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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in Seattle, Wash., area. Hearings"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
SEATTLE, WASH., AREA— Part 2 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPEESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MARCH 18 AND 19, 1955 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
(Index in part 3 of these hearings) 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

AUG 15 1955 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1955 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MOROAN M. MOUI.PER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE. Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE. Calitornirt BERNARD W. I\EAR\EY, New York 

JAMES I',. ERA/11:R, .III.. Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON. California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 
n 



CONTENTS 



March 18, 1955: Testimony of— Pase 

Itobert B. Krahl 371) 

Kolert IVIiller 382 

Eugene Victor Dennett (resumed) 391 

Lawrence Earl George 414 

Harriett Pierce 41G 

March 19, 1955: Testimony of— 

Eugene Victor Dennett (resumed) 419 

Paul William Delauey 438 

Jacob Bitterman 441 

Jolin Stenhouse 443 

Afternoon session : 

John Stenhouse (resumed) 450 

Eugene Victor Dennett (resumed) 406 

Abraham Arthur Cohen 490 

Eugene Victor Dennett (resumed) 492 

Bernard Freyd 493 

Hans Lenus Adolph Vl'estman 4!)5 

(Testimony of Euuene V. Dennett, Harold Johnston, Edwin A. Carlson, and 

Margaret Iillizabeth Gustafson, also heard on March IS, 1955, is printed in pt. 1 

of this series.) 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by snbcommlt- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa^ 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attaclis 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any suticommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Snbpenas n)ay be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

[■■.• 

'..,;• • • * • * * 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

• ****♦♦ 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

• *****♦ 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committte on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (i) the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (ii) 
the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propaganda 
that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacivs the 
principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any sul)c<)mmittee, or by any 
member designated l)y such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
SEATTLE, WASH., AREA— Part 2 



FRIDAY, MARCH 18, 1955 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Seattle, Wash. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 1 : 30 p. m., in Room 4U2, County-City Building, 
Seattle, Wash., Hon. Morgan M, Moulder (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members jjresent : Representatives Morgan M. Moulder 
(chairman) and Harold H. Velde. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Wheeler? 

Mr. Wheeler. ]Mr. Robert Krahl. 

Mr. Moulder. Will you hold up your right hand and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear tliat the testimony which you are about to 
give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Krahl. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT B. KRAHL, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, JAY G. SYKES 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you state your full name? 

Mr. Krahl. My name is Robert B. Krahl. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you spell the last name? 

Mr. Krahl. K-r-a-h-1. 

Mr. Wheeler. I see you are represented by counsel. 

Will counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Sykes. Jay G. Sykes. 

Mr. Wheeler. When were you born, Mr. Krahl ? 

Mr. Krahl. To the best of my knowledge, I was born on February 
6, 1925. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Krahl. I live in Seattle. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat is your present occupation? 

Mr. Krahl. I am unemployed. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was your occupation before becoming unem- 
ployed ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. With the chairman's permission. I would like to make 
a very, very short statement, less than a hundred words. 

Mr. Moulder. What was the question, Mr. Wheeler ? 

379 



380 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Moulder. That question calls for an answer, not a statement. 
And you can reply or give the answer, and then make any explanation 
you wish if it is relevant to the question and your answer. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kraiil. Well, I have been employed with odd jobs the past 9 
months ; haven't really been employed. I just worked a few days here 
and there. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you relate to the committee your occupational 
background for the past 5 years ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. To the best of my knowledge — let's see; 5 years would 
be around 1950. I think I have worked as a waiter, I have worked as 
a draftsman, I have done a little extra work as a casual laborer, 
worked a little time in a sawmill — I think that about covers it. 

Mr. AViiEELER. "Wliat is your educational background? 

Mr. Krahl. I graduated from high school. I have got a couple of 
years of college. I haven't graduated from college. 

Mr. Wheeler. What college did you attend? 

Mr. Krahl. The University of Arizona. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you cease your studies there? 

Mr. Krahl. I think it was around the end of 1947. 

Mr. Wheeler. How were you employed from 1947 to IDSO ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. From 1947 until 1950 I worked as a seaman part of that, 
time; I think most of that time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you served in the Armed Forces? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. Yes; I have. 

Mr. Wheeler. In what branch of the service did you serve? 

Mr. Krahl. In the United States Army. 

Mr. Wheeler. What were your dates of service? 

Mr. Kraiil. I am not sure, but I think it was around the beginning 
of 1951 until about the end of it, probably 2 weeks after the first of the 
year, until a week prior to Christmas 1951, 1 am pretty sure. 

Mr. Wheeler. What type of discharge did you receive? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. I received a general discharge under honorable condi- 
tions. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you familiar with the committee called the 
Youth Committee that is within the circles of the Communist Party 
in King County? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. At this point, Mr. Chairman, I would like to invoke the 
fifth amendment on the ground that I think that this may lead into 
questions which could force me to testify against myself. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with Mrs. Barbara Hartle? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. I\jrahl. I give the same answer, for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Moulder. You decline to answer for the same reason ? 

Mr. Krahl. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. I would like to refer to part 2 of a document en- 
titled "Investigation of Communist Activities in the Pacific North- 
west Area." It is a copy of the transcript of hearings held here last 
June. Mrs. Hartle is testifying : 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 381 

About 1949 and 1950, the last year that I was in Seattle — a youth committee 
was set up which I worked with, controlled, and guided all of its activities and 
tried to train the youth along Couuimnist Party lines; and on that youth com- 
mittee I remember a young man named Al Gumming, Robert Krahl, Calvin 
Harris. 

Are you acquainted with Mr. Al Gumming? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kraiil. I invoke the fifth amendment for the reasons previously 
stated. I believe tliat is the way to work it. 

]\Ir. Wheeler. What were the functions of the youth committee of 
the Communist Party? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

iSIr. Krahl. I again invoke the fifth amendment on the grounds 
previously stated, and refuse to answer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was Mrs. Hartle correct when she identified you 
as a member of the Communist Party, a member of the youth com- 
mittee? 

Mr. Krahl. I give the same answer, for the same reasons, 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Communist Party today? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. I give the same answer, for the same reasons. 

]SIr. Wheeler. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you decline to answer as to whether or not you 
are a member of the Communist Party today, and, as the reason for 
3^our refusal, do you invoke the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Krahl. That is correct; yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Velde, any questions? 

Mr. Velde. Were you a member of the Communist Party during the 
time you were in the Army ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. For the reasons previously stated, I must invoke the 
fifth amendment and refuse to answer. 

Mr. Velde. I take it that you will refuse to give this committee the 
benefit of your knowledge concerning the Communist Party activities, 
and rely on the fifth amendment whenever you are questioned about 
anytliing touching on communism. Is tltat correct? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. I refuse to answer tliat question for the same reasons and 
the reasons I have previously stated. 

Mr. Velde. That is all. 

Mr. ^Moulder. How long were you in the service? I forgot the 
period of time. That is, in the armed services of the United States. 

Mr. Krahl. About a year. Just under a year. 

Mr. Moulder. Was that the full period of your enlistment, the time 
you served, or were you discharged prior to the termination of your 
period of enlistment? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. Well, I was drafted. I didn't enlist. 

Mr. Moulder. Why were you discharged? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. I decline to answer, reluctantly, because I am a little — 
I don't really understand where this question of waiver comes in. So 
I decline to answer that question on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment, and for the reasons that I have previously stated. 

Mr. MouLDicR. Where were you stationed while in the service? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



382 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Krahl. Well, I was stationed for a while at Fort Ord. I think 
it was a few days. And then I served the rest of my time at Camp 
Koberts. 

Mr. AIouLDER. Are you now or have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? I believe the question was asked in another form. 

Mr. Krahl. Mr. Chairman, I decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment, and for the reasons I have previously 
stated. "^ 

Mr. Velde. Did I understand you to say that you were given a 
general discharge under honorable conditions from the Army ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. That is what I said; that is correct. 

_ Mr. Velde. That is not as high class a discharge as an honorable 
discharge; is it? . 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. Well, I really don't know. I don't know the answer 
to that. 

Mr. Velde. Don't you have any idea why you weren't given an hon- 
orable discharge instead of a general discharge? 

(The^witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kr.\hl. At this point I invoke the fifth amendment and decline 
to answer that question on the grounds that I have previously stated. 

Mr. Velde. That is all. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you know whether or not you were discharged 
for security reasons? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. Mr. Chairman, I reluctantly invoke the fifth amend- 
nient again, and for the same reasons, the reasons that I have pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Moulder. Wliile you were serving in the armed services were 
you at any time engaged in any un-American or subversive activi- 
ties? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Krahl. Mr. Chairman, I decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fiftli amendment and for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Robert Miller. 

Mr. Moulder. Put up your right hand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about to 
g]ve before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth and noth- 
ing but the trutli, so help you, God? 

Mr. Miller. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT MILLER, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 
SOLIE M. RINGOLD 

Mr. Wheeler, State your name, please. 

Mr. Miller. My name is Robert Miller. 

Mr. Wheeler. When were you born, Mr. Miller? 

Mr. Mh.ler. To the best of my knowledge, November 22, 1922. 

Mr. AVheeler. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mr. Miller. Seattle, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. What has been your educational background ? 

Mr. Miller. General, normal grammar school. I don't know 
whether you call it junior or senior. And up to the third year of high 
school. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 383 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you currently employed ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. How are you employed? 

Mr. Miller. I am an appliance, radio and television repair man, 
sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is that here in Seattle? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. And what has your employment background been, 
say since 1940? 

Mr. Miller. Since 1940, part of the time in the shipyards, part of 
the time in Boeing Airplane Co. Part of the time also was spent in 
the Armed Forces daring the period which you mentioned. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your military service record? 

Mr. Miller. I was inducted into the Navy, and, the best I can recall, 
the elates are from June of 1945 until March of 1946. ^ 

Mr. Wheeler. What type of discharge did you receive ? 

Mr. Miller. It is difficult for me to answer that. I believe it was 
an honorable discharge. There is some question now that you bring 
it up, as to whether it was what the Navy refers to as a battleship 
discharge, which I think they reserve to only those who have served 
overseas. There are no peculiarities in regard to my discharge, if 
that is the intent of the question. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wlien were you employed at Boeing Aircraft? 

I\Ir. Miller. To the best of my knowledge, with interruptions, of 
course, it was in 1943. I do not know now when I was last employed 
by Boeing Aircraft except to place it in relation to an event which 
would be several months prior to the strike which has been mentioned, 
of course, in the proceedings. I could not recall even the month or the 
year involved. 

Mr. Wheeler. How were your services terminated at Boeing ? 

Mr. Miller. My services were terminated for lack of attendance 
there. 

Mr. Wheeler. Lack of attendance at work? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. While at Boeing were you a member of any union? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. What union was it? 

Mr. Miller. The Aeronautical Mechanics Union,^ sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you still a member ? 

Mr. Miller. No, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Why are you no longer a member of the union ? 

Mr. Miller. Because when I was terminated from Boeing Aircraft 
I saw no reasons for further continuing membersliip, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. I see you are represented by counsel. 

Will you identify yourself, please? 

Mr. RiNGOLD. My name is Solie, S-o-l-i-e, M. Eingold, R-i-n-g-o-l-d. 
I am an attorney practicing law in the city of Seattle. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know a person by the name of Barbara 
Hartle? 

Mr. Miller. I have known her in the past, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Under what circumstances have you known her? 

Mr. Miller. I recall one. I have eaten dinner with her at my 
father-in-law's establishment. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever see her on any other occasion? 



* This Is a referPTice to International Association of Machinists, AFL, Aeronautical 
Industrial District Lodge 751. 



384 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., ARE4 

Mr. IMiLLER. I have seen her on television, perhaps on the street, 
and I may have other than that. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall ever meeting her in connection with 
Communist Party activities? 

Mr. Miller. It is difficult to say as to -what vrere the connections. 
I would say that perhaps it was in relation to the Communist Party, 
sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr, Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you first become a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. To the best of my knowledo;e, in 1943, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. What were the circumstances under which you 
joined the Communist Party? 

Mr. Miller. It is difficult to reach back that far for me and de- 
termine just what motivated my becoming a member. The only 
thing that I can recall is I attended several open Communist Party 
meetings during that period of time and I saw nothing at variance 
with what I believed to be for the common good of the people of the 
country. I thereupon became active, and I could not even recall the 
initial period of action, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who contacted you to get you in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Miller. That I could not recall at this time, sir, 

Mr. Wheeler. After you joined the Communist Party were you 
assigned to any particular group or unit? 

Mr. Miller. Not at any time that I recall, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Not at all ? 

Mr. Miller. Not that I can recall, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Miller. There were perhaps interruptions while I was in the 
service; I believe there were. To the best of my knowledge. I was 
probably a member of the Communist Party from 1943 until 1948, 
the best I can recall. I believe tliere was a period of time there that 
I was not a member, and it is hard for me to distingush between what is 
actual membership and carrying of a card, if there is such a thing, or 
payment of dues, and whether I just worked with them. It is difficult 
to reach that far back in my mind, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. During this 1943-48 period I believe you stated you 
were in the United States Navy. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Miller. For a portion of that — from 1945 until 1946. Approx- 
imately 9 months, to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you say your employment terminated at 
Boeing Aircraft? 

Mr. Miller. I cannot name a date. I can only relate it to some 
several months prior to the major strike which they had, I could not 
name the date. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was that in 1943 or 1944? 

Mr. Miller. No. Could someone refresh me as to when the strike 
occurred at Boeing Aircraft Co. ? 

It was 1946 or 1947; I believe in there, at the time which I was 
terminated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
employed at Boeing? 

Mr, Miller, Yes, sir. 



COHOIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 385 

Mr. Wheelek. Were you employed at Boeing when you became a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Miller. I do not recalL I think I was perhaps a member 
prior to going- to Boeing Aircraft Co. I do not recall, however. 

jMr. Wheeler. Mrs. Hartle, in previous testimony before the com- 
mittee, v\'ent into quite a bit of detail on the efforts of the Communist 
Party to infiltrate Boeing Aircraft. Do you have any knowledge 
along tliose lines ? 

jNIr. JSItller. The answer that you want from me is whether there 
was any direction as far as I was concerned, as to where to get employ- 
ment. Is that, as I understand, the intent of the question ? 

]\Ir. Wheeler. Yes. 

JMr. Miller. At no time, to the best of my recollection, was I di- 
rected to go anywhere to work or to do any specific thing, as I can 
recall it now. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have knowledge of any attempt by the Commu- 
nist Party to infiltrate the Boeing plant ? 

JMr. Miller. 1 have no specific knowledge which I can testify as to 
facts, sir. I assume that is what you want, onlv things I know to be 
fact. 

JMr. Velde. Yes. 

JMr. Wheeler. Did you ever hold an office in the Aero Meclianics 
Union? 

Mr. Mn,LER. Yes. I was at one time a shop steward, at one time a 
shop committeeman, and, if memory serves me right, I was president 
of one of tlie locals during the war. I am not too clear on whether 
that was president or vice president, sir. 

JMr. Wheeler. To your knowledge, were there any other members 
of the Communist Party in the Aei;o Mechanics Union? 

JMr. Miller. I do not know with any degree of certainty anyone at 
Boeing while 1 was there who might have been members of the Com- 
munist Party. There was certainly speculation or perhaps reason to 
assume they were. However, I would like to confine my testimony 
to facts, and I do not know any to be a fact. 

JVIr. Wheeler. We desire to be confined to facts. Are you testifying 
that you knew no one at Boeing Aircraft Co., to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

JMr. JMiLLER. To the best of my recollection at this time, sir. 

IMr. Wheeler. You knew no one in the Aero Machinists Union 
to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

JMr. Miller. In the Aero Mechanics Union ? 

JMr. Wheeler. Aero Mechanics; I am sorry. 

Mr. JMiLLER. I relate the two together, in that I believe the Aero 
Mechanics were only involved with employees of Boeing. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

JVIr. Wheeler. You have also stated, I believe, that you were not 
assigned to any group or unit of the Communist Party. 

JVIr. Miller. To the best of my recollection, that was my testimony, 
sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. You don't recall who recruited you into the Com- 
munist Party ? 

JVIr. JMiLLER. I do not, sir. In fact, I might explain it this way: I 
am not even sure whether it was any specific individual or whether, 
during the course of an open meeting, it fell upon me, a desire to be- 
come a member. It is difficult for a man to reach that far back in 
years and testify with any certainty, sir. 



386 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. You were very vague in your testimony as to how 
you became a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Miller. Sir, is it unreasonable to be vague on something that 
occurred nigh onto 12 years ago when I was between the age of 20 and 
21, sir? Is that difficult to understand, that a man might honestly 
be vague? 

Mr. Wheeler. How many meetings of the Communist Party did 
you attend from 1943 until the time you went in the Armed Forces in 
1945? 

Mr. Miller. I would be unable to give you any number with any 
degree of accuracy. It would be pure speculation and only an esti- 
mate. If you want an estimate, I could give it if the committee so 
desires. 

Mr. Wheeler. I think you can speculate on this part of your testi- 
mony. 

Mr. Miller. As I get the question, you are asking me how many do 
I think might have gone to. If I am recalling something I would have 
an actual number and would not have to estimate. I am not able to 
recall any number of meetings at which I attended. There was per- 
haps 30, 40 meetings, I do not know, over this period of time. It is 
purely a speculative answer, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. But you may have attended that many? 

Mr. Miller. That is right. And that may be at variance 50 percent 
one way or the other. 

Mr. Wheeler. We are not binding you on this. 

Mr. Miller. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were these meetings held that you attended ? 

Mr. Miller. I cannot recall specifically where any meetings might 
have been held. In fact, most of my activity while at Boeing's was in 
legitimate, recognized trade-union work within the framework of the 
contract with Boeing Aircraft Co. Most, or if any, activity with other 
members, who I perhaps suspected to be Communists, or persons of 
my particular persuasion, was not in the form of a meeting, but per- 
haps I would meet one while at work, or I might meet one at the cafe- 
teria, or several of us might meet together in the cafeteria and just 
discuss general problems. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you receive any direction from the Communist 
Party to conceal your membership because of your employment at 
Boeing's ? 

Mr. Miller. I do not believe it was at anyone's direction. Thinking 
back — and I can only assign, a reason now going backward — I perhaps 
knew of my own intelligence not to do so. I would perhaps be ex- 

{)elled from the Aero Mechanics Union, which, of course, would mean 
OSS of employment at Boeing's. I do not recall any specific direction. 

Mr. Wheeler. But you have testified that you may have attended 
approximately 40 meetings during the period from 1943 to 1945, a 
period of, say, 18 months or 20 months. 

Mr. Miller. I had thought I was testifying during the whole period 
at which I was in the party. 

Mr. Wheeler. No, it is confined to the period from the time you 
joined the Communist Party to when you entered the United States 
Navy. 

Mr. Miller. Well then, of course, it makes more obvious that the- 
answer was purely speculative and could well have been largely in 
error. I thought I was answering or speculating in regard to my 
whole membership in the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 387 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you like to estimate again that period of 
time? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I have got to go backward here. Wliich period 
of time are you referring to? 

Mr. Wheeler. From the time you joined the Communist Party 
until you entered the United States Navy. 

Mr. Miller. That would be from 1943 up until 1945. Eight? 
Two years? 

Mr. Wheeler. That is right. 

Mr. Miller. Again a purely speculative answer : perhaps 20 meet- 
ings, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Now you attended approximately 20 meetings from 
1943 to 1945. And from 1946 to 1948 you attended approximately 
20 more. And you don't recall the place where any of these meetings 
were held? 

Mr. Miller. I have testified where I recalled that I thought we had 
conducted some. I cannot recall any specific place. One or two 
might have occurred at a rooming house where I stayed. I do not 
recall, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Where were they usually held ? Was there a regular 
meeting place? 

Mr. Miller. To the best of my knowledge ; no, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Who called the meetings? That is, how did you 
get a notice there was going to be a meeting held somewhere? How 
did you know where to go ? 

Mr. Miller. About the only way that I can think of it backward 
now, and I am not at all sure, is I would probably see or meet someone 
else on the job or in the cafeteria, and they might mention that we 
were going to get together and discuss the general problems. 

Mr. Moulder. On the average, how many people would ordinarily 
attend those meetings? 

Mr. Miller. As I recall it, it was a very, very few. I could not 
say. Probably under 10, looking way, way back. But it is difficult 
to say. 

Mr. Mout.der. Were they composed of people that you knew at 
the same place of employment? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. All of them ? 

Mr. Miller. To the best of my knowledge now; yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed, Mr. Wheeler. 

(The witness confers witli his counsel.) 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, might I make one brief point in regard 
to tliis time ? It might be better understood. 

The question probably arises as to how I am so vague on meetings 
and meeting places. It might be better understood if we take into 
account that, as best I can recall, this occurred during the time when 
the Communist Party was then the Communist Political Association. 
I believe that they held open meetings. I do not recall too much 
secrecy involved in it. And for that reason secrecy did not perhaps 
impress itself on my mind. And to recall in one period of time 
where a change takes place and into another, it changes things, looking 
backward and forward. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes ; I can appreciate what you are saying. 

Mr. Miller. Thank you. 

Mr. Moulder. At those meetings would there be a record kept of 
the meeting ; minutes of any sort ? 



3S8 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. ]\IiLLER. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Would there be an officer or a person presiding at 
the meeting? Someone who would act as a chairman or some official? 

Mr. Miller. Whether it would be a person who acted as a chairman 
or whom the rest might just look to on the basis that — from the man- 
ner in which they spoke, they appeared to 

Mr. Moulder. Were dues paid at those meetings? 

Mr. ^IiLLER. I cannot recall anything specific. However, I would 
imagine that there were, sir. 

Mr. ]\IouLDER. I wish to compliment you for coming forward here 
as a witness admitting that you were a member of the Communist 
Party, which is far better and a better reflection upon you as an indi- 
vidual and as an American citizen than to hide behind the hfth amend- 
ment. But surely while you were a member you recall having paid 
membership dues. 

Mr. Miller. Sir, I would have to answer it in this way, that undoubt- 
edly I did. However, to recall a specific instance — I could not. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you recall the name of any one person who 
attended those meetings at any time ? I mean during that long period 
of time, with the frequent meetings you have admitted that you 
attended, and the close contact that you had with the individuals, 
where you say you not only attended meetings, but frequently had 
lunch or ate meals together or visited with one another and discussed 
the meetings, surely you could remember the name of at least one 
person or more that you know, of your own personal knowledge, who 
associated with you at the same time in that respect. 

Mr. Miller. Perhaps I am confused. Perhaps that is the difficulty 
I have in answeriug. I was under the impression that the only names 
which you wished from me, to give out here publicly, would be persons 
whom I was certain or knew to be Communists. 

Mr. Moulder. Eight. 

Mr. Miller. And it is only for that reason that I do not mention 
names. It is probable that I could prod my memory into remember- 
ing persons whom I met with or worked with while at Boeing's in the 
trade unions. But to identify them here gives the impression that 
1 am identifying them as Communists, which I do not know to be a 
certainty. 

Mr. Moulder, Do you recall the names of any persons who attended 
any of those meetings that you have referred to as Communist Party 
meetings or as Communist Political Association committee meetings, 
who were not members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Sir, I could not be certain of where they w^ere. I mean 
either way. If I was certain of those who were not members, that, by 
process of elimination, would make me certain of those who were. 
And I am not certain either way, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Hartle testified that you were a member of the 
Holly Park Branch of the Communist Party. Does that refresh your 
memory to any degree ? 

Mr. Miller. In relation to what question, sir ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall being a member of that iivAt or cell of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. I do not recall any activity in the branch that is 
mentioned. It is possible that in their records or in their determina- 
tion that they maybe have regarded me as a member of that branch 
and that I did reside there. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 389 

Mr Wheeler. You testified that during the period of time of your 
membership, the Communist Party was dissolved and the Communist 
Political Association formed. However, when you returned back 
from the Army in 1946 the Communist Political Association had been 
disbanded and the Communist Party reformed. A reorganization 
had taken place and the party had tightened up considerably alter the 
Duclos letter, if you are familiar with that. 

But did you notice, upon your return from the Armed t orces, any 
difference in the structure of the Communist Party? , 

Mr. Miller. I don't know that I paid any particular attention, sir. 
I don't recall any great activity in the Communist Party alter I re- 
turned from the service. -, .. .^ r^ • *. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have also testified that you left the Communist 
Partv in 1948. For what reasons did you leave the party ? 

Mr. Miller. As to the best of my knowledge, sir, I was dropped 
from the Communist Party for inactivity. • ^ t, ^ ^ 

Mr AVhffler Have you attended any other Communist Party-type 
meetings like the Socialist Workers Party since you left the Com- 
munist Party? , r. • t . ttt i t> . 

Mr Miller. To be specific, as far as the Socialist A\orkers 1 arty, 
I never have. And, to the best of my knowledge, I have attended no 
meetings of that type, sir. • v -j i 

Mr. Wheeler. And at this time you cannot recall one individual 
who was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I could put it this way: I could recall knowing 
Barbara Hartle. The only way I could say that she was is that she has 
publicly testified that she was. 

Mr. Wheeler. I^Ir. Chairman, I have no further questions at this 
time. However, I would like to recommend that the witness' subpena 
be continued. 

;Mr. Moulder. All right. 

Do you have a question, Mr. Velde? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. „ 

I believe you said you got out of the Army in 1948. Is that correct i 

Mr. Miller. To the best of my knowledge, sir. . ^ „ ^ 

Mr. Velde. What prompted you to get out of the Communist Party 
when you did? , , ^ , 

Mr. Miller. To the best of my knowledge, the party dropped me 
for inactivity, sir. . .... 

Mr. Velde. You never wrote a letter disavowing membership in 
the Communist Party then? 

Mr. :Miller. No, sir, I never did. 

Mr. Velde. Or any other formal withdrawal from the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Miller. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Velde. Are you a Communist Party member today i 

Mr. Miller. No, sir, I am not. And again I have to testify to the 
best of my knowledge. I hope and trust that no one has me on the 
rolls unbeknownst to me. To my knowledge, I am not a member, 

no, sir. . • j. i t^. • 

Mr. Velde. I certainly do appreciate your coming forward, it is 

rather refreshing. 

It appears to me that with a little searching of your memory you 
might be able to recall some of the incidents more clearly than you 
have. I am sorry to say you are vague in your testimony about 

62222— 55— pt. 2 2 



390 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

activities of the Communist Party in this area. So I will be in 
favor of the recommendation of Mr. "VVlieeler that you be retained 
under subpena so that you might check. If you want any assistance 
from our tiles. I am sure Mr. Wheeler will be able to give that to you. 
Next tm.e you testify you may testify a little more definitely. 

Mr. Moulder. For your own benefit and for your own interest, I 
will HFk you this question : 

You say, as far as you know, you are no longer a member of the 
Communist Party. 
Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. That is with the fear that some organization or 
someone might still be carrying your name on the rolls. 
Mr. Miller. It is a possibility. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you publicly, and here and now before this com- 
mittee, disavow any belief in the Communist Party and refute all of 
the principles and policies for which it stands? Do you now take 
that stand, and do you now so testify? 
(Tlie witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miller. The question, as I understand it, is— I mean the ques- 
tion of my avowal of a belief. 

I hopel am allowed a little bit of latitude in answering this. 
I state I am not a member of the Communist Party today due to 
any action on my part. I further state that I disavow anything which 
is contrary to the best interests of our country and of our people. As 
to pinning it down to the Communist Party, I have to frankly 
concede that I am not at all sure where the Communist Party is. I 
mean if the tilings that are ascribed to them are true, certainly I dis- 
avow them. I say that I have no association with them. It is only 
that I hesitate to disavow anything that I am not sure of. 

I am sure of tlie one thing, that I am opposed to anything that is 
against tlie best interests of the people of our country. 

Actually, since I was dropped in 1948 I have been inactive in all 
political activities to the point where I am not even registered to vote, 
I don t believe, since 1948. I am confused on where most everybody 
stands, and I have not enough facts to draw a conclusion on it. 

Mr. Moulder. The reason I ask you that question is because there 
is considerable evidence before this committee and other investigative 
Government agencies that many Communist Party members ceased 
to be active as party members but have gone underground and still 
continue m tlieir same belief, the same philosophy, and with, of course, 
the same objectives. I believe your answer is clear to this point: 
you attended all of those Communist Party meetings; I believe you 
said a hundred, and it would vary one way or another, 50 percent 
either way. 

Mr. Velde. Approximately 40, w^asn't it? 
Mr. Miller. That is it. 

Mr Moulder. But during that period of time you certainly must 
have been well versed and qualified to know the purposes and the 
po icies ot the Communist Party as such, because at those meetings 
didn t you study the Communist Party literature and study the pur- 
poses for which it was organized? 
Mr. IMiLLER. Is that the question? 
Mr. Moulder. Yes. 
Mr. Miller. Yes, I did. 
Mr. ]\IouLDER. Has your opinion now changed with respect to the 



COMMUNIST ACTrV'ITIES EN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 391 

Communist Party from what it was when you were attending the 
Communist Party meetings ? Or is it the same as it was then 'i 

Mr. Miller. I see what you are driving at, and it is hard for me 
to get my understanding across. 

Mr. Moulder. You say you have severed your association with 
the party, and I want to know if it is just a technical disassociation 
or is it a clean break from the Communist Party? 

Mr. Miller. No; it is not a technical disassociation. If I might 
have a moment, I would like to go on a little further. 

First, the reference is to having attended, say, up to 40 meetings, 
one way or the other, and being aware of the goal of the Communist 
Party. I would have to say this in all honesty : During the time I was 
a member of the Communist Party I at no time was aware of their 
desire to do anything which was contrary to the best interests of the 
people. Now it could conceivably be that I was not aware, perhaps 
naive. 

All of my activity — and, in fact, that is what prompted me not to 
take the fifth amendment. At no time in my life have I knowingly 
done anything contrary to the best interests of the people of this coun- 
try. And certainlv were I to be aware of that in an association and 
continue activity I would be guilty of doing something against tlie 
best interests of the people. 

Mr. Moulder. The subpena that has been served upon you will be 
in full force and effect. You will be subject to recall upon due notice. 

Mr. Miller. Should I leave for the day ? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

The subpena will remain in full force and effect, and ycu will be 
subject to recall upon due notice at any time in the future. That 
does not mean, of course, that you have to attend any of the hearings 
here today or tomorrow. ,,,.,, ,^ ^t t^ -r 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like to call Mr. Eugene V. 
Dennett at this time. 

TESTIMONY OF EUGENE VICTOK DENNETT, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, KENNETH A. MacDONALD— Kesumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Dennett, at the time we suspended your 
testimony you had completed your narrative with regard to your ex- 
perience in the CCC camp, and told us that immediately thereafter 
you had been shanghaied into working shipping. 

(x\t this point Representative Morgan M. Moulder left the hearing 

Mr. Dennett. A little freight boat here in Puget Sound. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am sure that would be a very interesting story, 
but it is not a matter we are investigating in our work here. 

After you had that experience how long was it before you returned 
to the work of the Communist Party ? x t -. . 

Mr. Dennett. It was within a very few months because I didn t 
know at the time I started to work in the freight-boat industry in 
Puo-et Sound that there was an organizing drive of a union to organ- 
ize Ihe emplovees and that they had reached the point before I came 
along where they had entered into an arbitration. And they were 
awaiting the decision of this arbitrator. Finally the decision camo 
down, I think about 3 or 4 months after I entered the industry, and 
the decision was so adverse that the men stopped work as soon as the 
boats got into port. 



392 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

JSIr. Tavenner. What do you mean by saying that a decision came 
down ? 

Mr. Dennett, The arbitrator handed down his decision. He was 
a very long time making his decision. When it finally came down 
it was very disagreeable to all the employees. In fact, they rejected 
it ; they refused to accept it and called a strike. 

When they called that strike they were confronted Avith a problem 
of electing delegates to attend a meeting of the union to determine 
what course of action to pursue. 

I was elected a delegate from the crew that I was working with. 

When we arrived at this meeting — I believe the meeting was held 
in tlie labor temple — we discussed the award, and the union leaders 
at that time were very frankly disappointed in the results of it. 

The sum total of it was that it led to a strike, and the members 
seemed to like the way I presented their case during the course of the 
arguments, getting ready for the strike. And when the strike oc- 
curred I v/as elected chairman of the strike committee and chairman 
of the negotiating committee. 

So we were again brought into public attention, and the Communist 
Party looked me up very quickly to find out what was going on and 
to try to advise me how to conduct myself in the course of that strike. 
They really knew very little about it. They learned a great deal from 
me because I was working with the men. And their advice was I 
must immediately fight the leadership of the union, 

i made a few feeble etlorts in that direction and found that I 
didn't have any good reason for fighting that leadership because they 
were carrying out the program which I had advocated in the original 
strike meeting to satisfy the needs of the members. 

Mr. Tavenner. Apparently, the Communist Party w^as more in- 
terested in promoting its own objectives than it was the obj actives of 
the union which was on strike. 

Mr. Dennett. They were anxious that someone from the Commu- 
nist Party gain control in that organization. 

]\ir. Tavenner. What was the name of the organization? 

Mr. Dennett. At that time it was called the Ferry Boatmen's 
Union of the Pacific. It later has changed its name, and, in making 
use of that name, I certainly Avant it to be clearly understood that 
using that name in nowise should be construed as meaning that it was 
any Communist organization because it was not. 

Mr, Tavenner. It rather demonstrated just the contrary. 

Mr. Dennett. And its leaders were not. 

But the leaders of that organization w^ere making as sincere an effort 
as they knew how to represent the wishes and needs of the member- 
ship. 

While there were some tactical differences between myself and therri 
on various occasions, we did adopt a program wherein we agreed 
with each other that none of us would attempt to do anything or to 
speak in behalf of the organization without conferring with the other. 
In other words, we made a mutual agreement among ourselves as 
officials of the strike committee which required the exchange of mutual 
confidence. And, to the best of my ability, I carried that out, and 
I think, in all fairness, it should be said "that, to the best of their 
ability, they carried their part out. I think the value of that is 
demonstrated by the fact that in the final settlement of that strike we 
succeeded in raising the wages of the freight-boat employees from 



COMMUNIST ACTWITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 393 

$49 per month, without any regulation of hours, to a wage of about 
$150 per month with a reguhition of hours and provision for over- 
time. 

Mr. Velde (presiding). 

I am not quite clear about this ferry boatmen's union. Was it a local 
union not affiliated with any other ? 

Mr. Dennett. It was a part of an American Federation affiliate. 
At that time it was the Ferry Boatmen's Union of the Pacific, affiliated 
with the International Seamen's Union of America, affiliated with 
the American Federation of Labor. 

Mr. Velde. In what year ? 

Mr. Dennett. That was in 1936. 

Mr. Velde. How large was the local ? How many members ? 

Mr. Dennett. I think there were in the neighborhood of 300 or 
400 members in Puget Sound at that time. But that, of course, con- 
trolled all the tug boats and all the barges, all the towing, all the 
servicing, on the waterside of the smaller vessels. 

I think that that completes the statement of what was in progress at 
the time of the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. After this experience on the waterfront what was 
your next contact with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Dennett. The next occurred in the district council of the 
Maritime Federation of the Pacific. That was Northwest District 
Council No. 1 which was in Seattle. This was the council to which 
delegates were sent from all the maritime unions. 

(At this point Representative Morgan M. Moulder returned to 
the hearing room.) 

Mr. Dennett. And some of the shoreside unions, which worked in 
the shipyards. 

These unions were brought together in the 1934 strike, which was 
before my time. And I would be presuming on you to try to give any 
testimony about the exact way in which it was formed except to say 
that, consistent with the Communist Party policy, it was our objective, 
from the days of the old Marine Workers Industrial Union, which was 
one of the affiliates of the Red International of Labor Unions, to 
organize all the maritime workers into one organization. 

However, it was the desire of the workers in the industry to choose 
their membership in the duly constituted, chartered organizations of 
craft unions which were already in the field, such as the Sailors' Union 
of the Pacific, the ISIarine Firemen, Oilers, Water Tenders and Wipers 
Association, the Marine Cooks and Stewards of the Pacific.^ And 
later on 1 believe the radio operators, the masters, mates, and pilots,^ 
and the marine engineers.^ Then, of course, the shoreside organiza- 
tions of longshoremen,- machinists and shipwrights, joiners, boiler- 
makers. There were many organizations that were involved in any 
kind of waterborne traffic. 

