02 

6, 810. 77 

38, 835. 83 

48, 832. 90 

8, 382. 64 

15, 534. 75 

3, 756. 12 

1, 280. 18 

59, 652. 60 

84, 174. 52 


$1, 030, 558. 95 
143, 414. 63 
395, 894. 34 
459, 762. 03 
122, 816. 75 
168,113.53 
43, 529. 47 
16, 484. 60 
687, 270. 58 
737. 150. 88 


14.13 
1.97 
5.43 
6.31 
1.68 
2.31 
.60 
.23 
9.43 

. ' 12 




80.39 
18.86 


39.66 
11.20 


39.88 
15.83 


39.68 
30.04 


39.68 

18.70 


352. 98 
280.73 


Nil 


21.86 


Nil 


57.77 


59.52 


59.52 


134. 35 


133. 12 


110. 15 


1. 256. 74 


.02 


703.00 


910.00 


907.00 


900.00 


900.00 


900.00 


10, 510. 00 

973. 86 

57, 726. 14 
870. 02 


.14 
.01 


4, 552. 57 
77.58 


3, 926. 49 
46.34 


5, 179. 05 
60.43 


3, 978. 24 
92.27 


5, 373. 06 
131.42 


5, 533. 29 
68.58 


.78 
.01 


1, 947. 83 


2, 351. 84 


1.041.67 


1, 577. 92 


1, 599. 12 


1, 644. 10 


18, 886. 06 


.26 


1, 240. 29 


951. 55 


939. 55 


863.40 


874. 95 


1, 044. 66 


12, 370. 42 


.17 


7, 908. 35 


1, 781. 48 


7, 253. 24 


10, 943. 54 


10, 772. 33 


11,088.15 


105, 401. 79 


1.45 


1, 370. 34 
121. 48 


819. 56 
3, 698. 26 


553. 84 
3. 370. 89 


845. 95 
3, 768. 76 


580. 94 
4, 250. 99 


779. 44 
4, 063. 93 


8, 810. 02 
27, 551. 76 


.12 
.38 


3,011.62 


563.21 


760.38 


788.21 


1,008.68 


805.30 


11,790.92 


.16 


553. 79 


569.58 


584,70 


571. 85 


576. 03 


566. 05 


6, 867. 50 


.09 


413.03 
29, 010. 50 






407. 01 
19, 680. 07 


397. 31 
23,031.02 


496. 49 
20, 600. 18 


4, 304. 32 
256, 116. 33 


.06 


6, 598. 24 


13.741.60 


3.51 


2, 808. 97 


1, 261. 26 


2, 450. 33 


2, 345. 98 


2, 031. 64 


2. 115. 17 


26, 186. 70 


.36 


365. 05 


436. 21 


312. 19 


414.38 


370. 18 


220.70 


3, 931. 43 


.05 


2, 278. 50 

385.00 

6, 450. 00 


1,613.05 

380.00 

5, 750. 00 


2, 300. 36 

390.00 

5, 300. 00 


3, 550. 07 

390.00 

5, 900. 00 


1, 349. 89 

396. 80 

7,000.00 


3, 525. 98 

422. 55 

7, 100. 00 


29, 252. 19 
4, 234. 35 
62, 900. 00 


.40 
.06 
.86 


174. 16 
500.00 


230.50 
350.00 


239.50 
333.56 


248.50 
350.00 


263.50 
334. 43 


224.50 
430.00 


2, 760. 06 
4,711.70 


.04 
.06 


3, 822. 10 


4, 058. 19 


3, 143. 35 


3, 971. 60 


3. 669. 60 


3. 865. 60 


43, 733. 25 


.60 


70.00 
205.23 


72.00 
184.53 


70.00 
195. 62 


91.00 
184.90 


81.00 
184. 86 


75.00 
190.47 


762. 55 
2, 331. 34 


.01 
.03 


10, 967. 88 


4, 713. 74 


8, 876. 59 


9, 221. 07 


9, 042. 14 


9, 877. 61 


100, 556. 77 


1.38 


1, 400. 00 


1, 989. 52 


2,000.00 


2, 059. 00 


913.53 


1, 878. 21 


18, 961. 37 


.26 


3, 847. 95 
244. 00 

4,669. 14 
248.38 


4, 022. 56 

259. 30 

7, 464. 87 


4,000.00 

259.28 

15, 436. 40 

12.95 

62.30 
15, 699. 75 


4, 043. 48 

259.28 

15, 532. 34 

256. 01 

146. 03 
13, 660. 45 


4, 523. 71 

256. 66 

16, 680. 90 

233. 57 

30.61 
18, 259. 22 


4, 657. 54 

256. 66 

12,315.93 

222. 16 


44, 906. 91 

3, 070. 72 

158, 386. 26 

2, 086. 33 

4, 945. 02 
187, 591. 40 


.62 

.04 

2.17 

.03 




.07 


14, 805. 89 


16, 987. 12 


15, 949. 36 


2.58 


225, 548. 16 

661, 950. 97 
9.XJ8 


140,248.21 


215, 223. 80 


201, 167. 36 


205, 557. 53 


182, 018. 09 


2, 259, 994. 17 


31.01 


506, 114.82 
6.94 


596, 563. 56 
8.18 


600, 094. 28 
8.23 


637, 126. 26 
8.74 


642, 772. 56 
8.82 


7, 290, 367. 87 
100.00 


100.00 



298 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Miscellaneous ser 



Agency 



Month 



December 
1937 



January 
1938 



February 
1938 



March 
1938 



April 
1938 



May 
1938 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce 

Interior. 

Justice 

Labor.. 

Navy 

Post Office 

State 

Treasury 

War 



$413, 630. 41 
91,842.88 
230, 847. 40 



$186, 087. 77 

71,017.72 

237, 177. 51 



$326,176.01 
40, 797. 54 
219,346.41 



$567, 354. 78 
178, 083. 22 
198, 507. 28 



$294, 123. 02 
179, 172. 98 
232, 470. 39 



$1,044,049.85 
91,906.79 
328, 727. 93 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion 

Federal Reserve Board... 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 

Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation. 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission ... 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. . 

National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 

National Training School 
for Boys 

Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 

Securities and Exchange 
Commission 

Smithsonian Institution. . 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission. 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans'Administration. 

Works Progress Admin- 
istration 



27, 242. 23 
23G, 383. 09 
150, 517. 38 
302.25 
114, 509. 21 
434, 173. 00 



1,476.13 

2.80 

178. 35 

1,005.00 

43.81 

7,441.30 
14.55 

4, 188. 72 

875. 46 



503.00 
6,766.09 



101.02 
67.50 



16,351.95 
230, 081. 50 
151, 863. 02 
96.13 
121, 730. 08 
694, 823. 00 



326. 57 

.60 

166.48 

1,049.92 

13.58 

489. 45 
14.55 

2, 586. 42 

417. 12 

1, 815. 58 

32.12 

2, 770. 77 



13, 039. 87 

434, 567. 88 

157, 764. 73 

120. 63 

92, 788. 63 
879,058.00 



22, 064. 34 

22.80 

105. 98 

1, 066. 84 



14, 073. 77 
336, 372. 92 
121,803.79 
216.41 
122, 560. 80 
618, 983. 00 



4, 039. 40 



82.22 
1, 372. 28 



1, 651. 23 
1.75 

2, 928. 25 

176.51 

2, 745. 24 

4,251.84 
1, 608. 93 



891.06 



4, 435. 06 



4, 700. 32 



4, 952. 26 

111.47 

5, 047. 59 

85.00 
4, 886. 48 

3.10 

4, 222. 50 



12, 145. 98 
318, 523. 36 

87, 223. 14 
354.80 

88, 154. 86 
865, 522. 00 



230. 48 

55.20 

78.43 

898. 82 

1,026.96 

1, 573. 26 
6.25 

736. 23 

11.47 

979. 48 

136.00 
4, 203. 80 

22.03 

4, 720. 76 



28, 093. 53 



10, 201 . 45 20, 538. 86 34, 877. 02 



Total.. 

Percent of grand total . 



1, 859. 46 
9, 883. 24 



4, 229. 80 



109. 
78. 



384. 19 



175. 
400. 

7, 145. 

215. 

433. 

94. 
31,895. 



16,121.00 



1, 579. 92 
8, 986. 59 



1, 546. 14 

278.41 
82.92 

617.28 

525.00 
400.06 

7,363.57 

135. 96 

558. 64 

564. 30 

3, 784. 22 



53, 636. 65 



1,391.87 
10, 804. 18 



1, 117. 72 



51.30 
210. 69 



577. 00 



1, 522. 33 
13,633.31 



400.06 

8, 523. 15 

16.04 

28.00 

244. 60 

84,311.99 



42, 032. 40 



471, 849. 91 430, 843. 73 409, 569. 27 



1,510.85 

58.74 
428.30 

602.00 

95.00 
700.56 

7,323.99 

237.22 

882. 90 

646.61 

71, 179. 27 



90, 593. 92 



295, 079. 51 2, 244, 451. 74,2, 784, 800. 85^2, 823, 540. 43 
6.42 6.28 7.801 7.91 



36, 929. 61 



1, 353. 10 
12, 678. 10 



1, 652. 86 



392.64 
2, 855. 87 



636.56 



808.00 

8, 436. 10 

78.47 

420. 62 

488. 59 

79, 768. 16 

25.75 

5, 312. 64 



421, 796. 47 



502,312.84 3,421,352.47 
7. 01 1 9. 58 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

vices — Class No. 103 



299 



Month — Continued 


Total, 12 

months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$1, 194, 763. 54 
131,255.00 
448, 109. 78 


$163,494.28 
49, 540. 00 
171,692.73 


$156,096.91 
54.272.0C 
199, 741. 41 


$162,509.08 

21,702.00 

361, 230. 78 


$185, 163. 69 

31,840.00 

317,361.46. 


$181, 132. 61 

21,989.96 

688, 235. 14 


$4,854,571.95 

963, 420. 09 

3, £23, 448. 21 


13.69 
2.69 
9.87 


18, 897. 17 

395, 777. 48 

48, 752. 75 

297.75 

98, 627. 93 

1, 142, 557. 00 

9.50 

9.41 

65.98 

1, 589. 59 


9,005.99 

321, 496. 38 

67, 672. 42 

81.25 

116,662.92 

647, 148. 20 

62.21 

79.00 

37.89 

1, 450. 85 

365. 53 

468.08 


8, 468. 80 

206, 665. 72 

38, 133. 86 

245.00 

97,031,87 

1,165,873.64 

20.00 

237.60 

37.89 

1,444.84 


8, 295. 09 

351,063.64 

37, 649. 71 

330.02 

93, 364. 54 

2,517,411.84 

13.00 


10,113.03 

337, 448. 52 

92, 465. 10 

2,350.95 

133, 535. 84 

1,640,404.00 

1.36 

2.00 

61.94 

1,479.71 

404.75 

242.86 


12, 102. 69 

369,771.35 

119,817.35 

1,496.80 

111,593.65 

1, 312, 058. 25 

380. 98 

4.00 

18.74 

1,500.00 

164.80 

723.87 


172,171.04 

3, 829, 268. 94 

1,113,112.68 

6,126.31 

1,279,903.75 

12,817,751.93 

%, 653. 56 
467.91 

1,296.89 
16, 054. 50 

3,292.45 

15, 347. 59 
36.10 

25, 992. 07 

3, 695. 64 

26,066.14 

5, 477. 62 
26, 492. 72 

4,316 63 

27, 973. 01 


.48 

10.72 

3.12 

.02 

3.58 

36.90 

.08 

Nil 


378.87 

1, 279. 18 

461.27 

347.16 


Nil 
.05 
.01 


353.75 


234.83 


.04 
Nil 


1, 752. 51 

48.19 

730. 78 

52.19 
891.42 


376. 51 

1,006.71 

665.20 

24.00 
691.60 

2, 103. 09 

102.58 


430.66 

467.62 

2, 843. 39 


101.23 

10.90 

5,021.59 

30.00 
748.16 


689.64 

399.04 

1,399.63 

17.60 
1, 134. 52 


1,135.13 

16.86 

1,449.01 

232.97 
1,061.40 


.07 
.01 
.07 
.02 


808.40 

464.06 

68.12 


.07 
.01 


4. 566. 06 


77.11 


67.63 


120.88 


.08 


38, 474. 38 


6, 021. 68 


4, 787. 53 


19,235.44 


1, 766. 63 


6, 451. 49 


233,390.93 


.65 


3, 082. 60 
10, 543. 76 


2, 166. 00 
668.34 


1,661.13 
669.62 


1,264.90 
933.63 


1,596.36 
1, 174. 27 


1, 218. 60 
1,116.15 


19, 627. 78 
80, 412. 01 


.05 
.23 


1, 375. 69 

122.00 
774. 00 

447.56 


2,263.06 

1.00 
71.00 

921.08 


215.00 

15.00 
1, 613. 43 

963.18 


3, 112. 31 

287.11 
957. 79 

765. 70 


1, 746. 78 

56.18 
9.62 

630.00 

5.00 
715. 56 

22,421.75 

59.00 

225.00 

539. 46 

114,061.25 


2, 235. 99 
82.38 


22, 723. 08 

1, 460. 24 
7,091.97 

7, 776. 93 

800.00 
7,963.68 

101, 012. 27 

1, 137. 46 


.06 

Nil 
.02 


637.86 


.02 
Nil 


748. 05 

8, 340. 87 

74.82 

790.00 

376. 21 

104, 280. 32 


710. 16 
418. 61 


732. 16 

4.84 


731.96 

8, 142. 73 

43.08 

368.00 

195. 65 

116,959.63 


799.00 

7, 954. 62 

22.55 

166.00 

101.47 

105, 568. 83 

32.00 

4, 034. 27 


.02 
.28 

Nil 


50.00 

440. 31 

102, 262. 03 






1,134.94 
111,048.29 


4, 972. 40 

1,018,419.35 

57.75 

951,217.87 


.01 

2.85 
Nil 


494, 556. 56 


50, 646. 90 


117,407.50 


10, 085. 22 


55,170.99 


2.67 


437, 873. 41 


401,972.04 


403, 026. 89 


296, 946. 54 


264,991.38 


296, 824. 63 


4, 509, 400. 42 J 12.62 


4, 590, 968. 01 
12.86 


2,101,638.53 
5.88 


2, 576, 666. 13 
7.21 


4,001,954.85 
11.20 


3,221,642.19 3,162,252.18 
9. 02 8. 83 


35.712,301.77;.: 

100.00 100.00 



300 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Erchange allow 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 




















































































Post Office . 














