(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in Seattle, Wash., area. Hearings"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
SEATTLE, WASH., AREA— Part 3 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



JUNE 1 AND 2, 1955 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1955 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED -BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

AUG 15 1955 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMBS B. FRAZIER, JR.. Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON. California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Cleric 
n 



CONTENTS 



Page 

June 1, 1955, testimony of Jeremiah Joseph O'Connell 502 

June 2, 1955, testimony of Jeremiah Joseph O'Connell 547 

Index i 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted ly the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

RlTLE XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to malie from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganga that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House Is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 



RuleX 

standing committees 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 



Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES COMMITTEES 
* * * * iC >K * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (i) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American 
propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin 
and attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Con- 
stitution, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Con- 
gress in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of such 
witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to take 
such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the signa- 
ture of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any member 
designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person designated by 
any such chairman or member. 



INYESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
SEATTLE, WASH., AEEA— Part 3 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 1, 1955 

House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. G. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 a. m. in the caucus 
room. Old House Office Building, Hon. Morgan M. Moulder (chair- 
man) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Morgan M. Moulder, 
Clyde Doyle, and Harold H. Velde. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, counsel. 

Mr. Moulder. The subcommittee will be in order, please. 

Let the record show that the Honorable Francis E. Walter, chair- 
man. Committee on Un-American Activities, pursuant to the provi- 
sions of law creating this committee, appointed Representatives Clyde 
Doyle, of California, Harold H. Velde, of Illinois, and myself, Morgan 
M. Moulder, of Missouri, as chairman of a subcommittee to conduct 
this hearing. All the members of the subcommittee are present. 

The hearing today is a continuation of the hearings initiated in 
Seattle on June 14, 1954, and resumed in Seattle on March 17, 1955. 

The purpose of the hearings in Seattle was to discover the activities 
of the Communist Party in the Pacific Northwest area, the extent of 
Communist infiltration in that area, and the methods resorted to by 
the Communist Party in the accomplishment of its objectives in 
that area. 

Two outstanding witnesses were heard : Mrs. Barbara Hartle, dur- 
ing the hearings of June 14, 1954, and Mr. Eugene V. Dennett during 
the hearings of March 17, 1955. It is the hope of the committee that 
the witness to be heard today will throw additional light on the 
subject of this inquiry. 

Today's witness was subpenaed to appear before the committee at 
the March 1955 hearings in Seattle, but due to illness was not heard 
at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner, are you ready to proceed? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Jeremiah Joseph O'Connell. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which 
you are about to give before this subcommittee will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I do. 

501 



502 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

TESTIMONY OF JEREMIAH JOSEPH O'CONNELL 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Jeremiah Joseph O'Connell. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Are you also known by the name of Jeremiah J. 
O'Connell? 

Mr, O'Connell. Well, I would presume that my baptismal name in 
the Catholic Church was i^robably Jeremiah J. O'Connell, but during 
grade school, high school, college, and law school, and in my political 
career I have always been known as Jerry J. O'Connell. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, you are acquainted with the practice 
of the committee to permit witnesses to be accompanied by counsel and 
to confer with counsel if a witness desires ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes, I understand that, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are not accompanied by counsel. 

Mr. O'Connell. I had expected Senator Langer of North Dakota 
to appear with me, but his office notified me today he Avas out of town 
and wasn't going to be able to get back until this afternoon, but I have 
worried about this thing, and I have been under tension about it, and I 
am anxious' to get it over with. 

Mr. Taa^enner. You are satisfied, then, to proced without having 
counsel with you ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course, should it develop at any point in your 
testimony you desire to consult counsel, you may address your request 
to the committee. 

When and where were you born, Mr. O'Connell ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I was born in Butte, Mont., on October 4, 1908. 

Mr. Taaiinner. "Wliere do you now reside ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I now reside at Great Falls, Mont. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly what 
your educational training has been ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, I received my grammar school education at 
St. Patrick's School in Butte, Mont., my high school education at 
Butte Central Catholic High School in Butte, Mont., my liberal arts 
education at Mount St. Charles College, now known as Carroll College, 
where I graduated with an A. B. degree. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what year did you graduate from that college? 

Mr. O'Connell. 1931. 

Mr. Ta\^enner. Where did you receive your A. B. degree? 

Mr. O'Connell. Mount St. Charles College, now known as Carroll 
College, in Helena, Mont,, in 1931. 

Through the late Senator Thomas J. Walsh, of Montana, I obtained 
employment here in the District with the Democratic National Com- 
mittee, later in 1931, and attended law school at Columbus Law School 
here in the District, 

]Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive a degree? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; I did not. I was elected to the Legislature of 
the State of Montana in 1931, when I was only 21 years of age and 
while a senior at Mount St. Charles College. I came back here and 
went to law school and then in 1932 during the summer vacation I 
went back and sought renomination and reelection to the State legis- 
lature and was successful. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 503 

I served in the 1933 session of the State legisLatiire. Also in a 
special session of the legislature in the latter part of 1933 and the 
early part of 1934. 

In between I came back and continued taking law courses in between 
the legislative sessions and so on, and later studied law privately at 
home and in a law office at Butte, Mont., and then in 1934 1 was elected 
to the State Railroad and Public Service Commission of Montana, 
which is a statewide elective office in the State, and then in 1936 I 
was elected to the T5th Congress of the United States from the First 
Western District of the State of Montana. 

I served one term, from 1937 to 1939, and was defeated in the 1938 
general elections. I won the Democratic nomination. 

In 1940 I again won the Democratic nomination and was defeated 
in the 1940 election by Jeannette Rankin. 

After my defeat I edited a statewide weekly newspaper called Jerry 
O'Connell's Montana Liberal. I also was active politically and par- 
ticularly in the organization of an old-age pension group in which 
I had the principal activity or principal organizational activity in the 
State. 

Mr. Ta\t:nxer. Is that in the State of Montana ? 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. That is right. 

Mr. TA^^:NlsrER. ^^-liat was the date of the organization of the old- 
age pension group by you? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, I actually think that I — it is quite a long 
while ago now — it was 1939, if I remember correctly. I began hold- 
ing meetings in various parts of the State and we were advancing a 
State, it was a State initiative for improvement of the pension situa- 
tion as far as senior citizens were concerned in the State. I think 
that came out in 1938 campaign, I had originally been endorsed by 
the Townsend organization for reelection to Congress and then during 
the 1938 general elections Dr. Townsend flew from Hawaii into my 
district and made 3 speeches against me, 2 or 3 speeches. I am not 
sure which. And the result was a considerable division in the Town- 
send organization as it existed in the State then, and out of that I am 
pretty sure at that time there was a gentleman by the name of Arthur 
L. Johnson, who was promoting I think what he called the general 
welfare acts or general welfare plan, and on a State pattern, using 
that general welfare act we promoted a pension plan in the State of 
Montana on an initiative, we have an initiative law there. 

Mr. Velde. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman. 

You mentioned you studied law here at Columbus Law School and 
in a law office, I believe, in Butte, Mont. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Did you pass the bar of the State of Montana ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, I passed the bar of the State of Montana. 

Mr. Velde. I do not think you mentioned that. When did that 
happen '. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I actually didn't pass the bar in Montana. I had 
been active politically and I didn't pass the State bar examination 
until June 23, 1950. 

Mr. Velde. Since that time you have been a practicing lawyer? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Since then I have been practicing law at Great 
Falls, Mont. 



504 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been admitted to practice in any State 
other than Montana ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, I have not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any other organizational positions 
of any character in the State of Montana or elsewhere? 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, in I think about February 1944 I was ap- 
pointed by Sidney Hillman as CIO political action director for the 
State of Montana, and in about August of 1944 — in that year I was 
elected delegate to the Democratic National Convention from the State 
of Montana and attended the Chicago convention in that year. 

In August of 1944 after the convention I was appointed assistant 
regional director for the CIO Political Action Committee with offices 
or headquarters at Seattle, Wash., under the director who was Roy 
W. Atkinson, and that region included Washington, Idaho, Oregon, 
and Montana. 

After I went to the State of Washington, I became active particu- 
larly with — one of the principal activities of the CIO political action 
committee was to advance and encourage registration for voting in 
the 1944 elections and in the State of Washington, particularly along 
the West coast there was a considerable influx of war workers during 
that period who, of course, were unregistered and my principal activity 
preceding the actual beginning of that 1944 general campaign was 
bringing about registration by getting the city councils in the various 
larger cities, particularly in the State of Washington, to hold a 
registration week and opening up the schools and then after the 
campaign, as I was explaining, the city councils called a registration 
week where there was the extended registration campaign or pro- 
gram carried on, and after that I then became assistant regional 
director for the CIO political action committee active with the Demo- 
cratic organization, particularly in the State of Washington and of 
course also to some extent in Idaho and I don't think during that 
campaign at all that I appeared in the State of Oregon. 

I was back in Montana a few times in that connection but I spent 
the principal part of that time working with the Democratic Party 
organization in the State of Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold any position in the Democratic organ- 
ization in the State of Washington? 

Mr. O'Connell. At that time I didn't hold any. After the elec- 
tion — the Democratic Party was considerably successful in the State 
of Washington — and I think the Democratic Party leaders had a 
feeling that I had made a considerable contribution to the success 
which they had. 

Within a few weeks after the election the Democratic Party leaders 
in that State discussed with me taking a full-time position with the 
Democratic Party in the State of Washington as executive secretary 
of the Democratic Party. 

Mr. Ta\t2nner. That began in 1944? 

Mr. O'Connell. I was elected by the State central committee at 
Ellensburg, Wash., I think somewhere about in the middle of De- 
cember 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you continue in that position ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I continued in that position then until December, 
actually I ended my term as executive secretary some time in the be- 
ginning of the year, January 1947. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 505 

In December 1946 a new Democratic State chairman was elected 
and he abolished the position of executive secretary and took the job 
and worked on the job on a full-time basis himself. 

Mr. Tavenner. After that time did you hold an executive position 
Avith the Progressive Party ? 

Mr. O'CoxNELL. Well, let me, in order to keep it in chronological 
order, I would like to say that after that election there was of course 
a considerable division in the Democratic Party over the results of 
the election which were quite disastrous for the Democratic Party in 
1946, and there was a considerable cleavage among what was con- 
sidered to be the conservative forces in the party and the liberal forces 
in the party and at the convention at Ellensburg in December of 1946 
the conservative element or conservative forces in the Democratic 
Party were in control by a very slight margin. 

The liberal forces in the Democratic Party then organized within 
the Democratic Party a group known as Roosevelt Democrats, and 
I was I think also called the executive secretary, or given the title, 
elected as executive secretary of the Roosevelt Democrats and I served 
in that position until April of 1948 when I resigned from the Demo- 
cratic Party and actually began to work for the organization of the 
Progressive Party in the State of Washington. We had set up what 
we called a provisional committee for a new party. I had supported 
Henry Wallace for Vice President in the 1944 Democratic conven- 
tion. I was a considerable admirer of his, and I joined with the people 
who were forming the Progressive Party, and I think then — I would 
say in probably May or June of 1948 — the Progressive Party of the 
State of Washington was organized at a State convention in Seattle, 
Wash., and I was elected executive secretary of the Progressive Party 
at that convention, and I served in that capacity until October 1949, 
when I left the State of Washington and went back to the State of 
Montana and began studying law and preparing for the taking of the 
bar examinations which I eventually took. 

Mr. Tay-enner. After your return to the State of Montana in 1949 
did you hold any other organizational positions ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No; I did not. On many occasions — in October of 
1949 I had made up my mind that I had given the best years of my 
life to political activity. In July of 1949 Mrs. O'Connell and I had a 
young son after having been married about 13 years. Mrs. O'Connell 
had a very, very difficult time in giving birth to our son, and for 5 
days her life was in danger. Her folks live at Great Falls, Mont. 
She is a native of Great Falls. She wanted to go back there to be with 
her folks. Up to that time I had always studied law with the idea of 
being an attorney and I wanted to be one and so we went back to the 
State of Montana and I have not been engaged in any partisan political 
organization or ailairs of any kind since my return to the State of 
Montana. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has information that after that time 
you became chairman of the National Committee to Defeat the IMundt 
Bill. 

Mr. O'Connell. No. In 1948, I would say probably in June of 
1948, while I was executive secretary of the Progressive Party of the 
State of Washington, I came down to the city of Washington here to 
testify before the Senate Judiciary Committee, which was then con- 



506 COMIiIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

sidering the Mimdt bill, which had already passed the House. We 
were to testify at a hearing before which I think Senator Ferguson 
was presiding and Senator Langer was sitting with him and appar- 
ently the hearings had gone on for several days and Senator Ferguson 
adjourned the hearings or at least announced there would be no further 
hearings at that time before many of us there had yet been heard. 

Senator Langer then suggested that we go to his office, I thmk at that 
time he was chairman of the Committee on Post Office and Post Roads 
in the Senate, and we retired to his committee room. At that tune we 
discussed particularly with him the situation as far as the Mundt bill 
was concerned and at his suggestion this committee to oppose the 
Mundt Bill was set up and at that particular meeting I was elected 
chairman of the group. Senator Langer, of course, had known me 
while I was in Congress and suggested 

Mr. Tavennek. "VYliat was the approximate date when you were 
selected as chairman of the committee ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. My best recollection, my best guess would be some 
time in June of '48. . <• i at ^- i 

Mr. Tavenner. You continued to serve as chairman ot the JNational 
Committee to Defeat the Mundt Bill for how long a period? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, in 1948, if I remember correctly, the bill was 
not voted out of the Senate Judiciary Committee before the adjourn- 
ment of Congress at that particular time. The bills as I remember 
were proposed again at the beginning of the next session of Congress 
and we continued to oppose the legislation at that time and then 
finally I think— if I remember correctly, in about, I would say, about 
March of 1950—1 came down here again to the city of Washington. If 
I remember correctly, the bill had again passed the House of Repre- 
sentatives at that time although I am not too sure. I thmk it had. 

I stayed here from I would say March— I remember I defended 
somebody at home in court at Great Falls and I came down here I 
would say in the latter part of March 1950 and I stayed until about 
the 9th or 10th day of June 1950 when I returned to Montana to bone 
up for the bar examination which I was taking on the 23d of June 1950. 

I passed the bar examination at that time and I came back here 
again. My oflfhand guess would be that I came back again some time 
maybe in the latter part of Julv or first part of August of 1950 and 
stayed here until Congress adjourned sine die, I thmk somewhere 
around September, probably September 13. , 

Mr. Tavenner. During that period of time were you actively en- 
gaged in the work of the National Committee to Defeat the Mundt 
Bill? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, sir. . . 

Mr. Velde. Do I understand, Mr. O'Connell, that you continued m 
the 82d Congress the same type of work you were doing as far as the 
Mundt bill was concerned in the 81st Congress? 

Mr. O'Connell. If those are the correct 

Mr. Velde. You were chairman of the committee. 

Mr. O'Connell. I was chairman of the committee from the time 
I was selected in June of 1948 until the committee dissolved after the 
passage of the legislation over the President's veto m September of 
1950. . ^ , . , 

Mr. Velde. Of course, that would be the committee, I suppose, which 
was set up to defeat the McCarran-Wood bill. 



^ COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 507 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. The Miindt-Nixon bill was combined, I think it 
was combined by a proposal made by several of the Senators over 
there and also the McCarran Act, I caii't remember all the things that 
went on in connection with it now, but I think it became popularly 
called the McCarran Act, if I remember correctly. 
Mr. Tavtsnner. The McCarran- Wood bill. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. I think the language became the Internal 
Security Act. 
Mr. Velde. Wlio composed the committee ? 

Mr. O'CoxNELL. Actually the executive officers were myself as chair- 
man, Robert Silverstein of the National Lawyers Guild as secretary, 
and Bruce Waybur, who was an official or an organizational employee 
of the United Electrical Workers ^ who was treasurer of the organiza- 
tion, and then the group was sponsored by various outstanding prom- 
inent individuals throughout the country. I can't remember all of 
them now and all who from time to time — — 

Mr. Velde. If I remember correctly, after the bill was passed and 
became law there was a committee to repeal the McCarran- Wood Act, 
was there not ? 

Mr. O'Conxell. I think there was, but I had nothing to do with it. 
Mr. TA^-EXXER. You had no part in it ? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. I had no part in it. I went back. I think Profes- 
sor Chafee [Zechariah Chafee, Jr.] at Harvard and some others or- 
ganized a committee to repeal the act after that, but I went back to 
Montana and I had nothing to do with it. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not 
you became regional director for the International Workers Order 

during the period of time 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Xo. I think that language that you use comes 
from an old report of the Dies committee. I was never regional 
director for the IWO. The only connection that I had with the IWO 
is that in the city of Butte the IWO had an affiliated local or lodge 
there composed of Serbs and Croats and there was considerable divi- 
sion particularly during the war period, World War II period, be- 
cause if I remember correctly there was a religious difference. I think 
the Serbs in the organization were Protestants and the Croats were 
Catholics. There was a division then over the politics of the situa- 
tion. I think there were some of them who were supporting Milhailo- 
vich at that time and some who were supporting Pavlich, if I remem- 
ber the names correctly. 

I was asked by — I am pretty sure the man's name was Peter Shipka, 
who was the officer of the International Workers Order, who asked me 
if I would advise with the lodge and if I would help them try to 
straighten out the difficulties so that the lodge could go ahead. 

xVfter that I was sent down to the State of Colorado or asked by 
them to go down to the State of Colorado where I think about 11 
members of the IWO had applied for their citizenship papers in a 
little town I think called Steamboat Springs, Colo., and the Federal 
judge who was hearing the citizenship matter at that time was in my 
opinion confusing the IWO with the IWW, and I was asked and 
again I wouldn't be sure who the national officer of the IWO was, but 
my best recollection at the time — and I think that was in 1040 or 1941 

1 This is a reference to the United Electrical Radio and Ma«hine Workers of America. 



508 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA » 

or 1942, it was a long time ago — asked me to go down there and I 
talked with the judge and with the examiner and also brought a Mr. 
Cunningham who I think was either the State auditor or the secretary 
of state, but was ex officio commissioner of insurance of the State of 
Colorado, to show the judge the I WO was actually a fraternal benefit 
society and had no connection with the IWW. 

Then later, I can't remember what year, the IWO was promoting 
what they called a Plan for Plenty, which was in essence an improve- 
ment on the present social security, or I mean on the social security 
system as it existed at that time. 

I made speeches at various IWO lodges in different parts of the 
country speaking on the Plan for Plenty, explaining the legislative 
detail in connection with it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who made arrangements with you to conduct tliis 
nationwide speaking tour that you mentioned ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, it is so long ago, it is hard for me — there 
are just two names that stick out in my memory as far as the IWO 
is concerned and the only two I can remember are Peter Shipka, 
the treasurer, and if I remember correctly they had an attorney 
named Joseph Brodsky. Those are the two names that stick out in 
my mind. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Joseph Brodsky from New York ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes ; he was from New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat compensation did you receive while engaged 
in that work for the IWO ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, at the time it was very minimal, I can 
remember that. I would say that as far as — it would amount, in 
my opinion, for the small period of time I was involved, which I 
would say was a period of a few months, I would say on the average 
of about $200 a month. It was not very long. 

Mr. Tavenner. And your expenses ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. And my expenses; yes. As I remember, they 
were quite restrictive on the expenses; if I remember correctly. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do I understand that your connection with the 
IWO was one of employment rather than one of an official character ? 
Is that correct ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. That is correct. I think that would be the best 
way to describe it. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period were you employed by the 
IWO? 

Mr. O'Connell. My best recollection is that that employment was 
over a period of maybe 5 or 6 months. It might have been 7 or 8. 
It was not very long, and I don't think I could put it in the precise 
year or years that were involved. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it resumed at a later date ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; it was not resumed at any later date. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive any compensation or money from 
the IWO for anything other than the services you have mentioned? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; I certainly don't recollect any. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether you 
had any employment since 1930 other than the positions you have 
already described and other than those matters related to the practice 
of law? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 509 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, going back in 1930, I was still a student in 
St. Charles College. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. We can pass that up. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. At Helena. Of course, during the summer 
months I was employed in the Anaconda Copper Mining Co.'s mines 
at Butte while I went to school. I think the summer of 1932 I was 
employed by the Industrial Accident Board of the State of Montana 
settling compensation cases during that period. I think I told about 
my employment with the Democratic National Committee while I 
was back here. 

I also had some employment as legal adviser to the State income-tax 
division of the State board of equalization of the State of Montana 
while I was running for State railroad and public service commis- 
sioner in Montana and before my election to that post. Then I think 
I have detailed all of the rest of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, you spoke of being instrumental in 
organizing an old-age pension ; initiative, I believe you call it, in the 
State of Montana in 1939. 

Mr. O'Connell. As I remember, we were trying to put it on the 
1940 ballot in Montana. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are familiar, I suppose, with the Washington 
State Pension Union ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes ; I am. I would like to say that at the time 
I was organizing the clubs in Montana I knew nothing whatever of 
the existence of the Washington Pension Union of the State of Wash- 
ington, or any of its officers, or anybody connected with it. My first 
connection with the organization and the group was when I went to 
the State of Washington in 1944. Those contacts were made in my 
position as executive secretary of the Democratic Party. 

Mr. Tav'enner. You were also familiar, of course, with the Wash- 
ington Commonwealth Federation, were you not? 

Mr. O'Connell. I really couldn't say that I was, Mr. Tavenner. 
I think the Washington Commonwealth Federation was still in exist- 
ence when I went to the State of Washington in 1944, but if T remem- 
ber correctly, shortly after the elections in November of 1944 the 
Washington Commonwealth Federation was dissolved but I had 
no connection with the Washington Commonwealth Federation at all. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Did you become acquainted with Barbara Hartle 
after you became a resident of the State of Washington ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, I naturalW read some of the news stories in 
both the Seattle Post Intelligencier and the Seattle Times. And I 
heard about her. Now, I don't recall her too well but I am pretty 
sure that in the early days of the WPA in the State of Montana she, 
J think she was working in the Great Falls area; if I remember her 
correctly, she is rather short and squat, rather pasty complexion? I 
don't remember her too well. I can remember she — I think I saw 
her once or twice at that time while I was on the Public Service Com- 
mission and later when I was in Congress, a group of people had gone 
down and raided a commodity warehouse in Great Falls and ha(' taken 
food and various things out of the commodity warehouse. If I 
remember her correctly, at that time she was on a committee that 
came to see me to use my influence to see that they weren't prosecuted 
for what they had done. 



510 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Then I later saw her in the State of Washington, my feeling would 
be maybe 3 or 4 times. I am pretty sure ; I don't remember her too 
well. 

Mr. Velde. Could you place those times you did see her more defi- 
nitely as to the year ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I really couldn't. I was in the State of Washing- 
ton from Augi^st of 1944 until October of 1949, and it is over that 
period of time that I actually saw her. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the 1954 hearings of this committee in 
Seattle, Barbara Hartle was asked to tell the committee from her 
own personal knowledge what connection the Washington Pension 
Union had, if any, with Communist activity in that area. I should 
state to you that Barbara Hartle was one of the Smith Act defendants 
in the State of Washingon and was convicted. She testified before 
this committee after her conviction and sentence. She testified very 
fully regarding her knowledge of Communist Party activities in the 
Northwest. She described the circumstances under which she became 
a member of the Communist Party and how she rose to the No. 2 posi- 
tion in the Communist Party in the State of Washington. 

This is the answer that she gave to the question of the connection 
between the Washington Pension Union and Communist activities: 

There was quite a lot of connection with Communist activity in this area 
between the Communist Party and the Washington Pension Union. The North- 
west district of the Communist Party has paid a great deal of attention to the 
Washington Pension Union for a long period of years. What to do next in the 
pension union has been the subject of many discussions in district board and 
district committee meetings in which I have participated between the period of 
1932 to 1940 and in large district committee meetings before that in the latter 
1930's. 

Important offices and many local offices of the Washington Pension Union 
have been held by Communist Party members, and the activities and policies of 
the pension union have always been supported by the Communist Party. Many 
issues have been brought into the pension union by the Communist Party and 
gained wide support by so doing. The Communist Party in this district viewed 
the Washington Pension Union as really its most important single front organ- 
ization. It is called mass organization by the Communist Party. They don't 
use the term "front organization." They call it a mass organization. It was 
the largest and most influential and second only to the Washington Common- 
wealth Federation, which was a federation of organizations, and the Washing- 
ton Pension Union was an affiliate of the Washington Commonwealth Federa- 
tion, in which the Communist Party likewise had a dominating influence. 

I think I should read a little further. Mrs. Hartle also testified 
that 

Mr. O'Connell. May I say I had no connection; I was not an officer 
of the Washington Pension Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. I was going to discuss that question, whether or 
not you were affiliated in any way with the Washington Pension 
Union. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I think as executive secretary of the Democratic 
Party and as executive secretary of the Progressive Party I made 
speeches to State conventions of the Washington Pension Union, as 
did practically all the political leaders of the State of Washington, 
regardless of the party. 

I think during a period after my employment as executive secretary 
of the Democratic Party at the request of a local in Everett I was sent 
there to make a speech and I think I was — I am pretty sure I was paid 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 511 

expenses and I may have been paid a fee for the speech I made to the 
group at Everett at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that a convention of the Washington Pension 
Union ? 

Mr. O'CoNNEix. No, as I remember it, the Everett meeting was some 
kind of a Large local meeting that they had, some kind of an event or 
celebration or something of that kind that I spoke at. It is hard to 
recollect. It is a long time ago and I have made a lot of speeches all 
over the State of Washington in those years and to a lot of groups. 

Mr. Ta\t2Nner. Did you work closely with the leadership of the 
union in the political positions that youlield, first, as secretary of the 
State Democratic Party and later as secretary of the Progressive 
Party ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't know if you would say I worked closely. 
We were naturally anxious in both the Democratic Party and in the 
Progressive Party to get the votes of the senior citizens of the State 
of Washington, and the only pension organization, the only senior 
citizens organization at that particular time anyway I can remember 
was the Washington Pension Union. 

I think later there were some dissensions and shoot-offs and smaller 
groups organized but I mean I had no official connection with the pen- 
sion union. Pennock, who was the president of the Pension Union, 
was also Democratic representative from the 35th Legislative District. 
He was the chairman of what we called the delegates from that district 
to the King Countv Democratic Central Committee. He was, I think, 
a chairman or member of the rules committee on the Democratic side 
in the State legislature. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is William Pennock ? 

Mr. O'Connell. That is William Pennock. In his activity as a 
Democrat or member of the Democratic organization as executive sec- 
retary of the Democratic Party, I naturally saw Pennock and naturally 

he was involved. -, ^ , • i ^^ j. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he one of the Smith Act defendants m the State 
of Washington? 

Mr. O'Connell. As I am informed, he was. 

Mr. Tavenner. And was convicted. 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't think so. He died. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe that is true. 

Mr. O'Connell. As I understand it, he either committed suicide or 
was found dead. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period of the trial. 

Mr. O'Connell. While the trial was in progress, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you know William Pennock to be a member of 
the Communist Party? ^ . -, , j- 

Mr. O'Connell. No, I did not. As I understand, he never di- 
vulged his membership in the Communist Party until a few days before 
the Smith Act trial and I think he made a public statement at that 
time. 

I, by that time, was back in the State of Montana some 4 or 5 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to continue to present the testimony of 
Mrs. Hartle regarding the Washington Pension Union to make plain 
a few facts. Mrs. Hartle further testified : 

My knowledge of the membership of the pension union is that it was reported 
by William J. Pennock and others in meetings that it had about 10,000 members. 
62222— 55— pt. 3 2 



512 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

She further testified : 

The membership of the Communist Party in the organization was small, 
smaller than in most so-called mass organization work. This was considered 
by the district leadership of the Communist Party and by the national leader- 
ship as well as being evidence of very successful mass work, and it was often 
used as an example of successful Communist mass work where it didn't take 
so many Communists in order to influence a large number of people. 

Were you aware of the influence that was brought to bear by the 
Communist Party upon this organization, the Washington Pension 
Union ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, sir ; I certainly wasn't aware of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of any issues that were brought to the 
Washington Pension Union by the Communist Party as testified to 
byMrs.Hartle? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, sir ; I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told us that you spoke on numerous oc- 
casions at meetings of the pension union. 

Mr. O'Connell. I wouldn't want to make it numerous. I spoke 
several times. I spoke at their State conventions, I know that, during 
the period while I was executive secretary of the Democratic Party 
and while I was executive secretary of the Progressive Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you familiar with the testimony of Ernest Paul 
Stith before the Can well committee ? 

Mr. O'Connell, If I remember, he w as an investigator for the Can- 
well committee. I don't know what his testimony was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Stith analyzed a report contained in the Janu- 
ary 30, 1947, issue of the New World relating to a program that was 
conducted at the Tri-County Snohomish, Wliatcom, and Skagit Legis- 
lative Conference. The analysis goes on to show that 21 of the 99 
delegates at that convention represented the pension union. The 
speakers included William Pennock, president of the Washington Old 
Age Pension Union, and Jerry O'Connell, former Democratic Party 
State executive secretary. 

Mr. O'Connell. I think that is the meeting I was talking about. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is the one you were referring to. Terry Pet- 
tus was editor of the New World. Was that a Communist paper ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't know whether the New World was a Com- 
munist paper. There apparently was some distinction ; they later be- 
came the Northwest edition of the People's World, and, of course, 
the People's World, as I understand it, is a Communist newspaper. 

Mr. Tavenner, And Frank Batterson, chairman of the Snohomish 
County Communist Party was a speaker. You say that is the occasion 
to which you refer ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I am pretty sure that is the occasion — was that, 
held at Everett ; does it say ? 

Mr. Tavenner. It doesn't state where it was held. 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't even know Batterson. He certainly didn't 
speak while I was there and of course I had no knowledge of the fact 
that he was a speaker and no knowledge of the fact that he was chair- 
man of — what group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tavenner, Do you recall William Pennock speaking? 

Mr, O'Connell, I don't recall him speaking, no, but I am sure that 
if it were — you see, I may have spoken. Does it say how many days 
it lasted? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 513 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't remember Pennock speaking while I was 
there — at least that. But whether he spoke at the meeting or not I 
don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Terry Pettus speak at that meeting? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Same way with Terry Pettus. I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. The witness stated that the following is the portion 
of the program adopted at this meeting regarding foreign policy: 

Break diplomatic and economic relations with Franco Spain, withdraw United 
States troops from China, and stop aid to Chiang Kai-shek, dictatorship. United 
States participation in worldwide disarmament, stop manufacture of atomic 
bombs and outlaw their use, abolish compulsory military training, remove from 
private industry development of atomic iK)wer to insure its peaceful use for 
benefit of all, restoration and extension of UNRRA, promote Big Three unity, 
carry through the denazification and demilitarization programs in Germany 
and Japan. 

Those were the policies being advocated by the Communist Party 
at that time ; were they not ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. You would not know? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No. I presume — if you say so, they are. I don't 
know what their particular program was at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you become acquainted with Mr. Eugene V. 
Dennett, who at one time was vice president of the Washington Com- 
monwealth Federation — in fact held that position while you were 
there? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. He what ? 

Mr. Tavenner. He held the position of vice president when you 
moved to Seattle? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I can't remember him at all. The only time I re- 
member Dennett was coming to my office as executive secretary of the 
Democratic Party in the Vance Building, when he was in a military 
uniform and telling me that he had been vice president of the Wash- 
ington Commonwealth Federation, but he would have been vice presi- 
dent a very short period of the Commonwealth Federation because 
I was there only from August of 1944 and if I remember correctly, 
the Commonwealth Federation was dissolved shortly after the Novem- 
ber elections in 1944 and, of course, the only thing I can say about 
Dennett is I can remember him coming to the office of the executive 
secretary of the Democratic Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware that he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; I certainly was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Dennett was called as a witness by this com- 
mittee at its June 1954 hearings. Mr. Dennett, when he appeared, 
relied upon the fifth amendment and refused to answer questions but 
later on during the hearing he came back and asked the committee to 
permit him to testify. It was so near the end of the hearings that it 
was impossible to hear him then. So the committee took his testimony 
in March of 1955 and Mr. Dennett described his activity in the Com- 
munist Party as a Communist Party functionary over a long period 
of time and described how he got out of the Communist Party, in fact 
described his expulsion and also the expulsion of his wife. He gave 
the committee much valuable information. 



514 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH,, AREA 

In the course of his testimony he told the committee how a man 
by the name of Lowell Wakefield was sent by the Communist Party 
from New York to Seattle to engage in organizational work for the 
Communist Party and that one of his chief assignments was to assist 
in the organization of the Washington Pension Union. 
Were you acquainted with Mr. Lowell Wakefield ? 
Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't remember anybody by the name of Lowell 
Wakefield at all. In my time, I mean my only recollection — was 
Wakefield later some kind of a representative for a fish company or 
operated a fish company of his own down on the waterfront? 

