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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the New Haven, Conn., area. Hearings"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA— Part 2 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICM ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIYES 

EIGHTY-FOUKTH CONGKESS 

SECOND SESSION 



SEPTEMBER 26, 1956 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
84046 WASHINGTON : 1956 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Repeesentatives 

FRANCIS B. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Je., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Oliio 

RiCHABD Ahens, Director 

II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

September 24, 1956: Testimony of— 

Bert David Gilden 5585 

Harold Kent 5599 

Bert D. Gilden (resumed) 5599 

Harold Kent (resumed) 5605 

Afternoon session: 

Oliver R. Arsenault 5612 

Frank Henrv Fazekas 5623 

William Pistey 5631 

Milton Weinberg 5636 

Frank Peterson 5642 

September 25, 1956: Testimony of — 

Saul Kreas 5647 

Worden C. Mosher 5653 

Saul Kreas (resumed) 5654 

Worden C. Alosher (resumed) 5656 

Samuel Richter 5668 

Afternoon session: 

Harold W. Mosher 5678 

Charlotte Richter (Mrs. Samuel Richter) 5685 

Konstant ine Jakowenko 5689 

Hyman Steinberg 5695 

PAET 2 

September 26, 1956: Testimony of — ■ 

Irving Dichter 5701 

Josephine \\'illard 5712 

Rowena R. Paumi 5725 

Josephine Wiilard (resumed) 5726 

Rowena R. Paumi (resumed) 5727 

Joesph Barnes 5736 

Lois Barnes (Mrs. Joseph Barnes) 5739 

Afternoon session: 

Samuel Davis 5742 

Emma Davis (Mrs. Samuel Davis) 5745 

Paul Bloom 5749 

Doris Bloom (Mrs. Paul Bloom) 5751 

Bernard Burg 5754 

Saul Kreas (resumed) 5759 

Samuel Gruber 576 1 

Rowena R. Paumi (resumed) 5765 

Samuel Gruber (resumed) 5765 

Index I 

III 



Public Law 601, TOth Congress 

The legislation under which the Plouse Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79tli Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (ii) 
the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpoenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

• ****•* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress; 

• *****• 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make, from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guai-anteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA— Part 2 



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

New Haven^ Conn. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 10 a. m., pursuant to recess, in the United States Courthouse, New 
Haven, Conn., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, 
of Louisiana, and Bernard W. Kearney, of New York. 

Also present: Representative Albert W. Cretella, of Connecticut. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, director ; Raymond T. Col- 
lins, investigator. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel will call the first witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Irving Dichter, please come forward. 

Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Raise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Dichter. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING DICHTER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly have a seat. 

Mr. Dichter. Thank you, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Dichter. My name is Irving Dichter, my residence is 555 
Trumbull Avenue, Bridgeport, Conn., and I am the executive board 
member of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter 
Workers. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today, Mr. Dichter, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you ? 

Mr. Dichter. Yes, Mr. Arens. 

Mr, Arens. And you approached me a while ago and advised me 
that you did not have counsel ? 

5701 



5702 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. DicHTER. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. At that time, I advised you with reference to the right 
which you have under the Constitution, and I sliould like to do so 
again on this record, namely, that if I ask you a question, the answer 
to whiclx, in your honest judgment, if truthfully given would furnish 
information which might be used against you in a criminal proceedings 
you have the privilege of declining to answer that on the basis of 
the provisions of the fifth amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States against self-incrimination. 

Do you understand ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I do, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Spell your name for us, would you, please ? 

Mr. DicHTER. My name is Irving, I-r-v-i-n-g, Dichter, D-i-c-h-t-e-r,, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been known by any name other than 
the name Dichter ? 

Mr, Dichter. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Dichter. I was born in Austria on May 23, 1913. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Dichter. In 1921, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you come to the United States at that time as a 
permanent resident ? 

Mr. Dichter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Dichter. I am, sir, 

Mr. Arens. Was that by derivation or by naturalization? 

Mr. Dichter. By derivation. 

Mr. Arens. Your father is a citizen, I take it. 

Mr, Dichter, My father is deceased, 

Mr. Arens, Your father was a citizen ? 

Mr, Dichter. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. As of what date did you procure citizenship by deriva- 
tion? 

Mr. Dichter. I believe it was in 1926; I am not certain of the date 
of my father's citizenship, but I am sure it was 5 years after he 
arrived in this country. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us, if you please, a word about your 
education. 

Mr. Dichter. Well, public school. 

Mr. Arens. Where, please, sir? 

Mr. Dichter. In New York City and high school in New York 
City, and 2 years I believe, or 2i^ years of college, sir. 

Mr. Arens. '\Yliere did you attend college ? 

Mr. Dichter. At New York University, sir, and at City College. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your formal education? 

Mr. Dichter, 1933, 

Mr, Arens, Did you receive a degree of any kind? 

Mr. Dichter, No, sir. 

Mr, Arens, Did you receive or have you received since 1933 any 
formalized instruction of any kind, character, or description? 

Mr. Dichter. You mean have I gone to school since then? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; any formalized training of any kind, character, or 
description. 



I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5703 

Mr. DiCHTER. No, sir. 

Mr. Arends. Have you attended any classes ? 

Mr. DicHTER. It's a rather broad question. May I exercise tlie 
privilege of the fifth amendment, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. In your honest judgment, if you would give a truthful 
answer to that question with reference to any specialized training 
you may have had, do you feel you might be supplying information 
which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Could I think the answer out a minute, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arexs. Surely. 

Mr. DiCHTER. I would stick to my former answer, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Now kindly tell us, if you please, sir, what was your 
occupation as soon as you had completed your formal education in 
New York ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. "Well, I worked as a house painter. I didn't have 
really an occupation. It was during the depression. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, the principal occupations 
which you have had since you completed your formal education. 

Dr. DiCHTER. Well, I don't think I have had any — my principal 
occupation has been as representative of the International Union of 
Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers. 

Mr. Arens. When did that occupation commence ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. 1941, sir. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. In, I believe, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Arens. Who was your immediate superior ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. A Mr. Edward Cheyfitz, C-h-e-y-f-i-t-z. 

Mr. Arends. What was your duty or responsibility when you as- 
sumed your position ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I was international representative, which is the broad 
title for a representative. 

Mr. Arens. Were you located in Cleveland or were you assigned 
elsewhere and then sent to Cleveland ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. No, I was engaged in — well, I worked in Cleveland; 
is that what you are asking me ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. DiCHTER. Yes, sir ; I worked in Cleveland. 

Mr. Arens. In what line of work were you engaged when you as- 
sumed your task as an employee of the International Union of Mine, 
Mill, and Smelter Workers in Cleveland ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Prior to that, sir, I worked in Pottstown, Pa., for 
the Dohler Diecasting Co. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you were working for the Dohler Diecast- 
ing Co., were you affiliated with the International Union of Mine, 
Mill, and Smelter Workers ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. No, the union was then an independent union ; it was 
the International Association of Diecasting Workers. 

Mr. Arens. Was that subsequently incorporated in the Interna- 
tional Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Yes, it was subsequently incorporated. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged in Cleveland, Ohio, with 
the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I don't have exact dates. 

84046— 5&—pt. 2 2 



5704 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Your best estimate? 

Mr. DiCHTER. My best estimate would be about a year, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Then where did you go ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Then I came to Connecticut, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been continuously so engaged in Connecticut? 

Mr. DiCHTER. No, sir. 

In 1945, 1 believe I was assigned to New York. 

Mr. Arens. By whom ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. By the international union. 

Mr. Arens, You came to Connecticut in 1942 ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Approximately. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately 1942? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was your assignment at that time? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Well, my assignment was to service local unions and 
to organize. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you so engaged here in Connecticut? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Until 1945, 1 believe, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Then I was assigned to New York, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In the same capacity ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Yes, to represent the international union. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you so engaged in New York City ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Five years, sir. 

Mr. Arens, Wliat happened at the end of the 5 years? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I was reassigned by the international umon to Con- 
necticut, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been continuously employed here since that 
time? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arens. What is the total strength of the International Union 
of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Nationally, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. DiCHTER. Well, I would say about, it varies from month to 
month, but I would say around sixty-five, sixty thousand. 

Mr. Arens. The total strength internationally is about 85,000, 
is it not ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Mr. Arens, I am not sure of these figures. If I had 
them in front of me, I could give them to you. 

Mr. Arens. In addition to the strength of the International Union 
of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers in the United States, are there 
substantial numbers in Canada ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. There is an interlocking relationship between the Cana- 
dian and the American International Unions of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers, is that not correct ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How many members are there of the International 
Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers in the Connecticut area ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5705 

Mr. DicHTER. In the Connecticut area at the present time ? 

I should say about 2,700, sir. 

Mr. Arens. As an official of a labor organization, did you sign the 
Taft-Hartley non- Communist affidavit? 

Mr. DicHTER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was that signature and that affidavit true ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Sir, here I am getting into hazardous ground. I 
would ask the privilege of the fifth at this point. 

Mr. Kearney. I would like to ask the gentleman what he means by 
"hazardous ground." 

Mr. Dichter. Well, since I don't have counsel here, it is difficult 
for me to consult on these questions. I would much rather have had 
counsel, but he is not available; that is, the counsel for the interna- 
tional union. 

]Mr. Arens. Is that Nathan Witt ? 

Mr. Dichter. That is right. This is the first time I have appeared 
before a committee. I have some idea of what 

Mr. Kearney. Of course you are not suggesting to this committee 
that you are being interrogated against your will to have counsel? 

Mr. Dichter. No, no ; I am not saying that at all, Mr. Kearney — 
I see the nameplate in front of you — I am going to take the privilege 
of the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I personally would rather have us lean over backward 
than take advantage of a man without counsel. 

How many affidavits did you sign; Taft-Hartley affidavits? 

Mr. Dichter. I believe two. 

Mr. Arens. And the essence of that affidavit was that you were not 
then a member of the Communist Party; isn't that correct? 

Mr. Dichter. Again I would like to 

Mr. Arens. I asure you that is a perfectly innocent question. The 
essence of the affidavit is that you were not at the time of signing the 
affidavit a Communist ; isn't that correct ? 

I am not asking you now whether you were a Communist at the time 
you signed the affidavit. I am only asking you, for the purpose of the 
record, if the affidavit which you signed did not, in effect, state that 
you were not at the time of the signing a Communist ? 

Mr. Dichter. Sir, I would like to invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Normally, we would insist on an answer to that ques- 
tion, but in view of the fact that you are without counsel, I shall not 
ask the chairman to direct you to answer. 

Did you take any official action immediately prior to the signing of 
the non-Communist affidavit in accordance with the provisions of the 
National Labor Relations Act ? 

Mr. Dichter. I am again invoking the privilege of the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Did you resigii technical membership in the Commu- 
nist Party immediately prior to signing the affidavit ? 

Mr. Dichter. I am invoking the privilege of the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where are the 2,700 members in Connecticut; in what 
entities do they labor? 

Mr. Dichter. In Stamford, Conn.; Ansonia, Conn.; Torrington, 
Conn., and in Thomaston, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. Who are the other officials of the International Union 
of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers in this area ? 



5706 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. DicHTER. We have no other officials. We have international 
representatives. 

Mr. Henry Rapuna, Mr. Edward Coleman 

Mr. Arens. Where is Mr. Henry Rapuna located ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. In Ansonia, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. What is his position? 

Mr. DiciiTER. He is an international representative. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he signed a Taft-Hartley 
non-Communist affidavit ? 

Mr. DicHTER. Again I want to invoke the privilege of the fifth 
on this. 

Mr. Arens. What is the other person's name ? 

Mr. DicHTER. Mr. Edward Coleman. 

Mr. Arens. Where is he located? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Ansonia ; that is where our headquarters are. 

Mr. Arens. In what type of work are the men engaged who are 
members of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter 
Workers ? 

Mr. DicHTER. In brass fabricating, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In what plants? 

Mr. Dichter. The American Brass Co., Ansonia, and Torrington ; 
the Plume & Atwood Co. in Thomaston, Conn.; and the Stamford 
Rolling Mills Co., in Stamford. 

Mr. Arens. Does the shop steward system prevail in the opera- 
tions of the International Union of Mine, Mills, and Smelter Workers ? 

Mr. Dichter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Under the shop steward system, a person who is a 
member of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Work- 
ers has access to all employees of that particular shop in which he is 
engaged ; is that not correct ? 

Mr. Dichter. Well, I don't know whether he has access to all the 
employees. He services the employees in his department. 

Mr. Arens. He has access to the physical facilities of the plant? 

Mr. Dichter. He is an employee of the company; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. He is an elected official of the local organization, is 
he not? 

Mr. Dichter. Yes; he is. 

Mr. Arens. In practice, the officials from top to bottom generally 
are in concert and companionship as they are in a political party ; is 
that not correct ? 

Mr. Dichter. Sometimes they are, sir, and sometimes not. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the system that now prevails in Connecticut in 
that respect ? 

Mr. Dichter. They are elected by the people in their departments. 

Mr. Arens. By and large, are the shop stewards of the same bent 
or same allegiances as those in the higher echelon in the Intei'national 
Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers ? i 

Mr. Dichter. Sir, there are so many variations ■ 

Mr. Arens. How many shop stewards are there ? 

Mr. Dichter. I have to think about this for a moment. 

Mr. Arens. What is your best estimate ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5707 

Mr. DicHTER. My best estimate is that there are probably about 
105 or 110 total shop stewards, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell this committee whether or not Henry Rapuna 
is, to your certain knowledoe, a member of tlie Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr, DiCHTER. I invoke the privilege of the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You understand, do you not, that if you honestly ap- 
prehend that an answer to that question, if truthfully given, could be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding, you have the right to invoke 
the privilege ? 

Mr. DiciiTER. I am trying to understand these proceedings to the 
best of my ability. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not the second gentleman you men- 
tioned, Edward Coleman, is to your certain knowledge a member of 
the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Dichter. Again I want to invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Maurice Travis ? 

Mr. Dichter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Maurice Travis ? 

Mr. Dichter. Maurice Travis is the former secretary-treasurer of 
our union. 

Mr. Arens. Where is he now ? 

Mr. Dichter. Just at the moment, sir, I couldn't tell you where he is. 

Mr. Arens. What is his status with the law now ? 

Mr. Dichter. Mr. Travis was convicted in Denver ; is that what you 
are asking me, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; if you have knowledge of his status. 

Mr. Dichter. That is his status. 

Mr, Arens. He was convicted in Denver of what ? 

Mr. Dichter. I don't know what you would call it. 

Mr. Arens. It was not a traffic offense. 

He was convicted in Denver of what ? 

Mr. Dichter. The Taft-Hartley affidavit, sir. He false 

Mr. Arens. Falsified his Taft-Hartley affidavit. He said he was 
not a Communist as an official of the International Union of Mine, 
Mill, and Smelter Workers, but he was ; isn't that correct ? 

Mr. Dichter. I want to invoke the fifth on this. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever served in a closed Communist Party 
meeting with Maurice Travis ? 

Mr. Dichter. I want to invoke the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. What is the extent of control by the leadership of the 
International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers over the 
organization? 

I am not asking the nature of the control ; I am asking the extent 
of the control. 

Mr. Dichter. Perhaps if you want to phrase it some other way. 

Mr. Arens. You phrase it your way, Mr. Dichter, 

Mr. Dichter. Well, every one of our members, sir, is an entity unto 
himself. 

Mr, Arens, Were you elected to your present post ? 

Mr. Dichter, Yes, sir, 

Mr. Arens. By whom ? 

Mr. Dichter, By the membership, 

Mr. Arens, Is there an executive board over you ? 



5708 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. DiCHTER. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Arens. Who is on the executive board ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Mr. John Clark, president of the union ; Mr. Orville 
Larson, a vice president of the union ; Mr. Asbury Howard, vice presi- 
dent of the union; Mr. Albert Pezzati, vice president of the union; 
Mr. Alton Lawrence, board member ; Mr. Ray Dennis and Mr. Chase 
Powers and Mr. Joseph Chavez. 

Mr. Arens. Are any of those men, to your certain knowledge, not 
members of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I invoke the privilege of the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Are you conversant with the investigation made by the 
United States Senate Internal Security Subcommittee 3 years ago of 
the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers when 
we had hearings and in which I happened to be a participant, centering 
in Denver, Colo. ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. No, sir ; I am not. 

Mr. Arens. Salt Lake City, Utah ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I know of them. 

Mr. Arens. Are you conversant with the findings and conclusions 
of the United States Senate Internal Security Subcommittee that the 
International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers is controlled 
lock, stock, and barrel by the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Sir, I did not 

Mr. Arens. Are you conversant with those conclusions ? 

I am not asking you whether or not those are correct. 

Mr. DiCHTER. I am not conversant with those conclusions. 

Mr. Arens. Are you conversant with the fact that there was an 
investigation ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Yes, Mr. Arens, I know that. 

Mr. Arens. Is the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter 
Workers controlled lock, stock, and barrel by the Communist con- 
spiracy ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I am invoking the fifth on that question, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny the 
fact that the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Worlvers, 
with 2,700 members in the State of Connecticut, is controlled lock, 
stock, and barrel by the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I am invoking the fifth, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of the discharge of your official 
duties as an international representative of the International Union 
of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, have you taken directions and 
orders from a person who, to your certain knowledge, was a member of 
the Communist conspiracy ? ^ 

Mr. DiCHTER. I am taking the fifth, sir. *T^ 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a member of the Communist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I respectfully take the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Elsie Willcox ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I take the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Verne Weed? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I take the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You say you take the fifth. You mean, do you not, 
that if you gave us a truthful answer to that question you would be 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5709 

supplying information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ; is that correct ? 

