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Full text of "Investigation of Communist propaganda in the United States. Hearing"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN 

THE UNITED STATES— PART 7 

(CHICAGO, ILL., AREA) 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGKESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MARCH 26 AND 27, 1957 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

JUN 7 1957 

UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
90844 WASHINGTON : 1957 



COMMITTEE OX liX-AMEKICAX ACTIVITIES 

r.MTKD States House of Rki'kesentative.s 

FKANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDB DOYLE, California DONALD L. .TACKSON, CaJitorui.i 

JAMES B, FKAZIER, Jr., Tennessee GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN B. WILLIS, Louisiana ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Mlrhij-an 

Riil'.Auii AfioNs. Ilinitor 
II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis --__ Vll 

.March 2(3. 1957: Testimony of— 

John Lautner 485 

Mrs. Nellie DeSchaaf 499 

.Jacob Pauliukas 515 

Leon Pruseika 522 

Afternoon session: 

Anthony Minerich 528 

,lohn Zuskar . 536 

George Wastila 539 

Wladislaw Kucharski 552 

Bocho Mircheff 556 

Nicholas Markoff 565 

Anzelm Czarnow.«ki 571 

March 27, 1957: Testimony of— 

Otto H. Wangerin 576 

W. Jackson Jones 587 

John A. Rossen 591 

Index i 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives o1 the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



( q ) ( 1 ) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall rieport to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

****** 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COM Mil TEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appi-aising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent re- 
ports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch 
of the Government. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

* * * * * * * 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 

* * * * 41 • * 

Cq) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

* if * * * * * 

17. Committee on Un-American ActiA'ities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or I>y subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the Unitetl States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclfs the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together w ith such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watclifulness of 
the execution by tlie administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee, and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the exec-utive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

Investigation of Communist Propaganda in the United States — Part 7, Chicago, 

111^ Area 

In a continuation of its hearings on the Communist-dominated 
foreign-language press in the United States, the Committee on Un- 
American Activities in Chicago on Tuesday, March 26, 1957, heard 
nine witnesses associated with foreign-language newspapers in the 
Chicago, Detroit, and Superior, Wis., area. These witnesses, all of 
whom invoked the fifth amendment on all pertinent questions relating 
to Communist associations and Connnunist Party membership, were : 
Nellie DeSchaaf, former English section editor and current 
contributor to Vilnis, Lithuanian daily, printed in Chicago. 
Jacob Pauliukas, business manager of Vilnis. 
Leon Pruseika, an editor of Vilnis. 

Anthony Minerich, business manager of Narodni Glasnik, 
published in Chicago. 

John Zuskar, publisher and editor of Luclova Noviny, pub- 
lished in Chicago. 

George Wastila, editor of Tyomies-Eteenpain, Finnish daily 
published in Superior, Wis. 

Wladislaw Kucharski, editor of Glos Ludowy, Polish paper 
published in Detroit. 

Bocho Mircheff, managing editor of Narodna Volya, Bul- 
garian paper published in Detroit. 

Nicholas Markoff, treasurer of Narodna Volya. 
John Lautnei", a former Communist Party educational director, 
identified Anthony Minerich, Bocho Mirchetf, and George Wastila 
as members of the Commimist Party. 

The hearing in Chicago presented further proof that the Commu- 
nist-dominated foreign-language press constitutes the most important 
propaganda pipeline to nationality groups in this country. Tlie com- 
mittee learned that Chicago is the headquarters for the largest of 
all the Connnunist papers, including the Daily Worker. This paper 
is tlie Lithuanian daily, Vilnis, with a circulation of 32,000 daily. 
All of its pi'incipal officers have been identilied as Conmiunists. 
Several of its former editors are subjects of deportation proceedings. 
The committee recommended that Jacob Pauliukas, business manager 
of Vilnis, be cited for contempt of Congress. 

]\Iarch 27th the committee also inquired into tlie dissemination 
of Connnunist propaganda in the Chicago, 111., area. Two witnesses 
were heard in this phase. Both refused on the grounds of possible 
self-incrimination to answer any and all questions concerning their 
Connnunist Party association or their association with propaganda 
outlets for the Communist Party. The two witnesses were : 

Otto Wangerin, operator of the Modern Book Store, "official" 
party outlet for the Chicago area, who took the fifth amend- 
ment when questioned concerning his Communist Party affilia- 
tions and the type of nniterial disseminated l)y his bookstore. 



VIII SYNOPSIS 

John A. Rossen, who also took the fifth amendment when ques- 
tioned about any Communist Party affiliations. In testimony, 
Mr. Rossen was identified as executive director of the Chicago 
Council of American-Soviet Friendship and the owner of the 
L, M. S. Amusement Co., Inc., which operates the Cinema Annex 
Theater in Chicago. 
During the hearing, the committee received further clarification 
of the identification of Ray Sergo, who had been identified as a Com- 
munist Party member by Anzelm Czarnowski in an earlier hearing. 
The committee received, and incorporated in the record, an affidavit 
from Raymond M. Sergo, a schoolteacher of Lyons, 111., which, to- 
gether with additional testimony from Mr. Czarnowski, established 
that this Raymond M. Sergo was not the same pei'son as the Ray 
Sergo, an industrial worker, named by Mr, Czarnowski. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE 
UNITED STATES— PART 7 

(Cliicaii;o, III.. Area) 



TUESDAY, MARCH 26, 1957 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Chicago^ III. 

PUBLIC hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, in room 209, United States Courthouse, 219 South 
Clark Street, Chicago, 111., at 10 a. m., Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman 
of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Clyde Doyle, of Cali- 
fornia, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, director ; W. Jackson Jones 
and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will please come to order. 

I have a preliminary statement that I wish to read. It is customary 
so to do in these hearings. 

In these hearings in Chicago with this subcommittee of the Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities beginning this morning, it is our pur- 
pose to obtain further information for legislative purposes about the 
extent, character, and objects of the Communist propaganda in the 
United States, including subversive activities of the Communist Party. 
This is our official duty and obligation under the express terms of 
Public Law 601, enacted by the United States Congress in 1946 during 
the 79th session thereof. 

The primary purpose of our inquiry today and tomorrow, here in 
the Chicago area, is the extent to which the press is Communist domi- 
nated so far as foreign-language papers are concerned or the sub- 
versive conspiracy is implemented thereby. We expect to investigate 
today and tomorrow the extent to which this foreign-language press, 
which is printed in, or distributed from, the Chicago area, is the tool 
of the Communist subversive propaganda activity. 

We recently made a very successful investigation on the same im- 
portant subject in the New York City area. It is the Conmiunist 
infiltration of the foreign-language press with which we will be 
concerned chiefly. 

Evidence which the committee has already received in hearings in 
other cities on this same subject indicates clearly that the propaganda 
operations of the Communist Party in the United States among minor- 
ity groups serve as one of the most powerful means and methods of 
subversion. 

481 



482 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

The activities of the Communist Party right here in the Chicago 
area take on a new significance in view of the recent announced deci- 
sion of the Communist Party of the United States to transfer its 
headquarters nationally to Chicago. 

The Communist Party and Communist front organizations which 
already exist here in this important industrial area are among the most 
virile and extensive in our entire beloved Nation. 

Our examination of Communist propaganda publications is sure 
to prompt the cry from the Communists and the Communist-con- 
trolled fronts and Communist-controlled press that we are attempting 
to exert a censorship of tlie press. This is, of course, false and un- 
founded, and the Communists know that such an attack on this com- 
mittee has no foundation in truth or in fact. 

I want to make it clear that this committee has no intention of seek- 
ing censorship of newspapers, magazines, or books, or interfering in 
any way with the operation of genuine and free publications. But we 
are definitely instructed by the United States Congress and by 
Public Law 601 to investigate and report the extent and character of 
Communist subversive propaganda and activities wherever it rears 
its ugly head. The Communist publications are another matter. To 
the extent that any foreign-language newspaper that we are investi- 
gating today and tomorrow is controlled by Communist philosophy, 
it is not a free press. They are but the mouthpiece of a foreign ideol- 
ogy from a foreign source of a subversive conspiracy against the 
free press or against free speech in the United States. 

The constitutional right to advocate change in an orderly manner 
is fundamental. We recognize it as such. But orderly cliange in our 
constitutional law, is not the subversive intent of the Communist Party 
in the United States. There are constitutional guaranties of free 
speech and free press, and thank God there are, but there are no con- 
stitutional guaranties protecting subversive, fraudulent propaganda 
designed to forcibly and violently overthrow our constitutional gov- 
ernment or prohibiting the Government of the United States from 
dealing with it in the legal manner. 

Indeed, there are already existing laws against such types of publi- 
cations. It is apparent that these laws are f requentl}^ being violated 
and circumvented in many ways and that these laws need to be 
strengthened. 

The committee subscribes wholeheartedly and vigorously to the 
j)remise that any American citizen has the establislied right to say and 
to write wliat he pleases and to present his grievance in a legitimate 
way to the representatives which he has democratically chosen to gov- 
ern him. But, at the same time, the people of the United States and 
the Government of the people of the United States have a right and a 
duty to learn the identity of those who illegally and subversively abuse 
the freedom of speech and the freedom of the press in order to bring 
about subversive destruction of our constitutional form of govern- 
ment. 

At this point I wish to incorporate in the record the authorization of 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities for this series of 
subcommittee liearings and the order by the chairman of the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities, to wit, the Honorable Francis 
E. Walter, in which he appointed this subcommittee consisting of three 



ESrVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 483 

inembers; namely, the distinguished gentleman from Tennessee, Mr. 
Frazier, who is absent this morning; the distinguished gentleman 
from Ohio, Mr. Scherer, on my right; and myself, Clyde Dojde, 
of California, as subcommittee chairman, 
(The documents referred to follow:) 

Extract from the Minutes of the Executi\'e Meeting of the Committee on 
Un-American Activities Held on January 22, 1957 

A motion was made by Mr. Kearney, seconded by Mr. Willis, and unanimously 
carried approving and authorizing the holding of hearings in Chicago, 111., 
beginning in March 1957, and the conduct of investigations deemed reasonably 
necessary by the staff in preparation therefor, the subject of which hearings 
and the investigations in connection therewith to include, in general, all matters 
within the jurisdiction of the committee, and in particular Communist activities 
and influence in the field of foreign language publications. 



To the Clerk of the Committee on Un-American Activities of the House 
OF Representatives. 

Order for Appointment of Subcommittee 

Pursuant to the provisions of law and the rules of this committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, House 
of Representatives, consisting of Hon. Clyde Doyle, chairman, Hon. James B. 
Frazier, Jr., and Hon. Gordon H. Scherer, associate members, to hold hearings 
in Chicago, 111., beginning on March 26, 1957, on all matters within the jurisdic- 
tion of the committee, and to take testimony on said day or any succeeding days, 
and at such times and places as it may deem necessary, until its work is 
completed. 

The clerk of the committee is directed to immediately notify the appointees 
of their appointment and to file this order as an official committee record, in 
the order book kept for that purpose. 

Given under my hand this 19th day of March 1957. 

Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities, 

House of Representatives. 

Mr. DoYi.E. I would like to remind 3'ou visitors and spectators 
present that this committee is here on a work assignment and that you 
are visitors here through the courtesy of this committee. Therefore, 
we assmne there will be no disturbance of any kind by any visitor 
in this room, neither of approval or disapproval of anything that 
is said. 

I wish at this time to instruct the United States marshal, if any 
person in the room makes any disturbance of any kind, you will be 
expected to, and we will appreciate it if you will, immediately remove 
that person from the room and not allow him to return. 

We believe it is a fair and reasonable request because we are here 
to work and not to be disturbed. 

In addition, of course, you folks of Chicago realize that this hearing 
is being held in the courtroom of the district court of the United 
States of America, and one of the rules of this court is that there shall 
be no smoking in this room. We will expect that to be rigorously 
observed. 

I wish to also observe that Mr. Scherer and I, who are here today, 
as the quorum of a subcommittee of three, are both lawyers and both 
practiced law for many years before we went to Congress. I say 
this for the benefit of any legal counsel who may appear with the 



484 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

witness under the rules of this committee which were pronounced in 
1953. I wish to read rule No. VII which relates to the appearance 
of counsel before this committee : 

VII — Advice of Counsel 

A. At every hearing, public or executive, every witness sball be accorded the 
privilege of having counsel of his own choosing. 

B. The participation of counsel during the course of any hearing and while 
the witness is testifying shall be limited to advising said witness as to his legal 
rights. Counsel shall not be permitted to engage in oral argument with the 
committee, but shall confine liis activity to the area of legal advice to his 
client. 

I know that counsel will recognize, as we do, that this committee 
is not a court, nor sitting as a court. The rules of evidence do not 
apply necessarily. 

I shall expect the fullest cooperation of counsel as they appear with 
witnesses. We are always glad to have counsel present. 

Now, as to photography : This committee never interferes with the 
freedom of the press when you desire to take photographs. There- 
fore, as far as this committee is concerned, you are at liberty to exercise 
the freedom of the American press to take all the pictures you want 
of the witnesses up until the time they are put under oath and when 
they are testifying. If they have requested that no pictures be taken, 
we know you will cooperate with us and not take any pictures of any 
witness after he is sworn and while he is testifying. But I wish to 
emphasize again that we never interfere with the freedom of the 
press to take pictures up until the time the witness is under oath. 

Are you ready, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. I have in my hand two doctors' certificates, one per- 
taining to Mr. Vincent Andrulis, who was under subpena to appear 
today. 

I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this doctor's certificate 
that was presented to me by the counsel for Vincent Andrulis be 
incorporated in the body of the record, and the subpena be indefinitely 
postponed for Mr. Andrulis. 

Mr. Doyle. But he remains under subpena. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. But we postpone it. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; to a day when we can notify him. 

I have also a doctor's certificate in my hand, presented to me a few 
moments ago, by counsel for Alice Yonik. 

And I respectfully suggest that this doctor's certificate also be 
incorporated in the bodj' of the record and that the record reflect 
the order from the chairman that the subpena on Alice Yonik is 
continued to a day to be determined after we have had a chance 

Mr. Doyle. The subpena for her will be continued. 

May we have for the record the date of those two affidavits ? When 
were they sworn to? 

Mr. Arens. Neither is an affidavit. They are statements on the 
letterheads of the physicians with the signatures of the physicians. 

Mr. Doyle. The date? 

Mr. Arens. One is dated March 15, 1957, and the other is dated 
March 23, 1957. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 485 

Mr. Doyle. If there is no objection, the subpenas will be continued 
in full force and effect and the communications will be incorporated 
in the record. 

(The statements follow :) 

Chicago, III., March 15, 1951. 
To Whom It May Coiwern: 

Mr. Vincent Andrulis of 61 East 101st Place has a myocarditis and arterio- 
sclerotic heart disease (heart ailment). Any prolonged, emotionally upsetting 
ordeal may react badly upon Mr. Andrulis. 

Haeold H. Was, M. D. 

Near North Medical Center, 

Chicago, III., March 2S, 1957. 
To Whom It May Concern: 

Mrs. Alice Tonik has been a patient of mine since 1954, and at present is being 
treated for a severe degenerative arthritis of the left knee. She has been ad- 
vised not to leave the house and greatly limit her activity about the home for a 
period of 4 to 8 weeks. 
Sincerely, 

Leo M. Goldman, M. D. 

Mr. DoTUE. Call your first witness. 

Mr. Arens. The first witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, is Mr. 
John Lautner. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please raise your right hand to be sworn ? 

Do you solenuily swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Lautner. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Please occupy the witness chair. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN LAUTNER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Lautner. My name is John Lautner. I live in Youngstown, 
Ohio, and I am a Government consultant on communism. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lautner, would you kindly tell us whether or not 
you have ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us a thumbnail sketch of 
your personal life, with particular emphasis upon your membership 
and service in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. 

I joined the Communist Party in 1929 in New York City. In 1930 
I was sent to a training school, a National Training School, organized 
by the Hungarian Bureau of the Communist Party. After graduation 
I was sent to Detroit, Mich., as district secretary of the Hungarian 
National Bureau. While there, I was also secretary of the Control 
Commission of the Michigan district of the Communist Party. 

In 1931, 1 was assigned to Canada as editor of a weekly Communist 
paper there and, in addition to that, as national secretary of the Hun- 
garian Bureau of Canada. 

In 1932, I was reassigned to Cleveland, Ohio, as one of the editors 
of a Communist newspaper in Cleveland and district secretary of the 
Hungarian Bureau there. 



486 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

In 1933, I became a section organizer of the Communist Party in 
New York. 

In 1936, I became a district organizer of the Communist Party for 
the State of West Virginia. 

In 1941, I was sent to the National Training School of the Com- 
munist Party again. After graduation, I became a member of the 
Nationality Groups Commission of the Communist Party and national 
secretary of the Hungarian Bureau of the Communist Party. For 
about 6 months, also, I was national secretary of the Hungarian 
Section of the International Workers Order. 

In 1942, November, I was drafted into the Army. I served in 
psychological warfare, being a graduate of the War Department mili- 
tary intelligence. 

In 1945, June, I returned from overseas. I was reassigned as 
national secretary of the Hungarian Bureau and on the Nationality 
Groups Commission of the Communist Party. 

In 1947, 1 became the industrial organizer of the Comnnmist Party 
in the building trades in New York. In 1947, May, I became the State 
chairman of the Review^ Commission of the Communist Party in 
New York State. And, in addition to that, in September 1948, I 
was placed on the National Review Commission of the Communist 
Party, the national disciplines commission. I served in these two 
capacities up until I left the Communist Partv on the 17th of January 
1950. 

Mr. Arens. Since January 17, 1950, when you disassociated your- 
self from the Communist Party, have you maintained a continuing 
interest and kep< yourself informed as best you can from various 
sources as to the techniques and operations of tlie Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lautner. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lautner, on the basis of your background and ex- 
perience and current information and study of the Communist Party, 
could you tell this committee now, first of all, how serious is the 
Communist Part}^ today, this minute, in the United States ? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, the seriousness of the Communist Party, or 
lack of seriousness of the Communist Party, in the United States is 
determined by the gains of the worldwide Communist movement, 
gains that were made since the end of the Second World War. Today, 
practically the whole continental Asia is in the hands of the Commu- 
nist movement, with the exception of the Indian subcontinent. A 
whole chain of new Communist countries came into being as a result 
of the end of the Second World War, the so-called new democracies, 
like Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Albania, Bulgaria, 
and so forth, and also the fact that the- Red Army — the role that the 
Red Army played in the years of 1945, 1946 and 1947 in consolidating 
these in Communist hegemony in the so-called new democracies. 
These are the determining factors. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist Party in the United States a bona 
fide political party, or is it a tentacle of the international Communist 
conspiratorial apparatus ? 

Mr. Lautner. The Communist Party of the United States, by its 
own design and own decision, as recently as its last convention in Feb- 
ruary, is part of a worldwide Communist movement, encompassing 
thirty-some-odd million members. Each component part of this 



INVESTIGATION OF COIVEMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 487 

worldwide movement works and labors under various conditions to 
bring about the speediest and closer realization of the fundamental 
aims of the Communist Party. 

Now, in the United States, this party is part of that vrorld- 
wide Communist movement that adheres to the basic principles of 
Marxism and Leninism, and it adheres to proletarian internationalism. 
In different words, what helps the Communists in Burma, in the 
Philippines, or in Albania or in Algeria, is a gain for this party over 
here, too, and what harms the Communist movement everywhere else 
harms the Communist Party over here. In this sense, the Communist 
Party of the United States is part of that worldwide Communist 
movement led by tlie leading part}^ of world comnnuiism, and that 
is the Soviet Party, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lautner, the fact is, is it not, that the numerical 
strength of the Communist Party in the United States has been re- 
duced over the course of the last several years? That is true, is it 
not? 

Mr. Lautxer. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Is there a fallacy in undertaking to appraise the menace 
and danger of the Communist Party in the terms of its numerical 
strength ? 

Mr. Lautner. It is a fallacy to judge the party by its numerical 
strength. Lenin speaks about that, and he says it is not the numerical 
strength that ascertains the influence and the strength of the party 
but the quality of leadership it has and what influences that party, 
no matter how small it is, has from time to time on various issues with 
what sections, what segments of the population. 

Mr. Arens. The Communist Party, beginning about the time you 
left the party in 1950, deliberately divested itself of the intellectual 
dupes and those who were not hard core, isn't that correct ? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, that is one way of putting it. The fact is that 
beginning in 1948, September, there was a deliberate and planned 
effort to streamline the party and to prepare the partj^ for going un- 
derground. A new tj'pe of organization was conceived, the so-called 
three system. And Henry Winston, the national organization secre- 
tary of the party, in the middle of the year, made a statement that 
only those will remain members of the Communist Party who will be 
selected and register to be members of the Communist Party. 

A lot of them, on the basis of this technicality, fell on the wayside, 
but the peripherj'^ of the party — the so-called outer reaches of the 
party — were consolidated on various issues; and the influence of the 
party began to exert itself in places where it never exerted itself be- 
fore, exploring the so-called persecution of the party. 

Elements like Norman Thomas, who was called a social Fascist just 
a few years back ; elements like A. J. Muste, who was known and so 
designated by the party as an enemy of the working class, a social 
Fascist — these are elements today who find it comfortable to go, and 
on partial issues find themselves in the same boat with the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lautner, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, so we 
are advised, has approximately 6,000 splendid, trained agents, but 
those 6,000 trained agents of this wonderful organization are engaged 
in a variety of activities, of which international subversion is only one 



488 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U, S. 

activity. How, numerically, does the strength of the Coininimist con- 
spiracy compare in this Nation with the numerical strength of the 
FBI? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, as competent as the FBI is, I think they would 
have to work every agent 24 hours a day to catch up with back case- 
loads. I don't think that strength is sufficient in the face of the Com- 
munist danger that we face now. 

Mr. Arens. You have at least three times the number of Communist 
conspirators, foreign agents, on American soil, working for the world 
conspiracy as there are FBI agents in this country; is that correct? 

Mr. Lautner. If that is the number of FBI agents, 6,000, then that 
is so, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Lautner, at the recent Communist Party con- 
vention in New York, there were certain declarations made to the effect 
that the Communist Party would no longer be part of the Moscow 
apparatus and that it would no longer advocate or stand for the over- 
throw of the Government of the United States by force and violence. 
Can that be taken at its face value ? 

Mr. Lautner. Definitely not. 

Mr. Arens. Why not? 

Mr. Lautner. Because the Communist Party, by its own design and 
own decision, still adheres to the basic principles of Marxism and 
Leninism, and Leninism means dictatorship; Leninism means force 
and violence. Unless they repudiate Leninism, unless they repudiate 
the deeds of Lenin, the massacre of the Kronstadt sailors, unless they 
repudiate the massacre of untold millions in the Soviet Union, there 
is no qualitative change there. 

They also adhered at this convention to proletarian internationalism. 
Proletarian internationalism means belonging to that army of Commu- 
nists throughout the world in a disciplined and obliging way, which 
works for the destruction of, in this country, our form of government 
and, in other countries, other forms of government that the Commu- 
nists want to destroy there. 

Furthermore, they still defend the Soviet Union because they re- 
fused at that convention to exercise any type of criticism against the 
massacre of the Red army in Hungary. That did not happen. What 
did happen there was a unification in that Communist Party of the 
various strains that developed in the preconvention discussion. 
There was established in that convention a unity of will to act as one 
solid force facing the future, no matter what the future may mean for 
the Communist movement in this country. 

Mr. Scherer. Let us correct for the record a slip of the tongue by the 
witness. He said a massacre of the Red armv in Hungary. You mean 

"by"? 

Mr. Lautner. By the Red army in Hungary. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your background and experience, could 
you tell this committee the structure within the Communist appara- 
tus for the purpose of undertaking to influence nationality groups in 
the United States? 

JSIr. Lautner. Yes. Well, the Communist Party itself elects a Na- 
tional Committee; and the National Committee then within itself 
elects a smaller committee, known as a political committee or board, 
and even a smaller committee on top of that as a secretariat. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 489 

Xow, since the Communist Party is very much concerned and in- 
terested in all phases of human relationships and in order to give 
adequate coverage and attention to these so-called hmnan relation- 
ships, under the name of the National Committee, various subcommit- 
tees are organized, who specialize in their specific phase of work 
which is delegated to them. Such subcommittees are labor commis- 
sion, youth commission, Negro commission, women's commission, vet- 
erans' commission, finance commission, education commission, cadre 
commission, and also Nationality Groups Commission. 

The Nationality Groups Commission is composed of qualified, highly 
skilled Communist leaders who know the problems in the various na- 
tionality group fields. This Nationality Groups Commission gives 
leadership and guidance in each nationality group of the Commmiist 
Party to the bureaus, national bureaus, that are designated by the 
Communist Party there and also gives guidance and a checkup on 
the content of the various nationality group Communist-language 
papers. This guidance and this checkup are done through meetings 
called by the Nationality Groups Commission to evaluate various 
trends in the nationality groups of the Communist Party ; by reports 
accepted from the national bureau secretaries; by going in and in- 
vestigating the workings of various nationality group bureaus and 
their institutions, such as mass organizations like the IWO 

Mr. Arens. International Workers Order ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is right. This is the way the National Com- 
mittee keeps abreast as to what is going on and what is happening 
and what way they can help to reflect the party line in nationality 
groups. 

Mr. Arexs. "VVliy would the Communist Party have an interest in 
nationality groups in the United States? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, the party ever since its inception and par- 
ticularly since the open letter in 1932, which 

Mr. x\rens. What letter? 