Mr. Tavenner. I understood he did, but not down on the water- 
front in Washington. I think he went to Alaska. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, anyway, I think I heard about him but I 
don't think I ever met Wakefield personally, or personally knew him. 
Mr. Ta"\^nner. Have you any knowledge of his activities? 
Mr. O'CoNNELL. My only recollection, if it is the same Wakefield, 
is that he was a contributor to the Democratic Party, if it is the same 
person. "VSHiat I want to do, I don't want to get myself in trouble, I 
certainly didn't know Wakefield as a Communist or knew that he was 
a Communist or anything of the kind and I dont' want — my recollec- 
tion is if it is the same Wakefield he had some kind of a fish company 
or was a representative for a fish company and did make contributions 
to the Democratic Party while I was executive secretary. 
Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Tom Rabbitt? 
Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes; I was acquainted with Tom Eabbitt. 
Mr. Tavenner. He was State Senator and also an office holder in the 
Washington Pension Union ; is that right ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. He was Washington State senator from the 35th 
legislative district. He was, I think, a delegate to the King County 
Democratic Central Committee from that district. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it a fact that the State legislature refused to seat 
him? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't think so. I think the State legislature, be- 
fore I came to the State of Washington, refused to seat a party by the 
name of Lenus Westman, elected as a State senator from up in Sno- 
homish County, but at least in my time nobody challenged Babbitt's 
senator-ship. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am probably in error. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Counsel, isn't it true both Mrs. Hartle and Eugene 
Dennett testified that both Wakefield and Rabbitt were members 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. I think the record should show that Wil- 
liam J. Pennock was identified by Barbara Hartle not only as presi- 
dent of the Washington Pension Union but as a member of the 
district committee of the Communist Party for the State of Washing- 
ton and that Tom Rabbitt was likewise an officer of the Washington 
Pension Union and a member of the district committee of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Velde. Isn't it true, also, that Mr. Rabbitt appeared in executive 
session in June 1954 and refused to answer questions relating to his 
membership in tlie Communist Party and other activities along that 
line, relying on the fifth amendment? 
Mr. Tavenner. That is correct, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 515 

Mr O'Connell, did you confer with William Pennock and Tom 
Eabbitt or any of the other leaders of the Washington Pension Union 
reo-arding its organization, its policies, or any phases of its work ^ 

Mr O'CoNNEL^. In view of the prefatory statements made by you 
and by Congressman Velde, and particularly with respect to the tact 
that you state that Eabbitt and Pennock were members of the district 
board of the Communist Party ^ . -r • i x •+ 

Mr Velde. Just a minute. I didn't state that. I said two witnesses 
had testified that he was a member of the Communist Party 

Mr. O'Connell. I see. I want to protect myself . I don t know 
whether I can safely answer that question now. 

Mr. A^elde. "\^1iat was the question? 

Mr. Tavenner. Kead the question, please. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) 

Mr. O'Connell. That is a real difficult one for me to answer. As 
executive secretary of the Democratic Party, I probably, ot course, 
suggested things they might do to help us in the campaign and so on. 
I don-t know, but l" certainly— what I want to do— what I did was 
not because they were members of the district board of the Communist 
Party or because they were Communists, or anything ot that kind. 
If I suo-gested something thev ought to do about the Washington 
Pension Union either to Pennock or Rabbitt, it was m connection with 
cither Democratic Party activity or Progressive Party activity as 
far as campaigns were concerned. 

It is a very broad general question. You asked me about it, any 
phases of its work. For instance, I mean we were certainly anxious 
in the Democratic Party and Progressive Party, too, to get the votes 
of the senior citizens of the State and _ _ 

Mr. Tavenner. ^^at do you mean by the "senior citizens i 

Mr O'Connell. The older people of the State that were m the pen- 
sion organization, and so on. And outside the organization as well 
that they had influence on. . . , , i i • j: xi, 

Mr. Tavenner. Were your discussions with the leadership ot tne 
Washington Pension Union chiefly with Pennock and Rabbitt? 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, during my time out there I think the Wash- 
ington Pension Union, if I remember correctly, had a whole host of 
vice presidents, I don't know how many, I think they elected— I 
think Rabbitt was one of those vice presidents. But the executive 
officer of the Washington Pension Union of course was Pennock and 
in my work as executive secretary of the Democratic Party and also 
the Progressive Partv I certainly conferred with Pennock, I cer- 
tainly asked him to see that things were done by the campaign and 
see that work was done in connection with it. 

But in my time out there I think, I don't think Rabbitt was any 
kind of— was he a full-time paid employee of the Pension Union? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not sure what his official connection was 
with it. 

Mr. O'Connell. My recollection is that he was one of the many 
vice presidents, I think if I recall there were about 16 vice presidents 
and I think he was one of them. As far as Rabbitt and Pennock 
were concerned, all of the time they were both leaders in the Demo- 
cratic Party. Rabbitt was a Democrat State senator from a legisla- 
tive district, Pennock was a representative from the same legislative 



516 COMMUlSriST activities in the SEATTLE, WASH,, AREA 

district and likewise within the Democratic organization particularly 
in King County and because King County was the largest county in 
the State, the impact it would have on the State organization as well, 
I was thrown into considerable contact with them in my work as 
executive secretary of the Democratic Party with both Pennock and 
Eabbitt. 

Mr. Velde. Mr, O'Connell, both Pennock and Rabbitt were gen- 
erally Ivuown to be members of the Communist Party, as members 
of the district board, were they not ? 

Mr, O'CoNNELL. I don't know, I couldn't say, I don't think 
Eabbitt acknowledged he was a member of the Communist Party and 
Pennock only announced it shortly before he died. Shortly before 
the beginning of the Smith Act trial in Seattle, he announced he was. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were quite aware, were you not, of the effort 
being made by the Communist Party to take over the Washington 
Pension Union ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't know whether I — I was not in Washington 
Pension Union. I was not engaged in its work or activity. 

Mr. Tavenner. Any person who has held the two positions that you 
have as secretary of two very active organizations would certainly 
have had his finger on the pulse of general activities in the community. 
You certainly knew, did you not, that the Communist Party was oper- 
ating the Washington Pension Union ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No ; I certainly did not know that. I didn't Imow 
that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You believed it, didn't you ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No; I didn't believe it. There are a lot of won- 
derful old people in that organization and Dr. Fisher 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. I am talking about the leadership. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Who is the president of it 

Mr. Tavenner. I have told you Mrs. Hartle said there were com- 
paratively few. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL, Mrs. Hartle, on her own acknowledgment was a 
functionary of the Communist Party, was she not ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. O'Connell. She certainly would know w^hether they were work- 
ing or not, but I w^as not a functionary of the Communist Party and 
I wouldn't know what the Communist Party was doing as far as the 
Pension Union was concerned. 

Mr. Velde. You had no inkling whatsoever that Pennock, Eabbitt, 
and Mrs. Hartle were members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I had no inkling? 

Mr. Velde, Suspicion. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. You did have a suspicion they were ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Upon what did you base that suspicion? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I couldn't ]:)rove it. Of course it was not my par- 
ticular job to prove it. 

Mr. Velde. Certainly not. No question about that. 

Mr. Tavenner. In your judgment what was the purpose of the 
Communist Party in attempting to capture the leadership of the 
Washington Pension Union? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 517 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. In my judgment what would it have been ? 

Mr. Taat:nner. Yes. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, I presume, as Mrs. Hartle states there, they 
were engaged in developing what she called mass organizations and 
so on, and this was a large organization, there isn't any doubt about 
that, there was a very, very large group. I think the membership 
of 10,000 is even underestimated. My feeling is its membership ran 
closer to 16,000 just from my contact with it. I presume they would 
like to control it because of its tremendous effect and tremendous in- 
fluence without any doubt. I know in the Democratic Party I wanted 
to make sure that the pension union supported the candidates of the 
Democratic Party. We worked hard to get them to indorse and sup- 
port Democratic Party candidates and to work for them every way we 
knew hovv'. 

Mr. Tavexn^er. Did the leadership in the Washington Pension 
Union endeavor to influence the selection of candidates for office in 
either the Progressive Party or the Democratic Party while you were 
secretary? 

Mr. d'CoNNELL. Did the Washington Pension Union try 

Mr. Ta%^nxer. Yes; through its leadership, try to influence the 
selection of individuals for office. 

Mr. O'CoxNELL. If you mean they wanted certain people elected • 

Mr. Tavexner. I am not talking about supporting certain peo- 
ple but did they endeavor to get certain individuals selected for 
party nomination. 

Mr. O'Coxxell. By that do you mean did they go out and select 
certain people ? 

Mr. Ta\texxer. Did the leadership in the Washington Pension 
Union try to influence your party organization in behalf of certain 
individuals in whom they were interested ? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. As far as the party organization was concerned, 
we had the Democratic primary where the people voted in the Demo- 
cratic primary and selected the nominees and then after the Demo- 
cratic nominees were selected and so on, I would say the Washington 
Pension Union with rare exceptions — and I think those exceptions 
were some 9 or 10 State senators who were called quisling senators, 
who didn't support the Democratic organization in the State senate 
at the time — I think the Washington Pension Union generally sup- 
ported the Democratic Party. 

]\Ir. Ta\'exxer. INIr. Eugene Dennett testified that the purpose of 
the Communist Party in exerting its infiltration efforts in both the 
Washington Commonwealth Federation and the Washington Pen- 
sion Union was to strengthen its own political influence. I shall read 
a part of his testimony. In referring to the Washington Common- 
wealth Federation he said : 

It was our estimate that it was capable — 

by "our" he is referring to the Communist Party — 

that it was capable of influeneins and obtaining the vote of one-third of the 
members who voted in the Democratic Party slate or side of the ticket and 
because of that fact and because we were in a higher state of mobilization than 
the rest of the Democratic Party wJion primaries came along we could exercise 
a more direct influence in the primaries than anybody else because our members 
in the Washington Commonwealth Federation had a great zeal and a greater 
devotion to carrying out their objectives than the other Democrats who fre- 
quently relied upon making their decisions in the general election. 



518 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

When asked the question why was it that the Communist Party was 
so interested in obtaining control of the Washington Commonwealth 
Federation, he replied : 

Because we wanted to ultimately obtain political power for the Communist 
Party in the United States of America. 

Did you observe efforts made by William Pennock and Tom Eab- 
bitt, to get control of either the Democratic machinei-y, the machin- 
ery of the Democratic Party, or the machinery of the Progressive 
Party through the use of the Washington Pension Union ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, I would say in a certain few districts in 
King County, probably one district in Snohomish County, legislative 
district in Grays Harbor County, that the nominees of the Democratic 
Party were certainly not people that the pension union had selected 
or had picked out but I think they were people the pension union sup- 
ported because of their votes in the legislature and so on. The Com- 
monwealth Federation was actually gone in my time. I don't know 
what it did. I don't know what its j)ower was and what its influence 
was but for instance in the 35th District if Pennock was the Represen- 
tative and Rabbitt was the Senator and they were both in the pension 
union they certainly had some influence there. 

I am trying to think of the district in Snohomish, there are two 
legislative districts there, I think it was northern Snohomish County 
where I think there was a pension union member who was actually a 
member and elected to the legislative assembly and I think that was 
true in the district down in Grays Harbor County, but you take all 
of the eastern end of Washington, all the eastern side of Washington 
they certainly had no influence to speak of over there. They might 
have had a tiny bit of influence in one district in Spokane County, 
but in the great part, I would say in the great part of the State out- 
side of those few areas I picked out and where the selections were 
actually people of their own membership, I don't, I can't see any 
actual picking or selecting of people that were put in. I can't recall 
all of the people who were, but for instance the major State offices 
like Governor and United States Senator, Congressman, and so on, I 
couldn't see any influence except in the First Congressional District 
where of course they could have been instrumental in the nomination 
and election of Hugh DeLacy in 1944 election, I think it was, but as 
to the other districts, John Coffee was in Congress a long time I think, 
even before the pension union was established, Charlie Levy was in 
the House. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Was Hugh DeLacy known to you to be a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. O'CONNELL. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. He has been identified by both Barbara Hartle and 
Eugene Demiett. He was produced as a witness before the committee 
in Ohio in September of last year and he refused to answer any ma- 
terial questions relating to Communist Party affiliations, relying upon 
the fifth amendment as the reason for so doing. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Senator Neuberger wrote a chapter in a book pub- 
lished by Bob Allen called Our Fair City, and wrote the article in 
connection with the city of Seattle, and he gives me credit in that 
book, if I remember correctly, for having forced Hugh DeLacy on the 
Democratic Party in the State of Washington, but Hugh DeLacy had 



COMIVIUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 519 

actually been nominated for Congi-ess on the Democratic Party ticket 
before I ever went to the State of Washington. 

He was actually the Democratic nominee. 

Let me say, Mr. Neuberger also gives me credit for — Senator Neu- 
berger — for taking over. He said I took over the Democratic organi- 
zation and so on. "l don't think I did. I had served in the House with 
Senator Wallgren who later became Governor and Senator Magnu- 
son, who was in the House, and I knew them well and Senator Mitch- 
ell, who was secretary to Senator Wallgren at that time, and who later 
became Senator and Congressman and all of that, and I think they 
were appreciative of the kind of job I had done out there, and so on. 

Mr. Velde. Did you have any suspicion or inkling that Mr. Hugh 
DeLacy was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I couldn't say, I wouldn't want to say. 

Mr. Velde. Why would you not want to say ? 

Mr. O'Connell. You see, I really didn't get to know him. He was 
elected to Congress shortly after I came out there and then he came 
down here to Washington and then after his defeat for Congress he 
was only back in the State of Washington a short time and went to 
work, if I recall correctly, in the national office of the Progressive 
Party and was working outside the State of Washington so that my 
contact with DeLacy was not very great. I didn't get to know him 
like the people that were out in the State day in and day out and were 
in the Democratic Party meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, we have the situation where the 
Communist Party went deliberately about seizing the leadership and 
capturing the leadership in a very powerful political organization in 
the State of Washington, namely, the Washington Pension Union, and 
ahead of it the Washington Commonwealth Federation. It suc- 
ceeded in capturing the leadership of it. It did it for the purpose of 
advancing the interests of the Communist Party. 

Will you tell the committee whether or not the leadership of this 
group, the Washington Pension Union, was successful in influencing 
either of the parties of which you were secretary in any of its policy 
actions ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I think for instance, in the Democratic Party par- 
ticularly by its organization and by its work and demands for im- 
proved pension legislation, they had tremendous influence on the 
Democratic Party. As a matter of fact the — I would say even on 
the Kepublican Party. In the 1945 session of the State legislature 
the actual legislation proposed by the pension miion placing a $50 
floor under old-age-pension grants and setting up a system of budget 
and what-not, the legislation which they actually introduced passed 
the State senate by, I think, a vote of 45 or 46 to nothing. Both 
Democrats and Eepublicans voted for it. 

In the House I think it passed the same way probably 102 to 1 or 
105 to 3 or something like that, it was almost unanimous. In that 
particular effect certainly they not only had influence with the Demo- 
cratic Party but certainly in putting legislation on the books 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Wliat influence did it have on the Progressive 
Party? 

Mr. O'Connell. Of course we had no power. We had no officials 
of any kind. 



520 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Tavennek. Actually, wasn't the leadership in the Washington 
Pension Union and the leadership in the Progressive Party practically 
the same? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. The leadership? 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Yes, wasn't there an overlapping leadership which 
made the two practically the same? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, I wouldn't say so. Actually, it is hard to put 
the picture in the pattern of that time, but the 1946 elections had been 
as we all recall quite disastrous to the Democrats, there was consider- 
able dissension among some Democrats with President Truman, and 
there was a move from Democrats generally^ — I would say in the 
Progressive Party, as it existed particularly in 1948, the Progressive 
Party was not, did not have an officialdom or even a membership that 
you could say, "Well, this is identical with the Washington Pension 
Union.'" 

For instance, I never held any office in the Washington Pension 
Union of any kind — I was executive secretary — Russell Fluent, who 
had just finished a term as Democratic treasurer was the chairman of 
the Progressive Party — L. C. Hunterer, who was Democratic sheriff 
in Olympia in Thurston County, was a national committeeman — and 
the Democratic national committeewoman from eastern Washington, 
who later became the national committeewoman of the Progressive 
Party from the State of Washington. Leadership in many counties 
was a leadership that moved from the county chairman and others 
and moved over from the Democratic Party into the Progressive 
Party, 

The leadership of the pension union, Pennock and Fisher and Nora 
McCoy, and others I recall there, if you consider Rabbitt 

Mr. Tavenner. What was Fisher's first name? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Dr. C. H. Fisher. He had been president of 
Northern Washington Normal College, I think, at Bellingham. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, I hand you a photostatic copy of 
a document and I will ask you to examine it, please, and state whether 
you know what it is. 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is it ? 

Mr. O'Connell. As I understand, it purports to be a sort of a 
schedule or catalog of the Pacific Northwest Labor School for what 
they call its fall term of October 6 to December 12. 

Mr. Tavenner. What year? 1947? 

Mr. O'Connell. It apparently — I notice somebody made a notation 
up here, 1947, but it doesn't appear. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence, and ask 
that it be marked "O'Connell Exhibit No. 1" for identification pur- 
poses only, and made a j)art of the committee files. 

Mr. Doyle. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. By reference to the exhibit it is noted that course 
No. 148, offered at this school, was entitled "Northwest Labor History" 
by John Daschbach, extension director, and William J. Pennock, 
president of the Washington Pension Union. Will you tell the com- 
mittee, please, whether John Daschbach was known to you to be a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. O'Connell. He was not. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 521 

Mr. Tavenner. He was not a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. He was not known to me to be a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should show he 
has been identified by both Eugene Dennett and Barbara Hartle 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I think he was also a Smith Act defendant. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a member of the party and he was a Smith Act 
defendant. He was a teacher at this school. It is observed here on 
the second page that a course on trade-union organizational problems 
was to be tauglit by a person by the name of J-a-c-k-i-n-s. What was 
his first name, Harvey i 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't recall Jackins too well. Was he a member 
of the union, the Boeing union? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not certain which union. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I know there was a party by the name of Jackins 
and that he was a leader in some one of the unions out there and my 
best recollection is he was in the Boeing union. 

Mr. Tamsnner. We have testimony before our committee that Har- 
vey Jackins taught at this school and I think the record should also 
show Harvey Jackins was identified as a member of the Communist 
Party by Elizabeth Boggs Cohen and Leonard Basil Wildman. He 
was cited for contempt of the House of Representatives for refusal 
to answer questions during the June 1954 hearings in Seattle and has 
been convicted by a Federal court. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. In that connection I want to — I notice in that 
schedule that my name is listed as teaching a course in political 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Yes. Labor's political role, 1948. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I never taught such a class or roll or schedule. 
Xever appeared or anything else. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Weil, you were enrolled as a teacher, were you not, 
in the labor school? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I was not. I never taught a class in the labor 
school, never appeared in the labor school. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your explanation of the advertising of the 
curriculum with you as a teacher? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. My explanation is really easy. Mr. Daschbach got 
that schedule out and later called me and asked me if I would do it 
and I refused and told him I didn't want to do it. 

Mr. Tavenner. He did call you and you refused ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did you refuse? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Because I didn't want to do it. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Wliat was your reason for not wanting to do it ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Let me see what it was. If I remember correctly, 
my objection was to "tackle both ideological and organizational prob- 
lems which labor must solve to gain its ends in 1948." 

And my particular objection, of course, was that I had never been 
involved, never was a member of a labor union or trade-union, and 
1 didn't, I couldn't speak as a laboring man or as a member of organ- 
ized labor. There was no particular way that I could particularly 
expound on what labor's role was because I wasn't qualified to do it. 
I had either been in political office or had been engaged in political 
organization. 



522 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. A^ELDE. Did you know at that time that the Pacijfic Northwest 
Labor School was a Communist organization? 

Mr. O'CONNELL. No. 

jMr. Velde. What was the date of that ? 

Mr. Tavenner. 1947. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I think it was either listed earlier or later but it 
had been attacked by some of the labor organizations long before it 
was listed, it had been attacked by some, particularly I think the Cen- 
tral Labor Council in Seattle, and had been attacked by other groups 
out there. 

Mr. Velde. Your suspicion that it was a Communist organization 
was not the reason you didn't teach the course ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I wouldn't want to say now that is it. I know at 
the time when he called me about it I objected to the word ideological. 
T remember that expressly and I objected to the fact that I was qualified 
in no way to talk about labor's role in 1948. I was not a member 
of a trade union, I had not been involved in labor organization or 
anything of the kind. I know I didn't teach there and I didn't 

Mr, Tavenner. Wliat was the meaning of "coordinator" after your 
name ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't know. Maybe if you let me look at it — I 
don't know what it means. 

Mr, Tavenner. Did Mr, Daschbach discuss the title of coordinator 
with you ? 

Mr, O'CoNNELL, No ; he certainly did not, 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should show at 
this time the Communist affiliation of other teachers in this school- 
Theodore Raymond Astley, 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Wliile you are doing that I wonder if I could say 
this. Wlien I spoke up and said I knew Mr. Daschbach was a Smith 
Act defendant there was some remonstrance from over here where 
the press is located and I wanted to point out I left the State of 
Washington in 1949 and Mr. Daschbach did not become a Smith Act 
defendant, if I remember correctly, until 1954. 

Mr, Velde. I think that commotion was because they didn't know 
how to spell his name. 

Mr. Tavenner. The spelling is D-a-s-c-h-b-a-c-h. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I thought maybe I had left something unexplained. 

Mr, Ta\^nner. Ted Astley was slated to conduct course No. 245, 
psychology in the social science. He appeared as a witness before 
the committee and refused to testify, relying on the fifth amendment 
as to past and present Communist Party membership. He was 
identified as a member of the Communist Party by Barbara Hartle. 

Euth Bitterman was slated to conduct a course in children's work- 
shop. She refused to testify as a witness before the committee but was 
identified by Barbara Hartle as a member of the Communist Party, 

Jean Danielson was shown by testimony in our hearings in Seattle 
to be the same person as Margaret Jean Schuddakoph, and was adver- 
tised to conduct course No, 300, as special workshop in reading and 
writing. She refused to testify before the committee and was identi- 
fied as a Communist Party member by Barbara Hartle, 

Marjorie Daschbach was advertised to conduct course No, 304 and 
was identified by Barbara Hartle as a member of the Communist 
Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 523 

John Davis was advertised to conduct a course on workshop in the 
i^raphic arts and was identified before this committee as having 
been a member of the Communist Party by Barbara Hartle. 

Fair Tajdor, editor of Union Guardian, was advertised in the catalog 
to teach a course on labor writer's workshop. The testimony before 
the committee shows that she is the same person as Fair Taylor Egroth, 
and she was identified by Barbara Hartle as having been a member 
•of the Communist Party. 

Dr. Ealph Gundlach was advertised to conduct a course of the anal- 
ysis of employer propaganda. Were you acquainted with Dr. 
Gundlach ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, sir. He was a professor at the University 
of Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dr. Gundlach was identified by Harold Sunoo, 
before this committee, as having been a member of the Communist 
Party. There was a course conducted on labor news reporting by a 
person by the name of Pettus. Do you know his first name? 

Mr. 0'Co>7XEiJL,. Do I know his first name? 

Mr. Tavexner. Yes. 

Mr. O'CoxNFXL. As I understand, there were two Pettuses who 
were newspapermen. Ken Pettus and Terry Pettus, and I am pretty 
sure the party involved here is the editor of the New World, or does 
it say ? Ken Pettus, I think, was editor of the Stars and Stripes in 
the Far Eastern area at one time, and then Terry was editor of the 
New World in Seattle, Terry Pettus. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do jou know which one taught this course on labor 
news reporting? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, I don't. 

Mr. Ta\-ennee. You do not? 

Mr. O'Conxell. My guess would be that it would be Terry because 
he Avas in Seattle but I don't know whether he actually did. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Terry Pettus was identified before this committee 
as having been a member of the Communist Party by Elizabeth Boggs 
Cohen and Barbara Hartle. 

Did Mr. Daschbach when he called you indicate his reason for call- 
ing you about teaching this course in the Pacific Northwest Labor 
School ? 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. He thought because of my political experience and 
because of the position, I think I had just shortly concluded my term 
as executive secretary of the Democratic Party, that was when, in 
December of 1947. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. O'CoNNEix. That was in April of 1947, wasn't it ? 

Mr. Taat:xner. October to December 1947. 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Anyway, he thought because of my political ex- 
perience and because of my previous position that I could do a job 
and that I would be able to do it. "\Vlien he told me what it was I 
told him it was in a field that I was not particularly qualified to do. 

Mr. DoTL-E. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12: 10 p. m., the committee was recessed, to recon- 
vene at 2 p. m. the same day.) 



524 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 
AFTERNOON SESSION, JUNE 1, 19 55 

Mr. DoYLE. Let the record show that the legal quorum of the sub- 
committee is present, Mr. Velde, of Illinois, and Mr. Doyle, of Cali- 
fornia. 

Mr. Tavenner, will you proceed, please. 

TESTIMONY OF JEREMIAH JOSEPH O'CONNELIr-Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Comiell, were you acquainted with Robert 
Marshall during his lifetime? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were the circumstances under which you be- 
came acquainted with him ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Robert Marshall at the time of my original ac- 
quaintance with him was chief of the reclamation division of the for- 
estry service. He had begun his early career in the forestry service at 
Missoula, Mont., which was located in my Congressional District, the 
First or Western Congressional District of Montana. 

Shortly after I came back to Washington to take my seat in 1937, 
Robert Marshall came to my office and introduced himself and told 
me that because he had started his career in the forestry service out 
there he had always had an interest in the district particularly because 
of its large forestry holdings, large forestry provisions, and he and 
I became close friends, socially, I would say more socially than any- 
thing else. I think he died about a year and a half or maybe two years 
after I^ — ^I can't remember whether he died in 1938 or 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. His will was probated in 1940. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I think that is correct. His death was probably in 
1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you one of the witnesses to his will? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, I was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he discuss with you at the time of the making 
of his will or prior thereto the purpose he had in mind in setting up 
a trust in which you were named as one of the trustees ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, he had never discussed — in fact, I really did 
not know that Bob Marshall had any money. He lived very ordi- 
narily, didn't give any indication he had any money. I was back out 
in Butte, Mont., and I had been defeated for Congress and I got a 
notice from the surrogate court in New York that I was named trustee 
in tlie will and I thought I had come into a lot of money. I was sent a 
copy of the will and I was named as trustee of what later became the 
Robert Marshall Foundation. 

Mr. Tavenner. The will authorized you and the other trustees to 
apply the income derived from the trust and such parts of the princi- 
pal as the trustees in their own unlimited discretion deemed necessary 
for the following objects and purposes : 

The education of the people of the United States of America to the necessity 
and desirability of the development and organization of unions of persons en- 
gaged in work or of unemployment and unemployed persons, and the promotion 
and advancement of an economic system in the United States based upon the 
theory of production for use and not for profit. 

Did it not? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. That is correct. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 525 

Mr. Tavenner. That part of the will which related to the education 
of the people of the United States to the necessity and desirability of 
developing and organizing unions of persons engaged in work was 
actually considered by the trustees as more or less window dressing, 
wasn't it ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, it was the other way around, Mr. Tavenner. 
I don't know when Bob Marshall prepared this will, but I think Mr. 
Doyle would know about this, Upton Sinclair had his so-called epic 
movement in California, and there was a lot of discussion of an econ- 
omy based on production for use rather than for profit and in the first 
meeting of the trustees that we held there was actually a resolution 
passed where the rather untenable idea of getting a production-f or-use 
economy in the United States was discussed and it was decided by the 
trustees that the money should actually be employed to develop as 
much as we could the organization of trade unions, development and 
organization of trade unions, organizing of unemployed people, and 
actually for the development of a cooperation between farmers and 
workers, farmers and labor, so that instead of having a division of in- 
terests as far as they were concerned, and the trustees laid down a rule 
that with reference to grants, that in order to come within what the 
trustees considered the provisions of the will as the development of 
trade unions was concerned, that the grants would have to be made for 
some trade-union purpose, or development of trade unions, and so 
on, and that was what w^as actually done by the trustees. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there occasions when grants were made on 
that theory — on that principle? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. On what principle ? 

Mr. Ta\'enner. The one you just named. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Actually, as far as I can remember — and of course 
this goes back a long, long time, from 1940 on — I can't remember all of 
the organizations but we usually had an annual meeting of the trustees 
and applications were made to the trustees by practically — I mean just 
hundreds of organizations around the country that applied to founda- 
tions of this kind, and I think, I can't remember any exceptions, I 
don't recall any now. 

As closely as we could the applications were considered from the 
point of view that the money was to be applied by the organization 
to whom it was granted to help the organization and development of 
trade unions and organizing of unemployed people and particularly 
the development of a principle of cooperation between farmers and 
laborers. 

Mr. Tavenner. But actually the will did provide for the use of the 
money for promotion and advancement of an economic system in the 
United States based upon the theory of production for use? 

Mr. O'CONNELL. Yes; I think another thing that would lend some 
stability to what I am saying is that I think the tax bureau at one of 
the local Federal district courts in determining the taxability of the 
foundation itself acually I think handed down a ruling that the foun- 
dation was not entitled to a section 101 exemption because that par- 
ticular provision actually called for the elimination of the capitalistic 
system. I think that was the wording used either by the bureau or 
the court and from that time on the trustees never actually, I can't 
think of a single organization or a single group — and we had applica- 



526 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

tions I know, I am trying to think of some of the organizations that 
existed over that period of time — I can't recall any of them now who 
specificall}^ asked for grants based on what they called theory of pro- 
duction for use rather than for profit. But I can't think of a single 
instance where the trustees actually made 

Mr. Tavenner. That was actually the system in use in the Soviet 
Union, was it not? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I have never been in the Soviet Union and I am 
not— — 

Mr. Tavenner. However, you know, that is true, don't you ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. My information that I get from reading and so on 
is that there is a modification. I think if I state it correctly in the 
industrial field I think there is production for use rather than for 
profit, but as I understand the Soviets have now abandoned as far as 
particular foreign farm production is concerned 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it not the purpose of the Communist Party 
in the United States at that time to foist upon this country just such 
a plan, namely, to establish a Communist system of production for 
use and not for profit? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL,. I, of course, wouldn't be qualified to say, I wouldn't 
be qualified to state whether or not that was their purpose or their 
program. 

As a matter of fact, the program of the Communist Party as I 
remember it before I came to Congress, while I was in Congress and 
after the program of the Coimnunist Party in the United States was 
fluctuating — as a mater of fact, I think there was a removal of Brow- 
der because he w^as advocating — removal of Browder by the Com- 
munist Party leadership because he was advocating a companionship 
or partnership with capital and that capital and communism could 
exist and there could be as I understand it — that was the program of 
the Communist Party for a long time until he was removed, I can't 
remember when. 

But I knew Bob Marshall those years — I think I can positively 
state that Bob Marshall was not a Communist and that the provisions 
in that will and certainly the people that w^ere named as trustees in 
addition to the trade union trust as we called it, the Marshall Founda- 
tion Trust, there was a civil liberties trust of which I think Koger 
Baldwin was the head and I think everyone will agree he is decidedly 
anti-Communist. 

There was also a wilderness area trust. In fact, out in the State of 
Montana there is a great wilderness area named the Robert Marshall 
Wilderness Area after Robert Marshall. 

My distinct feeling about that is that in talking with Bob and talk- 
ing to him that he was caught up in the period of the depression situ- 
ation where there were all kinds of economic theories advanced at 
the time, not only New Deal but all kinds of other movements and I 
don't think there was actually any connection in Bob Marshall's mind 
between what the Communist Party might be advocating at that time 
and what he actually put in his will. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask this about that will ? Was it a typewritten 
will or a will written by him ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Actually his brother, Jim Marshall, is an attorney 
in the city of New York and I think a member of the New York City 
Board of Education and the will was actually prepared by Jim 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 527 

Marshall's firm, I can't remember all who are in it, but the cop;; which 
I got was actually a copy of the will which I received throi gh the 
surrogate court in New York, actually a printed form. 

]\Ir. Tavexner. Mr. O'Connell, you mentioned the fact that tax 
exempt status of the trust was removed by action of the court. Was 
that a result of a<ction taken by the Internal Revenue Bureau ? 

Mr. O'Connell. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it after the Internal Revenue Bureau learned 
of the type of grants being made under this trust that it took the action 
it did to remove the tax exemption status of the trust 'I 

jMr. O'Connell. My best recollection, Mr. Tavenner, is that Con- 
gressman Dies made a speech on the floor, and if I remember correctly, 
in which he discussed the Robert Marshall Foundation in which he 
went into the various grants that we had made and shortly after that, 
on whose initiative I don't know, the Bureau took up with the founda- 
tion the matter of its one exemption and the Bureau exemption was 
removed and I believe as trustees we appealed it to the courts and the 
courts decided against us. 

We appealed, I am sure the briefs will show that we appealed to 
the courts on the basis that the grants were being made for the purpose 
of organizing and developing of trade unions and for organization 
of unemployed people and not for the theory of production for use 
rather than for profit. I am sure the briefs will bear me out on that. 
I of course had nothing to do with the preparation of them. 

George Marshall, who is Bob Marshall's brother, was the manager 
of the trust funds and as I said, the trustees usually met annually, 
once a year. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. You were aware, were you not, that the Communist 
Party in the State of Washington just 2 years prior to the probate of 
this will, endeavored or at least proposed a plan for legislation to set 
up exactly the same type of economy in the State of Washington 1 

Mr. O'CoNNEix. I Imew nothing about that. The first time I ever 
went to the State of Washington in August 1944 

jNIr. Tam^nner. Robert Marshall you say was from the State of 
Montana ? 

Mr, O'Connell. No, Robert Marshall was actually a New Yorker, 
his dad was Louis Marshall, a partner of Samuel Untermyer, out- 
standing corporation lawyer in New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was a gi'eat deal of his experience in the forestry 
service on the west coast? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; 3 years of his service in the Forestry Depart- 
ment were at Missoula, Mont., but not on the west coast. We are in 
the Rocky Mountain area, you see. 

Mr. Tavenner. I understand. 

Mr. O'Connell. Is this within the scope of the hearing? 

Mr. Velde. Tlie Robert Marshall Foundation ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. I think it would be. 

Mr. Doyle. We will take a short recess. 

(Brief recess.) 

(Committee members present after recess: Representatives Doyle 
and Scherer.) 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will come to order and let the record 
show tliat the chairman of the full committee, Mr. Walter, appointed 

02222— 55— pt. 3 3 



528 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

a different subcommittee to continue this hearing today, consisting of 
Mr. Moulder. Mr. Do^^le, and Mr. Sclierer, of Ohio, and that Mr. 
Scherer and Mr. Doyle are both present, a legal majority of the new 
subcommittee. 

Mr. O'Connell, will you please rise and be sworn again. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, I referred to the proposal spon- 
sored by the Communist Party in the State of Washington in 1936 for 
the enactment of a law establishing production-for-use initiative a& 
it was called. 

Mr. O'Connell. That was stolen from Upton Sinclair's legislation. 

