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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Newark, N.J., area. Hearings"

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1) 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES 
IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA— PART I 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MAY 16 AND 17, 1955 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
(Index in Part II of this series) 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNllLU STATES GOVERNMENT 



oC 



P 19 1955 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1955 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

Unitkd States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, lUinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, JE., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN B. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief CUrlt 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

* * * * * « • " 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

( A ) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
( ii ) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foi-eign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session ) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, w^hether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

m 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

• •*•*** 

Rui.E X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

* • * * • « • 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWEKS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the dilTnsion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within tlie United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



CONTENTS 



PART I 

May 16, 1955: Testimony of— Pae« 

Ernst Stuart Pollock 996 

Afternoon session: 

Stephen J. Rudich 1027 

Charles Nasser 1043 

Lt. John Owens 1056 

Charles Nusser (resumed) _ 1058 

May 17, 1955: Testimony of — 

Lewis M. Moroze 1068 

Louis Shapiro 1076 

Lewis M. Moroze (resumed) 1079 

James B. McLeish, Sr 1087 

Afternoon session: 

James B. McLeish, Sr. (resumed) 1105 

William Santora 1115 

Archer Cole 1119 

Abraham Alan Burdick 1127 

Ted Smorodin 1137 

PART II 

May 18, 1955: Testimony of— 

Anthony DeAquino 1145 

Julius Kolovetz 1168 

Anthony DeAquino (resumed) _ 1176 

Afternoon session: 

Gabriel Bloksberg 1180 

Robert Galina 1184 

Emil Asher 1188 

Esther Engle Liss 1195 

John Paradise 1200 

Katherine Hoffman 1205 

Walter S. Poleshuck 1214 

May 19, 1955: Testimony of — 

David Rocklin. 1219 

Joseph Fisher 1226 

Robert Lowenstein 1 270 

Afternoon session: 

Perry Zimmerman 1283 

Estelle Laba 1289 

Solomon Golat 1292 

Harold E. Lippman 1300 

Frances Etta Ormond 1305 

Joseph F. Job 1309 

July 13, 1955: Testimony of— 

Walter Barry --- --- 1313 

Index (see part II of this series) i 

V 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEWARK, N. J., AREA— PART I 



MONDAY, MAY 16, 1955 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Newark^ N. J . 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to notice, at 10 a. m., the United States Courthouse, Newark, 
N. J., Hon. Clyde Doyle, chairman, presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Clyde Doyle (presid- 
ing) and Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel, and Court- 
ney E. Owens, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. Let the subcommittee please come to order. 

According to our committee rules, it is required that the chairman 
make an opening statement as to what the committee intends to discuss 
and look into during the hearing. 

Let the record show that pursuant to congressional authority. Rep- 
resentative Francis E. Walter, of Pennsylvania, chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, has 
appointed Representative Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio, and myself, 
Clyde Doyle, of California, to act as a subcommittee for the purpose 
of conducting hearings here in Newark, N. J. 

Mr. "Walter as chairman of our full committee has been unavoidably 
detained on other congressional duties in Washington and I, Clyde 
Doyle, have been designated as the chairman of the subcommittee. 

My distinguished colleague, Mr. Scherer, is present, thereby consti- 
tuting a legal quorum of the subcommittee under the committee rules. 
The full committee of the House Un-American Activities Committee 
consists of nine members. 

The House Committee on Un-American Activities is charged by the 
Congress under provisions of Public Law 601, 79th Congress, with 
responsibility of investigating the extent, character, and objects of 
the un-American propaganda activities in the United States and the 
diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-Amercan 
propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of domestic 
origin, and which attacks the principle of the form of government 
guaranteed by our Constitution, and all other questions in relation 
thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary remedial legislation. 

991 > 



992 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

I should interpolate here for the benefit of the newspaper fraternity 
that you will fiiid from here on that I have added to the original 
statement. 

The hearings to be conducted during the next 3 or 4 days in Newark 
will inqure into the matter of current leadership of the Communist 
Party in this area, infiltration by the Communist Party in the fields 
of labor and education, and certain of the professions and groups com- 
monly known as Communist-front organizations. 

Manifestly, neither the current investigation nor committee hear- 
ings can possibly be exhaustive or complete. From time to time the 
committee has investigated Communists and Communist activities 
within the field of entertainment, labor, education, and also within 
the professions and the Government. 

In no instance has the work of the committee taken on the charac- 
ter of an investigation of entertainment organizations, labor unions, 
educational institutions, the church or religions, the professions or the 
Government as such. However, now as in the past, the committee in- 
tends to and will investigate Communists and Communist activities 
and subversive activities wherever it has substantial evidence of its 
existence, regardless of what area it exists in or who it may be. To do 
so is our bounden duty and responsibility as a standing and perma- 
nent committee of the United States Congress ever since the YOth 
Congress enacted Public Law 601. 

When investigating Communists and Communist activities within 
certain labor organizations, this committee frequently has been met 
with the false and unfounded charge by alarmists and partisans within 
that field that the committee is a group of Fascists and the enemy of 
labor, that the real purpose of the investigation is to destroy labor 
unions. 

Of course such charges are wholly untrue and without foundation 
in fact. The United States Congress would not tolerate such a pur- 
pose or procedure and this committee is a child of the United States 
Congress. 

Pursuant to its work the committee has carefully refrained from 
taking part in international disputes within labor unions or contro- 
versies between management and labor. Rather, it has confined its 
inquiries to the ascertainment and identification of individuals in the 
labor field who were members of the Communist Party and who were 
using their influence through their labor union membership to promote 
the objectives of the Communist Party within the field of labor and 
to the character, extent and objectives of their Communist Party activ- 
ities, instead of in the interest of their organized labor unions. 

In consequence of this type of work in the field of labor and other 
fields, the committee has already called the attention of the United 
States Congress to 48 needs for remedial legislation. Forty-four of 
these 48 needs for remedial legislation have been enacted already into 
law by the United States Congress. 

Every hearing of this committee bears on the duty of the committee 
to consider the subject of remedial legislation in Congress according 
to the requirements of Public Law 601. It is a proven fact and can 
not now be contradicted that members of the Communist Party in 
labor unions in the United States are expected to and do follow the 
dictates of the Communist Party ahead of and in preference to their 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 993 

boimden obligation as members of loyal patriotic organized Ameri- 
can labor unions. 

Notwithstanding the red-baiting to which this committee is sub- 
jected from time to time by its Communist enemies or by some who 
misunderstand its real purpose, the nationwide backing and support 
it has received from labor organizations and civic groups have been 
reassuring. Congress itself supports the committee almost always by 
unanimous vote of House membership of over 400 American Congress- 
men. 

For example, during the hearings in Seattle, Wash., in June 1954, 
43 labor organizations cordially telegraphed the committee during the 
course of the hearings while in Seattle commending the committee for 
its work and offering full and active cooperation in the investigation 
and hearings. 

Numerous Seattle civic groups sent similar messages. Another sig- 
nificant development is the considerable number of former Commu- 
nists who voluntarily come forward all over the Nation to help the 
committee in its work. 

At this point may I say very earnestly and very cordially', that if in 
the Newark area there is a former Communist who has come to place 
his Nation ahead of the Communist Party objectives, ahead of the 
Soviet communism, we invite that person to come forward and inter- 
view our worthy counsel, Mr. Tavenner, and our investigator, Mr. 
Owens, and give us help while we are here in the Newark area. 

We would welcome that here as well as all over the Nation. 

These communications are printed in the appendix to the commit- 
tee's investigation in the Pacific Northwest area, a copy of which is on 
my desk should anyone be interested in examining it. 

During the course of the investigation by our trained and experi- 
enced staff, prior to these Newark hearings, the committee has been 
most fortunate in obtaining cooperation and sworn testimony in execu- 
tive session of an individual who for many years served as undercover 
agent in the Newark area for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

During the course of this person's service with the Department of 
Justice he was able to ascertain the identity of a great many indi- 
viduals who were active in the Communist Party in Newark and the 
Newark area. 

At the time of his executive testimony before the committee in 
Washington recently, the witness who had been an FBI operative and 
agent in Newark for a long time, identified the following Communist 
Party clubs in Newark as having been active in Newark in recent years 
to his personal knowledge. I read the list : 

West Side Club, Iron Bound Club, Third Ward Club, Professional 
Section, Doctors' Club, Teachers' Club, Olgin Club, Youth Club, 
Orange Club, and various other industrial clubs he named in executive 
session. 

This witness alone identified approximately 75 Newark individuals 
who were active in these clubs of the Communist Party during the 
witness' period of service to our Government as an FBI agent. 

The committee has been asked by the executive branch of our Gov- 
ernment to preserve for the time being the identity of this witness. 
We will, therefore, not now reveal his identity. 

In line with this continuing policy of cooperation, between the 
executive branch of our Federal Government, the FBI, the entire 



994 COMJMUlSriST activities in the NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

transcript of this valuable testimony taken by the committee in Wash- 
ington, will not be released at this time. Certain portions of this 
executive testimony, however, will be used during these hearings inso- 
far as they have a bearing on the matter under inquiry in this Newark 
hearing. 

Persons who have been subpenaecl to appear before the committee 
during these hearings are known to us to have knowledge on the mat- 
ters set forth in my opening remarks. It is the sincere desire of the 
committee that these individual men called will give this committee of 
their own United States Congress the benefit of such knowledge. 

In so doing they will have fulfilled a high civic duty to their 
own Federal Government, as well as rendering a valuable service 
to their own local community and State. 

As chairman I would like also to announce at this time as a con- 
tinuing policj^ of the committee that any person whose name is men- 
tioned during the course of these hearings is hereby extended an in- 
vitation to promptly appear and testify under oath regarding the mat- 
ter or matters with which his name was mentioned by any witness 
before this committee. 

This committee at all times endeavors to protect the good name 
of all persons as well as to ferret out the subversive activities of un- 
patriotic citizens. 

■ This committee is in no sense a court and does not undertake to 
follow strict court rules of evidence or court procedure. We do in- 
sist upon proper conduct and decorum in this hearing room and will 
not tolerate violations thereof. We request no showing of either 
approval or disapproval of any testimony. 

Slay I say right here that if any person now in this hearing room, 
or who comes in later has an idea he or she will cause disturbance, I 
will give you notice now you will go out the front door in a hurry 
and you will stay out. I hope that is clear. 

. Under our committee rules all witnesses may have legal counsel 
by their side throughout their appearance, but legal counsel so ap- 
pearing before this committee is restricted to the counseling of the 
witness as to his constitutional rights. It is the information within 
the knowledge of the witness under oath which the committee seeks, 
not the testimony of the attorney for the witness by means of the 
attorney telling him what to say in answer to questions. 

We are always glad to have worthy legal counsel appear in our 
hearing. In that connection may I say I was very happy this morn- 
ing, and so was my distinguished colleague, Mr. Scherer, to see by 
the paper and be informed by our own distinguished counsel, Mr. 
Tavenner, that the New York Bar Association has appointed a com- 
mittee to sit in these hearings and to report back to the bar what they 
see and what they hear, and also that the Newark and New Jersey 
Bar Associations have a committee. 

We are very glad to welcome these committees. Mr. Scherer and 
I are both members of our bar associations in our respective States 
and our respective cities. 

If there is any information we can give in cooperation with these 
bar association committees during these hearings, we will be glad to 
do so. Don't hesitate to interview us or ask us any questions. 
, We welcome the attendance of these bar association committees 
_,throughout these hearings. Furthermore, as all members of this 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 995 

subcommittee are themselves attorneys with many years of active 
practice before "we first went to Congress, we will welcome at all 
times the considered opinion of the bar association committees, and 
we compliment the New York Bar, Newark Bar, and New Jersey 
Bar in having sent them. 

We thank all public officials and agencies who have so ably assisted 
in the necessary preliminary arrangements for these hearings in this 
beautiful courtroom, and at a later time I will make a further com- 
ment of appreciation, specifically naming some of the busy people 
wlio have so actively cooperated. 

I might add here I am also informed that one of the bar associa- 
tion committees is here to act as legal counsel for witnesses. We 
welcome them in that particular the same as the others which I 
mentioned. 

I might say that in Seattle, San Diego, Detroit, Flint, and other 
places over the country the bar association has done this fine thing, 
and we are very glad to have them cooperate. 

This committee, subject to change, will begin at 10 o'clock, promptly, 
and adjourn at 12 : 30; begin again at 2 and adjourn at 5, or approxi- 
mately 5. 

As to photogi'aphy in the room, the Newark Press and the New 
York Press, which are here, have already suggested that they realize 
that the committee rule is that no photography of the witness is to 
be taken while the witness is testifying. We appreciate that sugges- 
tion on the part of the photogTaphers. However, this committee be- 
lieves in freedom of the press and we see no reason why, this being 
a public hearing, the picture of any witness or any other person that 
wants to subject himself to it should not be taken and give the publicity 
that freedom of the press makes possible. 

Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Taa^xxer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. Tavenner is chief counsel of our committee and will 
lead off in the questioning. 

Before you do that, Mr. Tavenner, I want to add to my remarks 
this information : Under rules adopted on March 23 as amendments 
to the rules of the House of Kepresentatives — that is, to the House 
rules themselves, not the committee rules, I emphasize that for the 
benefit of you lawyers largely — on March 23 the rules of the House 
of Representatives were amended among other things to provide as 
follows : 

Each committee may fix the number of its members to constitute a 
quorum for taking testimony and receiving evidence, which shall 
not be less than two. In other words, the House has bound itself to 
never have an investigating committee of less than two members. 
We have done away with one-man investigating committees as far 
as any House investigation is concerned. 

Witnesses at investigative hearings may be accompanied by their 
own counsel for the purpose of advising them concerning their con- 
stitutional rights. 

In that connection, may I illustrate this. On occasions we as mem- 
bers of the committee have been able to hear over the loudspeaker, 
unfortunately, lawyers putting words in the mouths of their wit- 
nesses. We think that is unetliical under the rules of the House, and 



996 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

we expect legal counsel to conduct themselves ethically before this 
committee the same as they would in a courtroom. 

The chairman may punish breaches of order and decorum and pro- 
fessional ethics on the part of counsel by censure and exclusion from 
the hearing and the committee may cite the offender to the House for 
contempt. 

In the discretion of the committee witnesses may submit brief and 
pertinent sworn statements in writing for inclusion in the record. 
The committee is the sole judge of the pertinency of testimony and 
evidence adduced at the hearing. 

Those are some of the new rules that govern this investigation. 

Mr. ScHERER. May I say, Mr. Doyle, our committee, however, has 
had these rules and rules that are much broader and stricter even than 
the House rules that were read a few minutes ago. 

Mr. Doyle. I am glad you said that, because this committee has 
had these similar rules in effect ever since July 15, 1953, so that the 
committee rules were the forerunner of these House rules I have read. 

I have a couple of copies of the new House rules for members of 
the bar if they want them. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call as the first witness Mr. Ernst 
Pollock. Will you come forward, please. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Pollock. 1 do. 

TESTIMONY OF ERNST STUART POLLOCK, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, WILLIAM G. WOOD 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name ? 

Mr. Pollock. Ernst Stuart Pollock. E-r-n-s-t P-o-l-l-o-c-k. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record! 

Mr. Wood. William G. Wood. 

Mr. Ta's^nner. You are a member of what bar? 

Mr. Wood. New York Bar. 

Mr. Tavenneh. Wlien and where were you bom, Mr. Pollock? 

Mr. Pollock. I was born August 15, 1904, in Paisley, Scotland. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are a native of Scotland ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you first come to this country? 

Mr. Pollock. In 1927. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived in the United States constantly 
since 1927? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Are you a naturalized American citizen ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. TA^^i:NNER. "When were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Pollock. In 1935. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly what 
your formal education training has been ? 

Mr. Pollock. You mean my school days ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 997 

Mr. Pollock. I went to scliool when I was 5 years old, I believe^ 
and I left when I was 14, attended night school for some years after 
that, learned a trade, and attended night school, taking up mechanical 
drawing and things of that sort. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. "^^Hiat has been your employment since 1935? 

Mr. Pollock. I have been employed in a machine shop, up until 
around 1940 or 1941 when I became an organizer for the International 
Electrical Workers Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you become organizer for the United 
Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America ? 

Mr. Pollock. 1941 or 1940, I am not positive. I became an inter- 
national field organizer at that time. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Just prior to your becoming employed as an organ- 
izer for the union, what was the nature of your employment ? 

Mr. Pollock. I worked in Continental Electric Co. as a die repair- 
man, working between punch presses and the machine shop — tool 
room work. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you active in organizational work prior to 
your becoming employed by the UE ? 

Mr. Pollock. In the plant I worked in, there was an attempt to 
organize the plant and I assisted in trying to help the people, help 
sign up the people into the union. 

Mr. Tam^nner. Was that the occasion when the UE organized the 
plant in which you were working ? 

Mr. Pollock. No; not originally. Sometime around 1935 an at- 
tempt was made to organize the plant by a union which was not the 
UE. I don't know the name of that particular union. But the 
union drive failed at that time. We were unable to organize the 
plant. In 1937 the plant was organized by the UE. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you were a member of the UE in that plant 
from 1937 until 1941 when you became employed as an international 
organizer ? 

Mr. Pollock. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of the UE? 

Mr. Pollock. Up until 1951 or 1952. I am not positive on that 
date. 

Mr. Tamcnnek. Are you a member of any union now ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. IVliat union is it? 

Mr. Pollock. IUE. That is the union that became the union from 
the UE. They broke away the union from the UE. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that union from your shop ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. I work in a shop at the present time, and I 
am a member of the IUE. The union has a contract with the com- 
pany, and union membership is mandatory in order to hold your job. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold any positions in the UE other than 
that of international organizer? 

Mr. P01J.0CK. Yes. Three months after I was appointed inter- 
national organizer I became business agent of local 437 of the UE, 
or business lepresentative was the correct title. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold any other positions in the UE? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes; a immber of positions. I was at one time 
financial secretary-treasurer of district 4. 



998 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenker. Will you tell the committee, please, what area dis- 
trict 4 of the UE embraces ? 

Mr. Pollock. New York, New Jersey area as far south as Trenton- 
Mr. Ta-senner. Was that an elective position or an appointive 
position ? 

Mr. PoLi,ocK. The financial secretary, you mean ? 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Yes. 

Mr. Pollock. It M^as an elective position, elected by the district, 
the delegates to the district council. 

Mr. Tavenner. Not elected by the rank and file membership ? 

Mr. Pollock. No. 

Mr. Ta^tenner. Wliat was the manner of your appointment or elec- 
tion to the position of business agent of local 437 ? 

Mr. Pollock. I was elected by the membership in local 437, which 
consisted of a number of plants in the Newark area. 

Mr, Tavenner. You spoke of Imving been international organizer 
for the UE from 1940 or 1941. Was that an appointive position ? 

Mr. Pollock. That was an appointed position. I only held that 
position about 3 months. As a matter of fact, that was part of the 
agreement to be appointed and then amalgamate a number of small 
1-shop, 2-shop locals into an amalgamated local and then to be elected 
business agent of that particular local. 

Prior to that I was president of my own local in Continental Elec- 
tric Co., although I still worked in the shop. 

Mr. Tavenner. As president of your own local did you receive a 
salary ? 

Mr. Pollock. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. You still worked full time in the shop ? 

Mr. Pollock. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Pollock, were you a member of the Communist 
Party at any time during the period that you held these various offices 
in the United Electrical Radio and Machine Workers of America ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which you became a member and what relationship 
there was between your membership in the Communist Party and 
any of the positions in the UE which you held ? 

I suggest you begin at the beginning and just tell the committee all 
that you know about it. 

Mr. Pollock. Well, when I was approached to come out of the shop 
it was on the imclerstanding that I would be an international organizer 
and then in 3 months* as I stated before, the shops were to amalgamate, 
and I was to be elected business agent of that amalgamated local. 

After I decided to come out of the shop, I was advised that I had 
to make application to the international union to become an interna- 
tional field organizer. I was also advised that it would be to my 
advantage to belong to the party. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliat party? 

Mr. Pollock. The Communist Party. 
' Mr. Scherer. '\Y1io advised you? 

Mr. Pollock. Neil Brandt, the international organizer. 

Mr. Scherer. He was international organizer at that time for what 
union? 

Mr. Pollock. UE. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 999 

Mr. ScHERER. What year was that ? 

Mr. Pollock. 1940 or 1941, 1 am not positive on the date. 

Mr. Tavenner. B-r-a-n-d-t ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Ta^t^nner. And the first name is Neil ? 

Mr. Pollock. N-e-i-1, I believe is the way you spell it. 

Mr. Scherer. "\^^iere is he today ? 

Mr. Pollock. I don't know, I haven't see him in years, I don't 
know how many years. 

Mr. Scherer. You have no knowledge of his present whereabouts 
or his present connection ? 

Mr. Pollock. Absolutely none. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us go back just a little. 

At the time you were approached to come out of the shop and ac- 
cept a position in the UE, you were well employed, were you not, in 
in the shop ? 

Mr. Pollock. I had been approximately 10 years in that plant and 
had a fairly good job. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time that you gave up your job in the plant, 
was there any means by which you could get your employment back 
in the event you got out of the position of international organizer of 
the IT E, as far as you knew ? 

Mr. Pollock. No. We requested the company to let me have a 
leave of absence. We didn't have a signed contract with the com- 
pany and the company refused to give me a leave of absence. 

Brandt advised me that if I quit my job they would then, when they 
did sign a contract some months later, they would make that one of the 
provisions in the contract. As a matter of fact, it was provision in 
the contract that Ernst Pollock be given a leave of absence retroac- 
tive to the date that I had quit my job and the company in bargaining 
still refused to give it and we eventually, I was advised to give it up 
in preference to a couple of cents more increase. 

^Ir. Tavenner. That is, a couple cents more increase as an employee 
oftheUE? 

Mr. Pollock. A couple more cents increase to the workers at that 
time. They in bargaining for the contract, those were the only two 
issues that remained to be settled, the question of my leave of absence 
and wages. So they bargained away my leave of absence for a couple 
of cents more. 

Mr. Scherer. When Brandt made this suggestion to you that it 
might be advisable to join the Communist Party, had your application 
for position as international organizer been acted upon at that time, or 
was that simultaneous with filing the application? 

Mr. Pollock. I would say it was simultaneous. I was already out 
of the shop but I had not been officially appointed international field 
organizer. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you understand that perhaps the granting of 
your application and your employment as an international organizer 
depended upon your joining the Communist Party? Was that 
impression left with you ? 

Mr. Pollock. I felt tliat the implication was that I had to belong or 
t couldn't have a job. I would be out of a job. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you join the party then? 

Mr. Pollock. No : I said I wotild thiiik it over. 



1000 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHEKER. Did you get your job as international organizer be- 
fore you joined the party ? 

Mr. Pollock. I was working for the international, actually working 
for the international so I was on the job. I don't know if I make 
myself clear. 

Mr. ScHERER. You got the job before you joined? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you indicate you were going to join? 

Mr. Pollock. I said I would think it over. I didn't give any defi- 
nite answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. When, with relation to the time that you started to 
work for the international, did you join the party? 

Mr. Pollock. A few weeks later. 

Mr. ScHERER. Only a few weeks elapsed ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did Neil Brandt assist you in getting into the party 
or suggest where application could be made ? 

Mr. Pollock. No. 

Mr. ScHERER. How did you get into the party ? 

Mr. Pollock. I was coming to that. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I interrupt and ask a question before he gets 
to that? 

At the time that you were asked to give up your job in the shop 
and take the position of international representative, had anything 
been said to you about joining the Communist Party? That is at the 
time you were asked to give up your job. 

Mr. Pollock. No, not at that particular time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Plad you ever had any connection with the Com- 
munist Party prior to that time ? 

Mr. Pollock. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you know anything about the Communist Party 
in the area of Newark at the time you were asked to give up your 
job in the shop and become an international representative? 

Mr. Pollock. No. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask one question there? I am not clear as to 
the position Mr. Neil Brandt held at the time with the International 
UE. What was his official position at the time he told you it would 
be to your advantage to join the party ? 

Mr. Pollock. To the best of my knowledge, he was the international 
representative in this area. 

Mr. Doyle. ^Vliat do you mean by, "this area" ? 

Mr. Pollock. In the Newark area. His work was coordinating 
the work of the organizers in the union in this area. 

Mr. Doyle. Did the area include more than the State of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Pollock. At that particular time I don't know what the area 
included, because the district was formed later than that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Pollock, to be certain that we understand just 
what the situation is, up to the point where you took the position, noth- 
ing was said to you about being a member of the Communist Party 
until after you gave up your job? 

Mr. Pollock. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long was it after you gave up your job that 
Neil Brandt advised you that you had to file a formal application with 
the national headquarters of the UE f 



COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1001 

Mr. Pollock, It was only a matter of days, a few days. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did Brandt tell you, again, with respect to 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Pollock. He told me that now that I was out of the shop I 
could kiss the machine shop goodbye, that was his set words. However, 
it would be to my advantage to belong to the party, the Communist 
Party. I told him that I had never thought about it and I would 
think it over. If you want me to go on from there 

Mr. Tavenner. Just go ahead from there. 

Mr. Pollock. About 2 or 3 weeks later, I received a phone call from 
a man by the name of Steve Eubicki or Rubik.^ I don't know how to 
pronounce his name. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. I want to get the spelling of the name. 

Mr. Pollock. I couldn't swear to the spelling. I don't know the 
exact one. Sometimes we call him Steve Rubico, sometimes Rubik. I 
don't know the correct way to spell his name. I received a phone call 
from him and I think, to tell you how 1 knew him, he was active in 
the otlier union that I had spoken about and was the organizer trying 
to organize the shop that I worked in back in 1935 when that par- 
ticular union was unable to organize the plant. 

He knew of me and I knew of him. He called me and asked me 
to come down to his office, that it was very important, he had some- 
thing very important to tell me. He wouldn't give me any information 
over the phone. 

I was a little bit alarmed about it and I took my wife with me. I 
asked my wife to go with me. We went to his office and he told me 
that now that I was in the UE, an organizer — incidentally, he speaks 
broken English worse than I do — I just didn't understand exactly 
what he was saying but he is a very aggressive type of fellow, big 
fellow, and he said I had to be a member of the party now that I was an 
organizer for the UE. 

He grabbed me around the neck and he ran me up Springfield Ave- 
nue to a tavern there on West Street, and we went through the back of 
the tavern and upstairs into a little room there, and he presented me 
with an application card and told me that it would be to my advantage 
to belong to the party, I had to be in the party, I had become a big 
organizer, and so on and so forth. So I signed the card at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat year was that? 

Mr. Pollock. That was 1940 or 1941, just shortly after I got into 
the UE. 

Mr. ScHERER. What was Steve Ruble's position at that time ? What 
was he doing? 

Mr. Pollock. He was an organizer for the UE. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know where he is today? 

Mr. Pou^ocK. No; I haven't seen him in maybe 10 years, I don't 
know, many years since I saw him. 

» Correct spelling of this name Is Rubicz. 
65388 — 55— pt. 1 2 



1002 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Had your application been acted on and your formal 
appointment as an international representative received before you 
joined the Connnunist Party? 

Mr. Pollock. I never learned whether my application was acted on 
or not. I do know that 3 months later I received a letter from the 
international director of organization telling me that I was now dis- 
charged and wished me a lot of luck with my new local, and by that 
time I had been elected business representative of the newly formed 
amalgamated local. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know who was the president of district 4 of 
the UE at the time of the incident you described ? 

Mr. Pollock. I would like to consult counsel. 
(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pollock. I don't know if they had a president at that particular 
time because district -i was organized later on, later than this, I 
don't know if they had a president at that time. 

Mr, Tavenner. After you became a member of the Communist 
Party were you assigned to any group or club of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. A few weeks later, probably days, I don't recall, 
I was advised by Brandt again that there was a meeting. He said to 
me one day, I went into the district office and he said to me, ''Con- 
gratulations, I hear you are in." I understood what he meant. Then 
he told me that there was a meeting and the particular night that I 
had to attend, and I made arrangements to meet him at the district 
office on that particular night. 

Wlien I went to the district office he wasn't there but there was 
another organizer there who told me that Brandt has been detained 
some place and he was going to take me to the meeting. So I went 
to the meeting with him and Brandt was there at the meeting, 

Mr. Ta\t;nner. "VVlio was the other organizer? 

Mr. Pollock. A fellow by the name of Jules Nice. Don't ask me 
to spell his name, either. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the last name? 

Mr. Pollock. I think it is Nice or Nydes. 
. Mr. Ta\t:nner. We understand if you have never seen the name in 
writing that your spelling would be purely phonetic, but what would 
be the phonetic spelling of the name? 

Mr. Pollock. I would say it was Nydes or something of that sort, 
N-y-d-e-s. I am not positive. 

Mr. Tavenner. You went to the meeting? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere was the meeting held ? 

Mr. Pollock. In Newark on Broad Street. It was above the 
Howard Jewelry Store, I believe, opposite the city hall there. I 
don't know the number. It was upstairs behind or above the Howard 
Jewelry Store. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was not a private home? , : ; 

Mr. Pollock. No ; it was some kind of office space. It wa>s an office. 

Mr. Ta%tenner. Do you know whose office it was ? . 

Mr. Pollock. Well,' it was the Communist Party office, I am pretty 
sure of that from the literature that was laying around and the plac- 
ards around the walls and the like. 

Mr. Tavenner. "V^Hiat do you mean by placards on the wall? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1003 

Mr. Pollock. There were posters on the wall and around inside 
of the office. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there documents around? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavexner. At least it was a room being used by the Communist 
Party as a meeting place ? 

Mr. Pollock. I am sure it was a meeting place of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us what occurred at the meeting? 

Mr. Pollock. Brandt was there and Nydes, and there was a woman 
who was introduced to me as an organizer of the Communist Party. 
Her name was Lena Davis. She congTatulated me again and told 
me that I would be assigned to an electrical branch of the party. She 
explained to me that there were a number of branches, depending on 
what field you were in, and I was in the electrical field and therefore 
I would be assigned to an electrical branch of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Ta\'xnner. Were you actually assigned to and met with the 
electrical branch of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. I met frequently with various members, the 
members, as I understand it, of the electrical branch. I discovered 
that most of them, in fact I think all of them that I came in contact 
witli were also members of my local union of the electric 437. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you known they were members of the Com- 
munist Party before you attended meetings with them ? 

Mr. Pollock. No. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Were you assigned to any other branch of the Com- 
munist Party during the period you were in the party ? 

Mr. Pollock. No. That was the only branch or club, as I under- 
stand it. Later on they disbanded something and it became some- 
thing else, I don't know what, a political club or association or some- 
thing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Communist Political Association? 

Mr. Pollock. I believe that was the title. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was just prior to the ouster of Browder, 
wasn't it ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then after the receipt of the Duclos letter the Com- 
munist Party cells were reorganized again? 

jVIr. Pollock. I don't know the reason for it. I am not sure I know 
who Duclos was. Who was Duclos? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pollock. I don't know. 

Mr. Taat:nner. At any rate, you continued after 1945 with this same 
group of the Communist Party. 

IVfr. Pollock. Yes. 

]Mr. Tavenner. Was this still known as the Electrical Club of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Pollock. It may have been electrical branch or club, I am not 
sure. I know we didn't take any formal vote or anything to change 
the name or anything. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 



1004 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Pou.ocK. I was in from 1940 up until — then there was that 
little period where we kind of dropped away, and then we started' 
over again, and up around 1948 or 1949 I dropped out completely. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any connections with the Communist 
Party since the date you dropped out in 1948 or 1949 ? 

Mr. PorxocK. Absolutely none. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

IVIr. Tavenner. I am going to ask you more later. 

Mr. Pollock. My counsel just advises me that in 1950 I officially,, 
by letter, resigned from the party. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. I am going to ask you in detail about the circum- 
stances of your leaving the party, and why, a little later on, but I 
wanted to make it plain now to the committee that you were in the 
Communist Party for a period of time and then withdrew from the 
Communist Party. 

Will you go back to your early meetings of the Electrical Club of 
the Communist Party and tell the committee all you can recall about 
the nature of those meetings ? 

Mr. Pollock. The meetings were a group of people that were mem- 
bers of the local union who met prior to the meeting of the local 
executive board ; most of them were also members of the local execu- 
tive board ; and there we discussed the agenda to be taken up at the 
executive board meeting. I don't know if I have made myself clear. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am sure you have. If I understand you correctly,, 
you are saying that the members of this club of the Communist Party 
met and decided what the agenda should be on the executive com- 
mittee of your local union. 

Mr. Pollock. That is correct. Someone came to the meeting witk 
a letter which we called the "org" letter. I believe it was an abbrevia- 
tion for organizational letter, and there we discussed this letter, and 
from that we decided on the agenda for the executive board meeting. 

Mr. DoTLE. May I ask there, do I understand you to be testifying 
that a group of Communists in your union, some of whom were 
officers in your electrical union, were holding a premeeting or sort 
of caucus to determine what the union should do? 

Mr. Pollock. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. How many Commies were in that group that decided 
what their union should do as Commies instead of as union members? 

Mr. Pollock. It varied from time to time. 

Mr. Doyle. About how many ? 

Mr. Pollock. I would say approximately 7 or 8. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer, this is a case where a bunch of Commies in 
organized labor were putting the Commie subversive program ahead 
of the union's welfare and were dictating to the union. 

Mr. SciTERER. Haven't we found that to be true in all areas of the 
country where Communists infiltrated and dominated and controlled 
the unions ? 

Mr. Doyle. I should think that any patriotic American citizen in 
organized labor would rise up and not only resent that sort of dicta- 
tion by a foreign conspiracy, but would do something about it. Some 
of them are smiling when I say that. I mean it, sir. 

Mr, SciiERER. Didn't Robert Klein testify in Kansas City, if I recall 
correctly, that he was sent by the Communist Party to infiltrate the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1005 

union at the General Electric plant at Schenectady. "Wlien asked why 
the Communist Party wanted to control that union, didn't he respond 
that in time of war production could be accelerated if we were an 
ally of Kussia, and if Kussia were an enemy then sabotage could be 
more easily accomplished ? Do you remember his testimony ? 

Mr. Doyle. But, Mr. Scherer, here is another case where American 
labor organizations, where members of organized labor in our country, 
sworn to work for the best interests of organized labor, are here again 
putting the interests of the subversive Communist Party ahead of the 
interests of the American workingman. 

Mr. Scherer. That is what was done at Schenectady, according to 
the testimony of Mr. Klein, who was a high functionary of the party 
and became the active and predominating force in that local for many 
years. 

Mr. TA^rENNER. The rank-and-file membership of your union knew 
nothing about the activity of this group of Communists who were 
deciding ahead of time what action should be taken by its council, 
did it? 

Mr. Pollock. The executive board acted between meetings and this 
group met prior to the executive board meeting, and as I stated they 
discussed this org. letter that had come from the Communist Party 
prior to the executive board meeting, and then whatever decisions 
were made were made by the executive board, finally, the executive 
board of the local which had in it this nucleus of Communist Party 
members. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, the executive board was dominated by 
the Communist Party caucus, whatever they decided ? 

Mr. Pollock. More or less, depending on the attendance at the 
executive board meeting. 

Mr. Doyle. Depending on the niunber of Commies present at the 
executive board meeting ? 

Mr. Pollock. Usually there were enough to outvote anybody, any 
of the executive board members who were there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, who brought 
this organization letter, as you call it, to the Communist Party 
meetings ? 

Mr. Pollock. The person, you mean ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, if you know. 

Mr. Pollock. A fellow by the name of John Perone. P-e-r-o-n-e. 
I believe that is the correct spelling. 

Mr. TA^T.NNER. Was he a member of the UE ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold any official position in the UE ? 

Mr. Pollock. In the local union he held the position of financial 
secretary and was also a member of the executive board. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many of the persons who were members of 
this cell of the Communist Party were on the executive board of the 
local union? 

Mr. Pollock. Offhand I would say all of them were. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many members were there on the executive 
board? 

Mr, Pollock. I would like to speak to my counsel, if I may. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



1006 COMRIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I am speaking of how many persons constituted 
the executive board. 

Mr. Pollock. That would be very difficult for me to say, but roughly 
I would say that there was supposed to be around 50 or 60. Supposed 
to be on the executive board, because according to the constitution 
every shop within the local was entitled to certain representation on 
the executive board. If you are asking me how many attended meet- 
ings, that is a different story. 

Mr, Tavenner. That is my next question. How many of the mem- 
bers of the executive board normally attended the meetings? 

Mr. Pollock. That varied from 7 to 15. Seven was a quorum. 

Mr. Tavenner. When 7 of them attended, were all 7 members of 
your Communist Party cell, usually ? 

Mr. Pollock. Sometimes, yes; sometimes no. They were not all 
there. Very often there were 14 there and 3 who were not, and vice 
versa. I can't say that there was always just the same seven. 

Mr. Taa^nner. The committee would be interested to know how 
just 7 members of this Communist Party group could control or influ- 
ence the action of the executive board composed of maybe 40 or 50 
people. 

Mr. Pollock. Well, those people didn't show any interest in the 
union and didn't come to the executive board meetings. 

Mr. TA^^5NXER. Did the Communist Party members go to those 
meetings ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes, they regularly attended meetings, especially 
if there was an issue coming up or something of that sort. They 
made it a point to be at the meeting. 

Mr. Doyle. Maybe, Mr. Pollock, this is another case where the loyal 
patriotic members of your union realized, or recognized, although they 
may not have known what really existecl, something was going on to 
control their executive board meetings, but had reached the point 
where they thought, What is the use? We can't do anything anyway. 

Mr. Pollock. That could be. 

Mr. DoTLE. That is the histor}^ of the Communist Party domination 
of some labor unions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your group of the Communist Party succeed 
at any tune in having your local union — that is, the executive board 
of your local union — make donations of any character to the Commu- 
nist Party or to any of the projects in which the Communist Party 
was interested ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. There were various requests for contributions 
to one thing or another. I don't recall exactly the specific cause that 
it was supposed to be for, but the question would be raised at the Com- 
munist Party meeting and then brought to the executive board meet- 
ing, and the contribution was made, or we would have a speaker at the 
meeting on that particular issue. 

Mr. Tamsnner. You mean you would have a speaker at your execu- 
tive board meeting on the project that the Communist Party was inter- 
ested in ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who would select the speaker for the occasion ? 

Mr. Pollock. I don't know where the speaker came from originally. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1007 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there members of your executive board who 
opposed the donations which were being sponsored by the Communist 
Party members ? 

Mr. Pollock. On occasion there was some opposition. 

Mr. Taa-enner. How did you overcome the opposition ? 

Mr. Pollock. Well, in some cases if we thought there was going 
to be a gi-eat deal of o]3position we would get together in a hurry just 
prior to the meeting and decide not to raise the question, and we would 
raise it at some other time when they were not present. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. That was a rather successful way of getting what 
the Communist Party wanted, isn't that right ? 

Mr. Pollock. There were occasions when we knew some people 
would oppose certain things and we just didn't raise it at that particu- 
lar time. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Can jou recall any of the specific donations or con- 
tributions that were made by the executive board as a result of Com- 
munist Party action ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pollock. Are you talking specifically of contributions to pub- 
lications or something of that sort ? 

Mr. Ta\tx'xer. That is one thing I had in mind. 

jMr. Pollock. I recall one particular case where the question of 
the Daily Worker or the Sunday Worker, which is the Communist 
Party publication, being discussed in Communist Party groups, the 
electrical group, and there it was suggested that the executive board 
members should be asked to take contributions for the Daily Worker or 
the Sunday Worker, and after some discussion we came to the con- 
clusion that it would be impossible to get workers to contribute $3 
or $6 or whatever it was for a half year or yearly subscription. 

Mr. Tavexxer. That is to pay it individually ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes, out of their own pocket. They decided the 
question should be raised on the basis of the goods of the paper to the 
trade unionists and so on, and then the executive board should con- 
tribute a subscription for the regular board members and that is what 
•happened. At the executive board meeting the question was raised, 
and if I recall correctly, we had a speaker from the Daily Worker 
speaking at the executive board meeting. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Executive board meeting of the union? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavex'xer. Do you recall his name ? 

Mr. Pollock. No, I don't . 

Mr. Doyle. TATiat is the Daih^ Worker paper, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavexxer. It is the official organ of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. Was it then ? 

Mr. Taat.xxer. It was then, yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I have heard of it before, but I merely wanted to have 
the record show what he is talking about. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Poijl«ck. There were two other publications that I can recall 
where the same thing happened. There was a little two-page leaflet 
thing that used to come out "In Fact" was the name of it. Then there 
was the "March of Labor". 



1008 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. March of Labor, Mr. Chairman, was the same 
paper Trhich this committee made a report to Congress on last year 
as a Communist-controlled publication. 

]Mr. Pollock. To my knowledge, they were not publications of the 
union like the official publication of the UE News or something of 
that sort. They were not official publications of the union. 

Mr. Taatsnner. As a result of this plan which the Communist Party 
had, did the executive board pay for the publications which you have 
mentioned namely, the Daily Worker, In Fact, and March of Labor? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes, we sent the names of the people in and the sub- 
scription was mailed to them, and the local union paid for the sub- 
scription. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then the dues and money of the rank-and-file mem- 
bers were being used to purchase the Communist Party official pub- 
lications ? 

Mr. Pollock. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. You stated the Communist Party representative came 
and spoke about getting subscriptions to the Daily Worker. How 
about the March of Labor paper? 

;Mr. Pollock. Somebody came from that paper, too. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Pollack. I don't know exactly who it was that came to the 
executive board meeting to speak. 

Mr. Doyle. Did a man named Walter Barry ever come to speak for 
those papers ? 

Mr. Pollock. Walter Barry was an international representative of 
the union. He never came to speak. I don't want to say something 
that I am just thinking myself. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. We want to compliment you because all 
we want is your own personal knowledge, not hearsay, not specula- 
tion. 

Mr. Pollock. The man who came to speak for March of Labor 
spoke at the district council meeting prior to that on the March of 
Labor. At the district council was the council delegate and he spoke 
on the March of Labor at the district council meeting. He was editor 
or he had some connection with the March oJ 
union member or in the UE as far as I know. 

Mr. Doyle. You mean the district council of all of district 4? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. There were a good many members present at that meet- 
ing, were there not ? 

Mr. Pollock. It may have been district executive board, maybe 
council meeting. I am not sure. 

Mr. ScHERER. Who did you say Walter Barry was? 

Mr. Pollock. He was an international representative of the UE. 

Mr. ScHERER. He later became the editor of March of Labor, didn't 
he? 

Mr. Pollock. I don't know. I have heard that but I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether the individual who came 
there as a representative of March of Labor was John Steuben? 

Mr. Pollock. That was his name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Our report on the March of Labor shows he was 
the editor of that magazine. 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1009 

Mr. Pollock. That is the name. 

Mr. Doyle. Did the district delegates to the district council vote 
approval of union money being paid for subscriptions to this paper ? 

Mr. Pollock. I believe they referred it to the locals, and a letter 
went out from the district approving the paper which was an added 
boost for us to be able to put it through at the local level. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, they approved it if the locals wanted 
to pay it out of their treasury ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER, Most UE locals at that time were Communist con- 
trolled, weren't they ? 

Mr. Pollock. That I wouldn't know definitely. I have my own 
thoughts, but I can't swear to it, I understand I am under oath. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right, and generally I want to compliment you 
on telling us only what you know of your own knowledge, not hearsay 
and not question. 

Mr. Scherer. My question wasn't speculative, either. It was based 
on evidence before this committee. 

Mr. Doyle. I do not mean 3- our question was. 

Mr. Scherer. I just wanted to clear that for the record. It was 
based on testimony I have heard over and over again. 

Mr. Tavenner. About how many subscriptions did these trans- 
actions involve ? 

Mr. Pollock. I would say roughly 35. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is, subscriptions from your local. 

Mr. Pollock. That is correct. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Did you obtain information as to whether or not 
this same procedure was followed in other locals ? 

Mr. Pollock. No; I never got any information on that. I don't 
know if they did the same thing or didn't. I don't know. 

Mr. Scherer, I think we ought to clear a point here. This is not a 
court, this is a congressional investigation, and except insofar as the 
identification of individuals is concerned as to membership in the Com- 
munist Party, there is nothing in our rules that would prevent a wit- 
ness who has had as much experience as this one from giving this 
committee an opinion even though it is based on hearsay, I understand 
that to be the rule, 

Mr. Tavenner, I think that is the rule in investigative matters. We 
have been very reluctant to do it. 