Through the Maritime Federation of the Pacific all of these were 
brought together, and, for a brief period of time at least, cooperated 
quite successfully. 

However, by 1935 one organization began to object to the Com- 
munist Party influence in the federation. That was the sailors' union 

^ Til is is a reference to National Union of Marine Cooks and Stewards. 
' This Is a reference to Masters, Mates, and Pilots of America, National Organization 
(AFL). 
«This is a reference to National Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association (CIO). 



394 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

under Harry Lundeberg. However, in that dispute it wasn't clear to 
the average person who was in the industry just what the nature of the 
dispute was, and most people felt that the dispute was a personal 
dispute between the leaders of the sailors and the leaders of the long- 
shoremen. My own knowledge of the situation, of a later date, would 
lead me to believe that that is not an adequate explanation of what 
the dispute was all about. 

The dispute ran much deeper than personality clashes. The dis- 
pute was a fundamental policy question dispute, and that dispute cen- 
tered around whether or not the organization would move closer and 
closer to the Red International of Labor Unions through this new 
form or whether it would permit itself to separate into the respective 
component parts and each function separately and independently 
without that international Red affiliation. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the outcome of that dispute? 

Mr. Dennett. The outcome was that the split S])read. First ono 
organization and then another began to have misgivings as to the 
consequences of being full partners in the Maritime Federation of the 
I'acihc. 

The first one to show the disaffection were the sailors. Subse- 
quently the marine firemen showed disaffection. Then the master 
mates and pilots showed disaffection. And the marine engineers 
showed disaffection. The radio operators began to show some dis- 
affection. Some of the longshoremen showed disaffection. 

So the result was that by the time 1937 or 1938 rolled around the 
Maritime Federation was becoming sort of a bare skeleton which 
existed with a powerful name but did not have the moral backing and 
support of the members of the organizations that were affiliated to it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the organization Communist-dominated? 

Mr. Dennett. The Maritime Federation of the Pacific top leader- 
ship had at all times some prominent Communist leaders, some persons 
who were Communists. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you at this time give us the names of those who 
occupied an official position in that organization who were known to 
you to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dennett. One of the first ones that I knew was a man by the 
name of Walter Stack. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Walter Stack become very prominent in the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Dennett. Walter Stack was in the marine firemen's union and 
exercised a great deal of influence in that organization here. 

Another was Ernest Fox. Ernest Fox was a patrolman in the 
Sailors Union of the Pacific, and he exercised a great deal of influence 
in the sailors union. He was one of the original ones. Wlien Mr. 
Lundeberg was the first president of the organization Mr. Fox was 
his right hand bower who did most of the leg work for Mr. Lundeberg 
at that time. Lundeberg was the first president of the Maritime Fed- 
eration of the Pacific. 

Mr. Tavenner. At that time was he anti-Communist? 

Mr. Dennett. I think, from the stories that I have been told, that 
Mr. Lundeberg was thought so well of at that time tliat he was invited 
to take part and did participate in some top fraction meetings of the 
Communist Party in the Maritime Federation. And when he turned 
against the Communist Party a little bit later on that incensed the 



COM^IUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 395 

Communists so much that they looked upon Mr. Lundeberg as a poten- 
tial traitor who might reveal a good deal more about them than they 
wished to have revealed, so that they launched many attacks upon Mr. 
Lundeberg for the political purpose of diverting the attention from 
the real reason for the attack. 

I do not mean to say by that that I endorsed everything Mr. Lunde- 
berg did, because I disagreed with most of the things he did on a 
straight trade-union basis on a later date. But this much about that 
relationship I do know, and I know that — continuing the answer to 
your question as to the others — the next one whom I knew who also 
became president of the Maritime Federation of the Pacific was a man 
by the name of James Engstrom. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name, please. 

Mr. Dennett. E-n-g-s-t-r-o-m, 

Mr. Dennett. E-n-g-s-t-r-o-m. Engstrom also came from the 
Marine Firemen's L^nion here in the Seattle branch. Mr. Engstrom 
exercised powerful influence in the organization. However, he came 
to a very sad end in his relationships there because, for some reason 
or other, he began to have some difficulty following the Communist 
Party line and instructions, and ultimately took a vacation, went to 
Alaska, thought the situation over, and I believe that he informed sojne 
Federal Government agency of his connection and relationship at 
that time, and severed his connection or resigned from his position, 
and what happened to him after that I do not know. 

Mr. Velde. I am not clear on this probably because I am not up on 
my organization of labor unions as well as I^ should be. 

Was the Sailors Union of the Pacific a part of the unit within the 
federation ? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, it was affiliated. 

Mr. Velde. It was not a new organization then when it split off 
under 

Mr. Dennett. No. The Sailors Union of the Pacific is one of the 
oldest organizations on the west coast, founded originally by old 
Andrew Furuseth. 

Mr. Velde. Is the same true of the other organizations that split 
from the federation ? Were they at one time units within the federa- 
tion? 

Mr. Dennett, Yes, they were. Later on there was a man that be- 
came an official in the Maritime Federation, by the name of Pringle, 
P-r-i-n-g-l-e. I do not remember his first name. Pringle occupied 
a high position in the federation. I do not recall at this moment the 
exact position, but I do know that when I had business to transact on 
behalf of the Ferry Boatsmen's Union at that time, as it was known, 
I had to deal with Mr. Pringle. And he was a member of the party 
also. 

Later on I came to know another person who later became president 
of the Maritime Federation, and was the last president to the best of 
my recollection, a man by the name of Bruce Hannon, H-a-n-n-o-n. 
Mr. Bruce Hannon was a longshoreman from the city of Seattle, 
worked on the Seattle waterfront for a good many years. Mr. Han- 
non also came into conflict with the Communist Party policy while 
he was a member of the Communist Party, and totally disagreed with 
the decision to wipe out the Maritime Federation. 

The policy decision arrived at on that question was due to the fact 
that the CIO was coming into existence in 1937, and it was the belief 



396 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

of the Communist Party that if the Maritime Federation were dis- 
solved and liquidated that the affiliates of it would form a very good, 
solid, and substantial core of the new CIO organization and would be 
able to take all the fishermen unions with it into the CIO. 

Mr. Hannon did not agree with that policy. He felt that the Mari- 
time Federation still had a function to perform and it should not have 
been liquidated. And he came into violent dispute with the party 
leadership over that question. How it was finally resolved I do not 
know. I did not see Mr. Hannon until after the war, and I met him 
one day very casually and he did not at that time express anything 
definitive which I could contribute now to enlighten anyone as to what 
he felt except to say that he was still bitter. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a result of that change of emphasis on the part 
of the Communist Party, that is, from the Maritime Federation to its 
component parts, which were to form another organization, vv^as the 
Maritime Federation of the Pacific disbanded? 

Mr. Dennett. That is right. 

Mr. TavennerJ Can you give us the approximate date? 

Mr. Dennett. To the best of my recollection, it would be right 
around 1938 or 1939. I may be a little bit off one year or another 
there, but it is close to that date. 

Mr. Tavenner. During this period, between the time that you were 
shanghaied on a boat here in Seattle and 1938, did you engage in any 
other activities in the Communist Party not connected with maritime 
affairs? 

Mr. Dennett. I certainly did. I was sent as a delegate from the 
Inlandboatmen's Union.^ The name didn't become Inlandboatmen 
until much later, but I think of it now in that term. The name 
actually was Ferry Boatmen's Union at that time. 

As a result of the successful conduct of our strike in 1936, the 
members and the good relationship which was established between 
the officers and myself, the officers agreed with the membsrship in 
electing me a delegate to represent the organization in the Central 
Labor Council. And that, of course, involved attending a weekly 
meeting every Wednesday night in the labor temple. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where ? 

Mr. Dennett. In Seattle. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just tell us very briefly what the Central Labor 
Council was. 

Mr. Dennett. It was the city organization to which all American 
Federntion of Lnbor affiliates were affiliated, and sent delegates to dis- 
cuss their mutual business weekly. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the fact that you were sent there as a delegate 
make you a member of the Central Labor Council ? 

Mr. Dennett. It did. Because of my activity in the Maritime Fed- 
eration District Council, the delegates there, most of whom were also 
delegates to the Central Labor Council, elected me chairman of 
the maritime caucus which was comprised of all those affiliates from 
the maritime unions who were also affiliates of the Central Labor 
Council. There was a duplication of affiliation there, and I was 
elected chairman of that caucus. As that chairman, I was able to 
speak in behalf of that caucus — all those maritime delegates — which 
was the largest caucus at that time in the Central Labor Council. 



^ This Is a reference to Inland Boatmen's Union of the Pacific. 



COMMUjSTIST activities in the SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 397 

Consequently, when I arose to speak the chairman of the Central 
Labor Council would recognize me rather than recognize any other 
member of the caucus because he was recognizing the duly elected 
leadership of the caucus. Consequently, it was my function to rep- 
resent that caucus on the floor of the Central Labor Council on all im- 
portant questions, which I did. And it caused a great deal of attention 
to be focused on my work and on the work of the maritime unions. 

We were trying our level best to support the policies which the 
Communist Party urged upon us, and that pertained especially to the 
question of war, fighting the program of involvement in war at that 
time. It involved being very critical of the top leadership of the 
American Federation of Labor, which many other people criticized as 
well as we, and by we, I mean the Communists were not the only ones 
Yhat criticized; many of the rank-and-file members who had no 
knowledge of Communist Partj?^ policy or activity were also critical. 
But because of this similarity of criticism, the Communists, knowing 
where they were going, were able to direct this criticism along very 
effective lines. And I was a central instrument in that effort in the 
Central Labor Council in the city of Seattle. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a result of your experience on the Central La- 
bor Council were you selected for other organizational work in the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your work ? 

Mr. Dennett. The Communist Party recognized that the position 
which I was attaining in the Central Labor Council represented a 
powerful political influence in the city because the city of Seattle at 
that time had the reputation of being the best organized labor city 
in the United States of America. There was hardly an industry that 
was not actually organized in some labor union, holding bona fide 
labor-union contracts with its management or employer. And the 
city had a very wide reputation in that respect. Some people looked 
upon that as good; some people looked upon it as bad. The Com- 
munist Party looked upon it as being very good because it provided 
us an opportunity to reach every single worker in the city indirectly. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Would you say tliat as a result of your successful 
efforts while a member of the Central Labor Council, you took part 
in other Communist Party activities? 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you describe the nature of those activities? 

Mr. Dennett. It was in the Washington Commonwealth Federa- 
tion, which was an organization which came into existence, the ele- 
ments of it came into existence, prior to my coming from the CCC's. 
But this organization originally grew out of the transformation from 
the unemployed to the employed workers. And people built what 
was known as Commonwealth Builder Clubs. And then, of course, 
you recall that in that earlier period, 1933, there was a change of 
political administration due to a national election. And in that 
period there were a group of young, ambitious politicians who wanted 
to get elected to public office. There were many young aspiring grad- 
uates of college who felt that they had a contribution to make, and 
they sought audiences before these respective organizations to win 
political favor, make speeches and otherwise become publicly known 
so that when they did choose to file as a candidate for public office 
that they could expect enough support to get elected. 



398 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

These Commonwealth Builders ultimately merged and formed 
what was known as the Washington Commonwealth Federation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there anything of a Communist origin that you 
know of in the establishment of the Commonwealth Builders? 

Mr. Dennett. Ko. To the best of my knowledge, this was a result 
of the efforts of people who were not directed or led by the Communist 
Party. However, their efforts met with such sweeping success that 
the Communist Party had to concern itself if it was going to remain 
a political factor. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, the Communist Party in order to 
become the leader in the field which it desired, would have to get con- 
trol of such organizations. Is that what you mean? 

Mr. Dennett. Absolutely. We recognized that. And since being 
pushed into leadership in various activities in the city, it fell to me 
to do a lot of this representative work of the Communist Party in the 
ranks of the Washington Commonwealth Federation, because the 
prestige I had in the Inland Boatmen's Union as a result of the suc- 
cessful strike made it a comparatively simple matter for the mem- 
bers to elect me a delegate and be a bona fide representative of a bona 
fide labor union in the Washington Commonwealth Federation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Without going into detail, will you tell us what the 
connection was, between the Commonwealth Builders and the Wash- 
ington Commonwealth Federation, or how one may have succeeded 
the other? 

Mr. Dennett. The Commonwealth Builders were the groups of 
small organizations which preceded the Washington Commonwealth 
Federation. The Communist Party became interested in the success 
of Commonwealth Builders and brought forth some proposals to cause 
the organization to expand and grow. 

One of the proposals of the Communist Party was that steps should 
be taken by the Commonwealth Builders to make possible the affilia- 
tion not only of neighborhood groups alone 

Mr. Tavenner. Neighborhood groups of what? 

Mr. Dennett. Of either Democrats or Commonwealth Builders, 
or unemployed organizations or Workers Alliance. There are still 
a few remnants of those, remnants of the old Unemployed Citizens 
League organizations. These had all transformed and became the 
foundation upon which the Commonwealth Builders rested. 

The Communist Party, however, conceived that if the organization 
were to become as powerful as it should and ought to be, that provision 
should be made for the affiliation of larger organizations. And the 
Communist Party succeeded in prevailing upon most of its members 
to enter the American Federation of Labor unions. Consequently 
it was a simple matter to introduce resolutions in numerous labor 
tinions urging that the American Federation of Labor unions affiliate 
with the Washington Commonwealth Federation. At the same time 
they proposed the calling of a convention to broaden the base of the 
organization of this Commonwealth Builders. 

That was done. And the Washington Commonwealth Federation 
was brought into existence as an organization with affiliation from 
large numbers of unions in addition to Democratic clubs and unem- 
ployed clubs and fraternal organizations. Anything and everything 
which was willing to affiliate was certainly welcomed and urged to 
affiliate to the organization, pay dues, participate in its conventions, 
participate in the electoral activities it engaged in. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 399 

Mr, Taveistner. The method that the Communist Party used to 
assist in the organization of the Washington Commonwealth Federa- 
tion was to induce the leadership of the particular organizations which 
they were members of, such as the various labor organizations that you 
mentioned 

Mr. Dennett. They would raise perfectly legitimate reasons which 
any ordinary person would recognize as proper. 

Mr. Tavenner. And they brought their influence to bear on the 
formation of the organization through that method. 

Mr. Dennett. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a result of that action did you say a convention 
was held ? 

. Mr. Dennett. A convention of the Commonwealth Builders was 
held, which changed the name to Washington Commonwealth Federa- 
tion. 

(At this point Kepresentative Harold H. Velde left the hearing 
room.) 

Mr. Dexxett. Because of that affiliation of whole organizations 
whicli were not geographical in nature — take a labor union : It was 
not geographical in nature; it Avas a complete affiliate without having 
geogi\aphical definition whereas a Democratic club in a particular 
district or a particular part of the city was restricted to a particular 
area. 

. I say the federation j^art became a. necessary part of the title be- 
cause of the nature of the changed affiliations. 

^Ir. Ta\t2xxer. Before the name was clianged what was the title? 

Mr. Dennett. Commonwealth Builders. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, it w\as a conversion of Common- 
wealth Builders into an overall organization. 

Mr. Dennett. It wa3. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Titled "Washington Commonwealth Federation." 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess for approximately 
5 minutes. 

(Whereupon- a short recesr- was taken.) 

(Representatives Moulder and Velde were present upon reconven- 
ing at the expiration of the recess.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Dennett, I think you have made it clear in your 
testimony that the Commonwealth Builders were not organized by 
the Communist Party and that there was very little, if any, Commu- 
nist Party influence within those affiliated organizations as such. Am 
I correct in that ? 

Mr. Denxeit. Well, that is essentially correct. 

Mr. Tait^xxer. I want to be certain as to what the picture is with 
regard to the Wasliington ConnnouM'ea'lth Federation which suc- 
ceeded; that is, whether or not at the inception of that organization 
it was heavily controlled by the Communist Party. 

Mr. Dennett. No ; it was not. And, as a matter of fact, it was 
quite anti-Communist at the very beginning. 

Mr. Tavexxer. The original method used by the Communist Party 
to become entrenched in the federation was through the various or- 
ganizations which were affiliated with it. 

Mr. Dexxett. Tliroiigh the process of building the organization 
larger and bringing into affiliation organizations in which it did have 
influence and ultimately getting top influence in the WCF. 



400 COlVIMIINriST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I think that exphiins it. 

You made reference to a convention that was being called. When 
and where was tlie convention held? That is, the convention of the 
Washington Commonwealth Federation. 

Mr. Dennett. In the year 1936 it held two conventions. One was 
in i^pril and another one was later in the year. The one in April was 
concerned with several important questions. It was the largest con- 
vention of any of the WCF conventions that I ever attended, and I 
understood it was the largest convention ever held. It was in Everett, 
Wash., in April 1936. 

It must be remembered that 1936 was a Presidential campaign. 
The political situation in the whole country was quite alive. Many 
new people were rising in the political sphere. And, of course, the 
Washington Commonwealth Federation was an open and ready in- 
strument through which ambitious political persons could make their 
first bid for public office and fame. 

Many of them did so. Many young graduates of the university 
did so. I have very little personal knowledge about them, and I wish 
to make sure that you understand, and everyone else does, that I am 
not referring to these persons as Communists. They are not. And I 
make no inference of that kind. I simply recite the fact that here 
was an organization which was capable of exerting a great deal of 
political power, and it attracted all persons who had political ambi- 
tions. As a matter of fact, there were some Republicans as wp>ll as 
Democrats and Independents who beat a path to the door of the Wash- 
ington Commonwealth Federation to obtain political endorsement. 

Now this convention in 1936, in April, had before it several im- 
portant policy questions. At that particular time the Communist 
Party had to exercise its influence by indirection. The top leadership 
of the federation were not Communists at that time. 

The Communist Party was striving to obtain an endorsement of 
that federation convention which would call for the organization of 
either a farmer-labor party or a new independent political party. In 
other words, our effort, speaking of the Communists, was to drive the 
federation into making a completely new, independent, separate 
political organization. However, our plans were dependent upon ap- 
proval from tlie central committee of the Communist Party, And the 
central committee of the Communist Party kept us dangling on the 
end of a string for many, many weeks prior to the opening of this 
convention. 

The reason they kept us dangling on a string was that nationally 
the Communist Party wanted to see organized and wanted to have a 
part in organizing a new national organization which would be sepa- 
rate from and inclependent from the Democratic Party or the Kepub- 
lican Party. And it hoped to attract all persons known as liberals or 
progressives to support and participate in such an organization. But 
its chief difficulty was to obtain some national figure of great promi- 
nence to lead the thing to give it the initiative and give it the original 
sendolf that it needed to draw the strength necessary to win something 
in the next election. 

The party leadership felt that the person most capable of accom- 
plishing that purpose and fulfilling that objective was the then Gov- 
ernor of Minnesota. I think it is Minnesota. Yes. His name was 
Floyd Olson. He was Governor there. And he was a Farmer-Labor 
Governor there. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 401 

The very designation lent itself to the spreading of a nationwide 
farmer-labor party. And it was the original hope of the Communist 
Party that through various forms of manipulation 

It was the Olson from Minnesota. I am quite sure, thinking back 
on it now, it was Floyd. 

But be that as it may, it was the Governor Olson of Minnesota who 
was Governor in 1936 as a Farmer-Labor Governor. 

However, at the very last moment when we had the resolution all 
ready to press before the convention, we finally received word that 
this Governor Olson was not well enough to undertake the job of 
organizing a new national farmer-labor party because of ill health, 
and begged off from the responsibility. Nationally, we were unable 
to find another figure of as much prominence whom we thought would 
be capable of leading such a successful effort. Consequently, we had 
to whip our party machinery into shape rather rapidly and change 
our tactics right on the floor of the WCF convention, and reverse 
ourselves in the process of debating the question. 

Actually the resolutions committee had come in with a report in 
which a majority had objected to going the independent route. But 
I was one of the delegates who was in the minority who was leading 
a fight for going the independent route. And in the process of starting 
the debate we got the official word that it was a hopeless task, and we 
had to withdraw that effort. 

We made a last-minute switch in our strategy and tactics, and some 
of those who had been fighting us so vigorously on the floor were com- 
pletely dumfounded to find that we compromised — what appeared to 
be a compromise — when we changed our policy during the course of 
the debate on the resolution itself and withdrew our minority position. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you change your policy as a result of directions 
from the Communist Party head in New York? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes. And the district organizer of the party was 
in the anteroom of the convention hall, sending word and direction to 
those of us who were up near the microphone who had an opportunity 
to command the microphone and the debate. And there were runners 
running back and forth to us rather rapidly telling us what the latest 
news of the party line was. 

And the executive secretary of the Commonwealth Federation at 
that time was a man by the name of Howard Costigan who became 
somewhat alarmed to see such an obvious maneuver where between 
15 and 20 different people were running back and forth passing mes- 
sages to me and to otJiers up in the front from Rappaport advising 
us what the official party policy was. He later on commented that he 
could see the party line running all over the place, but he didn't know 
what was in it. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Was Howard Costigan a member of the Communist 
Party at that time? 

Mr. Dennett. Not at that time. 

But that demonstration of power that we exercised in that conven- 
tion was very convincing to him that if he wanted to remain as head 
of that organization he would have to make his peace with us, which 
he did before that summer was over. 

Mr. Tavenner. And did he become a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Dennett. He did. 



402 COMTiIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should show that 
Mr. Howard Costigan has appeared before the committee and has 
testified regarding some of the matters which have been mentioned 
here, inchiding the fact that he did become a member of the Com- 
munist Party at about the time indicated by this witness, and at a 
later time, at approximately 1940, he left the Communist Party. 

Mr, Dennett. I could substantiate that. 

There was another matter which arose as a serious issue in that 
convention, and it concerned a proposal for an initiative measure 
which became known as the production-for-use initiative. 

Alany people, because of the Communist Party influence in the 
unemployed days, were quite concerned and alarmed over the problem 
of unemployment, insecurity, possible impoverishment, et cetera. All 
the consequences of economic dislocation. They had read many of 
the so-called Utopian pieces of literature such as Bellamy's Looking 
Backward and other documents of the kind. They had also read 
Mr. Upton Sinclair's program in California. They were somewhat 
acquainted with the propaganda of the Soviet Union, to the effect 
that production-for-use was the solution to the problems of capitalist 
lack of planning. In other words, planned economy. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Dennett, you testified that you received the party 
line by courier, by runners from Rappaport. Do you have any idea 
how Rappaport received it from headquarters of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes. Sometimes he received it by telegraph. In 
this particular instance, about this Governor Olson, he received that 
by telegram. 

Mr. Velde. Was there any secrecy involved, especially at that time ? 

Mr. Dennett. No ; there was no secrecy in that communication. As 
a matter of fact, they took parallel measures to see that somebody 
in Governor Olson's staff also sent word to Howard Costigan directly. 
He also received the word. So that there was parallel information. 
At least we did make that concession to Costigan, that he would have 
official information about it. 

JNIr. Tavenner. Did the rank-and-file membership of the Washing- 
ton Commonwealth Federation know of the Communist Party manipu- 
lations which you have just described? 

Mr. Dennett. I am quite sure that most of them did not, although 
the behavior of many of the Democratic Party leaders at that con^ 
vention would lead me to believe that they suspected it, because they 
fought us so bitterly and so hard. 

Mr. Tavenner. Proceed, please. 

Mr. Dennett. The story on the production-for-use initiative is 
simply this: 

Because there was such a popular demand for some change in the 
economic situation to assure continued production and a cooperative 
effort,. many people tried to translate an ideal of a cooperative com- 
monwealth into some form of legislative effort. This resulted in 
many conferences and the calling in of legal talent to try to draft a 
measure which would be legal and which would satisfy the ambitions 
of the people to have the so-called dream of a cooperative common- 
Avealth organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Describe in a practical sense what production-for- 
use meant? 



COMMUlSriST ACTWITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 403 

Mr. Dennett. I wish I could satisfy you completely on that point 
because that is one of the problems we ran into in trying to draw up 
this initiative measure. 

We could never satisfy ourselves that we had it satisfactorily organ- 
ized. However, the staff who worked on it worked long and hard and 
finally produced a measure which was known as the production-for- 
use initiative. It was ready for presentation to that convention. 
However, some of us in the Communist Party, while we agreed that 
such a measure was a good propaganda wea])on and felt that it was an 
excellent means of popularizing the ideas which we understood and 
claimed were the basis of the operation of the economy in the Soviet 
Union, we were startled when we read the document and found that 
jt sounded a little bit more like the Fascist corporate state that the 
Italian leader Mussolini had established. We became so alarmed 
about it, and were so perplexed that we asked a very world-famous 
person, who happened to be a guest of the convention, what this 
person thought about it. 

The person to whom I refer is Anna Louise Strong, who had just 
come from the Soviet Union, extended greetings to us, to the con- 
vention, and otherwise gave a very enlightening report on her travels, 
and won wide acclaim for that effort. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she, on the floor of the convention, address her- 
self to the problem of production-for-use ? 

Mr. Dennett. She did not. Not at that moment. She spoke only 
in general terms about it, referring to it in a complimentary way and 
hoping for success. But at that moment she did not know very much 
about what was in that document. 

However, we felt that she, coming from the Soviet Union with fresh 
knowledge, might know quite a lot about it and might be able to assist 
us in revising the document so that it would be possible to satisfy us 
that it was, in fact, a step in the direction of a cooperative common- 
wealth. 

So she consented very graciously to take the document and Avork on 
it overnight. She did exactly that. And we read it the next morn- 
ing, and, much to our sui'prise, she had moved the emphasis in the 
control even more in the direction of top control and less in the direc- 
tion of allowing the members or the organizations to have anything 
to say about it, which was just the reverse of the trend that we had 
hoped for. 

Consequently, we began to ask ourselves, that is, the Communists 
asked themselves, if this is the end result of an effort to draw up an 
initiative, maybe it would be smarter politically for us to see that this 
measure dies aborning. Consequently, we came to the conclusion that 
it was impossible to draw up an initiative measure which would be 
adequate and which would answer our propaganda needs and' our 
desires to satisfy us that it was in harmony with our program. So we 
embarked upon a campaign in the course of the election 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this a campaign to pass the proposed measure 
or to defeat it ? 

Mr. Dennett. Well, we all went out presumably to win support 
to get the measure adopted. That is, it was an initiative measure and 
it was before the voters. The voters were to cast a vote yes or no 
on this initiative. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



404 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES m THE SEAT-PLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Dennett. My counsel asked me if I knew the number of it, 
and I have foro-otten the exact number of that initiative at this mo- 
ment. So I can't furnish that. I wish I could. It is a matter of of- 
ficial record, however, and it can be verified if anyone is curious about 
it. 

The Communist Party found itself in that predicament. We were 
committed to support the measure, but we were determined to bring 
about its defeat. Consequently, we campaigned far and wide all over 
the State of Washington, explaining the measure in such a way as to 
convince the people that they should not vote for it. 

At the same time we represented ourselves as campaigning for the 
measure. 

And we did it so successfully that the measure was defeated, it 
we hadn't of done it I am afraid it would have been adopted. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dennett. My counsel asked me who was the "we." 

I am referring to the Communist Party in that instance. 

The leaders of the Washington Commonwealth Federation were 
terribly disturbed by the nature of the campaign that we were carry- 
ing on,' that is, the Communists. 

Mr. Tavenner. 1 should think it would be a rather confusing cam- 
paign where the Communist Party, in order to defeat it, actually sup- 
ported it. 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. It was very confusing to everyone, 
liven to us at times. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is a very interesting thing. The Communist 
Party, in order to defeat this measure, went out and conducted a state- 
wide campaign in favor of it. But in order to accomplish its defeat, 
if I understand you correctly, the Communist Party so represented 
the issues that people would be bound to vote against it. 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. 

Mr, ISIouLDER. I understood the situation to be that because of Com- 
munist Party support of the measure, the public sentiment opposed 
it. 

Mr. Dennett. Not necessarily so, sir, because they didn't know that 
we who were speaking were Communists. They thought we were 
representatives of the Washington Commonwealth Federation. 

Mr. INIgulder. Proceed. 

Mr. Dennett. Tliere is triple deception in this maneuver, which 
is rather hard to follow. I hope I have explained it. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am afraid that the point may not be absolutely 
clear in the record, and I want to be sure that it is clear: 

If I understand you correctly, it was not the fact that the Com- 
munist Party was supporting this measure that caused its defeat. 

Mr. Dennett. You are correct, sir. That was not the reason. Ifc 
was the way we, as disguised Communists, carried on the campaign,! 
ostensibly for it, but, in fact, against it. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, your representations were of such 
a character as to make known the weaknesses in the bill; and a person: 
would actually think you were supporting it. 

Mr. Dennett. True. You understand it quite clearly. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think the bill was properly named when you usedl 
the word "initiative" because that certainly is the use of initiative. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 405 

T am glad to know it is Communist Party initiative. It is a very- 
deceptive type of campaign. 

Mr. Denivtett. Mr. Tavenner and Mr. Chairman, I would like to 
make one observation about my testimony earlier this afternoon. 

I get the feeling, and I have a fear that perhaps people listening 
to this presentation might think that because of my testimony I was 
the only figure who was active in the Washington Commonwealth 
Federation carrying on this activity. 

I hope that no one assumes that because I was one of a team. There 
were several others. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who composed the team? 

Mr. Dennett. Well, I didn't mean to bring that up because I don't 
like to have to do that. But I was fearful that people might think 
I was too much of a braggart in this thing, and I don't mean to be 
because it is all ancient history and I am simply trying to furnish 
such information as I know of my own knowledge about that experi- 
ence so that other people may comprehend it in full. 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. I am sure, Mr. Dennett, that the committee, having 
heard as many witnesses as it has on the subject of communism, recog- 
nizes that it is teamwork that has enabled the Communist Party to 
get where it is, rather than grandstand playing. 

Who were the other members of the team ? 

Mr, Dennett. Well, that takes me into a description of the district 
bureau of the Communist Party in that particular period. 

As I look back over it I might call it the golden age of the Com- 
munist Party's efforts in the Northwest because it did at that time 
enjoy, that is, the leaders of the Communist l^irty did enjoy a rela- 
tionship among each other and among themselves, and in the organi- 
zations to which each were members — they did enjoy a very full and 
rich democratic experience in procedure. 

This, I think, was due largely to the efforts of Mr. Morris Rappa- 
port who was the district organizer whom I mentioned earlier, who 
had, by his adroitness in calling the political moves, established him- 
self in the eyes of the central committee of the Communist Party of 
the United States as a person capable of directing the political activi- 
ties in the Northwest without the need of daily supervision on the part 
of national headquarters of the Communist Party. In other words, 
they did accord him the recognition tliat comes of confidence that he 
knew what he was doing and was capable of carrying it out. 

And T am quite certain that the way he coordinated the efforts of 
each of us in the district bureau at that time were so gratifying to 
the central committee that most of the members of the central com- 
mittee didn't dare to try to interfere with our efforts for fear that they 
might be responsible for upsetting the applecart so to speak. 

Now in that team were, first of all, Mr. Morris Rappaport, the 
district organizer. His right-hand man, who was also the trade-union 
secretary of the district, was a man known to me by the name of Henry 
or Harry Jackson. I know that that is not his real name, but I do 
not know what his real name was. That was his party name. That 
is the only name I k]iew him by in this area. 

Mr, Tavenner. How long was he in this area ? 

Mr. Dennett. He came shortly after Morris Rappaport came. 

Mr. Tavennt.r. Did he come from New York? 

G2222— 55— pt. 2 3 



406 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AEEA 

Mr. Dennett. He did. His original home was San Francisco. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am sure we know him. 

Mr. Dennett. Mr. Jackson had his early training in the Marine 
Workers Industrial Union organizing maritime workers. He came 
here originally for that purpose, and then his assignment was switched 
to that of trade-union secretary for the district in the Northwest. 

I was one of his closest associates because I was footloose and free 
and available to carry the Jimmy Higgins load that had to be carried 
at that time. We were working daily and devoting all of our time 
to that effort. 

We had a few people who were prominent in the University of 
Washington at that time who were active members of our district 
bureau. One was Mr. Harold Ebey, E-b-e-y. 

And another was Mr. Hugh DeLacy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he at one time a Member of Congress ? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, he is the same person who was called 
as a witness before this committee at Dayton, Ohio, in September 1954, 
and who refused to answer material questions on the ground that to 
do so might tend to incriminate him. 

Mr. Dennett. I mentioned Mr. DeLacy 's name with a great deal of 
regret because I was a very close associate of Mr. DeLacy and I had 
a great deal of respect for him, and he for me. It is only under the 
compulsion of the subpena and the fact that I am testifying and I 
have to testify when I mention his name. I do so with regret. I wish 
the rules were such that it wasn't necessary because it is a source of 
great embarrassment to me. But I feel that I owe a big obligation 
to the men that I work for, and, under the rules as constituted by this 
committee and the way it is o])erating, 1 have no choice in the matter. 

I make my apologies to Mr. DeLacy for having to do this. I regret 
it. But at the same time, in the long run, I don't think it is going 
to hurt him, and I think it may do him some good. I hope so. 

Others who were prominent in the district bureau were, of course, 
Mr. Howard Costigan, Mr. Jess Fletcher, Mr. William K. Dobbins, 
Mr. Karley Larsen. 

JVIr. Tavenner. Let me make this suggestion to you. 

If you know whether any of these persons whose names you have 
mentioned, testified publicly before this or other committees and ac- 
knowledged their Communist Party membership and a withdrawal 
from the Communist Party, I think you should state it. 

Mr. Dennett. I can state that about three persons whom I know. 
1 Imow that Mr. Jess Fletcher separated from the Communist Party, 
and he has testified in a number of instances. He began testifying 
before the Can well committee when he was separated from the Com- 
munist Party and from his union as a consequence of that fight. He 
later testified before a number of Government agencies in a number 
of court cases. 

Mr. Howard Costigan testified before this committee. I read his 
testimony in the proceedings which have been published by the com- 
mittee. 

Mr, Harold Ebey also appeared before the Canwell committee and 
testified there. He is out of the Communist Party and has been for 
quite a considerable period of time. At least, I believe, since this 
period 1936, 1937, and 1938. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 407 

Costigan is out of the Communist Party. He left shortly after 
later political difficulties arose, which I will soon get into. 

There may have been a few others who were in and out of the dis- 
trict bureau. This district bureau was the leading body, the leading 
organ in the district. It was the top body which had the top authority 
to determine party policy in this area. 

At one time I believe there were about 12 or 14 members of this 
bureau. It may have been confined to nine. I have some recollection 
that there were nine members officially on the bureau, but there were a 
few who were candidates. That is, they were the next alternates to 
become members in the event of any vacancy on the bureau so that we 
could always have a reserve to fill any vacancies which might occur. 

That district bureau covered the Northwest area which were the 
States of, at that time, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Alaska. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do I understand you to mean that it was that group 
of individuals who took the leadership in the work within the Wash- 
ington Commonwealth Federation ? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes ; they did. 

Mr. Kappaport could not directly participate in the work of the 
Washington Commonwealth Federation because he was what was 
generally called the face of the party. He was the official representa- 
tive of the party. And the Washington Commonwealth Federation, 
even though there were Communist leaders in it, it at no time accepted 
an affiliation from the Communist Party, ancl it at no time would 
acknowledge a Communist as a Communist in the organization unless 
it be someone like Kappaport who had the authority to represent the 
party as such. 

By that I mean that if I presented myself to the Washington Com- 
monwealth Federation to speak on any matter or to urge anything 
before its body, I could not speak in the name of the Communist 
Party even though other members of that executive board may know 
that I was a member of the Communist Party. I could not speak as 
a Communist. I could only speak as a member of that executive board, 
and it was the presumption that I was representing the affiliate from 
which I had been sent as a delegate. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, which of these 
Communist Party bureau members became officials in the Washington 
Commonwealth Federation. 

Mr. Dennett. Mr. Costigan already was an official. He was the 
executive secretary. 

Mr. DeLacy became the president of the Washington Common- 
wealth Federation. 

I became the vice president of the Washington Commonwealth 
Federation. 

Mr. Harold Ebey served in some advisory capacity. I think that 
he came from a teachers' union affiliate at that time. 