Mr. Tavenner. And possibly also from the Soviet Union. 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't propose to speak for the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you propose to speak for Mr. Upton Sinclair? 

Mr. O'Connell. I knew Mr. Sinclair quite well and he used to con- 
tribute to my campaign and I had some opportunity to see his cam- 
paign in California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Eugene V. Dennett described a convention of the 
Washington Commonwealth Federation, held in April 1936 in Everett, 
Wash., and the part that the Communist Party played in that con- 
vention. His testimony relating to this particular matter is as follows : 

There was another matter which arose as a serious issue in that convention 
and it concerned a proposal for an initiative measure which became Isnown as 
the production-for-use initiative. Many people, because of the Communist Party 
influence in the unemployed days, were quite concerned and alarmed over the 
problem of unemployment, insecurity, possible impoverishment, et cetera. All 
the consequences of economic dislocation. They had read many of the so-called 
Utopian pieces of literature such as Bellamy's Looking Backward and other 
documents of the kind. They had also read Mr. Upton Sinclair's Program in Cali- 
fornia. They were somewhat acquainted with the propaganda of the Soviet 
Union to the effect that production for use was the solution to the problems of 
capitalist lack of planning. In other words, planned economy. 

The story on the production-for-use initiative is simply this : Because ther& 
was such a popular demand for some change in the economic situation to assure 
continued production and a cooperative effort, many people tried to translate 
an ideal of a cooperative commonwealth into some form of legislative effort. 
This resulted in many conferences and the calling in of legal talent to try to 
draft a measure which would be legal and which would satisfy the ambitions 
of the people to have the so-called dream of a cooperative commonwealth 
organization. 

Question. Now, at that point describe a little more fully what production 
for use meant in a practical sense. 

Mr. Dennett. I wish I could satisfy you completely on that point, because 
that is one of the problems we ran into in trying to draw up this initiative 
measure. We could never satisfy ourselves that we had it satisfactorily organ- 
ized. However, the staff who worked on it worked long and hard and finally 
produced a measure which was known as the production-for-use initiative. It 
was ready for presentation to that convention. However, some of us in the 
Communist Party, while we agreed that such a measure was a good propaganda 
weapon and felt that it was an excellent means of popularizing the ideas which 
we understood and claimed were the basis of the operation of the economy in 
the Soviet Union, we were startled when we read the document and found that 
it sounded a little bit more like the Fascist corporate state that the Italian 
leader Mussolini had established. We became so alarmed about it and we were 
so perplexed that we asked a very world famous person who happened to be 
a guest of the convention what this person thought about it. The person to 
whom I refer is Anna Louise Strong, who had just come from the Soviet Union, 
extended greetings to the convention and otherwise gave a very enlightening 
report on her travels and won wide acclaim for that effort. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 529 

Question. Did she on the floor of the convention address herself to the problem 
of production for use? 

Mr. Dennett. She did not. Not at that moment. She spoke only in general 
terms about the referring to it in a complimentary way and hoping for success, 
but at that moment she did not know very much about what was in that docu- 
ment. However, we felt that she, coming from the Soviet Union with fresh 
knowledge, might know quite a lot about it and might be able to assist us in 
revising the document so that it would be possible to satisfy us that it was In 
fact a step in the right direction of a cooperative commonwealth. So she con- 
sented very graciously to take the document and work on it overnight. She did 
exactly that and we read it the next morning and much to our surprise she 
had moved the emphasis in the control even more in the direction of top control 
and less in the direction of allowing the members or the organization to have 
anything to say about it, which was just the reverse of the trend that we had 
hoped for. 

Consequently we began to ask ourselves, that is, the Communists asked them- 
selves, if this is the end result of an effort to draw up an initiative maybe it 
would be smarter politically for us to see that the measure died a-borning. 
Consequently we came to the conclusion that it was impossible to draw up an 
initiative measure which would be adequate and which would answer our 
propaganda needs and our desires to satisfy us that it was in harmony with 
our program. So we embarked upon a campaign in the course of the election. 

Question. Was this a campaign to pass the proposed bill or to defeat it? 

Mr. Deknett. We all went out presumably to win support, to get the measure 
adopted. That is, it was an initiative measure and it was before the voters. 
The voters were to cast a vote "yes" or "no" on this initiative. The Communist 
Party found itself in that predicament. 

We were committed to support the measure but we were determined to bring 
about its defeat. Consequently, we campaigned far and wide all over the State 
of Washington explaining the measure in such a way as to convince the people 
that they should not vote for it. At the same time we represented ourselves as 
campaigning for the measure and we did it so successfully that the measure 
was defeated. If we had not have done it I am afraid it would have been 
adopted. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Sounds like he needs a mental examination. 
Mr. Tavenner. I think it is rather consistent with Communist 
Party tactics. 

Mr. Dennett. My counsel asked me who was "we." I am referring to the 
Communist Party in that instance, the leaders of the Washington Common- 
wealth Federation were terribly disturbed by the nature of the campaign we 
were carrying on — that is, the Communists. 

Question. I should think it would be a rather confusing campaign where the 
Communist Party in order to defeat it actually supported it. 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. It was a very confusing to every one, even to us 
at times. 

Question. That is a very interesting thing. The Communist Party in order 
to defeat this measure went out and conducted a statewide campaign in favor 
of it but in order to accomplish its defeat, if I understand you correctly, it so 
represented the issues that people would be bound to vote against it. 

Mr. Dennett. That is true. There is triple deception in this maneuver, 
which is rather hard to follow. I hope I have explained it. 

Question. I am afraid that the point may not be absolutely clear in the record, 
and I want to be sure tha it is clear. 

If I understand you correctly, it was not the fact that the Communist Party 
was supporting this measure that caused its defeat. 

Mr. Dennett. You are correct, sir ; that was not the reason. It was the way 
we as disguised Communists carried on the campaign, ostensibly for it, but in 
fact against it. 

Question. In other words, your representations were of such a character as 
to make known the weaknesses in the bill and the person would actually think 
you were supporting it. 

Mr. Dennett. True. You understand it quite clearly. 

Question. I hope so. I think the bill was properly named when you used the 
word "initiative" because that certainly is the use of initiative. I am glad to 
know it is Communist Party initiative. It is a very deceptive type of campaign. 



530 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

That was the history of production for use as first sponsored by 
the Communist Party until they found that it was not workable to 
reduce to a form of legislative enactment in the State of Washingon. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. In 1936. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1936. 

And yet the will of Robert Marshall was prepared 2 years later in 
1938, and it embraces the same principle of the promotion and ad- 
vancement of an economic system in the United States based upon 
the theory of production for use. And you were one of the trustees 
of that foundation. 

Do you know of any connection or any influence brought upon Robert 
Marshall to establish this trust fund for the changing of the system 
of economy in the United States which had its origin in the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I know absolutely none. As I said earlier, and 
I am sure Bob had no connection with the Washington situation 
that you have read about in detail. I think like a great many others 
in that depression period, there were all kinds of discussions of 
panaceas to solve the economic situation that existed at the time. 
I am positive that Bob Marshall was not a member of the Communist 
Party, that he was not influenced by the Communists in the prepara- 
tion of that will or the provisions that are in it, and as a trustee I 
want to assure you that I can't think of a single instance, a single 
instance where any grant of any money was made to any organization 
to begin an economy based on production for use or propagandize 
it or publicize it or anything. 

I can remember at one time the National Farmers Union came to 
the foundation, Mr. Patton, the national president, particularly pre- 
sented the proposal and wanted to establish branch centers throughout 
the United States trying to some extent bring about what he called 
a cooperative movement and an economy based upon cooperatives. 
I think he wanted an immediate expenditure of some $160,000 and 
it was rejected by the trustees. I know that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Lem Harris ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No; I was not acquainted with Lem Harris. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know him ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I think I know who he is. Wasn't he in the 
Department of Agriculture ? 

Mr. Tavenner. He was in the Department of Agriculture. He 
spent many vears in the Soviet Union, studying and working in the 
fleld of agriculture. He was prominent in organizations interested in 
agriculture in this country. He was before this committee and refused 
to testify as to his prior or present Communist Party membership, 
relying upon the fifth amendment. He was considered the head of 
the agrictultural division of the Communist Party in the United 
States. __ . 

Did he importune in behalf of the National Farmers Union m pro- 
curing grants? 

Mr. O'Connell. He particularly never talked to me or never asked 
me to do it. I don't know^ whether 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't need to put it on such a pei^onal basis. 
As a trustee you know whether he did or did not. 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't know. As a trustee, Gardner Jackson, 
who i think was employed by the National Farmers Union, actually 



COM]VrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 531 

talked more and actually guided the trust or the foundation as far as 
agricultural matters were concerned, and I, of course, all I — I never 
met Lem Harris. 

Mr. Tavenner. You wouldn't have to meet Lem Harris to know 
what influence he had to bear upon the making of grants by your 
trustees. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I know of no influence he had, particularly as' far 
as I am concerned. He never importuned me at any time to vote for 
anybody or grant any money to any organization. 

Mr, Tavenner. Gardner Jackson is alleged to have written a letter 
on August 3, 1946, to James G. Patton, president of the National 
Farmers Union. Mr. Lem Harris admitted that he had seen a copy 
of that letter when he testified before this committee. In this letter to 
Mr. Patton, Gardner Jackson makes this statement : 

I don't have to tell you that many of us understand your appointment of the 
pathetic Communist or pro-Communist boy Phil Reno to your headquarters stafE 
in Denver as political and labor relations official was at the behest of George 
Marshall and Lem Harris, the Communist Party's avowed agricultural policy 
fellow, in order to insure a continuing flow of money from the Marshall Founda- 
tion to the National Farmers Union. 

Doesn't that prove to you the influence that was exerted by the Com- 
munist Party upon awards made to the National Farmers Union? 

Mr. 0"CoxxELL. That, of course, is a statement made by Gardner 
Jackson, I think after he had been removed from his position with the 
Farmers Union, and in Avhich he supplied information to Senator 
Bridges, I think, and I can't remember others, but what influence — 
for instance I don't even know who Phil Reno is, don't know anything 
about him, and what Jackson is attempting there I don't know. 

Mr. Tamsnner. You had a responsibility as one of the trustees to 
know" how the awards were being paid. 

Mr. O'Connell. That is right and, as a matter of fact, the founda- 
tion called Patton before it because w^e got in disagreement with him 
about the way the funds were being expended and from then on grants 
were made to the various State organizations of the Farmers Union 
rather than to the national ofiice directly. 

Mr. Tavexxer. But they were continued? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, they were actually made to dilferent State 
farm union organizations but not to the National Farmers Union, 
not to Patton. And certainly one of the basic reasons was because of 
this gigantic proposal that he had about establishing these branch 
centers. We just didn't think it was a wise expenditure of the founda- 
tion's funds, and so on, and that was some of the disagreement that 
we had. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever see a copy of the letter which I re- 
ferred to? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No ; I never did. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Had you heard of it? 

Mr. O'Connell. I think the way I heard of it, I don't know whether 
this' is the same letter, but Senator Bridges made a speech on the floor 
of the Senate I think in 1950 in which I am pretty sure he quoted or 
actually inserted the Gardner Jackson letter, if I remember, and I 
think I read it within Senator Bridges remarks at that time that 
were on the floor. 

Now, I remember that there was quite a to-do about it. I was out 
in the State of Montana at that time. I have been close. I have 



532 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

known the Farm Union leadership and members out there and I 
know they were exercised and committed and worried about this 
whole development, 

Mr. Ta\t:xner. Do you recall from that letter, and the discussions 
which you have just mentioned, that Lem Harris, whom I have iden- 
tified from the committee files as a person j^rominent in the agricul- 
tural section of the Communist Party, was himself attempting to de- 
cide what awards or what grants the trustees of the foundation should 
make to the National Farmers Union ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't recall as far as I am concerned any in- 
fluence on me. I voted as far as I was concerned on those grants the 
way I wanted to. 

Mr. Tavenner. I understand that, but I am asking you about your 
knowledge and what you learned in the course of the performance of 
your duties as a trustee. 

Mr. O'CoxNELL. As far as Lem Harris was concerned, I never 
heard anything about T^m Harris' influence or anything. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have just told us there was a great disturbance 
in 1950 when this information became public. 

Mr. O'Connell. Over the Gardner Jackson letter; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. So you did not know something about it in 1950? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes ; but I mean from 1950 on there had been no 
meetings of the Robert Marshall Foundation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me quote further from this same letter, in 
which Mr. Gardner Jackson is addressing Mr. Patton : 

I do not have to recall to your mind — 

meaning Mr. Patton's mind — 

Lem Harris' visit to you in Denver a few years ago to tell you that of the total 
amount of money remaining in the Marshall Foundation, the National Farmers 
Union would be allowed so much and to ask you as president of the National 
Farmers Union how you wanted that sum spread over the ensuing few years. 
Lem Harris is not a trustee of that fund. 

Do you know anything about that ? Does that refresh vour recol- 
lection ? 

Mr. O'Connell. It doesn't mean anything to me. I was not close 
to Patton of course. I don't jcnow what he was doing as far as Lem 
Harris was concerned, I mean T just don't know anything about that. 
I am telling you that very frankly. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have been very positive in your statements that 
no awards or grants were made by this foundation which might be con- 
strued as being grants to or for the benefit of the Communist Party. 
That has been the inference of your testimony. 

Mr, O'Connell. Well, that is what I am trying — of course the ques- 
tions all have been with reference to the economic system based on 
production for nse rather than for profit. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right, 

Mr. O'Connell. And all that, 

Mr. Tavenner. You trustees had very broad powers to determine 
what organization you would aid in the purpose of this trust which 
was, namely, to promote an economic system in the United States based 
upon profit for use. I am trying to find out how you exercised those 
broad powers. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 533 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Those powers were exercised by different trustees. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of which you were one. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Of which I was one. All of us exercised I am sure 
our independent judgment on it. If it were possible to bring theni 
all here, I don't have them, but there were many instances where the 
trustees divided, where these grants were made by majority vote 
rather than by full vote and so on. 

There are all kinds of situations that exist. But as far as I am 
concerned, Lem Harris never influenced me to make a grant to the 
Farmers Union or to any organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Don't misunderstand me again. My question is 
broader than the influencing of you. My question is whether or not 
it influenced the action of the trustees. 

Mr. O'Connell. Of course I don't know whether Lem Harris went 
out and met with Jim Patton and Gardner Jackson, who was a 
trustee. I don't know whether that actually took place. I don't know 
whether he did these other things that are said. I don't know whether 
he did them or not, but if he did those things and Jackson was going 
along then he had some influence and so on. But I think Jim Patton 
became leader of the National Farmers Union after I left Congress. 
I never got to know him real well, I think I have been introduced to 
him maybe once or twice. I know that Jim Patton was displeased 
with some of my votes on the foundation which were evidently re- 
ported to him by Jackson and went to the leadership of the Farmers 
Union in Montana to try to exercise influence as far as I was concerned 
in my votes on the foundation. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Did you have any other groups attempting to 
influence your judgment or decision in the matter of making grants? 

Mr. O'Connell. Any other groups? 

Mr. Taa^nner. Yes ; or individuals. 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, over the period of years from 1940 on down 
there were all kinds of grants made and there have been various 
individuals who have come to me in connection with them. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. And many of those people were leaders in notorious 
Communist- front organizations; weren't they? 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, of course I don't go along with your de- 
scription of notorious Commimist-front organizations. Many of the 
people came to me and asked me to vote for grants for causes and for 
principles which I thought were right and which I thought ought to 
be done, and if they were right in my opinion I thought they were 
right, I voted for them and if they were not I voted against them. 

Mr. Taa'enner. Well, for instance, was a grant made of $20,000 to 
be used in the payment of attorney's fees for the defense of William 
Robert Remington? 

Mr. O'Connell. Not by the Marshall Foundation, by the trust funds 
that I was a trustee of. We certainly made no grant. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any money of the foundation 

Mr. O'Connell. I think, isn't that in connection with the civil- 
liberties trust? It is not in connection with the trade-union trust. 
Isn't that right? 

Mr. Tavenner. That was paid out from another fund in the same 
trust, not from the one in which 

Mr. O'Connell. No. The will established, I think I can explain it, 
the will established three trusts, one that was called the Robert Mar- 



534 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

fihall Foundation, we were denoted always as the trade-union trust. 
The second trust was a civil-liberties trust and 5 trustees, not all of 
the 5 trustees on the trade-union trust, were trustees on the civil- 
liberties trust. There were 15. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you on both ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, I was only on the trade union trust. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have any knowledge of the payment from 
this other trust — tliat is, the civil-liberties trust — of the grant of 
$20,000 for defense of Remington ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I know nothing about it except, was that contained 
in Mr. Dies' speech? Was that reported 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 

Mr. O'Connell. I really personally have no — I am not a member of 
that civil-liberties trust and I don't know. There is also a wilder- 
ness area trust that is set up in the will and I am not a trustee on that 
fund either. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the only fund of which you were a trustee the 
one which provided for the promotion of an economic system in the 
United States based upon the theory of production for use ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Wliich the trustees abandoned and decided to 
eliminate at the very first meeting of the trustees that was held. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us see the nature of the grants and we can de- 
termine more about whether they did actually abandon it or not. How 
long did this trust continue to operate ? How long was it active ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I think we actually made grants from, if I remem- 
ber correctly, 1940 until 1950. I am not sure whether we made any 
grants in 1950 or not. We have not met in the last 5 years, I know 
that. If I remember correctly, there is approximately $41,000 left 
in the fund of which I am a trustee and there have been no meetings 
of the trustees in at least the last 4 or 5 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has information that grants were 
made in 1941 and 1942 by the Robert Marshall Foundation to the 
American Youth Congi-ess for the total of $10,250. Do you know 
who solicited those grants? 

Mr. O'Connell. No. An actual application would be made to Mr. 
George Marshall as manager of the trust by the organization that was 
involved — by the American Youth CongTess. I can't recall the reason 
for the grant. My offhand guess would be rhat the American Youth 
Congress was proposing to establish some kind of a labor secretary 
or labor division of the Youth Congress or something, and they would 
tie it in actually to the provision of the will as far as the trade union.^ 
development of trade unions were concerned, organization of unem- 
ployed youth, I imagine. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you, as a trustee, do anything to ascertain how 
the money was being used after the grants were made ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; I never did actually as a trustee. We had the 
organization report to us from time to time how they were expending 
the funds and what they were doing, but I couldn't personally take 
any one of those grants and tell you actually what the report was. 

Mr. Tavenner. The American Youth Congress has been cited as 
a subversive and Communist organization by Attorney General Tom 
Clark on December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948, under a citation 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 535 

by Attorney General Francis Biddle September 24, 194:2, and also, 
May 28, 1942, it was stated in the citation that — 

It originated in 1934 and has been controlled by the Communists and manipu- 
lated by them to influence the thought of American youth. 

It was cited by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities 
June 29, 1942, January o, 1939, January 3, 1941, and again on March 
29, 1944, in which it was stated that it was one of the principal fronts 
of the Communist Party and prominently identified with the White 
House picket line under the immediate auspices of the American 
Peace Mobilization, 

Do you know whether Jack R. McMichael was the national chair- 
man of the American Youth Congress? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I couldn't recall — the name doesn't mean anything 
to me. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Did he play any part in the solicitation of these 
grants ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. As far as I was concerned, he didn't at least to me. 
If his name was on the stationery, I got a copy of the application 
and all that, but 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not certain that he was its president at the 
time those grants were made, but he may have been. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL, I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the same period, according to the commit- 
tee's information, grants totaling $3,250 were macje to the Federated 
Press. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. And subsequently increased to a total of $29,200, 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't know whether those totals are correct, but 
I know grants were made consistently to the Federated Press. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Were the gi^ants sufficiently large to make these 
figures within reason ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I would say they are. They never got a large 
grant each year. I think they got small grants like $3,500 or some- 
thing of that kind. It could have totaled $29,000 over the years. 

Mr. Tavenner. That organization was cited on March 29, 1944, by 
the Special Committee on Un-American Activities as a Communist- 
controlled organization financed by the American Fund for Public 
Service and the Robert Marshall Foundation, both principal sources 
of funds for Communist enterprises. 

Mr. O'Connell. There are a lot of conclusions drawn tliere tliat need 
proof. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I think we are proceeding to prove it right now. 

Mr. O'Connell, Federated Press was a press service that operated 
in the labor field. It supplied labor papers throughout the country 
with labor news, news about labor, and about things labor was doing 
and we thought certainly was entitled to a grant from the point of 
view of development and organization of trade unions, 

Mr. Tavenner. It was a principal supplier of the Daily Worker and 
the Daily People's World. 

Mr. O'Connell. I wouldn't know, but I would presume that they 
probably 

Mr, Tavenner, You didn't inquire ? 



536 COAIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AKEA 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Probably did. As far as I was concerned the Fed- 
erated Press was doing an excellent job in the labor field. As a Con- 
gressman, of course, I had excellent opportunity to get all of the labor 
newspapers and the labor newspapers particularly in my district, and 
they were getting news from the Federated Press that covered a want 
that was sorely needed as far as labor information was concerned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you know that the American Youth Congress 
had been cited as a Communist-front organization at the time you 
acted upon 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. By whom ? 

Mr. Tavenner. By the Attorney General of the United States, both 
Attorney General Clark and Attorney General Biddle and by this 
committee. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. As far as I was concerned, I am pretty sure I had 
knowledge they were cited by Attorney General Clark and by Attorney 
General Biddle or by any other attorne}^ general, but that didn't 
determine in ni}^ mind- • 

Mr. Tavenner. That did not serve to put you on inquiry ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. That did not serve as far as I was concerned to 
make it conclusive by any means, and if I in my personal opinion 
thought they were doing a good job and doing a job within the provi- 
sions of this will and so on, I voted for it. 

Mr. Tavenner., Would you have made a grant to the Communist 
Party in the State^of Washington which as shown by the testimony 
I read to you was interested in enacting into law the same principle 
under which this trust was being operated ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I told you that at the very beginning, at the very 
first meeting that the trustees held, that we voted not to make any 
grants that Avere asked for on the basis of being used for the promo- 
tion of an economy based on production for use rather than for profit. 

Mr. Tavenner. That would have been in violation of the provisions 
of the will, w^ouldn't it ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No, sir; we made our grants within the first provi- 
sions, within the provision that provided for the development and the 
organization of workers and unemployed persons and so on. We made 
it a strictly trade-union trust. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, you entirely disregarded this pro- 
vision ? 

Mr. O'Connell. And if the Communist Party or the Democratic 
Party or Republican Party or any partisan organization came and 
asked for funds they wouldn't have gotten it. 

Mr. Tavenner. But if it was an organization which the leadership 
of the Communist Party had captured and had under its control, it 
w^ould be perfectly all right to make an award ? 

Mr. O'Connell. The organization never, I mean the foundation 

never went out and conducted any Red hunt or went out 

Mr. Tavenner. Never took any precautionary measures ? 
Mr. O'Connell. Don't put words in my mouth. We never went 
out and conducted any kind of a Red hunt, we never investigated the 
organization to see what they were doing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't you make any investigation ? 
Mr. O'Connell. When they said we want to do so and so in the 
labor field. We wanted to do this or that, if it was within the provi- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AKEA 537 

sions of the will and in the minds of the majority of the trustees 
something we felt ought to be done, the grant was made. If we didn't,' 
it wasn't. 

Mr. Taveintner. You said you didn't make a Red hunt, witch hunt, 
I am not sure which you stated. Red hunt. But actually you didn't 
make any investigation ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. As to whether or not this organization had Reds 
in it or Communists in it ^ 

Mr. Tavennee. As to whether it was a Communist-controlled or- 
ganization. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, we didn't make any such investigation. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. ^YhJ didn't you? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. It wasn't our job to do anything of that kind. 
As a matter of fact, I am sure, Mr. Tavenner, you have been around 
here a long time, and I mean the development as far as these organiza- 
tions are concerned that you are talking about to me now, the pro- 
scription of these organizations, certain individuals, are things that 
have gone on. I went into this foundation selected solely as a friend 
of Bob Marshall's. I went in with an honest mind determined to do 
the best job I knew how to see that the money was spent to do what 
1 thought Bob would like to have seen done. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Bob unquestionably wanted to promote a new eco- 
nomic system in the United States based on the theory of production. 
That is what Bob wanted to do according to his last will and testament. 

Did you make grants aggTegating $6,000 to Frontier Films? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I am pretty sure we did. I can't recall the par- 
ticular grant now or know what it was made for. I think there was 
a particular picture. Wasn't the picture of 1937 Little Steel strike 
out in Chicago where many of the workers were murdered? You 
see it is very difficult to go back 17 or 18 years and try to put it in 
the pattern that you now work on today. 

Mr. Tavenner. We know that Frontier Films produced the Com- 
munist film Native Land based on Richard Wright's Native Son. The 
picture featured the Negro actor, Paul Robeson. That is the only 
information that I have. 

Mr. O'Connell. I know as far as Frontier Films were concerned 
whatever the picture was, as I recall, it was a labor picture and my 
best recollection is it was the picture about the Little Steel strike 
and particularly the Memorial Day massacre in 1937 at Republic Steel 
in Chicago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who solicited the grant ? 

Frontier Films was cited by this committee as a Communist front 
on March 29, 1944. 

Mr. O'Connell. No, the first name of Paul comes to my mind. I 
can't remember any last name. The party came and talked to us 
about it — was there a Paul — Paul comes to my mind. That is all 
I can recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Grants totaling $900 were made to the Interna- 
tional Juridical Association. Do you recall the circumstances under 
which that grant was made ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No, I really can't recall the circumstances now. 
It is apparently a very small grant. I don't know what it was used 
for. It must have been in connection with some particular labor 



538 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

legal problem that may have been involved as far as the Wagner Act 
was concerned or NLRB or something of that nature. 

Mr. Tavenner. Grants totaling $4,250 were made to the National 
Federation for Constitutional Liberties. That is an organization you 
did know about; isn't it? In fact, the amount was increased after 
1942 to a total of $56,000. You were acquainted with that organiza- 
tion ; weren't you ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I knew of the National Federation for Consti- 
tutional Liberties, yes, and I am sure that grants were made, I would 
say on an annual basis to the National Federation, I don't know what 
amounts specifically, but whether that total amount is correct or not 
I cannot say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you familiar with the citation of that organ- 
ization ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me read it to you. It was cited as subversive 
and Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark on December 4, 
1947; it was also cited by Attorney General Francis Biddle Septem- 
ber 24, 1942, in the following language: 

Part of what Lenin called the solar system of organizations, ostensibly having 
no connection with the Communist Party, by which Communists attempt to 
create sympathizers and supporters of their program. It was established as a 
result of a conference on constitutional liberties held in Washington, D. C, 
June 7-9, 1940. The defense of Communist leaders such as Sam Darcy and 
Robert Wood, party secretaries for Pennsylvania and Oklahoma, have been 
major efforts of the federation. 

What purpose did the trustees of your foundation have in making 
$56,000 of grants to that organization ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, of course, if I had the specific application 
before me I could tell you, but I am sure that the application set out 
that it would be used for the defense of various labor leaders who 
were under attack of any kind, particularly from the civil liberties 
point of view. 

Mr. Tavenner. Communist or not? 

Mr. O'Connell. Communist or non-Communist. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. You were actually one of the sponsors for the call 
to the conference, in June of 1940, which was alluded to in the cita- 
tion by Attorney General Biddle; were you not? 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't know whether I was. If my name is there, 
1 was, and of course I was all for any organization that was fighting 
for constitutional liberties and still am, any organization that fights 
for them. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain associated with the 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Associated with them? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. O'Connell. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Tavenner. In any capacity. You were a sponsor of the call 
for the constitutional liberties conference which gave birth to the 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties. 

Mr. O'Connell. I imagine I was a sponsor as long as it took to 
sponsor the call. I don't know how long that might be. But I had 
no office in the National Federation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 539 

Mr. Tavenner. How was your assistance as a sponsor in this move- 
ment obtained? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Have you got a list of the officers of the federation ? 

Mr. TA^^:NXER. No; I do not. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I would presume — if you had a list of the officers — 
1 presume I was contacted through the oihcers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you aware that this organization merged with 
the International Labor Defense, another arm or branch of the Com- 
munist Party, to form the Civil Eights Congress ? 

Mr. O'Connell. My information is that the Civil Rights Congress 
was formed from a merger of these two organizations. That is as 
1 understand it. 

]SIr. Tavenner. Our information is that the Civil Rights Congress 
was given grants totaling $63,500. Are you familiar with those 
grants ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I am sure the Civil Rights Congress was given 
grants. "Whether or not that total figure is correct or not I couldn't 
say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Civil Rights Congress was cited as subversive and 
Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark in 1947 and in 1948. 

Mr. O'Connell. As I understand, they now are going through pro- 
ceedings before the Board to determine whether or not they are^ 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, whether or not they will be required to regis- 
ter. That is the provision of law. 

Mr. O'Connell. I mean the determination of whether or not they 
register is whether or not they are a Communist-front organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. They are probably making the defense that they are 
not required to. 

Did you also make grants totaling $10,125 to the National Negro 
Congress which subsequently was increased to $54,530 ? 

Mr. O'Connell. That sounds — I am sure grants were made to the 
National Negro Congress for the employment of a labor secretary to 
work particular!}" on the organizing of both working and unemployed 
Negroes in the Southern States. I am sure that was done. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVere you aware that that organization Avas cited 
as subversive and Communist by the Attorney General Tom Clark, on 
December 4, 1947, and again on September 21, 1948? 

Mr. O'Connell. Do you know when our grants were made to the 
National Negro Congress? 

Mr. Tavennp:r. Yes, from 1942 until March 1951. 

jNIr. O'Connell. Well, then, I am sure that, I feel sure we knew it 
had been cited. As I said before, of course mere citations by the 
Attorney General is not sufficient 

Mr. Tavenner. It wasn't sufficient to put ;70U on inquiry ? 

Mr. O'Connell. It wasn't sufficient at least in my mind to proscribe 
tliat organization, and I think history and subsequent events have 
proved that it is necessary to go a little further than just to have the 
Attorney General put organizations on a list. 

yir. Tavenner. You say a little further? You didn't go any fur- 
ther, did you ? 

Mr. O'Connell. As far as we were concerned, as I told you when 
an organization came to us they came to us with the specific application 
for funds for a specific purpose and we never — as a matter of fact, 



540 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

we never permitted the organization to appear before the foundation 
or any representative of the organization. We went into the matter 
ourselves. We conducted no investigations to determine what their 
political beliefs might be or anything like that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You made the awards regardless of the purpose 
behind the formation of the organization ; is that what it comes down 
to? 

Mr. O'CoNNEix. For instance, we never went, we never sent out 
a group of investigators, never had the funds, as a matter of fact, to 
do that to find out. 

Mr, Tavenner. If you had read the citation of Attorney General 
Francis Biddle, for instance, which was made on September 24, 1942, 
you would have learned as follows : 

A. Philip Randolph, president of the congress since its inception in 1936, refused 
to run again in April 1940 on the ground that it was deliberately packed with 
Communists and Congress of Industrial Organization members who were either 
Communists or sympathizers with Communists. 

Commencing with its formation in 1936, Communist Party functionaries and 
fellow travelers have figured prominently in the leadership and affairs of the 
congress. According to A. Phillip Randoli)h, John P. Davis, secretary of the 
congress, has admitted that the Communist Party contributed $100 a month to 
its support. 

From the record of its activities and the composition of its governing bodies 
there can be little doubt that it has served as what James W. Ford, Communist 
Vice Presidential candidate elected to the executive committee in 1937 predicted : 
an important S'Pctor of the Democratic front sponsored and supported by the 
Communist Party. 

Those are the words of Francis Biddle, Attorney General of the 
United States, in 1942. Do you say that statement was not worthy of 
consideration ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I, of course, didn't have that statement in front 
of me. 

Mr. Tavenner. It would have been in front of you if you had in- 
quired about it. It was in the Congressional Record. 

Mr. O'Connell. We didn't take the Congressional Record. There 
are many things in the Congressional Record, as you well know, that 
you just don't take as it's the Bible. 

Mr. Tavenner. Actually you were not interested to see whether or 
not the money which you were paying out was for the promotion of 
Communist Party projects? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. That didn't enter into our consideration, the fact 
that an organization came to us with a specific application for a specific 
purpose to do a certain job, and if we thought it ought to be done and 
thought it was in the provisions of the will we granted it. We didn't 
think it was incumbent upon the trustees to make any kind of an in- 
vestigation into these organizations as far as the political opinions 
and beliefs of their leaders or their members, whatever they might be. 
We just didn't do it. It just wasn't particularly being done by private 
individuals or private trusts. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your foundation make grants totaling $1,500 
to the Southern Conference for Human Welfare ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is, through 1942 and subsequently increased 
to a grand total of $14,000. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 541 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. I am sure, I don't know whether that total is cor- 
rect, but I am sure we made grants to the Southern Conference for 
Human Welfare. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you look into that organization or the forma- 
tion of that organization ? 

Mr. O'CoxNELL. No. From my own information they were doing 
an excellent job in the field of promoting Negro rights, in the field 
of organizing of labor unions, and so on in the South, and particularly 
asked for the grant, if I remember correctly, to employ a labor secre- 
tary to develop that particular part of the conference of group. 

Mr. Tavexxer. This organization was cited as Communist-front 
which received money from the Robert Marshall Foundation, one of 
the principal sources of funds by which many Communist-fronts 
operate. Special Committee on Un-American Activities reported 
March 29, IdU. 

Did you make total grants of $30,750 to the Southern Negro Youth 
Congress ? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. I am sure we made grants to the Southern Negro 
Youth Congress. TMiether that total is correct, I can't say. 

Mr. Tavexxer. This organization was cited on December 4, 1947, 
by Attorney General Tom Clark as subversive and among the affiliates 
and committees of the Communist Party, U. S. A., which seeks to alter 
the form of the Government of tlie United States by unconstitutional 
means. 