State 


























$25.00 


War 












Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Autho- 














American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 




























Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














Oeneral Accounting Of- 
fice 














Government Printing Of- 
fice 














Home Owners' Loan Cor- 














Inland Waterways Cor- 














International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 










































National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training School 




























. Reconstruction Finance 














Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 




























Works Progress Admin- 












78.50 














Total 






1 




103.50 
1.62 























CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

ances — Class No. 104 



301 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


































































































































$25.00 


$295.50 




$77.50 


$26.00 


$20.00 


$469.00 


7.38 










































































































































































































































































































































































































$20.00 








20.00 


.31 






























1, 447. 00 


1, 480. 50 


572. 32 


514. 47 


799.86 


977. 27 


5, 869. 92 


92. 31 


1, 472. 00 
23.17 


1, 776. 00 
27.92 


592.32 591.97 
9. 32 9. 30 


825. 86 
12.98 


997.27 
15.69 


6, 358. 92 
100.00 


100.00 



262342 — 41 — No. 19- 



-21 



302 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Gas service — 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Exeoutive departments: 
Agriculture 


$4, 301. 35 

1,131.62 

14, 142. 27 


$5, 558. 58 
1, 113. 21 
14, 467. 20 


$6, 819. 31 
1, 178. 20 
15, 484. 41 


$6, 966. 8S 
3, 660. 16 
13, 945. 39 


$4, 581. 17 
2,003.96 
10, 944. 41 


$3, 019. 56 

1, 494. 18 

11,503.82 


Commerce 


Interior 


Justice 


Labor 


366.71 
20, 476. 51 
31, 492. 37 


296.77 
20, 427. 21 
23, 284. 71 


193.43 
20, 136. 31 
22, 714. 70 


319. 07 
19, 502. IS 
19, 691. 04 


266.45 
19, 436. 00 
11,348.87 


147. 62 
18, 927. 16 
4, 042. 56 


Navy 


Post Office 


State. 


Treasury 


9, 304. 49 
97, 621. 00 


9, 178. 43 
185, 220. 00 


11, 156. 21 
154, 549. 00 


9, 564. 78 
130, 178. 00 


8, 739. 57 
155, 227. 00 


7, 872. 16 
97, 137. 00 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


American Battle Monu- 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps.. 














Civil Service Commts- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 


6, 358. 55 


1, 180. 28 


3, 271. 16 


1, 302. 31 


5, 349. 01 


3, 355. 31 


Farm Credit Adminis- 






39.40 






14.70 


Federal Communications 










Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 








2.00 


2.00 


3.00 


Federal Power Commis- 








Federal Reserve Board... 
Federal Trade Commis- 


21.26 


40.04 


20.87 


22.17 


21.69 


18.62 


General Accounting 
Office 


23.93 


24.96 


30.07 


24.58 


24.68 


24.20 


Government Printing 
Office 


Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 


79.53 
20.68 

47.35 


76.60 


76.70 


68.05 


43.74 


41.50 


Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 


52.00 


61.00 


50.00 


49.75 


51.60 








2.50 


2.52 


2.52 


2.03 


Maritime Commission 






National Advisory Corn- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 


120.00 




60.00 


69.00 


60.39 


62.86 


Panama Canal 




Reconstruction Finance 












• 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 




















.13.58 




27.02 


24.85 










Tariff Commission 














Tennessee Valley Au- 




























Works Progress Admin- 
istration 


2, 190. 01 


2, 868. 93 


2, 659. 07 


4, 603. 91 


2, 185. 80 


2, 913. 85 




Total 


187, 697. 63 
8.82 


263, 788. 80 


238, 455. 92 


209, 862. 05 
9.87 


220, 313. 83 
10.34 


150, 656. 58 
7.11 


Percent of grand total 


12.40 


11.23 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



303 



Class No. 106 



Month— Continued 




Percent 


J use 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


months 


of grand 
total 


$2, 673. 77 
2, 489. OC 
7, 498. 71 


$2, 368. 41 

546. 0C 

4, 144. 2i 


$2, 269. W 

502. 0C 

11,799.01 


$2, 060. 17 

946. 0C 

8, 317. n 


$2,211.3* 
1, 612. 7f 

fl.809.5E 


$2, 718. 54 
1, 842. 94 
9, 358. 03 


$45,4?8.2S 
18, 419. 03 
128,414.88 


2.12 
.87 

6.18 


179. 2S 
18, 735. 45 
3,008.98 


160.61 
16, 723. 0C 
10,411.14 


152.91 
35, 173. 0C 
10, 492. 77 


153.63 169.63 

40, 893. 32 38, 298. IS 

1, 067. 60 7, 722. 26 


226.73 
50, 536. 16 
16, 618. 61 


2,632.58 
319, 264. 47 
161, 886. 61 


.13 
16.00 
7.61 


7, 34a 78 
86,669.00 


6, 935. 8C 
67, 968. 68 


6, 646. 44 
66, 725. 13 


7, 522. 91 
73,462.84 


7,111.76 
77, 044. OC 


8,583.99 
103, 786. 00 


99, 960. 32 
1, 285, 666. 56 


4.70 
60.47 


































































2, 700. 96 


2,622.71 


1, 125. 63 


1,014.88 


973.80 


4, 170. 23 


33, 424. 70 


1.57 




23.56 


8.12 




11.83 




97.61 


Nil 










3.00 












10.00 

50.00 
268.44 


Nil 










50.00 
30.75 


Nil 


23.02 


24.06 


18.97 




27.09 


.01 








20.48 


20.48 


20.48 


29.78 


32.71 


276.25 


.01 






8.68 




400.00 


1.00 






795.70 
20.68 

390.55 


03 








Nil 


49.00 


2.00 


2.00 


2.55 


13.00 


20.30 


.02 


2.45 


2.00 


2.00 


1.89 


2.00 


1.60 


21.51 


Nil 


























20.00 




20.00 


Nil 














59.22 


60.00 


53.70 


54.00 


58.00 


57.84 


705.01 


.03 


















































55.00 


81.45 


76.85 


37.60 


77.43 


13.09 


406.77 


.02 


































| 
















2, 258. 65 


2,357.19 1,097.35 


962.93 


1.059.04 


1,834.01 


26, 891. 34 


1.23 


133, 847. 92 
6.28 


114,450.26- 126,565.35! 
5. 37 5. 96 

1 1 


136, 489. 25 
6.42 


143,151.441 199,881.13 
6. 78, 9. 42 

1 


2,124,960.16 
100.00 


100.00 



304 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Water lervice- 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 


$4, 033. 65 
1, 387. 31 
5, 730. 58 


$4, 439. 38 
2, 656. 07 
4, 981. 00 


$3, 778. 97 
1, 503. 92 
6, 552. 59 


$6, 275. 39 
1,252.05 
5, 979. 64 


$3, 872. 22 
2,254.71 
5, 293. 30 


$4,466.12 
1, 146. 35 
7,416.11 










1 463.56 
49, •608. 89 
24, 697. 51 


2,205.08 
48", 773. 34 
25, 444. 86 


1, 108. 36 
48, 522. 20 
26, 603. 42 


1, 452. 78 
48,514.77 
24, 942. 58 


1,228.96 
48, 899. 66 
27.048.45 


1,414.16 
49, 271. 00 
30, 098. 43 




Post Office.. 


State - 


Treasury 


7,150 20 
50,883.00 


11,169.61 
72, 749. 80 

78.19 


10, 574. 09 
54,043.00 

51.80 


8, 970. 58 
60, 185. 00 


10,522.15 
75, 479. W) 


11, 187. 65 
67, 218. 00 

69.72 


War 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 


# American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 








Civilian Conservation 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commqdity Credit Cor- 














District of Columbia 


143.23 


1, 078. 57 


408.01 


359.29 


586.91 








Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 


175.00 












Federal Housing Admin- 












Federal Power Commis- 




























Federal Trade Commis- 














Oeneral Accounting 




84. 14 










Government Printing 
Office 












Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 


17.66 
300.33 

45.60 
16.25 


92.91 
330.78 

47.93 
3.25 


98.12 

276.58 

54.10 
3.25 


46.60 
274.25 

57.10 
3.25 


59.90 
361. 71 

64.00 
3.25 


45.60 
307.19 

72.20 
3.25 


Inland Waterways Cor- 


International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 


Maritime Commission. . . 
National Advisory Corn- 


1,566.99 


1, 349. 55 


1, 798. 57 


2,031.21 


1, 750. 00 


1,450.00 
















National Labor Rela- 














National Training 














Panama Canal.. 


3.17 


4.40 


3.18 


3.40 


5.60 


5.40 


Reconstruction Finance 


Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 


25 00 


45.00 


25.00 




25.00 


50.00 




Works Progress Admin- 

























Total 


147, 847. 93 
7.04 


175, 533. 06 
8.35 


155, 405. 16 
7.44 


160, 347. 89 
7.66 


177, 454. 72 
8.45 


i 174,221.18 
8.30 


Percent of grand total. 



1 Monthly figures not shown in Report of the Procurement Division Group. 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



305 



Class No. 101 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


1 1 
June Julv Aueust 
1938 1938 1938 


September I October 
1938 1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$8, 595. 4t>| $4. 045. 89 *4. 083. 4ti 
1.132.00! 2,008.001 1.055.00 
5. 66 1 . 52 5, 833. 36 1 5. 365. 24 


$4, 018. 12 

935.00 

6,451. 19 


$4, 408. 25 
2,115.65 
7,421.40 


$5, 244. 95 
1,360.65 
5, 160. 33 


$57,861.86 
18. S06. 71 
71,846.26 


2.75 

.88 

3.42 


2,182.46 1,551.06 1,644.91 
49,789.99' 49,296.001 52,521.00 
31, 485. 68| 28, 607. 91 j 28, 646. 79 


1,614.20 

58, 824. 95 
26,041.64 

10,601.42 
98, 403. 54 

117.67 


2, 742. 56 
54, 698. 00 
21,441.67 

11.848.47 
78, 709. 00 

234. 80 


1.378.97 
70. 245. 98 
3, 682. 22 

11.436.12 
65, 863. 00 

41.02 


19, 987. 06 
628, 965. fi8 
298,741 16 

122,816.29 
844,615.80 

768.80 


.95 
29.98 
14.19 


9, 500. 50 
82. 856. 00 


9, 137. 32 
79,211.15 

175.66 


10,658.18 
58, 956. 1 1 


5.84 
40.20 

.03 






















__,_. i 
































474.46 


527. 60 


587. If 


511. Of 


036. 5( ; 


5, 312. 91 


.26 




























175. 00 
10. 00 


.01 




. .. 
2.5(i 


2. 50 


2.50 




2.5(i 


Nil 




































84.14 










Nil 








31.9' 
244.28 

38. 50 
2 73 






52. 93 
638.93 

68. 50 
3.25 


6.50 
310. 13 

43.32 
2.73 


2. 50 

427. 04 

37.69 

9.39 

1,450.00 


290. 25 

50. 12 
5.9* 

1,400.0(1 


56. 45 
304. 19 

44. 67 


511. 12 
4. 071. 6«i 

623. 73 

56. 5.' 

20,583.02 


.02 
.19 

.03 
Nil 


2,186.70 


2, 500. 00 




1, 750. 00 


1,350.00 


.99 
















































3.17 


3.86 


64. 08 


2.95 


3.40 


2.95 


105. 56 


Nil 


























4, 357. 96 


. .24 
















































7^.50 




53. 45 


203. 37 


100.00 


598. 32 


.02 






















193, 720. 39 
9.24 


182, 137. 35 
8.70 


165,451.55 
7.89 


209, 460. 14 
9.99 


186,901.79 
8.92 


168,060.56 
8.02 


2, 100,899.68 
100.00 


100.00 



306 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Telegraph service — 



Agency 



Month 



December 
1937 



January February 
1938 1938 



March 
1938 



April 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture _.. 