Mr. Dobbins was a member there, but I do not recall the exact 
relation that he held to obtain his position. 

Mr. Karley Larsen was a leader there by virtue of the fact that 
he was a leader in the Northern Washington District Council of the 
International Woodworkers of America. 

Mr. Tavenner. It would seem that the Communist Party had com- 
jjlete control of the organization. 



408 COMlVILrNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr, Dennett. We had another person there who is now deceased, 
but I don't think that it gives a complete picture without mentioning 
him, and that is Mr. William Pennock, because Bill Pennock was the 
workhorse. Bill Pennock carried the load. He was a very efficient 
man, one of the fastest shorthand artists that I ever knew, and was 
capable of keeping up with the fast pace that Mr. Costigan set. 

Mr. Pennock deserves honorable mention for the work that he did 
in that setup. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did Pennock hold in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Dennett. He attended the bureau meetings, but I do not re- 
member exactly whether he was a member of the bureau. But he 
attended most of the bureau meetings by virtue of the fact that he 
became the head of the pension union which was one of the big af- 
filiates of the Washington Commonwealth Federation. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have given a very full description of how the 
Communist Party maneuvered to capture this organization. 

Why was the Communist Party so interested in obtaining control 
of the Washington Commonwealth Federation? 

Mr. Dennett. Because we wanted to ultimately obtain political 
power for the Communist Party in the United States of America. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. In the same manner, I assume, that you were at- 
tempting to gain power for the Communist Party in every other 
field of endeavor. 

Mr. Dennett. Of course. 

My counsel has suggested that I indicate the total membership of 
the Washington Commonwealth Federation in that period. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Yes, I think you should. 

Mr. Dennett. I am unable to give that in exact numbers, but I can 
give you a proportionate situation which may indicate something of 
value. 

It was our estimate and the result of our study from the election 
returns of the candidates that we endorsed and the propositions that 
we supported 

Mr. Tavenner. When you say "we" are you speaking of the Com- 
munist Party or the Washington Commonwealth ? 

Mr. Dennett. The Washington Commonwealth Federation. 

It was our estimate that it was capable of influencing and obtain- 
ing the vote of one-third of the members who voted in the Democratic 
Party slate or side of the ticket. And because of that fact and be- 
cause we were in a higher state of mobilization than the rest of the 
Democratic Party, when primaries came along we could exercise a 
more direct influence in the primaries than anybody else because our 
members in the Washington Commonwealth Federation had a great- 
er zeal and a greater devotion to carrying out their objectives than 
the other Democrats who frequently relied upon making their de- 
cisions in the general elections. 

Mr. Moulder. What do you mean by other Democrats? 

Mr. Dennett. Those who voted in the Democratic Party who were 
not members of the Washington Commonwealth Federation through 
affiliation. 

Mr. Moulder. How many Communists would you estimate were 
members of the Washington Commonwealth Federation ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 409 

Mr. Dennett. The nearest I can give you by indication of that is 
that in the period 1937-38, the high point of membership in the Com- 
mmiist Party, as I recall the reports made to the district bureau by 
the organization secretary, was in the neighborhood of 5,500 members 
of the Communist Party in the Northwest, in the 3 States of Oregon, 
Washington, and Idaho, and Alaska, the Territory of Alaska. Those 
5,500 members of course, were scattered throughout all the other 
organizations in the Northwest. And I am firmly of the belief that 
'fully 90 to 95 percent of that were members of the Washington Com- 
monwealth Federation through affiliations of one kind or another. 

(At this point Kepresentative Morgan M. Moulder left the hearing 
room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the Washington Commonwealth Federation 
extend throughout the entire 12th district, or, that is, in the North- 
west area? Or was it confined only to the State of Washington? 

Mr. Dennett. It was confined to the State of Washington. How- 
ever, there were some efl'orts made in the State of Oregon to develop 
an Oregon Commonwealth Federation, but I have no direct knowdedge 
of that, and I would be unqualified to give you any testimony about 
it because I did not participate in it and I do not know the people 
who did. 

Mr. Velde (presiding). Did your district committee of the Com- 
munist Party, however, have representatives from Alaska and from 
Oregon ? 

Mr. Dennett. No, there was no territorial representation like that. 
The representatives of the district bureau of the Communist Party 
were chosen because of their capability as political leaders, not because 
of any particular area that they came from. And it was determined 
largely by their ability to influence public opinion and to intervene 
in the decision of public affairs. 

Mr. Velde. Did the district bureau act for the 12th district of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, it did. 

Mr. Velde. But were they all from the State of Washington ? 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. I think perhaps it is necessary at this 
point to clear up one little problem of organizational structure that 
existed in the Communist Party at that time. 

It was not based upon territory. Representatives of the higher 
committees did not have to come from any particular territory. They 
were chosen because of their availability and their influencing ability 
to carry the party policy into the mass organizations or before the 
public. 

Mr. Velde. Were they actually chosen by the national committee 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Dennett. Not in this district they were not, no. 

Mr. Velde. Just how were they chosen ? 

Mr. Dennett. Well, that is another organizational problem of 
interorganization of the Communist Party which is rather difficult 
for persons not familiar with it to comprehend. But let me try to do 
it as briefly as possible this way. 

When I first came into the Communist Party the usual procedure 
was something that went under the title of "Cooption." Cooption 
meant that the district organizer could appoint anybody he wanted 
to the district committee or to the district bureau and could call them 



410 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

in to serve, and evervbody else had to accept such a person as being 
a fullv qualified member of that body. In other words, it was a 
handp'icked staff which represented the wishes of that particular 
leader who held the authority at that time. That was the process 
of cooption in the event of a vacancy. He could appoint someone 
to fill that vacancy, and he did so. It was his responsibility to do so. 

However, with the rise of Hitler Germany, the trials of the Reichs- 
tag, an international leader by the name of Dimitrov acquired world ^ 
fame because, in his defense against the frameup which Goermg 
tried to put over on him, he learned that the Communist tactics and 
the Communist policies in Germany had turned the masses of German 
workers against the Communist Party and had resulted or had cer- 
tainly played a part in contributing to making it possible lor Hitler 
Germany \o result with Hitler's ascension to power. 

Therefore, Mr. Dimitrov, when offered asylum by the Soviet Gov- 
ernment, immediately went to work for the Comintern, and, in that 
capacity as leader of the Comintern, brought forth what was known 
as a new line. And that new line called for introducing the practice 
of democracy into the ranks of the Communist Party organization. 
He urged and advised that the practice of cooption be abolished, and 
that the higher committees be elected by a democratic process. And 
he, in fact, insisted that that must be done in all countries where the 
party was not illegal. . , , , 

Recognizing that it was not possible to hold conventions where the 
party was illegal, and that applied especially to the United States, 
when Mr. Rappaport came to this district he tried his best to follow 
out the decisions which were laid down by the Communist Interna- 
tional and the national headquarters of the Communist Party, and 
that practice of electing the leadership was followed. However, at 
the district convention there was always a nominating committee who 
carefully screened the names of persons who were being proposed for 
leadership or election to these committees, and, m doing so, succeeded 
in accomplishing the original result, only satisfying ourselves that we 
were practicing democracy. ,r t^ .^o 

Mr. Velde. What year did that change take place, Mr. Dennett i 

Mr. Dennett. Right around 1936. 

Mr. Ta\t3Nner. So the matter of making nominations through a 
committee was a mere matter of form. 

(At this point Representative Morgan M. Moulder returned to the 

hearing room.) . i. n i i i •.. 

Mr Dennett. The district organizers still carefully looked it over 
and still had a controlling influence there. But in this particular case 
Mr. Rappaport exercised his influence not in any arbitrary way but m 
a convincing way, because we all recognized that his broader experi- 
ence and his tremendous capacity for work equipped him to give us 
the benefit of better wisdom than we had. 

Mr. Tavenner. Going back to the Washington Commonwealth 
Federation, you were asked a question as to what the membership of 
the Communist Party was in the district. Do you know what the 
membership of the Communist Party was in the State of Washmgton 

at that time? • ^^ c^. i. t 

Mr. Dennett. Well, most of that membership was m the State ot 
Washington. And I don't know the exact number, but I think it would 
be quite safe to say that around 85 to 90 percent of it was in the State 
of Washington. 



I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 411 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did the Communist Party succeed in 
bringing its influence to bear on political elections through this organ- 
ization known as the Washington Commonwealth Federation ? 

Mr. Dennett. Until the international situation became unstable in 
about the j^ear 1938. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. How did the international situation affect political 
matters locally here in the State of Washington as far as the Commu- 
nist Party was concerned ? 

Mr. Dennett. Tlie Communist Party had as one of its principal 
objectives and one of its chief propaganda weapons, which it used 
upon other persons of political mindedness, that the Communist 
program was a consistent program on a domestic policy and on foreign 
policy, that our program was liberal domestically and liberal interna- 
tionally. However, in 1938, after a long period of struggle and effort, 
the Communist Party succeeded in prevailing upon many people to 
accept the slogan of collective security as the proper policy to pursue in 
foreign affairs. That, of course, was quite consistent with the policy 
of the Soviet Union because it was the Soviet delegates to the League 
of Nations who had continually agitated for a policy of collective 
security. 

I think it was some time in 1938 that the Italian Premier launched 
his attack in Ethiopia, and while we were clamoring for collective 
security to be applied to that situation, it wasn't too long afterwards 
when the Soviet Union had a serious dispute with Finland, and hos- 
tilities broke out and the Soviet Union smashed the Finnish Army and 
the Finnish military installations. 

We were confronted with the necessity of making an immediate 
switch demanding nonintervention. 

Mr. Tavenner. "WTiat do you mean by we? 

Mr. Dennett. The Communist Party. 

So our insistence upon nonintervention contradicted our prior in- 
sistence upon collective security. This presented no end of trouble, 
especially to those who had to meet the public and had to answer to 
the public for the consistency of their program and policies from one 
day to the next. It ultimately led to the disaffection of Mr. Howard 
Costigan. And the chief reason that Mr. Costigan disaffected at that 
time was because of his loyalty to Franklin D. Roosevelt as then Pres- 
ident of the United States, who came out in bitter denunciation 
against the Soviets for attacking Finland, which left him in the posi- 
tion of having a consistent policy because he had complained bitterly 
against Mussolini's march into Ethiopia. He had also been critical 
01 the Japanese invasion of China. He had also been critical of each 
military venture where one country had attempted to impose its will 
upon another by military means. 

So Costigan felt that he was on sounder ground to continue his 
support of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and he did so with as much effort 
as he dared, without bringing down the wrath of the Communist Party 
on him at that particular moment. However, the Communist Party 
sensed that he was beginning to disaffect, and we proceeded to isolate 
him from evei^thing we could. I mean the Communists proceeded to 
isolate Mr. Costigan. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this the period when the Communist Party 
was crying from the rooftops that the President of the United States 
was a warmonofer? 



412 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, it was. I am a little bit fearful that if anyone 
looks at the record very carefully they will find that I made a few 
speeches on that subject myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, as a result of the international 
situation the Communist Party had gotten itself into a position which 
adversely affected its interests locally. 

Mr. Dennett. That is very true. 

Mr. Taa-enner. What was the result of that adverse effect upon 
the Communist Party locally? 

Mr. Dennett. The most damaging effect to the Communist Party 
was that it shook the faith of many of those who were members of 
the district bureau at that time. I must admit that I tried to present 
the appearance myself of not losing faith in the integrity of the 
Soviet foreign policy. However, I must also admit that there was 
a little bit of deception in that for the reason that I could not com- 
pletely justify it, no matter how hard I tried, and I found that Mr.. 
Costigan became very bitter about it. I found also that Mr. Ebey 
had a few misgivings. Pie didn't express them at that time too shai-ply 
because he is a very mild-mannered sort of person. But those of us 
who were in the rough and tough political battles put on a case-hard- 
ened outward appearance which was intended to inspire the ranks 
to hold the line. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the final result? 

Mr. Dennett. The final result was that various organizations affi- 
liated to the Washington Commonwealth Federation found their 
political conviction to be inconsistent with the official policy expressed 
by disguised Communist leaders in the Washington Commonwealth 
Federation. So that many of them began to disaffiliate and leave 
the organization, so that it did not embrace the commanding minority 
which it had previously had. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, your position of control in that 
organization was weakened, if not virtually destroyed, by this dis- 
affection that had arisen within the Communist Party ranks largely 
as a result of international problems. 

Mr. Dennett. That is vei-y true. 

Those of us who presented what might be referred to as a case- 
hardened outward appearance did so largely in the hope and faith 
that our loyalty to the Soviet Union under those circumstances would 
be rewarded by the Soviet Union remaining loyal and true to the 
socialist ideals which all of us held. 

However, at a later date, after the Second World War, just to make 
the comment without going into detail at this moment, many began 
to find out through their experience in the Army and military efforts, 
and through persons who traveled abroad and came into contact 
directly with the Kussian military effort — many became convinced 
that there was a considerable difference between the democracy that 
had been preached about in the Soviet Union and the actual practice 
which they found. 

Also there was a serious disillusionment when large numbers of 
soldiers learned, to their dismay, that even during the war period 
the Soviet Union had in labor camps very large numbers of persons 
who were held in those camps as political prisoners, a policy which 
we had been led to believe, through all the official propaganda, that 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 413 

the Communist Party in the Soviet Union wouldn't possibly indulge 
in such a practice, that only the capitalist countries would practice 
such a heinous crime. 

But it was a terrible shock and disillusionment when large numbers 
of people found, out of their own direct knowledge, that these huge 
forced labor camps did in fact exist and that people who were com- 
mitted to them were committed to them for terms ranging from 25 
years to life instead of the official propaganda which has been preached, 
to the effect that no sentence was over 10 years in length in the Soviet 
Union. And we found there was a great deal of difference between 
fact and fancy. 

(At this point Representative Harold H. Yelde left the hearing 
room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the Washington Commonwealth Federation in 
existence today ? 

Mr. Dennett. It is not. It was liquidated by the Communist Party 
leadership during the Second World War. 

In my records there will be found some correspondence between 
Hugh DeLacy and myself because I was a vice president of the fed- 
eration, but I was in the military service at the time this disillusion 
took place. 

Mr. DeLacy had written me something about it, and I disagreed with 
it. He had also written to me suggesting that since I was in the mili- 
tary service maybe it would be better for me to give up my share of 
stock which entitled me to be a member of the board of directors of 
the New World, which was the official newspaper published under the 
federation at that time. 

I found occasion to disagree violently with him over the suggestion 
for the reason that I felt that those who were in the armed services 
should not be removed from their official positions because they were 
in the armed services. I felt that they were more entitled to continue 
their representation on the organization because they were in the 
armed services. 

AVe had an exchange of correspondence there which was quite acri- 
monious at points, and I am amazed when I look back at it and see 
how it developed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I believe this is a satisfactory point 
to suspend the examination of this witness. 

Mr. JMouLDER. Yes, Mr. Dennett. We thank you for your patience 
and the information which you have given the committee. We are en- 
deavoring, whenever possible, to give you a rest so there will not be 
this long stress upon you for a long period of time. 

Mr. Dennett. I appreciate that. In my younger days I used to 
have a marathon endurance, but I find I don't have it any more. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you wish to call another witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Lawrence Earl George. 

Mr. Moulder. Will you hold up your right hand and be sworn, 
please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about 
to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you, God? 

Mr. George. I do. 



414 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

TESTIMONY OF LAWRENCE EAKL GEORGE, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, PHILIP L. BURTON 

Mr. Wheeler. Will the witness state his full name, please? 

Mr. George. My name is Lawrence Earl George. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. George. Seattle, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will counsel identify himself for the record, please ? 

Mr. Burton. My name is Philip L. Burton. I am a Seattle attorney. 

Mr. Wheeleb.. Mr. George, what is your occupation ? 

Mr. George. I am a warehouseman, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you been a warehouseman ? 

Mr. George. Oh, for 12, 15 years ; 12 years anyway. 

Mr. Wheeler. Being a warehouseman, are you a member of any 
union ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. George. Sir, upon advice of counsel, I will invoke my rights 
and privileges under the first and fifth amenchnents of the Consti- 
tution of the United States. 

Mr. Moulder. I didn't hear your reply. Did you say you decline 
to answer the question ? 

Mr. George. Because of certain insinuations about any union, it 
is necessary for me to invoke my rights under the first and fifth 
amendments of the Constitution and decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you held any positions in the union that we 
are discussing ? 

Mr. George. Again, sir, I shall have to invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is it not a fact that the warehousemen are members 
of the International Longshoreman's and Warehousemen's Union? 
I am not asking you if you are a member of the ILWU ; just a blanket 
question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. George. Yes ; that is a fact. 

Mr. Wheeler, Are you a member of the International Longshore- 
men's and Warehousemen's Union? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. George. Again, sir, I have to invoke my privileges under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you at any time during your residency in 
Seattle been acquainted with a lady by the name of Barbara Hartle? 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. George. Again, sir, I shall have to invoke my privileges under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Hartle testified before tliis committee last June 
that she knew you as a member of the waterfront section of the Com- 
munist Party. Is that correct? 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. George. Again, Mr. Chairman, I have to invoke the privileges 
granted me under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you also invoke the privilege on all questions 
relating to the waterfront section of the Communist Party? 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. George. I shall have to invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment in connection with that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 415 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you an official of the union in 1951 ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. George. Again I have to invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment and decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you sign a Taft-Hartley affidavit? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. George. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment and 
decline to answer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is it not a fact that the Communist Party advised 
members of the Communist Party to disassociate themselves from the 
Communist Party and sign the Taft-Hartley affidavit ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr, George. I shall have to invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment to that. 

Mr. Wheeler. Is it not a fact that the members of the Communist 
Party remained loyal and in the discipline of the Communist Party 
although they officially did resign? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. George. I will have to invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment as to that. 

Mr. Moulder. Did I understand you to say that your birthplace 
was here in Seattle ? 

Mr. George. Sir, I didn't give my place of birth. I wasn't asked 
that question. 

Mr. Moulder. Where were you born ? 

Mr. George. I was born in Denver, Colo. 

Mr. Moulder. ^Vhen did you move to Seattle? 

Mr. George. I came to Seattle after the First World War. I think 
it was in 1918 or thereabouts. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you resided in Seattle ever since ? 

Mr. George. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Plave you ever heard of the Negro and National 
Groups Commission of the Communist Party of King County? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. George. I shall have to invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment as to that, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. ]\Irs. Hartle in her testimony stated you were chair- 
man of that group. Was she correct in this testimony ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. George. Again, sir, I will have to invoke my privileges under 
the fifth amendment and decline to answer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you familiar with an organization called the 
Interracial Action Committee ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

IVIr. George. I will have to invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Communist Party today, 
Mr. George ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. George. I will have to invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment and decline to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Wheeler. Harriet Pierce. 



416 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

(At this point Kepresentative Harold H. Velde returned to the 
hearing room.) 

Mr. Moulder. Do you represent Mrs. Pierce? Will you step up? 

Mr. Trolson. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. I want to talk to him. 

(Whereupon Mr. Trolson conferred with the chairman.) 

Mr. Moulder. Call the witness again, please. 

Mr. Wheeler. Harriet Pierce. 

Mr. Moulder. Would you raise your right hand and be sworn. 

Do 3^ou solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about to 
give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Pierce. I do. 

Mr. Trolsok. May I make a statement before you begin to question 
the witness? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes ; you may. 

Mr. Trolson. My name is Roy Trolson. I am a member of the 
Board of Trustees of the Seattle Bar Association. 

Mrs. Pierce has come to the bar association and rendered a state- 
ment that she is unable to secure counsel because she has no funds for 
that purpose. The president of the Bar Association has asked me to 
represent Mrs. Pierce, and I want to make it clear that I am represent- 
ing her without compensation and at the request of the Legal Aid 
Bureau of the Seattle Bar Association. 

Mr. INIouLDER. We certainly appreciate your position and wish to 
say that you should be commended as an attorney when requested by 
the Bar Association to appear and represent any person who has no 
funds to employ counsel. 

And certainly it should have no reflection, and doesn't have any 
reflection, upon you whatsoever. 

For a person who is unable to employ counsel, it is the duty of a 
lawyer under those circumstances to comply with that request, and the 
burden that has been placed upon you. 

Mr. Trolson. Thank you. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. HARRIET PIERCE, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 
COUNSEL, ROY F. TROLSON 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name, please ? 

Mrs. Pierce. Mrs. Harriet Pierce. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where do you presently reside ? 

Mrs. Pierce. In Seattle. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you presently employed ? 

Mrs. Pierce. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where are you employed ? 

Mrs. Pierce. I am employed at the Takoma Country and Golf Club. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you have any part-time employment other than 
your present position? 

Mrs. Pierce. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you advise the committee of your occupa- 
tional background prior to your present occupation ? 

( The witness confers with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Pierce. I wish to invoke the fifth amendment on this question. 

Mr. Wheeler. On all prior occupation ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 417 

Mrs. Pierce. Yes, sir ; that is on all prior occupation. 

Mr. Wheeler. Isn't it a fact that you worked for the United States 
Government at one time? 

Mrs. Pierce. On this question, too, I wish to invoke the protection 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you mean to say that your employment in the 
United States Government may tend to incriminate you ? 

Mrs. Pierce. I have already stated my answer, sir. 
(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Moulder. If investigation, Mr. Wheeler, reveals the witness' 
employment, then I suggest that you ask the question according to 
what your investigation has revealed, the specific questions which she 
can answer. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you ever been employed by the United States 
Post Office Department ? 

Mrs. Pierce. I decline to answer that question for the reasons pre- 
viously stated, sir. And I would like to explain that I fear that 
answering these questions may lead to other questions which might 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you dismissed from this position because of 
security reasons? 

Mrs. Pierce. I decline to answer that question for the reasons pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you been a paid employee of tlie Civil Eights 
Congress of the city of Seattle ? 

Mrs. Pierce. I clecline to answer that question for the reasons pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Mrs. Barbara Hartle? 

Mrs. Pierce. I decline to answer that question, sir, for the reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. She testified that you were a member of the George- 
town Club of the Communist Party, King County. Is that a state- 
ment of fact on the part of Mrs. Hartle ? 

Mrs. Pierce. I decline to answer, and invoke my protection under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you active in any way with the Progressive 
Party here in the State of Washington? 

Mrs. Pierce. I decline to answer that for the reasons previously 
stated, sir. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, I think it is quite obvious that we 
are not going to get the information we desire from this witness. 

I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask the witness where you were born ? 

Mrs. Pierce. I was born in Martinsburg, W. Va. 

Mr. Moulder. And when did you come to the State of Washington ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pierce. I believe it was in 1942 or possibly 1943. I am not 
certain. 

Mr. Moulder. Were you married at that time ? 

Mrs. Pierce. No, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you come to Washington alone ? 

Mrs. Pierce. Yes, sir. 



418 COIMJVIUIS'IST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Moulder. Did you have employment when you arrived or did 
you have to seek employment after you arrived ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pierce. On this question, sir, I wish to invoke my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Chairman, I fail to see how that could possibly 
tend to incriminate her or lead to incrimination. I suggest that the 
witness be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Pierce. Sir, this is a question which I would like very much 
to answer, and answer fully, but I feel that it might lead either to 
other questions which might incriminate me or to a waiver of my right 
to claim the protection of the fifth amendment, and I therefore do 
claim protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder, Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs, Pierce. Again I claim the protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Pierce. I claim the protection of the fifth amendment on 
that question, too. 

]\Ir. Moulder. Are you now employed ? 

Mrs. Pierce. I have already answered that question. 

Mr. Moulder. Then would you care to answer again ? 

Mrs. Pierce. Well, I could answer it again the same as I did before. 
I am employed now. 

Mr. Moulder. Where are you now employed ? 

Mrs. Pierce. At the Tacoma Country and Golf Club. 

Mr. Moulder. How long have you been employed there ? 

Mrs. Pierce. I decline to answer under the privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you mean to say the length of time you have been 
employed there would tend to incriminate you ? Is that your reason- 
ing on that? 

Mrs. Pierce. I have already stated my answer, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Any questions, Mr. Velde? 

Mr. Velde. No questions. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess until tomorrow morning at 
9 o'clock. 

( Wliereupon, at 4 : 50 p. m., the subcommittee was recessed, to be 
reconvened at 9 a. m., Saturday, March 19, 1955.) 



INVESTmATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
SEATTLE, WASH., AKEA 



SATURDAY, MARCH 19, 1955 

United States House of Eepresentatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Seattle, Wash. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 9 : 30 a. m., in Room 402, County-City Building, 
Seattle, Wash., Hon. Morgan M. Moulder (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Morgan M. Moulder 
(chairman) (appearance as noted) and Harold H. Velde. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel, and Wil- 
liam A. Wheeler, staff investigator. 

Mr. Velde. The subcommittee will be in order, and we will proceed, 
Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to recall Mr. Eugene V. Dennett to 
the stand, please. 

TESTIMONY OF EUGENE VICTOR DENNETT, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, KENNETH A. MacDONALD— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Dennett, will you come forward, please. 

When your testimony was suspended yesterday we were inquiring 
into the activity of the Washington Commonwealth Federation. In 
the course of your testimony on that subject no mention was made 
of the Workers Alliance. 

To what extent was the Workers Alliance affiliated with that 
organization ? 

Mr. Dennett. It was one of the principal affiliates in the early 
days, and it had regular representatives on the Washington Common- 
wealth Federation board. One of the most prominent of those was a 
person by the name of Harry C. Armstrong, who was better known 
as Army Armstrong. He later became a legislator, and I think he 
was at one time the head of the Workers Alliance. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time he was head of the Workers Alliance 
and active in the Washington Commonwealth Federation was he also 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dennett. At first he was not. But the Workers Alliance, of 
course, was one of the organizations in which the Communist Party 

419 



420 COMJMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

■worked very actively, and ultimately Mr. Armstrong became a member 
of the Communist Party. I knew him when he was a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he active in Communist Party affairs? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, he was quite active in the Communist Party 
affairs for a short time. He later had differences with the party over 
policy, and became too much of a Democrat to suit the Communists, 
and came to a parting of the ways with the Communist Party. 

Mr. Taat:nnePw Can you give us the names of any other individuals, 
active in the work of the Washington Commonwealth Federation or 
any of its component parts, who were known to you to be members of 
the Communist Party during that time? 

Mr. Dennett. Well, my random recollection is a little bit too unre- 
liable to go on. I think that I mentioned all of the principal ones 
yesterday with the exception of Mr. Armstrong, whom I have 
explained this morning. 

^Ir. Tavenner. During the period that the organizational work was 
being done by the Communist Party within the Washington Com- 
monw^ealth Federation was there in existence in the State of Washing- 
ton an organization known as the Washington Pension Union? 

Mr. Dennett. That is correct, there was. That was a organiza- 
tion which came into existence principally because the Governor of 
the State had ordered some cuts in the pension, or the assistance to the 
old-age groups. It was prior to the organization of anything. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to the organization of what? 

Mr. Dennett. Of the union, of the Old- Age Pension Union. 

It seems as though there Avas an attempt to cut on the relief, and 
some of the relief authorities thought that they could cut the benefits 
to the elderly people and there would be little protest for it. But 
Howard Costigan, being very alert to the political possibilities, spoke 
about it on the radio and, in response to that speaking, received many, 
many calls by telephone and by letter asking him to do something 
about it. He didn't know what to do. 

He came to the party of people and explained to us afterward that 
he was perplexed but he was going to call a mass meeting and ask these 
people to come and make their protests in public. 

He did exactly that. The meeting was overwhelming successful; 
far more elderly people arrived than he expected. The hall was 
packed to overflowing, and he had to call more meetings to satisfy 
their desire to express their protest. During the course of that, 
Costigan, not knowing what else to do, suggested that they set up a 
permanent committee to continue their protest against this form of 
relief cut. The old-age people responded so vigorously that they 
themselves determined that they must have a union. And they chose 
the name of Old-Age Pension Union. 

At first, I believe, Costigan was not an officer of it. As a matter of 
fact, he felt that he had more than he could carry handling the work 
of the Washington Commonwealth Federation. So he asked the 
])arty people to find him some help to see if he could carry on this 
extra Avork that needed to be done. And, through the efforts of Mr. 
LoAvell Wakefield, they found a person by the name of William J. 
Pennock who was a verv able man. And Bill Pennock assisted Cos- 
tigan in all of his work when he was in the Washington Common- 
wealth Federation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 421 

Later when the time came to organize the Old- Age Pension Union, 
Pennock assisted Costigan in finding people to head up that organi- 
zation. 

(At this point Kepresentative Morgan M. Moulder entered the 
hearing room and assumed the chair.) 

Mr. Dennett. In the very beginning the original leaders who held 
the original titles of president and vice president of the Old- Age 
Pension Union were not members of the Communist Party. They 
were chosen by these old-age pension people, knowing them to be 
public-spirited persons, and I don't know whether it is proper to 
identify those persons or not at this point. 

Mr. Tavenner. Xo. The committee would not be interested in go- 
ing into that phase of the matter. 

You mentioned a person by the name of Lowell Wakefield. Will 
you tell the committee what you know of his activities? 

Mr. Dennett. Lowell Wakefield was a member of the Communist 
Party. He did come from the East on his assignment by the central 
committee to work in this district. However, after he had worked 
here a comparatively short time he came into dispute with the suc- 
ceeding leader who came, Mr. Morris Rappaport, and ultimately Mr. 
Wakefield left the Communist Party and I believe that he has had 
no connection with the Communist Party for a great many years. 

Mr. Tavenner. The point you are making is that in its inception 
this union, the Old- Age Pension Union, was not of a Communist 
origin or of a Communist ciiaracter. 

Mr. Dennett. No: it was not. But the Communist Party recog- 
nized that the terrific response that Costigan received meant that 
here was a potential group of people capable of doing enormous 
amounts of political work. 

Remember, please, their situation: They were retired; they had 
ceased working daily on a job. Therefore, they had the leisure time 
to do what they wanted to do in most instances or at least in many in- 
stances. The result was that some of these people could go out and 
peddle leaflets and knock on doors. They constituted an enormous 
political strength. And the Communist Party conceived the idea that 
these people certainly would be the most able people to carry on po- 
litical programs if they could be won to support such a program. 

So the Commmiist Party set about to do exactly that in the pension 
union. 

Among those who were urged to go into the pension union to work 
vigorously was a person by the name of Thomas C. Rabbitt. 

Tom Rabbitt became a very powerful and influential man in that 
organization. He did so very largely because he succeeded in being 
elected to the Washington State Legislature as a Democrat, and, in 
the State legislature as a State senator, was able to embarrass the 
governor and the administration on their promises to aid the elderly 
people on the pension program. His eftorts were heralded as making 
a real — well, he was considered to be a real political leader because he 
had succeeded in a situation where it was vitally important. 

My counsel reminds me that Mr, Rabbitt has been before this com- 
mittee, and he appeared in your executive session last June, 

Mr, Rabbitt found that there was an enormous amount of work to 
be done in that organization, and he had to call for help. And he 
built up a comparatively important machine with which he worked. 

62222— 55— pt. 2 4 



422 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told us that the Communist Party, upon 
seeino- the great potentialities in this new organization, decided to do 
somethincr about it. Tell the committee just what it did and the 
methods ?t used to gain control of the Old- Age Pension Union. 

Mr. Dennetf. It concentrated first at the top levels of the organiza- 
tion It wanted to get strong leadership there capable of carrying 
two important points: first, that they carry on a relentless struggle 
for better and more welfare assistance to the aged people so as to 
insure their loyalty and support among those members ; they wanted, 
next, to be certain that a large body of people became ardent support- 
ers and friends of the Soviet Union so that it would be possible to 
defend the political policies of the Communist Party in that respect 
and to give assistance to the Communist program m this area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, as indicated by his testimony, the 
knowledge of this witness is very great concerning the scientific fea- 
tures of communism and how it operates in the Northwest. 

Because of the limit of time, we have had to confine ourselves to 
the high spots. I will ask, if we are to conclude his testimony today, 
that ]vfr. Dennett confine his testimony chiefly to his own activities and 
circumstances surrounding them ; otherwise we will be unable to com- 
plete what we had planned today. , 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. As you say, it is very important testimony. 
We are grateful to receive it. I believe any additional information 
which he might wish to submit could be submitted in writing to the 
committee at a later date. I mean after we have concluded our 

hearings. . , . -n i 4. 

Mr. Tavt.nner. Mr. Chairman, it is obvious we will have a great 
deal of work ahead of us in connection with documentary information 
which he has at hand, as well as to give this witness time to explain 
fully the implications of his statements today. 

Mr. Moulder. It may be possible when the hearings are held m Los 
Angeles in June that additional hearings could be held here to com- 
plefe the testimony of Mr. Dennett. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Certainly further consideration will have to be given 

to that. . . „ .-, •-. 

I wanted to make this explanation principally so the committee 
would understand that I have asked the witness to confine his testi- 
mony today principally to his own activities. I did not want the com- 
mittee to feel that the witness was attempting to relate what he had 
done alone as a matter of his own choice. 

Mr. Dennett. Thank you. . 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Dennett can be subpenaed to appear m Cali- 
fornia when hearings are held there; the subcommittee could resunie 
hearings here at a later date if we feel it is necessary to secure his 
additional information. 

Mr. Tavenner. Continuing with the subject of the old-age pension, 
were vou active in it in your individual capacity ? 

Mr. Dennett. No ; I was not. I spoke before it on a number of 
times on invitation of the leaders to indicate some labor support be- 
cause I was representing the State CIO at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell us briefly to what extent was the Communist 
Party successful in the accomplishment of the two purposes you stated 
the Communists had in interesting the leadership of the old-age pen- 
sion unit. 



COMINIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 423 

Mr. Dennett. As I indicated at the outset, the first leaders of the 
pension union — president, vice president, and some of the other offi- 
cers — were anti-Communist people. And it did not take too long 
before they came into conflict with those Communists who were trying 
to make certain that the organization carried out these purposes which 
T have indicated. 

I believe that the first president of the organization left it very 
quickly. Later on another person took over as a president of the 
organization, who was a member of the Communist Party, and he 
remained a leader for quite a long time. Ultimately he got into con- 
flict with the Communist Party, and the Communist Party did what 
we call a hatchet job on him. 

Mr. Tavenner, "Who was he ? 

Mr. Denneit. A man by the name of N. P. Atkinson. And Atkin- 
son was expelled from the party. And when he was expelled from the 
party he was also pushed out of the pension union. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. After Communist Party overtures to the leader- 
ship of the union was any effort made to capture the rank and file ? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes. There was a considerable effort made. A 
person by the name of William J. Pennock, whom I have mentioned 
iDefore, who is now deceased — Pennock was a very successful figure in 
this w^ork because he was such a tireless worker. 

(Representative Harold H. Velde left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Dennett. He worked day after day, every day, and had a very 
pleasing personality and was a very successful man in convincing 
the ordinary person that the program and policies they were pur- 
suing were the best for the organization. And I think it should be 
recognized that certainly those efforts of the organization to maintain 
a standard of decency and comfort for public assistance for the elderly 
people is something which should be recognized as proper. It is 
something which should not be condemned because the Communists 
were trying to use that as a basis for successfully planting its other 
ideas in the ranks of the organization. And I hope no one will 
condemn the elderly people for trying to improve their own economic 
position, which they were trying to do in the pension union. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. How can organizations of this type, which have a 
very fine purpose in view, be able to accomplish their ends without 
permitting the Communist Party to take them over and subvert them 
to the purposes of the Communist Party ? 

What is the best defense? What defense can they have to the 
Communist Party which is trying to manipulate them in the manner 
you have described? 

Mr. Dennett. My own experience leads me to the conclusion that 
the soundest defense and the soundest practice which can be pursued 
is that wherein we all insist upon the complete observance of the 
fundamental principles in the Constitution of the United States and 
the legal procedure of the court system in the United States, in which 
w^e first insist that all persons shall be considered to be innocent until 
proven guilty when charged with anything which appears to be a 
violation of either the Constitution of the United States or the prin- 
ciples of the organization that they belong to. 

T say that advisedly because I have had a number of experiences, 
personal ones, where I have been treated as a guilty person until 



424 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

proven so — not in connection with Communist material either. And 
I observed with a great deal of interest last night's television report 
of Mr. Harry Cain's remarks on that very point. 