Mr. Lautxer. An open letter which was titled "Face Towards the 
Shop." Ever since then, the party is utmostly interested in gaining 
a foothold in the basic industries. To show how eager the party is in 
that direction, even the labor commission organized various subcom- 
mittees, such as maritime commission, mining commission, steel com- 
mission, auto commission, with people specializing in these problems 
pertainng to these various industries in order to gain a foothold to put 
roots into these basic industries. 

Mr. Arens. What part do the nationality groups play in that 
picture ? 

Mr. Lautner. The nationality groups are a basic part of this think- 
ing. Foreign-born workers, first- and second-generation foreign- 
born workers, are the ones in the main in the basic industries, such as 
packing, steel, mining, or rubber or auto. And, in this way, the party 
is making all efforts to gain adherents and gain prestige in these basic 
industries: and the nationality groups are a lever in that direction. 

Mr. Arens. What was the role of the International Workers Order 
in the program of the Communist Party toward the nationality 
groups ? 

Mr. Lautner. The International Workers Order was a sick- and 
death-benefit organization, staffed by party leaders in all the higher 

90844 — 57— pt. 7 2 



490 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

echelons; and it was a mass organization through which the party 
could further expand in the nationality groups and carry on Com- 
munist work, propaganda, and operation. 

Mr. Arens. In the International Workers Order, did they have a 
number of subunits which were clubs or cultural associations t 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Consisting of nationalit}^ groups? 

]Mr. Laupner. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. A few years ago, Mr. Lautner, the State of New York 
revoked the charter of the International Workers Order because it 
found it was not a bona fide insurance organization. What happened 
to the roots of the organization after the top was chopped off? 

Mr. Lautner. The top was cut olf and the branches — I don't know 
about Chicago, but in New York they function on the basis of a cul- 
tural club or a tourist club or a singing society or a bowling group. 
They are still functioning unharmed and activities go on as before 
except that the top leadership was taken off from the IWO. 

Mr, ^Irens. What is the role of the foi-eign-language press in the 
Communist designs and apparatus? 

Mr, Lautner. The role of the foreign-language press is to reflect 
the party policies, the party line, in the respective language in which 
that foreign-language press is printed, whether it is Hungarian, Croa- 
tian, or Yiddish, or Russian, it doesn't make any difference. 

Mr. Arens. AVhat significance does the foreign-language press have 
in the purposes of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lautner. The significance of it is that, well, it is not in English, 
in the first place ; second, it is in the native tongue of the individual 
who reads it, and even there it tries to influence other language press 
in that foreign language. For instance, in the Hungarian field, there 
are quite a number of Hungarian newspapers, daily newspapers ; but 
the Communist newspaper is trying to cut off' the influence of the other 
Hungarian papers in that respect in the nationality group and, at the 
same time, project the party line. In addition to that, project, also, 
the thinking and the line of the Hungarian Communist government 
in this country. 

Mr. ScHERER. The press has a question as to your ruling with refer- 
ence to taking pictures. It is my understanding the press may take 
pictures at any time unless the witness objects. 

Mr, Doyle, That is correct. If I did not make that clear, I now 
make it clear, 

Mr, Arens. Now, Mr, Lautner, during the course of your service 
in the Communist Party, did you know as a Commmiist a person by 
the name of Leo Fisher, F-i-s-h-e-r ? 

Mr, Lautner, Yes. 

Mr. Arens, Would you please tell us, first of all, who he was, 
identify him on the basis of his occupation ; and then tell us any ex- 
perience you had with him ? 

Mr. Lautner. Leo Fisher was for a while, a short while, the dis- 
trict organizer of the Communist Part}^ in Detroit, Mich,, in the 
winter of 1930-31, when the former district organizer, Jack Stachel, 
left for New York. At that time, I was in that district and I workexl 
under him as control commission secretary. Later on, I met him, 
I think it was in the late 1930's, when I was district org-anizer 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 491 

of West Virginia ; and he used to come into district committee meet- 
ings in Pittsburgh and, if my recollection doesn't fail me, attended 1 
or 2 district committee meetings there. And also, when I was on the 
Nationality Groups Commission, in 1941 or in 1942, 1 came down with 
Avro Landy to Pittsburgh once to discuss the party influence in the 
Croatian Fraternal Order; and we had a meeting with the Yugoslav 
leaders, Tony Minerich, Frank Boricli, and Leo Fislier, I think. 
That was the last time I saw him while I was in the party. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in the course of your experience in the Com- 
munist Party, know as a Communist a person by the name of Anthony 
Minerich, A-n-t-h-o-n-y M-i-n-e-r-i-c-h ? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify him for us. 

]Mr. Lautner. I met Tony IMinerich in the late 1930-s in Pittsburgh 
at district connnittee meetings and also, as I said before, at one of the 
meetings of the Croatian Fraternal Order that we had in the head- 
quarters there ; also once in Detroit, we had a meeting I think it was 
on the All-Slav Congress. Also I met him, I think it was in 1946 
or 1947, when he came back from Yugoslavia and gave a report to the 
Nationality Groups Commission on Yugoslavia at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Was he, at any time in your experience in the Com- 
munist Party, connected with tlie foreign-language press? 

Mr. Lautnfj?. Yes, he was business manager at one time for 
Narodni Glasnik 

Mr. Arens. Is that Narodni Glasnik 

Mr. Lautner. In Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mr. Ari:ns. And you spell that N-a-r-o-d-n-i G-1-a-s-n-i-k? 

Mr. Lautner. That is right. 

Mr. Aeens. In the course of your experience in the Communist 
Party, did you know as a Communist a person by tlie name of Mike 
Walsh? 

Mr. Lautner. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Alias George M. Wastila, W-a-s-t-i-1-a? 

Mr. Lautner. That is right. Mike Walsh was a party functionary 
in the Harlem Section of the Communist Party under James Ford 
and Louis Sas, and I think lie attended 1 or 2 section organizer meet- 
ings ; and I used to meet with him in the Finnish Hall and have party 
conferences and meetings, I think at 126th Street near 5th Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of any service by him in the foreign- 
lanuage press at the behest of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lautner. I heard later on he went to Minnesota or Wiscon- 
sin and was one of the editors of the Finnish papers there. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your experience in the Communist 
Party, did you know as a Communist a person by the name of Bocho, 
B-o-c-h-o, whose last name is Mircheff, M-i-r-c-h-e-f-f, Bocho Mir- 
cheff? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Bocho Mircheif . 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. That was in 1930 and 1931. While I was in 
Detroit, Mich., Mircheff and Antonoff were the two outstanding lead- 
ers in the Bulgarian nationality group, and they just came out vic- 
toriously from a factional fight where the editor of the Bulgarian 
paper — I don't recall his name, Cenkof or something like that — was 



492 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

removed and Mircheff became the bureau secretary of the Bulgarian 
bureau in Detroit at that time. 

When I went to Canada the following year, party leaders like Sam 
Carr and others made friendly inquiries as to how Mircheff was 
getting along in Detroit. I told them he was getting along all right. 
I haven't seen him ever since. 

Mr. Aeens. To your knowledge, was he at any time connected with 
the foreign press ? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes, with the Bulgarian paper. 

Mr. Arens. Was tliat Narodna Volya, N-a-r-o-d-n-a V-o-l-y-a? 

Mr. Lautner. I wouldn't know the name. 

Mr, Arens. During the course of your experience in the Com- 
munist Party, did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Otto Wangerin, W-a-n-g-e-r-i-n, first name Otto, Otto Wangerin ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us your experience with him? 

Mr. Lautner. I met him at National Committee meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lautner. Of the Communist Party, in the 1930's conventions. 
He was the national coordinator of the party of railroad workers. 
And that was my knowledge and association with him. 

Mr. Arens. We thank you, Mr. Lautner. 

I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will conclude the staff 
interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer, Do you have any questions ? 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Lautner, how did the Communist Party make 
use of the fact that many readers of foreign-language newspapers 
cannot read English and must depend upon the foreign-language 
newspaper for all of their political information ? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, first, some of the papers have 

Mr. Scherer. Did you understand my question ? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. They had an English section inserted from 
time to time, on a weekly basis, or regularly or irregularly in the for- 
eign-language press, touching various topics that the party was inter- 
ested in. Some papers had daily English columns in order to whet 
the appetite of the younger elements in the family to look into the 
paper once in a while. 

As far as the readers themselves were concerned, they were elderly 
people and they read the paper in their native tongue. 

Mr. Scherer. I think you missed the point of my question. Maybe 
1 did not make it clear. 

We all recognize the fact that there are many people in this country 
who cannot read English. 

Mr. Lautner. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. And that they must depend, therefore, for their po- 
litical information on the foreign-language press. 

Mr. Lautner. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, do you have any information as to how the 
Communist Party used the fact that there are many readers who 
cannot read English and must depend on a foreign-language news- 
paper ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is why there are foreign-language papers con- 
trolled by the Communist Party to accommodate and to make further 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 493 

sains in the respective nationality groups. But, in addition to that, 
there are a lot of Communist propao;anda and material coming in, 
j^articularly since the end of the World War, in their respective native 
languages. 'into the Ignited States. I know there is a lot of Hungarian 
Communist propaganda coming in, publications, books, pamphlets, 
that are distributed in the United States which originate from behind 
the Iron Curtain. 

Mr. SciiEREK. We have had an abundance of testimon\' to substanti- 
ate what you have said. 

Mr. LAm'NER. That is good. 

Mr. ScHERER. And perhaps later in these hearings, we will get into 
that particular phase of Communist propaganda activity. 

I just have one ]nore question. Do you have any opinion or infor- 
mation as to why the Communist Party moved its lieadquarters from 
Xew York City to Chicago, 111. ^ Or decided to move its headquarters ? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. The Communist Party was born in Chicago. 
It moved later on to New York City and has been in Xew York City 
approximately, let's see, from about 1924 or 1925 — this is 1957 — over 
30 years in New York City. The party made all efforts to concentrate 
on the basic industries and to concentrate on the Negro people, and 
evidently these are the two failures of the party to show for the 30 
years of activity. 

The Negro people of Harlem repudiated communism. There is no 
doubt about that. They feel that maybe it will be a change of atmos- 
phere in a new location back to Chicago, and they will be closer to 
the basic industries, and they feel that the Chicago South Side will 
supply the base of operation among the Negro people with more success 
than they could register in the past. 

And then there are other reasons. There is one reason that they 
evidently don't say and have never spoken of publicly. That is that 
Chicago is the only city where there was no Smith Act conspiracy trial, 
conspiracy case, which is also in their consideration in moving to 
Chicago. 

Well, these are, in my opinion, the considerations that bring up the 
question of moving to Chicago within a year. "\Yliether that will be 
realized or not we will see, but they won't come here tomorrow or day 
after tomorrow. There are too many other problems involved. 

There is the question of tlie Daily Worker, the newspaper. There is 
a question of running out on the (*harge of anti-Semitism against the 
party and the Soviet leadershi]:), and New York has a big Jewish 
population. 

These are also considerations that the convention decision had to 
take into account when they made a statement that they were going to 
move to Chicago. 

Mr. ScHERER. From the questions that I have asked and from your 
testimony, we do not want to lead anyone to believe that the entire 
foreign-language press is Communist dominated. That is not so. 

Mr. Lai'txer. Oh, definitely not. 

Mr. ScHERER. I believe you said that. 

Mr. Laftner. A very small segment of it is. 

Mr. ScHERER. I believe you said in the beginning of your testimony 
onlv a small sesfment of it is. 



494 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 

Mr. Lautner. Very small. As a matter of fact, the largest Com- 
munist foreign-language circulation is the paper Vilnis right here in 
Chicago. I think that it is 32,000. I think there is no other Com- 
munist foreign-language paper that has that kind of circulation. 

Mr. ScHERER. At the conclusion of our hearings in New York 2 
weeks ago, the committee made that specific finding at the end of the 
hearing. Namely, it stated that they did not want the hearings to 
indicate that the committee felt in any way that the entire foreign- 
language press was Communist dominated, and the committee spe- 
cifically said that only a small segment of the foreign-language press 
was Communist dominated and Communist controlled. 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. Although it is a small segment, yet the testimony in 
NeAv York demonstrated clearly that it had a terrific influence in cer- 
tain sections of New York City and other big cities. 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. As to this paper Vilnis, there are 30,000 people who 
read that foreign-language paper which is Communist controlled; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Lautner. 32,000. 

Mr. Arens. And they read it regularly ? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And there is nothing on the masthead that indicates that 
it is of the hammer- and -sickle variety. 

Mr. Lautner. No. They haven't got the 21 conditions on the front 
page. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you through, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask Mr. Lautner a few questions, please ? 

I remember you left the Communist Party January 17, 1950. 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. When did you join ? 

Mr. Lautner. 1929. 

Mr. Doyle. Why did you leave ? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, Congressman, I don't think we should go into 
that. It would be unfair. I found myself in a very embarrassing 
situation. One nice Saturday evening on the 14tli of January in 
Cleveland, in a cellar, stripped stark naked ; and I was accused of being 
an international political police spy in the ranks of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. You were accused by the Communists ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. You were accused of being anti-Communist ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is right, which was not the truth and was amply 
demonstrated and brought out in 15 or 16 Smith Act cases that they 
made a terrible mistake ; and they are paying for it. 

Mr. Doyle. That w^as a good mistake. 

Mr. Lai'tner. Well, good or bad, they made a mistake. 

Mr. Scherer. Both for you and for the information that you have 
subsequently given to the Congress of the United States. 

Mr. Lautner. I w^as never a Government agent while in the ranks 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. You stood trial? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 495 

Mr. Lautner. Trial ? Yes, it was a trial with butcher knives, rub- 
ber hose and guns and a battery charger — they insulted my intelli- 
gence — they said it was a lie detector and a tape-recording machine. 

Mr. SciiEKER. Were you found guilty as charged by the Com- 
munists ? 

Mr. Lautner. Oh, yes. On the l7th of January they placed my 
picture in the Dail}^ Worker and captioned it "Traitor to the cause 
of the working class," and what not. 

Mr. ScTiERER. During j'our trial, were you allowed to use the fifth 
amendment ? 

Mr. Lautner. Oh, no. There is no such thing in the Communist 
Party. You can't even bring your own witness, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lautner, since this incident you related, have you 
completely, irrevocably broken from the Communist Party and its 
ideology ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. That was a painful process, but 
fortunately I did. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask a couple more questions, please ? 

Of course, at this trial — I do not know whether I should call it 
a trial — let me put it this way : This incident which you relate on 
January 14 of what year ? 

Mr. Lautner. 1950. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, that was a jury trial, was it not, in the Com- 
munist Party? You had a right of trial by jury. 

Mr. Lautner. Congressman, it was a trial by three thugs. 

Mr. Doyle. By what? 

Mr. Lautner. Three thugs that I never saw before in my life, big 
huskies, and three so-called party leaders, Joe Brandt, Sol Wellman, 
and Jack Kling. Jack Kling was the national treasurer of the party. 
Sol Wellman was the party leader in Detroit. Joe Brandt was the 
party leader in Cleveland, Ohio. 

I functioned for years in New York. By what stretch of the imagi- 
nation I had to be in a cellar in Clevehuid, Oliio, I don't know. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, you had by your side some able, distin- 
guished lawyer to advise you on your constitutional rights all through 
that, did you not ? 

Mr. Lautner. I only had my own Avits to save my life out of that 
predicament in which I found myself. 

Mr. Doyle. You had no lawyer? 

Mr. Lautner. No. 

Mr. Doyle. You were not allowed one? 

Mr. Lautner. No. 

Mr. Doyle. You were told you had a right to plead your consti- 
tutional privilege, were you not? 

Mr. I^autner. I was not told so. 

Mr. DoTLE. Not in the Commimist Party ? 

Mr. Lalttner. No. The Communist Party is a monolithic organ- 
ization. You follow orders. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Doyle is being just a little facetious to bring out 
the fact. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, I have never known of a Communist Party 
trial where they did have the right of counsel or to plead their con- 
stitutional privilege, and manifestly I am asking you these (juestions in 



496 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

this way to know what the fact was in your trial. I never heard the 
details of it before. 

Mr. Launter. You see, you have an entirely different set of moral, 
ethical, and political codes. In the Communist Party which has 
certain foundations — and those foundations are so overwhelmingly 
more important than the so-called claptrap of constitutional guaran- 
ties or trial by jury — party discipline, what is good for the party, the 
monolithic nature, the oneness of the party, is much more important 
than what happens to one single individual. 

Mr. ScHERER. May I ask another question, please ? 

Mr. DoTLE, Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Tills was not as much a trial as an attempt by the use 
of force to oblain from you an admission that you were an international 
counter-Communist spy ? 

Mr. Lautner. Congi'essman, you are too generous. It was an at- 
tempt — first they tried to lure me across the ocean behind the Iron 
Curtain in December 1949. That didn't succeed because I couldn't 
get a passport. If I had been successful in going behind the Iron 
Curtain I would not be alive today. 

Mr. Scherer. You could not get a passport because the State De- 
partment would not issue you a passport because you were a Com- 
munist ? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. That didn't work out. I was hurried down 
to Cleveland, Ohio, and I was to be done away with. If I had lost 
my liead over there, I wouldn't be sitting here today. But, fortu- 
nately, a person who was in charge of that wrecking crew had a yellow 
spine; and when I tied his name into a Cleveland hotel, he got yellow. 
He was afraid to do away with me. So that is how I got away in 
that situation. 

Mr. DoTLE. You mentioned the last convention when you referred 
to the convention last month of the Communist Party in the United 
States in New York. 

Mr. Lautner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I read the record of that convention as definitely as I 
could through the press, and I noted that the main written communica- 
tion sent to that convention from any foreign country was sent by 
Jacques Duclos. 

INIr, Lautner. Jacques Duclos. 

Mr. DoTLE. The French Communist. He was the man, was he 
not, who sent the message from INIoscow under his own name to the 
Communist Party convention of the United States in 1945 as a re- 
sult of which Earl Browder, then the president of the American 
Communist Party, was expelled ? 

Of course, Earl Browder stated in his policy that he believed that 
the capitalist system, as in vogue in the United States, could survive 
and should be allowed to survive along in the same world with Soviet 
communism. 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. Browder was for coexistence and 
rebuildiiig what was destroyed in the Second World War on the basis 
of a coexistence policy. For that he was ousted. 

Mr. DoYi^E. So, back in 1945, there was this message from Duclos, 
the same French Communist who wrote a letter to the Communist 
Party convention last month in New York. He is one and the same 
individual. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 497 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

Mr. DoYLiE. He pronounced that only one economic and social sys- 
tem could survive, and that was back in 1945, and he declared to the 
American Communists that that Avas the Soviet system, and he said the 
same thing again in February 1957. 

Mr. Lautner. That is right, and he warned at this time, again, not 
to do that foolishness again to organize an association or something of 
that sort, maintaining the unity and the oneness of the Communist 
Party and to maintain the principle of Marxism-Leninism. 

Mr. Doyle. Then you have concrete evidence of the fact that the 
American Communist Party in February 1957, at their national con- 
vention, was again dominated by Soviet Russia through the same 
French agent, Duclos. 

Mr. Laui^ner. We don't need Duclos for that, Congi-essman. The 
Russians will say it themselves. The reason for the establishment of 
the Communist Information Bureau in 1947 was to establish contacts 
and exchange experiences. With the dissolution of the Communist 
Information Bureau, they have a new political periodical out now, 
International Affairs; and all the lead articles talk about tighter con- 
tacts, exchange of experiences between the various Communist parties. 
That is there. Duclos is just part of this relationship. He pinpoints 
them. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, he was used as a mouthpiece. 

Mr. Laiti'ner. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. To communicate this to the American Communist 
Party in February of this year. 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. I understood you to say that the role of the part of the 
foreign-language press in our country which is dominated or con- 
trolled by the Communists, is to reflect the Communist Party line. I 
want to emphasize and agree with Mr. Scherer that Congress does not 
claim, and we of the subcommittee do not claim, that all of the for- 
eign-language press — naturally, not most of it, we hope — is controlled 
by the Communist Party philosophy. But entirely too much of it is 
controlled for the safety of our constitutional form of government. 

When you say it is to reflect the party line, does that mean that the 
party line is projected into the foreign-language press in the United 
States deliberately to get across to the immigrants to our country 

Mr. Lautner. To the nationality groups. 

Mr. Doyle. The Communist line? 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. It is done deliberately in a planned 
way and conscientiously. 

Mr. Doyle. How do they get it into that part of the foreign-lan- 
guage press that uses it? How does it get in there? 

Mr. Lautner. I explained that. It comes through consultation, 
tlirough party leaders, it comes through suggestions, and it comes 
through planning and observing the party line, as party leaders are 
in charge of these papers and are party leaders themselves in their 
respective nationality groups. 

For instance, in Chicago I know in 1946, when I was here on a tour, 
our })roblem was to strengthen the nationality group bureaus in Chi- 
cago under the leadership of Wagenknecht, district secretary of the 
language department here of the Communist Party. 



498 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, but in 1946 — you remained in the Communist 
Party 2 years after you were here in Chicago. Does that mean you 
were sent here as a Commmiist agent ? 

Mr. Lautner. More than 2 years — in 1946, yes. 

Mr. DoYLB. Right here to Chicago ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were not at the hearing, Mr. Doyle, in New 
York. 

Mr. DoYLE. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. That was the week before last. But in the hearings 
in New York, it was shown that, I believe, there were 26 individuals 
called who had been identified as hard-core members of the Communist 
Party. So we had a series of foreign-language newspapers in which 
the owner, the manager, and the editor were Communists. Of course, 
those foreign-language newspapers did a very fine job in conveying 
to their readers the Communist Party line and directives. Some of 
those newspapers were translated by the translators in the Library of 
Congress, and it was evident from merely reading the articles and 
editorials that they carried the very latest Russian or Communist 
Party line insofar as international and domestic affairs were con- 
cerned. This was just week before last. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, in view of the testimony of this witness on this 
point and the question I asked and the point Mr. Scherer just brought 
out, that I should read subdivision (ii) of subsection (q) (2) of Pub- 
lic Law 601, which I will relate, and this is one of the assignments that 
this subcommittee has today and tomorrow : To investigate — 

the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that Is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Consti- 
tution. 

I am pointing that out so that the record may show, and so that you 
folks in the hearing room may know, that we have a specific assignment 
to bring out and investigate the extent to which the Commmiist propa- 
ganda and activities are brought into our country from foreign 
countries. 

Mr. ScHEEER. I think we should say further, Mr. Doyle, in order to 
clarify a point, that in spite of the fact that it was shown that this 
certain number of foreign-language newspapers was completely in 
control and dominated by Communists; namely, the editor, owner, and 
manager, there is no intent upon the part of this committee to recom- 
mend any kind of legislation to hamper those publications or to stop 
those publications. 

Our sole purpose is to point out the fact that they are Communist 
controlled and Communist dominated so that the people who read those 
newspapers will know that they are receiving Communist propaganda. 

Under the first amendment to the Constitution, we cannot possibly 
do anything, and we do not want to do anything, to interfere with the 
publication of those foreign-language newspapers tliat are following 
the Conununist Party line and are also shown to be conclusively dom- 
inated and controlled by Communists. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Mr. Scherer, 

Now, let me read amendment 1 of the Constitution right at this point, 
in line with Mr. Scherer's very timelv observation. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 499 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibit- 
ing the free exercise thereof ; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press ; 
or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the Government 
for a redress of grievances. 

May I observe, too, for the record and you folks who are here, that 
you have heard Mr. Scherer and me discuss some of these things. 
Manifestly we do it not only for our own understanding of the prob- 
lem, but hearings such as these are printed later in Washington, and 
they are furnished to every Member of Congress so that Congress will 
be informed on what we are doing and what is brought out and how 
the committee proceeds. 

Any other question, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Arens, do you wish to proceed ? 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, is Nellie 
DeSchaaf. 

Would you kindly come forward ? 

Mr. DoYEE. Will you please raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. NELLIE DeSCHAAF, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, PEARL M. HART 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Nellie DeSchaaf, D-e-S-c-h-a-a-f, 759 West 72d 
Street, Chicago, housewife. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mrs. DeSchaaf, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I am. 

Mr. Scherer. Could I have that name again, please? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Nellie DeSchaaf, D-e-S-c-h-a-a-f, housewife. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, would you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mrs. Hakt. Peaii M. Hart, ;')0 North La Salle Street, Chicago, ad- 
mitted to the bar, 1913. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, or have you ever been, connected with a 
publication known as Vilnis, V-i-1-n-i-s ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Yes ; with the English section. 

Mr. Arens. And how long have you been connected with Vilnis ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. From 1950 to 1952. 

Mr. Arens. Were you disassociated from Vilnis in 1952 ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. That is right. 

Mr. Arens, What is the circulation of Vilnis ? Could you tell us ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. You stated yourself it was 30,000. I imagine that 
shovild be close enough. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, since your formal disassociation from the 
staif of Vilnis, written articles for Vilnis ? 



500 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

(Witness conferred with her counseL) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Yes ; I have on occasion. 

Mr. Abens. Do you continue to write articles for Vihiis ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Not for pay. 

Mr. ScHERER. Not for pay ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. You continue to write articles not for pay? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. That is right, 

Mr. Arens. What language is the foreign-language section of Vilnis 
published in ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Lithuanian. 

Mr. Arens. Who is the editor ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Well, as I stated before, since I am only an oc- 
casional contributor, I don't know who the editor is. 