You thought that was not worth looking into ? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. I knew notliing about that. I certainly knew that 
that was — ^AYho said that? I don't know who said it now. 

Mr. Ta^t:xxer. Attorney General Tom Clark. 

Mr. O'Coxxell. Do you think yourself that — well, that Tom 
Clark's mere proscription of this organization is sufficient ? 

Mr. Ta\'exxer. Certainly this should have been a warning to you 
to make some inquiry and investigation unless your view and pur- 
pose was to help the Communist Party by promoting its interests 
througli large awards. 

Mr. O'Coxxell. That might be j^our conclusion but there were 
certainly no awards or grants made to these organizations from the 
point of view of being beneficial in any respect to the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Ta\t.xxer. Do you recall grants having been made of $6,000 to 
U.S. Week? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. Yes ; I think I can recall that. Wasn't that young 
Bill Dodd (William K Dodd, Jr.), son of the former Ambassador to 
Germany ? 

Mr. Tavexxer. Young Bill Dodd was the son of the former United 
States Ambassador to Germany, but I don't know who applied to you. 

Mr. O'Coxxell. I think that was the magazine he was interested 
in, if I remember. 

Mr. Tavexxer. It was cited on March 29, 1949, by tliis committee 
as a Communist front which received funds from your Robert ISIar- 
shall Foundation. 

Mr. O'Coxxell. When was the grant made to U. S. Week ? 

Mr. Tavexxer. 1941. Were grants made to American Youth for 
Democracy in the amount of $5,000 ? 

Mr. O'CoxxEix. Was it grants or grant ? 



542 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. I am not sure wliether that is the total grant or 
whether that is one gi-ant. 

Mr. O'CoNNEix. I am not, either, I recollect a considerable amount 
of discussion about that grant when it came up. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of the discussion ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. There was some discussion about what kind of a 
job they were doing and what organization it was, and so on. I am 
pretty sure the grant was not continued. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was cited as subversive and Communist by 
Attorney General Tom Clark on December 4, 1947, and the citation 
by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities report March 29, 
1944, reads as follows : 

Citetl as the new name under which the Young Communist League operates 
and which also largely absorbed the American Youth Congress. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Do you know when the grant was made ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No; I do not. It would be between 1942 and 1951, 
but I don't know the specific date. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I can remember a discussion about the grant, and 
I think you will find — I could be wrong, but I think there was only 
one grant made, and it was discontinued. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were grants totaling $6,500 made to the California 
Labor School? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes; I don't know whether that total amount is 
correct, but I know a grant was made to the California Labor School. 

Mr. Tavenner. This organization was cited by Attorney General 
Tom Clark on June 1, 1948, as a subversive and Communist 
organization. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Do you know when the grant was made ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. Grants totaling $8,000 were made to the 
Council for Pan-American Democracy. Do you recall those grants? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I can remember that a grant was made, or grants, 
to that organization, but I can't remember who the people were that 
were involved. 

Mr. Tavenner. The organization was cited by Attorney General 
Tom Clark on June 1, 1948, as subversive and Communist and by the 
Special Committee on Un-American Activities report on March 
29, 1944, and again on June 25, 1942. 

$21,000 was granted to Farm Research, according to our informa- 
tion. Do you recall that ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, I don't recall it, but I presume your infor- 
mation is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Farm Research was cited by the Special Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities on March 29, 1944, as a Communist- 
front organization, receiving finances from the Robert Marshall 
Foundation. 

Did the foundation make grants to the National Lawyers Guild in 
the amount of $15,250? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I am sure it did, although I don't know whether 
the amount is correct? 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of those grants? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. The purpose of those grants was to assist the 
Lawyers Guild in getting out certain legal material as far as par- 
ticularly labor cases before the NLRB and the courts were concerned. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 543 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Was it furnished to assist the guild in getting out 
any other work besides that? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No. They came in with a specific application to 
do this particular kind of job or work that had to be done, and 
where they were working particularly in representation of labor, in 
the labor field. 

Mr. Tavenner. Total of $25,000 was granted, according to our in- 
formation, to the New World ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. $25,000? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I know grants were made, I think that paper was 
originally called the Washington New Dealer. Isn't that right? 
And grants were made to it while it was the Washington New Dealer. 
It was changed to the New World and grants were made both to it 
as the Washington New Dealer and the New World. 

But the minute it became a part of the People's World which be- 
came a Northwest edition of the People's World, there were no further 
grants made. 

JSIr. Tavenner. Did you procure from the Robert Marshall Founda- 
tion a grant to be used by any progressive causes in the Northwest in 
May 1949 ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes; I think a grant for the Seattle Labor 
School. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the amount of that $4,000? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You left Seattle in May 1949 to attend your meeting 
in New York City of your trustees? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. I don't know whether it was May of 1945, 
but some time 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. And returned with $4,000 for the Seattle Labor 
School. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes; that is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Seattle Labor School, according to the testi- 
mony of Barbara Hartle, is the same as the Pacific Northwest Labor 
School. It was first known by the name of Seattle Labor School and 
then later became known as the Pacific Northwest Labor School. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Wasn't it the other way around? 

Mr. Tavenner. I may have it backward. You probably would 
knoAV. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't remember which was which, but I think it 
was the other way around. But I can remember that grant; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was instrumental in soliciting the funds for 
that labor school? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. John Daschbach. 

Mr. Tavenner. The same person who used your name on the cata- 
logue of the school as an instructor of course 112 ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew it was a Communist Party school at that 
time, didn't you? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No ; I did not. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was cited by the Attorney General Tom Clark, 
as early as December 4, 1947. 

You again state you just didn't pay any attention to that citation 
by an Attorney General ? 

C2222— 55— pt. 3 4 



544 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. O'CoNNELii. I don't recall that it was cited. I don't remember, 
but as I said, a citation by the Attorney General or placing it on a 
list would not be determinative for me as to whether or not it ought 
to get a grant. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have demonstrated in the testimony to you here 
today that nearly every teacher on the staff was a member of the 
Communist Party, according to testimony before this committee. "We 
have shown you now the citation of the Attorney General of that 
school, and we find now that you procured this grant of $4,000. 

Did you procure any other money for this school besides this grant 
of $4,000? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No ; I can't 

Mr. Tavenner, Our information is that the total amount advanced 
to the Pacific Northwest Labor School was $11,500. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I thought you meant money outside of the Mar- 
shall Foundation. 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 

Mr, O'CoNNELL. I am pretty sure grants were made to the Seattle 
Labor School for 2 or 3 years, I don't remember which. 

Mr. Tavenner. In fact, it would have closed its doors but for the 
financial assistance given it through you ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. As a matter of fact, when the last grant was made 
it had closed its doors and the grant was made to pay up debts and 
salaries and things of that kind that were — incurred loans, 

Mr, Tavenner, Salaries to Communist Party teachers ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't know. Daschbach's salary for one. 

Mr. Tavenner. He has been identified by a number of witnesses 
as an active member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. As far as I was concerned, I didn't know he was 
a member of the Communist Party and many of these people I don't 
even know that you read today as teachers at that school, I don't even 
know. 

I do know Gundlach, who was a professor at the University of 
Washington. Wliether he is a Communist or not, I don't know, 
but 

Mr. Tavenner. You are not willing to accept the testimony of a 
Communist Party functionary, the No, 2 person in the Communist 
Party in the State of Washington, for that ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL, Well, of course, I haven't had an opportunity to 
read her testimony. Did she say Gundlach was a Communist ? The 
reason I feel so sure Gundlach isn't a Communist is when the State 
un-American activities committee was conducting its investigations 
out there 

Ml-. TA^T,NNER, I read to you tliis morning and read into the record 
the identification of Gundlach as a member of the Communist Party, 
according to tlie testimony given this committee and my recollection 
is that it was Barbara Hartle, 

At any rate, didn't you know that and weren't you aware of the 
fact that he was ousted from the university as a professor because of 
his Communist Party membership ? 

Mr, O'CoNNELL, If I remember correctly, and it is a long time ago, 
Gundlach was actually ousted, if I remember correctly, because Presi- 
dent Allen, who was at the university at the time, didn't think he was 
a Communist but thought that his conduct in connection with the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 545 

investif^ation that was carried on by the State un-American activities 
committee, was such that he didn't think he was a lit and proper 
person to be a teacher at tlie university. That is my recollection of it. 

The reason I wonder about Gundlach is that he took an entirely 
different course, as I remember, before the State un-American activ- 
ities committee out there than certain others who w^ere there later, but 
if Barbara Hartle says he is and says he was, slie may be right. I 
don't know. All I am doing is conjecturing on the basis of 

Mr. Taa-enner. As a matter of fact, Mr. O'Connell, from your vast 
experience and your intelligence, didn't you form the opinion that the 
Pacific Northwest Labor School was a training school for the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. O'CoxNELL. No; I particularly didn't get that idea because I 
know some excellent people wdio were connected with the school. One 
is Frank Carlson, who was in the street<*armen's union out there who 
Avas an outstanding labor leader who certainly wasn't a Communist. 

I. E. Sandvigen of the machinists union was not a Communist, I am 
sure. Many others identified with the school particularly in the labor 
movement that promoted the school and I think what may have hap- 
pened to it as it went along, I don't know, but the idea of the school 
was a good one and I think they were trying to do a good job. 

Daschbach became director of the school somewhat later in its his- 
tory, as I remember it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me read into the record at this point, Mr. Chair- 
man, the testimony of Barbara Hartle regarding the labor school. 
She was asked the question as to what connection there was between 
the school and the Communist Party. That is between the Pacific 
Northwest Labor School and the Communist Party. Her answer was 
as follows : 

The Pacific* Northwest Labor School was a Communist front project in the field 
of education and its basic purpose was to spread Marxist-Leninist education, but 
to do it in such a way as to attract non-Communists in addition to its use for 
being a school for Communist Party members. 

It had a double purpose, to educate the party membership and to draw as 
many non-Communists into classes as possible at the same time. It was not 
considered a party leadership training school, it was more for the member- 
ship. And in order to attract a broader segment of persons into the school a 
number of courses were included that were not in Marxism-Leninism, but they 
were included in order to appeal to people from labor unions, professional fields, 
and others. 

For example, parliamentary law would be a subject intended for the purpose 
of drawing people into the school and drawing them closer to it with no idea on 
their part that they were getting into a Communist school. An air of respecta- 
bility was also created in this way so that people would feel if they enrolled in this 
school they had a perfect right to do so and there was nothing wrong with being 
in it. 

The hope, of course, was that if non-Communists enrolled this way, after a while 
they would learn more about it and would become convinced to enroll in courses 
on Marxist-Leninism. The objective of the school was to gain Communist in- 
fluence over non-Communists, recruit as many people as possible out of this 
school into the Communist Party, and special attention was paid to members of 
organized labor through this school. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will stand in recess until 9 : 30 tomorrow 
morning. 

(Whereupon, at 4 : 20 p. m. the committee was recessed, to reconvene 
at 9 r 30 a. m., Thursday, June 2, 1955.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 



THURSDAY, JUNE 2, 1955 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. C. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 9 : 45 a. m. in the Caucus 
Eoom, Old House Office Building, Hon. Edwin E. Willis, presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Edwin E. Willis and 
Gordon H. Scherer. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, counsel. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Let the record show there are present today Mr. Scherer, of Ohio, 
and myself, Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana. 

Inasmuch as the subcommittee is reconstituted, that is, members 
are here today who were not present yesterday, it might be well to 
reswear the witness. 

Let the record show also that the chairman of the committee ap- 
pointed a new subcommittee to continue these hearings, namely, Mr. 
Doyle, Mr. Scherer, and myself as chairman. 

Will you stand and be sworn? Do you solemnly swear that the 
testimony you are about to give before this subcommittee will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. I do. 

Mr. "Willis. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

TESTIMONY OF JEREMIAH JOSEPH O'CONNELL— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, continuing with the matter of grants 
by the Robert Marshall Foundation, of which you were one of the 
trustees, it is noted that grants totaling $30,366.85 were made to you. 
Can you explain that ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes. Those would be in my opinion the total 
amount that I received for traveling expenses, for meetings of the 
foundation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean, then, no specific grant was actually 
made to you ? 

Mr. O'Connell. There was no actual specific grant made to me. 
The provisions of the will, as I remember them, provided that the 
trustees are to receive no compensation except their traveling expenses 
to and from meetings of the trustees of the foundation. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. I note that there was introduced into the record 
during the Canwell hearings, check No. 04 bearing date of October 2, 
1942, drawn on the funds of the Robert Marshall Foundation in the 
amount of $1 50 made payable to you. 

547 



548 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Have you any explanation to make of that item ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I am sure that, if I knew the meeting date of the 
foundation at that time, we also had a practice when a meeting of the 
foundation was called by the trustees, if the financial situation of the 
trustee involved was such that he needed an advance for expenses to 
come to the meeting, an advance was made in the amount of probably 
$150 or so, but it was always expended for either transportation or 
meals and hotel and so on, while in attendance at the meetings of the 
foundation. 

Mr. Tavenner?. You testified yesterday that in May of 1949 you 
procured a grant of $4,000 for the use of the Northwest Pacific Labor 
School. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Of course I think that ought to be — I personally 
couldn't procure the grant. The grant was voted by at least a ma- 
jority of the trustees for the Pacific Northwest Labor School. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the grant actually made through your efforts ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I advocated that the grant be made, yes. 

Mr. Ta\t^nner. And Daschbach interviewed you with regard to it 
before you presented it ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any part of that grant or any other grant used 
for the benefit of the Northwest edition of the Daily People's World ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. As far as I know, certainly not. I mean the grants 
were made to the organization and certainly no part of that grant 
as far as I would know, what actually Daschbach may have done with 
it later I wouldn't be able to specifically say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you learn anything about it, even from a second- 
hand source ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No; I never learned, never had any information 
that it was used for any other purpose. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether any part of the $4,000 grant 
or any other grant from the foundation was used for the benefit of 
tlie Civil Rights Congress in the State Washington ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't know whether it was, that grant or any 
other grant. I know there was some argument and some consulta- 
tion with me by Mr. Daschbach about it and I was very specific — I 
think that was before the grant was made — and I was very specific 
with him that no part of the grant would be used for any other pur- 
pose than that for which it was made. That was the Pacific North- 
west Labor School. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was John Daschbach an official of the Civil Rights 
Congress in Seattle ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. If I remember correctly, I left Seattle, I don't re- 
member when the Civil Rights Congress was organized in Seattle, 
but as I remember when I left Seattle Daschbach was then functioii- 
ing as head or director of the Washington Civil Rights Congress. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold that position at the time he spoke to 
you about the use of proceeds of the grant for the Civil Rights Con- 
gress ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't think I would be able to say whether he 
was actually in the position at that time. I can't recall. I remember 
at the time that he asked me about the grant they were closing out, 
they were terminating this Seattle Labor School and they had bor- 
rowed money from particularly various labor union members about 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 549 

the town. I remember I think it was either Frank or Fred Carlson 
to whom they owed money and other people, I can't remember pre- 
cisely who they were now, but anyway the representations made to 
me in connection with the grant were they were trying to close out 
the labor school and pay off their debts and pay I think back salaries 
that were owed to Mr, Daschbach and to some others there, I don't 
know who. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was John Daschbach known to you to be a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I never knew John Daschbach was a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr, Ta-st^nxer. Had you heard that he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. O'Coknell. I had never heard that he was a member of th& 
Communist Party. I actually, my first, I think the first time I met 
Mr. Daschbach was in Spokane and I think he was attending Gonzaga 
University, a Jesuit university in Spokane, and as far as I knew per- 
sonally, I didn't know he was a Communist, didn't know whether he 
was or was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are aware now, are you not, that he has been 
identified by a number of witnesses as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I couldn't say that I know that precisely; but I 
do know he was indicted as a Smith Act defendant in Seattle. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. And convicted. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. And convicted. I don't know whether he is 
in prison now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall what individual it was in the National 
Lawyers Guild who solicited an award from the trustees ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, my best recollection as far as that would be 
concerned is that it was Mr. Martin Popper, who was an attorney 
in New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the executive secretary of the National Lawyers 
Guild take any part in representations or solicitations regarding the 
grant ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I think Mr. Silberstein (Robert J. Silberstein), I 
wouldn't remember correctly. It is hard for me to remember. I 
would say INIr. Silberstein actually probably prepared the actual 
application that was made to the foundation for a grant. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he confer with you about the matter? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I can never even remember Bob Silberstein talk- 
ing to me about a grant for the Lawyers Guild. As I remember the 
particular grant, it was made in connection with labor work that the 
guild was doing, and Mr. Martin Popper, as I remember it, was the 
one who actually made the presentation, at least I know he talked to 
me and I think to some of the other trustees. 

Mr. Tavenner. The New World issue of March 25, 1948, reflects 
that Jerry O'Connell launched a series of three special forum pro- 
grams at the Pacific Northwest Labor School to discuss our foreign 
policy and our fight for peace. Do you recall that? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; I don't recal that. I know I never made any 
speeches at Seattle Labor School. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any connection with the presentation 
of a special forum program at the Seattle Labor School ? 



550 COIVDVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr, O'CoNNELL. I certainly cannot recall any. I don't remember 
ever speaking at the Seattle Labor School or being involved in any 
forum. "Was that a forum I was supposed to conduct ? 

Mr. Ta\'enner. The article says you launched a series of three 
forum programs. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. It says it is on foreign policy ? 

Mr. Tavenner. That the subject was Our Foreign Policy and Our 
Fight for Peace. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I certainly don't remember any such thing. Prac- 
tically all the time I was in the State of Washington I was engaged 
either as executive secretary of the Democratic Party or was execu- 
tive secretary of the Progressive Party and my particular work was 
in political organization and political work and I don't want to say I 
did or didn't but I certainly now don't recall any such series of lec- 
tures. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, you have advised us that you became 
chairman of the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill during 
the year 1948. 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware of a special fund drive conducted 
by the Communist Party in 1947 for the purpose of fighting antici- 
pated congressional action relating to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I had no knowledge of any such — what was it a 
fund? 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Mrs. Blauvelt testified before the Committee on Un- 
American Activities within the past 3 weeks on that subject. She was 
a police detective for the city of New York and was a member of the 
Communist Party and served the New York City Police Department 
as an underground agent for a period of more than 8 years before her 
identity was discovered. Mrs. Blauvelt testified for nearly a week. 

In the course of this testimony she stated that upon the agitation for 
a bill relating to communism in the House of Representatives the 
Communist Party hurriedly made a fund drive and that they sought 
to raise a total of $225,000 for the purpose of fighting the opposition 
to communism. Within 25 days the Communist Party raised $250,000. 

During the period that you were chairman of this committee to de- 
feat the Mundt bill — that was over the period from 1948 until some 
time in 1950 or 1951 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes ; but it ought to be explained that in 1948 the 
only functioning of the committee was from a period I would say 
probably in June of 1948 until the adjournment of Congress, which 
was in that year I think, because of the party conventions, the na- 
tional conventions, was adjourned quite early. 

I know there was probably, I was here probably a month or a little 
over a month in that connection, and then I did not — all during 1949 
there was no functioning of the committee whatsoever, as I remember 
it, and I think the first time I came down in 1950 was, I would say, 
about March of 1950 and I was here until about maybe the early 
part of June, when I returned to Montana to take the bar exams I 
have already talked about. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. As you stated, you came back here in July and were 
here for a period of time ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I think the latter part of July or first part of 
August and I was here until the Congress adjourned sine die about 
the middle of September. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 551 

Mr. Tavenner. That is correct. 

To complete my question : Did the Communist Party give your com- 
mittee any financial assistance at any time during the period from 
1948 to 1950 while you were chairman of the National Committee To 
Defeat the Mundt Bill? 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. Of my knowledge, I don't know of any assistance 
that the Communist Party gave to the National Committee To Defeat 
the Mundt Bill. I, of course received, all I received, I think I received 
$125 a week salary, if I remember correctly. I had no charge of 
funds or the expenditure of funds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that salary of $125 a week paid by the Progres- 
sive Party ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. In 1948 I think the salary was paid by the Pro- 
gressive Party, but I am not too sure. 

Mr. TA^•ENNER. Did you not so certify on the reports made to the 
Clerk of the House of Representatives? 

Mr. O'CoxNELL. If I did, that was so. 

Mv. Willis. For the record, Mr. Tavenner, state the substance of 
the Mundt bill. 

^Ir. Taa-exxer. The Mundt bill is that section of the Internal 
Security Act of 1950 which requires the registration of the Commu- 
nist Party and registration of Communist fronts. There is also 
written into that bill the substance of what was known as the Wood 
bill, which dealt with persons employed in defense contracts. The 
remaining part of the bill related to immigration and naturalization 
matters and is known as a difl'erent section of the bill. 

Mr. O'CoxNELL. Then I think there was the detention camp features 
added in the Senate. 

INIr. Tavexxer. There are no detention camp features to the bill. 

Mr. O'Coxxell. In the bill that was finally passed in the Senate 
I think Senator Kilgore and some of the other Democratic Senators 
offered an amendment to the bill or a provision that provided for 

Mr. Ta\t:xxer. In conference between the Representatives of the 
Senate and the House, it was agreed to accept the House bill exactly 
as prepared and submitted by this committee, which was done. 

How were you employed at the time you first became chairman of 
this committee ? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. I was the executive secretary of the Progressive 
Party in the State of Washington. 

Mr. Ta\"exxer. I believe you have told us that Mr. Robert J. Silber- 
stein, executive secretary of the National Lawyers Guild, was one of the 
official family of the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill. 

Mr. O'Coxxell. My recollection is he was secretary. I don't want 
to be held to it but I am pretty sure he was the secretary of the commit- 
tee. 

Mr, Tavexxer. Was he a person known to you to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. No ; I never knew Bob Silberstein to be a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. I didn't get the last answer. 

Mr. O'Coxxell. No ; I never knew or did not know that Bob Silber- 
stein was a member of the Communist Party and I don't know it now. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Had you heard he was a member of the Communist 
Party? 



552 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I liad not heard that he was. 
Mr. Tavenner. Up until this present time you have not heard? 
Mr. O'CoNNELL. I have not heard that Bob Silberstein is a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, this committee heard 2 witnesses 
from California in 1952, both of them attorneys at law, one of them a 
professor at a law university, who testified to the effect that Mr. 
Silberstein was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Silberstein was subpenaed before this committee and confronted 
with the testimony of those two lawyers and he refused to testify on 
the subject, claiming that to do so might tend to incriminate him. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Just for the record, Mr. Tavenner, I, of course, 
haven't read all the proceedings of this committee; I have not had 
available to me the transcript of the hearings of the committee, what 
some lawyers in California may have testified about Bob Silberstein 
in 1952, 1 don't know anything about. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you aware of the fact that the National Law- 
yers Guild has been cited by this committee as a Communist-front 
organization ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the National Lawyers Guild ? 
Mr. O'CoNNELL. I am a member, have been and am now a member 
of the National Lawyers Guild. 

Mr. Scherer. When did you last have any connection with Kobert 
J. Silberstein? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. In 1950, sir. In 1950 we had occasional meetings 
in connection with the Mundt bill at that time and Mr. Silberstein 
attended those meetings and I am pretty sure he was the secretary of 
the organization. 

Mr. Scherer. Was that the last time you saw him ? 
Mr. O'CoNNELL. That is the last time I have seen Bob Silberstein. 
Mr. Scherer. Have you had any communication with him since? 
Mr. O'CoNNELL. I of course receive a membership card in the Na- 
tional Lawyers Guild and I think it is signed by Bob Silberstein as 
executive secretary, or executive secretary of the National Lawyers 
Guild. 
Mr. Scherer. Is that his position today ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. My understanding is he has resigned, at the last 
convention of the National Lawyers Guild, that he resigned and was 
replaced by somebody else. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know what he is doing today ? 
Mr. O'CoNNELL. No ; I don't have any idea. 
Mr. Scherer. Do you know where he lives ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, the last I knew he was living in New York. 
He actually, I think, comes from New Jersey and I think he is mar- 
ried to a banker's daughter who comes from wealthy family, if I 
remember correctly, in New Jersey. 

Mr. Ta\t!:nner. Will you tell the committee the circumstances under 
which the Progressive Party contributed your services to the National 
Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, in connection with the — there were hearings 
being held in the Senate, as I stated yesterday, by a subcommittee of 
the Senate Judiciary Committee in 1948. I think those hearings were 



COMISIITNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 553 

being presided over by former Senator Ferguson and Senator Langer 
of North Dakota was a member of the committee. 

If I remember correctly, we received a communication from the 
national office of the Progressive Party, I think particularly from Mr. 
C. B. Baldwin, who was then executive vice chairman, if I remember 
rightly, asking us to send, the Progressive Party of the State of Wash- 
ington, to send somebody to Washington to testify at this hearing be- 
fore the Senate Judiciary subcommittee, and I was delegated by the 
Progressive Party in the State of Washington to come to testify at 
that hearing. I also think Mr. Russell Fluent, who was chairman of 
the Progressive Party at that time — he was also incumbent Democratic 
State treasurer of the State of Washington, was also a delegate, and 
I think the two of us came down here to testify and I said yesterday 
while we were waiting to testify the hearings had been going on 
several days. Senator Ferguson adjourned the hearings and Senator 
Langer — a considerable number of the people there were upset because 
they had waited around to be heard and there was considerable protes- 
tation, as I remember, about the hearings being adjourned and so 
Senator Langer asked the people who had not testified to come to his 
office or, rather, his committee room. 

As I remember then he was chairman of the Committee on Post 
Offices and Post Roads of the Senate, and we adjourned to tliat par- 
ticular committee room and had a meeting there. I can't remember 
now the precise details of the situation, whether it was Senator Langer 
or somebody in the group or who it was who suggested a committee 
ought to be formed to defeat the bill. I know Senator Langer sug- 
gested I become chairman of the committee. He had known me as 
a member of Congress and I have known him for a long time. North 
Dakota and Montana are very close together and our political situ- 
ations are quite similar and so on. 

So it was at that meeting it was decided I should become chairman, 
that I should stay to see what could be done to lobby and so forth, to 
see what could be done to defeat the legislation. I think arrange- 
ments were then made with the Progressive Party in the State of 
Washington for me to stay down here during the month or so that was 
necessary and to have my salarv^ advanced by the Progressive Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the occasion for your return to Wash- 
ington in March of 1950 ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. As I remember, the legislation had again been 
reintroduced. It had not cleared the Senate Judiciary Committee in 
1948 by the time of congressional adjournment, then, but I think the 
legislation was reintroduced in the next session of Congress and if I 
remember correctly it passed, it had already passed the House and 
it was ])ending in the Senate, and hearings were being held and were 
to be held in the Senate in March of 1950. 

I came on down. I don't remember whether, I can't remember 
whether it was Mr. Silberstein or Mr. Waybur (Bruce Waybur), who 
contacted me and it was anticipated at the time I would have to spend 
about a month down there lobbying. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a copy of a telegram which the commit- 
tee procured under subpena duces tecum from the Western Union, 
dated July 18, 1950, addressed to you, which reads as follows : 

Greetings. Essential you take first plane or train here. 



554 COIMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

It shows it was charged to the National Lawyers Guild and signed 
"Silberstein." The telegram was charged to the National Lawyers 
Guild. Will you examine it, please. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, sir. I think that is the 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the telegram in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "O'Connell Exhibit No. 2" for identification pur- 
poses only and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Willis. It is so ordered. 

Mr. O'Connell. Wliat is the date ? 

Mr. Tavenner. July 18, 1950. 

Did you then advise Mr. Silberstein that you would require advance- 
ment of funds for the purpose of making tlie trip ? 

Mr. O'Connell. As I remember, I had been down here, as I said 
earlier, from March until I returned to Montana to take the bar exam- 
inations, and then I was out there in the State of Montana getting 
ready to establish my law practice and I got this wire from Mr. Sil- 
berstein to come back, or to come on down. Now what arrangements 
were made to send me funds, I don't know whether Mr. Silberstein 

Mr. Ta^t:nner. I hand you a second telegram addressed to you 
under date of July 26, 1950, signed "Silberstein," and charged to the 
account of the National Lawyers Guild, and obtained by this com- 
mittee in the same manner as the former telegram, reading as follows : 

Sorry funds not available here. Proceed other plans. 

Does that refresh your recollection ? 

Mr. O'Connell. What this would mean, as far as I can recollect 
now, was that of course I informed him I had no funds to come down 
here, to fly or whatever it was, and that unless I had them I would not 
be able to come and would stay out in the State of Montana. 

Mr. Tavenner. Y\"hat was meant by that part of the telegram which 
suggested that you "proceed other plans?"' 

Mr. O'Connell. The thing, I am sure I can't remember now but I am 
sure I told Mr. Silberstein that I had no funds of my own to advance 
to come down to Washington and do any kind of work down here, and 
that unless I got funds I would not be able to come. 

Mr. Tavenner. That explanation would not be responsive to the 
language of the telegram. The telegram says "proceed other plans." 

Mr. O'Connell. It says, "Proceed other plans." 

Mr. Tavenner. "Proceed other plans." 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What other plans ? 

Mr. O'Connell. As far as I was concerned, I am sure I had notified 
them unless there were funds sent to me I could not come down here 
at all. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would it be logical that Mr. Silberstein would tell 
you to proceed by other plans, when to adopt your construction it 
would mean that that just meant for you to remain where you were? 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, actually, I imagine if I had all of the cor- 
respondence or wires here I could probably give you the full and 
complete story. That is way back, almost 5 years ago. It is hard 
for me to recall but I am pretty sure that what I told him if I didn't 
have the funds, whatever work I would have to do on the bill it would 
have to be done from the State of Montana. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 555 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer tlie document in evidence, and 
asked that it be marked "O'Connell Exhibit 3," for identification pur- 
poses only, and be made a part of the committee files, 

Mr. Willis. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. On July 28, 1950, 2 days later, there was another 
telegram signed "Silberstein" directed to you and charged to the Na- 
tional Lawyers Guild, which reads as follows : 

Means now available for travel. Telephone me collect. 

Will you examine that telegram, please, sir ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. What is the date on the second one? 

Mr. Ta\tenner. 26th. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I think this would be in line with what I had said. 
I told him there was no way I could possibly come without funds. 

j\[r. Ta\t:nner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "O'Connell Exhibit No. 4" for identification purposes 
onlv, and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Willis. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. How were tlie funds referred to in Silberstein's 
telegram made available to you ? 

JMr. O'CoNNELL. I just don't remember, but I am pretty sure that 
Mr. Silberstein sent me the funds. 

M]-. Tavenner. Were those funds, funds of the National Lawyers 
Gui]d ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I really couldn't say whether they were the funds 
of t]ie National Lawyers Guild or not. As I remember, there was some 
confusion between the guild and Mr. Waybur of the national commit- 
tee about the funds. I think Silberstein sent these wires out of the 
National Lawyers Guild office and then, if I remember, later collected 
from the national committee for them, the National Committee to 
Defeat the Mundt Bill. 

But as I remember, my best recollection is I got the funds from Mr, 
Silberstein, I have a recollection, they could have been Lawyers Guild 
funds or could have been Mr. Silberstein's personal check, I am not 
sure, 

Mr. Tavenner. When you returned to Washington did you estab- 
lish a headquarters for the National Committee to Defeat the Mundt 
Bill? 

Afr. O'CoNNELL. If I remember correctly, Mr. Silberstein was 
taking his vacation at that time. I think a month or 6 weeks' vacation. 
He turned over to us the use of the field offices here in Washington, 

Mr. Ta\'t:nner. The National Lawyers Guild offices in Washington ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What address was that? Do you recall? 

Mr. O'Connell. The thing that comes to my" mind was 918 or 920 
K Street. 

M]-. Tavenner. Wasn't it 902 20th Street NAV. ? 

Mr. O'Connell, Yes; I think that is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, hadn't that been the head- 
quarters since 1948 of the National Committee to Defeat the Mundt 
Bill? 

Mr. O'Connell. No. Originally we set up offices in a building 
downtown on — what is the main street? Is it E Street, where the 
theaters are all located? 



556 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Ml-. Tavenner. Could that be F Street? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. F Street. I guess it is. If I remember correctly, 
the building is the Atlantic Building or some such name, and we had 
offices there during 1948, and early— I know offices before I returned 
to Montana were also in the same building in 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you first occupy the offices of the Na- 
tional Lawyers Guild as the headquarters of the National Committee 
To Defeat the Mundt Bill? 

Mr. O'Connell, I am sure when I came back after July 28, 1 prob- 
ably got there — I can't remember — either the very last part of fKdy 
or the early part of August. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, prior to 1950 had you registered as a lobbyist 
for the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill with the Clerk 
of the House of Representatives ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did anyone else register with you for the same 
purpose? 

Mr. O'Connell. I couldn't say for sure, but I think Mr. Waybur 
did. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me refresh your recollection. Our investiga- 
tion shows Mr. John B. Stone registered with you on the same day. 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes; I remember he was doing press work, press 
relations for the committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who selected Mr. Stone to register ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Who selected him to register? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. O'Connell. I imagine we had a discussion in the office and 
decided that whoever was involved would have to register with the 

Mr. Tavenner. You had a discussion? You and who else? 

Mr. O'Connell. Myself, Mr. Silberstein, Mr. Waybur, Mr. Stone, 
and at diiferent times some of the other people who are listed on the 
committee stationery there. I can't remember just which one. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Mr. Stone known to you to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; he was not. His father had been the dean of" 
the school of journalism out at the University of Montana. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that mean the son can't be an active member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't want to argue with you, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why present that as a reason ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I wanted to tell you how I knew Mr. Stone and 
how I happened to know him. He, of course, was a Montanan, and I 
knew him that way, and I knew him when I was in Congress. I think 
he was in the press gallery when I was in Congress for the Federated 
Press, if I remember correctly, but I certainly had no knowledge that 
Mr. Stone was a member of the Communist Party and have no such 
knowledge, even at this moment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, T think the record should show 
at this point Mrs. Mary Stalcup Markward at the instance of the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation entei'ed the Communist Party in the 
city of Washington and served there in an undercover capacity and 
by reason of her diligence in her work she was elevated finally to the 
position of treasurer of the Communist Party for the District of 
Columbia. 