_ Mr. Scherer. We must abide by the rule when it comes to the iden- 
tification of individuals. That must be direct and positive testimony. 
We have followed that rule scrupulously, but I don't understand it 
to be the rule in such investigations as this that is necessary for an 
individual to know of his own knowledge everything that he testifies 
to. He can give an opinion, 

Mr. Doyle. Wouldn't you say, though, that in this case this witness 
has already given sufficient testimony and information to show that 
he 

Mr, Scherer, He is an expert in some lines, 

Mr, Doyle, Might well be termed an expert in his field ? 

If I remember anything about my 30 years of law practice, an expert 
is qualified and permitted to give opinions, 

Mr, Scherer, I just wanted to make that clear. 

Mr. Doyle. Is that true ? You are an able lawyer. 



1010 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK,' N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. That is an assumption. I just wanted to clear this up. 

Mr. Doyle. We are asking this discourse for your benefit. 

Mr. Scherer. In view of a letter I have in front of me on the desk 
from two organizations in this city, you will see the purpose of my 
statement later on. 

Mr. Doyle. May I make it clear to the witness and to his worthy 
■counsel that I think this committee figures that while we are not 
bound by strict rules of evidence, we do feel at this time that this wit- 
ness has qualified himself as a man of unusual experience. If he has 
an opinion based upon facts which he knows to exist or believes exist, 
we would be glad to hear them if it comes within the mete of counsel 
:and witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with any other donations having 
been made by the executive board for the Communist Party directly 
or indirectly ? 

Mr. Pollock. I can't tell specifically the type of contribution or to 
what organization or for what purpose it was given, but I do know 
there were numerous contributions that were made to organizations 
and the like that to my knowledge were not directly in the union. 

I am talking specifically of strike situations, for instance, where it 
would be a normal thing for the union to make a contribution toward 
a strike, but there were other contributions that were made to various 
causes outside of the union itself. 

Mr. Doyle. Did they give to the American Red Cross, that you re- 
call? Or the Community Chest? Is that the type of organization 
they donated to ? 

Mr. Pollock. Not to my knowledge, directly from the treasury. 
Those contributions usually came from the rank-and-file. 

Mr. Doyle. I would expect patriotic labor to give to those organi- 
zations certainly. I have heard some unions voted funds for the 
American Red Cross and Community Chest right out of their union 
treasury. 

Mr. Pollock. It is permissible. It was permissible, but in this 
particular local union any question of that sort was usually referred 
to the members. I can recall collecting myself for the palsy fund. 
I see a man in this room who is the reporter who commended me on the 
wonderful job I had done in collecting money for the Cerebral Palsy 
Fund. 

Mr. Tavenner. The type of contributions I was speaking of was 
the defense of Gerhart Eisler and contributions of that character. 
Do you recall any contributions, for instance, having been made for 
the defense of Gerhart Eisler? 

Mr. Pollock. No, not in that particular light. I think that would 
have been a little bit too blunt. It would have too many repercussions, 
a thing like that. It may have been done indirectly but that is only 
an opinion. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say you were financial treasurer or financial 
secretary of the district ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Pardon me. Do you recall any instances when funds 
were collected for one purpose and then used for another ? 

Mr. Pollock. I don't know what they were used for. 

Mr. Scherer. You mean that was decided at a higher level? , 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1011 

Mr. Pollock, Yes ; I imagine so. I don't know what the funds were 
nsed for. I know that if there was a request for funds and a contri- 
bution was made then, we assumed it was being used for that purpose, 
but we had no knowledge of what it was being used for. An example 

I can give you is 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pollock (continuing). The request that was made for funds 
for the Civil Eights Congress and the local miion affiliated by decision 
of the executive board, and we paid on a monthly basis. I think it 
was a half-cent per capita for a period of time. That money was 
turned over to the Civil Eights Congress but what it was used for 
I don't know. 

Mr. ScHERER. We know pretty well what the Civil Eights Congress 
used its funds for. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there any other contributions that you can 
recall at this time ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I might say for the record the Civil Eights Congress 
has been — What is the identification? 

Mr. Tavenner. It has been cited for a long period of years as a 
Communist-front organization. 

Mr. Doyle. I have it here, on page 35 in the Guide to Subversive 
.Organizations and Publications published May 14, 1951, prepared 
and released by this committee, Civil Eights Congress, page 34 and 35, 
is cited as subversive and Communist. Attorney General Tom Clark, 
letters to Loyalty Eeview Board, released December 4, 1947, and 
September 21, 1948. Cited as an organization formed in April 194(5 
as merger of two other Communist-front organizations (International 
Labor Defense and National Federation for Constitutional Liberties) ; 
"dedicated not to the broader issues of the civil liberties, but specifi- 
cally to the defense of individual Communists and the Communist 
Party" and "controlled by individuals who are either members of the 
Communist Party or openly loyal to it." 

Cited by the House Un-American Activities Committee, Eeport 
No. 1115, September 2, 1947, pages 2 and 19. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Can you recall any other contributions that were 
■made to causes in which the Communist Party was contributing a 
particular interest ? 

Mr. Pollock. Not specifically. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you have told us that you were financial 
secretary of district 4 ? 

Mr. Pollock. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. As financial secretary wasn't it your duty to sign 
the checks required to be paid out by the districts 

Mr. Pollock. Yes ; I signed the checks. 

Mr. Ta\"enner. Do you recall any checks paid out by the district 
.organization of the UE to the Daily Worker or to any other front 
organization such as Civil Eights Congress ? 

Mr. Pollock. I recall I didn't even see what the checks were made 
out to. 
, Mr. Scherer. You didn't see who the checks were made out to? 

Mr. Pollock. They weren't made out. They were blanks. 

Mr. Doyle. Would you sign them in blank ? 

Mr. Pollock. I signed them in blank. 



1012 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee about that, please? 

Mr. ScHERER. Pardon me. Who ordered you to do that? 

Mr. Pollock. I got a phone call from the secretary or, rather, not 
the secretary of the district, but the secretary of the president of 
the district who would tell me there was a number of checks to be 
made out and would I come down and sign the checks. I think in 
order to understand this you would have to know that I was the 
busines representative of a local union servicing a number of shops 
in this area and didn't have time to hang around the district.^ I 
didn't work out of the district office. I worked out of a local union 
office, and I would get the call to come down and sign checks and 
when I went down there — I know and I understand that for a normal 
person to sign blank checks is a stupid thing to do, but I did it. I 
signed blank checks. 

Sometimes 40 and 50 at once, at one time. I don't know who those 
checks were made out to. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was it ever reported to you later as to whom these 
checks were issued? 

Mr. Pollock. Not the individual checks. There was an audit 
made of the books and a financial statement drawn up, but as far as 
individual checks, I don't know who they were made out to. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the secretary who had you sign these 
checks in blank ? 

Mr. Pollock. Kitty Heck, and later all I knew her name was 
Goodie. I don't know her name. As a matter of fact, later she 
came to the hospital, I was in the hospital and had my appendix 
taken out, and she came to the hospital and was permitted to come 
in outside of regular visiting hours to have me sign the checks. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you ever attend Communist Party meetings with 
these individuals you mentioned ? 

Mr. Pollock. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where Kitty Heck is now? 

Mr. Pollock. No ; I haven't seen here in years, since she got out of 
the district and that must be a number of years ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the committee has had a subpena 
out for her but lias been unable to have it served. The subpena was 
issued on April 20, 1955. 

Mr. Doyle. That is not an unusual experience where you catch 
up with some person believed to be a Communist leader, and they 
know about it and hide out. I do not know what they are afraid of, 
ashamed of, but they hide out and speak out, 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of the person to whom she 
was secretary ? 

Mr. Pollock. James McLeish, who was president of the district 
at that time. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you a Communist Party member at the time 
you were signing these checks in blank ? 

Mr. Pollock. I believe so. I was still in the party at that particu- 
lar time because later I was removed as district financial secretary, 
and I say removed because there was an agreement made that I step 
down, or I was told to step down. 

Mr. ScHERER. Why was that? 

Mr. Pollock. The leason I was given was that they wanted to havei 
a woman at the top, as top officer of the district. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1013 

Mr. ScHERER. Was that the real reason ? 

Mr. Pollock. I don't know what the real reason was. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You were elected to the position of financial secre- 
tary, were you not ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who persuaded you to step down from the position? 

Mr, Pollock. McLeish, the president of the district, told me that 
I shouldn't run for financial secretary because it was advisable to have 
a woman as one of the top officers of the district. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had he given you any assistance while you were 
holding that position ? Did he furnish you any one to assist you ? 

Mr. Pollock. In my own local work, you mean ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, as financial secretary. 

Mr. Pollock. Not that I know of ; no. I don't think it required any 
assistance to sign a check. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that all you did ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. I attended district executive board meetings 
and district council meetings, district council meetings as a delegate 
from my local union. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you know whether the audit of your books was done 
by a certified public accountant? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course you were in touch with the audit of your own 
books, weren't you ? 

Mr. Pollock. No. 

Mr. Doyle. You were not in touch with your own records ? 

Mr. Pollock. No. I didn't arrange for the auditor or see the audi- 
tor auditing the books or anything of that sort. I simply went from 
my local union into the district and signed the checks. 

Mr. Doyle. You signed whatever checks McLeish or his secretary 
told you to sign ? 

Mr, Pollock. Told me there is a book of checks, will you sign some 
checks, since I didn't want to go back for a couple of weeks I signed 
40 or 50 at once. 

Mr, Scherer, Did you ever have any idea what the balance in the 
account was? 

Mr, Pollock, I never took much interest in it, 

Mr. Tavenner. ]Mr. Chairman, I have a telephone call to make that 
should be made. May we have a recess at this point? 

Mr. Doyi.e. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. May I make this observation ? 

Mr. Doyle. We will stay in session for the few minutes while you 
are gone, and Mr. Scherer wants to read this letter. We will just ex- 
cuse the witness and counsel from the chair temporarily. 

Mr, ScHFjRER. Mr. Chairman, I have before me a letter dated May 12, 
addressed to Francis E, Walter, chairman of this committee, from 
the New Jersey Council of Churches, Jewish Community Council 
of Essex County and tlie Essex County Intergroup Council which has 
already been released to the prei5s as stated in the letter. 

It is a rather lengthy letter, but the significant part thereof, I think, 
is on the last page where they call upon the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities at this hearing in Newark to abide by tlie follow- 
ing principle. Five principles are enumerated. 



1014 COMlkUlS^ISt ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

The only reason I mentioned this is because the publication of this 
letter gives the impression to the public that we are not abiding by the 
principles enunciated or enumerated in this letter. So I would like to 
comment on each one of them, because, obviously, the persons who pre- 
pared this letter are not familiar with the rules of the committee nor 
are they familiar with the conduct of the committee in the various, 
cities throughout the United States. 

As I say, it would leave the impression with those reading this letter 
in the daily press that these are some of the things the committee 
does not do. 

The letter says : 

1. There should be a committee, not inclivklual responsibility, for the conduct 
of investigations and hearings. 

Rule 1 of the committee reads : 

No major investigation shall be initiated without approval of a majority of: 
the committee. 

That is the rule and has been followed scrupulously by this commit- 
tee. All hearings and scope of hearings are decided by majority vote 
of the committee in executive session before any committee hearing is 
set. 

Then, as you pointed out, Mr. Chairman, a subcommittee of the 
full committee must consist of a minimum of three members, a major- 
ity of whom must be present. So you always have two members pres- 
ent, and usually of dili'erent political parties. 

So much for the first complaint. 

2. Witnesses should be afforded full benefit of counsel. Counsel should be 
entitled to accompany witnesses at all hearings. 

I call attention to rule 7 of this committee : 

At every hearing, public or executive, every witness shall be accorded the 
privilege of having counsel of his own choosing. The participation of counsel 
during the course of any hearing while the witness is testifying shall be limited 
to advising said witness as to his legal rights. 

In some instances counsel is permitted more latitude before this 
committee than he is in court, because he sits next to the w^itness and 
the witness may turn to counsel after any question is asked and seek 
counsel's advice. We know that in a courtroom after a witness takes 
the stand, it would be contemptuous for counsel to indicate in any way 
to a witness how he should answer a question or give him any advice 
while he is on the stand. 

3. The rights of witnesses should be protected. A witness should be entitled 
to know the purpose of investigation. 

Rule 2 of the committee, which is also folloAved scrupulously, says 
this : 

The subject of any investigation in connection with which witnesses are 
summoned or shall otherwise appear shall be announced in an opening statement 
of the committee before the commencement of the hearings and information 
sought to be elicited at the hearing shall be relevant and germane to the subject 
so stated. 

Continuing with the complaint : 

No. .3. The witness should be permitted to testify without television or radio 
broadcast. 



CeMMLWIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J.,, AREA 1015 

The rules of the House prohibit televising these hearings and broad- 
casting them. 
Complaint No. 3 continues : 

To qualify yes or no answers — that is, the witness should be permitted to 
qualify yes or no answers, to make a brief relevant written or oral statement at 
the conclusion of his testimony, and obtain a copy of the transcript of his testi- 
mony at reasonable expense. 

Rule 9 of the committee says : 

Any witness desiring to make a prepared written statement for the record 
of the proceedings in executive or public session shall file a copy of such state- 
ment witli counsel of the committee within a reasonable period of time in 
advance of the hearing at which the statement is to be presented. All such 
statements so received which are relevant and germane to the subject of tlie 
investigation may, upon approval, at the conclusion of the testimony of the 
%y.itness, by a majority vote of the committee or subcommittee members present, 
be inserted into the official transcript of the proceedings. 

Every witness who comes before this committee has the right to 
qualif}' his yes or no answers. I never have seen that rule violated. 
The only time we stop witnesses is when the witness refuses to testify 
and takes the fifth amendment, and then of course we do not permit 
him to make a speech if he will not answer the questions. 

Another part of complaint No. 3 is — 
to obtain a copy of the transcript of his testimony. 

Rule 6 of the committee says : 

Transcript of testimony. A complete and accurate record shall be kept of 
all hearings and proceedings at hearings both in public and executive session. 
Any witness or his counsel at the expense of the witness may obtain a transcript 
of any public testimony of the witness from the clerk of the committee. Witness 
or counsel may also obtain transcript of any executive testimony of the witness. 

The fourth complaint is that third parties should be permitted to 
defend their reputation. They should have the right to file a sworn 
statement concerning adverse testimony, to testify before the com- 
mittee and to cross-examine the witnesses who have accused them. 

I refer to rule 10, headed "Rights of Persons Affected by a Hear- 
ing" : 

Where practical, any person named in a public hearing before the committee 
or any subcommittee as subversive, Fascist, Communist, or affiliated with one 
or more subversive-front organization, who has not been previously so named, 
shall, within a reasonable time thereafter be notified by registered letter, to 
the address last known to the committee, of such fact, including (1) a state- 
ment that he has been so named : (2) the date and place of said hearing; (3) the 
name of the person who so testified ; (4) the name of the subversive. Fascist, 
Communist, or front organization with which he has been identified; (5) a 
copy of the prin,ted Rules of Procedure of this committee. 

Any person so notified who believes his character or reputation has been 
adversely affected or to whom has been imputed subversive activities, may within 
1.5 days after the receipt of said notice: (1) communicate with counsel of the 
committee, and/or request to appear at his own expense in person before the 
committee or any subcommittee thereof in public session and give testimony, in 
denial or affinnation, relevant and germane to the subject of the investigation. 

The fifth complaint intimates that there is unauthorized disclosure 
of committee information and that it should be eliminated. 

Testimony taken in executive session should not be leaked and the committee 
files should be kept confidential except where- crime has been disclosed. 



1016 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

We go to rule 4 : That is covered in rule 4, paragraph 3 : 

All testimony taken in executive session shall be kept secret and shall not be 
released or used in public sessions without the approval of the majority of the 
committee. 

I took this time, Mr. Chairman, because as I said at the beginning, 
certainly the publication of this letter would indicate to the people 
of the community that the committee was doing just the opposite of 
what the complaint set forth, whereas in truth and in fact the com- 
mittee abides almost 100 percent, as the result of its rules, by almost 
all of the injunctions set forth in this letter. 

The letter in another part refers to the fact that the American Bar 
Association on August 17, 1954, adopted a series of recommendations 
similar to the ones that they set forth in this letter. I want to point 
out that these rules of procedure were codified long before August 17, 
1954. I think they were codified in July of 1953. 

Mr. Doyle. They were codified on July 15, 1953. 

Mr. ScHERER. Most of the rules in this book had been in effect prior 
to that time, and through the efforts of the chairman of this subcom- 
mittee and through his work they were reduced to writing or codified 
and made available for distribution to all those interested. 

Mr. Doyle. I am glad you took the time, Mr. Scherer, to read that. 
While we are waiting for counsel just a minute, may I supplement 
what Mr. Scherer said by calling the attention of those present to the 
fact that those rules which Mr. Scherer read were rules in effect prior 
to July 15, 1953, by the Committee on Un-American Activities, of 
which both Mr. Scherer and myself were members at that time as 
well as now ; and that on March 23, 1955, the Plouse of Representatives 
itself adopted the basis, which is not inconsistent with these earlier 
committee rules, and the House rules specify the committees may 
adopt additional rules not inconsistent with this basic rule, which is 
known as House Resolution 151. 

So we feel that in the field of House investigative committees, great 
progress and sound progress and constructive progress has been made. 

Are you ready, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will recess at 12 : 30, which is 30 minutes 
from now. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told the committee that the member of 
the Communist Party group who brought down the directives from a 
higher source was a person by the name of John Perone who did so 
on occasions. 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that he was an organizer of the UE. 

Mr. Pollock. No. I didn't say he was an organizer for the UE. 
He was a member of the local executive board and financial secretary 
of tlie local 437. 

Mr. Tavenner. I recall now that is what you testified to. 

Will you tell the committee, please, the names of other persons who 
belonged to this same group of Communist Party members with you 
who were organizers of the UE or held some other official position 
with the UE? 

Mr. Pollock. All of them held positions of executive board mem- 
bers. There was another organizer by the name of Al Burdick, who 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J,, AREA 1017 

was business representative. He held the same position I did, 
B-u-r-d-i-c-k, I believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was a member of this group of the Commmiist 
Party with you ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give the committee any further identifying 
information regarding him as to any other activity in the Communist 
Party in which he engaged ? 

Mr. Pollock. I don't know of any specific activity he carried on in 
the Communist Party outside of being business agent of the local union. 
I don't know of any of his other acti\^ties. 

Mr. TA\'EN]srER. Let me interrupt your testimony there to go back 
to tliis question : 

In this group did you have a chairman, dues collector, and educa- 
tional director? 

Mr. Pollock. Perone was usually the chainnan of the meeting and 
he brought the literature to the meetings, and then on occasion there 
were people who came to the meeting who were not connected with 
the union who were party people that came to the meetings. 

Mr. Tavexxer. What do you mean by bringing literature to the 
Communist Party meetings ? 

Mr. Pollock. At the same time he picked up this letter, the organ- 
izational letter, he would pick up Communist party literature and 
bring it to the meetings to be sold or distributed or what have you by 
the Communist Party gi'oup. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Was tliis Communist Party literature discussed at 
the meeting ? 

Mr. Poli.ock. On occasion there were certain parts of the literature 
that was discussed. Somebody from the party would come and refer 
to certain paragraphs of the book and advise us to sell it or get it into 
the local union in one way or another. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Now, if you will proceed with giving us the names 
of the other UE organizers who were members of your Communist 
Party group. 

Mr. Pollock. That is the only one who was a UE organizer or UE 
business representative in this particular group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the other members of the gi^oup ? 

Mr. Pollock. There was Perone and Jack Zick, Burdick 

Mr. Tavexxer. Jack Zick. Is that Z-i-c-k ? 

Mr. Pollock. Z-i-c-k. 

Mr. Ta^^xxer. Was he on the executive board of your local ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. Ethel Carpenter, Later she came into the 
group. She was an international field organizer. I was not thinking. 
She was an international field organizer and came into the group later. 

Mr. Tavexxer. You say she came into the group later. Can you 
give a more definite date than that as to when she came in ? 

Mr. Pollock. The best I can recall is she came in just prior to me 
getting out, maybe 6 or 7 meetings and maybe 2 weeks or 4 weeks 
between each meeting. I don't know but it was just prior. I only 
attended meetings, probably 5 or 6 meetings altogether when she was 
present. 

Mr. Taa-exxer. Was that just before you got out of the Communist 
Party? 

65388— 55— pt. 1 3 



1018 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Pou^ocK. That is correct. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Can you identify any particular activity that she 
engaged in or any part she played in Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Pollock. No; except being one of the group. She was not a 
member of my local. She was away back when the original amal- 
gamation took place. She was president of one of the shop locals that 
I spoke of that was in the original amalgamation, but then later she 
became an international field organizer and then came into our group, 
and at that time she was not a member of the local union. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Are there any others whose names you can recall 
who were members of this group ? 

Mr. Pollock. Zick worked in one of the shops in the local union and 
was a member of the executive board. 

George Gould. There was Frank Chandler. Incidentally, Chand- 
ler also came to my house and asked me to come out of the shop 
originally way back with Brandt when Brandt asked me to come out 
of the shop and become an international representative. Chandler was 
with him. Then there was a period when Chandler was in the Army, 
and tliere was a period when he didn't attend meetings but later on he 
came back into the meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether he later affiliated with any 
other organization ? 

Mr. Pollock. No : I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. By organization I mean some other labor organi- 
zation other than UE. 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. He went into I believe the leather workers 
union after he came back from the Army. He got a job in a leather 
shop and he got into the leather workers. I think it is leather workers 
because they had an office in the same building that our local office 
was in. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there another person whose name you can recall ? 

Mr. Pollock. Bernel Hollingshed was a member of the executive 
board and also in this group and worked in one of the shops. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell his name, please ? 

Mr. Pollock. It is her. B-e-r-n-e-1 H-o-l-l-i-n-g-s-h-e-d. 

I believe that is the correct spelling. 

Mr. Doyle. TN^ien you say this person was a member of this group, 
do you refer to the Communist Party group ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Would that be true wherever you use that term ? 

Mr. Pollock. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. On what do you base your statement that they were 
members of this particular group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Pollock. They were part of the meetings that I attended and 
they were in the group. It is understood they were members of the 
group. When we paid our dues, she paid dues. 

Mr. Tavenner. In these meetings to which you have referred, were 
persons permitted to attend who were not members of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Pollock. No ; they were not permitted. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Are you acquainted with a person named Tony 
Bokay? ^ 

Mr. Pollock. Tony Bokay was also a member of the group. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1019 

Mr. Tavenner. B-o-k-a-y. Is that the correct spelling ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there any further identifying information you 
can give us with regard to him ? 

Mr. Pollock. He was also a member of the executive board. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pollock. Later on my wife also came into this group. She 
worked in one of the shops. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. I haven't asked you any question about your wife 
coming into the Communist Party. I never ask a witness that ques- 
tion, but of course if the witness himself 

Mr. Pollock. I volunteered. 

Mr. Tavenner. Volunteers it, there is no objection to it. If there 
is any statement you desire to make about your wife's connection with 
the Communist Party I will give you the opportunity to do so. 

Mr. Pollock. I think it should be clarified that the reason my wife 
got in was because I was beginning to get out, and the party evidently 
didn't like it and I made the excuse — it was true — my wife was com- 
plaining about the number of meetings I was attending, I was never 
home, and so on and so forth. I felt that the Communist Party 
group was more or less a kind of duplication of an executive board 
meeting, and I saw no necessity for attending the meetings and I was 
beginning to drift. A woman was sent to the plant or came to the 
plant, I should say, where my wife worked and told her it would make 
me very happy if she also got into the group, and my wife being the 
type of woman that would go any place I asked her to go, she went 
with me. That is about the limit of her interest in the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Doyle. What year was that ? 

Mr. Pollock. I would say around 1946 or something in there. 
Maybe a couple of years before I finally dropped out completely. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she leave the Communist Party at the time you 
did? 

Mr. Pollock. Maybe before. I don't recall the exact time but 
definitely no later than the time I got out. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated on occasions other members of the 
Communist Party came to this Communist Party club and addressed 
the club on various subjects. Can you recall the name of any of those 
peo])le, that is. Communist Party functionaries ? 

]\Ir. Pollock. Yes. I believe that Martha Stone came on occasions. 
Lou Malinow came on occasion. 

Mr. Taat.nner. Will you spell the last name, please ? 

Mr. Pollock. M-a-1-i-n-o-w. Then there was Helen Conrad who 
came and collected the dues, mostly. 

Mr. Tavenner. Collected club dues? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she a functionary of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Are there others who you can now recall? 

Mr. Pollock. No, I can't remember. On occasions a number of 
different people came but I can't recall just exactly who came. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know a person by the name of Katherino 
Hoffman ? 



1020 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Pollock. Katherine Hoffman came to a couple of the meetings. 
I know Katherine Hoffman. I knew her quite some time back when 
she was active in the CIO, when the shop I worked in got organized 
and later she had a position in the district. I don't know exactly the 
title of the position, I think it was the welfare fmid administrator, 
something like that. She took care of the welfare fund or what was 
known as the UE group-insurance plan. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, she was employed by the UE district 
office. 

Mr. Pollock. She worked in the district office. Who paid her I 
don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. "What was her purpose, if you can recall, in visiting 
this club of the Communist Party of which you were a member ? 

Mr. Pollock. I don't recall specifically her purj)ose in being there, 
but it would be to talk on some question that was important or some 
question that was coming up. I can't recall anything specific. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know a person by the name of Gabe Bloks- 



Mr. Pollock. Yes. I think he came, in fact he did come to the club 
meeting on occasion specifically on the question of — he worked in the 
Federal Radio & Telephone Co. at the time that lUE was organizing 
the workers away from the UE and he came to the club meeting to 
explain the position there. I recall he did come to the meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that you attended the district council 
meetings of the UE. 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Did you have an occasion to ascertain whether other 
persons on the council were members of the Communist Party ? That 
is, to your own knowledge. 

Mr. Pollock. I couldn't say that I knew or I had attended meetings 
with them, anything of that sort, but it was something that was under- 
stood, more or less. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever meet in any Communist Party meeting 
Vv^ith James McLeish? 

Mr. Pollock. No, I never attended any Communist Party meeting 
with him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you elected to State or national conventions of 
the UE while you were a member of it ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. I attended almost every convention after 1940 
when I got into the amalgamated local. I attended almost every inter- 
national convention of the UE with the exception of probably 1 or 2 
as an elected delegate from my local union. 

Mr. Tavenner. At those conventions did you have occasion at any 
time to observe any action on the part of the Communist Party mem- 
bers to control or influence the convention as a result of concerted ac- 
tion by Communist Party members ? 

Mr. Pollock. I recall one case where there was a resolution on the 
floor of the convention, and I believe that resolution had something 
to do with changes in the constitution of the convention to bar Com- 
nmnists, Fascists, and the like from subversive groups, from holding 
office in the union. 

I know that there were individuals going around the convention 
advising people or telling the people that they had to speak against the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1021 

resolution. I recall Walter Barry, international representative at 
that time, coming to me, and I Avas sitting at the table and he told me 
I had to speak on the resolution, against the resolution. 

I asked him what I should say. He said get up and speak against 
the resolution anyway, say something. A few seconds after he had 
left me the president of the International Union, Fitzgerald, said dele- 
gate Pollock has the floor. I didn't have my hand up to ask for the 
floor but I got the floor anyway. I went up onto the platform and 
made my speach against the resolution. 

That is the one occasion when I felt that there had been some kind 
of caucus that I didn't attend, or wasn't consulted on. 

Mr. Tavexner. Mr. Pollock, I told you at an earlier point in your 
testimony that I wanted you to tell the committee the circumstances 
under which you got out of the Communist Party. Will you please 
do so now, in your own words ? 

Mr. Pollack. First of all, I began to feel that decisions were being 
made that were not the opinions of the rank-and-file members, and 
I had always been taugiit in the UE or heard it repeatedly said that the 
rank-and-file runs this union. That was one of the predominant 
slogans in the union. I felt that the decisions were being made that 
wasn't rank-and-file decisions. 

Mr. Doyle. Who were making those decisions ? 

Mr. Pollock. Decisions were made in the group. 

Mr. Doyle. AVliat group? 

Mr. Pollock. The Communist Party group, the electrical branch, 
and then they were brought to the executive board of the local and the 
local executive board acted on them between the meetings of the mem- 
bership. You have to understand we had 5 membership meetings in 
a year and an executive board meeting every 2 or 3 weeks. 

Mr. Doyle, Is that the same executive board that a few minutes ago 
you said was generally numerically controlled by the Communists of 
the union ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes ; that is the local executive board. 

I began to feel the thing more that there were decisions being made 
from higher up than the local, than in the local club meeting, even, that 
those decisions were being handed down, and one of them was to the 
effect that I was told to step down as financial secretary of the district, 
that I was not consulted on it, that it was just a matter of being told 
that a woman was going to take my place. 

Even though I was nominated I was told not to run. If I ran I 
probably would have been, I know I would have been defeated anyway. 

Mr. I)oyle. You had been nominated you say for reelection? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Then you were told not to run or to withdraw ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you told by a Communist leader? 

Mr. Pollock. I was told by McLeish not to run, that they were 
going to have a girl, a woman, one of the top officers of the district. 

Then I was business agent of this local union, and was the elected 
business agent of this local union when I was again told by McLeish 
that I needed some help in the local union and they were going to 
assign Al Burdick to the local union. Al Burdick came into the local 
union. I said there would be a question of his wages, that I felt that 
the local union would object to it because my understanding was that 



1022 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

somebody should be elected from the rank and file, if we were going 
to employ another business agent. 

But Al Burdick was sent in to the local union by the district and 
remained on the payroll of the international union for a period of 
about maybe 2 months. I don't recall the exact length of time, but 
then he was elected. By that time he had got around the shop and was 
elected by the members as business agent. On my say-so he was elected 
business agent of the local union. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you didn't oppose that. 

Mr. PoLLooi^. No; as a matter of fact. I helped have him elected. 
I helped to advise the people, although at one time probably the fol- 
lowing election there was a man elected, a man nominated who ran 
for business agent, decided to run for business agent, and I sug- 
gested to Burdick that we should give him an opportunity to run. It 
was decided by the group again 

Mr. Doyle. ^The Communist Party group ? 

Mr. Pollock. The Communist Party group, that we should defi- 
nitely oppose him. He was not the kind of guy that we wanted to have 
in the leadership of the local union. Pie did get defeated because we 
went from shop to shop and advised the people not to vote for him and 
mobilized the people to come out and vote for us. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that man opposed to communism in the union ? 

Mr. Pollock. He was a member of the executive board and judging 
from his expressions at the executive board meeting I would say 
definitely. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Continue, please. 

Mr. Pollock. Well, those things happening in the local union and 
the party itself, I felt that there was duplications and no need for it 
and the party was dictating the decisions of the local membership, 
and I felt that I would be better to stay away from the thing alto- 
gether and I drifted away. There were attempts made by people 
to tell me of meetings that were being held and things of that sort, and 
I didn't attend those meetings. 

Tlien finally some time at the beginning of 1950 I was approached 
by Al Burdick, who told me that we had to make it official, I had to 
make it official getting out of the party. I asked him what he meant. 
He said, "We have an appointment with the lawyer who is the union, 
the local union lawyer, to draw up a statement." Burdick took me 
in his car to the lawyer's office and the lawyer dictated a letter, which 
we took to the Western Union, a letter of resignation or something, 
the lawyer remarked that the language was ambiguous but neverthe- 
less it was a letter supposedly to be of resignation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have a copy of the letter ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have it with you? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I see it? 

Mr. Pollock. Do you want the resignation letter? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Pollock. We took the letter to the Western Union and there 
we had a boy, one of the delivery boys, come with us and he also signed 
the letter stating he had received 2 letters from us, copy of which 
they have there, too, and then we went to the Communist Party 
headquarters which was on Park Place, Newark, and we sent the kid 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1023 

up to the Communist Party headquarters with the 2 letters, 1 from 
Al Burdick and 1 from myself, both of them written exactly the same. 

There they were signed and the copies of them were given back to us. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were they identical letters ? 

Mr. Pollock. As far as I know ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like to read the two let- 
ters in evidence. 

January 6, 1950, Communist Party, 8 Park Place, Newark, N. J. 

Gentlemen :In view of the fact ttiat tliere is frequently so much confusion 
and loose talk about so much matters and in order to avoid any possibility of 
confusion as to myself this is to advise you that as of this date I am not <a. 
member of your organization. 
Very truly yours, 

Ernst Pollock. 

A similar letter, identical letter, I have before me signed "Louis" — 
How do you pronounce it ? 

Mr. Pollock. Malinow. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. I do not have the copy of Burdick's letter but I 
have the original of the letter of Louis Malinow in the form of a re-, 
ceipt reading as follows : 

January 6, 1950. 

I hereby acknowledge receipt of the letters delivered by Western Union spe- 
cial messenger signed by Ernst Pollock and Allan Burdick reading as follows: 

January 6, 1950, Communist Party, 8 Park Place, Newark, N. J. 

Gentlemen : In view of the fact that there is frequently so much confusion 
and loose talk about so much matters, and in order to avoid any possibilities 
of confusion as to myself this is to advise you that, as of this date, I am not a 
member of your organization. 
Very truly yours, 

Louis Malinow. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you proceed, please. 

Mr. Pollock. I think I have completed up to that point that it 
was later than this I left the UE and I went to work in the shop in 
the UE. I was working back in the plant working with the tools 
in a toolroom, working with my hands. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Pollock, did you make available to the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation the information which you have given 
the committee today ? 

Mr. Pollock. Yes ; I have been approached by the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation and I have given them all the same information 
that I have given here today. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you have questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. If you have any further statement, you may make 
it. 

Mr. Pollock. I would like to state this : that I feel very strongly 
about this testimony. I didn't realize what it was in the beginning. 
I was naturally scared when the FBI came around and started to 
question me about it, but since I have considered the whole thing I feel 
that I want to do this, I am doing this of my own free will and accord 
because I feel that I came to this country for a reason. I came be- 
cause I was out of work on the other side, was going with a girl I 



1024 COMJMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

wanted to get married, and I came here and I was able to send for my 
wife, I got married, and when I raised a couple of children I am proud 
to say one of them is in the United States Air Force today, having 
A'olunteered there, and I feel that if I can be of any service to this 
country I owe it and that is why I am making this testimony. 

I would like to point out this : that after I was at the plant 7 months 
Al Burdick came to the plant, he was still business agent of the local, 
and advised me to go and see the lawyer for the union. He said that 
"those committees are coming into the city and you will probably be 
questioned so you had better go and find out what to say." 

He said, "We have all been down there." 

I didn't go. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that Burdick's advice to you ? 

Mr. Pollock, Yes, 7 months after I was working in the plant. The 
reason I know it was 7 months was that nobody came from the union 
for 7 months. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think the witness is to be congratulated on his fine 
statement. He has rendered a valuable service to his country and 
particularly to this committee in its work, and I certainly feel that 
there should be no recriminations of any kind whatsoever against 
this man for what he has done in the past. I think his conduct in the 
last few years and his testimony here today certainly warrants that 
nothing like that take place. 

Let me ask you one more question : From the time that you were ap- 
proached by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, later by the staff of 
this committee, do you feel that any of your rights were violated ? 

Mr. Pollock. No. I feel that they have been very cooj^erative, no 
threats have been made if that is what you mean, anything of that 
sort. They have asked me for my opinions on what happened, they 
have asked me what happened. I have consulted with counsel, counsel 
has advised me to tell the truth, and that is what I am doing. 

Mr. ScHERER. And the staff of this committee advised you initially 
you should have counsel, did they not ? 

]Mr. Pollock. Yes. They advised me that I had the right to have 
counsel and I could have counsel. 

Mr. ScHERER. Has there been anything irregular at all that you 
could see about the conduct of any agent of the United States Govern- 
ment with whom you had contact? 

Mr. Pollock. No, I can't say that I have been unduly threatened 
or anything. I was naturally afraid myself, worried about it. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am afraid when a policeman stops me for going too 
fast. 

Mr. Pollock. That is the kind of fear I had. I had never had any 
encounters with the law and the FBI sounded like something terrible 
to me. 

Mr. ScHERER. You found that the FBI wasn't terrible? In the 
Communist Party the FBI is painted pretty bad, isn't it? 

Mr. Pollock. As I understand the purpose and the reason, I be^an 
to understand that they had a job to do, and if there was something 
going on I wasn't aware of that was harmful to this country, then 
they had the right to know about it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Thank you very much. 

Mr. DoTLE. I would like, Mr. Pollock, to ask you a couple of brief 
questions. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1025 

You tell me if I am in error, please. From your testimony I con- 
clude that very clearly the Communist Party was in control, sub- 
stantial control of the policies and activities of your local 437 during 
the time you were a member of the Commimist Party. 

Mr. Pollock. Definitely they were the ones who were deciding on 
what was to be taken up and by maneuver it was decided when to take 
it up, when not to take it up, and in the final analysis they did make 
the decisions. 

Mr. Doyle. From your testimony, then, I have another conclusion. 
You tell me if it is correct or erroneous. 

I conclude that the Communist Party was in control substantially 
of the district council of the U. E. 

Mr. Pollock. You are asking me for an opinion or anything I can 
say as a fact? 

Mr. Doyle. I am asking you for your opinion based on the facts 
that you know. 

Mr. Pollock. My opinion based on the facts, would be yes, that 
there was a group within the district that made the decisions outside 
of the 

Mr. Doyle. Because it is late, I will just take a short minute to back 
up my distinguished colleague, Mr. Scherer, on behalf of the United 
States Congress, of wliich we are both Members. I want to congratu- 
late you on coming to the point where you place your country ahead 
of the damnable Communist conspiracy. I am glad you got your 
eyes open. 

May I urge you to be just as active now in support of real, honest- 
to-God patriotic Americans as you were during the time you were in 
the Communist Party. 

I am always honored and favored by receiving the endorsement at 
my election times, 5 times now, in Los Angeles County, of the CIO 
and AFL, so I think I know something about labor procedure, though 
I have never been a member of nor attorney for a labor vmion. It 
worries me no end when we come to a neighborhood like this and find 
a great organization of American working men and women con- 
trolled by a subversive conspiracy which is definitely designed to over- 
throw by force if necessary our constitutional form of government. 

I want to compliment you on behalf of the House of Representa- 
tives. We wish that distinguished son of yours well. I notice you 
said he volunteered. 

Mr. Pollock. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. You are lucky to have him. Some of the rest of us had 
sons that volunteered. Of course the reason some of them aren't 
alive is because of this damnably aggressive subversive Communist 
conspiracy afloat in the world. 

I don't see why any American citizen in organized labor dares to 
put the Communist Party ahead of his loyalty to his own labor union. 
They are absolutely inconsistent. 

I want to compliment you again on behalf of the House and wish 
you well. I want to say to organized labor in this room — and I 
know some of you here in the room are from this labor union. I 
can tell by the way a few of you look, and by that I mean your 
facial expressions. 

I have noticed certain facial expressions when this witness said 
certain things and having sat in dozens and dozens of public hearings 



1026 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

like this we learn to Imow what is signified by the way people look 
and act in a public hearing room. 

So I just wish to say to you folks in organized labor, why don't 
you put your own labor objectives ahead of the Communist Party if 
you are in it? I should think that the testimony of this man right 
here would be sufficient notice for you, if any of you here are from 
that group, to get in and clean house and do it darn quick, too. 

I wish to thank the distinguished lawyer for being here. We are 
always glad to have lawyers come, as I said earlier in my remarks. 

Mr. Pollock, have you anything to suggest to this committee? We 
are looking for suggestions. Is there any way you think we should 
do our work differently? Have you any criticisms, any suggestions 
for us ? 

Mr. Pollock. That end I haven't given too much thought to. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you give some thought, Mr. Pollock, to the matter. 
Congress is very anxious to receive the benefit of the thinking and 
criticism and thought and conclusions of any patriotic American, and 
you are certainly included in that group now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I want to apologize. There is a 
question I intended to ask this witness and didn't ask. May I ask 
it now? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. After the resignations were handed in by you and 
Mr. Burdick, did Mr. Burdick tell you why he had sent in his resigna- 
tion? 

Mr. Pollock. As I understand it, it was we were taking advantage 
of the Taft-Hartley Act. We had signed Taft-Hartley affidavits in 
order to be eligible for the use of the board and this was making it 
official, so to speak. 

]Mr. Doyle. In other words, this was making a monkey out of the 
Taft-Hartley Act, the subterfuge? Was that the purpose of it. 

INIr. Pollock. I don't know if I want to use that. 

Mr. Doyle. I don't ask you to use it. We understand deliberate 
violation of a Federal statute. That is what it amounts to. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. You are excused from the subpena. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock this afternoon. 

( Wliereupon, at 12 : 45 p. m. the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 2 p. m. the same day.) 

Afternoon Session — May 16, 1955 

Mr. Doyle. Let the committee be in order, please. 

I want to thank the guests of the committee who were in the court- 
room this morning for being so cooperative and quiet. I am sure it 
helped the committee and the witness, and I know it helped the com- 
mittee to hear better, and we will appreciate the same sort of help 
this afternoon. 

Are you ready, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Ta"\tenner. Yes, sir. Mr. Chairman, if I may be permitted, 
I would like to make a statement with regard to the Communist Party 
clubs. 



COMMUNIST ACTWITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1027 

Mr. Doyle. Before you do that, may I ask that the record show 
that both members of the subcommittee are present at this time as the 
committee resumes at a quarter after 2. 

Mr. Tavenner. I thought that it might be well to make a statement 
of explanation regarding the clubs of the Communist Party which 
were identified by you in your opening statement this morning. 

We have found some confusion has occurred at different places where 
the committee has been because Communist Party clubs were given 
the names of, in some instances, the companies for which they worked, 
and in others for sections of the city in which they were located. 

So that if a person hearing the statement is not aware of that prac- 
tice, they may confuse the club. So I wanted to call to your attention 
that the statement which you gave this morning of Communist Party 
clubs relates to clubs in various sections — that is, Communist Party 
clubs in various sections of the city, which seem to have taken on 
the names of the areas in which they were physically or geographically 
located. 

For instance, West Side Club was one, Iron Bound Club was an- 
other which refers only to the area in which this Communist club was 
located and should not in any way be confused with any other legiti- 
mate organization in that area. 

Mr. DoTLE. But the names we gave were the names of the Commu- 
nist club groups. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right, within those particular areas. 

Mr. Doyle. They were the names the Communist groups themselves 
used to designate their group. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. That is right. I would like to call Mr. Stephen 
Rudich as a witness. 

Mr. Eudich, will you come forward, please, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Rudich, will you please raise your right hand and 
be sworn. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Rudich. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF STEPHEN J. RUDICH 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Rudich. Stephen J. Rudich. S-t-e-p-h-e-n R-ii-d-i-c-h. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Rudich, it is noted that you are not accompanied 
by counsel. It is the practice of the committee to advise all witnesses 
appearing before it that they are entitled to have counsel if tliey so 
desire, and if they prefer to begin the hearing without counsel, they 
still have the right during the hearing to consult counsel at any time 
should they desire to do so. 

Mr. Rudich. I don't think it will be necessary. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Very well, sir. 

When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Rudich. Lewis, W. Va. ; December 27, 1918. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in the city of Newark ? 

Mr. Rudich. No, I don't. I am employed here but I don't live here. 

:Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been employed in tlie city of 
Newark ? 

Mr. Rudich. For approximately the past 41^ years. 



1028 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time where did you live and what was 
your business ? 

Mr. RuDicii. Well, I came to the State of New Jersey sometime in 
1936 and I lived here until sometime early in 1947, when I left this area 
as a member of the UE staff. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you were a member of the UE staff ? 

Mr. RuDicH. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did you hold on the UE staff ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Field organizer. 

Mr. Tavenner. As field organizer were you assigned to any particu- 
lar district of the UE ? 

Mr. EuDiCH. Yes, when I first became a member of the UE staff I 
was in this district, district 4. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you first appointed organizer ? 

Mr. RuDicH. It was late in 1946. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. How were you employed at the time you became 
employed as a field organizer ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Well, at the time I became an organizer I wasn't 
employed. My recent employment had been with Westinghouse Co. 
in Bloomfield, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the UE have a bargaining contract with that 
plant at the time ? 

Mr. RuDicH. They did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Therefore I assume you were a member of the union. 

Mr. RuDicH. I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. At Westinghouse. 

Mr. RuDicpi. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long had you been a member of the union at 
Westinghouse ? 

Mr. R.UDICH. Probably since the beginning of my employment there, 
which was sometime in 1941, 1 believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any other positions in the UE besides 
that of field organizer ? 