Mr. Arens. AVho was the editor when you were employed by Vilnis 
on a full-time basis ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I don't know. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Who employed you ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. The manager. 

Mr. Arens. What was his name ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Mike Pauliukas. 

Mr. Arens. Do you read Lithuanian ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Arens. I have here a photostatic reproduction of an article by 
yourself in Vilnis. June 22, 1951, that I lay before you. Will you 
be good enough to confirm your authorship of this article? It is 
June 22, 1951, Vilnis, English section. 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Yes ; I did write that. 

Mr. Arens. I should like, for the purpose of the record, to read the 
first 2 or o paragraj^hs of this, Mr. Cliairman. 

It is an article entitled "FBI Set To Duplicate Deeds of Despicable 
Twenties," by Nellie DeSchaaf. 

In 1920, the FBI earned a reputation that ^nhoecl not only throughout our 
land — but also throughout Europe and the entire world. 

By their unwarranted brutality against the noneitizens, whom they crammed 
into prisons, tortured ; by their infamous midnight and predawn raids, practiced 
only in countries where democracy is nonexistent, the FBI earned the hatred of 
every decent man and woman. 

Thirty-one years later, the bloodhound hunt is on again. This time, how- 
ever, not only against the foreign born, but against every individual who dares 
to speak out against the injustices and corruption which are taken for granted 
by our so-called representatives of democracy. 

Once more, as in the disgraceful twenties, the newspapers will be able to 
scream, "FBI Rounds Fp 17 Red Chiefs"' ; "Nab Brain Trust in New York, Pitts- 
burgh, Charge Anti- United States Plot." 

It would be very interesting to dig up the old copies of the newspapers in the 
1920's— 

And so forth. 

Was this article also translated into Lithuanian? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I would not know. I had no connection with the 
Lithuanian section. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 501 

Mr. Arens. Was this article put in the paper at the instance of any- 
one known by you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. No ; it wasn't. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist when you w^rote the article ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a Communist? 

Mrs, DeSchaaf. I refuse for the same reason. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you have any help from anyone in writing that 
article ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. No; I didn't. Ancl I would like to say further 
that there w^as no connection between the Lithuanian and the Eng- 
lish, no one had to dictate. I wrote exactly as I pleased. 

Mr. Scherer. Did anyone do any research for you that enabled 
you to write it? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. No. I did that myself. Anything pertaining to 
English, no one had anything to do with that except myself. 

Mr. Scherer. You did the research for the information that was 
contained in that article? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. That is right. 

(Document marked "DeSchaaf Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any connection with the organization 
known as Committee To Preserve American Freedoms? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a printed document which came to 
the attention of this committee just a day or so ago, "Your Right To 
Head Newspapers, To Buy Books, To See Films Is Challenged by the 
House Committtee on Un-American Activities." 

On Tuesday, March 26, ancl Thursday, March 28, several of your fellow citieens 
have been summoned to appear for inquisition before the House Un-American 
Activities Committee (the Walter committee) at the Federal courthouse in Chi- 
cago. Their crime : They publish newspapers, sell books, or exhibit films that the 
bigots on the Walter committee don't like. 

The most un-American activity in the United States is the conduct of the 
congressional Committee on Un-American Activities. It is so viciously flagrant 
a violation of every element of common decency associated with human liberty 
that it is a foul mockery on all that Jefferson and Lincoln made articulate in 
their dreams of a cleaner, finer order on earth — 

and so forth, listing in here the number of people wlio have been sub- 
penaed by this committee to appear, calling upon the people of this 
community to telephone and write John S. Knight's Detroit Free 
Press; to alert their friends and neighbors, church and club members; 
calling upon people to write their Congressmen to urge the abolition 
of this committee, and it lists here the names of certain Congressmen, 
urging the people to attend the hearings here today ; and finally there 
is an appeal for funds. 

Please look at this document, madam, while you are under oath and 
tell this committee if you know its source and origin. 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 



502 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer that on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "DeSchaaf Exhibit No. 2," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. While you are under oath, I should like to liave a 
response to this question : Do you honestly feel that if you told this 
committee truthfully the knowledge you have respecting the source 
of that document and the Committee To Preserve American Free- 
doms, you would be supplying information which might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaff. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered to answer that question. The reason for that question is to 
see whether or not she is invoking the fifth amendment in good faith. 

The only reason whereby she can invoke the fifth amendment is if 
she has a true, honest apprehension that, in response to the question, 
she will give information that might be used against her in a criminal 
proceeding. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct the witness to answer that last question. The 
committee cannot accept the answer you made as a legal, constitutional 
exercise. We do not believe it is a lawful, legal, and permissible 
answer to that question to justify you to plead the amendments. 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer that again for the same reasons 
I gave before on the first and the fifth that I shall not be required 
to testify against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write that document or the essence of that 
document ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Same answers as before. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to read now, if you please, Mr. Chairman, 
an article appearing in Vilnis under date of March 22, 1957, by Nellie 
DeSchaaf. I should like to read excerpts from it. First of all, it 
discusses the subpenas, pursuant to which a number of people were 
called before this committee, and then it proceeds as follows : 

Readers are given the opportunity to assess the forthrightness of their papers 
by the number of subpenas issued by the Un-American Committee for the 
March 26 hearings. 

The "Vilnis" really rang the bell with five subpenas, for the following — 

Here are listed the names of the people. Then we find this: 

Those readers, whose papers did not receive a subpena, have a very good cause 
for reproaching their editors. Had their newspapers not limited themselves to 
reprinting only those items appearing in any and every newspaper, they, too, 
might have earned the name of newspaper. 

At the Un-American Committee's last visit to Chicago, in which the targets 
were the Midwest committe and other foreign-born defense groups, the hearing 
room fairly bubbled— — 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Bulged. 
Mr. Arens (reading) : 

bulged at the seams. 

All seats were occupied and people stood in lines at the door — 
and so forth. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 503 

With Harvey O'Connor, author, and Carl Braden, newspaperman of Louisville, 
Ky., heading a commitee to publicize the coming hearings as widely as possible 
we are expecting a [sic] church groups, lawyers, trade unionists, many foreign- 
born, and others are expected to attend. 

Do come, too, won't you? 

You authored that article; did you not? 

Mrs. DeSciiaaf. Yes : I did. 

Mr. Arens. And you know, of course, you had a right to author that 
article. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. That is right. 

Mrs. Arexs. You, of course, know that no one is trying to impede 
you in the authorship of that article, do you not ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. That all depends on what you mean by "impede." 

Mr. Arens. "Were you under the discipline of the Communist con- 
spiracy when you wrote this article? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. No one told me. I wrote that myself. 

Mr. Arens. Were you under the discipline of the Communist con- 
spiracy when you wrote this article ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. No, I wasn't. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist when you wrote this article? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

(Document marked "DeSchaaf Exhibit No. 3," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I should like to ask you if you would be good enough 
to identify your own photograph for us here. We have two photo- 
graphs of yourself here in the Rosenberg clemency picket, June 16, 
1953. Please look at those two photographs and, while under oath, 
if you will be good enough to, identify your own physical features 
as they appear in those photographs. 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer, first of all because I don't think 
the question is pertinent to the purpose for which your committee was 
created, and, further, my refusal is based on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

(Documents marked "DeSchaaf Exhibit No. 4," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not these photographs are photographs of your- 
self, you would be supplying information which might be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf, I refuse to answer on the same basis of the two 
reasons I gave before. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question. 

May I make this explanation ? When you invoke the fifth amend- 
ment, madam, the courts have said that if the committee or counsel 
feel that you might not be invoking it properly, they should and must 
ask you the question whether or not you honestly believe that, if you 
answered the question, it might lead to a criminal prosecution. Your 
only answer to that question can be "Yes," if you are invoking the fifth 
amendment properly. If you do not answer that question "Yes" and 
invoke the fifth amendment instead, then you are placing yourself in 



504 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

contempt of this committee. So I just want to advise you and tell you 
what the law is, because you cannot plead the fifth amendment to a 
question as to whether you are invoking the fifth amendment in good 
faith. 

Mr, Doyle. I think, Mr. Scherer, we have a right to assume, to 
a certain extent, that she know^s what the law is because she has counsel 
with her and consults her frequently. 

Mr. Scherer. I want to make it abmidantly clear. 

Mr. Doyle. I am glad that you did. 

Mr. Scherer. And warn her tliat the only answer to that question 
can be "Yes." She can answer "No," but then that, of course, is not 
invoking the fifth amendment in good faith. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. Mr. Arens, while the counsel and her 
witness are conferring, may I have the date of those photos, please, the 
date indicated of that picket line ? 

Mr. Arens. June 16, 1953. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Is there a question outstanding on this ? 

Mr. Scherer. She has not answered the direction, Mr. Chairman. 
I assume there is. 

Mr. Doyle. I will make it clear as soon as she is through. 

Mrs. Hart. Let the chairman give the question. 

Mr. Doyle. Witness, I wish to direct you to answer that last ques- 
tion. The committee cannot accept it as sufficient claim of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer because the question is not 
pertinent to the purpose for which this committee is created and 
also on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments which state 
very clearly that I am not compelled to testify against myself. 

Mr. Arens. On June 27, 1952, American boys were fighting in 
Korea. I would like to invite your attention to 1 or 2 excerpts from 
the Vilnis Weekly Review, English section, of that date, and then 
ask you a question or two about them : 

Compound No. 76 of this POW camp is dark and poorly ventilated. Its 
quarters are in utter darlcness, devoid of bedding. It has 18 torture rooms 
and 6 steam rooms in which Americans put the captives to death by live steana. 
In addition, there are four gallows. 

The American gangsters — 

That is, the soldiers representing the country under whose flag you 
have protection 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. All right. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

The American gangsters treated the POW'8 like beasts. They starve pris- 
oners and imposed forced labor on us every day, despite our hunger. Our two 
meals daily were inadequate and consisted of coarse food. We had rice only 
once a week. 

The American robbers tortured captured personnel on the flimsiest pretexts. 
They also often starved prisoners to death. 

As was the case with other captives, the American gangsters tried to make 
me sign the so-called "petition" in blood, but I refused. 

Were you a member of the staff of Vilnis Weekly Review on June 

27, 1952? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COIvIMXJNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 505 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Yes ; I was at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall this particular article that appeared 
in it? 

Mi-s. DeSchaaf. No, I don't. 

Mr. Arens. May I lay it before you and see if it refreshes your 
recollection. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf, Yes. 

Mr. Arens. It is an account, according to the introduction there — 
I haven't read the entire article — reporting the situations presumed 
to exist then in the American prisoner-of-war camps for the enemy. 

]\Ir. DoTLE. Where were those camps located ? 

Mr. Arens. Koje. I do not want to read the whole article. It is 
too long. 

j\Ir. ScHERER. Does the article indicate who the author was? 

jSIr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mrs. Hart. AYhat is the question, Mr. Arens ? 

INIr. Arens. Does the article now before you refresh your recol- 
lection as to the time of its appearance and its content? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I would like to point out this was taken from the 
Korean Independent, and it was not my statement as to exactly — I do 
remember that. This is the source right here [indicating]. Just as 
you would have the Federated Press, so that was not my editorial. 

Mr. Arens. I did not suggest that it was. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I said this was the source and that is exactly why I 
remember the article. 

Mr. Arens. That is exactly the point I am going to develop in a 
minute. Where did that article originate ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. In the Korean Independent. 

Mr. Arens. In North Korea? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. No. It was in Los Angeles, Calif. 

Mr. Arens. Was that incorporated in your paper with your knowl- 
edge and consent ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. If I put it in there. 

Mr. Arens. Did you put it in ? That is the question. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Certainly. 

Mr. Scherer. She had that inserted in that paper ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Because that was from the Korean Independent. 

Mr. Arens. Do I understand your answer to be that you inserted 
that article ? I understood you got it from the Korean Independent. 
But you placed the article in this particular newspaper, is that right ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make any investigation before you put this in 
the paper for circulation in this community as to whether or not the 
"American gangsters treated the POW's like beasts" ? Did you make 
any investigation, before you put this in your paper as an assertion of 
fact, to determine whether or not the American soldiers who were 
fighting for you and for the preservation of our Republic were starv- 
ing prisoners and were imposing forced labor on the prisoners ? Did 
you make any investigation to ascertain whether or not that was the 
truth before you caused that to be printed in this publication ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Would you repeat that question ? 

90844 — 57 — pt. 7 3 



506 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. The essence of the question is : Did you make any inves- 
tigation to ascertain whether or not the content of this article was true, 
which so severely indicted and condemned our soldier boys, before you 
published it in this paper ? 

(Witness conferred with her comisel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Did that appear during the Korean war, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; Jmie 27, 1952. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I just can't follow that question. 

Mr. Arens. Let me just i-ead you another sentence, and let me ask 
you if you made any investigation before you put this in your paper or 
had any quahns of conscience before you ran this : 

* * * the American crime of manhandling, torturing, and butchering captured 
personnel have blown skyhigh the American lies about "voluntary repatriation," 
"humanitarian principles," and the like. 

Did you make any investigation to ascertain whether or not our 
American troops in Korea were butchering prisoners of war, were 
engaged in all kinds of inhumanitarian practices before you caused 
this article to be placed in this publication ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeScpiaaf. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first amend- 
ment. 

(Document marked "DeSchaaf Exhibit No. 5," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest she be ordered 
and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee cannot accept that as a sufficient answer, 
as a claim for any legal reason why you should not answer the question. 
I therefore direct you to answer that question. 

(Witness conferred with her coimsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Is there a question outstanding? 

Mr. Scherer. There is a question, and she has not answered it. 

Mrs. Ha.rt. I thought there wasn't 

Mr. DoTLE. I directed the witness. 

Witness, did you not hear me direct you to answer the question? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I don't know whether there was a question or not. 

Mrs. Hart. Would you like to start that one again ? 

Mr. Arens. There is a direction by the chairman to the witness to 
answer the question. The question is whether or not she made any 
investigation to ascertain the truth of the very serioiTS charges con- 
tained in this article which she caused to be placed in this paper. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first amend- 
ment and also the fifth amendment, that I need not testify against 
myself; and, further, the committee informed us that your purpose 
was not to legislate for purposes of the press, but only to identify 
persons, so I do not feel this is relevant to this committee. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. Witness, you refused to answer the ques- 
tion as to whether you investigated the truth or falsity of the charges 
of the article you had placed in this newspaper. It is obvious to the 
committee that you did not care about the truth or the falsity of the 
charges. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Brother. 



INVESTIGATION OF COIMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 507 

Mr. ScHERER. I ^Yant to ask you this question, whether or not you 
actually believed this statement which you caused to be inserted and 
circulated in this newspaper : 

Compound No. 76 of this POW camp is dark and poorly ventilated. Its quar- 
ters are in utter darkness, devoid of bedding. It has IS torture rooms and 6 
steam rooms in which Americans put the captives to death by live steam. In 
addition, there are 4 gallows. 

I am not asking you whether you investigated the truth or falsity 
of those charges. I am asking whether or not, when you inserted that, 
you actually believed those charges? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. My personal beliefs are no concern of the commit- 
tee, I don't feel. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, that I don't have to testify against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, this article was published in this newspaper 
at the time we were engaged in war. Do you know what the clefini- 
tion of treason is? Do you know what constitutes treason under the 
law ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I don't Imow what your definition is. 

Mr. ScHERER. What is your defuiition ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer. 

yir. Scherer. You know that treason is giving aid and comfort to 
the enemy in time of war. You know that, do you not ? You might 
ask your lawyer if that is not a correct definition. 

j\Irs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. Is it not a fact that this article published during a 
time of war was giving aid and comfort to the enemy, whether or not 
the facts in this article were true or false ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeScha^vf. I refuse to answer for the same reasons as before. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to ask you about this publication in which 
it was reprinted. 

According to this article, the original article was published in the 
paper called the People's Army News. From whence did you procure 
the article that was reprinted in Vilnis Weekly Eeview ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the first and the fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. You told us you got something from the Korean Inde- 
pendent. What was it you got from the Korean Independent ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the editor of the Korean Independent? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. Why ? The Korean Independent is likewise a Commu- 
nist-controlled publication of which Peter Hyun, a Communist, is 
editor. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the same reasons as before. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you know Peter Hyun ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Peter Hyun. H-y-u-n. 



508 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. ScHERER. I request that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Same answer as given before. 

Mr. Doyle. Witness, you are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer it as I did before on the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Give us the names of persons known by you to be identi- 
fied in an official status with Vihiis. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. You know who are identified in official status with 
Vilnis, do you not ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse for the same reasons. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, were you born in this country ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I don't think that is pertinent to the purpose for 
which this committee was created. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you to direct 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Scherer. Wait a minute madam, 

I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question whether or 
not she was born in the United States because, if she was not born in 
the United States or naturalized, I have a motion I want to make. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee takes the position that it has a legal right 
to ask any question pertinent to identification of a witness before it, 
whether or not the person is an American citizen. So, I direct you, 
Witness, to answer Mr. Scherer's question whether or not you were 
born in the United States of America. 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Well, even though I don't feel that question is 
pertinent to the purpose, but just for your own information, Mr. 
Scherer, I was born here. 

Mr. Scherer. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion as to where she was born. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question as to where you 
were born. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. West Frankfort, 111. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Jacob Pauliukas — P-a-u-1-i-u-k-a-s ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio is Alice Yonik — Y-o-n-i-k ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. She succeeded you as the regular editor of the English 
section of Vilnis, did she not ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. You contributed an article just about a week ago ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Leon Pruseika — P-r-u-s-e-i-k-a ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Vincent Andrulis — A-n-d-r-u-1-i-s ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. They are all officials of Vilnis, are they not ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 509 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Abends. I respectfully submit, Mr. Chairman, that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask a few questions, please ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Yes ; you may. 

Mr. Doyle. I think the record will show, madam, when you were 
asked the first time where this article that you stated you had inserted 
in this Vilnis Weekly Review for June 27, 1952, came from, you 
stated you got it from the Korean Independent, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Los Angeles Coimty is my home, and I represent one of the districts 
in that county. Therefore, I am particularly interested in your 
answer. 

I see from this photostat of this sheet, page 2, that you not only 
printed that insert, but you printed two others of a like nature. I 
will not take time to go into those. 

When you were on the paid staff of this paper, were you in the habit 
of publishing portions of releases from the Korean Independent, Los 
Angeles, Calif. ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the gromids of the first 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know anything about a group called the Chi- 
cago Committee To Preserve Freedom of Speech and the Press ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a leaflet which I understand was dis- 
tributed by a picket line here in Chicago just this morning. This 
leaflet is circulated, according to its heading, by the Chicago Com- 
mittee To Preserve Freedom of Speech and the Press. 

Please look at that and see if you can tell is if you have any informa- 
tion respecting that organization. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the same grounds that I gave 
before. 

(Document marked "DeSchaaf Exhibit No. 6," and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Arexs. Do you feel, if you told this committee truthfully such 
information as yovi have respecting the Chicago Committee to Pre- 
serve Freedom of Speech and the Press, you would be supplying in- 
formation which might be used against you in a criminal proceedmg ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer for the same reasons, the first 
and fifth. 

IVIr. Arens. I respectfully submit that the witness be directed to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer that last question, if you please. 

Mr. ScHERER. If she invokes the fifth amendment to that question, 
this member of this committee, at least, wants to say, in his opinion, 
you are clearly in contempt of the committee. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, two members of the committee feel the same. 

Mr. ScHERER. The law is clear on that question. 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I know that, under the fifth amendment, I do 
not have to be a witness against myself, and I do feel that your pur- 
pose is for the purpose of intimidation. 



510 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the witness now be ordered 
and directed to answer that question. There is no question but that 
she is under an order to express to this committee whether or not, if 
she told truthfully such information as she has respecting the Chicago 
Committee To Preserve Freedom of Speech and the Press, she would 
be supplying information that might be used against her in a criminal 
proceeding. 

Mr. DoYT.E. Witness and counsel, so there will be no misunderstand- 
ing — counsel, please, I want to instruct your client again to answer 
that last question. 

Excuse me for interrupting, but I wanted the witness to get that 
the second time. I am instructing her to answer that question. 

Mrs. Hart. May I make a statement on behalf of the witness? 

Mr. Doyle. No ; I am sorry. 

Mrs. Hart. If the court please 

Mr. Arens. Your sole and specific prerogative under the rules of 
this committee is to advise the witness. 

Mrs. Hart. I can speak almost as loud as you can. I know what 
the rules are. 

Mr. Arens. You know you are in violation of the rules of the com- 
mittee when you address the chairman or the committee except to 

Mrs. Hart. I may address the chairman. This is still the United 
States of America. I am going to ask the chairman if I may address 
the chairman. If he says "No," I won't. 

Mr. Dotle. Counsel, we do not permit counsel to get into discussion 
and get into argument with the committee. I read the rule, and I 
insist on all counsel complying with the rule of the committee which 
limits you to talk to your client and not to the committee. 

Mrs. Hart. Tliat makes it very difficult, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. We are both lawyers, and we realize that you have the 
privilege to advise your client on constitutional rights. We are 
glad you are here for that purpose. 

Mrs. Hart. I am here as a matter of right, not as a matter of 
privilege, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. No ; you are here as a matter of privilege. 

Mrs. Hart. I disagree with the Congressman. May I have the 
direction again, please? 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you. Witness, to answer the last question. 
This is the second time I have instructed you — I think the record 
will show — to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the same grounds of the first 
and fifth amendments, that I am not required to testify against 
myself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that each of the various docu- 
ments which have been alluded to this morning be appropriately 
marked and incorporated in the record by reference. 

Mr. Doyle. May I see the first sheet, please ? 

May I be privileged to ask you a couple of questions. Witness? 

First, I wish to just make this observation for the record in your 
presence. I see that this article which you inserted in this Vilnis 
Weekly Review, Chicago, for Friday, June 27, 1952, refers to it as 1 
of 3 letters purporting to be letters from escaped Korean prisoners 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 511 

of war to the Korean People's Armj'. That is the army in Xorth 
Korea. 

I just wish to say, Witness, some of us had sons who gave their lives 
for this country and for you. I am one of them. I consider this 
as a dastardly libel and slander of eA^ery boy in the American Army, 
Air Force, Navy, and Marine uniform. I think you were part of it, 
knowingly. You coidd not have helped but have Imown that this 
would shinder and libel, in the mind of every person who read it, 
every boy in the American uniform, because you did not identify the 
men charged with this dastardly crime. You let it go as it was 
printed. I think you ought to be ashamed of yourself. 

I want to repeat it. I consider it, as a Member of Congress, a 
dastardly libel and slander of every boy and girl in the American 
Army, Air Force, Navy, and jNIarine uniform during the last war. 

That is what you can expect from a Communist-controlled paper 
in wartime or even in peacetime. I have no sympathy for you having 
done this despicable thing. I do not think you need any sympathy, 
either. 

Mr. ScHERER. xVnd she smiles. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. Wlio is smiling ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Let me ask anotlier question. 

Mr. Doyle. Let me finish. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am sorry. 

Mr. Doyle. And as to this sheet headed "Your Eight," apparently 
issued bv the Committee To Preserve American Freedoms, room 
504, 208 North Wells Street, Chicago, 111., "Harvey O'Connor, chair- 
man ; Cecile Trace, vice chairman ; Carl Braden, secretary-treasurer," 
and on the bottom it says "Labor donated," I would assume that no 
organized labor shop would print this filthy thing. 

Mr. Arens, our counsel, asked you a question about an article you 
wrote in June 1951. 

Would you refresh my memory, please? Were you on the paid 
staff of this Vilnis newspaper then in June 1951? You gave a date 
when you were. 

j\Irs. DeSchaaf. I think I was. 

Mr. Doyle. Here is what you wrote in that article as I wrote it 
down : "Bloodhound hunt is on again." — -"Our so-called representatives 
of democracy" — "our so-called representatives of democracy." 

If that isn't a Commie line, I don't know what is. 

And then on the back of this sheet, "Your Right," we find this: 

Write our Congressmen and urge abolition of the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities. Chicago area Congressmen are — 

and then you list every Member of Congress from the Chicago area. 

I want to say that we consider every Member of Congress as a 
patriotic and devoted representative trying to represent the cause 
of democracy, and apparently you do not. I would consider your 
statement when you said "so-called representatives of democracy" as 
a libel and a slander on every Congressman from the Chicago area; 
and that is what you intended it to be, I believe, when you wrote 
that article in June 1951. 

Now, I want to ask you, as long as you are part and parcel of 
this sheet that you have circulated, and had circulated, to try to 



512 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

embarrass this committee, do you consider that any member of the 
Chicago delegation or Illinois delegation in the House of Repre- 
sentatives is only a "so-called representative of democracy"? Who 
is a "so-called representative of democracy" from Illinois on either 
side of the aisle ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. That question certainly is not pertinent to the pur- 
pose of this committee, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. You printed an article attacking, in effect, every Mem- 
ber of the United States Congi-ess because you designated us as "so- 
called representatives of democracy," therefore making light deliber- 
ately of the constitutional form of our Government. And, what you 
intended to do, in my book, was to weaken the constitutional form of 
Government in the mind of every person who read this attack by you. 

If you think my words are too strong, they are not too strong. I 
get fed up on you folks who feel you have the privilege to destroy, by 
subversion and innuendo, the constitutional form of government ; and 
that is what you did, young lady, when very obviously you attacked, 
on this sheet here, every member of the Illinois delegation in connec- 
tion with this statement that the "bloodhound hunt is on again," and 
we have "so-called representatives of democracy." That is another 
commie attack in my book. 