Mr. DiciiTER. I am sorry, I have to take the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this 
committee whether or not you know Elsie Willcox and Verne Weed, 
you would be supplying information which could be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. DicnTER. I am sorry, sir ; I am going to have to take the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. If you do not so apprehend, I assure you I am going to 
ask the chairman to direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. DicHTER. I so apprehend, sir. I get your point. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a man by the name of Harold Kent ? 

Mr. DiCHTER, I take the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kent, would you kindly come forward, please? 

Look over your right slioulder and tell us whether or not you know 
that man. 

Mr. Dichter. Are you talking to me, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

]Mr. Dichter. I take the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kent laid his liberty on the line before this 
committee and testified under oath that while he was an undercover 
agent in the Communist conspiracy he knew you as a member of the 
concealed board of the Communist Party in the State of Connecticut. 
Look him in the eye now and tell him whether he was lying or telling 
the truth when he so testified. 

Mr. Dichter. I take the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, Mr. Kent. 

What publication is circulated here in Connecticut, by the Inter- 
national Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers ? 

Mr. Dichter. Their union newspaper, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What is the name ? 

Mr. Dicpiter. The Union. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the publication of which John Clark is the 
editor ? 

Mr. Dichter. Well, I am not sure. Clark is the president of the 
union. I think the man assigned for editorial policy is a Mr. Pezzati, 
secretary-treasurer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever served in closed Communist Party meet- 
ings with Mr. Clark ? 

Mr. Dichter. I take the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever served in a closed party meeting with 
Pezzati. 

Mr. Dichter. I take the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever serve in the Armed Forces of this country ? 

Mr. Dichter. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? What was your status at the time ? 

Mr. Dichter. I am single-vision, sir. I can't see out of one eye, 
and, therefore, I was not accepted. 

Mr. Arens. I put to you as a fact, sir, and ask you while you are 
imder oath to affirm or deny the fact that you are presently an agent 
of the International Communist conspiracy operating via the arm of 
the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers in this 
State. If that is not so, deny it while you are under oath. 



5710 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. DiCHTER. I take the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Wn.Lis. Any questions ? 

Mr. Kearney. Is your organization part of the CIO-AFL ? 

Mr. DiciiTER. No ; we are not, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you ever apply for membership in that great 
organization ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. We were in the CIO, sir. We would like to be back 
in again. 

Mr. Kearney. You would like to be back in, but would the CIO 
like to have you back? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Sir, that question I can't answer. 

Mr. Kearney. As a matter of fact, your union was expelled from 
the CIO, was it not ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Can you tell the committee the reason why it was 
expelled ? , 

Mr. DiCHTER. Well, w^e had some sharp differences with the CIO on 
a number of questions. 

Mr. Kearney. Was one of them the issue of communism ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. It didn't look to us that way at the time. 

Mr. Kearney. But it does now ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. I wouldn't want at this time to go into just what all 
the differences were. 

Mr. Kearney. I did not expect that you would. 

As a matter of fact, being truthful to yourself and to the commit- 
tee, is it not a fact that the reason why you cannot obtain membership 
with the CIO-AFL is because your union is Communist-dominated ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Sir, we had some real differences witli the CIO, and 
the principal difference was that we felt our union should be run by 
our own membership. We felt that they should decide the policy of 
our organization. At that time there were some differences in policy 
between us and the CIO, and that resulted in our being put out of 
the CIO. 

Mr. Kearney. Now, as a matter of looking for information, the 
fact was, as I said, that while you desired to run your own member- 
ship 

Mr. DiCHTER. No, sir ; we desired our membership to run our union. 

Mr. Kearney. Is that true? Does your membership run your 
anion ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Well, sir, our membership votes on practically every- 
thing that comes before our organization. 

Mr. Kearney. All 2,700 members ? 

Mr. DiCHTER. No, sir. I wish we could get everybody to vote, but 
unfortunately 

Mr. Kearney. I think it would be rather bad for you if you did. 

Mr. DiCHTER. Sir, I would Avelcome it. I would welcome-it. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, what I am getting at, and I go back to it again; 
is it not a fact tliat you were expelled from membership in the CIO 
because your membership was Communist-dominated by your officers? 

Mr. DiCHTER. Mr. Kearney, I don't want to indicate my difference 
of opinion from yours. This has become the generally accepted idea 
as to why we were expelled at the time. We had differences with the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5711 

CIO as to any number of things. We had differences with them, as, 
for example, politics. We had differences with them on the extent to 
which they should intrude into the affairs of our union. 

I am sorry that those differences were not resolved at that time. It 
has become the generally accepted shibboleth; that is what every 
paper writes, and that is ostensibly the reason. 

Mr. Kearney. Has the International Union of Mine, Mill, and 
Smelter Workers ever denied that ? 
Mr. DiCHTER. Yes, we have, sir. 

]\Ir. Arens. Mr. Dichter, it is a fact, is it not, that the reason given 
by the CIO for expelling the International Union of Mine, Mill, and 
Smelter Workers was that the (^10 found, in effect, that the Inter- 
national Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers was controlled 
by the Communist conspiracy ; is that not a fact ? 

!Mr. Dichter. Mr. Arens, I haven't read the official reasons. This 
is the commonly accepted reason, which is in all of the newspapers and 
everything else. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us, then, if you haven't read that fact, 
is the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers con- 
trolled by the Communist conspiracy? 

!Mr. Dichter. I will have to invoke the fifth. 
;Mr. Arens. Have you ever announced to the membership whether 
or not you are a member of the Communist conspiracy? 
Mr. Dichter. I will have to invoke the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know if Travis has ever announced to the mem- 
bership whether or not he is a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 
]\Ir. Dichter. I will have to invoke the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Do you knoAv if John Clark has ever announced to the 
membership whether or not he is a member of the Communist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. Dichter. I will have to invoke the fifth, sir. 
Mr. Arens. You recognize now, do you not, that you are under oath 
and you are subject to the pains and penalties of perjury if you do 
not tell us the truth? 

Mr. Dichter. Sir, I recognize that. 

Mr. Arens. When you are released from your oath here and your 
obligation to tell the truth, do you anticipate that you are going to 
announce to the membership, "Of course I am not a Communist. Of 
course I have never been a Communist, but I am not going to tell that 
witch-hunting committee I am not a Communist" ? Is that what you 
propose to do ? 
Mr. Dichter. Sir, I don't know what I propose to do. 
Mr. Arens. Why do you not stand up right now like a red-blooded 
American and deny that you are a member of the Communist Party 
while you are under oath ? 

INIr. Dichter. Are you asking a question ? 
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 
Mr. Dichter. I invoke the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 
Mr. AViLLis. Call your next witness, please, 
^f r. Arens. Josephine Willard, please come forward. 



I 



84046— 56— pt. 2 3 



5712 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to 
you. 

Mr. Willis. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I do. 

Mr. Chairman, may I respectfully suggest that the cameras be 
turned off ? I am not very photogenic. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPHINE WILLARD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

VINCENT ZANELLA, JR. 

Mr. Arens. Please, identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. My name is Josephine Willard. I live in Bridge- 
port at 44 Eric Street, and at present I am doing some office work. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you engaged ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Where am I engaged ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Well, I would like to — I feel that that question, in 
my opinion, violates my rights under the first, fourth, fifth, ninth and 
tenth amendments. 

Mr. Willis. What is the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Where she works. She said she does office work. 

I respectfully suggest that the witness be directed and ordered to 
answer that question. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I haven't finished my answer, Mr. Chairman. 

I further decline to answer the question because I feel that the 
information sought by this question is a matter of public record avail- 
able to the public generally, and I think that the question seeks to 
entrap me. 

Well, those are my reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee before we proceed if any Com- 
munist wrote your answer on that card from which you are reading ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. What was the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Did any Communist participate in the formulation of 
that answer which you j ust gave to the committee ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Did a Communist write this ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Did any Communist formulate that answer 
which you just gave to the committee ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I would like to consult with my attorney, please. 

Mr. Arens. Surely. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I would like to invoke the first amendment and the 
fifth amendment on that question. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena served 
upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5713 

Mr. Zanella. Vincent Zanella, Jr., Bridgeport, Conn., 1115 INIain 
Street, Bridgeport. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell this committee where you are employed. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I decline to answer based on my previous reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this record 
be cleared and that the witness be ordered and directed to answer that 
question. 

Mr, AViLLis. You are directed to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Do I have to ask every time to consult my counsel ? 

Mr. Willis. You may consult counsel any time you wish. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLARD. What was the question again in relation to my em- 
ployment ? 

Mr. Arens. Where do you work ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I invoke the fifth and first amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Now the record is clear that you have been ordered and 
directed to answer that question. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed in your present 
occupation ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I decline to answer, based 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully ask that the witness be 
directed and ordered to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I decline to answer, based on the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. What was your occupation prior to your present 
occupation ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Well, I was out of work for a year and a half. 

Mr. Arens. "Wlien were you out of work ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Prior to going to work in my present job. 

Mr. Arens. What year was that ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I refuse to answer, based on my previous answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully ask that the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I decline to answer, based on the previous reasons. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment prior to being out of work 
for a year and a half ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I decline to answer, based on the previous reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee what your work was prior to the time you became unemployed 
for a year and a half, you might be supplying information which 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I decline to answer, based on the previous reasons, 
and I also decline to answer because I believe that this question, as I 
said before, this information is of general knowledge, it is available to 
the public generally, and I think the question is seeking to entrap me. 

I further decline to answer this question because I believe that this 
question seeks to elicit information which is beyond the scope of the 
permissible inquiry granted, authorized to this committee by congres- 



5714 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

sional resolutions, by the statutes, and by the United States Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. Kearney. Just a minute ; that is a very nice speech. 

Mrs. WiuL-ARD. I don't mean to make a speech. Congressman. I am 
trying to give my reasons for declining to answer. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, we will give you 10 more minutes to make a 
speech if you want to. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I don't intend to make a speech. 

Mr. Kearney. How could that simple question, asking where you 
were employed, entrap you ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Well, you see, questions of this type are available to 
the public generally. They are a matter of public record, and I don't 
know what you are going to lead into, and therefore I must invoke my 
privileges under the Constitution. 

Mr. Kearney. If you do not know what we are going to lead into, 
why do you not invoke the fifth amendment on every question ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. It is my privilege. If I feel 

Mr. Kearney. It certainly is your privilege. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. If there is an avenue that I am not aware of. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered to answer the last principal question, namely, whether or 
not she has an honest apprehension with respect to the preceding 
question. 

Mr. Willis. That question you are ordered to answer, and the Chair 
informs you, although you have counsel, that that question is a simple 
test of your honesty as to whether you are invoking the protection of 
the fifth amendment in a legal, constitutional way. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. What was the question that it was referring to ? 

Mr. Arens. To clear the record, you were asked to give us the occu- 
pation in which you were engaged in a certain period of your life. 
You declined to do so and invoked the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I invoked the first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, ma'am. 

Then we asked you if you honestly apprehended that if you gave us 
a truthful answer to that question, you would be supplying informa- 
tion which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding. You 
have thus far declined to answer that last question. 

We are insisting on an answer to that last question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Yes, my answer to that question is "yes." 

Mr. Willis. Your answer is Yes, you do apprehend ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Ma'am, I will not ask you when but where were you 
born. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I was born in Italy. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I came when I was 1 year old. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Is that by derivation or naturalization ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. My father died before we were able to derive it, so 
I became naturalized. 

Mr. Arens. When were you naturalized? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I was naturalized in 1941. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5715 

^Ir. Arexs. At the time you were naturalized, did you take an oath 
to sui)port and defend the Constitution of tlie United States? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Arkxs. Did you have any mental reservations at that time? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. None whatever. 

Mr. Arens. At that time were you a member of an organization 
dedicated to the overthrow of the United States and of the Constitu- 
tion by force and violence? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I decline to answer, based on all my previous reasons. 

^Nlr. Arens. What was your employment immediately preceding 
this period that you will not talk about ; this blackout period ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I don't know what you mean by "blackout period." 

Mr. Arens. This period that is sort of shrouded in secrecy. What 
was your employment prior to the time you were unemployed for a 
year and a half? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Wliat is the period that is shrouded in secrecy ? 

Mr. Arexs. This period that you will not tell us about. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. About the year and a half, or now ? 

Mr. Arens. The employment you had immediately prior to the year- 
and-a-half period of your unemployment. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I thought I answered that question before when you 
asked me where did I work. 

Mr. Arens. Answer it again, please. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I decline to answer, based on all my previous reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us where you were educated. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I was educated in Bridgeport. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the nature of your education. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Well, what do you refer to ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you go to high school ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you graduate from high school ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. No ; I wasn't able to. 

Mr. Arens. How many years did you complete in high school ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I believe I was in my fourth year when I had to 
leave. 

Mr. Arens. What year was that ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I believe it was 1932. It might be 1931, but I think 
it was 1932. 

Mr. Arens. Please pick it up there and tell us your occupation im- 
mediately after you concluded in high school in 1932. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLARD. It is rather difficult. It is quite a distance away. 

Mr. Arens. Just your best recollection, the first principal employ- 
ment. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I remember having to leave high school because my 
father was quite ill, and we helped him in the store, a hardware and 
bicycle store. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. In Bridgeport. We have lived all our life in 
Bridgeport. 



5716 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged in the hardware store after 
you left high school ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Gee, I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be a matter of 4 or 5 years ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Not that long. 

Mr. Arens. Three years? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Possibly. 

Mr. Arens. Two years? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. As much as 2 years ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I would say so, but I am not sure about that period. 

Mr. Arens. Then what was your next employment after you left 
the hardware store? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Frankly and honestly, I don't remember exactly 
where I went to work. I have had several jobs in various factories in 
the city of Bridgeport but, if I were to give you an honest answer, I 
just couldn't tell you. There were several. 

Mr. Arens. What is the first job about which you do have an honest 
recollection ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I know I worked but whether it's the first, fourth, or 
fifth, I really couldn't tell you. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us some of the employments that you have had. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I have worked in Casco's. 

Mr. Arens. What is Casco's? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Casco Products in Bridgeport. 

Mr. Arens. What is that establishment, please ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. They make auto cigarette lighters, one of the 
products. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what other employment you had in, say, the late 
thirties. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. As I say, I am not going to pin myself. You say 
late thirties ? 

Mr. Arens. Your best recollection. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I do remember working in, oh, where they make 
parts for brake linings, Raybestos. I remember working there. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vhat was your occupation there, clerical ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. No ; I was doing some inspection work at the time. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another establishment that comes to your mind 
where you worked during this period of time ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I really don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Let us move on in the chronology of your life. 

What is the next principal employment that comes to your mind ? 

(The witness conferred Avith her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I think, well the next period, there may have been 
other places, and I don't remember them, but the next period that I 
remember, I worked in the garment industry. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that, please ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. There were several small places in the city. 

Mr. Arens. Here in Connecticut? 

Mrs. WiLLARD, I worked in Bridgeport all the time. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5717 

Mr. Arens. Has all of your employment been in Bridgeport during 
your adult life ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. At least focalized there ? 

Mi-s. Willard. It has been in Bridgeport as far as I remember. 

Mr. Arens. "VAHiat did you do in the garment industry? 

Mre. Willard. I was an operator. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged in the garment industrj^ ? 

Mrs. Willard. Well, we were unemployed so often, it was on and 
oflf, I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Was it into the forties, or are we still in the thirties? 

Mrs. Wn.LARD. I would say it went into the forties. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next principal employment ? 

Mrs. Willard. That I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any period, beginning after 1940 until the 
present da}^, when you have been employed in an occupation you can 
tell us about without furnishing information which could be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mrs. Willard. Would you mind repeating that again ? 

Mr. Arens. Is there any period of your life after 1940 in which you 
have been engaged in an occupation concerning which you can tell 
us without giving information which could be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding? 

Mrs. Willard. After 1940? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Willard, I told you I worked in the garment industry into 
the forties. 

Mr. Arens. How late into the forties did you work in the garment 
industry ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willard. May I respectfully request that you ask the question 
again ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Is there any period in your life from the time that you left the 
garment industry until the present time when you have been 
engaged in an occupation concerning which you could not tell us 
without disclosing information which might be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding? 

Mrs. Willard. In an occupation ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willard. The answer to that is "No." 

Mr. Arens. Then every occupation in which you have been en- 
gaged since the early forties is an occupation concerning which, if you 
told us, you would be supplying information which could be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding ; is that true ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willard. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I do not believe you understood it. 

Mrs. Willard. Maybe. Perhaps you ought to repeat it. 

Mr. Arens. Is every occupation in which you have been engaged 
since you left the garment industry in the early forties of such nature 



5718 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

that, if you told us about it, you would be supplying information 
wliicli could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I decline to answer 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. You are dii-ected to answer the question. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Now, in the course of your labors in the vineyard, 
were you connected Avith the United Electrical, Eadio and Machine 
Workers Union ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I didn't get that question. Something about the 
vineyard ? 

Mr. Arens. Well, your labors, your occupations. Have you been 
employed in the United Electrical Workers Union ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Have I been employed by the United Electrical? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Have you been identified, been a member of, or affiliated with, the 
United Electrical Workers, UE ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I invoke the first and fifth amendments and all of 
the other reasons that I have given previously. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
whether or not you have ever been identified with the Electrical 
Workers, you would be giving information which could be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLARD. The answer is "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. You have also been an author in the course of your 
career ; have you not ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. I don't 
know what avenue you are going to get involved with. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been an author ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. In what sense, a formal sense ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you written articles ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell this committee now if you have a recol- 
lection about your happiest birthday? Did you have one birthday 
in your life that stands out as one of the happiest birthdays ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I must confess, sir, that every birthday of mine is 
a very, very happy one and we have a good time. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have one that stands out in your mind above 
all others ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. It's not my 16th. 