Mr. RuDicH. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time while you were a field organizer for the UE ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party before 
you were appointed as a field organizer ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. RuDiCH. I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, when you 
joined the Communist Party and when you left it? 

Mr. RuDicH. Well, I joined it, I don't recall whether it was 1944 
or 1945, but I think I do recall it was some time after this Browder 
business within the party, and they were still talking about that even 
when I went in. It was after the breakup of that 

Mr. Tavenner. Browder was ousted in October 1945, so then your 
membership must have begun shortly after that. It continued how 
long? 

Mr. RuDicH. Well, as a dues-paying member I continued as long as 
I was in this area. After I left this area I had some contact with it 
but I gradually drifted away. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1029 

Mr. Tavenner. T\nien did you leave this area ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Early 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, in your own 
way, beginning at the very beginning of your membership in the 
Communist Party, what activity your membership led to while an 
organizer for the UE ? Begin right with your first membership and 
tell the committee the circumstances under which you became a 
member. 

Mr. RuDicH. I wasn't on the UE stajff then. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I understand that. But begin whenever you did 
become a member and bring it right through until vou became an 
official of the UE. 

Mr. RumcH. Well, I was approached while I was employed at 
Westinghouse, member of the local union. I was approached by a man 
Avho had been known more as an ex-Communist than as a Com- 
munist, actually he was in and out a number of times. I understand. 
Apparently some remarks I had made in a union meeting or some- 
thing led him to believe that I would be interested. 

He sent me to someone who brought me downtown in Newark here 
to the Communist Party headquarters. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. He brought you from Westinghouse. Where was 
Westinghouse located ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Bloomfield. X. J. 

Mr. Ta^tnner, Mr. Rudich, you say you were sent to someone wlio 
brought you downtown to Communist Party headquarters in Newark? 

Mr. Rudich. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the party that brought you to Communist 
headquarters ? 

Mr. Rudich. The man is deceased now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then I am not interested in his name. 

As a result of his bringing you down here to Communist Party 
headquarters what did you do ? 

Mr. Rudich. I joined the party and later was assigned to a club in 
the Bloomfield area. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. ^Yh.o were present at the time you became a member ? 

Mr. Rudich. I don't recall anyone outside of Martha Stone right at 
the present time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she the Communist Party organizer in this 
area at that time ? 

Mr. Rudich. Well, she was chairman of the party organization here 
in this county. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Was it on that occasion that you were assigned to a 
particular group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rudich. I don't recall whether it was on that occasion. I think 
it was some time later because I attended more meetings I believe in 
Newark before I was assigned to the Bloomfield area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the name of the group of the Commu- 
nist Party in the Newark area which you attended before being as- 
signed to a group at Bloomfield ? 

Mr. Rudich. I don't recall whether it had any specific title. 

Mr. Tavenni:r. Did the group to which you were assigned at Bloom- 
field have a specific name? 

Mr. Rudich. Known as the Tom Mooney Club. 



1030 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you describe in a general way the makeup of 
that club? Were they people from Westinghouse or some other or- 
ganization or just generally in the community ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Well, the idea of the thing was to get people from that 
area and some of those that did attend did live or work in that area. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. How long were you a member of that group ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. I don't recall, but probably up until the time I left this 
area. 

JNIr. Tavexner. Were you a member of any other group of the Com- 
munist Party in this area besides the Tom Mooney group of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Rttdich. I don't know, I don't think so. But I know I still 
attended meetings other than what was held by the Tom Mooney Club. 

Mr. TA^^XNER. Will you tell the committee, please, just what ac- 
tivities the Tom Mooney Club engaged in ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Well, actually the idea of the thing was to try to re- 
cruit new members from that area although I don't believe they were 
too successful. Of course there was discussion of party policies in re- 
lation to the labor unions and discussion of the party literature, and 
sale of party literature. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this party literature brought to the meetings, 
and distributed among those present, or were those present requested 
to purchase it ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. It was usually always literature about for sale and 
sometimes for free. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say the Communist Party was interested in 
recruiting new members in that area. Did you learn from what par- 
ticular trades or occupations the Communist Party was interested in 
recruiting members ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Actually all the industry, they were interested in all 
the industries in that area. 

Mr. SciiERER. What year was this, Witness, that you are talking 
about ? 

Mr. RuDicH. 1946, possibly 1947. The early part. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were they particularly interested in recruiting mem- 
bership from industry that was engaged in defense work? 

Mr. RuDicH. Well, I don't know what their plans were but actually 
at that time I think they were setting up what they called industrial 
clubs in different industries or in the areas where there were different 
industries. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the Communist Political Association days 
the membership was concentrated mostly in neighborhood groups or 
clubs, after which — that was about the time you entered — it was broken 
down into industrial clubs. At least that was what the Communist 
Party was endeavoring to do. 

Is that correct as far as you know ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know why they were departing from the 
program of organizing in neighborhoods and colonizing in industry, 
why that change in policy took place ? 

Mr. RuDicH. I knew wliat the line was at that time. The line was 
to recruit people from within labor, labor leaders. They said the idea 
being they would have trained people to work toward socialism and 



COMArONIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1031 

to advance the cause of socialism, and they wanted to show the workers 
they were the leaders among the workers. 

Mr. ScHERER. Their stated purpose then was to advance the cause 
of socialism and their actual purpose to advance the cause of com- 
munism, is that correct? 

Mr. EuDiCH. Well, all I know is the stated purpose. 

Mr. ScHERER. Most of labor wouldn't take the Connnunist philoso- 
phy so they had to feed it to them in different dosages. They couldn't 
take it under the name of communism so they gave it to them under 
the name of socialism. 

Mr. RuDiCH. That is probably correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee who were the active 
members of the Tom Mooney group of the Communist Party to which 
you were assigned first, if you can, and the person who usually acted 
as chairman of the group ? 

Mr. RuDicH. iNIost of these meetings of the Tom INIooney Club were 
held in the home of James Moore in Bloomfield, and he usually chaired 
the meetings and his wife was usually present. I believe she was a 
party member, she was usually the secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was her name ? 

Mr. EuDicH. I don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't know her first name ? 

Mr. Rtjdich. I don't recall. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did you say she acted as secretary of the meetings ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. I believe she did. I know she participated in them. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Just a moment. You said you believe she did. I 
would rather in describing matters of that kind that if you are uncer- 
tain about it to state that you are uncertain rather than to 

Mr. RumcH. She did participate in discussions in the meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are certain about that, that she participated? 

Mr. Rtjdich. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you do not know whether she was the secretary 
or not ? 

Mr. RuDicH. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us the names of other persons who 
were members of that group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Actually there were usually guests but of the regular 
membership there that were assigned to that club I believe I can only 
recall the names of Frederick Smith and John Gorman and Robert 
Dixon. 

Mr. Tavenner. The name Smith, of course, is a name we frequently 
find. I don't mean by that, find in communism, but it is a common 
name. Can you give us some further identification of Frederick Smith 
so that there will not be any confusion as to what Frederick Smith 
you are referring? 

IVIr. RumcH. He was employed by the Westinghouse Co., and I be- 
lieve I was responsible for getting him into the party at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mentioned a person named Robert Dixon. 
Where was he employed ? 

Mr. RuDicH. He was employed by the General Electric Co. in 
Bloomfield. 

Mr. Tavenner. You gave the name of another. Did you say John 
Gorman? 



1032 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N, J., AREA 

Mr. RuDicH. John Gorman was also employed at Westingliouse 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell Gorman ? 

Mr. RuDicH. G-o-r-m-a-n. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. John Gorman was employed where ? 

Mr. EuDiCH. Westmghoiise, Bloomfield. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long; was it after you became a member of this 
group of the Communist Party that you were elevated to the position 
of organizer of the UE ? 

Mr. RuDicH. I wouldn't recall the exact period of time except I be- 
lieve I was appointed to the UE staff in the fall of 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that mean you were taken out of the shop at 
about that time ? 

Mr. RuDicH. I was out of the shop at the company's request at that 
time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Explain what you mean. 

Mr. RuDiCH. This club I know was in being or came into being at 
least during the strike which began in early 1946, and after the strike 
I was only back in Westingliouse a short time and then my employ- 
ment there ceased. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that at the instance of the Westingliouse em- 
ployment that your 

Mr. RuDiCH. I was unemployed for some time, I don't recall how 
long before I went on the UE staff'. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee, please, what occurred in con- 
nection with your employment on the UE staff. How and by whom 
were you employed ? 

Mr, RuDicH. Well, at the time I was employed Walter Barry was 
the international representative in this district and I guess he recom- 
mended me or something. At least I was put on the staff', I believe 
on his recommendation. Of course he was in charge of all organizers 
in this area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was the first person that interviewed you with 
regard to getting you interested in taking this position ? 

Mr. RuDicH. That was I believe Ruth Young. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was her position ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. At that time she was the secretary of this district, 
district 4, 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the UE ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Of the UE, and I had considerable contact with her 
during the strike at AVestinghouse because she was there almost daily. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have contact with Ruth Young at any 
other place besides the district and union headquarters ? 

Mr. RuDicH. I believe she attended at least one meeting of the Tom 
Mooney Club and I also met with her in party headqaartere. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean Communist Party headquarters? 

Mr. RumcH. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you describe her appearance at your own 
Communist Party club a little more in detail, if you can, what her 
purpose was in being there, what she did ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Well, I don't recall any specific meeting, what the 
nature of her visit or attendance was, but she did considerable work 
with the local that I came out of in Bloomfield, local No. 410, and I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1033 

think I was considered to be responsible for that local and to, I guess, 
try to keep it in line with the policies of the national union. 

And my meetings with her were usually to discuss things that 
would come up within the local union meetings or perhaps on the ques- 
tion of election of delegates or officers, something of that nature. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the occasion for your meeting her in 
Communist Party headquarters in Newark ? 

Mr. RtjmcH. I don't know offhand other than that there were prob- 
ably other people in attendance, I don't recall right now. But I be- 
lieve at that time the headquarters was right around the corner from 
the UE headquarters. 

Mr. Tavenner. What I am getting at is to know whether or not 
your meeting with Ruth Young was under circumstances indicating 
diat she was or was not a member of the Communist Party. Did the 
circumstances under which you met with her at your own club of the 
Communist Party and later at the Communist Party headquarters 
in Newark indicate to you that she was a member of the Communist 
Party, or not ? 

Mr, RuDiCH. Yes. 

Mr. Ta^t.nner. And if it did indicate that to you I would like for 
you to tell the committee how you came to that conclusion or why 
you say that it indicated she was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. RuDicH. Well, otlier than the fact that she attended the meet- 
ings, Communist Party meetings 

llr. Sciierer. You say Communist Party meetings. Were they 
closed Communist Party meetings ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Sometimes. 

Mr. Scherer. Did she ever attend closed Communist Party meet- 
ings ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who else met with Ruth Young in 
Communist Party headquarters with you ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. I don't recall anyone other than Martha Stone. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you met with Ruth Young at Communist 
Party headquarters were you advised to be there, or did you just hap- 
pen to go there, or what were the circumstances ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. It was a prearranged meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the present time you can't recall other persons 
who attended the meetings ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. No. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Were there other persons to your knowledge who 
did attend besides Martha Stone,- the head of the Communist Party 
here, and Ruth Young and yourself ? 

Mr. RuDiGH. There might have been but I don't recall any specific 
individual at this time. 

Mr. Tavenner. A^Hiat was the purpose of holding these meetings ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Well, as I stated before, even after I was on the UE 
staff I was still a member of the local union and I had contact with 
people in the local union and we usually met to discuss what to do 
about certain issues that came up in meetings or election of delegates 
to conventions, or local union officers, or something of that nature. 

65388 — 55— pt. 1 4 



1034 COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr, Ta\'enner. You indicated a little while ago that you attended 
other meetings of the Communist Party besides your local, which 
was the Tom Mooney Club. 

ISIr. RuDicH. That is right. 

Mr. TA\'EBnsrER. Where were these other Communist Party clubs 
located ? Were they in the city of Newark or some other place ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Usually in the party headquarters, they had head- 
quarters on Branford Place, I attended meetings there. There was 
also a headquarters some place else here in town. I don't recall the 
address, it was an office building across a narrow street, Market Street 
I believe. I don't recall the name of the street or the address, and I 
also attended at least two other meetings that were not held in party 
headquarters where I heard some of the so-called higher ups in the 
party speak. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio were those higher ups, if you can recall? 

Mr. RuDiCH. One meeting I recall Henry Winston being present, 
John Williamson, Jack Stachel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were other UE organizers there besides yourself ? 

Mr. RuDiGH. I believe so. Right now I don't recall the date of the 
meeting or even where it was held. It was some hall here in Newark. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you recall what the so-called higher ups in the 
party advocated when they were speaking at these meetings you have 
described ? 

Mr. RuDicH. The thing I recall about this meeting in particular was 
something about united labor, or drive, or something of that nature. 

Mr. ScHERER. When you say united labor drive, do you mean a 
drive to get labor into the Communist Party ? 

Mr. RuDicH. That may have been the idea but I think actually what 
they meant at that time was that they were for unity of all labor at 
that time. I think they were, that is what they were talking about, 
uniting of all labor, but just what the other circumstances were at 
the time, I don't recall. 

Mr. ScHERER. You have learned since that their desire to unite 
labor, whatever it was at that time, wasn't for the interests of labor but 
for the interests of the Communist Party which they represented; 
isn't that right ? 

Mr. RuDicH. That is right. I have learned since they certainly 
haven't united labor. 

Mr. ScHERER. They were only interested in the problems of labor, 
or pretended to have an interest in the problems of labor because they 
felt that would be a ground from which they could derive member- 
ship and strength for the party ? 

Mr. RumcH. They wanted to use it for their base. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of other persons who 
held positions in the UE who were known to you to be members of the 
Communist Party in this area, persons with whom you met from time 
to time as Communist Party members ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. UE staff members ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; who held any position with the UE. 

Mr. RuDiCH. Well, I named James Moore. He was on the UE staff. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he an organizer ? 

Mr. RuDicH. He was a field organizer. Of course, Ruth Young 
was district secretary ; Archer Cole, field organizer ; Al Burdick, field 
organizer ; Bill Santora, field organizer. 



COIVCMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1035 

Mr. Tavenner, Are there any others? I didn't know whether I 
interrupted you or not. You may have finished. I am not sure. 

Mr. RuDiCH. There may be others. I can't think of any. 

Mr. Taat^nner. You mentioned Archer Cole as a field organizer. 

Mr. RuDiCH. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ta\t:xner. Can you give us more definite identification of him? 
Where had he been employed, if you know ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Before coming with the UE ? 

Mr. Tavenjster. Yes. 

Mr. RuDicH. I don't know anything about him before coming to the 
UE. I know he was on the UE staff when I became a member of the 
staff, but I don't know anything about his previous employment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he still on the UE staff when you left in 1947 ? 

Mr. Rtjdich. Yes ; I believe he was. 

Mr. Taatenner. You mentioned William Santora. Is there any 
further information you can give us regarding him ? 

Mr. RuDicH. No ; I didn't know him before I was on the UE staff, 
either. I don't know anything about him other than that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do know that you attended Communist Party 
meetings with him ? 

Mr. RuDicH. That is right. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what the Com- 
munist Party sought to do, if you know, in the field of labor ? What 
was it interested in? Wliat was it trying to accomplish? As far 
as you could observe. 

Mr. RtmiCH. Well, the avowed interest, as I stated before, the line 
at that time was that they wanted to show the working people that 
the Communists were leaders that would fight their battles for them 
with the employers and they needed to develop more leadership in 
order to be prepared for socialism. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did the Communist Party go about trying to 
influence the UE organizer? "V^'^lat did they do to bring influence 
to bear on your organization if it did, and if you know ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Well, as I stated before, even on the local union level 
we would discuss sometimes the situation in the locals, and especially 
if there was a question of the election of delegates and election of 
officers, we discussed the question of getting support for the candidates 
that would support the policies of the top office. By that I mean 
iTSually the party line was to support the policy of the national union. 

Mr. Scherer. You would attempt to elect officers who were either 
Communists or pro-Communists ; is that right ? 

Mr. Rtjdich. Xot necessarily, but who would vote — we will say in 
a convention those that would vote for the resolutions they wanted 
passed or officers they wanted elected. 

Mr. Tavenner. Vote for the resolutions the Communist Party 
wanted passed : is that right ? 

Mr. RuDTCH. Apparently they wanted them passed and that is the 
reason for the lining up of the meetings some time in advance. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words. Communist Party members would 
meet in advance and try to decide upon what resolutions should be 
adopted by the union ; is that what you are saying? 

]VIr. RunicH. Well, that is what was probably done, but you see the 
only connection I had with any of that was on the local union level 



1036 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

where we elected officers or tried to elect officers in the local union 
that would support the national union, and when we elected delegates 
to the convention, to send those who would support the national union. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you refer to when you say the national 
union ? 

Mr. RuDicH. That is the UE. 

Mr. Tav-enner. The national UE. 

Mr. RuDicH. The top. 

Mr. Scherer. There would be nothing wrong with that if you elect 
delegates to support the national union. I am interested in whether 
or not this Communist Party group that met prior to the union meet- 
ings were interested in electing delegates to eventually support Com- 
munist Party programs. Is that what you are trying to tell us, or am 
I wrong in that statement ? 

There would be nothing wrong to elect delegates to support the 
national union and the union's policy if that policy was uninfluenced 
by Communist Party propaganda or Communist Party objectives, 
would it ? 

Mr. EuDicH. That is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Are you trying to tell us that the object of the local 
was to elect individuals to positions of influence in the union so that 
the Communist Party program would be carried out within the union, 
whether at local or national levels ? 

Mr. RuDicH. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask a question here ? 

As you answered the questions of Mr, Tavenner, our counsel, I 
made a couple of notes here quickly. I think I used your exact words. 
You said they wanted to use the labor unions as their base. Do you 
remember saying that? 

Mr. RuDiCH. That is right. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. In other words, the Communist Party wanted to use the 
labor unions as their base. 

What did they want to use them as a base for ? Wliat was the UE 
to be used as a base for, what kind of an attack ? Was it the installa- 
tion of communism or socialism ? You used the term socialism. 

Mr. RuDicH. That is the word they used at the time. 

Mr. Doyle. Why were they using the term "socialism" instead of 
"communism" ? Do you remember ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Not definitely, although as I stated before, at the 
time I went to the party there was still some discussion as to whether 
they made the right move when they dissolved the old organization. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, when they expelled Earl Browder in 
October 1945, I believe. Then they formed the Communist Political 
Association, I think is the fact. Do you remember that trend in the 
movement ? It was about the time you came into it ? 

Mr. RuDicH. I recall there was still some talk at that time. As a 
matter of fact, some people I understand even left the party at the 
time because they felt that the Browder policies were right. Of course 
there was still a lot of discussion about that when I went in. 

Mr. Doyle. To refresh -your memory, if I am not in error, I think 
the record is that Mr. Browder preached and wrote in substance that 
it was possible for the Communist program and the American capital- 
ist program or the program of American free competitive enterprise to 
exist side by side in the same world. I think that is it. 



COMMXJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1037 

Mr. EuDicH. I think he came out with that during the war, 
didn't he? 

Mr. Doyle. I think so. Then as our distinguished committee 
counsel mentioned, as a result of the Duclos letter, which I think came 
to this country a little prior to October 1945 through the agency of the 
great French Communist, Duclos, as an agency clearly of Moscow, 
they expelled Browder because the Duclos letter took the position 
that the Communist system of economics and political philosophy, 
and the American caste could not exist side by side in the same 
world, which is the same controversy that is going on now, by the way, 
in the cold war, I think. "Was it that controversy that you remember 
about the time you joined ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I asked you that question to refresh your memory. 
Mr. Tavenner asked you about what the Communist Party group 
discussed, and you said party program with reference to labor unions. 
I wrote down that exact language. 

Do I understand that the Commmiist group that you were a 
member of met in precaucuses to determine who they would support 
and what they would support in the meetings of the labor unions 
executive council ? 

Mr. RuDicH. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. I bear in mind the testimony this morning of Mr. 
Pollock, I don't know that you were in the courtroom, but I remember 
he testified that, as a matter of fact, numerically and practically 
speaking, the Communist club of which he was a member at the 
time he was a field organizer such as you were, that Communist group 
controlled for all practical purposes the UE organization. 

"V\^iat was the fact with reference to the Connnunist Party group 
in your experience? 

Mr. RuDicH. They weren't anywhere near that successful. 

Mr. Doyle. Did they try to be that successful? Did they try to 
control the elections and the policy of the labor union, the UE, at 
the local level where you were ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. The local I belonged to as I recall, only in two 
specific instances were the so-called left-wing group able to elect 
delegates to a convention and also to elect officers, but as it turned 
out some of tlie delegates that were elected to this convention didn't 
vote the way they were supposed to, and also a number of these people 
who were originally elected to local office with left-wing support have 
since left the UE and some of them are top officers in the lUE today. 
So the party wasn't very successful in that local. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask you one more question : Wlien you were a 
field organizer of the UE, I understand your testimony to be that you 
were a Communist Party member. 

Mr. RuDiCH. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. You were a Communist Party member in fact before 
you became such an organizer ? 

Mr. RuDicn. That is correct. 

Mr, Doyle. Of course, as field organizer for the UE you became 
acquainted with quite a few other field organizers of the UE? 

Mr. RuDicH. That is correct. 

Mr, Doyle. And you learned that some of them were also membei-s 
of the Communist Party ? 



10c 8 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Rttdich. That is correct. 

Mr. DoTLE. Do you know of any field organizers of the UE at the 
time you were a field organizer for the UE who were not known to you 
to be Communist Party members ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Well, I didn't know them all to be Communists, but I 
wouldn't swear that they weren't. 

Mr. D0T1.E. Did you know some of the field organizers that were 
known to you to be Communists ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. How many of the field organizers of the UE in this 
area were known to you to be Coimnunist Party members. 

Mr. RuDicH. Well, at least a half dozen or more. 

Mr. Doyle. A pretty good handful. If a half dozen or more were 
Communist Party members at the same time they were field repre- 
sentatives for the UE in this area, do you know how many other field 
representatives or organizers there were for the UE who were not 
Communist Party members in this area? 

Do you understand my question ? 

I don't know whether the UE had 15 field organizers in this area, or 
20 or 10? 

Mr. EuDicH. Offhand I don't remember how many they had here 
myself. 

Mr. Doyle. At least your testimony is that six or more were known 
to you to be Communist Party members ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. That is correct. 

]\Ir. Doyle. I want to make this statement here, Mr. Tavenner. 
May I make it clear for the record and for any who hear me speak : 

In my questioning about labor in bringing out that there were so 
many of these rotten Communists trying to control the UE — evidently 
they did a pretty good job of it in too many spots over the country — 
I don't want anyone to think that I think organized labor generally 
speaking or substantially speaking was rotten with communism, be- 
cause I know it isn't and wasn't. I want to make that clear because 
the great mass of American organized labor is as patriotic and as clear 
as crystal, and we all know that it true, but here and there, like this 
situation, there is a rotten egg and the eggs are too many, and rotten 
with dastardly communism like this outfit. 

That is the kind of unpatriotic American labor we are trying to 
check and expose. We want to cooperate with the FBI and other 
agencies so that if it advocates forceful overthrow of our Nation, 
"vve can help in successfully prosecuting these unpatriotic factions if 
they are guilty under Federal statutes. 

I want to make it clear that certainly not in any way do I mean to 
infer that I think organized labor is full of Communists. It isn't. 

Thank God the CIO a few years ago had the guts to kick certain 
Communist-controlled unions out, and I think they still have the guts 
and backbone to do it, and so does the AFL. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any occasions that came to your atten- 
tion where funds were voted by a local or on any other level of the UE 
for the Communist Party, or for the benefit of the Communist Party 
directly or indirectly ? 

Mr. RuDicii. Well, I know there were a number of appeals for 
funds for various things. I know in the local unit I belonged to re- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1039 

gardless of who brouaht them up, all these so-called leftwing appeals 
were voted down, but I do recall the one instance considerable discus- 
sion at one of the district council meetings here in district 4 about 
subscriptions to the Daily or Sunday Worker. 

Of course I wasn't a part of that body. I just happened to be there 
at their meeting and there was considerable discussion about it. 

Mr. Ta^^nxer. Do you recall whether it was voted to subscribe to 
the Daily Worker for certain members of the union ? 

Mr, RuDiCH. I think the motion was passed to subscribe for a certain 
number of copies but as to what was to be done with these copies, I 
don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did that mean that the money of the local unions 
Avas used for that purpose ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. This money came out of the district treasury, but of 
course the locals paid per capita tax to the district. 

Mr. Taatenner. Do you know whether the rank-and-file membership 
knew that that was being done ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. No ; I don't know whether they knew it. I think most 
locals had delegates to the district council but whether they got reports 
on it I have no way of knowing. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you told us that you went from this area 
to another area. 

Mr. RuDiCH. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavexner. Of the UE, that is. 

Mr. RuDiCH. That is correct. 

Mr. Taa-exxer. What district did you go to in 1947 ? 

Mr. RtjDich. District 6. 

Mr. Tavexxer. "\^liere are the headquarters of District 6 located? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Tavexner. 'Why were you assigned to that district ? 

Mr. E.UDICH. Well, there was a new Westinghouse plant in western 
Pennsylvania that the}' wanted to organize at that time. 

Mr, TxWExxER. You were sent there to assist ? 

Mr. RtJDicii. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavexx'er, Did you have occasion to meet with any members 
of the UE at the headquarters or in the area of the headquarters of 
district 6 Pittsburgh whom you found to be members of the Commu- 
nist party? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Yes. 

Mr, Tavex^xer. Just tell us about that, please. 

Mr. RuDicrr. You mean name them ? 

Mr. Tavexxer. Yes, and tell how you knew they were members of 
the Communist Party and how they knew you were a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. RuDicH. Well, I don't know how they knew I was a member of 
the Commimist Party but the way they approached me and invited 
me to attend meetings 

^Ir. Tavexxer. Meetings of what ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Communist Party meetings — led me to believe they 
knew somehow. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Knew something about your membership back in 
Newark? 

Mr. RuDiCH. It could be. They probably had a wire. 



1040 C0MMU^^ST activities in the Newark, n. j., area 

Mr. Doyle. Probably a wire in code or something like that. They 
have been known to use a code because they were operating secretly, 
very often. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which you"^were invited to the Communist Party meet- 
ing, who invited you, what occurred, and who you met there? 

Mr. KuDicH. Well, I recall I was invited by the field organizer by 
the name of Jack Sartiski, who I later found was a member of the 
party. 

Mr. TA^^3N]s^ER. What was his position? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Field organizer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Field organizer in Pittsburgh ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Field organizer of the UE ? 

Mr. Rtjdicit. That is correct. I also attended meetings with 
Charles Newell, international representative in the district. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell it? 

Mr. EuDiCH. N-e-w-e-1-1. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he international representative of the UE in 
district 6? 

Mr. RuDiCH. That is correct 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there any others you can now recall? 

Mr, RuDiCH. Allen McNeil, district representative. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do vou know how he spells his first name, whether 
Allan is "an" or "en"? 

Mr. RuDicH. T don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the spelling of his last name? 

Mr. RuDiCH. I believe it is M-c-N-e-i-1. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there any others whom you can identify that 
attended those meetings with you ? 

Mr. RuDicH. I don't recall any others now. There were other people 
at these meetings whom I didn't know either, as UE representatives 
or any other way. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain in the area of district 6? 

Mr. RiTDicH. Until sometime in 1949 and later in 1949 I went to 
district 7 for a short time before I left. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where is district 7? 

Mr. EuDiCH. In Ohio. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where are the headquarters? 

Mr. RuDiCH. I believe it is in Cleveland. I was only there a short 
time. I was never at the district headquarters there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circimi- 
stances under which you left the Communist Party? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Well, actually, after leaving this area and losing almost 
daily contact that T had in this area, T just gradually drifted away, and 
I consider about the time T left the UE, about the time that I found 
that T had just about enough of that business, and I just gave it all up, 
and I had no contact with any of my former acquaintances, even in the 
UE or any other group that I had while I was in the party. 

Mr, Tavenner. Why did you feel you had gotten enough of that 
business ? What do you mean ? 

Mr. RunicH. Well, it became more and more obvious that the Amer- 
ican people by and large were just not buying what we had for sale. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1041 

It got to be more and more obvious and anybody who would identify 
themselves as a Communist or who was identified with any organiza- 
tion that was Communist was certainly getting to be more and more 
unpopular, and I got to thinking the whole situation over and felt 
that if there were so many people against it, there certainly must be 
some reason for it. 

After giving it considerable thought, I found that it appeared to 
me that the greatest thing that the Communist actually had for sale 
was confusion. I was pretty well confused then myself. But I tliink 
I have gotten straightened out since then. I am very happy to relieve 
myself of the stigma of the stupidity of the whole thing. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. You are in no sense connected with the Communist 
Party now and haven't been since the time you indicated ? 

Mr. RuDicH. Definitely not. 

Mr. Tavenxer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I have just one question. Before asking it, I want to 
thank you for your cooperation with the committee in coming here 
and helping us. I notice you came without legal counsel, relying on 
your own good judgment entirely as to what you say and answer. 

I wrote down here just a few words that I wanted to ask you about. 
We are interested as a committee in studying, for the purpose of 
i-ecommending remedial legislation to Congress, how the Communist 
Party operated, what their methods are or have been, and what thej'' 
taught. In asking you this question I am going to assume I don't 
know anything about this ; I want you to tell me. 

You said, "AVe were to recruit labor leaders so that they could show 
the workers they had trained leaders to work toward socialism." Do 
you remember saying that ? 

Mr. Rtjdich. That is right. That was the line at that time. 

Mr. Doyle. ^Vliat was that socialism to consist of? What were 
they to get ? 

Mr. RuDicH. That was a question that wasn't being answered. 

Mr. Doyle. The record shows and we know that the word socialism 
was substituted for communism because the word communism became, 
as you said, very unpopular. Wliat did they tell you, if anything, that 
you were going to get as an American citizen under socialism that you 
were not getting under the American system of government ? 

How was socialism going to improve conditions ? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Actually, the line was that under socialism all the 
working people would benefit and be better off than they are today. 

Mr. Doyle. And the working people were to take over industry? 
Was that ever taught ? 

Mr, RuDicH. They never went into any discussions of that nature. 
The whole idea at that time was, as I said before, they were just lay- 
ing the base at that time. And what they accomplished besides 
creating a lot of confusion and even destroying some unions and or- 
ganizations, I don't know what they have done. 

Mr. Doyle. You mean the Communist Party was destroying some 
unions? 

Mr. RuDiCH. Well, they made a lot of people happy, when actually 
it was the infiltration of the Communists that busted the UE apart 
and for all intents and purposes I believe it is destroyed. 



1042 COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask you another question which goes to your 
very personal attitude. Did you find anything in communism while 
you were in it, or as you look back on it, that you felt at the time or 
now feel is an improvement upon or substitute for our American form 
of govermnent ? 

Mr. EuDiCH. Nothing whatsoever. 

Mr. DoTL,E. You did find confusion no end ? 

Mr. KuDicH. Definitely. 

Mr, DoTLE. Have you any suggestion or recommendation to make 
to this committee ? This is one of your congressional committees, you 
realize, and, under the Constitution, Mr. Scherer and I are representa- 
tives of the Congress of all the American people, not just our own 
districts. 

Mr. RuDiCH. There is nothing I can think of offhand. Actually I 
don't feel I am equipped to give any recommendations. 

Mr. Doyle. I have never before spoken to you in my life, have I ? 

Mr. RuDicH. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. When I ask you that question or when I have asked you 
any question, I have done it without ever having spoken to you before ; 
isn't that true? 

Mr. RuDiCH. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. I didn't know what your answers would be. 

Thank you very much again. 

Is the witness excused from the subpena ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

(^Yliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will recess for 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will come to order, please. 

Let the record show that Mr. Scherer, of Ohio, and Mr. Doyle, of 
California, are present, constituting a legal quorum of the subcom- 
mittee. 

Before you call your next witness, Mr. Tavenner, I want to quote 
for the record's attention this paragraph which is a pronouncement 
by the United States Congress, Public Law 831 of the 81st Congress, 
on this question of communism, what Congress thinks of it. I do 
that in view of our questions to these witnesses and in view of your 
questions. 

As a result of evidence adduced before various committees of the Senate and 
House of Representatives, the Congress hereby finds that (1) there exists a 
v«forld Communist movement which in its origin, its development, and its present 
practice is a worldwide revolutionary movement whose purpose is by treachery, 
deceit, and infiltration into other groups (governmental and otherwise), espio- 
nage, sabotage, terrorism, and other means deemed necessary to establish the 
Communist totalitarian dictatorship in all countries of the world through the 
medium of worldwide Communist organization. 

While you are preparing to call a witness, Mr, Tavenner, I wish to 
supplement that by saying that when I was last in Europe, Asia, and 
Africa for Congress, every American ambassador and every group 
of foreign intelligence officers and American intelligence officers that 
I interviewed told me very frankly that the Communist aggression 
and subversion in Asia, Africa, and Europe were part of the same 
conspiracy program abroad here in the United States. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 



COMMUlSiIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1043 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call Mr. Charles Nusser. 

Mr. NussER. I believe the siibpena served upon me was illegal and 
I would like to present a motion to quash the subpena. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please rise and be sworn before you present 
anything ? 

Mr. NussER. You are not going to permit me to present the motion 
at all? 

Mr. Doyle. You will be sworn under the laws of the country, and 
we will see what we will do with your motion. 

Mr. NussER. Pardon me while I confer with counsel. 

(Mr. Nusser conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. DoYLE. You are not even before the committee until you are 
sworn. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Ntjsser. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF CHAHLES NUSSER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HARRY SACHER 

Mr. Nusser. May I present my motion ? 

Mr. Doyle. "We will hear you very briefly, Mr. Nusser, and I say 
very briefly. 

Mr. Nusser. Not more than 5 minutes. 

Mr. Doyle. We won't give you that long. 

Mr. Tavenner. Pie has the notice in writing. ^^Tiy not hand it to 
you and let you consider it. 

Mr. Doyle. The rules of the committee are well known that this 
is no court and we have heard the same sort of motion so many times 
in the last 4 or 5 years that we probably know in advance — in fact, 
we wouldn't rule favorably on your motion, and you might as well 
know it. 

Mr. Nusser. Before you had even heard it, sir, you have decided 
how you are going to rule. That is incredulous. 

Mr. Doyle. We understand you have come here to make a speech. 
You have 15 or 20 pages of typewritten script in front of you. 

Mr. Nusser. No, sir ; three pages. 

Mr. Doyle. If you want to deliver us your motion we will review it 
but we will not take 5 minutes to let you argue on your prepared 
speech. So you take your choice. This is not a court. 

Mr. Nusser. I am not clear what choice I am being given. 

Mr. Doyle. This is not a court. We are here under Public Law 
601. We have no jurisdiction to refuse to hear you. You are here in 
response to a subpena which we have issued iii accordance with the 
law. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I make a suggestion that if he has a written 
motion, permit him to file it with you, and the committee will consider 
it. If it requires any action, take it ; if not, then proceed. 

Mr. Scherer. I think that is a good suggestion. 

Mr. Nusser. I would like to have this motion to quash the subpena 
as illegal on the record right now. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is the procedure we have followed for many 
years. 



1044 COROIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you have the motion ? 

Mr. NussER. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. If you will file the motion with us, we will take it and 
rule on it promptly, but we are not going to use this as a forum for 
you to make a speech. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. It is apparent he does not desire to file his motion, 
and I think we may as well proceed. 

Mr. NussER. Well, sir, I don't want to make a speech. I didn't come 
to make a speech. I just want to present this motion which I think 
has to do with the illegality of the subpena issued to me. 

Mr. Doyle. You can hand it to us. We will consider it, briefly. 

Mr. NussER. If I can't present it then I can't present it. 

Mr. ScHERER. We want to see the motion if you want to give it to us. 

(The witness tendered a document to the chairman.) 

Mr. DoYLE. Mr. Scherer and I have considered it and have con- 
ferred with our committee counsel, and almost every line of it is what 
I anticipated it would be. It is an attack on the committee and a de- 
fense of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. It is obviously not a motion, I think we should 
proceed. 

Mr. DoYLE. We will hold it in our file. 

Mr. NussER. May I have it? 

Mr. Doyle. You filed it with the committee, and we will hold it for 
our records. 

Mr. Sacher. In view of the fact that you have characterized it 

Mr. Doyle. We are not allowing you to speak to the committee. 

Mr. NussER. You characterized it as an attack on the committee,, 
which I don't believe it is, but nevertheless you also have said you 
don't accept any statements that are attacks on the committee, and 
therefore I would like to have it back. 

Mr. Scherer. I think he has a right to have it back. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you have a copy of it ? 

Mr. NussER, No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. We love to have this sort of thing to show the public,, 
but if you want it back you may have it. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner, with your questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please, sir. 

Mr. Nusser. Charles Nusser. 

Mr. Tavenner. I noted you are accompanied by counsel. Would 
counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Sacher. My name is Harry Sacher, S-a-c-h-e-r, 342 Madison 
Avenue, New York 17, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Nusser? 

Mr. Nusser. I was born in Pittsburgh, September 12, 1914. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in the city of Newark? 

Mr. Nusser. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you resided in the city of Newark ? 

Mr. Nusser. Approximately 10 years. Maybe a little more than 
that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you resided at any other place other than the 
place of your birth ? 

Mr. Nusser. I don't quite understand the question. For what 
length of time? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1045 

Mr. Ta^'Enner. In what places have you lived besides the place 
of your birth and the city of Newark ? 

Mr. NussER. I have lived in New York City for a short period of 
time. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what years? 

Mr. NussER. During the war years it was, 1939 through 1942, some- 
thing like that. I lived in Pittsburgh and in Newark. I lived in 
Georgia. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. When did you live in Pittsburgh ? 

Mr. NussER. I was born and raised in Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Tamsxner. How long did you live in Pittsburgh? 

Mr. NussER. I lived in Pittsburgh over 20 years. Then I lived in 
Georgia and Florida in the United States Army and then I also lived 
in Spain. 

Mr. Taa-enner. During what years? 

Mr. NussER. During the year of 1937. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Where did you reside prior to going to Spain in 
1937? 

Mr. NussER. Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Ta\"enner. Where did you live upon your return from Spain ? 

Mr. NussER. I went back to Pittsburgh, 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Nusser. I am a high-school graduate. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVill you tell the committee, please, what your 
emplovment was in Pittsburgh prior to your leaving for Spain in 
1937?"^ 

Mr. Nusser. This was not in Pittsburgh but I was in Pittsburgh 
when I got this employment in the Civilian Conservation Corps. 

Mr. Ta%^nner. What was your business in Spain? Were you 
employed in Spain? 

Mr. Nusser. No, sir. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. Were you in the military forces in Spain ? 

Mr. Nusser. Yes, sir ; I was. On the side of the Spanish Republic. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Did you have a passport ? 

Mr. Nusser. Yes, sir. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Was the passport issued under your name ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Nusser. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Vliat was that name ? 

Mr. Nusser. Charles Nusser. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. You used the name Charles Nusser in making an 
application for the passport ? 

Mr. Nusser. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tav^enner. In your passport application did you state your 
purpose in going to Europe ? 

Mr. Nusser. I stated I was going to Europe. That is all I was asked. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. You did not advise the State Department you pro- 
posed to go to Spain ? 

Mr. Nusser. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. What countries did you say you were going to travel 
in? 

Mr. Nusser. I just said Europe and was asked no questions as I 
remember. 



1046 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. You are sure your passport application didn't require 
you to set forth the countries you were going to travel in 

Mr, NussER. I don't remember. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let me finish. And the purpose of your visit to 
Europe ? 

Mr. NussER. I wouldn't want to swear to it. It has been so long 
ago. 

Mr. ScHERER. Isn't it a fact, Witness, that you did not mention 
in your passport that you were going to Spain, but said that you 
were going to at least 2 or 3 other countries ? Isn't that right. 

Mr. NussER. I don't remember, sir. I wouldn't swear that it is 
not. 

Mr. ScHERER. 'VAliat purpose did you set forth in your passport 
application ? 

Mr. NussER. I really don't remember. 

Mr. ScHERER. You did not tell them you were going to Spain to 
fight, in the Spanish Civil war, did you '{ 

Mr. NussER. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. ScHERER. You know a passport wouldn't have been issued 
you if you told the truth in your application, do you not ? 

Mr. NussER. Unfortunately I am afraid that I wouldn't have been 
given a passport to go to Spain to fight against the invasion of Hitler 
and Mussolini. 

Mr. ScHERER. That wasn't my question. You knew if you had 
told the truth on your application for passport — namely, you were 
going to fight in the Spanish Civil War — you would not have been 
granted a passport. 

Mr. NussER. As far as I know, I didn't tell any place on the pass- 
port. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was that your purpose in going to Europe? 

Mr. NussER. My purpose in going to Spain was the same purpose 
that thousands of other people throughout the world had and that 
was to meet the onslaught of fascism head-on and stop it and try to 
prevent World War II. 

Mr. ScHERER. If you stated on your application for passport that 
your purpose was other than what you have just stated then you lied 
in your application for passport, did you not ? 

Mr. NussER. I don't get that clearly, sir; no. I didn't say any- 
thing in the pass about that. 

Mr. ScHERER. You told us just now what your purpose was in going 
to Europe and Spain. I am saying that if in your application for 
passport you stated some other purpose, then you weren't telling the 
truth in your application. 

Mr. NussER. I don't remember stating any lies in the passport. 
I did not, however, state that I was going to Spain. However, I 
don't quite get the point you are trying to make here. Congressman. 

Mr. Tavennrr. When did you return from Spain ? 

Mr. Nusser. As I remember, it was some time at the end of 1937, 
in October, sometime around that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you return on the passport that was originally 
issued you or did you file a second application % 

Mr. Nusser. I returned on the passport that was issued to me. 

Mr. Tav^nner. From what city did you return to the United 
States? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1047 

Mr. NussER. I don't remember, but it Avas somewhere in France^ 
one of the ports. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated on your return you went to Pittsburgh. 

Mr. NussER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become employed in Pittsburgh ? 

Mr. NussER. I would like to confer with counsel. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment, that I refuse to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. DoTLE. Do you mean as to whether or not you became employed 
would incriminate you? 

Mr. NussER. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. DoTLE. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. NussER. My answer is the same for the reason stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you employed in any illegal activity? That 
is the only basis for which you could use the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NussER. Same answer, same reasons. 

Mr. ScHERER. We can only infer that your activity was illegal. 

Mr. Sacher. Just a moment. 

Mr. Doyle. If you want to speak to us, Mr. Counsel, speak through 
your own client. I want to w^arn you again. I don't want to be im- 
polite, but I want you to obey the rules. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. ]\[r. Chairman. I want to object to the statement of 
the Congressman and the inference of guilt. The use of the fifth 
amendment 

Mr. Doyle. We will conduct the hearing and you do your part of it. 

Mr. NussER. I am trying to, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. This is not a court. I am sure your counsel under- 
stands that. 

Mr. Sacher. Do you want me to answer that? When you say^ 
I understand it, I w^ill be quiet or respond. I am ready to be quiet. 

Mr. Doyle. You be quiet and obey the rules of the committee or 
you will be asked to leave the courtroom. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. ISTusser, were you recruited for service in Spain 
by the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Nusser. I have declined to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
the time you made your application for a passport to Spain ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. Same answer, same reasons. I might add to that 
question that I insist that the use of the fifth amendment does not in- 
fer guilt. On the contrary, our Founding Fathers put the fifth amend- 
ment into the Constitution precisely to protect the innocent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Nusser, I hand you a photostatic copy of the 
Daily Worker issue of October 18, 1950, and call your attention to an 
article there, "Jersey City Government Votes Communist Party 
Eegistration Law," and to the third paragraph in that article. You 
will see your name in the third paragraph underscored in red. Will 
you read that paragraph, please ? 



1048 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. NussER, I decline to read it. If you want to read it, you are 
capable. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Will you examine it and state whether or not that 
article states the truth ? 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask on what grounds you decline to read it, or 
don't you want to plead any grounds ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. To get the record straight I ask that you direct the 
witness to read the paragraph which counsel asked him to read. Kead- 
ing that paragraph can't possibly incriminate him. The next ques- 
tion might, but that question cannot. It is merely a direction to read 
a paragraph. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. This is a document, sir. It is not evidence of anything 
that I can see and I also plead on the ground of the fifth amendment 
that it might possibly tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. DoYLE. I direct the witness to answer the question and read the 
paragraph. 