One thing more: From that article of June 1951, you called the 
efforts of the FBI to run down the Communist conspiracy in this 
country a "bloodhound hunt," again deliberately and dastardly accus- 
ing our Federal Bureau of Investigation of being a bunch of blood- 
hounds. That is what you intended to do, and I notice some folks 
smiling in the audience. That is all right, smile. 

But I do not dare speak out when I see a lousy, filthy attack like 
this. The trouble is we have to observe the constitutional rights of 
citizens in doing it. 

I want to read the paragraph. This appeared in Vilnis, June 22, 
1951, under your byline. Wlien we print this in the hearings of this 
committee, I want every citizen who has a patriotic streak in him to 
know the kind of filth you spread out. 

Thirty-one years later, tlie bloodhound hunt is on again. This time, however, 
not only against the foreign-born, but against EVERY individual who dares to 
speak out against the injustices and corruption which are taken for granted by 
our so-called representatives of democracy. 

I wish to say my father was foreign born. I am always proud of 
him. 

Mr. ScHERER. INIay I ask one more question ? 

Mr. Doyle. Let me just finisli, please. 

In this sheet you charge this hearing today and tomorrow with 
being an inquisition. You use that term in this sheet you helped 
edit and write and circulate. That is my conclusion. But I think the 
great majority of people who are in this room, as well as the American 
public, whenever they think of you, will look at you with shame when 
you have called this sort of thing an inquisition. 

I think, with God's help, we ought to get more power to inquire into 
the dastardly attacks j^ou make and have made, according to the record, 
on the American Military Establishment and on the FBI. The trouble 
is, we do not have enough help to expose the real intended purpose of 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 513 

people who write filth such as you have written in these papers. And 
I have no apologies for saying just what I said. 

Mrs. Hart. May I direct a question to the Chair, please ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, I will let you ask one question, counsel. 

Mrs. Hart. It is on this, Mr. Chairman. You have made some very 
strong remarks in relation to this young lady, and she is given abso- 
lutely no opportunity under the rules to answer. Now, I can under- 
stand how you feel. I am raising no criticism about that, you see. 
But it is a situation which just isn't fair. You are sitting on the dais 
in a position of authority 

Mr. Doyle. You asked the privilege to ask a question, not make a 
speech. 

Mrs. Hart. You know what I want to ask. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. If this young lady wants to speak as to what 
she wrote in these articles and why she wrote them, yes, we will give 
her time right now. She has a chance to answer my statements if she 
wants to. I will give her the chance to answer. 

Go ahead, young lady, answer it. Do go ahead, young lady. Your 
counsel said you did not have a chance to answer any criticism. 

Mrs. Hart. "VVliat I want to point out, though, is your personal 
criticism of her. Do we want the Chair to indulge in personalities? 
That is the question I ask. 

JNIr. Doyle. What do you want me, and what do you expect me, to 
do — just sit here while every member of the Illinois delegation has been 
libeled and slandered by her attack ? 

Airs. Hart. You may sound indignant. She, nevertheless, has the 
right under the Constitution 

Mr. Doyle. I have the right, too, under the Constitution, to say what 
I conclude from her evidence. 

I will give you the chance, young lady. Go ahead. "WHiy did you 
print this filthy, lousy thing, charging the American military with 
butchering human beings ? AYliy did you print it ? Give the Ameri- 
can public your justification if you have one. 

Mrs. Hart. The question, if the Chair please 

Mr. Doyle. Now, counsel 

Mrs. Hart. With reference to your personal attack upon her, noth- 
ing else. 

^Ir. Doyle. Yes, go ahead and answer it. 

Mrs. Hart. That doesn't respond to your personal attack. 

Mr. Doyle. Answer what I said to you, young lady, if you want 
to. 

Mrs. Hart. You used such words as lousy this and that and the 
other thing. I don't think it is dignified for the Chair to use that 
toward the witness who is subpenaed here. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. I cannot find in the English language, within my limited 
knowledge, words that are strong enough to describe that kind of 
garbage, can you ? 

Mrs. Hart. That is all right, but a person, and certainly the chair- 
man, certainly ought to be restrained enough to maintain his position 
as chairman without being so critical personally. That is the point 
I am making. 

Mr. Doyle. Wlien your own son and hundreds of thousands of other 
sons have died in the uniform of the American military to protect our 



514 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

freedom, what do you expect me to do when there is this sort of ma- 
licious attack on them ? 

Mrs. Hart. It is to investigate, not circulate and indulge in per- 
sonalities. That is all I am saying. 

Mr. Doyle. I am not indulging in personalities. I am indulging 
in the statement of a writer — a writer for \)n.y, if you please, when she 
wrote this — an attack on the American Military Establishment and 
the policy of the United States Congress. 

Mrs. Hart. You have a right to disagree and so has she. 

Mr. DoTLE. Did you have a c[uestion, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Now, as to this publication, Witness, that Mr. Doyle 
is talking to you about, entitled "Your Eight," published by the Com- 
mittee to Preserve American Freedoms, it is indicated that that com- 
mittee has its headquarters at room 504, 208 North Wells Street, 
Chicago 6, 111. As a matter of fact, that was Connnunist Party head- 
quarters, was it not ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. You know,, as a matter of fact, do you not. Witness, 
that that was Communist Party headquarters, that very room ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. The same reasons, the same answer. 

Mr. Scherer. Have j^ou traveled abroad in the last 10 years? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf, I don't feel that is pertinent to the purpose this 
committee was created for. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. And I refuse to answer on the basis of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Doyle. Let me give the instruction and then answer whatever 
way you feel is your privilege. I instruct you to answer that last 
question Mr. Scherer asked you. 

Mrs. Hart. As to whether she ever traveled abroad — ^that is the 
question ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. We think it is a matter of identification of a 
newspajDer which we believe is Communist-controlled on which she 
was a paid member of the staff and, manifestly, saw to it that there 
was inserted in this Vilnis Weekly Review false news items, orio;inat- 
ing from Communist sources. We believe it is a pertinent question. 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. So, will you repeat your question again? 

Mr. Scherer. Have you ever traveled abroad ? 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. And the answer is "No." 

Mr. Scherer. Have you ever received any compensation from the 
Communist Party ? 

(Witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. That is too ridiculous, but I still refuse to answer 
under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. "\Yliether ridiculous or not, have you ever received 
any compensation 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Scherer. Wait just a minute. Have you ever received any com- 
pensation, either directly or indirectly, from the Communist Party? 



INVESTIGATION OF COIMMTJNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 515 

Mrs. DeSchaaf. I refuse to answer for the same reasons I gave 
before. 

Mr. ScHERER. I liave no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Arens, any other questions ? 

Mr. Arens. No. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Doyee. The witness, then, is excused. 

Mrs. Hart. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, Mr. Chairman, if you please, will 
be Jacob Pauliukas. 

]Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. PAULiuiiAS. I do. 

Mr. DoYLE. Thank you. Have the witness chair. 

TESTIMONY OF JACOB PAULIUKAS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
IKVING G. STEINBERG 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identfy yourself my name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Pauliukas. My name is Jacob Pauliukas. I live at 5447 West 
23d Street, Cicero, 111. 

Mr. Scherer. I did not get the name. 

Mr. Pauliukas. Jacob Pauliukas. 

Mr. Scherer. Jacob? 

Mr. Pauliukas. Jacob. 

Mr. Scherer. And I did not get the last name. 

Mr. Pauliukas. Pauliukas, P-a-u-1-i-u-k-a-s. 

Mr. Scherer. B-a-u 

Mr. Pauliukas. P like in Paul. 

Mr. Scherer. P-a-u 

Mr. Pauliukas. 1-i-u-k-a-s-. 

Mr. x\rens. Your occupation, please, sir. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Scherer. i\Ir. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness 
to answer the question as to his occupation. 

Mr, Doyle. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse on the fifth amendment to answer the 
question. I don't want to incriminate mj^self . 

Mr. Scherer. AVhere were you born? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion as to where he was born. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed, witness. 
(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. I don't want to incriminate myself. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I cannot possibly see how answering 
my question as to his birthplace could incriminate him and again I 
might say, in the opinion of this member of the committee, the witness, 
by refusing to answer, places himself in contempt. 



516 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Doyle. I would not think lie committed any act, when he was 
born, by his own self that would incriminate him. 

I instruct you to answer the question. Witness. We believe we are 
entitled to the identification of a witness as to where you were born. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to testify agamst the fifth amendment, 
against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to testify against myself. 

Mr. DoTLE. Answer the question. We are certainly entitled to 
know whether we have a citizen of the United States before us. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

]\Ir. ScHERER. Are you a naturalized citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. DoTLE. You are directed to answer the question. Witness. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where did you go to school ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Let him finish the answer. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I don't want to testify against m3^self . 

Mr. Scherer. Wliere did you go to school ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. I request that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. DoTLE. I direct you to answer the question. Witness. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. I do 
not have to be compelled. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever go to school ? 

Mr. Steinberg. You are not giving him a chance to finish the 
answers. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever go to school ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you ask the witness to keep his voice up so that 
we can hear when he is finished ? 

Mr. Steinberg. I will. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever go to school ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. Wliat is the question ? 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever go to school ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. DoTLE. You are directed to answer the question, Witness. 

I say this to the witness. You have worthy legal counsel by your- 
self. If you want plenty of time to counsel with him before you 
answer, you may. Do you understand me ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. Yes. 

Mr. DoTLE. All right. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer ; this question has nothing to do 
with this problem on the fifth amendment. 

ISIr. Scherer. Would you tell the committee of your educational 
background ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 517 

Mr. Pauliukas. Same way. I refuse to answer ; the same gromids. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you say what is your present address? 

Mr. Steinberg. You are not giving him a chance to answer. There 
was a direction to the question he didn't answer. 

Mr. Scherer. I thought he had. 

Mr. Steinberg. He didn't have a chance. 

Mr. Scherer. Would you ask the witness to talk louder? 

Mr. Steinberg. I will. He has difficulty understanding English, 
you see, and it is a little hard. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer. This has nothing to do with 
this particular investigation. Also, I refuse because I don't want to 
testify against myself on the fifth amendment. 

]Mr. Scherer. Your counsel said you have difficulty in understand- 
ing English. What language do you understand ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Scherer. What language do you understand ? 

JNIr. Steinberg. Would you let him finish ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. Answer the question. 

Mr. Pauliukas. "V^^iat is the question ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. Scherer. Will you read it, Mr. Reporter ? 

(Pending question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer this question on the basis this is 
not the purpose of this committee, on the basis of the fifth amendment 
and the first amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, Witness, counsel said you have difficulty un- 
derstanding English. I want to inquire, have you understood the 
question I asked you ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. You understood that? 

Mr. Pauliukas. Yes ; I understand. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you say you live in Cicero ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer. It is not pertinent. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question, 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. Witness. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer. No man has been compelled to 
testify against himself. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you honestly believe to answer the question as to 
how long you have lived in Chicago, might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer. 



518 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the cjuestion, Witness. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer the question on the fifth amend- 
ment, on the grounds that no person can be compelled to incriminate 
himself. 

Mr. ScriERER. We are not asking you to incriminate yourself. We 
are asking you if you honestly believe that to answer that question, 
might tend to incriminate you ; and the law says you can onl}^ answer 
that question "Yes" if you are invoking the fifth amendment in good 
faith. 

Mr. Pauliuxas. I invoke the first and fifth amendments, the same 
way. 

Mr. ScHERER. Very well. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response 

Mr. Scherer. Just one second. In what other cities have you lived? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the basis 

Mr. Scherer. Other than Chicago or Cicero ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. I don't want to incriminate mj'self . 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer tliat question, Witness. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. Are you married. Witness ? 

Mr. Paltliukas. "VVliat ? 

]Mi\ Scherer. Are you married ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer. Tlie purpose has nothing to 
do with the 

Mr. Scherer. Do you honestly believe 

Mr. Steinberg. You are not giving him a chance to finish. 

Mr. Scherer. As far as I was concerned, he had fuiished the answer. 
I cannot hear him. Let liim finish the answer. 

Mr. Pauliubl\s. This has nothing to do with the investigation, on 
the basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. I submit, Mr. Chairman, it is a proper question for 
the purpose of identification of the witness; and I ask you to direct 
the witness to answer the question whether he is married. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. Witness. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer, on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, no man has been compelled to answer the question, to testify 
against himself. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you honestly believe to answer the question 
whether you are married or not could lead to a criminal prosecution ? 
Do you honestly believe that ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Pauliukas. I answer the same way as previous. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. Witness. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMlVrUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 519 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, no man has to be compelled to testify against himself. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 

Mr. Arexs. I have two formal questions that I would like to ask you. 

You are appearing today in response to a subpena served upon you 
by the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly keep joiiv voice up. 

And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr. Scherer. I am sorry. I cannot hear the witness up here. 

Mr. Steixberg. Irving G. Steinberg, 180 "West Washington. 

Mr. Arexs. "Witness, keep your voice up a little bit. 

You are right now, are you not, identified with "\^ilnis ? 

("Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pauliuicas. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

]Mr. Arexs. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of a statement 
filed by yourself as business manager of Vilnis, pursuant to postal laws, 
in which you list here your official connection with "V^ilnis, that "Vilnis 
is published by the "\Vorkers Publishing Association, and lists the 
other officers of that organization. 

Please look at this document, which I now display to you, and tell 
this committee, while you are under oath, whether or not that is a 
true reproduction of a document filed by you pursuant to the postal 
laws. 

("\"\ltness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steixberg. Do you have the original ? 

Mr. Arexs. "Would 3'ou kindly respond to the question? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arexs. Keep your voice up, please, so we can hear you. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first amend- 
ment. 

(Document marked "Pauliukas Exhibit Xo, 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. I would like to lay before you a photostatic reproduc- 
tion of Vilnis of May 8, 1931, and ask you if you would be good 
enough to accommodate the Committee on TJn-American Activities 
in following that while I repeat the translation. 

Mr. Steixberg. I am going to object to this, if the Court please. 
I have to have a translator here. 

Mr. Arexs. I did not ask counsel to do it. 

Mr. Steixberg. I need a translator — 

Mr. Arexs. Counsel's sole prerogative is to advise his client. Coun- 
sel now is in violation of the committee's rules. If counsel does not 
restrain himself, I am going to respectfully suggest that the com- 
mittee have him ejected from the hearing room. 

Mr. Steixberg. If the Court please, may I have a ruling on this? 

Mr. DoTLE. Counsel, this is not a court, as I stated. I know you 
have been in the hearing room all morning in the front seat there. 
You heard me read our rule. I believe it is entirely proper for the 



520 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EN U. S. 

witness, if he can read the language in which he prints a newspaper, 
apparently, or did in that year, that he read it. 

Mr. Steinberg. I am saying we should have an impartial Lithu- 
anian interpreter. That is my only point. 

Mr. Arens. You have received a ruling from the Chair. Your 
sole and exclusive prerogative is to advise your client. 

Mr. Steinberg. I don't know that that is — 

Mr, Arens. And you know it is part of the rules of this committee. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct the witness to answer the question, please. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly, if you will do so, let your eyes scan this Vilnis 
editorial or lead article of May 8, 1931, while I read here, and I will 
begin in the second paragraph. This is a translation which we have 
from the 

Mr. Steinberg. ^Yliere does it say May 1931 ? 

Mr. Arens. Library of Congress : 

A year ago, May 11, 1930, Vilnis stockholders had declared themselves, 
accepted the resolution, "Vilnis is a Communist newspaper, Vilnis' political line, 
for that reason, must be the Communist line." 

Is that a true and correct translation of the language which you 
see before you in that paper, Vilnis, of May 8, 1931 ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. 1 refuse to answer this Cj[uestion on the first 
amendment, freedom of the press, and the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Pauliukas Exhibit No. 2," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Steven Strazdas ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse on the grounds of the first amendment. 

Mr. Arens, Steven Strazdas identified you as a member of the Com- 
munist conspiracy. Was he lying or telling the truth ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments, 

Mr, Steinberg. Is he here in this courtroom ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that you admonish 
counsel that his sole and exclusive prerogative is to advise his client. 
If he persists in violating the rules of this committee, I request that 
the committee cause him to be forcibly excluded from this room. 

Mr. Steinberg, I just asked if Steven Strazdas is present. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Nellie DeSchaaf ? Do you know a person 
by the name of Nellie DeSchaaf ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Alice Yonik ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Leon Pruseika, 
P-r-u-s-e-i-k-a ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse on the basis of the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Now, kindly look at these two exhibits, which have been 
identified in this record. The first is an attack upon the Committee 
of Un-American Activities by the Committee To Preserve American 
Freedoms, The second is a handbill circulated by The Chicago Com- 
mittee To Preserve Freedom of Speech and the Press, 



INVESTIGATION OF COMAIUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 521 

Tell this committee, while under oath, what information you have 
respecting either of those two organizations. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Akens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Steinberg. One moment. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly keep your voice up so we can hear you. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

(Documents previously referred to are designated "De Schaaf Ex- 
hibits Nos. 2 and 6," respectively, and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. Are you known in the Communist conspiracy today 
as Comrade Mike Zaldakas ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you, while you 
are under oath, to affirm or deny the fact that you are Comrade Mike 
Zaldakas, alias Jacob Pauliukas, P-a-u-1-i-u-k-a-s, of the Communist 
conspiratorial propaganda apparatus in the Chicago area? 

Deny that while under oath if that is not true. 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer that on the first and fifth 
amendments. I don't want to incriminate myself. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Let the record show that even though you did not have 
counsel identify himself until you asked several identification ques- 
tions of the witness, the record ought to show that counsel for the 
witness has been present in the hearing room throughout 

Mr. Steinberg. Yes, Your Honor. 

Mr. Doyle. Throughout all of the questioning of the witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, how many times have you left the United 
States and came back here ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. ScuERER. How many times have you been to Russia or Lith- 
uania? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amend- 
ments. I don't want to incriminate myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you made an application for passports ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse on the same basis to answer the question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you ever received any compensation, either 
directly or indirectly, from the Commimist Party ? 

Mr. Pauliukas. I refuse to answer on the same basis, the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, may I request that the various exhibits 
on this witness, as well as the preceding witness and following wit- 
nesses, which shall be used, be the object of a general order by the 
chairman, that they be appropriately marked and incorporated in 
the record. 

Mr. Steinberg. I object to the Lithuanian translation. 

90844— 57— pt. 7 4 



522 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 

Mr. Arens. Yoli know that under the rule of the committee your 
sole and exclusive prerogative is to advise your client. 

Mr. Steinberg. Legal objections I have the right to insert, 

Mr. Doyle. I make that order. 

Witness, before you and your counsel leave, I think, in view of the 
testimony during the morning, 1 should read one paragraph of the 
Internal Security Act of 1950, which refers to the subversive activities 
control and Public Law 831 of the 81st Congress. 

I quote section 2 : 

Sec. 2. As a result of evidence adduced before various committees of the Sen- 
ate and House of Representatives, the Congress hereby finds that — 

(1) there exists a world Communist movement, which, in its origin, its devel- 
opment, and its i:)resent practice, is a worldwide revolutionary movement whose 
pui'pose it is, by treachery, deceit, infiltration into other groups (governmental 
and otherwise), espionage, sabotage, terrorism, and any other means deemed 
necessary, to establish a Communist totalitarian dictatorship in the countries 
throughout the world through the medium of a worldwide Communist organ- 
ization. 

Do you have any other witness this morning, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, I suggest we take one more witness. 

Mr. Dotle. Thank you. Witness and Counsel. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, to my mind this witness is clearly in 
contempt, so much so that I move that the subcommittee recommend 
to the full committee he be cited for contempt. 

Mr. Dotle. I will entertain that motion, and I join in that motion. 

Let the record show we will recommend to the full committee of the 
House Un-American Activities Committee that this last witness be 
cited for contempt of the United States Congress. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be very brief, I believe, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. ^Ylio is the next witness ? 

Mr. Arens. Leon Pruseika, P-r-u-s-e-i-k-a. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth — keep your hand up — do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

]\Ir. Pruseika. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Take the witness chair. 

TESTIMONY OF LEON PRUSEIKA. ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
IKVING G. STEINBERG 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself 

Mr. Steinberg. I want to x^oint out the witness is 70 years old and 
has a bad heart. 

Mr. x\rens. Please 

Mr. Scherer. Are you asking that pictures not be taken ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Pictures are all right. I just want to apprise this 
body that, in light of his advanced age and his heart condition, which 
is very serious, that we sort of moderate our attitude toward him, 
because something might happen ; and I don't want the onus to fall 
on this committee. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand he is not objecting to 

Mr. Steinberg. The films? No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Photographs being taken of him. 



ESn-ESTIGATION OF C0:^J:MUXIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 523 

Mr. Steinberg. He has no objection. 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't feel that would hurt his heart condition ? 
Mr. Steinberg. No. He is 70 years old and he has been in the hos- 
pital as recently as a few months ago. 

]Mr. Doyle. He is really, in fact, not very elderly, you know, if he is 
only 70. Some of the rest of us are not very far from that. 
Mr, Steinberg. I trust we do not have heart conditions. 
Mr. Dotle. Let us proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Identify yourself by name, residence, and occupation. 
Mr. Pruseika. My name is Leon Pruseika. 
Mr. Arens. P-r-u-s-e-i-k-a ; is that correct? 

Mr. Pruseika. And my address is Parnell Avenue, 3627 Parnell 
Avenue, Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Mr. Pruseika. I am a newspaperman 

Mr, Arens. Where are you employed? 
Mr. Pruseika, Working for Vilnis. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Pruseika. I received subpena. 
Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 
Mr. Pruseika. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 
Mr. Steinberg. Irving G. Steinberg, 180 West Washington. 
Mr. Arens. You are an assistant editor of Vilnis? Is that correct? 
Mr. Pruseik.\. I am connected with newspapers since 1904, 
Mr. Arens. I do not believe you understood me. You said a mo- 
ment ago you were editor or something with Vilnis. It was not clear 
for the record. "\^niat is your title with Vilnis ? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Pruseika. I want to say this and stress this: I am standing 
on grounds of the first amendment to the United States Constitution 
for freedom of the press. I am a newspaperman so you have no 
right to question me. I believe in freedom of the press. 

Mr. Arens. We certainty do. We would like to ask you now what 
you said a moment ago on this record about your connection with 
Vilnis. What is your title with Vilnis? 

Mr. Pruseika. I won't answer any other cpiestions. 

Mr. Arens. I am asking you to clear the record for us. 

Mr. Pruseieia. I am connected with Vilnis and nothing else. 

Mr. Arens. "What is your title with Vilnis ? 

Mr. Pruseika. I invoke the first amendment. 

Mr, Arens, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest 

Mr. Pruseielv. I invoke the first amendment and the fifth amend- 
ment of the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. In view of the status of this record, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. Witness, do you hear? Do you hear me, Witness? 
I am directing you to answer the question wliich counsel just asked 
you as to what your connection is with Vilnis. 

Mr. Pruseika. I can't be a witness against myself on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 



524 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer in view of your statement a few 
questions ago that you are connected with Vilnis. We understood 
you to say that. We understood you to say that you are connected 
with Vihiis. We are asking you what your connection with Vihiis 
is. 

Mr. Pruseika. I said I am newspaperman, that is all, and nothing 
else. 

Mr. Arens. I would like the record to be clear that he is ordered 
and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Steinberg. "VVHiat is the outstanding question ? 

Mr. Arens. His title with Vilnis or official connection. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pruseika. All the same argument. From my side, it is fifth 
amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Pruseika. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliere and when were you born ? 

Mr. Pruseika. You know better than I. 

Mr. Scherer. When were you born and where ? 

Mr. Pruseika. Fifth amendment to the question. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question, Witness. Consult 
with your counsel again there and 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pruseika. I can't be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Do you read Lithuanian ? 

Mr. Pruseika. I won't answer this question. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest he be ordered to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Pruseika. Are you investigating me or the newspaperman ? I 
said 

Mr. Arens. We are investigating you, as a person on whom we have 
information that you are a Communist, sir. 

Would you kindly answer the question: Do you read Lithuanian? 

Mr. Pruseika. You are investigating me as a newspaperman. I say 
I have freedom on grounds of the first amendment to the United States 
Constitution. I am connected with newspaper work since I was 18 
years old, and nobody investigated me for my beliefs or my convic- 
tions, for my writings. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, under oath, sir, are you now a member of an 
apparatus designed to destroy the Constitution of the United States 
and overthrow the Government of the United States by force and 
violence ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Identify the apparatus. 

Mr. Arens. Answer the question. 

Mr. Pruseika. The answer is the same grounds. I can't be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. In view of your asking a question about your being 
a newspaperman, I say this : The United States Congress makes no 
exception if it has reason to believe any individual is a member of the 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 525 

Communist program of conspiracy. I want to make this clear to you 
who are connected with a paper which we believe is Communist- 
controlled and dominated. 

The fact that you are connected with a paper does not exclude you 
from being investigated, if you are a Communist, by the United States 
Congress. That is our belief. 

Mr. Pruseika. You are investigating me. I am a newspaperman. 

Mr. Doyle. We are not investigating the newspaper. We are inves- 
tigating the extent to which it may be controlled by identified Com- 
munists. That is quite a different thing. 

Mr. Pruseika. Why don't you investigate such papers like the Chi- 
cago Tribune? 

Mr. Doyle. Like what? 

Mr. Pruseika. Why don't you investigate papers like the Chicago 
Tribune, for instance? 