JSIr. Cain comes from the State of Washington. Some of us knew 
him rather well. And I might say that at one time he certainly im- 
j^ressed the people very strongly in this State because of this precise 
idea which he was expressing last night on TV. 

And I cannot pass up the opportunity to remind all of us that it 
is a fundamental ])rinciple of our form of Government, of our demo- 
cratic representation system, that we honor and dignify the indi- 
vidual as an individual for his own worth, and not completely subor- 
dinate this individual to the purpose of a mass and make him a faceless 
creature. 

I think that each person is entitled to the individual dignity and the 
recognition of his right as an individual. And when he combines in 
an organization it is for the purpose of assisting in the further develop- 
ment of these human beings as creatures that are entitled to treatment 
as human beings. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. JNIouLDER. What is your next question, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Counsel is consulting the witness. 

Mr. Dennett. Counsel is calling my attention to the nature of your 
question asking what steps can be recommended, and he is trying to 
bring me back to that point a little more directly, and I appreciate it. 
I hope you will bear with us on it. 

Mr. TA\Ti:NNER. Let me suggest this to you : 

My question was not so much directed at w^hat you mentioned as it 
is to this particular phase of the matter, that here is an organization 
which had very proper purposes: It apparently had no desire to be 
controlled or influenced by the Communist Party ; but the Communist 
Party determined it was going to take it over. 

Now my point is: How, from your experience in the party, could 
this group have successfully resisted being taken over by the Com- 
munist Party ? 

(At this point Represent ative Harold H. Velde returned to the 
hearing room.) 

Mr. Dennett. I think there is no one single guaranty. I think it 
requires a number of changes in our behavior and in our attitude in 
the various democratic organizations. I mean by that democratic in 
form ; I am not referring to a party as such. 

In that respect, many people in the union to which I should belong 
have asked me many times how could they guarantee that some un- 
toward thing would not occur in the organization. And it has been 
my recoimnendation to them that the only guarantee anyone has is that 
he participate fully in the life of his own organization and not delegate 
and not allow his own responsibilities to be passed on to somebody 
else. 

If you leave it to George, let George do it, you wake up some time 
and find that George hasn't done it the way you would have preferred 
to do it or the way you would have done it had you been there. 

And it is my firm conviction that one of the most hazardous parts - 
of our democratic process is the tendency of people to leave it to some- 
body else to take care of their own responsibility. 



COMjMUNIST activities in the SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 425 

If a democracy is to work, if it is to be a democracy or continue to be 
a democracy, it is essential that each participant, each member be a 
particijDant. That is the best recommendation I can make. 

Mr. Moulder. That is very true. In our investigations the com- 
mittee has found many instances where the Communist Party leaders 
have been able to infiltrate into, say, a local union in the eastern sec- 
tion of this country because the membership did not attend the elec- 
tions and did not vote and participate actively in the meetings. If 
there were other means of voting than to be personally present, that 
might be avoided. 

Mr. Dennett. I favor referendum votes myself. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. In other words, the point you are making is : There 
is a very great responsibility on each individual in his own organiza- 
tion regardless of the organization. 

Mr. Dennett. I would add to that, sir, if I may, please, that it is 
necessary that members do more than attend meetings. I mean they 
must have some adequate conception of the purpose of their organi- 
zation. 

Just like in the conduct of the affairs of the Government of the 
United States, I don't think it is suffiicent for persons to be elected 
as Congressmen and then just sit there. I think they have got to know 
what the Constitution of the United States provides, and I think they 
liave to be the guardians to make certain that everybody abides by it, 
and that they abide by it themselves and insist that their own members 
abide by it. 

I think that the question of a member just being a member of an 
organization and just being a card-carrying member is not sufficient. 
Likewise, it is not sufficient to have representatives of government just 
be present. Being present isn't enough. They have to understand 
what they are there for. And pursue their purpose of representing 
their constituents. 

I say that as a comparison because the two things are similar. There 
is an identity. 

Our greatest democratic practice occurs in the organizations which 
are not directly associated with government as such. 

Mr. Moulder. That applies, as you have said, to unions and organi- 
zations social or otherwise, as well as the general election of the 
United States where probably only 65 percent of the people go to the 
])olls and vote. 

Mr. Tavenner. A very simple way of expressing what you have 
said is that people should be informed. 

]Mr. Dennett. They must be informed. 

And I am strictly opposed to secret negotiations, whether it occurs 
between employers and unions, whether it occurs between heads of 
organizations, or whether it occurs in international affairs. I think 
that the only safeguard that Ave have that the rights of the people will 
not be trespassed upon is when everything is out in the open. 

I am willing to admit that until an agreement is arrived at, until 
a conclusion is reached, it may be necessary to conduct the negotiations 
or the conferences with a limited amount of access to public discus- 
sion. That may be so. I am not prepared to say that everything must 
be done in a goldfish bowl. But I am very insistent in my own con- 
viction and in my own practices, at least for the past several years, 
that, anything I do is going to be out in the open where the whole 



426 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

world can take a look at it. If they don't like it they can say so. And 
if that is the way they feel about it, fine. I'll step aside and retire. 
But if they do approve it, let them go ahead. 

Mr. Moulder. \Vlien discussing the Washington Commonwealth 
Federation yesterday, did you give an estimate of 5,500 as being, in 
your opinion, the total Communist Party membership in the State 
of Washington or in this district ? 

Mr. Dennett. I said at that time there were approximately 5,500 
members at one time in 1 year. I think it was 1938. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you any knowledge or information, whether it 
be in the form of an opinion or from your experience, as to the total 
Communist Party membership in this area at the present time? 

Mr. Dennett. No. I have no adequate idea about that. I think 
that it must be very small. Someone asked me the other day what I 
thought it was, and I said, "Well, I think the ranks of the Communist 
Party have been decimated by their own foolish behavior and by the 
change in public attitude. I think that has resulted in them being 
reduced to a mere handful, a shell of its former self." 

Mr. Moulder. Then you would tell us now that you have no knowl- 
edge or information of any communistic or Communist Party activity 
in Seattle at this time ? 

Mr. Dennett. No. We are coming to the point of my expulsion, 
which occurred 7, nearly 8 years ago. So my experience and knowl- 
edge would have to break at that point with respect to the Communist 
Party itself. 

Mr. Velde. I presume you are familiar generally with the testimony 
Barbara Hartle gave here? 

Mr. Dennett. I listened to it very carefully. 

Mr. Velde. She brought Communist Party activities in this area 
up to date as nearly as anyone possibly could in her situation. 

Would you appraise her testimony as being true as to general mat- 
ters concerning Communist activities here? 

Mr. Dennett. In all fairness to her and in all fairness to the per- 
sons that she mentioned, I would have to say that I think Barbara 
Hartle was her real self when she was here. She appeared to me to 
be exactly the same as the person I knew many years before. She 
was very deliberate and methodical. She always had been. And I 
think that she gave as accurate an account as she could possibly do. I 
marvel at the ability that she displayed in doing it, the names that 
she mentioned. 

I have tried to explain to my personal friends — they have asked me 
about it ; how could a person name so many people as she did ? I can 
only say that Barbara was in a position where she had access to those 
records. It was part of her duty to handle records of the membership. 
Therefore, she would be required to know those things. 

People have asked me, "Well, do you know the same people that she 
knew?" And I have had to answer, "I certainly knew most of those 
people." 

But I am not in a position where I could say that, of my own knowl- 
edge, I knew those persons as members of the Communist Party. 

I knew practically all of those persons in some capacity or another, 
but in very few instances is it possible for me to say, of my own knowl- 
edge, that I knew such and such a person to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 



COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 427 

And that was a very important distinction for me to make. 

But I must say that it is my considered judgment that Barbara 
Hartle gave very valid and very accurate information. 

Mr. Velde. I certainly thank you for that, Mr. Dennett. That was 
my impression, too. Not being in a position to know as much about it 
as either of you I did get the impression that she told a very valid 
story. 

Mr. Dennett. I am sure she was accurate. 

Mr. Velde. I appreciate your verification of her story as to the ex- 
tent of the Communist Party in this area. 

Another thing I would like to get cleared up before we go further, 
Mr. Counsel and Mr. Chairman, is a matter of your identification of 
Harry Lundeberg as having attended fraction meetings. I think you 
probably are as anxious to get that cleared up as we are. We know 
that Mr. Lundeberg has been a very faithful anti-Communist for a 
long time. 

Would you like to make further comment on that ? 

Mr. Dennett. I didn't expect that that would come up, and I was 
quite surprised at the furor it has created. I had no idea at the time 
that I mentioned this that it was of such importance or that such im- 
portance would be made of it. 

I think perhaps it requires that I give you a little bit more detail 
of how I had such knowledge so that you may judge for yourselves as 
to the accuracy or validity of what I had to say. 

Mr. Velde. Actually, of course, back in those days about which you 
were testifying there was nothing seriously wrong in the minds of 
most American people with attending fraction meetings of the Com- 
munist Party. So I agree with you. I don't see any reason for all 
the furor. But I thought possibly you would like to clear it up. 

Mr. Dennett. I certainly would, sir. Thank you for asking me. 

The first I heard of the furor, a friend of mine called me on the 
phone last night and asked me if I had read the morning paper wliich 
carried the story of Mr. Lundeberg's denial. I said I had not. So he 
read it to me, and he asked me what I had to say about it then. Some 
of my personal friends did. And I had to remind him, just as I just 
stated to you, that I had no idea it was going to have that much 
importance attached to it. 

But let me give you the facts as it occurred. 

You will recall in my testimony I mentioned going into the Inland- 
boatmen's Union of the Pacific, what was then the Ferry Boatmen's 
Union. It was in 1936— Well, it was in 1935, the end of 1935 when the 
first strike occurred against an arbitration award. 

At that time the Maritime Federation of the Pacific had been al- 
ready organized. Mr. Lundeberg was the president of it. Their 
headquarters were here in Seattle. He had an office here in a build- 
ing close to the Pioneer Square. I believe it is properly called Pio- 
neer Place. ]\Ir. Lundeberg held an office there as the president of 
the federation, and his first and able assistant was Mr. Ernest Fox 
whom I have mentioned before. 

AVlien I w^as elected a delegate to represent the crew of the ship 
that I was working on, to attend our first strike meeting, on my way 
to that meeting I stopped at the office of the president of the Mari- 
time Federation of the Pacific, Mr. Harry Lundeberg, and asked him 



428 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

what lie thought of the situation that I found myself in; namely, 
elected as a delegate, representing an organization which I knew 
practically nothing about. And I asked him further what advice he 
would give me. 

]\Ir. Lundeberg was very gracious to me, and advised me that the 
"tule" sailors — by which he referred to our Sound freight-boat men 
because he didn't consider us to be genuine sailors at all because we 
didn't get outside into deep water ; we were always here in the rivers 
or the harbors, and he called us "tule" sailors. 

And he said, "The first thing you have got to do is get rid of your 
finky leaders." 

And I asked him on what basis he made such a statement. 

And he said, "You talk to Ernie. Ernie can tell you the whole 
story, and I will O. K. and vouch for it." 

So I asked Ernest Fox a little bit more about it. And Ernie ex- 
plained to me that the maritime leaders at that time had a great 
hatred for the leaders of the then ferry boatmen's union because those 
leaders of the ferry boatmen's union had not gone along with the 
general strike plans in San Francisco in 1934. And Mr. Lundeberg 
was one of the principal supporters of those strike plans at that 
time. 

As a result of Mr. Lundeberg's attitude at that time, the Commu- 
nist Party had the utmost confidence in his integrity and in his lead- 
ership. And Mr. Fox, Ernest Fox, informed me that Lundeberg had 
attended fraction meetings, taught fraction meetings where he had 
met with 1 or 2 party leaders to outline the policy and program to be 
followed. 

Mr. Velde. When you say "party leaders" are you referring to the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dennett. That is right ; I am referring to Communist Party 
leaders. 

But Mr. Fox also warned me at that time that he had a few mis- 
givings about where Mr, Lundeberg was going because Mr. Lundeberg 
had already begun to show evidence that he was beginning to have 
differences with the party and that he was resisting attending any 
more fraction meetings at a very early date. 

So it is quite true that Mr. Lundeberg was incensed. He didn't like 
the Communist Party. 

I simply mention in passing, at the outset, that he had been brought 
into a fraction meeting, and it was common knowledge. 

Mr. Moulder. In other words, he had been brought into contact with 
the Communist Party leaders as a result of the work he was perform- 
ing but not in the capacity of being a Communist himself ? Is that 
what you are saying ? 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. Even the most ardent anti-Commu- 
nist can be drawn into Communist activities. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you mean drawn into contact with Communists? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes. 

My counsel cautions me to be certain that you understand I at no 
time accused Mr. Harry Lundeberg of being a Connnunist. 

Mr. Velde. I think that is a matter of record. In fact, you have 
said everything favorable to Mr. Lundeberg's record. But I suppose 
it might be presumed that if you and another Communist Party leader 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 429 

had a conference with Mr. Liindeberg some time that that would be a 
meeting such as you mentioned in your testimony yesterday, or could 
be considered a fraction meeting ; could it not ? 

Mr. Dennett, No; that would not be regarded as a top fraction 
meeting. A top fraction meeting would be only a meeting where the 
leaders of an organization who were members of the Communist Party 
met either with themselves or with some official of the Communist 
Party. And in Mr. Lundeberg's case 

Mr. Velde. Is that the type of meeting to which you referred when 
you said that you had general knowledge, or it was common knowledge 
that Mr. Lundeberg attended top fraction meetings ? 

Mr. Dennett. True. 

Mr. Tavenner. JNIy recollection of your testimony was that you 
made it clear Mr. Lundeberg was not a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Dennett. I thought so ; I meant to, certainly. 

Mr. Tavenner. You meant to, and if there is any question about 
your testimony on that point I understand you now do make it clear 
that you did not intend, and that you did not characterize Mr. Lunde- 
berg as a member of the Communist Party. Am I correct in that? 

Mr. Dennett. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. And your only information about his attendance at 
a so-called fraction meeting was the information given to you by his 
assistant, Mr, Fox ? 

Mr. Dennett. And I might say, for verification, that the very line 
which Mr. Lundeberg had urged upon me to follow was exactly the 
line which the leaders of the Communist Party gave me at that time 
also; namely, attack your leaders, get rid of them. 

Mr. Tavenner. We were discussing the activity of the Communist 
Party within the Old-Age Pension Union. Will you tell the com- 
mittee, please, whether 3'ou can at this time recall the names of other 
persons active in that organization who were known to you to be 
members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dennett. My own knowledge doesn't extend beyond the top 
leaders of that organization, which I have already mentioned. 

Mr. Tav-enner. That brings us to the period you described yesterday 
when the Washington Commonwealth Federation was being dissolved. 
My recollection is you indicated that it was dissolved at the instance of 
the Communist Party. Am I correct in that ? 

Mr. Dennett. It did that during the Second World War when I 
was in the military service. I only know of that from correspondence 
and what I read in the newspapers. 

Mr. Tavenner. You also told us that the component parts of the 
Washington Commonwealth Federation began to pull away from 
that organization. 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the reason for that ? 

Mr. Dennett. The main reason was the conflicting international 
policies. 

You will recall that in that historical period there were rapid 
changes taking place. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am trying to return to the point where we broke 
off testimony on that subject. 



430 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

What became your activity in the field, in this general field upon the 
weakening of the federation as a result of the change in international 
problems you described yesterday ? 

Mr. Dennett. With the rise of the CIO following the split in the 
labor movement I was elected to be the secretary of the Seattle CIO 
Council, and subsequently became the executive secretary of the Wash- 
ington State CIO Council. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Can you give us dates, please ? 

Mr. Dennett. In 1937 the American Federation of Labor started 
expelling from its ranks those unions which had advocated the indus- 
trial form of organization. I was in a union which did advocate the 
industrial form of organization, but we were not one of those that 
attracted primary interest. Therefore, they did not expel our union 
right away. They never did expel it in fact. However, since we were 
supporting the industrial form of organization, I advocated that our 
organization be among the first to swing to the CIO. That was the 
Inlandboatmen's Union of the Pacific. 

Subsequently, a referendum vote was held and the membership 
voted overwhelmingly to withdraw from the American Federation of 
Labor and affiliate with the CIO. 

Being one of the most regular representatives of the organization 
among outside affiliates, I was selected and elected by the members of 
these unions to represent what was first called the Seattle Unity 
Council, in 1937. In that year we had affiliated to that council both 
CIO and A. F. of L. organizations and unaffiliated organizations. 

To make a long story short, I could say that my activities there 
were transferred to a larger field when I became the secretary of the 
State CIO council, which was founded in 1938. And history will 
confirm that the first convention of the CIO was also held that year 
in Atlantic City. 

I was a delegate to that convention, and there I came in contact 
with the national leadership of the CIO unions, and with the national 
leaders in the CIO unions who were known to me as Communists. 

Do you wish me to go into that now ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, briefly. 

Mr. Dennett. One of the first instructions that I received in that 
matter was from a man by the name of Eoy Hudson who was the 
national — well, he objected to being called the labor expert in the cen- 
tral committee of the Communist Party. However, he usually had 
the duty of following the assignments of the respective Communist 
members. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. 

Mr. Chairman, you will probably recall that we had Roy Hudson as 
a witness in our California hearings in December of 1953, but he re- 
fused to give this committee any material information. 

Mr. Denneit, Well, he gave me some instructions when I went to a 
national convention, and his instruction to me v/as very brief. He 
said, "Any time you need to settle a question and you are in doubt, 
just see Lee Pressman." 

Mr. Ta\tsnner. Lee Pressman? 

Mr. Dennett. Lee Pressman. 

I did try to do that, but my experience with Lee Pressman was 
highly unsatisfactory, and I came back to one of the district bureau 



COIVEMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 431 

meetings and reported the unsatisfactory nature of my relations 
with him, and the district organizer instructed me to destroy the 
report which I had brought back. 

I had brought back a somewhat detailed report of my unsatisfactory 
experiences with him, and the bureau listened with considerable 
astonishment at my impressions of how unsatisfactory this situation 
was. That was from the first convention. And after that, after they 
had instructed me to destroy the records, they also instructed me to 
not talk about it with anyone because they feared it might undermine 
the prestige of such an important person as Mr. Lee Pressman. 

Mr. Velde. During what period of time did you know Mr. Press- 
man ? 

Mr. Dennett. That was in 1938. 

Mr. Velde. At that time he was in the CIO. He had left the Gov- 
ernment, as I understand it. 

Mr. Dennett. He was the general counsel of the CIO, and was 
John L. Lewis' righthand man. 

]\lr. Velde. I do not recall the date of Mr. Pressman's testimony. 
Was it in 1949? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; in 1949 or early 1950 we had him as a witness 
before our committee and interrogated him on his connection with the 
CIO at that particular time. 

Mr. Velde. Did you know Lee Pressman as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Dennett. I didn't know that personally. I was just under the 
instruction — I asked Koy Hudson who I should see in the event I got 
crossed up and didn't know what policy to pursue or anything, and he 
said, "See Lee Pressman. Do what he says." 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, this is a matter which we should 
follow through. But, not knowing the character of the experience 
this witness had with Mr. Pressman, I believe it is a matter we should 
investigate fully before attempting to further examine the witness on 
the subject. 

Mr. Moulder. Very well. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Do you have documentary evidence of any char- 
acter on that incident ? 

Mr. Dennett. I can't be sure whether I have or not. I don'c 
recall all the things that I have in my files. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Proceed, please. 

Mr. Dennett. Well, I came in contact with many other leaders in 
the national CIO. I used to have the habit of attending the national 
CIO executive board meetings whenever the convention was over. 
There had been an election of new officials at the close of the conven- 
tion, and I was usually there in company with the president of the 
Inlandboatmen's Union of the Pacific, who became a member of the 
executive board. And he usually asked me to come along with him. 

xind it has always been my habit to take rather copious notes. As 
a matter of fact, most people screamed to high heaven because the 
notes I take are a little bit too full and too elaborate. I do that for 
my own benefit because I try not to rely solely on memory. I have 
found it very profitable in my own experience to have my full memo- 
randa at hand when I am called upon to testify. 

And in this testimony here I am testifying almost completely from 
memory, but I assure you that I have plenty of memoranda and data 



432 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

wliicli cannot only substantiate what I have been testifying, but enrich 
it very, very much. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat further information can you give us as to the 
Communist Party membership of individuals in this new field in which 
you were engaged ? 

Mr. Dennett. Well, of course, one of our principal centers of interest 
was the International Woodworkers of America. And there, of course, 
it became my responsibility to become well acquainted with the top 
leadership in the International Woodworkers of America. And I 
think that many people have made the accusation but probably few 
people know of their own knowledge such as I do, that practically all 
of the top leaders were, with a few exceptions, members of the Com- 
munist Party. And that began with Mr. Harold J. Pritchett. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name ? 

Mr. Dennett. P-r-i-t-c-h-e-t-t. 

Mr. Harold Pritchett was a very able and outstanding man from the 
lumber industry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was was his official title ? 

Mr. Dennett. He was the president, 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is the period or the date ? 

Mr. Dennett. 1938. 

He was a Canadian and was barred from reentry into the United 
States shortly afterward, and has been unable — he was at that time 
unable to continue his functions as president, and had to give up the 
office of president. 

We were quite disappointed that that occurred. We tried every 
way we knew to insure that he could continue to serve in that capacity. 
However, we had to be satisfied with allowing another member who 
was a vice president to take his position. This was Mr. O. M. Orton, 
0-r-t-o-n, better known to us as Mickey Orton. He was the vice pres- 
ident who took oxev when Mr. Pritchett had to give up the office. 

The office staff — I mean the girls who worked in the office were 
virtually cleared by the Communist Party before they secured their 
employment in the office. The girl who was in charge at that office — • 
the name I knew her by- 
Mr. Tavenner. You said virtually cleared ? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that mean that the worker you have in mind 
must have been a member of the Communist Party ? In other words, 
we do not want you to give us the name of a person unless you have 
evidence of actual Communist Party membership. 

Mr. Dennett. I will not name anyone unless that person was a 
member of the Communist Party, according to my knowledge. Well, 
the girl who was looked upon as the office manager — I don't recall the 
exact title she had — but her name was Gladys Field, F-i-e-1-d. And 
all the stenographers and bookkeepers who were employed by the 
organization had to meet her approval before they could be employed 
in that office. And her approval was based upon whether or not the 
person would be friendly or hostile to the Communist Party, as well 
as being, of course, efficient and able to do the job. She was an ex- 
ceedingly efficient girl herself, and did a splendid job as an office 
manager. She would be a credit to any office so far as her office work 
is concerned, and she was a credit to that organization. She had as 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 433 

one of her able assistants a girl by the name of Helen Sobeleski. I am 
not sure that I can spell that. It is a Polish name. 

Well along in that period Mr. Karley Larsen came into prominence 
in the Woodworkers. 

Mr. Tavenner. To what union does this testimony relate concern- 
ing officials and employees ? 

Mr. Dennett. The International Woodworkers of America. 

Another person I knew was Nat Honig, H-o-n-i-g. 

Nat Honig was brought into the district by Morris Rappaport 
to become an agitprop director. I knew Mr. Honig quite well, and 
I sympathized with the task that he had. He didn't last very long 
in that either. He soon found himself as editor of the Woodworkers' 
paper, the International Woodworkers of America's paper. And I 
had occasion to attempt to get him to carry out the party line, and I 
was amazed to find a man who was officially holding a position of 
district agitprop director while he was editor of that paper, and yet, 
when the May Day issue of that paper came out there wasn't one single 
mention of the fact that ]May Day was the historical day to be com- 
memorated for the 8-hour day in America and was heralded through- 
out the world as laborers' clay. 

Mr. Honig explained it away, that he didn't think it was appropriate 
to do it. 

I went to Mr. Rappaport complaining, "What kind of a district 
agitprop is this man anyway?" 

And Rappaport had quite a session with Honig, and shortly after 
that Mr. Honig began to have some disailection from the party and the 
party policy, and I believe he appeared before the Canwell committee 
shortly afterward and gave voluminous testimony about the Commu- 
nist Party. I have not read his testimony. I do not know how valid 
it is. I couldn't confinn or deny what he said. I don't know. 

Mr. Velde. "Wliat was the approximate time ? 

Mr. Dennett. That was in that period 1939, 1 believe ; 1939 or 1940 
when that happened. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall any other individuals connected with 
the International Woodworkers of America who were members of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dennett. I have a little difficulty thinking of any others at the 
moment in that particular union. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee had before it at Albany, N. Y., in 
July 1953, a Canadian by the name of Patrick Walsh who was con- 
nected with that organization in the western part of Canada during 
one period of time and who later became very prominent in the Cana- 
dian seamen's union strike in 1949. 

Did you become acquainted with Patrick Walsh? 

Mr. Dennett. No; I never knew him. 

IVIr. Moulder. The committee will stand recessed for 5 minutes. 

(Wliereupon, a short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Ta^-enner. Mr. Dennett, you were giving us the names of per- 
sons known to you to be members of the Communist Party within the 
field of labor at the time that you were a member of the CIO council. 

Mr. Denneit. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you proceed, please? 



434 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Dennett. Well, of course, I think I mentioned Mr. Hugh 
DeLacy before. He was from the teachers union. And, of course, 
there was one of his associates, a man by the name of Harold Eby. 
They were the only ones that I knew directly in the Communist Party, 
in the teachers union, from the university. 

There was another person by the name of Victor Hicks who was 
quite well known to me who was in the other teachers union. There 
were two teachers' unions, locals here. One applied to the public 
schools, and one applied to the university. Victor Hicks was in the 
one that applied to the public schools, although I don't believe he was a 
public-school teacher himself. But he had taught in one of those Gov- 
ernment assistance programs. I forget which one it was. There was 
some kind of an educational program that was conducted in the de- 
pression days that Mr. Hicks was associated with, and he was the 
principal one. In fact, he was responsible for nominating me to 
the position of secretary of the council in the first CIO council in 
Seattle. 

Of course, I knew Mr. Jess Fletcher in the Building Service Em- 
ployees International Union, which was an A. F. of L. union, not one 
of the CIO unions. 

In the Longshoremen's Union ^ I knew Mr. Burt Nelson, B-u-r-t 
N-e-1-s-o-n. 

I knew these people as members of the Communist Party, and they 
were the leaders with whom I dealt most frequently in dealing with 
union affairs and with party affairs. 

Mr. Moulder. When naming a person, if possible, identify him in 
some way so he will not be confused with any person who may have 
a similar name. 

Mr. Dennett. Burt was a longshoreman. He worked as a long- 
shoreman on the Seattle waterfront. 

George Bailey was a longshoreman known to me first in Raymond, 
Wash. Later I knew him on the Seattle waterfront. 

Mr. Tavenner. How does he spell his name ? 

Mr. Dennett. I believe it was B-a-i-1-e-y. 

In the early days of the organization of the warehousemen's local 
of the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union the 
two principal officers of the organization were very well known to 
me as members of the Communist Party. However, they frequently 
did not comply with the party policy, and we had frequent difficulty 
trying to get them to comply with it. And I believe that they have both 
since left the Communist Party. I make that by way of statement to 
be certain that there is no misapprehension as to my knowledge about 
tiem. One was Mr. John Stevens, better known as Johnny. Another 
one was Adrian Lawrence, A-d-r-i-a-n L-a-w-r-e-n-c-e. 

In the Marine Firemen's Union,- which was not in the CIO, but it 
was a waterfront union with which I was closely associated, was Mr. 
Walter Stack, S-t-a-c-k, who has previously been mentioned, and a 
person by the name of George Flood. Now I hope no one will mistake 
him for another individual who is very prominent as a lawyer. I am 
not speaking of the lawyer. It is not the lawyer at all, because he is 

' This is a reference to the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union. 
* This is a reference to Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers Association 
Pacific Coast. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 435 

a well known leader of the Kepublican Party, and I am sure that no 
one will confuse him. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dennett. My counsel advises me that that George Flood is 
deceased. I was unaware of it. 

The George Flood of whom I am speaking was a sort of hunchback 
fellow who was a marine fireman. 

At an earlier period I knew a group of people in the Boeing union, 
the machinists union, who were known to me as members of the 
Communist Party. That came about w^hen one of the organizers of 
the United Automobile Workers of America came into Seattle wanting 
to swing the affiliation from the machinists union to the United Auto- 
mobile Workers. That national leader was a man by the name of 
Wyndham Mortimer, W-y-n-d-h-a-m M-o-r-t-i-m-e-r. He was an 
organizer. At that time he was stationed in California. He was 
quite anxious to bring about the change in affiliation of the Boeing 
workers because he knew that the employment at that plant would 
increase, and had hoped that, by winning that group of workers, they 
would add considerable prestige and strength to the United Automo- 
bile Workers aircraft division. He had been active in a big plant. 
1 think it was the Lockheed plant in California at that time. 

Wlien he came here he conferred with two persons known to me very 
well, a man by the name of Hugo Lundquist, L-u-n-d-q-u-i-s-t, and 
Barney Bader, B-a-d-e-r. They were at that time the top leaders of 
the aeronautical workers union, and they became known to me through 
Mr. Mortimer as members of the Communist Party. And they com- 
pletely disregarded my counsel which was that they were embarked 
on a foolhardy effort and that we disagreed with any attempt at 
jurisdictional rating. Our policy here was strictly opposed to it. 

However, Mortimer was operating under authority of the top appa- 
ratus of the party, namely, the central committee in New York City. 
And he completely disregarded any advice or counsel which was 
offered by the district bureau or the district leaders of the Communist 
Party in this area. 

It was our policy to not disturb the existing unions to change affili- 
ation. To us that was ridiculous and had no point of value. Our 
concern was to not have our members upset or disturbed in those 
organizations. 

Mr. Tavenner. It may be of importance for us to know the year in 
which this incident occurred. 

Mr. Dennett, I would have to consult my records, but I can assure 
you I have records on that. I have extensive correspondence with Mr. 
Mortimer on that subject. 

Mr. Tavenner. That will be satisfactory. 

Mr. Velde. Is the Walter Stack, to whom you referred, the same 
Walter Stack who was convicted of violation of the Smith Act? 

Mr. Dennett. I don't know what his violation is, but I am sure he is 
the man who was very prominent in the marine firemen's union over a 
great many years. He came from here when I knew him. 

Mr. Velde. I feel certain that it is one and the same person. I 
noted in the newspaper the other day that his appeal was turned 
down by the United States circuit court of appeals. 

Mr. Dennett. In the national conventions of the CIO, after my 
first experience, which was highly unsatisfactory, with Mr. Lee Press- 



436 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

man, I complained so bitterly when I came back to the district that 
the next convention I went to I was instructed before I left that I 
should work through Reid Eobinson, who was president of the Inter- 
national Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers of America at 
that time. Mr. Eobinson proved to be a very cooperative man and 
readily discussed party affairs with me. That was in 1939. 

Mr. Tamsnner. You say you were given instructions to work 
through Eobinson, Was that an instruction from your union as such, 
or was it an instruction from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dennett. That was from the Communist Party. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dennett. My counsel thinks that I have not sufficiently iden- 
tified Mr. I^ee Pressman. He was at the time I knew him general 
counsel of the CIO. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you proceed, please. 

Mr. Dennett. My relations with Mr. Eeid Robinson were quite 
satisfactory except "that at a little bit later date, when I was under 
sharp attack because of the growing split between left and right 
wings in the State CIO in this State, I tried to get Mr. Eeid Eobinson 
to come to this State to try to pacify the situation, and he was fearful 
of doing so for fear he would get into more complications than he 
could solve. So he deserted me when I needed help. 

Earlier, of course, I knew Ferdinand Smith from the National 
Maritime Union of America. I believe he has been deported from 
the United States. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is correct. 

Mr. Dennett. It is the same person. I had known him over a 
period of several years. 

I also came to know the president of the officeworkers union at that 
time. That was the United Office and Professional Workers of Amer- 
ica, Mr. Lewis Merrill. He was known to me by that name then. I 
have heard from friends since then that that was an assumed name 
or something. At any rate, he is doing business in New York City 
under an entirely different name as of this date. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know that name ? 

Mr. Dennett. I do not know that name. I know a person who 
does, who lives in the city of Seattle, and who knows him. But I do 
not know him myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell his name, the name that he went 
by here ? 

Mr. Dennett. L-e-w-i-s M-e-r-r-i-1-1. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you proceed, please ? 

Mr. Dennett. At a much earlier period — I am going back to try 
to pick up the loose threads that we left out when we should have men- 
tioned them, but I was unable to connect all my thoughts consecu- 
tively at that time. In the organization of the Marine Workers In- 
dustrial Union Mr. Harry Jackson, whom I mentioned to you, was 
the chief leader of that effort here. But he had 2 or 3 very able as- 
sistants, one by the name of James Archer, A-r-c-h-e-r. Archer is the 
man to whom I delivered about $35 which was taken up as a collection 
when I was in the CCC camp when I came to Seattle on a visit from 
the camp. It was a collection from the men in the camp to assist the 
maritime strikers at that time, and Mr. Archer is the man to whom 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 437 

I delivered that money in the headquarters of the Marine Workers 
Industrial Union. 

Another person who was very active in that work was a person by 
the name of Tommy Ray, E-a-y. Later I met Tommy Ray after I 
was expelled from the Communist Party. Tommy Ray at that time 
was a port agent for the National Maritime Union. And I tried to 
discuss with him the question of the disciplinary practices of the Com- 
munist Party, and Ray was so incensed about his own experience 
that he wouldn't discuss it with me except to say, "Don't talk to me 
about those so-and-sos. I don't want to have anything further to do 
with them." And that is about all I was able to obtain from him. 
But it was the same person, and I believe he is still an active person 
in the National Maritime Union. But he is bitterly anti-Communist 
today. 

There was another person by the name of Tom Burns. I don't know 
how we can make a distinction for him, because there are so many 
persons by that name except to say that he was a seaman. I learned 
later from Tommy Ray that Tom Burns became a licensed man, left 
the Communist Party long before, and has had nothing to do with 
it; that is, in recent years. Although he was a very able man way 
back in the period of 1932, 1933, and 1934 when he was very active 
in the organization of the Marine Workers Industrial Union, and had 
a great part in organizing the sailors on the waterfront in Seattle at 
that time. 

I knew Tommy Burns' wife quite well, a person by the name of — 
I knew her originall}^ as Helmi Hutenen. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell it, please. 

Mr. Dennett. I cannot be certain of the spelling of it, but, as near 
as I recall, it was H-u-t-e-n-e-n. There was double spelling in there 
that I am not certain of. Helmi was II-e-1-m-i. 

There was a leader of the radio operators, marine radio operators, 
by the name of Thomas J. Van Erman. I observed in ]\Irs. Kartle's 
testimony that she referred to a Mr. Van Orman. I am not referring 
to any Van Orman. I don't know any Van Orman. The man I know 
was Van Erman, V-a-n E-r-m-a-n. And Mr. Van Erman that I knew 
worked on the Seattle waterfront as a radio operator and was, I be- 
lieve he was the port agent of that organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let the record show in describing these persons 
vou knew and met, that you knew them as members of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Dennett. That is correct. 

I frequently made myself quite obnoxious to Mr. Van Erman 
because I was always asking him to be a little more militant and 
a little more positive in his work. And he was quite insistent that 
I was wrong, and we had a continuing friction over that point. How- 
ever, we were great personal friends. 

The Cannery Workers Union was a local affiliate of the United 
Cannery, Agricultural, and Packinghouse Workers of America. In 
the national leadership I knew a Mr. Donald Henderson, who was 
the president of that organization. I knew him very well, associated 
with him frequently at the convention, transacted a great deal of 
business with him concerning the cannery workers out here because 
we were having a great deal of difficulty over language problems. 

62222— 55— pt. 2 5 



438 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

The cannery workers in that union were those who were sent to Alaska 
reguhirly each year to Avork in the sahnon industry. 

And in the local area I knew Mr. Conrad Espe. Mr. Con Espe was 
the local representative of that international union. 

There was a member of that union who was the most promising 
Communist that we had, by the name of I. Hosue, H-o-s-u-e. He was 
a very able man. I have heard since from people w^io are somewhat 
acquainted with the facts that Mr. Hosue went into the military- 
service, became an officer during the course of the war, and turned 
bitterly anti-Communist. And I understand that he gave testimony 
against certain other members of the organization in certain deporta- 
tion hearings. I can only give you that much by way of identifica- 
tion. But that is the man I am speaking of. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I suggest, Mr. Chairman, if tlie witness recalls 
any other names, that he give them to us at a later period, as we desire 
to proceed now with other witnesses. 