Mr. NussER. I respectfully decline, sir, for the reasons stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness is clearly in contempt. 

Mr. Tavenner. If the article is not evidence of anything it could 
not possibly incriminate you, but I will read it : 

Charles Nusser, World War II veteran and secretary of the New Jersey 
Communist Party, flatly informed the commissioners not a single Communist 
would register under the ordinance. 

This article states, as I read, that you were at the time secretary of 
the New Jersey Communist Party. Did it correctly state the facts ? 
(The witness confererd with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer the document in evidence and ask that it be 
marked "Nusser Exhibit No. 1," and that it be incorporated in the 
transcript of the record. 

Mr. DoTLE. It is so ordered. 

(The exhibit referred to appears on p. 1049.) 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask for the record, Mr. Tavenner, what ordinance 
that is, what ordinance was referred to which Mr. Nusser stated the 
Communist Party would not register under ? 

Mr. Tavenner. It is a registration ordinance adopted by the city 
commissioners of Jersey City, N. J. 

Mr. Doyle. "V\niat year? 

Mr. Taatsnner. 1950. I hand you a photostatic copy of the Daily 
Worker issue of July 8, 1954, and direct your attention to an article 
entitled "Communist Party Conference Set for August 7-8, on Elec- 
tions," in the course of which you will note your name underscored. 
Will you examine it, please. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Will you read the paragraph in which your name 
appears. Witness ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ntjsser. Mr. Congressman, I respectfully decline to read that 
on the grounds heretofore stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1049 



NussER Exhibit No. 1 

F«f e 2 D«nT Worker, Nfw York, Wednesday, October 18. 195» 

Jersey City Gov't Votes 
CP Registration Law 

By John Norman 

JERSEY CITY, Oct. 17.-Mayor John V. Kenny pushed 
his "Uttle pohce-state" registration ordinance thtovigh the 
city commission on schedule today. But before the five com- 
missioners lined up -for their "ya"'^*> 



votes at the end of a stormy hear 
ing, a stream of opposition spokes 
men had made it clear that the 
people of this city want no part 
of McCarran-type thought control 
legislation. 

The bill, due to take effect Oct 
27, calls for police registration of 
I ai J body living in or passing 
through Jersey City who is con 
sidered to be a "Communist" or 
member of a "Communist-front 
[Organization. Refusal to register 
'calls for apenalty of 90 days in 
jail and. $200 fine for each day o' 
[refusal. There was frequent heckl 
ling by the Commissioner and at 
'tempt to intimidate opposition 
spokesmen. Kenny himself swung 
(between dour silence and red 
j faced rage as: 

I * . Charles Nusser. World War 
II veteran and secretary of the 
New Jersey Communist Party, flat- 
ily informed the Commissioners not 
a single Communist would register 
! under the ordinance. 

• Herbert M. Levy, staff coun- 
Isel for the American Civil Liber- 
ties Union, announced the ACLU 
will be "glad to aid any test to 
challenge the ordinance." 

• Lewis Moroze, Pacific com- 
bat veteran and state executive 
secretary of the Civil Rights Con- 
gress, cited a battery of court de- 
cisions-as well as the statement of 
President Truman— to prove the 
bill's unconstitutionality. 

• And a gathering of plain and 
prominent Jersey Citys — all sup- 
porters of Mayor Kenny's "Free- 
dom Ticket" that useated Frank 
Hague last year — took time off 
Irom the business and iheir house- 



work to express their oppositiou 
to Kenny's revival of Hagueism. 

Lined up to present a show of 
support for the gag law were a 
knot of "veteran leaders," com- 
plete with overseas caps and 
paunches who turned out on in- 
quiry to be: 

• A Hudson County court of- 
ficer. 

• A Jersey City cop. 

• A retired Jersey City cop. 

• An executive of a building 
supply company with city con- 
tracts. 

• A New York City real estate 
corporation head who lives in 
swank Point Pleasant Beach, N. J., 
16 miles from Jersey City. 

City Hall employes stood at the 
front of the Commission cham- 
bers, waving their hands and ini- 
tiating applause at the Commis- 
sioners' attacks on "atheistic Com- 
munism." 

In spite of ranting speeches by 
Kenny denying the ordinance's 
anti-Negro cover, anti-Semitic 
overtones, the hearing substantiat- 
ed the opposition's charges. David 
White, World War II combat vet- 
eran and well-known Jersey City 
Negro leader, was not even allow- 
ed to speak. White, Communist 
nominee for freehoder, is the only 
Negro candidate to appear on the 
ballot to appear on the ballot in 
Hudson County Nov. 7. 

As H. M. Levy, the Civil Liber- 
ties Union representative finished 
his remarks, a burly cop asked in 
a hoarse whisper, "What is his 
name?" arwl leered in an anti- 
Semitic gesture with both arms. 



65.388— 55— pt. 1- 



1050 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IK THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 



Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to read 
the paragraph in the exhibit before him in which his name appears. 

Mr. Doyle. I so instruct you. 

Mr. XussER. I refuse respectfully on the same grounds. 

Mr. TA\T;N]srER. According to this article, more than 150 delegates 
from 20 States were expected at a 2-day national conference to discuss 
Communist policy in the 1954 election campaign. According to this 
article members of the campaign committee were various persons in- 
cluding yourself, Charles Nusser. Were you a member of the campaign 
committee as indicated by this article ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer that question on the gi'ounds pre- 
viously. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted here that the name following yours is 
that of Steve Nelson. Were you acquainted with Steve Nelson ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer that question on the gromids pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Tavexner. Did he serve on the campaign committee with you 
for the Conmiunist Party in 1954 ? 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Nusser Exhibit 2," and that it be incorporated 
in the transcript of the record. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so ordered. 

For what election was that campaign committee organized? Does 
that document show? 

Mr. Tavenner. It is the 1954 national election. 

(The exhibit referred to is as follows :) 

Nusser Exhibit No. 2 

^ Page i ^^ Vorker, N«w York, Jhm»i,j. J Jy t, 1»M 



CP Conference Set for 
Aug. 7 - 8 on Elections 



a two-day national conference 
)to discuss Communist policy in 
the 1954 election campaign willj 
be held Aug. 7 aud 8 in New; 
York, it was announced yesterday] 
by Pettis Perry, chairman of the 
Communist National Election Cam- ' 
iwign Comnuttee. | 

More than 150 delegates from 
20 states are expected. A public I 
«lly will open the conference Fri-| 
day, Aug. 6. The meeting will bej 
heid at the auditorium of the 
Yugoslav-American H om e , 405 
West 41st St. 

The conference- will discuss the 
outlook for the Congressional cam- 
paign and Communist candidacies 
in a numbe rof localities on the 
basis of the -widety-circulated new 



Draft Program of the Communist 
Party. 

The conference is expected to 
indicate its position towards can- 
didates and programs of the major 
parties. Keynote of the conference 
deliberations. Perry said, is the fol- 
lowing section of the Communist 
Party's Draft Program: 

"The 1954 elections are cru- 
cial in determining the path 
America will take. McCarthy al- 
ready has thrown down the 
gauntlet to the American people, 
what is needed is unity of every 
decent, honest force of our peo- 
ple, of all independent-minded 
voters, whether Democrats, Re- 
public.ins, or Progressives. Such 
unity must set itself the objec- 



tive of electing an anti-Mc- 
Carthy-McCarran-Dixiecrat type 
of candidate, every pro-fascist 
and war-monger." 
The conference is expected to 
adopt its own legislative program. 
Members of the campaign com- 
mittee, besides Perry, are: Otis 
Hood, Massachusetts; Charles Nus- 
ser. New Jersey; Steve Nelson and 
Thomas Nabried, Pennsylvania; 
William Sthneiderman, California; 
Elizabeth Curley Fl)nn, George 
Blake Chamey, George Watt, Al- 
exander Trachtenberg, Albert F. 
Lannon, Arnold Johnson and Simon 
W. Cerson, New York. 

Traclitenberg is treasurer and 
Gerson is secretary of the com- 
mittee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1051 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Nusser, I hand you a photostatic copy of the 
August 9, 1954, issue of the Daily Worker and call the witness' at- 
tention to an article entitled, "Perry Tells Rally 1954 elections Can 
Spike Guns of McCarthyites.'" I call the witness' attention to his 
name underscored in red in the third paragraph. Will you examine it 
and state whether or not the description of your title appearing after 
your name correctly indicated your position in the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer that question on the grounds al- 
read}' stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. The article proceeds to describe brief speeches that 
were made by various persons. Among those persons speaking, it 
was said, was Charles Nusser, New Jersey Communist candidate for 
councilman in Newark. 

Were you in August 1954 a Communist candidate for councilman 
in Newark ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Nusser. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, that is a matter of public record, and 
I think you should direct the witness to so answer the question. 

Mr. Nusser. I decline on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Ta\t:xner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Nusser Exhibit No. 3,'' and that it be incorporated 
in the transcript of the record. 

Mr. DoTLE. It is so ordered. 

(The exhibit referred to appeai-s on p. 1052.) 



1052 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 
NussEE Exhibit No. 3 

PjICe i P«Uy Work«', N«w York, lAamUj, kmsm^ % 19t4 

Perry Tells Rally '54 Eletthns 
Cm Spike Guas of McCarthyites 



of Big BusiD^s, of Wall St.jdoin still were loo dependent— 
Irallv FriHav night which onened al's still war and war domination,"! "too much tailing"-on the Demo- 
rally fr.day night w men openea ai ^ ^ ^^^^ continued cratic Partv. "What of the Farley 
weekend national conferej.ce "l-Li^^,, ^g^^^^ -i^,^^ military Democrats? What of the McCar- 
tended by 150 delegates from 24} ^ jy^nfure" remained » life-and- ran Democrats? What of the Diiie- 

crats?" h« asked. 



A Communist Party election, 



(states enthusiastically cheeredideatli responsibility for democratic 
I pledges to help rally the people! Americans. 

iin a mighty electoral front against| He noted, as one of the most 
iMcCarthyism, and war in the cru-pignificant electoral development-, 
'cial poll struggles ahead. jthis year, the rise of a "majority 

The jammed Yugoslav-Ameri- anti-McCarthy sentiment 
I can Hall confirrr>ed grow ing con- 1 Cerson, who the day before had 
fideiKje of Communis! leaders from defied iuquisilion pressures from 
'every part of the na ion that the|tbe Jenner Committee in Washing 
|"forces of darkness' can be routed I ton, chaired the meeting as sec 
'in November. The rally had a.retary of the National Campaign 



festive air as dele'gates from North, 
South, East and West gathered for 
I the first national election confer- 
ence since 1950 to hear Party 
jleaders review the issues and ex- 
press their faith in the democratic 
j strength of the American people. 
j Major speakers were Elizab^h 
iCurley Flynn, candidate for Con- 
gress in'-Se 24th CD., the Bronx, 
and Pettis Perry, National Com- 
;mitte« member. Both are Smith 
Act victims. Simon W. Cerson, the 
Party's state legislative spokesman, 
was chairman. 

Brief speeches that received 
ovations were made by Frank 
Alexander, Negro P.uly leader 
from California and Lincoln \'et, 
Saul Wellman, another Smith Act 
victim from Detroit, Mrs. Cer- 
aldine Lightfoot, w ile of the heoric 
Negro Illinois Communist, Claude 
Lij^tfoot, now in a Chicago jail 
with a bail of $30,000 to raise; 
WiUkm Se»*ner, UE leader tiom 
St. lx>uis who faces prison lor 
challenging .McCarthyism, and 
CharlesJsiuaer . New Jersey Com- 
munist candidate lor Council- 
man in Newark. 

Perry's address said that the 
1954 elections were taking place 
in a period of upsurge against 
McCarthyism and "unlike 1952 the 
peace forces of the work! and the 
peace-loving masses of our coun- 
try here won a number of signi- 
ficant victories on the international 
front." 

The Communist leader declared 
that it wa.s the American people 
who "in no small way" prevented 
U. S. military inlerventiDti in 
Indochina, forced a truce in Ko- 
rea, and generally "stayed the 
hand of Eisenhower and Dulles." 
Perry warned against conchid- 
ing that this m.nss protest thereby 
eliminated the danger of war. "The 



Election Committee. 

Perry warned against figliting 
merely for a change from Repub- 
lican to Democrat. "Labor and th« 
peace force must demand a change 
in the composition of Congress," 
he said. "That means, among oth- 
er things, fighting to elect an anti- 
McCarthy Congress, fighting tc 
defeat all rabid McCarthyite war- 
mongers, whetlier of the Repub- 
lican or Democratic Party." 

He said that in this respect, de- 
spite labor's increasing role in the 
election campaign, union official- 



Stressing the elections in New 
York State which "is being watched 
by the nation," Perry declared that 
great possibilities were apparent 
for a powerful state-wide mobiliza- 
tion by labor artd th« people to 
sweep the Dewey Administration 
out of office. 

Perry said Hiose who opposed the 
American L^abor Party's plan to 
run a candidate for governor were 
"quite wrong." It would be a 'seri- 
ous blow to the voters and demo- 
cratic forces" if the ALP failed to 
run a gubemational candidate and 
eliminated itself as an official elec- 
toral body, he said. 

He hailed the opportunity to re- 
turn to Congress "that great fighter 
for peace and against XfcCarthy- 
ism, Vito Marcantonio" and called 
for a powerful effort to elect Eliza- 
beth Curley Flvnn, running against 
Rep, Charles Buckley in the Bronx. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, X. J., AREA 1053 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Nusser, have you had any contact with Commu- 
nist Party officials in Russia in tlie last year ? 

(The Avitness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. XussER. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you had any contact with any Russian agents 
during the past year ? 

Mr. XussER. I don't know what some stoolpigeon may have testified 
before your committee, but I decline to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you refuse to tell us whether or not you have had 
any contact with any Russian agents during the last year? 

Mr. NussER. The same reply for the same reasons. 

Mr. ScHERER, If this so-cailed stoolpigeon had told us you had had 
contact with a Russian agent, would that stoolpigeon be telling the 
truth or would he be lying ? 

Mr. XussER. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Doyle. I am not aware, Mr. Scherer. of ever having had a stool- 
pigeon such as this gentleman referred to before our committee. 

Mr. Nusser. A great many people think you have, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I know a great many Communists think so, and they 
will always think so. 

Mr. Nusser. Not just Commvmists. 

Mr. Doyle. One thing about these people you refer to, they seem 
to be telling the truth. 

Mr. Nusser. In fact, sir, committees like this would collapse with- 
out stoolpigeons. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you, Mr. Nusser, a photostatic co])y of a Com- 
munist Party nominating petition for the year 1952. Will you ex- 
amine it, please. 

Mr. Nusser. What do you want me to examine, sir, the whole 
petition ? 

Mr. Ta\tnner. Wliat is the petition ? It is a petition for whom ? 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Doyle. Let the record first show he is examining the petition 
pretty thoroughly. 

Mr. Nusser. It is a big, long petition. You can't examine it too 
thoroughly. In any case, my answer and for the same reasons -re- 
mains the same. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer the question. Witness. 

Mr, Nusser. I refuse, sir, on the grounds stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Nusser, where were you living on the 15th dav 
of September 1952? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Nusser. If I remember correctly, I believe I was living at 1 
Horatio Court in Newark. 

Mr. Scherer. There is no question that you are the Charles Nus- 
ser residing at 1 Horatio Court, Newark, N. J., who was a candidate 
on the Communist Party ticket in the year 1952, is there ? 



1054 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWAUK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. NussER. I decline, respectfully decline to answer, sir, on the 
grounds stated previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the photostatic copy of the petition 
of Charles Nusser as a candidate for the position of member of the 
board of chosen freeholders, bearino- date of September 15, 1952, m 
evidence, and ask that it be marked "Nusser Exhibit No. 4 ' for 
identification purposes only, and to be made a part of the committee 
files. 

Mr. Doyle. Does it show a political party registration { 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. 'Wliat does it show ? 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. Designation, Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. So marked and so received. 

Mr. Tavenner. The affidavit in the last page of exliibit No. 4 shows 
that 5 persons circulated the petition, that the petition was made in 
good faith and that the affiants saw all the signatures thereto and 
verily I believe that the signers are duly qualified voters. One of 
those 5 persons is Frank Chandler. Were you acquainted with Frank 
Chandler? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
stated previously. . 

Mr. Tavenner. The name of another person appearing as an af- 
fiant is Elwood M. Dean. Were you acquainted Avith Mr. Dean? 

Mr. Nusser. Same answer, sir, same reasons. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Another is Helen Conrad. 

Mr. Nusser. Same answer to that question and same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Nusser. were you educational director of the 
Communist Pnrtv in the citv of Newark at any time between 1050 and 
1953? 

Mr. Nusser. T decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Taatnner. You stated you first took up your residence m 
Newark about 10 years ago, if I recall your testimony correctly. 

Mr. Nusser. Mnvbe a little more than that, around that time. 

Mr. TAArRNNER. Wliat was your employment when you first took up 
your residence in Newark. 

Mr. Nusser. I worked in a tannery. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become a member of the International Fur 
and Leather Workers' Union at that time ? 

Mr. Nusser. I certainly did. T always join a union any place I 
work. . , 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. How long did vou remain a member of that union? 

Mr. Nusser. T think for a few "years. T don't remember exactly. 

Mr. Ta\t=:nner. Did you hold any office in the union? 

CThe witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Nusser. Yes; T once did hold a position in that union. 

Mr. Tavenner. "WHiat was the position or positions that you held? 

Mr. Nusser. Business agent or organizer. 

Mr. Taatjnner. Did vou hold any other position? 

Mr. Nusser. I may" have, but not that I remember specifically. 
That was the main one. . . o ■ 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you resign from your position? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN" THE NEWARK. N. J.. AREA 1055 

Mr. N'ussER. Yes ; I did resiofii. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the approximate date of your resigna- 
tion ? 

Mr. NussER. It was sometime in 1045, toward the end of 1945, I 
believe. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Did you resign in order to take another position 
elsewhere ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Nttsser. Yes. 

Mr, Ta^t:nner. ^Vliat was that position? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ISTussER. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Ta\^nxer. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
the time you w^ere business agent of the International Fur and Leather 
Workers' Union? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answ^er that question, sir, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. TA\T:>rNER. After 1945 did you continue to meet from time to 
time with representatives of the Fur and Leather Workers' union? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. TA^^:xNER. Have you at any time met with organizers of the 
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America for the 
purpose of discussing Communist Party matters ? 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state whether or not the headquarters of 
the Communist Party was located at 38^0 Park Place, in the city of 
Newark from 1946 to 1951 ? 

Mr. NussER. No, sir; I will not state that. I respectfully decline 
to answer that question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you Imow where the Communist Party headquar- 
ters were located at that time? 

Mr. NussER. Same answer, same reasons. Congressman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not pay $115 a month rent from June 1946 
to April 1, 1949, for the quarters "located at 40 Park Place? 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer on the grounds previously given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not pay $230 per month rent from April 1, 
1949, to October 1,1950? 

Mr. Nusser. Same answer, same reasons. 

Mr. DoTLE. He paid in what capacity, Mr. Tavenner ? What group 
was occupying it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you pay the amount indicated as rent for Com- 
munist Party headquarters in the city of Newark? 

Mr. Nusser. Did I pay what ? 

Mr. Ta\t3nner. $230 a month rent from April 1, 1949, to October 
1, 1950. 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
stated previously. 



1056 COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Taatenner. I hand yoii a photostatic copy of a throw-away 
marked, "Issued by the Civil Eights Congress of New Jersey." Will 
you examine it, please, and state whether or not you can identify it 
or any of its contents as to its source ? 

Mr. NussER. Would the stenographer please read the question back? 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. NiTssER. After examining it I must respectfully decline to 
answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Ta"\t.nner. Will you examine particularly that part of the 
document which is set up in black borders which has at the bottom of 
it, "Issued by the Communist Party of New Jersey." 

Mr. NussER. What is the question ? 

Mr. Tavexxer. I am calling your attention to that, and I ask you 
to state specifically whether or not j^ou know the origin of the material 
which is printed there. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously mentioned. 

Mr, Tavenner. Do you recall an occasion on January 18, 1951, when 
the city police of Newark executed a search warrant at 38—10 Park 
Place, Newark, N. J., and that during the execution of that search war- 
rant you came into that place? Do you recall that occasion? 

Mr. NussER. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Ta\trnner. Mr. Chairman, at this point I would like to ask 
the witness to step down momentarily while I call another witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you, counsel, and Mr. Nusser, vacate the witness 
chair for a short time. I will call you back in a few minutes. 

(T-Nniereupon the witness was temporarily excused.) 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Lieutenant John Owens. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Owens. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LT. JOHN OWENS 

Mr. Ta\^nner. What is your name ? 

Lieutenant Owens. John Owens. 

Mr. Tavenner. "V^Hiat is your official position with the city of 
Newark ? 

Lieutenant Owens. Lieutenant of Police. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Owens, did you have charge of the execution of 
a search warrant on January 18, 1951, at 38-40 Park Place, Newark? 

Lieutenant Owens. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Committee on Un-American Activities has 
served upon your department a subpena duces tecum to produce the 
records you procured in tlie execution of that search warrant. Do you 
have them ? 

Lieutenant Owens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you let me see them, please ? 

Lieutenant, I have taken from the envelope which you just handed 
me a leaflet entitled "Life or Death, It's Your Choice," at the bottom 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1057 

of which appears the notation, "Issued by the Communist Party of 
New Jersey, 38 Park Place, Newark 2, New Jersey." 

Will you examine it, please, and state whether or not you can iden- 
tify it as the paper you seized during the execution of that search 
warrant ? 

Lieutenant Owens. Yes ; this is the paper. 

Mr. Tavenner. I return the envelope to you and ask you whether 
or not there is a letter in the envelope which you received at that time 
durino; the execution of the search warrant. Will you examine it and 
see if it contains the letter? 

Lieutenant Ow^ens. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you also a report entitled "Youth Report," 
with the word "Lenore" written on it. Will you identify that paper 
as one of the papers seized? 

Lieutenant 0"«rENS. Yes. This paper was seized. 

Mr. Tavenner. I find also a document marked, "Rank and File." 
Is that one of the papers you seized during the execution of the search 
warrant? 

Lieutenant Owens. Yes ; these are the same papers. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Will you tell the committee, please, just what you 
did in the execution of the search warrant ? 

Lieutenant Owens. In what respect? 

Mr. Tax-enner. As to whether you found these particular papers, 
who were present, and what conversations, if any, were had with per- 
sons found present. 

Lieutenant Owens. At the time we entered the offices, there were 
only two people present, a man and a woman. The man was Louis 
or Lou Malinow and the woman was Esther Engle. 

Search was conducted by two other men and myself. These papers 
which you just presented to me were found on the desks, of which there 
were several in this room. This paper I have in my hand consists of 
3 sheets, which was found on the desk of Martha Stone, which pertains 
to the "Rank and File." This concerns longshoremen on the Hoboken 
waterfront. 

These papers here, there are 5 in number, pertain to a youth report, 
typewritten, with a lot of corrections in writing in it which was also 
found on the desk of Martha Stone. 

WHiile the search was in progress, Charles Nusser came into the 
room. He gave us one of these pamphlets and told us he was a member 
of the party, the Communist Party, their headquarters there, said he 
was educational director. 

Mr. Doyle. You are now holding up the one page printed matter 
with the question mark at the top that says "Life or Death, It's Your 
Choice." 

Lieutenant Owens. That is right. 

Mr. Doyee. Was that paper given to you by Mr. Nusser ? 

Lieutenant Owens. A pamphlet similar to that one, sir. There was 
picked up on Mr. Nusser's desk a letter which contained this leaflet, 
a clipping showing, a newspaper clipping under date of January 11, 
1951, showing a picture of him when he was arrested in Elizabeth, 
N. J., and a letter which was written apparently by him because the 
envelope was addressed to his family in Arizona, and quoting the 
last two lines of the letter which is under "P. S." "I really made the 
cycle on the leaflet: wrote it, distributed it and served time." 



1058 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 
Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the documents presented by the 
witness in evidence and ask that they be marked, "Owens Exhibit No. 
!.'• for identification purposes only, and to be made a part of the com- 
mittee files. 

Mr. DoYX£. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenker. Did you find any other documents besides those you 
have mentioned? 

Lieutenant Owens. A photograph was found in the desk of Lou 
Malinow. I gave it to you, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is this it ? 

Lieutenant Owens. That is it. This is a picture of Joseph Stalin. 
It was found in the desk of Louis Malinow by one of the men with me 
whose name is indicated on the reverse side here. 

Mr. DoTEE. Didn't you find any pictures of the American flag there, 
or Stars and Stripes? 

Lieutenant Owens. No American flag, no Stars and Stripes of any 
kind. 

Mr. DoTEE. No pictures of anv of the great Presidents of the United 
States? 

Lieutenant Owens. No. sir. 

Mr. Doyle. No picture or photograph of the United States Con- 
stitution or Declaration of Independence? 

Lieutenant Owens. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. No excerpts from the fifth amendment either? 

Lieutenant Owens. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Was Mr. Nusser there when you found this picture of 
Mr. Stalin? 

Lieutenant Owens. He was, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Was the picture lying on the desk ? 

Lieutenant 0"vvens. No; it was in the drawer. 

Mr. Doyle. The picture looks as though at one time a pin or a tack 
had been stuck through the top of it indicating it had been on some 
wall or some fence or something. 

Mr. TA^^2NNER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. Is the Lieutenatit excused? 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Yes, sir. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

May I recall Mr. Nusser. 

Mr. DoYi.E. Mr. Nusser and counsel, will you please return to the 
stand. 

TESTIMONY OF CHAEIES NUSSER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HARRY SACHER— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Nusser, was Lieutenant Owens telling this com- 
mittee the truth when he stated that you admitted that you prepared 
this document? 

Mr. Nusser. I must respectfully decline to answer that question for 
the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, you have an opportunity to deny the testi- 
mony of the witness called by this committee, and you refuse to take 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1059 

the opportunit}' to do so. Are you going out afterward and call the 
lieutenant a stoolpigeon ? 

Mr. NussER. Mr. Chairman, is the Congressman seriously putting 
the question ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I certainly am. 

Mr. NussER. If you want my opinion on the subject of stoolpigeons, 
I am quite qualified. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am not asking your opinion. You referred to stool- 
pigeons and called the witnesses we have had before this committee 
stoolpigeons. I want to know if you are going to go out now after 
you have had the opportunity to deny or affirm the testimony of this 
witness, and refer to him as a stoolpigeon. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. I think it is plain, sir, that Mr. OAvens evidently was 
an officer of the law. 

Mr._ ScHERER. That is obvious even to the dumbest of us, but that 
is not my question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. NussER. If I had any reference to make to him I would not 
refer to Mr. Owens as a stoolpigeon. I might refer to him as a reac- 
tionary and red baiter and a few other things. I refer to a stool- 
pigeon as a stoolpigeon. 

Mr. SciiERER. I think he is a fine American. 

Mr. NussER. There are differences of opinion, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Lieutenant Owens read this postscript to the letter 
taken from your desk as follows : 

I really made the cycle on the leaflet, wrote it, distributed it and served time. 

Will you examine that postscript, please, and state whether or not 
that is your handwriting ? 

Mr. Xusser. I would decline to answer that question, sir, on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did write the document, didn't you ? 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Taatenner. Where did you have it printed ? 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Was anything Lieutenant Owens said on the stand, 
any statement he made untrue ? 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. The fact is, isn't it, that everything he said was true ? 

Mr. NussER. I decline to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Taat:nxer. I want to read to you another notation from that 
letter. 

CRC reproduced the leaflet adding some comments of their own on free speech 
and distributed it the morning of the day I was released. 

Is it a fact, or isn't it a fact that the Civil Rights Congress did repro- 
duce this leaflet, the one you prepared, and made it a part of the leaflet 
which I first handed you prepared by the Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mr. Nusser. Are you asking me that as a question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 



1060 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IK THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. XussER. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
groinids previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the Communist Party throuo;h you or any of 
its aoents pay the Civil Eights Congress any money for the publica- 
tion of identically the same material in its leaflet ? 

]Mr. NussER. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to introduce in evidence the Civil Eights 
Congress leaflet which I have presented to the witness and ask that 
it be marked "Nusser Exhibit No. 5," and that it be incorporated in the 
transcript of the record. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so ordered. 

(The exhibit referred to appears on p. 1061.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I also desire to remove from the documents pre- 
sented by Lieutenant Owens the leaflet issued by the Communist Party 
and have it given a separate number, that of Nusser Exhibit, No. 6 
for identification purposes only, and to be made a part of the commit- 
tee files. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. A comparison, Mr. Chairman, will indicate that the 
Civil Rights Congress exhibit includes within the black square, word 
for word, the "Life or Death" pamphlet admittedly written accord- 
ing to the testimony of Lieutenant Owens 

Mr. ScHERER. Not denied by the author. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the basis for your refusal to state where 
you obtained printing to be done for this document ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Nusser. On the grounds, sir, that I decline to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Tavt:nner. Lieutenant Owens has indicated that you were 
arrested in connection with the execution of this search warrant. 
Was bail furnished for you ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Nusser. I would have to decline to answ^er that question, sir, 
on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it a fact that at the time you were arrested 
Esther Engle and Louis Malinow were also arrested? 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
stated previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it a fact each of you were held in $1,000 bail, 
making a total of $3,000 ? 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it a fact that the Civil Rights Congress, act- 
ing through Lewis Moroze offered $3,000 bail in cash for the release 
of the three of you? 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with a person by the name of 
Barbara Hartle? 

Mr. Nusser. I would decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Barbara Hartle was one of the top Commtinists 
prosecuted under the Smith Act in Seattle, Wash. After her con- 
viction and sentence she made it known to this committee that she was 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, X. J., AREA 1061 



NussER Exhibit No. 5 



THIS IS THE $30,000 LEAFLET 



♦ 



LIFE OR 
DEATH 

Tnunafl Li "coiuidenn^' 



1 



ITS YOUK 
CHOICE 



Dppmg the A ' bomb MscAnhui calls loi all oui wai *g%uul 
kUioiu Beahen — Uie Ouponi — ve gleehil The blood sKcd in 
« in profiB. Th»T look forwud lo bUlioiu more in a now Wocld 



IbnaflflUMrr. 



Drop th« uom bomb? M»i 
Tsppod on Oin« oi on th« So^ 






TO nOHT FOR PIACK IS PATWOTIC 

J W«l« M wu i« Dm 1 
> ycnu funilf uul tnMulc end lo th* p*opk 



sniM uji vouB un IS THE lAnav] 

W« do aoi liav9 w b«kl G\iAa. World War m does noi tuve to eacncJ We «afi ^Mp 
CO nunboi in Iho mUhou 1TB MnUOm WHO WAMT 7CACE CAN STOf TW ITW > 



WiKT WAR. 

T>uAl at your hushAnd. yoia wiie. joot i 



Write, leleeiapfa Ttumaa Oet na bipnds, ywn cKuich, jom onioa lo aci 

• MEDIATE THE KOREJJ4 WAB • REMOVE MasARIMUR 

• azT AU ouTszDt noopf out • brwo our boyi home 

• NO DROmNC THE "A" BOMB 



Charles Nusser. a war vet. was jailed 
on $30,000 bail for giving out this 
leaflet at Singers in EJilabeth. The 
charge — violating a 1918 "eubvertion" 
statute— IS based SOLELY ON THIS 
LhAFLET. 

The Civil Righu Confreas has read 
It carefully. It does not call for sub- 
verting the U. S. Government. It calls 



There can be ^^ 

ment with its proposals. Millions of 
Americans a<Q now debating the issue 
of war or peace. That is the right and 
patriotic duty of evaxy American. It 
IS your right. If is Charles Nusaet's 
right. 

The N. J. Supreme Court ruled on 
this very statute in 1918: "A» lone •« 
the Constitution has vigor, man may 
criticise the Administration, even in 
lime of war. They may even go so far, 
as patriotic supporters of the party in 
power did m fact go within the last 
two years, a. to ADVOCATE AN IM- 
MEDIATE PEACE AND TERMINA- 
TION OK THE WAfi even thoueh the 
term': may not be favorable, and a* 
some patriotic citizens, without regard 
lo party, now urge o speedy peace." 

Your own rights are at stake. U 
Charles Nutscr is B^SS^d, you can b« 
gagged. A cop could stop YOU from 
speaking your mind. That must not 

happen here I 



To protect your own righli, the Ciril Rights CongTCSc rvspecthiDy urges every dtiien of Qiiabetli and <rf Now 
Jersey lo protest tit* vioUtioa of th« U. S. ComtitBtian by the Eliiabeth city aotboHbes. We urge yoa to write, 
wir^ pboBc or can in person upon Joseph Kirfc, Mayor of Elizabeth, damanding the immediate rcfeasc of Charles 
Nusser. Writ, to County Judges Edward A. MoGradi and Waltar A. Helfield III, at tb« Union Coanty CooH- 
of 



FREE SPEECH IS YOUR BIRTHRIGHT- 
ACT NOW TO SAVE IT! 



_ '-"'d by the Civil Righu ConfreM ol New Jereey 

^^^■" 1 8« Bdmom Avenue, t^ewnrk. New Jcrwy. 

willing to tell all the facts within her knowledge regarding her years 
of Communist Party experience as the No. 2 ranking Communist in 
the Pacific Northwest. She testified in June 1954 in Seattle before 
this committee, and during the course of her testimony she described 
a school that she attended in the State of New York, a Communist 
Party school for which she was especially selected along with repre- 
sentatives from other areas of the United States. This was a 2-month 
national training school. 
Mr. ScuERER. Are you reading her testimony ? 



1062 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. This is what she had to say : 

In the spring of 1946 I was selected by the district leadership as the district 
student to a full-time 2-month national training school for theoreticians and 
propagandists, the school was held at Camp Beacon, which is a recreational 
camp on the Hudson, not far from New York City. The instructors of the school 
were top national people of the Communist Party. Some of the students that 
I recall in this school were 

and she named a few and among them was Charles Nusser. 

Was Barbara Hartle's testimony true or false insofar as it referred 
to your attendance at that school ? 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Would you classify Barbara Hartle as a stool pigeon ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer that question, Congressman, on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you mean it will incriminate you or tend to 
incriminate you if you tell us whether or not you classify Barbara 
Hartle as a stool pigeon ? 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. You probably know, Mr. Nusser, she is now in a 
Federal penitentiary serving time because of her former loyalty to 
the Communist Party, but of course she has seen daylight, I suppose 
because she is now serving her own country instead of communism 
she is a stool pigeon. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact this school Barbara Hartle referred to 
taught the basic principles of sabotage ? 

Mr. Nusser. I decline to answer that question, Congressman, on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, inasmuch as extended reference has 
been made to Barbara Hartle, I think it fair to state in that con- 
nection that Barbara Hartle actually broke with the Communist 
Party before the completion of her trial. She described all of that 
in the course of her testimony. However, she would not make it 
known publicly. She would not make it known to the prosecuting 
officers. She would not testify about any of her Communist Party 
experience until after she had been sentenced, and slie told this com- 
mittee that the reason she had not done so was because she felt now 
she had a contribution to make to her country, but if she gave it prior 
to sentencing, it might affect the weight of her testimony. She 
wanted to be sentenced and to be serving her sentence so that the story 
she was telling would have nothing to do with the amount of her 
sentence. She is now serving her time at Alderson, W. Va. 

Mrs. Hartle is a very brilliant person. She has made a real serv- 
ice to her country. There have been few witnesses ever appearing 
before this committee who have described the inner workings of the 
Communist Party in as intelligent a manner as she did. She was a 
Phi Beta Kappa and a college graduate. And she, like some other 
people, saw the error in her ways and is now trying to correct it. 

Mr. DoYEE. It should be significant to note the extent to which 
the Communist conspiracy chain extends from Seattle to a simimer 
camp on the Pludson and to Newark, N. J. It is a small world geo- 
graphically. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J,, AREA 1063 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Sclierer? 
Mr. ScHERER. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions, Mr. Nusser, except I do want to 
say this to you : 

You are apparently a man of unusual ability. You laiow as a 
matter of fact that we never subpenaed you until we knew pretty much 
about you according to our investigation and executive department 
records and so fortli. You may laugh and you may smile, do any- 
thing you want about what I am going to say to you. But I am 
going to say to you just what I say to all other witnesses who ap- 
pear before the committee and who we know nre in the Communist 
Party and are leaders in the Communist Party. Knowing the evi- 
dence as I know it nationwide of the Communist conspiracy, and 
how it is disrupting labor, how it is gutting out the lifeblood of pa- 
triotic American labor, why in God's name don't you get out of the 
Communist Party and direct your natural ability to building up real 
organized labor on a patriotic base instead of on a base dedicated to 
the forceful overthrow, if need be in your judgment — in their judg- 
ment — when the time comes, of our constitutional form of government ? 
I don't want to take advantage of you. I just couldn't let this 
minute pass without saying to you what I say to almost every witness 
and I hope you will believe me. 

Mr. NussER. I have never done anything I have been ashamed of in 
my life. 
Mr. Doyle. That is what amazes me. 

Mr. NussER. I fight for what I believe in. I am for peace. 
Mr, Doyle. "V^'Tio isn't for peace ? 

Mr. NussER. I have always been a member of a union, fought for 
higher wages and better conditions, for all of these things, and I have 
never advocated the overthrow of anything. 

Mr. DoYLE. You may not have but you are in a gang that does, and 
you know it because you couldn't be as high in the Communist Party 
as you are without knowing it. 

Mr. Nusser. I disagree with you, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. We know what some of the people you are with advocate 
and teach. 
The witness is excused. 
(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

The committee is going to recess and we regret very much, ap- 
parently some of the witnesses and distinguished counsel that hoped to 
be heard today can't be heard. If you will understand the problem 
we have had we will appreciate it. 

The committee will reconvene at 9 : 30 tomorrow morning here. 
We will ask the cooperation of counsel and witnesses to come back. 

("WTiereupon, at 5 p. m. the committee was recessed, to reconvene 
at 9 : 30 a. m. the following day, Tuesday, May 17, 1955.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEWARK, N. J., AREA— PART I 



TUESDAY, MAY 17, 1955 

UxiTED States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Newark, N. J. 

public hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 9 : 50 a. m., pursuant to recess, in the United States Court House, 
Newark, N. J., Hon. Clyde Doyle, chairman, presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle and 
Gordon H. Scherer. 

Committee staff members also present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., 
counsel, and Courtne}^ E. Owens, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. Come to order, please. 

May the record show that the subcommittee is convening with a legal 
subcommittee quorum present, Mr. Scherer of Ohio, and Mr. Doyle 
of California. 

We appreciated the courtesy and cooperation yesterday of the guests 
in the courtroom in seeing to it that it was as quiet as possible. I wish 
to again mention, because I know there are folks here this morning 
Avho were not here yesterday, anyone in the courtroom is a guest of 
the committee and we will not tolerate any evidence of approval or 
disapproval of anything that is said. Anyone causing a disturbance 
will be promptly ejected from the courtroom. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Mr. Chairman, yesterday we had on the witness 
stand Lieutenant Owens, who produced under subpena duces tecum cer- 
tain documents which had been seized in the execution of a search war- 
rant on January 18, 1951. I put all of those documents in evidence as a 
sheaf of documents, but I want to withdraw from the sheaf of docu- 
ments 1 or 2 with a view of reading into the record at this point mate- 
rial portions of those documents and to introduce those separate docu- 
ments as separate exhibits. 

Mr. Doyle. Very well. 

]Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer in evidence a paper entitled, "Rank 
and File," whicli was found in the desk of Martha Stone during the 
execution of the search w^arrant in Commimist Party Headquarters 
in Newark. I ask that it be marked "Nusser Exhibit No. 7," for iden- 
tification purposes only, and to be made a part of the coinmittee files. 
I will now read the pertinent portions of it. 

1065 

65.S88— 55— pt. 1 6 



1066 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Doyle. It will be so marked. 
Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

1. Build and develop a rank-and-file force in Hoboken, within a period of 6 
months, by making the broadest contact with longshoremen, concentrating on 
Italian and Portuguese. 

Then subdivisions under 1 are : 

(o) by March 30 make contact with 32.5 longshoremen, (&) by March 1 begin a 
series of meetings with a particular longshoreman, (c) by May 1 call two meet- 
ings of as many men as possible. 

2. Develop their influence by utilizing their information, criticism and expe- 
riences for rank-and-file action and for formulating down-to-earth agitation 
proijaganda — 

The subdivisions under 2 are as follows : 

(o) Based on pier and job actions, incidents, stories. (&) Discuss with long- 
shoremen as to the uppermost issues, (c) To get them to help organize and 
distribute rank-and-file paper, literature, material, (d) Involve to a minimum 
rank and file in financing rank-and-file work. Goal of at least $10 by May i. 

3. Rank-and-file material: (») Material to be in Italian and American lan- 
guage, wherever possible using Slav language. (&) Work issue of rank-and-file 
paper per month to be distributed in Hoboken and J. C. (c) Rank-and-file 
leaflets per month, (d) To begin by not later than January 30. 

4. Our united-front approach to the rank and file. 

Under 4 is item (1) : 

In the coming period the H. T. C. become an active force among the longshore- 
men and their wives, (2) during this immediate period we have constant contact 
with the Negro Labor Council activities and organization. 

Under that heading is: 

(a) One meeting a month with L. G., leadership by Jack, concentrator and his 
role. 

To establish contact with Italian longshoremen on a personal basis through 
racial, fraternal, political organizations. (6) Begin contact with this one long- 
shoremen once a week on a social basis, (c) By February 15 should know what 
organization longshoremen belong to and which one is the most influential in de- 
ciding, (d) By March 15 should be able to decide which organization he should 
join, which immediately we find the way and means to become a member. 
(4) His main responsibility is to bring forward the peace issue based on in- 
dividual or group discussions. 

Next subject deals with independent role of the party, which I will 
not take time to read into the record. 

The next section deals with control tasks for the party club, which 
I shall not read. But all of which, of course, will be a part of the 
exhibit retained in the committee files. 

I desire now to offer in evidence another document similarly intro- 
duced through Lieutenant Owens yesterday, and ask that it be marked 
"Nusser Exhibit No. 8," for identification purposes only, and to be 
made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. DoTLE. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. This is a report entitled, "Youth Keport," and 
according to the testimony of Lieutenant Owens was found in the 
desk of Martha Stone, Communist Party organizer. 

I will read excerpts from this document on youth : 

What is happening to young Americans in the present period while the 
bourgeoisie of our Nation drives toward world war and fascism. And why are 
these things happening? How are young Americans fighting back? What role 
must the Labor Youth League play and what must the league's relations with the 
Communist Party be in the coming period? These are the questions I will 
attempt to answer in whole or in part by my report. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1067 

In another place is found this sentence : 

The effects of the Korean war have, of course, been felt primarily by those 
who have been sent to fight the freedom-wanting people of Korea, namely, the 
youth. 

At another place in this statement : 

This vast militarization program has had already tremendous effects on all 
young people in the Nation. For them there is no security, not even bourgeois 
security; they cannot make plans for the future. Young Americans have not 
taken all this lying down. They have fought back directly and indirectly. 
The unpopularity of the war can easily be seen by the exceedingly low level 
of volunteering and the tremendous number of draft delinquents. 

At another place : 

What role can the Labor Youth League, the Marxist-Leninist organization of 
youth, play in bringing the young people of America to fight for peace and 
democracy? The historic first national convention of the LYL held this past 
Thanksgiving 1949 was the league's answer to the ruling class who want the 
youth to take the drive to war lying down. The mere participation of more youth 
"in ti-ade union activity can bring about a big change in the life of the trade 
union movement. This is the job of the Labor Youth League. 

This great force of the Labor Youth League can not be underestimated and the 
potentialities in every area must be recognized by all — and in that light must 
we examine tlie work of our party youth and the Labor Youth League in New 
Jersey. Here we have to start to pay attention to our young shop workers in 
the league, who, in the past have only done league commmiity work, whose 
only reasponsibility in the shops was to attend union meetings like any other 
worker. We have to effect a plan of work with these ijeople, especially those in 
right-led shops who have gotten no attention whatsoever up to this time in 
giving guidance in how they can involve young people in union activities. We 
have to change the existing "situation in our party in New Jersey that recognizes 
the Lahor Youth League as a community organization only, but that the Labor 
Youth League has got to turn its face to the shops, with the guidance of the 
Communist Party, the vanguard of the working class. 