Mr. Steinberg. Chicago Tribune, he said. 

Mr. Pruseika. The Tribune. Why me? Why shall I make con- 
fessions as to why and what I am doing ? 

^Ir. ScHERER. Do you know any Communists on the Chicago 
Tribune? 

Mr. Pruseika. The New York Times there got 1 or 2. 

Mr. Scherer. If you would help us now by telling us the names of 
any Communists on any paper here, including your own, we would 
be glad to call them up here and see if we can get some information. 

Mr. Pruseika. I don't understand why you are asking so many 
questions when you say you know everything. An informer made a 
speech about communism, and so on. All this and no discussion comes 
up 



Mr. Lautner. What about the informers on Russia ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Are you on the witness stand ? 

Mr. Lautner. I was. 

Mr. Pruseika. An investigation, and we can't discuss from every 
angle this question about farmworkers and minority groups and every- 
thing. Now, you have everything in advance, you know ; asking the 
questions, the same, the same, the same, you know; and it makes me 
nervous. I beg your pardon ; but privately, to me, congressional inves- 
tigator, I ask him the question why no such things happening in France 
and England, in Italy ; why such things are happening here like today ? 

Mr. Scherer. Now I have some questions, Witness. 

Mr. Pruseika. I beg your pardon. You don't have to answer my 
questions, you know, but certainly this question 

INIr. Scherer. You have taken the fifth amendment to every ques- 
tion we asked you of importance. 

Mr. Pruseika. I know\ 

Mr. Scherer. You haven't answered any of our questions. I^et me 
ask you a few. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Pruseika. I won't answer the question. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer the question whether or not 
you are a citizen of the United States. It is a question that we be- 
lieve is always considered pertinent before any congressional inves- 
tigation for the purpose of identification. How could it incriminate 



526 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

you if you are a citizen of the United States ? You are not ashamed 
of it, certainly ; if you are — I hope not. 

Mr. Pruseika. Same answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you a naturalized citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Pruseika. I won't answer the question. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that joii direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer, the question. Witness. 

Mr. Pruseika. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. "Wliere were you born? 

Mr. Pruseika. I don't miderstand the meaning of such questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. "\Yliere were you born? 

Mr. Pruseika. The committee knows this — these informers, they 
know in advance. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. AVliere were you born, Witness ? We believe it is very 
pertinent to laiow from where the residents of the United States 
come. "VYliat country did you come from? Where were you born? 

Mr. Pruseika. You are investigating Lithuanian guy. That is me. 

Mr. Doyle. Investigating what ? 

Mr. Pruseibla.. Lithuanian. 

Mr. Scherer. Are you a Lithuanian ? Were you born in Lithuania ? 

Mr. Pruseika. I am not Hungarian, you notice. 

Mr. Scherer. I cannot hear you. Witness. You are not Hungarian, 
did you say ? 

Mr. Pruseika. I am not Hungarian. 

Mr. Scherer. Where were you born? That is a simple question. 
We know you are no Plungarian. 

Mr. Pruseika. Most Lithuanians are from Lithuania. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion of where he w^as born. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer the question. Witness. You 
volunteered the information that you were not born in Hungary. 
Wliere were you born ? 

Mr. Scherer. He had an opportunity to answer. Now 

Mr. Steinberg. If the Court please 

Mr. Scherer. Do you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Pruseika. I won't answer the question for the same reason. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliere do you now live ? 

Mr. Doyle. Did you hear the question. Witness? Wliere do you 
now live? 

Mr. Steinberg. He already answered that, if the Court please. 

Mr. Scherer. We did not hear him. 

Mr. Steinberg. He did. This is the second answer. 

Mr. Pruseika. 3G27 Parnell Avenue. 

Mr. Scherer. Chicago ? 

Mr. Pruseika. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. How long have you lived there ? 

Mr. Pruseika. Well, a few years, I guess. 

Mr. Scherer. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Mr, Pruseika. Twenty years — 20 years. 

Mr. Scherer. Where did you live before that ? 

Mr. Pruseika. New York. 



IXVESTIGATIOX OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 527 

Mr. ScHERER. New York ^ 

]VIr. Pruseika. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SciiERER. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you lived in Xew York ? 

Mr. Pruseika. I Avas connected with the Amaljiamated Clothing 
"Workers of the United States for 6 years. I was editor of the Lithu- 
anian publication and worked together with Sidney Hillman. 

Mr. ScHERER. When you worked with Sidney Hillman, were you a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Pruseika. Oh, same, same, same. I beg your pardon. That 
is too much. 

Mr. Scherer. Are you feeling badly? Do you want a recess? 

Mr. Pruseika. I don't think'you gentlemen are interested in this 
thing. The last time I got subpenaed from a congressional committee, 
it was about a year and a half, I guess, and I was at that time in the 
hospital 

Mr. Scherer. Do you want a recess ? 

Mr. Pruseika. With heart trouble and diabetes. 

Mr. Steinberg. He has diabetes, too. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you feel this hearing is detrimental to your health? 

Mr. Pruseika. It is veiy unhealthy. 

Mr. Scherer. It is what ? 

Mr. Pruseika. Perhaps very unhealthy. 

Mr. Scherer. I did not understand, sir. Did you obtain a doctor's 
certificate asking that you be excused from this hearing ? 

Mr. Pruseika. No ; I didn't expect that I would be investigated in 
such a form, you know. It sounds punish — so many questions, you 
know, and you know everything in aclvance, all the biography 

Mr. Scherer. I frankly do not know, Witness, whether you were a 
member of the Communist Party when you were with Sidney Hill- 
man. I did not know until you said that you were connected with 
Sidney Hillman. 

Mr. Pruseika. He is dead, Sidney Hillman. 

Mr. Scherer. At the time you were connected with him, were you a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Pruseika. I decline to answer this question. 

Mr. Scherer. You decline to answer ? 

Mr. Pruseika. Sidney Hillman is dead. He would tell you better 
about this. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the morning session. 

Mr. DoTLE. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock, same 
room. 

("\Yliereupon, at 12 : 43 p. m., March 26, 1957, the hearing recessed 
to reconvene at 2 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, MARCH 26, 1957 

(The subcommittee was reconvened at the expiration of the recess, 
at 2 p. m. Committee members present: Representatives Doyle and 
Scherer.) 



528 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. DoTLE. Before we call the next witness, we take pleasure in 
saying that the committee could not help but notice this morning that 
the people in the hearing room were very cooperative and were not 
making any disturbance, either by way of approval of disapproval. 
We appreciate very much that conduct because the subcommittee is 
here to work, and purely to work ; and we appreciate the cooperation 
of everyone in the room. I know, of course, you will continue to give 
that cooperation this afternoon. 

I want to take this occasion to again thank the United States mar- 
shal's office for being in attendance at the hearings. I hope it will 
not be necessary for any of the marshals to remove anyone from the 
room because of disturbance of the hearings. 

Are you ready, Mr. Arens, with the first witness ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Anthony Minerich, kindly come forward. 

Mr. D0YI.E. Will you please raise your right hand and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Minerich. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Take the witness chair. 

TESTIMONY OF ANTHONY MINERICH, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
IRVING G. STEINBERG 

Mr. Steinberg. If the court please, I have a motion here that I 
would like to present to the court. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, counsel, just a minute. 

Mr. Steinberg. Judge, would you read my motion before you de- 
cide because it is very important and it may deal with holding 

Mr. Doyle. You are entirely in error when you address us as a 
court. You were here this morning when I explained we are not 
here as a court; we make no attempt to rule on any legal motions. 
There is a jurisdiction in which the 

Mr. Steinberg. It is a jurisdictional question, and I appreciate it 
and 

Mr. Doyle. We will not rule on it. 

Mr. Steinberg. Will you read it because there is a danger you may 
be held in contempt because Mr. Minerich is under the jurisdiction 
of the court. 

Mr. Doyle. Present it to our legal counsel. 

Mr. Steinberg. I certainly will. Will you look at it, Your Honor, 
too? 

Mr. Doyle. No ; we rely on our legal counsel's advice. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself as to name, address, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Steinberg. May we have a ruling? 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, you are advised again that your sole and ex- 
clusive prerogative here is to advise your client on constitutional 
rights and legal rights. 

Kindly identify yourself as to name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Minerich. My name is Anthony Minerich, I live at 5957 South 
Justine, Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation, please ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 529 

Mr. MiNERicH. I think that the question that the counsel tried to 
raise, you should look at. I am under the jurisdiction of the court. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that the witness be directed 
and ordered to answer the outstanding question. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes ; I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. MiNERicH. It is impossible for me to answer the question for 
three reasons. 

Mr. Doyle, Give the reasons. 

Mr. I^IiNERiCH. One reason is that I have a case in the courts which 
is now pending. I am under the jurisdiction of the courts, and I 
don't think that this committee has a right now to ask me questions 
because they deal with certain things that you have here before you, 
and until my case is settled by the court I do not want to answer ques- 
tions. That is the first reason. 

The second reason is that you, yourself, stated in the early part of 
this meeting that you can't legislate questions dealing with the press. 
Therefore, basing myself on the first amendment to the Constitution, 
I do not want to answer the questions. 

The third reason is that I invoke the fifth amendment not to 
answer questions that might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. AiJENS. You are appearing in response to a subpena that was 
served on you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the 
reasons. 

Mr. Arens. ]VIr. Chairman, I suggest that the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. MiNERiCH. The three reasons that I gave 

Mr. Doyle. I am directing you. Witness, to answer the questions; 
answer the last question. 

Mr. MiNERicH. I say again that I am under the jurisdiction of the 
courts. I am under the protection of the courts at the present time 
until my case is settled by the courts. 

Mr. Doyle. If you are under the protection of the court, the court 
will protect you, but this is a congressional hearing, and we believe 
it is a pertinent question. If you are under the jurisdiction of the 
court, the court will protect you. We are not undertaking inter- 
ference with the jurisdiction of any court. But the purpose of this 
sort of question 

Mr. Minerich. The questions may prejudice my rights with the 
courts. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer the question as to whether or not he is appear- 
ing in response to a subpena that was served on him by the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Minerich. I am here under subpena. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Minerich. This is my counsel l^ere. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Steinberg. Irving G. Steinberg, 180 West Washington. 

Mr. Arens. "Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Minerich. I refuse to answer this question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments to the Constitution, and also the questions 



530 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

which I will continually raise dealing with this document which is 
before you and which you refuse to even look at. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. DovLE. I so direct you, Witness. 

Mr. MiNERicH. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment which states you can't compel me to testify against 
myself. My case is before the courts, and this hearing will interfere 
with the due process of the court. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you honestly believe the answer to the question 
as to where you were born, would lead to a criminal prosecution of 
you? 

Mr. MiisTEKiCH. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds, on the gi^ounds based on the first and fifth amendments that 
anything that I may say may tend to be used against me to incrimi- 
nate me, and that I am under the jurisdiction of the courts right now. 
Until my case is settled, I think the questions you have here you want 
to ask me will prejudice my case. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer the question of whether or not he honestly believes the answer 
to his question, as to place of birth, might lead to criminal prosecution. 

Mr. Doyle. I so direct you, Witness. 

Mr. Scherer. I might say the law requires him to answer that ques- 
tion "Yes" or "No." He cannot invoke the fifth amendment to the 
question whether or not he is invoking the fifth amendment in good 
faith. 

Mr. MiNERicH. I refuse to answer the question, that the questions 
are irrelevant here, and that I refuse on the basis of the first amend- 
ment to the Constitution dealing with the freedom of the press and 
of the fifth amendment, that which gives me the right to refuse to 
testify anything that might tend to incriminate me ; and, also, again 
I say that I am under the jurisdiction of the courts, and I think the 
question you have here will prejudice the whole case, and I do not 
want to answer the questions now. And the proposal in this here is 
that my testimony be held in abeyance until the courts have settled 
the case. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments and also in connection with my appearance 
as my being under the jurisdiction of the courts. 

Mr. Arens. Please look to the right. Mr. Lautner, will, you stand 
up, please ? 

Mr. Minerich, this gentleman standing here this morning took an 
oath, laid his liberty on the line. If he lied, he can be prosecuted and 
will be prosecuted for perjury. "\Yliile he was under oath before this 
committee, he identified you as a person known by him to have been 
a member of the Communist conspiracy. Look him in the eye now, 
so we will have no baseless informers, and tell this committee was he 
lying or telJing the truth when he identified you as a Communist ? 

Mr. Mixerich. I refuse to answer this question on the basis of the 
first amendment to the Constitution, the fifth amendment to the Con- 
stitution, and this document which shows you I am under the juris- 
diction of the courts and that I can't be compelled here to testify on 
questions. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 531 

Mr. Arexs. We lay before you a document, an exhibit which 
was filed with the postal authorities for Narodni Glasnik, a newspaper 
published by the Narodni Glasnik Publishing Co., Inc., in which you 
signed as business manager of this publication. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee, while you are 
under oath, whether or not that is a true and correct reproduction of 
the document which you signed and filed with the postal authorities. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MiNERicH. Yes. Now, this question deals with the newspaper 
here ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you file that document ? 

]SIr. MixERicH. On the basis of the first amendment to the Con- 
stitution, which says that Congress can't legislate a question of the 
freedom of the press, I refuse to answer that question; and I also 
invoke the fifth amendment to the Constitution, saying that I don't 
have to answer here to any questions that might incriminate me. 

(Document marked "Minerich Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you a photostatic copy 
of the Daily Worker of November 22, 1935, in which an article ap- 
pears about this Communist Party Central Committee meeting and 
lists a number of persons who are identified here as key members, 
district organizers of the Communist Party, including yourself, Tony 
Minerich, "coal miners' leader.'' 

Kindly look at this article and tell us whether or not the Daily 
Worker was truthful in that instance in identifying you as one of the 
ring leaders of the Communist conspiracy. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MiXERiCH. Well, I refuse to answer this question on the basis 
that this is interference with the court, under whose protection and 
jurisdiction I am right now until my case is settled ; also on the basis 
of tlie first amendment, wiiich guarantees freedom of the press, in 
which case you sliouldn't legislate an}^ questions, and therefore you 
shouldn't go into them ; and on the basis of the fifth amendment I 
shouldn't answer questions that would tend to incriminate me. 

(Document marked "Minerich Exhibit No. 2," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you the Communist Daily Worker of 
Friday, March 27, 1936, in whicli you are identified in an article as 
one of the section organizers in Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Kindly look at that article and tell this committee, while you are 
under oath, whether or not you are truthfully described in that Com- 
munist Daily Worker. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Minerich. Yes. I refuse to answer this question on the basis 
of the first amendment, freedom of the press. As I stated before, 
and you stated also, we have no conflict in that question, you can't 
legislate questions of the freedom of the press: and, therefore, in my 
opinion, you can't go into the questions also Mnthout a valid reason 
for it 

Mr. Arens. You are 



Mr. Minerich fcontinuing) . And, therefore, under the first amend- 
ment to the Constitution. I refuse to answer this question. 



532 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. I take it you are- 



Mr. Steinberg. Let him finish. 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I stated again I am under the jurisdiction of the 
court. Until the case is settled, I don't want to go into the questions, 
and I don't tiiink the court wants me to go into the questions, and I 
don't think you have the right; and, therefore, I invoke the first 
amendment not testify and I also invoke the fifth amendment which 
says that I do not have to testify to questions. 

(Document marked "Minerich Exhibit No. 3," and retained in 
committee files, ) 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Arens, may I ask a question ? 

Of course. Witness, you know — well know and counsel well knows — 
if it were fact that the alleged court which you mentioned and keep 
on mentioning did not want us to question you under this subpena, 
it would have been a very simple matter for the distinguished counsel 
to get an order from that court right in this city prohibiting us from 
asking you any questions. That court is very promptly available. 

Having practiced law 30 years myself, it would not have taken 
but a few minutes to get an order of the court which you claim to 
have jurisdiction over you. That court would have stopped us, if 
it would have wanted to and have been asked to, if it was interference 
with the court's jurisdiction. So, we do not regard that as a just 
reason for your not answering a legitimate question. 

The other thing you keep mentioning is that we are interfering with 
the freedom of the press. Again, you know that is in error. You 
were here this morning, were you not? And you heard me say the 
primary purpose of the inquiry was not an investigation of the press, 
but the extent to which Communist Party members controlled, either 
directly or indirectly, the foreign-language press in the Chicago area. 

Congress still maintains, and the courts have ruled, that we have 
the right under Public Law 601 and the duty to investigate subver- 
sive activities, whether it is in control of a newspaper, control of a 
pulpit, or control of a political office or any place else. 

So you cannot claim, in our judgment, interference with your free- 
dom or interference with the freedom of the newspaper for which 
you might be a business agent or an editor. 

We believe that we have evidence that you are a member of the 
Communist Party. We are going to investigate that because we know 
that the Communist Party philosophy is in contravention of a free 
press. It is a controlled press when Communists are in control of 
it, and it is controlled for the purpose of the Soviet foreign policy. 
So, when you keep throwing into your answers that it is interference 
with free press, that is, in our judgment, buncombe. 

Mr. Arens. What is your line of work, please ? 

Mr. Minerich. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds, that this is interference with the freedom of the press. You 
are asking me questions and not asking Congress questions, and I am 
not answering for Congress; I am answering for myself. You are 
dealing with newspapers which you have no right, in my opinion. 

I invoke the first amendment and refuse to testify on that ground. 
Also, I invoke the fifth amendment to the Constitution, that I don't 
have to testify here to any questions that you ask which I believe 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 533 

will tend to incriminate me or make problems for me in connection 
Avith court case that is pending now. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel, if you told this committee truth- 
fully where you are employed, you would be supplying information 
which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I will answer again. I have answered that ques- 
tion, in my opinion, that I refuse to answer it on the basis of the fifth 
amendment, anything I say here might tend to incriminate me; and 
also, this case that I have in court and also, again, on the question of 
the first amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the wit- 
ness be ordered and directed to answer the last outstanding principal 
question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question, Witness. 

Mr, MiNERicH. I answer the question the same way I answered it 
before. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the fifth 
amendment, anything I say here might be used against me and tend 
to incriminate me; therefore, I do not want to answer; and I also 
invoke the first amendment again because there is a question dealing 
here with newspapers, the question you are asking, you have no right, 
under the first amendment, to ask. Again I say I am under jurisdic- 
tion of the court. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. MiNERiCH. That question I refuse to answer also on the basis 
of the fifth amendment, anything I say here might tend to incrimi- 
nate me. Also, I am invoking the first. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask, Mr. Chairman, that you direct the witness to 
tell us whether he is a citizen of the United States. 

Mr. DoTL,E. I direct you to answer that question, Witness. 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I will answer again for you the way I answered 
before. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the guaranties 
placed at my behalf by the fifth amendment of the Constitution, any- 
thing I might say here might tend to incriminate me, and also that 
this question that you are asking concerns the very question that is 
before the court, and I presented the document — my attorney did — 
for you to look at. Therefore, again, I cannot go into this question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you a naturalized citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I refuse to answer that question again on the basis 
of the fifth amendment. Anything I might say here might tend to 
incriminate me. That very question is before the court. Therefore, 
you have no right. It is my opinion that answering this question 
will help this committee to be in contempt of the court. 

Mr, ScHERER. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question, 

Mr. DoTLE, I direct you to answer this question, Witness, 

Mr, MiNERiCH, I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution, also the first, and also the 
reason 

Mr, ScHERER, Were you born in the United States ? 

Mr, MiNERicH. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment and that this question is now before the courts and 
until the courts are ready to have decided that question 



534 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean the question as to where you were born. 
is before the court? Do you mean to tell me that that question is 
before the court as to where you were born ? 

Mr. MiNERiCH, I refuse to answer the question on the basis 

Mr. ScHERER. You raised a question. I am asking you if the issue 
before the court is as to where you were born. 

Mr. MiNERiCH. If you ask me, you have to give me a chance to 
answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. I hope you answer instead of invoking the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. AIiNERiCH. I will answer in my way. 

Mr. ScHERER. Go ahead and answer. 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I refuse to answer on the basis 

JNIr. ScHERER. Do you call that an answer when you refuse to an- 
swer? 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I tell you again when you ask me again to answer, 
and I will answer the question in my way. 

Mr. INIiNERiCH. I refuse to answer on the basis- — — 

Mr. ]\IixERiCH. And I refuse to answer the question on the basis of 
the fifth amendment ; anything I said might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, he opened the door. 

Mr. MiNERiCH. This question is before the court at the present 
time, and I don't think you have the right to go into it now. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, he opened the door. If he had any 
right to invoke the fifth amendment, which I do not believe he does, 
as to the question of where he was born, he certainly waived it because 
he said the issue of where he was born was before the court at this 
moment. I am asking him to answer the question as to whether or 
not that issue as to the place of his birth is before the court. 

Mr. DoTLE. And I am instructing yo.u. Witness, to answer that 
question. 

Mr. IMiNERicH. I am refusing to answer it on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

IVir. ScHERER. The question before the court is your Communist 
Party activity, and the question is whether your Communist Party 
activities deprive you of the citizenship which obtained by naturaliza- 
tion. Is that not the issue before the court ? 

Mr, MiNERicH. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution, that this committee or anybody 
else can't compel me to give testimony here, under that amendment, 
that might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you traveled abroad since you came to this 
country ? 

iSIr. ^IiNERiCH. I refuse to answer that question on the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you been in Eussia ? 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I refuse to ansAver that question on the fifth amend- 
ment to the Constitution which gives me the right not to answer the 
question, also 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you ever received any compensation, directly 
or indirectly, from the Communist Party? 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of 
the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 535 

Mr. ScHERER. The fact is you have received such compensation, 
is it not, Witness ? 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I refuse to answer the last three or four questions 
that you just put— because I never did have a chance to complete my 
answer — on the basis of the fifth amendment to the Constitution, 
which gives me the right to refuse to answer any question that I feel 
might tend to incriminate me, and I refuse also on the basis that that 
question and many questions now are before the courts, and I want 
the courts to decide it, and I don't want this committee to go into 
this question and to prejudice any decisions that might be had. 

Mr. SciiizRER. Have you ever passed any information to a Com- 
munist agent? 

Mr. MixERiCH. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution, the first amendment of the Con- 
stitution, and also I am telling you again that I have a case before 
the courts, and I want the courts to settle the case. 

Mr. Arens. Are you one of the proponents of the abolition of the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Minerich. I am sorry that I have to answer that question in 
the same way, the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a document urging the abolition 
of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, published by a 
Committee To Preserve American Freedoms, and I also lay before 
you now a document issued by The Chicago Committee To Preserve 
Freedom of Speech and the Press, room 504, 208 North Wells Street, 
Chicago 6, 111., and that is the same address of the Committee To 
Preserve American Freedoms. 

It appears both these committees have the same address. 

Kindly look at those documents and tell this committee, while you 
are under oath, sir, what information you have respecting each of 
those committees. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Minerich. Well, I refuse to answer this question on the basis 
of the first amendment to the Constitution; on the fifth amendment 
to the Constitution, which says I don't have to answer questions which 
I feel might tend to incriminate me ; and, again, on the question, which 
question is before the courts and let the courts decide. 

(Documents previously identified as "DeSchaaf Exhibits Nos. 2 and 
6," respectively, and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Can you help us out on this? This room, 504, 208 
North Wells Street, Chicago 6, 111., which is the address of the Com- 
mittee To Preserve American Freedoms and The Chicago Committee 
To Preserve Freedom of Speech and the Press, is the same address 
and same identical room number which the Communist Party used 
to have here in Chicago. 

Can you help us on that ? 

Mr. Minerich. I am sorry I can't answer that question. On the 
basis of the fifth amendment to the Constitution, anything I say here 
might tend to incriminate me. Freedom of press is involved here. 
The freedom to publish leaflets, bulletins, and everything; and I 
think the committee has no right to go into this. 

Mr. Arens. I will ask you about the names of certain of these peo- 
ple who appear here along with your name as an official of Narodni 
Glasnik. Leo Fisher. Do you know him? 



536 INVESTIGATION OF COMIVIUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Nicholas Rajkovich, R-a-j-k-o-v-i-c-h. Do you know 
him? 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
guaranties of the fifth amendment to the Constitution and of the first 
amendment to the Constitution that deals Avith freedom of the press, 
speech, and so forth. 
Mr. Arens. John Vidmar, Jr. Do you know him ? 
Mr. MiNERicH. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
first amendment to the Constitution and fifth amendment to the Con- 
stitution. People don't need to testify 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist conspiratorial 
apparatus designed to destroy the Constitution of the United States 
and overthrow the Government by force and violence ? 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution. I refuse on the basis of the 
first amendment to the Constitution, and also I say my case is before 
the courts and let the courts decide. 

Mr. ScHERER. Now, the district court has acted in your case, has it 
not ? The court has found you are not worthy to be a citizen of the 
United States and ordered you to be denaturalized because of your 
efi'orts to overthrow this Government by force and violence. 

Mr. MiNERiCH. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment of the Constitution. It is under the jurisdiction of 
the court. If the court made a decision, and so forth, the decisions 
are not all finished, the w^hole case is in the courts. Let's not inter- 
fere with the courts and let the court decide. In the end, they will 
decide the case. That will be the decision, and this committee has no 
right to try to do something here that will make it, let us say, harder 
for the courts or prejudice my case before the courts. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staif interrogation of this witness. 
Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer ? 
Mr. Scherer. No questions. 
Mr. Arens. John Zuskar, please come forward. 
Mr. Zuskar. Mr. Chairman, I want no pictures, please. I want 
no pictures. Let's have a decision here. 