Commerce 

Interior 

Justice 

Labor 

Navy 

Post Office ... 

State... 

Treasury 

War 



$37,397.33 
1.314.54 
6, 863. 18 



$208, 203. 55 
1, 388. 32 
6, 629. 73 



$65, 486. 73 
1, 200. 46 
5, 625. 12 



$55, 118. 83 

955.08 

6, 059. 38 



$71, 309. 33 
1, 225. 31 
6, 053. 53 



3, 154. 11 

555.68 

500.00 

183.33 

5,772.73 

9,436.00 



,4,014.06 

583.22 

675. 72 

183.33 

6,333.02 

9, 398. 00 



5, 060. 13 
406.13 
314.57 
183.33 

5. 125. 55 
10,148.00 



2, 583. 52 
401. 49 
244.92 



6, 378.-77 
12, 079. 00 



3, 726. 20 
406.73 
337. 38 
183.33 

6, 415. 86 
15, 763. 00 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps. 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion — 

Commodity Oredit Cor- 
Corporat ; on. 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion 

Federal Reserve Board... 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 

Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, Lnited 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

I/ibrary of Congress 

Maritime Commission... 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics.. 

National Archives .. 

National Labor Rela- 
tions Poard 

National Training 
School for Boys 

Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration... . 

Securities and Excharge 
Commission 

Smithsonian Institution .. 

Social Security Board 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 

Works Progress Admin- 
istration 



21.49 

15,12 

110.00 



2a 98 
3.10 



271. P' 
76.20 



19.15 

100.00 

67.08 

133. 56 
2.01 



97.20 
13, 859. 48 

52.58 

57.86 

108. 15 
1,241.49 

640.44 

20.88 
791.97 



15.00 
10.00 

1,394.08 

4.00 
187. 43 

2,126.04 

766. 80 

250. 00 

1.00 

1,012.23 

7.-35 



64.60 



20.90 

14.10 

100.00 

66.85 

96.15 
10.93 

319. 18 

78.15 



123.39 
14,701.67 



49.33 



905.84 
628.88 

28.14 
469.97 



82.60 
10. 606. 17 

74.39 

60.00 

118.83 

983.74 

528.78 

34.89 
254.34 



28.32 
121. 09 
100.00 

86.21 

128.98 
3.35 

454.13 

61.10 

836.98 

115. 38 
12, 808. 50 

69.36 

11.75 



1,926.07 
664.44 

42.70 
207.26 



3.18 
134.50 

200.00 

66.18 

152. 48 
5.53 

446.20 

74.15 

457.06 

411.53 
13, 995. 96 

35.44 

119. 21 

21.72 

1,441.76 

604.59 

48.75 
671.99 



2,400.00 



25. 95 
10.00 



1,276.13 



194.83 

1,808.10 

748.26 

161. 72 

10.92 

2, 861. 43 

39.97 



20.56 
10.00 

1,398.00 

3.00 
180. 85 

1, 725. 89 

800.00 

250.70 

5.33 

1, 814. 28 

32.09 



23.71 
10.00 

1,710.00 

2.00 
171.49 

3, 187. 05 

488.61 

265. 34 

5.46 

1,413.09 

20.56 



3,000.00 

19.11 
10.00 

1, 756. 10 

.36 
137. 12 

1.597.59 

151. 21 

375. 45 

1.56 

1,487.83 

19.61 



2,633.08, 2,773.49 



2, 559. 69 



2, 797. 23 



2, 623. 65 



Total 

Percent of grand total. 



60,971.681 266,973.86 
5. 57| 16. 06 



115, 790. 41 
7.06 



111,681.18 
6.77 



133, 790. 39 
8.14 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



307 



Class ^o. 108 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$60, 050. 22 
1,400.00 
6,981.09 


$59,410.82 
4,446.00 
6, 367. 02 


$71, 362. 25 

967.00 

5,090.80 


$86, 345. 90 

747.00 

5, 882. 25 


$69,042.50 

991.75 

17,666.86 


$77, 363. 20 
1,091.91 
9, 529. 13 


$932, 415. 48 
17,091.49 
87, 517. 86 


56.95 
1.04 
5.36 


2, 852. 92 
472. 74 
415.63 


2, 608. 62 
352.00 
619.97 
183.33 

4, 560. 84 
15, 768. 70 


1,827.99 

6, 470. 00 

495.00 

183.33 

4, 106. 10 

11, 520. 84 


2,894.71 
6,076.11 
376.00 
183.33 
5, 102. 00 
13, 834. 40 


2, 639. 20 
6,631.46 


2, 558. 58 
6,836.11 
425.00 
183.33 
6, 614. 72 
13, 018. 00 


36, 297. 25 
26. 588. 49 
4, 626. 64 
1.833.30 
65. 362. 41 
150, 269. 94 


2.20 

1.63 

.28 


183.33 
5, 639. 29 
13,806.00 


.11 


5, 018. 25 
12, 306. 00 


4.01 
9.26 














.25 
134.37 
693. 24 


NO 


13.70 
104. 59 


10.21 
14.83 


4.25 
14.83 




21.83 
14.16 


1.35 
9.23 


.01 


25.24 


.03 


200.00 


290.00 


100.00 


190.00 


100.00 


200.00 


1,790.00 


.10 


120.75 

117. 47 
7.70 




261.86 

112. 70 
16.02 


188.72 

210. 18 
6.13 




267.36 

151.48 
24.29 


1, 120. 89 

1, 321. 60 
106.87 


.06 


82 64 
6.26 


81.26 
12.27 


.08 
Nil 


370.05 


286.37 


498.22 


398. 03 


336. 81 


319.46 


4,065.72 


.26 


69.30 


47.30 


37.40 


34.85 


47.10 


194.91 


852.46 


.06 


669.90 


357.23 


1, 710. 29 


3, 063. 36 


1.338.33 


1, 057. 71 


10, 136. 58 


.62 


163. 43 
13, 303. 83 


473.29 
11,107.96 


39.63 
11,007.35 


115.30 
9, 768. 84 


198. 45 
10,211.75 


188.31 
9, 675. 90 


2, 514. 89 
144, 387. 31 


.14 

8.74 


67.89 


62.30 


135. 94 


22.55 


66.87 


87.57 


748.71 


.04 


30.33 


48.4b 


39.32 


80.19 


89.12 

140.46 

1,793.25 


59.61 


680.91 

408.76 

17,711.83 


.03 
.02 


2, 729. 35 


1, 348. 06 


1,059.16 


1, 713. 17 


1, 357. 44 


1.08 


646.30 


608.48 


608.97 


643.60 


687.13 


661.76 


7, 477. 21 


.46 


57.06 


47.73 


25.42 


32.91 


42.67 


69.04 


511.29 


.02 


497. 31 


.99 


255. 01 


693.79 


352. 25 


311.71 
78.40 


4, 905. 83 

78.40 

7,700.00 

185. 22 
262. 87 

16, 778. 09 


.30 

Nil 












.48 


25.97 
47.00 

1, 509. 80 


7.00 
100.00 

1,414.17 


11.12 

15.87 

1, 128. 22 


4.50 
20.00 

1,146.00 


2.00 


3.86 
20.00 

1, 444. 67 


.01 
.01 


1, 205. 12 


1.02 


2.56 
146. 79 


2.66 
173. 62 


5.69 
89.34 


3.70 
145.53 


.89 
139.63 


2.00 

145. 97 


28.26 
1, 875. 06 


Nil 
.10 


2, 528. 76 


2, 057. 19 


2, 479. 31 


3, 782. 60 


2, 810. 03 


3,760.73 


29, 967. 76 


1.80 


600.00 


1, 099. 45 


1,100.00 


1,084.70 


1,800.00 


1, 390. 62 


10, 929. 68 


.68 


224.82 

1.96 

871. 70 

11.75 


258.79 

11.41 

1, 484. 66 


300.00 

15.17 

1,741.24 

8.65 


296.92 

11.96 

1, 109. 85 

12.39 


313. 69 

14.41 

1,215.48 

2.40 


382. 10 

14.41 

1, 373. 34 

3.24 


3,404 17 

98.90 

18, 143. 12 

176.23 


.20 
Nil 
1.10 
.01 






257.57 


2, 653. 39 


2, 506. 02 


1,438.73 


3, 313. 87 


2, 299. 45 


28, 334. 72 


1.73 


















114,892.89 
7.02 


117,171.68 
7.19 


126,239.31 
7.72 


147, 682. 24 
9.04 


142,247.83 
8.72 


142, 145. 90 
8.71 


1, 639, 432. 96 
100.00 


100.00 



308 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Drayage services- 



Agency 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce 

Interior .! 

Justice 

Labor 

Navy 

Post Office 

State.. _ 

Treasury 

War 



Month 



December 
1937 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration - 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion 

Federal Reserve Board... 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion ' 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office 

Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission. ... 

Library of Congress 

Maritime Commission... 

National Advisory Com- 
mittee for Aeronautics. 

National Archives 

National Labor Rela- 
tions Board 

National Training 
School for Boys... 

Panama Canal. . . . 

Reconstruction Finance 

Corporation 

Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration 

Securities and Exchange 

Commission 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Social Security Board . . . 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority 

Veterans' Administration 
Works Progress Admin- 
istration. _ 



$120,877. 

25, 074. 

337, 391. 

5. 673. 

2, 346. 

178, 798. 

53, 874. 

950. 

89, 324. 

839, 328. 



January 
1938 



$134, 108. 69 

29, 548. 84 

284, 095. 18 

11,200.24 

4, 199. 64 

164, 882. 89 

107,799.91 

1,700.60 

109,019.03 

861,272.00 



February 
1938 



470. 01 
1, 935. 00 



4, 603. 48 



1,756.47 

907. 06 

267. 68 
1, 392. 83 

8,301.01 

1, 022. 05 

46.93 

7, 082. 24 



555. 02 
461. 55 



3, 000. 00 



978. 38 
60. 37 



85.00 
25.00 



1,711.09 



157. 85 

1,710.00 

98.10 

4, 666. 01 



' 7.85 
2, 094. 00 

1, 086. 00 

123.00 

2, 060. 35 



7.79 
7, 214. 60 



$113,320.45 

10,116.21 

293, 639. 26 

6, 722. 23 

3, 379. 97 

143,751.49 

45, 892. 18 

1,099.90 

103,521.55 

704, 514. 00 



5.64 

15.22 

386. 65 

1,775, 

182.29 
5, 130. 88 



March 
1938 



$144, 200. 

40, 478. 

221,434. 

6, 032. 

4, 012. 

352, 531. 

92, 981. 

1,883. 

100, 045. 

634, 859. 



2, 628. 32 
590. 85 



3, 100. 00 



432. 90 
1.74 



Total 

Percent of grand total. 