COM]VIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH,, AREA 557 

She appeared before this committee and testified and among other 
things identified members of the newspaper ckib of the Communist 
Party in the District of Columbia. Of those persons identified as 
members of that club she named John B. Stone, and when asked 
to give the committee her knowledge of his activities stated that he 
had been active within the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt 
Bill, and stated that, "I know Rob Hall suggested him for membership 
due to his activity with the Progressive Party." 

Was Mr. Stone active in the Progressive Party in Montana, when 
you knew him there? 

Mr. O'CoNNEiJ.. Of course the Progressive Party — Mr. Stone was 
in Montana in the late twenties and early thirties and so on, when he 
might have been identified with the old Progressive Party of Bob 
La Follette and Senator Wlieeler. 

Mr. TA'\rE]srNER. Was he active in the Progressive Party in the 
District of Columbia? 

Mr. ScHERER. I want to ask the witness the same questions I did 
about Silberstein. When did you last see Stone? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I think the last time I saw Stone was in 1948. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where was that? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL, That was here in Washington, D. C. 

Mr. ScHERER. In connection with what activities? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Doing press work for the National Committee ta 
Defeat the Mundt Bill. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that the last contact you had with him? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. I had no — that was the last contact and the 
only contact I have had with him outside of the fact that when he 
lived out in ^Montana and because of my political activity and promi- 
nence out there, I knew him at that time. 

I was just wondering when he became — when Eob Hall nominated 
him for membership or whatever he did — does she date that any 
time ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Her membership in the party was from 1943 to 
1949, so it would be within the limits of that period. 

Mr. O'Connell. I got the impression from what you said that he 
was recommended because of the work he had done in the National 
Committee to Defeat the Mundt Bill. 

Mr. Tavenner. No; 1 may not have stated that clearly. I would 
like to restate it. 

When Mrs. Markward was asked as to her knowlexlge of Stone's 
activities within the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill, 
she testified : "I know Eobert Hall suggested him for membership'' — 
that meant membership in the Communist Party — "due to his activity 
with the Progressive Party." 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. The Progressive Party wasn't organized until 
1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. That would indicate that it must then have been 
about 1948 or 1949 when this occurred. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. My distinct feeling — I don't know what he may 
have done, but my distinct feeling about Mr. Stone is he was not a 
member of the Communist Party as long as I knew him. 

Mr. SciiERER. Do you know what Stone is doing today? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, I really don't. 



558 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. The last contact you had with him then was, as you 
said, 1949? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I would say, I think the last contact I had with 
him was in 1948. 

Mr. ScHEREK. Do you know what his activities were following 1948 ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No; I really don't. I haven't kept up with him. 
I think — well, I know at the time he was writing some stories, chil- 
dren's stories, or something of that kind. He was talking about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you select Stone as the publicity man for the 
National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill? 

Mr. O'Connell. I probably had more to do with his selection than 
anybody because of course I knew him as a newspaperman. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many persons normally composed the staff of 
the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill? 

Mr. O'Connell. Actually in 1948 the only ones outside of Mr. Sil- 
berstein, Mr. Waybur, and one or two of those people on the letterhead, 
if they were in town and would come to the meeting, the actual people 
working in the office were Mr. Stone and myself and a stenographer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have more than one stenographer at a time, 
usually ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I think when the situation, as far as the legislation 
was concerned, was critical we may have had additional stenographers 
to help get out additional material. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Rose Clinton ever a member of your staff ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Not to my knowledge. I don't know anybody by 
the name of "Rose Clinton." 

Mr. Tavenner. The quarterly statement submitted by you for the 
period ended June 30, 1949, filed July 9, 1949, reveals that she was 
employed by your committee. 

Mr. O'Connell. If she were, I certainly don't recollect or remem- 
ber her. She was probably an ordinai-y stenographer. Her name 
means — I have no recollection, and it means nothing to me. 

Mr. Ta\t;nner. Have you any recollection of her ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No; I can't, I think — does it show she was a ste- 
nographer there ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; shows she was paid a salary of $250 for the 
month of June. 

Mr. O'Connell. I can't remember. There could have been. I 
remember one little girl there and the name I remember is Marjorie. 
I think her first name was Marjorie. I don't know if that was in the 
1948 period or the 1950. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should also show 
that according to the testimony of Mrs. Mary Markward, Rose Clinton 
was known to her as a member of the Communist Party in the District 
of Columbia and assigned to the Northeast Club of the Communist 
Party in this city. 

In the course of her testimony Mrs. Markward said : 

Rose Clinton, I believe she was active in the Committee To Defeat the Mundt 
Bill in 1949. 

Mr. O'Connell. I wasn't in the city of Washington in 1949 in con- 
nection with the National Committee to Defeat the Mundt Bill. 

Mr. Tavenner. However, were you not chairman for the National 
Committee to Defeat the Mundt Bill during that period ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 559 

Mr. O'CoNNELi.. Yes. 

Mr. Tam^:xxer. You sio^ied quarterly reports showing who were 
■employed and the amounts of salaries paid ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I am pretty sure the reports were sent to me in 
Montana in 1949, and I signed them. 

Mr. Ta%'enner. Are you acquainted with a person named Tom 
Buchanan ? 

Mr. O'Conxell. I think he did the presswork for the committee 
in 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you employ him ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No. When I came down here in 1950 he had 
already been employed by Mr. Waybur or Mr. Silberstein; I don't 
know which. I think, wasn't he a reporter, had been a reporter for 
the Washington Star? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; he was until he was removed from that posi- 
tion. Did yon know Tom Buchanan to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. No ; I did not. 

Mr. Ta\T':nxer. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should also show 
that Tom Buchanan was identified in the testimony of Mrs. Mary 
Stalcup IMarkward as an ex- Washington newspaperman assigned to 
the Youth Club of the Communist Party when he became a member 
of the Communist Party in Washingtoii. D. C. 

Later he was transferred to the Newspaper Club of the Communist 
Party in Washington and since that time has been an employee of the 
Civil Eights Congress in AYashington. 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. Does it state when he became a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tavexner. I am not certain that it does. I do not have her 
testimony with me. But I am not certain as to the number of years 
of Cormnunist Party membership before he was assigned to the News- 
paper Club of the Communist Party. 

Was Ruth Rifkin an employee of your committee? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. I can't remember now. The name doesn't — 
wasn't she a notary public ? 

Mr. Tavexxer. She could have been a notary public. 

Mr, O'CoxxELL. Didn't she run in addition to being a notary public, 
didn't she run a mimeograph shop or something of that kind ? That 
is the recollection that I have. 

Mr. Tavexxer. According to your report covering the period of 
April 1950 she was employed in a secretarial capacity. She was paid 
for secretarial services. 

Mr. 0'Coxxp:ll. I think she ran a secretarial service shop and did 
mimeogi'aphing and so on. That is my recollection. 

Mr, Tavexxer. How was she employed by you ? 

Mr. O'Coxx^ELL. I think we took particular materials to her some- 
times to dictate and then to have her run off on mimeograph. 

Mr. Tavex'xer, Was she known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. No, she was not. 

Mr. Tavexxp:r. Mr. Chairman, I would like for the record to show 
Mary Stalcup ]\Iarkward in the course of her testimony before this 
committee also identified Ruth Rifkin as a member of the Com- 
munist Party, 

62222— 55— pt. 3 5 



560 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Willis. Was she assigned or had anything to do with the 
Newspaper Chib of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. I am certain she was not, but I would like 
to turn to that testimony, if I can locate it. I think it important to 
read that testimony, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. I asked that question because the witness identified 
her as some kind of a secretarial service or mimeographing service. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. My only recollection about her was that her shop 
was close to the Lawyers Guild office there and slie did secretarial 
work and got out mimeographing and my connection with her was 
of course completely mechanical. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who selected her for the performance of their 
work ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I would imagine Mr. Silberstein told me she did 
that kind of work and where her office was and where her shop was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Elizabeth Sasuly? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, I was. 

Mv. Tavenner. Was she employed by the National Committee To 
Defeat the Mundt Bill? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I am pretty sure she was. I think she was em- 
ployed both in— well, I couldn't say whether she was employed both 
in i948 and 1950 or just in 1948, or just in 1950, but my recollection 
is she was employed botli of the times I was down here in 1948 and in 
1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

]\Ir. O'CoNNELL. No ; I had no knowledge that she was a member ot 
the Communist Party or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think the record should show Elizabeth Sasuly 
appeared before this committee on July 12, 1949, at Avhich time she 
refused to answer any and all questions put to her by the committee 
pertaining to her melnbership in the Communist Party or any ques- 
tions relating to Communist Party activities in the city of Washington. 

Mr. Willis. In light of that I think it is important for the witness 
to try to refresh his memory as to whether she was in fact employed 
on Ids return to Washington in 1950 or do the payroll records so 
indicate? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Of course, Congressman, also I had no knowledge 
she was before the committee. 

Mr. Willis. I am not implying it. I w-ant to be fair with you. 
Y ou are a lawyer and you can see the point. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Possibly I can clear that up from reference to the 
records. The report covering the second quarter of 1950 by you to the 
House of Eepresentatives sliows that in April 1950 Elizabeth Sasuly 
was paid salary and expenses of $359.89. Does that refresh your 
recollection ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. My recollection, I knew she was employed 
by the committee, but I wasn't sure which year, whether it was in 1948 
or 1950 or whether it was both of those years, as a matter of fact. But, 
again, I repeat that I had no knowledge that she was or was not a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Returning now to Ruth Rifkin 



-COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 561 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. If I remember correctly, was Miss Sasuly cited for 
contempt ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 

Mrs. Markward was asked the question : 

Are you acquainted with au individual by the name of Ruth Rifkin? 

To which she replied : "Yes." 

She was asked the question : 

What was the nature of your relationship with Ruth Rif liin ? 
And Mrs. Markward testified as follows : 

I got a transfer card from this individual together with a note saying if I 
contact her I was to say I was Evelyn's cousin. I believe she was living at McLean 
Gardens at that time. I called and made an appointment to meet her. She was 
quite cautious about the way this meeting should take place. We met at Union 
Station and had dinner later. I learned later she was working for the United 
Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. 

"Question. Where did she come from? 

"Mrs. Markward. New York. 

"Question. What was the purpose of your contacting her? 

"Mrs. Markward. I contacted her as Evelyn's cousin. 

"Question. Did you pick her up on your rolls? 

"Mrs. Markward. Because of her working with the UNRRA in the State De- 
partment, I could not transfer her in our organization as such. However, I 
talked to her. She seemed extremely capable and a good Communist. So I 
spoke to Elizabeth Searle aljout seeing if she could be picked up by some organiza- 
tion that did take members working for the Government and Elizabeth Searle took 
the address and how to get In touch with her and said she would see what could 
be done. 

"Question. Did you subsequently see Ruth Rifkin? 

"Mrs. Markward. Yes. She seemed disturbed by the manner in which she 
had been contacted and she asked if this otlier person was all right. I went to 
Elizabeth Searle about this and she said it was all right because this other person 
was in a position that it would be assumed she was calling about union business. 
Ruth Rifkin and I had dinner together at the time we had this conversation. 
Ruth Rifkin told me she was not in a position with UNRRA that she wanted to 
seem identified with a union. Elizabeth Searle told me to tell her not to call and 
talk to me over the telephone, so I had no further contact with her." 

That is the testimony relating to her. 

Mr. O'CoxNELL. Now I want to clarify — was she with UNRKA ? 

Mr. Tavexxer. According to the testimony of Mrs. Markward she 
was. 

Mr. O'Coxxetx. AVlien? 

Mr. Tavexxer. In the State Department, 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. I think UNREA had been, I think it had actually 
been discontinued by 1948. 

Mr. Taa-exxer. Suppose it was discontinued. 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. '\"\liat I want to point out is that my relationship 
with her is I brought her material to transcribe or to mimeograph and 
so on. My recollection is she was running a secretarial shop. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Which of course was a period after UNRRA had 
been disbanded. 

Mr. O'CoxXELL. What I wanted to make clear is I had no connec- 
tion with her while she was a Government employee. 

:Mr. Tam^xxer. Mr. O'Connell, where did the committee have its 
printing done? 

Mr. OTJoxxELL. I really couldn't recollect. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Was it the Superior Print Shop ? 



562 COMAIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. CCoNNELL. I am sure we have it in tlie report there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your report so says. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. 

Mr. Tavennek. Who was the owner of the Superior Print Shop ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I really don't know. 

Mr. Ta%'enner. Who made the arrangements for the Superior Print 
Shop to do the printing for your committee ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I just couldn't recollect who actually did it. I 
would imagine the stenographer in the office called them to come and 
said we had certain printing to do or something of that kind. I 
wasn't ac(iuainted, I wasn't in Washington, D. C, with the various 
printing houses and my actual work Avith the committee was largely 
on the Hill. I was rarely in the office. I was out here contracting 
Members of the House and Members of the Senate. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Mrs. Markward in her testimony advised the com- 
mittee that the operator of the Superior Print Shop was Tilla Mino- 
witz, and she identified Tilla Minowitz as a member of the Communist 
Party and as a member of the Community Club of the Communist 
Party in Washington, D. C. 

Tilla Minowitz was subpenaed before this committee on July 6, 
1949, and refused to answer any and all questions put to her by the 
committee dealing with her membership in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Willis. When was that? 

Mr. Tavenner. July 6, 1949. The report covering June 1949 shows 
the payment of a bill for printing in the amount of $195 and the re- 
port covering ]\Iarch 1950 shows the printing of letterheads and sta- 
tionery on March 30, 1950. 

Were you aware at that time that Tilla Minowitz had been identi- 
fied and had been brought before this committee and questioned re- 
garding her Communist Party identification? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No; I don't know Tilla Minowitz, I don't thint 
I have ever seen her in my life and the name means absolutely nothing 
to me. The printing went to Superior Printing Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew she was doing the printing for your 
company because you signed these reports. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I didn't know it was Tilla Minowitz. I knew it 
was the Superior Printing Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did your committee ever employ the firm of Pre- 
sentation, Inc. ? 

Mr. Willis. Wliat? 

Mr. Tavenner. Presentation, Inc. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I can't recall. If I could see the report — What does 
Presentation, Inc., do? 

Mr. Tavenner. We find a report covering June 22, 1949, which 
says — 

Presentation, Inc., 2118 aiassachnsetts Avenue NW., 25,000 pamphlets, $785.46— 

as one of the items. Does that help you to refresh your recollection ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, I said before, in 1949 I was not down in 
Washington. Those reports were sent out to me to be signed as chair- 
man, and I don't know Presentation, Inc. I don't know what they 
do, but that report was made up. 

Mr. Tavenner. Another bill in June and September of 1949 is for 
printing, done by Presentation, Inc., and the amount of the bill is 
$1,075.38. Who selected Presentation, Inc., for this work? 



CO]M]MUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 563 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I really wouldn't know. I don't know who did it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Notwithstanding your having signed the reports 
covering those employments in 1949 when yovi say you were not 
actually in Washington, we find in April of 1950 another printing 
of pamphlets on the Mundt bill was done by Presentation, Inc., for 
which there was a charge of $300. 

At that time did you know that a person by the name of Carl 
Marzani, an official of that corporation, was under sentence of the 
United States district court after having been convicted for con- 
cealing his Communist Party affiliations while an employee of the 
Federal Government ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No; I didn't know that. In fact, I didn't know 
Presentation, Inc., and didn't know anybody who was identified 
with it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mi\ O'Connell, is it not a fact that during the 
period that the Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill used the offices 
of the National Lawj^ers Guild, it also used the National Lawyers 
Guild telephone, bearing number District 3205. to which both tele- 
grams and telephone tolls were charged to the National Lawvers 
Guild? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes; but with an understanding, as I remember, 
that whatever expenditure was made on the telephone or telegraph 
was to be paid by the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you reimburse the National Lawyers Guild in 
full ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I really don't know. I went home directly after 
the adjournment of Congress in September of 1950 and what dis- 
position was made after I left of those bills and so on by Mr. Waybur, 
I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you don't know ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't know. As I said, my principal work 
was alw^ays up here on the Hill. I usually came up in the mornings 
about 10 o'clock or 9 : 30 or so and was up here until either adjournment 
of Congress or later, and so on, each day that I was liere. 

j\Ir. Tavenner. Did I^illian ("lott perform any services for the Na- 
tional Lawyers Guild while you occupied its offices as chairman for 
the committee to defeat the Mundt bill ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I can't recall. I know Lillian Clott and all that, 
but I can't recall whether she did or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were tlie circumstances under which you be- 
came acquainted Avith Lillian Clott? 

Mr. O'Connell. As I remember, first of all her husband or ex- 
husband, Herman Clott, is I think legislative representative here for 
the Internatifmal TTnion of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers and I 
knew him and I think through him I was introduced to her. I think 
she later worked, if I remember correctly, with the TTnited Electrical 
Workers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; and prior to that time didn't she work in one 
of the Embassies here in Washington? 

Ml'. O'CoxxELL. I don't know. I wouldn't know whether she did 
or not. When I came here Mr. Waybur, of course, was identified with, 
I think he was legislative representative from the United Electrical 
Workers and T went thei-e lots of times to pick up my check and she 



564 COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

was working in the office there, and I think Senator Wheeler's daugh- 
ter was also working there, Frances AVlieeler, and she introduced me 
to her. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she do any work at any time for the National 
Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't remember that she did. 

Mr. Tavenner, Was Lillian Clott known to you to be a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I didn't know that she was or was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think the record should show that 
Mary Stalcup Markward in the course of her testimony identified 
Lillian Clott as a member of the Community Club of the Communist 
Party in the District of Columbia, and that when called as a witness 
before this committee in September 1954, in Dayton, Ohio, Lillian 
Clott refused to testify regarding her alleged Communist Party mem- 
bership on the ground that to do so might tend to incriminate her. 

Mr. Willis. Let's take an informal recess. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Willis. The committee will come to order. 

You may proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, are you familiar with the testimony 
of Matthew Cvetic before this committee, relating to the activities of 
the Communist Party in the western part of Pennsylvania in connec- 
tion with the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; I am not acquainted with that testimony. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Matthew Cvetic became a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the request of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
and after working quite a number of years for the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation within the Communist Party, withdrew and testified 
fully before this committee regarding his experience within the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Cvetic testified that the District Committee of the Communist 
Party of western Pennsylvania established a branch or a unit of the 
National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill. This branch or unit 
occupied no office of its owji but worked out of the offices of the 
Communist Party of western Pennsylvania in Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Cvetic further testified that petitions and pamphlets published 
by the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill were made avail- 
able in Pittsburgh for distribution by Communist Party headquar- 
ters. He personally participated in the distribution of petitions and 
pamphlets published by the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt 
Bill at the instruction of the Communist Party functionaries in Pitts- 
burgh. 

Mr. Cvetic also testified that the officials of the Communist Party in 
western Pennsylvania referred to the National Committee To Defeat 
the Mundt Bill as "One of our organizations." 

Mr. Cvetic revealed that the strategy and planning of the fight 
against the Mundt-Nixon bill in Pittsburgh was headed by the district 
organizer of the Communist Party. These plans were carried out by 
the Communist Party District Committee through the various trade 
unions, front organizations. Progressive Party, and other organiza- 
tions which had been created or captured by the Communist Party in 
western Pennsylvania. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 565 

Did you confer at any time with any one from Pittsburgh with ref- 
erence to the strategy and planning of the fight against the Mmidt bill 
in that area^ 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, sir, I did not. You mean by that a personal 
conference with somebody from there ? 

Mr. Tavenner, Yes. 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. No, I did not. 

Mr. Tavenxek. Were you aware of the fact that it was the Com- 
munist Party in that area which led and headed the light against the 
Mundt bill in connection with the program of the National Committee 
To Defeat the Mundt Bill. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, I was not aware of that. I think as far as the 
western area was concerned, I think the only contact we had was with 
Alexander Wright, who was I think executive secretary of the Pro- 
gressive Part} out there and I never talked with him personally. 

I think he corresponded with the committee or sent some communi- 
cation and we in turn sent a wire or material to him but I don't remem- 
ber any contact with anybody else. 

Mr. Tavexxerr. Was he known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. O'CoxxEEE. No, he was not. In fact, I don't know him. I 
have never even met him. A\niatever communication we had was by 
mail or by wire, as I. remember. I don't know him at all. 

Mr. Ta\t:xxer. He was identified by Matthew Cvetic as an active 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Willis. Alexander Wright? 

Mr. Tavexxfjr. xVlexander Wright, W-r-i-g-h-t. 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. Communication by the committee was as executive 
secretary of the Progressive Party. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Isn't it a fact, Mr. O'Connell, that the situation 
which Mr. Cvetic described in Pittsburgh with reference to the 
strategy and planning by the Communist Party for the fight against 
the Mundt-Nixon bill was duplicated in many instances and many 
places throughout the United States? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. As I said, my work was liere in Washington and 
what actually took place, either in Pittsburgh or any other section of 
the country, I wouldn't know. Certainly my guess would be and 
certainly my feeling would be that inasmuch as the legislation was 
proscribing the Communist Party and affecting it, they certainly 
worked on it and certainly did what tliey could to defeat it. I have 
no doubt about that. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Was the Progressive Party in the State of Wash- 
ington active in promoting the light against the passage of the Mundt 
bill? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Wasn't a good part of the leadership of the Pro- 
gressive Party in the State of Washington of Communist Party 
membership ? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. As far as the leadership of the Progressive Party 
was concerned, as I stated yesterday, Mr. Russell Fluent was the 
chairman; he was at the time of his chairmanship Democratic State 
treasurer in the State of Washington ; I feel sure was not a member of 
the Communist Partv; Mr. L. C. Hunterer was national committee- 



566 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

man; he was Democratic sheriff in (31ympia in Thurston County and 
I am sure was not a member of the Communist Party. 

I think at one time he used to be — out in the Western States we have 
Old Greenbacks and Okl Populace and former followers of the Pro- 
gressive Party under Bob La Follette, but Mr. Plunterer was not. 
Elsie Hoffman, who was nationr.l committeewoman, was president of 
the Democratic Women's Club in the city of Spokane, and I am sure 
was not a Communist. 

Mr. Tavenner. What about Tom Kabbitt ? 

]\Ir. O'CoxNELE. Tom Rabbitt worked for a short time in the Pro- 
gressive Party, I would say from probably April of maybe — I would 
say latter part of March or early part of April 1948 until latter part 
of May of 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. What about William J. Pennock ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I am pretty sure that — well, Mr. Pennock had 
no office in the Progressive Party. I think he was a member of 
the executive committee. We had a very, very large executive com- 
mittee, and I think he was a member of the executive committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. What about John Daschbach ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't remember any Progressive Party in activ- 
ity in my time on the part of John Daschbach. 

Mr. Tamsnner. Mr. O'Connell, will you tell the committee what 
action the Connnunist Party took in protesting to Judge Medina 
during the trial of the 11 Communists under the provisions of the 
Smith Act in Foley Square, New York ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Outside of what was in the ordinary j^ress notices, 
1 mean of my own knowledge, I don't know anything. I read about 
the trial and so on, but of my oayu knowledge I don't know anything. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the leadership of the Progressive Party in 
the State of Washington take any active part in protesting to Judge 
Medina regarding the trial of the 11 Communists ? 

Mr. O'Connell. When was that trial ? 

Mr. TA^•ENNER. The trial was in 1949 ; I think the first motion of 
the trial was disposed of in the spring of 1949 before they began 
the trial on its merits. 

Mr. O'Connell. I wouldn't want to say categorically one way or 
the other what action might have been taken by the Progressive 
Party in the State of Washington in that connection. I can't recall 
anything right now. 

Mr. Ta\T5nner. Did you as executive secretary have any part in 
the activity ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I can't remember any. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a i:>hotostatic copy of the June 6, 1949, 
issue of the Daily Worker and call your attention to an article 
entitled "Men of Labor and Civic Leaders Throughout Nation Voice 
Indignation," and I ask if you see in that article a reference to the 
fact that Plenry Huff, chairman, and Clayton Van Lydegraf, secre- 
tary of the Washington State Comnumist Party, having wired 
Dennis in connection with those trials. Do you see that paragraph ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes ; I see that paragraph. 

Mr. Tavenner. The subject of the wire is quoted as follows: 

The northwest district is proud and inspired by the splendid fight the de- 
fendants are making against the biased conduct and vicious rulings of Judge 
Medina who is acting as prosecutor at Foley Square. The jailing of John Gates^ 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 567 

Gus Hall, aud Henry Winston has shocked and aroused our party and the 
massed forces to a new lighting pitch and widespread protest action. 

Will you examine the article again, please, and state whether just 
above the paragraph pointed out to you there is the description of a 
telegram sent by Eussell Fluent, chairman, and Jerry O'Connell, ex- 
ecutive secretary of the Progressive Party to Judge Medina. Do you 
see it? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Yes, I see that. 

Mr. Taat:xxer. Will you read it into the record, please ? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL (reading) : 

Russell Fluent, chairman, and Jerry O'Connell, executive secretary of the 
Progressive Party, wired Medina "Thousands of merubers are shocked at your 
willful, unlawful, and unconstitutional attempt to deny any defense to the 
Communist Party leaders now on trial." 

Mr. Willis. That was sent by whom to whom I 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. This paper 

Mr. Willis. Alleged to have been sent by whom to whom X What 
does the paper say \ 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. The paper says : 

Russell Fluent, chairman, and Jerry O'Connell, executive secretary of the 
Pr(igressive Party wired Medina "Thousands of members shocked at your willful, 
unlawful, and unconstitutional attempt to deny any defense to the Communist 
Party leaders now on trial." 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you send that wire \ 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. I can't remember sending any such wire. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Would you state in view of the report of the Daily 
Worker that the wire was not bent ? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Well, I just have no recollection of sending that 
wire, myself sending it. It is a long time ago and I don't know who 
wiote that story or how it was acquii-ed or anything. I can't remem- 
l-'ei". I just can't remember sending any wire in that connection. 

Mr. Tavexxer. I desire to otl'er the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked ''O'Connell Exhibit No. 5" for identihcation pur- 
l>oses only, and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Willis. It is so ordered, 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. I might say your showing jne this paper is the first 
time that has ever been called to my attention. 

Mr. Tavexxer. The sending of this telegram to Judge Medina was 
liot the first occasion you have publicly come to the support of the 
Communist Party, is it ? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Well, I wouldn't want to say that I came to the 
su])port of the Communist Party. As a progressive American, I be- 
lieve tliat all people regardless of their political opinions and beliefs 
are entitled to their political rights and civil liberties, whether they 
be Connnunists or not. 

Mr. Tavexxer. According to your statement, do you consider that 
the Communist Party is a political party ? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. As far as my information is concerned, I know 
tliei-e are findings by the Congress that it is not, but 

Mr. Tavexxer. And also by the courts 'I 

Afr. O'CoxxELL. I don't recall any by the courts. I can't recall 
any case by the courts. Cases I can recall hold otherwise. 

Mr. ScHERER. There are court cases. 



568 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, I don't want to argue about it. The thing 
is that as an American I feel that all people, regardless of their politi- 
cal opinions or beliefs, whether they are Communist or non- Commu- 
nists, are entitled to their rights to their political opinions and beliefs 
and to their civil rights and to their civil liberties as provided by our 
Constitution. I say that as a progressive American who really hon- 
estly and sincerely believes it. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think we all believe that. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I didn't get you, Congressman. 

Mr. ScHERER. I said I think we all believe in the statement you 
made. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I was just expressing — that is my position on it. 
I just think it is dangerous to proscribe 

Mr. Tavenner. You undertook in this telegram to accuse the judge 
of willful, unlawful, and unconstitutional attempt to deny the Com- 
munist Party leaders any defense. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. As I said, I don't remember sending that wire. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you deny it ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, Congressman, I can't say. I just don't have 
any recollection of sending that wire, and I am saying that honestly 
and truthfully. I did think, and I still do think, that Judge Medina 
did restrict their defense at the trial, 

Mr. Scherer. We have had some of the lawyers who appeared be- 
fore Judge Medina in that trial appear before this committee, and 
I am just wondering how Judge Medina withstood the assault that 
was made upon him, not only by those lawyers but by telegrams such 
as the counsel has just read, which, of course, I believe you sent. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Congressman, I really 

Mr. Scherer. I think that was an attack on our judicial system 
that was a disgrace by those who participated in it. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. As I have said, I really don't remember sending 
any such wire, and this is the first time that has ever been called to 
my attention. 

Mr. Scherer. The Communists and their followers talk about perse- 
cution. If ever a fine jurist was persecuted for attempting to do his 
job, as he was required to do by law, Judge Medina was so persecuted 
and smeared. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I have not condoned the conduct of the attorneys 
who were present at that trial. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand that. 

Mr. O'Connell. I think — you have been here most of the time 
or a considerable part of the time I testified. 

Mr. Scherer. I might say your conduct has been exemplary, you 
have been very respectful and we certainly have no complaint. You 
have used, I am not criticizing you for it, what is used regularly in 
matters such as this, namely, the convenient and overworked answers, 
"I don't remember" and "not to my recollection, etcetera." 

Mr. O'Connell. These things happened some 5 and 6 and 7 years 
ago and it is not easy and all of these people are actually strangers to 
me and all that. I came down here as a former Congressman, as a 
political figure in the Democratic Party in my own right and so on, 
I came here with a true and honest and firm belief in my opposition to 
the Mundt bill at that time. I think that it was wrong and I think it is 
wrong now. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 569 

Mr. ScHERER. I do not want anything I have said to appear as a 
criticism of you. As I said, I think you have been very polite and very 
respectful, but I think when certain statements are made it is incum- 
bent upon members of the committee to comment upon those state- 
ments and clear the record. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I have been a Member of the House, sir, and I 
have full respect for the committee and I realize, I have sat up there 
and I have made my comments too as witnesses have testified. 

Mr. SciiERER. Have you been given every opportunity to make ex- 
planations to answers you gave ? 

]\Ir. O'CoNNELL. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think that the members of the committee, then, have 
a right of course to comment upon statements you have made, the 
same as you have that privilege. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I have no complaint. I have been treated very 
fairly and respectfully and everything, I have made no complaint 
and I am doing my very level honest best to do a good job to answer 
the questions as they are given to me. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Do you recall having spoken to the legislative con- 
ference of the Freedom Crusade Congress of the Civil Right Con- 
gress on the question of the indictment of the 12 Communist leaders ? 

3,Ir. O'CoNNELL. I don't know what that Freedom Crusade is. 
Where was that supposed to be? 

Mr. Ta\-enner. In Washington. 

Mr. O'Coxnell. State of Washington ? 

Mr. Tavenxer. No. It was in Washington, D. C. According to 
the Daily Worker of January 13, 1949, we find an article entitled 
"Congressman To Address Crusade," this paragraph : 

The final panel on persecuted political minorities based on the indictments 
of the 12 Communuist leaders will be discussed by Marcantonio Dr. W. E. B. 
DuBois, and former Montana Congressman Jerry O'Connell. 

Do you recall whether you did speak ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I am positive I did not. I have never met DuBois, 
never met him in my life. I have never been involved with him. Marc 
1 know real well. 

Mr. SciiERER. Do I understand you to say you don't recall whether 
you made the speech ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I am positive I never spoke at any such panel. 
Because I 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Do you recall having agreed to appear on that pro- 
gram? 

Mr. O'Connell. No, I surelj^ don't. 

Mr. SciiERER. Is that the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you mean the Daily Worker can be wrong? 

Mr. O'Connell. The reason I feel positive about that is I do not 
know Dr. DuBois, I have never met him, and I don't know him at all, 
and I know I was not on any panel where he talked. I know I didn't do 
that. Marc of course I knew real well, but I certainly don't remember 
speaking any place with Marc. I knew him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you speak, regardless of who accompanied 
you, on a program sponsored by the Freedom Crusade Congress? 

Mr. O'Connell. What date was that? 

Mr. Tavenner. In January 1949. 



570 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. O'CoxNELL. I am positive I did not. 

The other reason I feel sure about that is I left the State of Wash- 
ington in October 1949, and I went back to Montana, and I know 
during that particuLar period I was in the State of Montana and my 
wife and I were living with her folks in Great Falls. I know my 
financial circumstances at that time were very slim and that I am 
sure, I am just positive that I never spoke at any such panel at that 
time. 

Mr. Tavenner. A report is made by the Special Committee on Un- 
American Activities that the Daily Worker issue of June 23, 1937, 
page 1, carried a letter addressed by you to David Leeds, business man- 
ager of the Daily Worker, official organ of the Communist Partv. i^ 
which you state : 

T feel that the Daily Wodcer is America's ovitstanding daily labor paper and 
has done much during these past crucial labor years to bring true and accurate 
accounts of labor conditions throughout the entire country to the attention of the 
people. 

Did you write such a letter ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, I wrote such a letter. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a subscriber to the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; I don't think — I was a Member of Congress 
at that time and the Daily Worker was delivered like a lot of other 
newspapers are to my office. My particular recollection of that — that 
is 1937 — was that a man by the name of Paddy King was an avowed 
Communist in the State of Montana and is quite a familiar character 
around there came to my office and asked me if I would do this and 
I think I told him I would confine it strictly to the labor coverage of 
what the Daily Worker was doing, coverage on labor, on strikes, on 
labor's rights, and so on. I wrote the letter at that time. 

Mr. ScHERER. Was what you said in 1037 true about the Daily 
Worker ? 

Mr. O'Connell. That was written in 1937. 

Mr. Scherer. 1937. It surely has changed since I became ac- 
quainted with it. I have just been reading the account of some of the 
hearings we had in Newark a couple of weeks ago. 

Mr. O'Connell. A lot of things have changed since 1937. 

Mr. Scherer. I said if what you stated in 1937 was true about it, 
the paper surely has changed since my acquaintance with it. 