Mr. Arens. Was there one that does stand out in your mind as being 
your happiest birthday ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD, Well, I must repeat that all my birthday parties, 
and I have had them every year, have been very happy and gay ones, 
and I hoped everybody had a gay time. I know I always did. 

Mr. Arens. But is there one that stands out in your mind as being 
one of your most happy occasions ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I always feel the last one was the happiest. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write an article about your happiest birthday ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5719 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps this might refresh your recollection. 

I am going to lay before you an article which appears in a publica- 
tion called Contact. Did you ever hear of that publication, Contact ? 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

iVIr. Arens. This article is entitled "My Happiest Birthday . . . 
and Why," by Josephine Willard. 

For about five years I was the section chairman of my division, where about 
300 women and 40 men manufactured the electric blanket. We are noted for 
having the best stewards, highest pay, and best working conditions of any 
division in the whole plant. This is no accident. We have led in every struggle 
for better working conditions. 

As a member of the Executive Board for the past 5 years, I held many responsi- 
ble positions in the imion. I was chairman of the legislative and educational 
committee, editor of the shop paper, and publicity director during the strike. 

What is a Communist? 

In 1946, I ran for State Representative on the Communist Party ticket. While 
the majority of the people of my division and the whole shop knew I was a 
Communist, still some were surprised and even shocked. The stewards of my 
division — all non-Communists — decided that their people should learn what 
Communism is — not from a non-Communist but from a member of the Party. 
Two days later I was handed a petition with about 150 names, requesting a sec- 
tion meeting to answer the following questions : 

1. Why are you a Communist? 

2. What is Communism? 

3. What is the difference between the Communist Party and a union? 

More than 100 men and women attended the meeting. Non-Communists spoke 
during the discussion, saying that for the first time in their lives they had 
heard an explanation of Communism. * * * 

Then the article speaks about Red baiting and hysteria, and the 
whole city buzzed with anti-Communist hysteria. Then it winds up 
with a birthday greeting : 

"A Happy Birthday to our champion, Joe Willard, who labors day and night 
so that others may have life, liberty, and happiness. We of the second shift 
Automatic Blanket wish you good luck and the fullest realization of your fondest 
dreams." 

I lay this article before you. I have read only a few excerpts from 
it, but I would like you to tell this committee whether or not that re- 
freshes your recollection of your literary pursuits during the course 
of the blackout period, concerning which you cannot give information 
because it could be used against you in a criminal proceeding. Does 
that refresh your recollection? 

Mrs. Willard. About my happiest birthday, you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Willard. I have had many happy birthdays. I refuse to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall that happy birthday occasion that you 
wrote about ? 

Mrs. Willard. I refuse to answer that question, based on the first 
and fifth amendments. 

yir. Arens. Are you the author of the article ? 

Mrs. Willard. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
it is a fact, that you are the author of that article, and that you were 
a Communist and that this was written by yourself in the Communist 
pul.ilication. Contact. If it is not true, please deny it under oath. 

84046— 56— pt. 2 4 



5720 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I refuse to answer that question, based on the 1st, 
4th, 5th, 9th, 10th, and 14th amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us some of your political activities during 
this period about which you do not want to talk ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. My political activities? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I refuse to answer that question, based on the 
previous reasons I have just given. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever sacrificed yourself on the altar of public 
service, as a candidate ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I refuse to answer that question, based on my pre- 
vious reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Now I should like to lay before j^ou a photostatic copy 
of an article appearing in the Sunday Herald of Bridgeport, Conn., 
February 23, 1947, "Commie Fight Linked With National Drive," in 
which, among other things, the following appears : 

Mrs. Josephine Willard, who ran for State representative on the Communist 
ticket last November * * * 

Would you kindly look at that and tell us whether or not you are the 
Josephine Willard alluded to there as the person who ran on the Com- 
munist Party ticket in November 1946 ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willard. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever bring a suit against the Sunday Herald for 
defaming your character, saying that you were actually a Communist 
as they say here ? 

Mrs. Willard. Did I bring a suit against the Herald ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Willard. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. You know, do you not, that if a person calls another 
person a Communist, and he is not, the one who calls him a Commmiist 
is subject to a libel action ; do you know that ? 

It is a pretty awful thing these days to call a person a Communist. 
Now you know, ma'am, that as a witness before this committee you are 
entitled to certain pay. I think you get $7 or $9 a day, but in order to 
do so you have to sign a pay voucher. Would you care to sign that 
pay voucher while you are under oath ? 

Mrs. Willard. My understanding of the rules of this committee is 
that you only get paid after you are through testifying. 

Mr. Arens. Do you care to sign your pay voucher now ? 

Mrs. Willard. If you ask me to sign beforehand, wouldn't that be a 
violation of the rules of the committee ? 

Mr. Arens. Would you care to sign that pay voucher now ? 



COlSmUNIST ACTIVITIES IX NEW ILWEX, CONN., AREA 5721 

There is nothing' in the rules about when you should sign it, but 
before we pay you, you have to sign. Would you care to sign while you 
are under oath? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Why must I sign now ? 

Mr. Arens. I ask if you care to sign the pay voucher now ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. You insist that I take my money first ? 

Mr. Arens. I ask if you will sign your name to the pay voucher now 
so we can see your signature. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. You want to see my sigiiature ? 

Mr. Arexs. We want to see your signature. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I will be glad to do that. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Kearney. It is a very polite hearing, at least. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. He is very polite. 

Where would you like me to sign, or does it matter ? 

Mr. Arens. Eight there where it says "Payee" ; that is the voucher. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. How much is the witness fee ? 

Mr. Arens. $7 or $9. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. Let me sign first so that you can see my name. 
Where does this tell about how much money we are going to get? 

Mr. Collins. Right on the next page. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. On this sheet? 

Mr. Collins. Yes. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. $9, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. I do not know ; Mr. Collins handles those matters. 

Mr. Kearney. Whatever it is, you will get it. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I signed, so I imagine I will get it. 

Mr. Arens. This is your signature which you have just aflixed to this 
voucher. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this voucher be marked 
"Willard Exhibit No. 1" and incorporated in the record. 

Mr. Willis. It may be incorporated. 

(The document referred to, marked "Willard Exhibit No. 1," was 
incorporated in the record.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I should like to show you a photostatic copy of a 
nominating petition for 1946 elections for State representative of the 
Communist Party, bearing the signature of one Josephine Willard. 
The first name on this nominating petition is Josephine Willard, 555 



5722 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

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Westfield Avenue. I ask you if that is your signature on that docu- 
ment ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Would you care to compare the signatures and see if, 
on the basis of any past recollection, the two signatures look alike ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I invoke the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the photo- 
static copy of the signature on the nominating petition I have just 
presented to the witness be marked "Willard Exhibit No. 2" and in- 
corporated in the record. 



COM.MUXIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW ILWEN, CONN., AREA 5723 

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5724 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Willard, I lay before you a photostatic copy of a 
leaflet or flyer with a photograph on it. Unfortunately, the photo- 
graph is not too clear. Do you usually photograph better than this? 

Mrs. Willard. I usually don't photograph well. That is why I 
asked the cameramen not to take my picture. 

Mr. Arens. This reads "Jo Willard, a workers' candidate for State 
representative. Vote Communist. Pull fifth lever." 

It was issued by the Communist Party of Bridgeport, 231 Fairfield 
Avenue, telephone 5-2613. 

Tell us whether or not you are the person whose photograph appears 
there, and whether or not you are the person alluded to in that 
exhibit. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willard. I invoke the first and fifth amendments, sir. Would 
you like to have this back ? 

Mr. Kearney. Was that a petition to run on the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Arens. This last document, General, was a flyer bearing a 
photograph which was not too flattering. 

Mr. Kearney. Is that a political party, the Communist Party? 

Mr. Arens. The preceding exhibit is a nominating petition for 
State representative on the Communist Party for one Josephine Wil- 
lard, bearing a signature which, curiously enough, has a striking re- 
semblance to the signature which appears now on the pay voucher for 
the instant witness. 

Mr. Kearney. This Communist Party; is that a political party? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willard. Did you ask me if I believe that the Communist 

Mr. Kearney. I asked, is the Communist Party a political party? 

Mrs. Willard. To my understanding. 

Mr. Kearney. Then why are people so secretive when they run 
for office on the Communist Party ticket that they always invoke the 
fifth amendment ? 

Mrs. Willard. You see, sir, the Constitution guarantees that we 
do not have to talk about our religion and our politics, and I feel that 
it is an infringement on my personal rights. 

Mr. Kearney. I should think, for the benefit of your party, and 
assuming you are a member of the Communist Party, it would be 
rather hard to campaign on the ticket when you did not even know 
your own members. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Kearney. That would be in contrast, would it not, to the two 
great political parties of our Nation today ? 

Imagine if all the Democrats and all the Republicans were hiding 
in secrecy. How would these candidates running for office know who 
to approach to ask them to vote for them ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willard. Mr. Kearney, I believe that there will come a time 
when people will be very glad and proud to tell about their politics, and 
many other things that they believe in, but it's rather difficult in a 
period of hysteria to go into things of that sort. 

Mr. Kearney. Now that is old stuff. 

Mrs. Willard. I hope it's old stuff. 



COMAIUXIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5725 

Mr. Kearney. I read it in the paper this morning. 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I hope things will be better for everybody. 

Mr. Kearney. I read in the paper this morning about a witness who 
I think was the first witness we had before us. He said that these hear- 
ings here today are worse than the Salem witch hunts. 

How many votes did you get when you ran for State representative 
on the Communist ticket ? 

Mrs. WiLLARD. I invoke the first and fifth amendment, sir 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that in the pres- 
ence of this witness, another witness be requested to come forward and 
be sworn. 

Miss Rowena Paumi, would you kindly come forward? 

Remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to you. 

Mr. Willis. Raise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Miss Paumi. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROWENA R. PAUMI 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Miss Paumi. Rowena R. Paumi, 83 DeForest Avenue, Bridgeport, 
Conn. I am now a Bridgeport hairdresser. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi, I expect subsequently in the proceedings 
today to interrogate you at length, but I should like at this time to 
ask you if you have ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And over what period of time have you been a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Paumi. Well, when I joined the Communist Party, it was in 
1941, the latter part of August, but I first was a member of the Young 
Communist League in 1941. 

Mr. Arens. Then give us, if you would, please, just a thumbnail 
sketch of your career in the Communist Party. 

Miss Paumi. Well, I was in the Communist Party until the latter 
part of 1942, and then I became inactive. 

Mr. Arens. You were at that time ideologically identified with the 
party ? 

Miss Paumi. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what happened subsequently. 

Miss Paumi. Subsequently to that I broke with the party, and I 
was approached by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and they 
asked me if I would rejoin the party at their request, and I did. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in the Communist Party at the be- 
hest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Miss Paumi. I was in until the latter part of 1945, and I had to 
become inactive because of the death of my parents. Then I joined 
again, in the latter part of 1948. I was reactivated by Mike Rui^so. 

Mr. Arens. You served in the party until when ? 

Miss Paumi. To the week that I testified. 



5726 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. In this year, 1956? 

Miss Paumi. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. From 1943 on, all of your service in the Communist 
Party was solely and exclusively for the purpose of serving your 
Government to procure information which was transmitted to the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation; is that correct? 

Miss Paumi. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. As I say, I expect to interrogate you at length on other 
matters, but for the present I should like to ask you if, in the course 
of your service in the Communist Party, you had occasion to make 
the acquaintanceship of a person by the name of Josephine Willard? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere did you know that person as a Communist ? 

Miss Paumi. In Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. And in what capacity did you know that person as a 
Communist? 

Miss Paumi. When I first met her in 1941, 1 knew her as an execu- 
tive board member of the Communist Party in Bridgeport. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see in the courtroom today the person whom 
you knew as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you please point her out to the House Connnittee 
on Un-American Activities ? 

Miss Paumi. She is sitting on my left. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any doubt in your mind ? 

Miss Paumi. No, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPHINE WILLARD— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mrs. Willard, would you please look at the lady 
who just testified under oath, and tell us whether or not she was lying 
or whether she was telling the truth when she identified you as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Wn-LARD. Her? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Was she lying or was she telling the truth? 
Look her in the eye. 

Mrs. WiLi.ARD. Look her in the eye and tell her or you ? 

Mr. Arens. Look her in the eye. 

Mr. Willis. Tell it to your conscience. You are under oath before 
this committee. 

Mrs. Willard. I refuse to answer that question, based on the first 
and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. That will be all for the moment. Miss Paumi. 

Have you, Mrs. Willard, ever known a person by the name of W. C. 
Mosher? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Worden Mosher ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Willard. I have to take the first and fifth, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mosher yesterday took an oath and laid his liberty 
on the line and testified before this committee that he knew you when 
he served as an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation in the Communist Party. He knew you as a member of the 
Communist conspiracy. Was he lying or was he telling the truth ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5727 

Mrs. "WiLLARD. I refuse to answer, based on the first and fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kent, would you kindly stand up back there, please, 
sir? 

Would you please look over your right shoulder, Mrs. Willard, at 
that man and tell us whether or not you have ever seen him before ? 

Mrs. Wtllakd. The one standing up? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, wearing tlie blue suit. 

Mrs. Willard. I refuse to answer, based on the first and hfth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. That man laid his liberty on the line and testified under 
oath before this committee 2 days ago that while he was an under- 
cover agent for the FBI in the Communist Party he knew you as a 
member of the Communist Party. While you are under oath, tell us, 
was he lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mrs. Willard. I refuse to answer that question, based on the first 
and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
it is a fact that you are presently a Communist. 

Mrs. Willard. I refuse to answer that, based on all the reasons I 
have previously given. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

Mrs. Willard. Thank you. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will take a 5-minute recess. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel will call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Rowena Paumi, kindly resume the witness stand. 

TESTIMONY OF ROWENA R. PAUMI— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi, you previously have been sworn and stated 
the facts respecting your Communist Party affiliations, did you not? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you kindly tell us the various posts which 
you held in the Communist Party, particularly while you were an 
undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Miss Paumi. Well, at one time I collected dues for my group, and 
another time I served on the membersliip committee, on the pi'ess com- 
mittee, and social committees; another time on the Browder Brigade. 
There were so many committees, I can't think of all of them at the 
moment. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us the units, fractions, or cells of 
the Communist conspiracy to which you were attached ? 

Miss Paumi. Wlien I first joined the Communist Party, I was 
attached to the Decca branch. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Miss Paumi. Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. Decca Records ? 

Miss Paumi. It was a small branch of Decca Records, consisting of 

S4046 — 56 — pt. 2 5 



5728 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

the members worked in Decca, Communists belonging to the Decca 
branch. 

Mr. Arens. Will you please do this : as you identify a group, branch, 
fraction or cell, will you kindly tell us the names of the persons who, 
to your certain knowledge, were Communist Party members of each ? 

Miss Patjmi. In the branch that I was in in Decca, starting in chron- 
ological order first ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, please. 

Miss Paumi. At that time, I recall they were myself, Harriet Gold- 
ring 

Mr. Arens. Spell that last name and spell any name that is not 
easily ascertainable. 

Miss Paumi. G-o-l-d-r-i-n-g. 

Ther.i was a Jack Finn. 

Mr. Arens. F-i-n-n ? 

Miss Paumi. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What year was this, please ? 

Miss Paumi. Oh, I would say in the latter part of 1941. 

There was a Jack Wyman for a short time, W-y-m-a-n. 

Mv. AnENS. Have you told us the principal leaders of the cell ? 

Miss Paumi. Well, yes. It was such a small branch. Later we 
became the Decca-Columbia branch. 

Mr. Arens. Now, please tell us of any other units with which you 
were identified in the Communist Party. 

Miss Paumi. Later I belonged to Decca-Columbia branch, and after 
that we became the Bridgeport Club. 

Mr. Arens. The Decca-Columbia branch went througli a transition 
into the Bridgeport Club; is that correct? 

Miss Paumi. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us the names of any persons who, to your 
certain knowledge, were identified with the Bridgeport Club? 

Miss Paumi. Mostly everybody in Bridgeport belonged to the 
Bridgeport Club. 

Mr. Arens. You mean most of the Bridgeport Communists ? 

Miss Paumi. That is right. 

You see, before we became the Bridgeport Club, I forgot to men- 
tion, we were a few branches, such as the North End branch and East 
End branch, and that didn't last long, and then we became one branch, 
which was the Bridgeport Club. 

Mr. Arens. Give us the names of those who, to your certain knowl- 
edge, were members of the Bridgeport Club and were Communists. 

Miss Paumi. There were Josephine Willard, Frank Peterson, Lou- 
ise Sito, S-i-t-o, Esther Bailin, B-a-i-1-i-n, Frank Fazekas, Bill Pistey, 
Oliver Arsenault. 

From the GE, let's see, now, there were quite a few from there. 

Mr. Arens. Have you given us the principal names occurring to 
you at the present time ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How recently were you in the Bridgeport Club ? 



I 



COMMUNIST ACTR'ITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5729 

Miss Paumi. Till 10-15, when we had a transition then from the 
Commnnist Political Association to the (^onnnunist Party. 

Mr. Arexs. Is there another unit with M'liich you were identified in 
the Communist Party? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. When I was reinstated in the latter part of 
1948, I was put in the 12-1^ branch, and then from there East End 
branch, then from the East End branch we went back to a small group 
which consisted of the Yellow Mill Village, the Success Park, and 
12-B together. Then we became a Aery small group which consisted 
mainly of a few people from Success Park, East End, and 12-B. 

^Ir. Arexs. Do you have a recollection of those who, to your cer- 
tain knowledge, were Communist members of that unit? 