Mr. DoTLE. We never interfere with the freedom of the press when 
it comes to photograpliing people in public meetings. 
Mr. Zuskar. This was decided, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. DoYLE. We do not have jurisdiction, as far as the press is con- 
cerned, until we have you under oath. Please raise your right hand 
and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 
Mr. Zuskar. So help me God. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN ZUSKAR, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LEO BERMAN 

Mr. Berman. If the chairman please, a point of procedure. 
Mr. Doyle. Beg pardon ? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 537 

Mr, Berman. If the chairman please, on a point of procedure? 

Mr. DoTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Berman. First of all, the Chair did rule earlier that no pictures 
would be taken of any of the supenaed witnesses unless they conceded 
to it. 

Mr. Doyle. After they are under oath. 

Mr. Ber]man. After they are under oath. 

Mr. Doyle. Before, we never interef ere with press photography. 

Mr. Berman. Also I want to call to the Chair's attention that I 
submitted a statement of Dr. Charles Raymond as to Mr. Zuskar's 
heart condition that he has. I merely present that for your infor- 
mation. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel has it. 

Mr. Scherer. Before we go any further now, I think the Chair 
should ask the photographers to comply with the ruling. No pictures 
can be taken after the witness has been sworn. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, let's see the doctor's certificate before we 

Mr. Doyle. I think some of these photographers were not in the 
room this morning when I made that instruction, but let us please 
follow that. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, the doctor in his certificate does not indicate 
that this witness' appearance here before this committee would in any 
way harm him. The certificate reads : 

March 22, 1957. 
This is to certify that I have treated Mr. John Znskar of 1510 West 18th Street, 
Chicago, 111., on January 17, 1957, January 22, February 1 and March 22, for 
complaints suggesting tlie diagnosis of coronary insufficiency. 

Electrocardiogram taken on January 22, 1957, substantiates the diagnosis. 
The condition is chronic. 

(Signed) Charles Raymond, M. D. 

Counsel, you are not contending that his condition is such that it 
would jeopardize him to appear? 

Mr. Bermax. We are appearing. I merely wish to call this to the 
committee's attention so that we can keep that in mind. 

Mr. Doyle. We will be glad to. 

(Above letter retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mi". Zuskar. John Zuskar, Z-u-s-k-a-r, 55 WestWard Ho, North 
Lake, 111. 

Mr. Arens. Your occupation ? 

Mr. Zuskar. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena that 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities? 

Mr. ZrsKAR. Yes. On the grounds of the first and fifth 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Arexs. You got your wires crossed there. I asked if you 
are aj^pearing today in response to a subpena served upon you by 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Zuskar. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

90844 — 57— pt. 7 5 



538 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. ZusKAR. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, would you kindly identify yourself? 

Mr. Berman. Leo Berman, 139 North Clark Street, Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Zuskar, I lay before you now a photostatic repro- 
duction of a document filed by you with the postal authorities, foreign- 
language press, Ludova Noviny, L-u-d-o-v-a N-o-v-i-n-y, bearing your 
signature, and designating you as publisher, editor, managing editor, 
and business manager of this particular publication. 

Please look at this document, while you are under oath, and if you 
will be good enough, verify the authenticity of that document. 

Mr. Zuskar. I will refuse to answer on the grounds of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Zuskar Exhibit No, 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Zuskar, I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. We lay before you now two documents which have been 
identified in this record. One is a printed leaflet by the Committee 
To Preserve American Freedoms. The other is a 1-page leaflet by 
The Chicago Committee To Preserve Freedom of Speech and the 
Press. Both bear the address of room 504 at 208 North Wells Street, 
Chicago 6, 111. 

Kindly look at those documents and tell this committee, while you 
are under oath, if you could give us information respecting those two 
organizations. 

Mr. Zuskar. I will not answer on the same grounds, the first and 
fifth amendments. 

(Documents previously identified as "DeSchaaf Exhibits Nos. 2 
and 6," respectively, and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. This committee, in anticipation of its visit here to Chi- 
cago, was trying to subpena Calvin Brook who is also identified with 
your paper. Somehow or other, we just could not find him. Can you 
tell us where he is? 

Mr. Zuskar. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. He is not hiding from us, is he ? 

Mr. Zuskar. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. May I have the date, please, of the first exhibit, his 
statement of ownership of the paper? 'Wliat was the date of that? 

Mr. BoNORA. It was filed September 28, 1956. 

Mr. Doyle. 1956. 

Mr. BoNORA. That is the latest in the file. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Witness and Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. George Wastila, kindly come forward. 

Mr, Doyle, Do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr, Wastila. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Please take the witness chair. 



INVESTIGATION OF COIVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 539 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE WASTILA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
IRVING GEORGE STEINBERG 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Wasttla. George Wastila, 601 Tower Avenue, Superior, Wis. 
I am an editor. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Wastila. I am. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Wastila. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Steinberg. My name is Irving George Steinberg, 180 West 
Washington. 

Mr. Arens. With what publication are vou connected, please, Mr. 
Wastila? 

Mr. Wastila. Since I believe that this committee is exceeding its 
authority, congi-essional authority, and in so doing is posing a threat 
to the freedom of the press of our country, I invoke the first amend- 
ment and refuse to answer that question, and I complement my refusal 
by invoking also the fifth amendment, namely, that portion which 
states that one does not have to testify against oneself. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel, if you told this connnittee truth- 
fully the name of the publication with which you are connected, you 
would be supplying information which might be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Wastila. Since I don't want to become a party to what I believe 
is in excess of congressional authority and which poses a threat to the 
freedom of the press of our country, I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the last outstanding principal 
question. 

Mr. Steinberg. Would you repeat the question, please? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. Wait until he is through conferring with counsel. 

Mr. Steinberg. Read the question. 

(Record read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Wastila. Since I stated that I believe the committee is exceed- 
ing its authority and is posing a threat to the freedom of the press of 
our country, and not wishing to become a part of any such undertak- 
ing, I invoke the first amendment and, secondly, I invoke also the 
fifth amendment, namely, that portion which states that one does not 
have to testify against oneself. 

]Mr. Arens. ^Nlr. Witness, we are going to be sure this record is abso- 
lutely clear on this point. Unless you honestly apprehend that an 
answer to our question would supply information which could be used 
against 3^011 in a criminal proceeding, you do not have the right to 
invoke the fifth amendment. 

We are now, for the purpose of testing your good faith in the use 
of the fifth amendment, asking you whether or not you honestly appre- 
hend, if you told this committee truthfully the name of the publication 



540 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

with which you are identified, you would be supplying information 
which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding. 

Mr. Wastila. I repeat, since I don't want to become a party to any 
undertaking which I believe is posing a threat to freedom of the press 
of our country, I invoke the first amendment, and, secondly, I invoke 
the frith amendment, that portion which states that one does not have 
to testify against oneself. 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest, for clarity of 
this record, there can be no misunderstanding as to the intent and 
purposes of these questions, that the witness be ordered and directed 
to answer the question. 

Mr. DoTLE. In making my order of direction of the witness that 
you do answer — when you are through consulting your counsel, again 
I will give you your direction, 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. DoTLE. Witness, I now direct you again to answer that question 
which Mr. Arens has directed to you. 

Mr. Wastila. I repeat, since I do not want to become a party to 
any undertaking which I believe is posing a threat to the freedom of 
the press of our country, I invoke the first amendment, and, secondly, 
I invoke the fifth amendment, that portion which says that I do not 
have to testify to anything that might incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I lay before you two documents which were filed 
with the postal authorities. The first is for a publication known as 
T-y-o-m-i-e-s E-t-e-e-n-p-a-i-n, of Superior, Wis., published by the 
American Finnish Publishers, Inc., in which you are listed as the 
editor and the managing editor, and you signed this document. 

The second is a document filed with the postal authorities for a 
publication known as N-a-i-s-t-e-n V-i-i-r-i, of Superior, Wis., pub- 
lished by the American Finnish Publishers, Inc., in which you are 
listed as one of the officials of that publication and which you signed 
as a representative of that publication. 

Look at those trwo documents and tell this committee, while you are 
under oath, whether or not those are true and correct reproductions of 
those documents filed by yourself with the postal authorities. One 
is described as a weekly and one is described as a daily publication. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you say they are Finnish publications ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. Have you got the originals ? 

Mr. BoNORA. They are on file with the Post Office Department. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Wait a minute. Give us a chance. 

Mr. Wastila. They are smudged here in some spots. 

Well, since I don't want to become a party to anything that I be- 
lieve is endangering the freedom of the press of our country, I invoke 
the first amendment; and, secondly, I invoke the fifth amendment, 
that portion which states that I do not have to testify to anything 
that might tend to incriminate me. 

(Documents marked "Wastila Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a party to a conspiracy designed to de- 
stroy the Constitution of the United States and the Government of 
the United States? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 541 

Mr. Wastila. Not wishing to be a party to anything which I con- 
sider is endangering the freedom of the press of our country, I invoke 
the first amendment ; and, secondly, I invoke also the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Aeens. What other names have you used in your life other 
than the name pursuant to which you are appearing, George Wastila ? 

Mr. Wastila. Not wishing to be a party to anything which I feel 
is endangering the freedom of the press of our country, I invoke the 
first amendment, and I also invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Your Communist Party name is Mike Walsh ; is it not ? 

Mr. Wastila. Not wishing to be a party to anything that I feel is 
endangering the freedom of the press of our country, I invoke the first 
amendment ; and, secondly, I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lautner, would you kindly stand ? 

Mr. Wastila, this gentleman, standing there to your right, took an 
oath this morning; and while he was under oath, he laid his liberty 
on the line. If he lied to this committee, we will see that he is prose- 
cuted for perjury. While he was under oath, he said he knew you, 
as a certainty, to be a member of the Communist Party. Look him 
in the face and tell us, was he lying or telling the truth when he identi- 
fied you as a Communist ? 

Mr. Wastila. Not wishing to be a party to anything that I consider 
is endangering the freedom of the press of our country, I invoke the 
first amendment; and, secondly, I invoke the fifth amendment, that 
portion which states that one does not have to testify against oneself. 

iSIr. Arexs. You said a little while ago you were in the publishing 
business or in the editing business, but you would not tell us the name 
of the paper ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Wastila. Not wishing to be a party to anything 

Mr. Arens. Wait a minute. I am just asking you what you said on 
the record. 

Mv. Wastila. I suggest you get it from the court reporter. 

Mr. Arens. Pursuant to your publishing work, have you been en- 
gaged, in the last few months, in some lecturing around the country ? 

Air. Wastila. Not wishing to be a party to anything which I con- 
sider is endangering the freedom of the press of our country, I invoke 
the first amendment; and, secondly, I invoke the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. You have been on an extensive speaking tour all through 
Michigan, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Mary- 
land, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois ; have you not? 

Mr. Wastila. Not wishing to be a party to anything that I con- 
sider is endangering the freedom of the press of our country, I invoke 
the first amendment ; and, secondly, I invoke the fifth amendmxent. 

Mr. Arens. We have here what has been represented to us as a 
copy of your speaking itinerary. You are scheduled to speak tomor- 
row in Erie, Pa. ; are you not ? 

Mr. Wastila. Not wishing to 

Mr. Steinberg. May I see that ? 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, I will advise 3^011 for the last time that your 
sole and exclusive prerogative is to advise the witness, and I admonish 
you to please stay within the rules of this committee. 

Mr. Wastila. May I see it ? 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee, while you are under oath, whether 
or not you are scheduled to speak in Erie, Pa., tomorrow. 



542 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Wastila. Not wishino; to be a party to anything which I con- 
sider is endangering the freedom of the press in our country 

Mr. DoYT.E. You mean freedom of speech in our country. 

Mr. Wastila. Freedom of speech and press, I invoke the first 
amendment; and, secondly, the fifth, that states that one does not 
have to testify against oneself. 

Mr. Arens. On the very next day, on March 28, you are scheduled 
to speak in Conneaut, C-o-n-n-e-a-u-t, Ohio, are you not? 

Mr. Wastila. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Arens. Maybe the distinguished gentleman from Ohio can tell 
you if there is a town called Conneaut, Ohio. 

Mr. ScHERER. Conneaut? 

Mr. Arens. Conneaut. Will you tell this committee where you are 
scheduled to speak day after tomorrow in Conneaut, Ohio, what club 
or group you are going to address? 

Mr. Wastila. The answer is the same as to the previous question. 

Mr. Arens. On the 29th and 30th you are scheduled to speak at 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Wastila. ISIy answer is the same as previously, the previous 
question. 

Mr. Arens. You are not ashamed of the invitation you are going to 
accept unless you are going to speak at the behest of the Communist 
apparatus. 

Mr. Wastila, Well, not wishing to be a party to anything which I 
consider is endangering the freedom of the press of our country, free- 
dom of speech in our country, I invoke the first amendment; and, 
secondly, I invoke the fifth, that portion which states that one does 
not have to testify against oneself. 

Mr. Arens. I see here on April 1 and 2 you are scheduled to make 
a couple of speeches here in Chicago. 

Could you tell us where you are going to speak and what group you 
are going to represent and whether or not, when you do speak, you 
are going to show your true colors as a member of the Communist 
conspiracy, or masquerade behind some humanitarian organization? 

Mr. Wastila. Not wishing to jeopardize freedom of speech, I in- 
voke my rights under the first amendment ; and, secondly, invoke the 
fifth amendment, that portion which states that one does not have to 
testifj^ against oneself. 

Mr. Arens. Then I see you are scheduled to speak at Waukegan, 
111., on April 3. 

Tell us now before what group you are going to speak at Waukegan 
on April 3. 

Mr. Wastila. ISIy answer is the same as to the previous question. 

Mr. Arens. We do not want to interfere with freedom of s]:)eech. 
Just speak up fully and tell us before whom you are going to speak 
at West Allis, Wis., on April 4. Is there a group up there that 
invited you? 

Mr. Wastila. Not wishing to be a party to anything that I consider 
is endangering the freedom of speech in our country, I invoke my 
riglits under the first amendment; and, secondly, under the fifth, 
that portion which states that one does not have to testify against 
himself. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 543 

(Document marked "Wastila Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr, Arens. From where did you just come to Chicago ? 

Mr. Wastila. Not wishing to be a party to anything which I con- 
sider is endangering the freedom of speech in our country, I invoke 
my riglits under the lirst amendment, and secondly 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question, Witness. 

Mr. Wastila. And my answer is the same, that not wishing to be 
a party to anything which I consider is endangering the freedom of 
speech in our country, I invoke my rights under the first amendment, 
and, secondly, my rights under the fifth. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wastila. And I might add on the further ground the question 
is iri'elevant and has nothing to do with — — 

Mr. Arens. You just came from Glassport, Pa., where you were 
orating there on behalf of Communist objectives, masquerading under 
the colors of some humanitarian group; is that not true? Deny it 
under oath if it is not true. 

Mr. Wastila. Since I do not wish to be a party to anything that 
I consider is endangering the freedom of speech in our country, I 
invoke my rights under the first; and I invoke my rights under the 
fifth, that portion which states I do not have to testify against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about your public career, then. You will not 
tell us about your career with this newspaper. You will not tell us 
about your career as an orator. Would you tell us about your public 
career? Have you been a candidate for a public office? 

Mr. Wastila. Since I don't want to become a party to anything 
which I consider is endangering the freedom of speech in our country, 
I invoke my rights under the first amendment and also my rights 
under the fifth, that portion which states that I don't have to testify 
against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Here is a paper that testifies against you. It is the 
Comnumist Daily Worker of New York, Saturday, August 28, 1937, 
and the heading of this article is : "Communist Party Nominates 80 
for City and Stale Posts." 

The New York State committee of the Communist Pai-ty yesterday announced 
a citywide election slate of SO names in the forthcoming mimicipal and State 
contest. 

We look down here for assemblymen in New York City and we see 
"George M. Wastila." Please look at that and see if tliat refreshes 
your recollection as to your public career, in which you were sacrific- 
ing yourself on the altar of public service. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wastila. Well, again, I must answer that since I don't want 
to become a party to anything which I consider is posing a threat to 
the freedom of speech and press in our country, I invoke my rights 
under the first and also invoke my rights under the fifth, that portion 
which states that I don't have to testify against myself. 

(Document marked "Wastila Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Wlio was your predecessor in your present job? 



544 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Wastila. And my answer is the same as to the previous ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Arexs. I have another article from the Connnunist Daily 
Worker, New York, Thursday, November 30, 1950. I would like to 
lay this article before you, in which you made a speech vifjorously 
protesting the deportation proceedings which were instituted against 
Knut Heikkinen, H-e-i-k-k-i-n-e-n [associate editor of the Finnish- 
language publication Tyomies-Eteenpain] who was your predecessor 
on this paper. 

Please look at that and see if that will refresh your recollection to 
help this committee in its work. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Pleikkinen was being deported for Communist ac- 
tivities, was he not, counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Could you help us on that, please? 

Mr. Wastila. Well, as I have said, since I don't want to become 
a party to anything which I believe is posing a threat to freedom of 
speech and the press in our country, I invoke my rights on the first 
and also m^y rights under the fifth, that portion which states that I 
don't have to testify in any way that I might incriminate myself. 

(Document marked ''Wastila Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a moment. Witness, where was this fellow 
Heikkinen born ? 

Mr. Wastila. ]My answer is the same as to the previous question, 
since I 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]Mr. Wastila. And on the further ground that question is totally 
irrelevant. What does it have to do with my appearing here at this 
hearings ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I want to get something more relevant, then. "\Miere 
were you born ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wastila. Well, since I don't want to become a partj- to any- 
thing which I believe is posing a threat to the freedom of speech and 
press in our country, I invoke my rights under the first; and I invoke 
my rights under the fifth, that portion which states that I don't have 
to testify 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman. I ask that you direct tlie vritness to 
answer the question as to where he was born. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer that question. Witness. The 
United States Congress is certainly entitled to know wliere the people 
it represents on a national level were born. It certainly could n.ot be 
incriminating because you were bom, even in any foreign country. 
You had nothing to do with being born. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wastila. Well, since I don't want to become a party to anything 
which I consider is posing a threat to freedom of speech and press in 
our country, and I don't want to aid and abet any such effort, I invoke 
my rights under tlie first amendment; and I also invoke my rights 
under the fifth, which states that I don't have to testify to anything. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are vou a citizen of the United States? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 545 

Mr. Wastila. My answer, I answer that the same way, since I in- 
voke particular!}^ the first amendment, since I don't want to aid and 
abet anything which I consider is posing a threat to freedom of 
speecli and press in our country ; and I further invoke my rights mider 
the fifth which states that I don't have to testify against myself. 

Mr. SciiERER. Do you honestly believe, then, that to answer the ques- 
tion as to whether you are a citizen of the United States might tend to 
incriminate you ? 

Mr. Wastila. Again I say that since I do not want to become a 
party to anything which I consider is posing a threat to the freedom 
of speech and press in our country, I invoke my rights under the first 
and refuse to answer that question ; and I invoke mv rights also under 
the fifth. 

Mr. ScjiERER. I ask you to direct the w^itness to answer that ques- 
tion. My. Chairman, because that question can only be answered "yes" 
or "no." 

Mr. Doyle. I direct that you answ^er that question, Witness. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. SciiERER. It cannot incriminate him. An answer to that ques- 
tion cannot incriminate him. 

Mr. Doyle. Apparently everything incriminates him, even being 
born. 

Mr. Wastila. I was born in Worcester, Mass. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been a champion of free speech? 

Mr. Wastii^\. Since I don't want to become a party to anything I 
think is jeopardizing the free speech and press, I invoke my rights 
under the first and refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arexs. I would like to read you an article in which you were a 
champion of free speech, and see if you can help us on this one. This 
is from the Daily Worker, New York, Wednesday, June 8, 1949 : 

George M. Wastilla, president of the Finnish-American Mutual Aid Society, 
IWO, sent a protest to Judge Medina against the jailings of the Communist 
leaders, and urged members of his organization to join in the mass movement 
for free speech. 

Can you tell this committee, while you are under oath, if that 
was one of the activities in which you engaged in your propagation 
of free speech and in defense of free speech ? 

According to the Communist Daily Worker you were championing 
free speech there, and we would like to have you tell us about it, please. 

Mr. Wastila. Well, again, I must answer, since I don't want to 
become a party to anything which I consider is posing a threat to the 
freedom of speech and press in our country, I invoke my rights under 
the first and refuse to answer ; and, further, I invoke my rights under 
the fifth amendment, that section which states that I don't have to 
test if 3^ against myself. 

(Document mai-ked "Wastila Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you think that the jailing of 11 Communist traitors 
was an interference of the freedom of speech, or were you misquoted 
in this Communist Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Wastila. Since I don't want to become a party to anything 
which I believe is jeopardizing freedom of speech and press in our 
countiy, I invoke my rights under the first and refuse to answer and 



546 rNTV'ESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

also my rights under the fifth amendment, that portion which states 
that I don't have to testify against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you ever made application for a passport, Mr. 
Wastila? 

jMr. Wastila. Since I don't want to become a party to anything 
which I believe is posing a threat to the freedom of speech and press 
of our country, I invoke my rights under the first and refuse to answer 
and also my rights under the fifth, that portion which states that I 
don't have to give testimony against myself. 

Mr. SciiERER. Have you ever been in Eussia? 

ISIr. Wastila. I must answer again that since I do not want to 
become a party or don't want to aid anything which I believe is posing 
a threat to the freedom of speech and press in our country, I invoke 
my rights under the first amendment and also my rights under the 
fifth amendment, that portion which states that I do not have to give 
testimony against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you ever received any compensation for your 
activities from the Communist Party, either directly or indirectly? 

Mr. Wastila. And I must answer again that since I don't want to 
become a party or I don't want to help anything which I consider as 
posing a threat to the freedom of speech and press of our country, I 
invoke my rights under the first amendment and also my rights under 
the fifth amendment, that portion which states that I do not have to 
testify against myself. 

Mr. SciiERER. Do you honestly believe, if you told us whether or not 
you received any compensation for your activities from the Commu- 
nist Party, that that interferes with freedom of the press? 

Mr. Wastila. Since 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean to tell us that 

Mr. Wastila. Since I believe the committee is exceeding its au- 
thority in these hearings 

Mr. ScHERER. Answer my question and do not get on to any other 
reason. 

Mr. Wastila. I answer that the same way. Since I don't want to 
help anything which I think is posing a threat to freedom of speech 
and press of our country, I invoke my rights under the first and also 
under the fifth amendment, that portion which states that I do not 
have to give testimony against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you ever passed any information or received 
any information from a Communist agent ? 

Mr. Wastila. And I must answer that the same way or as the pre- 
vious one. 

Mr. ScHERER. Or from the Russian secret police? 

Mr. Wastila. I answer that as I did the previous question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you think that interferes with your freedom of 
speech, if you answer the question? ^Vlicn we ask you the question 
whether you ever received or passed any information to the Russian 
secret police, does it interfere with your freedom of the press and 
freedom of speech ? 

Mr. Wastila. Since I don't want to become a party to anything 
which I consider is jeopardizing the freedom of speech and press, I 



INVESTIGATION OF COMJSIUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 547 

invoke my rights under the first and also my rights under the fifth, 
which states I don't have to give testimony against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever take an oath of allegiance to support 
and defend the Constitution of the United States, defend our flag? 
Have you ever taken any oath of allegiance '? 

Mr. Wastila. Since I don't want to in any way abet or aid this 
hearing, I am going to invoke my rights under the first 

Mv. Arens. And you are going to be ordered to answer that ques- 
tion. Mv. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now be ordered 
and directed to answer that question whether or not he ever took an 
oatii of allegiance to support and defend the Constitution of the 
United States. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct the witness to answer that question. I am 
sure you heard me. Witness. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. You cannot refuse to answer because you do not want 
to aid and abet this committee. That is not a reason to refuse to an- 
swer. There are a lot of people wlio don't want to help, to aid and 
abet this committee; and 90 percent of them are Communists, more 
than that. There are a lot of fellow travelers who don't want to aid 
and abet this committee. 

Mr. Wastila. Well, I must repeat that since I don't want to become 
a partj^ to anything which I consider is posing a threat to the freedom 
of speech and press of our country and because, under tlie right of 
freedom of speech, I have the riglit to refuse to answer the question, I, 
therefore, invoke the first amendment and refuse to answer and also 
invoke, to further complement the declination, the fiftli amendment, 
wliich states that I don't have to testify in any way against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let us see if this question interferes with your free- 
dom of the press or freedom of speech : Did you ever serve in the armed 
services of the United States ? 

Mr. Wastila. Since this is part of that hearing which I believe is 
posing a threat to the freedom of speech and press in our country, 
which I don't want to aid in any way, I am going to invoke my rights 
under the first amendment and refuse to answer 

IVIr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Wastila (continuing). And I also invoke my rights under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean it would incriminate you to tell this 
committee whether or not you ever served in the Armed Forces of the 
United States and that it would interfere with the freedom of the 
press and freedom of speech to tell us whether you ever served as a 
member of the Armed Forces of tlie United States ? Do you mean to 
tell us that, Witness ? How silly can we get ? 

Mr. Wastila. I do not have to furnish links of evidence against my- 
self in any way under the fifth amendment, and I invoke my rights un- 
der the fifth and decline to answer that question: but also because I 
do not want in any way to aid and abet a hearing which I believe is 
posing a threat to the freedom of speech and press of our country and, 
therefore, I invoke my rights under the first, also. 

