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Full text of "Investigation of Communist propaganda in the United States. Hearing"



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN 
THE UNITED STATES— PART 3 

(Foreign Propaganda — Entry and Disseminalion in San Francisco, Calif., Area) 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOUETH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



DECEMBER 10 AND 11, 1956 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-Americau Activities 
(Including Index) 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
82728 WASHINGTON : 1957 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
IINITFD <JTflTF<; nnucDM.^t-Mx 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Richard Aeens, Director 
U 



CONTENTS 



December 10, 1956: 

Testimonv of — Page 

Chester R. MacPhee 6043 

Irving Fishman 6044 

Stephen K. Louie 6068 

Afternoon session 

John C. Caldwell 6073 

Jeremiah Feingold 6089 

Holland DeWitte Roberts 6115 

December 11, 1956 (afternoon session): 

Testimony of — 

Wilhelmina Loughrey 6135 

Lawrence Lowe 6138 

Index i 

(Testimony of Grace Partridge, Louis Goldblatt, Clair Jensen, Aubrey Gross- 
man, William Heikkila, Cleophas Brown, and Victor Arnautoff heard on Decem- 
ber 11, 1956, in San Francisco, will be printed under the title of Communist 
Political Subversion.) 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * . 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVE^ 

Rule X " 

SEC. 121, STANDING COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make, from time to time, investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
( iii ) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

• * * * * * ♦ 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEE 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress : 

« * ii: i|: * * * 

(g) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
t ni * * * * * 

RUUE XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make, from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of im-American propaganda activities in the United States, 

(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 

(3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall rejKtrt to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session ) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together vrith such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN 
THE UNITED STATES— PART 3 

(Foreign Propaganda — Entry and Dissemination in 
San Francisco, Calif., Area) 



MONDAY, DECEMBER 10, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

San Francisco^ Calif. 

PUBMC hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 10 a. m., pursuant to recess, in room 338, Federal Building, San 
Francisco, Calif., Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Clyde Doyle, of Cali- 
fornia, Harold H. Velde, of Illinois, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director; William A. 
Wheeler, Donald T. Appell, and W. Jackson Jones, investigators; 
and Richard S. Weil, staff member. 

(Committee members present at time of convening: Representa- 
tives Clyde Doyle, Harold H. Velde, and Gordon H. Scherer.) 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will please come to order. 

I would suggest, as long as there is unoccupied space just inside 
the rail in the first row, that if the witnesses would be permitted to 
sit there, then as far as the seats are available, then the people standing 
in the courtroom could have seats. 

Would that l^e permissible, Mr. Marshal ? 

Then will the witnesses who wish to do so come inside the rail and 
sit in the first row. That will be a little closer to the witness chair 
and also permit the people in the rear of the room to have seating 
accommodations. 

Thank you for your cooperation. 

I have a brief opening statement I wish to read. 

This morning a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities of the United States Congress is beginning 2 days' hearings 
in San Francisco. 

Let the record show that, pursuant to authorization and appoint- 
ment by Francis E. Walter, chairman of the full Committee on Un- 
American Activities, this subcommittee consists of Representative 
Harold H. Velde of Illinois, on my right. Representative Gordon H. 
Scherer of Ohio, on my left, and myself, Clyde Doyle of Los Angeles 
County, as subcommittee chairman. 

6039 



6040 INTESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Our hearings in San Francisco today and tomorrow will embrace 
two principal subjects, both of which the Committee on Un-American 
Activities has been examining in other cities of our great Nation. 
This, therefore, is a continuing series of the hearings. 

.The first of these concerns the devious influx of Communist political 
propaganda which is flooding many areas of the United States from 
sources behind the Iron Curtain. 

The committee has already received much sworn testimony in Wash- 
ington and Philadelphia about the staggering volume of this prop- 
aganda, which is distributed in ways that circumvent the foreign 
agents registration laws of our Nation requiring the labeling of for- 
eign propaganda and the identification of the people who distribute 
and disseminate it. 

The second subject before us will be the current campaign of Com- 
munist political subversion, that is, the concerted effort of the Com- 
munist Party in the United States and its confederates to strip our 
Nation of its security laws designed to protect our own Nation against 
subversive activities. 

We have been conducting hearings on this, as you know, in Chicago, 
Washington, Youngstown, and, during the last few days, in Los 
Angeles. 

Taken all together, the testimony which this committee has received 
thus far presents a very shocking picture of how a dedicated core of 
militant Communists, by subversive propaganda and infiltration, are 
attempting to enlist the American people in a common cause, to rob 
the American people of their legal defenses against ultimate domina- 
tion by the conspirators who owe loyalty to the Kremlin. 

This activity of the Communist Party in the United States, now 
being conducted through a multitude of "front" organizations, is di- 
rected against the Smith Act, the Internal Security Act, the Commu- 
nist Control Act and, with particular vehemence, against the provi- 
sions of our Immigration and Nationality Act which make possible 
the deportation of alien Communists who have obtained residence in 
the United States. 

I wish to make it clear that we are not contesting the right of 
people to organize for or against any particular law. 

This is a fundamental right under our Constitution. And this com- 
mittee is not only sworn to uphold it but is proud and glad to do so. 

But subversion against our internal security laws is not legitimate 
political activity. 

The operation of subversive, illegal conspiracy that seeks to open 
the way for conquest by a foreign power cannot be considered a part 
of the democratic procedures by which our beloved Nation lives. 

Congress is entitled to know who the real parties in interest are who 
are petitioning the United States Congress. Only such disclosure 
enables Congress to legislate intelligently and with justice to the 
American people. 

At this time I would like to make it crystal clear that the Committee 
on Un-American Activities was first created as a regular standing 
committee by the United States Congress during the 79th session of 
Congress in 1946, and has been reestablished by every Congress 
since then. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6041 

The full committee consists of nine members, and Public Law 601 
expressly authorizes the creation of subcommittees like this one. 
. The committee established its own rules of procedure, and each wit- 
ness or legal comisel appearing before the committee receives a printed 
copy thereof at the time of tlie serving of the subpena. 

The duties and powers of this subcommittee, therefore, are set 
forth in Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress. 

We hope that, as a result of these hearings, the Committee on Un- 
American Activities will be able to consider legislative recommenda- 
tions of further aid to the Government in combating the Communist 
apparatus. Beyond this we are confident that the information ob- 
tained here will serve further to alert patriotic American people of 
this area and of the United States as a whole to the threatening menace 
of the Conmiunist conspiratorial operation. 

If there is no objection by members of the committee, I would 
like to read the full text of Public Law 601 so that it will be included 
in our hearings at this point. 

(Reading:) 

EUXE X 
SEC.121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
• •**•♦• 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



_ (q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 
' (A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a v^hole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extenr, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on tin- American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of .such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take any such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued 
under the signature of the chairman of the conunittee or any subcommittee, or 
by any member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any 
person designated by any such chairman or member. 

And may I just briefly add this : 

We are in the room of a very distinguished Federal judge and a 
Courtroom maintained by the United States of America. I know the 
rule, therefore, is that there is no smoking in this room. And I shall 
expect at all times the utmost dignified behavior by everyone in the 
room, not only because of where we are but because we are in a very 
serious business. 



6042 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Therefore, I sort of feel that this is an admonition which may not 
be as fully necessary here this morning as it was in Los Angeles. But 
nevertheless I want to give it because it may be necessary for very, 
very few people to know of this instruction. 

If there is any manifestation of either approval or disapproval, 
if there is any attempt on the part of any person, whether he is a 
witness or in the audience or on the part of legal counsel. But I will 
take it for granted that no lawyer will undertake to disturb the pro- 
ceedings in any way or violate the rules of the committee. 

Without further instruction, if there is any attempt to disturb, I 
will ask the marshal to please step up and remove that person from 
the room, no matter who he or she may be. 

This is no place for the commission of any infraction of our rules 
or the dignity of the courtroom and the hearing. 

I wish to say that every member of this subcommittee is a lawyer 
in his own right in his own State, and has practiced law many, many 
years before any of us first went to the United States Congress. 

We are always glad to have legal counsel present with the witness. 

Just to remind, however, the members of the bar who may be going 
to appear with witnesses as clients, I wish to read rule VIII of the 
committee, which has been the standing rule of this committee now 
for several years. 

Rule VIII: 

Counsel for a witness shall conduct himself in a professional, ethical, and 
proper manner. His failure to do so shall, upon a finding to that effect by a 
majority of the committee or subcommittee before which the witness is appear- 
ing, subject such counsel to disciplinary action which may include warning, cen- 
sure, removing from the hearing room of counsel, or a recommendation of con- 
tempt proceedings. 

In case of stich removal of counsel, the witness shall have a reasonable time 
to obtain other counsel, said time to be determined by the committee. Should 
the v^fitness deliberately or capriciousl.y fail or refuse to obtain the services of 
other counsel vi'ithin such reasonable time, the hearing shall continue and the 
testimony of such witness shall be heard without benefit of counsel. 

I wish to say that a couple of days ago in Los Angeles, it was neces- 
sary for us to ask the removal of certain membei^ of the bar from 
the hearing room. As much as we regretted having to do it, we found 
no other way than to do just that. Of course, we postponed the hear- 
ing of those witnesses who then were without counsel. And one of 
those witnesses will be required to be here at these San Francisco 
hearings. 

Now, I wish to read rule VII of the standing rules of this conmiitte, 
which is especially applicable to all counsel : 

A. At every hearing, public or executive, every witness shall be accorded the 
privilege of having counsel of his own choosing. 

B. The participation of counsel during the course of any hearing and while the 
witness is testifying shall be limited to advising said witness as to his legal 
rights. Counsel shall not be permitted to engage in oral argument with the 
committee, but shall confine his activity to the area of legal advice to his client. 

Therefore, I am sure it is appropriate for me to say, in addition 
to reading rule VII, that the only way legal counsel can speak to the 
committee is through his own client. 

I will not entertain any motions by the lawyers nor any arguments 
by any lawyers. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6043 

This is not a court of law, and we will not assume to be a court of 
law. 

So, please, we will observe that rule strictly. 

And I know I will not have to admonish the lawyers again on that 
point. 

Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I also wish to state this : 

The committee will cooperate to the utmost with the press and with 
all the public information agencies and bodies. 

These hearings are not televised, I will amiounce, so that no wit- 
ness needs to raise that point. 

I wish to state that Mr. Arens, who will ask the questions, is the 
director and counsel here at the hearings for the committee. 

Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chester MacPhee. 

Would you kindly stand and be sworn, 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. MacPhee. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

TESTIMONY OF CHESTER R. MacPHEE 

Mr. Arex. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. MacPhee. I am the collector of customs for the Treasury De- 
partment for the 28th collection district in northern California, Utah, 
and Nevada. I live in San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. And your full name, Mr. MacPhee ? 

Mr. MacPhee. Chester R. MacPhee. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you occupied that position? 

Mr. MacPhee. Approximately 3i/^ years. 

Mr. Arens. Mr, MacPhee, would you tell us the area covered by the 
port of San Francisco. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel, may I interrupt at this point. 

I neglected to have the record show — and I wish the reporter would 
have it show at this point — that all three members of the subcom- 
mittee are personally present, so that the full subcommittee is here. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. MacPhee, what is the geographical area covered 
by the port of San Francisco customs service ? 

Mr, MacPhee. My area covers everything from Bakersfield north. 
It covers the entire States of Utah and Nevada. 

The port is commonly termed the "port of San Francisco-Oakland." 
It is a combined operation here. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a general estimate of the number of 
ships arriving here in the course of any given period of time? Just 
the volume of shipping here is what I am trying to elicit from you? 

Mr. MacPhee, The volume of ships arriving would probably ap- 
proximate about 20,000 a year. Of those, about 5,000 would be 
foreign inward direct, 

Mr, Arens. How many of those ships would be from the Orient? 
Just a rough estimate, 

Mr. MacPhee. I would say 80 percent of them. 



6044 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. During tlie course of your work in the customs service 
do you have, in addition to your regular checking of legitimate com- 
modities which arrive here, an area of concern with reference to illicit 
commodities arriving here ? 

By "illicit commodities," to be more specific, do you have an area 
of concern, say, with reference to narcotics and Communist literature, 
propaganda which may be arriving in quantities in violation of the 
law? 

Mr. MacPhee. Yes. 

Under the Foreign Agents Eegistration Act of 1938 we are required 
to check all types of printed matter that might come in with the idea 
that it should be checked for political propaganda or subversive 
material. 

And we maintain an operation within the customhouse building in 
San Francisco for that purpose. 

As far as narcotics is concerned, it is part of our daily operation. 
And that is a responsibility both inside the customhouse and on the 
waterfront, at the airports, and every place that we operate. 

Mr. AuENS. Could you tell us the approximate nmiiber of employees 
who are engaged here in the area of activity dealing with Communist 
propaganda ? 

Mr. MacPhee. I would say that there would be, including customs 
and post office personnel, approximately about 10 persons. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. MacPhee, I will not pursue the inquiry further 
of you because, as you know, the committee appreciates very much 
your courtesy in helping arrange the appearance here today of others 
in the customs service who are what we might call the technicians in 
this field. 

We want to thank you for your testimony. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Mr. MacPhee, for taking time from your 
busy duties. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, if it meets with your approval, I should 
like now to call Mr. Irving Fishman. 

Kindly remain standing, Mr. Fisliman, while the chairman admin- 
isters an oath to you. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 
"Mr. Fishman. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Please be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING FISHMAN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, if you please, sir, by name, 
residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Fishman. My name is Irving Fishman. I live in New York 
City. I am deputy collector of customs, assigned to the port of 
New York. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, do you, as deputy collector of customs 
assigned to the port of New York, have a basic responsibility nation- 
wide in connection with an operation dealing with Communist, foreign, 
subversive propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. The Treasury Department assigned me several years 
ago to the job of controlling the importation of political propaganda 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN IT. S. 6045 

countrywide, and I have been engaged in that work for the past 4 or 5 
years. - 

Mr. Arens. Over how many ports of entry do you have a concern 
or jurisdiction in which Communist political propaganda is enter- 
ing the country ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Forty-five customs collection ports of entry. 

Mr. Aj^ens. In the Nation ? 

Mr. FiSHMAX. In the United States and its possessions. 

Mr. Arens. Before we proceed further, Mr. Fishman, I think it 
would be well, from the standpoint of clarity in this record, if you 
would give us not a technician's summary, but a general summary of 
the law that is applicable principally to the Foreign Agents Eegis- 
tration Act. Just give us what we might call a layman's thumbnail 
sketch. 

Mr. Fishman. I am sure the committee is familiar with the interest 
of our agency in the importation of political propaganda. 

General speaking, certain Federal statutes concern themselves with 
the importation of political propaganda and subversive material. 

Under section 305 of the Tariff Act of 1930 any subversive materials 
which advocate insurrection against the United States may be con- 
sidered as prohibited importations. And the Customs Bureau, a 
branch of the Treasury Department, in cooperation with the Post Office 
Department and Justice Department, is concerned with the importa- 
tion of political propaganda in view of certain provisions of the For- 
eign Agents Registration Act of 1938. 

This act is a disclosure-type of statute, and its purpose is to make 
certain that those who represent foreign governments in the United 
States be registered with the Department of Justice so that the United 
States Government may be aware of their activities. 

Such propaganda or political propaganda as is disseminated by 
these agents is required to be labt^led in such manner that the recipient, 
the person who reads it, may fully understand its source and evaluate 
it properly. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Fishman, if you will pardon the interruption, is 
the theory of the law, crudely speaking, substantially the same as the 
theory which undergirds the food and drug laws; namely, that a 
person who is a recipient of some medicine that would be in his medi- 
cine cabinet, is entitled to know the nature and source of the medicine 
which is in the cabinet and whether or not it is poisonous? Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. It is a fair analogy. It is similar to the warning-type 
of label that you might find on medicines. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, is it true that the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act is not in any sense a censorship statute? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a labeling statute ? 

Mr. Fishman. No ; it is a disclosure-type of statute. 

Mr. Arens. When you say, "No," you mean "No, it is not such a 
statute"? 

Mr. Fishman. It is not a prohibition-type statute. 

I think the language of a decision in Federal district court might 
describe the effect of the law better than I could. I was just looking 
at this a few minutes ago. 



6046 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

This is, of course, a brief statement of the effect of the decision. 
It says : 

Congress in enacting this subchapter, requiring the agent of foreign princi- 
pals who undertalses to disseminate foreign political propaganda in United States 
to register with the Secretary of State, did not intend to deprive citizens of 
political information, even if such information should be propaganda of foreign 
government or foreign principal, but Congress did intend to bring activities of 
persons engaged in disseminating foreign political propaganda out into the open 
and to make known the identity of any person engaged in such activities, the 
source of tlie propaganda and who is bearing the expense of its dissemination 
in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. In summary, if I might, please, sir, perhaps what we 
might call a layman's appraisal of the law, see if you will agree with 
me that the Foreign Agents Registration Act, while not prohibiting 
the importation into the United States of foreign political or Com- 
munist propaganda, does require two things : One, that the recipient 
who disseminates it in the United States shoulcl register with the 
Department of Justice as a foreign agent. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And, secondly, that the political propaganda itself be 
labeled as such. Is that correct ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. As he disseminates it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, could you tell us how many active units of 
the customs service are maintaining a concern on the Communist 
propaganda coming into the country? How many active units do 
you have? 

Mr. Fishman. We have three active units and continual tests being 
made in other areas of the country. We have arranged with the Post 
Office Department to direct much of this material to these 3 units, 1 of 
which is located in New York City, the second of which is located 
here in San Francisco, and the third in Chicago. 

Mr. Akens. Could you tell us how Communist propaganda enters 
the United States from abroad ; what mode of transportation ? 

Mr. Fishman. It arrives by mail and by means other than the mails. 
It could come by freight, by air. Generally speaking, the greatest 
percentage of it does come by mail — first class, air, registered mail, 
ordinary parcel post. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have statistics, Mr. Fishman, on the total 
volume of Communist political propaganda arriving which has been 
identified as such by channels on which there can be maintained ade- 
quate surveillance ? In other words, I mean political propaganda that 
comes in other than the political propaganda which may be smuggled 
into the country. 

Mr. Fishman. We maintain statistics of the number of articles 
which are submitted to us for examination as suspected of containing 
political propaganda. 

Mr. Arens. They are submitted to you in customs by the Post Office 
Department. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. And, of course, such propaganda materials as 
are imported by means other than mails are also submitted. 

Mr. Arens. Before we get into the specifics of this particular area 
here, I should like to have the record reflect the general picture as to 
the volume of Communist political propaganda which arrives in the 
United States. 

Mr. Fishman. In the year 1955, at the port of New York there were 
submitted for examination IjQlTjOOO-some-odd articles of mail; at the 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 6047 

port of Chicago 238,000 ; and at the port of San Francisco some 460,000 
making a total, at least at three ports of entry, of over 2,500,000 pack- 
ages of mail. 

Mr. Akens. How many individual publications, such as the one I 
have in my hand now, would be contained in a package? What are 
your statistics again, Mr. Fishman ? 

Mr. Fishman. 2,503,000 packages were submitted for examination. 

Mr. Arens. We will say 2i/^ million packages. Is that correct, 
roughly speaking ? 

Mr. FisHMAX. That is right. The number of items in a given pack- 
age varies. But we have estimated that in these 21/^ million there were 
4,245,000 individual pieces of printed information from the Soviet- 
bloc countries. 

Mr. Arens. Through three ports of entry ? 

Mr. Fishman. Through three ports of entry at which we maintain 
tht 5e controls. 

Mr. Arens. Are there about 45 ports of entry altogether ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, is it true that Communist political propa- 
ganda enters other ports of entry, but you check only the principal 
ports of entry ? 

Mr. Fishman. We attempt to control it all by diverting it through 
the exchange post offices at the three places I mentioned. But much of 
this material will get into the mails, the city mails, and be distributed 
beyond our control. We do not know exactly how much of it there is, 
but observations are that there are quantities of it which do get into 
channels of commerce. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been in the customs service ? 

Mr. Fishman. Twenty-nine years. 

Mr. Arens. In the com-se of your 29 years' experience in the customs 
service, and in the course of your conversation with other people in 
the customs service, have you, or has anyone to your certain laiowl- 
edge, ever seen a single piece of Communist political propaganda 
which was labeled in accordance with the provisions of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act ? 

Mr. Fishman. I have personally never seen a piece. And it has 
never come to my attention that anybody else in our agency has seen 
iiny of it labeled. 

Mr. Scherer. May I interrupt at this point? Have you an opinion 
as to why it is not labeled in accordance with the act ? 

Mr. Fishman. My opinion, of course, would be only a personal one. 

Mr. Scherer. You are the expert on it. 

Mr. Fishman. The law is a little ambiguous in this respect. It 
requires that the propaganda be labeled when it is disseminated by 
the registered agent in the United States. That pretty much leaves 
it up to the agent to decide what is political propaganda. So that I 
would assume his defense for not labeling it would be that he doesn't 
consider it political propaganda. 

Mr. Velde. You mean the agents for a foreign country ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. I expect to ask Mr. Fishman a number of questions 
respecting his suggestions on amendments to the law. There are a 
numl>er of points he has in mind he would like to suggest to the 
committee, which I think would be very helpful. 



6048 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel, I want to interrupt right here and say that 
if this law is ambiguous let's make a recommendation that it be 
removed from the ambiguous list and made specific, definite. 

Mr. Arens. I think as he proceeds in his testimony we will begin 
to see some of the deficiencies, Mr. Chairman. And he will have 
some 



Mr. ScHERER. Maybe I just jumped the gun. 

Mr. Arens. Not at all. 

Mr. Doyle. Maybe I did, too. But in the field of Public Law 601, 
under which we operate, as you well know, that is one of our respon- 
sibilities, to make recommendations in the field of legislation dealing 
with this very subject — subversive activities. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat are the languages in which the Communist 
political propaganda appears in the United States? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Well, they appear in practically every lan^age. In 
some instances, for example, a publication will be printed m 13 or 14 
languages. 

This particular one I am looking at is published in Russian, Chinese, 
English, French, German, and Spanish. But some of the others are 
published in many other languages. ; 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us in general the recipients? Do the 
recipients include schools, colleges, and various groups in the United 
States? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes. It is directed to many student organizations in 
the United States and to many college libraries. 

Of course, there are, as you know, many organizations in the United 
States seriously engaged in the study of the general problem of com^ 
munism who have this material sent to them for a real purpose. 

But much of this is directed to student bodies at the schools. 

Here are a circular and a poster, which advertise an international 
student week. And a poster of the International Union of Students, 
which is well known as a Communist organization. It calls for repre- 
sentatives from all countries to attend a Universal Student Week in 
1956, November 10 to 17, in Prague, Czechoslovakia.^ 

Mr. ScHERER. Wliat were those dates ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. November 10-17. 

This is just past now. 

Mr. ScHERER. Last month. 

Mr. Doyle. From where did that poster come, sir ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That was among the material which had come in 
through these ports, and is one of the exhibits which I brought with me. 

Mr. Doyle. Is there any estimate of the volume of that material ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. They were sent to every school, student organization, 
and to practically every school in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. There is no indication, of course, is there, Mr. Fishman, 
on the document which you have just displayed that the document 
itself emanated from a Communist source? 

Mr. Fishman. No. 

_ Mr. Arens. In other words, assuming the poison is there, the re- 
cipient who takes the poison has no indication that it is poison. Is 
that correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 



* Document referred to retained In committee files. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6049 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I would like, if it meets with your ap- 
proval, to go into the same subject matter with reference to the San 
Francisco area. And then to discuss with you the content of some of 
these documents ; some of the specific weaknesses which you feel, on the 
basis of your background and experience, exist in the present law so 
that this committee, when it returns to Washington, can continue its 
deliberations and determine what it might be able to do to initiate 
legislation to plug up the loopholes. 

Could you tell us somethmg of the class and type of Communist 
propaganda which is arriving at the San Francisco port of entry ? 

Mr. Fishman. The unit in this port is a very active one and concerns 
itself pretty much with material which is intended for dissemination 
here. 

During the past 3 months, for example, August, September, and 
October, rather, there was a total of 156,575 packages of 

Mr. Arexs. Could we pause here so that the record and the com- 
mittee get those statistics clearly. 

In the course of 8 months' time you made a test run here. Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. FisiiMAN. No. We have a regular o]3eration here. 

Mr. Arens. And then let's have those statistics again, please. 

Mr. FisH^iAN. 156,575 packages of mail were submitted to our unit 
for examination during August, September, and October of this year. 

Mr. Arens. Of the 156,575 packages that arrived here in 3 months, 
how many individual items such as, say, the item I have in my hand, 
this magazine, would be in each package? That will give us a little 
fairer appi-aisal of the volume. 

Mr. Fishman. We can give you the figures. 

Mr. Arens. If you would, please, sir. 

Mr. Fishman. 490,330 pieces of individual printed matter were con- 
tained in these packages. 

Mr. ScHERER. In 3 months ? 

Mr. Fishman. Three months : August, September, and October. 

^Ir. Arens. Were August, September, and October typical months ? 

Mr. Fishman. We would think so. It might be heavier other 
months or a little lighter. 

Mr. Arens. Then would it be safe to say we would multiply this 
490,330 by 4 in order to get a fair appraisal of the volume here in a 
year ? Is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That would be fairly correct. 

Mr. Arens. I wonder if we could hesitate here while I figure the 
amount, Mr. Fishman. 

That would figure close to 2 million individual items arriving here, 
as a fair estimate, every year. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is about right. 

Mr. Arens. Where does this material originate ? Most of it ? 

Mr. Fishman. Most of this material originates in the Soviet Union 
and the Soviet-bloc countries, including China. Much of it is shipped 
through Hong Kong, of course. 

In this area, since it has a large number of people who have their 
origin in China, there would be a concentration of material which 
deals with China. 

82728— 57— pt. 3 2 



6050 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN XJ. S. 

Mr, Arens. May I ask you, if you please, sir, has any one at. this 
port of entry, to your knowledge, since they have been processing 
this material, ever seen a single item which was labeled as Com- 
munist propaganda pursuant to the provisions of the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. It has never been reported to me, and I have per- 
sonally seen quite a number of samples of this material. I have never 
seen any of it labeled. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us something of the recipients of this 
propaganda ? 

Mr. ScHERER. May I interrupt, Mr. Chairman ? 

How do you determine that a particular book is propaganda, Com- 
munist propaganda ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. The Foreign Agents Registration Act contains a 
definition of political propaganda. We use that pretty much as a 
guide to determine what is or Avhat is not. 