It has been said before, that comrades should not be transferred out of the 
league but something else has to be understood, and that is : the imiwrtant 
role young people can play in influencing the trade union. The party must have 
deep concern in seeing that the LYL reorganize the clubs which have been 
dissolved, strengthen the clubs now in existence to carry out campaigns for 
peace and democracy. 

Mr. Chairman, at this time I would like to call Mr. T^wis Moroze. 
Will yon come forward, please, Mr. Moroze. 

Mr. Doyle. Wliile he is coming up may I say, Mr. Tavenner, I 
notice that this first exhibit that you read fi'om is in typewriting 
and appears to be a carbon copy. 

Please stand, Mr. Moroze. 

Mr. Moroze. I have a one-sentence motion in relation to the sub- 
pena which I would like to read at this time. 

Mr. Doyle. You will be sworn so you will be before the committee. 

Mr. Moroze. I feel impelled to make it now because it affects my 
status as a witness. I move to quash the subpena served upon me 
and returnable here on the ground that it does not state with particu- 
larity the scope, purpose, and subject matter of the proposed inter- 
rogation of myself. I so move. 

Mr. Doyle. If you will raise your hand and be sworn — we will not 
entertain any motion until you are first sworn. 

Mr. ]\IoRozE. I am advised that I should ask you to rule on the 
motion on the basis of clue process of law because once I am sworn in 
I have lost legal rights. 

Mr. DoYT.E. We are not a court and we have rules of the committee 
under which we shall proceed. 



1068 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. MoROZE. I shall continue under protest. 

Mr. Doyle. You may do that. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. MoROZE. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee has heard your motion and, of course, 
it is denied. 

TESTIMONY OF LEWIS M. MOEOZE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL. 
THEODORE SAGER METH 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please, sir. 

Mr. MoROZE. I^wis M. Moroze. L-e-w-i-s M-o-r-o-z-e. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 
Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Metii. Theodore Meth, M-e-t-h, Eaymond Commerce Building, 
Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Moroze ? 

Mr. Moroze. I was born December 17, 1915, in Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. ]\IoR()ZE. I reside at 549 Belmont Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
educational training has been ? 

Mr. Moroze. I went to the elementary and high schools of Albany, 
N. Y., and I am a graduate of the New York State Teachers College 
in Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you move to this vicinity ? 

Mr. ]MoROZE. Upon my release from the Army. 

Mr. Tavenner. Approximately when was that ? 

Mr. Moroze. The end of 1946, October or November. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Moroze. I am a social worker by profession. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, w^hat your 
employment has been since you came to this area in 1946 ? 

Mr. Moroze. I was the director of activities of the Jewish Com- 
mxunity Center of North Hudson in Union City, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that the only employment you have had ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Moroze. I am advised by counsel that this is probing in an area 
beyond the scope of this committee under the first amendment and I 
invoke my privilege not to be a w^itness against myself under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question relative to his employment. 

Mr. Doyle. We believe it is within the scope of the investigation 
for a committee of Congress to know the nature of the employment of 
its citizens and where they have been employed for the purpose of 
identification. I instruct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Moroze. Mr. Congressman, under normal times 

Mr. Doyle. I have given you the instructions and do you still refuse 
to answer in spite of my instructions ? 

Mr. Moroze. I did not say I refuse to answer. I will answer the 
questions in my own way. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1069 

Mr. Doyle. We are not going to give you any opportunity to make 
speeches. That is a question which can be answered "j^es"' or ''no." 

Mr. MoROZE. That is a question in my mind, according to my rights, 
that cannot be answered "yes" or "no," and if you feel impelled to 
answer my questions I suggest I be released from my subpena. 

]Mr. Doyle. We are not going to argue with you, Mr. Moroze, and 
you might as well understand it. We recognize your rights, but we 
are not going to let you make a public forum of this committee hearing 
even with your counsel here. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, you have instructed the witness to 
answer ; he has not answered. I suggest counsel proceed with the next 
question. 

Mr. MoROZE. I answered that question on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. I must not be a witness against myself. 

Mr. TA^'EXNER. Mr. Moroze, I hand you a photostatic copy of an 
article appearing in the Daih' Worker issue of January 19, 1951, en- 
titled, "Jersey Communist Party Headquarters Raided, Three Ar- 
rested," and i direct 3'our attention to the second paragraph from the 
bottom in the middle column where your name appears. Will you 
examine it, please ? Do you see the paragraph to which I have called 
your attention ? 

Mr. MoROZE. Yes, I have seen it, sir. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Do you see your name appearing there? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoROZE. I see it in this report. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there a title given or office appearing after your 
name ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoRozE. There is a title there. 

Mr. Tavenxer. What is that title as appears from the document ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoROZE. Counsel advises me I am not bound by an item in a 
newspaper, and I therefore invoke my privilege under the first amend- 
ment of the Constitution, right of free speech, right of the people for 
redress of grievances, and under the fifth amendment, my right not to 
be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavexxer. You refuse to state what the article shows as the 
title appearing after your name ? 

Mr. MoROZE. I answered the question as I saw fit. 

Mr. Tax-exxer. Mr. Chairman, I desire to introduce the document 
in evidence and ask that it be marked "Moroze Exhibit No. 1," for 
identification purposes only, and to be made a part of the committee 
files. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Moroze. I object to this committee introducing documents and 
marking them as evidence when they cannot properly be introduced 
and marked as such without proof and should only be marked, "for 
identification." 

Mr. Doyle. It will be so received in accordance with request of 
legal counsel for the committee. 

Mr. Tavexxer. I am going to give you full opportunity, Mr. Wit- 
ness, to state if there is any error whatever in this publication. The 
articles states, "Bail was posted by Lewis Moroze, New Jersey State 
secretary of the Civil Rights Congress." 



1070 COMI^IUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Were you the State secretar}^ of the Civil Rights Congress for New 
Jersey on January 19, 1951 ? 

Mr. MoROZE. That question is probing in an area beyond the scope 
of this committee, violating my rights under the first amendment, it is 
also in violation of the rights of the people under the ninth amend- 
ment, which states that enumeration in the Constitution of certain 
rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by 
the people. I furthermore invoke my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question of counsel. 

Mr. Doyle. I so instruct the witness. You raised objection to the 
authenticity or accuracy of that newspaper article and now you are 
getting a chance to state whether or not it is accurate after having had 
ft read to you. You raised the subject matter. I instruct you to 

answer it. . . , .- it 

Mr. Moroze. That is mere rephrasing of the original question and 1 
invoke mv rights as stated before. 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. The article further states that bail was posted by 
Lewis Moroze for Charles Nusser, Esther Engle, and Louis Malmow. 
Did you post bail for them ? , i • ^i 

Mr. Moroze. Since the purpose of that question is to undermine the 
riffhts of the people to defend themselves against a tyrannical govern- 
ment, I invoke my rights under the first amendment which calls for 
right of the people to petition the Government for redress of griev- 
ance. I invoke my right under the ninth amendment, tenth amend- 
ment, and fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, we just want to find out about these bail 
funds for Communists. i i j! 

Mr. Doyle. I suggest, Mr. Moroze, as long as you have a looseleat 
notebook in front of you with all the typewritten statements of your 
objections and constitutional provisions, in order to save time, instead 
of" reading those objections each time, you may stipulate that your 
objections may be considered the same as previously offered. 

Mr. Moroze. I invoke my rights. I feel I have to at each step of the 
game. . , . 

Mr. Doyle. You can stay here as long as it takes to reread your 

tvpewritten objections, if that is what you want to take time to do. 

' Mr. Ta\t3nner. Mr. Moroze, will you state whether or not you know 

the source of funds for bail purposes that were available to the Civil 

Rights Congress of New Jersey on January 18, 1951 ? 

Mr. Moroze. I refuse to be a partner to this conspiracy to destroy 
the rights of the people to defend themselves against the tyrannical 
government under the first amendment, under the ninth amendment, 
and imder the fifth amendment privilege and the provisions for due 

process of law. , „ -, , i • . ^.i. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, when you say defend themselves against the 
tyrannical government, you mean the Government of the United 
States, is that right ? . 

Mr. Moroze. A government which commits a tyrannical act at any 

one time. ,. • 

Mr. Scherer. You said tyrannical government. Are you referring 
to the Government of the United States as a tyrannical government? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1071 

Mr. Doyle. He refers to no other government as tyrannical. It is 
his Government he is designating as tyrannical. 

Mr. MoROZE. You can draw your own conclusion. I am referring to 
specific acts of tyranny. 

Mr. ScHERER. Point of order. I have a question before the witness 
and I insist upon an answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Read it, please. 

Mr. ScHERER. I will rephrase it. 

"When you referred to a tyrannical government, were you or were 
you not referring to the Government of the United States ? 

Mr. MoRozE. f was qualifying my remark to an act of tyranny by the 
government. 

Mr. Doyle. Of the United States ? 

Mr. MoROZE, Of the United States or any State. 

Mr, Doyle. That is the Commie line they teach, that the United 
States Government is tyranny. It is well known. 

Mr. Scherer. Where were you born ? 

Mr, MoROZE. I answered it. 

Mr. Scherer. I don't remember. 

Mr. MoROzE. Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. Scherer. Is there any other government in this world that you 
would like to live under other than the Government of the United 
States, that might not be as tyrannical ? 

Mr. MoROZE. I was born in the United States. My loyalty is beyond 
question and I resent that question. I am an American and I have the 
rights under the Constitution to fight for redress of grievances and im- 
prove the Government as I see it. 

Mr. Scherer. There is no question about that. You have those 
rights. We all have those rights, but I was just wondering in view of 
your 

Mr. MoRozE. I refuse to be denied those rights. 

Mr. Scherer. Your statement about the tyrannical government, 
whether you thouglit there was any other government in the world that 
you would like to live under today. Unfortunately, it can't be 
arranged. 

Mr. MoROZE. You can't threaten me, Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a throw away sheet entitled "This Is a 
$30,000 Leaflet," which shows that it was issued by the Civil Rights 
Congress in New Jersey. It was introduced in evidence as Nusser Ex- 
hibit No. 5. Will you examine it, please. 

Mr. MoROZE. I have read it, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you examined it very carefully ? 

Mr. Moroze. Rather carefully. It is difficult to read fast. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recognize it as a document which you 
assisted in the preparation of ? 

Mr, MoROZE. I would like to say this, Mr. Counsel : This is an in- 
vasion of the right of the people to free speech, this is aimed to intimi- 
date the people in bringing their protests to the American people 
whenever an improper act was committed by any arm of government, 
and therefore I am impelled again to invoke the first amendment, the 
ninth amendment, and my privilege under the fifth amendment. 



1072 COIVUMUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERF.R. Witness, do you feel that free speech involves the 
right to participate in the conspiracy to overthrow this Government 
by force and violence ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoROZE. Mr. Congressman, you are making an assumption there 
which is 

Mr. ScHERER. I am not making any assumption. It has been proved 
beyond a question of a doubt that the Communist conspiracy, of which 
you are a part, is dedicated to the overthrow of this Government. 

Mr. MoRozE. I resent this. I have never committed a Federal 
crime, and I can't say that for members of this committee. One J. 
Parnell Thomas, was arrested for stealing funds of the people while 
posing as a patriot. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you ever a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. MoROZE. That is a cute question. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is a $(>4 question. 

Mr. MoROZE. That is what you call it. That is a question aimed to 
terrorize the American people to prevent them from expressing dis- 
senting opinions. 

]\f r. ScHERER. We want to know who are the agents of the Kremlin 
within the United States who are dedicated to overthrow this Gov- 
ernment by force and violence. That is what we want to know, and if 
you are not one of those wdiy don't you so state ? 

Mr, MoROZE. If you are interested in knowing who wants to over- 
throw this Government by force and violence you investigate the 
police who beat up Edward Taylor and investigate the cross burnings 
in the State of New Jersey. I invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment in relation to that question. 

Mr. ScuERER. I thought you would get to that eventually. Are 
you a member of the Communist Party today, at this moment? 

Mr. MoROZE. Under the first amendment, the ninth amendment and 
tenth amendment, you have no right to probe into the political be- 
liefs of the people and under tlie fifth amendment I invoke my right 
not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean to say a committee of Congress has no 
right to investigate a conspiracy dedicated to overthrowing this Gov- 
ernment by force and violence, is that what 3^ou are trying to say? 

Mr. ]MoROZE. I am saying first this committee is not interested at 
all in investigating any conspiracy against the Government because 
this committee is one of the worst conspiracies against the American 
democratic form of government that has come into existence in years, 
and I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, Mr. JVIem.ber of the Civil Rights Con- 
gress and Comnumist Party, you are declaring in public again that 
the United States Congress has set up a conspiracy, that is just what 
you have said. Of course we well know that is the line you feed as 
a graduate of a State teachers college, an educational institution giv- 
ing free education. You are using that education to feed a group of 
American people a terrible line that the TTnited States Congress luis 
set up a conspiracy because tliey have set up this committee. You 
ought to be ashamed of yourself, a graduate of a teachers' college 
feeding American citizens that bunk. 

Mr. MoROZE. I am not ashamed of myself. I am proud of the role 
I have played. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1073 

Mr. ScHERER. I can see you are. You ought to be ashamed of 
yourself. 

Mr. Ta'vt:xner. The document, Nusser Exhibit No. 5 wliich I pre- 
sented to you contains in the left-hand margin in a setoff by black lines 
an article entitled, "Life or Death, It Is Your Choice," issued by the 
Communist Party of New Jersey. 

It is noted that the last three lines of that article are as follows : 

Mediate tlie Korean war, get all outside troops out, remove Mac-Arthur, bring 
our boys home, no dropping the A bomb. 

"With whom did you confer, if anj'^one, within the Communif-^t 
Party in Newark, regardino- the publication or the republication of 
that Communist Party article ? 

Mr. Moroze. That question again is aimed to intimidate the people 
to prevent them from expressing their opinions and I will not be a 
partner to the destruction of the constitutional rights of the people 
under the 1st amendment, the 9th, 10th and my privileges under the 
5th. I am impelled to use my privilege. 

Mr. Scherer. And not be a party to the destruction of the Constitu- 
tion until the time comes to move in and take over. 

Mr. MoROZE. I will never be a partner to the destruction of the Con- 
stitution and that is why I am conducting myself in this fashion, to- 
ward this committee. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Did you take any part in having Nusser Exhibit 
No. 5 printed ? 

Mr. Moroze. That is merely a rephrasing of the same question. That 
question tears to shreds the legal facade of due process at this hear- 
ing, and it is merely a rewording to entrap me, and I therefore must 
invoke my privilege under the 5th amendment under the 1st on free 
press. I am impelled to mention the 1st and 5th amendments. 

Mr. Doyle. I want to remind the witness, as long as you have 
charged the United States Congress with setting up a conspiracy, 
that this committee is here under Public Law 601, which charges us 
as a whole, or by subcommittee to make an investigation into the extent 
and character and objectives of any subversive program, the extent 
thereof, whether it emanates from foreign country or from this coun- 
try. We are here under established Public Law 601 which was enacted 
by the United States Congress, which I assume is your Congress, al- 
though you call it a conspiracy. 

Mr. MoROZE. I never referred to this Congress as a conspiracy. I 
referred to this committee as a conspiracy. 

Mr. Doyle. This committee is an arm of the United States Con- 
gress, one of the standing committees. 

Mr. MoRozE. It is an illegitimate arm of the Congress. 

Mr. Doyle. That is the same as saying the Congress has set up an 
illegitimate committee. 

Mr. Moroze. I sure think so. 

Mr. Doyle. I know you do and that is what you preach over the 
country. You should be ashamed of yourself, and I don't hesitate to 
say it. Some men died in the last war in order that men like you 
might have your freedom. 

Mr. Moroze. I served in the last war. And my loyalty is not here 
in question and I associate myself with the concept of Henry Thoraux 
that they love law and order who uphold law when the government 
breaks it. 



1074 COMIMUXIST ACTIVITIES IX THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr, DoYT^E. You read that from your notebook. I question your 
loyalty and I am frank to say so in public. 

Mr. ScHERER. You say you served in the last war. Were you a 
member of the Communist Party at the time you served in the last 
war? 

Mr. MoROZE. Mr. Cono;ressman, I think you ought to make a record 
of that question. I am invoking; my privileges under the 1st, 9th, 
10th and 5th amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you refusing to tell us whether at the time you 
were a member of the Armed Forces of the United States you were a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. MoROZE. I am not refusing to tell you, I am invoking my privi- 
leges as I see them under the Constitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were particularly willing to serve in the last war 
because we were a cobelligerent with Russia, were you not ? 

Mr. MoROZE. I was particularly concerned about serving in the last 
war because we were to smash fascism, and I am conducting myself 
today in line with the same type of thinking to stomp the onrush of 
fascism in the United States. 

Mr. Doyle. I am going to instruct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion whether or not he was a member of the Communist Party while 
he was in the uniform of the United States military. 

I think that not only Congres but some high court might be inter- 
ested in making a ruling on whether or not he is in contempt for not 
answering that question. 

Mr. MoROzE. I invoke my privileges imder the fifth amendment. 

Mr. DoYT.E. You were probably one of those men who was preaching 
conspiracy against the United States Government while you were in 
the uniform of the United States Military. 

Mr. MoROZE. In the United States Army I was given the respon- 
sibility of teaching reorientation courses because of my devotion to 
democracy and opposition to fascism. 

Mr. Doyle. You were a social worker according to your own testi- 
mony, but you were preaching communism, you have made that clear. 
Subversive conspiracy. 

Mr. MoROZE. Your interpretation of communism is antifascism. 

Mr. Doyle. This committee is interested in exposing Fascists the 
same as your type. 

Mr. MoRozE. You haven't exposed one Fascist in the United States 
because you live with them. You work for them, you are promoting 
their aims. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. I live with ^fembers in the United States 
Congress. 

Mr. MoROZE. Don't implicate every other Member of Congress. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Moroze, are you acquainted with Louis Shapiro ? 

Mr. MoRozE. This is probing in the area of my associations and as 
a free American citizen T am impelled to use the first amendment and 
mv privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Jacob Ames, also known 
as Jack Ames ? 

Mr. Moroze. Same answer, same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, did vou not on the 13th day of 
January 1951 make arrangements with Mr. Louis Shapiro for the 
publication of Nusser Exhibit 5 which you have before you ? 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1075 

Mr. MoROZE. Again I resent this interference with the freedom of 
the press and right of the people for redress of grievances nnder the 
1st amendment, privileges of the people under the 9th amendment, 
the 10th amendment and my privilege under the 5th amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like to interrupt this witness' 
testimony at this time and call another witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Very well. We will ask the cooperation of the counsel 
and the witness and put another witness in the chair for a few minutes. 

(Whereupon the witness was temporarily excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Louis Shapiro, will you come forward, please? 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Shapiro, will you please stand and raise your right 
hand? Do you 

Mr. Greenburg. ^Slight I be permitted to address the committee on 
a point of order before the witness is sworn ? 

Mr. Doyle. The rules require that a written notice be filed with us 
because we find we do not have time to permit lawyers to argue before 
the committee. 

Mr. Greenburg. This is merely a point of order under the connnit- 
tee's own rules. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. State it briefly. 

Mr. Greenburg. Under rule 3 (b) of the Rules of Procedure of this 
committee that ''witnesses shall be subj^enaed at a reasonal)ly sufficient 
time in advance of any hearing to j^repare for the hearing and to obtain 
counsel," I would like to bring to the chairman's attention that this 
subpena under which my client appears was issued yesterday morning 
for an appearance at the hour of 2 p. m. the same day. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course counsel, in the due ])rocess of our committee 
I assume that we didn't discover this witness' importance to this hear- 
ing until about that time; while we regret his inconvenience, we found 
it was impossible to subpena him in advance because we didn't have 
his name in advance, you see. You are a distinguished lawyer at the 
bar and you know even in court procedure very often subpenas are 
served almost immediately. I think that is sufficient. 

I think that we will overrule your objection because we have no 
other way practicable. 

Mr. Greenburg. I merely want to note it for the record. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you say you are not prepared to represent him 
today ? 

Mr. Greenburg. My objection is that under rule 3 (b) he was not 
sufficiently notified yesterday for appearance the same day. As it so 
happens, we weren't reached yesterday. 

Mr. SciiERER. Did you have time overnight to consult him? Do 
you understand the questions that are going to be asked him ? 

Mr. Greenburg. I have since been informed they will be of limited 
nature. 

Mr. Scherer. Your client will not be prejudiced by the asking of 
those questions? 

Mr. Greenburg. That will have to wait until 

Mr. Scherer. Do you understand the questions? 

Mr. Greenburg. I understand the general nature of what the in- 
terrosation is. 

Mr. Scherer. It wouldn't require you any additional time. 

Mr. Greenburg. I am not requesting that at this time. I am merely 
noting that the subpena at the time issued yesterday was improperly 
issued under your own rules. 



1076 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. When subpenas are issued like that and it can be 
demonstrated to the committee that a witness will be prejudiced, con- 
tinuances ai'e granted. 

Xow if you want a continuance until Thursday — but you indicate 
that you are prepared to go forward. He has counsel, and you under- 
stand the questions that are going to be asked your witness, you un- 
derstand the ])urpose for which he is here. I don't think you ai'e 
prejudiced, and I think Mr. Doyle's ruling is proper. 

Mr. Greenburg. Rather than inconA^enience my client further, we 
would choose to go ahead now. 

Mr. Tavenxer. For the benefit of the record, I should state that the 
marshal was instructed to notify this witness why he was wanted at 
the time he was served. I assume that notice was given to him al- 
though I haven't checked on it. When counsel appeared here yes- 
terday, we told him why we wanted to call this witness. 

Mr. Greenburg. That was the first we had heard of it, Mr. Counsel. 
The marshal evidently did not inform him as to just what he was 
wanted for. 

jNIr. Doyle. We are glad that the counsel and witness are not too 
much inconvenienced and that you are ready to proceed. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please stand now, and raise your right hand ? 
Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS SHAPIRO, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
PAUL H. GEEENBUEG 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. Will you state your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Shapiro. Louis Shapiro. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell your name ? 

Mr. Shapiro. L-o-u-i-s S-h-a-p-i-r-o. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Greenburg. Paul H. Greenburg, 60 Park Place, Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Shapiro. Russia. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you come to this country ? 

Mr. Shapiro. July 24, 1912. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did not state your age or time of your birth. 

Mr. Shapiro. I was born December 28, 1899. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen ? 

Mr. Shapiro. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what business are you engaged ? 

Mr. Shapiro. Printing. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the city of Newark ? 

Mr. Shapiro. Yes. Job printing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Mr. Lewis Moroze? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Shapiro. Yes, I have done some printing work for him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall an oflficer of the police department 
coming to see you on January 31, 1951, regarding the printing of the 
document on the table in front of you, Nusser exhibit No. 5 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1077 

Mr. Shapiro. I do recall, but the only thing I assume I was called 
into the police department 

Mr. Tavenner. You were called into the police department instead 
of the police department going to you ? 

Mr. Shapiro. Right. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a sworn statement purportedly 
signed by you bearing date of January 31, 1951. Will you examine it, 
please, and state whether or not that is a sworn statement over your 
signature, which you gave the police department in regard to the 
printing of that document ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Shapiro. Yes. It is my signature. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to introduce the document into evidence 
and ask that it be marked, "Shapiro Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. DoTLE. So received and so marked. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I desire to read the document into the record and 
ask the witness to listen to its reading : 

Voluntary statement of Louis Shapiro, residence 429 Leslie Street, Newark, N. 
J., occupation typesetter, age 51, statement made to detectives Harry Barron and 
Jim Stapleton, 10 : oO a. m. at Police Headquarters in the subversive squads room 
on the first floor. 

"I, Louis Shapiro, have a printing establishment at 84 13th Avenue. I have 
been located at this address about 14 months. Our main business is commercial 
and job printing. I have a partner in the business. His name is Jacob Ames and 
he lives at 288 Kerrigan Boulevard in Newark. On November 30, 1950 a man 
came to my store and said that he represented the Communist Party of New 
Jersey, and he said to me 'I want you to print for me 12,000 leaflets, the cheapest 
kind I can get.' 

"I don't remember his name exactly, but I do remember him saying that he 
was from 38 Park Place, Newark. One of these leaflets were shown to me by 
Detective Barron and I will identify it when called to do so. 

"This man paid me in cash when the job was completed, about 10 days later. 
The amount of the bill was $51. I might be able to identify this man who gave 
me this order if I saw him again. 

"On January 13, 1951, a man came into my store and told me that his name 
was Moroze and he was the executive secretary of the Civil Rights Congress at 
188 Belmont Avenue, Newark, N. J. He asked me to print for him 10,000 leaflets 
on newsprint paper and he would pay when the job was completed. This leaflet 
was also shown to me by Detective Barron and I will identify it when called to 
do so. 

"About a week after receiving this order Moroze came into the store and paid 
me for it, the amount paid was $77.25 in cash. I had no idea when I printed 
these leaflets that they were in any way illegal because if I had I would not 
have printed them. 

"I read a copy of both leaflets before printing them and I did not consider 
that in printing them I was doing anything illegal. 

"I, Louis Shapiro, have given this statement voluntarily and everything con- 
tained in this statement is the truth as far as I can recall." 

That was a truthful statement that you gave the police officers, was 
it not ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Shapiro. I claim my privilege under the fifth amendment not 
to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Not to answer whether this statement which you 
admitted as over your signature was truthful ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel) . 

Mr. Shapiro. Same answer, same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. AMio has talked to you about this statement since 
you gave it to the police ? 



1078 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Shapiro. No one talked to me. 

(The witness conferred with his connseL) 

Mr, Shapiro. Except for my attorney. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was that statement given under oath ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. [Reading :] 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 31st day of January 1951, George E. 
Kinney, Jr., notary public, New Jersey. My commission expires December 30, 
1955. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you swear to that statement, Witness ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel) 

Mr. Shapiro. I cLaim my privilege under the fifth amendment not 
to answer this question. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer whether he swore to that statement. 

Mr. DoTLE. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Shapiro. I claim my privilege under the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. To refresh my recollection, Mr. Tavenner, didn't the 
witness identify that as his signature ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I think he is bound to answer the question. You 
have directed him, have you not ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, I direct the witness to answer the question. 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Scherer. I think the witness is definitely in contempt if he 
refuses to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Shapiro. In view of the fact that I refused to answer any of 
the text of the statement mentioned, I also take my privilege under 
the fifth amendment to answer it. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you mean to tell us, Witness, that it would incrim- 
inate you at this time to say whether or not you swore to that affidavit 
or to the contents of that paper ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Are you telling us now that you didn't tell the truth 
when you signed that affidavit? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Shapiro. I am refusing to answer that. Congressman, respect- 
fully, on the ground of the fifth amendment 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Shapiro. The fifth amendment was intended to protect the 
innocent more so than the guilty. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliat other conclusion can we draw, when you plead 
the fifth amendment, saying that to answer whether or not you told 
the truth when you gave the statement to the police would incriminate 
you? We can only draw one conclusion then, can't we? If it will 
incriminate you to say whether or not you told the truth previously 
under oath, it can lead only to one conclusion, that you are afraid of 
committing perjury, 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Shapiro. I object to any such inference or conclusion. 
Mr. Scherer. You have a right to object to that inference, but I 
am asking whether or not any reasonable individual could come to 
any other conclusion. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IK THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1079 

Mr. Shapiko. I don't know what you are trying to prove to me, 
but I stand on my constitutional riglit of the hfth amendment not to 
answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am not trying to prove anything. I am just flab- 
bergasted at the position you take. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I advised counsel for this witness 
that I was only going to interrogate his witness about this matter. 
Of course, I am taken very much by surprise that the witness admits 
going to the police about the matter, admits the signature, and then 
takes the fifth amendment, because I feel that he certainly has waived 
any fifth amendment rights he might otherwise have had. But in 
light of what I said to counsel about it, I think I should not ask any 
further questions at this time, but 1 request that the witness be excused 
temporarily and kept under subpena, and be brought back here on 
Thursday. 

Mr. DoTLE. At what hour ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Two o'clock in the afternoon. 

Mr. DoTLE. Is that agreeable. Counsel ? 

Mr. Greenburg. I will have to check my schedule. I think I have 
another court appearance scheduled that day. May I have the right 
to check my schedule and see if I can rearrange any other court 
appearance I may have scheduled. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, and in the meantime we will excuse the witness 
from the chair while you are phoning, but he will remain under sub- 
pena and you are directed to return here Thursday morning at 9 : 30 
unless we have some other agreement with you. 

Mr. Scherer. May I make this suggestion: If counsel is engaged 
on Wednesday and Thursday, tomorrow morning or afternoon is all 
right with us. 

Mr, Greenburg. That might be better, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. Before we go ahead, this other witness is still here. 
May I ask one question ? 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Shapiro. Without objection, the witness can stay 
right there. 

Mr. Scherer. Has anybody threatened you ? 

Mr. Shapiro. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you been intimidated in any way ? 

Mr. Shapiro. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You haven't had any delegation from the Communist 
Party come to your shop, have you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr, Scherer. Have they picketed your shop ? 

Mr. Shapiro, No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all. 

('V\niereupon the witness was temporarily excused.) 

TESTIMONY OF LEWIS M. MOROZE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
THEODORE SAGER METH— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. In the sworn statement, Mr. Moroze, introduced in 
evidence as Shapiro Exhibit No. 1, reference was made to Mr. Jacob 
Ames, the partner of Mr. Lewis Shapiro. Do you know whether Mr. 
Jacob Ames was a member of the Communist Partv ? 



1080 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. MoROZE. First I would like to state that bringing in a printer 
liere is a despicable act, tyrannical act, of this committee. 

Mr, Doyle. We are not going to permit that sort of tirade. Will 
you answer the question ? Stand on your constitutional rights if that 
is what you feel you conscientiously can do. 

Mr. MoROZE. I conscientiously must say this committee has no right 
to probe into my associations under the first amendment, and I invoke 
my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. That is your privilege when you can honestly do it. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Mr. Moroze, was the composition of the material 
issued by the Communist Party and which was included in Nusser 
Exhibit 5 issued by the Civil Rights Congress and the printing of 
that document, part of a preconceived plan between the Civil Rights 
Congress and the Communist Party to engage in propaganda activi- 
ties in this community ? 

]\Ir. Moroze. I only know one preconceived plan and that is to deny 
the rights of the people to petition for redress of grievances. That 
question is merely aimed to intimidate and destroy free press. Under 
the first amendment I am impelled to invoke those rights and under the 
fifth, my privileges. 

Mr. S^herer. People certainly have a right to protest. "Wliat hap- 
pened in front of tlie Treat Hotel last night was giving the people a 
right to protest. That could only. happen in America. 

Mr. MoROZE. Let's make sure everyone is permitted the right to peti- 
tion for redress of grievances. 

]\Ir. SciiERER. They were given that right. It is unfortunate that 
most of them didn't understand the substance on the placards they 
were carrying. 

Mr. MoROZE. I wouldn't be so arrogant of the American people in 
relation to them. I have deepest confidence and love and respect for 
the American people and they know how to invoke their rights. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is intellectuals like you who are the few that control 
and dominate groups such as that. 

Mr. Moroze. The American people control their leaders, that is the 
way democracy works, and our strength is derived from the people. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is the way democracy works but not the way the 
Communist conspiracy works, which is in the opposite direction. 

Mr. Moroze. I am speaking in the best interests of the American 
people. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a document and ask you if you can 
identify it. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. ]\IoROZE. I am impelled to answer that under the first amend- 
ment and my privileges under the fifth amendment I will make no 
comment. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to remark this : As I see it, you are not impelled 
to do anything. It is your privilege to plead the constitutional 
amendments if you conscientiously can do so, but I dislike having you 
say you are impelled to do it. You are privileged to do it. 

Mr. Moroze. I am impelled by this committee to defend myself 
because you are trying desperately to entrap me. And I am going to 
fight for my constitutional rights. 

Mr. Doyle. We expect you to plead constitutional privilege only 
when you can honestly do it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1081 

Mr. MoROZE. My history indicates I am a conscientious defender 
of the Constitution and I can't say that for this committee. 

Mr. Taatsnner. Mr. Chairman, I desire to introduce this document 
entitled "To Be Filed at Least 40 Days Previous to the Day of Holding 
Primary Elections" in evidence, ask that it be marked "Moroze Exhibit 
No. 2" for identification purposes only and to be made a part of the 
committee files. 

Mr. Doyle. So received and so marked. 

Mr. MoROZE. I object to introducing that into evidence. It has 
never been proven. 

Mr. MoRozE. I am shocked that a primary election document would 
be entered, stepping on the rights of the people. 

Mr. Doyle. You have not been asked a question. 

Mr. MoROZE. The Constitution is being defiled by talking about this 
document. Right of the people to elect their own repiesentatives 
according to the American Constitution, 

Mr. Doyle. I am going to strike certain things from the record 
if you act impertinently and make immaterial statements. 

INIr. ^NIoroze. This is a hearing, not a trial, and I want to be heard. 

]\Ir. Doyle. We are used to your game to take a record so you can 
get a copy of it and produce it to people that don't understand the 
issues. 

Mr. jNIoroze. If you want to release me from the subpena, I will 
accept. 

Mr. Tavenner. The document relates to the designation of the 
Peoj^le's Rights Party. Quoting from the document : 

We further certify that the name, place of residence, post office address, and 
the title of office for which said candidate is named is as follows : 

The name of the candidate is Charles Nusser and title of the office 
is member of State assembly. 

This is a nominating petition, Mr. Chairman, for the election of 
Charles Nusser by party designation of People's Rights Party. The 
People's Rights Party was designated by the Attorney General of 
the United States on April 5, 1955, as a Communist organization. I 
would like to ask this witness to examine page 2 containing the signa- 
tures to this petition, and to tell the committee whose name appears 
as item 4. 

Mr. MoROZE. I would like to say, Mr. Tavenner, that under our 
form of government the rights and sovereignty is based essentially 
in the American people. 

Mr. Tavexxer. ]\Ir. Chairman, the witness' remarks are not respon- 
sive to the question. If he has a legal objection, I think he should 
make it, and then it can be determined whether or not any explanation 
is proper. 

Mr. MoRozE. Under the 10th amendment, powers not delegated to 
the United States by the Constitution or prohibited to it by the States 
are reserved to the States respectively, or- to the people. 

Under the ninth amendment, enumeration in the Constitution of 
certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others re- 
tained by the people. This Government is based on free elections. I 
also invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. This is aimed 

65388 — 53— pt. 1 7 



1082 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

to intimidate people so they might not run for office those whom they 
choose. 

Mr. Tavenxer. The witness has not identified his signature. He 
has refused to answer. So I desire now to read item 4 of the statement. 

Mr. Doyle. It all shows the extent to which the Communist con- 
spiracy is infiltrating our elections and otherwise and the control they 
have. 

Mr. MoRozE. Conspiracy to elect people to office? It is a weird 
interpretation. People control the elections. 

Mr. ScHERER. There is no direction on the part of the Chair at this 
point to the witness to answer Mr. Tavenner's question. This is obvi- 
ously a photostatic copy of a public document and his refusal to 
answer in my opinion 

Mr. MoROZE. I did not refuse to answer. I don't like the character- 
ization that I refused to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. As I was saying, in my opinion his refusal to identify 
his signature could not possibly incriminate him, and therefore I am 
asking that the Chair direct the witness to answer the question as to 
whether or not that is his signature. 

Mr. Doyle. I so direct you. Witness. 

Mr. MoROZE. Since I will not be a p)artner to destroy free elections 
in the United States, I invoke my privileges under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your address in March of 1955 ? 

Mr. MoROZE. March 1955. 549 Belmont Avenue, Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to read item 4 of the signatures to this 
document. 

Lewis M. Moroze, 549 Belmont Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

Were you acquainted with the fact that Charles Nusser on March 
6, 1955, was a functionary of the Communist Party in Newark, N. J. ? 

Mr. MoROZE. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware in April 1955 that the People's 
Rights Party had been designated as a Communist organization by 
the Attorney General of the United States ? 

Mr. Moroze. I protest the Attorney General being the arbiter of 
what is legal and what is not legal, and what is constitutional and not 
constitutional, and I further invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the designation of the People's Rights Party 
merel.y a substitution for the Communist Party as a name ? 

Mr. MoROZE. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Wasn't that a subterfuge, that actually you were 
signing a petition for a Communist Party candidate to an elective 
office under a name difi'erent from the Communist Party, but actually 
a part of it ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoRozE. This question is a subterfuge to deny the people the 
right to elect officers of their own choosing, and I invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you another document and ask you to iden- 
tify it. Will you tell us what it is ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Moroze. Under the first amendment, right of the people to as- 
sociated, assemble, petition for redress of grievances and under my 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1083 

privilef^es, I am impelled to invoke my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is your name signed to it as assistant treasurer ? 

Mr. MoROZE. Same answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I desire to introduce the document in 
evidence and ask that it be marked "Moroze Exhibit No. 3", for identi- 
fication purposes only, and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. MoROZE. I object on the ground that it has not been proven and 
it is a photostatic copy. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is entitled, "Bail Fund of the Civil Eights Con- 
gress of New Jersey, Certificate of Deposit." I desire to read por- 
tions of it in evidence. 

Receipt is hereby acknowledged this (blank) day of October 1949 of the sum 
of $100 from Bearer, by the Board of Trustees of the Bail Fund of the Civil 
Rights Congress of New Jersey for the use and purpose of said bail fund upon 
the following terms and conditions : 

1. Said money shall be employed only for the purpose of posting bail for 
defendants in cases involving violation of civil rights, and the trustees of the 
bail fund shall have sole authority under the regulations and resolutions 
adopted by the board of trustees to determine for whom bail shall be posted. 

2. Said moneys shall be repaid to the lender without interest upon 30 days 
notice in writing, providing, however, that repayment of loans shall not be made 
in such manner as to imperil the safety of any individual for whom such moneys 
might have been posted as bail, and the trustees shall have sole authority to 
determine whether such peril exists and, provided, further, that 30 days notice 
may be waived by the trustees, to permit immediate return of any loan. 

3. That the depositor shall at the time he applies for the return of the moneys 
loaned by him to the state board of trustees, accompany his application with 
this certificate of deposit, and that no money shall be returned except upon 
surrender of this certificate of deposit. 

It is signed David Rocklin, treasurer. Lewis Moroze, assistarit 
treasurer. 

AVill you tell the committee, please, when the first certificate of 
deposit was issued under this plan to raise bail funds as indicated by 
this type of certificate? 

Mr. ISfoROZE. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendmei-t. 

Mr. Taa'enner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether the 
proceeds of any of these certificates of deposit were used for bail pur- 
poses outside of the State of New Jersey ? 

Mr. iSroROZE. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is it not a fact that they were so used ? 

Mr. Mor^ozE. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SciiERER. Isn't it a fact that all of the funds raised for this 
particular bail fund were used in, and for, and on behalf of the mem- 
bers of tlie Communist Party and the Communist Party itself? 

Mr. ]MoRozE. I must respectfully submit that what you take as a 
fact is at variance with what I consider fact. 

Mr. ScHERER. If what I said is true, you have an opportunity to 
deny it. 

Mr. MoROZE. The purpose is this, when attacking people to deny 
them their right to fight back and I invoke my privileges under the 
fiftli amendment. 

Mr. SciTERER. You attack my assumption, what I said. Is there 
anything false in the assumption I made? 

Mr. MoROZE. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 



1084 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N, J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. You have an opportunity to deny what I suggest as 
true or false. You don't see fit to deny it. 

Mr. MoROZE. I am not impelled to state whether I am not a criminal. 
That is why we have a United States Constitution and why we have 
the 10th amendment, and the 10th amendment had to be fought for 
by the people, leaflets had to be distributed in order to guarantee that 
the 10th amendment in the United States Constitution and there is 
no implication of guilt in anything I have said, and I am not impelled 
to answer questions the way you want them. I will answer them as 
I see fit, and I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

INIr. ScHERER. You are not a criminal, you are not charged with 
anything before this committee. 

Mr. MoROZE. This body is more an accusatory body than a hearing. 

Mr. ScHERER. You can't be sentenced for anything as a result of 
your appearance here. You are not accused of anything. You are 
brought here only as a witness. You couldn't possibly be sentenced 
or fined as the result of your appearance here. The only trouble you 
might get into if you refuse to answer questions that are proper, is 
that the committee could cite you for contempt. You said what I in- 
ferred by my question was not right, you said it was an assumption on 
my part. My sole question is, is that assumption correct or incor- 
rect ^ 

Mr. INIoROZE. May I state that if this committee were to carry out 
its true functions, it would investigate and not make speeches to the 
people and tell them what is the truth, but to determine the truth, and 
I further want to invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. You are making speeches, and you could enlighten 
us if you would answer the questions, but on every significant question 
you have refused to answer and invoked the fifth amendment. 

Mr. MoROZE. I have had to fight for it. 

Mr. ScHERER. You have the right to tell the public and these friends 
of yours here whether the information Mr, Tavenner has is true or 
false. You have your opportunity. 

Mr. MoROZE. It is crystal clear, Mr. Congressman, that the purpose 
of most of these questions is not to investigate but to open a trap for 
witnesses who are fighting for the Constitution, and the trap was 
created by this committee in its ill-begotten repressive legislation, and 
I will not be entrapped, and I invoke my privileges under the Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. ScHERER. Somebody asked what is the purpose of this evidence 
that Mr. Tavenner has been trying to develop in the last few days. 
There are contributors to the Civil Rights Congress who feel that they 
are contributing to something other than what they think they are 
contributing to. It will be made crystal clear that when people con- 
tribute to the Civil Rights Congress, they are contributing to the Com- 
munist Party. People have a perfect right to contribute to the Civil 
Rights Congress, but there has been misrepresentation and there are 
many contributors to that organization who don't understand that the 
Civil Rights Congress and the Communist Party are practically syn- 
onymous. The evidence here today is developing that fact, and I 
think if people know the facts, they won't be duped into contribut- 
ing to a conspiracy dedicated to the overthrow of this Government by 
force and violence, contributing to the bail fund of traitors, spies, and 
and Communist agents within our Government. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1085 

Mr. MoROZE. I resent that remark. You know as a lawyer that if 
there is any evidence of malfeasance on anyone's part 

Mr. ScHERER. I didn't accuse you. 

Mr. MoROZE. There is a grand jury system, a trial system. Let's act 
according to due process. 

Mr. ScHERER. Many of these people have been indicted and convict- 
ed and are now serving a sentence. Bail was furnished by the Civil 
Rights Congress from these very same funds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell' the committee, please, the total amount 
of funds raised by use of certificates of deposit in New Jersey ? 

Mr. MoROZE. These questions go on ad infinitum and the Constitu- 
tion is still a basic document with the American people, and I invoke 
my privilege not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Don't you believe, AVitness, if you are so interested 
in the Constitution, that the American people have a right to know 
what funds they are contributing to and not have the cause to which 
they contribute misrepresented to them ? 

t)o you not think they have a right to understand what the funds are 
being used for ? 

If they understand and know full well, then that is their business. 
But it is perfectly obvious from the evidence that I have heard, not 
only here but in other places, that there are people who have been 
duped into contributions because of the name "Civil Rights," who 
didn't understand and who don't understand that the funds have been 
used in behalf of the Communist conspiracy in this country. If they 
understand it and still contribute, they have that right, and I am the 
last individual to interfere with that right. 

Mr. MoROZE. Make sure you don't. 

Mr. Taa-exner. Mr. JSIoroze, there has been no prosecution of a 
Smith Act case in the State of New Jersey. But do you know whether 
or not any funds of the Civil Rights Congress of New Jersey have been 
used for bail purposes for the Smith Act defendants? 

Mr. Moroze. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there any instance in the State of New Jersey 
or elsewhere to your knowledge wliere funds of the Civil Rights Con- 
gress of New Jersey have been used for bail purposes where the defend- 
ants involved were not members of the Communist Party, or where 
the Communist Party was not responsible for the Civil Rights Con- 
gress affording relief by furnishing of bail ? 

Mr. MoROZE. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have another observation. I don't believe that the 
rank and file of the union membership when solicited for funds for 
the Civil Rights Congress would voluntarily contribute to the fund 
if they knew its primary objective was to support the Communist con- 
spiracy in this country. 

We have had eviclence that solicitations have been made readily 
from people in the factories who can't afford it, who don't understand 
where their money is going, evidenced by the fact that the testimony 
of the first witness the other day, who was the treasurer, signed the 
checks without knowing where the money was going. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not 
you as assistant treasurer of the Civil Rights Congress received any 



1086 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

fimds for and in behalf of the Civil Eights Congress of New Jersey 
contributed by United Electrical Kadio & Machine Workers of Amer- 
ica, or any of its branches ? 