Miss Paumi. Yes ; they were Lois Barnes in this latter group, Louise 
Sito, ]Mary Farkas, Addie and Harold Rogers in that group, and for 
a short time Jean Lindsey and Louise Sito were in that group. 

Mr. Arexs. How recently did you know Lois Barnes as a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Paimi. Until the time I testified in 1956. 

Mr. Willis. That is this year. 

Miss Paumi. This year. 

Mr. Willis. Just a few months ago. 

Miss Pau^ii. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Is there another group with which you were identi- 
fied in the Communist Party ? 

]Miss Paumi. Yes; I was in a small group which was Pearl Russo's 
group. I Avas in with her for a short time. 

Mr. Arexs. Where was that? 

Miss Paumi. That was in Bridgeport, Conn. 

Mr. Arexs. Who else was in that group? 

jNIiss Pai MI. Well, it was Pearl, myself, Emmett Sykes, S-y-k-e-s, 
Al Sutton, FoxAvorth, a man from the Brass and I forget his first name. 

]\Ir. Arexs. Are those the principal persons AA-hose names come to 
your mind ? 

Miss Paumi. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arex's. Do you here and now identify each of those persons 
you haA'e just named as a person who, to your certain knowledge, 
was a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Is there another group or unit Avith which you Avere 
identified ( 

Miss Paumi. Well, the East End, AAdiich Avas the East End branch, 
■ consisting of YelloAA^ Mill Village and the 12-B. There Avere quite 
a feAA- in that branch and they were — I recall some of them at this 
time, they AA'ere Mike and Grace Yiichnick 

Mr. Arexs. Spell that last name, please, ma'am. At least giA'^e us a 
phonetic spelling. 

Miss Paumi. Y-u-c-h-n-i-c-k. There was a Joe Thompson, and I 
can't seem to recall all of them at this time aa'Iio were in that branch. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you haA^e an affiliation AAdth the State entity of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Paumi. Well, I Avas asked to sit in on some of the State com- 
mittee meetings. 



5730 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. -Arens. Were those closed meetings? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Aeens. Permissible only to Commmiists? 

Miss Paumi. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge, are there other persons, not 
identified during these proceedings, who were members of the Com- 
munist conspiracy, Statewise? 

Miss Paumi. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the activities and 
techniques of the Communist Party underground in Connecticut ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a brief description of the functions and activi- 
ties oi the underground operations of the Communist Party in 
Connecticut. 

Miss Paumi. Well, I believe they started in 1950, around the time 
of the first arrest of the 10 — 11, it was. When they were first ar- 
rested, we started to take security measures. We were told not to 
use the phones for contact because they were always afraid somebody 
would tap the phones, and we were contacted. At any closed meetings, 
we were contacted personally. We weren't using the mail as much as 
we had used it previously. If it was an open meeting, we would send 
fliers out, or letters, at that time, and also, if it was a closed meeting, 
they would call us up and say to be at somebody's house at a certain 
time. We would be picked up and then we would go to the meeting, 
wherever it was. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting change of 
identity, appearance of any of the comrades ? 

Miss Paumi. I have known of instances where some tried. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a few illustrations of that ? 

Miss Paumi. I do know of one instance where I was asked to 
change the appearance of one of the leaders of the Conununist Party 
in Connecticut. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any information respecting an alert to the 
comrades in the area that the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities proposed to come to this area a few years ago? 

Miss Paumi. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that. 

Miss Paumi. We were told at that time that if anyone approached 
us from the House Un-American Activities Committee, or any kind 
of investigation committee that we should contact our lawyer, which 
was Sam Gruber at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Sam Gruber was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Paumi. Well, I have seen him at one closed party meeting. 

Mr. Arens. ¥/as that meeting open only to people who were 
Communists? 

Miss Paumi. As far as I know ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other information you care to give us with 
respect to the proposed visit by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities? 

Miss Paumi. That is all, sir, I could think of right now. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5731 

Mr. Arens. What is the ohjective of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Paumi. Well, the objective of the Communist Party is to — 
their main concentration was in the industrial plants to get as many 
Communist Party members in industrial plants so that we could re- 
cruit more members into the Communist Party, and also the Com- 
munist Party feels that socialism will be here very soon. 

Mr. Arens. By socialism, they mean communism, do they not? 

Miss Paumi. Communism. We were taught at a recent class, I 
would say in 1953, that war was inevitable between connnunism and 
capitalism. 

Mr. Arens. Plow serious is the (^ommunist conspiracy, particularly 
in the Connecticut area of which you have knowledge ? 

!Miss Paumi. To my knowledge, I would say it is a serious threat 
to the industrial part of Connecticut and to the United States. 

Mr. Arens. ISIiss Paumi, you at one time actually were ideologically 
identified with the Communist Party, were you not ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell this committee in a casual way, informal 
way, what makes a Communist ? 

Miss Paumi. Well, I would say that if they were the intellectual type 
of person, I would say that it is a change for them ; that they want to 
see a change, and that is their way out. Also, I would say it is a 
person who has had some disappointment in life or has some sort of 
complex or has something in their background that they want to hide, 
and where they are not welcome in society. 

Mr. Arens. Are they dedicated ? 

Miss Paumi. I would say 90 percent are dedicated, but some are 
not. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any doubt in their minds but that they are 
going to overthrow the Government of the United States and eventu- 
ally control the world ? 

Miss Paumi. I wouldn't say that there is any doubt in their minds 
about that. I think they believe that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, during the course of your experience in the 
Communist Party, know a person by the name of Elsie Willcox? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

Miss Paumi. I couldn't say for sure whether she was or not. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever attend meetings with her ? 

Miss Paumi. I have attended many meetings with her, but they were 
the Connecticut Peace Council. 

Mr. Arens. Those were open meetings ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have occasion to know a person by the name 
of Verne Weed? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend closed party meetings with her ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now identify her as a person who, to 
your certain knowledge, was a member of the Comnmnist conspiracy ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 



5732 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a person by the name of Bernie Bui^i' ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now identify him as a person who, 
to your certain knowledge, was known by you to be a member of the 
Communist conspiracy ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Lois Barnes ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How recently did you know her as a Communist ? 

Miss Paumi. Until 1956. 

Mr. Arens. Did you serve in closed party meetings with her ? 

Miss Paumi, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a person by the name of Saul Kreas ? 

Miss Paumi. I knew him. I saw him at the convention in 1945. 

Mr. Arens. Open convention meetings or closed convention meet- 
ings ? 

Miss Paumi. It was a Communist convention, but they were open to 
guests. 

Mr. Arens. How recently was this ? 

Miss Paumi. This w^as in 1945. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the approximate season of 1945 ? 

Miss Paumi. That was in the summer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that w^ould con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. General Kearney ? 

Mr. Kearney. Just one question. 

Is there any doubt in your mind that the Communist Party of our 
country is a part and parcel of the International Communist con- 
spiracy ? 

Miss Paumi. There is no doubt in my mind about that. 

Mr. Arens. Have you information as to any fronts which were 
controlled by the Communist Party during your experience in Con- 
necticut ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. They were the Civil Rights Congress, the 
Connecticut Peace Council. Then at times, whenever the occasion 
arose, we formed a different committee, like the Aid to the Wives 
of the Smith Act Victims, then the Amnesty Committee, and then the 
Smith Act Committee, and also the recent one was the Connecticut 
Volunteers for Civil Eights and the Connecticut Peace Council. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you very much. 

That will conclude the staff interrogation, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. Was there a chapter here, or movement, an organiza- 
tion, to raise funds to secure justice for the Rosenbergs? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Will you describe some of the functions of that par- 
ticular group, because this was the subject of quite a searching investi- 
gation by this committee in Washington. We found that, nationwide, 
all the huUaballoo about the organization was to secure a pardon for 



COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5733 

the Rosenbergs, wlio, of course, passed atomic secrets to the Soviets, 
and it developed that the head people of the organizations were strictly 
controlled, inspired, and used by the Comnmnist conspiracy. 

I am -wondering if you could tell us a few words about the chapter 
here in this area. 

Miss Paumi. Well, during the time of the Rosenberg trial, we were 
asked to send some money to the fund, or whatever we could spare. 
There were so many funds going on that sometimes it was difiicult 
to spread your money to different fund drives that were going on. 

We were also asked to picket the White House. 

Mr. Willis. Did you go to Washington? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Willis. You may have been one of those I saw with my own 
eyes, a bunch of Commies, picketing the President's residence, the 
President of the United States. 

Tell us, how did you liappen to go? 

Miss Pau3ii. We had a drive on at that time to get all the members 
of the Communist l^irty, and some of the members of the Connecticut 
Peace Council also weni. Every day we hud different people ^oing 
from Cmuiecticut to picket, and every day there was a picket line 
around there. 

I remember I went at night, 6 o'clock in the morning on a Saturday, 
and got there about 9 o'clock in the morning, and we walked till about 
5 or G o'clock, and then we went home. But that is the way it worked, 
with ditTerent groups going every day. 

Mr. Willis. Do you recall any of the people who went with you by 
bus ? 

Miss Paumi. I recall that nearly everyone in Connecticut who be- 
longed to the party went. 

Mr. Kearney. Was the witness, Richter, who created a demon- 
stration in the courtroom yesterday, one of the picketers? 

Miss Paumi. Well, I don't know if he went, but I do know his wife 
went down one day ; Charlotte did. 

^Ir. Kearney. In other words, he let others do the dirtj work for 
him. 

]\Ii.ss Pauimi. He may have gone, but I don't remember if he did. 

yh\ Kearney. I did not mean to interrupt the chairman here, but 
we did have, as he said, a very extensive investigation. I was quite 
interested in the drive for funds in the State of Connecticut, or the 
reason, and I can stand coi-i-ected on this. 

I was informed, after tlie searching inquiry, that over $500,000 was 
collected for this campaign, justice for the Rosenbero-s, and out of that 
$500,000, $1,300 was left to the children. Where did the rest of the 
money go? 

Miss Paumi. AYell, they claim that they used it for literature and for 
the lawyer, for propaganda. 

Mr. Willis. And, actually, part of the propaganda was to raise 
funds for the education of those children whom they paraded before 
TV in Washington and elsewhere ? 

Miss Paumi. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. Do you remember who had charge or made a bus tour 
from here ? 



5734 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Miss Paumi. I don't know who had cliar^^e of the bus, but I do know 
that it seemed like everybody liad charge of everything. I know when 
I was approached to go for picketing, I was contacted by 2 or 3 differ- 
ent people at that time. I know that I went down with the Weinbergs. 
I was at the Weinbergs' home that night and I saw 

Mr. Willis. Do you recall any ladies beside yourself? 

Miss Paumi. Who went that particular day ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes ; the leader of the group. 

Miss Paumi. Let's see. The day that I went, I went down with 
Sam Tomach, and Joe Barnes, and a fellow by the name of Callanan, 
and Ida Sito, but she is not a member of the party. 

Mr. Willis. Do you know others ? 

Miss Paumi. I know Elsie Willcox. 

Mr. Willis. What connection did she have ? 

Miss Paumi. She was sympathetic to the Rosenbergs. 

Mr. Willis. But she was on the trip ? 

Miss Paumi. She was on 1 or 2 trips, that I know. She had told me 
that. 

Mr. Willis. Was there anyone on that bus who was not sympathetic 
to the Rosenbergs or to the cause of communism. 

Miss Paumi. I wasn't on the bus, sir, but the car that I was in, we 
were all sympathetic at that time. 

Mr. Willis. The purpose of the trip, and this was only par.t of a 
nationwide trek, was to pressure the United States to pardon the 
Rosenbergs. 

Miss Paumi. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Willis. As a matter of fact, the people pressured two Presi- 
dents, first President Truman and then President Eisenhower ; is that 
not correct ? 

Miss Paumi. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. And Members of Congress ? 

Miss Paiimi. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. During the period that these committees were work- 
ing in behalf of justice for the Rosenbergs, there were special trains 
coming into Washington, caravans of buses, and automobiles. Who 
paid for all this ; do you know ? 

Miss Paumi. AVhy, I imagine all the front groups for the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Kearney. Did they pay their own individual fares? 

Miss Paumi. I did. Some of the others, their expenses were paid, 
but I don't know who paid for them individually. Some paid and 
some didn't. 

Mr. Kearney. Those who did not, who paid their way ? 

Miss Paumi. Well, that I can't say for certain. 

Mr. Kearney. The Communist Party? 

Miss Paumi. I imagine so. 

Mr. Willis. Part of the hue and cry during that time, through leaf- 
lets and agitation and handbills, was that the Rosenbergs had not been 
granted justice and somehow they are two of the few people who were 
lucky enough to be able to have their case come before the Supreme 
Court seven times, and still they said they were being railroaded. 

That was part of the propaganda, was it not ? 

Miss Paumi. That is right, sir. 



COTMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5735 

]Mi'. WiLi.is. Is that tlic nature of the v>ork done by the so-called 
front group ^ 

Miss Paumi, Yes. 

Mr. Willis. In other words, the Rosenbergs were just typical of the 
current issues that they pick up and agitate about ^ 

Miss Paumi. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Is that what you meant a while ago about these front 
groups which Avere created and put in front of the hard core leaders in 
the Communist conspiracy? 

Miss Paumi. That is right, sir. 

Mr, Willis. That is the typical work of so-called front organi- 
zations? 

Miss Pau3ii. That is right, sir. 

]Mr. Willis. Now, you worked for the Government of the United 
States for a total of approximately how many years? 

Miss Paumi. Since 1943. 

]Mr. Willis. And you disassociated yourself from that work this 
year? 

Miss Paumi. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Why? 

Miss Paumi. Because I testified and it became obvious. 

^Ir. Willis. In other words, you finally came out in the open as an 
employee of your Government? 

Miss Paumi. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Willis. In fact, that is all you were; is that not true? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. You were in constant commmiication with the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation, were you not? 

Miss Paumi. I was. 

Mr. Willis. And made periodic reports. 

Miss PxVU3ii. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. I suppose you realize, having been associated with the 
FBI, that you had been thoroughly investigated, too ? Did you know 
tliat ? 

Miss Paumi. I imagined I was. 

Mr. Willis. You imagine that, do you not? 

Miss Paumi. Yes. 

^Ir. Willis. Now, it has not been the habit of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation to put an ad in the paper or to send out telegrams 
that it is investigating communism or any other type of work in which 
it is engaged. It is not the habit of the Bureau to advertise that, is it ? 

Miss Paumi. No, sir. 

Mr. Willis. So when witnesses refer to you sometimes as an in- 
formant, that burns us up on this committee to hear you described 
simply as an informant without explaining the nature of the informa- 
tion you are supplying. You are doing it at the suggestion of the 
FBI ; is that not correct ? 

Miss Paumi. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. This committee recognizes the high caliber and ef- 
ficiency of the FBI. Some of the investigators on this committee 
are former s})ecial agents of that fine organization. One of them here, 
Mr. Ray Collins, is a former special agent of the FBI as well as hav- 



5736 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

ing had a brilliant war record as a fighter pilot. He sort of smiles 
when you people engaged in obtaining information for yonr Govern- 
ment are referred to as informers. In my book you are all right, and I 
speak for the Committee on Un-American Activities. We liave been 
created by Congress; we come up for review by the Congress every 
year. We make our report each year. Congress has nearly always 
voted unanimously to provide the funds for our work. 

We get used to jeers and sneers and insinuations and intemperate 
scenes, as we saw here day before yesterday, but we do not ever per- 
mit ourselves to be goaded into not continuing with our work. 

I want to compliment you for the contribution you have made on 
behalf of our committee and others in making that work lighter and 
more pleasant. 

Mr. Kearney. I do not think I have anything to add to that state- 
ment. I think that statement is powerful enough. These individuals 
talk about your being an informer, but in my humble opinion you have 
just done your patriotic American duty. You have more thoughts for 
your country than these individuals who come here and to other 
cities and take the fifth amendment. These are the people I call the 
fifth- amendment Americans. I have only the utmost contempt for 
them. If they have nothing to fear, they could testify, testify truth- 
fully. They have the privilege, of course, and no one denies it to them. 
But you notice the form of their answers, time and time again, not only 
in the cities of New Haven, Washington, New York, but throughout the 
Nation. So do not be concerned about people saying those things. 

Mr. Willis. Along that line, on the question of loss of employment, 
we read that people lose their jobs because they invoked the fifth 
amendment. 

That is not an accurate statement. If anyone here loses his job 
as a result of his appearance before our committee, is it not more ac- 
curate to describe the situation, perhaps, that the employers so con- 
cluded because they were openly identified by live, true witnesses under 
oath as being, or liaving been, members of the Communist conspiracy, 
in addition to their invocation of the fifth amendment? 

Thank you very much. 

We are pressed for time and I think we will have to call another 
witness before lunch, if you do not mind. We must conclude today. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Joseph Barnes please come forward. 

Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers an oatli 
to you. 

Mr. Willis. Raise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Barnes. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH BARNES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
RALPH LOCKWOOD 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5737 

^Ir. B.vRNES. My name is Joseph Barnes, and I live at 606 Trumbull 
Avenue, Bridgeport. 

Mr. Arexs. Occupation? 

jNIr. Barnes. I am a set-up man. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed ? 

JNIr. Barnes. Siniier Manufacturing Co., Bridgeport. 

^Ir. Arens. Are you api)earing today in response to a subpena v» hich 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mr. Barnes. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You are re]:)resented by counsel ? 

]Mr. Barnes. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel identify himself, please ? 

Mr. LocKwooD. Ealph Lockwood, 1188 Main Street, Bridgeport, 
Conn. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at the Singer Manu- 
facturing Co. ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barnes. Six months. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to the 
period of your present service? 