Mr. ScHERER. jVIr. "Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question whether he ever served in the Armed Forces of 
the United States. 



548 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Doyle. I instruct you to answer the question. I have never 
known of even a Communist pleading in good faith that service in the 
United States Armed Forces would incriminate him. 

You see, some of us do not believe that service with the United 
States Government incriminates a man. We do not believe it incrim- 
inates you if you are proud of being a citizen of the United States. Is 
that plain enough ? 

I instruct you to answer. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wastila. Well, as I have stated so many times, since I do not 
want to become a party, do not want to help in any way something 
which I believe is jeopardizing freedom of speech and press of our 
country, I refuse to answer and I invoke my rights under the first ; and, 
secondly, since I do not want to answer anything which is going to open 
up whole series of other questions, I invoke my rights under the fifth 
and decline to answer that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean you are afraid we are going to ask you 
something about illegal activities while you were a member of the 
x4.rmed Forces ? Is that the area that you are afraid we will open up 
if you answer the question that you did serve in the Armed Forces of 
the United States ? Is that what you mean ? 

Mr. Wastila. Again, I repeat that since I do not want to become a 
party to or to help anything which I believe is jeopardizing the free- 
dom of speech and press of our country, I invoke my rights under the 
first and refuse to answer, and I also invoke my rights under the fifth, 
which states that I do not have to testify to anything against myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. It is obvious what is 
happening. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask just a couple of questions, please? 

Your stock answer to most of these questions has been, in sub- 
stance, to the effect that this cormnittee of the United States Congress 
is operating in a line which would interfere with the freedom of press 
and freedom of speech ; is that not correct ? Do I so understand that 
that is your plea, that that is your position ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wastila. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, let me be frank with you. Therefore, your 
claiming that privilege, if you do it in good faith, means that when 
the United States Congress, again this year by unanimous vote of the 
House of Representatives, approved the continuation of this com- 
mittee — House Committee on Un-American Activities and, therefore, 
this subcommittee — and unanimously approved the budget necessary 
to pay the expenses of the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties, you take the position that every Member of the United States 
House of Representatives who voted unanimously for this committee 
and the budget did so knowing that they were interfering with the 
freedom of the press and the freedom of speech; is that a fair 
statement ? Is that your position ? 

Mr. Wastila. My position is that this coimnittee, by its actions, is 
posing a threat to the freedom of s]Deech and the press of our country ; 
and, for that reason, I have invoked and again invoke my rights under 
the first amendment and declined to answer. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 549 

Mr, Doyle. You were here this morning, were you not i Were you 
here this mornin<^ and did you hear me read my statement ? 

Mr. Wastila. I was. 

Mr. DoTLE. Makino; it, I think, crystal clear we are not going 
into jurisdiction or freedom of the press here, but merely to the 
extent that Imown Communists have been identified to us by Mr. 
Lautner, which includes you and others who have been identihed by 
him and others as known Connnunists — we are going into the extent 
to which identified Communists control the foreign-language press. 

You seem to overlook that, and that is the limit of our purpose in 
this hearing. We do not hesitate to question you, sir, having been 
identified to us as an active Communist, as you have been, of record, 
by folks under oath. We do not hesitate to question you. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. So you volunteered the statement in the first 3 or 4 
minutes — will you please listen to me, Counsel, while I am 

Mr. Steinberg. I am sorry. Excuse me for interrupting you. 

Mr. Doyle. I think I am entitled to have the witness hear my ques- 
tion. 

Therefore, we do not hesitate to question you, sir, because you volun- 
teered the information that you were an editor of a foreign-language 
paper. You volunteered that and the record will so show, I am sure. 

Mr. Wastila. May I correct the statement, Chairman? I volun- 
teered that I was an editor. 

Mr. DoYLES. Well, all right. Of what paper are you an editor, as 
long as you volunteered that? You opened up the subject, and I 
have a legal right to ask you of what paper are you editor ? 

Mr. Wastila. And I answer in the same way : That since I don't 
want to become a party or to help anything which I believe is jeopard- 
izing the freedom of speech and press of our country, I invoke my 
rights under the first amendment and decline to answer, and also my 
rights under the fifth — that portion which states that I do not liave to 
testify to anything against myself. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you do not believe 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. I stand interrupted again by counsel. 

Mr. SteinberCx. I am sorry, Mr. Doyle, but tliere are certain 
things 

Mr. Doyle. This is not a court. Being born in this country you 
cannot help but be a native-born American citizen — some of them are 
not ])roud of it. You cannot help it ; you were born in Massachusetts. 
But you take the position that your own United States Congress has 
no riglit, under Public Law 601 or under the subversive activities 
control law, to find out the extent to which any of its newspapers — 
and it happens to be now the foreign-language papers — are controlled 
by tlie Communist conspiracy. That is your position, is it not ? You 
claim that interfering 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

^h\ Doyle. Wait a minute. Counsel, let me finish. I am not asking 
liim to answer before he gets your wise counsel. 

Mr. Steinberg. Thank you. 

Mr. Doyle. Let me finish my question. You take the position, 
therefore, that even though the United States Congress has unani- 



550 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

]nously declared, which it has time and again, made a finding that the 
Communist Party in the United States is a conspiracy to overthrow — 
you take the position that the United States Congress has no right to 
find the extent to which that foreign ideology is undertaking to con- 
trol our newspapers, especially now the foreign-language newspapers. 
That is your position, is it not ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wastila. Well, Mr. Chairman, I don't want to go into the ques- 
tion of the whole Congress or of the laws. I do not question the rights 
of Congress, nor do I question the laws of our country. I do question 
the methods of tliis committee, and it is this very hearing which I be- 
lieve is posing a threat to freedom of speech and the press of our coun- 
try ; and for that very reason, since I do not want to aid and abet in 
any way something which I consider is posing such a threat, it is for 
that very reason that I invoke my rights under the first 

Mr. Doyle. Let me ask you this: You have been identified right 
here ; in other words, we presented the witness, under oath, w^ho iden- 
tified you as a Communist Party member, personally known to him. 
You liave not denied it. We have given you the opportunity, and 
give you the opportunity again, in the presence of your counsel, right 
here and now, if you want to deny it under oath. We take the posi- 
tion, sir, that you have been identified as a Communist wheelhorse, as 
a Communist Party leader in your own State and neighboring States, 
that you are going around certain States giving Communist Party 
speeches. You do not deny that. 

Mr. Wastila. What is the question ? 

Mr, DoTLE. Now, do you take the position that the United 
States Congress and this committee today have no right to call you in 
under Public Law 601 and find out the extent to which you, an identi- 
fied Communist, control the newspapers of which you are an editor? 
We are assigned, under Public Law 601, which I hold in my hand, to 
find the extent to which subversive people and programs control and 
hold any newspaper or anything else. And you are in a position of 
control of a Finnish newspaper, I assume from what you have said. 

Mr. Wastila. Well, I believe anybody could — you could call in any- 
body from the Chicago Tribime or Chicago Daily News and ])ut him in 
the same position that I am, and then throw the questions at him. 

Mr, Doyle. We would not unless he had been identified, as you have, 
as an active Communist. If we get that identification, we will call in 
anybody in the performance of our duty, no matter in what paper he is 
a controlling factor. It does not make any difference to us. Our duty 
is the same. 

You happen to be editor, and identified as a Communist — of a foreign- 
language newspaper and that is why you are here, because the foreign- 
born people of the first and second generation, thousands of them, do 
not read English yet and they take hook, line, and sinker anything you 
write in the Finnish language about our Government and our processes, 
just as that young lady did this morning, copy a dastardly attack on 
our Armed Forces during the Korean war, and her readers swallowed 
it hook, line, and sinker because most of them could not read English 
or, if they did, they believed it because it appeared in the paper. 

That is why we are here. You know very well why we are here, 
and the fact that the United States House of Representatives keeps on 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 551 

authorizing this committee's budget by unanimous vote shows what the 
United States Congress thinks of our duty. And I want to say to you 
that work on this committee is no picnic. It is no pleasurable duty, 
I assure you, to call men, like you, who have been identified to us by 
responsible American citizens as Connnunists and put you under oath 
and try to get you to help your Government instead of weakening it 
and destroying it. This is no picnic, sir. 

When we find men who take 2 or 3 or 4 different names in the 
course of a few years, w^e understand. We are not in kindergarten. 

Two and two make four, even if you or someone else is testifying. 

Will you identify, now, what this committee has done today that 
is violating your right as an identified Communist, wherein have we 
violated your right as an editor ? Tell us. You have charged us with 
that. Go ahead and tell us. What right of yours have we violated, 
as an identified Communist editor of a foreign-language newspaper'^ 
We are not interfering with the freedom of the press. But we are 
going to keep on interfering with your freedom to do as you please 
as an identified Communist to misinform and miseducate the foreign- 
language readers of your vicinity. We cannot do less than that under 
our legal assignment. If we did less than that, we should get off this 
committee. But it still is no picnic. It is a hard job, an unpleasant 
job. 

Mr. Arens. Do you suppose we have interfered with the prospect of 
a good audience at your next several speaking engagements over the 
country by this testimony in which you have been identified as a mem- 
ber of the Communist conspiracy ? Could you help us on that? 

Mr. Wastila. Counsel, since I do not want to become a party to any- 
thing which I consider is jeopardizing the freedom of speech and 
press in our country, I invoke my riglits under the first amendment 
and decline to answer and also under the fifth amendment, that por- 
tion that states I don't have to testify against myself. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. ScuERER. It should be pointed out that he can now continue as 
he has in the past to publisli the Finnish newspaper and include in it 
the same kind of material that he has always included, that he can 
continue to make his speeches over this country, nobody is going to 
stop him. All this committee is doing is showing to the people w^ho 
read your paper — and they have a right to know — and the people who 
listen to you, who you are. 

Mr. Doyle. Then I want to do as I almost always do and that is to 
urge you to get out of whatever Communist Party relationship you 
have and quit feeding your people that garbage. Make your form 
of government stronger instead of weaker. Encourage your foreign- 
language readers to be immensely proud they are in this country, in- 
stead of finding fault in a destructive manner with our Government, 
our democratic processes, as the young lady did this morning. She 
accused, in effect, the Chicago Congressmen of being "so-called repre- 
sentatives of democracy," making light of our representative form 
of government, making light of our democratic processes. Why do 
you not boost it instead of hurting it ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Are we excused? 



552 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. Next witness, Mr. Chairman, and I will spell his name 
because it is difficult for me to pronounce it — ^W-1-a-d-i-s-l-a-w 
K-u-c-h-a-r-s-k-i. 

Mr. Doyle. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. KucHARSKi. I do. 

Mr. DoTLE. Thank you and please take the chair. 

TESTIMONY OF WLADISLAW KUCHARSKI, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, PEARL M. HART 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. KucHARSKi. Wladislaw Kucharski. 

Mr. Arens. Keep your voice up. We cannot hear you. 

Mr. Kucharski. I am sorry. It is my voice. I have bronchitis. 

Mrs. Hart. He has bronchitis. Keep your voice up. Do the best 
you can. 

Mr. Arens. What is your name, please ? 

Mr. Kucharski. Wladislaw Kucharski. 

Mr. Arens. And your residence. Where do you live ? 

Mr. Kucharski. Detroit. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere in Detroit ? 

Mr. Kucharski. You have my address. It is where the subpena 
was delivered. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us your address. Wliere do you live ? 

Mr. Kucharski. 5854 Chene Street. 

Mr, Arens. How do you spell Chene ? 

Mr. Kucharski. C-h-e-n-e. 

Mrs. Hart. C-h-e-n-e. 

Mr. Arens. C-h-e-n-e-. Detroit, Mich. ? 

Mr. Kucharski, Yes. 

Mr, Arens. And your occupation? 

Mr. KuciLVRSKi. Journalist. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Kucharski. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Kucharski. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mrs, Hart, Pearl M, Hart, 30 North La Salle Street, Chicago, 111. 

Mr, Arens, Where are you employed ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel,) 

Mr, Kucharski, I decline to answer on the first amendment to the 
Constitution, also on the fifth amendment to the Constitution, 

Mr, Arens, We want to lay before you now 2 or 3 documents. The 
first document is a photostatic reproduction of a statement which you 
filed and signed with the postal authorities as editor and owner of 
Glos Ludowy of Detroit, Mich,, identified as a foreign-language publi- 
cation, in the Polish language. And there is your signature. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 553 

The second document is a document filed with the State of Michigan, 
pursuant to certain of their laws up there, for license which you 
filed as editor and owner of the Glos Ludowy Association, the pub- 
lishers of Glos Ludowy. 

Kindly look at those documents and see if you will be good enough, 
while under oath, to verify their authenticity. 

(Documents marked "Kucharski Exhibits Nos, 1 and 2," respec- 
tively, and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Kucharski. I decline to answer this question on the first amend- 
ment and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Does the number 55101 mean anything to you — 55101 ? 
Think a little while about that and see if that means anything to 
you, 55101. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kucharski. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you want to reflect on it a little bit, 55101. That 
was your Communist Party card number, was it not? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall it? If you do not, just sav I don't recall 
it. 

Mr. Kucharski. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

]VIr. Arens. Do you know a woman by the name of Bereniece Bald- 
win? 

Mr. Kucharski. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Bereniece Baldwin told this committee that she knew 
you as a member of the Communist conspiracy. Was she lying or 
Avas she telling the truth ? 

Mr. Kucharski. I refuse to answer on the first and on the fifth 
amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. We have information to the effect that you have re- 
ceived over $10,000 in the course of a 3-year period from the Commu- 
nist Party for the publication of your paper. Can you help us on 
that? 

Mr. Kucharski. I refuse to answer on the first amendment and on 
tlie fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Boleslaw Gebert ? 

Mr. Kucharski. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Boleslaw Gebert, He was formerly an official of your 
paper, was he not, but is now an official of the Communist Polish 
Government in Poland. 

Mr. Kucharski. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution and first amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien were you last in Poland ? 

Mr. ScHERER. "VYhat was that last question ? 

Mr. Arens. When did you last go to Poland? 

Mr. KuciiARSivi. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question, Witness. 

90844 — 57— pt. 7 6 



554 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. KucHARSKi. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer on the ground 
of the first amendment to the Constitution and the fifth amendment 
to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. A^^iere and when were you born ? 

Mr. KucHARSKi. I was born in Poland. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. KucHARSKi. On 25th of August in 1883. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States for perma- 
nent residence ? 

Mr. KucHARSKi. On August 11, 1912. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen ? 

Mr. KucHARSKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Abens. Are you a citizen by naturalization? 

Mr. KucHARSKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you naturalized ? 

Mr. KucHARSKi. I had been naturalized in District 14, New York, 
the first of February 1926. 

Mr. Arens. And when you were naturalized, did you take an 
oath of allegiance to support and defend the Constitution of the United 
States ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KucHARSKi. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. And, at the time you took that oath of allegiance, 
were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. KucHARSKi. No. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KucHARSKi. No ; I 

Mr. Arens. You said "No." 

Mr. KucHARSKT. I said on the grounds of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Let the record be clear. When you took the oath of 
allegiance and became a citizen of tlie United States were you a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. KuciiARSKi. I refuse to answer on the fiftli amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Are you at this moment a member of the Communist 
Party? 

]Mr. KucpiARSKi, I again answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. We have a copy of the Communist Daily Worker of 
Wednesday, ISIarcli 5, 1941, in wliich your name appears — and after 
it "Detroit, Mich." — as one of a number of people joining in a state- 
ment on behalf of the Communist Party. Kindly look at that docu- 
ment and tell this committee, while you are under oath, wlietlier 
that clearly and accurately recites the facts about your participation 
in that enterprise. 

(Witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. KucHARSKi. I decline to answer this on the first amendment 
to tlie Constitution and the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

(Document marked "Kucharski Exhibit No. 3," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr, Arens. How long have you been employed at your present 
place of employment ? 



INVESTIGATION OF CORDVrUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 555 

]Mr. KucHARSKi. I I'efuse to answer on the first amendment to the 
Constitution, and the fifth, too. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Alice M. Kocel, K-o-c-e-1 ? 

Mr. KucHARSKi. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution, and the first amendment, too, 

Mr. Akexs. Do you know a person by tlie name of Bocho, B-o-c-h-o, 
whose last name is M-i-r-c-h-e-f-f, of Detroit; Bocho Mircheff ? 

Mr. KucHARSKi. I refused to answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment to the Constitution and on the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Mr, Arens. ^Yho accompanied you to Cliicago when you came here? 

Mr. KucHARSKi, This time? 

Mr, Arens. Yes, 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KucHARSKi. I refuse to answer on the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

]\Ir. Arens. Did you come by yourself or did you come with other 
people ? 

Mr. KucHARSKi. I refuse to answer on the first amendment and 
fifth amendment to the Constitution, sir. 

Mr. Ap>ens. ]\Ir. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes the 
staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

]Mr. Doyle. In connection with the testimony of previous witnesses 
and before we call the next witness, may I call attention to the 
fact that in the Chicago Daily Tribune for Tuesday, March 26, 1957, 
part I, page 2, second column, there appears this news release from 
Washington, dateline March 25 : 

A Federal district court today held that the first amendment, guaranteeing 
press freedom, does not bar congressional inquiries into Communist infiltration 
of newspapers. 

The judge said : 

The United States Circuit Court of Appeals already has ruled that the f reedom- 
of-press amendment does not bar congressional inquiry in the mediums of mass 
communications. 

It is very appropriate to read that decision by the distinguished 
Federal judge, yesterday in Washington, on a contempt case before 
a congressional committee, the judge expressly ruling on the point, 
apparently under this dateline. 

So, the first amendment, which was pleaded as a bar by the witness 
for this one at least, does not bar congressional committees from in- 
quiring into Communist infiltration in the newspapers, and that, of 
course, is all we are intending and trying to do in this hearing today 
and tomorrow. 

I have no question of the w^itness. 

Thank you, Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, INIr. Chairman, will be 
Bocho, B-o-c-h-o, last name is Mirchelf , M-i-r-c-h-e-f-f. 

Mr. Doyle. Please raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help vou 
God? 



556 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Have a seat in the witness chair by your 
counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF BOCHO MIRCHEFF. ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

PEARL M. HART 

Mr. Arens. Would you please identify yourself by name, residence, 
and occupation ? 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. My name is Bocho Mircheff, 17375 Orleans, Detroit, 
Mich. 

Mr. Arens. I do not believe we got that address. Give it to us 
again, please. 

Mrs. Hart. 17375 Orleans, Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. Arens. 0-r-l-e-a-n-s ? 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. I think this question is not pertinent to my case, so I 
decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth amendments to the 
Constitution, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
directed and ordered to answer that question. 

Mr. DoTLE. I direct and order you to answer that question, AVitness. 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. I decline to answer, relying on my rights on the first 
and fifth amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena that 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties? 

Mr. Mircheff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Mircheff. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mrs. Hart. Pearl M. Hart, 30 North La Salle Street, Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born, Mr. Mircheff ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Mircheff. Bulgaria. 

Mr. Arens. When ? 

Mr. Mircheff. 1898. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States for permanent 
residence ? 

Mr. Mircheff. December 1918. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen ? 

Mr. Mircheff. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you naturalized? 

ISIr. Mircheff. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere and when? 

Mr. Mircheff. In the District Court of Michigan. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Mircheff. 1938. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist when you were naturalized ? 

Mr. Mircheff. I refuse to answer, relying on my rights on the 
fifth amendment and also on the first amendment to the Constitution. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 557 

Mr. Arens. We would like to invite your attention to two exhibits 
here. 

First is a photostatic reproduction of a document, filed by yourself 
or by your paper, the Narodna Volya, of Detroit, Mich., in which you 
identify yourself, and are identified along with others, as an official 
of that paper — as managing editor of that paper. The second is a 
document entitled "Mircheff Tells Them Off." "On January 26, 1954, 
Bocho Mircheff, business manager of 'Narodna Volya' " tells off all 
the people of the Immigration Service. 

This was all under the auspices of the Bulgarian- American Com- 
mittee for Protection of Foreign Born. 

Look at those two documents, if you please, Mr. Mircheff, and see 
if you will be good enough to verify their authenticity while you are 
under oath. 

(Witness conferred wdth his counsel.) 

Mr. Mircheff. Since I don't want to be a party that would violate 
the freedom of speech and press, I decline to answer this question, rely- 
ing on my rights on the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution 
of the United States. 

(Documents marked "Mircheff Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2," respectively 
and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of John Lautner? 

Mr. Mircheff. I decline, the same answer as before — I decline to 
answer, relying on my rights under the first and fifth amendments 
to the Constitution. 

]Mr. Arexs. This morning ]Mr. Lautner took an oath before this com- 
mittee and swore he knew you as a Communist. That is a pretty serious 
charge these days, because we all know Communists are traitors to 
this country. Was this man lying when he identified you as a Com- 
munist traitor ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Mircheff. Sir, what part of this is a question ? 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I suggest the witness be directed to 
answer that question and not parry with me. 

Mr. Doyle. I think the question was pretty clear. I instruct you to 
answer. 

Mrs. Hart. May I make a remark to the chairman, please, very 
respectfully ? 

I think it would help these proceedings very materially if the ques- 
tions were limited to questions and not have personal observations 
added to them. 

Mr. Scherer. With or without tlie personal observation, I am sure 
the witness' answer is going to be, "I decline to answer." 

Mrs. Hart. Then I think the question ought not be asked originally. 

Mr. Arens. You know your sole and exclusive prerogative is to 
advise your client. 

Mrs. Hart. I was addressing myself to the chairman, if you don't 
mind. Counsel. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you ask the same question, again, or have the 
reporter read it, Mr. Arens, please? 



558 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. SciiERER. May I restate it so you will know the question. Mr. 
Lautner identified you, under oath, as a member of the Communist 
Party. Was Mr. Lautner telling the committee the truth when he 
so identified you? 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. I refuse to answer the question, relying on my 
rights on the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Mircheff, as a witness before this committee, 
you are entitled to certain witness' fees, and it is necessary for you to 
sign a voucher. In order tliat there be no misunderstanding what my 
objective and purpose is, I ask you if you will sign a voucher now for 
your pay as a witness so that we may have a comparison of signatures, 
to compare that signature with the signature which appears, "'Bocho 
Mircheff,'" on a Communist Party nominating petition. So there will 
be no sense of entrapment or misunderstanding of my purpose, I lay 
before you a photostatic reproduction of that petition bearing your 
signature. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Mircheff. Sir, I am not ready to sign my voucher yet. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that if and 
when this witness signs this pay voucher that that part of the pay 
voucher, bearing his signature, be incorporated in the body of the 
record so that there may be a comparison of signatures. 

Mr. Doyle. So ordered. The witness might like to give his witness 
fee to the American Red Cross or sometliing like that. 

(Documents marked "Mircheff Exhibits Nos. 3 and 4," respectively, 
follow:) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 559 



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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 






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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 561 

Mrs. Hart. He would still have to sign for it, Mr, Chairman. 

Mr. DoTLE. He ought to be willing to sign for it if it amoimts to a 
donation to the American Red Cross, I would think. 

Mr. Arens. There is no other organization to which you would be 
disposed to make a donation at this time besides the Red Cross, is there ^ 

i\Irs. IL\RT. You don't have to answer that. 

Mr. Arexs. I would like to ask you whether or not you have ever 
been president of the Bulgarian-American People's League. 

Mr. ]MiRciiEFF. I decline to answer this question, relying on my 
rights on the first and fifth amendments to the constitution. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic reproduction of a 
call to a Michigan State conference for civil rights [April 1 
and 2, 1949, sponsored by the Civil Rights Congress] in which you 
are identified as president of the Bulgarian- American Peoples League. 

I ask you if you will be good enough to verify the authenticity of 
that document. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

!Mr. ScHERER. While he is looking, Mr. Comisel, I want to ask you 
a question. 

Mr. IVIiRCHEFF. Sir, I decline to answer this question on the basis 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked ''"Mirchefi' Exhibit Xo. o," and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. ScHERER. Counsel— our counsel. 

Mrs. Hart. Oh, pardon. 

Mr. Scherer. Is the Bulgarian newspaper, with which this witness 
has been identified, printed in English or m Bulgarian ? 

Mr. Arexs. It is printed in Bulgarian. 

I would like to ask you now the names of some other people identi- 
fied with the paper and see if you can help us. 

Smeale Voydanoff, S-m-e-a-1-e V-o-y-d-a-n-o-f-f, who is identified 
in this document we exhibited to you as president of Xarodna Volya. 
Could you help us with that ? Do jon know him ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. jNImcuEFF. I decline to answer this question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arexs. Stancho Dimitrolf, S-t-a-n-c-h-o D-i-m-i-t-r-o-f-f. Do 
you know him ? 

]\Ir. IMiRCKEFF. Same answer. 

]\Ir. Arens. Nicholas I\Iarkoff . Do you know him ? 

]\Ir. MiRCHEFF. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, ]Mi\ Chairman, that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. DoYT.E. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, you are familiar with the atrocities in Hun- 
gary, are you not? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ]\IiRCHEFF. Sir, this question is not pertinent to the subject 
matter. 

Mr. Scherer. It is real pertinent. This is a real pertinent question. 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. And I decline to answer this question on the basis 
of the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States which 



562 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

guarantees freedom of the press and free speech and also the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. SciiERER. Can you read English ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mrs. Hart. Tell them. I don't know. 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you read the newspapers in this country, and 
magazines ? 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. Naturally. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you say "naturally" ? 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. I do read. 