Mr. MoROZE. This invades the right of the people to associate, peti- 
tion for redress of grievance mider the first amendment. It is an 
improper invasion of the people's rights mider the ninth amendment, 
and it is further invasion of my right under the fifth, and I invoke the 
privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I notice on this certificate of deposit which has been 
introduced in the record, apparently signed by David Rocklin and 
Lewis Moroze, the witness before us, that under point 1 the trustees 
have the sole authority to determine for whom bail shall be posted, 
and there is no restriction on the subject of whether or not bail shall 
be posted outside of, or for cases or defendants outside of the State of 
New Jersey. 

As far as this certificate of deposit is concerned, the trustees had 
milimited authority to post bail any place they wanted in the country 
or outside of the comitry if they so wanted. 

Is there any other question, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. MoROZE. Mr. Chairman, I noticed you asked other witnesses 
what proposals they have in order to do away with subversion in the 
United States. I would like to be asked that question. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. Mr. Chairman, may I make a suggestion ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think any witness who has refused to answer 
questions before this committee should not be entitled to make a speech 
unless he is going to give us information he is requested to give. 

Mr. Doyle. I think apparently the witness has taken every occasion 
he could to make a speech and criticize the committee and its procedure, 
and criticize the United States Congress, and he has even made the 
charge that the United States Government is a tyraimy. That is the 
way I heard the testimony. I hope the time will come before you are 
many hours older, Moroze, that you have a change of heart about your 
Government, about your Nation that gave you birth, and about the 
purposes for which you are using free education as a graduate of a 
teacher's college. 

Mr. MoROZE. I love this Government and the American people. 

Mr. Doyle. You love it enough to call it a tyranny. 

Mr. Moroze. The committee's tyrannical acts. 

Mr. Doyle. People don't call my Government a tyranny if they love 
it. It is when they despise it and hate it. 

Mr. MoRozE. We tend to criticize sharply those we love the most. 

Mr. Doyle. You don't call those you love the most a tyramiy. I am 
ashamed of you, as I said before. You are excused. 

("Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

We will recess for 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Doyle, The committee will please come to order. 

Let the record show that both members of the subcommittee, Mr. 
Scherer and Mr. Doyle, are present. 

Is counsel ready to proceed ? 

Mr. Tamsnner. Mr. James McLeish. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1087 

Mr. D0T1.E. Before I ask Mr. McLeish to be sworn, have you a re- 
port, counsel ? 

Mr. Greenbueg. Tomorrow afternoon would be the most conven- 
ient for myself and my client, if that is all right with the committee. 

Mr. Doyle. Is Mr. Shapiro your client ? 

Mr. Greenbueg. Yes. 

Mr. Tavennee. Perhaps we should advise him later about that, 
Mr. Chairman. It may be we will not be ready by tomorrow after- 
noon. Give us your address and we will get in touch with you and 
keep you advised. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. McLeish, will you please rise and be sworn. Do 
you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. McLeish. I clo. 

Mr. Doyle. Be seated, please. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES B. McLEISH, SR., ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
MOETON STAVIS 

Mr. Tavennee. State you name, please. 

Mr. McLeish. My name is James B. McLeish, Sr. 

Mr. Ta\^nnee. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Would 
counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Stavis. Morton Stavis, 744 Broad Street, Newark. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. "Wlien and where where you born, Mr. McLeish? 

Mr. McLeish. I was born in a small county called Lochee, County 
of Angus, Scotland, December 9, 1899. 

Mr. Ta\tennee. Spell the name, please. 

]Mr. McLeish. Lochee. 

Mr. Tavennee. ^Mien did you first come to this country ? 

Mr. McLeish. I came to this country in March 1925. 

Mr. Ta%tennee. Have you lived here constantly since that time? 

Mr. McLeish. With the exception of two trips I had. 

Mr. Ta\^ennee. Are you a naturalized American citizen? 

Mr. McLeish. I am. 

Mr. Tavennee. "Wlien and where were you naturalized? 

Mr. McLeish. Naturalized in Newark February 23, 1933. 

Mr. Tavennee. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been ? 

Mr. AIcLeish. I attended public school in Lochee, I attended the 
Harris Academy in Dublin and I attended the engineering courses 
at the Evening School at the Dundee Technical College and School 
of Art. 

Mr. Tavennee. Wliat is your present occupation? 

Mr. McLeish. My present occupation is union represenative. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Is tliat your official title, union representative ? 

Mr. McLeish. No, my official title is general vice president of the 
United Electrical, Radio and jNIachine Workers of America. 

Mr. Tavennee. Do you hold any other position in the UE other 
than that? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes; simultaneously with that goes the presidency 
of the district council No. 4. 



1088 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. TA^'ENXER. How long have you been president of district coun- 
cil No. 4? 

Mr. McLeish. I have been the president of the district council 
since September 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. Occupying that position were you required under 
the provisions of the Taft-Hartley act to execute what is commonly 
referred to as the Taft-Hartley affidavit? 

Mr. McLeish. I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. And did you execute the affidavit for the years 
since the act has been in effect? 

JNIr. McLeish. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you execute it for any of the years ? 

Mr. McLeish. After our national convention reached a decision in 
September of 1949, the membership authorized the officers of this 
union to proceed with the filing of such affidavits, from that point on 
I have filed. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have here a photostatic copy of what purports 
to be that affidavit for the year 1949. Will you examine it, please, and 
state whether this is tlie first one you executed? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. This is my signature on here. Duly attested to 
before a notary public in the State of New Jersey. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question is, was that the first affidavit you 
signed ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes ; that was my first affidavit. 

Mr. Tamsnner. I have also a photostatic copy for the years 1950, 
1951, 1952, 1953, 1954. Do they appear to be correct? 

Mr. McLeish. They appear to be correct with my signature. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I desire to offer the 6 documents in evidence and 
ask that they be marked "McLeish Exhibits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6," re- 
spectively, for identification purposes only, and to be made a part of 
the committee files. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you tell the committee, please, what the duties 
of president of the council are? That is, your duties as president of 
council for district 4. 

Mr. McLeish. I understand. The duties of the president of district 
4 council is to preside at all meetings of the council, preside at all 
meetings of the district executive board, to act as the chief adminis- 
trative officer of the district. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee how many people com- 
pose your staff ? 

Mr. McLeish. In district 4? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. McLeish. A total of 7 people at the present time. 

Mr. Tavenner. What are their titles or positions? 

Mr. McLeish. We have a district representative, we have a research 
and educational director, we have a full-time secretary who has a dual 
position. It is an elected position as secretary, he also has position 
as district representative. We have an office force of three workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you actually have two district representatives 
on your staff ? 

Mr. McLeish. That might be so ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is so, isn't it"? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1089 

Mr. McLeish. One is a direct district representative, the other is 
a combination of an elected officer on full time who is recognized as a 
district representative. 

Mr. Tavenner. This committee has heard over a period of time 
about organizers of the UE. Sometimes they are referred to as field 
organizers and sometimes as district organizers. Is there a distinction 
between those two classes ? 

Mr. McLeish. There is no district organizer as such. It is a mis- 
nomer. There are national field organizers who are on the payroll of 
the national union. 

Mr. Tavenner. How are the national field organizers assigned to a 
district ? 

Mr. McLeish. In the first place, the national field organizer is 
placed on the staff by a procedure. 

Mr. Taat:n-ner. What is that procedure ? 

Mr. McLeish. Any person, member of the union, or officer of the 
union, naturally if he is an officer he must be a member, may recom- 
mend a person for the staff, or any person a member of the union may 
apply to be placed on the staff. That application along with the rec- 
ommendations, whoever they should find to recommend them, is for- 
warded to the national director of organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that Mr. Ma ties? 

Mr. McLeish. Mr. James J. Matles. He in his turn sends those to 
the various areas where those applications might come from. If there 
are no objections, then they may or may not be placed on the staff, 
depending upon the open assignments. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question was how are organizers assigned to 
your district? I dicl not have in mind particularly how they were 
appointed in the first instance, but how were they assigned. "WHio 
assigns them to the district? 

Mr. McLeish. The international union assigns them to the district. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat authority within the international union 
physically assigns them to the district? 

Mr. McLeish. The provisions of the national constitution applying 
to the duties of the director of organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then that would be Mr. Matles ? 

Mr. McLeish. He makes the assignment and if there are objections 
from the area to which they have been assigned, they may be removed. 

Mr. Tavenner. It would be possible for you as the director 

Mr. McLeish. Not director, elected officer. 

Mr. Tavenner. As president of your council to object to Mr. Matles 
regarding any organizer assigned to your district and he would be 
removed ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes. 

Mr. Taxt.nner. How many field organizers are normally assigned to 
a district at one time? 

Mr. McLeish. There is no such thing as "normal" in the trade- 
union movement, sir. It would depend on the nature of the work in 
hand at a given time. It may be 50, it may be 10, who knows ? And 
of course the fact as to whether you can pay them or not is very 
important, too. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tlie payment doesn't come from the district, but 
comes from the international organization, isn't that correct? 

Mr. ]\IcLeish. Absolutely. 



1090 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavbnnee. So your district isn't concerned with the problem 
of paying the organizer. 

Mr. MgLeish. Oh, yes, as a member of the general executive board 
and vice president, I am concerned with the financial standing of the 
union. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is not my question. 

Mr. McLeish. That is my answer. 

Mr. Tavenxer. It was not responsive to my question. My ques- 
tion — and I would like for you to answer it — is whether the district 
was concerned with the payment of the salaries of organizers. 

Mr. McLeish. Yes, naturally we are concerned. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what way? 

Mr. McLeish. To see first of all that they have a livelihood, they 
are able to get around, they appear properly dressed. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know I meant in the sense of responsibility for 
the payment of their salary. 

Mr. McLeish. If you mean, do we actually pay them 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. McLeish. The answer is, "No, we don't." 

Mr. Tavenner. How many field organizers are working out of 
your office now? 

Mr. McLeish. There are at the present time to the best of my 
knowledge 15. I might be off by one plus or minus. 

Mr. Tavenner. '\\^ien field organizers are assigned to your district, 
are they assigned to your district in the way of a general assignment 
or are they assigned to work in a particular area in your district ? 

Mr. McLeish. The field organizers when they are sent in, when the 
national office sends them in, are instructed to report to the inter- 
national representative w^ho in fact is the man in charge of the staff 
in the area under the direction of the director of organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. The international representative then works under 
the direction of the president of the district council? 

Mr. McLeish. No, the international representative works under 
the direction of the director of organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Matles? 

Do you have any authority as president of the council for district 
4 to assign field organizers to work with different locals or different 
groups within your district? 

Mr. McLeish. I have a limited authority to do things. I do 
have the power to make recommendations. I do have the power to 
raise my voice to object or to push, which I never hesitated to do. 

Mr. Tavenner. To whom do you raise your authority to object or 
to push in the matter of assignment of organizers? 

Mr. McLeish. I understand. To the director of organization and 
if I don't get satisfaction there, to the general executive board of the 
union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Explain just how the international representative 
figures into the picture as far as assignment of duties of field or- 
ganizers in a district. 

Mr. McLeish. Duties of the international representative is to co- 
ordinate the work of the field organizers within the area. That is 
as simply as I can put it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1091 

Mr. Tavenner. Does he have authority to change, or does he in 
practice change the assignment of field organizers from one local to 
another ? 

Mr. McLeish. He has the authority to change those people from 
one job to another, not necessarily a local. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Do you on occasions confer with the international 
representative with regard to the assignment of work to field or- 
ganizers ? 

Mr. McLeish. Oh, sure, I do. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. In fact, the two of you collaborate in that work, 
do you not? 

Mr. McLeish. I don't know if you call it collaboration. We dis- 
cuss the question, sometimes we agree and sometimes we disagree. 
Collaboration to me means something a little bit different. 

Mr. Taat5Nner. "\Ylien you disagree what occurs ? 

Mr. McLeish. TVHien we disagree, then we go to the next step. 

Mr. Tav'enner. Is that Mr. Matles? 

Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there more than one international representative 
at a time in a district ? 

Mr. McLeish. That would depend on circumstances, too, sir, the 
volume of work being the main thing. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many international representatives are as- 
signed to your district now? 

Mr. JMcLeish. At the present time we have 3. but only 1 acts as 
all-out international representative with responsibility for the staff. 

Mr. Ta\"enner. Are you acquainted with Mr. Steve Kudich who 
testified here yesterday? 

Mr. McLeish. I recognized him as he came into the courtroom. 

Mr. Tavenner, The question is were you acquainted with him, not 
whether you recognized him. 

Mr. McLeish. Not too well. I recognized him from having seen 
him before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a field organizer in j^our district ? 

Mr. McLeish. I scratched my memory after hearing his testimony 
yesterday as to whether he was or whether he was not. I am not too 
sure that he was a permanent member of the staff. He may have been 
on a temporary basis here, but if he was it was for a very short period 
of time. 

Mr. TA'vrENNER. Were you acquainted with Mr. Ernst Pollock? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes ; I know Ernst Pollock very well. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. He was a UE organizer on your staff, wasn't he? 

Mr. McLeish. No ; Enist Pollock was business manager of a local 
union. 

ISIr. Tavenner. And was he treasurer of the district ? 

Mr. McLeish. And treasurer of the district for a period of time, 
and a trustee of the district for a period of time, and a member of 
the district executive board for a period of time. 

?,Ir. Tavenner. Wliat do you mean by trustee of the district ? 

Mr. McLeish. One of his duties was to pass on vouchers before 
payment was made. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you remember Katherine Heck, who was your 
secretarv at one time? 



1092 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. McLeish. Katherine Heck. I remember her very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where she is now ? 

Mr. McLeish. I don't know ; I am sorry. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did she last work for you ? 

Mr. McLeish. She worked for me about 8I/2 years. She left I 
think to have some surgery away back, I am guessing now, around 
either 1948 or 1949, somewhere in that neighborhood. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you heard of her since ? 

Mr. McLeish. I have neither heard from her nor seen her since 
that time. I might say she was a very competent worker. Can I 
correct the testimony yesterday? She was a bookkeeper. She was 
the person who was assisting Pollock in his duties. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she work in your office ? 

Mr. McLeish. That is right, under my direction. 

Mr. Scherer. During the 8i/l- years she worked for you did you 
know she was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. McLeish. I think that under the circumstances I shouldn't 
answer that question. Congressman. 

Mr. Scherer. You have that privilege if you want to invoke your 
privilege. 

Mr. McLeish. I would like to invoke it if you don't mind. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you say it wnll incriminate you to answer the 
question ? 

Mr. McLeish. I didn't say that, Congressman. I didn't say it 
"would incriminate me. I just said I would like to invoke my privi- 
lege because of what I heard yesterday. And some of the questions 
that you, particularly, and the chairman raised at that time. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, this witness said that he didn't think 
answering that question would incriminate him, he is only refusing 
to answer it on something he heard yesterday, it doesn't apply to him- 
self. Therefore, Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness 
to answer the question. He cannot possibly invoke the fifth amend- 
ment on the basis of the statement he just made. 

Mv. Doyle. Mr. McT^eish, I direct you to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I would like to invoke my privilege under the fifth 
amendment. I know of nothing and my counsel here tells me he 
knows of nothing of any such language as you used under the fifth 
amendment, and irrespective of what your interpretation might be 
of it I would still like to invoke it. Let me put it very bluntly — 
1 do. 

Mr. Scherer. If Kitty Heck was not a member of the Communist 
Party, would you tell us? 

Mr. McLeish. Now, Congressmen, don't fence around. You are 
not going to get me in a corner and try to back me out. My answer is 
still the same on that question. 

Mr. Scherer. As long as you invoke the fifth amendment, there is 
no chance of getting you in a corner. 

INIr. McLeish. I don't care to get into an argument about Miss Heck. 
She can probably talk for herself. 

IVIr. Scherer. She most likely would invoke the fifth amendment, 
too. 

Mr. McLeish. I have no way of deciding that. You evidently had 
your mind made up prior to this hearing as to what she might do. I 



COMI^rUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1093 

am not so sure T would make up my mind so easily. I would let her 
talk for herself. 

Mr. ScHERER. I don't think the witness has answered my question 
and I think in view of his previous answer 

My. McLeish. I have no intention of answering any such question, 
Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute, Witness, please. 

Will you direct the witness to answer the question which I asked 
him, namely, if Miss Heck was not a member of the Communist Party 
would he tell us ? 

Mr. DoTLE. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. In view of his statement to my first question, I think 
he has no right to invoke the fifth amendment. If he does, I think he 
is clearly in contempt. He specifically said to answer the question 
would not incriminate him. 

Mr. McLeish. I still decline to answer the question. Congressman. 

]\Ir. Doyle. On what grounds do you decline to answer? 

Mr. McLeish. On the grounds, first, of all, it is a rather "iffy" 
question, if I might say so. Secondly, I have no intention of taking 
the Congressman's interpretation of what I ought to do when I have 
a counsel here. And, thirdly, I want to invoke my privileges under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you invoke them ? You say you want to. Do you ? 

Mr. McLeish. For the second time, I do. 

Mr. Doyle. I want the record to be very positive. 

Mr. Tavexner. Mr. jMcLeish, you didn't hesitate in 1941 to fully 
express yourself publicly as to whether or not you were a member of 
the Communist Part}', did 3'ou^ 

Mr. McLeish. I don't knoM' just what you are referring to. 

Mr. Tavexner. I have before me a copy of the proceedings of the 
Seventh International Convention of the United Electrical, Radio and 
Machine Workers of America, whicli was held between September 1 
and 5, 1941, in Camden, N. J., and I find that you were one of the 
speakers on the floor in support of a resolution that had been presented 
at that convention, and which was the subject of considerable debate. 
The chairman recognized the vice president McLeish, who started out 
by saying this, in order to refresh your recollection of the incident : 

Mr. Chairman and fellow delegates, I am very sorry to have to he here to 
apologize for some of the statements made by some of the delegates from my 
district. I think first of all if they had used the machinery within their local 
and their district, they need not have brought the supposed evidence here to make 
attacks against officers of my district. 

Those were attacks involving communism against those officers of 
your district, weren't they? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. Might I see that, please? I would like to see the 
context in which this statement appears. 

Mr. TA^^EXXER. Yes ; but first answer the question. 

Mr. McLeish. I can't answer it without seeing it. 

Mr. Tavenxer. You can't answer the question, whether on the floor 
of tliat convention there were attacks made against officers of your 
district involving communism? 



1094 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. McLeish. 1941 is a long time back. If it will expedite the tiling- 
and you show me what is in there, I will be able to make up my mind 
as to whether I can answer you. 

Mr. TAAT:]srNER. I am asking you if you recall, and if you don't I 
will permit you to refresh your recollection. 

Mr. MgLeish. Of coui^e I recall 1941. It was one of the years in 
the calendar and I know I was in Camden then, and I know I was at 
the convention, and I know I spoke ; I know there was a rimipus, but 
let me see it and find out the context in which it is made, and I will be 
able to give you an answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me first see if you recall this independently and 
if you don't, as I said, I will let you see it. On the question of the 
resolution, and I am reading from page 100 : 

I am here to speak in support of the committee's recommendation not because 
I happen to he a Comimmist but because I do believe the Communist has a place 
in our imion, just the same as every other member has a place in our union. 

Does that refresh your recollection ? 

Mr. McLeish. It is coming to me ; yes. 

Read on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make that statement? 

Mr. McLeish. Will you finish what I said and the full context 
of what was going on? 

Mr. Scherer. Let's not fence. I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question of counsel, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. McLeish. I would like to say I don't want your counsel to fence 
with me, either. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not. It is a simple question. 

Mr. DoTLE. He is not fencing. He read a printed statement which 
purportedly was made by you. 

Mr. McLeish. He is reading, supposedly, proceedings of a conven- 
tion in 1941. He has it right before him, ancl I am asked from memory 
14 years later, you know, to say whether or not a given answer on 
something — I want to know in which context it was. I have said many 
things over the last 14 years, you know. I have said some things I 
maybe wish today I hadn't said, but I have said them anyway. 

Mr. Doyle. We are asking you if you made that statement. You 
apparently are a very able man with very clear recollection and very 
positive, no question about your memory being good as far as the chair- 
man can discover. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. The witness has not said that he does not remember 
this, and that is my question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I would like to see that document. If it is what I 
think it is, I will have no hesitation in answering your question. 

In the first place, I can guess it is part of the convention pro- 
ceedings, but I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am going to give you an opportunity to verify 
every word I said. 

Mr. McLeish. Stop fencing with me and give it to me. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to know whether or not you remember using 
that language in the course of that debate ? 

Mr. McLeish. I can't be clear if I did or not, but if I see the docu- 
ment and read it, I am willing to give an answer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1095 

Mr. Tavenner. Finally, the witness lias answered the question I 
have asked. 

Mr. McLeish. You have been fencing with me for 10 minutes. 

Mr. Doyle. You are the one who has been fencing. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are welcome to read the whole statement so you 
will get the context of the whole matter you referred to. 

Mr. McLeish. I won't read the whole statement. 

(The witness conferred wtih his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you use the language which is attributed to you 
and which I read ? 

Mr. McLeish. I used the language which you read, plus a great 
deal more that is in this particular section of this report. And if 
you care to, I will read it right into the record completely. 

Mr. Tavenner. If there is anything in the other language to which 
you refer which would indicate a different interpretation to the lan- 
guage that I read, which was to the effect that— "not because I happen 
to be a Communist" — you are- entitled to state it, and I would like for 
you to state it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I think I would like, Mr. Chairman, to read this 
whole thing in full as it is at the present time. 

Mr. DoTLE. There is no objection, is there, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no obection. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you identify, please, from what page and from 
what volume you are reading? 

Mr. McLeish. From page 100 of the convention proceedings of the 
year 1941, September lO^l of the Seventh International Convention of 
the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you proposing to read your statement before that 
convention ? 

Mr. McLeish. This was in the course of the discussion. 

Mr. Doyle. It is your statement, isn't it ? 

Mr. McLeish. This is what I said, to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Chairman and fellow delegates, I am very sorry to have to be here to 
apolo.qize for some of the statements from my district. I think first of all if 
they had used the machinery within their local and their district, they need 
not have brought this supposed evidence here to make attacks against officers 
of my district. 

Mr. Scherer. May I interrupt? The attacks that these representa- 
tive were making, or accusations they were making related to Com- 
munist connections of some of the officers of the union, did they not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. If you want me to answer that, I have to go way back 
here. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't have to go back. Wliat were the attacks 
about then ? 

Mr. McLeish. This happened to be a discussion on a resolution. 
This discussion evidently went on for a long period of time. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand that. 

Mr. McLeish. And the year was 1941. 

Mr. Scherer. But you just read where you said if these people 
hadn't brought this supposed evidence before the convention certain 
things wouldn't have happened. Now what was this evidence? Was 
it evidence in connection with Communist membership on the part of 



1096 COROIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

certain officers of the union? That is all I want to know, or if it 
wasn't, what was the evidence ? 

Mr. McLeisii. You are a persistent guy for interruptions, there is 
no question. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am. 

Mr. Doyle, He a has good deal of Scotch in him. 

Mr. McLeish. He has a good deal of something else besides Scotch, 
if the truth were known. 

Mr. Doyle. He has a good deal of duty as an American Congress- 
man. 

Mr. McLeish. I am not taking away from his duties. 

Mr. Scherer. Let's cut out these compliments. 

Mr. McLeisii. I am not throwing any bouquets out. 

Mr. Scherer. Let's keep to the record. 

Mr. McLeish. I should just like you to hold up your questions until 
I get through finishing what I was on. 

Mr. Scherer. I don't have to hold up my questions. I think you 
understand what I am asking; Mr. Tavenner asked you before and 
you did. 

M. McLeish. Did I or did I not have your permission, Mr. Chair- 
man, to read this ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. McLeish. Can I be allowed to proceed, and then he may ask 
his question ? 

Mr. Doyle. I don't think it will interrupt you. 

Mr. McLeish. It sure is interrupting me. 

M. Scherer. I insist on my right to ask a question at any point 
while he is reading. 

Mr. Doyle. It wouldn't confuse you in the further reading to an- 
swer the question. 

Mr. Scherer. It clarifies what he is reading. I want to know what 
these complaints were that resulted in this resolution. Mr. Tavenner 
asked the question and didn't get an answer, and I think everybody 
here wants to know what these complaints were that you were dis- 
cussing. 

Mr. Doyle. Complaints that you described as supposed evidence. 

Mr. McLeish. If you want me to answer it you will have to give 
me time to go over this to refresh my memory. 

Mr. Scherer. Don't you know of your own knowledge what those 
complaints were? 

Mr. McLeisii. In a rough way. 

Mr. Doyle. Tell us what they were in a rough way. 

Mr. McLeisii. I want to give it to you in a real way. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Counsel, you understand the rule. I respectfully 
suggest that counsel has a right to advise the witness as to his legal 
rights and not tell him what to answer I think he knows exactly, as 
well as I do, what the complaints were that resulted in this resolution 
that he is discussing, but the record doesn't show it and I want it in 
the record. Now, without going back into the book, do you recall 
what the complaints of the members of your local were ? 

Mr. McLeish. There were no complaints from the members of my 
local. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1097 

Mr, ScHERER. What was this evidence you said they brought that 
you characterized as supposed evidence ? 

Mr. McLeish. As far as I can recollect, and I want to be sure, there 
was one delegate wlio produced a photostat in a charge against a fellow 
officer of mine and that photostat afterward was proven to be a forgery 
where somebody took one piece of document and pasted on another one, 
had the photostat made. 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean they do that within the union ? 

Mr. McLeish. They do that everywhere as far as I can see, from 
what I find from the newspapers. 

Mr. ScHERER. You still didn't answer my question and you are 
not getting me away from it. What was the complaint about ? What 
was the forgery about 'i Was it about Communist membership or was 
it about embezzlement within the union ? 

I want to know whether the evidence was true or geiuiine, or false, 
what the subject matter dealt with. 

Mr, McLeish. There was a discussion on the floor of the convention 
arising out of a resolution presented by the resolutions committee of 
that convention on the question of — Do you want to get the whole 
question ? 

Mr, Scherer. You described this falsified evidence that you said was 
produced. What did it deal with? What was the subject matter? 
Did it deal with an embezzlement within the union ? Did it deal with 
Communist membership on the part of an officer or what did it deal 
with? 

Mr. McLeish. No. 

Mr, Scherer. It is as simple as that, and you know what it is as well 
as I do, but I want it in the record. 

Mr. McLeish. I am looking here to find out for sure. 

Mr, Doyle. You have mentioned a photostat, Mr. McLeish, and 
that it was proved to be false. What did the photostat claim to be ? 

Mr. McLeish. I am trying, Mr. Cliairman, to get my mind back 
on it. If you will give me the time, and you must have the answer, 
I will find it here. I will refresh my memory. 

Mr. Scherer. You go ahead and refresh your memory, but I think 
you know what it is without refreshing it. 

Mr. McLeish, If you think you know, I don't see why you should 
ask me. 

Mr. Scherer. I want it in the record as I told you. That is what 
we are here for. 

Mr, McLeish, If you want it in the record, you just have to be 
patient. 

Mr. Stavis. I would like to make a procedural suggestion. Since 
we are approaching the luncheon hour and if you are going to ask ex- 
tensive questions about their 1941 convention, perhaps we can recess 
now. 

Mr. Scherer. I don't want to give him opportunity to arrange his 
answer. 

Mr. McLeish. I don't want the opportunity. I will stay here. I 
don't want any opportunity that isn't right. I think I have found it. 

Mr. Scherer. It should be obvious to anyone that a witness who 
claims to know how an exhibit was forged and altered knows what the 
subject matter of the forgery or instrument was. 

65.388— 55— pt. 1 8 



1098 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. McLeish. I told you that I had some recollection of it but not 
clearly, and before I answer I want to be sure. 

Mr. Doyle. You have just stated you found it. 

Mr. McLeish. I have come to the place here, where it comes in. 

Mr, Doyle. What page are you looking at, Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. McLeish. I am picking it up at page 81. 

Mr. Doyle. Page 81 of the same official document you have identi- 
fied as official proceedings ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes, and I think I have found the actual place. One 
of the delegates there got up and said : 

Mr. Cbairman, delegates, I have documentary proof, photostatic copies of the 
activities of the Communist Party in district 4. Schools for organizers and 
UE members, high officials in district 4, conducting meetings for the Young 
Communist League. I have that right here in this portfolio for this convention. 

Mr. Scherer. The subject matter under discussion involved a 
charge of Communist activity within district 4 on the part of UE 
officials, did it not? 

Mr. McLeish. That was part of the discussion : 

Mr. Scherer. A resolution resulted from the complaint of a mem- 
ber of the union, did it not ? 

Mr, McLeish. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. How did the resolution arise? 

Mr. McLeish. This so-called testimony was introduced during the 
discussion on the resolution dealing with the whole question of 
Nazism and Fascism, That was how it was introduced. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you have the text of that resolution in that volume ? 

Mr, McLeish, I will have to go back and find it, 

Mr, Doyle, I will withdraw it for the present because we will 
question you after lunch, but I am just wondering if you have located 
that resolution yet. 

Mr. McLeish. No, I didn't go far enough back, just page 100 back 
to 81 to find this. 

Mr. Scherer. Your remarks which Mr. Tavenner read to you, were 
referring to the charge of Communist activity made by this individ- 
ual within district 4, were they not ? 

Mr. McLeish. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. What were your remarks referring to? 

Mr. McLeish. Will you let me continue where I started to read? 
You will be able to find out. 

Mr. Scherer. I mean the remarks when you said, "I am not a 
member of the party myself, but" 

Mr. Doyle. He didn't say that. He said, "not because I am a 
Communist." 

Mr. Scherer, I even gave him the benefit of the doubt. 

Mr. McLeish. At least that is one point up, anyway. Can I con- 
tinue now where I left off ? 

Mr. Doyle. Please do that. 

Mr. McLeish. Thank you. [Keading :] 

On the question of the resolution I am here to speak in support of the 
committee's recommendation not because I happen to be a Communist but 
because I do believe the Communist has a place in our union just the same as 
every other member has his place in our union. The question will come up 
from time to time, we have these outside agencies and individuals who have 
been working in this hallway during the whole of this week, of whcise communi- 
cations to certain delegates I have a copy. They have been receiving notes all 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1099 

week. It is all right with me. They can receive them now as long as they 
do not disrupt this convention. 

On the question of my beliefs and the right of members to hold office and mem- 
bership in this union since the formation of this union, and since I became a 
member and alleged officer I have at all times believed that every member 
once we accepted him into membership was entitled to the same rights and 
privileges as his fellow members. 

I continue to believe that and will continue to fight for that position no 
matter what he might be, whether he be Communist, Socialist, Nazi, Fascist, or 
any other — 
There is a word that j ust isn't exactly the King's English — 

things on this earth. I have been brought up under that system. 

I cannot claim to be native born, I do claim to be a naturalized citizen. 
The country means much to me, as much to me as it does to you, and I expect 
to earn my livelihood here until the time I pass on. 

Many of us have been branded. Our distinguished president has inferred I 
wear pink pants, but mine are getting a little bit worn — 

and that part is deleted and that must have been rather strong — 

I want to urge every delegate to give this thing serious consideration. This 
committee has deliberated many hours. They have brought us something they 
feel is for the good of the union. I want you as delegates to sit down sensibly, 
don't be swayed, use your own good judgment, and I have the feeling that by 
using your own good judgment you will uphold the committee and I along with 
you will abide by the majority decision. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask one question ? Have you read now the com- 
jDlete, entire text of your discussion on that resolution ? 

Mr. McLeish. As far as I can remember. On this part at least. I 
don't know whether I spoke again or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. In reading it you have confirmed that it is the state- 
ment you made. I want to refer back now to my original question. 

Mr. ScHEKER. And we came to the conclusion finally that it was the 
result of the complaint of a member of the union about Communist 
activities in district 4. 

Mr. McLeish. No, it was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. McLeish, referring back again to the portion I 
read to you at the beginning : 

On the question of the resolution I am here to speak in support of the com- 
mittee's recommendation, not because I happen to be a Communist but because 
I do believe the Communist has a place in our union, just the same as every 
other member has a place in our union. 

You were a member of the Communist Party at the time you made 
that statement, were you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. That was 1941, as I recall the date. May I see the ex- 
hibit if you are through with it? 

Mr. McLeish. I think, Mr. Counsel, that after listening to the testi- 
mony yesterday— and there is certainly involved the attitude of the 
members of this Board — that an attempt is being made to work a 
fence around me for some no-good reason. Therefore, in order to 
protect myself, I want to invoke my privileges under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. And refuse to answer ? 

Mr. McLeish. Correct. 

Mr. Doyle. Again, Mr. McLeish, you have used very polite lan- 
guage that you want to invoke the privilege. I am asking you to 
be positive, like a Scotchman born, and say whether or not vou do 

Mr. McLeish. I do. 



1100 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Doyle. I think I ought to make this brief statement of my 
own personal position in part. I, as an American citizen, recognize 
that conditions were considerably different in 1941 than they are now, 
and have been at any time since Earl Browder was expelled from the 
Communist Party leadership. I have come to feel as a Member of 
Congress for going on 9 years, and as a member of this committee, that 
possibly some patriotic Americans Avere members of the Communist 
Party in 1941 but got out after Earl Browder was kicked out, if they 
hadn't before. 

I, as a member of this committee, personally made some allowance for 
American citizens having been members of the Communist Party in 

1941, but I don't make very much allowance for any man or woman 
who claims to be a patriotic American and is a member of the Com- 
munist Party now, or who remained a member of the Communist 
Party after Earl Browder was expelled. 

I make that statement to you, sir, because I have known of a few 
distinguished labor leaders in the country who were Communists in 
the years 1941 and 1942, but when they realized that the Communist 
Party became a conspiracy to use force and violence, they got out of 
it because they couldn't stomach the rotten stuff and they wouldn't 
stomach the philosophy as given by Mr. Moroze an hour or two ago. 
You heard him say that the United States Government was a tyranny, 
that was the effect of his statement in my book. 

I want to say to you, Mr. McT^ish, because you have adopted my 
Nation as your own, I think as a great labor leader, if you were a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party in 1941 that is one thing; but if you got 
out I think you ought to say so and help your Government which you 
adopted. That is my position with you and with any other labor 
leader. Do you understand what I am trying to get across to you? 

Mr. McLeish. I understand you perfectly, Congi-essman. 

Mr. Doyle. I have said this same thing all over the Nation. I can't 
understand why in God's name you labor leaders in the UE or any 
other group who might have gone into the Communist Party in 1941, 

1942, and 1943 and remained a member after Earl Browder was kicked 
out by the SoAaet regime in 1945, come into this room and claim the 
fifth amendment. We expect any man to claim the fifth amendment 
if he does so conscientiously and honestly. We are defending consti- 
tutional rights just as much as Moroze, or you, or anybody else. But 
T don't understand why you refuse to help your own ITnitecl States 
Congress uncover this conspiracy and make it as difficult as possible 
for the Communist conspiracy to succeed. 

I think as a labor leader you owe your own country, your actopted 
country, the obligation of saying when you got out of the Communist 
Party if you did, and if you didn't you owe the same obligation ta 
say you didn't. 

On top of that, I say for God's sake get out of it. I have been 
perfectly frank with you. I didn't say what I did to preach to you 
but that is the way I feel, 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]Mr. McLetsh. You also made some allegations there I think pretty 
definite. I did not say whether I was or was not in 1941, but I sat here 
yesterday and I heard testimony given by a man whom I know was 
sick. I know from my own personal opinion and because of the tes- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1101 

timony he gave there I have no other alternative but to apply, but 
to invoke my privileges. 

Mr. Doyle. You mean he was sick when he was testifying ? 

Mr. McLeish. He was sick prior to it. 

Mr. Doyle. Was he sick when he was a member of your staff ? 

Mr. McLeish. He sure was when he was a member of the local stail, 
-he was. 

Mr. Doyle. Was he in the hospital ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes; he was in the hospital four times to my knowl- 
edge. 

Mr. Doyle. For what cause, if you know ? 

Mr. McLeish. I would prefer not to say here, but he was sick. I 
imagine the doctors would be much more able to tell you that than I. 

Mr. Doyle. What hospital was he in ? 

Mr. McLeish. I know he was in St. James Hospital in Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it for drinking? Don't leave the impression 
it was something else if that is what it was. 

Mr. McLeish. Yes; actually it was caused by excessive drinking. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, another case where a good American 
citizen let booze get control of him for a while. 

Mr. ScHERER. I just didn't want the inference left that he was a 
mental case. 

Mr. McLeish. I do know he did attend a psychiatrist. I am not 
saying he was mental or otherwise, but I do know he was taking treat- 
jnents. 

Mr. ScHERER. "WHiat part of his testimony was untrue? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

JNIr. McLeish. You are not going to rattle me on this. 

Mr. Scherer. You came in here and are impugning the testimony 
of that individual and his integrity, and we are giving you an oppor- 
tunity now to say wliat part of his testimony was untrue. 

Mr. McLeish. I thank you very much for the opportunity, Con- 
gressman. 

Mr. Scherer. But you won't take that opportunity. 

Mr. McLeish. I am not prepared to at the present time. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you review his testimony ? 

Mr. McLeish. I might. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you hear it all day yesterday ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Scherer. "WHiat part of his testimony with reference to Com- 
munist charges within the union, the UE, were untrue? 

Mr. McLeish. I am not going to let you walk me into a trap. 

INIr. Scherer. Was any part of his testimony that you heard untrue ? 

Mr. McLeish. There is a difference between truth, untruth, and 
half-truth. I am not prepared to go into it at the present time. I 
don't want to use his testimony either for or against myself. All I 
want to do is to protect myself against persecution and prosecution. 

Mr. Scherer. You are inferring that this man lied to this com- 
mittee. I am giving you the opportunity to say riglit now in what 
respects that man lied. You admitted you sat here and listened to 
his testimony, and I am sure you listened intently (the witness con- 
ferred with his counsel) to his testimony because it dealt with your 
union, and I want you to tell us now where he didn't tell the truth. 



1102 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. McLeish, I don't care to. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask yon to direct the witness to answer my question. 

Mr. DoTLE I do, Mr. McLeish, I direct you to answer the question. 
Here is a case where under our committee rules it is possible for a 
man who claims that his reputation was hurt and damaged by what 
a witness said has a chance to defend himself, and under our com- 
mittee rules we are very glad to offer it to him. You voluntarily 
claimed the Avitness didn't tell the truth about the activities within 
the union of whicli you were in charge. He testified in this very court- 
room and you heard him, and here is your chance to answer. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. Mr. Chairman, in the first place, the man giving 
testimony did not accuse me of being a member of the Communist 
Party. Second, I don't intend to get into an argument with a guy 
whom I know has been sick for a long period of time; and thirdly, I 
want to invoke, I will invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. You are refusing to answer, then, on the ground that 
to answer might incriminate you ? 

Mr. McLeish. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You did invoke the fifth amendment just now. 

Mr. McLeish. That is something quite different. 

Mr. DoTLE. How is it quite different? What does the fifth amend- 
ment to the Constitution say that you claim ? 

Mr. Scherer. If you are invoking the fifth amendment for any 
other reason than that it might tend to incriminate you you are in- 
voking it improperly. 

Mr. McLeish. It doesn't say any such thing, according to my 
knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you invoking the fifth amendment because 
to answer the question might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. McLeish. I invoked it liecause I invoked it, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are not in any sense in fear of incriminating 
yourself if you would answer the question truthfully ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I am in fear of a f rameup by this committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. I ask that he be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question, Mr. McLeish. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. What is the question ? 

Mr. Doyle. Please read it, Mr. Keporter. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. I think the record should show counsel is writing out 
the answer for the witness so the witness can read it. 

Mr. Stavis. The record should show the complete circumstances. 

Mr. Scherer. The record does because it includes everything said 
by Mr. Tavenner, Mr. Doyle, and myself. The record does not show 
you are writing the answer for him. All I want is to have it in the 
record. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. McLeish, if you are relying on advice of your 
counsel 

Mr. McLeish. I sure am. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1103 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please read the answer he wrote for you to 
read ? 

Mr. McLeish (reading) : In answer to the question directed to me, 
1 would like to say that I am in fear of persecution and prosecution 
by this committee, and other arms of the Government instigated by 
this committee, and for that reason I decline to answer the question 
or to be considered a witness against myself. 

Mr. Taat:xner. In light of the witness' explanation a moment ago 
of his use of the fifth amendment, I feel it is necessary for me to ask 
him again a question which he refused to answer a little while ago. 
Mr. McLeish, were you a member of the Communist Party in Sep- 
tember of 1941 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer it for the same reasons I have 
just given you. 

Mr. Tavexner. "What are those reasons ? 

Mr. McLeish. Do you want me to read this again ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am asking you for your answer. 

Mr. McLeish (reading) : In answer to your question, I am in fear 
of persecution and prosecution by this committee, and other arms of 
the Government instigated by this committee, and for that reason I 
decline to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Ta\t:xner. ]\Ir. McLeish, do you consider that a truthful answer 
to my question might tend to incriminate you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. Mr. Tavenner, I am not afraid of a truthful answer, 
I am afraid of the things I said here. I am afraid of persecution and 
prosecution, and I don't intend to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenxer. You are not in any sense fearful of telling the truth 
to the question I asked you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I would like to repeat what I said before that. 
[Reading:] I am in fear of persecution and prosecution by this com- 
mittee, and other arms of the Government instigated by this committee, 
and for that reason I decline to be a witness against myself. 

INIr. Scherer. I ask the chairman to direct the witness to answer 
Mr. Tavenner's last question. 

^ Mr. Doyle. I direct you, Mr. McLeish, to answer the last ques- 
tion. 

Mr. McLeish. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment for 
the reasons just stated. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Mr. McLeish, you stated that you were in no sense 
fearful of the consequences of telling the truth. If that is true, I 
do not see how you can possibly rely upon the fifth amendment in 
good faith. I am trying to find out whether you are doing it in good 
faith. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Scherer. I think the record should show, and I ask that it 
show, on all of these questions the witness before answering has had 
full opportunity to consult with counsel and has consulted with coun- 
sel. 

Mr. Doyle. Let the record so show. 



1104 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. McLeish, I don't intend, Mr. Tavenner, to take your interpre- 
tation for granted. I want to repeat very emphatically that I am 
fearful of persecution and prosecution by this committee and by 
other agencies of the Government that may be instigated by this com- 
mittee and for that reason I decline to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think the record is clear. He has refused; that 
is not an answer to a direction of the chairman. Let the record stand 
at that point. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think the witness has not yet been directed to 
answer my question as to whether or not he was a member of the 
Communist Party in September 1941. 

Mr. McLeish. I think I already answered that, Mr. Chairman, 
previously at your direction. If you want to direct me to answer it 
again • 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, I do. 

Mr. McLeish. I do invoke my privilege. 

Mr. Scherer. Before we adjourn I think I should ask this : Do you 
have those non-Communist affidavits ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am coming back to that. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. I though you were going to dismiss the 
witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like the witness to be back this after- 
noon. 

Mr. DoYiiE. Mr. Counsel and witness, you will be back at 2 o'clock. 

The committee will reconvene at 2 o'clock this afternoon. 

(Whereupon, at 1 p. m. the committee was recessed, to reconvene at 
2 p. m. the same day.) 



Mr. Doyle. The committee will please come to order, and may the 
record show that Kepresentative Scherer of Ohio and Representative 
Doyle of California are both present, making a legal quorum of the 
subcommittee. 

I understand. Counsel, you and your client wish to appear Thurs- 
day morning. 

Mr. Perlin. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. Is your client with you ? 

Mr. Perlin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you, sir, be here on Thursday morning at 9 : 30 ? 

Mr. LusTiG. If you so desire. 

]\Ir. Doyi-e. I have noticed you the last 2 days in the courtroom so 
1 know it will not inconvenience you in being here Thursday morning 
in answer to your subpena. You will be here, too, Counsel ? 

Mr. Perlin. Yes, and if any problem arises as to myself, I will 
make sure there will be no further delay. 

Mr. Doyle. Let no problem arise. We want you here. 

Mr. Scherer. The record should show that the continuance was 
granted at the request of the counsel for the witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Let the record so show. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1105 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES B. McLEISH, SE., ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MORTON STAVIS— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Mr. Ehvood Dean an official of the UE or an 
organizer, Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. McLeish. I don't recall anyone of that name ever being on the 
payroll of the UE, or being an officer of the UE. 