Mr. Barnes. May I consult with counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir, 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barnes. I respectfully invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment and decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. How long was A^our employment which immediately 
preceded your present employment at Singer ? 

Mr, Barnes. May I consult? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; at any time. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barnes. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be directed and ordered to answer that last principal question. 

Mr. Willis. Yes. You are directed to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barnes. I would like to decline to answer the question, but I 
think that even to state my reasons for declining to answer the question 
may lead to further questions which might tend to incriminate me, I 
must invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens, W^hat was your employment immediately prior to the 
employment concerning which you cannot tell us without giving in- 
formation which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr, Barnes, May I consult? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Barnes, Same answer; fifth amendment. 

Mr, Arens. Wliere were you born ? 

Mr, Barnes, Springfield, Mass. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Barnes. February 9, 1920, 



5738 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your education. 

Mr. Barnes. I attended public schools in Springfield — grammar 
school, junior high school. I attended high school for 2 years and 
then left to go to work. 

Mr. Arens. When did vou leave high school ? 

Mr. Barnes. In 1936. " 

Mr. Arens. What high school did you you attend ? 

Mr. Barnes. Technical High School. 

Mr. Arens. What city ? 

Mr. Barnes. Springfield. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first employment after you left school ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barnes. I very respectfully invoke the protection of the fifth 
amendment and decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Was there any employment from 1036 until the present 
time that you can tell us about w^ithout supplying information which 
could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barnes. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a fact that all of your employment since 1936 is of 
such a nature that if you told this committee about it you would be 
supplying information which could be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. Barnes. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever employed at the Alfred Heckman Dis- 
tributors ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barnes. I am respectfully invoking my protection under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever employed in an establishment located 
at 24-6 Old Post Road, Fairfield, Conn. ? 

Mr. Barnes. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been identified with the Connecticut 
Volunteers for Civil Kights ? 

(The witness conferred ^vith his counsel.) 

Mr. Barnes. I respectfully invoke my privileges under the first 
amendment and the fifth amendment and decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact that at one time you were the principal moving official of the 
Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights. 

Mr. Barnes. I respectfully invoke my privileges mider the fifth 
amendment and decline to answer. 

Mr. x\rens. Have you been engaged in the dissemination in Con- 
necticut of literature of some kind, character or description ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barnes. I invoke the first and fifth amendments and decline 
to answer. 

Mr. Arens. During 1953, 1 put it to you as a fact that you were the 
literature director for the Communist Party for Connecticut. If it is 
not so, deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. Barnes. I decline to answer under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HLWEN, CONN., AREA 5739 

Mr, xVrens. Do you know a person by the name of Harold Kent ? 

JNIr, Barnes. I decline to answer under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 

Mr. Barnes. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kent and Miss Paumi, would you kindly stand up ? 

Would you please, Mr. Barnes, look over your right shoulder at 
those two people and tell us whether or not you have ever seen them 
before ? 

Mr. Barnes. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Barnes, Harold Kent and Eowena Paumi testified 
under oath before this connnittee that they knew you as a member 
of the (.'ommunist Party. Were they lying or Avere they telling the 
truth? 

Mr. Barnios. I decline to answer imder the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. For the purposes of identification, are you the husband 
of Lois Barnes? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Barnes. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Lois Barnes, please come forward ? 

Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to 
you. 

Mr. Willis. Will you please raise your right hand ? 

Do 3'ou solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mi-s. Barnes. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LOIS BARNES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL 
RALPH LOCKWOOD 

Mr. Arens. Please be seated and kindly identify yourself by name, 
residence, and occupation. 

Mrs. Barnes. Lois Barnes, 606 Trumbull Avenue, housewife. 

Mr. Arens. Are you the wife of Joseph Barnes, who just vacated 
the witness chair ? 

Mrs. Barnes. I decline to answer under the privileges guaranteed 
me under tlie fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee whether or not you are the wife of Joseph Barnes that you 
would be supplying information which could be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding ? 

Mrs. Barnes. I think I might. I don't know, but I think I might. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mrs. Barnes. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Barnes. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself ? 



5740 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. LocKwooD. Ralph Lockwood, 1188 Main Street, Bridgeport, 
Conn. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed, Mrs. Barnes ? 

Mrs. Barnes. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, Arens. What is the nature of your employment ? 

Mrs. Barnes. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been in your present employment? 

Mrs. Barnes. Same answer as before. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vliat was your employment innnediately pieceding 
your present employment ? 

Mrs. Barnes. Same answer as before. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born 'i 

Mrs. Barnes. I was born in Ware, Mass. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, about your education. 

Mrs. Barnes. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. We aru 
simply seeking information to which we are entitled. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Barnes. I went to grammar schools in Prescott and Green- 
wich. 

Mr. Arens. Are you used to speaking in public? 

Mrs. Barnes. Well, do you want me to answer the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, please; answer this question. 

Are you used to speaking in public ? 

Mrs. Barnes. Do you withdraw 

Mr. Arens. I do not comprehend why you are so reluctant to raise 
your voice. You have been a public speaker in the past, have you 
not? 

Mrs. Barnes. May I answer the first question ? 

Mr. Arens. Answer the second one now. We will withdraw the 
first one for the moment. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Barnes. I decline to answer that under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You have been quite a proponent of peace, have you 
not, a very laudable objective ? 

Mrs. Barnes. I decline to answer that under the first and fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You were chairman of the Bridgeport Women for 
Peace ? 

Mrs. Barnes. I decline to answer that on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
it is a fact, that you were chairman of the Bridgeport Women for 
Peace. 

Mrs. Barnes. I decline to answer that on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are not ashamed of being a proponent of, or a par- 
tisan for, peace, are you ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5741 

(The Avitness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Baknes. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. I should like to lay before you now a photostatic copy 
of an article appearing in the Communist Daily Worker of May 15, 
1952, "Bridgeport, Conn. — 400 Jam PP Election Rally for Peace 
at Bridgeport.'' which, among other speakers, has listed a Mrs. Lois 
Barnes, cliairman of the Bridgeport Women for Peace. 

1 should like to ask you to glance at that article and tell us whether 
or not that might refresh your recollection as to any of j'our speak- 
ing activities and public appearances ? 

(The Avitness conferred with her counsel.) 

]\Irs. Barnes. I decline to ansAver on the basis of the first amend- 
ment and the fifth amendment. 

]Mr, Arexs. IVIr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this docu- 
ment be marked '"Lois Barnes Exhibit No. 1" and incorporated by 
lef erence in the record. 

Mr. Willis. It will be so incorporated. 

(The document referred to, marked ''Lois Barnes Exhibit No. 1," 
Avas incor}Jorated by reference in the record.) 

]SIr. Arexs. You have also been an author in your time, have you 
not ? 

Mrs, Barnes. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of an article 
appearing in the Communist Daily Worker, Monday, December 19, 
1955, Avith reference to certain publications 

Mr. Willis. Do you mean the date of issue is 1955 ? 

]Mr. Arexs. December 19, 1955, with reference to certain publica- 
tions AA'hich are available at a Workers' Bookshop, including publica- 
tions by a Lois Barnes, and ask you if you are the person alluded to 
in that article. 

( The witness conferred wdth her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Barxes. I don't recall ever being that Lois Barnes, I am sorry. 

]Mr. Arexs. Have you been a coauthor of any works with Ernest 
Hemingway? 

]Mrs. Barxes. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a person by the name of Harold Kent ? 

Mrs. Barx-^es. I decline to answer that on the basis of the fifth 
amendment? 

Mr. xVrexs. Do you know a person by the name of Eowena Paumi ? 

]\Irs. Barxes. I also decline to answer that on the same basis. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Kent and Miss Paumi, would you kindly stand up ? 

Would you kindly look over your right shoulder and tell this com- 
mittee whether you have ever seen them before ? 

Mrs. Barnes. I decline to answer that on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Kent and Miss Paumi testified under oath before 
this committee that they knew you as a member of the Communist 
conspiracy. Were they lying or were they telling the truth ? 

Mrs. Barnes. I decline to answer that on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 



5742 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi stated that you were a member of the city 
committee of the Communist Party in Bridgeport from 1952 until 
1956. Was she lying or was she telling the truth ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Barnes. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any employment since 1936 concerning 
which you can tell us without giving information which could be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mrs. Barnes. This is an area which I don't wish to go into, and 
therefore I wish to say "No." 

Mr. Arens. Let us get this record clear. 

You wish to state, do you, that there is no activity, no employment, 
in which you have been engaged since 1936 concerning which you can 
tell us without giving us information which could be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Barnes. Well, this appears to be a fairly innocent question, 
but I don't want to be led into an area which I don't wish to discuss 
because it might be something that I don't want to 

Mr. Arens. Why would you not want to discuss it ? 

Mrs. Barnes. If it might be used against me in a criminal prosecu- 
tion, of course. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I would respectfully suggest that would 
conclude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess until 1 : 30. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 20 p. m., September 26, 1956, tlie subcommittee- 
recessed, to reconvene at 1 : 30 p. m. of the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 1956 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel will call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Sam Davis, please come forward. 

Remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to you. 

Mr. Willis. Kindly raise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Davis. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL DAVIS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CHARLES HENCHEL 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Davis. Samuel Davis, 24 Beverly Road; occupation, dental 
technician. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Davis, in response to a 
subpena served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Davis. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5743 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself ? 

Mr. Henchel. Charles Henchel, H-e-n-c-h-e-1, 152 Temple Street, 
New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. AVhere are you employed, Mr. Davis ? 

Mr. Davis. Self-employed. 

Mr. Arens. Where ^ 

Mr. DA^^s. Davis Dental Lab. 

Mr. Arens. Are you the sole proprietor of the establishment ? 

Mr. Davis. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Davis. Since 1939. 

JVIr. Arens. And what was your employment prior to 1939 ? 

Mr. Davis. As a dental technician. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. DA^^s. Well, I worked for close to 12 years at the New Haven 
Dental. Prior to that, I worked for 5 years at another laboratory, 
United Dental ; is that right ? It is so long back I can't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Where w^ere you born ? 

Mr. Davis. Riga, Latvia. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr.DA\^s. April 26, 1904. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Davis. July 1921. 

Mr. Arens. Were you admitted for permanent residence ? 

Mr. Davis. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Da-s^s. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. By derivation or by naturalization ? 

Mr. Davis. Naturalization. 

Mr. Arens. When were you naturalized ? 

Mr.DA^^s. In 1930. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Davis. In New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you were naturalized, did you take an oath 
of allegiance to the Constitution of the United States ? 

Mr. Davis. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any mental reservations at the time you 
took that oath of allegiance ? 

Mr. Davis. No, I didn't have any reservations whatsoever. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you took the oath of allegiance, were you a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Davis. I will have to invoke my rights mider the Constitution 
of the United States under the fifth amendment. 

?vrr. Kearney. We cannot hear the witness. 

Mr. Davis. I will have to invoke my constitutional right under 
the fifth amendment on this question. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us a word about your education. Were you 
educated in the old country ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Hovv^ old were you when you arrived here ? 

Mr. Davis, I had very little formal education, what you may call 
it. I had the equivalent of a Hebi-ew high-school education. 

Mr. Arens. How old were you when you arrived ? 



5744 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Davis. Seventeen ; 1904 to 1921. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, just a thumbnail sketch of 
your principal employments since you have been a permanent resident 
of the United States. 

Mr. Davis. Only at my profession. I worked for 1 week at a gas 
station when I came here, and I couldn't get a job at my own work so 
I had to work at a gas station for about 1 week. The rest I worked 
at my trade. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived in New Haven, Conn. ? 

Mr. Davis. Since I came here. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you reside immediately prior to coming to 
New Haven, Conn. ? 

Mr. Davis. Riga, Latvia. 

Mr. Arens. You came directly to New Haven ? 

Mr. Daves. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a relative here at the time you came 
to the United States ? 

Mr. Daais. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. "\Vho was that ? 

Mr. Davis. My sister. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever belonged to a labor organization ? 

Mr. Davis. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of a labor organization? 

Mr. Davis. A union, you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Davis. Well, I wouldn't call it exactly a labor organization 
because the dental technicians for a short period of time belonged to 
the jewelers union just for a very short time, 6 months or so, and then, 
belonging to the dental association. Dental Laboratory Association, 
I was affiliated with that organization, but otherwise I was not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been associated with an organization 
in the State of Minnesota ? 

Mr. Davis. I was never there. 

Mr. Arens. Of what organizations are you presently a member? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Davis. On this question I would invoke my right under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any organizations which are of the 
nonsensitive variety, namely, those you can tell us about without 
giving information which could be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Davis. I would refuse to answer that on my constitutional right, 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of W. C. Mosher ? 

Mr. Davis. I will refuse to answer that on my constitutional right 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mosher testified before this committee that while he 
was an undercover agent in the Communist Party at the behest of 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, he knew you as a Communist. 
Was he lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Davis. I still invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of H. W. Mosher, 
the son of W. C. Mosher ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5745 

Mr. Davis. Same answer. 

'Sir. Arkns. Do you know a person by the nanie of Rowena Paumi ? 

Mr. Davis. Same answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Both Miss Paumi and H. W. Mosher testified that they 
knew you as a member of the Communist Party. Were they lying 
or were they telling the truth ? 

Mr. Davis. Same ansAver. 

Mr. Aeexs. What have been your political activities since residing 
ill New Haven, Conn. ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Davis. I would invoke my right under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you a presidential elector back in the thirties? 

]Mr. Davis. I Avill use my right under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. AnExs. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of lists of the 
Communist caiidiclates for November elections of 1930, 1932, 1934, 
1936, and 1938, including a list of the presidential electors for 1932 
and 1936, and ask you to look at that document and tell us whether or 
not you are the Sam Davis alluded to as one of the presidential electors 
of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Davis. May I have that question, please ? 

Mr. Arexs. Read the question, Mr. Reporter. 

(Tlie pending question was read by the reporter.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Davis. On this question, I will have to invoke my rights under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. AnExs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The Avitness may be excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arexs. Emma Davis, please come forward. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

]Sf r. Willis. Raise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the trutli, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God ? 

Mrs. Davis. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EMMA DAVIS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, " 
CHARLES HENCHEL 

Mr. Arexs. Will you be seated, please. 

^Irs. Daais. May I request that the television cameras be turned 
off. 

yh\ Arexs. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. Davis. My name is Emma Davis, 24 Beverly Road; I am an 
office worker. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you related to the witness who just left the witness 
chair ? 

Mrs. Davis. Yes; T am his wife. 

Mr. Arexs. Where were you born? 

Mrs. Davis. I was born in Poland. 



5746 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mrs. Davis. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel. 

Mrs. Davis. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself ? 

Mr. Henchel. Charles Henchel, 152 Temple Street, New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States? 

Mrs. Davis. I came here in 1913 at the age of 4. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mrs. Davis. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Is that by derivation or by naturalization ? 

Mrs. Davis. By derivation. 

Mr. Arens. When did you acquire the status of a citizen of the 
United States? 

Mrs. Davis. In 1923. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed? 

Mr. Henchel. If the chairman would permit me to address the com- 
mittee on this question for the purpose of making an offer? 

I have an affidavit prepared and signed and sworn to by this witness 
as to her present employment. The only purpose for making this offer, 
rather than have her respond orally, is to avoid embarrassment, pub- 
licity, notoriety to her employers, who are two prominent surgeons in 
the city of New Haven and who are aware of the fact that she has been 
subpenaed to appear here. 

Mr. Arens. Would you answer further the question as to whether 
these two employers are aware of the fact that she has been identified 
by three live witnesses, undercover agents for the FBI, as a member 
of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Henchel. I have no way of knowing their knowledge. 

May I ask that the Chair rule on that. I would like to submit the 
affidavit. 

Mr. Willis. Counsel has a purpose in asking these questions. 

Mr. Arens. Now, please tell this committee where you are em- 
ployed ? 

Mr. Henchel. May I make a comment for the record ? 

Mr. Willis. You are not permitted. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell this committee where you are employed. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Davis. Mr. Arens, I would like to have the privilege of present- 
ing this in writing for the same reasons that my counsel gave. 

Mr. Arens. Now, please respond orally to the question. Where are 
you employed? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Davis. I am employed by Dr. Maxwell Lear and Dr. Harry 
Noble. 

Mr. Arens. TVTiere? 

Mrs. Davis. 1172 Chapel Street. 

Mr. Arens. What capacity? 

Mrs. Davis. Secretary-receptionist. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mrs. Davis. Going on 7 years. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5747 

Mr, Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to tliis? 

Mrs. Davis. I was a housewife and a mother raising a family. 

Mr. Arens. IVliat was your employment immediately prior to the 
time that you assumed your housewifely duties and responsibilities as 
a mother? 

Mrs. Davis. I was an office worker. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mrs. Davis. In a dental supply office. 

]Mr. Arexs. Are you presently a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Davis. I decline to answer that and invoke my privilege of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Communist Party discipline? 

]Mrs. Davis. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever run for public office ? 

( The Avitness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Davis. I decline to answer and I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a one-time candidate for State treasurer on 
the Communist Party ticket ? 

Mrs. DA^^s. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a document which we have pro- 
cured from the secretary's office of the State of Connecticut, listing 
the names of persons who were candidates for public office on the Com- 
munist Party ticket, November election, 1932, on which appears the 
name of Emma Davis as the candidate for the office of treasurer. 

I ask you if you are that person ? 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mis. DA^^s. I decline to answer that and invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this docu- 
ment be marked "Emma Davis Exhibit No. 1" and incorporated by 
reference in the record. 

Mr. Willis. It will be so incorporated. 