Mr. Moulder. All right. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to recall this witness a little later in the 
day on other matters. 

Mr. Moulder. At Avhat time do you want Mr. Dennett back? 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe that he should be back after lunch. I 
would say at 2 o'clock. 

Mr. Moulder. Two o'clock. 

Thank you, Mr. Dennett. At 2 o'clock you will be recalled. 

jSIr. Wheeler. Mr. Paul Delaney, please. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you 
are about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole 
truht, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Delanet. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL WILLIAM DELANEY, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, RICHARD L. GEMSON 

Mr. Wheeler. Will the witness state his full name, please. 

Mr. Delaney. Paul William Delaney. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you spell the last name ? 

Mr. Delaney. D-e-1-a-n-e-y. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and where were you born, Mr. Delaney? 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask, Mr. Delaney, are you represented by 
counsel ? 

Mr. Delaney. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Moulder. Will counsel identify himself? 

Mr. Gemson. E. L. Gemson. I am a practicing attorney here in 
Seattle. 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed, Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and Avhere were you born, Mr. Delaney? 

Mr. Delaney. I was born in 1903 in the State of Minnesota. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you lived in Washington? 

Mr. Delaney. 51 years. 

Mr. Wheeler. Advise the committee of your educational back- 
ground, please. 

Mr. Delaney. T went to school in this State: through grammar 
school and high school: I attended the University of Washington 2: 
years. I didn't graduate. 






I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 439 

Mr. Wheeler. What 2 years was that ? 

Mr. Delaxey. I think in the years 1923 and 1927. 

Mr. Wheeler, ^^^lat is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Delaney. I am an architect. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long have you been so engaged ? 

Mr. Delaney. Well, I gi-ew up in the construction business. I have 
been a licensed architect since 1950 or 1951. I can't state accurately. 

Mr. Wheeler. How were you employed prior to that ? 

Mr. Dei^vney. I came to Seattle in 1941. I worked at Sims Drake 
Puget Sound. It was a contracting firm here. I worked with a con- 
struction company after that who built defense housing. After that. 
I worked, the last 'year of the war— in my recollection— at Boeing Air^ 
craft Co. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did your employment terminate with Boeing 
Aircraft ? 

Mr. Delaxey. When the war was over. 

Mr. Wheeler. In 1945 ? 

Mr. Delaney. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you completed your employment background ? 

Mr. Delaney. Do you want me to bring it up to date ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Delaney. As soon as the war was over I went to work as an 
architectural draftsman. I went then with an architect by the name 
of Collins. I think he left in 1950 or 1951, and I have been alone 
since then. 

Mr. AVheeleh. Did you ever know Barbara Hartle ? 

Ml-. Delaney. May I confer with my attorney ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Delaney. On the advice of my counsel, I must invoke the fifth 
amendment, on the grounds that it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Moulder. As previously explained by the committee because 
your counsel advises you to take or invoke the fifth amendment that 
does not compel you to do so. If you prefer, you may state that you 
decline to answer the question on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Delaney. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr, Wheeler. Mrs. Hartle has advised the committee that you were 
a functionary of the Queen Anne section of the Communist Party dur- 
ing the years 1943-45. Is she correct in that statement ? 

Mr, Delaney. May I again confer ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Air, Delaney. For reasons previously given, I decline to answer this 
question. 

Mr. Wheeler. Our investigation has also developed information 
that you were chairman of the Hilltop Club of the Communist Party 
in the year 1948. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Velde. What was the name of the club ? 

Mr. Wheeler. HiJltop, H-i-1-l-t-o-p, 

Mr. 1 )elaney. Pardon me one moment. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Delaney. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viou'-lv stated. 



440 COMJXIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. Our investigation has also developed that in the 
year 1943 you Avere issued Communist Party book No. 28704. I doubt, 
if you recall the number of the book, but were you issued a Cormnun- 
ist Party book in the year 1943 by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Delaney. I decline to answer for the reasons previously given. 

Mr. Wheeler. In the year 1945 were you issued Communist Party 
book No. 42131. 

Mr. Delaney. I also decline to answer that for the reasons pre- 
Tiously given. 

Mr. Wheeler. In the year 1947 were you issued Communist Party 
book No. 65934 by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Delaney. I decline to answer for the same reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Communist Party today, 
Mr. Delaney ? 

Mr. Delaney. I must — I decline to answer that for the reasons 
previously given. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Velde ? 

Mr. Velde. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Delaney. I must — I mean I decline to answer that. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Delaney. For the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Velde. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Delaney, we have heard many arguments against 
persons coming before congressional investigative committees and mak- 
ing accusations or statements concerning other people, and that those 
people do not have the opportunity to clear themselves or make ex- 
planation of the charges made against them, such as Mrs. Hartle has 
testified concerning you and your activities. 

This committee has very carefully in each instance given the person 
so mentioned an opportunity to come before the cominittee to deny, 
affirm, or explain the charges made. And that opportunity is being 
presented to you today by a subpena issued upon you for your appear- 
ance here. 

In reply to the questions propounded to you, I understand you de- 
cline to answer because of the protection afforded you under the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution of the United States. Is that right ? 

Mr. Delaney. That is correct. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you wish to make any explanation, or to deny or 
affirm any of these statements or charges which were made by Mrs. 
Hartle concerning your communistic activities? 

Mr. Delaney. Slay I confer with my counsel ? 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Delaney. My counsel instructs me to state that I decline to 
answer that question on the grounds of the fifth amendment — on the 
ground that it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 
(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Moulder. Counsel, proceed with the next witness. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Jacob Bitterman. 

Mr. Moulder. Will you hold up your right hand and be sworn? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH,, AREA 441 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about to 
give before this congressional committee will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. BiTTERMAN. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF JACOB BITTERMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, KENNETH A. MacDONALD 

Mr. Wheeler. "Will the witness state his full name, please? 

Mr. BiTTERMAX. Jacob Bitterman. 

Mr. Velde. How do you spell the last name? 

Mr. BriTERMAx, B-i-t-t-e-r-m-a-n. 

Mr. Wheeler. Will counsel identify himself for the record? 

Mr. SIacDoxald. Kenneth A. MacDonald, attorney at law, in 
Seattle. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and where were you born, Mr. Bitterman ? 

Mr. BiTTERMAX. I was born in Russia in 1904. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you enter the United States ? 

Mr. Bitter:max. To the best of my knowledge, in 1906. 

Mr. Wheeler. How did you acquire American citizenship? 

Mr. Bittermax. Through my father's papers. 

Mr. Wheeler. When you became 21 years of age ? 

Mr. BiTTERMAx. I was 12 when he became a citizen. 

^Ir. WheeI;ER. How long have you lived in Seattle or in the vicinity 
of Seattle? 

Mr. BiTTERMAx. I came to Seattle in 1923. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you lived here continuously since that time? 

Mr. P>iiTERMAX. With the exception of 2 years, 1928 and 1929. 
That is, in the fall of 1928 to the fall of 1930 I lived in Aberdeen, 
Wash. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your educational background ? 

]Mr. BiTTERMAX. Well, I went to the third grade in country school. 

Mr. Wheeler. What has your employment record been for the last 
10 years? 

Ml-. Bi'iTERaiAx. Machinist. 

Mr. Wheeler. In Seattle? 

Mr. l^i'iTERMAx. Yes. I have been a machinist ever since I have 
been in Seattle. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a, member of the International Association 
of Machinists? 

Mr. BiTTERMAx. Yes. I am a member of local 79. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you held any offices in local 79 ? 

iMr. Bittermax. No, I haven't. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Air. Wheeler. During the time you lived in Seattle did you ever 
meet with, know, or have any conversations with Barbara Hartle? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. BiTTERMAx. I will invoke the fifth amendment because it might 
incriminate me. 

Mr. ]\IouLDER. Do you decline to answer that question? 

Mr. BiTTERMAx. I. decline to answer. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you decline on the grounds and on the reasons of 
the protection afforded to you by the provisions of the fifth amend- 
ment? 



442 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr, BiTTERMAX. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. I would like to refer to a document entitled "Investi- 
gation of Communist Activities in the Pacific Northwest, Part 3," page 
6173. It is the testimony of Barbara Hartle in June 1954, She is 
identifying members of the Communist Party, and I quote the fol- 
lowing: 

Jack Bitterman, tlieu husband of Ruth Bitterman, was a member of this 
section in the machinists' branch, and was for a time chairman of that branch. 

Do you wish to make any comment on that testimony ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bitterman. I invoke the fifth amendment, on the same grounds 
previously stated, 

Mr, Yelde, Mr, Wheeler is not aslang you to confirm or deny it, 
but asked merely if you wanted to make some comment on it. Why 
do you take the iif tli amendment on that question ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. BiT'rERMAN. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds, 

Mr, Wheeler, Were j^ou chairman of the machinists' branch of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr, Bitterman, I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Wheeler, Mr. Chairman, I see no reason for asking further 
questions. The witness is invoking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr, Yelde? 

Mr, Yelde, I have no questions, 

Mr. Moulder, Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Bitterman, No. 

Mr, Moulder. Have vou ever l)een a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness confers with his counsel,) 

Mr, Bitterman. I will again invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. You say you are not now a member of the Communist 
Party, Were you a member of the Communist Party a year ago? 

Mr. Bitterjvian. I will again invoke the fifth amendment for fear 
it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Moulder. Were you a member of the Communist Party a month 
ago? 

Mr. Bitterman. I will again invoke the fifth amendment on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Moulder. Would you say a week ago ? 

Mr. Bitterman, I will again invoke the fifth amendment, 

Mr. Moulder, How about yesterday ? 

Mr. Bitterman. The same answer. 

JMr. Moulder. But you are not a member today ? 

Mr. Bitterman, I am not a member today. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

Mr, Yelde. I would like to go a little further. Were you a member 
of the Communist Party an hour ago ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr, Bitterman. No, I was not. 

Mr. Yelde. Were you a member of the Communist Party 5 hours 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 443 

Mr. BiTTERMAisr. No. 

Mr. Velde. Wlien did you leave the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BrrTERMAN". As to that I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. Were you a member of the Commimist Party at mid- 
night last night? 

Mr. BiTi-ERMAN. No, I was not. 

Mr. Velde. How about 11 o'clock last night? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bittermax. I will invoke the fifth amendment to that question. 

Mr. Velde. I think that is close enough, is it not, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

(Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Moulder. Counsel, call the next witness. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. John Stenhouse. 

Mr. Moulder. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about to 
give before this congressional subcommitee will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN STENHOUSE, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 
JACK R. CLUCK 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you state your name? 

Mr. Stenhouse. John Stenhouse. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. 

Will counsel identify himself ? 

Mr. Cluck. Jack R. Cluck. C-1-u-c-k, 535 Central Building, Seattle. 

Mr. Ta\t.nxf,r. When and where were you born, Mr. Stenhouse? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I was born in Chungking, China, on Januaiy 22, 
1908. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your last name, please. 

Mr. Stenhouse. S-t-e-n-h-o-u-s-e. 

Mr. Tamsnner. Are you now an American citizen? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wlien and where were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I was naturalized in Los Angeles on April 23, 
1943. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^^Tien did you arrive in the United States? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I am not quite certain, but it was either Decem- 
ber of 1 940 or January of 1941 . 

Mr. Tam^.nner. Plave you been in the United States continuously 
since that time ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. In June 1948 I went out to China, and re- 
turned to the United States either September or October of the same 
year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been. 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I went to a public school in England, and 
after completing my education in England I went back to China. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you go back to China? 

Mr. Stenhouse. In 1928. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live in China from 1928 until you 
came to the United States? 



444 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I was in my father's business in China. The 
name of the firm was jNIacKenzie & Co., and they had several branches 
in China. I spent some time in Shanghai. I then went to — 

]Mr. Ta\-enner. Will you fix the dates, please. 

Mr. Steniiouse. It is pretty hard. But approximately 9 months 
in Shanghai. That would be in 1928. 

I really don't remember the month that I got to Shanghai, but I 
was there approximately 9 months. 

Then I went to Tientsin, and I was there until the beginning of 
1931, 1 think it was. 

Mr. Velde. What kind of a company was MacKenzie & Co. ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, it Avas a British trading firm. We had 

Mr. Velde. Import-export? 

Mr. Stenhouse. xind warehouses and shipping and that sort of 
activity. Then I went to Hankow. I was there until about 1934. 
I remember the date because we went home on leave at that time, and 
I got married that year. And then after leave I went back to Tientsin, 
and I was there until 1939 when we went home on leave again. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean to your home in England ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes. Then I went back to China in the fall of 
1939, just after war was declared, and I was in Tientsin until the end 
of — well, the end of 1940. During 1940 I was sent up on a mission by 
my company to Chungking and to Hong Kong. That lasted about 3 or 
4 months, I think. 

Mr. Tavenner. After your arrival in this country how did you 
become employed and where ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, before I left China I had made arrangements 
with a firm in Peiping to import and sell Chinese antiques. And he 
gave me the name of a man in Los Angeles with whom he had done 
business, and suggested that I call on him because he was in some- 
wliat similar business. And when I got to Los Angeles I called on 
this gentleman and made arrangements to work out of Ins establish- 
ment. 

Later on — I can't remember the date — I went into partnership with 
him under the style of Alkow & Stenhouse, and we conducted an 
importing business of Chinese antiques and sort of handicraft items, 
and had a retail outlet on Wilshire Boulevard. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you so engaged in business in Los 
Angeles ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Until Pearl Harbor. And I decided then that • 

Mr. Ta\^nner. From what date until Pearl Harbor ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Weil, as soon as I got to Los Angeles, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. That date was what ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I don't remember the exact date, but it was some- 
time in January of 1941. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is sufficient. 

Will you proceed, please. You continued in that business until 
Pearl Harbor. How were you employed after Pearl Harbor? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor 
the war was on. And, for one thing, I wanted to participate in the 
war. So I took a drafting course and then got a job with Shell 
Chemical in Dominguez, I think it was until the end of — I was there 
for 3 or 4 months, I think it was. I don't remember the exact date 
now. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 445 

Mr. Velpe. What was the name of the company ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Shell Chemical. 

Mr. Velde. Is that also known as Shell De^-elopment Co. ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I don't know. It may be a subsidiary. It was 
connected with the Shell Oil Co, 

Then I got a job with Fruehauf Trailer Co., which was nearer 
home. xVnd I was there until, I think, about June of 1943, 

Mv. Ta-\t,nner. Will you proceed a little more rapidly i What was 
your next employment ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Then I went to Bendix Aviation in N^orth Holly- 
wood. The reason for the change was, or one of the reasons for the 
change was, it was much nearer home, and gasoline was a problem. 
Time and transportation time were problems. And I was at Bendix 
until about March 1945, when I had a hernia operation and was told 
to get out of that sort of work. 

At about that time there were notices in the papers asking for people 
with some background in the Far East to assist in finishing off the war 
against Japan, So I applied for a number of jobs. One was with 
the Of&ce of War Information, and another was with the Office of 
Strategic Services. I also applied for work with 2 or 3 American 
companies who were planning or had had affiliations in the Far East. 

And then I got an appointment with the United States Department 
of Commerce as an economic analyst in the China Section of the Far 
Eastern Division. 

Mr. Tavenner, Is that the first position you held under the United 
States Government ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Tavenner. And when did you enter the employ of the United 
States Government? 

Mr. Stenhouse, I think it was June 1945, 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your duties require you to go to Washington? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain in Washington ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I remained with the Government until No- 
vember 1947, and 

Mr. TaM':nner. Is that with the Commerce Department until 1947? 

Mr, Stenhouse. Yes, 

Mr. Velde, Were you an economic analyst in the Far Eastern 
Division during your entire employment by the Government? 

]Mr. Stenhouse. Xo. About a year after I was there I was pro- 
moted to Chief of the China Section and, some time in there, as 
Acting A.ssistant Chief of the Division. And a little later, just before 
1 left the Department, I was temporary Acting Chief of the Division 
while the Division Chief was away. 

In 1947, November 1947, my employment there terminated, and 
again I was looking for a suitable occupation. And I applied many, 
many places. I applied with many American firms who were in 
business in the Far East or had business connections in the Far East. 
And I also applied for an appointment that I heard about with the 
United Nations. 

Afr. Tavenner, Did you receive the appointment with the United 
Nations ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, 

Mr. Tavtnner. "Wlien? 



446 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Stenhouse. I think it was about June of 1948. There was a 
period when I was living in Washington that I was not employed. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your employment by the 
United Nations ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I had a 3-month special appomtment to go out to 
Shanghai to work on the Economic Commission for Asia and the 
Far East, which was a separate section of the United Nations. And 
the work was related to the rehabilitation of trade, with special refer- 
ence to the development of interregional trade in the light of the 
changed situation after the war. 

I wrote a report which was included in a document published by 
the United Nations. 

At the end of the 3-month period I was appointed administrative 
assistant to the — I don't know what his actual title was, but it was 
something like director of food and agriculture mission in China; 
a 3-month appointment again, and I worked in that capacity for 
about 3 months ; I think until the end of September, when I was found 
to have some possibilities of tuberculosis. So I wanted to go back to 
the United States and get a thorough investigation of that, and I got 
a letter from the director of the mission there to the home office 
suggesting that I be given a permanent contract — not a permanent 
contract but a more long-range contract to go out under circumstances 
that would allow me to take my family out. However, on the way 
back from China I stopped here in Seattle and met some businessmen 
for whom I had done some work in my official capacity in the Depart- 
ment. They were pleased with the work I had done and they sug- 
gested that I join their firm in Seattle. 

Mr. Tavexner. What was the approximate date of your return to 
the United States when you first beciune a resident of this community? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, my return to the United States was about 
September or October of 1948. I went back to Washington 

Mr. Tavenner. I understand that. But you told us about your 
return to the United States and stopping here in Seattle. 

Mr. Stenhouse. You asked me when I first came here, and became 
a resident. There was a gap of a couple of months because I went 
back to Washington to pick up my family, and we actually came here 
to Seattle as residents in January of 1949. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you resided in Seattle since that date? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta%^nner. What is your present occupation? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I am an insurance agent. 

Mr. Ta\tbnner. Have you read any of the testimony before this 
committee of General Willoughby who was G-2 on General Mac- 
Arthur's staff, which related to the development of communism in 
China? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. General Willoughby documented considerable evi- 
dence before this committee regarding the activities of certain Ameri- 
can citizens in China. My desire now is merely to ask you whether 
or not you observed any Communist Party activities on the part of 
American nationals in China? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. And I refer particularly to the period 1928 and 1929 
when you were in Shanghai. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 447 

Mr. Stenhouse. I didn't know anything about it. I was a busi- 
nessman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been affiliated with the Com- 
munist Party, and, if so, in what country or countries? 

Mr. Stexhouse. During the war some 10 years ago I was a member 
of the Communist Party in this country. 

Mr. Tavenner. In this country? 

Mr. Stenhouse. And that is the only affiliation that I have had. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not asking you now about your own affiliation, 
or indicating that I believe you were affiliated with the Communist 
Party in China, but we are anxious to have any infonnation you have 
regarding Communist Party activities in China. 

Mr. Stenhouse. I haven't any information, Mr. Tavenner. When 
I left China in 1940 I only had a very vague idea about what was 
going on there. 

Mr. Ta^-enner. Let me put the question to you this way because it 
is a very broad subject. 

General Willoughby testified before this committee that the form 
of organization of mass organizations in China from 1929 on was 
virtually identical with what we have found in this country since the 
early and middle thirties, that is, in working through mass organiza- 
tions or front organizations, as we frequently call them in this country. 

Did you observe any activity of that kind ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No, and I wouldn't have done it because I was liv- 
ing in the international concessions in watertight compartments where 
we associated, except in business, with Europeans and Americans. I 
am somewliat — what was going on in the interior of China and in Chi- 
nese politics I Avas somewhat abysmally ignorant of in those days, 

Mr. Tavenxer. It has been demonstrated that Americans, people 
from this country took an active part in some of that organizational 
work in China. 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I never did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the fact that you were in an international sec- 
tion mean that you could not have had any knowledge of it ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I didn't have any knowledge of it. I was 
involved in business until the Japanese threatened my business. I 
wasn't concerned with politics. 

Mr. Taat:nner. I am not indicating I have any information that 
you were involved in it. I am merely asking what knowledge you had 
of it? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I really have no knowledge. 

Mr. Velde. I tliink we ought to make this clear : Are you referring 
to the period of time you were in China prior to 1940, and not about 
your trip the second time ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. That is correct. 

Mr. Velde. Have you been back more than once since 1940 to 
China? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. Only once. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say you became a member of the Conunu- 
nist Party while you Avere in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes. 

Mr. Taat^nner. ^Y[^nt was the approximate date of your becoming 
a member? 



448 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Si^ENHOUSE. Well, to the best of my recollection, it was in the 
latter part of 1943. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you living at that time ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. In Horseshoe Canyon. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were yon assigned to any particular group of the 
Communist Party when you first became a member ? 

JNIr. Stenhouse. I don't think it was a matter of assignment, to 
my knowledge. I was asked if I would like to attend some discussion 
group meetings and, to the best of my recollection, there were not more 
than 4 or 5 of them in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. Four or 5 what? 

]\Ir. Stenhouse. Of these discussion group meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean that you attended 4 or & of these dis- 
cussion group meetings ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether or not you were transferred 
from one such group to another ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I am pretty certain I wasn't. I am not aware of 
it. Somebody may have transferred me. But, as far as I know, I 
attended a group of discussion meetings somewhere, not too far from 
where we lived in North Hollywood. I don't remember now whether 
it was in more than one home. It may have been in 1 or 2. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many persons attended those meetings? 

Mr, St]i5NH()USE. About 4 or 5. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were they always the same persons or did the group 
vary as to its composition ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. It may have varied. I don't remember for sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of the business conducted at 
those meetings? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, we discussed Communist and other litera- 
ture and articles. We discussed the affairs that were concerning all 
of us at that time, of the Avar and tlie winning of the war — and it was 
just talk. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether or not Communist Party 
literature was made available for your purchase at the meetings ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, it was. 

Mr. Tavenner. And for your use ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, it was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you take part in the study group, in the study 
of the Communist Party literature yourself ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Oh, I suppose I read what we were asked to read 
or was suggested we read, and made some attempt to discuss it at the 
next meeting. 

I might add that the literature that was at those meetings was also 
on sale in some of the bookstores in Los Angeles. There was a Lincoln 
Book Store there which had Communist and other material for sale. 
I was in the bookstore 2 or 3 times. There was also at these meetings 
material that was not Communist, at least not published by the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the Lincoln Book Store known as a Communist 
book shop ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. It wasn't known to me as such. 

Mr. Tavenner. There has been evidence of that character presented 
to the committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 449 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I wouldn't doubt it actually. But they sold 
things other than Comnnmist Party literature. xVnd it wasn't under 
the table. It was right out in the open. Anybody from the street 
could walk in and pick it up and read it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who invited you to become a member of that group ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I don't know, sir. At that time I was very active 
in the United Auto Workers. I felt that the United Auto Workers 
was doing a fine job in increasing production for the war. Their no- 
strike pledge was very loyally kept, and there were people there who 
always attended meetings, who were always ready to try and get other 
people to come to the union meetings, who were ready to do jobs for 
the union in the way of promoting blood-bank drives, and so on, get- 
ting people to register to vote, and the sort of things that I was 
interested in. Some one of these people who I had some knowledge of 
their actions asked me if I would go to such a meeting, and I said I 
would. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Were the other members of this group of Communist 
Party persons employed in the same business in which you were em- 
ployed ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, as far as I remember, there were possibly 
2 or 3 of the group who were at the Bendix plant. I am not sure 
now. It is hard to differentiate. 

Mr. Moulder. You say you were interested in the same things that 
they were interested in, that is, getting people interested in elections 
aiul going to the polls to vote. 

Mr. Stenhouse. Sure. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you recall whether or not at that time the Com- 
munist Pai-ty had candidates for whom you could cast a ballot? 

Mr. Stenhouse. We weren't interested in it. We were voting 
Democratic. I was a Democrat. 

Mr. Moulder. The point I was trying to make, if you were inter- 
ested in that party why did you join the Democratic Party? I don't 
understand why you affiliated yourself with a party that had no 
candidates for whom you could vote. 

Mr. SiTiNHOusE. I didn't deliberately go out to affiliate myself with 
it. Somebody who was interested in it also, as a Democrat — and these 
things that were part of the war effort — suggested that I go to one of 
these meetings. And he had become a person I had some respect for 
because of his apparent adherence to the things that the majority of 
the American people were doing at that time. I accepted the idea 
and went to the meetings. 

Mr. ^Moulder. Were they Communist Party organization meetings ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. 1 don't understand you. 

Mr. Moulder. Are you talking about Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. I am talking about union meetings and how 
it came about that somebody invited me to go. 

Mr. Moulder. I am referring to the Communist Party meetings. 

Mr. Stenhouse. There were many meeting:s at that time, Mr. 
Chairman — union meetings ; many union meetings I attended. I was 
very much impressed with the union. 

Mr. Moulder. Were the union meetings you attended Communist 
Partv meetings? 



450 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Stenhouse. I think we have got at cross purposes someway 
here. \ 

I was trying to explain how it came about that somebody invited mo 
to go to one of these discussion group meetings, and it was through 
the association with somebody whom I had some regard for in Ms 
union activity that I accepted an invitation. 

Mr. MoTjLDER. Was the discussion group meeting a Communist 
Party meeting or merely affiliated with the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I am as confused as you are about that. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you know whether you were a Communist at 
that time? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, to be frank about it, I believe I signed a 
Communist Party card at some time. 

I have a vague recollection of a card which had an American flag 
on it and some very patriotic phraseology about the war effort and 
the alliance between our country and the Soviet Union. It may have 
even had some words about the Communist Party on it. But it seemed 
to me entirely innocuous. In fact, again it appeared to be directed 
to the things I was interested in, in the war effort. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you pay dues to the Communist Party after 
signing the Communist Party card ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I believe there was some sort of dues structure, 
but I don't remember now how it worked. There were these materials 
for sale at the meetings, and money changed hands. I don't remember 
now how much of it was for books, how much of it was for dues. 

Mr. Moulder. Over what period of time did you continue to par- 
ticipate in such meetings and in what you then considered to be 
Communist Party activity ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I find it hard to set the actual dates, but it 
was, I think, some time during the latter part of 1943 and 1944. 

Mr. Moulder. And thereafter you have never in any way what- 
soever participated in any Communist Party activity ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. That isn't the truth, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. What would you say ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I also attended some similar meetings when I was 
in Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 
(■\Vliereupon, at 12 : 03 p. m., a recess was taken until 2 p. m. this 
same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, MARCH 19, 1955 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order, please. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN STENHOUSE, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 
JACK R. CLUCK— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Stenhouse, we were discussing the Communist 
Party branch or group of which you were a member in Los Angeles. 
Will you give the committee, please, the names of those who were 
associated with you in that group ? 

Mr, Stenhouse. I am unable to give you the names, Mr. Tavenner. 
It is a long time ago, and I have been trying to remember. As I 
indicated to you the other day, if you give me some ideas of whom 
you think were present, it might refresh my memory. 



COMIXIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 451 

Mr, Tavenner. I believe I told you that we would try to present 
you with a list of persons who had been identified in the Los Angeles 
area as members of the Communist Party, but we do not have that 
list with us, and we are unable to present it to you now. We may do 
so later in an effort to refresh your recollection. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Air. Stenhouse. I am willing at any time to tell you if any particu- 
lar individual in my recollection was at those meetings. 

Mr. Ta>^nner. Will you tell the committee, please, how you became 
employed in the United States Department of Commerce in Wash- 
in.rrton. 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, as I indicated, after I was obliged to have my 
hernia operation and get out of the defense work that I had been doing 
I sought occupation in a number of places. And somewhere along the 
line somebody brought my qualifications in the Far East to Congress- 
man Ellis Patterson, and he referred it to Henry Wallace, and the 
appointment was made on that introduction. 

Mr. Ta\'exner. Did you finally become head of your Section in the 
Department of Commerce? 

Mr. Stexhouse. Chief of the Section. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Was that the Section dealing with China? 

Mr. Stenhouse. That is right. 

Mr. Ta^-exxer. Did your activities in the Department of Commerce 
have anything to do with known Communists in China? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. The work that I was doing was related to the 
rehabilitation of trade. We were answering the inquiries of business- 
men relating to regulations and economic conditions in China and 
the Far East. We prepared articles for the Foreign Commerce Week- 
ly and conducted an economic analysis of the possibilities of reopening 
trade. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Did you tell the committee that you attended Com- 
munist Party meetings in the city of Washington? 

Mr. Stenhouse. That is right. 

Mr. Ta-\t:xxer. Was tliat during the entire period of time you were 
in Washington ? 

Mr. Stexhouse. I can't be sure of the time again. But it was some- 
where between the end of, I think, somewhere between the end of 1945 
and the end of 1946. 

Mr. Tavexxer. How soon after your arrival in Washington did you 
become identified with the Communist Party there, and attend those 
group meetings ? 

Mr. Stexhouse. I can't place it. I know that shortly after I got to 
Washington I had another serious operation, and I was busy getting 
adjusted to my new work. Sometime about then I joined the Federal 
Workers Union. 

Mr. Moulder. I did not understand you. You joined what? 

Mr, Stenhouse. The Federal Workers Union. 

Mr, Tavenner, Was it after you became a member of the Federal 
Workers Union that you first began attending Communist Party meet- 
ings in the District of Columbia? 

Mr, Stenhouse, I can't be sure, I think it was. . 

Mr, Tavenner, Did you advance to the point of holding an office 
-of any type in the union while you were in Washington ? 



452 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

]VIi". Stenhouse. I was a shop steward and collected dues from 4 
or 5 people. That was all. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which you were approached to identify yourself with 
the Communist Party while you were working for the Department of 
Commei'ce ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, again I think it was that one of the fellows 
in the union asked me to attend some of the similar sort of meetings 
that I had before. But it is possible that it was from some contact 
in Los Angeles. I am not sure about that= 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did that individual indicate that he knew you had' 
been associated with a branch of the Communist Party in Los Angeles 
when he tirst talked to you about attending such meetings in the 
District of Columbia? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I don't remember whether he did or not. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Who was the person that contacted you in 
Washington ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, again I can't remember his name. But I 
have already told you who I thought it was in terms of his union 
function. He was a member of the grievance committee in that de- 
partment. 

Mr. Tavexner. Can you give a better identification of the indi- 
vidual than the fact he was with the grievance committee? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I can give you a physical description tO' 
some extent. He was a fairly short fellow and dark, dark hair. 

Mr. Ta\t;nner. About what age person was he at that time ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Oh, I imagine maybe 30, 32; something like that.. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did he live? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I don't know. He may have lived in Virginia.. 
I say that because one of the houses where we met was in Virginia. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it his house? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I am not sure now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he also employed by the Departmerit of (Com- 
merce ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. TA^^3NNER. What was his position in the Department of 
Commerce ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. He was in the Balance of Payments. I am not 
sure of the actual name of the division. The work of that division 
was related to the study and report of international balance of 
payments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell us where his office was located in the 
Department of Commerce? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. It was a huge building and I don't remem- 
ber what floor it Avas on. It was in the main building. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it on the same floor as your office? 

Mr. Stex-^house, I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavex^ner. Can you give us his name ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No;' I can't sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were all of the members of this group employees in 
the Department of Commerce? 

(Eepresentative Plarold H. Velde entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 453 

Mr. Stenhouse. I am not sine of that. I think they were. I 
identified them in my mind at least with members of the Public 
Workers Union. And, while I was— well, I was going to say with 
that local. But I am not sure of that. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the number of the local ? 

Mr. Stenhouse, I don't remember. I only attended about, oh, not 
more than 4 or 5 union meetings. I dropped out of the union 
around the end of 194G, I think it was. And, as a matter of fact, 
I was extremely busy in my work an.d wasn't actually familiar with 
the organization of the union. 

Mr. Tavenxer. You were active eriough in the union to be made 
a steward. 

Mr. Stenhouse. That is right. I Avas a shop steward. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Was it your duty, as a shop steward, to represent 
the membership of the union in legitimate grievances !■ 

Mr. Stexhouse. Well, we never had any. And all I did was collect 
dues and turn them over to another fellow. 

Mr. Tavexxek. Were any of the persons from whom you collected 
union dues members of the grou}j of the Communist Party to which 
you referred ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Xo. Xo ; I don't think they were. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Was this a mixed group, men and women? 

Mr. Stenhoise. In the discussion group ? 

^Ir. Tavexxer. Yes. 

^Ir. Stenhouse. Yes; I think it was only men. 

Mr. Tanenner. Hoav many '. 

Mr. Stenhouse. Four or five. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you gi\ e us tlie names, if you can, of any of the 
members of the group ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No, sir, I can't. 

Mr. Moulder. You have referred several times to the discussion 
group. Can you tell us what you discussed ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, we discussed international affairs, domestic 
problems; we discussed articles, as I indicated before, in Communist 
and other publications, 

Mr. Moulder. In any of these grou])s were you ever addressed by 
prominent Communist officials or leaders? 

Mr. Stenhouse. In those discussion groups ? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

Mr. Stenhouse. Not that I know of. They were all people, as far 
as I could determine, just like myself, maybe temporarily off on a 
wrong track. There was never any use of fictitious names as far as I 
know. I didn't use a fictitious name. 

Mr. Moulder. Will you repeat over what period of time did you 
attend discussion groups when you Avere in Washington ? 

Mr. Si-ENHousE. Well, it was some time between the latter part of 
1945 and 1946. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Chairman, it seems unusual to me that the witness 
cannot remember anybody's name, or the name of any person who 
attended these meetings. 

This occurred less than 10 years ago, did it not? 

Mr. Stenhouse. About 10 years. 

Mr. Velde. And you cannot remember the name of a single pereon 
Avho attended those discussion groups? 

62222— 55— pt. 2 6 



454 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. And I have tried to do it, and I have offered 
to cooperate to the best of my ability with the staff of your commit- 
tee, sir. 

It is, as you say, 10 years ago. I have moved out into a different 
part of the world, an entirely different environment, new thoughts. 
Since I have been out here I have been working hard to establish 
myself economically, and I haven't had association within that time 
to remind me. 

Mr. Velde. Have you conscientiously tried to search your memory, 
to review the history of that period to determine whether you could 
name any persons who attended these meetings ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I have, sir. 

Mr. Velde. Did you say you have consulted with our staff to deter- 
mine whether or not they can refresh your memory? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Of course, it still seems odd to me that you cannot re- 
member one single person. 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, as a matter of fact, I can't remember the 
names of people whom I was in much more direct contact with in 
those days. 

Mr. Velde. You are a very intelligent person. There is no question 
about that. It does seem to me that you could remember someone 
that you went with. But can't you remember the occasion of your 
first visit to one of these discussion groups? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. 

Mr. Velde. Or how you happened to get to the meeting? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I don't remember where it was. It was apparently 
in the house of one of the members of the group. 

Mr. Velde. Do you remember the physical surroundings of the 
meeting place ? Apparently it was in a home of one of the members 
of the group. 

Mr. Stenhouse. One of the meetings, as I recall, was in, I think 
it was an apartment in one of the projects over on the Virginia side. 

Mr. Velde. On that occasion can you remember anyone discussing 
any particular legislation; for instance, legislation pending at that 
time? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No ; I can't. They were very 

Mr. Velde. Can you recall the name of any individual discussing 
any particular item? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No, I don't. 

Mr. Velde. By physical description ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. They were very informal discussions. We 
just exchanged ideas back and forth. Somebody had read an article 
out of a paper or one of the publications, and we discussed it, and 
that was about it. 

Mr. Velde. Your impression was, however, that it was a Commu- 
nist Party discussion group? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, that is my impression. 

Mr. Velde. Did you discuss Marxism? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. 

Mr. Velde. You cannot recall what you discussed except that you 
vaguely remember it was a Communist Party discussion ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I say we were discussing foreign affairs, domestic 
problems. I remember at that time the question of price control was 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 455 

in people's minds, and I am pretty sure that that was one of the things 
we discussed. 