4, 900. 00 
556. 66 
955. 98 

1,574.90 



25.00 
856. 69 



607. 46 

608. 27 
1,118.04 

99.56 

1, 766. 70 

30.38 
41.67 
59. 70 

2, 839. 08 



4.74 

4.74 

320. 47 

4, 060. 00 



April 
1938 



$133, 135. 99 

38, 194. 21 

201,235.22 

17,471.52 

3, 698. 05 

264, 059. 10 

68, 008. 91 

960. 51 

92, 788. 98 

1,021,401.00 



4, 925. 66 



3, 669. 90 

1, 987. 74 

8, 922. 10 

169. 02 
1,491.65 

23.09 

41.67 

210. 26 

8,446.14 



173. 80 
495. 10 

3,841.00 
187. 85 

4,919.1 



May 
1938 



$154,326.47 

40,28C. 11 

237, 407. 62 

17, 437. 22 

4, 294. 23 

287, 478. 26 

35, 987. 16 

997. 71 

97, 760. 60 

631, 052. 00 



2, 050. 22 

870. 74 

5, 596. 75 

234. 04 
1,260.91 

25.38 



191.84 
4,740.31 



3, 367. 37 
298.72 



3, 250. 00 



377. 17 
9.66 



15.00 
25.00 



258, 780. 62 



,056,844.11 
7.46 



126. 38 

2, 154. 53 

363. 08 

259. 76 

10, 060. 00 
120,265.28 

249, 166. 91 



2, 117,309. 10 
7.95 



169. 97 
691.8' 
266. 83 
64.91 

2, 700. 00 
98, 419. 03 

251, 536. 54 



3, 143. 73 
363. 90 



3, 750. 72 
441. 52 



32.00 
25.00 



638.41 



2, 542. 78 

418.38 
223. 26 

3, 400. 00 

449. 84 
3.47 

1,017.12 

137.40 
25.00 

297. 12 



1,803,073.55 
6.72 



161.40 
256. 39 
353. 42 
461.33 



946. 89 

435. 08 

1,065.58 

187. 55 



431.73 

1,020.60 

5, 268. 00 

58.10 

3,151.05 



2, 230. 59 
924.40 

3, 923. 52 

540. 00 
895. 67 



162. 30 
3, 705. 71 



2, 767. 73 

823. 36 
99.84 

3, 600. 00 

336. 21 
24.01 

1,312.81 



25.00 
1, 145. 69 



211.07 
443. 69 
500. 95 
553. 40 



18, 686. 00 35, 384. 63 34, 808. 52 
89, 188. 62 76, 262. 54 75, 344. 57 



341, 543. 92 



2, 091, 885. 82 
7.70 



243, 275. 88 



2,231,613.12 
8.20 



337, 077. 26 



8, 560. 71 
7.40 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



309 



Class No. 125 







Month — Continued 






Total, 12 
months 


Percent 


June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 


$212,472.31 

74. 351. 00 

225. 210. 19 

97, 062. 27 

2, 320. 35 

281, 690. 50 

30, 864. 93 

350.32 

91, 828. 02 

1, 138, 770. 00 


$229, 269. 58 

13, 783. 00 

332, 227. 39 

3, 386. 35 

3, 799. 82 

246, 173. 62 

110,978.26 

"""70,749.08 
759, 255. 72 


$177, 667. 42 

17,176.00 

367, 617. 39 

5, 827. 66 

2, 734. 45 

273, 633. 55 

131, 229. 53 

169. 70 

71, 769. 82 

734, 207. 71 


$130,014.41 

17,571.00 

323, 005. 00 

6, 027. 86 

3, 062. 24 

341,991.95 

96, 190. 47 

1, 146. 71 

72, 607. 70 

1, 127, 484. 69 


$119,271.20 

19, 197. 28 

361, 276. 91 

10, 845. 82 

2, 788. 34 

263, 167. 55 

51,841.88 


$157, 586. 01 

9, 797. 06 

391,496.06 

10, 495. 15 

3, 375. 13 

307, 577. 81 

45, 156. 69 

465. 88 

86, 093. 84 

649, 424. 00 


$1,826,250.87 

335, 573. 65 

3, 576, 035. 60 

198, 182. 81 

40,011.04 

3, 105, 735. 97 

870, 805. 87 

9, 725. 52 

1, 069, 948. 85 

9, 997, 842. 12 


6.81 

1.25 

13.31 

.74 

.15 

11.56 

3.25 

.03 


84, 439. 72 
896, 274. 00 


3.99 
37.14 














26.30 

767. 70 

3, 194. 62 


Nil 


100.32 
307. 45 


.12 
6.67 




14.52 
5.15 


8.45 
9.00 


18.80 
9.00 


Nil 


6.67 


.01 


3, 152. 44 


4, 147. 00 


3, 777. 00 


4,900.00 


2, 104. 22 


8,500.00 


45, 170. 62 


.17 


342. 83 


1, 135. 31 


472. 12 


922.11 


729.55 


516.25 


4, 644. 51 


.02 


4, 76T. 65 


5, 819. 10 


2, 763. 02 


2, 256. 82 


5,711.85 


6, 255. 83 


54, 970. 52 


.20 


1, 548. 98 
1, 408. 61 






1, 550. 93 
1, 084. 89 


1, 140. 28 
1, 850. 51 


1,368.74 
1, 008. 67 


14, 174. 95 
17,599.93 


.05 


2, 947. 94 


1, 057. 69 


.06 


4, 808. 22 


2, 541. 76 


8,239.23 


13, 936. 70 


1, 585. 68 


4, 692. 78 


57, 417. 84 


.22 


114.71 
1, 112. 10 


407.00 
1, 687. W 


53.00 
4,017. 11 


214.00 
1,010.34 


131.00 
937. 35 


114.00 
2, 308. 46 


2, 467. 01 
19, 940. 66 


.01 
.07 


152.11 


71.05 


114.30 


125. 61 


78.88 


74 84 


9, 226. 86 
1, 105. 39 

1,158.84 


.03 

Nil 


236.99 


..»-- 




73.85 


110.36 


58.82 


Nil 


30, 475. 58 


1, 469. 3« 


3, 519. 06 


24, 147. 53 


3,115.89 


6, 584. 62 


103, 340. 12 


.38 


3, 642. 09 


4, 912. 09 


3, 138. 21 


1, 870. 86 


6, 579. 70 


6, 893. 08 


42, 040. 98 


.15 


333. 01 

90.62 

3, 700. 00 


1,129.11 

76.50 

5,386.11 


613. 41 

100.49 

3, 094. 62 


760. 73 

81.41 

2, 700. 00 


729.71 
71.31 

4,100.00 


477. 89 

114.78 

5, 400. 00 


7, 003. 62 

858.21 

44, 481. 45 


.03 
Nil 
.16 


125. 51 
21 86 




105. 91 

14 00 


393. 99 
70 00 


477. 89 


61.36 
82. 44 


4, 180. 68 
359. 85 


.01 


72 30 


Nil 


1, 189. 61 


1, 521. 86 


1, 215. 64 


211.00 


133. 00 


103. 74 

200.00 
25.00 


8, 583. 74 

469. 40 
300.00 


.03 
Nil 


25.00 


25.00 


25.00 


25.00 


25.00 


Nil 


1, 262. 05 


846. 32 


1, 455. 77 


962. 64 


523. 42 


1,901.37 


12,1-18.31 


.04 


77.50 

151.06 

.54.62 

384.49 

1, 135. 83 

20, 349. 95 
50,648.90 


424.42 

184.00 
428. 14 
234.00 


153.60 

235.00 
291.24 
253.58 








655. 52 

14,794.71 
6, 301. 27 
6, 409. 99 
4, 580. 48 

154, 055. 28 
869, 278. 39 


Nil 


227.62 
414.84 
65. or 
85. 05 

18, 289. 00 
54, 843. 68 


233.28 

227.24 

353. 77 

92. 52 

517.21 
61,785.81 


7, 248. 04 
346. 97 

1,613.28 
165. 23 

471. 55 
o9, 308. 63 


.05 
.02 
.02 

.02 


179. 58 
31,484.82 


12, 608. 84 
50, 864. 76 


.57 
3.24 


337, 596. 03 


463, 933. 19 


843, 030. 38 


332, 987. 35 


361,314.13 


349, 748. 21 


4, 369, 990. 42 


16.21 


2, 624, 236. 01 
9.87 


2, 300, 692. 76 
8.59 


2, 723, 252. 88 
10.09 


2, 583, 332. 68 
9.56 


2, 263, 262. 50 
8.46 


2, 127, 200. 01 
8.00 


26,911,780.46 
100.00 


100.00 



310 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Unclassified — 





Month 


Agency 


December 
1937 


January 
1938 


February 
1938 


March 
1938 


April 
1938 


May 
1938 


Executive departments: 














Commerce , .- 






















$7,954.00 
110,692.63 


$552. 13 
177, 895. 99 


$423.10 
134, 722. 10 




$107, 701. 18 


$121, 066. 92 


$79, 625. 62 


Labor .. 
















Post Office... 












. 


State .-- 
















999.77 


2, 228. 18 


1, 091. 24 


1, 159. 62 


819.27 


1, 225. 62 


War. 


Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 
Alley Dwelling Author- 
ity.. 














American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 














Civilian Conservation 
Corps 














Civil Service Commis- 














Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration 














District of Columbia 
Government 














Export-Import Bank 














Farm Credit Adminis- 














Federal Communications 
Commission 














Federal Housing Admin- 














Federal Power Commis- 














Federal Reserve Board.. . 














Federal Trade •Commis- 














Qeneral Accounting 
Office 














Government Printing 
Office 














Home Owners' Loan 


3, 320. 48 


1, 938. 23 










Inland Waterways Cor- 










International Boundary 
Commission, United 














Interstate Commerce 










































National Advisory Coin- 




























National Labor Rela- 














National Training 






66.00 






31.20 












Reconstruction Finance 














Rural Electrification Ad- 














Securities and Exchange 
























































Tennessee Valley Au- 




























Works Progress Admin- 


332.86 


1, 057. 75 


1, 207. 62 


1, 078. 65 


8.78 


107.68 




Total 


112, 354. 28 
6.33 


126, 291. 08 
7.12 


81, 990. 48 
4.62 


120, 884. 90 
6.81 


179, 276. 17 
10.10 


136, 609. 60 
7.70 


Percent of grand total 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



311 



Class No. 126 



Month— Continued 


Total, 12 
months 




June 
1938 


July 
1938 


August 
1938 


September 
1938 


October 
1938 


November 
1938 


of grand 
total 




































$5, 352. 26 
192, 407. 47 


$738.28 
157, 287. 48 


$119.00 
191, 983. 45 


$10, 158. 50 
194, 932. 99 


$4, 000. 00 
179, 120. 93 


$29,297.27 
1, 701, 600. 96 


1 65 


$54, 164. 22 


95.89 


















































6, 244. 93 


17, 085. 51 


115.64 


334.92 


1, 960. 13 


6.34 


32, 271. 17 


1.82 






























































































































































































































































5,258.71 


.29 












































































































































97.20 


NO 






































76.40 


13.25 




89.65 


Nil 




























































































434.09 


20 48 


48 77 


1, 834. 78 






6, 125. 36 


.35 










59, 843. 24 
3.37 


214,865.72 
12.08 


158, 184. 17 
8.89 


194,348-55 
10.96 


207, 064. 87 
11.70 


183, 127. 27 1, 774, 740. 31 
10. 32 100. 00 


100.00 



APPENDIX IV 

DISTRIBUTION, BY FEDERAL AGENCIES, OF EXPERIENCE 
WITH IDENTICAL BIDDING 



Table XIX. — Distribution of expenditures, by Federal agencies, for purchases 
involving the receipt of identical bids 1 

[December 1937 through November 1938] 



Agency 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture 

Commerce 

Interior 

Justice 

Labor 

Navy 

Post Office 

State. 

Treasurv__ 

War 



Independent offices and es- 
tablishments: 

Allev Dwelline Author- 
ity 

American Battle Monu- 
ments Commission 

Civilian Conservation 
Corps .. 

Civil Service Commis- 
sion 

Commodity Credit Cor- 
poration.. 

District of Columbia 
Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Adminis- 
tration 

Federal Communications 
Commission 

Federal Housing Admin- 
istration 

Federal Power Commis- 
sion 

Federal Reserve Board 

Federal Trade Commis- 
sion 

General Accounting 
Office 

Government Printing 
Office.. 

Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation 

Inland Waterways Cor- 
poration 

International Boundary 
Commission, United 
States and Mexico. 

Interstate Commerce 
Commission 

Library of Congress 



Total ex- 
penditures 
(amount) 



$45,595, 868 

9, 396, 404 

55, 735, 907 

7, 542, 265 

993, 839 

215,148,79" 

17, 574, 50: 

388, 82 

26,026,091 

270, 462, 380 



85, 278 

7,959 

23,884 

184,412 

96, 322 

, 140, 306 
1,284 

313, 718 

163, 453 

591,665 

141,845 
400, 927 

157, 564 

294,995 

947, 096 

,275,171 

, 519, 047 



712,834 



329, 730 
23,568 



Expenditures upon contracts award of which 
was complicated by identical bids 



Class I amount 



$763; 628. 79 

150, 342. 46 

1,809,656.65 

277, 481. 00 

1, 033. 59 

2. 878, 240. 00 

19, 487. 00 

Nil 

' 5, 624, 105. 00 

1,649,696.35 



Nil 
Nil 
Nil 

Nil 
281. 80 



li43 



,057. 14 
Nil 

, 705. 77 

Nil 

436. 50 

136.24 
,000.00 

383.10 

Nil 

070. 63 

458. 42 

Nil 



655.00 
Nil 



Class II 
amount 



$515,286.84 

139, 066. 78 

1,983, 560. 77 

305, 020. 00 

874. 33 

1,980,280.00 

7,041.00 

Nil 

' 10, 869, 434. 00 

3, 569, 343. 00 



Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

2, 221. 48 

46, 519. 77 
Nil 

4, 705. 77 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 
Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

518, 169. 15 

2,391.51 

Nil 

9, 652. 72 

Nil 
Nil 



1 See above, items 3 and 5 of pp. 8 

2 Includes materials purchased for 

312 



, 9, and footnote 6 on p. 33. 
resale. 



Total class I 

and class II 

amount 



ClassIII 
amount 



$1,'278,915.63 

289, 409. 24 

3, 793, 217. 42 

582,501.00 

1,907.92 

4, 858, 520. 00 

26, 528. 00 

Nil 

1 16, 493, 539. 00 

5, 219, 039. 35 



Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

2, 503. 28 

92, 576. 91 
Nil 

9, 411. 54 

Nil 

436. 50 

136.24 
3, 000. 00 

383. 10 

Nil 

1, 161, 239. 78 

2, 849. 93 

Nil 

13, 140. 80 

1, 655. 00 
Nil 



$831,644.22 

225,392.98 

3, 390, 107. 03 

650, 560. 00 

10, 803. 03 

4, 182, 380. 00 

149, 457. 00 

Nil 

' 34, 553, 505. 00 

3, 359, 381. 66 



Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

2, 512. 09 

321, 269. 13 
Nil 

6, 274. 36 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 
Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

> 559, 218. 08 

26, 669. 20 

Nil 

33, 433. 14 

86. 97 

Nil 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



313 



Table XIX. — Distribution of expenditures, by Federal agencies, for purchases 
involving the receipt of identical bids — Continued 







Expenditures 


upon contracts £ 


ward of which 








was complicated by identical bids 






Total ex- 
penditures 








Class III 
amount 


Agency 










(amount) 




Class II 
amount 


Total class I 






Class I amount 


and class II 
amount 




Independent offices and es- 












tablishments—Continued. 