Mr. ScHERER. You have applied the test set forth in the statute to 
this material before labeling it in your own minds ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. In your own reports ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. The law contains a definition of political propaganda 
as that term is used in the act. And our people use that as their basis 
for determining w^hat is political propaganda. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Fishman, do any of the agents of foreign govern- 
ments who have charge of labeling this material ever label it volun- 
tarily as propaganda '? 

Mr. Fishman. I have been told — I haven't seen it personally, but 
I have been told that some of the samples — you see the law also con- 
templates that samples of all of this material be made available to 
the United States Government through the Library of Congress. 
And I have been told that some of it reaching the library of Congress 
from the embassies and consulates does have some means of identifica- 
tion, some form of labeling. 

Mr. Velde. From the Iron Curtain countries ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. But the individual recipient sees nothing in here indi- 
cating that it is Communist propaganda. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

The Foreign Agents Registration Act merely states that it shall 
be labeled. It makes a general definition of how it should be labeled. 

The Internal Security Act, of course, made some definite provisions 
for the form of labeling, but that at the present time is not being en- 
forced. 

Mr. Scherer. Then do I understand we do have a compliance with 
the law for that part of the literature or propaganda that finds its way 
into official channels ? 

Mr. Fishman. Some if it does ; yes. But then, as I said before, the 
evaluation of what is political propaganda and the requirement for 
labeling before dissemination is pretty much up in the air. It is pretty 
much up to these agents to decide when they are disseminating and 
whether it is in interstate commerce, and so on and so forth. 

So you get a wholesale violation of that labeling provision. 

Mr. Scherer. But, as I understand it, the only actual labeling that 
you have seen or that has come to your knowledge is the labeling of 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6051 

the material that finds its way into such agencies as the Library of 
Congress. 

Mr. FisioEAN. That is right. 

I have lieard that people have picked up a book in the Library, for 
example, and found an insert saying or divulging the source of the 
material and who has distributed it. 

Mr. ScHEKEK. The Library of Congress would get that particular 
piece from, maybe, the Soviet Embassy ? 

Mr. P""isHMAN. That may be a good analysis of what is going on. 

Mr. Arens. Before we get to the matter I was starting to interrogate 
you about, content, do you have, in addition to the literature, some of 
which you are going to display in a few moments, motion-picture films 
which are received and processed from the Iron Curtain-bloc 
countries ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Yes. 

We have regular shipments of news material and feature material. 

Mr. Arens. And are those labeled? Have you ever seen any of 
those labeled, pursuant to the provisions of law? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. I haven't personally seen any of it labeled. 

(Representative Harold H. Yelde left the hearing room at this 
point. ) 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us, Mr. Fishman, something about the 
content of the samples which you have here. 

In a few moments we want to allude to the typical samples which, 
at our request, you have brought up here from the customs service, 
these several mail sacks. 

Mr. Fishman. Most of this material contains the typical type of 
political propaganda, and it is generally in aid of a foreign govern- 
ment. It is directed against the United States. 

Mr. Arens. '\^'liat does some of it say about the United States 
engaging in germ warfare in Korea ? 

Mr. Fishman. We have had some films on that subject, and recently 
there has been a little more attempt to prove that germ warfare was 
actually used. 

Mr. Arens. Who was going to do the proving? 

Mr. Fishman. The people in China, supposedly reputable citizens 
of Cluna, who can testify that germ warfare was actually used. 

We haven't had a good deal of that recently. Last year there was 
much material printed on that general subject. We had some motion- 
picture film which attempted to give the testimony of some army 
officei-s who had been jailed and who were testifying to the efl^ect that 
the United States was engaged in germ warfare. 

Some printed material at that time had come in, too. 

Mr. ScHERER. United States Army officers? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. In addition to the Communist propaganda that actually 
comes into the LTnited States for dissemination here in this country, 
have you had access to Communist propaganda which goes in transit 
through the United States from, say, one Communist-controlled coun- 
try to some other non-Communist country ? 

Mr. Fishman. We have seen a good deal of it. There is a good deal 
of that that comes right through the country. 



6052 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. And is that actually paid for, in part, by the United 
States taxpayers? 

Mr. FisHMAN. It is carried in the United States mails. 

Mr. Arens. And the mails are not self-sustaining. 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Then, as a matter of fact, some of that type of this 
Communist propaganda you are displaying to us today, is disseminated 
in this country partly at the expense of the United States taxpayers. 
Isn't that correct ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. When it is carried by our mails, it is. 

Mr. Arens. Have you seen any of this Communist propaganda 
which undertakes to impress upon the reader the glories of life under 
the Soviet system ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. We have seen a good deal of that. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you had any propaganda from the Soviet 
Union depicting what is happening in Hungary in the last few 
months ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. We have had some very recently. We have had some 
published in Hungary, as a matter of fact. I do not have much of it 
with me. We had some in New York before I left. Current issues are 
taken up and distorted to 

Mr. Scherer. Does that propaganda tend to justify the Communist 
actions in Hungary? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That which I had seen was supposedly factual re- 
porting of what was occurring without giving any opinion one way or 
another or trying to justify it. The only emphasis recently 

Mr. Scherer. Was the supposedly factual report in accord with 
the factual reporting received in our press ? 

Mr, FisHMAN. No. It was completely contrary. 

From what I had observed, the majority of people in Hungary were 
in favor of the steps being taken, and there was merely a minority 
causing all the unrest. 

Emphasis recently has been placed also on the French-British attack 
in Egypt. We have had lots of propaganda on that subject. 

Mr. Scherer. Coming from behind the Iron Curtain. Many refer- 
ences are made to it in New Times, which is a weekly. We are accused 
of a number of things. 

Let's clear this point. The propaganda with reference to what has 
happened in Hungary in the past few months, and which is supposed 
to be factual reporting, is different from the information we receive 
in the American newspapers ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. In view of your statement in answering Mr. Scherer, 
I understood you to say that the propaganda that you observed 
coming from Hungary in the last few months represents that the 
slaughter by Soviet soldiers and butchers is favored by the majority 
of the people in Hungary ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is the report. 

Mr. Doyle. Didn't you say that was the propaganda, that the 
majority of people in Hungary favored that slaughter? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr, Doyle. Have you seen that kind of material from Hungary? 
Within how recent a period ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6053 

Mr. FisHMAX. I would say within the last 2 or 3 weeks. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you know from where it emanates ? Have you any 
of it with you ? 

Mr, FisHMAX. I didn't bring any of it with me. It comes from 
Hungary, most of it. 

But much of this material, judging by the format, is printed in 
the Soviet Union even though it bear evidence of origin in other coun- 
tries. This material looks like it is set up pretty much the same, and, 
while it is titled differently, I think, if you will look at some of it, you 
will see that these publications look as though they have come off the 
same press. 

The fact that they say they come from Hungary doesn't necessarily 
]nean it has been printed in Hungary. 

Mr. Doyle. I realize that. 

Mr. ScHERER. The Hungarian witness we had in Los Angeles, who 
was an identified Communist, indicated by his testimony, or, rather, 
lack of testimony, that he approved what Russia was doing. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Is that so? 

]Mr. Doyle. May I observe here it was interesting in the Los Angeles 
hearings that not a single witness before our committee in 2i^ days 
who had been identified as a Communist on the stand, either directly 
or indirectly, criticized the Soviet butchering of the Hungarians. 
Not a single one of them raised his voice in protest. They were 
given plenty of chance, either directly or indirectly, through the 
press or otherwise, in connection with the hearings. 

Mr. ScHERER. Maybe they had been reading some of this 
propaganda. 

Mr. Doyle. They wouldn't have to read it because that is part of 
the American Communist Party line, to defend that sort of destruction 
of human liberty in favor of the Soviet system. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your experience in this work, I would 
like to ask you something about the cost of these publications. 

I have in my hand here a magazine which is written in Chinese, a 
pictorial review apparently.^ Can you give us an indication of the 
cost of this publication to the recipient in the United States? 

In other words, let's just say I want to subscribe to it. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The subscription fee is very minimal. 

Incidentally, that is a Korean publication. 

Mr. Arens. This is a Korean publication ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. But in view of the fact that most of these publi- 
cations, or, in fact, all of them contain no advertising, it must be an 
awfully expensive proposition to print them. 

Mr. Arens. Is it clear that the price paid by the recipient would not 
begin to pay the cost of the publication of this document ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is very clear. 

Mr. Scherer. Let me ask this question. Does the recipient always 
pay for the document ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. There are some people who subscribe to this 
material. But, generally speaking, a good deal of it is sent without 
request. The sender will pick up a telephone directory or an organi- 
zation name- and- address list and just blanket the area with this ma- 
terial whenever there is an issue which they feel should be taken up 
in the ffiven area. 



1 Docmnent retained in committee files. 



6054 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. ScHERER. My recollection, counsel, is that we had some testi- 
mony to the effect that Communists in this country were instructed to 
forward the addresses of persons who belonged to certain organiza- 
tions in this country. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. That was used not only in connection with this 
l^roject but also with reference to the redefection campaign where 
Communists were trying to bring pressure to bear on people in 
nationality groups to return. 

Mr. ScHERER. Of course, those individuals whose names were sup- 
plied in the manner that I said, received that propaganda literature 
without cost and without, in some instances, wanting it. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Or knowing how it came. 

Isn't my recollection correct ? 

Mr. Arens. That is correct ; yes sir. 

Mr. DoYLE. I understood this witness to say a minute ago that the 
booklet from Bulgaria — I think that is the one you lifted up there — 
was printed in 5 languages, and that some of the propaganda is printed 
in as many as 13 languages. 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I asked you, if you recall — and I am 
sure you have complied with the request because of the gracious man- 
ner in which you have cooperated with the committee before — if you 
would kindly give each of the members of the committee a small packet 
which would be typical of this propaganda so they could be glancing 
at it. And I would like to ask you to proceed at your own pace to 
allude to the content of some of these publications, and make any other 
comments you wish with reference to the content and the recipients, 

(Representative Harold H. Velde returned to the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. Fishman. Much of this material, as I have indicated before, 
deals with current issues before the public. And the observations 
made are generally slanted along the lines of the Communist thinking, 
that the Communist thinking chooses to follow. 

I notice here in one of the current issues of New Times, after dis- 
cussing the general problem involving the Suez, comment is made 
about the fact that : 

The idea is being mooted in Washington of building a canal on Nicaraguan 
territory to connect the Atlantic and the Pacific. 

It then goes on to say that : 

The idea is not new. It was suggested in the last century, but United States 
Congress turned it down, preferring, instead, the canal across the Panama 
isthmus. 

It then makes this observation : 

But why has this more than half -century-old project popped up again? Have 
the Congressmen managed to overcome their fears? Or has the center of volcanic 
activity shifted from Nicaragua to Panama and streams of molten lava are 
threatening to seal up the locks of the Panama Canal ? 

No, the trouble, according to the UP correspondent, is that it is feared in 
influential United States quarters that "the eventual Suez settlement may involve 
precedents likely to be agitated with reference to the Panama Canal." 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6055 

We have other comments tending to stir up a little trouble between 
the United States and Japan. There had been some recent publicity 
in the United States Xews and World Report about the selling of 
ladies' blouses from Japan, and comment on that is made about the 
fact that the United States had had all the dollar blouse business all 
it own : 

after the war, American business established a monopoly position in the Japanese 
market, flooded the country with its goods, and profited hugely in consequence. 

And then some comment is made about the restrictions — additional 
comment here about Japan's rehabilitated industry and the fact that 
we are now withdrawing our friendship. 

Mr. Arens. I take it this publication you are looking at now is in 
English. 

Mr. FisHMAX. This is an English publication of New Times, pub- 
lished in Russian, English, French, German, Spanish, Polish, Czech, 
Roumanian, Hungarian, and Swedish. 

Mr. Arens. You know, of course, on the basis of your experience, 
that there are a great number of people in the United States who cannot 
read English but who read a foreign language. Isn't that correct ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Are those people barraged with Communist propaganda 
in their native language ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

About 60 percent of it that we observe comes in foreign lang-uages. 

We have brought here today samples of this material which is 
printed in the English language so that we can refer to it. 

But I have, for example, some translations of some Chinese material. 

Mr. Arens. Would you care to allude, please, Mr. Fishman, in 
rather summary form to some of those translations. I think it might 
take a little too much time to read them all because I see you have quite 
a number of them. 

Mr. Fishman. I can read some very brief excerpts here. 

This is a letter from a Chinese student who left the United States 
to go back to China. And he starts his letter 

Mr. Arens. Is this a letter published in a magazine? 

Mr. Fishman. It is a letter which is subsequently published in a 
magazine and receives wide dissemination. 

Mr. Arens. In the United States ? 

Let me be sure. 

This is a Chinese student who was here and who went back to Red 
China. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are going to quote certain language from that 
letter ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

(Document marked "Fishman Exhibit No, 2," and retained in 
committee files.) 

It has been 10 years already since we were separated at New Haven. Re- 
cently I heard that you are still in the United States and that you are "gloriously 
employed" as a "favorite" engineer 

at the X plant. 



6056 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Remembering the time when we were schoolmates at Yale, we took our 
meals together, lived together, and even intimately talked about our plans to do 
some profitable things for our fatherland after we completed our studies. 

It then goes on : 

In the past, because of the poisonous propaganda * * *, we did not understand 
what is communism, and we were afraid of it. After the liberation, everything 
shows us that our way of looking at things in the past was wrong. We were 
deceived by the manmade Iron Curtain * * *. In these 7 years, we, who were 
at the scene, could not find anything bad about the Communist Party. On the 
contrary, we feel that we are fortunate to be in this modern China. 

Then they go on further down 

Mr. Arens. This letter is reproduced in some publication which is 
disseminated in the United States. Is that correct ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

It is rumored abroad that New China does not pay much attention to science 
and has no freedom of learning. This is completely a kind of false lies. New 
China's attention toward science has been historically unprecedented. * * * 

Students abroad, regardless whether or not they had any relationship with 
the * * * party in the past, are all welcomed to return to serve the people. I 
feel that there is no justification for a patriot like you, who have such scientific 
attainment and righteousness, to remain in the United States for a long period 
of time. Do you morally feel right to make filthy money with your blood and 
flesh for the "tycoon" than to serve the thousands of fellow men of our father- 
land? Are you willing to be a "white Chinese" in a foreign country for a long 
period of time? 

And so on and so on. 

Of course, he suggests that possibly some of this material may be 
difficult to distribute. And so they say, "If you cannot correspond with 
us conveniently, send your letters to us via Hong Kong or care of the 
Indian Embassy in the United States." 

Mr. Arens. Would you refer, please, Mr. Fislmian, to 1 or 2 other 
typical illustrations there, and then I should like to ask you if you 
would allude to the mail sacks that you brought up here. 

Mr. FisHMAN. Most of these are pretty much the same. 

It has been several years since we parted in Shanghai. In an issue of Journal 
of Comparative Neurology, I saw an article you wrote, and I was very proud 
of you. 

This is continuing from the letter : 

Therefore, people in the field of science are very welcome in China. Especially, 
educators like yourself, who are in a high level of education in science, are more 
respected. I hope that you will consider the possibility of returning to China to 
give your best in science to our fatherland. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, did you, at our request, bring to the com- 
mittee mail sacks which you selected at random from some of the 
mail sacks which are arriving in San Francisco ? 

Mr. Fishman. We did. 

Mr. Arens. Do j^ou have some on which the seal has not as yet 
been broken? 

Mr. Fishman, Oh, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would it inconvenience you, Mr. Fishman, to select one 
of the mail sacks on which the seal hasn't been broken, break the seal, 
and then see, if you would, what you find on the inside. 

Mr. Fishman. This is a mail sack that we opened this morning after 
we arrived in the hearing room. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6057 

Mr. Arens, I see on the outside of the sack Chinese lettering and 
then "Repiiblique Popiilaire de Chine Postes." I assume that means 
People's Republic of China, does it not? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. This bag contains a quantity of these individual- 
addressed packages. We can open one and see what is in it. 

Mr. Arens. The one I have in my hand and a number of others are 
addressed in Chinese. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Does that indicate to you that that package is addressed 
to a Chinese recipient? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Not necessarily. 

Mr. Arens. So that the record will be clear, Mr. Fishman, is this 
gentleman who is now translating one of the translators of the customs 
service ? 

Mr. Fishman. He is in charge of the unit in San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. What is his name? 

Mr. Fishman. Stephen K. Louie. 

Mr. Louie. The Chinese on this package says "New York, USA/' 

Mr. Fishman. This envelope contains a publication entitled 
"Women of China," which is a publication We have continually found 
to contain political propaganda. 

I would say that this bag has 200 or 300 individually addressed 
copies of this publication. 

Mr. Arens. Let me see, if I may, Mr. Fishman. 

I assume what you have here is typical. 

If I may be permitted to comment, Mr. Chairman, here is one 
addressed to Baltimore, Md. ; another to New York City. Here is one 
to St. Louis, Mo. Here is one to Pasadena, Calif. Here is one ad- 
dressed to an address in St. Petersburg, Fla. Here is another one to 
New York City. Here is one addressed to the Council on African 
Affairs in New York City. And the Council on African Affairs has 
been cited as a Communist front organization. 

Here is one addressed to the American Library Association, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

(The witness confers with Mr. Arens.) 

Mr. Arens. It is agreeable that I allude to the city, is it not? And 
not allude to the recipients? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Why not? This is a congressional investigation. 

Mr. Fishman. Our Department has considered and has stated its 
position to the committee that it considers the names and addresses 
of these recipients as classified information. 

We will be very liappy to give the information to the committee, but 
not at a public hearing. 

Mr. Arens. As a matter of fact, Mr. Chairman, Mr. Fishman has 
given us considerable information on this line in executive session. 

Here is anotlier to New York City, and still another to New York 
City. 

It would appear from this, Mr. Fishman, assuming this is typical, as 
you say, that the San Francisco port-of-entry material goes to areas all 
over the United States. 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 



6058 IIsrV'ESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. I assume the same is true for material coming in from 
Europe via the port of entry in New York. Is that correct? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have another illustration you want to give us ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Pardon me just a minute, Mr. Fishman. 

When you picked up that sack this morning to bring to the hearing 
room do I understand you did not know the contents of this sack ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. Much of this material arrived over the week- 
end. As a matter of fact, we had a hundred-and-some-odd sacks that 
came in Friday afternoon. 

Mr. ScHERER. You just opened that sack this morning so wq would 
have some of this material in order that the press could take a picture 
before the hearings ? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I have my hand on one with a seal, obviously not broken. 
Would you be in violation of any rules to break the seal now and open 
this sack? I assume it is typical. We asked you to bring typical 
sacks up here of mail material arriving from the Far East. 

You call this a bulk shipment, do you not ? 

Mr. Fishman. This is parcel post. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to make one point here, please, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

You do not have access to any of the material arriving from abroad 
by first-class mail, do you ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, all the statistics you have given us here 
on Communist foreign political propaganda arriving in the United 
States are applicable solely and exclusively to bulk shipments such as 
those we are now examining. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is pretty much correct, although we have ex- 
amined some in certain instances with the permission of the ad- 
dressee — we can get into some of the first-class mail with their consent. 

Mr. Arens. But that would be very rare, would it not ? 

Mr. Fishman. We would have to communicate with them and ask 
them to waive the privacy of the seal. 

Mr. Arens. So this record is clear, foreign Communist propaganda 
coming in first class is not seen. 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Would you reach in the sack on which you have just 
broken the seal and tell us if you have a comment to make with refer- 
ence to that material. 

Mr. Fishman. This is a package addressed to San Francisco, Calif. 
It contains six copies of People's China, No. 19. 

Mr. Arens. And do you here and now, while you are under oath, 
assert that that is Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. We have consistently found it 
to be. 

Mr. Velde. It is a little bit unclear, Mr. Fishman. 

All that you will find there is not necessarily Communist propa- 
ganda, is it ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. We are apt to find some scientific material, some 
technical material, which is coming here for proper use. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6059 

Mr. Velde. I noticed, or I thouglit I noticed, that there was no 
postage on the individual articles. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. These are parcel post, and some contain a postage 
stamp. 

Yes, there is postage on it. 

Mr. Velde. I am sorry. I didn't see it. 

Mr. FisHMAN. Some of it may slip through one of the stamping 
machines. But all of it that I can see here has postage on it. 

Mr. Scherer. The mere fact that it has postage on it doesn't indicate 
that the full cost of the distribution of that mail in the United States 
is borne by the sender, does it ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. 

Mr. Scherer. In fact, we subsidize that class of mail, do we not ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. So that the American taxpayer is actually subsidiz- 
ing the distribution of some of this Communist propaganda in the 
United States? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. To some degree. 

I assimie that we have some reciprocal agreement whereby the coun- 
try in question will carry our mail for ultimate delivery to the 
addressee. 

Mr. Arens. We have no reciprocal agreement whereby they carry 
our American propaganda for distribution, do we? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I don't know about that. 

Mr. Arens. I just put my hand in the sack here. I hope I wasn't 
being presumptuous. 

I picked up this letter addressed to an address in Central America. 

Would this be a transshipment, what we call a transit shipment? 

Mr. FispiMAN. That is right. It is in transit through the United 
States. 

Mr. Arens. I wouldn't presume to open it to find out whether or 
not Communist propaganda is in here, but this would illustrate the 
transshipment of at least a piece of material, literature of some kind, 
to Central America ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Those copies, Mr. Counsel, of People's China that you 
had in your hand a few minutes ago bore no evidence that the sender 
w as complying with the labeling law ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. 

Mr. Arens. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel, may I at this point relate this : 

I have been observing these 10 or 11 samples of the propaganda that 
were given me by the witness' associates. And, while I am not an 
expert printer and have never been, I have had some experience with 
the cost of publications. 

Here is one, for instance, in book form in color. Certainly that 
would cost at least 50 cents for 1 copy. 

Mr. FisiiMAN. It costs a lot more than that. 

Mr. Doyle. At least that. It might have cost 85 or 90 cents or a 
dollar. 

But just look at it in color. And a beautiful color backing on it. 

Mr. Scherer. And I might state that that has no advertising what- 
seminates it. 



6060 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Doyle. No advertising of any kind. 

Mr. ScHERER. None of this does that I have. 

Mr. Doyle. This is printed in English and Chinese. The source 
of it is "Printed in the People's Republic of China." That is stated 
in English as well as in Chinese. 

Edited by tlie Chinese Islamic Association in 1956. Published by the Nation- 
alities Publishing House in Peking. 

I have one more comment. 

Here is a very interesting, very expensive booklet showing the ac- 
complishments of the Chinese at least. This is not in color, but you 
can see the extensive photography. This book is edited and pub- 
lished by the All-China Athletic Federation, Peking, 1956. 

Each copy of that book certainly would have cost from 50 cents 
to a dollar to print in this country. At least that. 

Now I wish to j ust take one minute to do this : 

Wliile you have been questioning the witness, I have been reading 
this book — New China Advances to Socialism — which is a book printed 
by the Foreign Languages Press, Peking, 1956. It contains a selec- 
tion of speeches delivered at the third session of the First National 
People's Congress, consisting of 200 pages in English. On page 15 
thereof I just want to read 2 or 3 sentences with reference to the 
United States, and what they are saying about the United States. 

But in the United States ruling circles there are now still some persons in 
powerful position, particularly those who actually handle foreign policy, Who 
are still obstructing this change. They do not wish to see a releasing of tension ; 
they do not want peaceful coexistence among nations. 

Now notice this : 

Their sole interest is in maximum profits for United States monopoly capital ; 
they still attempt to impose their own will on other countries through the i)olicy 
of war blackmail. 

That is the line that is coming in through this book. 

I thought it important that that go into the record at this point. 

Mr. ScHERER. There is a little irony connected with this publication 
that counsel just handed me. It is published in English by the Cen- 
tral Council of Plungarian Trade Unions in Budapest, 1956 — Social 
Welfare in Hungary. 

Glancing over it briefly, it would indicate or attempts to indicate 
how happy the Hungarian people are under the present regime. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, in addition to the literature which you 
have displayed here today, do the Communists also send into the 
country literature of the licentious, vulgar variety ? 

I do not believe you have any of it here because I asked you not to 
bring that type of material with you. 

Mr. FiSHMAN". We have seen some evidence of it in the intransit 
mails more than we have in the direct mails from the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the penetration 
of Communist plates into this country? That is printing devices 
that can be used to reproduce other articles and publications ? 

Mr. FiSHMAx. Whenever our examination dela^^s material which, 
I guess, they feel should be published immediately we have some in- 
dications of transportation to the United States of printing plates 
from which these publications may be printed. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6061 

Mr. Arens. I would like to ask you, Mr. Fishman, about some of 
the areas touched on a little earlier, namely, areas of weakness in the 
law or places in which the law might be strengthened so that we 
could begin at least to cope with this flood. 

First of all, does the law specify a single agency to be in charge 
of surveillance and control of foreign Communist propaganda? 

Mr. FiSHMAX. No. 

The Foreign Agents Registration Act is administered by the De- 
partment of Justice. But the enforcement of the provisions that we 
have had reference to this morning is pretty much a business of 
the Government agency concerned taking the responsibility for it. 

For that reason the Post Office and Treasury and Justice have com- 
bined to do what they can to control the importation of this material. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliat would be the net result in your opinion — I mean 
would it help if the law specified a particular agency to be in control 
of this operation so that there could be a fixation of responsibility ? 

Mr. Fishman. I think it would help for a number of reasons. 
First of all, the responsibility would be fixed by the Congress, and 
provision budgetwise made for adequate control throughout the 
country. 

Mr. Arens. If there is an agent of a foreign principal who dissemi- 
nates political propaganda in the United States who himself is abroad, 
is he required to register and is he required under the law to label the 
propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. The Department of Justice or, rather, the Attorney 
General, in an opinion which he handed down in 1940, made it clear 
that an agent who acts in a foreign country in connection with the 
distribution of political propaganda in the United States comes within 
the provision of the law, and should be required to register and, also 
in due course, to label in accordance with the law. 

Mr. Arens. Would it help if the law were clearer in the specification 
as to who is to make the determination that a given publication is 
])olitical propaganda within the purview of the Foreign Agents Reg- 
istration Act? 

Mr. Fishman. I think it would be of considerable help. 

Mr. Arens. What would you suggest along that line ? 

Mr. Fishman. The area of ambiguity as such — and this is, as I 
say, strictly my own personal opinion — ^is whether the requirement for 
labeling attaches itself to the publication when it enters the United 
States or when it leaves the hands of the registered agent. 

If the requirement applied when the material arrived in the 
United States there Avould be no question that all of it would be 
labeled as we think it should be labeled. 

But the current interpretation is that the disseminator, the agent, 
determines the time for labeling. 

Mr. Arens. Now may I ask you still another question ? Under the 
existing, we will say at least, interpretation of the law, if not the law, 
is a person in diplomatic status in the United States in a consulate 
or embassy, permitted to receive all of this material he wants? 