Tliey were nothing more nor less than an attempt, from a certain 
viewpoint, to study and explain, if you like, the phenomena we were 
living in. 

Mr. Velde. Have you no independent recollection whatsoever of 
how you happened to get into the first meeting ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Except that I was invited, as far as I remember, 
by this fellow that I have described. 

Mr. Velde, But do you remember his name? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I probably saw him not more than, oh, 20 times 
during the whole time I was in Washington. And there were many 
people in Washington whom I saw every day, whose names I can't 
remember. 

Another thing, Mr. Congressman, we discussed the same topics from 
a different viewpoint with other people. And it is very hard to re- 
member now exactly which topic was discussed at which meeting. 

Mr. Velde. I am sure, Mr. Stenhouse, it is very hard to remember 
exactly. But certainly I think that a person of average intelligence 
and a fair memory could remember at least one person. 

Mr. Stenhouse. If I could name them I would. And in offering to 
go over a list of names, I have done the best I can to cooperate with 
your committee. 

Mr, Moulder. Wlien you filed your application for Government 
employment did you file Government form 57 ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you remember the names of the persons you gave 
as references on that application ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, if form 57 requires references, I don't — 
Maybe it wasn't form 57. I don't want this to be misinterpreted. 

Mr. Moulder. It is a standard application form required by govern- 
mental departments. 

Mr. Stenhouse. I don't recall any application in which I put ref- 
erences. It may be so. 

Mr. Mouu)ER. But you did make a written application setting forth 
your experience and qualifications ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Moulder. And was there an oath on that application ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Which you had to sign ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. And did anyone recommend you for this position to 
which you were assigned in Washington ? 

Mr, Stenhouse. Somebody recommended me in the sense that they 
referred my name and qualifications to Ellis Patterson. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you know who that person was? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I am not sure who it was. We had a large num- 
ber of friends from IjOS Angeles at that time, and it may have been 
one of the people that we were active with in that Democratic cam- 
paign. I think it probably was. 

Mr. Moulder. AVhen you were made section chief, who was your 
immediate superior? 

Mr. Stenhouse. (Name deleted.) 



456 COMMUNIST ACTI^•1TIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Moulder. Did lie have anytliing to do witli your promotior. 
to that position ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I am sure he did. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you remember the names of the persons who were 
employed under your innnediate supervision? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, there was one fellow just prior to my pro- 
motion. (Name deleted.) 

Mr. Moulder. I am not suggesting a.ny of those persons be named 
in the record; I am testing your memory as to why you remember 
some people with whom you were associated and why you cannot 
remember the names of some other people with whom you were closely 
associated. 

Mr. Stexhoi^se. I can remember the names of many of the people 
in my division because we have exchanged Christmas cards since then, 
and I have seen some of them since then. 

Mr. Moulder. In line with Mr. Velde's questioning regarding the- 
first Communist Party meeting to which you referred, how did you 
go? By car, by bus, or by train? Was it just as you sa}^, a short 
distance? How did you get there? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No, I didn't say it was a short distance. I said it 
was in Virginia. 

Mr. Moulder. That is not far from the District of Columbia. 

Mr. Stenhouse. We lived in Maryland. 

Mr. Moulder. How did you travel to the place of the meeting? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I suppose it was by bus because Ave didn't have ix- 
car in those days. 

Mr. Moulder. You went by bus over there ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I say bus. I mean public transportation. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Chairman, I think we ought to make it clear we 
have no intention of having the public press or anyone else feel that 
any of the persons you mention who were associated with you in your 
professional work at that time are connected in any way with the 
Communist Party or any of its functions. We have hitherto tried to 
make that perfectly clear. The mere fact that you mention a name of 
one of your associates should lead no one to believe that he is in any 
way connected with it or has been connected with the Communist 
Party or Communist Party activities. 

Mr. Moulder. Did other employees in your section attend any of the 
meetings to which you have referred ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. 

Mr. MouiJ)ER. In line with Congressman Velde's suggestion the 
names mentioned by you in that connection will be stricken from the 
record. 

Mr. Stenhouse. I want to make one clarification. 

In regard to this matter of references, I don't want it on the record 
that I didn't give any references. If they were required I suppose I 
gave them. But don't remember now who I gave. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Another point, Mr. Chairman, in regard to this matter of remem- 
bering the names of the people who were at these discussion groups, 
there were not more than 3 or 4 meetings as far as I remember. There 
were very few in number. 

Mr. MoLTLDER. How many meetings did you attend while you were 
in Washington! 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 457 

Mr. Stenhouse. Three or four; at the most, five; I can't remem- 
ber exactly. They are very limited. I am trying to live back in those 
days and pinpoint when it could have been and where they could have 
been. And I can identify in a vague way three locations. 

Mr. Moulder. Were you issued a Communist Party membership 
card at any time while you were in Washington, D. C. ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I don't think so. 

Mr. Moulder. But you still refer to them as Communist Party meet- 
ings? 

Mr. Stenhouse. That is what I understood them to be. I am sure 
in mv own mind now that I was just on the fringes of this thing, 
that>^ 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not describe the meetings in Washington 
as being the same tjiye of meetings you attended in Los Angeles? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I said they were similar. 

Mr. Moulder. Doesn't that mean the same type? 

What difference was there between the meetings you attended in 
"Washington and those you attended in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I suppose one difference would be that in 
Washington, D. C, to the best of my knowledge, all the people present 
"were members of the union. 

Mr. Moulder. Were they also all employees in the Department of 
Commerce ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Eight. 

Mr. Moulder. Were any of them employees in your immediate 
section ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. 

Mr. Moulder. The China Section of the Department of Commerce ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you, of your oAvn personal knowledge, know 
whether any of the persons attending those meetings were members 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, they were at the meetings. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes; but that isn't my point. They were at the 
meetings, but do you know of your own personal knowledge whether 
or not they were Communist Party members ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Why I don't know how you identify that exactly. 
1 don't recall seeing anybody's card. Again, there was some sort of 
-dues payment. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you recall hearing any one of them say that they 
were members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I can't remember now Vv-h ether they did or not. 
I was there and I thought I was some sort of a member, and I just 
assumed — Maybe I shouldn't assume it. But I just assumed they 
were. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you pay dues in this organization or in this 
:group ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, again, it was somewhat the same arrange- 
ment as before. There were books to be bought and some sort of 
dues arrangement. 

Mr. Tavenner. To whom did you pay the dues ? 



458 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I don't remember who the individual was.- 
The money was just — somebody said "Well, here are the books." And 
the money was put on the table. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of that group or 
attend meetings of that group ? 

Mr. Stexhouse. Well, that is the question that you asked before, 
and, as I told you, I find it very difficult to pinpoint the time. I think 
I can limit it to somewhere near the end of 1945 because of the 
fact that I didn't get there until June and I had the operation, and 
then my family came out, and we were preoccupied with getting 
into a house and things of that sort. And I think it was — I was out 
of it by the early part of 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. So that you continued until the early part of 
1947? ' 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I say it was somewhere in that area. And 
I can't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which you stopped attending these meetings? 

]\Ir. Stenhouse. Well, the Communist publications that we were 
studying seemed to be overready to excuse the Soviet Union and 
criticize our country, and this didn't jibe with the ideas that I had had 
about the situation during the war. And I just stopped going and 
nobody ever tried to get me back in or approached me in any way. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. You have said that you cannot recall the names 
of any of these people or give any more descriptive information than 
you have because of the lapse of time, and the fact that you are 
separated now by long distance from the place you were then. 

Did anything occur in 1946 or 1947 which would have served to 
refresh your recollection as to who these individuals were? 

Something that would have called this matter very definitely to 
your attention and would have impressed itself on your memory. 
Do you recall an3'ihing of an unusual character having occurred? 

j\ir. Stenhouse. I suppose you are referring to the fact that I was 
investigated or questioned by the FBI. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right. 

Mr. Stenhouse. It may have recalled their names to me then, but 
it doesn't now, 

Mr. Velde. Did you give any names to the FBI when you were 
questioned ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No; I didn't. 

Mr. Velde. You said it may have recalled some of the names to you 
at that time but it doesn't now. If at that time it recalled the names 
of people with whom you had associated, why didn't you give them 
to the FBI? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I declined to state whether or not I had been a 
member of the Communist Party in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Velde. Do you mean you declined to state to the FBI whether 
or not you had been a member of the Communist Party in Los 
Angeles ? 

Mr. Sit:nhouse. Yes. And, as far as I remember, he told me I 
didn't liare to state. I can't be sure of that, but that is my recollec- 
tion. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 459 

Mr. Velde. Of course, you don't have to tell the FBI anything. 
But I am just Avondering what was in your mind at that time — the 
reason why you did not give the FBI that information. 

Mr. Stenhouse. Tlie reason was that I had, to the best of my 
knowledge and conscience, done nothing hostile to the United States. 
In fact, I thought that I had been a very loyal and active citizen in 
promoting the war effort. 

Mr. Tavtenner. \Mien did your employment terminate with the 
Department of Commerce? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I got my termination notice in October, and it was 
effective in November of 1947. 

Mr. Tami^xner. What was the reason for termination of your 
services ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. It stated that I was being relieved due to a reduc- 
tion in force. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you stated then your next employment was 
with the United Nations. Is that correct ? 

Mr, Stenhouse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, how you ob- 
tained your employment with the United Nations ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I was trying many avenues to get employ- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am referring only to your employment with the 
United Nations. 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, there may have been a number of channels 
through which I got it, but I think that it may have been through the 
Institute of Pacific Relations. 

Mr. Taat:nner. A^liy did you appeal to the Institute of Pacific 
Relations ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Because I had been a subscriber to the Institute of 
Pacific Relations, and I knew of the Institute as one interested in 
far-eastern affairs. And that, amongst several dozens of business 
firms and organizations, seemed to be a likely place to find an occu- 
pation in the area where I wanted to be. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before going to the Institute of Pacific Relations, 
did you have in mind that you desired to secure a position with the 
United Nations ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No ; I don't think I did. In fact 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the suggestion then made to you by the Insti- 
tute of Pacific Relations that you seek employment with the United 
Nations ? 

(At this point Representative Morgan M. Moulder left the hearing 
room.) 

Mr. Stenhouse. I think it was suggested to me there that this com- 
mission was being formed^ — the commission was already in effect, but 
that there was this job to do on this subcommittee of trade relations 
and that I should contact a Dr. Lokanath. He was an Indian 
economist. 

(At this point Representative Morgan M. Moulder returned to the 
hearing room.) 

Mr. Stenhouse. I think that may have been the channel through 
which it came. I am not entirely certain. But I did contact him and 
got the appointment. 



460 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner, Did the person or persons with whom you conferred 
in the Institute of Pacific Relations know of your Communist Party 
membei-ship ? 

Mr. StenhotjSe. No. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Did you furnish any references to the Institute of 
Pacific Relations when you went there to confer on the subject of your 
employment ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I think I probably did. You mean a sort of cur- 
riculum vitae. 

Mr. Tavenner. The real purpose of my question is to find out 
whether or not you were reconnnended to the Institute of Public Re- 
lations by any person who knew you had been a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. I went there entirely on my own initiative. 

Mr. Velde. Did you know any of the defendants in the Amerasia 
case ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. 

Mr. Velde. Had you ever met any of them ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Velde. Do you know who it was from the Institute of Pacific 
Relations who first interested you in the United Nations? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I was interested in the United Nations myself. 

Mr. Velde. Naturally, I suppose you were. Was any one person 
at the Institute of Pacific Relations responsible for your employment 
by the United Nations ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. I went to the Institute of Pacific Relations as 
one of many, many sources for a new occupation. And in the office 
of the Institute of Pacific Relations I was told that there was this 
opening. So I applied to the United Nations. I have at home a file 
about that thick [indicating] of letters to many business firms that I 
wrote to and had interviews with. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any written memorandums or anything 
else in writing that would show your contact with the Institute of 
Pacific Relations at that time? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I have nothing to hide about my Institute of Pacific 
Relations contacts. I was a subscriber to the Institute of Pacific 
Relations. I thought they were doing a good job of objective report- 
ing on the Far East. I was interested in it because of my back^^ound. 

While I was in Washington, D. C, I went to several Institute of 
Pacific Relations meetings and discussion groups. It was only natural 
that that should be one place where I would go to find out if there 
was any firm or any organization that was associated with the Far 
East who would be interested in my background. 

Mr. Velde. Of course, I don't want to cast any reflections on the 
individual members of the Institute of Pacific Relations or any others 
you have contacted, but I do feel it would be valuable to the committee 
if you would make available the various letters you used when apply- 
ing for jobs in order that we might search our records. Would you 
be willing to make those available ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Do you want me to tell you the names of the people 
in the Institute of Pacific Relations ? 

Mr. Velde. No. I am not particularly anxious for that. Again, 
I want to say if you do mention names of persons in the Institute of 



i 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 461 

Pacific Relations, it should be no reflection upon them whatsoever 
because you, as a former Communist, contacted them. 

I am interested in fuiding out who you contacted or who in the Insti- 
tute of Pacific Relations reconunended j'ou for a job with the United 
Nations. 

Mr. Stenhouse. I haven't been asked that question. 

Mr. Velde. I ask you that question. 

Mr. Stenhouse. If you want to know who it was in the Institute 
of Pacific Relations who I think gave me the information, I am very 
frank to tell you that it was Mr. Carter. 

Mr. Velde. Do you know his first name ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Edward C. 

Mr. Velde. Was he in his office at the time you went to the Institute 
of Pacific Relations? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Velde. What did he do to promote your appointment in the 
United Nations? 

Mr. Stenhouse. He may have contacted Dr. Lokanath, for all I 
know. I think he possibly did. 

Mr. Velde. Did you get recommendations from members of the 
Institute of Pacific Relations other than Mr. Carter? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No, 

Mr. Velde. Did you have recommendations of an}^ kind other than 
the Institute of Pacific Relations ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes. 

The chief of my division gave me a very fine recommendation. A 
colleague who was in the China legal section gave me a very fine 
recommendation. 

Mr. Velde. Did either Mr. Carter or the chief of your division 
know that you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No ; they did not. 

Mr. Velde. What type of fonnal application did you make for the 
position you sought and afterAvard obtained in the United Nations? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I don't recall now any formal application. I have 
in my files a letter of appointment, but I don't recall a formal applica- 
tion. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed, Mr. Comisel. 

Mr. Tavenner. After accepting the position with the United Na- 
tions, were you sent on a project to China ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before your selection for that project, were you 
interviewed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Si'ENHOUSE. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was it you were interviewed by the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation at which time you refused to advise them as 
to your previous Connnunist Party membership ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I think you gave me the date of that the 
other day. I had forgotten it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Don't you remember it ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No ; I don't. But you said it was in 1946, and I 
think it probably was. 

Mr. Tavenner. So before you were selected for the position in the 
United Nations and, particularly for this project in China, you had 



462 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

refused to give infoniuition to the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
as to whether or not you had been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Stexiiouse. Well, that is true, some nearly 2 years before. By 
the time I had applied for the position in the United Nations I didn't 
consider myself to be whatever it was I had been before. 

Mr. Tavenxer. And no governmental agency, after the FBI came 
to see you, ever made any inquiry until the present time ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, that is not so. 

Last September I was called by a Treasury representative, and he 
told me he wanted to ask me some questions. So I met him at my 
home and he started to ask me about the sort of work I did and whether 
I ever did much traveling. And in the course of that discussion I 
told him that I had been in Washington, D. C. I told him quite 
frankly what I had been doing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you tell liim you had been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. He didn't ask me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that the first time you had been questioned 
along this line ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes. But he did ask me a question did I know 
a certain individual in Washington, D. C. And the name of the man 
was 

Mr. Tavennph?. I would suggest that you not mention the name in 
public. The committee, I think, would want to know privately. 

Let me ask you this : 

In seeking that information from you, did it have any connection 
w ith the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I don't know what his intentions were at that 
time. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think, Mr. Chairnum, under those circumstances, 
we should not ask him to state the matter in public when we have no 
idea what it is he is talking about. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stenhouse. You asked me if I had ever been questioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. I mean questioned about communism in a Federal 
agency and regarding tlie matters under discussion here. 

Mr. Stenhouse. I beg your pardon. I thought you meant had I 
ever been questioned by an agency of the Government in the interim. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course, we are not interested in whether you 
have been interrogated by someone in a Government department on 
matters not at all related to the functions of this committee. I under- 
stand you to say you have not been. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Stenhouse. The reason I thought you might be interested in 
it was that he did ask me a question which related to the Institute of 
Pacific Kelations. And since it related to that, I thought that the 
committee should know about it. 

He asked me if I had ever known (name deleted) . 

And first I couldn't remember the name. But then he said, "Well, 
didn't you ever go to a luncheon in Washington, D. C, sponsored by 
the Institute of Pacific Relations?" 

And then I remembered that I had, along with several hundred or 
so other people, gone to such a luncheon. 



COMjVrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 463 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, this being a matter about which we 
have no knowledge at all, I believe we are getting into a field that 
should not be explored in public without some investigation on our 
own part. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Tavenner, will you step up here, please? 

(Mr. Tavenner confers with the chairman.) 

Mr. Stenhouse. May I make one concluding remark as to that last 
testimony ? 

Mr. Moulder. At this time the name you mentioned will be stricken 
from the record until further investigation can be made of your last 
testimony. 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, this individual, I may say, addressed a large 
group of people in what was substantially an open meeting, and re- 
ported on 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Mr. Chairman, in light of your ruling, I suggest 
we not go into that matter at all until the committee staff has had 
an opportunity to investigate the witness' last testimony. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

Mr. Stenhouse. INIr. Chairman, may I make one concluding state- 
ment in regard to my last remarks? 

When the man who was questioning me heard my report he then 
asked me why I was changing jobs. And I said I had no intention to 
change a job. And he said, "Did you apply for a job with the Treas- 
ury Department?" 

And I said, "No." 

And he said, "Well, do you know another John Stenhouse?" 

And I told him I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the purpose of 
the project on which you were sent to China ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I think I have already stated that. Do you want 
me to repeat it, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr, Stenhouse. It was to study and report on the rehabilitation of 
trade in the Far East. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that necessitated your travel in what part of 
China? 

Mr. Stenhouse. The headquarters were in Shanghai. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you spend all of your time in Shanghai ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. I was in Nanking — well, while I was with 
that particular commission I spent all of my time in Shanghai. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was it that you went to Nanking? 

Mr. Stenhouse. After 3 months with the Economic Commission I 
then was with the Food and Agriculture Administration, and the 
Food and Agriculture Administration had an office both in Shanghai 
and in Nanking. And it was my duty, as administrative assistant, to 
supervise both offices. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state the dates you were stationed in 
Shanghai, and the dates you were in Nanking? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I can't do it. I was back and forth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state the dates which divided your time 
between the two places? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I think maybe there is a mistake in my previous 
•testimony as to dates. 



464 COIVUMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Could the recorder 

Mr. Tavenner. Rather than to take the time to look that up, if yoif 
give us what you consider to be the correct dates now, we will under- 
stand if that is different from what you stated before that you are^ 
thereby correcting the date, 

Mr. Stenhouse. I think I went to Shanghai in April — April, May,. 
June, with the Commission. And then June, July, August, or some- 
thing like that, with Food and Agriculture. 

Mr. Ta%^nner. Of what year ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. 1948. 

Mr. Velde. Were you a member of the Communist Party at that 
time, Mr. Stenliouse? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavennek. Will you define your duties in the various assign- 
ments you held while in China ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, on the Commission it was research and 
analysis and reporting, and I wrote a report on the problems of rees- 
tablishing interregional trade in the Far East. And it was published' 
by the United Nations — not under my name, but incorporated in a 
much larger volume. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you identify the volume and the article for the 
use of the committee ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. It must have been published. I suppose it was 
published in 1949 probably. 

Mr. Tavenner. Under what caption ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. I don't remember that. It was published by the 
Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East as a subsidiary 
agency of the United Nations. But my material wasn't any single 
article. It was incorporated with a lot of other material by a lot of 
other people. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, your article was used as source- 
material in the preparation of a report by the United Nations. Is that 
what you mean ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. During your assignment in China were you required! 
to confer with known members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Or Communists? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, I want to be frank here, but, first of all, I 
would like you to tell me in the context of Chinese people what the 
definition of a Communist is. 

Mr. Tavenner. Living in China as long as you did, you probably 
should understand that. 

Mr. Stenhouse. That is very difficult. The longer you live in 
China the harder it is to do it. 

Mr. Velde. Wei-e yon conferring with the economic leaders in 
China when you were on this assignment with the United Nations? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Was China uiider Communist domination at that time ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. It certainly wasn't. 

Mv. Velde. When was this? 

Mr. Stenhouse. 1948. 

Mr. Velde. At that time then you didn't actually know whether 
you were dealing with Chiang Kai-shek forces or the Red forces? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 465 

Mr. Stenhouse. At that time, Mr. Congressman, Shanghai was 
still under the Nationalists, and we dealt with officials of the National- 
ist Government. 

Mr. Velde. Then you certainly wouldn't expect them to be Com- 
munists. 

Mr. Stenhouse. I wouldn't expect it, but there were many, I sup- 
pose — from what I know now — there were Communists in Shanghai 
at that time. 

Mr, Velde. As leaders in the Nationalist Government ? 

Mr. Stenhouse. Well, the reason why I asked for the definition 
was we are always running into this problem of what is a Communist. 

Mr, Velde. There was nothing wrong in you conferring with Com- 
munists at that time ; understand that. 

Mr. Stenhouse. I want to answer the question. 

Mr. Velde. Or with Nationalists either. That was part of your 
duties. 

Mr. Stenhouse. I asked for the definition because one of the men 
who was a consultant — and I didn't appoint him — to the group that 
I was working with was the chief of the Foreign Exchange Depart- 
ment of the Bank of China. 

Mr. Velde. Do you recall his name? 

Mr. Stenhouse.' Yes. Chi Chio Ting. 

Mr. Velde. You certainly do have a good recollection as to some 
of these people, and you fail to recollect other people, chiefly Com- 
munists, with whom you were associated. 

Mr. Stenhouse. China is my field. I remember him because he was 
related to an area that I have since had contact with. And I remem- 
ber him, too, because shortly after — I think it was shortly after I left 
Shanghai or while I was still there— he went over to the Peking 
Government. And, as far as I know, that is the only contact that I 
had in Shanghai with anything that you could call a Communist, 
And I don't know that he was. 

Mr, Velde. Certainly I am sure, as Mr. Tavenner has very well 
stated, that you, being acquainted in China, would certainly have a 
lot better knowledge of communism in China than jirobably any of 
us here would. I would like to ask if you recognized any of those 
associated with you on the United Nations Commission in China as 
being what you consider Communists? 

Mr. Stenhouse. The answer to that question is "No." 

This particular individual was acting only in the capacity of a con- 
sultant. And I don't think he was actually a member of the United 
Nations, We were consulting with him and people like him because 
we were concerned with finance and foreign exchange and so on. 

Mr. Tavenner. ]\lr. Chairman, may I suggest that if the committee 
desires to go into the Chinese phase of that matter carefully that it 
be done at some other time. I believe, with the witnesses we have 
here, we would not be able to complete the work that is outlined if 
we attempt to go into that matter now. Besides, I think it is a 
matter we should discuss with the witness, at least preliminarily, 
before attempting to have a public hearing on it, 

Mr. Stenhouse. I would be very happy to do that. 

Mr. Velde. Let me say this, Mr. Chairman : I am disappointed at 
. the witness' lack of memory concerning his early Communist associa- 



466 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

tions and his inability to identify the members of the group with which 
he associated. However, I do feel that the information the witness 
possesses would be valuable to this committee, and he certainly should 
be given an opportunity to refresh his memory on any of these aspects 
as much as possible. 

I w^ould suggest our staff immediately prepare, or start an investi- 
gation into the matters related here today so we might hold a future 
hearing to secure more valuable information than we have today. 
And in that connection I w^ould suggest that the subpena to this 
witness be continued until some future date. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Stenhouse, the subpena which was served upoa 
you will remain in full force and effect until you are otherwise notified, 
or notified to appear here as a witness before this committee in further 
open session. 

Mr. Stenhouse. Mr. Chairman, may I make a short statement ? 

Mr. Moulder. You will not be entitled to make a statement. You 
mean you want to ask a question? 

Mr.' Stenhouse. I just wanted to refer once more to this matter of 
remembering the names. There were not more than 5 of these meet- 
ings. They occurred in a context where I was discussing the sanie sort 
of subjects in many different groups with many different individuals 
with many different points of view. As I said before, I cannot re- 
member the names of people with whom I was in daily contact at that 
time. 

1 have moved out of that part of the country. I have very few asso- 
ciations with it. It is entirely impossible for me to drag names out of 
the air. 

If the committee or its staff wall be able to submit names to me I 
will do my best to say whether or not I can remember those people. 

Mr. Moulder. That is the purpose of continuing in force and ejffect 
your subpena. And you are now temporarily excused as a witness. 

("Whereupon the witness was temporarily excused.) 

Mr. Moulder, Call the next witness, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Dennett. 

Mr. Moulder. The name of the witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Dennett. 

TESTIMONY OF EUGENE VICTOR DENNETT, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, KENNETH A. MacDONALD— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Dennett, I would like you to resume at this 
point the identification of individuals who were prominent in Com- 
munist Party activities in this area during the period that you were 
a member of the CIO council. 

Mr. DENNE'rr. Mr. Chairman, there is one fellow that came to my 
mind after I left the stand here in connection with the Boeing plant, 
a fellow by the name of Sam Telford, who was very well known to 
me at that time. 

Telford was veiy active in the organization of young people. His 
wife, Kate, was one of the principal workers in the office of the Inter- 
national Woodworkers of America. I happen to recall that because 
Kate and I had one thing in common — we had both attended church 
when we w^ere young and had learned a number of hymns. And 
whenever social affairs occurred she and I would be singing hymns. 



I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 467 

And it seemed to grate on the nerves of the comrades. They wanted 
to know if we didn't know some revolutionary songs, and we got a 
big kick out of irritating them with that. 

I have quit singing, however. My voice doesn't suit for that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether the first name was Kate or 
Kay? 

Mr. Dennett. I knew her by the name of Kate, K-a-t-e. 

Now the other day Mr. Wheeler asked me to think of the names of 
l>ersons whom I knew, and I wrote down those which came to my mind 
in an offliand sort of way. Now in speaking of these names I want 
to again reiterate my personal moral objection to being called upon 
to bring to public notice the names of people whom I did know in the 
Communist Party for the reason that I think it is much better for 
them to speak for themselves. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. If you can devise some plan for 
Communists speaking for themselves without the committee ascer- 
taining their names we would be glad to have the suggestion. 

Mr. Dennett. Maybe when I get through they might want to. 

Mr. Tavenner. I might say the committee has to take the respon- 
sibility for asking you these questions, and realizes that it is not being 
generously given. 

(At this point Eepresentative Harold H. Velde left the hearing 
room.) 

Mr. Dennett. Well, I make the point of my objection for the reason 
that among nearly all of my friends are ])eople who believe in bending 
over backwards the other way to protect the good name of any person. 
And I fear the consequences to the individuals. 

I mean I just hate to be a party to doing anytliing which will in 
anywise injure any of them. I trust that the way in which this is 
done it will not injure them. However, I know that they are going 
to suffer some embarrassment as a consequence of it. However, the 
names that I am going to submit to you are persons who were known 
to me to be members of the Conmiunist Party, and I am sure they 
knew what they were doing when they were iiiembers of the Counnu- 
nist Party. 

These names are somewhat scattered. In oider to expedite the 
business, I think I should go down tln-ough those that I have not 
previously mentioned to you, and make their identification so that 
we can get on to other matters which I know counsel wishes to cover. 

Mr. Tavenner. Please proceed. 

(The witness confers with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Dennett. Long ago, I knew a man by the name of Kevels Cay- 
ton, who was the head of the International Labor Defense. 

C-a-y-t-o-n is the last name, ReA^els — R-e-v-e-1-s, the first name. 

Later, I laiew Mr. Cayton as an official in the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards of the Pacific union.^ 

Way back in the unemployed days I knew a man by the name of 
Iver Moe, I-v-e-r M-o-e. 

Iver Moe's importance and significance is that he led an unemployed 
demonstration in Anacortes to a privately owned store which had 
foodstuffs in its stock, and the populace of Anacortes helped them- 
selves. Mr. Moe was one of the leaders of that group, and was prose- 

1 This is a reference to National Union of Marine Cooks and Stewards of the Pacific. 



I 



468 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

ciited for it. He Avas a member of the Communist Party at the time 
he did this. He thought he was doing the right thing. iVnd, as a 
consequence, he was put on trial and was convicted and sentenced, and 
I know that he was turned against the Communist Party as a conse- 
quence of that experience. 

(At this point Kepresentative Harold H. Velde returned to the 
hearing room.) 

Mr. Dennett. Another person known to me in the unemployed days 
was a lady by the name of Mrs. Harter, H-a-r-t-e-r. Her significance 
to me is that she later became the wife of Alex Noral, before he left 
here. Pie took her with him as his wife to California. 

She was a very active person in the unemployed movement, in the 
unemployed councils. 

Later on, I knew Mr. Terry Pettus, who was the editor of the New 
World, and now the northwest edition of the People's World. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name, please. 

Mr. Dennett. P-e-t-t-u-s, Pettus. 

Mr. Moulder. Are all the names you are referring to individuals 
who once were, or who now are, members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dennett. They were known to me at the time I was in the 
Communist Party as members of the Communist Party, and I had 
Communist business with them. 

Another person's name was Jim Cour, C-o-u-r or C-o-u-e-r. I am 
not too sure of that spelling. 

But Jim Cour was in an editorial capacity on the old Voice of 
Action, which was the predecessor of the present paper, the northwest 
edition of the People's World. In between the name changed many 
times. At one time they had the New World, and, another time, it 
had several different names. But it was the same organization, the 
same subscribers, the same leadership. The change of name was in- 
tended to more adequately satisfy the attitude of the public toward 
political questions at that particular moment. 

There was another one by the name of Bill Corr, but his was spelled 
differently, and it was C-o-r-r. Bill Corr was in the business manage- 
ment end of the paper, the Voice of Action. 

Later I knew a person by the name of Huber, L. R. It seems to 
me that his first name was Louis, L-o-u-i-s. He served as editor of 
the Lumberworkers' paper for a long period of time, that is, the paper 
issued by the International Woodworkers of America, at the time 
that Harold Pritchett was the president of the organization. 

Another person whom I knew was Charles Daggett. Charles Dag- 
gett I knew in several different capacities. At one time he was the 
city editor of the Seattle Star, a paper which Avent out of business in 
Seattle a great number of years ago. 

Mr. Daggett later was known to me as an official in the inland- 
boatmen's union,^ having become elected business agent in the San 
Francisco branch of the organization, and got into financial difficulties 
there ; later Avent to Los Angeles. That is the last I heard of him. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have seen him since then, and he has testified 
before this committee and admitted his Communist Party membership. 

Did you know him in this area in any activity within the news- 
paper guild ? 

1 This Is a reference to Inlandboatmen's Union of the Pacific. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 469 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, I knew him in the newspaper guild, but I was 
not certain of his Communist Party activity at the time that I knew 
him then. I knew him as a Communist just as he left here. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he active in that field in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, he was. He was very active as a newspaperman. 
He had a great deal to do with three other newspaper people whom 
I became closely acquainted with because of the official position that 
they held in the organization. 

The first was a person by the name of Ellen McGrath. I have heard 
since that she is deceased. But Ellen McGrath was a sort of business 
agent for the newspaper guild when it was first organized here, and 
I knew her both in the official capacity as a representative of the news- 
paper guild and as a Communist actively operating in that field. 

I knew her successor in that field, a man by the name of Claude 
Smith. Claude Smith was also known to me at that time as a Com- 
munist. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, he is the one who was expelled from the Party 
at the same time that I was subsequently. 

I knew another person by the name of Kobert Camozzi, C-a-m- 
o-z-z-i. Robert Camozzi was the president of the Seattle CIO council 
at the time I was its secretary, and we had official business represent- 
ing the council, and also we had official business as Communists. 

In the building service union,^ in addition to Mr. Jess Fletcher, 
whom I knew quite well because of his work on the district bureau 
of the Communist Party, I also knew a man by the name of Merwin 
Cole, C-o-l-e. Merwin Cole was one of the business agents of that 
union, and was quite well known to me because I had tried very hard 
to recruit him during some of the peace demonstrations that the 
youth from the university had organized downtown some time in 
the summer of 1936, I believe. Or perhaps it was 1935. It may 
have been a year one way or the other. 

I also knew one of his associates, Mr. Ward Coley, who was a busi- 
ness agent in that union, C-o-l-e-y. 

I knew another man by the name of Daggett. His name is Herbert 
Daggett. He is a brother of Charles Daggett. Herbert Daggett 
was known to me as a Communist in the National Marine Engineers' 
Beneficial Association. Herbert Daggett was some official there. I 
do not recall exactly what it was at that time. I do not know as to 
his political position as of the present time either. I do understand 
that he is now the president of the Marine Engineers' Beneficial Asso- 
ciation with headquarters in Washington, D. C. I repeat that I do 
not know what his political attitude is now. 

He had an associate in the Marine Engineers Beneficial Association 
by the name of Ted Rasmussen. Rasmussen, I am not sure of the 
spelling. There are several different ways of spelling that name, 
and I am not positive of it. You will have to take the best guess you 
can make. But Ted was a member of the marine engineers organi- 
zation, and I knew him as a Communist. I am not sure whether I am 
the person who recruited him, but I tliink I am because at the time 
I first started to work in the Inlandboatmen's Union Ted Rasmussen 



., * This Is a reference to Building Service Employees' International Union, AFL, Local 
"No. 6. 

62222— 55— pt. 2 7 



470 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

was the organizer of a dissident group of engineers who wanted to 
separate themselves from the existing organization. And I worked 
very hard to persuade him not to split the organization, and finally 
did prevail upon him, with the assistance of Harry Jackson, who was 
the Communist leader in the trade-union field here at that time, and 
either Mr. Jackson or mj^self recruited Mr. Rasmussen. 

In the lumber organization I recall the name of Ted Dokter, 
D-o-k-t-e-r. Ted Dokter was a very able man in the lumber industry, 
and we thought he was very efficient, and we liked his work at the 
time I knew him. Later, after I ceased to know him personally and 
directly, I heard criticism of him to the effect that he did not follow the 
party line. So I don't know what has happened to him. 

Oi* course. I knew Dick and Laura Law. Both are now deceased. 

I have previously mentioned Helen Sobeleski and Gladys Field 
who were in the woodworkers' office.^ 

One of my successors in the Seattle CIO Council was a man by the 
name of Artliur Harding. He was known to me. I understand he is 
deceased. I have not known of him for several years. But he was 
a loyal party member and so was his wife, a Jean Harding, J-e-a-n. 

I have previously mentioned Ernie Fox, who was in the Sailors 
Union of the Pacific. 

Mr. TA^^5NNER. Let me suggest that we not lose time by repeating 
any of those that you have already named. 

Mr. Dennett. I knew his wife very well. She went by the name 
of Elsie Gilland, G-i-1-l-a-n-d. One day a very peculiar thing oc- 
cured to me. Mr. Harry Jackson came to me with a request. He said 
that he had received an application card from a Mr. Roy Atkinson, 
and asked me whether I felt Mr. Atkinson could possibly really mean 
to join the Communist Party. 

I expressed my belief that I didn't think he could because I had 
never seen anything on his behavior which would indicate any sym- 
pathy toward the Communist Party. He said, "Well, we have re- 
ceived an application from him. We have received dues. Instead 
of doing anything about it we will not issue a card to him, and we will 
not let him be assigned to any branch. We are suspicious of that ap- 
plication. So we will not honor it. Mr. Atkinson was an active 
official in the CIO, and I thought that it was quite a ridiculous thing 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, you thought that he desired to join 
the Communist Party in order to obtain information of its activities. 

Mr. Dennett. That was my opinion. 

Mr. Tavenner. Rather than to become genuinely a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Dennett. Yes. 

Two persons who came to this area from the national office were 
known very well to me, Mr. Andrew Remes — and I know that that 
is not his proper name — but I don't know what his proper name was. 
That was a party name. And it was always spelled R-e-m-e-s, as 
far as I remember. 