Maritime Commission 


$3,071,537 


$634. 22 


$9, 830. 50 


$10,464.72 


$21,246.56 


National Advisory Com- 












mittee for Aeronautics... 


350, 816 


4, 800. 00 


4, 800. 00 


9,600.00 


4, 76a 00 


National Archives 


73, 758 


27.75 


88.68 


116.43 


114.31 


National Labor Rela- 












tions Board 1 


202,460 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


National Training 












School for Boys 


133, 407 


88.34 


306.24 


394. 58 


1, 207. 29 


Panama Canal.. 


9, 535, 000 


153, 820. 67 


158, 528. 84 


312, 349. 51 


644, 338. 82 


Reconstruction Finance 












Corporation — 


665,408 


357. 70 


44.80 


402.50 


124.00 


Rural Electrification Ad- 












ministration 


137,966 


686.00 


Nil 


686.00 


Nil 


Securities and Exchange 












Commission 


350, 505 


Nil 


45, 565. 65 


45, 565. 65 


Nil 


Smithsonian Institution. .. 


161,023 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


Social Security Board 


2, 946, 080 


8, 261. 77 


6, 295. 27 


14, 557. 04 


13,601.13 


Tariff Commission 


39, 575 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


Tennessee Valley Au- 












thority. 


17, 275, 558 


329, 982. 89 


387. 562. 03 


717,544.92 


1, 191, 282. 76 


Veterans' A drainistratien :■ 


20, 777, 250 


394, 767. 75 


610, 851. 15 


1, 005, 618. 90 


1, 198, 847. 33 


Works Progress Admin- 












istration -. 


196, 405, 460 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 






Total 


913,401,725 
100.00 


14, 770, 770. 61 
1.62 


21, 177, 440. 28 
2.32 


35,948,210.89 
3.94 


51, 378, 216. 08 


Percent of total 


5. 62 







314 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

Table XX. — Distribution, by agencies, of number of Federal bid openings resulting 
in class I, II, and III identical bids 1 

[December 1937 through November 1938] 



Agency 



All bid 
openings 



Bid openings in which identi- 
cal bids complicated award 
of oontracts 



Class I 
number 



Class II 
number 



Total 
class I 

and 
class II 



Executive departments: 

Agriculture -- 

Commerce.— - 

Interior. - - - 

Justice 

Labor 

Navy 

Post Office 

State - - 

Treasury 

War - 

Independent offices and establishments: 

Alley Dwelling Authority 

American Battle Monuments Commission 

Civilian Conservation Corps 

Civil Service Commission... 

Commodity Credit Corporation 

District of Columbia Government 

Export-Import Bank 

Farm Credit Administration. .. 

Federal Communications Commission 

Federal Housing Administration ... 

Federal Power Commission. 

Federal Reserve Board 

Federal Trade uommission 

General Accounting Office. 

Government Printing Office. 

Home Owners' Loan Corporation 

Inland Waterways Corporation.. 

International Boundary Commission, United 

States and Mexico... 

Interstate Commerce Commission 

Library of Congress. 

Maritime Commission 

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. 

National Archives 

National Labor Relations Board 

National Training School for Boys .... 

Panama Canal 

Reconstruction Finance Corporation.. 

Rural Electrification Administration 

Securities and Exchange Commission 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Social Security Board .- 

Tariff Commission 

Tennessee Valley Authority 

Veterans' Administration 

Works Progress Administration 

Total 

Percent of total 



31,345 

11,288 

13, 712 

8.523 

258 

8,238 

2,612 

Nil 

149. 699 

35,003 



Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

45 

23 

3,840 

Nil 

199 

201 

67 

45 

90 

1 

19 

3.683 

578 

Nil 

731 

56 

11 

252 

940 

691 

Nil 

166 

2,903 

88 

19 

34 

129 

156 

Nil 

18, 851 

37,349 

Nil 



3,873 
317 
524 
728 
5 
384 
13 
Nil 

5,131 
536 



Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

4 

3 

!70 

Nil 

4 

Nil 

2 

4 

7 

1 

Nil 

29 

24 

Nil 

15 

19 

Nil 

5 

7 

7 

Nil 

8 

24 

6 

5 

Nil 

1 

5 

Nil 

303 

1,460 

Nil 



4,077 
340 
798 

1,111 

4 

428 

16 

Nil 

7,041 
973 



Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

3 

413 

Nil 

4 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

51 

32 

Nil 

19 

Nil 

Nil 

8 

24 

12 

Nil 

12 

174 

2 

Nil 

4 

1 

4 

Nil 

264 

3,137 

Nil 



7,950 

657 

1,322 

1,839 

9 

812 

29 

Nil 

12, 172 

1,509 



Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

4 

6 

583 

Nil 

8 

Nil 

2 

4 

7 

1 

Nil 

80 

56 

Nil 

34 

19 

Nil 

13 

31 

19 

Nil 

20 

198 

8 

5 

4 

2 

9 

Nil 

567 

4,597 

Nil 



331,851 
100.00 



13, 624 
4.10 



18, 952 
5.71 



32, 576 
9.82 



1 See above, items 3 and 5 of pp. 8, 9, and footnote 6 on p. 33. 



APPENDIX V 

DATA ON THE PRACTICE OF IDENTICAL BIDDING, BY 
INDUSTRY GROUPS AND SUBGROUPS 



EXPLANATORY NOTE 

Within the Procurement Division Group's study, a "special study" 
was made of twenty-five-thousand-odd bid openings in response to which 
there were identical bids. See page 58 et seq. of the present report 
for a brief description of that "special study," and page 56 for defini- 
tions of the three classes of identical bids. 

Particular attention was given in the earlier report to each industry 
subgroup for which the agencies stated with respect to a significant 
number of examples whether the reported identical-bidding practice 
was "invariable," "common," "occasional," or "unusual." 

Table XXI. — Summary of examination of 25,610 reported examples of identical 
bids classified according to industry groups 

[July 1, 1937, to May 1, 1939] 





Industry groups 


Class I 


Class II 


Class III 


AH classes 


No. 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


1 




765 

60 

189 

141 

212 

349 

273 

39 

10 

1,101 

1,354 
143 

937 

78 

514 
175 


12.1 

.9 

3.0 

2.2 

3.4 

5.5 

4.3 

.6 

.1 

17.3 

21.4 
2.3 

14.8 

1.2 
8.1 
2.8 


727 
142 
320 
177 
545 
464 
146 
87 
19 
984 

1,805 
155 

688 

106 
644 
202 


10.1 
2.0 
4.4 
2.5 
7.6 
6.4 
2.0 
1.2 
.3 

13.6 

25.0 
2.2 

9.5 

1.5 
8.9 
2.8 


1,131 
221 
595 
401 
648 
763 
250 
183 
58 

1,190 

3,534 
343 

1,363 

127 
896 
356 


9.4 
1.8 
4.9 
3.3 
5.4 
6.3 
2.1 
1.5 
.5 
9.9 

29.3 
2.8 

11.3 

1.1 

7.4 
3.0 


2,623 
423 

1,104 
719 

1,405 

1,576 
669 
309 
87 

3,275 

6,693 
641 

2,988 

311 

2,054 

733 


10.2 


? 




1.7 


? 




4.3 


4 




2.8 


5 


Printing, publishing, and allied industries. - 


5.5 
6.2 


7 




2.6 


8 




1.2 


q 




.3 


in 




12/8 


n 


Iron and steel and their products, not in- 


26.1 


12 
13 


Nonferrous metals and their products.. ... 
Machinery, not including transportation 


2.5 
11.7 


14 


Transportation equipment, air, land, and 


L2 


16 




8.0 


17 




2.9 




Total 


12, 059 








6,340 


100.0 


7,211 


100.0 


: .-u. 125, 610 


100.0 













Recapitulation: 

Number of class I examples - 5' of? 

Number of class II examples - - 7,211 

Class I plus class II _ - }3,561 

Class III 12,059 



Percent 
53.0 
47.0 



Total. 



25, 610 

315 



100.0 



316 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



Table XXII. — The characterization, by Federal agencies, of the -practice of identical 
bidding in certain industry subgroups 

[July 1, 1937, to May 1, 1939] 



Census index number and short 
title 



1101. Bolts, nuts, washers, and 

rivets 

1102. Cast-iron pipe and fittings 

1103. Cutlery and edge tools 

1109. Hardware not elsewhere classi- 
fied 

1112. Steel-works and rolling-mill 

products 

1113. Nails, spikes, etc., not made in 

rolling mill.. 

1114. Plumbers' supplies, excluding 

pipe sanitary ware 

1122. Structural and ornamental 

metal work 

1125. Tools, excluding edge tools, 

machine tools, files, saws 

1127. Wire work not elsewhere classi- 

fied 

1128. Wrought pipe, welded and 

heavy riveted. __, 

1207. Lighting equipment 

1212. Nonferrous-metal alloys; ex- 
cluding aluminum ;.. 

1303. Electrical machinery, appa- 
ratus, and supplies 

1318. Machine-tool accessories and 

machinists' precision tools.. 

1407. Motor-vehicle bodies and 

parts 

1605. Brushes, other than rubber 

1620. Instruments and apparatus, 
professional, scientific, com- 
mercial 

1631. Optical goods 

1644. Steam and other packing, pipe 

and boiler covering 

102. Bread and other bakery prod- 
ucts 

104. Canned and cured fish, crabs, 

shrimps, etc _ 

105. Canned and dried fruits and 

vegetables 

106. Cereal preparations 

111. Condensed and evaporated 

milk 

117. Food preparations not else- 
where classified. 

123. Meat packing, wholesale 

130. Sugar, cane, excluding prod- 
ucts of refineries 

2021. Cordage and twine 

2031. Cotton woven goods (over 12 

inches in width) 

2032. Cotton narrow fabrics 

2112. Processed waste and recovered 

wool fiber 

309. Furniture, including store and 

office fixtures 

311. Lumber and timber products, 

not elsewhere classified 

314. Planing-mill products and 

other wooden products ._ 

320. Wood turned, shaped, and 

other wood products 

407. Paper... _ 

408. Paper goods not elsewhere 

classified 

508. Printing and publishing, book, 

music, and job 

610. Printing and publishing, news- 
paper and periodical... 
602. Ammunition and related prod- 
ucts. 



Class I examples 


Class II exampl 


es 

5-8 

— .c 

o'S 


Class III ex 


ampl 


3 

.2 

<£ 
> 

a 


a 
o 

S 

o 

C 


a! 
P 
_o 

a! 
o 

o 


3 

3 

3 
C 
P 


S -0 
— .a 

o'S 


.2 
"C 

a 


a 
o 

B 
S 
c 
U 


"3 
a 

O 

i 

6 

O 


"3 

1 

a 
P 


o 

3 
.2 

> 

a 


a 

o 

a 

s 

o 

o 


c 
c 

a 

O 


"3 
a 

3 

a 
P 


1 
1 
6 


53 
17 
9 


6 

7 


2 

4 


2 

1 


3 
4 
2 


61 
34 
21 


14 
22 
17 


5 
3 
4 


2 
11 
4 


3 

10 
3 


127 
62 
59 


36 
55 
36 


7 
4 
8 





18 


14 


1 








34 


10 





5 





37 


38 


8 


14 


92 


20 





19 


6 


136 


23 


2 


15 


6 


168 


48 


1 


3 


23 


11 


1 


1 


5 


50 


19 


1 


3 


3 


68 


26 


4 


8 


97 


16 


2 


4 


25 


112 


33 


13 


21 


125 


290 


132 


62 


5 


36 


7 


2 


1 


14 


96" 