Mr. Tam^xxer. Was he employed by UE in any capacity ? 

Mr. McLeish. No, sir. 

ISIr. Tavenner, Do you know whether he was employed by a local 
of the UE ? 

Mr. McLeish. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenxer. You are acquainted with him, are you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I have to decline to answer that question, Counsel, on 
the basis I previously stated. 

Mr. Tavexxer. I hand you a photostatic copy of a notarized peti- 
tion, bearing date of May 29, 1946, for Elwood Dean's candidacy for 
the office of freeholder of the city of Newark, under the party designa- 
tion of Communist Party. Will you examine this, please, and state 
whether or not the signature appearing on line 85 of page 3 is your 
signature ? 

Mr. McLeish. I must decline to answer your question and assert 
my privilege. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Do you see the James J. McLeish on line 85 ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline for the same reason. 

Mr. ScHEBER. I ask, Mr. Chairman, that you direct the witness to 
answer the question as to whether he sees the signature. Whether he 
sees it on this document cannot possibly incriminate him. 

Mr. DoYLE. I instruct you, ]SIr. McLeish, to answer Mr. Tavenner's 
question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. There is a document here I can see. There is inked 
writing on it which is here for examination. But I decline to say 
whether or not I see a name on the 85th line for the reasons I have 
previously given. 

Mr. Ta\txxer. Do you see an address in the middle of line 85 ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that, too. 

Mr. Scherer. May I ask, Mr. Chairman, that you direct the wit- 
ness to answer the question as to whether he sees an address on the 
middle of line 85. 

Mr. Doyt.e. I so direct you, Mr. McLeish, to answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. INIcLeish. There is apparently an ink inscription saying 17 
Williams Street. 

Mr. Ta\texxer. Did you ever live at that address ? 

Mr. McLeish. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Is the handwriting on line 85 your handwriting ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that question, Counsel. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you ever Avork at the address which you just 
gave? 

Mr. McLeish. I did. 



1106 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Ta^tsnner. Was that in 1946 ? 

Mr. McLeish. I believe so. 

Mr. TA^^N]srER. What was the nature of your employment at that 
time? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. ]McLeish. I originally answered that in my previous questions 
early in the testimony. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Will you state it again ? 

Mr. McLeish. I was elected to office in September 1937. I am still 
in office. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask it 
be marked "McLeish Exhibit No. 7," for identification purposes only, 
and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Doyle. It will be so received and so marked. 

Mr. Ta\^nner, Was the address that you gave the headquarters 
of UE district No. 4? 

Mr. McLeish. I believe so, yes, 17-19 Williams Street. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the witness in the early part of his 
testimony identified his signature on exhibits KC 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, 
they being the non-Communist affidavits signed and filed under the 
Taft-Hartley Act beginning in 1941. 

We have submitted those 6 domuments to the Identification and De- 
tection Division of the Veterans' Administration for comparison of 
the handwriting which he has admitted as his signature, on these docu- 
ments, and the Communist Party nominating petition which we just 
introduced in evidence. 

Mr. Scherer. And which contains the signature he has refused to 
affirm or deny? 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right. I desire to read into evidence the 
report relating to that matter. 

Memorandum, United States Government, to director Investigations Service, 
date, May 12, 1955, Laboratory Report 5776, from Chief Identification and De- 
tection Division, subject, McLeish, James B., title of examination handwriting. 

1. This division is in receipt of a letter dated May 10, 1955 from Frank S. 
Tavenner, Jr., Counsel, House Committee on Un-American Activities, United 
States Congress. A group of photostatic copies of documents containing ques- 
tions and known signatures was sumbitted with the letter. 

2. The request was made that a signature appearing on page .3 of a Communist 
Party nominating petition dated May 29, 1946 be compared with several known 
signatures of .James B. McLeish to determine whether or not the questioned sig- 
nature on the nominating petition is genuine. 

3. The following documents were examined in this case: Questioned docu- 
ment : QC-1, photostatic copy of Communist Party nominating petition no- 
tarized May 29, 1946, consisting of 13 pages, containing on page 3 following the 
item number 85 the questioned signature and address, J. McLeish. 17 Williams 
Street, Newark, N. J. Known documents KC-1, positive photostatic copy of 
aflSidavit of non-Communist union officer dated October 3, 1949 pertaining to 
United Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers of America containing the known 
writing and signature of James B. McLeish, in item marked signature and ad- 
dress. 

KC-2, negative photostatic copy of affidavit non-Communist union officer dated 
September 28, 19.50, pertaining to United Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers 
of America, containing known signatures of James McLeish. 

KC-3, a nesative photostatic copy of an affidavit of non-Communist union 
officer dated September 17, 1951, pertaining to the United Electric, Radio, and 
Machine Workers of America containing the known signature and writing of 
James McLeish. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1107 

Following items title, signatiue and address. 

The same information statement is made with respect to items: 
Documents KC-4, KC-5, and KC-6. 

Conclusions : An examination and comparison of all of the questioned writing 
and known signatures and writing appearing on the various documents above 
has resulted in the conclusion that the signature and address J. McLeish, 17 
Williams Street, Newark, N. J., appearing on the Communist Party nominating 
petition QC-1 was written by and is the genuine signature and writing of James 
B. McLeish, whose known writing and signatures appear on the affidavits de- 
scribed as KC-1 through KC-6. 

Mr. McLeish, were you a member of the Communist Party on May 
29, 194G ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Tavenner, before you ask that question, could 
I interrupt you for another question in connection with the report 'i 

Witness, you heard the report read by Mr. Tavenner from the hand- 
writing experts of the Veterans' Administration finding the signature 
on the Communist Party petition to be your signature. Is that finding 
correct ? 

Mr. McLeish. I have no reason to judge the Veterans' Administra- 
tion. I am not their judge. Tliey made a report. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that your signature ? 

Mr. McLeish. I declined to answer that question originally, Con- 
gressman. 

Mr. ScHERER. Then I again repeat my question. Is their finding 
correct ^ 

Mr. McLeish. I am no judge of their findings. Congressman. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't deny then that their conclusion is correct, 
that it is 3^our signature ? 

Mr. McLeish. I just refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. McLeish, were you a member of the Communist 
Party on May 29, 1946, the date of this Communist Party nominating 
petition ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I think there are a couple of things involved here, 
Mr. Counsel. The question of the freedom of association, freedom of 
choice, as well as my refusal to answer this question on the basis of my 
privilege under the fifth amendment. I invoke that privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you invoked the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment, do you mean that to ansAver the question might tend to in- 
criminate you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I think we spent 2 hours this morning going to this 
very question, Counselor. And it is still the same as it was before. 
I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment, period. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question because the question asked by Mr. Tavenner is a 
perfectly proper question to test whether or not the witness is invok- 
ing the fifth amendment in good faith. 

Mr. Doyle. I so instruct you, Mr. McLeish. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I can only repeat, Mr. Chairman, what I said before 
lunch time. I repeated it half a dozen times at least, of my reasons 
for invoking it. The reasons are exactly the same as they were at 
that time, and I repeat, I invoke my privilege under the amendment. 



1108 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. The question of counsel was whether or not you fear 
that answering that question might tend to incriminate you, and you 
can't invoke the fifth amendment to that question. 

Mr. McLeis:i. Mr. Congressman, I know what the counsel asked me. 
I also know the question. I was asked before lunch time to try and 
hem me in. I expressed then my reasons for it, they are still the same 
now. The reasons I gave before lunch time are just as good now as 
they were then. 

Mr. SciiERER. Are you invoking the fifth amendment? 

Mr. McLeish. If you wanted me to repeat them, I will tell you. I 
fear persecution and prosecution from this committee and other agen- 
cies of Government with which this committee is tied up, and I will 
not voluntarily agree to be a witness against myself. That is my 
reason. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is the reason for your refusal to answer Mr. 
Tavenner's question as to whether or not you fear that to answer the 
question might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Tavexxer. Mr. McLeish, in 1947, in fact on July 25, 1947, Mr. 
James Joseph Conroy appeared as a witness before this committee 
in connection with hearings which were being conducted regarding 
communism in labor unions in the United States. His testimony is to 
be found on page 196 of those hearings. This is a statement of certain 
questions which were asked him and the answers he gave. 

Mr. Stripling. Are you acquainted with an individual named James McLeish? 
Mr. Conroy. Yes, I am. 
Mr. Stripling. What position does he hold? 
Mr. Conroy. He is president of district 4, UE. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you have any knowledge as to whether James McLeish is 
a Communist? 

Mr. Conroy. He is. 

Mr. Stripling. Have you sat in meetings with him? 

Mr. Conroy. No ; I have not, he told me he was. 

Mr. Stripling. When did he tell you he was a Communist? 

Mr. Conroy. In 1946. 

Did you have such a conversation with Mr. Conroy ? 

Mr. McLeish. I certainly wasn't at the hearing. Therefore I didn't 
hear his testimony. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, that isn't an answer. 

Mr. McLeish. Congressman, will you please let me answer? 

Mr. Scherer. You are not answering the question. 

Mr. McLeish. I am getting to it in my way. 

Mr. Scherer. The question has nothing to do with whether you were 
at the hearing. 

Mr. McLeish. Only I can answer the question directed to me. You 
can't do it for me. I don't recall any such conversation with Mr.- 
Conroy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you deny having had such a conversation with, 
him? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLetsii. I can't recall any such conversation, and I can neither 
affirm or deny that such a conversation took place. To the best of my 
knowledge and to the best of my recollection it did not. 

Mr. Tavenner. You testified earlier as to the date and place you 
were naturalized. What was the date and the place ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1109 

Mr. McLeish. Newark, N. J. was the place, and as far as I can 
remember, the date was in February when I appeared, the date was 
also February when the papers came through, about a 2-week gap. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what year ? 
Mr. McLeish. 1933. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party prior 
to the granting of your naturalization in February 1933 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I regret I will have to decline to answer that, Mr. 
Counsel. 

Mr, Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on the 
3d day of October 1949 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. Is that the date he signed the first Taft-Hartley non- 
Communist oath ? 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. McLeish. Congressman, I signed an affidavit on that date and 
various other dates. I know those affidavits have been before the 
Department of Justice for investigation. Up until now they appar- 
ently are of the feeling that there is nothing wrong with those affi- 
davits because I have never been prosecuted for them, but because of 
what I know has gone on here in this committee meeting room and 
the attitudes expressed by the members of this committee, I must 
decline to answer this question based on my previous reasons. 

Mr. Ta\tsnner. Were you interrogated by the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation with regard to Communist Party membership on your 
part on the 3d day of October 1949 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. Well, in the first place I don't know who is in the 
FBI, except Mr. Hoover is head of the FBI and I wouldn't know 
whether I was interrogated or not unless they flashed a badge or 
something on me. I don't recall being interrogated by anybody from 
that department. 

Mr. Tavenner. The reason I asked you is because you said you were 
under investigation by the FBI, that you knew it, and I just wanted to 
inquire whether you were interviewed regarding that matter by the 
FBI. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I think that is public knowledge, Mr. Counsel. 1 
think it was Mclnerney from the Department of Justice who reported 
on this very question in the House of Congress — I don't know whether 
in the Senate or House, but in one or the other — that full investigation 
of those affidavits from the time they were submitted had failed to 
throw any light on any possibility of their being bum affidavits. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then the point is that you have neither affirmed nor 
denied to the people whom you say were investigating this matter as 
to whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party on 
October 3, 1949. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. Maybe if they come I will answer them. I don't 
know. They haven't been yet. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you say if they come you will answer them? 

Mr. McLeish. Don't put words iii my mouth. Congressman. You 
have been trying to do that to me all day. I said maybe if they come. 



1110 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr, ScHERER. I didn't hear the maybe. 

Now you are going to have the opportunity to answer right here 
while you are under oath. On October 3, 1949, you signed an affidavit 
and swore to it, saying that you were not a member of the Communist 
Party. Did you tell the truth when you signed that affidavit? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. McLeish. I have already answered this question to my satis- 
faction to the coiirsel. I don't know whether it is to your satisfac;- 
tion, but at least it is to mine. My answer will have to stand. 

Mr. ScHERER. My question is simple. Did you tell the truth when 
you signed this non-Communist oath on October 3, 1949 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. McLeish. I can only assume, Mr. Congressman, that if I hadn't 
told the truth, I would have been prosecuted a long time ago. My 
answer is still the same. I will rely on my privileges on this entire 
question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean to tell us, Witness, that having signed 
an affidavit under oath and submitted that affidavit to the Federal 
Government of the United States that you will not now today say 
to us whether or not you told the truth when you signed that affidavit? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. Evidently, Mr. Congressman, you don't know yes 
from no. Four times you have asked me this very question. 

Mr. ScHERER. And four times you haven't answered. 

Mr. McLeish. Four times I have told you I decline to answer this 
question. Now if there is anything wrong with it, I am sure the De- 
partment of Justice will take action. If they do and they can prove 
any such thing, then I will be the one to sufi'er. Let me repeat once 
again so you don't have to be asking the same question the fifth time 
and save the time of this committee, I decline to answer and I rely on 
my privileges. 

Mr. ScHERER. "Were you a member of the Communist Partv on 
that date? 

Mr. McLeish. Mr. Congressman, this happens to be the fifth time 
you have asked me much the same question. You may twist the word- 
ing around a little bit, but to me it is exactly the same. I repeat, I 
decline to answer that question for the reasons I have previously given. 

Mr. Scherer. This is sort of shocking — Head of a union. 

Mr. McLeisii. It may be to you, sir, but when I got to protect my- 
self under what I think I got to protect myself, it is much better for 
me to be free and walking around than to be cooped up. 

INIr. Scherer. You are given an op]3ortunity here to protect your- 
self. We are merely asking you whether or not you told the truth in 
an affidavit, a statement that you made under oath. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. It is sort of shocking to me to have a man in your 
position refuse to tell us whether he told the truth when he was under 
oath. 

]Mr. McLeish. I can only say there, Mr. Congressman, that after 
what I have heard here, I believe in that old saying beware of the 
Greeks bearing gifts. 

Mr. Scherer. How could it possibly incriminate you to answer my 
question, unless you committed perjury when you signed that affidavit ? 



COIUJVIUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA HH 

Mr. McLeish, I wasn't discussing any sucli thing. I was discuss- 
ing another question. I gave you the answer to the question. I 
spoke about Greeks bearing gifts. I didn't say anything about in- 
crimination at all. 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand that but you haven't answered my 
question. 

Mr. McLeish. Evidently you put a different interpretation on 
what I say from what I actually said. 

Mr. TavenjVer. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
the 28th day of September 1950, which was the date of the signature 
of your non-Communist affidavit ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. Same answer for the same reason, and to save time 
going over each one in your hand, it is the same answer. 

]Mr. Tavexxer. Were vou a member of the Communist Partv on the 
24th day of August 1954 ? 

Mr. McLeish. Same answer. 

]Mr. Tavexxer. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
the first day of September 1953 ? 

Mr. ]McLeisii. Same answer. 

Mr, Tavexxer. Were vou a member of the Communist Party on 
the 8th d?y of September 1952? 

Mr. McLeish. Same answer. 

Mr. Ta^-exxer. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
the 17th day of September 1951 ? 

Mr. McLeish. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. McLeish. Same answer. 

Mr. Ta\texxer. I have no further questions. 

ISIr. Doyle. ]\Ir. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. I just have this statement to make, Mr. Chairman : 
This man was naturalized in February of 1933. I think the evidence 
in this case warrants, and I will so recommend in executive session 
that the testimony be referred to the Department of Justice to deter- 
mine whether or not denaturalization proceedings shall be com- 
menced. 

]Mr. DoTEE. How old a man were you when you arrived in the 
United States? 

!Mr. ISIcLeispi. I was 25 years of age after having served 4% years 
overseas in the Army. 

Mr. DoYEE. Which army ? 

Mr. McLeish. British Army. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you were in the British Army ? 

Mr, McLeish. Please don't be ridiculous. Congressman. 

Mr. Doyee. We have heard of such things before. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I happened to be a kid just out of school, 141/2 years 
of age when I went there. 

Mr. Scherer. If you weren't, why don't you say, "no," then? It is 
as simple as that, to answer my question, "no" without suggesting that 
I might be ridiculous. 

Mr. McLeish. I don't intend to be run around in a trap by you, Mr. 
Congressman. I didn't even know what the word meant in those days. 



1112 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

I was a kid just out of school, 143;4 years of age, spent my 15th and 
my 16th birthday overseas in mudholes. 

Mr. DoTLE. You don't regret it, do you ? 

Mr. McLeish. I don't regret one minute of it. I am fortunate to be 
here today. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness made a speech. I asked him a simple 
question, and I ask that he be directed to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. You can answer that question easily. 

Mr. McLeish. I don't remember what he asked me. 

Mr. ScHERER. My question was whether or not he was a member of 
the Communist Party when he served in the British Army. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McLeish. I think Congressman, you are just trying to run me 
down the road to somewhere where I will run out of answers. I will 
have to decline to answer your question for exactly the same question, 
iilthough at that time I was neither under the jurisdiction of the 
United States nor this congressional committee. My answer is still 
the same. The answer is that I invoke my privileges. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask you this question, which brings it more down 
to date. Were you a member of the Coimnunist Party at the time you 
landed in the United States ? 

Mr. McLeish. I am sorry, Mr. Congressman, I will have to decline 
to answer that question for the very same reason. 

Mr. Doyle. You don't have to do anything. 

Mr. McLeish. I will, then. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to state this for refreshment of Mr. McLeish's 
recollection. I have been reading the official printed copy which you 
identified as the official proceedings of the Seventh International Con- 
vention of the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of 
America, and which you referred to earlier today. You read your 
argument on the floor, which started on page 100. There was quite a 
discussion this morning as to what the issue was. Do you remember 
that, sir ? 

Mr. McLeish, Yes, I remember. 

Mr. Doyle. The issue was pretty clearly one of communism in the 
UE union of which you were district director, the question of whether 
or not a resolution should be adopted. 

Mr. McLeish. I am not a district director. I am an elected officer. 
I am no director. 

Mr. Doyle. At that time you were elected, too. 

Mr. McLeish. Yes, I was no director, either, then. 

Mr. Doyle. I notice that you, as you said this morning, opposed the 
resolution. 

Mr. McLeish. I favored the resolution. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right, you did very clearly. I notice on page 
98, 2 pages before, you favored the resolution, and delegate Rooney 
made a speech in opposition to the resolution. I just want to read 
one paragraph of his speech. You and he differed, according to the 
text. 

I quote Delegate Rooney, local 1202. I read his last paragraph : 

I say refer this back to the resolutions committee. Tell them to bring out a 
resolution that will mention all those three isms and let us vote on it, and if you 
people as delegates want isms, communism, in the leadership in your unions, you 
can, have it by a vote. But as Americans, I say a man cannot serve two masters. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1113 

He will serve the United States and his own local, but not the Communist Party. 
{Applause.] 

I read that because it makes crystal clear the fact that some of the 
delegates way back there recognized the issue in the UE at that time 
Avas whether or not some of the leaders in the UE would undertake to 
serve communism ahead of the United States of America and the best 
interest of their local. You and Delegate Rooney apparently differed. 

Mr. INIcLeish. Can I say something in reply ? 

Mr, Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. McLeish. I would like to say this : That if you read the whole 
convention through, you will find that the expressions pro and con 
on every issue before that convention were freely voiced by everyone 
and no attempt was made to curb anybody. We believe this, Mr. 
Chairman, and I believe it very sincerely, that we have what is perhaps 
the most democratic union in the United States, with full voice of 
everyone, with decisions being reached on majority vote, and as an 
elected officer of that organization I will, as I said there, abide by the 
majority decisions, be it with my opinion or against my opinion. That 
I have tried to do through the years. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you for your statement. "We in this committee 
yesterday and today, or yesterday at least and in other places, have 
heard plenty of spoken testimony under oath by former officers of the 
UE, some of them elected, former Communists, who swore under oath 
that the Communist Party members of tlie UE executive committees, 
and such, held precaucuses to determine what the UE union should 
do wlien the UE union met. We also have plenty of evidence under 
oath, you have heard some it yesterday, to the effect that by and large 
the Communist Party caucuses consisting of some elected officers of 
the UE and some appointed, determined what would be done in the 
UE official meetings. 

So, sir, you may claim it is democratic control, but we claim it is 
totalitarian control by known Comnnmists and that is not democracy. 
Tliat is where you and I differ. This young man, Delegate Rooney, 
put it squarely up to you and you opposed him when he said, "I say 
a man rannot serve two masters, he will serve the United States and his 
own local btit not the Communist Party." 

You can't serve two masters and you know darn well you can't. 
You can't he a member of the Communist Party and be a loyal union 
labor man because they are absolutely inconsistent, one with the other. 

Mr. McLetsii. I Avould like to say. Congressman, that again by in- 
ference you pin a label on me. 

Mr. Doyle. You don't have to wear the label if it doesn't belong to 
you. 

Mr. McLEisn. Am I excused? 

Mr. Tavexner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyi.e. Thank you. Counsel, and Mr. McLeish. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Stavis. Thank you very much. I would like to call attention of 
the committee and counsel, since there has been so much discussion on 
the meaning of the exercise of the plea of the fifth amendment, I just 
want to refer you to a citation. 

Mr. Doyle. Give it to our legal counsel. 

Mr. Stavis. New Jersey law general 

65388— 55— pt. 1 9 



1114 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I will get it. 

Mr. Stavis. I want the record to sliow. 

Mr. Doyle. We don't permit counsel to address the committee. You 
abide by the rules. If you want us to be familiar with something we 
are not already familiar with, hand it to our counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Santora. 

Mr. Doyle. Stand and raise your right hand, please. Do you solemly 
swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Santora. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. I want to read the rule of the House of Representatives, 
and this governs our committee, too, with respect to the functions of 
legal counsel in any House committee investigation whether it is this 
or any other committee. I am not reading this only to the counsel in 
the chair, but to all counsels that are in the room. 

Tomorrow and the next day I am going to read this rule at the 
opening of each session because it is a limitation of the functions of 
legal counsel before any House investigating committee. This rule 
was adopted March 23, 1955 : 

Witnesses at investigative hearings may be accompanied by their ovpn counsel 
for the purpose of advising them concerning their constitutional rights. 

That is as clear as crystal to all counsels who may appear with 
witnesses, and naturally, we don't expect nor can we cooperate with 
legal counsel if any of them should put words into the mouth of a 
witness in addition to advising them what their constitutional rights 
would be. 

Mr. Scribner. That is a reproach to all counsel. That is un- 
fortunate. Have the rules been amended as of now to permit me to 
cross-examine a witness wdio named this person yesterday so we can 
get at the truth of that matter ? 

Mr. Doyle. You loiow they have not been amended to permit that. 
You know they have not. 

Mr. ScHERER. Might I say at this time. Counsel, your witness here 
will have the opportunity to deny that testimony. 

Mr. Scribner. I didn t quite understand that was the proper pro- 
cedure in order to support a charge against any person that the witness 
himself, the person charged, will be the sole person who will be able 
to give evidence on that. I don't think that is quite the process. 

Mr. Scherer. You know he is a witness and not charged with any- 
thing. You understand clearly the procedures. 

Mr. Scribner. I would very much have liked to cross-examine the 
witness who made statements about him. 

Mr. Scherer. Your own witness now has the opportunity to deny 
that statement. And if he denies that evidence, I will ask the Attorney 
General of the United States to investigate a possible perjury charge 
because, obviously, either the witness that testified the other day or 
this witness then would not be telling the truth. 

Mr. Scribner. By that you are trying to impose an entirely new set 
of laws than judicial process in this country. For hundreds of years 
we had the contrary process that the witness is innocent until proven 
guilty. 

Mr. Scherer. You know better than that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1115 

Mr. ScRiBNER. I know what I said. I made a study of it and 
appeared before this committee for 10 years at least. 

Mr. ScHERER. You know better than that. This witness is not 
accused of anything. He couldn't be sentenced, couldn't be fined. 

Mr. ScRiBNER. He could be fired from a job, ostracized from the 
community. 

Mr. Doyle. We are not going to permit you to take any more time 
of the committee in argument with the committee, and that is final. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM SANTORA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
DAVID SCRIBNER 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 

Mr. Santora. William Santora. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Scribner. David Scribner, 11 East 51st Street, New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ^ 

Mr. Santora. September 14, 1915, in New York City. 

Mr. Ta\t3Nner. Are you now a resident of Newark, N. J.? 

Mr. Santora. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Santora. I live in a town called Hanover Township, in New 
Jersey. 

Mr. Tavenner. How far is that from Newark ? 

Mr. Santora. About 15 miles. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in the State of New 
Jersey ? 

Mr. Santora. My parents took me here from New York City when 
I was 6 months old. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly, what 
your formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Santora. Public school and high school. 

Mr. Tavenner. W^hat has been your employment since 1935? 

Mr, Santora. I have been an electronic technician up until 1940, 
at which time I was retained by my union, the UE, and I have worked 
for them ever since. 

Mr. Tavenner. Since 1940? 

Mr. Santora. Since 1940. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been the nature of your emplovment by 
UE since 1940? ^ 

Mr. Santor^v. I have been an organizer under the title of field 
organizer and international representative. I don't understand your 
question fully. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said you has been employed by the UE since 
1940. I wanted to know the title of your position? 

Mr. Santora. Field organizer and international representative. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period were you international repre- 
sentative ? 

Mr. Santora. I believe it is for the last 3 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you international representative now? 

Mr. Santora. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what district are you now working ? 

Mr. Santora. District 4 of the UE. 



1116 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been an international representative dur- 
ing that entire period in district Xo. 4, or have you been transferred 
from place to place ? 

Mr. Santora. I was transferred about 2 years ago to a position 
in New York City, which geographically is located in district 4, but 
my assignment covered one particular chain of shops throughout the 
country. 

Mr. Ta\t5Nner. Have you served as international representative of 
the UE in any district other than district 4 ? 

Mr. Santora. No, sir. I will have to qualify that by stating that 
I may have left our district to go to another city in the United States 
where I retained the same title but I wasn't assigned to that district. 

Mr. Tavenner. But to engage in the work of your union at those 
other cities ? 

Mr. Santora. Yes, but those are 1-day trips, 2-day trips, something 
like that. I was not assigned in any other district. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the rest of the period from 1940 until you 
were appointed international representative, were you field organizer ? 

Mr. Santora. That is true. 

INIr. TA^^ENNER. In what districts did you serve as field organizer ? 

Mr. Santora. District 4. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was all your service in district 4 ? 

Mr. Santora. All of it in district 4. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time while you were a field organizer of the UE or an international 
representative of the UE ? 

Mr. Santora. I decline to answer that based upon privilege granted 
me under the fifth amendment of the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you attended meetings of the Communist 
Party made up chiefly of persons who were members of the UE ? 

Mr. Santora. Decline based on the same reason I gave to the previ- 
ous question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the names of 
other persons who were field organizers of the UE in this area while 
you were serving in that capacity ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Santora. Archer Cole was field organizer while I was field 
organizer, 

Mr. TA^^3NNER. Were there others ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Santora. I am trying to distinguish between the period I was 
field organizer or international representative. 

Mr. Tavenner. I was going to draw that distinction. 

Mr. Santora. That will have to be before 2 or 3 years ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let's speak of the period when you were interna- 
tional representative. 

Mr. Santora. That brings it to a recent date. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, from what year to the present ? 

Mr. Santora. To the best of my knowledge it is around 1952 or 
19.53, in between that period, around that time. 

Ted Smorodin was a field organizer at that time while I was there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you speaking now of the period when you were 
organizer or the period while you were international representative ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1117 

Mr. Santora. You just directed me to say in the period while I was 
international representative. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what I said, but by your answer I thought 
you were speaking of the other period. 

Mr. Santora. No. Ethel Carpenter was a field organizer. Tony 
Rodriguez was a field organizer. Milton Felsen was an organizer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the spelling of the last name? 

Mr. Santora. F-e-1-s-e-n. 

Dominick San Giovanni. S-a-n G-i-o-v-a-n-n-i. 

That is all I recall at the moment. There may be more. There 
have been changes that have come in and gone out. I haven't kept 
track. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Sclierer ? 

Mr. SciiERER. Your counsel referred to the testimony of Steve 
Rudich when you first started testifying. Were you in the room 
yesterday when Steve Rudich testified ? 

Mr. Santora. No, sir. I couldn't get in. I stood in line 4 hours. 

Mr. ScHERER. Steve Rudich identified you as a member of the 
Communist Party. Was Steve Rudich's testimony true before this 
committee? 

Mr. Santora. I decline to answer that based on the privilege granted 
me under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. The fact is that he was telling the truth when he told 
this committee you were a long-standing member of the Communist 
Party ; isn't that right ? 

Mr. Santora. Congressman, you draw your own conclusions, but 
don't draw mine. I gave you my answer. I decline to answer based 
on the privilege granted me under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SciiERER. You were the organizer of the demonstration that 
took place in front of the Treat Plotel last night ; were you not ? 

Mr. Santora. That is not a statement of fact. 

Mr. ScHERER. It isn't ? 

Mr. Santora. No, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you one of the organizers ? 

Mr. Santora. I was present, I assisted there. 

Mr. SciiERER. Did you tell any representative of the press that you 
were the organizer of the demonstration ? 

Mr. Santora. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you one of the leaders, then ? 

Mr. Santora. I assisted in that demonstration. 

Mr. SciiERER. Who else assisted ? 

Mr. ScRiBNER. Do you seriously think this is relevant to the inquiry ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I want to find out where funds came from. 

Mr. ScRiBNER. That is right of redress of grievances. You said 
that this morning, I was pleased to hear you. 

Mr. SciiERER. You know the rules of the committee. 

Mr. ScRiBNER. I am sorry. It overwhelms me. I can't be a lawyer 
here. I will abide by that. 

^fr. ScHERER. You understand very well we have a right to find out 
whether the source of those funds was the Communist Party. Do 
you know where the funds came from that provided for the 
demonstration? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



1118 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Santora. What funds are you referring to, sir ? 

Mr. ScHERER. The funds that paid for the bringing of these people 
down from New York in buses. 

Mr. Santora. I can't swear that I know exactly but I would as- 
sume the membership of our union being very disgusted with this 
committee took it upon themselves to spend some money to protest 
the kind of activity this committee conducts in city after city in the 
United States. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did the funds come 

Mr. Santora. Just a moment and I will answer the question. I 
think they resent the slurs that this committee has made against the 
American people, against the foreign born and against the labor 
movement. I feel also they have a right to protest. I am very proud 
of the way they did protest. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did the funds come from the union or did they come 
from the party ? 

Mr. Santora. That is a stupid question. 

Mr. Doyle. Don't you be stupid. Answer the question honestly. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Santora. I can't swear that I saw where the funds came from. 
I can only assume that local by local they spent money for a bus, for 
a sign, for whatever expenses were involved. 

Mr. Scherer. Where did these people come from? 

Mr. Santora. I can give you to the best of my knowledge where 
some of them came from. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all I want. 

Mr. Santora. Some came from Trenton, some from Phillipsburg, 
some from Long Island, some from New York City, some come from 
Orange, some from West Orange, East Orange, Newark, various 
cities in this area. 

Mr, Scherer. Were there any other individuals other than your 
TIE people in the line ? 

Mr. Santora. To my knowledge all I know were UE people. 

Mr. Scherer. Where were the signs printed ? 

Mr. Santora. I do not know. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't know who paid for the signs ? 

Mr. Santora. I can't say. I don't know. I think each local paid 
for their own signs. I looked at the placards and they had local num- 
bers on them. 

Mr. Scherer. Who was the head of the organizing movement for 
the demonstration ? 

Mr. Santora. I don't Iniow that there is a head as such. 

Mr. Scherer. The arrangements were made before this committee 
came to town, were they not ? 

Mr. Santora. I would assume that some arrangements were made. 

Mr. Scherer. Was it before or after you got your subpena ? 

Mr. Santora. I really don't have any knowledge on that. I think 
it was before. 

Mr, Scherer. When were you subpenaed ? 

Mr. Santora. I think I was subpenaed 2 weeks ago, I may be 
wrong by a day or two, 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact that each and every one of the leaders 
of that demonstration were members of the Communist conspiracy? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1119 

1 am not saying the rank and file that participated in the demonstra- 
tion, but I am saying the leaders who organized the demonstration. 

Mr. Santora. I decline to answer that based on the privileges 
granted me in the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SciiERER. I thought your answer would be that. 

Mr. DoTLE. You are excused. 

(Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Archer Cole, please. 

Mr. Doyle. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Cole. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ARCHER COLE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, DAVID 
SCRIBNER 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please ? 

Mr. Cole. Archer Cole. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that the same counsel is present with this 
witness as with the former witness. 

When and where were you born, Mr. Cole ? 

Mr. Cole. Born in New York City on November 26, 1917. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in the State of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Cole. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in New Jersey ? 

Mr. Cole. Last 10 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Y\^ill you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Cole. I went through the public and high schools and College 
of the City of New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did vou complete your work at the College of 
the City of New York? 

Mr. Cole. 1938 and 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. Upon the completion of your college work, what 
employment did you take ? 

Mr. Cole. Well, I worked for Western Union, I worked in a restau- 
rant, I worked for the United States Government General Accounting 
Office, and I have worked the last twelve and a half years for UE. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in the military service ? 

Mr. Cole. No, I was not. I was turned down. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your employment begin along about 1942 or 
1943 for the UE? 

Mr. Cole. Yes, that is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had you had any organizational experience in the 
union before you became employed by the UE ? 

Mr. Cole. Yes, I had. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of that experience ? 

Mr. Cole. While employed for Western Union I was shop steward 
in my shop or office, as we called it there. While employed for the 
United States Government I was vice president of my local of the CIO 
in Wasliington, D. C. 

Mr. Scherer. In what capacity were you employed by the United 
States Government ? 



1120 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Cole, I was an auditor for the United States General Account- 
ing office. 

Mr. ScHERER. When ? 

Mr. Cole. 194t2 and 1943. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Did you file Government form 57 with the Govern- 
ment at the time you were employed in 1942 ? 

Mr. Cole. I don't know what the form is and I don't recall. 

Mr. Scherek. It is the form you file when making application for 
employment. 

Mr. Cole. I took a civil-service examination and passed, and I was 
duly informed to come down to Washington for a job. 

Mr. ScHERER. You may not remember but even though you take 
a civil-service examination you file a form 57 which is an application 
for employment in which you set forth your history. 

Mr. Tavenner. After completion of your employment there, did 
you then come to Newark, N. J. ? 

Mr. Cole. I came, yes, I came to this district 4 to work as a field 
organizer at the time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you employed while you were still in Wash- 
ington to come here and engage in work as an organizer ? 

Mr. Cole. I was employed by the national office after making appli- 
cation from Washington, D. C. I sent my application in to New York, 
I was called in, and I was interviewed and then put on the staff. At 
that time they told me temporary, 

Mr, Tavenner. During tlie time that you have been a field organizer 
of the UE, have you been aware of the membership of other UE 
organizers in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cole. I am going to decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of my constitutional right not to testify against myself, and 
I certainly wouldn't put the finger on anybody else, I don't believe 
that that is my duty here before this committee. To put the finger 
on anybody else. 

Mr. Tavenner, Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time while you were employed by the UE ? 

Mr. Cole, I am glad you asked me that because I am going to de- 
cline to answer it, and what I Avould answer for myself I will answer 
for others as well. 

Mr, Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you were working for the United States Government in Washington ? 

Mr. Cole. I am going to decline to answer that question for the 
same reason. I might state in answering tliese questions that I have 
read where the chairman of this committee, not the present one, but 
Mr. Walter has said that it was his job to break this union, and I 
have heard the chairman of tlie committee sitting in these hearings 
urge people to get out of our union and to leave our union. And I 
don't expect to cooperate with this committee with their purpose of 
breaking my union. 

Mr. Doyle, Just a minute, Cole, you have never heard me urge 
people to get out of the UE. You are mistaken. 

Mr. Cole. You said you thought they should leave this union. 

Mr. Doyle. I have urged UE people to get out of the Communist 
Party, and I want to urge you to get out of the Communist Party, too. 

Mr. Cole. Will you deny Mr. Walter said in Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Walter can take care of himself. 



COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1121 

Mr. Cole. He certainly said he was out to break the UE and any 
Congressman who has that as his intention and that heads a United 
States committee is not o^oin^^ to receive cooperation from me in regard 
to other people or myself, so he can frame me as well. 

Mr. DoTLE. Were you here yesterday morning when I read my 
opening statement? 

Mr. Cole. Yes; I heard many tilings that you said yesterday. 

Mr. Doyle. You heard me say that it did not make any difference 
what union it was or where the Communist was, our job under Public 
Law 601 was to investigate and expose. You didn't hear me say the 
other things. 

I want to make it clear to 7/ou again, young man, it doesn't make any 
difference whether it is UE or EU, if we have substantial evidence that 
any labor union or any organization, no matter where it is, is con- 
trolled and dominated by the Communist conspiracy, we are going to 
follow along under our official duties under Public Law 601 and try to 
eradicate it. I hope that is clear to you. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. DoTLE. I am very proud of the fact that always in my several 
campaigns for reelection to Congress I am supported openly by the 
A. F. of L. and CIO. I have never been a union member nor attorney 
for a labor union but I always have — and you know it — strongly sup- 
ported in legislation and every other way the principle of collective 
iDargaining because I believe in it as fundamental and necessary, but 
just as I told McLeish, you can't serve two masters. You either serve 
your own United States and best interests of your own local union, or 
you serve the Communist Party. I want to be perfectly frank with 
you. 

Based on the evidence we have received here and elsewhere, we have 
reason to believe that by and large in too many areas your UE is 
presently controlled, was controlled, and has been for several years 
by members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Cole. Controlled only by our membership and convention deci- 
sions, and we happen to have the most democratic union in the United 
States today. We will stand on our record and I want to say fur- 
ther, if I may, that the record of this union in fighting for wage 
increases and bringing up the standards of living of American 
workers, outlawing discrimination in our shops, and of fighting for 
equal rights for women in our plants, I think we should get a medal 
for Americanism for the type of campaign we have conducted. I 
honestly feel that from the bottom of my heart. 

Mr. Doyle. Unless a considerable number of former employees and 
trusted employees of the UE were lying under oath, a great many of 
the decisions were decided in Communist Party caucuses. 

Mr. Cole. I haven't heard a word stated here there was any strikes 
called or anvthing else. All somebody talked about was sonie litera- 
ture sold. We have a record in this particular district of winning the 
best settlements, of wage increases, and other gains for our people. 
That is on behalf of, in the interest of our people. That is American- 
ism to me, to build the standards of living of the American people, 
and that is where I have devoted my entire adult life to. I happen to 
have four children as well, and I hope to be able to provide for them 
and to see that they grow up in a better country here, no depressions 
as when I was raised. 



1122 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Doyle. I want to compliment you on any conscientious patri- 
otic party work for raising the standards of the American people. 

Mr. Cole. I accept that compliment. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course I do not compliment you on the record that 
I have of your activity in the Communist Party. You know very well 
that we men never come into a community until there has been a pretty 
thorough investigation and we know pretty much about most people 
who appear before us, and we wouldn't be bothering you 

Mr. Cole. You are bothering me, believe me. 

Mr. Doyle. We want to see if we can get you to tell the truth about 
your Communist Party affiliation. 

Mr. Cole. Ask me any question about our union and I will give a 
straight answer and records of this union in the district I have served, 
anything which will attempt to smear our union I will be no party of, 
I will tell you right now. 

Mr. Doyle. You volunteered you would tell us anything about your 
union. 

Mr. Cole. Our program, what we devote a hundred percent of our 
time to. 

Mr. Doyle. Is it a fact or is it not a fact that you have attended 
Communist Party caucuses before your regular UE union meetings 
at which the line of the labor union of the UE union was determined 
by Communist Party members ? 

Mr. Cole. I am going to decline to answer that because I think it 
is meant to trap me here, not to discuss the work I do on behalf of this 
union. 

Mr. Doyle. No, because these Communist Party members accord- 
ing to our evidence and information and belief, are all members 
of the union. 

Mr. Cole. Why don't you ask me about the wage settlements I have 
made this year ? I think that is pertinent to this inquiry. 

Mr. Doyle. I have been very generous and I know a lot of your 
people have been glad to hear your statement. I am happy to have 
given you the opportunity to speak of the good work you have done. 

Mr. Cole. Not only I, the whole union. I am speaking on behalf 
of this union. 

Mr. Doyle. Let's proceed, Mr. Tavenner. I think this young man 
should know that I am one Member of Congress who filed a bill to 
increase the minimum wage law to $1.25. I am not unsympathetic 
with raising the standards of living. 

Mr. Cole. I wish this committee would endorse the $1.25 in Newark. 
That would prevent these shops from running out of Newark. Do you 
know what is happening in the shops around here ? These plants are 
leaving like flies and you are here investigating us. You investigate 
those companies moving out. 

Mr. Doyle. We have to proceed with our regular order. I ask you 
to cooperate. 

Mr. Cole. I will cooperate. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. What name have you used other than Archer Cole? 

Mr. Cole. In 1942 by court order I was permitted to use this name. 
I was born Archer Cohen in 1917. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that the only other name you have used ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1123 

Mr. Cole. That is the only other name. I don't know how that is 
pertinent, but of course you had to get that in. I wish you would ask 
me the reason why. 

Mr. ScHERER. I won't ask you the reason why. There are 3 individ- 
uals who have identified you as a member of the Communist Party. 
Were their identifications correct ? 

Mr. Cole. I am going to decline to answer on the grounds that 1 
have the privilege of not answering, and that this is part of the same 
smear against my union, against myself, rather than to get into the 
true Americanism and true job this union has done all the time. 

Mr. ScHERER. An attack has been made upon the chairman of this 
committee, Francis Walter of Pennsylvania. He happens to sit on 
the other side of the aisle in Congress from me, but what he has said 
has been misrepresented. He did say that he was going to break the 
Communist domination of the UE. He didn't say he was going to 
break the UE. 

Mr. Cole. Mr. Scherer, I just participated in an NLEB election in 
eastern Pennsylvania which is ]Mr. Walter's own constituency, and 
he subpenaed two of our people right before the election in order 
to embarrass UE. He told the people there he hoped the UE lost. 
And we won the election by 7 to 1 vote over CIO and 4 to 1 vote over 
the AFL des]:)ite his interference in that election, and the people who 
knew Walter best in Easton voted for UE. 

I have a recent personal experience against Mr. Walter and I have 
heard some of his bigotry. 

Mr. Doyle. Evidently you feel pretty smart about it. 

Mr. Cole. I don't feel smart, I feel very strongly about it. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you think the chairman of the Committee on 
Un-American Activities was wrong if he sought to break the Commu- 
nist domination of any group in this country ? 

Mr. Cole. He was dead wrong to interfere in an NLRB election. 

JNIr. Scherer. That wasn't my question. 

Mr. Cole. That is what he was attempting to do. Never mind what 
he said, words are cheap, you know. 

Mr. Doyle. That is a fair question. 

JVlr. Cole. I don't know about that. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you whether or not it would be proper for the 
chairman of the Committee on Un-American Activities of the Con- 
gress to attempt to break the Communist domination of any group 
whether it be labor union, whether it be an entertainment group, or 
any other organization on the American scene. 

Mr. Cole. Well, we have an amendment in our Constitution called 
the first amendment which guarantees people the right to their politi- 
cal beliefs, even if they happen to be unpopular. When you get into 
the area of Communist domination you are treading on that and 
you know it, and I am going to decline to answer on the grounds that 
you attempt to make me testify here against myself. I want to say 
this question of Communist domination is so vague and it is used to 
smear so many people, that I can't accept that as a barometer of what 
Mr. Walter means. I accept what he tried to do in the strike in 1950 
in Ingersoll Rand. 

Mr. DoYi.E. Just a minute, Cole, please. Of course you have a duty 
to do in your union. We have a duty as American Congressmen under 



1124 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Public Law 601 to investigate the extent of Communist subversive 
activities, even in the UE, if there is any. 

Mr. Cole. I don't think there is any. I don't believe that. I 
believe that is a red herring. You can't call an organization subver- 
sive which has programs to improve the conditions of Araerican 
workers and I want to say, if you let me finish the sentence, if they 
will adopt the program of UE they don't have to worry about any 
isms, the best program of the UE is Americanism, better wages, higher 
standard of living, no discrimination, better housing, adopt that and 
you don't have to worry about this country and what any one else will 
try to do to it. 

I sincerely hope you will endorse this program I am talking about. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wiiy do you support communism ? 