One of his associates, wlio also came from the East, was Mr. Lou 
Sass — S-a-s-s. 



This is a reference to International Woodworl;ers of America (CIO). 



COAIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE. WASH., AREA 471 

The committee will probably remember testimony from Mr. Leonard 
Wiklman to the effect that he knew me in the Communist Party, 
which is correct. I did know him in the Comnumist Party. 

I also knew his wife, Muriel. I also knew Elizabeth Boggs, who 
gave testimony to the effect that she knew me in the Communist Party. 

I knew Mr. 'Harold Johnston, who was on this stand here this morn- 
ing. Mr. Johnston was known to me as an active Communist and 
a close associate of Mr. Morris Rappaport. 

Mr. Velde. Was he a Communist at the time you left the Com- 
munist Party, to your best knowledge ? 

Mr. Dennett. I had no direct knowledge as to what Mr. Johnston's 
position was after I went in the service. I did not know him after 
1942-43. But I understand he was quite amused over my remark that 
Mr. Rappaport made short work of me. He was in a position to know. 

I knew Mr. Glenn Kinney — K-i-n-n-e-y. I knew him over a period 
of a great many years. As a matter of fact, he was one of the first 
persons with whom I attempted to build a shop unit out in the steel 
mill. I wasn't emploj^ed there at the time. I believe he was. I 
was an official working here in town, doing full-time work for the 
party. Later on Mr. Kinney became a machinist, or I think he was 
a machinist actually at that time, but he became a machinist and rose 
to the heights in the machinists' union,^ at least to the extent of being 
a business agent there several times. 

In the old days there was an old man known to me by the name 
of F. S. U. Smith. And the reason we called him F. S. U. Smith 
was because he made one speech wherever he went, and tliat was to 
ask for people to be Friends of the Soviet Union, which was the name 
of an organization that he was very ardently supporting. He was a 
very loyal man to the party and did the best he knew how and the 
best he could. 

These that I am scratching off are names that I have previously 
mentioned. 

Mr. INIoulder. Mr. Dennett, I wish to apologize and thank you for 
your patience in being called and recalled, but we previously set the 
recess at 3 : 30. Do you mind at this time if we have a 5-minute recess 
and resume the hearings after it ? 

Mr. Dennett. I would like to finish the names before we recess so 
we can take up the other business. 

Mr. jSIoulder. All right; let's proceed if you wish to do so. 

Mr. Dennett. A very old friend of mine with whom I went to 
school — I have no knowledge as to what has become of him now — 
but at the time I knew him in the Communist Party he was the sec- 
tion organizer in King County. His name is Al Bristol. Al was a 
very fine friend of mine, a very patient fellow. I knew his wife 
Frances quite well. 

Another official that held the position of section organizer here was 
Clayton Van Lydegraf — V-a-n L-y-d-e-g-r-a-f. Clayton Van Lyde- 
gi-af was one of the officials who took part in my expulsion from the 
party, signing the expulsion notice. 

Anotlier person whom I knew as a Communist was Mr. Earl 
Payne — P-a-y-n-e. The last I heard of him he had been assigned sec- 



' This Is a reference to International AssodatlOD of Machinists, AFL. 



472 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

tion organizer in the Portland, Oreg., area. Wlien I knew him he had 
just returned from serving in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in Spain. 

Mr. Philip Frankfeld was sent here by the Central Committee to 
take over when Mr. Morris Rappaport was removed, or when it was 
known 

Mr. Velde. When was Mr. Rappaport removed ? 

Mr. Dennett. It was about the time of the outbreak of the war, 
shortly after the party had to make modifications in its practices 
because of the passage of the Voorhis Act. And Mr. Rappaport had 
been born in old Russia at the time of the Czar and was one of those 
continuing problems to the Immigration Department because no coun- 
try would accept him as a deportee. And the Immigration Depart- 
ment could not dispose of him except to hold him in their jail. He 
was one of their problems. And the party, in preparation for its super- 
patriotic efforts during the Second World War changed its consti- 
tution to provide that only citizens of the United States, or persons 
who were eligible to become citizens of the United States could be 
members of the Communist Party. Wlien that was adopted, Mr. 
Rappaport could not qualify, and was removed from office in the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Velde. In 1941 or 1942? 

Mr. Dennett. Well, it was about in that period. I can't be too 
certain of it because I was beginning to fall into some disrepute my- 
self, and was being left out of many activities and much information. 

Another person well known to me in this period was Mr. John 
D-a-s-c-h-b-a-c-h. Daschbach was known to me as a comparatively 
young man who worked — I'll be blessed if I know where he worked, 
but I know he was always active in the Communist Party activities. 

A longshoreman known to me that I failed to mention this morning 
was a rather heavy-set fellow who was known to me in a rather 
incidental sort of way. I know he was in the Communist Party, but 
I know little of any activity that he took part in, a man by the name 
of Wayne Mosio. I am not sure of the spelling. I think it is M-o-s-i-o, 
It may be z, but I am not certain. 

Another longshoreman who was well known to me as a member of 
the Communist Party is a person who broke with the Communist 
Party and later changed his occupation from longshoreman to that 
of lawyer. He went to school while he was longshoring and qualified 
to be admitted to the bar. 

I know that he was bitterly anti-Communist long before he became 
an attorney. I don't know whether you wish his name mentioned 
or not, but he was known to me and he certainly was known to the 
longshoremen. His name was Philip Poth, P-o-t-h. 

A national leader of the party whom I failed to mention before was 
Mr. John Williamson, one of the Smith Act defendants who suffered 
penalty of conviction and incarceration. He served as the trade-union 
section or secretary, replacing Mr. Roy Hudson. 

A person who was well known to me in my work of attempting to 
organize steel workers into the Communist Party was a section organ- 
izer, a man by the name of Charles Legg, L-e-g-g. 

Another person known to me as a member of the Communist Party 
who later turned up as an informer for the Government and served 
as a witness for the FBI was known to me under the name of Doc 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 473 

Dafoe. He was employed at tliat time in the steel mill at Northwest 
Eolling Mills. 

Another person well known to me in the Communist Party many 
years ago who was rather mild in his Communist Party efforts when I 
knew him and who later turned against the Communist Party was 
Dan Adair, A-d-a-i-r. He was in Olympia, his home was Olympian 

I also knew his father whose name was Eobin Adair. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean by that you are identifying his father 
as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes ; both of them were members of the Communist 
Party at that time. Mr. Dan Adair, the last I heard of him, was 
bitterly anti-Communist and has left the State. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to remind you, wherever it is known 
to you that a person being identified has left the Communist Party, 
that it is only the fair thing to say so. 

Mr. Dennett. True. 

I believe, sir, that covers all the names that I have not covered 
before. 

Mr. Moulder. We will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Whereupon, a short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will please come to order. 

Proceed with the witness, please, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Dennett, at the time you were a member of the 
CIO Council what union was it that you were representing ? 

Mr. Dennett. I was from the Inlandboatmen's Union at that 
time. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you have given us the names of those in 
that union who were known to you to be members of the Communist 
I*arty? 

Mr. Dennett. The only ones that I know 

Mr. Tavenner. I don't want you to repeat them. I want to make 
certain. 

Mr. Dennett. The only ones I knew in the Inlandboatmen's 
Union — two are deceased. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are not interested in that. 

Mr. Denneit. I think that is of no value. 

There was a person known to me in the Inlandboatmen's Union by 
the name of Gene Robel, who was a member of the Communist Party 
in the Inlandboatmen's Union. I think that he was one of the wit- 
nesses subpenaed before this hearing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he testify several days ago ? 

Mr. Dennett. I believe so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at a later time become a member of the Steel 
Workers' Union ? 

Mr. DENNETT.That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. What date did you become a member? 

Mr. Dennett. Some time in 1942, I think it was. Yes, it was in 
1942. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, if any members 
of that union were known to you to be members of the Communist 
Part.y. 

Mr. Dennett. I have this recollection about that : 

Remember now all of that transpired more than 7 years ago. I 
have been expelled from the party for the past 7 years, going on 8. 



474 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

My recollection is positive about 2 persons. There are others about 
whom I have a very indistinct recollection, and I would be afraid to be 
positive about. But the two that I can be positive about — one's name 
was Andrew Marshall. He was referred to in Barbara Hartle's tes- 
timony as Andy. She did not finish the name. He was well known 
to me. 

Another person was Alex Harding. H-a-r-d-i-n-g. 

I know that there were around G or 7 active members of the Com- 
munist Party in the steelworkers at that time, but I am so uncertain 
about the other names that I would hesitate to mention them for fear 
I might be wrong and might speak of the wrong person. 

Mr. Tavenner. There are other matters that I wanted to obtain 
information about, but there is apparently not time to do it. 

I wanted particularly to inquire into examples of discipline exer- 
cised by the Communist Party over its members. We shall not have 
time to cover that even in a general way, but I know from what you 
have said during the course of your testimony that on a number of oc- 
casions the Communist Party disciplined you. You have told us of 
two occasions so far. I wish you would tell the committee of other 
examples of discipline. 

Mr. Dennett. Well, the most important one was my expulsion and 
that of my former wife. 

This occurred after my return from the service. You will recall 
that I have previously indicated that by the time I was inducted into 
service I was beginning to fall into some disrepute in the party, and 
the reason for that was that I had been actively engaged in trying to 
develop a struggle for equal rights for Negroes. 

I was very much impressed by cases of police brutality against Ne- 
groes in the city of Seattle way back in 1940 and 1941. And some 
special cases had been brought to my personal attention, and I had 
developed a rather broad struggle on behalf of those people through 
my connections with the Washington Commonwealth Federation. 

Of course, I was trying to build a considerable corps of Negro people 
in the Communist Party. 

Without going into the detail of that, I simply want to say that my 
activities at first met with the approval of the Communist Party, but, 
with the outbreak of the war and the changed policy of the Commu- 
nist Party, my activities met with the sharp disapproval of the party. 

In other words, the party adopted the policy during the war of 
subordinating all other things in supporting the war. They had a 
slogan of "Subordinate the sectional or local interests to the national 
interest." This was quite a sharp change in policy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you construe that as a sharp interest in the pol- 
icy of the United States or of some other country? 

JNIr. Dennett. It was not with respect to the policy of the United 
States. It was intended to guarantee that the full strength of the 
United States would be brought to bear on the side of the Soviet Union 
in the war which was then raging with Nazi Germany ; and to guaran- 
tee that it would be complete, the Communist Party ordered that the 
fight for equal rights for Negroes should be subordinated and that 
Negroes would have to wait for their equal rights, they would have 
to cease being troublemakers over this question. And they used that 
term. They used that term against me, that I was simply a trouble- 
maker organizing diversionary interests. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 475 

Well, I felt that if the war that was being fought was worth any- 
thino- it certainly was worth applying the principle of equal rights 
throughout the length and breadth of this Nation of the United States, 
especially when I knew of the heavy burden which the Negroes were 
carryino- in parts of this country. And I knew that there were some 
attitude's around here which were extremely offensive to the Negro 
people. They certainly do object to segi^egation, and they certainly 
have a right to object to it. •,...-, i ^ r ^i 

It is my feeling, and always has been, that it is the duty of the 
white people to see to it that they are not treated as inferiors. 

So I was pressing that point, and I defied the leadership of the 
district in the party to show me anything anywhere which justified 
their change of attitude. . 

For my militant determination on it I was falling into bad graces 
so rapidly that they removed me from the district bureau. 

Before I went into the service I also quarreled with them over some 
of the literature published under the name of Earl Browder, under 
the title of "Victory and After," in which I challenged some of the 
contentions of Browder that it was possible to get along with some of 
the big capitalists of the United States in the interest of the war effort 
and forget the interest of the workers who were employed by those 
capitalists, because in too many instances the capitalists were making 
enormous profits in the war but the workers were not increasing their 
wages. 

This was an issue w-hich was of extreme importance to me. i was 
working in a steel mill and I felt that the steelworkers' wages at that 
time were altogether too inadequate. I think that history smc^ has 
borne out the justification of my attitude in it, and I thmk the Com- 
munist Party policy which flip-flopped all over the place at that time 
has proven how unstable it was, and has proven that it was not genu- 
inely trying to improve the condition of the workers. 

Mr. Velde. When were you removed from the district bureau of the 
Communist Party ? . 

Mr. Dennett. Some time in 1941 or 1942, I believe it was. ihen, 
of course, I went into the service. 

Upon return from the service I tried to become as active as possible 
in the party work, tried to restore organization of the party apparatus. 
I was first advised by Mr. Andrew Kemes when he came— he had just 
returned from the service ahead of me. He advised me that when he 
was in the service, evidently, Mr. Huff, who had been left in charge of 
the district, had permitted the entire district to collapse, because when 
he came back from the service— I am speaking of Mr. Remes— he told 
me there was not a single functioning branch of the Communist Party 
in the entire district, that it took him several weeks to get together 
the membership of any one branch. And he could only do it by leg- 
work, walking from house to house, to the old addresses of the people 
he knew before he went into the service. And he was dumfounded 
tx) find that condition existing. 

A^^len he had gone in the service the party numbered m the neighbor- 
hood of 5,000 in this district. 

In other words, it was baffling to us as to why that thing had 
happened. 

Later on I came to the conclusion that Mr. Huff was either repre- 
senting the Federal Bureau of Investigation or somebody else who 



476 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

was as opposed to the party as anybody could be because I couldn't 
account for any explanation for that development. 

I soon found that I was running into a stone wall. Everything 
I proposed by way of reorganization or by way of organizational 
activities — I, for instance, felt that a fundamental policy of the party 
was to concentrate in the mass production industries, to concentrate 
in basic industries. I had always been taught that that was one of 
the party's chief concerns. 

But, lo and behold, when I approached the district leaders asking 
for assistance to concentrate on making a strong party in the steel- 
workers, they said, "Oh, we're not interested in them. We have got 
other problems that are more important to us than just a bunch of 
steelworkers." Which was an attitude expressing to me a certain 
contempt for the workers, which didn't go very well because I have 
the greatest respect for men who have the audacity to try to work for a 
living. And I didn't like this business of people who were sitting 
up on top sneering, speaking about the membership in such a cursory 
way. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the question of Communist Party activity in 
veterans' organizations come up at that time? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes ; it did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just touch on it very briefly, please, because we have 
very little time. 

Mr. Dennett. I was called to a fraction meeting of returned vet- 
erns to try to work out some kind of veterans' policy, and some of 
these veterans reported boastfully that they had just walked into some 
veterans'' posts and had captured the leadership — no trouble at all. 

I chastised them for being so naive as to think that the Communists 
could capture a veterans' organization when the purpose of the vet- 
erans' organization was to oppose the Communist Party. And I told 
them they were foolish to undertake such a task and that they shouldn't 
embark upon that policy. They told me I was nuts and that they knew 
what they were doing because they had the success of having cap- 
tured a post. 

Mr. Tavenner. Time, however, proved that you were correct, did it 
not? 

Mr. Dennett. I think it did. ... 

Mr. Tavenner. You said both you and your wife were disciplined 
by the Communist Party. 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. 

When I returned from the service it didn't take very long before 
rumor was circulated to the effect that I was alleged to be an FBI 
agent. 

Mr. Moulder. Was your wife a member of the Communist Party, 
too? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to say at this point that it is not the 
practice of this committee, and it is not my practice to ask a witness 
any questions relating to the activities of his wife. There have been 
several occasions when witnesses felt that, in order to give the com- 
plete story to the committee, it was necessary to speak of their wife's 
activities. But when they did, they did it on their own volition. 
Therefore, I am not asking you any questions with regard to your wife. 
If you mention her it is purely on your own volition. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 477 

Mr. Dennett, To explain this disciplinary action I have to advise 
that my former wife and I were expelled from the party on the same 
document with the same explanation, the same reasons. The docu- 
mentary evidence will bring her into this part of it. 

And the account which I wish to make about the discipline against 
her is of far more importance than the discipline against me, although 
i am convinced that the purpose of the discipline was to get me out 
of their hair. 

It seems as though some people in the district leadership did not 
like to be reminded of what the party policy used to be, and they 
objected to my reminding them of the zigzags which they had followed 
in the intervening period. 

I was trying to find some way of bringing them to what I considered 
to be the official party position, and they seemed to have an entirely 
different attitude than I. 

It resulted finally in a series of meetings with the district discip- 
linary body known to me originally as a control commission. The last 
I heard it was called a review commission. But, in effect, it amounts 
to a kangaroo court because, in my case, they started out with this 
rumor that I was an FBI agent, asked me to explain it, and all I could 
do was explain that my former wife had done something which they 
had authorized. And Mr. Huff admitted that he authorized it. 

It is true that it ultimately led her to make certain reports which 
did contribute to the Avar effort by way of eliminating bottlenecks 
which she found in various parts of the war production industry. 
But this had been approved by Mr. Huff. 

And then when I was on the pan, Mr. Huff first admitted that he 
had authorized her to engage in this activity, then later denied that 
he had done so, and used the allegation that I was an FBI agent 
as the excuse to cause my expulsion from the party, mainly and, in 
my judgment, solely because I was in total disagreement with them 
on policies relating to civil rights, policies relating to Veterans' Ad- 
ministration and veterans' work, and policies relating to organization 
in basic industry. 

And the civil rights question was extremely important to me be- 
cause in the organization of civil rights struggles it was my conception 
that if you are going to fight for civil rights you have to fight for 
civil rights for everyone. And when we attempted to organize a 
civil rights congress at the outset with that purpose in mind, and 
that as our declared effort, we were advised that the Communist Party 
could not afford to waste its time fighting for civil rights for every- 
body, that they were only interested in fighting for civil rights for 
members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that one of the matters on which you disagreed 
with the Communist Party? 

]Mr. Dennett. It certainly was. Mr. Andrew Kernes advised me 
personally that tliat was the situation, tlie party was in so inucli diffi- 
culty that it had to restrict its efforts to the defense of the Communist 
Party and that the Civil Eights Congress was created solely for that 
purpose. 

I ceased to have any interest in it whatsoever, and, as a consequence, 
one thing led to another, and they finally expelled us with a notice on 
the earlv week of October 1947. 



478 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

]\Ir. Velde. You were removed from the party then. Membership 
was taken away from you for about the same reasons that you were 
removed from the bureau, from the district bureau ? 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. 

]\Ir. Velde. That was about 6 years before ? 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. 

Mr. Velde. Do you mean they spent all that time trying to change 
your mind about civil rights? 

Mr. Dennett. Well, there was an intervening period in which I was 
away, you know. I was in the service. 

Mr. Velde. That is right. 

Mr. Dennett. There were several breaks there. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you were in the service from 1943 practi- 
cally through the year 1945. 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not want you to go into great detail, but I be- 
lieve the record should be a little clearer on the character of work in 
which your wife was actually engaged, which you say was authorized 
by the head of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Dennett. A stranger approached her and asked her if she 
would submit reports to him about any bottlenecks that she found in 
war production. He advised her that he had been informed that she 
was a very well-informed person, knew a lot of people, and would be 
capable of doing this work. She didn't know what to make of it. 
So she wrote to me while I was in the service asking my opinion, 
and I told her to hold off until I got back on furlough. 

At that time I suggested to her that she take it up with the district 
leadership of the party, which she did, and got this approval. 

The nature of that work she found 

Mr. Tavenner. That had nothing to do with reporting to any agen- 
cy of Communist Party activities as such? 

Mr. Dennett. No; it did not. 

Mr. Tavenner. But it was just a matter of reporting things which 
interfered with the war effort in industry? 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. 

Among the things that she found, some of the outstanding things, 
was one occasion pertaining to the Takoma shipyards. She learned 
by various sources — friends that she knew in the labor movement — 
that the shipyard had been in operation for a period of around 10 
months or more and still didn't have a ship on the ways. She made 
a number of inquiries as to how they could account for such a thing, 
and at one point she ran across a name that rang a bell with her. 

She started to do a little probing, and found out that this name was 
the same as that of a person who had been removed from the navy yard 
some time before, either 2 or 3 years before, maybe. It might have been 
longer than that. But the person had been removed as a Fascist. He 
was known to be a member of a Silver Shirt organization. 

Lo and behold, this person turns up as the production supervisor or 
superintendent in this particular shipyard. 

Anyway, she submitted a report of all the information she had 
gathered on the subject. Within a couj)le of weeks' time this person 
was removed from his position, and within a short time afterward 
ships were on the ways in that shipyard and production started boom- 
ing. 



COMMXmiST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 479 

We could only draw a conclusion that lier information had, certain- 
ly, some value, 

]\Ir. Tavenner. We will be very much interested to hear of other 
occasions, but, because of the shortness of time, we will have to move 
on. 

The point is, that before undertaking that type of work your wife 
conferred with the leadership of the Communist Party and obtained 
approval. 

Mr. Dennett, That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then take it up from there and tell us what occurred. 

Mr. Dennett. That was part of the story on which this allegation 
of FBI agent thing arose. 

When I was first confronted with the story I recounted this whole 
thing in every detail to the leader of the section. The person was Mr. 
Jim Bourne. Mr. Jim Bourne told me to sit tight, do nothing, say 
nothing until I heard from the district. 

I waited from March until June 1947, and still had no word from 
them. About sometime in June I was invited to a meeting which was 
called by the Communist Party for the purpose of preparing its de- 
fenses from the anticipated attack which would come from the Can- 
well committee investigation which was about to open. 

I reluctantly went to the meeting because I felt I was under a cloud. 
However, I did go. I am glad I did because they did discuss the whole 
question of these investigating committees, and it gave me some insight 
as to my rights under the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the 
United States. It was thoroughly discussed in this meeting, and we 
understood that that was the sole and only real protection that a person 
had if he wanted to avoid testifying. 

However, during the course of that meeting I spoke to a leader of the 
party, asking what was happening to my case. He advised me to speak 
to Mr. Huft. I spoke to Mr. HufT about it and Mr. HufT, as a result of 
it, arranged a meeting of the control commission. 

The control commission called me to a meeting within a week's time. 
We reviewed the whole situation, the whole case, and I told them 
every single thing I knew about it. They asked me to submit a 
written statement. I did exactly that. I detailed everything that 
I knew about the situation in the statement. 

I declined to sign the statement, however, because at that time I 
feared that their practices and methods were a little bit too loose, 
and I feared it might fall into the wrong hands and be used against me. 

However, they accepted the statement, but they did not like what 
was in it. 

They called me to another meeting, and at the second meeting 
they upbraided me and accused me of everything under the sun, 
and we finally broke up in rather a violent battle over whether or 
not they were trying to help the working class or not. 

That occurred some time in August. 

By October Mr, John Lawrie, the chairman of the control com- 
mission, visited our home, demanded our books, our party books. 

We reluctantly gave them to him, protesting that we understood 
that a person had a right to be charged and tried, hear witnesses, and 
that sort of thing. 

He said, "Well, you will get a statement." 



480 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE. WASH., AREA 

About a week later we did receive a statement. The statement was 
an expulsion notice from the Communist Party. 

No charges had ever been actually preferred, no opportunity for 
trial had been granted us, and we were blasphemed and accused of 
everything under the sun which is looked upon as a crime by the 
members of the Communist Party. 

This statement was circulated to all the Communist Party sections, 
and evidently it reached other hands, because shortly afterward some 
security agencies of the Government called me up and asked me what 
was going on. I told them I didn't know, and I declined to talk 
with any of them, and I have never talked to any of them except on 
one occasion when Mr. John Boyd asked that I stop by the Immigra- 
tion Bureau Office, 

I did stop by there. He asked me a number of questions then, and 
I refused to be of aii}^ assistance to him whatsoever at that time. 
That was shortly after the expulsion. 

Now, the most important part of this disciplinary action is what 
I have to say at this time, because immediately after receiving this 
notice, we received rumors to the effect tliat the Communist Party 
members in the union of which my former wife was the president, 
which was the United Office and Professional AVorkers of America, 
Local 35 — I heard the rumor that they were going to come into that 
meeting that night and demand her removal from the organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean that the union members were going to 
demand 

Mr. Dennett. I heard the Communist Party members in that union 
were going to make a demand in that union that my fonner wife 
be removed from office and be removed as a member of that union 
because the party had disciplined her. 

The situation in that union was very peculiar. It was a union of 
about 65 members, and there were no more than a half-dozen persons 
in it who were not members of the Communist Party. 

That seems incredible, but the reason for it is that most of the 
persons who were members of the union were working as secretaries 
in various union offices, or were w^orking for some individual employer 
with whom there were no collective-bargaining contracts and there 
were no regular functions of a union. It was simply a home where 
these people could pay dues and use the union label wherever they 
wanted to for their own convenience. As a matter of fact, that is the 
reason why the Communist Party usually uses the union label on its 
circulars or letters, because it has members in the Communist Party 
office who were members of that union. 

This particular expulsion drew the attention of the Communist 
Party to us, and especially to my former wife. Tliey knew that the 
steel workers union was bitterly anti-Communist. They didn't dare 
to try to make any approaches to the steel workers union to have me 
thrown out, but they did have absolute control, they thought, in the 
office workers union, and they thought they would take their revenge 
on my former wife by proceeding against her. 

When I learned of this I went to the office of the party and asked 
for the district leadership to give me an audience. 

They treated me like scum under their feet when I went in their 
office because I had just been expelled. However, I did speak to them 
and advised them that I heard this rumor, that I urged them not to 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 481 

be as foolhardy as that because to do so would attract public attention. 
And if that was done it would do irreparable harm to that union and 
niig-ht also bring down a great deal of criticism on the entire labor 
movement for something for which the labor movement itself was not 
at fault but was something for which the Communist Party was at 
fault. 

I, therefore, asked them if they would be so considerate as to allow 
my former wife to resign her position if it was inconvenient for them 
to'have her in that position. 

She had no desire to remain in it any longer than necessary. She 
thought she was rendering them a service and thought she was render- 
ing the union a service by holding that position. 

But they said they would not take their advice from expelled mem- 
bers. 

So they proceeded that night to introduce a mimeographed pro- 
posal preferring charges against my former wife. 

Now I have borrowed this from a person who has kept the file be- 
cause he was prevailed upon by my former wife and myself to act 
as her counsel during the course of that proceeding, and he kept a 
complete file. 

I have here the original of the charges that were preferred against 
her, and the substance of it is simply this : That they were asking for 
my former wife to be expelled from that union and from the office 
of president in that union simply because she had been expelled from 
the Communist Party on a kangaroo court proceeding. And the names 
of the signers are here and in their owm original handwriting. Some of 
them have been called before this committee before. 

Mr. Velde. Is that for expulsion from the United Office and Pro- 
fessional Workers Union or from the party? 

I'klr. Dennett. No. This is the charges that were preferred in the 
Office Workers Union by members of the Office Workers Union who 
were also — they must have been members of the Con^munist Party. 
I didn't know of them of my own knowledge, but my former wife did, 
and it is in their handwriting. Their names are there in their own 
handwriting. And I think the committee would like to know this 
and have this as a matter of record. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read the names into the record. 

Mr. Velde. If you are sure that they are all members of the party. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dennett. My counsel raised the same question, Mr. Tavenner, 
that inasmuch as I cannot testify of my own knowledge about their 
membership, that perhaps it is not proper for me. However, this is 
the document which was used in that union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you a few preliminary questions. 

Were yoli given a written notice of expulsion by the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, we w^ere. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you identify language in that expulsion notice 
as being virtually the same language as in the notice of charges given 
by the union to your wife? 

Mr. Dennett. It certainly is. In both instances they accuse her 
of the crime of being an infonner for the FBI. 



482 COMAIUXIST ACTR'ITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. We will not take time now to analyze those docu- 
ments, but I would like for them to be in evidence, and, in light of the 
fact that the names signed have not been shown by evidence to be 
members of the Communist Party, I ask that that part of the docu- 
ment be deleted until investigation has established whether or not 
they are members of the party. 

Mr. Moulder. As requested by counsel, without objection, it is so 
ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like for the document to be marked "Den- 
nett Exhibit No. 10." 

(The document above referred to, marked "Dennett Exhibit No. 10," 
is filed herewith.) 

Dennett Exhibit No. 10 

We, the undersigned, prefer charges against Harriette Dennett, President, 
United Office and Professional Worliers of America, Local 35, for violation of the 
Constitution of the National Union under the following Articles : 

Akticle II, Section 3. "No person whose intf^rests are deemed to lie with the 
employer as against the employees shall he eligible for memhership." 

Article II, Section 5, Obligations of Members. "... to bear true allegiance 
to, and keep inviohite the principles of the union ; . . . and to promote the inter- 
ests of our members in harmony with the best interests of our country." 

Article VI, Section 9, Obligations of Local Union Officers. "... to perform 
all your duties as required by the laws of the Union and the instruction of the 
membership . . . and that yon will do everything in your power to forward the 
interests of the organized labor movement." 

We have certain evidence clearly revealing that Harriette Dennett has made 
regular reports to the Federal Bureau of Investigation over a long period of time 
for which she has received payment. We are convinced that no honest trade 
unionist would have connections with any police body, especially the FBI, and 
still serve the best interests of the Union. 

Let us examine the role of the FBI. Organized labor recognizes that law 
enforcing agencies are absolutely necessary in the protection of public and private 
property, prevention of crime, and safeguarding our welfare. However, various 
police bodies, both Federal and local, have always allied themselves with the 
employers in e(?onomic struggles. In strikes, the U. S. Army and National 
Guard have smashed picket lines and arrested union leaders, and, in conjunction 
with the courts, have framed them, had them imprisoned, deported, and even 
executed. 

The FBI especially, acting as the undercover arm of these police forces, while 
it has done a commendable job in the apprehension of criminals, has constantly 
used its prestige and power in aiding employers and local police agencies in their 
efforts to weaken and destroy unions by hunting down progressive and militant 
trade unionists and having them blacklisted from their jobs. 

In the Bridges Case, witnesses were either paid or intimidated by the FBI to 
testify falsely. They did not hesitate to use wiretapping, dictographing, and 
other devices, although illegal. At the present time, John Santos, long-time 
leader of the Transport Workers Union, is undergoing an ordeal very similar to 
that of Bridges. Strenuous efforts are being made to deport him because he has 
earned the enmity of poweful transit and utility corporations. He is charged 
with being an alien "red." And, once again, the FBI is playing a key role in 
this hearing by rounding up questionable anti-labor characters to testify against 
him. 

According to the La Follette Civil Liberties Committee, the Pinkerton Detec- 
tive Agency was found to have 300 operatives enrolled in unions as members, 
of whom at least 100 ircre union officials — of them 14 presidents of locals, one 
national vice-president, 14 trustees, and 20 local union secretaries. 

We are at present witnessing an attack upon a union in our own city as a 
result of the combination of discredited labor leaders, the un-American Canwell 
Committee and the Seattle P-I and its FBI agent and strike-breaker, Fred 
Niendorff. 

Today, Labor is faced with and all-out offensive of the profit-greedy NAM 
They are determined to bring wages down while continuing to raise the cost of 



J 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 483 

living. This attaclf on the peoples' living standards is most serious to the thou- 
sands of greatly underpaid white-collar workers. 

To accomplish this union-busting program, the most vicious antilabor legisla- 
tion, such as the Taft-Hartley law has been passed, and the Un-American Activ- 
ities Committee, the little Dies Committees and numerous other government 
agencies — all in conjunction with the FBI — are engaged in a witch-hunt against 
labor. 

Let us recall that it was not until trade unions were made impotent in Germany 
that Hitler dared to embarli on the road to concentration and extermination 
camps. 

The National CIO has condemned the Department of Justice for conducting a 
"gumshoe" probe of CIO political expenditures. President Philip Murray has 
reported "furtive operations and dramatic unearthing of clues by the FBI . . . 
which can have only the objective of harassing and intimidation." 

Anyone worldng with the FBI or with any of the above-named antilabor 
committees or against the l)est interests of the union must clearly be labeled an 
enemy of labor and removed from membership in any labor organization to which 
he may belong. 

Tlieiefore, in pursuance of the procedure established by Section I, Article XV, 
which states that any elective or appointive officers of a local union may be 
removed from office subject to provisions of this Article for any violation of this 
Constitution "or because of the commission of an act impairing the usefulness 
of the organization, " we are presenting these charges, and demanding the expul- 
sion of Harriette Dennett from UOPWA 35. We call upon our Union to immedi- 
ately set up a trial committee to investigate these charges and report back its 
findings to a special membership meeting to be called for action by the member- 
ship. 

uopwa 3-5 cio 

Mr. Tavenner. And I would like also to introduce in evidence at 
this time the expulsion notice that was given you, and ask that it be 
marked "Dennett Exhibit No. 11." 

Mr. Moulder. As requested by counsel, without objection, it is so 
ordered. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Dennett Exhibit No. 11," 
is filed herewith). 

Dennett Exhibit No. 11 
Notice of Expulsion 

To All Sections, Clubs, and Members of the 

Northwest District Communist Party, U. S. A. : 

This is to notify all Sections and Clubs of the expulsion from the Communist 
Party of Eugene V. Dennett, Harriet Dennett, and Claude Smith. 

In the case of Eugene Dennett and Harriet Dennett, the expulsion is based upon 
violation of the conditions of membership in the Communist Party as set 
forth in Article 9, Sections 1, 2, and 4 of the Constitution of the Communist 
Party, U. S. A., based upon the following facts established by the District 
Review Commission : 

1. Admitted employment of Harriet Dennett by an agency of the F. B. I. 
and the submitting of regular reports to said agency over a long period of 
time, with the knowledge and consent, and direct participation of Eugene 
v. Dennett. This was established by his admission of personal contact with 
a known agent of the F. B. I. and his concealment from the Party of Har- 
riet Dennett's activities and his own personal contact with the F. B. I. 

2. Admitted personal and political relations by Eugene V. Dennett with 
known Trotskyites with established participation by Harriet Dennett. 

3. An established record of anti-party, disruptive, and provocative activity 
by Eugene Dennett on numerous occasions and by Harriet Dennett in 
several instances. 

In the case of Claude Smith, the expulsion is based upon violation of the 
conditions of membership in the Communist Party as set forth in Article 9, 
Sections 1, 2, and 4 of the Constitution of the Communist Party, U. S. A., and 
based upon the following facts established by the District Review Commission : 



484 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE. WASH., AREA 

1. Admitted participation in tlie preparation of the reports submitted by 

Harriet Dennett to the Agency referred to above as well as sharing in the- 

payment for those reports and concealment of these activities from the 

Party. 

The District Review Commission wishes to call to the attention of the Party 

membership and Its organizations the necessary conclusions from these facts. 

First, in this case as in many in the past, a negative, carping attitude toward 

the Party and its program has upon investigation disclosed enemies of the Party 

and the working class. 

The same thing must be said of toleration and association with Trotskyites who 
are simply fascists hiding behind "left" phrases. While such attitudes may be 
due to lack of understanding in new members, in the case of experienced long 
time members it can only be regarded as conscious assistance to fascism and 
to the agents of fascism. It must he noted also that the personal record of these 
people is marked by individualism instability and extreme egotism. 

The District Review Commission also wishes to point out that it is necessary 
to learn to distinguish between honest differences of opinion which we have to 
constantly resolve by discussion and majority decision and disruptive, dis- 
honest attacks upon the program activities and leadership of the Party, which 
is the earmark of the provocateur and agent of the enemy. Only by more 
resolutely defending and fighting for the program of the Party can we make 
this distinction clear. Only by becoming more alert to the smell of anti-Party 
poison can we root out these disrupters. Only by fighting for the unity of the 
Party and testing our cadres struggle can we create guarantees that such 
elements will not remain long in the Party or be able to steal into its posts 
of leadership, and that the damage that they do will be reduced to a minimum. 
Harriet Dennett is at present holding the position of President of the Seattle 
UOPWA Local Union No. 35. Eugene Dennett is a member of the Board of 
Control of the New Wordd and a member of the Steelworkers Union. Claude 
Smith is at present editor of the Washington State CIO news. 

All Party members are warned against personal or political association with 
these expelled members and to give them no consideration or comfort in the- 
excuses and protests they can be expected to make against the expulsion action 
which was ordered carried out b.v unanimous vote of the Northwest District 
Committee in executive session on October 6. 1947. 
Signed : 

Henry Huff, 

District Chairman, 
C. Van Lydegraf, 
District Orig. Sec'y, 
For the Northivest District Committee Communist Party, U. 8. A. 
uopwa No. 35. 