Mr. O'Connell. You will remember that was the period in which 
the CIO was beginning to organize and there was considerable, we 
had the little steel strike, we had ]\Iemorial Day massacre at Re^^ub- 
lic Steel near Chicago; there were many things happening in the labor 
situation at that time, and in my opinion the Daily Worker covered 
them better and a did a better job than any other paper I knew of. 

]Mr. Tavenner. You knew of course that the Daily Worker was 
the official organ of the Communist Party, and that it was required 
to be read by all Communist Party members in order to ascertain the 
directives that were being issued by the Communist Party. 

Mr. O'Connell. I knew that it was the organ of the Communist 
Party but whether or not the members were required to do it, I was 
not a Communist, I didn't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Yhy did you desire to give aid to the Communist 
Party by writing such a highly commendatory article to \ye printed 
in the Dailv Worker? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 571 

Mr. O'CoxxKLL. I was dealing witli the paper as such and par- 
ticularly with its labor coverage as such. I think I confined my let- 
ter to that particular phase of the coverage that the Daily Worker 
did. There was no intent on my part to give aid or support to the 
Comnninist Party or anything 

Mr. Tavkxxer! Was it your purpose to get aid or support for your- 
self from the Communist Party? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. No, not aid and support from the Communist 
Party. I lived in western Montana and I was a Congressmaii from 
western Montana wliere we had a very, very militant tradition out 
there as far as labor was concerned. In that particular period and 
of course during the depression and at other times, labor leaders had 
been hanged out there, one labor leader was hanged to a railroad 
trestle 

Mr. Tavkxxer. Wliat lias that to do with the question I asked? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. What I am trying to point out is that I lived in 
a district, that I represented a district where there were a lot of 
militant labor leaders who read the Daily Worker, who actually, many 
of them I know, were not Communists, there wasn't any particular 
fear — there might have been 30 or 37 Communists in the whole State, 
nobody was ever bothered about them, nobody was afraid of them. 
As a politician they came to see me and talk with me, they came to 
other politicians there. 

Mr. Ta\t.nxer. Communists? 

Mr. 0'Conxt:ll. Yes. I can remember — in the 33d — in the 33d I^eg- 
islature of Montana the Connnunist Party came aud talked to the 
legislative assembly while the legislature was assembled and all that 
on the conditions that existed in the State at the time. There vrasn't 
any. T am trying to put you in the pattern and in the spirit and in the 
situ'ition that existed in that day. AVe weren't worried about them, 
we weren't afraid of them at all. We let them speak their piece, we let 
tlieiii say tlu' tilings they wanted to say, if they had any contribution 
to make, to make it, and so on. 

That is the attitude and that was not only true of them. We had 
heavy Socialist following, the Socialist Party out there, Xorman 
Thomas had decidedly strong feeling, in fact strong support out there 
and carried some of the counties in the State of Montana particularly 
in my district in the 103^ election. 

"What I am trying to do is put you in the mind and in the sj)irit that 
existed as far as I was concerned at that jcirticular time. For instance, 
today I wouldn't write tliat kind of a letter to the Daily Worker. 

Ml-. Tavexxek. Did the same condition exist in Seattle, Wash., 
which yon have described ( 

Ml-. O'CoxxELE. In the State of AVashington you had about the 
same situation, in the history of the State there was 

Mr. Tavexxer. I^et me ask you this question: Did members of the 
Communist Party in Seattle come to you as secretary of the Progres- 
sive Pai-ty to discuss (\)mmunist Pai-ty j)roblems with you? 

yiv. O'CoxxELL. No: not to discuss Comnumist Party problems as 
such, both while I was executive secretai-y of the Democratic Party 
and executive secretai-y of the Pi-ogressi\e Party I can rememl>er Mr. 
Ileni-y P. Hurt' and Mr. Vnn Lydegraf, J think there was a Mr. Reme.s^ 
and otheis who came to the Democratic Party office and to the Pro- 



572 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

gressive Party Office and made certain representations about support 
of the legislation they ^Yere interested in, matters that they were taking 
a position in, and so on. I talked with them. 

Mr, Tavenner. Did that also include Tom Eabbitt and William 
Pen nock? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, in my time out there Kabbitt and Pennock 
had never been identified or identified themselves as members of the 
Communist Party. As I told you, Rabbitt was Democratic State sen- 
ator, Pennock was Democratic State representative and their dealings 
with me, they were delegates to the Democratic Central Committee in 
King County and their dealings wuth me were, as far as I knew, and 
ostensibly they dealt with me as members of the Democratic party. 

My. Tavenxer. We have spoken of the Daily Worker. You say 
you were not a subscriber. Were you a subscriber to the Daily People's 
World? ^ 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't think I ever subscribed to the People's 
World. I got the New World, I was a subscriber to the New World 
and to the Washington New Dealer. 

Mr. Tavexner. You were acquainted, w^ere you not, with a paper 
published in Chicago by the name of Midwest Daily Record ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I can't remember the Midwest Daily Record. 
When was that published? 

Mr. Tavenner. In the thirties. Do you recall having written a 
letter to the Daily Worker or made a public pronouncement recom- 
mending the publication of that paper ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No, I don't Was it a Communist newspaper ? 
Mr. Tavenner. Yes, it was. 

Mr. O'Connell. Did it exist any time ? Did it last any time ? 
Mr, Tavenner. Not for a long period, I don't know the period it 
existed. As I understand, you do not recall anything about that 
paper ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I honestly can't remember anything about it. I 
didn't even know it existed as far as I can remember. When I was 
down here in Congress there were a lot of newspapers and I am trying 
to think of some of them. A lot of them came in. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, were you acquainted with John T. 
Bernard, former Member of Congress ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes, sir ; I was a Member of the House in the 75th 
Congress with Mr. Bernard and I have seen him on several occasions 
since that time and I am acquainted with Mr. Bernard. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me the January 8, 1938, issue of the 
Daily Worker carrying an article entitled " 'I Am for the Loyalists 
and China,' Police Captain Declares at Lincoln Vets Trial," The last 
paragraph of this article states as follows: 

A dinner in honor of Robert Raven wtis given by the friends of the Abraham 
Lincoln P.rigade last night at the Aldine Club, 200 Fifth Avenue. Congressman 
John T. Bernard, Farmer-Laborite of Minnesota, paid tribute to the heroic death 
of Raven, and gave some account of his experiences while visiting Spanish battle- 
grounds with Jerry O'Connell, Congressman of INIontana. Other speakers were 
Steve Nelson. * * * 

Did you accompany John T, Bernard to the Spanish battlefields? 

Mr. O'Connell, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. When w^ere you in Spain and for what period of 
time? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 573 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. You are really getting into ancient history. My 
best recollection was that we were in Spain, I would say sometime in 
the month of October 1938 or maybe the latter part of October or 
early November 1938, somewhere in that period. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you there ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I would say about 3 weeks. 

Mr. Tavenner. As part of your experience there, did you and IVIi'. 
Bernard take part in the review of the American Brigade, Anglo- 
American Brigade, on the occasion of the celebration of the anni- 
versary of the^Eussian Eevolution? Do you recall reviewing the 
troops ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I remember reviewing the troops but not in con- 
nection with any celebration of the Russian Revolution. As I remem- 
ber, the only troops we reviewed were troops that came up when there 
was a change of command. The command of the brigade was to be 
taken over by somebody, I can't remember wlio they were now, but 
certainly not in connection with any celebration of the Soviet Revolu- 
tion. At least I certainly was not informed that that was the case. 
I had been active, while I was a JNIember of Congress, before I went 
to Spain I was very decidedly and very specifically on the side of the 
Spanish Republic, 1 did everything I coukl to promote American policy 
to help and to aid the Spanish Loyalists. They were the legally 
elected government of Spain, they were being attacked by Hitler and 
Mussolini as I saw it, and in my opinion it was the beginning, in fact 
the first battlefield of WorldWar II. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. Will j'ou tell the committee, please, who invited you 
and the circumstances under which you made the trip I 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, earlier in that year a group of Congressmen 
in the T5th Congi-ess, we had a group of Congressmen known as the 
liberal bloc of Congress headed by Maury Maverick of Texas. The 
newspapers described us as all fairly young. I was only 27 at the time. 
We were described as Young Turks and out of that liberal bloc a group 
of us, 5 or 6 or maybe 4 or 5, went to see Secretary of State Cordell 
Hull in connection with the Spanish situation and also legislation 
which was pending with reference to invoking the Neutrality Act as 
it existed at that time against Germany and Italy for their interven- 
tion in Spain, and Mr. Hull told us as far as this Government was 
concerned there was actually no evidence of Spanish and German 
intervention or I should say German and Italian intervention. 

I think I later, along with Congressman Coffee and Congressman 
Bernard and others, talked with David Niles, who was then executive 
assistant to President Roosevelt in connection with the situation. It 
was then suggested, I think just about the time Congress was adjourn- 
ing, Mrs. O'Connell and I had been married on the 2d of January 1937, 
and we had had no honeymoon and were going to Europe. 

My mother and father were both born in Ireland and I had always 
wanted to go there and we did go to Ireland, to England, France, and 
so on, had a reception at the Spanish Embassy, I would say probably 
about a month before adjournment or shortly before adjournment. 
Ambassador de Los Rios invited not only myself but Congres nian 
Bernard and several other Congressmen to go to Spain and investigate 
what the situation Avas there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he the person who extended the invitation to 
go to Spain ? 



574 COMMUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Yes. He was the one. We of course took care 
of our own arrangements here, got our passport from the State De- 
partment — I think we were issued special passports by the State De- 
partment. Our visas were procured. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Was any contribution made to you for the expenses 
of this trip for you and your wife, either for transportation or other- 
wise? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. No. We paid our own passage. I think we went 
over on the Queen Mary and came back on the Normandy. We paid 
all of our hotel expenses and we traveled by plane from Le liourget to 
Croydon and paid for those. I spent about a month in Ireland where 
my folks were born and all those exjjenses were paid by me and in 
Spain we were the guests of the Spanish Republic and there were no- 
expenses for hotel and trans])ortation in Spain itself. 

Our entry into Spain was expedited by the American Embassy in 
Paris. I think Robert Murphy was then Minister Plenipotentiary at 
the time and Acting Ambassador and he had Col. Steven Fucpiay, 
who was military attache of the American Embassy in Spain to meet 
us at the airport at Valencia. 

Mr. Tavexxer. After your return to this country, did you then be- 
come affiliated with organizations which have since been designated 
as front organizations relating to the Spanish problem? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Well, I don't know whether you could define it a& 
affiliated — I made speeches before many groups tliat were involved in, 
the lighting in behalf of the Spanish Republic. 

Mr. Ta\texxer. Did you become one of the sponsors of the Medical 
Bureau and North American Committee To Aid Spanish Democracy? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Right now I don't remember whether I did, but 
I wouldn't be a bit surprised. I am sure I did everything I could 

Mr. Tavexxer. I find your name on the letterhead of tliat organiza- 
tion on Jul}' 6, 19o8. Does that refresh 3^our recollection? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. I haven't seen it but if I am on there — I waut to 
say I did everything I could to save the Spanisli Republic. I felt very 
intensely about it. 1 am proud of wliat I did. 1 feel the same way 
about it today as I did then. 

I think the position that I took as far as history was concerned was 
later in the establishment of the United Nations and disbarment of 
Franco Spain from the United Nations at least vindication of the 
position that I had taken. But in July of 1938 certainly that com- 
mittee or that organization whose letterhead you say I am a sponsor 
on was not listed as a subversive organization or so described by 
anyone. 

Mr. Tavexxer. An examination of the letterhead of American Re- 
lief Ship for Spain bearing date of September 3, 1038, reflects you 
as one of the sponsors of this organization. Do you recall that I 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. I don't recall it but I am sure it is true. As I 
said, 1 worked every way I knew how for defeat of Franco and for 
the saving of the Spanish Republic. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you appear on a j^rogram of the Fourth Na- 
tional Congress of the Amei-ican league for Peace and Democracv in. 
Pittsburgh in November 1937? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Yes. 

Mr. Tavexxer. November 26 to 28, 1937. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 575 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I remember I missed the Armj^-Navy game. It 
rained and I was anxious to get to it. I remember I spoke at that 
meeting. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Was that in behalf of the loyalist cause? 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. It was in connection with Loyalist Spain. I think 
there was a resolution pending in the Congress to invoke the Neutrality 
Act against Germany and Italy for intervention and I think also 
removal of the embargo which had been placed against Spain. 

Mr. Tavexxek. Did you from time to time appear before various 
meetings of the Veterans of the Lincoln Brigade, and speak on the 
subject of the Spanish cause? 

Mr. O'CoxxEEL. I don't remember how many times. My present 
recollection of that, which, of course, is some it or 18 years ago, is 
that I made 1 or 2 speeches at meetings of the Friends of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade. 

Mr. Tavexxer. In the course of the making of those speeches did 
you become acquainted with Steve Xelson? 

Mr. O'Coxxeli.. Xo, sir: I never ever met Steve Xelson ; have never 
met Steve Xelson to this day. 

Mr. Tavexxer. I notice in the Daily Worker issue of July 8, 1937, 
that you were listed to speak along with Earl Browder and others 
on July 19. This was prior to your trip to Spain ? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. Yes. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Do you recall that? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. Yes. As I remember from the date that was the 
hrst anniversary of the beginning of the Spanish War and it was 
a meeting, as I remember, in Madison Square Garden and the speakers 
included — I know Fiorello LaGuardia spoke there. I knoAv Norman 
Thomas, the candidate for the Socialist Party spoke there ; a Republi- 
can Representative in Congress also spoke there. I spoke as a 
Democrat. 

Mr. ScHERER. Who was the Representative? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. If I remember, he was from one of the New York 
districts, I am not too sure which. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you remember his name ? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. I really don't. The jmrpose of the meeting as it 
was outlined was to luive a rei)resentative of all of the political parties 
si)eak at the meeting. Did Marcantonio speak there ? 

Mr. Tavexxer. He is listed as one of those. 

Mr. O'Coxxell. At tliat time T am pretty sure Marc was a Repub- 
lican Representative oi- had been a Republican Representative. 

Mr. Scherer. Marcantonio was a Republican Representative? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. Yes; he was. He came to Congress as a Repub- 
lican Representative. 

Mr. Sciierer. I understand how that happened. Was he the one 
you are referring to or Avas it somebody else ? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. I am not sure. I know there was a representative 
of every ])o]itical party that spoke tliere on the Spanish situation and 
ill favor of the Spanish Republic. 

Mr. Scherer. I imderstand tliat. but might it have been Marctui- 
tonio you were referring to? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. My remembrance is it was somebody else, but I 
don't want to — I am trying to think. As a matter of fact, he was from 
one of the silk-stocking districts of New York, as I remember. 

02222—55— pt. 3 6 



.576 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Willis. We will adjourn until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12: 30 p. m. the committee was recessed, to recon- 
vene at 2 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, JUNE 2, 195 5 

The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p. m. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Because of the pressure of legislative work, as we have gone along 
in these hearings it has been necessary to constitute and reconstitute 
the subcommittee. 

Mr. Scherer could not be here this afternoon and the chairman 
has now appointed a subcommittee of my colleagues, Mr. Velde, and 
Mr. Doyle, and myself as chairman. 

In view of the reconstitution of the subcommittee we will reswear 
the witness. 

Do you solemnly swear that you will testify according to the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, before this subcommittee ? 

Mr. O'OONNELL. I do. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

TESTIMONY OF JEKEMIAH JOSEPH O'CONNELL— Eesumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, were you a member of the national 
committee of the International Labor Defense in 1940 ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't know 

Mr. Tavenner. The Daily Worker of May 3, 1938, reports that 
Jeremiah O'Connell was a speaker at a function of the Internatinoal 
Labor Defense. 

According to Equal Justice, page 4, of the November 1938 issue, 
Jeremiah O'Connell was one of the sponsors of the Christmas drive of 
that organization. 

According to the May 1939 issue of Equal Justice, Jeremiah O'Con- 
nell was one of those who sent congratulations to the southern Cali- 
fornia district year book 1938 of the International Labor Defense. 

According to a leaflet the summer milk fund drive, Hotel Pennsyl- 
vania, New York City, of June 13, 1940, you were listed as a member 
of that committee of the International Labor Defense. 

Now, does that information refresh your recollection ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No. I mean I can't — I don't remember ever being 
elected to the international committee of the International Labor De- 
fense, or selected for it. 

I probably, as a Congressman, like on the milk fund, summer milk 
fund and Christmas fund, and so on, at that time the International 
Labor Defense used to send, I think Christmas presents to labor 
prisoners. 

During my term in Congress I was particularly active in fighting 
for the freedom of Tom Mooney. My Dad had been in the miner's 
union, a member and executive for that particular period ; he has al- 
ways been interested. "When I came here I introduced a resolution 
in the Congress asking for the freedom of Tom Mooney and for a 
pardon for him. 

I think my best recollection is as far as the International Labor De- 
fense is concerned that the matters I sponsored were around prisoners 
like Tom Mooney. 



1.0MMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 577 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you familiar with the fact that it has been cited 
as a Communist front organization ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I shouldn't say that I actually know that it has 
been cited, or when it was cited. 

Mr. Tavenner. Attorney General Tom Clark cited it as a subversive 
and Communist organization on June 1, 1948, and again on September 
22, 1948. 

Mr. O'CoxNELLr. It wasn't even in existence then. 

Mr. Tavenner. Probably not. Attorney General Francis Biddle, 
on September 24, 1942, cited it as a legal arm of the Communist Party. 

This committee on January 3, 1939, again on January 3, 1940 ; on 
June 25, 1942; and on March 29, 1944, cited it. In this committee's 
citation it was referred to as the American section of the MOPR Red 
International of Labor Defense, often referred to as the Red Interna- 
tional Aid. 

It was subsequently combined with the National Federation of Con- 
stitutional Liberties* to form the Civil Rights Congress. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. O'Connell, as a former Member of Congress, natu- 
rally you were interested in the citations of the Un-American Activi- 
ties Committee and the citation of the Attorneys General. Surely 
you must have some recollection that these organizations were sub- 
versive and cited as subversive by duly constituted bodies? 

Mr. O'Connell. Actually, I mean as far as the International Labor 
Defense is concerned, I think the latest, according to that record, that 
I was involved is sometime in 1940. I think its earliest citation was 
by this committee in 1939. 

Tlien the Attorney General's citations were many years after that 
when it was actually in existence. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. 1942? 

Mr. O'Connell. 1942. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Yes, sir; you said many years later; 1942 is the 
date that the Attorney General first cited. 

Mr. O'Connell. I thought you said 1948. 

Mr. Tantenner. There was one in 1948. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. O'Connell, I understood you to say that you didn't 
know that the International Labor Defense was a subversive organi- 
zation or cited as a subversive organization. 

Mr. O'Connell. I actually didn't know at the time I was involved 
there. I, for instance, know now that the International Labor Defense 
has been, and I have known it for some time in the past few years 
since it was cited. 

Mr. Velde. How long have you known it has been cited ? 

Mr. O'Connell. My best recollection would be that I have prob- 
ably known since 1945, somewhere in there; maybe a little earlier, but 
certainly at this time I didn't know it. 

For instance, I am out in the State of Montana. A lot of this mate- 
rial is not covered by the press in Montana, and it does not have any 
particular interest, and, of course, I was not involved ; I was no longer 
a Member of Congress at that time. 

I had a sincere desire, I actually believed, and felt that Tom Mooney 
had been framed, and I felt that he ought to be released from prison. 
I Avorked for his freedom. 



578 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

I think, in one instance, as far as the International Labor Defense 
is concerned, I was going into Jersey City to speak against Mayor 
Frank Hague. The meeting tiiat I was speaking at apparently was 
sponsored by Norman Thomas' Socialist Party, or they were the ones 
that had arranged it, and members of the International Labor Defense 
requested me not to speak, but I went there and spoke. 

At that time, to my best recollection, Mike Quill was the New York 
labor leader and still is. He was prevailing upon me not to go in there 
and speak, but I did go into Jersey City and tried to speak there. I 
felt that Frank Hague was denying civil liberties and particularly 
freedom of speech. 

Mr. Velde. But at that time did you not realize that the Inter- 
national Laboi- Defense had been cited by your Government as being 
subversive '^ 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Congressman, at that time I was 27, 28 years old. 
My political experience, particularly as far as Socialists were con- 
cerned, as far as Communists were concerned, and all of that, I had 
no training or study in Marxism-Leninism. 

As a matter of fact, I had very little knowledge of what the differ- 
ences were, what their division of opinion was, or anything of the 
kind. 

My feeling was that both of them were for socialism and I didn't 
know what their particular division was. 

Mr. Velde. What I am getting at is this : As a Member of Congress, 
following your defeat as a Member of Congress, you certainly were 
interested in the committees of Congress, you certainly were interested 
in what the Attorney General of the United States was doing. It 
seems to me that you should have been cognizant of the fact that the 
International Labor Defense was cited as a subversive organization. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. This is the first time today — no, for instance, this 
committee had cited the International Labor Defense at that particu- 
lar date. Now, I learned later 

Mr. Velde. Now, Mr. O'Coimell, there have been a lot of witnesses 
appear before this committee with a lot less intelligence than you, 
with a lot less knowledge of political activities of our Government, 
and, of course, we realize that there were a lot of those people who 
became involved in the Communist Party and the Communist Party 
manipulations. 

But I just cannot understand how you, as a Member of Congress, 
would not be cognizant of the fact that the International Labor De- 
fense was cited as a subversive organization. 

I don't question whether you believed it was. or was not ; or whether 
you believed that the Attorney General or this committee was right. 

Mr. O'Connell. I said that I later knew, but at the particular time 
involved here, Congressman, it had not been, in my first connection 
with it, had not been cited by the committee as such. 

I can't remember this milk fund in 1040, or whatever it was, but I 
presume it was to raise funds to provide milk for prisoners, labor pris- 
oners, children of labor prisoners, and so on. I don't remember s,pe- 
cifically about — 

Now, as far as my particular situation was concerned, the way I 
felt about these things. I mean for instance Avhether it was Mooney 
or whoever it might have been, I made up my inind so far as my judg- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 579 

iiient was concerned, wluit I thought was right and what I thought 
was wrong. 

Mr. Velde. Certainly you have that privilege, as we all do. 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. And I worked to accomplish what I thought was 
right. 

Mr. V-'elde. I am not questioning your privilege, your right, to make 
up your own mind. I am questioning the facts, your statement that 
you did not know. 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. About the best way to explain it to you, I came 
out of a district, I was born and raised in Butte. Butte is a mining 
town 

Mr, Velde. But you had been to Washington, D. C. Even before 
you ran for Congress you had been here. 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Yes, I had gone to school here, yes. 

In that particular day when I went to school here, as I remember, 
there wasn't any great discussion about Communists or Socialists or 
anything of that kind. When I went to school here in that day, I was 
in the— — 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Chairman, I do not see that this argument is getting 
us anywhere. 

Mr. O'Coxxell. The biggest thing of interest at tliat time was Al 
Smith and Governor Eitchie and other people's nominations for the 
Presidency. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Mr. O'Connell, were you a member of the na- 
tional committee of the American League for Peace and Democracy 
in 1939? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. I don't know whether I was in 1939, but maybe in 
1938 or 1937, and possibly 1939 I was a member of the American League 
for Peace and Democracy. 

Mr. Tavexxer. How long were you a member 'if that organiza- 
tion? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. I really wouldn't know. Actually after I went 
back to ]\rontana, outside of some communication and sponsorship, 
something of tliat kind, I had very little connection. As I remember, 
the League didn't last ; I mean it didn't last very long. 

Mr. Tavexxer. While you were a member of its national com- 
mittee, did you take part as a speaker in various functions of the 
American League for Peace and Democracy ? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. I tliink I can remember about two speeclies. I made 
a speech in Pittsburgh that you asked me about, and I made a speech 
in New York, at a banquet in New York. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did you remain a member of the national committee 
of the American League for Peace and Democracy until its dissolu- 
tion? 

:\Ir. O'Coxxell. When did it dissolve? 

Mr. Tavexner. In 1941. 

Mr. O'Coxxell. Well. I couldn't say whether I remained a member 
all of that time. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavexxer. During the course of the hearing before this com- 
mittee the chairman read into the record minutes of an executive com- 
mittee meeting of the American League for Peace and Democracy, 
held on January 23, 1939. I quote from what the chairman read into 
the record : 



580 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

In connection with the lesishitive program it says : "Get lists of friendly Con- 
gressmen and have teas and luncheons for them." 

A further idea of how they proceed is shown in the minutes of January 13, 1939, 
of the meeting held at the home of Mrs. Fowler, as follows : 

"It was suiigested that we make an attempt to get Congressmen to join the 
league. Mr. Smith will arrange for a luncheon meeting with Marcantonio and 
Jerry O'Connell to get their views on how to proceed. The idea is to make Con- 
gressmen part of an impressive list of sponsors" 

and from the same minutes — 

"Mr. Berrall announced a leguslative office will be established in Washington 
over the weekend with Jerry O'Connell doing the congressional work and two 
assistants at the otfice." 

Will you explain what your activity was among Congressmen to 
solicit membership in the American League for Peace and Democracy ? 

Mr. O'CoNNP^LL. When was this supposed to be? 

Mr. Tavenner. The minutes of the executive meeting were January 
13, 1939. 

Mr. O'Connell. I was no longer a Member of Congress in 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. I didn't say that you were. 

Mr. O'Connell. Then I was supposed to head some kind of office 
here? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Berrall announced that a legislative office will 
be established in Washington 

Mr. O'Connell. What is this Mr. Berrall ? Who is he ? 

Mr. Taa^nner. Do you know him ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No; I don't know him. 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Mr. Berrall announced that a legislative office will be established in Washing- 
ton over the weekend with Jerry O'Connell doing the congressional work and two 
assistants at the office. 

Mr. O'Connell. As far as I am concerned he is talking out of thin 
air, I had nothing to do with any office. I wasn't in a legislative office 
down here for the American League for Peace and Democracy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you in January 1939 ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, my best recollection would be that in January 
1939 I was back in the State of Montana. After I was defeated for 
Congress I started a weekly newspaper called Jerry O'Connell's Mon- 
tana Liberal. 

I am pretty sure I was back there getting that paper underway and 
getting it published and so on, trying to get subscriptions. I just 
think he is talking out of complete thin air because I certainly never 
came clown here and did any kind of work like that, or talked to any 
Congressmen or had teas for them or anything. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Do you recall when you left Washington at the end 
of the Congress in which you served ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't think after my defeat that I came back 
here at all. I was defeated, of course, in November 1938. I think 
my secretary came back and cleaned up what we had in the office and 
brought it back. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Mr. Chairman, I would like the record to show 
that the American League for Peace and Democracy was cited as sub- 
versive and Communist by Attorney General Francis Biddle on Sep- 
tember 24, 1942, in the following language : 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 581 

Established in the United States in 1937 as successor to the American League 
against War and Fascism in an effort to create public sentiment on behalf of 
the foreign policy adapted to the interest of the Soviet Union. The American 
League for Peace and Democracy was designed to conceal Communist control 
in accordance with the new tactics of the Communist International. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Chairman, may 1 inquire a little further on that? 

Mr. Willis. Certainly. 

Mr. Velde. Were you acquainted with any of the leaders of the 
movement of the American I^eague for Peace and Democracy ? 

Mr. O'CoxxELL. Well, about the only one I can remember, that 
stands out in my mind, was Dr. Harry F. Ward. 

]\Ir. Velde. Do you know Dr. Harry F. Ward ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I knew him at that time. 

Mr. Velde. You still know him, do you not ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, I think if he walked in the room I don't 
know whether I would recognize him. I would say it has probably 
been 10 or almost 15 years. 

Mr. Velde. At that time he was head of the Methodist Federation 
of Social Action. I presume you know that, do you not ? 

Mr. O'Connell, My impression was that he was head of this organi- 
zation. 

Mr. Velde. Will you answer my question? Did you know that he 
was head of the Methodist Federation for Social Action at that time? 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. Xo, I really didn't know whether he was,or not. 
My impression was that it was somebody by the name of Jack Mc- 
Michael that was head of that. 

Mr. Velde. If my memory serves me correctly, it was not until 
after that time. It was 10-1:2. Am I right, that Jack Mc^Iichael 
became head of the Methodist Federation for Social Action? 

Mr. O'Coxnell. This was quite a while ago. 

Mr. Velde. What contact did you have with Harry Ward as far 
as the American League for Peace and Democracy was concerned? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. About the only contact I had with him, I don't 
know whether he personally, but somebody before him, asked me to 
speak at a convention or meeting they had out in Pittsburgh in 
November 1937. 

Then there was a banquet as I recall ; I think after that time, some- 
thing in the early part of 1938, in New York, where he asked me to 
speak and, of course, he presided at the banquet in New York. I 
don't know whether it was at Pittsburgh, or whether he resided there, 
or not, but I remember his presiding. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any idea why he asked you to speak before 
the meeting? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. I think because of my position on foreign policy 
and particularly on Spain at that time. 

Mr. Velde. Did you know any other leaders in the movement for 
the American League for Peace and Democracy? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. The only one I recall now is Dr. Ward. 

Mr. TA\nEXXER. Possibly I can refresh his recollection on that. 

Wasn't Earl Browder one of the leaders? 

Mr. O'Coxxell. I don't know. I really don't know. If he were, 
any connection I had with the league — I mean I had certainly nothing 
to do with him. I mean, he wasn't involved at the meeting that I 
spoke to in New York or the meeting I spoke to in Pittsburgh. I 
never saw Browder or knew he was involved in it. 



582 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Tavkxxek. In the extnict from the niinutes of the executive 
meeting which I read a few moments ago 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. Where was this executive meeting? 

Mr. Tavenner. It was held in the home of Mrs. Fowler, on January 
13, 1939. Now, it was suggested at that meeting, according to what 
I read, that a person by the name of Mr. Smith would get in touch 
with Marcantonio and Jerry O'Connell to get their advice on how to 
proceed. 

Did anyone confer with you as to how to proceed to get Congressmen 
to lend their names as sponsors so as to form an impressive list for the 
American League for Peace and Democracy? 

Mr. O'Connell. Xo; certainly nobody got in touch with me. I 
don't know of any Smith who got in touch with me. I know I never 
had anything to do; I never came down here and iried to give Con- 
gressmen teas. I don't know who this ]Mrs. Fowler is ; I don't know 
who Berrall is. 

I think they were talking through their hat so far as I was concerned. 
i mean, I can't speak for Marc. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall having been a speaker at the function 
of American Friends of the Chinese People in June of 1938? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes ; that was in New York, was it not ? A ban- 
quet in New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. O'Connell. Or was that a meeting here in Washington? I 
think that was just after the Japanese aggression in China. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now aware that the American Friends of 
the Chinese People has been cited by this committee as a Communist- 
front organization ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Xo ; I am not aware of that even now. 

Mr. Tavenner. It was so cited on March 29, 1944. 

Mr. O'Connell. I never got copies of the hearings or deliberations 
or decisions of the connnittee. Out there our press, unless it is spe- 
cifically related to something out there, rarely carries any of this 
material. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Xovember 1948 issue of the Far East Spotlight 
reflects that you sent greetings to the Communist, Madame Sun Yat- 
Sen under auspices of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern 
Policy. Do you recall having done that ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Xo; I really don't recall having done it, but I don't 
deny that I did. I have ti-emendous respect for Madame Sun Yat-Sen. 
I wouldn't be a bit surprised. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee whether or not you were 
affiliated with the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy? 

Mr. O'Connell. Affiliated with it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. In any way ; yes. 

Mr. Willis. ^Yliat is the name of that committee? 

Mr. Tavenner. A Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy. 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't remember 

Mr. TA^^2NNER. When you say you probably did join in such a 
greeting, can you recall the circumstances under which the Committee 
for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy obtained your assistance? 

Mr. O'Connell. Xo; I really don't recall how it was done or who 
contacted me, or who asked me or anything. I am sure that if some- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 583 

body asked me to send a greeting to Madame Sun Yat-Sen I might 
liave done it. 

Mr. Tavenner. The record should show at this point that the Com- 
mittee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy was cited as a Communist 
organization by Attorney General Tom Clark on April 27, 1949. 

Were you acquainted with Mother Bloor ? 

Mr. O'CoxNELL. Yes; I knew Mother Bloor. 

Mr. Taatenner. What were the circumstances under which you 
knew lier ? 

Mr. O'CoNNEix. I am pretty sure that she came here to Washington 
and I was introduced to her here in Washington when I was in Con- 
gress, or if not, I probably 

Mr. Velde. Did vou know her to be a member of tlie Communist 
Party? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. How did you know she was a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. O'Connell. I think she said she was and was an avowed Commu- 
nist. I don't think she hid it or anything of that kind. 

Mr. Willis. ^Vhat is th name of that person ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Mother Bloor. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. B-1-o-o-r. 

Mr. O'Connell. As I recall, she came to see me in connection with 
my resolution in behalf of freedom for Tom Mooney. I am pretty 
sure that is how I met her. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you send her this greeting on her 75th birth- 
day : 

It affords me preat pleasure to add my word of commendatiou and praise to 
Mother Bloor and to wish her well on ihe occasion of the celebration in her 
honor. When the final history of the movement of labor throughout the world 
is written, I know that proper tribute will be paid to her for her militant and 
unceasing fight for the betterment of the classes that toil and I am happy and 
proud to be one of those who join in paying honor and tribute to her on this 
day of memorable celebration. With the sender's personal regards and every 
good wish, I greet her. 

Did you send such a greeting? 

iMr. O'C^onnell. 1 don't know. 'When was this supposed to be 
sent { 

Mr. Tavenner. On lier 75th birthday. 

Mr. O'Connell. I mean, when was that ? 

Mr. Tavenner. 1 am not certain as to the date. 

Mr. O'Connell. I mean she was a real character. I am trying to 
recall. My dad was killed in a strike out in Butte and another or- 
ganizer of the miners union was taken and hung at the Milwaukee 
trestle there. Whether Mother Bloor came out during that period 
or not, I really don't know. 