Mr. Cole. I haven't said anything about that here. 

Mr. SciiERER. Do you deny that you do ? 

Mr. Cole. I srj one thing in relation to communism or any other 
question which is not pertinent to my union here, I am going — and 
because I think you are trying to smear our union here — I am going 
to use my privilege not to answer that question. I will talk about 
Americanism or what this union has done. 

Mr. Doyle. As long as you have raised the question, do you feel 
that the Communist Party objectives in this country are beneficial to 
the working people of this country ? 

Mr. Cole. I haven't raised the question of the Communist Party. 
I have raised the question of you, pure and simple. 

Mr. Dotle. You said it wasn't pertinent. 

Mr. Cole. Not pertinent to my being here today in connection with 
this union. 

Mr. DoYi^E. And it is pertinent to the control of any organized labor 
group ? Isn't the question of communism pertinent ? 

Mr. Cole. Membership controls this union. I want to pose one 
point that will be interesting to you as a lawyer. How could you set 
out to dominate a union as we are charged with, and have the most 
democratic constitution in the United States patterned word for word 
after the United States Constitution? If you were out to dominate 
something you would make sure you controlled. 

Mr. D0T1.E. Evidently the Communist Party has made very sure 
that it controls certain labor groups in this country, and if we are to 
believe former employees of the UE under oath, the Communist 
Party evidently controls the activities possibly of present leaders in 
the UE. 

Mr. Cole. It is funny how those former employees always turn up 
on the payroll of a rival union. I can't understand that. That is 
what we have here, even yesterday. Where one of the persons praised 
by yourself as a qualified witness, it is never brought into the testi- 
mony, Mr. Pollock was on the payroll of our rival union for almost a 
year. If he does not have an ax to grind against us I don't know 
who does. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was anything he testified to untrue? 

Mr. Cole. I am not going to get involved in this kind of testimony on 
the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I did not think you would. 

Mr. Cole. That man has an ax to grind against this union. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1125 

Mr. ScHERER. Assume he had an ax to grind. Did he tell an untruth 
to this committee ? 

Mr. Cole. I wasn't listening that carefully. 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't know how sharp his ax was, then. 

Mr. Cole. I know why he was here and I know why he was on the 
payroll of a rival union for the last year. 

Mr. Sciierer. He was an expert American workman, wasn't he, and 
you would not begrudge any high-class American mechanic making a 
good wage. 

Jilr. Cole. If I have to judge his workmanship by his abilities as a 
union leader, I wouldn't rate him at that. 

Mr. Scherer. The question is whether or not, no matter what the man 
is doing or what ax he has to grind 

Mr. Cole. I wish my attorney could cross-examine him. 

Mr. Scherer. Wait a minute. You have been raising your voice all 
over this place. 

Mr. Cole. I feel strongly. 

Mr. Scherer. If you sat up here you would feel strongly, too. We 
listen to these Communists shouting all over the country. 

Mr. Cole. It is the first time I have had the pleasure. 

Mr. Scherer. It makes no difference whether Pollock is employed 
by another union or has an ax to grind, the sole question is. Did he testi- 
fy truthfully under oath about the Communist domination of the UE ? 
Did he testify truthfully when he identified certain leaders of the UE 
today as members of the Communist Party at this date? That is the 
sole issue. I am giving you the opportunity to say whether that man 
lied. If you testify that he did not tell the truth, we then have no alter- 
native except to turn it over to the Department of Justice and find out 
who did tell the truth, because if Pollock lied we certainly wouldn't 
defend him. Then he should be prosecuted for perjury if he lied under 
oath. If you or anybody else wants to come forward and say he lied 
in this respect or he lied in that respect, we will do our duty and refer 
the testimony to the proper agency. But you won't say here today, 
young man, that he lied and you are given that opportunity. 

Mr. Cole. You made a speech. I don't know what the question is. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Cole, you were here all day yesterday, were you not ? 

Mr. Cole. YeSj I was in and out. 

Mr. Doyle. I noticed you were listening quite intently. 

Mr. Cole. He spoke so low I had to listen intently and I missed quite 
a bit of what he said. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you were listening carefully, were you 
not? 

Mr. Cole. Yes, but I couldn't hear a lot he said, honestly. 

Mr. Doyle. I thought you were listening carefully, but a minute 
ago you said you weren't listening that carefully. 

Mr. Cole. What I meant to say was I didn't catch a lot of what he 
said. 

Mr. Doyle. Can you tell me, please, just one statement that he made 
that you did catch when you were listening intently and carefully that 
was untrue, just one ? 

Mr. Cole. I will say this: That if my lawyer had an opportunity 
to cross-examine him he would be punched full of holes. He couldn't 
stand up. 



1126 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Doyle. You punch just one hole in Pollock's testimony and 
make it as big as you can. 

Mr. Cole. I am not going to get into that, as I said before, and I 
am going to use my privilege on that. However, in many, many open 
debates I have been able to punch Ernie Pollock full of holes. 

Mr. Doyle. Evidently you don't love him. 

Mr. Cole. I don't love him. 

Mr. Scherer. In those open debates you are not under oath. 

Mr. Cole. He has a sympathetic committee on his side, a friendly 
witness, and as you said you have something on me even before I walk 
in and you expect me to make this an open forum for a discussion 
between me and Pollock. 

Mr. Doyle. We expect you to make this an open forum to tell the 
truth, if you are not ashamed of the truth. 

Mr. Cole. I am never ashamed of the truth. 

Mr. Doyle. We are not afraid of the facts and truth and don't ex- 
pect any patriotic American to be afraid of the truth. 

Mr. Cole. I won't degrade my patriotism to anybody else. I am as 
patriotic as the next one and I will do everything in my power to put 
this union's programs across so we have a better American standard of 
living. That is my one objective as working for this union. I 
wouldn't work for it if I didn't think that it was the true objective of 
this union, believe me. I have four children and I hope to see them 
grow up and be able to get decent jobs and so on. I want to see a bet- 
ter standard of living than I had to go through during the depression. 
That is what I am devoting all my work to. 

Mr. Doyle. I compliment you on raising a family and I hope none 
of your children grow up and are taught or allowed to believe, directly 
or indirectly, that our country is what was referred to by one of your 
UE officials as a tyranny. 

Mr. Cole. It was not one of our UE officials. 

Mr. Doyle. Wasn't he? 

Mr. Cole. Certainly was not. 

Mr. Doyle. I thought he was. 

Mr. CoiJE. Please take that oil the record. I don't associate myself 
with that remark. 

Mr. Doyle. I withdraw that. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was a member of the Civil Rights Congress. 

Mr. Doyle. You don't claim the United States Government is a 
a tyranny ? 

Mr. Cole. I do not. 

Mr. Doyle. I compliment you on that, certainly. 

Any other questions ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

(\'Miereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Doyle. We will recess for 5 minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Doyle. Let the committee come to order, please. 

Let the record show that both members of the subcommittee are 
present, and a legal quorum is present. 

I will swear the witness. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. BuRDicK. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. You may proceed, Mr. Counsel. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1127 

TESTIMONY OF ABRAHAM ALAN BURDICK, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MORTON STAVIS 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 

Mr. BuRDiCK. Abraham Alan Burdick. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Burdick. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Stavis. Morton Stavis, 744 Broad Street, Newark. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, INIr. Burdick? 

Mr. Burdick. I was born August 22, 1911, in the city of Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in the vicinity of Newark, N. J. ? 

Mr. Burdick. I reside in Weehawken, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. How far is that from the city of Newark ? 

Mr. Burdick. About 10 or 12 miles. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in the State of New 
Jersey ? 

Mr. Burdick. I have been here since 1943. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you resided continuously in New Jersey since 
1943? 

Mr. Burdick. I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Burdick. Public school, high school, and a smattering of col- 
lege, almost completed one semester. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your employment before coming to the 
State of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Burdick. I worked for local 1225 in New York as a business 
agent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Local 1225 of what union ? 

Mr. Burdick. United Electrical, Eadio and Machine Workers of 
America. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long had you been so employed ? 

Mr. Burdick. I had been so employed continuously since 1936 but 
with some previous employment for the labor unions prior to that. 

Mr. Tavenner. During all that period of time w^as that area within 
district 4 ? 

Mr. Burdick. It was. 

Mr. Tavenner. You apparently have been an organizer in the 
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers ever since it has 
existed by that name ? 

Mr. Burdick. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^^Tiat position do you hold now ? 

Mr. Burdick. I am self-employed. I am no longer with the UE. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was your position with UE terminated? 

Mr. Burdick. As of February 15, 1955. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Mr. Ernst Pollock ? 

Mr. Burdick. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he also an organizer of the UE ? 

Mr. Burdick. He was business manager of local 437. 

Mr. Tavenner. He testified during this hearing that you and he 
went to an attorney's office together according to my recollection, and 
that the two of you signed resignations from the Communist Party at 



1128 CO]MMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

the same time, that Western Union messenger was obtained and asked 
to deliver the resignations to Communist Party headquarters. 

Was he testifying truthfully insofar as it referred to your resigning 
from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BuRDicK. I must assert my right under the Constitution not to 
testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you required in the position that you now hold 
or did hold when you left the UE, to tile a non-Communist affidavit 
under the Taft-Hartley act ? 

Mr, BuRDicK. I did, and I did sign such an affidavit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the first one that you signed, what 
year it was ? 

Mr. BuRDicK. I signed 4 of them or 5 of them. Consequently, I be- 
lieve four of them; but I am not too certain. The last one was in 
March 1954. I didn't sign this year, not being an officer of the union 
any more. 

Mv. Tavenner. Then that would make five if you began in 1950. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel) 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you these photostatic copies of the affidavit 
and will you state whether or not they are the affidavits which you 
executed as indicated by you 
. (The witness conferred with his counsel) 

Mr. BuRDiCK. These appear to be the affidavits that are signed by 
myself. 

Mv. Tavenner. What is the date of the first ? 

Mr. BuRDiCK. The first one is January 6, 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does any other occurrence come to your mind in 
which you were involved on rhe fith day of January 1950, the day you 
executed that non-Communist affidavit? 

Mr. BuRDiCK. It is a long time ago and I don't remember what hap- 
pened last week. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Let me see if I can refresh your recollection. We 
put in evidence here yesterday a receipt signed by Louis Malinow. 
Here is a receipt which was introduced in testimony yesterday dated 
January 6, 1950, the same date as the date of your first non-Communist 
affidavit. This receipt was signed by Louis Malinow who at that time 
was secretary of the Communist Party in Newark. The receipt reads 
as follows : 

I hereby acknowledge receipt of. the letters delivered by Western Union 
special messenger signed by Ernst Pollock and Alan Burdick reading as follows : 

And here is the copy of the letter : 

January 6, 1950. 
Communist Party, 

SH Park Place, Nricark, N. J. 
Gentlemen, in view of the fact that there is frequently so much confusion and 
loose talk about so much matters and in order to avoid any possibility of con- 
fusion as to myself, this is to advise you that as of this date I am not a member 
of your organization. 

Very truly yours. 

One co])y of the letter having been signed by Mr. Pollock and ac- 
cording to Mr. Pollock's testimony, an additional letter signed by you 
and, as I say, receipt acknowledged by the secretary of the Commu- 
nist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1129 

Does tluit refresh your recollection now about the other occurrence 
that took place on January 6, besides the signing of your non-Com- 
munist affidavit ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BuRDicK. I must assert my privilege not to testify against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, Mr. Burdick, wasn't this whole 
thing done with the idea of getting something tangible from the Com- 
munist Party which you could ]Dut in your pocket, so that after Janu- 
ary 6, 1950, should the Government attempt to prosecute you for 
perjury in the signing of that affidavit stating you were not a "member 
of the Communist Party, you would have some evidence in defense? 
Isn't that right? 

Mr. Burdick. I assert my ])rivilege again. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it also true that that was just a device on your 
part to attempt to comply with the Taft-Hartley Act when as a mat- 
ter of fact you remained a Communist as much after that date as you 
were the day before ? 

Mr. Burdick. I assert the privilege again based upon my right not 
to testify against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is the usual subterfuge used to get around respon- 
sibility for signing a non-Communist affidavit under the Taft-Hartley 
Law. Resign in the morning and sign the affidavit in the afternoon, 
and rejoin the next morning. 

Mr. Doyle. This is signed before an attorney. Do you recall the 
time of day you went to sign this before the attorney, approximately? 
Was it morning, or afternoon? 

Mr. Burdick. I assert my right under the Constitution not to testify 
against myself. 

JVlr. Doyle. You have identified 3'our signature on these different 
affidavits. I suppose the notary record would show what time you 
were there. Do you rememl^er the time of day you sent that pur- 
ported resignation to the Comnumity Party ? 

Mr. Burdick. Same answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Wasn't it the same day ? 

Mr. Burdick. Well, same answer. 

Mr. Doyle. You cannot deny the dates because you have identified 
them. 

Mr. Burdick. I reserve the privilege. I assert it. 

]\Ir. Doyle. It is one of the privileges we have in this country that 
they don't have in some others that the Communist Party sup])orts 
primarily. Thank God you are under the Stars and Stripes instead 
of under Soviet communism. 

Mr. Burdick. We want to keep them flying and don't want the 
Swastika flying up there in whatever form, whether under American 
form of fascism or anything else. We want those Stars and Stripes to 
fly there and want to have the right to speak our minds when we have 
something to say without having fear of coming before a committee 
like this. 

Mr. Doyle. You are not afraid of this committee. 

Mr. Burdick. I surely am. 

Mr. Doyle. You don't act like it. 

Mr. Burdick. Don't you think I am not. 

65.388— 55— pt. 1 10 



1130 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. I think the record should show the witness made the 
last statement in a loud and contemptuous and boisterous voice. 

Mr. BuRDicK. I apologize. I gave vent to feelings which I feel very 
strongly. 

Mr. I)oTX,E. Let me see if I understand this situation, Mr. Tavenner. 
Mr. Burdick did not perform a useless act apparently because he is 
a very able and mature gentleman, but he did sign a resignation to 
the Communist Party on January 6, 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like to say a so-called 
resignation, in light of the character of the language used. It might 
be interpreted as almost anything or nothing. 

Mr. Doyle. At any rate, the intention apparently was to make be- 
lieve that he resigned from whatever Communist group he was in. 

Mr. Burdick. I am sorry you are characterizing it. I am sorry you 
are putting words into my mouth. I am asserting my right under the 
Constitution not to testify against myself. It has never been deter- 
mined yet as to the facts that you have indicated. 

Mr. Doyle. You don't perform useless acts so I assume you were a 
member of the Communist Party or you wouldn't have resigned 
from it. 

Mr. Tavenner. There was a letter addressed to the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, a letter addressed to the Communist Party and a 
receipt by a known Communist officer of the outfit, and you were in 
such a hurry to get it there before you signed this affidavit on the 
Taft-Hartley bill that you sent it by Western Union messenger. 

I think any reasonable American mature person would make that 
conclusion. 

I ask you frankly, am I in error ? 

Mr. Burdick. I assert my right not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Doyle. I am giving you the opportunity to know what I con- 
clude. 

Mr. Burdick. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Doyle. I heard many times that certain officers of UE and 
maybe some other unions tried to make a joke of the Federal statute 
requiring them to file affidavits as to whether or not they were. Com- 
munist Party members and also union officers at the same time, and 
here is a case where I think a joke was made out of it. It seems to 
me there was a deliberate attempt to evade the requirements of the 
Federal statute. 

I can't conclude any other way after practicing law 30 years before 
I first went to Congress. It is as plain as the nose on your face that 
that is what you did. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to point out this language in the letter 
which the secretary of the Communist Party acknowledged receipt 
of. "This is to advise you that as of this date I am not a member of 
your organization." 

Were you a member of the Communist Party on the following day ? 

Mr. Burdick. I assert my right under the Constitution not to testify 
against myself. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. We have had the unusual situation of persons com- 
ing before this committee and saying that on the day they were testi- 
fying they were not members of the Communist Party but refusing 
to say whether they were or not the day before. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1131 

I am wondering if the proper interpretation of that letter is that 
on the day which you actually signed this affidavit you were not to 
be considered a member of the Communist Party. The letter care- 
fully avoids saying "I resign from the Communist Party." It says, 
"I am not a member of it as of this date." Have you any explanation 
to make of that ? 

Mr. BuRDicK. I assert my rights not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Tavenner, I want the gentleman to understand 
the way I consider it as chairman of this committee. It is part of the 
Communist Party conspiracy to evade the legal requirements of a 
Federal statute in connection with the Taft-Hartley law. I don't 
think you ever resigned from the Communist Party as of that date. 
Maybe you have since, but you certainly did not resign under that. 
It is as plain as the nose on your face that it is part of the design of 
the Communist Party. That is the way I construe it, Mr, Witness. 
I don't want to be unjust, but that is my construction. 

Mr. BuRDiCK. Your construction is your own and you are entitled 
to it, whatever you call it, and I am entitled to my own opinion, and 
let's have yours and let me have mine on every subject, not just this 
one. 

Mr. Doyle. I will not go that far with you. 

Mr. Btjrdick. You better, because if you don't I think you will find 
that the American people will not long tolerate intervention with 
their civil liberties and their civil rights and right to think as they 
see fit, speak up and not be under fear of saying something wrong. 
I get the feeling here you are trying to trick me into something, say 
some wrong word and you go to jail. 

Mr. Doyle. We are not trying to trick you on anything, just get 
the truth, and that is where you and I would part company. 

Mr. BuRDiCK. We may have a difference as to what truth is. 

Mr. Doyle. I will fight for your right to think what you want to 
think and be what you want to be, and say what you want to say, 
provided you do it within the four corners of the United States Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. BuRDicK. The previous witness mentioned a number of truths, 
and I can't talk as loudly as he can. If you permit me I would like 
to tell you a number of truths. You asked me a question before as to 
when I became an organizer for this union. At the time the UE first 
started. As a matter of fact, I was an organizer for this union long 
before UE first started ; under the Steel and Metal Workers Indus- 
trial Union before the UE was born. 

In the interests of fair play and Americanism, let me make a state- 
ment. I am being pilloried, crucified, and don't think it isn't hurting 
me and my name. I saw workers earning $6 a week in the shop 
I worked in, and through the efforts of people like Matles, who was 
there at that time, people like Jim Lustig, some of the officers who 
were there and who are now trying to chase them out of the country, 
these men actually fought to increase the living standards of the 
American people. I have seen them build it like a mason would 
build a brick at a time to a point where today the American worker 
has probably the best living standards of the world, as a result of 
what these men have done. There are martyrs and I feel like a 
martyr, myself. 



1132 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Incidentally, I have seen them fight for unemployment insurance 
at the time everybody called it Communistic, for social security when 
everybody called it Communistic, and it is accepted by the American 
people as our way of life. I have seen them fight for hospitalization, 
for holidays with pay, vacation with pay. Today a company ad- 
vertises "Come to our shop, we have all these things." We had to 
win them from them 1 inch at a time. 

Mr. Doyle. Thousands did the same thing. 

Mr. BuRDicK. These men were right at the door front and laying 
down their lives for it and today even some of the people they helped 
are kicking them around. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the time you became a member of the Steel and 
Metal Workers Industrial League was it one of the affiliates of the 
Trade Union Unity League ? 

Mr. BuRDicK. I became a member of the steelworkers when just 
about the time it began a series of affiliations with some machinist 
groups, we affiliated with the International Association of Machinists, 
AFL, and it was independent, it was a whole series of little unions 
all over the place that got together and formed an industrial union 
and were the forerunners of the CIO, as a matter of fact. 

I would say the UE was the forerunner of the CIO and showed 
the way to the American people of industrial unionism. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Was your first association with it at the time that 
it was one of the largest of the lAM ? 

Mr. Burdick. No ; it was an independent union. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the approximate date ? 

Mr. Burdick. It was November 1933. I remember being out on 
strike 15 weeks during the coldest winter we ever had, 11 degrees 
below zero. 

Mr. Tavenner. The TUUL was just in its last days about that time, 
between '33 and '35. Did you have any connection with it? 

Mr. Burdick. I was a worker in a shop that didn't know from beans 
except that the union helped me get an increase in wages and one 
holiday with pay. 

INIr. Tavenner. Let me ask you this : The TUUL, which is the 
Trade Union Unity League, was the American section of the Red Inter- 
nation nl of Labor Unions and a number of American labor unions 
were affiliated with it. 

The Communists found out that they could not sell the Communist 
Party to the rank-and-file members of those affiliate unions because 
it had the label of the Communist Party on it, so the organization 
was disbanded, and according to testimony that the committee 
lias had, it then became the plan of the Communist Party to infiltrate 
labor in an entirely different way, that is, infiltrate into the leader- 
ship of American labor unions. 

I want to ask you whether or not after abandonment of the TUUL, 
3'ou ascertained any information indicating that the Communist Party 
was endeavoring to advance the policy of infiltration into the leader- 
ship of the unions in this country. 

Mr. Burdick. I didn't quite follow you thoroughly. 

Mr. Tavenner. I ask you if you became aware in your vast experi- 
ence in labor unions of an eflfort of the Communist Party to infiltrate 
the leadership of labor unions. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N, J., AREA 1133 

Mr, BuRDicK. This sounds like a pretty tricky one to me, I must 
assert my rights under the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is a simple question, if you want to answer it 
honestly. 

Mr. BuRDicK. I have answered you. I assert my rights under the 
Constitution not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you will not give this committee the benefit 
of any information you have on that subject? 

Mr. BuRDiCK. I assert my rights not to testify. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Burdick, in view of your observation that you felt 
the UE was the forerunner of the CIO, I think it might be very appro- 
priate to read into the record at this point' a statement by Mr. Walter 
Reuther, president of the UAW-CIO, in connection with witnesses 
who have asserted their constitutional rights. 

Quoting Mr. Reuther: 

We have no quarrel with the professed purpose of the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities. Each witness appearing before these committees must 
of course make his own individual decision as to the course of action which he 
will follow in his testimony. This is a matter of individual conscience and judg- 
ment. However, we in UAW-CIO sincerely urge every witness called before the 
House Un-American Activities Committee, if it is at all possible to do so, to avoid 
using the fifth amendment. Protecting the good name and reputation of inno- 
cent people and their families does not absolve the former Communist from his 
patriotic duty as a citizen to testify fully of his firsthand knowledge of the names 
and activities of any Communist Party functionaries, of any illegal activities or 
of any evidence of conspiracy to overthrow the Government by force and violence 
or evidence of a nature which would serve to strengthen its security of our 
Nation, while at the same time refusing to testify in any matter about which 
he has no direct firsthand knowledge or any matter which happened so far 
in the past that his memory cannot be relied upon with any degree of accuracy. 
We of the UAW-CIO believe that this is the hour when America needs 
to take inventory and we dedicate ourselves to the basic principles and values 
which have been the source of our greatness. UAW-CIO through the years have 
practical experience in the forefront of fighting against communism fully recog- 
nizes and understands the danger of the Communist world conspiracy. We sup- 
port and shall continue to support every effort of our Government to meet this 
threat. We shall, however, resist every efi'ort on the part of any apostle of fear, 
hatred, or hysteria who would try to destroy the very freedom we are dedicated 
to preserve. 

As a free people we must demonstrate the courage and good sense to resist the 
use of Communist and totalitarian methods under the guise of fighting com- 
munism. 

Any other questions ? 

Mr. SciiERER. I have some. 

Witness, I don't want to labor this point too much, but there are 
some things that are not yet clear to me. I believe you have admitted 
that you signed the affidavit of non-Communist union officer on the 
6th day of January 1950. Is that right ? 

Mr. Burdick. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. And was the witness Pollock with you when you 
signed that affidavit ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Burdick. I must exercise my right not to testify against my- 
self. 

Mr. SciiERER. Where were you when you signed that affidavit? 

Mr. Burdick. I believe I went to the attorney's office. 

Mr. SciiERER. Who was the attorney ? 

Mr. Burdick. Morton Stavis. 



1134 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Stavis, I see, acted as the notary before whom j 
you swore to this affidavit. Now, have you any recollection of what I 
time of the day it was when you signed that affidavit ? ' 

Mr. BuRDicK. Frankly, I don't. 

Mr. SciiERER. Was the letter of resignation from the party dated 
that same day, also prepared in Mr. Stavis' office ? 

Mr. BuRDiCK. That is what I was referring to before when I said 
you get the feeling here you are trying to be tricked into saying some- 
thing. I have answered that question several times, and I have indi- 
cated to you that I insist on asserting my right and I think it is sure 
enough, definite enough, not to testify against myself under the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. You did resign on that day ; did you not ? 

Mr. BuRDicK. Same answer. 

Mr. SciiERER. Isn't it a fact. Witness, that you and Pollock both ap- 
peared in Mr. Stavis' office on January 6, and simultaneously signed 
the non-Communist Taft-Hartley affidavit and the letter of resigna- 
tion to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BuRDicK. Same answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. There is one observation I would like to make. 
There is on this non-Communist affidavit a stamp showing the time 
It was filed. With whom did you have to file it? 

Mr. Tavenner. National Labor Relations Board. 

Mr. ScHERER. Showing the time of day that it was filed with the 
National Labor Relations Board. When you signed this affidavit, 
Mr. Burdick, were you telling the truth at tliat time ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Burdick. Why do you ask me a question like that? I don't 
understand it. If I signed it, I signed it, and it stands for itself. I 
don't know why you ask it and therefore I must exercise my privilege 
not to testify against myself. There must be a reason for it. I am 
not a lawyer. 

Mr. ScHERER. You have a very competent lawyer at your side.. 
You asked me why I asked you this, because I have asked other wit- 



I 



Mr. Burdick. Why do you ask that question ? Doesn't it stand on 
its own ? I know that Mclnerney testified before your group, I believe 
that he went over these affidavits of the UE many, many times, three 
times he said, which is usually for the FBI, and never found any evi- 
dence of Communist activity. He made that statement before you. 

Mr. Doyle. We heard that from another witness today relating ta 
the same incident you are noAv referring to, so both of you were appar- 
ently well-informed to testify to the same fact. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. The records should show at this place, Mr. Mclner- 
ney has never been a witness before this committee. 

Mr. ScuERER. To go back to my question, were you telling the truth 
in this affidavit ? 

Mr. Burdick. I have answered you and my answer is the same. 

Mr. ScHERER. What is that answer ? 

Mr. Burdick. That I refuse to testify against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. That isn't testifying against yourself. 

Mr. Burdick. And assert my right not to testify against myself 
under the Constitution. I don't know why you are asking it and I 
must make that statement for that reason. 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1135 

Mr. ScHERER. It isn't a question of why I am asking it. I am at 
a loss to understand, witness, why you now say that it will incriminate 
you to tell us whether or not 

Mr. BuRDiCK. I didn't say it would incriminate me. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BuRDicK. Excuse me. I was listening to counsel. You were 
at a loss and I am at a loss too. We are both lost. Let's go home. 

Mr. Doyle. I would like to have you find yourself and give us the 
facts. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am asking you a simple question. Did you tell the 
truth when you swore to this affidavit before your own lawyer who 
acted as a notary on January 6, 1950, and you said to me you refuse 
to answer the question, you refuse to tell us whether or not you told 
the truth under oath on this day, and you refuse on the basis of the fifth 
amendment, namely, that if you did tell us whether or not you told the 
truth at that time, you would be incriminating yourself. I am at a 
loss to understand the position you take. 

Mr. Btjrdick. I don't remember using the words "incriminating 
myself." 

Mr. ScHERER. That is what it means. 

Mr. BuRDicK. I know under the Constitution I have a right not to 
testify against myself on any question jou raise and I am invoking 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. On four other occasions, Mr. Burdick, you swore 
under oath that you were not a member of the Communist Party in 
complying with the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Law. I must ask 
you if you were telling the truth on those four occasions when you so 
swore. 

Mr. Burdick. Same answers. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let's put it this way, then — duly. 

Mr. Burdick. Same answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. On February 23, 1951 ; on February 11, 1954 ; on Feb- 
ruary 21, 1952, and on February 25, 1953, which are the dates that 
you signed these non-Communist affidavits, were you at that time a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burdick. Same answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to have introduced in evidence the first 
of the affidavits. 

Mr. Dotle. The one in January ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir; and request that it be marked "Burdick 
Exhibit No. 1," for identification only, and to be made a part of the 
committee files. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so ordered. 

May I ask the witness a couple more questions. Mr. Burdick, did 
you continue in tlie same occupation for the UE on January 6 and 
January 7 ? Was there and change in your duties ? 

Mr. Burdick. No, there wasn't. I continued on until January 15 
or February 15 of this year. 

Mr. Doyle. There was no change of any kind ? 

Mr. Burdick. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Referring to that document which I understand you to 
claim was a resignation from the Communist Party 

Mr. Burdick. You don't understand anything of the kind. 



1136 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. Doyle. You didn't claim it was a resignation ? 

Mr. BuRDicK, I didn't claim anything. 

Mr. ScHERER. He refused to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. You refused to answer as to what it was ; it that correct ? 

Mr. BuRDicK. I refuse to testify against myself and I plead with 
you not to keep this up. It merely proves to me I am trying to be 
tricked. 

Mr, Doyle. I am not able to trick you. I am not trying to. I told 
you before that I thought this alleged resignation was a phony, and 
I still think so. 

Let me read it to you. Listen to it and see if you can make sense 
out of it : 

In view of the fact that there is fi-equently so much confusion and loose talk 
about so much matters, and in order to avoid any possibilities of confusion as to 
myself, this is to advise you that as of this date I am not a member of your 
organization. 

This was sent to the Communist Party. Wliat confusion was there 
about yourself that you referred to in this letter to the Communist 
Party on January 6, the same day you signed the non-Communist 
Taft-Hartley affidavit before your attorney ? 

What confusion was surrounding you to which you referred in view 
of the fact that — 

there is frequently so much confusion and loose talk about so much matters 
and in order to avoid any possibilities of confusion as to myself. 

What confusion were you afraid of or tied up with ? 

Mr. BuRDicK. Here again I have to assert my right not to testify 
against myself. 

Mr. Doyle. I suppose there is no need asking you who worded this 
resignation. There is certainly confusion on the face of it as to what 
it means except for the last two lines. I still don't think Mr. Scherer, 
you and I differ on that. I don't dignify that letter by a resignation. 
I think it was a phony move and a deliberate attempt to avoid the 
effect of a Federal statute. 

Mr. Scherer. It is common practice. 

Mr. Doyle. I know it was common practice of the Commies to do 
that thing. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I might remind you that the witness, Mr. Pollock, 
said it was drawn up purposely to be evasive and ambiguous. I don't 
believe he used the word evasive, but ambiguous. 

Mr. Doyle. I take the position that you never did resign from the 
Communist Party, unless you have resigned fairly recently. 

Mr. Scherer. Is my recollection of the testimony of Pollock cor- 
rect in that he stated that this supposed resignation and the Taft- 
Hartley affidavit which he and this witness signed were signed simul- 
taneously ? 

Mr. Tavenner. He testified that this so-called resignation was signed 
simultaneously, but I don't believe he was in the position where a 
Taft-Hartley affidavit was required of him at that time. 

Mr. Scherer. He said that this resignation and this witness' Taft- 
Hartley affidavit were signed simultaneously. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right, sir, and he also stated that this wit- 
ness said that was the reason he had to get this resignation in on that 
day ; therefore it was necessary to send this Western Union messenger. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1137 

Mr. ScHERER, And both of them were prepared in the lawyer's 
office. Isn't that his testimony ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Both of the letters of so-called resignation were. I 
don't know what lawyer's office that was in. It is not in evidence. 

Mr. Doyle. I wouldn't think a lawyer dictated that letter because it 
doesn't say anything except confusion, until the last two words. Any- 
thing else from this witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Smorodin. 

Mr. DoTLE. Witness, please raise your right hand and be sworn. Do 
you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
tlie truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF TED SMORODIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
DAVID SCRIBNER 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Ted Smorodin. S-m-o-r-o-d-i-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted you are accompanied by counsel. Will 
counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. ScRiBNER. David Scribner, 11 East 51st Street, New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Smorodin ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Buffalo, N. Y., September 11, 1911. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you live in the city of Newark ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been a resident of the State of 
New Jersey ? 

Mr. Smorodin. 1940. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to 1940 where did you reside ? 

Mr. Smorodin. In Philadelphia for a short while, and previous to 
that in Brooklyn. 

Mr. Tavenner. What years did you live in Brooklyn ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Between the years of 1930 and 1939, somewhere 
around that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you reside the entire period between 1930 and 
1939 in Brooklyn? 

Mr. Smorodin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. During that period of time did you travel outside of 
the continental United States ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I will decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you apply for a passport to travel to a foreign 
country ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I will give j/ou the same answer on that question, Mr. 
Counsel. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer that question. It is very perti- 
nent and we believe it very proper for a congressional committee of the 
United States Government to know where its citizens are traveling in 
the world. 

Mr. Smorodin. Mr. Chairman, I consider this committee an enemy 
of my union and an enemy of myself, and therefore I will do nothing 



1138 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

to put my neck in its noose. I assert my privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment in answer to your question. 

Mr. Doyle. I might say we are enemies on an official basis and level 
of the Communist Party of your union, no question about that. And 
we will stay that way. 

Do you still refuse to answer that question in spite of the fact that 
you are instructed to do so ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I assert my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at any time in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend the Lenin School ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Same answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct the witness to answer that question. 

Mr. Smorodin. I assert my privilege under the fifth amendment, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you left Brooklyn in 1939. At that time 
did you go to the city of Philadelphia for employment ? 

Mr. Smorodin. That is about the date. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you in Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Smorodin. A little less than a year. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your employment in Phila- 
delphia ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I worked at the New York Shipbuilding Corp. in 
Camden. 

Mr. Tavenner. While in Philadelphia did you become acquainted 
with Jacob S. Karlin? 

Mr. Smorodin. I will refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that I do not want to testify against myself. 

Mr. Ta\t5nner. Mr. Karlin was a witness before this committee on 
October 14, 1952. I will read to you the questions and answers as far 
as they appertain to you. 

Mr. Nixon. Now, following these classes, were you assigned to any particular 
<iell or branch ? 

This was a question directed to Mr. Karlin. 

Mr. Karlin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nixon. Of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Karlin. Yes, sir. 

Then Mr. Karlin continued. 

I was assigned to the RCA cell, the industrial branch, RCA cell. 
Mr. Nixon. Would you give us the identity of the leader or the principal in- 
dividuals in that at the time of your assignment to it? 

Mr. Karlin. Ted Smorodin was at one time a leader. 

Was Mr. Karlin testifying truthfully or falsely when he identified 
you as a one-time leader of the RCA Cell, Industrial Branch of the 
Communist Party in Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Sjiorodin. Well, if you prefer to take the word of a stool pigeon 
as far as I am concerned I will stand on my rights under the fifth 
amendment, plead its privileges. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is not \vhose word I would take, sir, it is a ques- 
tion of whether or not you deny that he was telling us the truth or 
affirm it. 

Mr. Smorodin. Mr, Karlin is a well-known stool pigeon throughout 
all of Camden, and if your prefer to take his word that is up to you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Apparently you have known him. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1139 

Mr. Smorodix. All Camden has known him. 

Mr. Tavexner. How long a period of time have you known him ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I will assert my right once more under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. DoYLE. I direct you to answer. You volunteered acquaintance 
and knowledge of him. 

Mr. Smorodin. I did not volunteer acquaintance and knowledge of 
him. I volunteered his reputation is well known throughout all Cam- 
den as a stool pigeon and I will take the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment in answering that question. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that the only way you know this man Karlin, by 
his reputation ? 

Mr. Smorodin-. Same answer. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact you just lied to us when you said that 
you only know him by his reputation as a stool pigeon ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Maybe you are accustomed to lying. I am not 
accustomed to lying, and I will give you the same answer as to the 
previous question. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you lie? 

Mr. Smorodin. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you were in Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I will assert the privilege of the fifth amendment 
once more. I will do nothing to help this committee smear my union 
or any other union, and I intend to continue in the same way no matter 
how many times you ask that question or how many forms you ask it in. 

Mr. Scherer. Isn't it a fact you were in Kussia and attended the 
Lenin School and were instructed in sabotage ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I will answer that question the same way. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you mean to tell me that you are going to take 
the fifth amendment on that question ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I mean to tell you exactly what I told you, as far as 
I am concerned I have never had anything to do witli sabotage, espion- 
age or any other kind of activities of that type against this country. 

Mr. Scherer. I didn't ask you whether you participated in any 
sabotage because frankly I have no knowledge of your participation. 
I wouldn't want to leave that inference. 

Mr. Smorodin. You certainly did. 

Mr. Scherer. No, I didn't. I wanted to know whether in the Lenin 
School, because I know what they teach in the Lenin School, you 
received instructions in sabotage. 

Mr. Smorodin. You must have gone there, then. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ? 

Mr. Smorodin. You must have gone there. I answered that ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you answer it again ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Yes ; I will assert my privilege under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you receive any instructions in sabotage so that 
when the time came, you perhaps might be able to use that knowledge ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Mr. Chairman, I stated before and I will state once 
more than I never in my life had any connection with any activities 
concerning sabotage, espionage, or any related activities. 



1140 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. That wasn't the question. 

]\fr. Smorodin. I will repeat that as many times as he asks that 
question. 

Mr. ScHERER. I didn't make the charge nor did I intend to leave 
that inference. I think my question is plain. 

Mr. Smorodin. Your inference is very plain, too. 

Mr. Tavenner. You came to Newark, N. J. in 1940, I understand. 

Mr. Smorodin. To Newark, no, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. Tavenner. '\Vlien did you come ? 

Mr. Smorodin. You askecl me how long did I live in New Jersey 
and I said, since 1940. I have lived in Camden. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your employment in Camden ? 

Mr. Smorodin, I w^orked at the New York Shipbuilding Corp., and 
then after about 1946 worked at the KCA Corp. of America. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then what was the date that you moved to Newark ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Somewhere around February 1952. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the occasion for your moving to Newark 
in 1952? 

Mr. Smorodin. The occasion was that my assignment as a field 
organizer in the UE took me up to this part of the State most of the 
time, and I felt this was where I should live. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you first made an organizer of the UE ? 

Mr. Smorodin. In the latter part of 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. While you were at Camden ? 

Mr. Smorodin. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you working for RCA ? 

Mr. Smorodin. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you working at that time ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I had just been laid off from the Westinghouse Corp. 
in Essington, Pa., to which I went after the RCA layoff. 

Mr. Tavenner. While you were working for RCA did you hold any 
office in the UE ? 

Mr. Smorodin. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party prion 
to your becoming an organizer in the UE ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Mr. Chairman, this committee might smear my 
union and might smear me and might put my neck in a noose, but not 
with my help, and I refuse to answer that question on the privilege 
of the fifth amendment. 

]Mr. Ta\t3NNEr. We are not trying to smear your union. 

Mr. Smorodin. You are trying. 

Mr. Tavenner. We merely want the facts as to the extent, if any, in 
which the union you happen to represent is controlled by the subver- 
sive program of the Communist Party. 

You are in that union and we have, we believe, substantial evidence 
that you are also in the Communist Party. We are operating under 
a Federal law. Public Law 601 in which we are expressly directed as 
a committee of your Congress to find out the extent to which there is 
subversive control in any union or any other group. That is why we 
are here. We are not trying to smear you. 

Mr. Smorodin. If you have any evidence of wrongdoing on my 
part, you know very well what to do about it. As far as controlling 
mv union, there is "only one outfit which controls my unioii and that 
is" the membership. I repeat what other people of my union said in 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 1141 

this chair. This is the most democratic union in this country. I 
have been in AFL, CIO, and other independent unions, and this is the 
most democratic union of them all as far as membership controlling 
of this union. That is the only one controls this union. 

Mr. SciiERER. Your union was expelled by the CIO for being Com- 
munist controlled. 

Mr. Smorodin. That is your opinion. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is it not a fact that your union was expelled from 
the CIO for being Communist controlled or Communist dominated? 

Mr. Smorodin. My union left the CIO because they would not be 
dominated by a body that would tell them how to tell their member- 
ship how to vote, how to tell their membership how to think and also 
to dictate to their membership as to other policies. We say our mem- 
bership has a right to determine for itself. That is w^hy our union 
left the CIO. 

Mr. ScHERER. Communist domination of the UE had nothing to do 
with your separation from the CIO? 

Mr, Smorodix. That is my opinion. 

Mr. DoTLE. You volunteered this information about the control of 
your union. We have had evidence under onth both here and else- 
where to the fact that very frequently the Communist members of 
the UE, most of them being officers of the UE, at least at the district 
level, would hold a caucus or meeting before the union itself decided 
what should be done, and then they passed the line on down to the Com- 
munist members in the union. Now, did you ever attend that kind of 
a caucus of the Communist Party members of the UE ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Mr. Chairman, I say again that if you prefer to be- 
lieve the word of stoolpigeons and paid informers and other assorted 
finks, that is O. K. with me, except I will stand on the privilege of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. SciiERER. What did you say ? 

Mr. Smorodin. Finks, f-i-n-k-s. 

Mr. ScHERER. What does that mean ? 

Mr. Smorodin. You don't have much to do with labor or you would 
know what a fink is. 

Mr. ScHERER. You tell me. 

Mr. Smorodin. A fink is the lowest sort of humanity. A fink is a 
man that would squeal on his fellowman for a buck. A fink is a guy 
that would scab when there is a picket line outside his shop trying 
to get higher wages for him and his fellow workers. That is a little 
description of a fink. You have had them enough before your com- 
mittee to know what a fink is. 

Mr. ScHERER. He isn^t quite as low as a fellow who would take 
instructions in the Lenin School in Kussia, is he ? 

Mr. Smorodin. I would rather not get into a discussion with you 
on that. I will take my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. D0YI.E. I felt that you knew we had evidence under oath both 
here and elsewhere that the Communist Party members of the UE, 
the organization you work for, did hold precaucuses and premeetings 
to detennine what the union line should be as a matter of policy and 
then the Communist Party members of the UE undertook to control 
that policy. 

I felt that as one of the leaders of the UE in this area it was a fair 
question to ask you whether or not you knew of any such meetings 



1142 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEWARK, N. J., AREA 

because our official duty, whether you like it or not, is not to smear 
3'ou nor the union, but to get the facts and report to Congress the ex- 
tent to which a totalitarian subversive group of American workmen 
whether they are in unions or elsewhere, are undertaking to control 
the activities of organizations in our country. I don't know of any 
more important level of activity than the working people of my coun- 
try. You are one of its leaders. You volunteered this matter of con- 
trol. You yourself suggested that you had the most democratic con- 
trol in the UE of any labor group. I think under your volunteering 
that statement that I have the right and you should expect me to go 
into the question of how your union is controlled. Therefore, I ask 
you if it is a fact that a group of Communists held these caucuses and 
meetings, and if you had ever attended one to participate in that kind 
of control of your union. Isn't that a fair question ? 

Mr. Smorodin. No, it isn't. 

Mr. Doyle. Why is it not? You volunteered the matter of con- 
trol. 

Mr. Smorodin. I think I explained how my union is controlled and 
if you have been investigating my union, which you have been doing 
quite a bit of, you should know how my union is controlled and as far 
as getting me into a trap on Communist caucuses, and these other 
horror stories, these stoolpigeons have filled this committee record 
with, I want no part of it and I will take the fifth amendment every 
time you ask me a question like that. 

Mr. Doyle. I won't waste your time. The record is perfectly clear 
about your attitude toward this committee as a committee of Congress, 
your own Congress. 

Mr. Smorodin. That is right. And this committee does it no credit. 

Mr. Doyle. I think we have a balance on the ledger in our favor as 
a committee of Congress. 

Mr. Smorodin. You yourself thought so not too long ago when you 
voted against appropriations for this committee. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right, I voted against appropriations for this 
committee years ago because this committee years ago did not allow 
a witness to have a lawyer by his side in a hearing room. I am still 
very proud of the fact that I fought this committee in those years 
because I felt it was not the democratic way . Now we urge lawyers 
be present. 

Mr. Smorodin. Why don't you fight for the right for my lawyer 
to cross-examine the stoolpigeons. 

Mr. Doyle. Your lawyer knows it is absolutely impracticable for 
this sort of thing to occur. It would not work. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Smorodin. I will plead my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment and answer that question as you very well knew I would. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you very much. You are excused. 

(Wliereupon the witness was excused.) 

The committee will recess until 9 : 30 tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 5 : 25 p. m. the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 9:30 a. m. the following day, Wednesday, May 18, 1955.) 

(Remainder of these hearings for May 18 and 19 and July 13, 1955, 
printed in part II of this series.) 



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