45 


1 


5 


10 


242 


78 


11 


8 


32 


22 


3 


2 


10 


73 


51 


7 


10 


J2 


107 


72 


38 


42 


178 


14 


1 


29 


48 


228 


44 


14 


27 


72 


304 


77 


13 


34 

1 


65 
31 


22 
3 


3 
2 


8 
5 


14 
2 


53 
20 


18 
4 






22 
4 


56 
3 


153 
30 


49 

28 


9 
2 


10 


35 


20 


4 


6 





43 


27 


5 


9 


6 


83 


49 


4 


27 


390 


53 


10 


39 


15 


266 


68 


14 


25 


41 


594 


150 


36 


3 


41 


33 


3 


11 


4 


77 


21 


4 


12 


6 


112 


51 


3 



1 


PO 
2 


6 
1 














84 

7 


3 
2 


1 
3 










93 

9 


2 
9 


2 
2 


32 
37 


52 
20 


51 
4 


5 
2 


45 
21 


51 
4 


94 
11 


36 

8 


5 



64 
4 


42 
11 


122 
14 


72 
17 


20 



9 


46 


3 


2 


8 


3 


51 


16 


2 


19 


4 


52 


18 





16 


26 


18 


3 





4 


20 


9 


14 





2 


38 


13 


6 


6 


13 


9 


3 





3 


7 


19 


4 


1 





20 


24 


8 


37 

3 


29 

17 


17 
2 


2 
1 






9 

5 


36 
4 


35 
9 


20 

4 






5 
1 


54 

8 


73 

6 


31 
3 


49 


28 


8 


2 


1 


1 


10 


4 


2 


1 


1 


18 


10 


15 


22 



136 
25 


86 
14 


8 
2 


9 



12 
1 


80 
13 


78 
37 


49 
9 


2 
2 


15 
1 


153 
25 


115 
44 


69 
6 


2 
1 


6 
1 


2 
3 







1 






7 
8 


4 

8 


3 
1 







2 


11 
9 


10 
7 


6 







2 
3 


4 
2 



1 


1 
1 






3 

7 


11 

7 


1 
2 


2 

7 






8 
16 


10 

7 


4 
2 





2 





1 








6 


3 


2 








8 


11 


4 


4 


10 


3 


1 


3 


8 


55 


9 


3 


6 


e 


73 


13 


9 


5 


54 


26 


18 


8 


2 


70 


61 


14 


7 


6 


186 


98 


25 





7 


3 


2 


1 





5 


6 


1 





i 


13 


17 


5 


2 
4 


2 

68 


4 





2 


1 
1 



3 


9 
92 


7 
6 


1 
3 


2 




2 


15 

194 


10 
26 


1 
1 


4 


21 


1 


1 


5 


3 


14 


17 


4 


4 


1 


41 


29 


4 


22 


59 


72 


1 


17 


135 


139 


131 





24 


129 


265 


157 





6 


8 


1 





1 





76 


1 


,0 


1 





70 


2 





2 


15 














7 





1 





5 


16 





1 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



317 



Table XXII. — The characterization, by Federal agencies, of the practice of identical 
bidding in certain industry subgroups — Continued 



Census index number and short 
title 



608. Chemicals not elsewhere clas- 
sified __• 

606. Cleaning and polishing prepa- 
rations 

610. Compressed and liquefied 

gases 

611. Drugs and medicines 

626. Paints, pigments, and var- 

nishes 

627. Patent or proprietary medi- 

cines and compounds 

630. Salt... ___ ___ 

702. Fuel briquettes, coal or coke.. 
705. Petroleum refining . 

801. Boots and shoes, rubber 

802. Rubber goods, excluding tires, 

tubes, boots, and shoes 

902. Boot and shoe cut stock and 

findings 

906.' Leather goods not elsewhere 

classified.. 

1002. Cement _ 

1004. Clay products, other than 

pottery 

1013. Lime 

1015. Minerals and earths, ground or 

otherwise 

1016. Mirrors and other glass prod- 

ucts 

1020. Wallboard and plaster, build- 
ing insulation 



Class I examples 



3 

3 

19 
16 

1 

5 



2 
53 

22 
7 

43 1 

8 

7 



31 



Class II examples 



o a 



Claea HI examples 



3^ 
— J3 

«.2 



a 

o 

6 
10 


12 




20 

23 



5 

36 

4 



262342— 41— No. 19- 



-22 



APPENDIX VI » 

FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ACTIVITIES ARISING 
OUT OF GOVERNMENT PURCHASING 



A quite substantial amount of Federal Trade Commission activity- 
relates directly or indirectly to Government purchasing. The type 
of Trade Commission case in which governmental applicants * are 
decidedly more numerous than in any other type is "restraint of 
trade" cases under section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. 
Table XXIII relates solely to this type of case. But the Commission 
states that, in addition, governments are frequently applicants in 
matters other than restraint-of-trade proceedings. For example, 
cities sometimes are applicants in cases involving alleged deception as 
to quality of commodities bought by them. 

In this appendix, "municipal government" includes any agency of 
such a government, a representative of any such government acting 
in his official capacity, or an intergovernmental organization repre- 
senting municipalities. "State Government" includes any agency of 
such a government or a representative of any such government acting 
in his official capacity. "Federal Government" means any agency 
of that Government (including the Federal Trade Commission) or a 
representative of that Government acting in his official capacity. 
Applications in which the Trade Commission is acting on its own 
motion are by no means preponderant among governmental applica- 
tions; cf. the tabulation on p. 105, above. 

Table XXIII.— Distribution, by type of applicant, of three types of Federal Trade 
Commission activities in "Restraint of trade" cases under sec. 5 of the Commission 
Act in connection with which the applicants included governments 

[Fiscal years 1938-40] 



Type of applicant 


Number of investiga- 
tions instituted 


Number of complaints 
issued 


Number of cease-and- 
desist orders issued 




1938 


1939 


1940 


1938-40 


1938 


1939 


1940 


1938-40 


1938 


1939 


1940 


1938-40 


Municipal Governments 

State Governments 

Federal Government 


10 
4 
52 


8 
3 
14 


4 

16 


22 

7 
82 


2 


4 


3 


5 


1 

1 

12 


6 

1 

21 




6 


2 

5 


2 

3 


4 


14 






Total... 


66 


25 


20 


111 


6 


8 


14 


28 


6 


7 


6 


18 











Source: Letter, Sept. 11, 1940, from the Secretary of the Federal Trade Commission to an author of this 
report. 

1 The Federal Trade Commission kindly supplied the information used in this appendix. That in and 
related to table XXIII was compiled especially for the present report and has not been published elsewhere. 
• For explanation of applicants, see above, p. 105, footnote 31. 

318 



CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 



319 



Table XXIII shows, for the respective fiscal years 1938, 1939, and 
1940, the number of Trade Commission investigations initiated in 
each of which the applicant was a government or (if there were two 
or more applicants) at least one applicant was a government. The 
table also shows, for the same years, the number of formal com- 
plaints 3 issued as a result of investigations thus arising. Moreover, 
it shows, for the same years, the number of cease-and-desist orders 
issued pursuant to complaints resulting from investigations thus 
arising. The figures on the respective three sorts of activity (in- 
vestigations, complaints, and orders) do not necessarily represent the 
same aggregation of cases, inasmuch as (1) a complaint is not neces- 
sarily issued in the fiscal year in which the investigation leading to 
it is initiated, and (2) a cease-and-desist order is not necessarily 
issued in the same fiscal year as is the complaint preceding it. 

For avoidance of duplication within the data showing a break- 
down of activities by type of governmental applicant, the following 
arrangement was used by the Federal Trade Commission: Where the 
Federal Government and also a State or municipal government were 
applicants, the activity was classified under "Federal Government." 
Where a State Government and also a municipal Government were 
applicants, the activity was classified under "State Government." 

Concerning the data here presented in table XXIII, the Com- 
mission states: 

The figures * * * are more nearly a measure of the activity of Federal, 
State, and municipal agencies in applying to this Commission for corrective 
action than representative of the Commission's activity in correcting situations 
which are of interest to these agencies. In fact the figures supplied represent a 
relatively small part of the total number of restraint-of-trade cases instituted 
by the Commission involving commodities commonly purchased by governmental 
establishments. 4 



Table XXIV. — Three types of Federal Trade Commission activities in cases of 
alleged- violation of any statute under Commission jurisdiction, irrespective of type 

of applicant 

[Fiscal years 1938-40) 



Measure 


Investigations instituted 


Complaints issued 


Cease-and-desist 
orders issued 




1938 


1939 


1940 


1938-40 


1938 
305 

2 


1939 


1940 


1938-40 


1938 


1939 


1940 


1938-40 


Absolute number... 

Percentage relationship borne to 

absolute number in this table, 

by corresponding number in 

"Total" line of table XXIII 

percent - . 


1,929 
3 


1,690 
1 


2,044 
1 


5,663 
2 


370 
2 


331 
4 


1,006 
3 


235 
3 


280 
3 


282 
2 


797 
2 



Source: Letter, Sept. 11, 1940, from the Secretary of the Federal Trade Commission to an author of this 
report. 

'Technically, the word "formal" mav be omitted, inasmuch as all complaints in Commission pro- 
ceedings are "formal." The word "formal" is sometimes used, however, to emphasize the difference 
between a complaint and an application. The latter can be, and is, described as an "informal complaint," 
although in Commission proceedings there are, from a strict legal standpoint, no complaints other than 
those issued by the Commission itself. ... 

* Letter, Sept. 11, 1940, from the Secretary of the Federal Trade Commission to an author of this report. 



320 CONCENTRATION OF ECONOMIC POWER 

In the consideration of table XXIII, some basis of comparison is 
afforded by table XXIV. But it must be emphasized that the upper 
line of table XXIV relates to all types of violations of the statutes 
administered by the Commission, whereas table XXIII is limited to 
restraint-of- trade cases. Thus for investigations initiated in the fiscal 
year 1939, 1 percent involved governmental applications concerning 
alleged restraint of trade; while in that same year, as has been noted 
above, 6 25 percent of the restrain t-of-trade investigations which were 
on the Commission's calendar involved applications by governments. 6 

» P 105 

• Investigations initiated in the year and investigations on the calendar in the year are not identical, 
inasmuch as the latter includes also investigations carried forward from a preceding year or years. But 
that fact does not render invalid th&coHvpapieon made here between that.l per.cent.and the 26 percent. 









INDEX 



Names of Government departments and agencies are omitted, except in unusual circumstances; names 
of companies, corporations, States, and cities are omitted. 

ABRASIVES. (See Commodities, class 51.) Page 

ACCESSORIES. (See Commodities, passim.) 
ACID. (See Commodities, class 51.) 
ADDING MACHINES. (See Commodities, class 54.) 
AERONAUTIC APPARATUS. (See Commodities, class 49.) 
AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES. (See Commodities, class 56.) 
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. (See Commodities, class 70.) 
AIRCRAFT. (See Commodities, class 49.) 

ALLEN, WALTON S. Mentioned _____ xiv 

ALUMINUMWAHE. (See Commodities, class 63, 64.) 

AMERICAN MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION. Mentioned xiv 

AMMONIA. (See Commodities, class 51.) 
AMMUNITION. (See Commodities, class 4.) 
ANCHORS. (See Commodities, class 6.) 

ANDERSON, DEWEY xn 

ANTI-TRUST LAWS 99-115 

APPARATUS. (See Commodities, class 4, 16, 17, 31, 37, 49, 50, 57, 58, 

64; see also Equipment.) 

APPROPRIATION ACT (1940): cited 74 

ARMS. (See Commodities, class 2.) 

ARMY INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE 56 

ART. (See Commodities, class 62.) 

ASPHALT. (See Commodities, class 59.J 

ATHLETIC EQUIPMENT. (See Commodities, class 37.) 

BADGES. [See Commodities, class 71.) 

BAGS. (See Commodities, class 53. ) 

BAKER.' NEWTON D. Mentioned 45 

BARBOUR, DANA M.: COPELAND, MORRIS A.; LINNENBERG 

CLEM C. Mentioned xm, xiv 

BARRELS. (See Commodities, class 39.) 

BARUCH, BERNARD M. Mentioned 47,53,57 

BATHROOM FIXTURES. (See Commodities, class 30.) 
BEDDING. (See Commodities, class 27.) 
BELTING. (See Commodities, class 34.) 

BETTERS, PAUL V. Mentioned xiv 

BIBLIOGRAPHY __ 132-137 

BICYCLES. (See Commodities, class 8.) 

BIDDING. (See Government purchasing.) 

BINDING. (See Commodities, class 53.) 

BLANK FORMS. (See Commodities, class 28.) 

BLASTING APPARATUS. (See Commodities, class 4.) 

BLUEPRINTS. (See Commodities, class 35.) 

BOAT FITTINGS. (See Commodities, class 12.) 

BOATS. (See Commodities, class 9.) 

BOILERS. {See Commodities, class 10, 60.) 

BOLTS. (See Commodities, class 43.) 

BOMBS. (See Commodities, class 4.) 

BOOKS. (See Commodities, class 35, 53.) 

BOOTS. (See Commodities, class 72.) 

BONES. (See Commodities, class 39, 53.) 

BRACKETT, JAMES R. Mentioned xn 

BRICKS. (See Commodities, class 59.) 
BROOMS. (See Commodities, class 38.) 
BRUSHES. (.SVe Commodities, class 38.) 

321 



322 IlsDEX 

Page 
BUDD, RALPH. Mentioned 56 

BUILDING MATERIAL. (See Commodities, class 59.) 

BULBS. (See Commodities, class 67.) 

BULLION. (See Commodities, class 62.) 

BUNTING. (See Commodities, class 5.) 

BUTTONS. (See Commodities, class 27.) 

BUY AMERICAN ACT 5 

CANVAS. (See Commodities, class 24.) 

CAPS. (See Commodities, class 73.) 

CARTONS. (See Commodities, class 53.) 

CASES. (See Statutes.) 

CASH REGISTERS. (See Commodities, class 54.) 

CEMENT. (See Commodities, class 59.) 

CENSUS OF BUSINESS (1935); cited 65 

CENTRALIZATION OF PURCHASING. (See Government purchas- 
ing-) 

CHARCOAL. (See Commodities, class 7.) 

CHARTS. (See Commodities, class 35.) 

CHEMICALS. (See Commodities, class 51.) 

CHINAWARE. (See Commodities, class 63.) 