(The document referred to, marked "Emma Davis Exhibit No. 1," 
was incorporated by reference in the record.) 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of a comparable 
document procured from the office of the Secretary of State of Con- 
necticut, listing the presidential electors for 1936, and the candidates 
for Congress on the Communist Party ticket, including Congressman 
from the Third Congressional District, Emma Davis, 160 Gilbert 
Avenue, New Haven, Conn. I ask you if you are the Emma Davis 
referred to in that document ? 

Mrs. DA^^s. I decline to answer that and invoke the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that that docu- 
ment be marked "Emma Davis Exhibit No. 2" and incorporated by 
reference in the record. 

Mr. Willis. It will be so incorporated. 

(The document referred to, marked "Emma Davis Exhibit No. 2," 
was incorporated by reference in the record.) 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a nominating petition for Novem- 
ber 1946 elections under tlie designation of the Communist Party, bear- 
ing a signature, Emma Davis, 458 Fountain Street, Ward 30. I ask 
you if you Avill kindly tell us whether or not that is your signature 
appearing on this photostatic copy of that nominating petition? 



5748 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

(The witness conferred -vvith her counsel.) 

Mrs. Daa^s. Same answer. 

Mr. Willis. Does counsel offer that document ? 

Mr. Akens. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. It will be appropriately marked and incorporated by- 
reference. 

(The document referred to w^as marked "Emma Davis Exhibit No. 
3," and incorporated by reference in the record.) 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Davis, do you know a person by the name of W. C. 
ISIosher ? 

Mrs. Davis. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of H. W, Mosher ? 

Mrs. Davis. Same answer. 

Mr. Abens. Do you know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 

Mrs. Daves. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi, would you kindly stand ? 

Mrs. Davis, would you please look over your right shoulder and tell 
us whether or not you recognize that lady standing there ? 

Mrs. Davis. I decline to answer and invoke my privilege of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. That lady testified under oath that she knew you while 
she was an undercover agent in the Communist conspiracy. Was she 
telling the truth or was she lying ? 

Mrs. Daves. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. W. C. Mosher and his son, H. W. Mosher, both testi- 
fied under oath before this committee that they knew you as a member 
of the Communist Party while they were undercover agents for the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation in the Communist Party. Were 
they lying or were they telling the truth ? 

Mrs. Davis. I refuse to answer that and invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Henchel. May I note in the record that in 1936 Mr. Cretella 
was not the incumbent. 

Mr. Kearney. Let me ask you a question. Counsel. 

I understand you are a city judge in the city of New Haven. 

Mr. Henchel. That is right. 

Mr. Kearney. When you preside, do you allow attorneys in your 
court to carry on like that ? 

Mr. Henchel. We conduct our court in a more or less informal 
manner. 

Mr. Willis. Next witness, please. 

Mr. Arens. If the chairman please, Mr. Paul Bloom kindly come 
forward. 

Mr. Cretella. I might say to counsel, while I am not a member 
of the committee, I am most gracious to the chairman for his generosity. 

Mr. Willis. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Bloom. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5749 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL BLOOM, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CATHERINE G. RORABACK 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Miss RoRABACK. Might I request that there be no television or 
cameras ? 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Bloom. My name is Paul Bloom and I live at 17 Asylum Street, 
New Haven, Conn. I am a clerk in an investment house. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities. 

Mr. Bloom. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Bloom. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify herself ? 

Miss RoRABACK. Catherine G. Roraback, 185 Church Street, New 
Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the nature of your employment ? 

Mr. Bloom. Clerk. 

Mr. Arens. In what establishment ? 

Mr. Bloom. Brokerage house in the city of New Haven. 

]Mr. Arens. What is the name of the brokerage house ? 

Mr. Bloom. Gruntal & Co. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat do you do as clerk at the brokerage place? 

Mr. Bloom. I handle the cash, I take in securities, and hand out 
securities, take in cash, and make out checks. 

Mr. Abens. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Bloom. I have been employed in brokerage houses 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed in the present estab- 
lishment ? 

Mr. Bloom. 1950. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
j)resent employment ? 

Mr. Bloom. I worked for Eisel, King, Labarie, Stout & Co. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a brokerage firm ? 

Mr. Bloom. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Where is that located ? 

Mr. Bloom. It was located at 177 Church Street, New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work there ? 

Mr. Bloom. The exact dates I don't know, because they succeeded 
another house and took over another house at the same time. 

Mr. Arens. What is your best estimate as to the period of time that 
you were employed ? 

Mr. Bloom. I think it was 1942 or 1943. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment prior to that time? 

Mr. Bloom. Before that, with Labarie, Stout & Co. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a brokerage firm ? 

Mr. Bloom. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was that located in New Haven ? 

Mr. Bloom. Same address. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed there ? 



5750 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Bloom. I think tliey came in, I can't recall, the late thirties, 
maybe 1938. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately preceding the 
employment in 1938 ? 

Mr. Bloom. Slepack & Co. 

Mr. Akens. What was the nature of the business ? 

Mr. Bloom. Investments. 

Mr. Arens. Where located ? 

Mr. Bloom. I think the address was 197 Church Street. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed with them ? 

Mr. Bloom. Well, they had a partnership that broke up. I can't 
remember, maybe 1935 or 1934, I can't remember the dates. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your employment imediately prior to that 
employment ? 

Mr. Bloom. Prentiss & Slepack. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of the employment ? 

Mr. Bloom. Investment house. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed by them ? 

Mr. Bloom. I was employed by them since 1931. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Bloom. New York City. 

Mr. Arens. A word, please, sir, about your education, 

Mr, Bloom, I attended grammar school 2 years in New York City, 
and the rest of my education in New Haven, at the grammar school, 
New Haven High School, and Yale College, 

Mr, Arens, Did you graduate from Yale College? 

Mr, Bloom, Yes, 

Mr, Arens. When did you graduate from Yale ? 

Mr, Bloom, 1930, 

Mr, Arens, What degree did you receive ? 

Mr. Bloom, Bachelor of science. 

Mr. Arens. I take it from the dates which you have enumerated 
that you went from Yale to the brokerage firm; is that correct? 

Mr, Bloom. At that time there was a big depression on, so I was 
unemployed for about a year, 

Mr, Arens, Then your first employment was with the brokerage 
firm? 

Mr, Bloom, Right with the brokerage firm, 

Mr, Arens, For the purposes of identification, are you the hus- 
band of Doris Bloom ? 

Mr. Bloom. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. To what organizations did you belong when you were 
at Yale? 

Mr. Bloom. I didn't belong to any that I can recall. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bloom, I lay before you now a photostatic copy of 
the Nominating Petition under the title of the Communist Party 
for Representative at Large, Michael Russo, containing the signa- 
tures of a number of persons. This is dated 1946, November, and it 
includes a signature of a person by the name of Paul Bloom. 

I ask you if that is your signature, 

(The witness conferred with his counsel,) 

Mr. Bloom. I must invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever live at 701 Howard Avenue ? 



COMJVIUXIST ACTIVITIES IX NEW HAVEX, COXX., AREA 5751 

yir. Bloom. I did. 

Mr. Arexs. Was that in the fifth ward? 

Mr. Bloom. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the docu- 
ment be marked "Paul Bloom Exhibit No. 1" and incorporated, by 
reference, in the record. 

Mr. Willis. Let it be so marked and incorporated. 

(The document referred to, marked "Paul Bloom Exhibit No. 1," 
was incorporated by reference in the record.) 

Mr. Arexs. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of a nominating 
petition for State Senator, on the Communist Party, Sidney S. Tay- 
lor, November 1946, bearing the signature, among others, of Paul 
Bloom, 701 Howard, and ask you if you can identify that signature. 

Mr. Bloom. I must invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of W. C. Mosher? 

Mr. Bloom. I invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of H. W. Mosher ? 

Mr. Bloom. I invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. These two gentlemen under oath before this committee 
stated that they had known j'ou as a member of the Communist Party. 
AVere they lying or were they telling the truth ? 

Mr. Bloom. I invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 

Mr. Bloom. I invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi, would you kindly stand ? 

Would you look over your right shoulder and tell us whether or not 
you have ever seen that lady before? 

Mr. Bloom. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bloom, Miss Paumi testified before this committee 
this morning, and named a number of people, including yourself, 
whom she knew as Communists while she was an undercover agent for 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Was she lying or was she tell- 
ing the truth ? 

Mr. Bloom. I invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that that would 
conclude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Doris Bloom, please come forward. 

Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, tlie whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mrs. Bloom. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DORIS BLOOM, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CATHERINE G. RORABACK 

Mr. Arens. Will jou kindly identify yourself by name, residence, 
and occupation ? 

Miss RoRABACK. May I also request that there be no pictures or 
television. 



5752 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation ? 

Mrs. Bloom. My name is Doris Bloom, 17 Asylum Street, New 
Haven, Conn., and I am a bookkeeper, 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I am employed by the Wrentham Co. 

Mr. Arexs. Where is that ? 

Mrs. Bloom. That is at 12 Whiting Street, New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mrs. Bloom. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify herself ? 

Miss RoRcVBACK. Catherine G. Eoraback, 185 Church Street, New 
Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been in your present employment? 

Mrs. Bloom. Six months. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately preceding the 
present employment ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I was employed in another office as a bookkeeper. 

Mr. Arens. Where was the other office ? 

Mrs. Bloom. It was called the Tom Thumb Novelty. They are out 
of the business, 1044 Thomas Street. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you so employed ? 

Mrs. Bloom. About 8 months. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your employment prior to that ? 

Mrs. Bloom. Prior to that, I was doing temporary office work. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mrs. Bloom. With the Manpower. I was on call. 

Mr. Arens. You mean the Federal Government ? 

Mrs. Bloom. No, no; it's an organization called Manpower, Inc., 
where they call you for temporary office work and you are sent to 
different offices on a temporary basis. 

Mr. Arens. Prior to that time, what was your last principal em- 
ployment ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I only worked during the summer months because I 
have young children. I couldn't work other than during the summer 
months. Prior to that, I worked also during the summer in 1943, 
A. C. Gilbert, as a drill-press operator. 

Then for 10 years prior to that, I did not work because I was raising 
a family. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Bloom. New Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. Have you lived here all your life ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I have lived here all my life. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about your education ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I went to elementary school and graduated from high 
school in 1932. 

Mr. Arens. Did you graduate from high school in 1932 in New 
Haven ? ■ 





I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5753 

Mrs. Bloom. In New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mrs. Bloom. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you received any specialized training since ? 

Mrs. Bloom. Well, during the war, 1941 to 1942, 1 decided to go to 
•work in a factory, and I took a special course that the Government was 
giving at the time, a 200-hour course, on machines. I completed that 
course in order to be able to go into the factory and work, since I hadn't 
worked. 

Mr. Arens. Have you received any special instruction or courses 
other than those you have just recited to us ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I have not. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to lay before you now, a photostatic copy of 
a nominating petition of November 1946, bearing the signature of 
a number of persons, nominating for the Communist Party for Kepre- 
sentative at Large, Michael A. Russo. Included thereon is the signa- 
ture of Doris Bloom, 701 Howard Avenue. 

Will you kindly tell us whether or not that is your signature ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you live at 701 Howard Avenue in November 1946 ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I did. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of a 1946 nomi- 
nating petition for State Senator for the Communist Party, Sidney 
S. Taylor, bearing the signature of a number of persons, including that 
of Doris Bloom, 701 Howard Avenue, and ask you whether or not that 
is your signature ? 

Miss Eoraback. We requested that no pictures be taken. I wonder 
if the photographers would be kind enough to respect that request? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

]Mrs. Bloom. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, IVIr. Chairman, that the two 
documents be marked "Doris Bloom Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2," respec- 
tively, and incorporated by reference in the record. 

Mr. Willis. It will be so marked and incorporated. 

(The documents referred to, marked "Doris Bloom Exhibits Nos. 
1 and 2," respectively, were incorporated by reference in the record.) 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Bloom, do you know a person by the name of W. C. 
]\Iosher ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of H. W. Mosher ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Each of these persons took oath and swore before this 
committee that while undercover agents for the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation in the Communist Party, they knew you as a Commu- 
nist. Were they lying or were they telling the truth? 

Mrs. Bloom. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment, 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi, would you kindly stand ? 

Mrs. Bloom, would you kindly look over your right shoulder at the 
lady standing there, and tell us whether you have ever seen her before ? 

Mrs. Bloom. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Paumi swore before this committee this morning 
that while she was an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation in the Communist Party, she knew you as a member 
of the Communist conspiracy. 



5754 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mrs. Bloom. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
elude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

Mr. Arens. Would Mr. Bernard Burg kindly come forward ? 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

Mr. Willis. Raise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Btirg. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BERNAED BURG, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CHARLES HENCHEL 

Mr. Arens. Please be seated. 

Mr. Burg. I would like to request no pictures, and no recording for 
radio. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Burg. My name is Bernard Burg, 38 Allen Road, New Haven, 
and I am a salesman. 

Mr. Arens. For what firm ? 

Mr. Henchel. May I make the same offer for the record of an affi- 
davit disclosing his present employers merely 

Mr. Willis. No ; you may not. 

Mr. Henchel. Very well. 

Mr. Burg. Zemel Bros. 

Mr. Arens. "What is the nature of that firm ? 

Mr. Burg. Electrical appliance store. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena served 
upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Burg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Burg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself ? 

Mr. Henchel. Charles Henchel, 152 Temple Street, New Haven. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been known by any name other than the 
name Bernard or Bernie Burg? 

Mr. Burg. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere were you born ? 

Mr. Burg. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. When, please, sir ? 

Mr. Burg. May 8, 1920. 

Mr. Arens. And a word, please, about your education. 

Mr. Burg. I attended grammar school and high school in Brooklyn. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. Burg. Except for some Army courses. 

Mr. Arens. What year did you complete your training at the high 
school ? 

Mr. Burg. I was supposed to graduate in 1937; however, I had to 
leave and go to work. I went back and graduated at night and 
graduated in 1941. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5755 

Mr. Arexs. Where were you working in the daytime when you were 
going to school at night ? 

yiv. Burg. Brooklyn Navy Yard, New York City. 

Mr. Arexs. Tell us, if you please, sir, the employment w^hich you 
had after completion of your high school education in 1941. 

Mr. Burg. Subsequently, I went into the service after leaving tlie 
Navy Yard. 

Mr. Arens. In what branch of the service ? 

Mr. Burg. Originally the Air Force, and finally the Infantry. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you receive a commission ? 

Mr. Burg. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Arexs. As a prerequisite to receiving that commission, did you 
take an oath to support and defend the Constitution of the United 
States against all enemies, foreign and domestic? 

Mr. Burg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any mental reservations ? 

Mr. Burg. No, sir. And I might say I resent that. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you a member of the Communist conspiracy wdien 
you took that oath ? 

Mr. Burg. No, sir ; I know of no conspiracy. 

^Ir. Arexs. Were you a member of the Communist Party w^hen you 
took tliat oath ? 

Mr. Burg. No, sir. 

]\Ir. Arexs. Are you now^ a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burg. I might say that the Constitution protects my rights of 
political and personal association, and I further invoke the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time during the period of your service in the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Burg. No, sir. 

Mr. Arex'S. "\^nien w^ere you separated from the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Burg. August 1946, separated with honorable discharge. 

Mr. Arexs. What w^as your employment then, beginning in August 
1946 or as soon as you could gain employment ? 

]Mr. Burg. Salesman, house-to-house. 

Mr. Arexs. What firm ? 

^Ir. Burg. Fuller Brush. 

Mr. Arexs. Where? 

Mr. Burg. New Haven. 

Mr. Arex'^s. How long w^ere you engaged as a Fuller Brush sales- 
man ? 

Mr. Burg. For approximately 2 years. 

]\Ir. Arexs. Then your next employment ? 

]Mr. Burg. I then worked for a short time for the People's Party of 
Connecticut. 

Mr. Arexs. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Burg. Oh, I forget the exact title, but it was in relation to the 
election campaign for Wallace and Taylor in the Third Congressional 
District. 

^[r. Arexs. Were you a member of the Communist Party while you 
were engaged as a Fuller Brush salesman from August 1946 to August 
1948? 

(The witness conferred with his connsel.) 



5756 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Burg. I believe that my right to political affiliation and personal 
association is being violated by this type of question, and furthermore, 
1 must invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party on Janu- 
ary 1,1947? 

Mr. Burg. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party in August 
of 1946? 

Mr. Burg. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time within a month of the date you were discharged from the Armed 
Forces? 

Mr. Burg. I feel that once again my rights to political and per- 
sonal association are being violated, and further, I must invoke the 
fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time prior to the period you were in the Armed Forces? 

Mr. Burg. I believe that my political beliefs, as well as my religious 
views, are my own to hold personally, with no one having the right to 
delve into this, and I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time during the time you were in the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Burg. I said "No, sir." 

Mr. Arens. Did you resign from the Conmaunist Party when you 
went into the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Burg. This is a trick question. I must say that once again 
this involves my political and personal rights and I would take the 
fifth amendment also. 

Mr. Arens. What year did you enter the Army ? 

Mr. Burg. Summer of 1943. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the month ? 

Mr. Burg. Not ofi^hand. It was in the summertime. 

Mr. Arens. Within a month? 

Mr. Burg. Excuse me ; may I consult with my counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, you have that privilege. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Burg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party any time 
during the year 1943 ? 

Mr. Burg. I must say once again, even though you are making 
political associations seem to be a terrible criminal thing, I must 
invoke my rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you regard membership in the Communist Party 
only as a political activity ? 

Mr. Burg. I would like to know under what law that has been 
outlawed. 

Mr. Arens. Would you answer that question ? ^ 

Is it your contention that the Communist Party is only a political 
party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Burg. Yes, sir ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Well, then, tell us the political party of which you are 
presently a member? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5757 



Mr. Burg. Once again, this is delving into my personal views, 
politics, which I don't feel is the business of this or any other Govern- 
ment agency. I must invoke the rights of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you now belong to a conspiratorial apparatus ? 