Mr. Fishman. Oh, yes. He can have all of it. 

Mr. Arens. Is he permitted to then, in turn, disseminate it? 

Mr. Fishman. He is required to indicate the source when he dis- 
seminates it. 



6062 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Doyle. May I interrupt there ? Do I understand your answer 
to be that a foreign ambassador or Consul in our country could receive 
all of this material without it being labeled? 

Mr. FisHMAN. He is an agent of a foreign government. He is 
entitled to have this material. 

Mr. Doyle. Then it could all be shipped to him ; could it not ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. And disseminated through the foreign 

Mr. FisHMAN. Throughout the United States. 

Mr. Arens. As a matter of fact, it is a problem, is it not, Mr. 
Fishman, that the consulates and embassies and diplomatic personnel 
in the United States have, at least by practice, had a kind of an 
immunity from any sui'veillance or any restrictions on the Communist 
political propaganda which they would receive and disseminate? 
Isn't that correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. The exemption in the law refers 
to "a duly accredited diplomatic or consular officer of a foreign 
government who is so recognized by the Department of State" or "any 
member of the staff of or any person employed by a duly accredited 
diplomatic or consular office of a foreign government," and so on. 

Mr. Arens. Would it help or would it be, in your judgment, salu- 
tary for the law to require anyone in a consulate or embassy, irrespec- 
tive of diplomatic status, who is engaged principally, we will say, in 
disseminating Communist propaganda, to comply with all of the 
provisions of the law ? 

Mr. Ftsitman. It would be very helpful. 

Mr. Arens. And we would then permit the individual within the 
consulate and embassy, if he wants it, to get all he wants. 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. But if he is engaged principally in disseminating Com- 
munist political propaganda he has to comply with all the require- 
ments of the law. 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you think that would be helpful ? 

Mr. Fishman. I think so. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you have at your fingertips the information con- 
cerning the number of individuals connected with the consulates of 
foreign countries who have been engaged in Communist political 
activity ? Do you have that information ? I think it would be good 
to put it in the record at this point. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. It certainly would be helpful. 

Mr. Arens. We have it percentagewise. Some time ago we took a 
sampling of names of Iron Curtain diplomatic people in the United 
States. The sampling consisted of 100 names selected at random. 

Mr. Scherer. Who made the selection ? 

Mr. Arens. The committee staff and the committee. We just se- 
lected the names of 100 persons at random from Iron Curtain embas- 
sies and consulates. 

We sent those to the Central Intelligence Agency and said, "With- 
out giving us back either the names which we have sent you or the 
sources of your information, give us for public disclosure the back- 
grounds of these individuals." 



INVESTIGATION OF C0MMUNI8T PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6063 

Out of these 100 names taken at random, Central Intelligence 
Agency replied for public use : 32 were active in the intelligence work 
of their nations, 21 in Communist organizational work, 29 in other 
subversive activities. 

In other words, in this sampling of 100 names taken at random from 
people in Iron Curtain consulates and embassies, 82 out of 100 were 
active in what we would characterize, quite appropriately, as subver- 
sive activities. 

Mr. ScHERER. Those are the individuals wlio receive the shipments 
of Communist propaganda— some of these shipments of Communist 
propaganda from behind the Iron Curtain. 

Mr. Areks. I didn't catch that last comment, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. And these individuals you have just mentioned do 
receive — it is obvious, but I want it in the record — these individuals 
do receive some of this propaganda from behind the Iron Curtain. 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. 

Mr. Doym:. Mr. Arens, how do you define subversive activities as 
it relates to these representatives in the United States; these 100?' 
"\'ou said that they were engaged in subversive activities. 

Mr. ScHERER. He said 82 of the 100 sampled. About how long ago 
was that sample taken ? 

Mr. Arens. Some few years ago. It was in the course of the last 
several years. I do not have the exact material with me. I didn't 
anticipate this question. 

Mr. DoYEE. When you say that our Central Intelligence Agency 
reports that 82 of them were engaged in subversive activities do you 
mean that 82 of the 100 were engaged in attacking, directly or in- 
directly, our constitutional form of government in the United States ? 

Mr. Arens. There is no question about that; yes, sir. 

I just wanted to emphasize on this record, if you please, Mr. Chair- 
man, this particular loophole in the law. And I would like, if I could, 
to ask Mr. Fisliman about another area. 

Mr. Scherer. It should be clear that the 82 from the 100 sampled 
Avere diplomatic personnel from Iron Curtain countries. 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. 

Are there any suggestions, Mr. Fishman, you could make whereby 
we could begin some type of a control on the Communist propaganda 
that is going in transit through the United States^ 

Mr. Fishman. We ai-e in the midst of a study of that right at this 
moment. And I wish to postpone any comments until we have com- 
pleted this investigation. 

Mr. Arens. I should like, if I maj^ — and I sure it will be agreeable — 
to extend to Mr. Fishman and his colleagues in the customs service 
the desire of the committee to receive from you, Mr. Fishman, and 
your colleagues, a detailed memorandum outlining the specific changes 
which you would recommend to the laM^ to meet these various problems 
we have been considering here today in the course of this relatively 
brief session. 

Mr. Scherer. And when the study is completed which he just 
talked about, the study that is being presently made, may I move that 
the result of that study be incorporated in the record at this point.^ 

Mr. Doyle. I am sure, Mr. Velde, you will join with Mr. Scherer 
and myself in giving that very cordial, unaninious invitation because 

iThis study had not been completed at the time of the printing of these hearings. 



6064 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

certainly under Public Law 601 this committee is charged with enter- 
ing into a study and reporting back to Congress any recommended 
changes or additions or amendments to legislation dealing with the 
subject of subversive activities and subversive propaganda. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, I have asked you a number of questions 
here today. 

Are there any areas of interest which I have not probed here ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. I think we have covered pretty much the prob- 
lem we are faced with in the service. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Velde, any questions ? 

Mr. Velde. To get the matter straight in my own mind, you or your 
department are not advocating that we censure or stop all of this 
propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. Oh, no. 

Mr. Velde. It is merely a matter of labeling it so that the recipient 
thereof will know that it is Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. We feel that anybody who wants to 
read this material and who has asked for it should have it. And 
wherever anyone indicates to us that he has subscribed for this ma- 
terial we are more than happy to let him have it. 

The only admonition we make is that if it is intended for dissemina- 
tion then that individual should be registered with the Department of 
Justice. 

But anybody who chooses to subscribe to this material for his own 
use, we see no objection under the present law to his having it. 

Mr. Scherer. But any person receiving any of tlfis material who 
has not subscribed for it but who receives it as a result of Communists 
in this country sending his address to someplace behind the Iron 
Curtain, should know the source of that material. 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. He should also have an opportimity 
to say whether he wants it or not. 

We are clear to this extent, that sending this material promiscuously 
to people, especially people who have had their origin in foreign coun- 
tries, does a lot of harm. 

And hearings of this type do a great deal of good since they make 
public the fact that the "return to the homeland" program, for ex- 
ample, was a general program directed to all rather than an attempt 
to seek certain individuals and invite them back home. 

When the return-to-the-homeland or the "redefection" program be- 
gan we had lots of complaints sent to us. People who had had their 
origin in Poland and Hungary, for example, who had immigrated here 
felt that they had been assimilated into the country. No one knew 
where they were. Suddenly they were bombarded with this return- 
to-the-homeland material. And they were afraid they had been 
spotted. 

They wrote to us and pleaded with us not to send this material to 
them, that it was scaring their families and so forth. 

I think as a result of the hearing in Philadelphia the public became 
aware of the fact that this was a general propaganda program because 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6065 

the complaints started to fall off and the program itself, the redefec- 
tion program itself, fell down. 

We still get some of it, but not in the volume we had before the 
Philadelphia hearing. 

Mr. Arens. I do not want to ask you a question that precipitates 
another area of interest of the Appropriations Committee, but do you 
have sufficient manpower in the Customs to spotcheck this material 
at the 45 ports of entry ? 

Mr. Ftshman. No. A\''e couldn't possil^h' at the 45 ports of entry. 

We have adequate personnel at the three ports where we control 
this, where we try to control this material. But we couldn't possibly, 
with our present personnel, attempt to set up any units anywhere else 
except in these three ports where we now have established units. 

Mr. Arens. Of course, the problem there would be one before the 
Appropriations Committee primarily rather than tliis committee. 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us, however, just a brief estimate of 
any manpower needs that you would feel would be desirable to get a 
more effective control, assuming you had a good law ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Generally speaking, we should have control units 
wherever there are exchange post offices in the United States since 
these post offices handle mail destined for areas wider than their own 
States. 

Mr. Arens, Could you tell us about that. I do not understand, 
Mr. Fislnnan, about an exchange post office. Your terminology is 
strange to me. 

Mr. FisHMAx. There are around the country, for example, exchange 
offices at Seattle, San Francisco, Chicago, and New York; these are 
main exchange post offices. 

There are other limited exchange post offices in New Orleans and 
Miami, etc. 

If we had 1 or 2 people assigned to these exchange offices to examine 
this material we might have a more effective control. 

Mr. Arens. How many exchange post offices are there in the 
country ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Offhand I couldn't say. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be about a dozen or a hundred ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. About a dozen that we have customs offices at. 

Mr. Arens. You would be checking the material that would be 
going through the exchange post office? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. How does an exchange post office differ from any other 
post office? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The post office in a given State or city would handle 
mail only destined for that area. 

For example, at the port of New York we handle all the mail which 
comes from Europe. It filters through the New York post office and 
is then sent on to other post offices around the country. The same 
thing happens in San Francisco except that here we get all mail com- 
ing from the West or the Orient. 

Mr. DoYivE. May I ask just a couple of questions, please. 

82728— 57— pt. 3 3 



6066 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Is there any court case now pending in any of our high courts in- 
volving this question of construction of the present statute dealing 
with the labeling? 

Mr. FisHMAN. No ; there is nothing pending right at this moment. 

Mr. Doyle. If the foreign consuls and ambassadors in the United 
States representing Iron Curtain countries can receive all of this 
material they wish without limitation, then all they would have to. 
do would be to mail it on to other cities. 

Mr. FisiiMAX. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. And from the other cities — for instance, San Fran- 
cisco, from the foreign consuls' staff in San Francisco — they could 
hire a bunch of clerks and pretty well plaster San Francisco with any 
material they want, whether it is labeled or not, couldn't they ? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is right. 

Our only control that we have referred to today is the control that 
they would have to label it so that recipients would know its source. 

Mr. Doyle. Whether or not it would be legal would be a question 
for the courts, I suppose, but would it be practical to insist that it be- 
labeled in the foreign country before it first came to this country,, 
and give the authority to our authorities to interpret whether or not 
it was labeled correctly? 

Mr. Fishjman. You would then effectively cut off 90 percent of 
this material because the foreign countries would never label it. 

Mr. Doyle. After all, we want to cut it oft', do we not? 

Mr. FiSHMAx. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You are not protesting it. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. We are not protesting it. I am merely saying that 
would be a very effective way of doing it, if we could, under the law. 
Because none of it 

Mr. Scherer. Let me say this, Mr. Doyle. We want to cut it off 
if it is not properly labeled. 

Mr. DoYi-E. Certainly. If it is subversive material. 

Wliy should we leave ourselves as a country in a position of paying 
much of the bill for distributing subversive material designed to 
overtlirow our form of government? Wh}^ should we do that? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That suggestion, incidentally, Mr. Chairman, was. 
made by one of the other House committees at a hearing about 2 years 
ago. 

Mr. Doyle. Very good. 

Are there any other questions, Mr. Velde ? 

Mr. Velde. Of course, Mr. Doyle, I want to carry that out a little 
further. 

I agree with you entirely, if there is any subversive material in 
here, \t should not be allowed to get into the hands of any individuals. 

But there is a lot of propaganda, merely information, that I think 
American citizens especially would be interested in. and it would be 
a good thing for them to read. 

Mr. Doyle. There is no question about it. It is information and 
it is an education to get a lot of material. 

And counsel and members of the committee, may I say this: 

I aan sure I have and, no doubt, our office has, from the State- 
Depaitment, a comparison of the amount and estimated cost of propa- 
ganda which came into our Nation during 1055 from foreign countries 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6067 

as compared with tlie amount of propaganda that we dissemina.te in 
foreign countries. , 

Mr. Arexs. Those statistics are substantially as follows, Mr. Chair- 
man : The Soviet Union and its satellites are spending an estimated 
$3 billion a year on Communist foreign propaganda. They are spend- 
ing in India alone at the present time an estimated $400 million in 
Communist propaganda. 

I should like also, Mv. Chairman, to just make a quick observation 
to Mr. Fishman. 

We sent an investigator Just the other day to a bookstore, or a 
publishing place here in the San Francisco Bay area, to buy some mag- 
azines, and he returned with four magazines, none of which is identi- 
fied as Communist literature. 

It will be the subject of further inquiry in the course of our stay 
here. But I would like to display these to Mr. Fishman while he is 
on the stand and ask him if each of these four magazines, to his certain 
knowledge, is Communist propaganda, and if it is foreign Communist 
propaganda. 

Mr. Doyle. Were those four magazines purchased right here? 

Mr. Akens. Right here in the bay area in a particular establishment. 
Just a spot check. 

Mr. D^YiE. ^"^Hien were thoy >)urchf\'='ed ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jones, when were they purchased ? 

Mr. Jones. On Friday of last week. 

Mr. Fishman. "We have con-^istently found tliese do contain politi- 
cal propoganda. 

Mr. Arens. Are they Communist ? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. They einanate from the Communist-bloc countries? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any indication on any of these magazines that 
Ihey have been labeled as required by the law ? 

Mr. Fishman. No. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that each of 
these documents be appropriately marked and incorporated by refer- 
ence in this record because w-e want to allude to them later on. 

(Documents referred to are entitled "'Soviet Union, People's Democ- 
racy," "Youth Forum of Political Organization of Society," "People's 
Cliina," and "China Reconstructs" — marked "Fishman Exhibit No. 3," 
and retained in the committee files.) 

Mr. Doyle. Without objection, it is so ordered. 

Mr. Velde. I would just like to ask this question : 

Do you have any way of fniding out how much Communist propa- 
ganda comes through arst-class mail? 

Mr. FisH^iAN. It Avould be a very difficult estimate to make. 

Under the joint regulations of the Post Office and Customs, we can, 
if we suspect the contents of a particular first-class piece of mail, 
ask the addressee to waive the priva.cy of the seal. And we have done 
that in many instances. Particularly during the time of that redefec- 
tio]i program. 

Ml'. Velde. For instance, if the letter is addressed to a well-known 
American Communist you certainly would have the right to go into 
that, wouldn't you ? 



6068 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. FisHMAisr. We would ask him for permission to waive the 
privacy of the seal. If we found that that particular first-class piece 
of mail (contained political propaganda or Gomnumist propaganda 
we might then line up all of the similar material, with format the 
same and address the same, the way it was printed and so on and so 
forth, and then ask every one of those people for permission to open 
their material and withhold that kind of material from the mails. 

Mr. Velde, I thank you for your Yerj fine testimony. It has cer- 
tainly been intelligent and instructive to^this committee, and you have 
been of service. 

Mr. DoYi.E. Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. I concur in the statements of my colleague. 

Mr. Doyle. And I, of course, concur gladly and cordially. We 
thank the chief and all of your associates. 

May I ask you, if it is convenient, to send in to us as promptly as 
you can the studj'' that you have said 3^ou are making, because we shall 
submit recommendations to the 85th Congress with a view to legisla- 
tion as an outgrowth of these hearings across the country. And we 
would appreciate, therefore, getting your account as soon as we could. 

Mr. FisHMAN. We certainty will. 

Mr. Doyle. So we can get it to the legislative connnittee for the 
85th Congress. 

Thank you very much. 

The next witness ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Stephen K. Louie. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Louie, do 3 ou solemnly swear to tell the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Louie. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF STEPHEN K. LOUIE 

Mr. Areks. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Louie. I am Stephen K. Louie, a resident of San Francisco. 
I am employed as administrative assistant in charge of the restricted 
merchandise unit in San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived in the San Francisco area, 
Mr. Louie? 

Mr. Louie. For the past 15 years. 

Mr. Arens. "\'\'liere were you born ? 

Mr. Louie. In San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. Have you at any time of your life returned to China? 

Mr. Louie. Yes. 1 lived in China for approximately 9 years. 

Mr. Arens. And then you returned to the United States^ 

Mr. Louie. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of your professional life, were you also 
employed at one time by the Immigration and Naturalization Service? 

Mr. Louie. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Louie. As an interpreter. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Louie, you have lived here a sufficient length of 
time and have had sufficient contact with the people of Chinese ances- 
try located in this community, I believe, to give us a fair estimate, 



IXVESTIGATIOK OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6069 

an appraisal of the effect of the Chinese-language papers on the local 

people, Chinese-Americans. 

( an you (rive ns an a])praisal of that ? 

Mr. Louie. This is testimony on my personal opinion. 

The majority of the Chinese people here have ancestry back in 
China. They read mostly Chinese-printed newspapers. They sel- 
dom read tlie Knglish-printed newspapers in the bay area here or 
elsewhere. Therefore, when they receive propaganda material from 
China or Hong Kong they will believe that those materials are true, 
and thev will follow the propagation from China or Hong Kong as 
the truth. 

?.rr. Arexs. Do you feel that there is a wide readership in the Chi- 
nese connnnnity here of the Commmiist Chinese propaganda which 
comes into the area? 

Mr. LoriE. Yes, 

Mr. Arens. I believe you gave an account of why, but I would 
like the record to be a little clearer on that. 

Is the record clear as to why you feel there is a wide readership 
of this material ? 

Mr. Loi'iE. Yes. I feel that just because most of the Chinese read 
the (^liinese-]:)rinted newspapers or books or magazines, they will be 
atlected by the propaganda printed in those publications. 

]\Ir. Arexs. Do you have an illustration, Mr. Louie, of a returnee 
from here to China and the etfect which he had or attempted to have 
upon the people of Red China? Do you have a particular illustra- 
tion of that? 

Mr. Louie. Yes. I have seen some evidence that a former resident 
of this country returned to China, and he wrote a letter to another 
Chinese in this country telling him the glorious life he is living in 
China and the working conditions back there. 

Mr. ScHERER. I didn't understand. He told what ? 

Mr. Louie. About the glorious life and the working conditions. 

Mr. Arens. Have you seen letters in the course of your professional 
work for the Government from Chinese in China which have been 
published in various publications undertaking to influence attitudes 
and opinions of people in the United States ? 

Mr. Louie. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arexs. Tell us about them, please. 

]Mr. Louie. I have seen lots of reprints from letters purportedly 
written by Chinese in China or former residents of this country, or 
students who have returned to China from this country, and also 
articles from newspapers, or statements by persons such as ]Mao Tse- 
tung or Chou En-lai. 

The head people, the chief of a town or a village would call a meet- 
ing in that particular area and pass out these reprints and urge the 
people there to send them to this country in the hope to get the Chinese 
people in this country to return to China. 

]SIr. Arexs. Do you have any illustrations, Mr. Louie, of people 
wlio have been living in the United States but who have gone back 
to China and who have told the Chinese people that conditions in the 
United States are horrible plus the regular Communist line ? Would 
you tell us about that ? 

I know we are having a little difficulty with one another because 
of a slight accent here. 



6070 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Louie. I have translated letters or had letters translated under 
ray supervision where things like this material, along this line, was 
sent over here. 

Mr. Akens. Could you summarize it, please, sir. 

Mr. Louie. A letter here says: "Now let us talk about life" 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me a moment. Who is writing the letter ? Who 
is the author of the letter, and where is the person who is the author of 
the letter? 

Mr. Louie. These are persons living in China, and sending to an- 
other person in this country. 

Mr. Arens. Did the person who is living in China who wrote that 
letter previously live in the United States ? 

Mr. Louie. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Scherer. Pardon me. Without revealing this person's name, 
is there any indication that this individual was a member of the Com- 
munist Party, Mr. Arens ? Or don't you know ? 

Mr. Arens. I didn't catch that. 

Mr. Scherer. Without revealing the individual's name who wrote 
this letter that Mr. Louie wanted to tell us about, is there any indication 
that this individual was a Communist ? 

We know that Communists have gone back. 

Mr. Arens. Was this individual a Communist ? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Do we have any information on it ? 

Mr. Louie. No, I don't have any personal information. 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps we can tell from the content of the letter the 
essence of his position. Would you go ahead, please, sir. 

Mr. Louie. I am reading from here. 

First, M-e must offer our congratulations to the success of the revolution of 
our fatherland ! Our country has not only defected all the military castes, offi- 
cialdoms and feudalist powers, but also has swept away all the foreign imperial- 
ist oppressive iwwers. Our fatherland has stood up. No matter what rumors 
anyone has made, the following are ironical facts ; and no one can deny them. 
In military matters, our volunteer ai-my's fighting in Korea for justice has 
gotten an unimaginal)le victory. In foreign affairs, our country has gotten, both 
in Geneva and in Bandung, the fame of which no history of our country can 
compare. 

Later on he says : 

In recent years, the number of returned fellow countrymen who studied science 
in foreign lands is not small, but there are many who have not returned. Of 
course, thoir having not returned is not that they are unwilling to return, but is 
because they have certain fears. The things that I often heard are these : 
(1) they are afraid that they will have no freedom after their return; (2) they 
are afraid that the scientific research equipments in China are inferior so that 
the expansion of research works is hindered: (3) they are afraid that the live- 
lihood in China is difficult or afraid that they might be discriminated against 
by others, etc. The situations in China are entirely different from these state- 
ments, which are rumors made by those who have hatred. I can briefly explain 
the situations to you. The rumor that there is no freedom is an entirely un- 
founded statement. The Government regards all scientists with esteem, espe- 
cially now during the period of developing the field of science. 

It then goes on and says : 

Now, let us talk about livelihood. In a society where people are living in 
peace and are contented with their occupations, where farm products are har- 
vested abundantly every year, where industries and commerce are flourishing, 
and where prices are stable, do you think in such situations a person with a 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6071 

hij^li education will have a dillicult livelihood? A college professor «an com- 
fortably support the livelihood of 5 or 6 persons. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Louie. I suggest that you might just sunanarize 
the contents of those letters for us, if you could, please, in the interest 
of economy of time. 

Mr. Louie. These letters I have translated along that line bring out 
the development, living conditions, etc., in China, and urge the people 
in this country to return to China. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Louie, you are, of course, 1 am sure, a loyal Ameri- 
can, and I am sure the overwhelming majority of the Chinese- Ameri- 
cans are loyal Americans. 

I should like to ask you if you could please tell us, on the basis of 
your affinity to the Chinese-American community, what should be 
done so that the Chinese-American who would be the recipient of the 
Eed Chinese propaganda would know that what he is reading is Chi- 
nese Communist propaganda. 

Mr. Louie. I believe that what the committee and Mr. Fishman dis- 
cussed a while ago is the very good system to follow. Call to the atten- 
tion of the people that that particular publication is propaganda 
material. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any other comment or any other area of activity 
or item that you want to bring to the attention of the committee ? 

Mr. Louie. In connection with the dissemination of the mail we have 
often found narcotics, attempted smuggling in the mail. 

Mr. Arens. Is there a nai-cotics problem here in addition to the 
problem of narcotics in the mails? 

Mr. Louie. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And on the basis of your intensive experience in this 
enforcement field, is it true that the Red Chinese are undertaking to 
procure hard currency to run their war machinery via the sale of 
narcotics? 

Mr. Louie. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are the}^ also undertaking to demoralize those people 
whom they can reach with these narcotics ? 

Mr. Louie. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other observation you would like to 
make ? 

Mr. Louie. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Let me ask one question. 

You said you lived in China for a number of years. When was it 
that you lived in China? 

Mr. Louie. Between 1932 to 1941. 

Mr. Scherer. How old were you at that time ? 

Mr. Louie. From age 5 to the age of 15. 

Mr. Scherer. From the age of 5 to the age of 15 ? 

Mr. Louie. Yes; that is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Velde? 

Mr. Velde. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to say, in view to Mr. Louie's testimony, that 
when I was in Hong Kong, China, as a member of another committee 
of Congress, the Armed Services Committee, I was privileged t^) inter- 
view certain intelligence people who told me very definitely of this 
program of the residents of villages in China being compelled to adopt 



6072 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

as their letters back to the United States former letters which Mere 
provided by the Chinese Comniimist government, and that they were 
compelled to send these back to the United States under fear of harm 
if they didn't. 

Another thing the intelligence told me in Hong Kong was that the 
Chinese Communist government had in Hong Kong a definite group 
of Chinese Communist government representatives whose sole job was 
to send and encourage the sending of communications back to the 
United States picturing the Communist government and life in China 
as very active in eveiy way. 

As Mr. Louie has said, they painted it as being glorious, misrepre- 
sented it to be glorious and fine instead of the actual tensor and dicta- 
torial government it actually \Yas. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point. ) 

Mr. Doyle. I thought I should make that statement here in supple- 
ment to Mr. Louie's statement because that is the information I re- 
ceived when I was in China. 

Is there anything else, Mr. Velde ? 

Mr. Velde. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Then this committee will stand in recess until 2 p. m. 

('V\'liereupon, at 12 : 05 p. m., the committee was recessed, to be 
reconvened at 2 p. m., this same day. Committee members present : 
Representatives Doyle and Velde.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— MONDAY, DECEMBER 10, 1956 

(The committee was reconvened at 2 : 10 p. m. at the expiration of 
the recess. Committee members present : Representatives Doyle, 
Velde, and Scherer. ) 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will please convene. 

Let the record show that the subconunittee is here 100 percent — 
Mr. Velde, of Illinois, on my right, Mr. Scherer, of Oliio, on my left, 
and I, Doyle, of California, from Los Angeles County. 

I think there is no doubt that some of the witnesses here this after- 
noon were not present this morning, and also some of the distin- 
guished counsel for witnesses of this afternoon and tomorrow 
were not present in the courtroom this morning when I took occasion 
to call attention to the rules of this committee under which we are 
governed and under which we will govern our own hearings. And 
we are obligated to do so. 

These rules, of course, are presumed to be known by distinguished 
counsel appearing with clients today and tomorrow, and the wit- 
nesses are supposed to have received copies thereof. 

But, so as to save time and avoid having misunderstanding, I will 
read rule VII and the first paragraph of rule VIII : 

At every hearing, public or executive, every witness shall be accorded the 
privilege of having counsel of his own choosing. 

The participation of counsel during the course of any hearing and while 
the witness is testifying shall be limited to advising said witness as to his 
legal rights. Counsel shall not be permitted to engage in oral argument with 
the committee, but shall confine his activity to the area of legal advice to his 
client. 