CHUTE, CARLTON: "Cooperative purchasing in the United States and 

Canada," National Municipal Review (Oct. 1938); cited 66, 67 

CIGARETTES. (See Commodities, class 25.) 

CIGARS. (See Commodities, class 25.) 

CITY OF CINCINNATI, Department of Purchasing: Annual Reports; 

cited 67 

CITY OF NEW YORK, Department of Purchase: Report (1935, 1938); 

cited . 114 

CLARK, JOHN M.: Studies in the Economics of Overhead Costs 

(1923); cited 89, 93 

CLARK, J. M., HAMILTON, W. H., MOULTON, H. G.: Readings in 

the Economics of War (1918); cited z ._ 45 

CLARKSON, GROSVENOR B: Industrial America in the World War 

(1923); cited 44-47,51 

CLAYTON ACT 100-115 

CLEANING COMPOUNDS. (See Commodities, class 51.) 

CLOTHING. (See Commodities, class 37, 55, 72, 73.) 

COAL. (See Commodities, class 7.) 

COKE (See Commodities, class 7.) 

COLLINS, CAPTAIN J. H . 9,14 

COLLUSION. (See Government purchasing.) 

COMMODITIES. (See Government purchasing; State and local pur- 
chasing.) 

COMPOUNDS, CLEANING, CUTTING, POLISHING. (See Com- 
modities, class 51.) 

CONCLUSIONS CONCERNING GOVERNMENT PURCHASING. 
(See Government purchasing.) 

CONTRACTS. (See Government purchasing.) 

COPELAND, MORRIS A., joint author. (See Barbour, Dana M.) 

COPELAND, MORRIS A. Mentioned xi, xiv 

CORDAGE. (.See Commodities, class 21.) 

CORWIN, EDWARD S.: The Twilight of the Supreme Court (1934); 

cited -_ .. 87 

CRATES. (See Commodities, class 39.) 

CROWELL, BENEDICT and WILSON, R. F.: The Giant Hand . . . 

( 1 92 1 ) ; cited J .. 44-49 

CROWELL, J. F. : Government War Contracts (1920) ; cited 46, 50 

CURTAINS. • (See Commodities, class 27.) 

CUSHIONS. (-See Commodities, class 27.) 

CUTTING COMPOUNDS. (See Commodities, class 51.) 

DAVIS, CHESTER C. Mentioned 56 

DAWKINS, ROBERT B. Mentioned xiv 

DEPARTMENT AND AGENCY PURCHASES. (See Government 
purchasing.) 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: purchasing ta 11, 14 



index 323 

Page 

DOBEY, ALLAN A. Mentioned.-. X1V 

DOCK EQUIPMENT. (See Commodities, class 58.) 

DRAFTING-ROOM SUPPLIES. (See Commodities, class 53.) 

DRAPERIES. (-See Commodities, class 27.) 

DRAWINGS. (See Commodities, class 35.) 

DRAYAGE. (See Commodities, class 125.) 

DRUGS. (See Commodities, class 51.) 

DRY GOODS. (See Commodities, class 27.) 

DUCK. (See Commodities, class 24.) 

DUST FUELS. (See Commodities, class 7.) 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. (See Commodities, class 15, 17.) 

ELECTRIC SERVICE. (See Commodities, class 101.) 

ELLIOTT, HARRIET. Mentioned 56 

EMERGENCY RELIEF APPROPRIATION ACT 107 

ENGINE-ROOM SUPPLIES, etc. (See Commodities, class 13.) 

ENGINES. (See Commodities, class 10, 60.) 

EQUIPMENT. (See Commodities class 6, 12, 13, 19, 20, 23, 40, 41, 54, 
58, 66, 70, 74; see also Apparatus.), 

EXCHANGES. (See Commodities, class 104.) 

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT: Purchasing (See Government purchasing). 

FEDERAL REGISTER 62, 84 

FEDERAL STANDARD STOCK CATALOG passim 

FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ACT ■_ 100-110 

FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION: 

Actions resulting from Government purchases 31 8-320 

Annual Report (1939); cited __ 104 

Cost Reports (1919); cited 52 

FELLER, A. H. Mentioned _ 37 

FILE CASES. (See Commodities, class 54.) 

FINDINGS. (See Commodities, class 27.) 

FIRE-FIGHTING APPARATUS. (See Commodities, class 58.) 

FIRE-RESISTING MATERIALS. (See Commodities, class 32.) 

FIREROOM SUPPLIES, etc. (See Commodities, class 13.) 

FITTINGS. (See Commodities, class 12, 13.) 

FIXTURES. (See Commodities, class 30.) 

FLAGS. (See Commodities, class 5.) 

FLOOR COVERINGS. (See Commodities, class 27.) 

FOOD. (See Commodities, class 56.) 

FORAGE. (See Commodities, class 67.) 

FORBES, RUSSELL: Governmental Purchasing (1929); cited 20, 45, 82 

FOUNDRY APPARATUS. (See Commodities, class 50.) 

FUEL. (See Commodities, class 7.) 

FURNISHINGS. (See Commodities, class 73.) 

FURN ITURE. (See Commodities, class 26.) 

GARRETT, P. W.: Governmental Control Over Prices (1920); cited 46, 52 

GAS. (See Commodities, class 7.) 

GASES. (See Commodities, class 51.) 

GASKETS. (See Commodities, class 33.) 

GASOLINE. (See Commodities, class 7.) 

GAS SERVICE. (See Commodities, class 105.) 

GENERAL SCHEDULE OF SUPPLIES passim 

GENERAL SUPPLY FUND. (See Government purchasing.) 

GLASS. (See Commodities, class 59.) 

GLASSWARE. (See Commodities, class 63.) 

GLOVES. (See Commodities, class 73.) 

GOVERNMENT PURCHASING: 

Advance planning 117-131 

Advertising before buying XVI 

Bidding practices 78-81,99-100 

Centralization _ _ XI » 4, 9-1 6 

War and Navy Departments 15, 16, 45-49, 57-60 

Collusion ..... 31,32,99-101 

Commodities XI > 31 5-3 1 7 

Class 1. Guns, gun mounts, instruments 2, 26, 46, 53, 141, 146, 147 

Class 2. Arms and all accessories, etc.. 1, 3, 22, 26, 27, 46, 141, 148, 149 
Class 3. Mines, nets, torpedoes, etc . 26, 27, 46, 141, 150, 151 



324 index 

GOVERNMENT PURCHASING— Continued. 

Commodities — Continued. Page 

Class 4. Ammunition, blasting apparatus, bombs 1, 

3, 22, 26, 33, 34, 46, 141, 152, 153 

Class 5. Flags and bunting 25, 126, 141, 154, 155 

Class 6. Anchors, chains, other ground tackle __ 26, 127, 141, 156, 157 

Class 7. Fuel 1-3, 22, 33, 34, 49, 53, 58, 67, 68, 126, 141, 158, 159 

Class 8. Motor vehicles; bicycles, trailers, accessories, etc 3, 

7, 11, 22, 34, 37, 38, 49, 53, 67, 68, 101, 126, 141, 160, 161 

Class 9. Boats 26, 141, 162, 163 

Class 10. Boilers, engines, and all accessories, etc 3, 25, 141, 164, 165 

Class 11. Pumps and parts 3,26,141,166,167 

Class 12. Boat and ship fittings 26, 141, 168, 169 

Class 13. Engineroom and fireroom fittings, supplies, and tools 3, 

26, 141, 170, 171 

Class 14. Oils (except fuel), greases, lubricants 3, 

8,22,38,67,68, 141, 172, 173 

Class 15. Electric cable and insulated wire 3, 26, 38, 141, 174, 175 

Class 16. Radio and sound-signal apparatus and all accessories, 

etc 3,26, 141, 176, 177 

Class 17. Electric apparatus and all accessories, etc 3, 

7, 22, 26, 34/38, 67, 68, 99, 100, 141, 178, 179 
Class 18. Instruments of precision and all accessories, etc 26, 

141, 180, 181 

Class 19. Blocks, rigging, and all accessories, etc 141, 182, 183 

Class 20. Submarine material 26, 141, 184, 185 

Class 21. Cordage: hemp, jute, oakum, twine, including manu- 
factured articles 3, 25-29, 59, 67, 141, 186. 187 

Class 22. Wire rope and wire, including manufactured articles. _ 141, 

188 189 

Class 23. Boat and ship utensils 26, 141, 190,' 191 

Class 24. Duck, canvas, tentage, including manufactured articles. 25, 

26, 38, 49, 141, 192, 193 

Class 25. Tobacco products and all accessories, etc 141, 194, 195 

Class 26. Furniture 3,7,22,25,33,38,67,70,141, 196,197 

Class 27. Dry goods: bedding, buttons, curtains, cushions, 
draperies, findings, floor coverings, linoleum, notions, oilcloth, 

textiles, trimmings, upholstery materials, yarns, etc 1, 

3, 22, 25, 27, 38, 44, 49, 67, 68, 125, 141, 198, 199 

Class 28. Blank forms 3,25, 141, 200, 201 

Class 29. Toilet articles and all accessories 26, 68, 141, 202, 203 

Class 30. Bathroom and toilet fixtures, and all accessories, etc 25, 

33, 34, 67, 141, 204, 205 
Class 31. Lighting apparatus (nonelectric), and all accessories, 

etc 141, 206, 207 

Class 32. Fire-surfacing and heat-insulating material 25, 

27,38, 141,208, 209 
Class 33. Gaskets, hose, packing, rubber, hose fittings, tubing, 

including manufactured articles 22, 33, 37, 38, 58, 141, 210, 21 1 

Class 34. Leather: Belting, harness, saddlery, including manu- 
factured leather articles 25, 38, 142, 212, 213 

Class 35. Books, blueprints, charts, drawings, libraries, maps, 

newspapers, periodicals, professional publications, etc 3, 

?3, 34, 142,214, 215 
Class 36. Musical instruments, music, and all accessories, etc 26, 

142, 216,217 
Class 37. Athletic equipment, recreational apparatus, sporting 

goods, special wearing apparel 22, 25, 142, 218, 219 

Class 38. Brooms, brushes i 26,67,68, 142,220,221 

Class 39. Lumber, timber, barrels, boxes, cases, crates, railroad- 
ties, including manufactured lumber. 3, 25, 38, 49, 52, 67, 142, 222, 223 
Class 40. Tools, machine (bending rolls, drop hammers, drills, 
grinders, lathes, milling machines, planers, presses, punches, 
riveters, rolling machines, saws, shears, etc.), and all acces- 
sories, etc 34, 142, 224, 225 

Class 41. Tools, hand 38,41,67,142,226,227 

Class 42. Hardware (builders', general) 3, 25, 67, 142, 228, 229 

Class 43. Bolts, nuts, rivets, screws, washers. . 26, 34, 126, 142, 230, 231 



INDEX 325 

GOVERNMENT PURCHASING— Continued. 

Commodities — Continued. Page 

Class 44. Pipe, tubes, tubing (nonflexible) 3, 142, 232, 233 

Class 45. Pipe fittings 142, 234, 235 

Class 46. Metal in bars, billets, ingots, pigs, slabs 142, 236, 237 

Class 47. Metal in plates and sheets 142, 238, 239 

Class 48. Metal shapes (angles, I-beams, etc.), structural metal.- 26, 

34, 142, 240, 241 
Class 49. Aircraft, aeronautic apparatus, and all accessories, etc.. 2, 

3, 26, 53, 61, 63, 142, 242, 243 

Class 50. Foundry apparatus, and all accessories, etc 3, 

142, 244, 245 
Class. 51. Acids, chemicals, drugs, gases, soaps, abrasive materi- 
als, cleaning, cutting, and polishing compounds-: 1,16, 

22, 33-35, 38, 49, 67, 68, 142, 246, 247 

Class 52. Paints, paint ingredients 38, 67, 68, 142, 248, 249 

Class 53. Stationery: bags, blank books, boxes, cartons, draft- 
ing-room, office and printers' supplies 1, 

3, 6, 22, 33, 34, 58, 67, 142, 250, 251 
Class 54. Office equipment: adding machines, cash registers, 

file cases, numbering machines, typewriters, etc 3, 

7, 22, 25, 34, 38, 49, 67-71, 121, 142, 252, 253 

Class 55. Textile clothing, knitted goods 3, 

26, 27, 46, 47, 67, 142, 254, 255 

Class 56. Food: Groceries, ice, provisions, subsistence 3, 

6, 13-16, 22, 33, 34, 38, 44, 46, 49, 51, 54, 58, 67, 68, 121, 124, 
126, 142, 256, 257. 
Class 57. Hospital, laboratory, and surgical apparatus, and all 

accessories, etc '_ 22, 25, 49, 67, 142, 258, 259 

Class 58. Railway, dock, and yard equipment, including fire- 
fighting and meteorological apparatus 3, 22, 26, 142, 260, 261 

Class 59. Building material: Asphalt, brick, cement, glass, 
granite, gravel, lime, millwork, roof material, sand, stone, tar, 

tiling, etc - 1 3, 

25-27, 33-38, 46, 59, 67, 81, 100, 115, 121, 126, 142, 262, 263 
Class 60. Boilers and engines (power-plant, ship), and all 

accessories, etc 26, 142, 264, 265 

Class 61. Gyjo-compasses and all accessories, etc__ 26, 126, 142, 266, 267 
Class 62. Articles of special value: Bullion, jewelry, museum 
collections, paintings, precious metals and stones, statuary, 

works of. art, etc 142,268,269 

Class 63. Tableware, aluminumware, chinaware, glassware, 

silverware 22, 25, 26, 67, 142, 270, 271 

Class 64. Bake shop and kitchen apparatus and utensils: al- 
uminum utensils, gallev gear, tinware, and all accessories, etc_- 22, 

67, 142, 272, 273 

Class 65. Ovens, ranges, stoves, and all accessories, etc 26, 

142, 274, 275 

Class 66. Machinery and equipment : 142, 276, 277 

Class 67. Forage, bulbs and roots, plants, shrubs, trees, and 

seeds _ 3,25,49,142,278,279 

Class 68. Livestock 26, 142,280,281 

Class 69. Vehicles, animal- and hand-drawn, and all accessories, 

etc 142, 282, 283 

Class 70. Agricultural implements and all accessories, etc 25, 

26, 142, 284, 285 

Class 71. Badges, insignia, medals, etc 26, 126, 142, 286, 287 

Class 72. Boots, shoes, leather, and rubber clothing 26, 

27, 68, 142, 288, 289 

Class 73. Caps, hats, gloves, men's and women's furnishings 25, 

142, 290, 291 

Class 74. Individual equipment, field and landing force 25, 

46, 49, 50, 142, 292, 293 

Class 101. Electric service 2, 3, 7, 121, 142,294, 295 

Class 102. Telephone service 2, 3, 121, 142, 296, 297 

Class 103. Miscellaneous services 142,298,299 

Class 104. Exchange allowances 25, 26, 142, 300, 301 

Class 105. Gas service 7,121,142,302,303 



326 INDEX 

GOVERNMENT PURCHASING— Continued. 