Mr. Burg. I have never knowingly, and do not now knowingly, 
belong to any conspiratorial apparatus. 

Mr. Arens. Do you now belong to an organization which is con- 
trolled by a foreign power? 

Mr. Burg. I do not now belong to any organization controlled by 
a foreign power. 

Mr. Arens. Do you now belong to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burg. I can see what your inferences are, Mr. Counsel, but 
because the position is relative between you and me, I must take the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. How were you engaged to work for the People's Party 
of Connecticut? Who assigned you that job, or who employed you"? 

Mr. Burg. I was employed — I don't remember the official body, but 
it was some official body of the Third Congressional District. 

Mr. Arens, Who was the person or persons who employed you ? 

Mr. Burg. I don't recall at this time who specifically employed me. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged by the People's Party ? 

Mr. Burg. Just for a few months, about 5 months, I would say, 
approximately ; a short period of my life. 

Mr. Arens. Who were the members of the executive board or the 
directors of the People's Party here ; could you tell us ? 

Mr. Burg. Mr. Arens, this w^as a short period in my life. 

Mr. Arens. If you have no recollection of it, just say so. 

Mr. Burg. I just can't. 

Mr. Arens. What w^as your next employment immediately after 
you ceased your operations with the People's Party ? 

Mr. Burg. Well, being out of work, and desperately in need of 
A\ork, I applied for every job I could get, and the next job I got was 
working for a plumbing concern. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you so employed ? 

Mr. Burg. A couple of months. I don't remember exactly. 

Mr. Arens. What year are you in now^, 1948 ? 

Mr. Burg. 1948-49, around there. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat was your next employment ? 

Mr. Burg. Detroit Steel Co. in Hamden, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. In w^hat capacity? 

Mr. Burg. As a machine operator. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed there ? 

Mr. Burg. For a year, just about; I don't remember exactly. I 
want to make clear that that is to the best of my recollection. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment, please, sir ? 

Mr. Burg. After, I acquired my present job. 

Mr. Arens. The present establishment with which you work, this 
Radio Center? 

Mr. Burg. It is known under both names. 

Mr. Arens. "\A^iat is the other name ? 

Mr. Burg. Zemel Bros, and Radio Center, Inc., under both names. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, in the course of your employment in the 
Radio Center, used on a loan basis some of the equipment of the Radio 



5758 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Center for any purpose for which you were not given remuneration 
or rental pay or compensation ? 

Mr. Burg. I don't understand the nature of the question, sir. You 
will have to be more specific. 

Mr. Arens. To be more specific, have you used some of the equip- 
ment of the Radio Center, such as speakers and audio equipment, for 
meetings, assemblages, under the auspices of the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Burg. I must answer that, to the best of my recollection on this, 
I have never done so. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of W. C. Mosher ? 

Mr. Burg. Well, I must say on this that Mr. Mosher was identified 
as an informer during the Smith Act trial, and Jewish moral law for- 
bids association with informers. Under that law I would be de- 
graded. I also would have to invoke the right to the fifth amend- 
ment- 
Mr. Arens. What would be your attitude toward Khrushchev? Is 
he not the greatest informer of all time, to inform on Stalin ? 

Mr. Burg. I don't feel qualified to comment on Mr. Khrushchev. 
If you want to have a political discussion 

Mr. Arens. If you want to talk about the Communist Party. 

Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Burg. Under the present circumstances, I feel this is an illegal 
invasion into my rights as a private citizen, and I must invoke the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know W. C. Mosher ? 

Mr. Burg. I previously answered that question, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had any information about, or associa- 
tion with, W. C. Mosher other than what you read in the paper. 

Mr. Burg. I believe I previously answered that question. 

Mr. Arens. Answer it again. 

Mr. Burg. All right. 

I believe that my own personal associations are protected by the 
first amendment in the Constitution, and it is just a question of simple 
human morality of delving into private business, and I must protect 
myself by using the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee whetlier or not you knew W. C. Mosher you might be supplying 
information that might be used against you in a criminal proceed- 
ing? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Burg. This is a question that has been asked of many people 
here. 

Mr. Willis. Yes, and it is a valid question. 

Mr. Burg. Yes, I am not denying the validity of the question. 

Mr. Willis. You can put it any way you want, but we are just test- 
ing whether you are honestly invoking the protection of the fifth 
amendment. If you are honestly invoking it, you have absolutely that 
right. 

Mr. Burg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. But, in order to invoke it, you must be within the con- 
stitutional provision. 

Mr. Burg. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5759 

Mr. Willis. Which, in essence, means that you cannot be compelled 
to be a witness against yourself. 

Mr. Burg. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. It will not do for you to come here and make little 
speeches in advance, because of this and that, and finally plead or 
invoke the privileges of the fifth amendment. The question is a 
perfectl}^ proper one. You force it on yourself and you have to answer 
it. 

Mr. Burg. In connection with speeches, I have heard speeches all 
day long by people on this side. I don't intend to make a speech, but 
because I feel the implications of this answer which I intend to give, 
it should be explained that some people were tried here 

Mr. Willis. You answer the question. 

Mr. Burg. Can I then explain the answer, sir? 

Mr. Willis. There is a very sinq^le question before you and you 
know the constitutional provision involved. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Burg. I must say that not under unj feeling or implication of 
guilt, the answer must be "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Harold Mosher ? 

Mr, Burg. I believe he is the person I heard referred to by James 
O'Connor Shea as a sneak and paid sneak. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us, then, in addition to being a sneak and 
a paid sneak, was he a liar when he said he knew you as a Communist? 

Mr. Burg. I must say that this represents an invasion of my rights 
and I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Burg. Once again I must say that I feel that my personal as- 
sociations are my own business, and I must invoke the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. W. C. Mosher, Harold Mosher, and Rowena Paumi 
testified under oath that they knew you as a member of the Com- 
munist conspiracy. Were they lying or were they telling the truth ? 

Mr. Burg. I have answered this question many ways, many times, 
so far, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Answer it again so the record is clear as to whether or 
not you want to deny being a Communist. 

Mr. Burg. I will say that once again I am not ashamed of my polit- 
ical and personal beliefs, but they are made to appear as criminal 
before this hearing. I must invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. t'hairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

INIr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

Mr. Arens. May we have a 5-minute recess, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

(A sliort recess was taken.) 

Mr. Willis. Come to order, please. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kreas, would you kindly come forward a minute? 

TESTIMONY OF SAUL KREAS— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. We have liere a letter from you requesting an oppor- 
tunity to be heard with reference to certain statements you say 
were made by Mr. Mosher, which you wanted to deny under oath. We 
are presently in recess awaiting the arrival of the last witness of the 



5760 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

session here. I understand he will not be here until about a quarter 
of 4. 

I want this record to show that we would be very glad to hear you 
now, but you have advised me unofficially that your attorney is not 
presently available. Therefore, the only other alternative we have 
is to hear you in Washington at a later date. 

Mr. Willis. I think I should say this : 

After the noon hour, I talked to Mr. Kreas' counsel, Mr. Bingham. 
At that time I told him we had six or more witnesses to be heard 
this afternoon ; that I doubted very seriously that we could reach you ; 
that, because we still have some outstanding subpenas, witnesses who 
did not show up, that the chances are we will be hearing from other 
■witnesses in this area ; and that, therefore, the record will be left open 
and in due time we would hear from you and give you an opportunity 
to be heard again. 

It develops that, since another witness is late, we are remaining 
here later than we thought, and we now find ourselves in a position to 
hear you. We still have about an hour to do it. I am not pressing 
you. I want the record to be perfectly clear to you and to the 
committee. 

Mr. Kreas. I regret very much. First, I appreciate your attitude 
of giving me the opportunity to grant my request. However, without 
a counsel, I don't feel I should do it, and the counsel might have 
stayed here, if you would state to him what you just stated. He was 
definitely under the impression that the business you would have, you 
would not be able, and this is why he left. 

So I accept the promise that you will give me the opportunity. 

Mr. Willis. We do not know where or when that will be. 

Mr. Kreas. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. But we do have, how many outstanding subpenas ? 

Mr. Arens. Three that have not been served. 

Mr. Willis. Three outstanding subpenas, witnesses whom we have 
not heard from. This is a continuing investigation, and it is quite 
likely that there will be more witnesses to be heard, and at that time 
you will be notified. 

Mr. Kreas. Well, of course, what I estimated it would take me only 
about 2 minutes. 

Mr. Willis. If you want to testify, or even if you want to phone your 
lawyer, it is perfectly all right with us. 

Mr. Kreas. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Kreas, would you want to phone your lawyer? 

Mr. Kreas. I just want to inform you that my lawyer lives in New 
London, so even if I should be successful, it would take him better 
than an hour to get here. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

(A recess of approximately 1 hour was taken.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel will call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Samuel Gruber, please come forward and remain 
standing while the chairman administers an oath to you, please. 

Mr. Willis. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5761 

Mr. Gruber. I do. 

Mr. Chairman, I don't know whether there are television pictures 
being taken of me. May I request that they not be taken ^ 

Mr. Willis. That is the rule, that if you object to television, it will 
be respected. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL GEUBER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CATHERINE G. EOEABACK 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Gruber. My name is Samuel Gruber. My residence is Stamford, 
Conn., and I am an attorney. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties? 

Mr. Gruber. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Gruber. Miss Roraback. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify herself ? 

Miss Roraback. Catherine G. Roraback, 185 Church Street, New 
Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been known by any name other than the 
name Samuel Gruber ? 

Mr. Gruber. I was served by the name Sam Gruber. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been known by any other name ? 

Mr. Gruber. No. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Gruber. November 11, 1906, Stamford. 

Mr. Arens. A word about your education, if you please, sir. 

Mr. Gruber. I graduated from high school in Stamford in 1923. 
I went to Columbia College and graduated there in 1927. I went to 
Columbia Law School and graduated in 1933, I believe. There was a 
hiatus there, as you can see, when I wasn't at law school. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you admitted to practice, please, Mr. Gruber ? 

Mr. Gruber. In Connecticut. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only State in which you are admitted to 
practice ? 

Mr. Gruber. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you admitted to practice in the Federal court? 

Mr. Gruber. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Have you practiced continuously since you received 
your degree from Columbia in 1933 ? 

Mr. Gruber. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You took the bar that year ? 

Mr. Gruber. No. I took the bar 2 years later. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you take the bar examination? 

Mr, Gruber. Connecticut. 

Mr. Arens. As a prerequisite to being admitted to the bar, did you 
take an oath to defend and support the Constitution of the United 
States? 

Mr. Gruber. I am sure I did. 



5762 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Plave you at any time since taking the oath to defend 
and support the Constitution of the United States been a member of 
an organization dedicated to the destruction of the Constitution of 
the United States and the forceful overthrow of the Government of the 
United States ? 

Mr. Gruber. Well, Mr. Chairman, I would like on that to say that 
I think that that question is an unconstitutional invasion 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, I would suggest that the witness 
answer the question and not make a speech. 

Mr. Gruber. I am not proposing, sir, Mr. Kearney, to make a 
speech. I have no intention of making a speech and oration. I merely 
want to give my reasons for declining to answer the question. 

May I? 

Mr. Kearney. As far as I am concerned, so long as it is not a speech. 

Mr. Gruber. It won't be a speech, sir. I decline to answer the ques- 
tion on the ground that, under the first amendment, it's an invasion of 
my rights of speech, belief, and association, and in addition, I claim 
the privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Gruber, have you ever been a member of the Na- 
tional Lawyers' Guild ? 

Mr. Gruber. Yes, I am now a member. 

Mr. Arens. When did you join the National Lawyers' Guild? 

Mr. Gruber. I don't recall. I would think that it was perhaps 
1940, to the best of my recollection, maybe a little later, maybe earlier. 

Mr. Arens. Have you continuously been a member of the National 
Lawyers' Guild since 1940 ? 

Mr. Gruber. If that is the date, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held an office in the National Lawyers' 
Guild? 

Mr. Gruber. No, I have not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you consistently paid dues in the National 
Lawyers' Guild ? 

Mr. Gruber. Yes, I believe so. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the citation 
of the National Lawyers' Guild, appearing in the Guide to Subversive 
Organizations and Publications of the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities, on page 85, appear at this point in the testimony. 

Mr. Willis. The citation will appear in the record at this point. 

(The matter referred to is as follows :) 

Cited as a Communist front whicli "is tlie foremost legal biilwai'k of the Com- 
munist Party, its front organizations, and controlled unions" and which "since 
its inception has never failed to rally to the legal defense of the Communist Party 
and individual members thereof, including knovpn espionage agents." (Con- 
gressional Committee on Un-American Activities, Reiwrt on the National 
Lawyers Guild, H. Rept. No. 3123, September 21, 1950 (originally released 
September 17, 1950).) 

Mr. Gruber. May I see what that is ? 

Mr. Arens. It is the citation of the National Lawyers' Guild by the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities, pursuant to which the 
National Lawyers' Guild is cited as a Communist front, and in which 
it is also described as being the foremost legal bulwark of the Com- 
munists in their attempt to control unions, and wdiich, since its incep- 
tion, has never failed to rally to the legal defense of the Communist 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES EST NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5763 

Pailj, and individual membei-s thereof, including known espionage 
agents. 

Have you been a meml)er of the Citizens Committee To Free Earl 
Bixiwder ? 

Mr. Gruber. The same answer to that question as to the previous 
one. 

Mr. Willis. In other words, you are invoking the first and fifth 
amendments ? 

]Mr. Gruber. Yes. 

May I, when I say 

Mr. Willis. It will be satisfactory. We are lawyers and there 
were intervening questions. 

Mr. Gruber. I meant that answer, and if I may, Mr. Chairman, 
I would like to use that in answering. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been identified with the International 
Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers? 

Mr. Gruber. It seems to me I have done law work for the Mine, 
Mill. 

JNIr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the International 
Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers ? 

Mr. Gruber. No ; I don't believe so. I was only their attorney. 
Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy, Mr. Gruber, of the 
•Communist Daily Worker, New York, March 16, 1942. I direct your 
attention to an article entitled "Unionists in Five States Say Free 
Browder," which lists the names of a number of persons who have 
petitioned for the freeing of Earl Browder, including a person identi- 
fied here as Samuel Gruber, International representative. Interna- 
tional Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers. I ask if you would 
kindly glance at that article to see if it refreshes your recollection. 
Tell us whether or not you are the individual alluded to in that article. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Gruber. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you sign the petition to free Earl Browder? 
Mr. Gruber. The same answer, sir. 

IVIr. Arens. Now please tell this committee 

Mr. Willis. The answer to the previous question was "Yes". 
Mr. Gruber. I am sorry ; that is correct. 

Mr. Willis. I just want the record clear. I do not expect you to 
repeat it word for word. 

You mean again the invocation of the first and fifth amendments ? 
Mr. Gruber. I do, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell the committee the organizations to which 
you have belonged since 1945. 
Mr. Gruber. Since 1945? 
Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Gruber. Well, if you would be more specific? 
]\Ir. Arens. You are a member of the bar association? 
Mr. Gruber. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Can you recall any other organization of which you 
were a member ? 

Mr. Gruber. If you would be more specific 

Mr. Arens. Can you now recall the organizations of which you 
have been a member since 1945 ? 



5764 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Grubee. Well, if you are asking about the Communist Party 
or any other organizations like that, then I give you the same answer 
as I did before. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us of any organizations of the non-Communist 
variety of which you may have been a member since 1945. 

Mr. Gruber. I didn't say that I was a member of any Communist 
organization, Mr. Arens ; those are your words. I am trying to think 
of organizations that 

Mr. Arens. You belong to the bar association here, you say ? 

Mr. Gruber. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you belonged to the bar association ? 

Mr. Gruber. I really can't tell. 

Mr. Arens. You belong to the National Lawyers' Guild. You have 
told us about that. 

Mr. Gruber. Yes. I have belonged to the bar association, oh, for 
quite a number of years. I just don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. At least since 1945 ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Gruber. I would think so. I belong to the Stamford Bar 
Association. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other organizations of which you have 
been a member since 1945 ? 

Mr. Gruber. At the moment I can't think of any. If you would be 
good enough to enlighten me, or if you have anything in mind, I would 
be very glad to tell you. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of W. C. Mosher, 
M-o-s-h-e-r? 

Mr. Gruber. I know of him. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever meet him ? 

Mr. Gruber. Well, in view of the fact that, as I understand it, he 
has appeared here as a witness — I haven't heard him nor have I 
seen him — I would invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever seen him or have you ever heard of him ? 

Mr. Gruber. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever hear of a man by the name of Mike 
Spencer ? 

Mr. Gruber. Who? 

Mr. Arens. Mike Spencer. 

Mr. Gruber. It seems to me that I was representing a group in 
Washington who appeared before the — I don't recognize the name. 
I thought I might have. I am not sure. 

May I, Mr. Chair^man, ask a question of Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, you may ask me. 

Mr. Gruber. I came in, and of course I knew that I would have 
to appear right away. I didn't have the opportunity to hear fi'om 
you or to ask if you would be good enough to enlighten me as to 
what the specific purpose of this inquiry is. 

Mr. Arens. You do not ask that in a serious way, I am sure. 
This is the House Committee on Un-American Activities charged by 
the United States Congress to develop facts in connection with the 
Communist conspiracy. We are here for that purpose. 

Tell us whether you know a person by the name of Rowena Paumi ? 

Mr. Gruber. May I just say one thing before you go on ? 

The reason I raised it, Mr. Arens, was that I have read in the 
press that one of the reasons why this committee came here was 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5765 

that it was a followup on the Smith Act trials, at which I was for a 
short time counsel. Now, is that so ? 