But she, at least when I was — she was a very old lady. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I can give you tlie date. It is July 18, 1937. 

Mr. O'Connell. It was her 75th birthday ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. O'Connei-l. I can't recall the wire. I don't remember sending 
it, but I wouldn't deny that I had greeted her on her 75th birthday. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that part of a plan of a group of people to 
add to her celebration ? 



584 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. CCoNNELL. I mean, I can't recall any of the facts. 

I don't know who held the celebration, or under what auspices. 

jNIr. TA\rENNER. Let me see if I can refresh your recollection: 

It is a fact that there was a celebration committee established to 
celebrate the 75th birthday of Mother Bloor, an open Communist in 
this countr}', throughout the width and breadth of the land, and that 
you were a member of that celebrating committee? Or, I should 
correct that and say that you were a sponsor of that celebration 
committee ? 

I have before me a letterhead showing that Congressman Jerry J. 
O'Connell was one of a list of sponsors for that celebration. 

Mr. O'Connell. I can't recall the circumstances now, but as far 
as Motlier Bloor was concerned, I am sure that I would have sent her 
some greetings on her 75th birthday, and if I am listed there as a 
sponsor — I don't recall it now, but I don't deny that I Mas, 

Mr. TAiTNNER. I desire to introduce the document in evidence, and 
ask that it be marked "O'Connell Exhibit No. 6" for identification 
only, and to be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Willis. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. The National Federation for Constitutional Lib- 
erties in January 1943 addressed a message to the House of Eepre- 
sentatives critical of the Dies committee and calling for its abolish- 
ment. A number of signatories appear to that letter and among them 
appears your name. It appears in this way : 

I hereby join in signing the January 1943 message to the House of Representa- 
tives opposing renewal of the Dies committee. 

There were a number of signatories, including Jerry O'Connell. 
Do you recall that? 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't recall, but I voted against the creation of 
the Dies committee in 1938 and I have constantly opposed it all the 
time it was in existence. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, in asking the question I am not critical in 
any sense and don't mean it in any sense, because of your decision to 
oppose a congressional committee. That is a right that anyone has. 

Air. O'Connell. Well, I was a Member of Congress and I had a 
right to vote against it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Not only as a Member of Congress, but as a citizen 
you had that right. I don't intend it in any way as critical, but my 
purpose in asking it is to find out what connection you had with the 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties which put out this 
message. 

Mr. O'Connell. So far as I can remember they probably sent me 
a copy of that message and asked me if I would join in it. And then 
I think I was the sponsor of a call to organize or set up the National 
Federation for Constitutional Liberties. 

Mr. Ta\T2Nner. I think I have already read into the record the 
citations by the Attorneys General Clark and Biddle of that organi- 
zation. So I will not repeat it. 

I asked you this morning about the activity of John Daschbach in 
connection with the Civil Rights Congress in the State of Washington. 
According to the committee's information, he was chairman of the 
steering committee of that organization. Is that true? 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 585 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I don't know whether he was chairman of the steer- 
ing committee. I remember he was the director in charge of the Civil 
Rights Congress office in Seattle. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't he name you as one of the members of the 
steering committee ? 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. If he did, I had no knowledge of it. When did 
he name me ? When was this done ? 

Mr. TA\rENNER. In October of 1948. 

Mr. 0'CoNNEi.L. He may have put me on there, but I never served 
as a member of the steering committee in the Civil Rights Congi-ess. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why didn't you? 

Mr. O'Conxell. Well, I just remember I didn't. In October of 1948 
particularly we were in the midst of the 1948 campaign and I was 
the executive secretary of the Progressive Party. 

Mr. Ta\t:xner. The campaign would have been over in November ; 
would it not ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, sir; it would have been, but I mean from 
October — October is always involved in politics, October is the month 
when the general election campaign is carried on. 

He, of his own volition, may have made me a member of the steer- 
ing committee, but I certainly don't remember getting any notifica- 
tion and I certainly know I didn't serve on the steering committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, you have repeated a number of 
times during the course of the testimony your denial of any knowledge 
of Communist Party membership on the part of Tom Rabbitt and 
William Pennock while you were in the State of Washington. 

Now, I have examined the testimony taken at the Can well hear- 
ings — which occurred in 1948 ; did they not ? 

Mr. O'Connell. As I remember, there were two hearings j3ut there. 
There was one in 1947 — I think there was a hearing in 1947, and one 
in 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. The first hearings were conducted from January 27, 
to February 5 of 1947, and subsequent hearings were, or at least the 
report was made in 1948. I am not sure whether the bulk of the hear- 
ings were in 1947 or in 1948. 

Mr. O'Connell. I think, as I remember, the longer hearings were 
in 1947 and then there were some shorter hearings held in 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I have examined this testimony and I find 
that Louis Budenz identified Tom Rabbitt, as a member of the Com- 
munist Party during the course of that hearing. He was the first 
witness. 

Mr. O'Connell. If the committee please, I think ]Mr. Budenz at 
that hearing was asked questions about whether or not I was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party and I think the records will show there 
that he didn't definitely say that I was. He said that there was some 
discussion alwut me in Conununist Party headquarters, and that I 
had a good record in Congress and the Communists thought I was 

jNIr. Tav-enner. I will give you an opportunity to explain that a 
little later. 

Mr. O'Connell. Don't let me forget because I sued Mr. Budenz 
about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will give you an opportunity to explain that. 

Mr. Willis. Sued whom? 

Mr. O'Connell. I sued Mr. Budenz for the statements that he made. 



586 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. Tavexner. Mr. Ward F. Warren identified Thomas Eabbitt 
as a person he knew to be a member of the Communist Party, that he 
sat in closed party meetings with Thomas Rabbitt. 

Senator James Sullivan identified Thomas Eabbitt as a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Kathryn Fogg-, K-a-t-h-r-5^-n, identified Thomas Eabbitt as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, and described fraction meetings which 
he attended with her. 

Jess Fletcher, who was a well-known member of the Communist 
Party in Seattle, identified Thomas Eabbitt as a member of the Com- 
munist Party and stated that he had sat in many Communist Party 
meetings with him and that he had attended, that Eabbitt had 
attended. Communist Party meetings in his home ; that is, in Fletch- 
er's home. 

Nat Honig identified Thomas Eabbitt as a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Harriett Eiley identified Thomas Eabbitt as a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

H. C. Armstrong identified Eabbitt as a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Xow, you knew at the time of those hearings that Thomas Eabbitt 
during those hearings had been identified as a Communist Party 
member by numerous individuals; didn't you? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I knew that at those hearings those people whom 
you have named had said that lie was a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVhen I asked you that question, you told us that 
you had never lieard that Thomas Eabbitt was a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; I don't think I said I ever heard. You asked 
if I knew that he was a member of the Communist Party, and I said 
no, I didn't know . 

Now, I could go through, and I don't Avant to take the time of the 
committee, I could tell you like, for instance, Armstrong, Sullivan, 
and all of the others, not all of the others, many of those, Kathryn 
Fogg, were all members of the State legislature, and they had various 
fights and conflicts and so on, and some of them were eliminated from 
the legislature, and some weren't, and so on. 

I could go through, Jess Fletcher was in the building-service union 
of which Eabbitt also was a member. There was fighting and division 
and dissension there. 

Now, I think in view of all this, T think it ought to be remembered 
I came out in the State of Washington in August of 1944 and many 
of these things that have gone on, and so on, 1 know nothing of, or 
knew anything about it. 

As a niatter of fact, one of the principal jobs I had in the Demo- 
cratic Party was to try to smooth out a lot of the fighting and dissen- 
sion that had gone on between the so-called conservative and pro- 
gressive wings of the Democratic Thirty out there. It was a job that 
I was apparently quite successful in. 

Mr. Tavenneb. Did you attend a number of meetings, the purpose 
of which was to oppose the holding of the Canwell hearings? 

Mr. O'Connell. No; I mean the Progressive Party had meetings 
and, of course, to oppose the Canwell committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 587 

Mr. Tavennek. Were you bitterly opposed to the conduct of those 
Ilea rings? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Decidedly so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the hearing picketed? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL, The hearing was picketed; yes. 

Mr. Tam-^nnek. Were you in the picket line ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I wasn't actually in the picket line. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you take pait in the picketing i 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I was there and I was encouraging the picket line 
to be orderly and to make sure that its conduct was correct and so on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you arrested in connection with a disturb- 
ance calculated to break up those hearings ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. 1 was arrested for disturbing the peace and dis- 
orderly conduct, but I was acquitted on that charge. 

Mr. Tavenner. So you were keenly interested in the Canwell 
hearings ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I was decidedly opposed to the Canw^ell commit- 
tee. As a matter of fact, of the 7 members of the committee, I think 
Ave eliminated 6 of them in the following elections. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew very well that Tom Rabbitt had been 
identified over and over again in the course of those hearings as a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I, of course, was not inside the meetings. I 
mean, I didn't hear a lot of the testimony. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean to tell us that you didn't know that 
Tom Rabbitt had been identified as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I knew, for instance, in the press and the press 
leports, and from information given to me that various people in 
there had said that Rabbitt and others were members of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then we cannot rely on your statement of this 
morning and yesterday when I asked you whether or not you knew 
that Tom Rabbitt, or had heard that Tom Rabbitt was a member 
of the Communist Party when you were dealing with him in the 
pension union and in the work of the Progressive Party? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Now, I said, and if my testimony is that I had 
not heard, 1 want to change it, but I said I did not know of my own 
knowledge and my testimony is that I did not know of my own 
knowledge and even today 1 do not know of my knowledge that 
Rabbitt is a member of the Communist Party. 

As I understand it, he has not admitted that he is. I think accord- 
ing to your report he refused to testify and invoked the privilege of 
the fifth amendment as far as he was concerned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't almost the same witnesses identify William 
Pennock as a Communist Party member during those same hearings? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. So what is true with regard to Mr. Rabbitt, is true 
with regard to Mr. Pennock? 

Mr. ()'Cf)NNELL. My testimony is that I didn't know of my own 
knowledge that they were members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Velde. You stated you did have a suspicion that they were 
nieml)ers of the Communist Party at the time j^ou were dealing with 



588 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

them in the pension nnion. Now, will you tell this committee upon 
what you based that suspicion? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Largely, I was decidedly surprised when I heard 
the testimony of many of the people who testified in the Canwell 
hearings. I wr-- surprised by Kathryn Fogg who, for instance, was 
a Democratic leader in South King County w^hom T knew real well. 
I didn't dream she was a member of the Communist Party or had been 
one. When she came and testified that she had been a member of the 
Communist Party and had met in meetings I was certainly surprised. 

And H. C. Armstrong 

Mr. Velde. When did you first suspect that Rabbitt and Pennock 
were members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, the first suspicion that I had was actually 
around the period of time of those hearings out there. Up to that 
time it had been my job as executive secretary of the Democratic 
Party, I had to cover the whole State of Washington. I went around 
on tours and trips and speaking schedules and so on, and my contact 
with Rabbitt and Pennock largely during the first 2 years I was out 
there, 1945 and 1946, really was when I would come in to talk to a 
meeting of the King County Democratic Central Committee that they 
were sitting on as delegates. Democratic delegates from the 35th Legis- 
lative District. 

Mr. Velde. Yet they were district committee members of the Com- 
munist Party in the State of Washington. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. That I do not know. 

Mr. Velde. It was fairly well known among politicians at least 
that they were ; is that not true ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No, I don't think so because — of course, I was com- 
pletely dependent upon information from Democratic Party leaders 
out there who had been active in the Democratic Party for a long 
time. For instance, Rabbitt and Pennock were on various commit- 
tees all through the Democratic Party and were actually, of course, 
members of the legislature, 1 in the senate and 1 in the house. 

Mr. Taitcnner. Were they working with the Progressive Party 
after that? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes, but, my position as far as Rabbitt and Pen- 
nock — today it is easy to go back 5 and 6 years and the developments 
that have gone on and the exposures that have been made and so on, 
have been much greater in tlie past than they were then. It was not 
my job to determine whether Rabbitt or Pennock was a Communist. 

Mr. Velde. We acknowledge that, of course, 

Mr. O'Connell. As far as the Democratic Party was concerned, 
we had certain platforms, certain programs. 

Mr. Velde. But it is difficult for me to believe in your associations, 
the various associations you had with them, that you did not know 
that tliey were members of the Communist Party. I want to say that 
with all respect to you as a former Member of Congress. 

Mr. O'Connell. I didn't like Rabbitt ; I had very little to do with 
Rabbitt. I fired him as a Progressive Party staff man in about May 
of 1948. . 

My first connection with him, where I was close to what he was like 
and what he did and so on, all that was from about the latter part 
of March 1948 down until May and in May of 1948 I removed him 
from the staff of the Progressive Party. I didn't really like him. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 589 

Now, up until Bill Pennock, actually I had talked with Bill Pen- 
nock many times and he was much more, I would say, a real Democrat. 
He was in the Democratic Party conclaves ; in their meetings and so 
on, and, of course, a much more personable fellow and all that, but 
until Bill Pennock actually announced, and regardless of this testi- 
mony that is there, and I talked with Bill Pennock after this testimony 
was given, and he vociferously denied that he issued statements in the 
papers and in the press and everything and pension union statements 
were made, up to the minute Bill Pennock made an open statement 
just before he was going on trial in the Smith Act cases in 1953 or 1954, 
whenever they were out there, I certainly had some real, real doubt 
whether Bill Pennock was a member of the Communist Party. 

And I think you will find that pretty generally out there, if you 
went out and talked to ordinary people out there, who were working 
in the Democratic Party, chairmen and State committeemen and so on, 
and all of that kind. 

Mr. Velde. Well, it is entirely possible. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. For instance, Governor Wallgren, who had been 
in the Congress for 10 years, and had been United States Senator for 
about 6 years. Governor Wallgren appointed Pennock to a position as 
assistant superintendent of institutions out there. 

Mr. Ta\t:nxer. However, that wasn't after 1948. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, that was in 1945. 

Mr. Velde. At that time, how would you determine in your own 
mind whether or not a person was a member of the Communist Party ? 
What standards would you use ? I am talking about the Wallace cam- 
paign. 

Mr. O'Connell. About which campaign? 

Mr. Velde. The Progressive campaign with Wallace. What stand- 
ards would you use to determine whether or not a man was a Com- 
munist ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Taking Kabbitt specifically, the reason I removed 
him as a member of the staff in the Progressive Party in 1948, in 1948 
the Progressive Party was under attack, particularly nationally, as 
being Communist controlled and Communist dominated and being a 
Eed party and so on, and we had, particularly in South King County, 
an organizer by the name of Belden who was a member of various vet- 
erans' groups out there. 

Belden was organizing Progressive Party clubs 

Mr. Velde. With all due respect, I think you could tell what stand- 
ards you would use. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. ^Yhen Belden was asked by people whether or not 
this was a Red party, Belden, of course, would deny it and go on 
and say the kind of people who were in it. 

Rabbitt was critical of the way that he said that it was not a Eed 
pary and the inference which he left which was in effect a denunciation 
of the Reds and all of that and, of course, I figured if he is touchy 
about that on the subject and all that, why, there is probably some 
basis for it, for the charges that have been made against him. 

Mr. Veijde. You have not answered the question at all, in my opin- 
ion. Let me ask you this: You were familiar with the fact that the 
Soviet Union had established an espionage network here in the United 
States by 1948, were you not? 



590 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No ; I was not. I don't know whether that is true 
even today. I mean, you asked me and I don't know. I would have 
to be shown and somebody would have to show" me where they are and 
the proof. I don't know whether that is true. 

Mr. Veij)e. Are you familiar with the various Smith Act trials? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I have read a lot about the Smith Act trials ; yes, 
sir. But in none of the Smith Act trials they were not charged with 
espionage and treason or anything of that kind. 

Mr. Velde. No; of course they were charged with advocating the 
overthrow of our form of government by force and violence. 

Mr. O'CoNNELi... It even goes back further than that, conspiring to 
teach and all that, but in none of those trials I don't know any develop- 
ment of espionage or spying. Of course, I am not familiar with all 
the testimony. I have not read it all. 

Mr. Velde. Are you familiar with the Rosenberg case ? 

Mr. O'Connell. I am familiar with the Rosenberg case. 

Mr. Velde. Certainly from the result of that you must have had the 
suspicion that there was an espionage network operating in this 
country. 

Mr. O'Connell. Even today I am not convinced that the Rosen- 
bergs were involved in Soviet espionage. Right now I think there 
is serious doubt of it. 

Mr. Velde. Even though they were convicted under our American 
system of jurisprudence? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Even though they were convicted and executed I 
still feel it. You see, Congi'essman, I have a genuine interest in civil 
liberty. It is not a Communist interest in civil liberty. I have 
studied the testimony in the case of the Rosenbergs and so on. I think 
it is seriousl}'' lacking, at least in my mind, and from my very meager 
experience as an attorney, it is seriously lacking in fundamental proof 
of their guilt. I think Dr. Harold Urey, many scientists and so on, 
feel the same way about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, I note when speaking of Pennock 
and Rabbitt that a great part of your answers has dealt with the 
].)eriod when you were secretary for the Democratic Party. But it was 
after the Canwell hearings that the Progressive Party was established. 
It was in the spring of 1947. 

So at the time that Pennock and Rabbitt were associated with the 
Progressive Party this information had already come out in the Can- 
well hearings ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you have spoken of what happened before the 
Canwell hearings. 

Mr. O'Connell. That doesn't prove to me, I mean knowing many 
of the people that testified — for instance, Jim Sullivan, I know Jim 
Sullivan's attitude and motives. I know precisely that he w^as presi- 
dent of the Washington Pension Union and he lost his job and Pen- 
nock got it. 

I could go through with those, I could go through each one and 
show the particular reason why they testified. I judge by what 
Budenz said about me — Budenz knew I w^asn't a member of the Com- 
munist Party. He didn't dare testify that I was. 

^Ir. Velde. Will you tell us 

Mr. O'Connell. Will you let me finish, Congressman. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH,, AREA 591 

Mr. Velde, You did not answer my question a while ago as to how 
you would judge whether or not a person was a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I really haven't thought about it. I can't give 
you precise standards and tests. I, for instance, don't think, I mean 
the standards and tests set down in the Communist Control Act of 
] 954 are good ; I think they would embrace a lot of people who are non- 
Communists. I think it would involve a lot of people who are not 
members of the Communist Party if you were to take those tests, for 
instance. I think it is entirely too broad. 

Mr. Tavenner. The sum and substance of your testimony is that 
the eight witnesses whose testimony I have quoted here are not worthy 
of belief and therefore, you just ignored their testimony when the 
matter came up of associating Eabbitt and Pennock with you in the 
Progressive Party work ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Not only as far as I was concerned, but as far as 
the people of the State of Washington, particularly in the districts 
that these representatives were concerned, and the Legislative As- 
sembly of the State of Washington itself, this job was so poorly done 
by the Canwell committee that the committee was never re-created, and 
in the last session of the Legislative Assembly of Washington State 
had Canwell before it for contempt for the destruction of the records 
of his committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer my question, please ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, the thing I am trying to point out to you is 
that I know how those hearings were conducted. There was no oppor- 
tunity, no opportunity for cross-examination; no opportunity for wit- 
nesses to come in on the other side, or anything. I mean, people were 
paraded there, like Budenz, and the others, came there and made long, 
long statements; they just went on and on and made statements about 
almost everything imaginable and conceivable. 

Mr. Ta\:enner. You still haven't answered my question. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. As far as I was concerned that did not prove to 
me that Rabbitt or Pennock or anybody named in there was Com- 
munist. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. My question was whether or not you absolutely 
Ignored the testimony in the selection of those people to assist you in 
the work of the Progressive Party. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, I wouldn't use the language that I totally 
ignored it, or anything, but I was not motivated in my dealings with 
them by anything that was developed in those hearings. Now, you 
promised me an opportunity to 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. I will. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. All right. 

Mr. Taat^nner. You have told us that you were acquainted with 
Barbara Hartle. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, I think that is a correct statement that I was 
acquainted with her. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that you had met her probably 5 times. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I met her the first time in Montana. Then I met 
her a few times in the State of Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. I asked Mrs. Hartle in the course of the testimony 
taken in June 1954 to tell the committee to what extent the Commmiist 

62222— 55— pt. 3 7 



592 coMMuisrisT activities in the Seattle, wash., area 

Party in that area was interested in the work of the Progressive Party. 
You will find it on page 6215 of her testimony. Her reply was this : 

To a very considerable extent. After the reconstitution the Communist Party 
recognized its revisionism of Marxism-Leninism in the political field, and decided 
that the correct program was for a new third anti-imperialist party. After this 
ideological campaign had proceeded for at least a year the Progressive Party 
was founded preceded for a period by the Progressive Citizens of America. The 
Communist Party viewed this as a development along favorable lines and in this 
district threw considerable effort into the support and building of it and was 
able to furnish the top leadership as well in the State. Hugh DeLacy, head of 
the Progressive Citizens of America, Jerry O'Connell, and Tom Rabbitt, head of 
the Progressive Party, all three of whom were in executive positions, were mem- 
bers of the Communist Party to the best of my understanding. I have less 
knowledge of O'Connell's Communist Party membership than of DeLacy and 
Rabbitt, but have sat in Communist Party meetings with him when all present 
were Communists, and I understood him to be one also, or at least so sympa- 
tlietic as to make no actual difference. Many Communist Party members were 
for the founding of the Progressive Party in this State and worked in it after 
Its founding. They numbered in the hundreds. The policy of the Progressive 
Party in this State was controlled by the Communist Party and' if there were 
any problems at all along this line they came from national demands or from 
demands of persons and groups working also in the Progressive Party and whom 
the Communist Party wanted to retain and influence. Other Communist Party 
leaders also in leadership of the Progressive Party were William J. Pennock, 
Karley Larsen, Fair Taylor, Tom Rabbitt, Jerry O'Connell. 

Then she proceeded to refer to other Communist Party members 
active in the Progressive Party. 

I want to call to your attention the fact that she stated that the 
Communist Party furnished the leadership to the Progressive Party 
in the State. The first person she named in that capacity was Hugh 
Delacy. ^Vliat was Hugh Delacy's position in the Progressive Party? 

Mr. O'Connell. Hugh Delacy had no position in the Progressive 
Party and no office in the Progressive Party, in the State of Washing- 
ton. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it in the Progressive Citizens of America? 

Mr. O'Connell. I think he was head of the Progressive Citizens of 
America. We had actually, when the Progressive Party was organ- 
ized we had a real fight because the Progressive Citizens of America 
were coming in, they had an organizational drive which was in sup- 
port of Wallace as such, but when the Progressive Party of Washing- 
ton was actually set up the leadership came not from the people who 
were in the Progressive Citizens of America, but from people who 
were in the Democratic Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. And people who were in the Young Progressives? 

Mr. O'Connell. I don't think we had any Young Progressives. 

Mr, Tavenner. Did you have any position, prior to the formation 
of the Progressive Party in any organization other than the Demo- 
cratic Party? 

Mr. O'Connell. No. As I told you, we had an organization known 
as Roosevelt Democrats ; I was executive secretary of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Other than that, you had no position in any group 
or branch ? 

Mr. O'Connell. No, and Tom Rabbitt was not the head of the Pro- 
gressive Party. Russell Fluent was. 

Mr. Tavenner. But he did hold an executive position as stated by 
Mrs. Hartle? 

Mr. O'Connell. No, he did not. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 593 

Mr. Tavenner. "What was his position ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. As I said, he was on the staff from about, I would 
say 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't that an executive position, being a member of 
the staff ? Was he paid for his services ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. He was paid for his services. 

I mean, as I understand, he was not in an executive position. He 
had an organizational job to do this southern King County. I mean, 
he was assigned to organizational work, but it certainly wasn't, I mean 
he wasn't chairman or vice chairman, or secretary, or any executive 
position as I know it. And because of the kind of job he did out 
there, I dropped him from the staff. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, Delacy has been shown to have been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party by witnesses other than Barbara Hartle 
and since her testimony. Rabbitt has also. 

Mrs. Hartle stated she had less knowledge of Communist Party 
membership on your part, but that she sat with you in Communist 
Party meetings when all present were Communists. Is that statement 
true or false ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. That statement, as far as I am concerned, is false. 
I never sat in any Communist Party meeting with her, at least that 
I knew was called a Communist Party meeting. I have never sat in 
when all present were Communists. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you sit in any Conmiunst Party meeting when 
some of the persons present were not Communists ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I do not know what her definition of a Communist 
Party meeting would be. That is the first thing that bothers me about 
tliat statement. I, for instance — I mean if the Communist Party 
called a meeting, as I understand her statement here, if the Commu- 
]iist Party called a meeting I know I never went to that meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you sit in a meeting of Communist Party 
members ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. If she means, for instance, that a meeting of prob- 
able Democrats in the 35th District, people who were in the Democrat 
Party were there and there was a meeting 

Mr. Tavenner. You speak of the Democrat Party each time. This 
testimony relates to the Progressive Party. Wliy not refer to that 
period of time ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, she said she sat in Communist Party meet- 
ings with me when all present were Communists. Likewise with the 
Progressive Party. I mean there could have been a Progressive Party 
meeting called and all that, and all of the people there present might 
liave been Communists to her knowledge but certainly not to mine. 
She is careful ; I mean she qualifies, she says, "I understood to be one 
or at least so sympathetic as to make no actual difference." She had 
doubts. 

Mr. Willis. At this point that is what this has just about boiled 
down to in my mind, Mrs. Hartle's description. This morning I sat 
here and listened to the period of time when you were chairman of the 
Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill. You became associated with 
or had business relations with Mr. Silberstein, Mr, Stone, Rose Clinton, 
Tom Buchanan, Ruth Rifkin, Elizabeth Sasuly, Tilla Minowitz, Carl 
Marzani, Lillian Clott, and xVlexander Wright. In each instance you 



594 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

had an explanation, although we read from the record that others had 
said that these people were Communists, that you did not know about 
them. Well, that is a little difficult but it could have happened. I am 
not re])roaching you, but you become a little more indifferent when 
you will not accept, for instance, the pronouncement of a court, the 
highest court of the land, that Rosenbergs were Communists. You 
refuse to accept that; j'-ou still are not convinced. 

To me her description is becoming pretty good, to be so tolerant as 
to be completely indifferent. Probably your mind is shut to having 
a standard to satisfy you as to whether a group is or is not Communist. 
I am entirely frank about it. Listening all morning my mind at this 
time, even more and more as we go along, is that maybe your sincere 
feeling — how did she describe that 'i 

Mr. O'CoNNELL (reading) : 

I understand him to be one also, or at least so sympathetic as to make no actual 
difference. 

Mr. Willis. Well, if she had used the words "so indifferent," it 
would have been pretty close to my frank analysis of your testimony. 

Mr. Velde. Let me say I concur with your statement, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. If she had substituted the word "indifferent," it would 
have been a close analysis of our appreciation of your testimony up to 
now. I look forward, however, to your contest with Mr. Budenz in 
that lawsuit that you mentioned. 

Mr. O'Connell. I want to assure you that there is a difference. 
One can be a sincere American liberal and still fight for the political 
rights and civil rights of Communists. I can be non-Communist and 
yet not anti-Communist, just like I can be a Democrat and yet not an 
anti-Republican. 

Mr. Willis. Yes, but you still have not given us a standard. It is 
hard to put in words — I do not know how to describe it — as to what 
is my standard, of what is a Communist. I would say that after a 
trial by all our courts, including a refusal of relief from the Supreme 
Court, refusal of appeals to two Presidents, with all the pressure 
brought on them, the courts and executive officers (I suppose they 
must have reviewed the record ; they all seemed satisfied) but still you 
are not satisfied. So that makes it indifferent to me as to what your 
standard could be. 

Mr. O'Connell. I do not want to go into all of the evidence as I 
understand it, but as an attorney I am completely suspicious of the tes- 
timony given by David Greenglass. He had real motives. He had 
everything to gain by what he was doing. During the pleas for 
clemency and since that time there has been other evidence produced 
that in my mind raises a real question, the positions taken by Dr. 
Harold Urey and by other scientists as to whether or not the so-called 
secret which was transferred or alleged to have been transferred and so 
on was a secret at all. These are the things that make me wonder 
about it. I am not satisfied. 

Mr Ta\^nner. Mr. O'Connell, you of course, noted from the testi- 
mony that I read that Barbara Hartle, who has been qualified as an 
expert in this field, stated that the Communist Party furnished the 
top leadership in the State of Washington for the Progressive Party. 
She also stated that the policy of the Progressive Party in that State 
was controlled by the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AKEA 595 

Now in that connection I want to follow a little further along with 
her testimony to support the extent to which the Conununist Party 
was in a position to control the Progressive Party. I made this state- 
ment to Mrs. Hartle on page 6216 : 

Mrs. Hartle, the committee staff has procured from the secretary of state of 
the State of Washington a photostatic copy of the reports required to be made 
by law of the proceedings of the nominating convention for the year 1952 — 

that was the nominating convention of the Progressive Party — 

It is noted that the certificate is signed by Thomas C. Rabbitt, permanent secre- 
tary of the Progressive Party. You have heretofore identified him as a member 
of the Commimist Party, have you not? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. The document referred to contains a certificate of attendance at 
the nominating convention of the Progressive Party held on the 9th day of Septem- 
ber 1952. Will you please examine the list and read into the record the names of 
those appearing thereon who are known to you to have been members of the 
Commimist Party? 

(The witness then proceeded to read the names of those she had 
identified.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you now count the number of those whose signatures ap- 
pear on the list? 

Mrs. Hartle. Yes ; 33. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have kept a record of the number of those identified by you as 
members of the Communist Party. Out of the total list of 33 names, you have 
identified 19. 

Mrs. Hartle further testified that while she was in the underground 

of t]ie Communist Party, which meant after 1950 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Where is that ? 

Mr. TA^^:]srNER, It is on the same page. 

I received a brief description of what this Independent Party was. I was 
told that it had been impossible to place candidates for the Communist Party 
on the election ballot and that steps were taken then to put Commuinst can- 
didates on an Independent Party ticket and take this means of bringing the 
Communist program Into the election campaign. 

The result was that we furnished to Mrs. Hartle a list of 49 persons 
certified by an affidavit to have attended the nominating convention 
of the Independent Party. Mrs. Hartle was asked to examine that 
list. Of the 49 persons appearing on the list, she identified 36 as 
known to her to be members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. That list, of coarse, is all 1952 with reference to 
the Progressive Party in 1950, with reference to the so-called In- 
dependent Party ? 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right. 

Mr. O'CONNELL. My testimony is that I left the State of Wash- 
ington in October 1949. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is correct. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I could distinguish if we had the time, as far as 
these people were concerned, with reference to the Progressive Party 
as it existed when I was there. 

(Whereupon, a short recess was taken.) 

(The committee members present when the hearing reconvened 
were Messrs. Willis and A-^elde. ) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 



596 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH,, AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. O'Connell, you told us a few minutes ago that 
Hugh DeLacy had not been connected with your organization ; that 
is, the Progressive Party. 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; I did not say that he 

Mr. Tavenner. You said he was not in an executive position. 

Mr. O'Connell. He was not in an executive position. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he an organizer employed by you? 

Mr. O'Connell. I do not remember whether he was there during 
the period when the party was actually organized, but he was there 
for a period of a few weeks. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was in 1948, was it not? 

Mr. O'Connell, In 1948 when the organization work was being 
done. Then he later went on to the position with the national office of 
the Progressive Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. He finally be(;ame the head of the Progressive 
Party for the State of Ohio? 

Mr. O'Connell. I think that is correct. 

Mr, Tavenner. According to his testimony, he was employed as a 
State organizer for the Progressive Party in Washington from some- 
time around February or March, perhaps even later, of 1948, up to 
somewhere around June of the same year. 

Mr. O'Connell. I think that is comparatively correct. My re- 
membrance of it is that the provisional committee operated from 
about March, I would say around March 23 of 1948, and we actually 
had the founding convention of the rest of the party in the State of 
Washington the latter part of May. 

Mr, Tavenner, DeLacy was a paid functionary for the Progressive 
Party during the period he indicated, was he not ? 

Mr, O'Connell. He was a paid organizer during that period. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you employ him? 

Mr. O'Connell. I could not say strictly that I employed him. T 
think that there was an executive committee group that was set up 
at the time. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Were you his superior? 
Mr. O'Connell. I was his superior; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now you indicated that you desired an opportunity 

to explain the testimony that Mr. Louis Budenz 

Mr. Willis. Before you come to that, you started to say 3 or 4. 
times that you had fired Mr. Kabbitt. 

Mr. O'Connell. I fired Mr. Kabbitt; I removed him from the staff. 
Is that what you mean ? 

Mr, Willis. Yes. Why did you fire him? 

Mr. O'Connell. I explained he was organizing in southern King 
County and he was supercritical of the work of a man by the name 
of Belden who was organizing clubs in what we call the 30th Legisla- 
tive District of King County. The party was being attacked as being 
Communist or Communist-controlled or Red, and Belden was trying 
to explain as an ordinary individual that it was not Communist-con- 
trolled and was not Red. In the course of his explanation, at least, 
left anti-Communist inference ; Rabbitt was critical of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. It appears from the certificate made under law to 
the State of Washington that he was secretary of the Progressive 
Party in 1952 — that Rabbitt was secretary. 
Mr. O'Connell. In 1952? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 597 

Mr, Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I, of course, of my own knowledge would not know 
if that is correct. 