Commodities — Continued. Page 

Class 107. Water service 2,3,121,142,304,305 

Class 108. Telegraph service 2, 3, 142, 306, 307 

Class 125. Drayage services 2, 3, 7, 142, 308, 309 

Class 126. Unclassified 142, 310, 311 

Steel 3, 36, 37, 38, 51, 53, 58, 67, 68, 125 

Conclusions and recommendations xv-xix, 

27, 29, 35, 40, 54, 55, 61, 62, 65, 73-75, 96-98, 111-114, 117-123, 
128—131 

Contract flexibility.' . xi, 77-87, 96-98, 123, 124 

Cooperation between Federal agencies xvin 

Decentralization 16 

Departments and agencies 3, 4, 

8-10, 13, 23-25, 32, 35, 44-49, 139, 140, 144-315 

Distribution of bids by agencies 139, 140, 314 

Dollar volume xvr, 2, 24-26, 32, 34, 117, 126, 128, 141-311 

Effect on business stability 85-87, 118-122 

Federal cooperation with State and local governments 67-75 

Federal laws aiding 99-1 15 

Federal Trade Commission activities 318-320 

General supply fund 8 

Identical bids xi, xvi, 31-41, 312-317 

Information xi, 125-127 

Inspection xvn 

In the field 4, 124, 125 

Legal restrictions 5, 6 

Manufacturing as source of procurement 6, 87-96 

Market information service xvin 

Middlemen xvm 

Monthly distribution 144-31 1 

Nature of the study xv 

Negotiated contracts xvn 

Percentages 3, 24, 25, 26, 145-311 

Price fluctuations. 23, 25, 27, 38-41 

Prices xi, xvi, xvn, 28, 70, 71 

Pricing . 82-87, 94-96 

Procedures xv, xvi, 6 

Procurement problems 77-98 

Routing Facing 1 38 

Scope 1-16 

Statistical information xm 

Study requested by Treasury Department xiii 

Suppliers' viewpoint xvn 

Timing xvi, 23-30 

Topics not included in the present study xv-xix 

Types 3,6-9 

Contracts 8 

Direct purchase 7 

General Schedule of Supplies 7, 8 

Through Procurement Division 9 

Warehouse stocks 8, 9 

War procurement '. 43-63 

Centralization 45-49 

Characteristics 52 

Contracts 59-63 

Criticism 53, 54 

Preparedness 54-63 

Prices 49-52, 60 

Production facilities 59 

Strategic, critical, and essential materials 58-59 

World War experience " 43-54 

GRACE, EUGENE. Mentioned 37 

GRANITE. (See Commodities, class 59.) 
GRAVEL. (See Commodities, class 59.) 
GREASE. (See Commodities, class 14.) 
GROCERIES. (-See Commodities, class 56.) 
GROUND TACKLE. (See Commodities, class 6.) 



INDEX 327 

GUNS. (See Commodities, class 1.) Page 

GYROCOMPASSES. (See Commodities, class 61.) 

HAMILTON, W. H., joint author. (See Clark, J. M.) 

HARDWARE. (See Commodities, class 42.) 

HARNESS. (See Commodities, class 34.) 

HATS. (See Commodities, class 73.) 

HEMP. (See Commodities, class 21.) 

HENDERSON, LEON. Mentioned 56 

HILL, GUY R. Mentioned .. xiv 

HILLMAN, SIDNEY. Mentioned 56 

HOSE. (See Commodities, class 33.) 

HOSPITAL APPARATUS. (See Commodities, class 57.) 

ICE. (See Commodities, class 56.) 

ICKES, HAROLD L. Mentioned 35,90 

IMPLEMENTS. (See Equipment.) 

INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT. (See Commodities, class 74.) 

INSIGNIA. (See Commodities, class 71.) 

INSTRUMENTS. (See Commodities, class 1, 18.) 

INSULATING MATERIALS. (See Commodities, class 32.) 

INTERNATIONAL CITY MANAGERS' ASSOCIATION: Municipal 

Yearbook (1939): cited 104 

JEWELRY. (See Commodities, class 62.) 

JUTE. (See Commodities, class 21.) 

KEEZER, DEXTER M. and MAY, STACY: The Public Control of 

Business (1930); cited 87 

KNITTED GOODS. (See Commodities, class 55.) 

KNUDSEN, WILLIAM S. Mentioned 56 

KREPS, THEODORE J.: Letter of transmittal xii 

LABORATORY APPARATUS. (See Commodities, class 57.) 

LEATHER. (See Commodities, class 34.) 

LEVER ACT . 49 

LEWIS, HOWARD T.: Industrial Purchasing (1940); cited xvm, 

78,89,90,93, 117, 130 

LIBRARIES. (See Commodities, class 35.) 

LIGHTING APPARATUS (See Commodities, class 31.) 

LIME. (See Commodities, class 59.) 

LINNENBERG, CLEM C, joint author. (See Barbour, Dana M.) 

LINOLEUM. (See Commodities, class 27.) 

LIVESTOCK. (See Commodities, class 68.) 

LUBRICANTS. (.See Commodities, class 14.) 

LUMBER. (See Commodities, class 39.) 

MacARTHUR, DOUGLAS. Mentioned 60 

MacCORKLE, STUART A.: "State-Municipal Cooperation in Pur- 
chasing," National Municipal Review (September 1938); cited 66 

MacDONALD, J. H.: Practical Budget Procedure (1939); cited 117 

McKINSEY, J. O.: Budgetary Control (1922); cited 117 

MACHINERY. (See Commodities, class 66.) 

MACHINES. (See Commodities, class 40, 54, 66.) 

MANUFACTURING BY U. S. GOVERNMENT. (.See Government 
purchasing.) 

MAPS. (.See Commodities, class 35.) 

MATERIALS. (.See Commodities, class 20, 27, 32, 51, 59.) 

MAY, STACY, joint author. (See Keezer, D. M.) 

MEDALS. (See Commodities, class 71.) 

MEDICINES. (See Commodities, class 51.) 

METAL. (See Commodities, class 46, 47, 48.) 

METALS. PRECIOUS. (See Commodities, class 62.) 

METEOROLOGICAL APPARATUS. (.See Commodities, class 58.) 

MILLER-TYDINGS ACT 100 

MILL WORK. (See Commodities, class 59.) 

MINES. (See Commodities, class 3.) 

MONTHLY SUMMARY OF FOREIGN COMMERCE ^OF THE 

UNITED STATES (December 1938); cited 29 

MOTOR VEHICLES. (See Commodities, class 8.) 

MOULTON, H. G., joint author. (See Clark, J. M.) 

MUNICIPAL YEARBOOK (1940, 1939); cited 17,66 

MUSIC, MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS (See Commodities, class 36.) 



328 INDEX 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PURCHASING AGENTS: Handbook Pag« 
of Purchasing Policies and Procedure (1939); cited 80, 117, 130 

NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT (1916) 50 

NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT (1920) 55 

NELSON, DONALD M. Mentioned 56 

NEWSPAPERS. (See Commodities, class 35.) 

NEW YORK TIMES (January 24, 1940); cited 63 

NICHOLSON, JOSEPH W. Mentioned . 66 

NOTIONS. (See Commodities, class 27.) 

NUMBERING MACHINES. (See Commodities, class 54.) 

NUTS. (See Commodities, class 43.) 

OAKUM. (See Commodities, class 21.) 

O'CONNELL, JOSEPH J. Mentioned xn, xiv 

Notes 61, 77, 83, 88, 89, 91, 92 

OFFICE EQUIPMENT. (See Commodities, class 54.) 

OFFICE SUPPLIES. (See Commodities, class 53.) 

OIL. (See Commodities, class 7, 14.) 

OILCLOTH. (See Commodities, class 27.) 

OLIPHANT, HERMAN. Mentioned xi, 37 

O'MAHONEY, JOSEPH C xi 

OPPENHEIM, S. CHESTERFIELD: Recent Price Control Laws (1939) ; 

cited 106 

OUTFITS. (See Commodities, passim.) 

OVENS. (See Commodities, class 65.) 

OWSLEY, ROY H. Mentioned xiv 

PACKING. (See Commodities, class 33.) 

PAINT. (See Commodities, class 52.) 

PAINTINGS. (See Commodities, class 62.) 

PARTS. (See Commodities, passim.) 

PEOPLES, ADMIRAL C. J. Mentioned 13, 14 

PERIODICALS. (See Commodities, class 35.) 

PERSHING, JOHN J.: Final report (1919); cited 53 

PIPE. (See Commodities, class 44, 45.) 

PLANNING. (See Government purchasing.) 

PLANTS. (See Commodities, class 67.) 

POLISHING COMPOUNDS. (See Commodities, class 51.) 

PRINTERS' SUPPLIES. (See Commodities, class 53.) 

PRICES. (See Government purchasing.) 

PRINTING AND BINDING. (See Commodities, class 53.) 

PROCUREMENT. (See Government purchasing.) 

PROPOSALS CONCERNING GOVERNMENT PURCHASING. (See 
Government purchasing.) 

PROVISIONS. (See Commodities, class 56.) 

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CLEARING HOUSE: News Bulletin 

(Nov. 21, 1939) cited 65 

PUMPS. (See Commodities, class 11.) 

PURCHASE BUDGETING. (See Government purchasing.) 

PURCHASING. (See Government purchasing; State and local pur- 
chasing.) 

RADIO. (See Commodities, class 16.) 

RAILROAD TIES. (See Commodities, class 39.) 

RAILWAY EQUIPMENT. (See Commodities, class 58.) 

RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING GOVERNMENT PURCHAS- 
ING. (See Government purchasing.) 

REFERENCES TO LITERATURE. (See Bibliography.) 

RICE, STUART A.: Letter of transmittal xn 

RIGGING. (See Commodities, class 19.) 

RIVETS. (See Commodities, class 43.) 

ROBINSON-PATMAN ACT 100 

ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN D.: Message on anti-trust laws xi 

ROOFING MATERIAL. (See Commodities, class 59.) 

ROOTS. (See Commodities, class 67.) 

ROPE. (See Commodities, class 21, 22.) 

RUBBER. (See Commodities, class 33.) 

SADDLERY. (See Commodities, class 34.) 

SAND. (See Commodities, class 59.) 

SCOTT, FRANK A. Mentioned 47 

SCREWS. (See Commodities, class 43.) 



INDEX 329 

SEEDS. (See Commodities, class 67.) Page 

SERVICES, MISCELLANEOUS. (See Commodities, class 101, 102, 103, 
105, 107, 108, 125.) 

SHERMAN ACT 100-115 

SHIP FITTINGS. (See Commodities, class 12.) 
SHOES. (See Commodities, class 72.) 
SHRUBS. (See Commodities, class 67.) 
SILVERWARE. (.See Commodities, class 63.) 

SMITH, HARRY L. Mentioned xiv 

SOAP. (See Commodities, class 51.) 

SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD: Bureau of Employment Security: Admin- 
istrative Standards Bulletin (1939, 1940), cited 75 

SOUND-SIGNAL APPARATUS. (See Commodities, class 16.) 
SPORTING GOODS. (See Athletic equipment.) 
STATE AND LOCAL PURCHASING: 

Advance procurement 121, 128 

Cities 17-22 

Collusion 104-106 

Commodities 21, 22, 68, 70, 71 

Building and paving materials 21,