INVESTIGATION OF COIVUMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6073 

Rule VIII: 

Counsel for a witness shall conduct himself in a professional, ethical, and 
proper manner. His failure to do so shall, upon a finding to that effect by a 
majority of the committee or subcommittee before which the witness is ap- 
pearing, subject such counsel to disciplinary action which may include warning, 
censure, removing from the hearing room of counsel, or a recommendation of 
contempt proceedings. 

May I say in that connection that it just happens that we tliree 
members of this siibcommittee all practiced law actively for many 
years before we first went to Congress. 

I practiced law in California 30 years. And I know, therefore, 
that California counsel appearing for witnesses will expect to obey 
strictly the committee rules. And it will be very helpful if you will. 

The other tiling I wish to repeat from this morning is I have in- 
structed the United States marshal that any manifestation of ap- 
proval or disapproval by any person in the room will result auto- 
matically in that person being invited to leave because we do not 
want disapproval or approval expressed. That is fair, I am sure. 

Are you ready, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Mr. John Caldwell, would you kindly come 
forward. Would you ])lease remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solenmly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Caldwell. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Be seated in the witness chair, please. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN C. CALDWELL 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Caldwell. John Caldwell, Nashville, Tenn., a lecturer and 
wi'iter. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born, Mr. Caldwell ? 

Mr. Caldwell. In southern China. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you live in China ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Eighteen years as a child and a number of years 
since, and many trips to and from China. 

Mr. Arens. Your father was a missionary in China ? 

Mr. Caldwell. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Caldwell, over the course of the last several years 
have you devoted your energies and attentions principally to the 
Chinese Communist operations and to communism in the Far East? 

Mr. Caldwell. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And in the course of the last several weeks have you 
taken a trip to the Far East? 

Mr. Caldwell. Yes. I returned a little over 2 weeks ago from a 
trip to Formosa, Hong Kong, Bangkok, Cambodia. 

Mr. Arens. And that ti-ip was pursuant to 3^our interest as a student 
of international communism in the Far East ? 

Mr. Caldwell. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Caldwell, I would like to ask you, first of all, this 
general question : 



6074 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

What is the essence of the Communist propaganda campaign in the- 
Far East? 

Mr. Caldwell. During the past year, particularly, there has been 
a tremendously increased Communist propaganda campaign directed 
toward specific groups and specific nations. And the general tenor 
of this campaign is a desire to create a spirit of neutrality among the 
countries of southeast Asia to stop criticism of China and to gain 
acceptance for Ked China's hope for U. N. membership. 

Ml'. Arens. Is this propaganda campaign directed against specific 
segments of a population and specific nations ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Yes ; it is. 

There are actually different types of campaigns directed at different 
nations. It is a little hard to generalize, but there are two main 
campaigns going on in southeast Asia. One is directed against the 
Buddhist bloc of nations. And right now that campaign is probably 
more intense than the other, which is directed against the British 
colonies of southeast Asia. 

They are different types of propaganda. One, you might say, is 
softer than the other. And within these countries, though, whether 
they are British colonies or the Buddhist nations, it is the overseas 
Chinese segment of the population that is receiving the greatest propa- 
ganda attention. 

Mr. Arens. What is the volume or the intensity of this propaganda ? 
Could you tell us that. 

Mr. Caldwell. Yes ; I can. 

Could I use some exhibits I haA'e arranged here ? 

Mr. Arens. Please do. 

I would suggest, if you please, Mr. Caldwell, that as you begin to 
use an exhibit you describe it for the purpose of this record so that 
when the record is printed, it will be clear as to just what you have 
been alluding. 

Mr. Caldwell. I have here two very simple cardboard charts, 
one describing the campaign against the British colonial possessions, 
the other against the Buddhist nations. 

I want to speak first about this campaign against the three primary 
Buddhist nations because I think it is extremely intense at the present 
time with a tremendous amount of money devoted to it. And it is 
also quite successful. 

I might use the pointer here and explain that I mean this bloc of 
nations right here [indicating] Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos. 



INVESTIGATION OP COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6075 






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6076 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. From the standpoint of describing the geographical lo- 
cation of those nations, for our record, tell us what is their physical 
location with reference to Red China. 

Mr. Caldwell. Laos has a common border wnth Red China. You 
might say that they are directly south of the Red Chinese border. 

Now these nations are, in the case of two of them, newly inde- 
pendent. They are very nationalistic, and the Communists are 
working on trying to keep them neutral. 

They are utilizing three main methods of propaganda : Education — 
primarily inliltration of the Chinese schools, of which south of Hong 
Kong there are over 2,000. 

They use newspapers through a massive campaign of actual bribery 
where they will bribe an editor either through an outright gift of 
money or through gifts of newsprint to change his editorial line. 

They use publications, some of the ones the committee saw this 
morning, but many entirely different ones, some of Avhich I have 
brought to show you. 

And in certain nations they are using economic penetration, actual 

economic aid of a type that very closely parallels our ICA program. 

Mr. Arens. May I just interject this question so the record is clear : 

You are very fluoiit in the language of the Far East, are you not? 

Principally in Chinese ? 

Mr. Caldwell. I speak Chinese : yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you read it and 

Mr. Caldwell. I read it, but very little. There is quite a difference 
between reading it and speaking. 

Mr. Aricns. Your testimony today is based upon extensive inter- 
views which you had ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Three trips during this past year. 
Now Cambodia is a small nation of 41/2 million people. That will 
serve to illustrate, I think, the methods used and the intensity of 
the campaign. 

There are 350,000 Chinese in Cambodia, and, even though that is less 
than 10 percent of the population, those Chinese control business, 
they control banks, and the best newspapers. Those Chinese have a 
total of 160 schools. They have within the last year become heavily 
infiltrated witli Communist teachers. So that it is the estimate today 
that over two-thirds of the teaching staffs of those schools are either 
actual party members or are sent by the party. 

An illustration of the success is the fact that this past year 300 
Chinese students went from Cambodia to study in Red China, while 
only 34 went to Free China or Formosa, a ratio of about 10 to 1. 

Within the past year — and most of these things I speak of have 
happened in 12 months or less — 4 of 5 Chinese newspapers have be- 
come either neutralist or actually pro-Red. They have been bought 
either by outright bribes to the editors or with gifts of newsprint, 
which is another common form of bribery the Reds are using. 

In publications, within the past year and mostly Avithin the past 

3 months, 40 new bookstores have been opened in Cambodia. Now, 

of these 40, 39 are Communist bookstores, and one is anti-Communist. 

I will come back to the publications in a minute. 

Finally, in Cambodia the Reds have offered a $22 million economic 

aid program that is very similar to what we do through ICA. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6077 

So you see there the four methods : Education, newspapers, publica- 
tions, and economic penetration. 

Mr. Arens. May I interject this question : 

Of what sifjnificance is Cambodia to the world picture of the inter- 
national Connnunist conspiracy? 

I would si)eculate — and I am not trying to be at all facetious — that 
the average American has rarely heard of Cambodia. 

Mr. Caldwell. You are correct. 

Mr. Arens. What is the significance of it ? 

Mr. Caldwell. It is important for this reason. It is one of the 
three Buddhist nations of the area. It is the most vulnerable be- 
cause it is weak. It has a new government; it is newly independent, 
and the reason tlie Communists — and this is my personal opinion — 
are emphasizing Cambodia is because through it they hope to reach 
Thailand, which is an ally of this country, is a much larger nation 
and is a member of the SEATO. 

Mr. Arens. ''This country-' meaning the United States? 

Mr. Caldm'ell. Yes. Thailand is a member of SEATO. It has 
20 million people. It is much more powerful and important in south- 
east Asia than Cambodia. But Cambodia and, to a lesser degree, 
Laos are being used as an entree through tlie Buddhist bloc to the con- 
trol of Thailand. 

Xow this morning 30U gentlemen saw some of the publications that 
are coming into this countr}*. 

In the bookstores of Bangkok and Cambodia I picked up this assort- 
ment of publications, some of them hard books and all of them deal- 
ing \vith China in what I would call a soft manner. There is veiy 
little anti-American propaganda in the publications you find in 
Southeast Asia. There is only occasional reference to what the Com- 
munists like to call the reactionary Chiang Kai-shek. Mostly these 
are very clever attempts to show Red China as a Utopia, as a country 
that is peaceful minded, that deserves membership in the United Na- 
tions, a country that deserves the investment of southeast Asia capital. 
And southeast Asia is a rich area. 

Mr. Arens. What would be the effect if Eed China were admitted 
to the United Nations from the standpoint of the impact upon Asia? 

Mr. Caldwell. I think it would be a very drastic effect. 

Already throughout southeast Asia you will find more people who 
are, let us say, interested in Red China than are against Red China. 
Many others are sitting on the fence waiting to see w^liat is going to 
happen. 

Mr. Arens. When you say drastic what do you mean? If Red 
China tomorrow were admitted into the United Nations and the 
United States should recognize Red China as a legitimate, lx)na fide 
government what would be the impact in Asia ? 

Mr. Caldwell. The first immediate impact would be that your 
1214 million overseas Chinese, who in some cases make up the majority 
of the po])ulation, would go for Red China. They control the eco- 
nomic life of the whole area. 

It would mean, very simply, the loss of all southeast Asia. 

Mr. ScHERER. Doesn't the witness want to sit down ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Thank you. 

Now one very interesting thing about these publications is that they 
are sold, but price is obviously not at all important because in every 



6078 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 

case I was able to jew the seller down. And you can get them at 

ridiculously low prices. 

This hard book on water conservancy in New China, beautifully 

illustrated, cost me the equivalent of 28 cents. The asking price was 

50 cents, but I had no difficulty whatsoever in getting the price down. 

Some of the smaller publications which seek mostly to show China 

as a cultured nation can be gotten for at little as 2 or 3 cents. 

Now I have here perhaps 7 or 8 out of the over 500, 1 would judge, 
publications that are available that are simply inundating this Budd- 
hist bloc of countries. They are sold. But if they can't be sold they 
are given away. And in influence I am afraid they far outweight 
anything our side is able to do. 

Mr. Arens. Now is this propaganda accompanied by any other 
tactic in order to accomplish the objective of the Soviets? 

Mr. Caldwell. Yes. It differs somewhat in the areas controlled 
by the British, the British colonial areas. I include there Hong Kong, 
Malaya, Singapore, and Borneo. 

In these areas which are primarily either Chinese or Moslem in 
religion there is much more terrorism. There is very little effort at 

terrorism 

Mr. Arens. '\'\liat part does terrorism play in Red tactics in Asia ? 
Mr. Caldwell. It plays a very large part, particidarly in Singa- 
pore, let us say, or Malaya where people who do not cooperate are 
frequently murdered. 

As an example, the infiltration of the schools of this area has become 
so complete that it is possible for the high-school student to demand 
the dismissal of a teacher or a principal. And when principals who 
are anti-Communist do not knuckle clown to the students there have 
been so many cases of acid throwing in the faces of the principals 
and the teachers that the British authorities have now made the mere 
possession of sulfuric acid punishable with 10 years in prison. 

Mr. Arens. How many people are yet to be wooed into the Com- 
munist bloc in Asia ? 

Mr. Caldwell. It is a little dangerous to give percentages, but I 
can give the guess of well-informed people. 

Cambodia is a pretty good example. Most of the people, our Ameri- 
can intelligence people, would figure that 40 percent of the people of 
Cambodia are now pro-Communist, 25 percent anti-Communist, and 

the balance are sitting on the fence waiting to see 

Mr. Arens. How many people in the aggregate are there in Asia 
who have not as yet actually been enmeshed in the grip of communism 
irrespective of their individual views ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Not counting India but just Southeast Asia, the 
population is 160 million, slightly less than that of America. 

Mr. Arens. How late is it on the Soviet timetable of chronology in 
taking over the remaining population of Asia that has not been al- 
ready enmeshed in the grip of the international Communist con- 
spiracy ? 

Mr. Caldwell. How late is it on the timetable ? 
Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Caldwell. I would say the timetable is very well advanced. 
You can go from Indonesia north and there are very few areas 
where the Communist sympathizers, either through fear or through 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN XJ. S. 6079 

the effective propaganda, do not outnumber those who are anti-Com- 
munist. 

Mr. Arens, Are we — and by "we" I mean the forces of freedom in 
the world — winning or are we losing in Asia ? 

Mr. Caldwell. I think an honest answer is that presently we are 
losing. I think I can illustrate that with this one story. 

During the last year this control of the press that I have mentioned 
through bribery has become so complete that all through the last part 
of October and November, at the time the Egyptian and the Hungarian 
■crises were both on, I did not see a single feature front-page story on 
Hungary in any newspaper in southeast Asia. T saw innumerable 
stories about Egypt, stories of alleged British atrocity. 

In other words, the control is so great that the Hungarian revolution, 
which was propagandawise, I felt, something handed to us on a platter, 
was largely lost in that part of the world because the people can't 
know about it. 

Mr. Arens. You mentioned schools and education a little while ago, 
Mr. Caldwell. 

What success do the Chinese Communists have in persuading stu- 
dents from Southeast Asia to go to Red China ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Since 1950 between 40,000 and 50,000 have gone to 
Red China. You have to give a round figure like that because many 
have gone without proper permits, exit permits from their native 
lands. 

The number is decreasing. During 1956 an estimated 3,900 will go, 
whereas 4 or 5 years ago it would have been between 7,000 and 8,000. 

Mr. Aeens. How many students go to Formosa — that is. Free 
China — compared to Communist China ? 

Mr. Caldwell. This year there will be 2,200 students in Free China, 
and 3,900 in Red China. 

But even a year ago the proportion was much changed. In other 
Avords, this is the only place, I think, where we are having a minor 
victor3^ Less students are going to Red China and more are going 
to Formosa. 

Mr. Arens. You spent some time in Formosa during the course of 
your last trip a few weeks ago. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have occasion to learn of the reverse brain- 
washing tactic that is used by the Free China Government with 
reference to Communists who come within their purview ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Yes. I can report something on it. 

There is an idea current in this country that any Communist who 
comes into the hands of the Free Chinese is immediately executed. 
But that is far from the truth. 

There is, on an island off the eastern coast of Formosa, a special 
<;amp for such people. In some cases they are captured Communist 
soldiers, and in some cases they are local Communist agents that have 
been found out. 

I believe at the present time there are something like between 8,000 
and 10,000 on this island where they receive, as you put it, a reverse 
course of brain washing until it is considered it is safe for them to go 
back to Formosa and become a part of society, to take jobs, and many 
oi them do go back and get into good jobs. 



6080 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. What part does trade and economic aid play in the 
Communist strategy to capture Asia ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Trade and economic aid are both relatively new 
methods. I mentioned that the Ked Chinese have just offered Cam- 
bodia a $22 million aid program. We are currently giving Cam- 
bodia $40 million annually. But their $22 million will go probably 
twice as far as our $40 million simply because they will not have to 
pay as high salaries, and they won't have to have as much red tape 
involved. 

For instance, they are moving in 120 technicians this month to 
add 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean red tape in administration of the program? 

Mr. Caldwell. Red tape of our making, yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. How long have you been back from this last trip ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Not quite 3 weeks. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you given the information you are giving to us 
to anyone in the State Department? 

Mr. Caldavell. No, sir ; I have not. This is my first time. 

In addition to this economic aid, which in the case of small neutral 
nations like Cambodia and Laos may be very effective, the Reds are 
pushing a campaign of trade. They have just sigTied a £5-million 
trade agreement with the Strait Settlements. 

A trade mission from the little kingdom of Laos, which is directly 
south of the Cliina border, has just been to Peking and has come back. 
They are, for instance, offering consumer goods — bicycles is an excel- 
lent example — which are in great need in Southeast Asia and wliich 
their own people do not have, and at very, very low prices. 

So trade, economic aid are definitely weapons, but weapons that 
are just now coming into use in their campaign. 

Mr. Arens. Don't the trade agreements also provide that the Com- 
munist agents may have access to the country with which the trade 
agreement has been consummated ? 

Mr. Caldavell. That is correct, yes. 

There are rather large aid missions. 

There is one other point in the Communist methods I think I should 
mention because I think it is rather interesting, and that is the gate- 
ways that they use in funneling this material, the publications, news- 
papers, their agents into Southeast Asia. 

Hong Kong, of course, is the major gateway. That is where most 
of the Communist agents make headquarters. 

Mr. Velde. Point out the other British protectorates. 

Mr. Caldwell. North Borneo which is an area the Reds have just 
moved into in the last 6 months. In 6 months' time they have "\drtually 
gotten control of the schools, the Chinese schools of North Borneo. 

Singapore, which is right at the end of the Malay Peninsula, the Fed- 
erated Malay States and Hong Kong. 

Mr. ScHERER. A^Hien you say they have virtually gotten control of 
north Borneo, you mean the Communists have? 

Mr. Caldwell. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are these native Communists of Borneo or people 
who have infiltrated? 

Mr. Caldwell. They are agents from Hong Kong, all Chinese. 
Their major effort is in the Chinese schools, which are the best schools 
of the area. 



INYESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6081 

Mr. ScHERER, How did tliey infiltrate the schools if they are from 
out of the country ? 

;Mr. Caldwell. The regulations regarding entry of people are not 
very cai-ef ully kept in that part of the world. As far as Malaya is con- 
cerned, the British allow Chinese to go to and from China if they wish. 
They can come in almost in any number, plus the fact that you have 
these common frontiers up here, an extremely rugged country. You 
have a large number of agents crossing the borders illegally. 

Now the way they operate — when I say take over a school, is to enroll 
overage students, bully boys you might call them, between 24 and 30 
years of age, perhaps a half dozen in one school. They play upon the 
legitimate interests of these overseas Chinese in a strong China. They 
play on the fact that the Chinese are often not treated too well by the 
British and the other people under whom they live. 

They circulate these beautiful publications — Children of China, for 
instance — showing the wonders of the new China. Pretty soon they 
begin to get discusson groups organized, and before long they are able 
to control a sufficient number of the student body to decide when they 
are going to demonstrate and to levy dues. 

In Singapore this last year they collected $110,000 (U. S.) in dues 
from the high school students. This money was then used to foment 
strikes in the city, and was tied in with the Red control of labor. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Caldwell, have you had an opportunity in the course 
of this last trip to interview escapees from Red China, and, if so, what 
did they tell of conditions as compared to the story which we see here 
in this beautifully prepared book? 

Mr. Caldwell, Yes, sir, I did. 

During the past year and particularly since June there have been a 
large number of students who have escaped from Red China. These 
are the same students who Avent to Red China at the invitation of the 
Chinese Government from Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, all over 
southeast Asia. 

I interviewed 11 of these escaped students personally, and read the 
transcripts of interviews they had given — 80 others — to United States 
agencies. 

The story these students tell is certainly at variance with the story 
told by the publications. Although they were invited to Red China 
for an education, promised free tuition and board, the school of their 
choice, they found when they arrived that they had to pay their own 
way. They discoA^ered that most of them had been invited because 
they came from wealthy southeast Asian families and could be forced, 
the Reds thought, to write home for remittances. 

In other words, foreign exchange was the basis of their invitation. 

But also they discovered that they were not allowed to go to a 
school of their choice or any school. Instead, they had to go into 
1 of 3 large special brainwashing schools the Reds have set up. They 
are known as makeup schools where all foreign students go through 
a period that may last as long as 2 years of brainwashing before they 
are considered politically safe to mix witli the regular mainland stu- 
dents. Those who prove recalcitrant are sent to an institution in 
south China near Canton that is called the Overseas Student Brain 
Improvement Center in which there are currently 4,000 recalcitrant 

82728— 57— pt. 3 4 



6082 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

students who are receiving special brainwashing. If they still don't 
knuckle under 

Mr. ScHERER. 4,000 students from outside Red China? 

Mr. Caldwell. All from outside Red China. And the current 
enrollment of the 3 makeup schools in 1956 is 10,000. 

If they still are difficult to get along with, if they don't knuckle 
under to Communist pressure, they are sent to what the Chinese 
students call a roaming hard-labor camp. 

I talked to one student who had been sentenced to one of these camps 
in which there were 6,000 high-school students, not all of them from 
the mainland by any sense — I mean from overseas. I mean some of 
them mainland students; 6,000 high-school kids who had refused to 
knuckle under and were sent to the labor camp as punishment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Must these out-of-country, so-called exchange stu- 
dents, attend these camps under pressure ? 

Mr. Caldwell. They have no choice. They are immediately put 
into a makeup school. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is, they have no choice of going back to the 
country from which they came? 

Mr. Caldwell. Not at first. Supposedly they can leave China any 
time they wish. 

Now tiie Chinese have been forced to let a number out simply because 
so many thousands are clamoring to get out. And they are caught 
on the horns of a dilemma. They either have to let these students out, 
some of them, or they have to take the chance that the students will 
write letters back to southeast Asia and tell what actual conditions 
are. 

These students, many of them, traveled all over Red China, being 
shifted from one brainwashing school to the other. They had a chance 
to see what living conditions are like. And from 8 different students 
who were in different parts of China I got this 1 significant figure 
which will give an idea of the problem of living for the common 
Chinese. 

The rice ration — and practically everything is rationed — varied 
from 11 catties — a catty is a little less than a pound and a third — to 
15 catties a month, depending on whether you are a farmer or a 
laborer or an office worker. 

It is generally considered among Chinese that the minimum require- 
ment for life is 1 cattie per day. So that the maximum ration in 
China per day, except for party workers and party members, is exactly 
one-half what most Chinese consider a minimum for a healthy life. 

Mr. Arens. How many people have been murdered by the Com- 
munist regime in Red China in the course of this ascendancy to 
power? 

Mr. Caldwell. The best estimate, a combination of many estimates, 
is 25 million. And at the present time there are thought to be some- 
thing like 30 million people in some kind of enforced labor camp, 
brainwashing school or similar institution. 

Mr. Arens. Does Formosa, the free Government of Formosa, have 
any counteracting activities in southeast Asia? 

Mr. Caldwell. Yes. But they are faced with a difficult problem. 
They have no representation in British areas because Britain has 
recognized Red China. So free China cannot operate openly in 
Malaya, Borneo, or in Singapore. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN XJ. S. 6083 

Thailand recognizes free China, and they can operate there. Cam- 
bodia and Laos are neutraL They manage to recognize both Red 
China and free China. 

But the feeling of the people there is generally antifree China, 
and they have a rather difficult time. Even in Hong Kong, which 
is a complete Chinese city of 3 million people, the free Chinese can- 
not operate openly or legally. 

Mr. Arens. What is your evaluation of the ideological offensive by 
the United States, our programs in the Far East ? 

Mr. Caldwell. I don't think we can say we are too successful. 

Bangkok in Thailand, one of our allies, is a city in which there are 
something like 27 newspapers. And all but two of those newspapers 
are generally anti-American, utilizing anything possible they can to 
degrade America. 

Incidentally, one of the common things is to use Confidential 
magazine, to reprint articles from Confidential magazine. You will 
find them all over southeast Asia today, stories about divorce, sex, 
anything that the Reds can get hold of in Confidential that fits the 
picture of a corrupt America you will find in these papers. 

Mr. Arens. What can the United States or what, in your judgment, 
should the United States and/or free China do that is not being done 
in Asia in order that it may still continue to be, so far as possible, 
within the bloc of the free nations ? 

Mr. Caldwell. I think the main target, as far as we are concerned, 
should be, as it is with the Chinese Reds, the overseas Chinese, the 
121/^ million Chinese who live in southeast Asia. 

As I have mentioned earlier, they are the main economic factor. 
They control the economic life. 

Now these Chinese have to have a China to look to. The old people 
want to be buried in China. Traditionally they have gone back to die. 

Right now, because of the Communist control of the press, the 
schools, publications, the ovei-seas Chinese can only know of one China, 
and that is Red China. 

But I think there are ways in which we can, working with free 
China, get the story of free China over to them. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. May I interrupt just a minute. 

Is there any estimate of the percentage of Chinese in Red China 
today who are actually Communists ? 

We know tliat in Russia only about 14 percent, and in Poland only 
about 4 percent of tlie people are Coimnunists. 

Mr. Caldwell. The figiu-e generally given, at least free Chinese 
intelligence figiire, is that 85 percent of the people are anti-Communist. 
I have gotten that same figure from numerous escapees I have talked 
to. That leaves 15 percent of the population that are either going 
along with the Government for a ride or are actually Communists. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, there is a fallacy in undertaking to 
appraise the strength of the Communist conspiracv on the basis of 
the numerical strength of the party. Isn't that Correct ? 

Mr. Caldwell. That is absolutely true. 

The party in China, I believe, has only 8 million members. But I 
could be wrong on that figure. 

Mr. Scherer. We know, but for the record how is it that 15 percent 
■can control the 85 percent ? 



6084 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Caldwell. Well, it is through the most massive police state 
that probably the world has ever seen, a more massive one than even 
Russia has. The control is so tight that in China today you cannot 
spend one night away from your home without a permit from the 
police. In other words, it is possible to keep absolute tabs on prac- 
tically everybody all the time. 

Mr. ScHERER. We find that same thing existing in practically all 
of the satellite countries. 

As I pointed out, the evidence before the committee is that only 4 
percent of the Polish people are Communists, and only 3 and 4 percent 
of the population of some of the other satellite countries are 
Communists. 

So you have a similar situation in Cliina. 

Mr. Caldwell. Very similar in China. And in China I think per- 
haps even less of the people are sympathetic to communism than in 
some of the European satellites. 

Mr. ScHERER. The story is the same in all of the satellite countries. 

Mr. Caldwell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Namely, police control. 

Mr. Caldwell. Police control. 

Could I return, sir, to what we could do ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Caldwell. I think there are many things we can do to appeal 
to this large overseas population. 

I went into a library, the National Library of Cambodia in the 
capital city of Pnompenh, and I found all of these publications on 
all of the reading tables available in large numbers. And the only 
American publications I found in that library was an August 1954, 
issue of Newsweek and the May 1955, issue of Time. In other words, 
there was nothing on the free world side except two ancient American 
magazines. 

Mr. Arens. Generally they wouldn't read English publications 
anyway. 

Mr. Caldwell. They wouldn't read English publications anyway. 

Mr. ScHERER. What do we use that $40 million for over there ? 

Mr. Caldwell. That is entirely for economic aid. 

Mr. ScHERER. None of it for propaganda ? 

Mr. Caldwell. We have also a USIA program over there. We 
have 12 Americans. 

It is very easy to criticize USIA. I think we should realize it has 
a difficult job. In Cambodia I don't think it is doing a job at all. In 
some other places it is effective. But we certainly can produce pub- 
lications ourselves in the local languages. 