Mr. Arens. Now kindly tell us whether or not you know a per- 
son by the name of Eowena Paiuni ? 

Mr. Gruber. Since, as I understand it, she has appeared here, too, I 
would decline to answer that. 

jMr. Arens. INIiss Paumi, would you kindly come forward ? 

Be seated, please. You have already been sworn. 

TESTIMONY OF EOWENA R. PAUMI— Eesumed 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your membership in the Com- 
munist Party at the behest of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, did 
you have occasion to know a person by the name of Samuel Gruber ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know whether or not Samuel Gruber was a 
member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

]\Iiss Paumi. I have attended a closed meeting with him in 1945, 
and other meetings, 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Samuel Gruber as a Commmiist ? 

Miss Paumi. As far as I know. 

Mr. Arens. Do you now see in the courtroom that person whom you 
knew as a Communist ? 

Miss Paumi. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Arens. Point him out. 

Miss Paumi. The man on my left. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. Miss Paumi. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL GRUBER— Resumed 

IVIr. Arens. Will you look at this lady, Mr. Gruber, and tell us while 
you are mider oath whether or not she was lying or telling the truth 
when she identified you as a person known to her to be a Communist? 

JMr. Gruber. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Gruber, W. C, Mosher took an oath before 
this committee and stated in effect that while he was an undercover 
agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the Communist 
Party, he knew you as a Communist. Was he lying or was he telling 
the truth ? 

Mr. Gruber. I would appreciate it, Mr. Arens, if you would ex- 
plain what you mean when you say "in effect" ? Did he 

Mr, Arens. You are not going to quibble with me now. 

Do you want to deny that W. C. Mosher was telling the truth when 
he said he knew you as a Communist ? 

Mr. Gruber, It was your statement; not mine. You said he said 
"in effect," Now you are a lawyer and I am a lawyer. I understand 
a little bit as to what words mean. 

Did Mr. Mosher say it or did he not? I would like to know, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Mosher said he knew you as a Communist. 

Now, would you tell us, was Mr. Mosher lying or was he telling the 
truth? 

Mr. Gruber. Is that what he said ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 



5766 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Willis. Yes, you are directed to answer the question, particular- 
ly since you have a choice, independently of what Mr. Mosher might 
have said or not said, to come forward on your own and affirm or deny 
the fact. 

Mr. Gruber. May I consult for just a minute? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gruber. May I have the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Keporter, will you please read the question? 
(The pending- question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Gruber. The same answer as before, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of a legal commission of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Gruber. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the State executive 
board of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gruber. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you were a member of the State executive board of the 
Communist Party of the State of Connecticut. 

Mr. Gruber. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a Communist ? 

Mr. Gruber. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Communist Party discipline ? 

Mr. Gruber. Am I what? 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Communist Party discipline ? 

Mr. Gruber. Would you explain what you mean by "under Commu- 
nist Party discipline" ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Are you presently receiving orders and directions from the Com- 
munist conspiracy with respect to any activity by yourself? 

Mr. Gruber. Let me make it perfectly clear, Mr. Arens, that in my 
20 years of practice as an attorney, I have never received orders from 
anyone in the legal profession, in the representation of clients, in doing 
what I could to help them as I saw their needs and problems. 

Mr. Kearney. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gruber. I have declined to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Gruber. I have said the same answer. 

Mr. Kearney. Your voice has been so low I did not hear you. 

Mr. Gruber. I am sorry, sir. I would really like to have some 
water. My lips are awfully dry. 

Mr. Arens. Certainly. 

Have you consulted with anyone known to you to be a member of 
the Communist Party with reference to your appearance before this 
committee today ? 

Mr. Gruber. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

The Chair wishes to make this statement. 

The accomplishments of an investigating committee such as the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities cannot adequately be 
appraised statistically. By the very nature of its work, we are dealing 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 5767 

with something which is intangible though very real, and though real, 
it is illusive. 

What we have witnessed here in the past 3 days, I believe, revealed 
the following: 

First, we have seen additional parts of a pattern of Communist tech- 
nique. All of the parts of the mosaic are not completely visible, but 
there has been revealed additional light on the Communist drive to 
colonize industrial areas. We have heard former undercover agents 
of the FBI testify concerning the extent and strength of the con- 
spiracy in this area. We have learned a bit more about the current 
organizational pattern of the Communist Party, its groupings, and the 
focal points of its emphasis. 

Secondly, we have, I believe, brought to the attention of tlie people 
of this area the serious nature of this conspiracy, and the hard fact 
of its present existence in various fabrics of our society. This problem 
is a problem not only for the Federal agencies of our Government, but 
it is a rightful concern of all loyal Americans. 

Third, we have, I hope, struck another blow at the conspiracy by 
bringing a few more Communists to the light of day. 

Fourth, we have additional material with which to reappraise the 
many laws which undertake to cope with the ever-changing, devious 
Communist operations in our land. 

Now I wish to thank the many who have made our visit pleasant, 
including tlie United States marshal and his assistants; the district 
attorney, Mr. Cohen ; Judge Anderson, for the facilities of his court- 
room; the other officials of the court; and the press, the radio, and 
others who have been so gracious to us. 

I wish to add on a personal note that this subcommittee was happy 
to have with us during most of our hearings our colleague from this 
area. Congressman Cretella. We appreciate his presence and his 
interest in the work of this committee. 

Now I wonder if General Kearney would care to add any specific 
remarks? 

Mr. Kearney. No; I have nothing specific to add, Mr. Chairman. 
I wholeheartedly agree with your statement, particularly with refer- 
ence to the courtesies that have been extended to us by Mr. Cohen and 
the United States marshals, and also the members of the press, the 
cameramen, and the TV men. As you say, Mr. Chairman, we ap- 
preciate the presence of our colleague, Mr. Cretella, who has shown 
such an interest in this fight against communism, not only here but 
in the Halls of Congress. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Counsel, I understand that you have no further 
witnesses ? 

Mr. Arens. That is correct, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. I have already brought out the fact that we have 2 
or 3 more outstanding subpenas. Mr, Kreas was afforded an op- 
poi'tunity to be heard again this afternoon, but, unfortunately, his 
counsel was not present; so I am quite sure that the persons under 
these outstanding subpenas, as well as some other witnesses our investi- 
gators might want to interview in this area at a time and place to be 
announced, will be heard at a later date. 

We will call the hearings to a conclusion. 

I should be happy to have a word from our colleague, Mr. Cretella. 



5768 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN NEW HAVEN, CONN., AREA 

Mr. Cretella. Mr. Chairman, as a Member of Congress represent- 
ing this Third Congressional District of Connecticut, it was a pleasure 
for me to have had you in our midst with this very serious under- 
taking, this very important investigation that you have been con- 
ducting. During the course of the year, this same Un-American Activ- 
ities Committee, of which you are now chairman of the subcommittee, 
has had extended hearings throughout the country. You have taken, 
I know, a great deal of verbal abuse and otherwise, and so have your 
predecessors in the same chairmanships, and we have gone down 
through the years with the same abuse heaped on us. 

I think every Member of Congress is vitally interested in this prob- 
lem that is confronting this Nation, and I am appalled to find that in 
our very midst in this beautiful and grand State of Connecticut we 
have such an infiltration of people so disloyal to a fine country. I 
hope that in the next Congress, if the need arises to further strengthen 
the laws against communism and infiltration of disloyal individuals, 
that legislation will be passed. 

I was glad to have welcomed you here, and I hope you enjoyed 
your stay. 

Mr. Willis. Thank you, Mr. Cretella. 

(Whereupon, at 4 : 20 p. m. Wednesday, September 26, 1956, the 
suDcommittee recessed, subject to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Alpert, Yetta 5659 

Arsenault, Oliver 5608, 5612-5623 (testimony), 5625, 5626, 5633, 5635, 5728 

Bailin, Esther 5728 

Barnes, Joseph 5607,5608,5611,5664,5734,5736-5739 (testimony) 

Barnes, Lois (Mrs. Joseph Barnes) 5607, 

5608, 5611, 5664, 5729, 5732, 5739-5742 (testimony) 

Bingham, Alfred M 5647, 5760 

Bloom, Doris (Mrs. Paul Bloom) 5658,5750,5751-5754 (testimony) 

Bloom, Paul 5658-5660, 5682, 5749-5751 (testimony) 

Browder, Earl 5644, 5763 

Brunin. (See Kreas, Saul.) 

Burg, Bernard (Bernie) 5664, 5680, 5682, 5732, 5754-.5759 (testimony) 

Burke, Barney 5661 

Brunswick, Rose 5684 

Callanan 5734 

Carter, Helena 5684 

Chapman, Cal 5607 

Chavez, Joseph 5708 

Cheyfitz, Edward 5703 

Clark, John 5708, 5709, 5711 

Coleman, Edward 5706, 5707 

Cruckray, Max 5659 

Davis, Emma (Mrs. Samuel Davis) 5659, 

5660, 5682, 5683, 574.5-5748 (testimony) 

Davis, Samuel 5659, 5683, 5742-5745 (testimony) 

Demow, Joseph 5607, 5660, 5663, 5683 

Demow, Lil (Mrs. Joseph Demow) 5683 

Dennis, Ray 5708 

Dichter, Irving 5607, 5701-5711 (testimony) 

Ekins, Bob 5607 

Farkasi, Mary 5i729 

Farmer, Estelle (Mrs. Leonard Farmer) 5663 

Farmer, Leonard ^ 5663 

Fazekas, Frank 5607,5608,5623-5631 (testimony), 5633, 5634,5663, 5728 

Finn, Jack 5728 

Foxworth 5729 

Gibbs, Jimmy 5607, 5680 

Gilden, Bert David 5585-5598 (testimony), 5599-5605 (testimony), 5608, 5611 

Gilden, Kateha (Mrs. Bert Gilden) , 5607, 5608 

Goldberg, Dave 5664 

Goldring, Harriet 5728 

Goldring, Jake 5605, 5607 

Green, Fanny 5660, 5664 

Gruber, Samuel 5663, 5683, 5730, 5761-5766 (testimony) 

Hawley, Celeste 5680 

Hemingway, Ernest 5741 

Henchel, Charles 5742, 5745, 5754 

Howard, Asbury 5708 

Hubbell, Harvey 5605 

Hubblebank, Diane 56.59 

Jakowenko, Konstantlne 5689-5695 (testimony), 5696 

Kaplan, Harry 5684 

Kaplan, Lillian (Mrs. Harry Kaplan) 5660,-5684 

1 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Kaufman, Mary M 5612, 5623, 5631 

Kavser, Arlene. ( See Resnick, Arlene. ) 

Keating, William 5686 

Kennedy, Bob 5662 

Kent, Harold 5597, 

5559 (testimony), 5605-5612 (testimony), 5620-5622, 5627-5629, 
5635, 5641, 5645, 5666, 5676, 5677, 5688, 5709, 5727, 5739, 5741. 
Krasnogorsky, Sholem. (See Kreas, Saul.) 

Kreas, Pauline (Mrs. Saul Kreas) 5659 

Kreas, Saul (real name Sholem Krasnogorsky, also known as Brunin) 5647- 

5653 (testimony), 565^5656 (testimony), 5659, 5665-5667, 5681, 
5732, 5759, 5760, 5767. 

Larson, Orville 5708 

Lawrence, Alton 5708 

Lear, Maxwell 5746 

Lindsey, Jean 5662 

Lockwood, Ralph 5636, 5736, 5739 

Marder, Al 5661 

Margolin, Louise 5659 

Margolin, Oscar 5659, 5662 

McDonough, James 5662 

McLeach, Bert 5608 

Meites, Thelma 5660 

Mosher, Harold W 5650, 

5661, 5678-5685 (testimony) , 5744, 5745, 5748, 5751, 5753, 5759 

Mosher, Worden C (also known as Mike Spencer) 5627, 

5645, 5650, 5653-5654 (testimony), 5655, 5656-5668 (testimony), 
5678, 5726, 5744, 5745, 5748, 5751, 5753, 5758, 5759, 5764-5766. 

Noble, Harry 5746 

Paumi, Rowena R 5597, 

5604, 5621, 5622, 5627, 5628, 5635, 5641, 5645, 5650, 5654, 5666, 5677, 
5688, 5694, 5699, 5725-5726 (testimony), 5727-5736 (testimony), 
5739, 5741, 5745, 5748, 5751, 5753, 5759, 5764, 5765 (testimony). 

Peterson, Frank 5610,5642-5646 (testimony), 5664, 5728' 

Pezzati, Albert 5708, 5709 

Pistey, William 5608,5631-5636 (testimony), 5728 

Powers, Chase 5708 

Rabinowitz, Victor 5668, 5685, 5689, 5690, 5695, .5696 

Rapuna, Henry 5706, 5707 

Raymond, George Russell 5663 

Resnick, Arlene (Mrs. Sidney Resnick, nee Kayser) 5680 

Resnick, Sidney 5680 

Richter, Charlotte (Mrs. Samuel Richter) 5607, 

5610, 5678, 568.5-5689 ( testimony ), 5733. 

Richter, Samuel 5610, 5635, 5668-5678 (testimony) , 5685, 5690, 5696, 5733 

Rogers, Addie 5729 

Rogers, Harold 5729 

Roraback, Catherine G 5585, 5642, 5749, 5751, 5761 

Rosenberg, Ethel 5732-5734 

Rosenberg, Julius .5732-5734 

Russo, Michael A 5725, 5750, 5753 

Russo, Pearl 5729 

Shea, James O'Connor 5759 

Simons, Irv 5680 

Simons, Virginia 5680 

Sito, Ida 5734 

Sito. Louise 5728, 5729 

Small, Priscilla 5661, 5680 

Soyka, Joseph 5659 

Spector, Sarah (Mrs. Isadore Spector) 5659 

Spector, Isadore 5659 

Spencer, Mike. {See Mosher, Worden C.) 

Stahl. Dave 5664 

Steinberg, Hyman 5690,5695-5700 (testimony) 

Sutton, Al 5729 

Sykes, Emmett 5729 



INDEX iii 

Sykes, Mattie 5608, 5636 

Tate, Jim 5607 

Taylor, Sidney S 5607, 5662, 5751, 5753 

Thompson, Joe 5729 

Tomac-h, Sam 5734 

Towies, Burl 5680 

Travis, Maurice 5707, 5711 

Trudeau, Clyde 5681 

Ward, Roosevelt 5607 

Weed, Verne 5708, 5709, 5731 

Weinberg. Milton I 5610,5636-5641 (testimony), 5734 

Weinberg, Mrs. Milton 5734 

Weissman, Sol 5683 

Willard, Josephine 5605, 5607, 5608, 

5619, 5663, 5664, 5712-5725 (testimony), 5726-5727 (testimony), 5728 

Willcox, Elsie 5708, 5709, 5731, 5734 

Witt, Nathan 5705 

Wyman, Jack 5728 

Young. Al 5607 

Yuchniek, Grace 5729 

Yuchnick, Mike 5729 

Zanella, Vincent, Jr 5712 

Organizations 

AVCO Manufacturing Corp 5610, 5636, 5642, 5660 

Aid to Wives of the Smith Act Victims 5732 

Amnesty Committee, Connecticut 5732 

Bridgeport Women for Peace 5740,5741 

Civil Rights Congress 5732 

Communist Party : 

Connecticut 5657 

Executive Committee 5606, 5766 

Negro Commission 5606, 5607 

State Board (concealed) 5606,5607,5609 

State Committee 5606, 5663 

University of Connecticut cell ._ 5681 

Bridgeport 5608, 5610, 5611, 5724 

Bridgeport Club 5728 

Cell within General Electric Co 5607, 5611 

City Committee 5606, 5607 

Decca Branch 5727, 5728 

Decca-Columbia Branch 5728 

East End Branch 5728, 5729 

Executive Board 5726 

North End Branch 5728 

12-B Branch 5729 

New Haven 5658, 5661 

A. F. of L. Club 5663 

Branford Club 5662 

CIO Club 5063 

Dixwell Club 5660 

Finance Committee 5657 

Grand Avenue Club 5661, 5662 

Hill Club 5658, 5682 

Howe Street Club 5659, 5664, 5683, 5684 

Industrial Club 5662, 5663 

Organization and Education Committee 5<)57 

Professional Club 5663, 56(54 

Railroad Club 5662 

Section Committee 5679, 5681 

Yale Club 5663, 5679, 5680 

Youth Club (group) 5661, 5664, 5679, 5680, 5682 

Communist Political Association 5729 

Connecticut I'eace Council 5731-5733 

Connecticut Volunteers for Civil Rights 5732, 5738 

Diecasting Workers, National Association of 5703 



iV INDEX 

Page 
Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, United : Local 208, 

Bridgeport. Conn 5617, 5618, 5625, 5626, 5630, 5644 

Executive Board 5618 

Electrical Workers, International Union of . 563S 

Freedom of the Press Committee 5693 

General Electric Co., Bridgeport, Conn 5594, 5596, 5605, 

5610, 5613, 5615, 5617, 5624, 5625, 5631, 5632, 5643, 5660, 5728 

Jefferson School of Social Science 5606 

Labor Youth League 5680, 5682 

March of Labor (publication) 5630 

Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, International, Union of _-__ 5701, 5703-5707, 571 1 

Executive Board 5708 

National Lawyers Guild 5762 

Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood of, 

A. F. of L. : Local 186 5649 

People's Party, Connecticut 5592, 5-595, 5608, 5619, 5755, 5757 

Progressive Party 5592 

Reliable Steel Dx-um Co., Bridgeport, Conn 5669 

Singer Manufacturing Co., Bridgeport, Conn 5596, 5737 

Young Communist League 5725 

o 



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