Mr. Ta-v^nner. Did he remain on the executive committee of the 
Progressive Party after the time you say you discharged him from 
his paid position? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, not as long as I was there. "V\^ien I left in 
October of 1949, as 1 understand, in the early part of December a 
resolution was passed by the State board of the Progressive Party 
declaring my office vacant because I had not returned from the State 
of Montana. Either at that meeting or shortly after, Rabbitt was 
named by the executive committee. I think, first, the original title 
given to him ^^as coordinator. Later I think he was made executive 
secretary. I know these things from what people have told me, but 
not of my own knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not sure that you have answered specifically 
my question relating to the testimony of Barbara Hartle insofar as 
it referred to you. Barbara Hartle testified that you attended Com- 
munist Party meetings in which she was present where all the persons 
present were members of the Communist Party. Did you attend any 
such meeting or meetings ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I think my explanation of that was that if I sat 
in a Communist Party meeting or what she considered to be a Com- 
munist Party meeting where all present were Communists, I had no 
knowledge that they were Communists or it was a Communist Party 
meeting. Since I read the testimony yesterday, I tried to recall all 
the meetings out there where there would be a possibility she was 
present. I just cannot recall the occasions I saw Barbara Hartle out 
there — usually on the street or something of that kind — and I cannot 
recall any meeting that she sat in that I was in. I just cannot remem- 
ber any single meeting that she sat in there where at least I knew 
she was there. She might have been in another room or some other 
place, but she was not visible to me anywhere. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party dur- 
ing the period of time you were in the State of Washington ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I was not. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Were you at any time while in the State of Wash- 
ington, that is, between 1944 and 1949, affiliated in any way with the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at any time a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I am not now and I have never been a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated a desire to explain the testimony of Mr. 
Louis Budenz given at the Canwell hearings. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. At the Canwell hearings, Mr. Budenz — I 
think to save time, and I want to save time, Mr. Budenz testified that-- 
I think the substance of his testimony was that he did not know 
whether or not I was a Communist, very much like Mrs. Hartle does. 
I think it is significant that she was the second top Communist in the 
State of Washington ; and yet if I were the leading Communist that 
she says I was out there, she still is not sure whether I was or not. 
I think that is quite significant. 



598 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

Likewise with Budenz. He was not sure whether I was Commu- 
nist, but he had heard some discussion about me in the Communist 
Party headquarters in New York. As far as he knew, in meetings 
that he had heard, I was supposed to be all right and I was a person 
they could get along with. He made many statements of that kind. 
Then he went into the statement about the assassination of Leon 
Trotsky, which to the press in the State of Washington, left the 
impression that particularly somehow or other I was involved. So I 
sued Mr. Budenz in a civil suit in the Superior Court of King County 
the very next day. 

Mr. Willis. In New York ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No ; in the State of Washington — Seattle, Wash. 
I sued him for libel for the statements that he made about me. I 
fixed the sum of damages at $1,500,000. He was served with subpena, 
legally served with a summons, rather, in that suit, and through his 
attorneys defended the suit by taking advantage of his immunity as a 
legislative witness before the State legislative committee. He did 
not defend it. 

Mr. Willis. What do you mean, he did not defend it ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I mean instead of letting the thing come to trial, 
instead of letting the issue come to trial on facts, to be tried on the 
facts, and so on, he and his attorneys hid behind his legislative im- 
munity that he was in the State of Washington by virtue of a subpena 
to appear before the legislative committee of the State of Washington 
and under the laws of the State could not be legally served with a 
summons and sued in the State. The case was dismissed on that 
ground. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this the testimony to which you referred : 

I will ask you, Professor, Do you know a former Congressman from Montana 
by the name of Jerry O'Connell? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes, sir. 

Question. Do you know whether or not Mr. O'Connell was a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Budenz. Not that specific. I know that he was one whom the party felt 
it must take care of because of his agreement constantly with the party Une. 
This came up in the case of Congressman John T. Bernard, of Minnesota, and 
Congressman O'Connell. The discussion came up in the national headquarters 
of the Communist Party in the committee headed by William Winant about how 
to take care of these Congressmen because they agreed with the party line. 
And it was agreed that Bernard and O'Connell both would get jobs with the 
International Workers Order, this Communist-controlled front to which I have 
referred. 

Now, it is my impression that — well, I know that Bernard got it, and it is my 
impression that Mr. O'Connell temporarily also received that cynosure through 
the cooperation of the party. I heard the discussion in the party circles first, 
and later on I heard that it was to be accomplished. 

That is the testimony to which you refer ? 

Mr. O'Connell. That is the testimony to which I refer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were employed by the International Workers 
Order, were you not? 

Mr. O'Connell. In order not to prolong it — Congressman Willis 
did not hear this, but yesterday I testified about my connections with 
the International Workers Order. The original contact, as I re- 
member, was made by Peter Shipka to advise the local Serbs and 
Croats which existed in the city of Butte. It was, as I remember, 
during a period when I think Hitler had already invaded Yugoslavia 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 599 

and it was a question of whether they were supporting Milhailovich 
or Pavlich. There was a lot of dissension going on between the Serbs 
and Croats. I was asked to go down and advise with them and help 
with them. Many of them I knew because of my political candidacies 
for legislature and for the railroad and public service commission 
and for Congress there. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all in the record. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes. Then I was sent on a specific job to do with 
reference to these coal miners at Steamboat Springs who were apply- 
ing for citizenship and were members of the International Workers 
Order. 

j\Ir. Tavenjster. You were employed to go on speaking tours over 
tlie country for which you were paid $200 a month and your expenses ? 

Mr, O'CoNNELL. I made only one speaking tour on the plan for 
plenty. The plan for plenty we had was an improved social security, 
called for improvement of the social security system as it existed at 
that time. I made some speeches. You asked me what I got, how 
much compensation I had received. I said in my opinion it would 
average about $200 a month. 

Mr. Ta\^xxer. And your expenses ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. And my expenses, yes. I knew nothing about Mr. 
Budenz' discussion with the Communist Party headquarters or any- 
thing. I got a call from Mr. Shipka. I am sure it was Mr. Shipka, 
the treasurer of the organization, who asked me first to do these two 
specific jobs which I did within a short time. Then later he called 
me to make these speeches on a plan for plenty. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now I have before me an excerpt from the May 29, 
1941, issue of Montana Labor News. The title is, "IWO Names 
O'Connell Rocky Mountain Director." It is datelined New York, 
May 10. I will read it : 

"Former Representative Jerry J. O'Connell, labor's fighting Congressman from 
Montana, has been appointed regional director for the International Workers 
Order in the Rocky Mountain area, IIerl>ert Benjamin, executive secretary of 
that organization, announced today. Mr. O'Connell will be able to continue 
his effort on behalf of tiie labor movement on a much broader scale in his new 
post," Herbert Benjamin declared, "since the IWO is labor's foremost and largest 
fraternal benefit society. Our national membership of 15.5,000 supports the 
trade-union movement and its individual members on many fronts; pi-oviding 
insurance, sickness, and accident benefits at low rates, a rounded program of 
club and fraternal social life, plus a nationwide campaign for improving living 
standards, and social security embodied in our plan for plenty." 

Mr. O'Connell. That is the first I knew — nobody told me that I 
was to be regional director of the IWO. As far as I can remember, 
as far as their clubs were concerned out in the Rocky Mountain area, 
they had one in Butte, which w^as the only one they had in the whole 
State of Montana. I think they had one down in this town called 
Steamboat Springs, Col. Those were the only two clubs that I know 
of in the Rocky Mountain area. There were certainly no — at least on 
my part, there was no idea I was to be regional director, because the 
first 2 assignments that I got were first to go down to advise this club in 
Butte and the other to go down to this Steamboat Springs, in Colorado, 
and clear up the question that the judge and the examiner were raising 
there. The judge at the time thought that the IWO and the IWW 
were one and the same. I brought Mr. Charles Cunningham, I think 
his name was, commissioner of insurance of the State of Colorado, to 

62222— 55^pt. 3 8 



600 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

the judge to point out that the IWO was a fraternal benefit organiza- 
tion. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have explained all that in exactly the same 
detail. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Yes, but the concept that I was a regional 
director 

Mr. Willis. I am not so sure I followed you on the reason for the 
dismissal of the suit you filed. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL, I did not dismiss the suit. 

Mr. Willis. I do not think I caught the point. Was it a jurisdic- 
tional question ? Specifically, what was it ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. It was a motion to quash. Actually, it arose on 
the motion to quash the service of the summons. 

Mr. Willis. On what grounds ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. On the grounds that Mr. Budenz had immunity 
as a legislative witness before the State legislative committee that he 
w'as appearing before in the State of Washington. 

Mr. Willis. He was not from Washington — not a resident of the 
State of Washington ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No ; he was a resident of New York. 

Mr. Willis. You filed suit against him in Washington at a time 
while he happened to be there ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. While he happened to be there. 

Mr. Willis. But he was there on State legislative business? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. And therefore was immune from service, and that was 
the basis for his motion to quash ? 

Mr. O'Connell. We served the summons on him. My desire was to 
get a test and a trial on the factual merits. 

Mr. Willis. Was it filed in the State or Federal court ? 

Mr. O'Connell. In the superior court of King County. 

Mr. Willis. His motion to quash was based on the fact he was served 
with the papers while he happened to be in the State of Washington 
on State legislative business and therefore was not subject to service 
process ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. And his motion came up before the court and the court 
dismissed the action ? 

Mr. O'Connell. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. Did you sue him elsewhere? 

Mr. O'Connell. And I did not pursue it elsewhere. 

Mr, Willis. You did not file suit elsewhere against him? 

Mr. O'Connell. By the time that was done he was gone. 

Mr. Willis. I am not talking about that. You could have sued 
him. Anybody is subject to suit somewhere, and his domicile is the 
real place. I say did you not pursue him, upon dismissal of the suit 
in Washington and file another suit elsewhere? 

Mr, O'Connell. You mean go to New York and file a suit against 
him? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. O'Connell. No ; certainly not. 

Mr. Willis. Or in the Federal court or in any court? 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, I would have to go to New York. If he 
was a resident of New York, I would have to go to New York in order 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 601 

to get service ; but I had him out in the State of Washington where 
I did get service on him. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the photostatic copy of the news 
article from the Montana Labor News and ask that it be marked as 
"O'Connell Exhibit No. 7" for identification purposes only, and to 
be made a part of the committee files. 

Mr. Willis. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like the record to show at this point that 
the International Workers Order was cited as subversive and Com- 
munist by Attorney General Tom Clark on December 4, 1947, and 
again on September 21, 1948, and that it was cited by Attorney Gen- 
eral Francis Biddle on September 24, 1942, as one of the strongest 
Communist organizations. It has also been cited by other committees, 
including this committee. 

Were you acquainted with its secretary, Herbert Benjamin? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I knew Herbert Benjamin. I am pretty sure he 
is the same Herbert Benjamin who was an officer in the Workers 
Alliance during WPA days, when I was in Congress. But I have 
actually had no contact with Benjamin in the IWO. In fact, this 
is the first I knew he had any connection with the IWO. But I knew 
him ; I am sure he was lobbying here on the Hill with a man by the 
name of David Lasser while I was in Congress. I think he was with 
the Workers Alliance. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Louis Budenz prior to 
the time he appeared as a witness at the Canwell hearings in the State 
of Washington? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, I was not acquainted with him. Shortly 
before he left the Communist Party he wrote me a letter asking me to 
write a series of articles for the Daily Worker about Senator Wheeler, 
which I refused, which I rejected. That is the only contact I ever 
had. I never met Budenz, never saw him or anything, until he was 
out in the State of Washington. 

Mr. Velde. Did he want you to write articles favorable to Senator 
Wheeler ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, he wanted me to write anti-Wheeler articles. 
Senator Wheeler and I became tangled politically out there. I was 
going to run against Senator Wheeler for the Senate in 1940, and 
Senator Wlieeler of course took care of me in 1938. So I did not get 
to run. I mean the fight, there were people who were anxious to defeat 
Wheeler from 1940 on down until he was actually defeated in 1946. 

He wrote that letter to me, I would say, just shortly before he left 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Willis. Those articles were to appear in the Daily Worker? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. In the Daily Worker ; yes. 

Mr. Willis. Would an unfavorable article appearing in the Daily 
Worker be harmful to one's political life in those days in Montana? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, I mean 

Mr. Willis. You did not want to inject yourself in it? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. I did not want to write the articles, that is nil. 

Mr. Willis. I would say the best compliment to me in my district 
would be for the Daily Worker to say that I was a rotter. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Well, I think that would be true today. You 
would be surprised if you went out to the State of Montana and went 
into some of the mining camps and taverns and what not. For instance. 



602 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 

we have a character in Butte by the name of Paddy King. Paddy sells 
the Daily Worker. He has silicosis. He is a real character around 
there. He goes all around the town. Everybody buys the Daily 
Worker from Paddy. They do not think much of it. Some of them 
read it, some of them throw it away, and so on. 

Mr. Velde. Do you still read it ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No; I do not. Of course, I do not live in Butte 
any longer. I actually do not think I have seen the Daily Worker 
since they used to be delivered to our doors here in Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Alexander Bittelman? 

Mr. O'Connell. No. Who is he? 

Mr. Tavenner. Alexander Bittelman has been identified in testi- 
mony as a functionary of the Communist Party in the city of New 
York. 

Mr. O'Connell. I do not know any Alexander Bittelman. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions. 

Mr. Velde. I have no questions to ask the witness. It is apparent 
from his testimony, that Mr. O'Connell has a great deal of knowledge 
about Communist Party activities which he has refused to give this 
committee. That does not disturb me as much as the fact that it 
appears that he is still ideologically favorable to the Communist Party 
of the United States. It is very regrettable, but apparently every 
person, including those favorable to the Communist Party, has a right 
to express his opinion in this country. I want to say this: I hope 
that Mr. O'Connell will think this matter over in the future and give 
us the benefit of the knowledge that he possesses about the activities 
of the Communist Party in the United States. 

Mr. O'Connell. Congressman, I have done my very best. I have 
talked to you. I do not want to argue. I do say that I appreciate 
all the consideration which the committee has given me, particularly 
on the two instances when I asked for continuations because of my 
illness. I appreciate the fairness with which the committee has 
treated me throughout the hearings. I just want to say that, as far 
as I am concerned — that is, the best way I can describe it honestly 
and sincerely, is that from my environment, from the poverty since 
my birth and the things that happened to me as a child and as a 
young man, and so on, I grew up in a very, very liberal tradition 
where people were certainly tolerant of all the various shades and 
hues of political opinion as we saw them. I think I could best describe 
myself, I am just an old-fashioned American liberal. I want to assure 
you that I have had no training 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not want to prolong the discussion. At the 
beginning of the hearing you mentioned the fact that you had passed 
the bar in Montana, and that you are now a practicing lawyer, and 
you intended to forget about any type of political activity. I just 
wonder whether you consider the Communist Party activity as being 
political. 

Mr. O'Connell. I think you asked me that question before. 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not think I did. 

Mr. O'Connell. Well, somebody asked me it before. As far as I 
am concerned, I am not engaged in any Communist Party activity 
in the State of Montana or any party activity, Progressive, or Dem- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SEATTLE, WASH., AREA 603 

ocrat, or anything. I have been asked by the Progressive Party in 
1950 to run for the United States Senate and I refused. I have been 
asked by the press in Montana — I am not being braggadocio or con- 
ceited — by the various newspapers, the Great Falls Tribune, the 
Lewistown Daily News, and many others, whether I was going to come 
back into the political life of the State. I have always told them, 
and told them constantly, that I wanted to be a lawyer ; I wanted to 
be, if I could, the best lawyer that Montana ever had. That was the 
desire that I had. I have been practicing law to the very best of my 
ability. "Wlien a man starts to practice law, as I did, when he is about 
40 years of age, he has a lot to learn. There are many — well, I am 
sure, Mr. Willis, as an attorney you know the best teacher, of course, 
is experience. I have been trying to keep my nose clean and hewing 
to the line. I have been practicing law. That is what I have been 
doing. I think in my work out there I have earned the respect and 
consideration of all the people in the kind of job I have been doing. 

We do not have any integrated bar in the State of Montana. The 
Montana Supreme Court regulates and supervises the bar out there. 
I am sure that the members of the supreme court will tell you the 
things I have said here today about my friend and all that are true. 

Mr. Velde. Do you not think you are a bit gullible or naive when 
you say that you did not know there was a Soviet espionage ring 
operating in this country ? Tell the committee the truth. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Now listen. I think I have set forth my position. 
I do not know that that is actually true. I do not know that it is 
true. I do not know it. I have never met a Soviet spy that I know of. 

Mr. Velde. It is just unbelievable to me. Of course, that is just 
my opinion. 

Mr. O'CoNXELL. You are in a different position than I am. 

Mr. Velde. With all your connections that have been brought out 
here with the various front groups, with all of your comiections with 
well-known Communists, not to realize that there has been an espion- 
age ring operating in this country is amazing to me. You are an 
intelligent man. 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. Any of those groups or any of the individuals that 
have been mentioned here can be tied clown to specific programs or 
purposes or things of that kind, but certainly nothing along the line 
of espionage. 

Mr. Willis. Would it surprise you if they were ? 

Mr. O'CoNNELL. No, it would not surprise me ; but what I am say- 
ing is that I do not know. 

Mr, Willis. The committee is adjourned and the witness is dis- 
missed. 

Mr. O'Connell. Thank you. 

("WTiereupon, at 5 : 25 p. m., the hearing in the above matter was 
concluded and the committee recessed to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Adair, Robin 473 

Archer, James 436 

Armstrong, Harry C 419, 420, 586, 588 

Astley, Theodore Raymond 522 

Atkinson, N. P 423 

Atkinson, Roy 470, 504 

Bader, Barney 435 

Bailey, George 434 

Baldwin, C. B 553 

Balmer, Alice 485 

Batterson , Frank 512 

Beattie, John F 312 

Belden (Mr.) 589 

Benjamin, Herbert 272, 599, 601 

Bernard, John T 572, 573, 598 

Bitterman, Jacob 441-443 (testimony) 

Bitterman, Ruth 442, 522 

Bittleman, Alexander 602 

Blauvelt, Mildred 550 

Bloor, Ella Reeve. 583 

Boggs, Elizabeth 471 

Bourne, James 357, 359, 479 

Bradlev, George 273, 336, 356 

Bristof, Al 471 

Bristol, Frances 471 

Brockway , Harold 356 

Brockway, John 356 

Brodsky , Joseph 508 

Browder, Earl 264, 475, 581 

Brown, Roy 262 

Buchanan, Tom 559, 593 

Budenz, Louis 264, 585, 590, 591, 594, 596-598, 600, 601 

Burns, Helmi (Mrs. Tom Burns; also known as Hutenen, Helmi) 437 

Burns, Tom 437 

Burton, Philip L 414 

Camozzi, Robert 469 

Campbell, Ray 311 

Carlson, Edwin A 327-329 (testimony), 365-374 (testimony) 

Carlson, Frank 545, 548 

Carmichael, Edward Brook, Jr 322-326 (testimony) 

Carter, Edward C 461 

Cay ton. Revels 467 

Chafee, Zechariah, Jr 507 

Clinton Rose 558, 593 

Clott, Herman 563 

Clott, Lillian 563, 564, 593 

Cluck, Jack R _. .. 443,450 

Coffee, John M 573 

Cohen, Abraham Arthur 490-492 (testimony) 

Cohen, Elizabeth Boggs 521, 523 

Cole, Merwin __ _ 469 

Coley, Ward _ . 469 

Corr, Bill _ .468 

Costigan, Howard 401, 402, ¥o6, 407, 411. 421 

Cour, Jim 468 

1 



ii INDEX 

Pas* 

Cummings, Al 381 

Cvetic, Matthew 564, 565 

Dafoe, Doc 473 

Daggett, Charles 468, 469 

Daggett, Herbert 469 

Danielson, Jean 522 

Daschbach, John 472, 520-522, 544, 545, 548, 549, 566, 584 

Daschbach, Marjorie 522 

Davis, Jerome 361 

Davis, John 523, 540 

DeLacy, Hugh 406, 407, 413, 434, 519, 592, 593, 596 

Delaney, Paul William 438-440 (testimony) 

Dennett, Eugene Victor 249-303 (testimony), 

335-362 (testimonv), 391-413 (testimony), 419-438 (testimony), 
466-490 (testimonv), 492-493 (testimony), 307, 308, 483, 494, 501, 
513, 514, 517, 518, 521, 528, 529. 

Dennett, Harriette 482-484 

Dobbins, William K 406, 407 

Dodd, William E., Jr 541 

Dokter, Ted 470 

Donaldson, Hallie 485 

Doran, Dave 345 

DuBois, W. E. B 569 

Ebev, Harold 406, 407, 412, 434 

Egroth, Fair Taylor 523, 592 

Engstrom, James 355, 395 

Espe, Conrad 438 

Field, Gladvs 432, 470 

Fisher, C. H 516, 520 

Fletcher, Jess 340, 406, 434, 469, 586 

Flood, George 434, 435 

Fluent, Russell 520, 553, 565, 567, 592 

Fogg, Kathryn 586, 588 

Ford, James W 540 

Foster, William Z 262 

Fowler (Mrs.) 582 

Fox, Ernest 394, 427, 428, 470 

Fox, Elsie (Mrs. Ernest Fox; also known as Gilland, Elsie) 470 

Frankfeld, Philip 472 

Freyd, Bernard 492-494 (testimony) 

Furuseth, Andrew 395 

Gates, John 566 

Gemson, Richard L 438 

George, Lawrence Earl 414-416 (testimony) 

Gilland, Elsie. {See Fox, Elsie) 

Granich, Max 264 

Greenglass, David 594 

Gundlach, Ralph 523, 544, 545 

Gustafson, Margaret Elizabeth 374-377 (testimony) 

Haines, Victor 258, 351, 352, 358 

Halonen, Oiva R 299-301, 302-308 (testimony) 

Hall, Gus 567 

Hall, Robert 557 

Hanke, Ed 357 

Hannon, Bruce 395 

Harding, Alex 474 

Harding, Arthur 470 

Harding, Jean 470 

Harris, Calvin 381 

Harris, Lem 530, 532, 533 

Harter (Mrs.). {See Noral, Mrs. Alex.) 

Hartle, Barbara 247, 

278, 299, 300, 305, 311, 314, 315, 319, 327, 332, 365, 380, 381, 385, 
388, 414, 415, 417, 426, 427, 437, 439-442, 474, 489, 496, 501, 509- 
511, 514, 516-518, 521-523, 543-545, 591-595, 597. 

Hatten, C. T 317, 362, 363, 493, 495 

Hatten, Eugene R 485 



INDEX m 

Past 

Henderson, Donald. _ 437 

Henry, Edward E 490 

Hicks, Victor 434 

Hitlman, Sidney 504 

HoflFman, Elsie 566 

Honig, Nat 433, 586 

Hosue, I 438 

Huber, L. R 468 

Hudson, Roy 430, 431, 472 

Huff, Helen 485 

Huff, Henry 475, 477, 479, 484, 566, 571 

Hunterer, L. C 520, 565, 566 

Hutcheson (William) 268 

Hutchins, Hutchin R 349, 357 

Hutenen, Helmi (See Burns, Helmi.) 

Jackins (Carl), Harvey 521 

Jackson, Gardner 530-533 

Jackson, Harry 405, 406, 436, 470 

Jackson, Henry 405 

Johnson, A. A 356 

Johnston, Harold 313-316 (testimony), 

331, 332, 363-364 (testimony), 365, 471 

Kerr, Frank 311, 312, 499, 500 

King, Paddy 570, 602 

Kinnev, Alice 485 

Kinney, Glenn 311, 471 

Kirkwood, Trudi 485 

Knudsen, C. Calvert 330 

Krahl, Robert B 379-382 (testimony) 

Kroener, Donna 332 

Kroener, Edmund D 330-333 (testimony) 

Larsen, Karley 406, 407, 433, 592 

Lasser, David 601 

Law, Dick 470 

Law, Laura 470 

Lawrence, Adrian 434 

Lawrie, John (Jack), Jr 316, 317-322 (testimony) 

Lawrie, John, Sr 260, 359,479 

Leavitt, Edward 260, 359 

Leeds, David 570 

Legg, Charles 472 

Lesser, Sarah H 322 

Linden, Emil 262 

Lokanath, D(r.) 461 

London, M. M 273, 336, 340 

Lovestone, Jay 279 

Luddington, Mel 356 

Lundeberg, Harry 269, 394, 395, 427-429 

Lundquist, Hugo 435 

MacDonald, Kenneth A 249, 335, 374, 391, 419, 441, 466, 492 

Marcantonio, Vito 569, 575, 582 

Markward, Mary Stalcup 556, 558, 559, 561, 562, 564 

Marshall, Andrew 474 

Marshall, James 526 

Marshall, Robert 52^527, 530 

Marzani, Carl 563, 593 

Max, Alan 349 

McCoy. Nora 520 

McGrath, Ellen 469 

McGregor, Harry 362 

McMichael, Jack R 535, 581 

Merrill, Lewis 436 

Miller, Robert 382-391 (testimony) 

Minowitz, Tilla 562, 593 

Moe, Iver 467 



It index 

Mortimer, Wyndham 435 

Mosio, Wayne 472 

Munter, Paul 254-257 

Murphy, James 262 

Nelson, Burt 434 

Nelson, Steve 326, 572, 575 

Niendorff, Fred 482 

Niles, David 573 

Noral, Alex 259, 260, 270, 272, 273, 349, 350, 357, 359 

Noral, Mrs. Alex (formerly Mrs. Barter) 468 

O'Connell, Jeremiah Joseph 261, 274, 300, 362, 363, 502-603 (testimony) 

Olson, Martin 355 

Orton, O. M 432 

Patton, James G 530-533 

Payne, Earl 471 

Peck, I. A 365 

Pennock, William.. 408, 420, 421, 423, 511-516, 518, 520, 566, 572, 585, 587-592 

Pettus, Ken 523 

Pettus, Terry 468, 512, 513, 523 

Pierce, Harriet 416-418 (testimony) 

Poth, Philip 472 

Popper, Martin 549 

Powell, R. H 365 

Pressman, Lee 430, 431, 435, 436 

Pringle (Mr.) 395 

Pritchett, Harold J 432, 468 

Quill, Mike ___ 578 

Quist, Helen 354 

Rabbitt, Thomas C 421, 514^516, 518, 566, 572, 585-593, 595-597 

Randolph, A. Philip 540 

Rappaport, Morris (also known as Rapport, Morris) 349-351, 

357, 358, 401, 405, 407, 410, 421, 433, 471 
Rapport, Morris {See Rappaport, Morris.) 

Rasmussen, Ted 469, 470 

Raven, Robert 572 

Ray, Tommy 437 

Remes, Andrew 470, 475, 477, 571 

Remington, William Robert 533, 534 

Reno, Phil 531 

Rifkin, Ruth 559-561, 593 

Riley, Harriett 586 

Ringold, Solie M 382 

Robel, Eugene Frank 309-312 (testimony), 331, 473 

Roberts, Daniel 486 

Robeson, Paul -. 537 

Robinson, Reid 436 

Rodney (Mr.) 25& 

Sandvigen, I. E 545 

Santos, John 482 

Sass, Lou 470 

Sasuly, Elizabeth 560, 561, 593 

Schuddakoph, Margaret Jean 522 

Searle, Elizabeth 561 

Shipka, Peter 507, 508, 598, 599 

Silberstein, Robert J 549, 551-556, 558-560, 593 

Silverstein, Robert 507 

Sinclair, Upton 528 

Smith, Claude 469, 483, 484 

Smith, F. S. U 471 

Smith, Ferdinand 436 

Smith, George 355 

Sobeleski, Helen 433, 470 

Starkovich, George Tony 274 

Stack, Walter 394, 434, 435 

Stenhouse, John 443-466 (testimony) 

Stevens, John 434 

Stith, Ernest Paul 512 



INDEX T 

Stone, John B 556-558, 593 

Stromberg, Yetta 293, 300 

Strong, Anna Louise __ 403, 528 

Stucker, Vivian 485 

Sullivan, James. _ 586, 590 

Sunoo, Harold 523 

Sykes, Jay G 302 

309, 312, 313, 327, 363-365, 379, 499 

Taverniti, Helen 374 

Taylor, Fair. (See Egroth, Fair Taylor.) 

Telford, Kate 466 

Telford, Sam 466 

Thrasher, Elmer. 332 

Ting, Chi Chio 465 

Trolson, Roy 416 

Urey, Harold 590 

Van Erman, Thomas J 437 

Van Lydegraf, Clayton 471, 484, 566, 571 

Van Veen, Sadie 347 

Vassiliev, B 279, 280 

Wakefield, LoweU 349, 420, 514 

Walker, Fred 254^257, 259, 359 

Walsh, Patrick 433 

Ward, Harry F 581 

Warren, Ward F 586 

Waybur, Bruce 507, 553, 555, 556, 558, 559, 563 

Westman, Hans Lenus Adolph 495-499 (testimony), 514 

Wheeler, Frances 564 

Wildman, Leonard Basil 471, 521 

Wildman, Muriel 471 

Williamson, John 472 

Winston, Henry 567 

Wright, Alexander _ 593 

Wright, Richard 537 

Organizations 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade 323, 472, 572 

American Federation for Social Action 581 

American Federation of Musicians, Seattle: Local 76 374 

American Federation of Teachers 375, 376 

American Friends of the Chinese People 582 

American Fund for Public Service 535 

American League Against War and Fascism 581 

American League for Peace and Democracy 579-582 

Fourth National Congress 574 

American Newspaper Guild 491* 

American Peace Mobilization 535 

American Youth Congress 534 

American Youth for Democracy 541 

Automobile Workers of America, United 435 

CIO, Political Action Committee 504 

California Labor School 542 

Cannery, Agricultural and Packinghouse Workers of America, United 437 

Cannery Workers Union, Seattle 437 

Central Labor Council 396, 397 

Civil Rights Congress 477, 539 

District of Columbia 559 

Washington State 548, 584, 585 

Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy 582, 583 

Commonwealth Builder Clubs 397-399 

Communist International 352 

Executive committee 352-354 

Communist Party, U. S. A.: 

District of Columbia: 

Community Club 562 

Newspaper Club 559 

Language groups: Finnish Federation 293,300- 



Vi INDEX 

Page 

Northwest District (District 12) 483, 510 

District Bureau 358 

Review Commission 483, 484 

Washington, State of: 

Bellingham 352 

Bellamy Club 354 

Liberal Club 353, 354 

Bremerton: Victory Club 377 

King County: Negro and National Groups Commission 415 

Northwest Region 326 

Seattle: 

Georgetown Club__ 417 

Hilltop Club 439 

Holly Park Branch 388 

Queen Anne Section 439 

Snohomish County 512 

Sultan Section 51 326 

Communist Political Association 387-389 

Ferry Boatmen's Union of the Pacific 392, 393, 395, 427 

Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 575 

Friends of the Soviet Union 357, 471 

Frontier Films 537 

Industrial Workers of the World 266, 268, 507, 599 

Inland Boatmen's Union of the Pacific 396, 398, 427, 431, 469, 473 

International Labor Defense 255, 467, 539, 576, 578 

International, Third (Comintern): Sixth World Congress 260, 350 

International Workers Order 507,598-601 

Interracial Action Committee 415 

International Juridical Association 537 

Institute of Pacific Relations 459-462 

Ku Khix Han 356 

Labor Youth League 299 

Lincoln Book Store 448 

Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International 268, 414 

Lumber Workers Union, National 262 

Machinists, International Association of 311, 314, 315, 330, 365 

Local 79 441 

Marine Cooks and Stewards, National Union of (of the Pacific) 393, 467 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers Association, Pacific 

Coast 393 

Marine Workers Industrial Union 393, 406, 436, 437 

Maritime Federation of the Pacific 268, 393-396, 427 

District Council 393, 396 

Medical Bureau and North American Committee To Aid Spanish Democ- 
racy 574 

Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, International Union of 436, 563 

National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill 506, 

506, 550-552, 555-558, 560, 563-565, 593 

National Farmers Union 530-533 

National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 538, 584 

National Lawyers Guild 507, 542, 549, 551, 552, 554-556, 563 

National Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association 469 

National Maritime Union 436, 437 

National Negro Congress 539 

Office and Professional Workers of America, United 436 

Local 35 480-484 

Pacific Northwest Labor School (also known as Seattle Labor School) 375, 

520, 522, 523, 543-545, 548, 549 

People's Councils 335-338 

Presentation, Inc 562, 563 

Progressive Citizens of America 592 

Progressive Party 592 

Washington State 505, 553 

Red International of Labor Unions 263, 265-267, 276, 393, 394 

Robert Marshall Foundation 524, 527, 531-535, 541-544, 547 

SaUors' Union of the Pacific 393, 394, 470 



INDEX vii 

Page 

Seamen's Union of America, International 267, 393 

Seattle Labor School. (See Pacific Northwest Labor School.) 

Socialist Partv of America 353, 354 

Socialist Workers Party 389, 486, 487 

Southern Negro Youth Congress 541 

Southern Conference for Human Welfare 540, 541 

Superior Print Shop 561, 562 

Trade Union Unity League 262-267 

Transport Workers Union of America, CIO 482 

Unemployed Citizens Leagues 336-340, 359, 398 

Unemployed Councils 336, 338, 339 

National Committee 348 

United Nations 462 

Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 575 

Washington Commonwealth Federation 397-402 , 

404, 405, 407-413, 420, 426, 429, 474, 509, 510, 513, 517-519, 528, 

529. 

Washington Pension Union 420-422, 429, 509-512, 514-520, 590 

Woodworkers of America, International 407, 432, 433, 466, 468 

Workers School of New York 256 

Workers Alliance 398, 601 

Young Pioneers of America 292-298 

Young Communist League 292, 299, 346, 354, 542 

Publications 

Daily People's World 535 

Northwe.st edition 468, 512, 548 

Daily Worker 535, 570 

Federated Press 535, 536, 556 

How the Communist International Formulates at Present the Problem of 

Organization 279 

Jerry O'Connell's Montana Liberal 503, 580 

New World 413, 468, 484, 523, 543 

Twenty-one Conditions for Affiliation With the Communist International, 

The 264 

Union Guardian 523 

United States Week 541 

Victory and After 475 

Voice of Action 468 

Young Worker 346 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



llililllilililllilllilllllllll I ^^^ , 

3 9999 05706 3198 - A^tw^e/trarvo,