As a matter of fact, one agency of our Government — the ICA — ^is 
doing something about it. That is the International Cooperation 
Administration. They are producing, in Chinese, material for the 
Chinese schools of Southeast Asia. But there simply is not enough 
of it. There is a tremendous need, for instance, of a few documentary 
films on free China which has had quite a renaissance for use with 
Chinese sound tracks in southeast Asia. 

Mr. 2vi»^rs. You saw a number of films of the Communists ? 

Mr. Caldwell. The Communists have excellent films. 



INVESTICfATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6085 

Mr. Arexs. Did yon see nny films of the Commimists of the lewd 
variety ? I believe you mentioned that to me in our informal conver- 
sation this afternoon. 

Mr. Caldwell. That is another facet of their campaign. They 
have made the city of Bangkok into the dirty movie capital of the 
world, with an estimated production last year of 4,000 titles. 

Now these are shipped all through the Far East. I would judge 
you can say it sort of parallels the use of narcotics as a method of 
breaking down the moral fiber of people. 

Now I was able to get myself into one of the studios that make the 
movies, and was interested to notice that their equipment was the 
latest. Or I presume it must have been very late model Russian pro- 
jection and motion-picture equipment. 

I asked them if Communist money Avas involved in the industry, and 
I was told yes, but not to what degree. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Caldwell, since you mentioned narcotics, does Red 
China use narcotics, as far as these countries you talk about are con- 
cerned, for Communist purposes ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Yes. The use of opium particularly is widespread. 
So widespread that in Borneo, in Thailand, j^ou can buy it almost 
like you can buy aspirin. 

Mr. Yelde. But it is used mostly to get money for the use of Red 
China? 

Mr. Caldwell. It is used, yes, as an instrument of foreign policy 
to obtain foreign exchange. It is widespread. 

Mr. Scherer. Is the source of the narcotics Red China ? 

Mr. Caldwell. I don't know whether it is wholly Red China or not. 

A great deal of opium is made in the far northwest of China. So 
that it is brought in, into Hong Kong, across the common borders. 
There is a great deal of it. But whether it is all of Chinese origin, 
I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Caldwell, I have in my hand a couple of the numer- 
ous publications which were identified earlier this morning as circulat- 
ing in the United States from Red China. 

One of them here is People's China, February 1956, and, another, 
China Reconstructs, 1956. 

Take a glance at those, if you would, please, sir, and tell the com- 
mittee whether or not you have seen those publications or comparable 
publications in the Far East. 

Mr. Caldwell. I have seen People's China on sale in Hong Kong. 
I have not seen China Reconstructs. This is the only publication, I 
think, you had this morning that I had seen in general use in the Far 
East. 

Might I mention there are two other ways that Communist propa- 
ganda gets in that I think would be of interest to the committee. 

As a result of the Indochina truce in 1954 there is a commission 
called the International Control Commission, made up of Poles, In- 
dians, and Canadians, to enforce the Geneva Agreement. And until 
recently the Polish members of that Control Commission have acted 
as the main front for getting all of the propaganda into both Cam- 
bodia and Laos. 

I have gotten that information from several sources. The Poles 
have actually— in order to avoid connections with China — have actu- 
ally had their instructions, their materials come from Warsaw in a 



6086 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

roundabout way rather than from China, so close. That has been a 
very important source of infiltration. 

There is a third, place through which a great deal of material is 
coming today, and that is the border of India and Tibet near the 
city of Kalimpong where there has been for many years a Chinese 
school, a very large Chinese school which the Reds took over through 
diplomacy, which they don't very often use. 

They merely told Mr. Nehru's government that, since he recognized 
Red China, they ought to control that school, and demanded the right 
to dismiss all the staff, appointed a new staff, a new headmaster, a new 
board of trustees. 

That school of Kalimpong, which is located right about there [indi- 
cating] , has become a center of Communist intrigue into India and on 
into Burma and throughout that part of southern Asia. 

So you might say there are three gateways through which the mate- 
rial goes. 

Mr. Doyle. Is that school located in India ? 

Mr. Caldwell. It is India about 12 miles from the border of Tibet. 

Mr. ScHERER. How long did you say you lived in China ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Well, off and on I suppose about 22 or 23 years. 

Mr. Scherer. Any particular part of China ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Mostly south China, but also Shanghai, Nanking 
and Chungking. I fairly well have covered China. 

Mr. Doyle. What would you say was the average age of the students 
you interviewed, those eight, for instance? 

Mr- Caldwell. Most of them are in their 'teens, their late 'teens. 
They were either graduates of what is called middle school — equiva- 
lent to our high school — or were sophomores or juniors in high school. 

I talked to one who was 34 years old who had gone to China in the 
hopes of having a vocational education, and one 31 years old who was 
a teacher. The rest were all under 20. 

Mr. Doyle. Were they all male or were any of them female? 

Mr. Caldwell. All that I talked to were male. But there liave 
been a number of girls. Perhaps 5 or 10 percent of the total that go 
each year are girls. 

Mr. Doyle. Did any subversive propaganda for or against the 
United States of America come to your attention from this portion 
of the world in the form of printed matter or correspondence ? 

Mr. Caldwell. Most of the material I have here is in English, and 
is very well prepared. 

It is interesting to me that this material did not seem to be included 
among the exhibits of the customs people this morning- But this mate- 
rial is in English. It certainly would seem to be of a type that could 
be of value to them in this country. 

It is also, incidentially, in other languages, too. They are using 10 
different languages in southeast Asia. But I have no direct knowl- 
edge of this material coming in. I presume it does come in some degree 
from Hong Kong. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Caldwell, I have asked you a number of questions 
now covering a wide variety of subjects, all within the general area of 
Communist propaganda. 

Are there any items of information you would like to submit to the 
committee which have not been a subject of my questions? 



mVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6087 

Mr. ScHERER. I might make a comment on your last question, Mr. 
Counsel. 

I have before me a book which I have read halfway through, entitled 
"Communism in Our World," of which the witness here today is the 
author, just published in the last few daj^s by John Day. And, 
from what I have read, it is an excellent treatise. 

Mr. Caldwell, I would like to emphasize, Mr. Arens, that during 
this past year, particularly the past few months while attention of 
our country and most of the woi-ld has largely been focused on the 
Middle East, the Communists are making tremendous headways in 
southeast Asia, and that we are doing relatively little to combat it. 

Now it is a very rich area: 160 million people; 90 percent of the 
world's rubber production, natural rubber; a third of the world's tin; 
and particularly important to China is the rice surplus of southeast 
Asia. 

Most of the progress that they have made actually, you can pin- 
point it to within the last 6 months. 

I would just like to tell you in conclusion what they have been able 
to do in Hong Kong, which is a British city with a large Britisli 
garrison, a place visited by many Americans. 

There are in that cit}' 10 major newspapers. A year ago 2 of those 
newspapers were Communist; 2 or 3 you could consider neutralist. 
In other words, they neither criticized Red China nor America. And 
the rest were stanchly anti-Communist. 

Now, as of the middle of November, the newspaper lineup in less 
than a year actually, of that city runs like this: Communist now — 
4 papers with a total circulation of 148,000 ; neutralist — 4 papers with 
a total circulation of 145,000; and only 3 papers out of 10 remain 
anti-Communist with a total circulation of 50,000. 

Now that means, as I pointed out before, that the people are be- 
ginning to live in a vacuum. Tliey cannot know the truth of what 
happens, for instance, in Hungary, They cannot know the truth of' 
what is happening in this country. 

I think there are things we can do to counteract it. We must do 
more in publications. Not in English but in native languages. 

We certainly can produce documentary motion pictures. 

We must make the Chinese of the area realize there is another China 
that they can look to, the China that is our ally, and that, of course, 
is free China. 

Mr. Arexs. I have no further questions of this witness, Mr. Chair- 
man, 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Velde ? 

Mr. Velde. I don't think I have any questions right now. I haven't 
been fortunate enough to read even part of Mr. Caldwell's book, but. 
I will certainly make it a point to do so. 

I just want to compliment Mr. Caldwell on his very fine efforts 
here before this committee. I am sure they will be very helpful in the 
furtherance of the duties of the committee. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer, any questions or comments? 

Mr. Scherer. Are there any arrangements made for you to dis- 
cuss your findings, as a result of your recent trip, with the State- 
Department or any other agency of the executive branch of Govern- 
ment ? 



6088 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Caldwell. No, sir ; not at this date. 

Mr. ScHEKEK. I have nothing further. 

Mr. Velde. By the way, isn't Cambodia a French protectorate ? 

Mr. Caldwell. It was. The French maintain — it is no longer 
called the High Commissioner, but something of that type. But it 
is an inde})endent nation now, and sets its own course. It was 1 of the 
3 Indochinese States. 

Mr. Velde. Are thei-e very many French citizens there? 

Mr. Caldwell. Yes, quite a few. And I would judge — I think I 
was told there are something like 2,000 French left in the capital city. 
That is quite a reduction from what it used to be, but still a sizable 
number. 

Mr. Doyle. I think it appropriate for me to comment at this time, 
at the conclusion of this very valuable testimony which we appreciate 
receiving at this hearing, that probably most of you folks do not know 
that under Public Law 601, which was enacted by the 79th Congress 
in 1946, rules 10 and 11 contained in that law have been reenacted by 
every Congress since 1946. 

And in that instruction to this committee — the House Un-American 
Activities Committee — we have the obligation of studying the diffusion 
within the United States of subversive and un-American propaganda 
that is instituted from foreign countries as well as domestic. 

That might explain why we are taking time to hear this valuable 
witness treat briefly this subject of propaganda which is getting into 
that part of the world in the English language as he has testified and 
on which we had testimony this morning. 

Propaganda is coming especially from Conmiunist China. So it 
would seem very appropriate that this committee be thus informed by 
Mr. Caldwell and, by us, the Congress in January. 

Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Before we excuse Mr. Caldwell, I do not recall whether 

or not counsel at the beginning of Mr. Caldwell's testimony asked him 
for his educational background. 

Mr. Caldwell, No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Would you please give us that. 

Mr. Caldwell. Like most Americans born in China, I was educated 
through high school in American schools or by my mother in China. 

I am a graduate of Vanderbilt University with graduate work in 
education at the University^ of Tennessee. 

Mr. Scherer. Thank you. 

Mr. Doyle. Any other questions, gentlemen ? 

Thank you very much again, Mr. Caldwell. And good luck to you 
in your travels. 

The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes at this point. 

(Whereupon, a brief recess was taken. Committee members 
present: Representatives Doyle, Velde, and Scherer.) 

(The committee was reconvened at the expiration of the recess. 
Committee members present: Representatives Doyle and Scherer.) 

Mr. Doyle. Are you ready, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Jeremiah Feingold, please come forward. 

Please remain standing while our chairman administers an oath 
to you. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6089 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnlj' swear to tell the trutli, the whole truth, 
and iiotliin*? but the truth, so help you God ? 
Mr. Feinoold. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JEREMIAH FEINGOLD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, lesidence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Feixgolu. Jeremiah Feingold. llesidence, 742 Chandler Street. 

(Representative Harold H. Velde entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. P'eingold. Occupation in records store, bookstore, novelty 
store, at 1200 Divisadero. 

Mr. Arens. In San Francisco? 

Mr. Feingold. In San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on TJn- American 
Activities? 

Mr. Feingold. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel? 

Mr, Feingold. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, w^ould you kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Speiser. Lawrence Speiser, staff counsel, American Civil Liber- 
ties Union of northern California, San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born, Mr. Feingold? 

Mr. Feingold. Kiev, Russia ; Ukraine. 

Mr. Arens. "When did you come to the L^nited States ? 

Mr. Feingold. Oh, in December of 1915. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Feingold. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen by naturalization ? 

Mr. Feingold. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When were you naturalized? 

Mr. Feingold. In 1945. 

Mr. Arens. "V\^iere? 

Mr. Feingold. San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. What is the name of tlie establishment you operate, 
Mr. Feingold? 

Mr. Feingold. Russky Kustar — Russian Craftsman. 

Mr. Arens, Is that a bookstore? 

Mr. Feingold. It is a combination bookstore, record shop and toy- 
shop, novelty shop. 

Mr. Arens. Do you own the store ? 

Mr, Feingold. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a corporation ? 

Mr. Feingold. No. Personal ownership. 

Mr. Scherer. A^liat was that name? 

Mr. Feingold. R-u-s-s-k-y K-u-s-t-a-r. Russian Craftsman. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Feingold, are you, or is the bookstore registered 
under the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 

Mr. Feingold. No; not at tliis time. 

Mr. Arens. And have you, or lias the bookstore ever been registered 
under the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 



6090 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Feingold, It was for a couple of years. 

Mr. Akens. What period of time was that ? 

Mr. Feingold, I couldn't — I think it was between 1950 and 1953. 
That is about the time. I couldn't exactly tell. 

Mr. Akens. Could you kindly keep your voice up a little bit, please, 
Mr. Feingold. We are having a little difficulty hearing you. 

Have you ever used any name other than the name Feingold, Jere- 
miah Feingold? 

Mr. Feingold. I used Ferron, the name Ferron. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell that ? 

Mr. Feingold. F-e-r-r-o-n. 

Mr. Arens. What occasioned your use of that name ? 

Mr. Feingold. Just no occasion at all. I worked under that name. 

Mr. Arens. Do you at any time still use that name ? 

Mr. Feingold. No; never. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed or under what circumstances 
did you use the name of Jerry Ferron ? 

Mr. Feingold. I am a member of the union, Miscellaneous Culinary 
Workers, and I was under that name working there. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I belonged to that union somewheres since 1936 
or 1937. I don't remember exactly the date. I have to get that. 

Mr. Velde. I didn't get the name of the union. 

Mr. Feingold. Miscellaneous Culinary Workers Union, Local 110, 
located in San Francisco ( AFL) . 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Feingold do you, at your establishment, import 
literature or material from the Soviet-bloc countries? 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I do. 

Mr. Arens. What is the volume of your importation of Soviet litera- 
ture or literature from the Soviet-bloc countries ? 

Mr. Feingold. You mean in money? 

Mr. Arens. No. Just give us an estimate, an appraisal of the vol- 
ume of the importations which you make. 

Mr. Feingold. Well, maybe $4,000 or $5,000 a year. Maybe a little 
more. Maybe a little more. 

Mr. Arens. From where do you procure 

Mr. ScHERER. Wait a minute. You seem to hesitate. Maybe a 
little more. 

Mr. Feingold. Yes ; because I couldn't tell exactly. I have to con- 
sult my books. 

Mr. Arens. We want your best appraisal of the approximate 
amount. 

Mr. Feingold. Yes. 

From the Soviet Union — for instance, this year I just paid a bill 
for $100— $179. Last month I paid $400. And then I sent in advance 
money for purchasing wooden toys. I sent about $500 

Mr. Arens. I am not speaking now about toys. I am speaking 
exclusively about 

Mr. Feingold. Books? 

Mr. Arens. Literature. Books, printed material of any kind which 
you procure from the Soviet-bloc countries. 

Mr. Feingold. It wouldn't be more than three or four thousand 
dollars a year. That is the most. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6091 

Mr. Arens. From what countries do you import this material in the 
Soviet bloc? 

Mr. Feingold. F'rom Moscow, Mezhdunarodnaja Kniga. 

Mr. Arens. Give us that name again and spell it for us ; would you, 
please? 

Mr. Feingold. Mezhdunarodnaja Kniga. That, in translation, is 
International Book. That is the name. 

Mr. Arens. International Book. And is it an establishment in 
Moscow ? 

Mr. Feingold. It is established in Moscow. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a contractual arrangement with that estab- 
lishment in Moscow ? 

Mr. Feingold. I do. I have no contract, but I have what they 
offered me, G months. That is what I asked — 6 months' credit. 

Mr. Arens. With whom did you negotiate to consummate the ar- 
rangements ? 

Mr. Feingold. Directly with them. 

Mr. Arens. By correspondence? 

Mr. Feingold. Bj correspondence. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged in this process of 
importing literature via the Soviet-bloc countries ? 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I just have to give a little introduction to that. 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead, please. 

Mr. Feingold. I started that business in 1947, the 15th of December. 
I started it as a seller of woodcraft. That is why I call it, in Russian, 
Eussky Kustar, woodcraft and artistic objects from Russia. But I 
couldn't get much of that. So then I switched to records. And 
after records, with the records, people ask me for books and all that. 

I started getting books from — Russian books from New York, from 
Four Continent. 

Mr. Arens. Did Four Continent import those from Russia? 

Mr. Feingold. From Russia. 

Mr. Velde. When you talk about records are you talking about 
phonograph records ? 

Mr. Feingold. Phonograph records. That is about 40 percent of 
my sales right now, Russian records from the Soviet Union and long- 
playing records made in this country. 

Mr. Velde. Will they play on our American j)honographs ? 

Mr. FeingoivD. Mostly on 78's. They are regular, standard 78's. 
They are a little smaller. They are a little smaller according to the 
m.etric system, but they play on our phonographs. The only one that 
doesn't drop down on our phonograph is the long playing. That is 
why I don't get them. I buy them here. 

Mr. Scherer. Are they all musical records ? 

^Ir. Feingold. Well, some of them have plays, old Russian plays 
like Gogol's Dead Souls and Inspector General by Gogol, musical 
]-ecords, songs, and speeches. I mean not speeches, but I mean plays 
and recitals. Tliat is what I have. 

Mr. Scherer. When you said speeches 

Mr. Feingold. No speeches. Recitals and plays. 

Mr. Scherer. I was waiting for that speeches. 

]Mr. Arens. Are you sure, Mr. Feingold, of the description of the 
preliminary leading to this arrangement? 



6092 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Feixgold. To the store ? 

Mr. Arexs. Yes. 

Mr. Feingold. That is what my store is. And the preliminary, to 
finish with the preliminary then, 1 started to negotiate with the Mezh- 
dunarodnaja Kniga because Four Continent handled not enough books 
which my trade demanded, and also the prices were kind of high. 

And so I negotiated with Mezhdunarodnaja Kniga, and I got a very 
small percentage at the beginning. But it was only 30 percent dis- 
count. But I negotiated further and further, and finally I got up to a 
50-percent discount. And the prices are very reasonable. 

Mr. Arens. In what language are the principal books and liteia- 
ture appearing '. 

Mr. Feingold. Russian. 

Mr. Arexs. Almost exclusively in Russian? 

Mr. Feixgold. At this particular time it is principally in Russian, 

Mr. Arexs. Do you also have an}^ contractual arrangement or agree- 
ment with the organization in Moscow pursuant to which you send 
to Moscow any material at all? 

Mr. Feixgold. No. I was — by tlie way, just a little part, a neces- 
sary part : before I wrote to Soviet T Jiion for books I sent a letter to 
the Department of Justice and asked them if I could engage in that. 
And they answered that I can. 

Mr. Arens. You said a few moments ago, Mr. Feingold, that your 
volume was about $3,000 a year, did you not? 

Mr. Feixgold. $3,000 a year that I get; about that; my current 
bills I pay, I know about. 

Mr. Arens. That is what you pay for the books and literature you 
receive from Moscow. Is that correct? 

Mr. Feixgold. From Moscow. But I get, in addition to that, be- 
cause I have difficulties with Mr, Fishman here getting some books 
that I need. 

Mr. Arexs. By Mr. Fishman, do you mean the United States cus- 
toms service ? 

Mr. Feixgold. Yes. Postals. I get some books from Four Conti- 
nents. That is Soviet books. 

Mr. Arens. I want to get this one item clear. Your expenditures 
for materi;il from Moscow approximate $3,000 a year. Is that cor- 
rect? 

Mr. Feix(X)LD. $3,000 or $4,000 ; no more than that. 

Mr, Arens. What are your approximate expenditures to Four Con- 
tinent Book Corp. in New York City, roughly speaking, in the course 
of a year? 

Mr, Feixgold. Maybe a thousand dollars; maybe more. I couldn't 
tell. 

Mr. Arexs. Are there anj- othei- expenditures which you make foj' 
the purpose of procuring 

Mr. Feixgold. The books? 

Mr. Arexs. Books or literature of any kind from any source? 

Mr. Feixgold. Well, I got books — I get books from Imported 
Publications in 

Mr. Arexs. Im})orted Publications. Where is that, please, sir? 

Mr. Feixgold. That is in New York. 

Mr, Arexs, AATiat is the approximate expenditure by yourself to 
procure those? 



INVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6093 

Mr. Fetngold. ]SIaybe around ^500 or $600 a year. No more. 

Mr. Arens. Are the books you procure from the Four Continent 
Book Corp. and from Inipoiteu Publications and Products likewise 
books which originate in Soviet Russia? 

Mr. Feixgold. That is right, 

Mr. Arexs. Are they likewise hi the Russian language? 

Mr. Feixgold. In the Russian language. 

Mr. Akexs. Is there any other source from which you procure 
books or literature? 

Mr. Feixgold, No, not at this time. I used to get from Collet's 
in England, and I used to get from Maison de Livre in France [Les 
Lirres Etrangers] , but the post office doesn't let very many books from 
there. And I have quite a few books that were stopped on me and 
practically lost. 

Mr. -Vrexs. You have told us that jour approximate expenditure — 
and if I am in error pleasee correct me — your expenditure to procure 
books and literature from these various sources is approximately, so 
I calculate here, $4,500 a jea,r. Is that about right? 

Mr. Feixgold. No ; I think it is more than that. 

About, let us sav, from $5,000 to $6,000. 

.Mr. Akexs. AVe will say from S5,000 to $6,000 a year. 

Mr. Feixgold. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. What is the total amount which you, in turn, receive 
for the material Avhich vou have procured at the cost of $5,000 or 
$6,000 ? 

Mr. Feixgold. "Well, it all depends. 

Mr. Arexs. Roughly speaking. I want an overall estimate. 

Mr. Feixgold. Sometimes my turnover is all together about $18,000 
in 12 months, and sometimes it is twenty -two, twenty-three. 

Mr. Arens. Does that turnover you are speaking of include the toys ? 

Mr. Feixgold. Including toys and everything. I have no separate 
account of books. 

Mr. Arexs. What is your best estimate? You are a businessman 
operating here. 

Mr. Feixgold. I have — well, you see, books are the best-selling ma- 
terial because on some books I could, like others do, hike the price. 
They are good books. And 

Mr. Arexs-. I only want an estimate, Mr. Feingold. I am not try- 
ing to parry with you. You have expended, you say, about $5,000 or 
$6,000 a year for the purpose of procuring books. 

Mr. Feixgold. I would get back $10,000 or $12,000. 

Mr. Arens. Then would you approximately double your money? I 
don't mean in profit but approximately double your money ? 

Mr. Feixgold. I don't think I do. I have to do other things to 
make money because I have a lot of books that are left that I can't sell. 

Mr. Arexs, You have, of course, expenses that have to be deducted 
from that. 

Mr. Feixgold. That is right. 

Mr. Arexs. Is it correct to say that you would be expending ap- 
proximately $5,000 or $6,000 to procure 

Mr. Feixgold. $10,000 or $11,000. 

Mr. Arexs (continuing). Material from various sources, and that 
the gross income 

Mr. Feixgold. Maybe from that 



6094 IX\E6TIGATI0X OF COAIMTIMST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arexs. Is about S10,000 or $11,000. Is that correct ? 

^Ir. Feixgold. Yes. Maybe a little more. 

Mr. Arex'S. This gives us a fair idea. 

Xow, ]Mr. Feingold. are you now, or have you ever been, a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Feix'gold. "Well. I am not now a member of the Communist 
Party. 

But so far as the past, my past. I would like to decline on the basis 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. You say you are not now a member? 

^Ir. Feixgold. No. 

Mr. Arexs. "Were you a member of the Communist Party a year 
ago? 

Mr. Feix'GOLd. Xo. 

Mr. Arex's. That would be, say, December of 1955. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feix'gold. Well, on the basis — in regard to my organizational 
affiliations with the Communist Party, I would like to decline on the 
grounds that I didn't want to be a witness against myself on the basis 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. I ask you if you understand the question. I do not mean 
to interrupt you. I am sorry. I want to see if you understand the 
question. 

]SIr, Feingold. Yes. I understand the question. 

Mr. Arex'S. You have asserted, Mr. Feingold, that you are not. 
a^ of this instant, a member of the Communist Party. That is correct, 
isn't it ? 

Mr. Feingold. Yes, sir. 

;Mr. Arex's. I am asking you now, "Were you a member of the Com- 
nimiist Party 1 year ago ? 

Mr. Feixgold. "WeTl, I answered that already, Mr. Counsel, that I 
decline to answer on the grounds that I wouldn't like to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr, Arex's. "V\^ere you a member of the Connnunist Party 1 week 
ago? 

Mr. Feixgold. The same answer. 

^Ir. Arexs. "Were you a member of the Communist Party any time 
after you received your subpena to appear before the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities, which subpena, I understand from the 
return, was served on you on Xovember 12. 1956 ? 

Mr. Feixgold. Xot on November 1-2. It wasn't served on November 
12, That is a mistake. It was served Tuesday. 

Mr. Arex'S. Be that as it may, were you at any time, since you were 
actually physically served with your subpena to appear before this 
Cormnittee on Un-American Activities, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feixgold. No. 

Mr. Arexs. You were not. 

"V\"ere you a member of tlie Communist Party at any time in the 
course of the last month ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry, but I am going to refuse to answer anj* 
questions in regards to that, in regards to my affiliation. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6095 

Mr. Arexs. Are you invokino- tlie lifth amemlinent ? Is that cor- 
i-ect ? 

Mr. Feingold. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Feingold. are you presently under discipline of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Feixgold. No. I am not. I have no connection of any kind 
except my book business which I conduct almost 7 days a week. 

Mr. Arexs. Have j^ou been nnder discipline of the Connnunist Party 
ar any time in the course of tlie last 30 days? 

(The witness confers with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Feixgold. No. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you been under the discipline of the Communist- 
Party at any time in the course of the last year ? 

Mr. Feixgold. No. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you been a member of the Communist Party at 
any time in the course of the last year ? 

Mr. Feixgold. Well, that is the same answer as last time. 

Mr. Arexs. I wonder what distinction you are making between be- 
ing under discipline of the Communist Party, which you deny in the 
course of the last month, and being a member of the Communist Party 
concerning which question you invoke the fifth amendment. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feixgold. I wasn't a member a yeav ago. 

Mr. Arexs. You were not a member of the Communist Party a year 
ago '? 

Mr. Feixgold. No. 

But I would say, Mr. Counsel, if you will persist in asking me those 
questions, I would have to respectfully decline to answer on the basis 
of not desiring to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arexs. I understand. I Avant to get this record clear. 

You have just denied that you Avere a member of the Communist 
Party 1 year ago. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Feixgold. That is right. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you at any time in the course of the last year, 
including the day beyond a year, under discipline of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Feixgold. No. 

Mr. Arexs. Have 3^ou ever been under discipline of the Communist 
Party ? 