Mr. Velde. There is one question I would like to ask you, Mr. Den- 
nett, about your expulsion and your wife's. You probably recall the 
argument that took place within the ranks of the Communist Party 
during the change from the Communist political association to the 
militant type of organization it was before. 

Did you or your wife engage in any of those arguments after the 
receipt of the Ducios letter ? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, we did. 

Mr. Velde. I am interested in that, if you will please be as brief as 
you can. 

Mr. Dennett. I will do my best, sir. 

I was still in the service at the time. This occurred in New Orleans. 
Mv wife was still doing this same work in New Orleans. 

Mr. Velde. Was that in the middle of 1945 ? 

Mr. Dennett. That is right, in May and June of 1945. 

And with the publication of the Ducios letter in the Daily Worker, 
which my wife was a subscriber to at that time, we observed that 
something tremendous was taking place within the party. And she 
made contact with some of the party people in New Orleans. 

When they found that we had an interest in it, they invited us tO' 
the meetings where this discussion took place. And I was quite 



COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEAIT^LE, WASH., AREA 485 

startled to find that the general criticism was mainly directed at the 
bureaucratic attitude and dictatorial policies pursued by Mr. Earl 
Browder. I was flabbergasted because I did not have that conception 
of him, and I was quite surprised as a result of it. And, of course, 
you know the rest of the story, which was published. 

Mr. Velde. In other words, you and your wife both took the side 
of Earl Browder ? 

Mr. Dennett. I wouldn't say that my former wife took the side of 
Earl Browder. I wouldn't say I took the side of Earl Browder 
either because I was not in the party at the time. I was simply a 
visitor invited, and I was mainly surprised. I questioned the re- 
ports that people made. I didn't pass judgment on it. I simply 
could hardly believe the criticism which I heard. 

Mr. Velde. It appears to me from your testimony that you were 
probably sort of independent in this matter of following the Commu- 
nist Party line as handed down from Soviet Russia, and that was prob- 
ably one of the chief reasons why you were expelled. Is that not 
right? You w^ould not follow the party line? You thought for 
yourself. 

Mr. Dennett. I thought I was following the party line, and I 
thought the leaders around here were zigzagging all over the lot, and 
they didn't know what the line was. They thought I was nuts. I 
thought they were nuts. 

Mr. Velde. Maybe you were just like Trotsky or Lovestone. You 
just didn't happen to be in the ruling class as far as the party line 
was concerned. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Mr. Chairman, we have just checked the names 
on exhibit No. 10, and find that all of the persons whose names ap- 
pear there have been identified in testimony before this committee 
as Communist Party members. Therefore, I see no reason for restrict- 
ing that document in any way in its introduction in evidence. 

Mr. Moulder. It is so ordered. Do you wish to read the names? 

Mr. Tavennee. I desire the witness to read the names. 

Mr. Denneti\ Alice Kinney, known to me before as Alice Balmer, 
B-a-1-m-e-r; Tmdi Kirkvvood, Helen Huff. Helen Huff was known 
to me as the wife of Henry Huff, who was the district organizer of 
the party, and Helen Huff' was one of those persons to whom I spoke 
when I requested that they allow my former wife to resign, but they 
would have nothing to do with that. They wouldn't allow it. They 
wanted to make an example of her. Hallie Donaldson, Vivian Stucker, 
S-t-u-c-k-e-r, Jean E. Hatten. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Dennett, are there any other facts relating to 
your expulsion which would be of interest to this committee? 

Mr. Dennett. I think, Mr. Tavenner and members of the com- 
mittee, that there are probably many. But, in view of the pressing 
time, I think that this is sufficient to give you the picture, and, if you 
want to go into more detail at a later time when you have more time 
available, I think maybe we could do that. I have said all I think I 
need to say at this time. 

Mr. Tavenner. After your expulsion have you been identified with 
the Communist Party in any way ? 

Mr. Dennett. No, sir; I have not. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee had information indicating that you 
may poasibly have become a member after your expulsion, or even 

62;i22— 55— pt. 2 8 



486 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

prior to that, of the Socialist Workers Party. And the information 
that the committe-e had in that respect was a nominating petition of 
that group signed by ^''ou. 

We would like to know whether you were at any time a member of 
the Socialist Workers Party. 

Mr. Dennett. The answer is very simple. I was not. I never have 
been a member of the Socialist Workers Party. 

The occasion for that signature on that nominating petition is the 
result of a request from the Socialist Workers Party leader, Mr. 
Daniel Roberts, who was the leader at that time, that 1 sign a nomi- 
nating petition to permit their candidates to get on the ballot. 

In the State of Washington a provision is in the election laws 
allowing nominating petitions to be signed by a minimum of 25 people 
who are qualified voters who did not vote in the primary. In other 
"words, it is equivalent to casting a vote. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the Socialist Workers Party endeavor to recruit 
you as a member ? 

Mr. Dennett. Yes. Mr. Daniel Roberts tried time and time again 
to recruit me, thinking that my vast experience in the Communist 
Party gave me plenty of background to qualify me if I would simply 
change my thinking with respect to certain fundamental ideas which 
were points of difference between the Socialist Workers Party and the 
Communist Party. However, I never was able to accept all of the 
ideas which Mr. Roberts and some of their national leaders to whom 
he introduced me — I could never resolve all of the policies which they 
advocated to my own thinking. 

And the whole experience caused me to go back and question and 
challenge the validity of the theoretical basis upon which the Commu- 
nist Party was organized and upon which it operated. And it caused 
me to reach the conclusion a long time ago that it is very inadvisable 
for anyone to commit his political fealty to anyone or any organization 
that he doesn't understand in full. And I do not to this day com- 
pletely understand the Socialist Workers Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. I noticed in some of the earlier documents intro- 
duced in evidence that reference was made to you when the Communist 
Party was critical of you as being a Trotskyite. 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. Remarks were made about me on a 
number of occasions. And, as near as I can make out, the reason for 
it is I was asking embarrassing questions. It seems as though Trotsky 
did that against Mr. Stalin in the Soviet Union — when everyone 
especially was interested in a democratic procedure that went contrary 
to Stalin's rule. His rule was that you had to accept his decision 
whether you liked it or not. And that is the rule of democratic 
centralism, a principle with which I am in total disagreement today. 
I thought for a long time that that was a wonderful principle. I had 
read Lenin's writings on the subject. I thought that his explanations 
were quite good. But once I had had service in the military, once 
I knew what military organization was like, I recognized the principle 
of democratic centralism as the application of military rule to civilian 
life. And I am strictly opposed to it. 

Mr. Tavenner. In light of your experience in the Communist Party, 
and from your study of the Socialist Workers Party, would you please 
state as briefly as you can the principal differences between these 
organizations as you understood them. 



COlVDMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 487 

Mr. Dennett. One of the principal differences lies in the fact that 
the Socialist Workers Party people accused the Communist Party 
people, in particular Stalin and Stalinism, of having deserted the 
principle of socialism, of internationalism, accusing Stalin of degen- 
erating into nationalism. That is when he developed the so-called 
theory of the possibility of developing socialism in one country alone. 

Mr. Tavenner. That country being the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Dennett. That country being the Soviet Union. 

The Trotskyites maintained that Stalin was thereby deserting the 
cause of internationalism and that he would think first of the in- 
terests of the Soviet Union, and later, if at all, subordinate the in- 
terests of the world working class to building the Soviet Union at the 
cost of letting the working class in other countries go by the boards. 

In other words, if a revolutionary situation developed in some other 
country Stalin would exert his power to prevent the success of the 
revolution in that country for fear that it would detract from the 
success of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Unless, of course, such a revolution would 
strengthen his power and his regime in the Soviet Union. Wouldn't 
you make that qualification? 

Mr. Dennett. That might be a consideration. But all history, all 
experience since the Second World War would indicate that Stalin 
at no time approved successful revolutions in any country. He op- 
posed revolutionary effort of the Yugoslavs. He opposed the revolu- 
tionary effort of the Communists in Greece. He opposed the revolu- 
tionary effort of the Chinese Communists. He even made commit- 
ments, and part of the deal which people seemed to be so concerned 
about at Yalta and Potsdam and Cairo and Casablanca involved Stalin 
making commitments to Eoosevelt and Churchill to the effect that the 
Soviet Union would use its influence to suppress the revolutionary 
effort of the workers in the various countries that were on the brink 
of revolution. 

And that is why when the Soviet Eed Armv marched into those 
border countries in eastern Europe they did not attempt to create a 
Soviet revolution. They, instead, created something they called peo- 
ple's democracies. But they were established in some instances with 
the aid of the Red army marching in, and the people in those coun- 
tries had nothing to say about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the attitude of the Trotskyites as to Sta- 
lin's agreement with reference to Greece, for instance? 

Mr. Dennett. They accused him of betraying the working class 
not only in Greece but in the Soviet Union because he was ruling in 
the Soviet Union with such an iron hand that workers there were being 
suppressed. They were being forbidden from enjoying the efforts 
they were putting in to build a Socialist country. In fact, they were 
being deprived of the fruits of what was intended to be socialism. In 
fact, the Trotskyites, as I understand, their philosophy in the matter 
is that the Soviet Union has suffered from an arrested develoi:)ment — 
it is not truly Socialist ; it has not been permitted to become Socialist, 
and that the biggest crime Stalin committed was to pretend and hold 
the Soviet Union up to world view as a Socialist country when, in fact, 
it was not a Socialist country. 

I also came to the conclusion, as a result of some of the theoretical 
material I read in about 1946, where Stalin was insisting that, in- 



488 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

stead of the authority of the state withering away as predicted in 
the writings of Engels and Lenin, that Stalin insisted that the au- 
thority of the state must increase, that the police power must be in- 
creased in the Soviet Union to make sure that they would continue 
in an ordered fashion, which certainly was contrary to all the earlier 
writings on the theoretical subject of the development of the state. 

Mr. Tavenner. It has been demonstrated time and again, has it not, 
to your satisfaction, that Stalin has endeavored to use international 
connnunism as a tool in order to advance his own foreign policy which 
necessarily, of course, meant his strengthening his own position in 
the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Denneti'. It certainly is, 

Mr. Tavenner. There are many other matters that I would have 
liked to have gone into with you, but I must terminate the examina- 
tion. I do not like to do so without giving you an opportunity to 
state anything that may be in your mind about the effect of your 
experience in the Communist Party or your present attitude toward 
the Communist Party. 

I am not insisting that you do, but I merely want to give you the 
opportunity. 

Mr. Dennett. My counsel has already advised me to be very brief. 
I am very appreciative of the suggestion because the hour is late, and 
I want to thank you for the opportunity you have given me to make a 
statement. 

The only statement I would make at this time is some elaboration 
over what I started to say earlier when we were talking about what 
steps to take to protect yourself against this sort of deception. 

I am sure that some people in hearing the account which I have 
given by way of testimony before this committee may gather the 
impression tliat I learned quite a little bit about deception. And I 
am sure that some people were quite firmly convinced that I would 
do nothing except deceive this committee when I appeared before it. 

I wish to assure you that I have testified to the best of my ability 
about the facts that I know and facts which I can substantiate with 
documentary evidence in my own records. 

Those records are available to the committee. They have been made 
available to the committee, and I undei*stand that you intend to have 
the United States marshal pick them up and place them in protective 
custody where they will be available for me for further study and 
also to yourself. 

I simply recite that as some indication that in my testifying before 
you the only reservation that I have is that I still have some mis- 
givings about this kind of procedure because I fear that we are 
needlessly hurting individuals when we name them in such vast num- 
bers as the committee has called upon me to do. 

I think that some means needs to be found to change that procedure. 
And I believe that there will be more information of value to convinc- 
ing the general public and to assisting the Congress, by way of its 
legislative effort, if a better effort is found. 

And I hope that you will seriously pay attention to the recommen- 
dations of the American Civil Liberties Union in this regard. I think 
their recommendations deserve your worthy consideration. 

I think, gentlemen, that is about all that is needed for me to say at 
this time. I can onlv sav that I am available for whatever further 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 489 

work that you wish to do with me. I do not want anyone to think 
that they are going to make a professional witness out of me. I 
have no intention of being a professional witness. I would like to be 
able to live in peace and quiet because my own health will not permit 
me to do all the other things that need to be done. 

j\Ir. Moulder. Mr. Dennett, as chairman of this committee, and on 
behalf of counsel, Mr. Tavenner, and Mr. Wheeler, and I believe I 
should presume to express appreciation also on behalf of the full com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, the Congress of the United States, 
and the people of America for your honest, courageous, patriotic, and 
convincing testimony and information concerning communistic 
activities. 

Your comprehensive and intelligent testimony is not only revealing 
but has been ably presented by you in a patriotic and conscientious 
spirit and duty to your country and also to yourself. 

We commend you for your appearance and conduct before this com- 
mittee as an example— and I emphasize this — as an example of how 
any and all former Communist Party members can clear tliemselves 
of any doubt whatsoever concerning their loyalty to the United States 
of America. 

And, speaking for myself, I am glad I had an opportunity to observe 
your conduct on the witness stand, and, having heard your testimony, 
I am deeply impressed by the valuable information you have given to 
the committee. 

Mr. Velde, do you have anything? 

Mr. Velde. Yes, Mr Chairman. I don't think I can add too much 
to your very fine statement. 

Let me say that I concur Avith our distinguished friend from Mis- 
souri in his statement about your testimony. 

I happened to be here last year when you refused to testify. I think 
I mentioned earlier — last Thursday — that you would have a lot more 
friends after you got through testifying than you had before or dur- 
ing the time that you appeared here last time, and I sincerely hope 
that that is true. I believe it will be. 

The reason, of course, that we were not able to hear your testimony 
at the sessions here last June was that we had too many other witnesses 
subpenaed to be heard as we do apparently this time, Mr. Chairman. 

Let me say that I think you have made a great addition to the 
information that is already on fde concerning the activities of the 
Communist Party. But, chiefly, you have made a gi^eat contribution 
in substantiating, in large part, the testimony that was given by Mrs. 
Barbara Hartle and other witnesses who gave information here last 
June. For that we are very appreciative. 

I want to say just a word about Mrs. Hartle. 

As you know, she is presently serving in the prison in West Virginia, 
a Federal j^enitentiary in West Virginia. 

I think she certainly exhibited a great deal of courage and a great 
deal of American spirit in giving the testimony that she did. 

Mr. Dennett, as far as the particular testimony you have given 
about your expulsion from the Communist Party is concerned, the 
experience that you had is similar to the experience of other persons 
wlio have been expelled from the Communist Party. 

I think, of course, that you should be proud to have been expelled 
by the Communist Party. And 1 trust that, while you miglit at 



490 COlVITvIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

times find yourself in the same position of following tlie same line 
that the Communist Party does at the present time, that you no longer 
cling to the philosophy that Me know the Communist Party repre- 
sents here in the United States, that is, the philosophy of the Soviet 
Union, which intends of course, to rule the world eventually, whether 
it be by changing governments by peaceful means or by overthrowing 
it by force and violence. 

We say it has been a great pleasure to hear your vei*y fine testimony, 
and let me say also that I agree that you have been a very intelligent 
and truthful witness. 

Mr. MouiJ^ER. With our thanks and gratitude, you are excused. 

Mr. Dennett. Thank you, sir. 

I wish to say, upon my bein^ excused, that I want to extend my 
greatest appreciation to the patience of Mr. Tavenner, who has been 
the counsel to examine me. It has been a pleasure to work with a 
gentleman who is as well versed and who knows what he is doing 
as well as Mr. Tavenner. 

And I want to thank Mr. Wheeler for the patience that he had, and 
the committee as well. 

Mr. Moulder. Call the next witness, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Abraham Cohen. 

Mr. Moulder. Hold up your right hand. 

Mr. Photographer, when you take your picture, would you stand- 
to the right or left so I can swear the witness. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this congressional committee will be the truth, the whole truth 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Cohen. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ABRAHAM ARTHUR COHEN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, EDWARD E. HENRY 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Cohen. Abraham Arthur Cohen. 

(Whereupon a brief disturbance occurred in the corridor outside- 
the door of the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Let's proceed. 

Mr. Moulder. Please be seated. We will have order in the hearing 
room, please. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will everyone be seated, please. 

Mr. Moulder. No j^ictures will be taken, please. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you seat those people at the door, and close 
the door, please. 

I note you are accompanied by counsel. Will counsel please identify 
himself. 

Mr. Henry. Edward Henry, of the Seattle bar. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not going to take the time to ask you various 
questions which I know the committee is interested in asking you 
because of the lateness of the hour. I will confine my questions to 
just 2 or 3 matters. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cohen. I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Cohen. I have been. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 491 

Mr. Tav'enner. Over what period of time were you a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cohen. From early in — well, I believe July 1937 until I left 
for the Armed Forces in March of 1942, and then upon returning 
from the war, oh, some time early in 1946, I would say, until Jan- 
uary 1, 1951. 

Mr. Tavenner, Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
since 1951? 

Mr. Cohen. No, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. I believe you are one of the few, if not the only 
person in the United States, who registered as a member of the Com- 
munist Party upon the adoption of the Internal Security Act of 1950. 

Mr. Cohen. It wasn't a thing of which I was ashamed. I felt I 
was in the party. I felt that what I was doing was the right thing. 
I had no conscientious qualms about belonging to it. I felt what we 
were doing was right. And everything that I saw — nothing I saw 
led me to believe that it was subversive. I felt it was — what we were 
doing was in the interest of the workingman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Our purpose in subpenaing you was to ask you 
certain facts we think are within your knowledge regarding Com- 
munist Party activities. You have indicated a full desire, a willing- 
ness to give the committee the facts that you have. You have given a 
a written statement to the staff. 

Mr. Cohen. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not going into any of those matters now 
because they are here available for us. But, out of fairness to you, 
1 want to give you the opportunity to make any further statement 
you desire regarding your own attitude toward the Communist Party. 

Mr. Cohen. Do vou feel that I haven't stated my position enough 
in that brief? 

Mr, Tavenner. We would ask you additional questions if we had 
time to do it, and we may do that later. But for the present I want 
to be certain you have an opportunity to tell the coimnittee anytliing 
further that is on your mind that might be of some benefit to yourself. 

Mr. Cohen. Well, I felt that my desires on leaving the party wer& 
that I was in it primarily because of its connection with the trade- 
union movement. It helped the Guild in the early days to organize. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you function within the American Newspaper 
Guild? 

Mr. Cohen. That is right. 

I felt it did a worthwhile job there. And a great many people — 
Communists and non-Communists — benefited thereby. After the war 
the situation changed. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not sure that he is through. 

Mr. Cohen. I am ready to quit talking at any time. 

Mr. Tavenner. This is your time to talk if you want to. 

Mr. Cohen. After the war I felt that we were in a — we were ex- 
tending the neighborhood branches, and that the trade union, the 
time for trade union action was past. We didn't function in trade 
union matters. My working hours were changed, and I no longer 
was — I rarely attended meetings. I really lost what contact I had. 

And the act that finally culminated in my leaving was the fact that 
I wanted to take a trip aboard, and under one of the provisions of 



492 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH,, AREA 

the McCarran Act it required that no Communist should be gi'anted 
a passport. 

And so I wanted to visit scenes of where I had been during the war, 
and I expLained to the party that I wanted to leave. And it startled 
them, I admit, reasonably- But I succeeded in resigning. And there 
have been no repercussions since. 

Mr. Velde. Do I understand you have been, and are willing at any 
time to make available any information you have relative to your 
activities in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cohen. Yes, I am. I will say — before anybody even talks to 
me— there weren't very many. There were very few ; there weren't 
very many. 

Mr. Veij3E. But are you willing to make those available to us? 

Mr. Cohen. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. And, of course, we would be willing to hear you at 
length if we had the opportunity to do so. 

Mr, Tavenner. In light of the witness' statements, I have no fur- 
ther questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have any further statement you wish to 
make, Mr. Witness ? 

Mr. Cohen. Nothing further to say. 

Mr. Moulder. Then you are excused as a witness. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. May I call Mr. Dennett to the front of the rostrum 
for a moment? 

TESTIMONY OF EUGENE VICTOE DENNETT, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HIS COUNSEL, KENNETH A, MacDONALD— Sesumed 

Mr, Moulder. Mr. Dennett. 

Mr. Dennett. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. It has been my suggestion, after conferring with 
counsel, that probably it would be best that we revoke and withdraw 
our order excusing you from the force and effect of your subpena, 
and keep your under subpena. 

Mr. Dennett. I still have it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I believe there may be a legal techni- 
cality involved, and I ask that the witness be resubpenaed. So there 
will be no question about it. 

Mr. Moulder. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is a matter of protection to the witness. 

Mr. Velde. I think we ought to make this additional statement, 
that the reason for resubpenaing you is so that you might be within 
the protection of the United States Government in case anything arises 
as apparently happened out here a few minutes ago. 

Mr. Moulder. That is our only purpose in issuing another subpena. 

Mr. Dennett. Thank you. 

Mr. Moulder. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Bernard Freyd. 

Mr. Hatten. May I request the Chair to ask the photographers 
not to take pictvires ? 

Mr. Moulder. We will have order in the hearing room. 

Mr. Hatten. Will you please not take any picmres ? 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Hatten. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 493 

Mr. Hatten. I would like to request, Mr. Freyd does not like to 
have his picture taken in the hearing room. Would you so direct 
the photographers? 

Mr. Moulder. Very well. 

The photographers will please refrain from taking pictures of the 
witness approaching the witness stand. 

Hold up your right hand and be sworn, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about to 
give before this congressional committee will be the truth, the whole 
truth and nothing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Freyd. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BERNARD FREYD, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 
C. T. HATTEN 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name ? 

Mr. Freyd. Bernard Freyd — F-r-e-y-d. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. 

Will counsel identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Hatten. My name is C. T. Hatten. I am an attorney residing 
in Seattle. 

Mr. TA\rENNER. When and where were you born, Mr. Freyd ? 

Mr. Freyd. I was born in Seattle in 1893. 

Mr. Tavenner. "What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Freyd. I am not employed by anyone. 

Mr. Tavenister. Will you tell the committee, briefly, what your for- 
mal educational training has been. 

Mr. Freyd. I went through the public-school system, high school of 
this city, and University of Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. "When did you complete your educational training 
at the University of Washington ? 

Mr. Freyd. It was about the year 1930. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Will you tell the committee, please, how you have 
been employed since 1935 ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Freyd. I had no regular employment until the outbreak of 
the war, and I worked in various war plants until I was incapacitated 
by an accident in 1943. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. What was your business between 1930 and the out- 
break of the war ? 

Mr. Freyd. Well, I was unemployed. 

Mr. Tavenner. During that entire period of time ? 

Mr. Freyd. Practically, as I recollect. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you engaged in any work of any kind during 
that period? 

Mr. Freyd. Well, there was no work available that I could find. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean you were unemployed until 1941^ 
December 1941? 

Mr. Freyd. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live in 1940 ? 

Mr. Freyd. I lived in Seattle. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you engage in any work without remuneration ? 

Mr. Freyd. No. 



494 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH,, AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period from 1935 to 1940 ? 

Mr. Fretd. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you connected with the Civil Rights Con- 



Mr. Freyd. I think I should invoke the fifth amendment wi taat 
question as I feel that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Moulder. To clarify the response, do you decline to answer by 
invoking the fifth amendment of the Constitution, or do you refuse to 
answer for fear it will tend to incriminate you ? 

^Ir. Freyd. And also the first amendment, which guarantees free- 
dom of speech and of the press and the right of people to assemble 
peaceably. 

Mr. Tavenner. The witness who preceded you a few moments ago, 
Mr. Eugene V. Dennett, described his disagreement with the Com- 
munist Party in connection with its policy toward the Civil Rights 
Congress. He told the committee that the Communist Party had 
organized the Civil Rights Congress, but that he disagreed with the 
policy of forming an organization which would defend only Com- 
munists. And, for that reason, he incurred the wrath of his superiorfl 
in the Communist Party. 

He further testified that he was told by the leadership of the Com- 
munist Party that it didn't have time to protect the civil rights of 
people generally, but it was only interested in the civil rights of mem- 
bers of the Communist Party. 

Now it is our information that you held an official position in the 
Civil Rights Congress. I may be wrong about that. But surely you 
were in a position to know whether or not Mr. Dennett was telling the 
truth about the attitude of the Communist Party toward the Civil 
Rights Congress or the work of the Civil Rights Congress, 

Mr. Fretd. I should like to confer with my attorney. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Freyd. I invoke the first amendment and the fifth amendment 
for the reasons previously stated. And I may add that I am pleased 
to notice that there has been very widespread doubt expressed prom- 
inently in the press about the veracity of a witness testifying before 
this committee. 

Mr. Tav^enner. If you have any doubt about that you are now in a 
position to straighten the committee out on it. In what particular, 
if any, was Mr. Dennett in error in his testimony ? 

Mr. Freyd. I would like to confer with my counsel. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Freyd. I claim, again, the first and fifth amendments of the 
Constitution, and I wish to add that I am reluctant to answer any 
questions which would require me to claim the protection of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Commimist Party? 

Mr. Freyd. The answer is the same, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have vou ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Freyd. The answer is the same, and for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Any questions, Mr. Velde ? 

Mr. Velde. No questions. 






COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 495 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 
(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 
Mr. Moulder. Call the next witness, Mr. Tavenner. 
Mr. Hatten. Mr. Chairman? 
]Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

Mr. PIatten. While I am here may I address the Chair with, rt^fer- 
ence to the O'Connell matter again? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. • 

STATEMENT OF C. T. HATTEN, ATTORNEY AT LAW, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 

Mr. Hatten. I notice that on a number of witnesses the subpena^s 
have been continued, and I would like to formally move that the sub- 
pena in case of Jerry O'Connell be contiinied to some later date at 
which time his health might be better, 

Mr. Moulder. The committee cannot entertain your motion. 

Mr. Hatten, I merely would like to make it for the record. 

Mr. Moulder. You have made the request on the record. 

Mr. Hatten. To state the position, I understand that possibly 
you cannot pass upon it. 

Mr. Moulder. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Lenus Westman. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you 
are about to give before this congressional committee will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Westman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HANS LENUS ADOLPH WESTMAN, ACCOMPANIED 
BY HIS COUNSEL, C. T. HATTEN 

Mr. Westman. Mr. Chairman, under the tlrst and fifth amend- 
ments 

Mr. Tavenner. You haven't been asked any questions. 

Mr. Westman. 0.,K. 

Mr. Tavenner. We will give you a chance. 

What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Westman. Under the first and fifth amendments, as the result 
of having been subpenaed, I wish to apply these two amendments as 
reasons for not giving my name. 

And also, in the light of the statement that was made here this after- 
noon, that you would like to have some witness that didn't have to use 
his name, that is, that you could have appearing before you. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are mistaken. 

Mr. Moulder. We will have order, please. 

Mr. Velde. Do you refuse to answer as to what your name is ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westman. I am going to confer with my attorney. 

I wish to state that 

Mr. Moulder. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Westman. I will answer the question under protest. 

My name is Hans Lenus Adolph Westman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your last name? 

Mr. Westman. W-e-s-t-m-a-n. 



496 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 

Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Hatten. C. T. Hatten, previously identified as an attorney in 
Seattle. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you live, Mr. Westman ? 

Mr. Westman. In Seattle. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your occupation ? 
• Mr. Westman. I would like to confer with counsel. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westman. Well, I will answer under compulsion, and I am 
a sheetmetal worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have any other occupation ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westman. Do you mean at the present time? 

Mr. Tavenner. During the last month, say, during the month of 
March. 

Mr. Westman. I would like to confer with my counsel. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westman. Well, sir, I would like — I will decline to answer that 
question under the fifth amendment, as I do not know what is referred 
to as work by the question, and, hence, it might be something that is 
construed by you, sir, as constituting work that might be of a character 
that would waive my rights under the fifth amendment. And, hence, 
I will take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will be more specific. 

Have you been engaged during the month of March in any publica- 
tion work of any kind ? That will limit it within narrow bounds. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westman. I will decline to answer that under the fifth amend- 
ment. And I would like to go into the reasons why I take the fifth 
amendment, because under 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the witness has stated his reason 
as being the fifth amendment, which is a ground, under the circum- 
stances here, I think he is entitled to use. And, therefore, it would 
not require any speech to accompany it. 

Mr. Moulder. Please make a direct answer to the question. We will 
get along more quickly. 

Mr. Westman. I said that under the fifth amendment I decline to 
answer that question, and I would like to just point out, Mr. Chairman, 
that I do take the fiftli amendment because of the fact that it is in the 
Constitution to protect the innocent, and for the same reason that you 
gentlemen of Congress have congressional immunity. 

Mr. Moulder. You have made yourself clear about the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time, during the month of March 
195.5, been the press director of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Westman. I will decline to answer that under the first and 
fifth amendments, as, under the first amendment, that is directly in- 
quiring into the freedom of tlie press and into matters of like nature, 
and, under the fifth amendment, I decline because such testimony 
might be construed as testimony against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Barbara Ilartle testified before this committee 
111 June of 19.54. In the course of her testimony in identifying various 
individuals as members of the Communist Party, she stated : 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 497 

Lenus Westman was a member of a club in the central region and lived in 
that area. Most of his Communist Party activities were in mass work at that 
time, like the Progressive Party or election work. 

Tell the committee, please, what knowledge you have of the activi- 
ties of the Communist Party, if any, within the Progressive Party. 

Mr. Westman. Well, Mr. Chairman, I will decline to answer that 
question under the fiftli amendment. * 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westivian. I think I have made my point clear on that. 

Mr. Moulder. Maj^ I ask you a question ? 

Where were you born and reared ? 

Mr. Westman. I was born in Sweden, Umea, Sweden; and came 
to this country at the age of 7. 

INlr. Moulder. How old are you now ? 

Mr. Westman. I am 52 years of age. 

Mr. Moulder. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Westman. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Moulder. How long have you been a citizen ? 

Mv. Westman. Since 1936. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you served in the armed services of the United 
States? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westman. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Moulder. "Wliat branch of the armed services? 

Mr. Westman. In the infantry, Army. 

Mr. Moulder. For what period of time ? 

Mr. Westman. From July 1942, until February 1943. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you receive an honorable discharge from the 
service ? 

Mr. Westman. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Velde. I would like to ask one question. 

How did you obtain citizenship in this country ? 

Mr. Westman. Through naturalization. 

Mr. Velde. Did you file your petition for naturalization on your 
own? 

Mr. Westman. It was by petition. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date of your naturalization? 

Mr. Westman. It was July 193G. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it July 27, 1936? 

Mr. Westman. Yes; I think that was the exact date. 

Mr, Tavenner. Where were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Westman. Here in Seattle in the Federal court. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
the time you were naturalized? 

Mr. Westman. I decline to answer that question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now? 

Mr. Westman. I decline to answer that question for the same rea- 
sons that I have given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time between 1936 and the present date? 

Mr. Westman. I decline to answer that question for the same reason 
that I have given. 



498 COJVUVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Velde. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the-, 
time you were naturalized ? 

Mr. Westman. I decline to answer that question also, and for ther 
same reason. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Chairman, it appears to me there is some evidence 
that should be referred to the United States Immigration and Natu- 
ralization Service for future consideration, possibly with a view to 
denaturalization and deportation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you elected to the Senate of the State of 
Washington in the election of 1940 ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westman. Yes; I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you serve? That is, were you seated? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westman. I decline to answer that question, sir, under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. I want to go a little further. When did you file your 
petition for naturalization? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westman. Well, at the moment I don't recall exactly when I 
filed the petition, but it is a matter of public record. 

Mr. Velde. Would it have been approximately 5 years before the 
date of your naturalization in 1936 ? 

Mr. Westman. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Probably in 1931 ? 

Mr. Westman. It would be approximately in that period. 

Mr. Velde. How old were you at that time ? 

Mr. Westman. I was 29, 1 believe, at that time. 

Mr. Velde. Then during the 5 years following your filing of a pe- 
tition for naturalization did you engage in any type of Communist 
activity ? 

Mr. Westman. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
that I have given before. 

Mr. Velde. Did you know what the Communist Party was at that 
time? 

Mr. Westman. I decline to answer that question for the same rea- 
sons that I have given. 

Mr. Velde. Where, and in what court did you receive your citi- 
zenship? 

Mr. Westman. It was at the Federal courthouse here, but I am not 
sure at the present time which court it was. 

Mr. Velde. At the time that you received your citizenship in the 
court, United States district court, were you engaged in any Com- 
munist Party activities ? 

Mr. Westman. I decline to answer that question for the same reasons 
that I have given before. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you, to your own best knowledge and infor- 
mation, ever committed any act, a subversive act or one of un- 
American conduct against the United States of America ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westman. Well, sir, under the fifth amendment, I must decline 
to answer that question, and I also know that this committee knows- 



COMMUNIST ACTI^•1TIES IX THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 499 

that I have not been engaged in such activities. I am sure that this 
committee knows that. 

Mr. Velde. As a member of the committee, I certainly do not know 
that you have not been engaged in subversive activities. 

Mr. Moulder. It seems to me you now have an opportunity to tell 
the committee that you have not been engaged in subversive activities. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Westman. I still decline to answer the question under the fifth 
amendment because I do not consider this an opportunity. 

Mr. Moulder. You say you served in the Armed Forces for a 
period of how long ? 

Mr. "VVestman. Approximately 6 or 7 months. 

Mr. Moulder. And why were you discharged? 

Mr. Westman. That was because I was over 40. 

Mr. Moulder. What was the extent of your services in the Armed 
Forces ? Were you in combat service ? 

Mr. Westman. No. 

Mr. Moulder. Are there any further questions? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Velde ? 

Mr. Velde. No questions. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Frank Kerr. 

Will you come forward ? Just have a seat, please. 

(Mr. Frank Kerr came forward, accompanied by his counsel. Jay 
G.Sykes.) 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Mr. Chairman, this witness has been subpenaed, 
and a doctor's certificate has been given which is w^holly inadequate as 
a medical certificate to show that this gentleman was not in condition 
to appear here. 

Counsel was advised to get a doctor and give us a certificate that we 
thought would mean something. 

There may have been some confusion about who was to have the 
examination made, but, regardless of that, it is quite apparent, from 
observation, that the man is not well, and I don't feel satisfied in 
interrogating him under these circumstances unless the witness himself 
wants to be interrogated. 

(Mr. Sykes conferred with Mr. Kerr.) 

Mr. Sykes. He would rather not. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Under those circumstances I do not feel like insist- 
ing on it. 

Mr. M0U1.DER. Do you wish the subpena to be continued or remain in 
full force and effect ? 

Mr. Tavenxer. No, sir. Under the circumstances, I think Mr. Kerr 
should be dismissed. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 
(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. There are no further witnesses, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. The hearing will remain in order. 

As chairman of this subcommittee, and on behalf of the staff of 
the committee, our able counsel, Mr. Tavenner, and our investigator, 
Mr. Wheeler, and myself, we are all deeply grateful to the police de- 



500 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

partment and the highly qualified police officers who have served this 
committee so faithfully and efficiently. 

We are also deeply grateful and want to express our appreciation to 
all city, county, and Federal officials who have cooperated with us in 
every possible way. 

As a member of the Committee on Un-American Activities, I want 
to say that I have attended many hearings in many sections of the 
United States, and I have never had the pleasure of enjoying more 
genuine, warm hospitality than has been extended to us during the 
hearings which have been held here in Seattle, Wash. 

I am deeply grateful for the opportunity and the honor of having 
been associated with so many fine people as I have found here in 
Seattle. They have cooperated with us during the hearings. 

We also wish to express our deep appreciation for the efficient serv- 
ice rendered by the sheriif's office, as well as all other public officials 
who have cooperated with us during the hearings. 

Mr. Velde? 

Mr. Velde. I simply want to say this, Mr. Chairman : I appreciate 
the courteous and fair maner in which you have conducted the hearings 
here in Seattle. 

I have a soft spot in my heart for the people in Seattle, and I concur 
with you that we have been given more courteous treatment, or at 
least as courteous treatment here in the city of Seattle and in the 
Northwest area as we have been given in any other section of the 
country. We really do appreciate it. 

Mr. Moulder. Thank you very much, Mr. Velde. 

The committee will be adjourned. 

(Whereupon, Saturday, March 19, 1955, at 5 : 35 p. m., the committee 
was recessed subject to the call of the Chair.) 



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