(The witness confers with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Feixgold. I am again declining to answer you on that because 
that is 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. 

May I ask a question? 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead, Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. SciiERER. I believe you said you were naturalized in 1945. 

Mr. Feixgold. Yes. 

Mr. Sgiierer. At the time you were naturalize d you were asked, of 
course, whether you were a member of the Communist Party. 

Do you recall that? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feixgold. I don't recall that. 

Mr. SrHER?:R. You don't recall being asked that question? 

Mr. Feixgold. No, I don't recall that. Anyhow whatever 



6096 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U, S. 

Mr. Arens. You were asked that question, as to whether or not you 
were a member of an organization dedicated to the overthrow of the 
Government of the United States by force and violence; weren't you? 

Mr. Feingold. I certainly said I was not. 

Mr. Arens. That was when ? In 1945 ? 

Mr. Feingold. That was when I became a citizen. 

Mr. Arens. That was in 1945 ? 

Mr. Feingold. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. In 1945 when you were naturalized were you then, or had 
you prior to that time been, a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I must decline to answer that on the basis of the 

Mr. SciiERER. Did you resign from the Communist Party so that 
you could be naturalized ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry but I decline to answer because it is 
assuming something, you know— again that I may be placed as a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. Scherer. Is my assumption incorrect ? 

You said it is assuming something; I assumed something. 

Is my assumption that you resigned in order to become a citizen 
incorrect ? I wouldn't want to be incorrect. 

Mr. Feingold. I must decline to answer that, Mr. Congressman, on 
the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Feingold, do you expect to become a Communist 
Party member again as soon as you leave the jurisdiction of this 
committee ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I don't expect to become a Communist Party mem- 
ber. And that is 

Mr. Velde. Do you expect at any time later in your life to become 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Feingold. Gods knows. 

Maybe I only have 2 or 3 days to live. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Feingold, I display to you now a copy of the 
Communist 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute, counsel. 

You are an expert on naturalization. What questions were asked 
in 1945 ? 

Mr. Arens. It was not until about 1950 that the Communist Party 
itself was specified within the application filed for citizenship. 

Mr. Feingold, I lay before you a copy of the Communist Daily 
People's World, July 14, 1939, and I invite your attention to a column 
"What's On" with reference to San Francisco. And there appears : 

Let's celebi'ate the 20th wedding anniversary of Jerry and Augusta Feingold 
and the 20th anniversary of his membership in Party, Saturday, July 22, 136 
Valenica Street, at 8 p. m. Russian food, music and dancing. Admission 19 cents. 

I am not too certain about that amount of the admission. It isn't too 
clear in the reproduction. 

Kindly look at this article from the Communist Daily People's 
World of Friday, July 14, 1939, and tell this committee whether or not 
this membership in the Party — capital P for Party here — in connec- 
tion with yourself alludes to you, and whether or not that is correct. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6097 

Mr. Feingold. This is definitely to place me as a witness against 
myself, Mr. Counsel, and I respectfully decline to answer on the basis 
of the fifth amendment. 

(Document marlved "Feingold Exhibit No. 1" and filed in the rec- 
ords of tlie committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I exliibit to you a document which is a repro- 
duction of the Western Worker, the western organ of the Communist 
Party, U. S. A. In this Western Worker of January 28, 1935, date- 
lined Fresno, Calif., [Jan. 23] the following appears : 

Jerry Feingold spoke at the Lenin Memorial meeting held here Sunday night. 

The meeting was well attended. On Saturday night Comrade Feingold spoke 
at a meeting of small farmers and agricultural workers held at Kerman near 
here. 

Kindly look at that article, if you please, sir, appearing in the 
Communist Western Worker, which is identified by its masthead as the 
western organ of the Communist Party, U. S. A., and tell this com- 
mittee, while you are under oath, whether or not you are he, the Com- 
rade Feingold, alluded to in that article. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Feingold. I still have the same answer, Mr. Counsel. 

(Document marked "Feingold Exhibit No. 2," and filed in the 
records of the committee.) 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Feingold, I exhibit to you another reproduction 
of the Communist Western Worker, Thursday, December 16, 1937. 
It is an article entitled "This People's World," and is written by Jerry 
Feingold, in which the following appears : 

As for myself, a press builder and an old Party member, I felt this responsi- 
bility keenly and decided to do all I could to utilize the great possibilities and 
reserves for our Party * * *. 

Did you write that article, Mr. Feingold, identifying yourself in it 
as "an old Party member" who felt certain responsibilities ? 

Kindly look at that article and tell this committee while you are 
under oath whether that is a truthful reproduction of a statement 
made bj' yourself. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am soriy, Mr. Counsel, but it will be the same 
answer. 

(Document marked "Feingold Exhibit No. 3," and filed in the rec- 
ords of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. In other words, do you honestly feel that if you told 
this committee truthfully whether or not you wrote that article you 
would be supplying information which might be used against you 
in a criminal proceedings? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. The same answer, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this record 
reflect an order and direction to the witness to answer this last question. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps the witness doesn't understand the question. 

Mr. SrEiSER. I think there was some confusion. You were both 
speaking at the same time. 

Mr. x\rens. I don't want to confuse the witness at all. 

82728—57— pt. 3 5 



6098 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Let me explain the status of this record. 

I have just displayed to you an article bearing the byline of Jerry 
Feingold, and I read an excerpt from the article. I have asked you 
whether or not you wrote that article or whether or not that article 
quotes you correctly, and you have invoked the fifth amendment. 

Then I substantially asked you : do you truthfully believe, honestly 
believe, that if you told this committee while you are under oath 
whether or not that article quotes you correctly you would be supply- 
ing information which might be used against you in some way in a 
criminal proceeding ? 

And the chairman has directed that you answer that question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry but I will decline to answer on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. I think we should explain to the 
witness that the courts require us to ask that question to determine 
whether or not a witness is using the fifth amendment in good faith, 
and that his answer to that question to avoid a possible contempt pro- 
ceeding should be yes or no. 

If he is relying on the invocation of the fifth amendment in good 
faith, his response to that question of counsel should be yes. 

That is my understanding of the law. 

I think we should make that explanation. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, that is why I made the instruction that I 
did. 

Are you ready, Mr. Arens ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Yes, but in view of the uncertainty that appears to be 
reflected in the countenance of the witness, I suggest he may want 
to confer with his counsel there for a moment. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, while the witness is conferring with 
his counsel, may I respectfully suggest that this record reflect, as has 
been the custom of the committee, that the various exhibits which are 
displayed to the witnesses shall be ordered by the chairman to be 
appropriately marked and incorporated either by reference or in the 
body of the record, as the case may be. 

Mr. Doyle, It will be so ordered. 

Mr. Feingold. My invokment of the fifth amendment doesn't 
require for me to explain. 

Mr. Arens. We are not asking an explanation. We are only asking 
whether or not 

Mr. Feingold. I invoke it on the basis of not wanting to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Arens. In what kind of a proceeding? 

Mr. Feingold. In this particular question I am not explaining. 

Mr. Arens. So that this record is abundantly, absolutely clear, 
without a question of a doubt, I want to go over it once more. 

Do you, Mr. Feingold, honestly apprehend, honestly fear that if 
you gave us a ti'uthful answer as to whether or not you are correctly 
quoted in the last exhibit you would be supplying information which 
could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6099 

Mr. Feixgold. I am sorry, but I must decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that once again 
this record reflect an order and direction by the chairman to the 
witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Witness, I direct you to answer that last question. 

(Tlie witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. My answer is the same as previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Witness, we exhibit to you still another docu- 
ment. It is a document entitled "The Workers School." Training 
for the class struggle. Winter term announcement of courses, Jan- 
uary 7 to March 29, 1935, Fourth Year. 

And turning a page or two in this bulletin of this Workers School 
we see the following : 

History of Class Struggles in Czarist Russia, Wednesday, 7 to 9 p. m. 

The instructor of this course is identified as J. Feingold. 

Kindly look at this document and tell this committee while you 
are under oath, please, sir, whether or not you are the J. Feingold 
who taught that course at the Workers School at the time and place 
indicated on the document. 

(The witness confers with his counsel and examines document.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry, Mr. Counsel, but the answer will be the 
same. T will decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Feingold Exhibit No. 4," and filed in the 
records of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Now we are going to go over the same ground once 
more. We will not take too much time, I hope, Mr. Feingold. 

Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this committee truth- 
fully whether or not you are the J. Feingold alluded to in this last 
exhibit you would be giving information which could be used against 
you in some way in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I again will refuse, respectfully refuse to answer 
on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest the witness now be ordered and 
directed on this record to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. Witness, I direct you to answer that last question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am refusing to answer on the same grounds, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Russian Ajnerican 
Society ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I am refusing 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Feingold. I am refusing to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to aiSrm or 
deny the fact that you were a member of the executive committee of 
the Russian American Society. 

(Tlie witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. Anything in regard to any of these, in regard to 
any organization that you mention, I refuse to answer on the same 
grounds. 



6100 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Akens. Do you have the same position with reference to what 
we might call nonsensitive organizations, anti-Communist organ- 
izations? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Feingold, I want the record to be clear. 

I wasn't challenging your position with reference to the invocation 
of the fifth amendment on the Russian American Society. I was only 
challenging your position which you rather volunteered there, that 
you weren't going to answer questions about any organizations. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry ; I will take the questions as they come 
along. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. I wanted the record to be straight on that point 
so we do not misunderstand one another. 

Now, Mr. Feingold, I want to lay before ^''ou a photostatic copy of 
a document bearing your signature, which was filed with the Depart- 
ment of Justice. It is a reproduction of exhibit A filed by Jeremiah 
Feingold in support of the registration statement filed by Russky 
Kustar, San Francisco, under the terms of the Foreign Agents Regis- 
tration Act of 1938, as amended. It is dated December 15, 1952, and 
bears the signature of J. Feingold. 

First of all, let me ask you, please, sir, if you would kindly 
look at the document, not for content, if you please, but principally, 
if you would be good enough, to verify the authenticity of your sig- 
nature appearing on this document. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. No. Again I am sorry, Mr. Counsel, I shall again 
invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Feingold, in this particular registration statement 
which I have just exhibited to you, I see, among other questions, 
the following : 

All clubs, societies, committees, and other nonbusiness organizations in the 
United States or elsewhere, including any active or reserve military or naval 
forces, of which you have been a member, director, officer, or employee during 
the past 2 years. 

Immediately under this form designation we see the following an- 
swers : 

Russian American Society, member of executive committee since its organiza- 
tion in 1941. 

Did you cause that statement to be made on this form? And, if 
so, is that statement true ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry, Mr. Counsel. The same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. I see also immediately after the language which I have 
just read to you the following : 

International Workers Order, member. Was a member from 1943 to 1951. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 6101 

Did you cause that language to be placed on this form, and, if so, 
does that language represent the fact? 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Feingold Exhibit No. 5 



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6102 INVESTIGATION OP COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 



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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6103 



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6104 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Feingold. The same answer; the same privilege. I invoke 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens, Why, Mr. Feingold, when you made out this form, did 
you not include the organizations of which you have been a mem- 
ber, director, officer, or employee during the last 2 years preceding 
the date of the form? Wliy did you not specify membership in the 
Communist Party ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I claim the same privilege, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Feingold, you are aware, are you not, of the 
so-called Judy Coplon case in which one Judith Coplon was tried in 
Washington, D. C, in 1949? You know of that case, do you not? 

I mean from public sources. Leave it that way for the moment. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I don't know if I know about it much, but 

Mr. Arens. You have heard of the Judy Coplon case? 

You know that there was a trial of a person by the name of Judy 
Coplon, do you not ? 

(The Avitness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. Yes, I heard of it. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of the trial of Judy Coplon you know 
that there were exhibited and introduced into the record of that case, 
which is now public property, excerpts from certain FBI reports ? Do 
you know that ? 

Mr. Feingold. I don't read the full details of any of that stuff. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to read and allude, if you please, to ex- 
cerpts from certain of the FBI reports introduced in the trial of Judith 
Coplon which began in Washington in June of 1949. 

I am now reading, Mr. Feingold, from an FBI report which was 
introduced in the public record of that trial : 

Confidential Informant SF-1159 advised that a faction of tbe Russian Ameri- 
can Society, consisting of Communist Party members and followers of the 
Communist Party line, have had control of this organization for several years. 
Informant added that the activities of this organization show close cooperation 
with the Communist Party and Communist Party controlled organizations, and 
implements of the Communist Party line. He added that the Russian American 
Society celebrates Soviet holidays, has frequent contact with officials of the 
Russian Consulate in San Francisco, and has been influenced in internal policies 
by the Russian Consulate of San Francisco. He stated it also engages in Soviet 
propaganda and that emphasis in the activities of this organization have shifted 
from submitting financial aid to Russia to issuing propaganda for Russia 
although large amounts of relief supplies have been sent to the U. S. S. R. in tne 
past few years. 

I have just read to you, Mr. Feingold, an excerpt from an FBI re- 
port, now public property which was introduced in a trial in the eastern 
part of the United States. 

I ask you whether or not you have information which would confirm 
the information stated in the FBI report quoting a confidential in- 
formant. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. No ; I have no information. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Russian American 
Society ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



• INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 6105 

Mr. Feingold. Well, the same answer I have to give to that, Mr. 
Counsel. 

Mr. ScHERER. What was the answer? 

Mr. Arens. He is invoking the fifth amendment, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. He stated in his registration statement to the United 
States Department of Justice that he was a member of the executive 
committee of the Russian American Society since its organization in 
1941, and the application was signed on December 15, 1952. 

Mr. Are:ns. Mr. Feingold, do you have information respecting any 
contacts between the llussian American Society and the Russian 
consulate at San Francisco? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. No; I am sorrj^', Mr. Counsel, I decline to answer 
that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. I can't hear the witness. 

Mr. Feixgold. I am declining to answer it on the gromids of not 
desiring to be a witness against myself. 

Mr, xVrens. Is it a fact that the internal policies of the Russian 
American Society have been influenced by the Russian consulate of 
San Francisco? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry, but I will decline to answer that on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a fact that the Russian American Society, engages 
in Soviet propaganda ? 

Mr. Feingold. I have to decline that answer, too, on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Now do you know or have you ever known a person by 
the name of Clara — and I spell the last name — J-u-r-a-v-c-o-f-f ? 
[Also spelled J-u-r-a-v-k-o-f-f.] 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. What again? 

Mr. Arens. The last name is J-u-r-a-v-c-o-f-f. The first name is 
Clara, C-1-a-r-a. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. No; I am sorry. I will have to decline to answer 
that on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to continue reading from this FBI report. 
This is a report, you will recall, Mr. Feingold, which was introduced 
in a public record in 1949. 

It will also be noted that Jerry Feingold is a member of the Communist Party. 

Is that report correct as of June 1949 ? Or is that report in error? 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I am sorry, Mr. Counsel. I will decline to 
answer that on the basis of the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Arens. Now I would like to read you something: 

Jeremiah Feingold, when he has something important to transmit or deliver to 
his Chief- 
There appears a comma here — 
Consul of the U. S. S. R., he usually goes by way of one of these routes — 

Have you delivered anything of any consequence to the consul of 
the U, S. S. R. located in the San Francisco area? 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



6106 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 

Mr. Feingold. In what context is that question being asked, Mr. 
Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Speiser, In what context is the question being asked? What 
context, c-o-n-t-e-x-t ? 

Mr. Arens. Would you restate what you asked ? 

Mr. Speiser. In what context is the question being asked? 

Mr, Feingold, In wliat context? 

Mr, Arens, Have you transmitted information to the Russian con- 
sulate or to the Russian diplomatic establishment in the San Fran- 
cisco area? 

(The witness confers with his counsel,) 

Mr. Feingold. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have 3'ou caused such information to be transmitted to 
the Russian consulate here? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. I am making a distinction between a personal visit and 
a visit via some other person. 

The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you delivered, via Clara Juravcoff, J-u-r-a-v- 
c-o-f-f, certain information to the Russian consul in San Francisco? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Clara J-u-r-a-v-c-o-f-f ? 

Mr. Feingold. I answer it ; I didn't deliver anything to the Russian 
consul through anybody. 

Mr. Velde. Is there a Rusisan consulate here at the present time? 

Mr. Feingold. No. 

Mr. Velde. How long has it been since there has been one here ? 

Mr. Feingold. Oh, I believe about 8 — 7 or 8 years. 

Mr. Velde. Where was it at that time? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Velde. Have you ever seen it, in other words ? 

Mr, Feingold. Yes. It was on Broadway Street. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been there? 

Mr. Feingold. In connection with my business ; yes. 

I tried to get — when I opened that business of mine I tried to get 
from them license to start sending parcels to Russia. And I — just 
a moment, counsel. Let me finish. 

Mr. Arens. I'm sorry. 

Mr. Feingold. And I went to them, and they referred me to Amtorg 
here, Mr. Gracheff. But I couldn't get that concession because I had 
to furnish $20,000 bond, and nobody would furnish bond but the 
State Bank of Russia. So I had to drop that concession. 

Mr. Arens. Let us get this pinpointed. Do you know Clara 
J-u-r-a-v-c-o-f-f? 

Mr. Feingold. I have to decline to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Clara J-u-r-a-v-c-o-f-f 
has procured from you certain information which she, in turn, de- 
livered to a representative of the Soviet Union in the United States ? 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I don't know. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6107 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know whether this woman procured from 
you any information that she transferred to a functionary of the 
Communist Party ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I don't know of anything about any 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you transmit any information to a high function- 
ary of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Speiser. When ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Around — prior to 1949. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. Mr. Congressman, I will have to decline that on the 
basis of self-incrimination. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let me see those notes you have, Mr. Counsel, will 
you ? Does it talk about transmitting information to the chief ? 

Mr. Arens. It appears in several places. 

May I finish on this matter ? I have several places marked. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Russian- American Society, to your knowledge, 
transmit any information to the Eussian diplomatic establisliment 
here? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. Again I will decline to answer on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Russian American Society, to your knowledge, 
transmit to the diplomatic establishment of the Soviet Government 
in this area any confidential, restricted, or security information? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. Again I will decline to answer on the basis of self- 
incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to continue, and then turn it over to Con- 
gressman Scherer. 

The FBI report, which is in the public record of the Judy Coplon 
case, contains the following : 

He— 

That is Feingold — 

was born in Russia and entered the United States in 1915, becoming a naturalized 
United States citizen — 

The dates are a little uncertain. August 12, 1 think it is, 1948. 

In his Alien Re^stration Certificate, he stated he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party but resigned on June 1, 1940. Informants advised, however, 
that he was active in the Communist Party in San Francisco even after he 
claimed to have resigned. In 1947 he stated that he would renew his member- 
ship in the Communist Party as soon as his wife became a United States 
citizen. According to SF 1159, Jeremiah Feingold was again a member of the 
Communist Party on January 1, 1948. 

Is that statement contained in this FBI report which is a matter 
of public record in the Judy Coplon case true, or is it in error? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I was not a member of the party at that time or 
after 1948. 

Mr. Scherer. That wasn't the question. 

Mr. Feingold. So that is the answer to that. 



6108 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. AnENS. No ; that is not the answer to this. 

Let me then ask you about some of the specifics on this. 

First of all, did you assert in your alien registration statement 
that you were a member of the Communist Party but resigned on 
June 1, 1940 ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you make that assertion ? 

Mr. Feingold. No. I have to decline to answer on that. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is a matter of public record. I ask that you 
direct the witness to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct that you answer that question, Mr. Witness. 

(The witness confers with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. No; I am sorry. I will have to decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, after 1940, renew membership in the Com- 
munist Party ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I did not join the Communist Party on the date 
you cite. 

(Tlie witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. After the date you cite. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you active in the San Francisco area in Com- 
munist Party activities and programs after that date, whether you 
had a party membership card or not ? 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorr}?^, but I will have to decline to answer that. 
I will have to decline to answer that on the grounds of self-incrimi- 
nation. 

Mr. Ar^NS. Let me read the precise language here pinpointing 
that so there can be no ambiguity. 

That he 

That is, you, Feingold — 

was active iu the Communist Party in San Frauicseo even after he claimed to 
have resigned. 

Is that statement true or is it false ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am declining to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. You honestly feel that if you told this committee truth- 
fully whether or not you were active in the Communist Party after 
you claimed to have resigned, you would be supplying information 
which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding; is that 
correct ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I decline to answer on the grounds of self-incrimi- 
nation. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the last outstanding question. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry, Mr. Chairman, but I have to decline 
to answer on the grounds of self-incrimination. 

Mr. Scherer. When was your wife naturalized? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. She is not naturalized yet. 

Mr. Scherer. She is not naturalized ? 

Mr. Feingold. No. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6109 

Mr. ScHEKER. Did she ever make application ? 

Mr. Feingold. She did. 

Mr. ScHERER. When did she make application? 

Mr. Feixgold. I couldn't tell yon exactly. 

Mr. SciiERER. About how long ago? 

Mr. Feingold. Oh, that was long ago, but they didn't call her. They 
passed her but they didn't call her to take an oath. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man b}^ the name of Potash ? 

(The witness confers with his counseh) 

Mr. Feingold. Well, a fellow with the name of Potash offered the 
sale of toys to me that Amtorg left here. 

Mr. Arens. What was Potash's first name? 

Mr. Feingold. I don't know. I met him only a couple of times 
and I couldn't furnish the money to buy it together with him, so he 
just — I just didn't buy it. 

Mr. Arens. What was Potash's official connection ? Do you know ? 

Mr. Feingold. I don't know. He told me that he was going to buy 
the bunch of toys that was left of about $5,000, and I couldn't furnish 
my part of the money so he found another partner to buy it. If that 
is the Potash. I don't know which Potash you mean. That is the 
only Potash I remember I know. 

Is that what it is ? 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry. 

Mr. Arens. Did you want to see this. Congressman ? 

Mr. Scherer. Not now. May I ask this witness a few questions. 
Mr. Chairman ? 

Witness, do you get any first-class mail from Russia ? 

Mr. Feingold. Oh, parcel post. What do you mean, first class ^ 
You mean business correspondence ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Mr. Feingold. Oh, yes ; I do. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you get any literature ? 

Mr. Feingold. First class ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, by first class. 

Mr. Feingold. No. It never came first class to me. It always came 
registered parcel post, so far as I remember. I don't remembei-. 
Maybe something came through. And I received quite a few packages 
from there. 

Mr. Scherer. Packages first-class mail ? 

Mr. Feingold. No, not first class ; parcel post. 

The only thing that came first class is invoices and correspondence. 

Mr. Scherer. That is business correspondence. 

Mr. Feingold. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. You had no other correspondence from anyone inside 
Russia? 

Mr. Feingold. What ? 

Mr. Scherer. You have no other type of correspondence with 
anyone inside Russia ? 

Mr. Feingold. No. 

Mr. Scherer. Just business correspondence. 

Do you receive any mail of any kind for transmission to other 
persons or organizations ? 



6110 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Feingold. You mean through my business ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Mr. Feingold. No. 

Mr. ScHEKER. Do you get any publications for which you do not 
pay? 

Mr. Feingold. For which I receive pay ? 

Mr. Scherer. That you do not have to pay for. Do you get any 
publications that you do not have to pay for, free literature ? 

Mr. Feingold. Sometimes they do send it and I tell them not to 
send it. I am not distributing it. Catalogs sometimes and something 
that I don't need in big quantity. I just don't use it. 

Mr. Scherer. Do ihej^ send you big quantities of catalogs ? 

Mr. Feingold. Sometimes they do, but I just don't use it. 

Mr. Scherer. What would be the purpose of sending you big quan- 
tities of catalogs ? 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I guess to send those catalogs of the literature. 
Some of the literature is very good, scientific, and all, but I don't 
send it out. I just use my own catalogs. I print my own catalogs of 
books that I acquire and send out to universities, to the Army schools. 

Mr. Scherer. Other than catalogs, do you get any literature for 
which you do not pay ? 

Mr. Feingold. Well, as I said, maybe once or twice they send it, but 
I didn't distribute it, and most of the time I send it back. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, just once or twice they sent you quantities of 
literature that you sent back or didn't distribute ? 

Mr. Feingold. Oh, I sent quite a bit back. I am in the process of 
sending quite a few more right now. 

Mr. Scherer. Can you tell us why they would send it to you when 
you didn't request it ? 

Mr. Feingold. I guess they want to drum up their business. And I 
can't sell it, and I don't want to get anything free. I am just willing 
to pay. And I either return them or 

Mr. Scherer. They sent you this literature that you have sent back 
in quantities, you say. Is that right ? 

Mr. Feingold. Not very big quantities. Maybe, let's say, 500 pieces 
of some booklets and something. 

Mr. Scherer. Literature that you have not requested ? 

Mr. Feingold. Not requested, yes. 

And the reason of this nonrequest literature is that they have — they 
had a system, which I had to stop, of sending literature on subject 
matters, philosophy, economy, literature, all that. And I wasn't able to 
sell it because most of that stuff won't be sold. I have quite a few on 
hand which I am sending back. So I told them specifically that I 
don't want it. 

Mr. Scherer. That literature wasn't to be sold, was it, that they sent 
you? 

Mr. Feingold. No, no ; that is to be sold. 

Mr. Scherer. It was to be distributed. 

Mr. Feingold. No, no, no. 

Mr. Scherer. That was free literature, was it not? 

Mr. Feingold. I am not talking about free literature. I am talk- 
ing about paid literature that they did send me, somethinij I didn't 
order. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6111 

Mr. ScHERER. Did they ever send you any literature that was not 
to be sold ? 

Mr. Feingold. As I said, maybe they sent once or twice, but I didn't 
distribute it, I am sure I didn't. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that the literature you sent back ? 

Mr. Feixgold. Well, more than that. Some of the literature that 
I paid I sent back, and asked them to 

Mr. Scherer. What was the nature of this free literature they sent 
you witliout solicitation on your part ? 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I really couldn't recall right now. Maybe some 
educational program or some things, you know, that I know wouldn't 
go here and I don't want anything free. I told them I want to sell 
whatever they send me. I am in business here and I want to get 
literature to be sold ; not to be distributed free. 

Mr. Velde. Do you sell any other kind of literature or toys than 
those made in Soviet Russia ? 

Mr. Feingold. Outside of Soviet Russia 

Mr. Velde. Do you sell any other toys, literature, or writings — 
other than those made in Russia ? 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I have quite a few on stock. I sold thousands 
of books of the prerevolutionary period I bought here secondhand. 
I couldn't get them otherwise. 

Mr. Velde. Prerevolutionary? 

Mr. Feingold. The czarist period. And then I have several hundred 
books of them yet now of czarist literature. 

Mr. Velde. Do you sell any American anti-Communist literature? 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I sokl some of those books that my customers 
asked me, but they have special agents here that distribute it, and 
I could get from them whenever my customer wants a book, I get it 
from them. And I sell 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. There is no book except how to become an American 
citizen in Russian, which I sell. 

Mr. Velde. I don't suppose you would have much call for it, any- 
how, anti-Communist literature? 

Mr. Feingold. Why not? I sell quite a few of them. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I would like to tell, Mr. Chairman, who my cus- 
tomers are, if you allow me just for a second. 

Mr. Velde. Certainly. 

Mr. Feingold. You know, my customers are 

Mr. Scherer. Remember, if you tell us who some of your customers 
are, you are going to have to tell us all of them. 

Mr. Feingold. Well, in business I have nothing to hide. I will 
answer every question and all questions concerning my business, be- 
cause it is open and aboveboard and I think I do it legally and I have 
nothing to hide, what I do. 

I sell a lot of books, until the books were stopped, the supply was 
stopped, to the Monterey Army School. They even thanked me for 
helping me to establish that school, Army Language School. 

Not only there, but in other places, I sell a lot of maps, atlases, I 
sell all kinds of records that they want, to universities, to all kinds 
of — like the Department of Interior asked me for books on ichthy- 
ology, on fishes, I procure for them and they are very thankfid. 



6112 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. ' 

As a matter of fact, I have sucli a need for books on fishes, and the}' 
make such a big use of it, that if I could get $2,000 or $3,000 of those 
books today, I could sell them. But I can't get them because there 
is such a small amount being published in Russia of those books. 

I have also sold some books to the Library of Congress. 

Mr. Velde. You have individual customers, too, do you not ? 

Mr. Feingold. Lots of individual customers. 

Mr. Velde, Do you recognize any of your old cronies or old 
comrades in any of your customers ? 

Mr. Feingold. I don't know, Mr. Chairman, if it is a fair question. 
People come in and go. Some of them I know; some I don't. For 
the last 9 years I think I have performed a very useful business of 
that type, selling thousands of books, and most of them were of 
scientific and informative nature that professors 

Mr. Velde. You surely know if the Communists come in there. 
That was my purpose. It just seems to me it would be a natural place 
for them. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I wouldn't say I know anybody that comes in there. 
And I don't care to know when they come in to buy. If they don't 
buy, they go out. They come and browse around. And I invite you to 
come over and take a look at the store. 

Mr. Scheeer. To whom do you sell the literature that Mr. Jackson 
Jones of our staff bought in your store last week? To whom do you 
sell that kind ? 

I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Feingold, have you also been an author in the course 
of the last 2 years ? 

Mr. Feingold. An author ? 

Mr. Arens. An author, a writer of articles. 

Mr. Feingold. No; I don't know. You know 

Mr. Arens. Let us be sure that jou have or have not. 

Have you been an author, a writer of articles, in the course of the 
last 2 years ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I am going to decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Dr. Holland 
Roberts? 

Mr. Feingold. My customer. 

Mr Arens. He is ? 

Mr. Feingold. He comes in and buys books. 

Mr. Arens. Did you iiiterview him in the store for an article that 
you wrote for the Communist Daily People's World ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry, Mr. Counsel, I will have to decline to 
answer on the grounds of self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel the Soviet Army has done heroic work and 
guaranteed freedom for the Soviet peoples ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. Well, I have to decline to answer to that. 

Mr. Arens. I have an article in the Communist Daily People's 
World, Saturday, February 15, 1947, under the byline of Jerry Fein- 
gold, in wliich the author, Jerry Feingold, is quoting and commending 
Dr. Holland Roberts. It is all about the activities in Soviet Russia 



INVESTIGATION OF COIVDMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6113 

and commending the Soviet Army for guaranteeing of freedom for 
the Soviet peoples. 

Look at this article, if you please, Mr. Feingold, and see if, in addi- 
tion to selling literature, you have been creating literature for domestic 
consumption ? 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry, Mr. Counsel. I will have to decline to 
answer this question. 

(Document marked "Feingold Exhibit No. 6," and filed in the rec- 
ords of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you written for any publications other than the 
Daily People's World? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry, I have to decline to answer on that. 

Mr. Arens. Have 3^ou ever seen a single piece of material coming 
to your establishment from Soviet Kussia which bore a label, pursuant 
to the provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act, as Com- 
munist political propaganda ? 

Mr. Feingold. Some from Four Continent come, like other books 
don't have, like Great Russian Encyclopedia, they have a little label 
on it. 

Mr. Arens. What does the label say? 

Mr. Feingold. Well, in regard to that particular, you know — that 
is what the Four Continent 

Mr. Arens. What does the label say ? 

Mr. Feingold. It says that they registered 

Mr. Arens. Registered under the provisions of the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act ? 

Mr. Feingold. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. But does it say "Communist propaganda" ? 

Mr. Feingold. I don't thiiik so. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever see a single piece of literature in your life 
labeled "Communist propaganda" ? 

Mr. Feingold. No ; I don't think I have seen anything on that par- 
ticular little label that you refer to. There is no such thing. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever labeled any of the material which you 
have sold "Communist propaganda" ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. No; I didn't label any, because I don't think any- 
bodj^ asked me to label anything. I just got those books and they 
passed by tlie United States examiner, the post office, and I sold them. 

Mr. Arens. You told us that this Dr. Holland Roberts was one of 
vour customers a little while ago. 

Mr. Feingold. He bought a few books from me, and toys. 

yiv. Arens. When did he buy these books from you? 

Mr. Feingold. Oh, I don't remember because I 

Mr. Arens. In the course of the last year? 

Mr. Feingold. Maybe last year. Maybe the year before. I couldn't 
tell you, you know, exactly, unless I look up the invoice of that par- 
ticular establishment, and tell you exactly what he bought and whei-e 
he bought it. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us whether or not, to your certain knowl- 
edge. Dr. Holland Roberts is or is not a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

82728 — 5T— pi. 3 6 



6114 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Feingold. I decline to answer on the grounds of self-incrimi- 
nation. 

Mr. ScHERER. Without telling us whether he is or not, do you know 
Dr. Roberts? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you interview him in your establishment in antic- 
ipation of the preparation of this article about the celebration of the 
Soviet army which appeared in the Communist Daily People's World? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. Would you read the full article there on top? 

Mr. Arens. Well, I will read the full article, but I want you to 

Mr. Speiser. May we see it ? 

Mr. Arens. I will in just a moment. 

I want you to tell us, first of all, did you write this article? Jerry 
Feingold ; is that you ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I decline to answer. I am sorry. 

Mr. Arens. You wouldn't want us to read an article that you 
wouldn't even admit writing; would you? 

Mr. Feingold. I would like to know what the article says. 

Mr. Arens. You read it and tell us whether or not you wrote the 
article. 

(The witness examines document.) 

Mr. Arens. All about the Soviet army protecting the freedoms. 

Mr. Feingold. It says here, "Celebration To Honor Washington." 

Mr. Arens. See what it says right under the lieadline. Read that. 
Is that Jerry Feingold, who wrote the article, you ? 

Mr. Scherer. What is the date of that publication? 

Mr. Arens. In 1947. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry. I will decline to answer on the grounds 
of self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. The essence of that article, is it not, is that George 
Washington, who was the father of this country and sustained our 
liberties and freedoms, was about the same type of person as the Red 
army. Isn't that the essence of it ? 

Mr. Speiser. Would you like to read it? 

Mr. Arens. Isn't that the essence of it, Mr. Feingold? You wrote 
the article. 

Mr. Velde. May I see it, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry, but I have to invoke the fifth amendment 
and decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Velde, any questions ? 

Mr. Velde. This was written Saturday, February 15, 1947. That 
was only 2 years after you had become a citizen of the United States, 
wasn't it? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Velde. And it was written for the Daily People's World; is 
that right? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6115 

Mr. Speiser. I don't believe there is a question before the witness. 

Mr. Feingold. Is there a question now ? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. This article was written for the Daily People's 
World by you 2 years after you became a naturalized citizen of this 
country. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry, Mr. Congressman; I am declining to 
answer on the grounds of self-incrimination. 

Mr. Velde. Did you know after you became a naturalized citizen 
in this country that the Daily People's World was a Communist organ, 
so described by several agencies of Government? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feingold. I am sorry I have to decline to answer. 

Mr. Velde. I have no further questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. If there are no further questions, the witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. Dr. Holland Roberts, kindly come forward. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Roberts. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HOLLAND DeWITTE ROBERTS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, NORMAN LEONARD 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Holland Roberts, Palo Alto. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please, sir? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I must decline to answer on the grounds of self- 
incrimination, invoking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today. Dr. Roberts, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, would you kindly identify yourself? 

Mr. Leonard. Norman Leonard, 240 Montgomery Street, San 
Francisco, Calif. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vliere are you engaged in your present occupation? 

Mr. Roberts. I must decline to answer on the grounds of self- 
incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. In what State are you engaged in your present occupa- 
lion? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. The State of California. 

Mr. Arens. In what city in the State of California are you engaged 
in your occupation? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. RoBEirj-s. In the city of San Francisco. 



6116 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. What is tlie street address of the establishment in 
which you are engaged in your occupation ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of 
self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been engaged in your present 
occupation ? 

Mr. Roberts. I must also invoke the fifth amendment here. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
your present occupation, you would be supplying information that 
might be used against you in a criminal ])roceeding ? 

(Representative Harold H. Velde left the heariiig room at this 
point.) 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Arens. Dr. Roberts, you are the director of the California 
Labor School, are you not? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I am invoking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Dr. Roberts, are you at this present moment a metober 
of the Communist Party 'I 

Mr. Roberts. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of 
self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that you are right now an agent of the International 
Communist conspiracy. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I respectfully decline to ansAver on the grounds of 
self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. Doctor, do you know the gentleman who preceded you 
to the witness stand, Mr. Jeremiah Feingold ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Doctor, we have an exhibit which we just displayed to 
Mr. Feingold (see Feingold exhibit No. 6) in which he is quoting you. 
First of all, I would like to read you certain excerpts from this exhibit : 

Celebration to honor Washington, Soviet Army. 

The American Russian Society's joint celebration of the birthdays of George 
Washington and the Red Army, February 22, at California Hall, is one practical 
way to help build the peace, according to Dr. Holland Roberts, educational 
director of the California Labor School. 

Dr. Roberts resigned his post as associate professor of education at Stanford 
University to take over the leadership of the Labor School. An astute observer 
of world affairs, he is well known for his work in behalf of peace. He has been 
a frequent speaker at Russian-American Society meetings. 

Now we begin a quotation of yourself : 

"It is important that Americans of Russian origin or descent recognize the 
great work done by George Washington in freeing our country from tyranny," 
Dr. Roberts said, "and the heroic work done by the Soviet Army in guaranteeing 
freedom for the Soviet i3eoples. * * *" , 

Kindly look at this article and tell the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, while you are under oath, whether or not you are accurately 
quoted. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6117 

Mr. Roberts. I invoke the fifth amendment. 
- Mr. Aeens. Do you honestly feel if you told this committee truth- 
fully whether or not you are the man who is quoted here as Dr. Rob- 
erts, whose photogTaph appears here, you would be supplying infor- 
mation that could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

Dr. Roberts, you appeared before the California Un-American 
Activities Committee back in 1947, did you not? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Mr. Arens, I think there is nothing incriminating 
about that, and I admit that I did. 

Mr. AnExs. And did you, in the course of your appearance, deny 
Communist Part}^ membership ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. On advice of counsel, I believe that answering this 
question might lead to self-incrimination, and therefore I must 
respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. You weren't afraid of the California Committee on 
Un-American Activities at all then, apparently, were you? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. I would like to read you an excerpt from the 1947 report 
of the California Un-American Activities Committee. On page 277, 
Holland DeWitte Roberts— Is that you, sir ? Holland DeWitte Rob- 
erts. That is you, is it? 

Mr. Roberts. You are quoting from the 

Mr. Arens. I am asking you if you are Holland DeWitte Roberts ? 

Mr. Roberts. You are asking me if I am? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Are you Holland DeWitte Roberts? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I have already identified myself in that way. 

Mr. Arens. You are. And you appeared before the committee. 
You have told us that? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now I would like to read some of the statements from 
the third report of the Un-American Activities Committee in Cali- 
fornia. 

Mr. Leonard. A^^iat year is that ? 

Mr. Arens. 1947 is the volume I have in my hand. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness was under oath before that committee; 
was he not, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. T am certain he was. I, of course, was not present. I 
am certain he was. 

You were under oath, were you not, when you appeared before the 
Un-American Activities Committee in California ? 

Mr. Robi:rts. That is my memory, sir. But it is quite a wliile ago. 
I wouldn't want to be absolutely sure of that. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

Holland DeWitte Roberts is the educational director of the California Labor 
School. His l>aclvground has been covered elsewhere in this report. 

In view of his denial of Communist Party affiliations, the following excerpts 
from his testimony are interesting. 

And so forth. 



6118 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 

Did you deny before the California Committee on Un-American 
Activities that you were a member or had been a member of the 
Conunimist Party ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. On advice of counsel, I decline to answer on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
appeared before the California Committee on Un-American Activ- 
ities and denied Communist Party membership ? 

Mr. Roberts. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Here is a very interesting document, which I want to 
invite to your attention. It is an article clipped from the Palo Alto 
Times: 

Dr. Holland Roberts Replies to Red Probe Accusation. 

That was December 10, 1953, in which Dr. Roberts, according to 
this article, replies to the Red-probe allegations in very vigorous 
language. 

Kindly look at this article and tell us if, in December 1953 you 
are correctly quoted in your unsworn statements, which were issued 
to the world at large, and particularly to the people of this State? 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you issue that statement which appears there? 

Mr. Roberts. On advice of counsel, I decline to answer, sir, on the 
grounds of self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. I want the record to be clear on this point here. 

You know that you are now under oath; do you not? 

Mr. Roberts. Indeed, yes. 

Mr. Arens. You know that if you lie while under oath you can be 
prosecuted for perjury ; do you not? 

Mr. Roberts. I have understood that very clearly, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You weren't under oath when you issued this statement 
here; were you? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I am regretful that I have to decline to identify that 
document, sir, on the grounds of possible self-incrimination. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 1" and filed in the records 
of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I would like to exhibit to you still another docu- 
ment. It is an article from New Masses, May 3, 1938, a Communist 
publication, entitled "The Moscow Trials, a Statement by American 
Progressives." You recall. Doctor, I am sure, the Moscow trials in 
which the Soviet Union, under this man called Stalin, who has now- 
been desanctified, was purging, murdering a number of people, so 
Khrushchev now is telling us. ^ 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. And here is what is said in this article, quoting a num- 
ber of people, including a Holland Roberts. In this article, we see 
this very interesting comment: 

We call upon them to support the efforts of the Soviet Union to free Itself 
from insidious internal dangers, and to rally support for the international flght 
against fascism — the principal menace to peace and democracy. 

This is all about the Moscow trials. Look at that and see if back 
in 1938, when tJiis all happened, you joined in issuing that statement 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN IT. S. 6119 

to support Comrade Stalin in his murders of millions of people, as 
subsequently revealed by Comrade Khrushchev. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 2," and filed in the record 
of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you changed your position with reference to Com- 
rade Stalin since Khrushchev has changed his position in the course 
of the last several months? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. 8ir, I think that perhaps I would take the fifth 
amendment even more on that question. 

Mr. Arens. Was Khrushchev a big stool pigeon or was he telling 
the truth when he told all the terrible things that Comrade Stalin 
did in the blood purge over there that you were talking about here 
in the New Masses ? 

Mr. Roberts. I regi'et to be rather monotonous about this, but I 
must invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. We just want to give you an opportunity to do so — 
give you an opportunity so we wouldn't interfere with your free 
speech, and let you speak up all you wanted to. 

We have another document we would like to invite to your atten- 
tion, Make the Campus a Fortress of Democracy — Support Federal 
Aid to Education ! 

Dr. Holland Roberts is going to make a speech at a meeting August 
24, (1945) sponsored by the American Youth for Democracy. 

Kindly look at this document and see if you won't be good enough 
to tell us whether or not you are the Dr. Holland Roberts, former pro- 
fessor of education, Stanford University, education director, Cali- 
fornia Labor School, who made this oration ? 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr, Roberts. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir, in this case. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 3," and filed in the 
records of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you joined in any statements in the last few 
weeks commending the purges that have been going on in Hungary 
by the Government of the Soviet Union ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr, Roberts, I invoke the fifth amendment on that question, too, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Charles Blodgett? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Charles David Blodgett raised his hand and laid his 
liberty on the line before this committee and swore that he knew 
you as a member of the Communist Party. Was Blodgett lying or 
was he telling the truth? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I invoke the fifth amendment, sir, on that. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that you are one of the nerve centers in this area for 
the transmission and dissemination of foreign Communist political 
propaganda. If it isn't so, deny it while you are under oath. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



6120 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST V. S. 

Mr, Roberts. I must, sir, invoke the fifth amendment in answer to 
that question. 

Mr. Arens. You luiderstand you are under no compulsion to invoke 
the fifth amendment unless you honestly feel that your liberty is at 
stake, unless you honestly feel that if you give us a truthful answer, 
you would be supplying information that eould be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I understand, Mr. Arens, that one invokes [sic] one's 
liberty to invoke the fifth amendment when there is a possibility that 
one may be incriminating himself. 

(Representative Harold H. Velde returned to the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. Arens. By incriminating yourself, you mean give information 
which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding; do you not? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sciierer. I think the witness is properly invoking the fifth 
amendment, counsel. 

Mr. Leonard. I am sorry, I didn't hear. 

Mr. Scherer. I think the witness is properly invoking the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Leonard. Thank you, sir. I think he is, too. 

Mr. Scherer. The answer is yes, obviously. 

Mr. Arens. I am not in any sense challenging your right to invoke 
the fifth amendment. I want the record to be clear as to the basis on 
which you do it. 

Mr. Roberts. Mr. Arens and Mr. Chairman, I understand I am 
standing on a constitutional right in invoking the fifth amendment. 
This is my privilege and 

Mr. Arens. If you honestly apprehend that to give information in 
response to the question, you would be giving information that could 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding, we understand you all 
right. 

Mr. DoTLE. I wish to say, in answer to your direct question to me, 
that we respect, and very heartily, that constitutional use when you do 
it in good faith. 

Mr. Arens. But we don't want it abused, and we don't want it used 
capriciously and facetiously. 

Doctor, are you a member of the American Russian Institute ? 

Mr. Roberts. Again I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I have here a photostatic copy of a flyer published by 
the American Russian Institute, welcoming the Dean of Canterbury, 
the Red Dean of Canterbury. It states that this Russian American 
Institute here in San Francisco, according to this document, has ex- 
hibits, motion pictures, and the like, all to promote understanding with 
Soviet Russia. It says also : 

THE AMERICAN RUSSIAN INSTITUTE LIBEAEY 

Largest and most compreliensive collection in the West of source material — 
iand I emphasize the next two words — 
and current publications about Russia — in both English and Russian. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6121 

And there are exhibited pictures of a number of the publications 
which tliis organization, the American Russian Institute, boasts it 
has: 

Land of the Soviets, Soviet America, and others of that kind. 

This welcomino- committee, according to this publication, is under 
the sponsorship of a number of persons, including a Dr. Holland D. 
Eoberts. 

Kindly look at this exhibit, if you please, Doctor, and tell the com- 
mittee whether or not you are he, and tell us a little about some of these 
publications that the Soviet Russian Institute imports to uplift the 
minds of the people of California respecting Soviet Russia? 

Mr. Roberts. If I am right, Mr, Arens, I just might make an inquii*y 
on your question. 

You have referred to the organization in three different ways: 
Soviet American Russian Institute, Russian American Institute, and 
American Russian Institute. 

Mr. Arens. We want the one vou belonged to. What is the name 
of it? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arexs. Perhaps this would help you: We have the exhibit 
Peace and Life are Indivisible, an introduction by Holland Roberts 
president of the American Russian Institute. So have all references 
been to the institution of which you are president, the American 
Russian Institute, which corresponds with the institution or organi- 
zation alluded to in the exhibit which you have in your hands. 

"Wliile you are under oath, tell this committee about all these publica- 
tions that you boast about in your publication there which are de- 
signed for peace and uplift and understanding of Soviet Russia. Tell 
us about that, and you can help your Government. 

Mr. Leonard. Excuse me, Mr. Arens. In view of the colloquy and 
the two exhibits before the witness, I wonder if the question could be 
i-estated. 

Mr. Arens. I will be glad to restate it, counsel. I appreciate your 
interest in clarifying the issue. 

Doctor, you have in your hand before you a couple of exhibits of 
this American Russian Institute, do you not? 

(The witness examines documents.) 

Mr. Roberts. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

(Documents marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 4," and filed in the records 
of the committee. ) 

Mr. Arens. You are president of that organization, are you not ? 

Mr. Roberts. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat good did all this clarification of counsel's do? 
You weren't going to anwer the question in the first place, were you ? 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask this : 

Is that in San Francisco, that American Russian Institute? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. That is the agency that, by its own publica- 
tions, has a vast array of current literature for the uplift of humanity 
and understanding of the criminal conspiracy centered in Moscow. 

]Mr. Arens. Doctor, I would like to have you tell us a little about 
your own educational attainment. You carry the title "Doctor." Is 
that a Ph. D. ? 



6122 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Roberts. I hold two degrees in the University of Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. When did you obtain those ? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, it is a long time ago. I think in 1919 and 1925, 
I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Doctor, what were the degi-ees — the subjects? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I prepared myself to be a teacher and I took 
a degree in liberal arts and a degree in education. 

Mr. Arens. Is your Ph. D. degree in education ? 

Mr. Roberts. No. There are no Ph. D. degrees in education. 

Mr. Arens. What was your degree? What did you do to obtain 
your doctorate ? 

Mr. Roberts. It is a Ph. B. degree. 

Mr. Arens. Ph. B. ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I do not want too involved an explanation. I wanted to 
be sure we had a word about your educational background. 

After you completed your formal education and received your de- 
gree, tell us something of your career. What was your first assign- 
ment ? Do you recall ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. You mean my teaching assignment ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Roberts. At the junior high school in Quincy, 111. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere else did you teach ? 

Mr. Roberts. I was principal of the high school at Arlington 
Heights, 111., and then a member of the staff at the Chicago Normal 
College in Chicago. 

And, let's see, Indiana University, I was on the staff there. 

Mr. Arens. You taught there ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes. And at Teachers College at Columbia, I was 
at the Lincoln School there. And the principal of the high school at 
Harrison, N. Y. 

And then from there I came west. 

Mr. Arens. "VVlien did you come west? About the year. 

Mr. Roberts. In 1934. 

Mr. Arens. Just pick up your career and tell us the various insti- 
tutions with which you have been connected. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I have left out some, Mr. Arens, because they 
were summer-school Jobs, or extension work, or something of that sort. 

Mr. Arens. We will fill in a few of them in a little while. I would 
like to have the principal ones. 

Mr. Roberts. I have given you, I think, the principal ones. 

Mr. Arens. You are out west in 1934. Then where did you start? 

Mr. Roberts. I taught at Stanford for 10 years — 1934 to 1944. 

Mr. Arens. What did you teach at Stanford ? 

Mr. Roberts. I was preparing teachers in high schools and colleges, 
school of education. 

Mr. Arens. You were teaching teachers ? 

Mr. Roberts. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And over what period of time ? 

Mr. Roberts. That was 1934 to 1944. 

Mr. Arens. Then where did you resume or take up your profession ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6123 

Mr. KoBERTS. I must decline to answer on the grounds of self-in- 
crimination, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you engaged in an}' activity, professional activity, 
since your disassociation from Stanford, concerning which you could 
tell us without giving information that could be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I am sure there is a great deal. I have written 
a good many 

Mr. Arens. I mean about your teaching activities. 

Mr. Roberts. Yes. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. If you will be specific, I would be very happy to tell 
you. There is no question but what I have engaged in a number 
of things. 

Mr. Arens. Principal employments. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I am afraid I will have to ask you to be specific, 
Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Let's back up a, little bit then. 

I have a document concerning the Tom Mooney Labor School 
(1942). According to this, a Prof. Holland Roberts, of Stanford 
University, was one of the lecturers at this Tom Mooney Labor School. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Did vou contribute your talents to the Tom Mooney 
Labor School back in 1942 ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. 1 invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 5," and filed in the records 
of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. We have a. booklet here of the California Labor School 
for 1946. 

When was it that you were disassociated from Stanford? 

Mr. Scherer. 1944. 

Mr. Arens. Was it in 1944 that you were disassociated from Stan- 
ford? 

Mr. Roberts. I left Stanford in 1944^ 

Mr. Arens. Was that leaving voluntary or involuntary? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, sir, it was a combination. 

Mr. Arens. You might tell us a word about it. 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I had reached a period in my life where I 
thought it better to make the best use of my energies. 

Mr. Arens. Did you devote your energies to the California Labor 
School? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I am regretful that I have to invoke 

Mr. Arens. I have here a booklet of the California Labor School, 
ajid in this booklet for the fall term of 1946, the educational director 
is listed as Holland Roberts. Is that what j'ou meant when you were 
going to put your time to a little bit better use, that you assumed the 
educational directorship of this California Labor School? 

Take a look at that booklet — I did not mean to throw it, but I have 
to get over this obstacle on the desk — and see if you can't help the 
Committee on Un-American Activities by telling us whether or not 



6124 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

that was the activity concerning which you were then devoting your 
talents. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Could you look at that document there, the first couple 
of pages, where the name of Holland Koberts appears as educational 
director and help out the committee here ? 

Mr. Roberts. The fifth amendment, sir. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 6," and filed in the records 
of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. By the way, while you were there at that California 
Labor School in this status of educational director, you got about 
a couple of hundred thousand dollars out of the Federal Government 
through the GI bill of rights, didn't you ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I have another exhibit with reference to your activities, 
at the California Labor School in 1948. I see a photograph where 
Holland Roberts greets John Howard Lawson, the distinguished 
playwright and screen writer, who was Ihe feature speaker at the 
school's cultural conference in the summer of 1947. 

On page 7 again, the educational director is listed as Holland 
Roberts. 

Look at this smiling photograph, if you please, sir, and tell us 
whether or not it is you greeting Jolui Howard Lawson, as revealed 
in the exhibit which I have just displayed to you. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment, sir. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 7" and filed in the records 
of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. I have still another exhibit I would like to invite to 
your attention, Doctor. It is an exhibit from the Communist Daily 
People's World, May 27, 1955 : 
A teacher affects eternity. He can never tell where his influence stops. 

That is the leading italicized heading, "the teacher can never tell 
where his influence stops." 

Then we see a large photograph of yourself, Holland Roberts — 
Teacher of Teachers, and the following appears : 

Holland Roberts, director of the California Labor School, estimates (con- 
servatively, he says) that in 35 years of teaching he has taught some 15,000 
pupils. That is not counting vv'hat he calls "short-term teaching relationships" 
with some 3,000 to 5,000 other students in vreekend institutes and similar pro- 
grams of brief duration. 

Kindly look at this article, if you please, sir, and tell us whether 
or not, over the course of these many years while you have been teach- 
ing the teachers in the amount of several thousand, you have in turn 
been part and parcel of an international, godless, atheistic conspiracy 
controlled from Moscow. And if it isn't so, deny it now while you 
are under oath before the Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(Tlie witness examines the document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment, sir. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No, 8'' and filed in the records 
of the committee.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 6125 

Mr. Abens. Doctor, back in 1950, did you take a trip to England to 

visit some relatives ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. An innocent little trip just to visit some relatives over 
in England ? Did you do that ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Can't you tell us whether or not back in 1960 you took a 
trip to England to visit some relatives ? 

Mr. Egberts. Fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. That is strange. 

I have here a photostatic copy of a passport application to the Pass- 
port Office of the Department of State, signed by Holland D. Roberts. 
Listed as one of the countries to be visited is England. And the pur- 
pose of the trip is just to travel, to visit relatives. 

Please look at this passport application, Doctor, while you are under 
oath, and tell this committee whether or not you signed that passport 
application, and whether or not that is your signature on the pass- 
port to visit some relatives in England in 1950 ? 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, while he is looking at that, I respect- 
fully suggest that if, as, and when this witness signs a voucher for his 
per diem, that that part of the voucher bearing his signature be 
incorporated in the body of the record so that there may be a com- 
parison of signatures on the passport application and the voucher. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so ordered. 



6126 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Roberts Exhibit No. 9 




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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6127 







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6128 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Roberts Exhibit No. 10 



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with afreement. 




(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 
Mr. Arens. Could you answer the question, please, Doctor, as to 

whether or not this is your signature ? 

Mr. Roberts. Excuse me, sir, but I would like to be sure that the 

document is 



Mr. Arens. Look at your signature there, first of all. Perhaps that 
could help you. Then you could look at the rest of the document. 
I want you to be certain of the part of the application Avhere you tell 
the State Department in a sworn affidavit that you are going to go 
to England in 1950 to visit relatives. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6129 

Mr. Roberts. The fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Doctor, you didn't go to England at all, did you ? You 
went to the Soviet Union. Isn't that true ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Let us look at his pamphlet. We Pledge Peace, a Friend- 
ship Book, containing an article entitled "We Saw Ourselves — 19 
Americans in the U. S. S. R." and photographs of the chairman of 
the Soviet Peace Committee, Nikolai Tiklionov, left, with Prof. Hol- 
land Roberts, chairman of the American delegation. 

Did the Russians forge a photograph of you while in Moscow ? Or 
is that true ? 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 11" and filed in the records 
of the committee. ) 

Mr. ScHERER. What was the date of his application for passport? 

Mr. Arens. 1950. I don't have it at my fingertips at this instant, 

Mr. Scherer. 1950. 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; November 1950, the passport was issued. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that application sworn to ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. And the passport application also contains 
an affidavit not only with reference to the truth of the statements, but 
also that the applicant will support and defend the Constitution of 
the United States, and so forth. 

Mr. Scherer. That was in 1950. What is the statute of linuta- 
tions — I should know — for perjury? The Federal statute? 

Mr. Arens. I am fearful it has run out in this particular instance. 

Mr. Scherer. He is lucky. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Arens, may I interpolate here ? 

I happen to have in front of me the preceding exhibit, "We Pledge 
Peace, A Friendship Book," which was presented to the witness. On 
page 37 thereof, under a caption "Let Us Sit Together, In Peace, Hol- 
land Roberts, educator, author, Palo Alto, Calif.," I read : 

I know the people of the Soviet Union are good neighbors for I have lived 
and worked with them. In the summer of 1934, with more than a hundred 
other Americans, I was a student at the Anglo-American Institute in Moscow. 

Then in the next paragraph, it says : 

Again in 1950 I traveled in the U. S. S. R. 

That appears to be an article by a distinguished educator. 

I will hand this back to you. 

Now, while I am interrupting you just a minute, I turn to the 
Guide for Subversive Organizations and Publications printed by this 
committee. May 14, 1951, and page 24 thereof I read : 

American-Russian Institute foe Ctjltubal Relations With the Soviet Union 

1. A direct agent of the Soviet Union, engaged in traitorous activities under 
the orders of Stalin's consular service in the United States * * * Founded in 
1926 * * * the semiofficial status of the American-Russian Institute is estab- 
lished. * * * (California Committee on Un-American Activities, report 1948, 
pp. 1G9 and 327.) 

82728— 57— pt. 3 7 



6130 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 
Then I read from the same page in the same guide : 

American Russian Institute of Southern California (Los Angeles) 

1. Cited as Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to loyalty Review 
Board, released April 27, 1949). 

And then I read : 

American Russian Institute of San Feancisco 

1. Cited as a Communist organization (Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to 
Loyalty Review Board, released September 21, 1948). 

Mr. Velde. Dr. Roberts, do you still have your passport, or did you 
turn it back to the State Department ? 

(The v^itness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I still have it, sir. However, it has expired. 

Mr. Velde. It has what ? 

Mr. Roberts. It has expired. 

Mr. Velde. Oh, yes; I realize it has expired. But is it endorsed 
by the customs officials of Soviet Russia. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I can't remember, sir, but I think so. 

Mr. Velde. Where did you get your visa to get into Soviet Russia ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. I will invoke the fifth amendment in answering that, 
Mr. Velde. 

Mr. Velde. Did you have a visa ? 

Mr. Roberts. What's that ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Velde. Did you have a visa ? 

Mr. Roberts. I will invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. At what point did you enter Russia? 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What causes you to feel that your passport was en- 
dorsed by the Soviets? You just told the distinguished Congressman 
when interrogating you about your passport that you thought it was 
endorsed by the Russians. What caused you to think that ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. He has volunteered 
the statement. 

Mr. Doyle. I think it is appropriate to direct you to answer that 
question. Doctor. 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Roberts. I am regretful I must invoke my rights under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Maybe you can help me on this. Doctor : Here you tell 
the State Department in your passport application that you were 
going to go to England, an innocent trip for about a month, to visit 
some relatives. That is here in 1950. And here in 1950, the next 
month or so, you tell the American people a little bit diifferent story. 

Here are two articles I am going to display to you, by Dr. Holland 



I 



ESrVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 6131 

Koberts : "I Met These Soviet People" and "People Who Build for 

Peace." 

A prominent educator describes his recent trip to the Soviet Union as part of 
a U. S. peace delegation. 

The article is the text of a speech delivered to a New York rally to 
hear the delegates who attended the Warsaw Peace Congress in 1950. 

And also an ad in the Daily People's World, "A Message From the 
Soviet People" (January 25, 1951). 

Now, tell the Committee on Un-American Activities, did you lie to 
the State Department or did you lie to the American people ? 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment, sir. 

(Three documents marked "Eoberts Exhibits No. 12," and filed in 
the records of the committee.) 

Mr. Arexs. I invite your attention to a letterhead, Doctor. The 
first is a letterhead of the National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship, which sets forth the board of directors, including a Dr. 
Holland Roberts. 

Look at that exhibit, if you please, sir, and tell this committee 
whether or not you are a member of the board of directors of that 
organization ? 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment, sir. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 13," and filed in the 
records of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. I have another exhibit. Doctor. This is from the Com- 
munist Daily People's World, quoting a leading educator, Dr. Holland 
Roberts, praising this Communist paper : 

A leading educator, an educator praises our paper. 

Kindly look at that document and tell us whether or not that accu- 
rately quotes you ? 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment on that material. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 14," and filed in the 
records of the committee. ) 

Mr. Arens. Here is something I would like to show to you. It is 
attributed to you. See if you can help us. 

Plolland Roberts, California Labor School, is quoted as follows : 

In a nation drugged with lies and ruled by thieves, every man who loves his 
country must speak out for the truth. That is where the greatness of the Daily 
Worker lies. 

In the smog and miasma through which our great people are groping their way 
toward peace and the beauty and freedom of the atomic era, we see a burning 
point of light — 

and so forth. 

Do you think that this great Nation under whose flag you receive 
protection as a citizen is a Nation now drugged with lies and ruled 
by thieves ^ 

Look at that, if you please, and tell us whether or not you are ac- 
curately quoted. 

Mr. ScHERER. The statement comes from you with ill grace, on© 
who obtained a passport by fraud and perjury. 

Mr. Lfx)nard. I suggest the form of the question comes with ill 
grace from counsel to a legislative committee. I respectfully suggest 
the form of the question comes with ill grace from counsel 



6132 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest that counsel be admonished. His sole and 
exclusive prerogative, as the chairman has said three times, is to ad- 
vise his witness with respect to his constitutional rights, 

Mr. Doyle. What year is the exhibit dated, please? 

Mr. Arens. This is in 1954. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was there an answer? 

Mr. Arens. Did you invoke the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Velde. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Egberts. I do invoke the fifth amendment. 

Roberts Exhibit No. 15 

[The Worker, Sunday, February 7, 1954] 

Greetings on Our Birthday 

The following are additional greetings sent to The Worker on its 30th an- 
niversary. They arrived too late for inclusion in our Anniversary issue Janu- 
ary 31. 

it ***** * 

Holland Roberts, California Lahor Scliool 

In a nation drugged with lies and ruled by thieves, every man who loves his 
country must speak out for the truth. That is where the greatness of the Daily 
Worker lies. 

In the smog and miasma through which our great people are groping their 
way toward peace and the beauty and freedom of the atomic era, we see a burn- 
ing point of light. 

******* 

Mr. Arens. I invite your attention to a document called A Call to a 
National Conference on American Policy on China and the Far East. 
It is to be held in the Hotel Roosevelt, in New York City, in January 
of 1948. Listed among the leading figures of this conference is Hol- 
land Roberts, director of the California Labor School. 

Kindly look at this document and tell the people of this community, 
while you are under oath, whether or not you were one of the leading 
lights of that call to have a conference about things going on in the 
Far East. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his consul.) 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment on that one, sir. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 16" and filed in the rec- 
ords of the committee. ) 

Mr. Arens. When we were in Los Angeles just a few days ago, 
we had testimony about some of the individuals I am going to ask 
you about. 

This exhibit is entitled, "Don't Miss Truth About Korea." In 
other words, the people who are putting out this exhibit are going 
to tell the world now the truth about Korea. They have been hearing 
the falsehoods. 

Hear Mr, Peter Hyun (H-y-u-n) former editor of Korean Independent — 
who was identified as a Communist before us in Los Angeles — 

Wm. Kerner, West Coast Director of Committee for Democratic Far Eastern 
Policy; Holland Roberts, Director, California Labor School. 

All under the auspices of the California Labor School, Committee 
for Democratic Far Eastern Policy, San Francisco Independent 
Progressive Party. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6133 

Tell this Committee on Un-American Activities truthfully whether 
you were the one who was going to tell everybody the truth about 
Korea after you truthfully reported what you saw in Soviet Russia. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. The fifth on that one, too. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 17" and filed in the rec- 
ords of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. I exhibit to you still another document about an Asian 
liberation movement on world peace. 

Did you hear the testimony earlier this afternoon by Mr. Caldwell 
about the forces of communism in Asia ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, of course. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, as you look at this document issued by the 
California Labor School, whether or not the Asian liberation move- 
ment in world peace that you were promoting is the liberation from 
freedom into the throes of international communism in Asia. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. How many more exhibits have you, counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. A couple. 

Mr. Doyle. What year was that? 

Mr. Arens. I think 1950. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Can you help us on that Doctor ? 

Mr. Roberts. Fifth amendment on that one. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 18" and filed in the 
records of the committee. ) 

Mr. Arens. Doctor, I have several exhibits, but I will ask you about 
two more. I am trying to show one from each of several facets of 
your interesting life : 

280 Nat'l. Leaders Ask Trnman Amnesty Jailed ComBiunists. 

175 Notables in Open Letter to President Urge Amnesty for Smith Act Victims. 

x\mong the notables who are listed here requesting amnesty for the 
Communist traitors who were convicted by a jury in the United States 
is Holland Roberts. 

Please look at these and tell us whether or not you were one of 
those who was urging clemency and amnesty for these traitors. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. The fifth amendment on this one. 

(Documents marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 19" and filed in the rec- 
ords of the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. Doctor, do you have anything you would like to tell the 
Committee on Un-American Activities about the dissemination in this 
area by you and your associates of this Communist political propa- 
ganda, the sacks of which we have displayed here in the course of the 
last several hours ? 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Roberts. Mr. Arens and Mr. Chairman, and members of the 
committee, I, of course, will be very happy to answer questions which 
do not, in my opinion and in the opinion of my coiuisel, lead to self- 
incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. Then just answer this question : 

I put it to you as a fact that you are now a nerve center for the dis- 
semination of foreign Communist propaganda in California. 



6134 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I have certain rights under the first and fifth 
amendments to the Constitution, which I hereby invoke in declining 
to answer the question, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you invoking the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I have just one other question. 

Mr. Roberts. I was also invoking the first amendment. 

Mr, Arens. Are you now a member of a conspiracy designed to de- 
stroy the Constitution of the United States ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Roberts, I invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens, I have another question to clear the record, so that the 
record is straight. 

Doctor, after your release from your oath before the committee and 
the possible pains and penalties of perjury, do you expect, as you 
did before, to step outside and tell the world, "Of course I'm not a 
Communist. Of course I'm not part of the Communist conspiracy 
but I wasn't going to tell that witch-hunting, Fascist, Red-baiting 
House Un-American Activities Committee anything."? 

Is that what you are going to do, Doctor ? 

Mr. Roberts. I am going to take the fifth amendment, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. I was sure you would. 

I respectfully suggest Mr, Chairman that will conclude the staff 
interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. May I take one minute to incorporate in the record of 
the hearings at this point, in view of the fact that the distinguished 
educator has been identified in connection with the California Labor 
School, the following : 

I again refer to the Guide for Subversive Organizations and Pub- 
lications, being House Document 137 of the 82d Congress, published 
May 14, 1951, at page 31 thereof : 

California Labor School 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization at 216 Market Street. San 
Francisco, Calif. (Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review 
Board, released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. An "expanded Communist Party institution for the purpose of disseminating 
Communist propaganda." Opened in San Francisco in the siummer of 1944 to 
replace the Tom Mooney Labor School. Denounced as Communist controlled by 
the California State Federation of Labor. (California Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities, report, 1947, pp. 79, 80, and 369.) 

Any questions, Mr. Velde ? 

Mr. Velde. No questions. 

Mr. Doyle, Any questions, Mr, Scherer ? 

Mr, Scherer. I think we should say, as we close the hearings today, 
that we compliment the counsel who have appeared with the witnesses 
today, on their highly ethical representation of the witnesses and 
their compliance with the rules of this committee, and furthermore, 
the competent manner in which they have represented the witnesses. 

Mr, Leonard. Thank you very much, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I am glad you mentioned that, because I was certainly 
going to do it, as well as everyone else in the room. 

Then to those, not heard, who have been subpenaed to appear today, 
\ye regret we have been unable to call you. Your subpenas will be 
continued until tomorrow mornino; at 10 o'clock in this room. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 6135 

Mr. Leonard. Is Dr. Roberts excused, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. DoTLE. Yes. 

(Whereupon, at 5 : 35 p. m., Monday, December 10, the subcommittee 
was recessed, to be reconvened at 10 a. m., Tuesday, December 11, 1956. 
Committee members present: Representatives Doyle, Velde, and 
Scherer.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 11, 1956 ' 

(The subcommittee was reconvened at the expiration of the recess, 
at 2 : 35 p. m. and resumed its hearings on Investigation of Communist 
Propaganda in the United States. Committee members present : Rep- 
resentatives Doyle and Scherer.) 

Mr. Arexs. Wilhelmina Loughrey. 

"Would you kindly come forward. The chairman will be right in. 
Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to 
you. 

]\Ir. DoTLE. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. LouGHREY. I do. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. May the record show that Congressman Scherer of 
Ohio and Congressman Doyle are both present, and, therefore, a quo- 
rum of the subcommittee. 

May the record show, too, that the meeting is called at 2 : 35 p. m. 

The reason for the subcommittee chairman's absence or tardiness for 
35 minutes was occasioned by reason of the fact that I was in a meeting 
of certain security officers and personnel of the bay area. 

Proceed, INIr. Arens. 

TESTIMONY OF WILHELMINA LOUGHREY, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, BERTRAM EDISES 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. LouGHRET. My name is Wilhelmina Loughrey. I live in 
Lorenzo. I am unemployed. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities ? 

Mrs. Loughrey. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Loughrey. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself? 

Mr. Edises. Bertram Edises, 1440 Broadway, Oakland, Calif. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. I^oughrey, are you connected with the 20th Cen- 
tury Bookstore ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Loughrey. I decline to answer that question on the gi'ounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of the Communist 
Daily People's World, in which an article appears identifying Wil- 



i(Testimony of the following witnesses heard In the morning session of Dncember 11, 
1956, Grace Partridge, Louis Goldblatt, Clair Jensen, will be printed under the title of 
Communist Political Subversion ; witness heard in the late afternoon session on that date 
will also be printed under the title of Communist Political Subversion.) 



6136 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 

helmina Loughrey as manager of the 20th Century Book Store in 
Berkeley, and of a then brandnew Oakland branch store, a photo- 
graph of Mrs. Loughrey also appearing. That is under date of March 
1942. 

(Document marked "Loughrey Exhibit No. 1," retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Kindly look at this document and tell us whether or not it is a true 
representation of the facts. 

(The witness examines document and confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. IjOUGHrey. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Akens. I display to you a photostatic copy of the Daily Peo- 
ple's World of Friday, June 25, 1954, in which your picture appears, 
and a drawing, in which you are quoted with reference to the Ban- 
croft Avenue Bookshop, as a director or operator of that shop. 

(Document marked "Loughrey Exhibit No. 2," retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Kindly look at this document and tell us whether or not you would 
confirm the authenticity of those statements. 

(The witness examines document and confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Loughrey. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Fred H. 
Williams ? 

Mr. Doyle. Merely to have the record straight, did I understand 
your answer was that you cannot answer ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Loughrey. My answer was that I decline to answer that ques- 
tion on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Doyle. I thought you said you cannot answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Fred H. Williams ? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Loughrey. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. You testified before the Un-American Activities Com- 
mittee of California (Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities in California) back in 1946, in which you stated that 
you were a Communist, and you identified Fred H. Williams as a 
Communist. 

Isn't that true ? 

( The witness confers with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Loughrey. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to read you extracts of your testimony at 
that time : 

Question : Mrs. Loughrey, are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Answer: Yes, I am, 

Question : And you became aflBliated about when? 

Answer : Oh, around 5 or 6 years ago. 

I now ask you were those questions posed to you, and were those 
answers given by you to the questions when you appeared before the 
California Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mrs. Loughrey. Same answer. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 6137 

Mr. Arens. In the course of that testimony you likewise identified 
Fred H. Williams as a person known by you to be a Communist, did 
you not? 

Mrs. LouGHREY. Same answer. 

Mr, Arens, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. DoTixE. I order and direct you, Madam Witness, to answer 
that last question. 

Mr. Edises. Would you mind reading that question? 

Mr. Arens. I said you identified Fred H. Williams in that testi- 
mony, before the California committee, did you not ? 

And she invoked the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. LouGHREY. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the record 
reflect an order and direction that the witness answer the question, 

Mr. DoYLE. You are directed and ordered, Madam Witness, to an- 
swer that last question. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. LouGHREY. I stand on my position. 

Mr. Arens. I want to invite your attention to a photostatic copy of 
the Bulletin of the Workers School in Oakland, Calif., summer ses- 
sion, 1942, in which your name appears as the teacher, professor of 
public speaking and parliamentary law. 

(Document marked "Loughrey Exhibit No. 3" retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr, Arens, Kindly look at that document and tell us whether or 
not that is a true and correct representation of the facts. 

(The witness examines document and confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Loughrey. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever registered or, to your knowledge, has the 
20th Century Book Store ever registered under the provisions of the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Loughrey. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Ajiens. I display to you four publications (marked "Fishman 
Exhibit No. 3") which,, according to this record of yesterday, were 
purchased by an investigator of this committee at the 20th Century 
Book Store: 

Soviet Union, People's Democracy ; Youth Forum of Political Or- 
ganization of Society ; People's China ; and China Reconstructs. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us whether or not those documents are, to 
your certain knowledge, documents which were sold by the 20th 
Century Book Store. 

(The witness examines documents and confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Loughrey. I take the same position on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments, 

Mr. Arens. Do those documents appearing before you bear any 
stamp or mark indicating that they are Communist publications, 
pursuant to the provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Loughrey. Same position. 



6138 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mrs. LouGHREY. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. The witness is excused. 

Mr, Arens. Lawrence Lowe, kindly come forward. 

Mr. Doyle. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

]Mr. Lowe. Yes : I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LAWRENCE LOWE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL 

ROBERT TREUHAFT 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Lowe. Lawrence Lowe, 1002 Wood Street, Oakland. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today, Mr. Lowe, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Lowe. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Lowe. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Treuhaft. Robert Treuhaf t, 1440 Broadway, Oakland. 

Mr. Arens. "V\niat is your occupation, Mr. Lowe ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Lowe. I decline to answer this question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
your occupation you would be supplying information that could be 
used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Lowe. I am claiming the fifth amendment in good faith. 

Mr. Arens. Where is your business establishment ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Lowe. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens; You operate the World Theater, have a controlling 
interest in the World Theater here in San Francisco, do you not? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lowe. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact that you do operate the World Theater in San Francisco. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. LoAVE. I stand on the same position, 

Mr, Arens. I want to display to you now a leaflet of the World 
Theater advertising a motion picture to be displayed there: The 
New China, an Artkino release in color, showing a photograph of 
Chou, and the inward pictures showing, likewise, a photograph in 
color of the Communist dictator of Red China. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 6139 

(Document marked "Lowe Exhibit No. 1" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Kindly look at this document and tell us whether or not, to your cer- 
tain knowledge, that document represents truthful accounts, or pre- 
sents the fact with reference to the presentation of this Chinese 
Communist film. 

(The witness examines document and confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lowe. The same answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lowe. Same answer ; same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Questions, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. No. 

jNIr. Doyle. The witness is excused. 

(The subcommittee at this point concluded its hearings on Investiga- 
tion of Communist Propaganda in the United States, and resumed its 
hearings on Communist Political Subversion. Testimony of the re- 
maining witnesses heard at the afternoon session on December 11, 
1956, Aubrey Grossman, William Heikkila, Cleophas Brown, and 
Victor Arnautoft', will be printed under the title of Communist 
Political Subversion.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Blodgett, Charles David 6119 

Caldwell, John C 6073-6088 (testimony), 6133 

Chiang, Kai-shek 6077 

Chou, En-lai 6069, 6138 

Coplon, Judith 6104, 6107 

Edises, Bertram 6135 

Feingold, Augusta (Mrs. Jeremiah Feingold) . — . 6096,6108 

Feingold, Jeremiah (also known as Jerry Ferron)- 6089-6115 (testimony), 6116 
Ferron, Jerry, ( See Feingold, Jeremiah. ) 

Fishman, Irving 6044-6068 (testimony), 6071, 6092 

Graeheff 6106 

Hyun, Peter 6132 

Juravcoff, Clara (Juravkoff) 6105,6106 

Kerner, William 6132 

Lawson, John Howard 6124 

Leonard. Norman 6115 

Loughrey, Wilhelmina 6135-6138 (testimony) 

Louie, Stephen K 6057, 6068-6072 (testimony) 

Lowe, Lawrence 6138-6139 (testimony) 

MacPhee, Chester R 6043-6044 (testimony) 

Mao Tse-tung 6069 

Potash 6109 

Roberts, Holland DeWitte 6112-6114, 6115-6135 (testimony) 

Speiser, Lawrence 6089 

Tikhonov, Nikolai 6129 

Treuhaft, Robert 6138 

Williams, Fred H 6136, 6137 

OeGANIZ ATION S 

All-China Athletic Federation 6060 

American Russian Institute 6120, 6121, 6129 

San Francisco 6130 

Southern California 6130 

American-Russian Trading Corp. (Amtorg) 6106,6109 

Amtorg. (See American-Russian Trading Corp.) 

Army Language School (Monterey, Calif.) 6111 

Anglo-American Institute (Moscow) 6129 

California Labor School 6116,6117,6123,6124.6132-6134 

California State Federation of Labor 6134 

Central Council of Hungarian Trade Unions 6060 

Chicago Women for Peace 6057 

Chinese Islamic Association 6060 

Collet's 6093 

Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy 61.32 

Council on African Affairs 6057 

Foreign Lan^iuages Press 6060 

Four Continent Book Corp 6091-6093, 6113 

Imywrted Publications and Products 6092, 6093 

Independent Progressive Party, San Francisco 6132 

International Book Publishing Association (Mezhdunarodnaja Kniga) _ 6091 , 6092 

International Control Commission 6085 

International Union of Students 6048 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

International Workers Order 6100, 6102 

Maison de Livre 6093 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship 6131 

National People's Congress, First 6060 

Nationalities Publishing House, Peking 6060 

Overseas Student Brain Improvement Center 6081 

Russian American Society 6099, 6100, 6102, 6104. 6105, 6107, 6116 

Russky Kustar— Russian Craftsman (bookstore) 6089,6100,6102,6103 

Soviet Peace Committee 6129 

Tom Mooney Labor School 6123, 6134 

Twentieth Century Book Store 6135-6137 

United States Government : 

Central Intelligence Agency 6062, 6063 

Justice Department 6045, 6061 

Immigration and Naturalization Service 6068 

Library of Congress 6050 

Post Office Department 6045, 6046, 6067 

State Department : International Cooperation Administration 6084 

Treasury Department : Bureau of Customs 6043-6045, 6067, 6068 

Workers School, Oakland, Calif 6137 

San Francisco 6099 

World Theater, San Francisco 6138 

Publications 

China Reconstructs 6067, 6085, 6137 

Communism in Our World 6087 

Confidential 6083 

Korean Independent 6132 

New China, The (film) 6138 

New China Advances to Socialism 6060 

New Times 6052, 6054, 6055 

People's China 6058, 6067, 6085, 6137 

Social Welfare in Hungary 6060 

Soviet Union, People's Democracy 6067, 6137 

Women of China 6057 

Youth Forum of Political Organization of Society 6067, 6137 

o 



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