Mr. ScHERER. During the months of November and December of 
last year and January of this year, have you read in the newspapers 
of this country and in the magazines, accounts of the atrocities com- 
mitted by the Russians in Hungary ? 

("Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ]\IiRCHEFF. Sir, I have read newspapers. 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you answer my question. 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. "\'\niat is your question ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I thought it was clear. I will repeat it again. Have 
you read 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. I have read the newspapers. 

jNIr. ScHERER. Have you read in those newspapers accounts of the 
atrocities committed by the Russians in Hungary during the months 
of last November and December? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. Sir, but this is not pertinent to the subject matter. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask 3'ou direct the witness to answer 
the question. 

]Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer the question, Witness. 

Mrs. Hart. INIay I ask the Chair to rule upon whether or not what 
he means is pertinent to the subject of the inquiry. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is a j^reliminary question, Mr. Chairman. 

]Mr. Doyle. I assume it is preliminary by ^Mr. Scherer because he is 
a very experienced and brilliant lawyer. 

Mr. Scherer. Not brilliant, but experienced. 

Mr. Doyle. He knows how to lay the foundation. 

INIrs. Hart. He is very modest at the moment. 

Mr. Doyle. That is his habit. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. Sir, I have read what the papers said about 
Hungary. 

Mv. Scherer. I want to know whether or not, in this Bulgarian 
newspaper of yours, you have ever printed one line condemning the 
Russians' actions in Hungary. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. Sir, I am not responsible what is printed in our 
paper, so I decline to answer this question on the basis of the first 
amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. You say you are not responsible for what is printed 
in "our" paper ? Then I ask you, as a matter of fact, whether or not 
if it is not a fact that in your paper not one line was ever printed 
condemning the actions of the Russians with reference to the mas- 
sacres that took place in Hungary. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 563 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MxKCHEFF. Sir, I said — when I said "our paper," I am mean- 
ing Hungarian papers. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am talking about the specific paper, and I cannot 
pronounce the name of it, but the one in which you register as man- 
aging editor. 

Mr. Arens. Managing editor of Narodna Volya. 

Mr. JMiRCHEFF. My answer is I don't control w^hat is printed in 
that parser, Narodna Volya. 

Mr. ScHERER. Let me see that. Wliether you control what is printed 
in the paper or not, I am asking you, as a matter of fact, whether this 
newspaper, this Bulgarian newspaper, with which you are identified 
as the managing editor, ever printed one line condemning the Russian 
atrocities in Hungary. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. Sir, I do not control what is printed in our paper. 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand. You said that. 

Mr. IMiRCHEFF. In our papers, so I don't 

Mr. ScHERER. Assuming you do not control what is printed in your 
papers, I am asking you whether or not this paper, Narodna Volya — 
how do you pronounce that, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mrs. Hart. Tell them how to pronounce it. 

Mr. JMiRCHEFF. Narodna Volya. 

Mr. ScHERER. Narodna Volya. 

Mrs. Hart. You can't do it, ]\Ir. Congressman — V-o-l-y-a. 

Mr. ScHERER. In what capacity are you identified with that paper ? 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. Sir, I refuse to answer this cpiestion, relying on my 
constitutional rights under the first and fifth amendments to the Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. You saw this document which names you as the man- 
aging editor of that paper. Is this document correct in so naming 
you? 

Mr. ]\IiRCHErF. Sir, I refuse to answer this question on the same 
basis, the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. SciiERER. Now we get back to my original question. Has the 
newspaper N-a-r-o-d-n-a V-o-l-y-a — has this Bulgarian newspaper 
printed one word condemning the actions of the Eussians in Hmigary ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. Sir, since I am not in control of what is printed in 
that paper, I will not answer this question. You could have trans- 
lators translate and find out what has been printed. 

Mr. ScHERER. I respectfully submit, ]Mr, Chairman, that he 
should be directed to answer the question, 

j\Ir. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. Whether or not 
you are in control of the paper is not the question. The question is 
whether or not that particular newspaper has printed, as my col- 
league says even one line. You have read the newspapers, of course, 
with which you are connected. 

]\Ir. ]MiRcnEFF, Sir, I don't know. 

]\Ir. DoYEE. You have not read your own paper in connection with 
the Hungarian revolt ? 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. My answer is just that I don't know. 



564 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Doyle, You don't know ? 

Mr. SciiERER. That newspaper is printed in Bulgarian, is it not ? 

Mr. IViiRCHEFF. I didn't understand the question. 

Mr. ScHERER. That newspaper is printed in Bulgarian language, is 
it not? 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is a Bulgarian-language newspaper. 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. And there are many Bulgarians here in the United 
States who cannot read English, is that not true? You know that 
of your own loiowledge, do you not ? 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. I assume. 

Mr. ScHERER. Not that you asume. You know that, as a matter of 
fact. 

Mr. MiRCHEFF. I tliink there are. 

Mr. Doyle. May I make this one observation ? 

My country, my Nation, the United States of America, gave me 
the honor and privilege of being born in it. It honored and trusted 
you when it granted you naturalization papers. Wliy do you not re- 
turn the favor and actually practice the habit of renouncing loyalties 
to foreign ideologies, for instance, the Communist program and Com- 
munist support in tlie Bulgarian papers with which you are con- 
nected, even though you do not control it? ^Y\lJ do you not encour- 
age them to strengthen the American way of life instead of the 
Communist way of life? 

My father was an immigrant, and I am proud of it. 

It always gets me when a man like you comes to my country and 
prospers financially, and then you become naturalized and refuse to 
take every chance to strengthen the Government that gives you pros- 
perity and asylum. 

AVliy do you not repay the United States of America and make it 
stronger instead of weaker. Assuming that you are a member of 
the Communist Party because that is the sworn testimony, why do 
you not get rid of that garbage in your experience and come out clean 
in support of our American form of government instead of weakening 
it, because that is all the Communist Party does, to weaken and destroy, 
disrupt, and try to dissolve ? 

It seems to me that you, as a foreign-born, naturalized citizen, owe 
something, besides making money, to the United States people who 
gave you a place in which to be prosperous. 

If I lectured you, that is what I meant to do in a dignified way be- 
cause I feel it very keenly. Wliy do you not call it quits with the 
party and do something else that strengthens instead of weakens? 

Thank you very much. 

Mrs. Hart. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, is Mr. 
Nicliolas Markoff, N-i-c-h-o-l-a-s M-a-r-k-o-f-f . 

Mr. Doyle. Please raise your riglit hand. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but tlie truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. jNIarkoff. Yes. 

]Mr. Doyle. Take the witness chair. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 565 

TESTIMONY OF NICHOLAS MARKOFF, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, PEARL M. HART 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, address, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Markoff. Nicholas Markoff, 1929 Outer Drive. 

Mr. Arens. I did not understand. 

Mrs. Hart. 1929 Outer Drive (Detroit) . 

Mr. Arens. Who was the man who just left this witness chair? 
Could you tell us ? 

( Witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mrs. Hart. I would like to address the chairman for a moment, 
please. 

Mr. Doyle. No. Go ahead, please, counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question. Who was the man who 
just left the witness chair ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. If he knows if he saw him. 

Mrs. Hart. If the Chair please, the man was here and announced 
his name and address 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, you know you are in violation of the rules of 
the United States Congress. 

Mrs. Hart. I am not violating the rules of the United States Con- 
gress. 

Mr. Arens. Answer the question. 

Mrs. Hart. And I don't have to have you talk to me that way in 
that tone of voice. 

Mr. Arens, Witness, please answer the question. Wlio was the man 
who just left the witness chair ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, identify yourself, please. 

Mrs. Hart. Pearl M. Hart, 30 "North LaSalle Street, Chicago, 111., 
State 2-3213, counsel, for the record. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed, sir ? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. You are employed, are you not, as one of the officers 
and treasurer of the publishing firm of Narodna Volya? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic reproduction of the 
statement which you filed with your signature with the postal author- 
ities, filed under oath, in which you identified yourself as one of the 
officers of the Narodna Volya of Detroit, Mich., a foreign-language 
publication. 



566 INVESTIGATION OF COMIVIUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee, while you 
are under oath, whether that is a true and correct reproduction of the 
document which you signed under oath. 

Mr. JMarkoff. I decline to answer this question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments, sir. 

(Document previously identified as "ISiircheff Exhibit No. 1" and 
retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, I lay before you a statement of ownership, which 
is required by the postal laws, published in your paper, Narodna 
Volya, in which you identify yourself as editor of Narodna Volya. 

Please look at that and tell us whether or not that is a true and cor- 
rect reproduction of the statement of ownership appearing in your 
paper. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments, sir. 

(Document marked "Markoff Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. Are you now a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. JNIarkoff. Bulgaria. 

Mr. Arens. "\\nien? 

Mr. IVIarkoff. 1898. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States for permanent 
residence ? 

Mr. ]VL\RKOFF. 1923. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien? 

Mr. Markoff. 1923. 

Mr. Arens. 1923 ? 

Mr. ]\La.rkoff. Yes, sir. 

]\Ir. Arens. Are you a citizen ? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you naturalized? 

Mr. Markoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you naturalized ? 

Mr. ]\£\RKOFF. November 19, 1928. 

Mr. Arens. 1928? 

Mr. JNIarkoff. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere? 

Mr. Markoff. In Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. "\Yliere? 

Mrs. Hart. Niagara Falls, N. Y., where married couples used to 
go, you know. 

Mr. Arens. When you were naturalized as a citizen of the United 
States, were you a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know George Pirinsky ? 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer on the same basis, the first and 
fifth amendments, sir. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 567 

Mr. Arens. How many times have you been back to the old country 
since you came to the United States ? 

Mr. MiRKOFF. I decline to answer this question. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question. Witness. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Arens. We want to inform you that, as a prerequisite to 
obtaining your pay as a witness from this committee, it is necessary 
for you to sign a pay voucher; but in order that there be no misunder- 
standing about what our objective is, I have here a petition signed 
by yourself for the Communist Party, bearing your signature. I am 
going to ask you if you will now, while you are under oath, sign in 
the appropriate place on the pay voucher so that there may be a 
comparison of signatures. 

I want no misunderstanding of our objective — so there may be a 
comparison of signatures between the signature we have on this peti- 
tion of the Communist Party and your signature on the voucher. 

I ask you now to kindly sign the pay voucher. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I will sign it later. 

Mr. Arexs. jNIr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that if, as, and 
when this witness signs the pay voucher, that part of the pay voucher 
bearing his signature be incorporated in the body of the record, for 
the purpose of comparison of signatures. 

Mr. Doyle. So ordered. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a petition of the Communist Party, 
bearing your signature, Nicholas Markoff, 1310 East Ferry Avenue, 
Detroit, and ask you if you would be good enough to verify the 
authenticity of that document. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments, sir. 

(Documents marked "Markoff Exhibits Nos. 2 and 3," respectively, 
follow.) 



568 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 



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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN TJ. S. 



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570 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Akexs. Are you now, this moment, a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. M^vRKOFF. I decline to answer this question on the same basis, 
the first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever serve in the Armed Forces of this Gov- 
ernment ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. No. 

Mr. Arens. In 1946 did you go to Yugoslavia ? 

Mr. Makkoff. I decline to answer this question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. D0YI.E. I direct you to answer the question, witness. 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the fii-st and fiftli 
amenchnents. 

Mr. Arens. Is your paper an instrumentality of the Communist 
propaganda apparatus ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I decline to answer this question on the same grounds, 
the first and fifth amendments, sir, to the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. You refused to answer all of tlie pertinent questions 
asked of you by counsel on tlie grounds that to do so might tend to 
incriminate you. 

Now, tlie law provides that this committee, with the approval of 
the Federal court, may grant you immunity. In other words, it can 
say to you — as I say, with the approval of the Federal court — that if 
you do answer the question, then any answers that you give to those 
questions may not be used against you. If this committee should de- 
cide to invoke that statute and grant you immunity from prosecution, 
would you testify ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I don't think it is necessary to answer this question 
because 

Mr. Scherer. I cannot hear you. 

Mr. Markoff. I don't think it is necessary to answer that question 
because nothing 

Mr. Scherer. I still did not get your answer. 

Mi*s. Hart. Nothing has been done. 

Mr. Markoff. Has been done. 

Mr. Scherer. I am merely saying it takes a lot of effort on the com- 
mittee's part to make application to a Federal court for approval: 
and I am saying, if this conunittee should decide, because it feels that 
you do have information which would be helpful to this committee — 
this committee decides that it will offer vou immunity, will vou then 
testify? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Markoff. I have to decide this when they offer immunity and 

I see it is properly 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN" U. S. 571 

Mr. jVL^rkoff (continuing) . Then I will decide. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. DoTL£. May I ask a question ? 

What year were you naturalized, please ? 

Mi-s. Hart. 1928, November. 

Mr. Markoff. ]\Iy naturalization papers 

Mr. Doyle. Your naturalization 

Mr. Markoff. 1928, if I am correct. 

Mr. Doyle. 1928? 

Mr. MARKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I see this Communist Party petition is in March 1940. 

Without ni}' taking time to say what I said to your business associate, 
who was the witness before you — did you hear what I said to him, the 
witness who was before you, who was identified with the same paper ? 
You heard what I said to him ? 

Mr. MvRKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. You heard it ? 

Mr. jVIarkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Without my repeating it, take that onto yourself, will 
you? Just consider that I am taking the 2 minutes to say the same 
thing to you. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I should like now to call Mr. Anzelm 
Czarnowski to the stand. I will say, for the purpose of this record, 
Mr. Czarnowski testified as a friendly witness before this committee on 
December 4 of last year, at which time he identified a certain person as 
a Communist. 

It appears, on the basis of staff investigation, that there is another 
person in this vicinity who bears the same name, and we want Mr. 
Czarnowski to be able to clear the record so that the stigma of Com- 
munist Party membership will not attach to the individual who bears 
the same name as the person who is a Communist of that name. 

Mr. Czarnowski, would you kindly be sworn ? 

Mr. Doyle. That is very good, because that is the established policy 
of this committee, to make sure there is no intentional cloud on any 
person. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you, God ? 

Mr. Czarnowski. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please have the witness chair. 

TESTIMONY OF ANZELM CZAENOWSKI 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Czarnowski, you testified before the Committee on 
Un-American Activities in the early part of December 1956. Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. CzARxowsKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. During the course of your testimony you identified 
a pereon known by you to have been a Communist, by the name of 
Kaymond Sergo, S-e-r-g-o. Is that correct ? 

Mr. CzARXowsKi. Yes, sir ; known as Ray Sergo. 

yiv. Arexs. Could you tell us just a litle more about that person's 
identification, his background, and liis occupation from the standpoint 
of identification? 



572 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. CzARNOwsKi. The person I have identified as a Communist, his 
name was Ray Sergo, an employee of the Electromotive Division of the 
General Motors Corp., now employed, I believe, with the Burlington 
Railroad. 

After I returned, 2 days later, I believe, or 1 day later after this 
testimony, I received a call from Ray Sergo ; and it happened so that 
there is another Ray Sergo who is a teacher, a law-abiding citizen, a 
good American, who is a schoolteacher in the same town where this 
quisling lived. Communist. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, we have the original affidavit by 
Raymond Mathew Sergo, from Lyons, 111., that he has submitted to 
the committee, under oath, denying that he has ever been a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Our staff investigation checked this out clearly. So, for the purpose 
of clarity of our record, I suggast this affidavit now, in total, be 
incorporated in the body of the record. 

Mr. Doyle. So ordered. And the committee wants to compliment 
the staff' and the witness in clearing this up so that the right man 
will be identified but not the wrong man. 

(The affidavit follows:) 

I, Raymoud Mathew Sergo, was born in Hodgkins, 111., on April 26, 1914. My 
early cbiklhood was spent in Hodgkins. I lived in Lyons from the time I was 7 
until I was 28. 

My education began with 1 year at the Ideal School, District 105, La Grange, 
111. It continued through fifth grade at Washington Public School, District 103, 
Lyons, and I graduated from St. Hugh's Parochial School in Lyons, 111., in 1928. 

I attended Lyons Township High School in La Grange, 111., frcjm 1928 through 
1932. I graduated and enrolled at J. Sterling Morton Junior College and gradu- 
ated in 1935. 

In 1936 I began working for the Universal Oil Products Co., as a Petroleum 
Analyst and .Junior Chemist. I worked here until 1946. At this time I left and 
returned to school at the American Conservatory of Music. I remained here for 
approximately 1 year and then left to go into business. 

I was a partner with Albert Klanyac and John Sergo in the Mayfair Bowling 
Lanes, Elston and Lawrence Avenues, in Chicago, 111., for 1 year. 

In 1938 I worked for Cummins Business Machines Corp. as a salesman and then 
managed the Austin Bowl, at Division and Central Avenues, in Chicago, for Mr. 
Louis Gelfand and Mr. Irving Glickman. I remained here for one season and 
then bought a home and grocery store in Lyons, 111., in October 1949. 

I have lived at 21031/2 Oak Park Avenue, Berwyn, from 1942 until 1946. I 
moved back to Lyons in 1946 and have lived there since. 

My wife and I operated the store until September 1955. I returned to school 
at Chicago Musical College in 1951 and also took courses at Roosevelt University. 
I received a Bachelor of Music Education degree in June 1953 from the Chicago 
Musical College and began teaching at the Lincoln Elementary School, District 
103, Lyons, 111., in September 1953. I have been employed there since as an 
eighth grade teacher. 

I have resided at 4238 Joliet Avenue since 1949. 

I am also a professional musician and have been a member of the American 
Federation of Musicians for the past 18 years. 

I have taken graduate courses at the University of Chicago since the summer 
of 1954 and expect to I'eceive a master's degree soon. 

I have never worked at the Electromotive Division Plant of General Motors 
Corp., in La Grange, 111. 

I am a member of Phi Mu Alpha, honorary music fraternity, and also Phi Delta 
Kappa, honorary education fraternity. I have been an officer of the Lyons Lions 
Club, of Lions International, a member of St. Hugh's Holy Name Society, and 
an active church member of St. Hugh's Parish. For insurance protection I was 
enrolled as a youngster into the Croation Fraternal Union and have kept up the 
policy all my life. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 573 

I have been a member of the Illinois Education Association and the National 
Education Association for the past four years. 

I am not now a member, and I have never been a member, of the Communist 
Party. 

March 25, 1957. 

Raymond Mathew Seego. 
State of Illinois, 

County of Cook: 

Subscribed to and sworn before me this 25th day of March 1957, by the above- 
signed Raymond Sergo. 

[seal] Ieene Buta, Notary PuMic. 

Mr. Aeexs. Mr. Chairman, there are, I think 3, perhaps 4, wit- 
nesses, who are under subpena. We respectfully suggest that the 
Chair order that all subpenas outstanding for today be continued until 
tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. 

Mr. Doyle. I will make that direction, that all subpenas that are 
outstanding and unable to be called today be continued until tomorrow 
morning at 10 o'clock in this room. 

Mrs. Hart. May I approach the Chair, please? 

I submitted 2 certificates this morning of 2 witnesses, whose sub- 
penas have been continued. One of them is quite ill. The other one 
is not quite ill. Does the Chair want them here tomorrow ? 

Mr. Doyle. Do you know of the case ? 

Mr. Arens. Are these the two here, counsel, Vincent Andrulis 

Mrs. Hart. That is right. 

Mr. Arens (continuing). And Alice Yonik. 

Mrs. Hart. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Well, the order of the Chair is, or was this morning, 
that they will be continued, subject to further call ; and we will com- 
nuinicate either with them or with you in the future with reference 
to a time for an appearance. 

Mrs. PIart. But not for tomorrow ? 

Mr. Doyle. Is that satisfactory, counsel ? 

Mrs. Hart. That is very satisfactory. 

Mr. Doyle. We will recess until tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. 

(Thereupon, at 4: 15 p. m., Tuesday, March 26, 1957, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a. m., Wednesday, March 27, 1957.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN THE 
UNITED STATES— PART 7 

(Chicago, 111., Area) 



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 27, 1957 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Chicago, III. 
public hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, in room 209, United States Courthouse, 219 
South Clark Street, Chicago, 111., at 10 a. m., Hon. Clyde Doyle 
(chairman of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Clyde Doyle of Cali- 
fornia and Gordon H. Scherer of Ohio. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, director ; W. Jackson Jones 
and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will please come to order. 

Let the record show that a legal quorum of the subcommittee of 
three is present, Mr. Frazier being absent, Mr. Scherer of Ohio and 
Mr. Doyle of California both being present, as they were yesterday 
during all of tlie hearings. Both members of the subcommittee pres- 
ent were present throughout all of the hearings yesterday. 

I want to take this occasion to express our appreciation again 
to those in the hearing room for the fine cooperation given us yester- 
day, with no disturbance or annoyance of any kind. The committee, 
of course, is a work committee. You are here through the courte.sy 
of the committee, which is here to work. And tliere is no smoking 
in the courtroom, of course, according to the building rules. 

I wish to say again, although I know it will not be necessary — 
but once in a while in different parts of the country it has been 
necessary to remove some person from the hearing room because he 
disturbs the meeting. Of course, you cannot expect a congressional 
committee to put up with any disturbance either by applause or dis- 
approval. So I want to instruct the marshal again and the police 
department that if anyone in the room takes it upon himself to dis- 
turb the meeting, not to wait for word from me, Mr. Marshal, just 
remove that person and do not let him return to the hearing room. I 
am sure that is what the rest of the people desire because they do not 
want to be disturbed either. 

Are you ready, Mr. Arens, with the first witness ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

575 



576 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

The first witness Mr. Chairman, who was scheduled to appear today 
was Mr. Carl Hirsch, H-i-r-s-c-h, who is presently editor of the Illi- 
nois section of the Daily Worker. We have received a medical cer- 
tificate from a doctor to the effect that Mr. Hirsch is under his pro- 
fessional care, and recommends that he continue to be confined to 
his bed for the present time. 

I, therefore, recommend, Mr. Chairman, that this medical certificate 
be incorporated by reference in the record, and that the subpena pur- 
suant to which Mr. Hirsch was to appear today be continued subject 
to a day certain, being specified after we have had time to consult 
with our own calendar and perhaps with Mr. Hirsch or his repre- 
sentative. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. I will make that order at this time. 

(The medical certificate identified as "Hirsch Exhibit No. 1" and 
retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Therefore, Mr. Chairman, the first witness to be heard 
this morning, will be Mr. Otto Wangerin. 

Would you kindly come forward? 

Mr. Doyle. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Wangerin. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. Occupy the chair. 

TESTIMONY OF OTTO H. WANGERIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
IKVING G. STEINBERG 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Wangerin. My name is Otto Wangerin. I live at 6405 South 
Dorchester. 

Mr. Scherer. How do you spell that last name ? 

Mr. WAN(iERiN. W-a-n-g-e-r-i-n. 

Mr. Arens. Your occupation, please, sir ? 

Mr. Wangerin. I refuse to answer that question based on the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Wangerin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself? 

Mr. Steinberg. My name is Irving G. Steinberg, 180 West Wash- 
ington. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wangerin, I have in my hand a document pre- 
viously identified in this record which has been circulated in the last 
several days by the Committee To Preserve American Freedoms. In 
this document a recitation is given of a number of people who were 
subpenaed to appear before the Committee on Un-American Activities 
here in Chicago. One of the persons so identified is bookseller Otto 
Wangerin, operator of the Modern Book Store. Active for 40 years in 
labor and progressive movement. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 577 

Kindly look at this document, which has been identified in this rec- 
ord, and tell us whether or not you are truthfully and accurately char- 
acterized and described ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerix. I decline to answer the question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document previously identified as "DeSchaaf Exhibit No. 2.") 

Mr. Arexs. Where were you when you were served with your sub- 
pena to appear before this committee ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer the question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. We lay before you a photostatic reproduction of a leaflet 
in which the Modern Book Store, 180 West Washington, is character- 
ized as a bookstore specializing in labor, progressive, Marxist books, 
pamphlets, and periodicals. 

Kindly look at tliat document and tell us whether or not, to your 
certain knowledge, that is a truthful and accurate description of 
the Modern Book Store? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. Repeat the question, please. 

Please read the question back to the witness. 

(Record read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Wangerhst. I decline to answer on the same grounds, on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Wangerin Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. "WTiere is the physical location of your employment? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer the question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to the physical loca- 
tion as to his place of employment. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer that question. Witness. It is 
reasonable, and it certainly couldn't incriminate you to answer that 
question. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I still refuse to answer the question based on the 
fifth amendment, that portion of the fifth amendment that says no 
person can be compelled to testify against himself. 

Mr. Arens. In what type of a proceeding ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Sir, do you honestly apprehend if you told this com- 
mittee truthfully whether or not you are the owner and operator of 
the Modern Book Store you would be supplying information which 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. We lay before you, if you please, sir, a photostatic repro- 
duction of a publication called Friendship, in which is listed the 
Modern Book Store, 64 "West Randolph, among other sources, for 
obtaining literature which is recommended from the U. S. S. R. 



578 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 

Kindly look at that document and tell us whether or not that is a 
true characterization of the material which is sold at the Modern 
Book Store ? 

(Document marked "Wangerin Exhibit No. 2," and retained in 
committee files.) 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Steinberg. I want to point out to the committee that this 
session has nothing to do with the announced purpose of the hearing. 

Mr. Arens. You know that your sole prerogative is to advise your 
client. 

Mr. Doyle. You are violating the committee's rules. 

Mr. Arens. You know you are violating the committee's rules. If 
you were in a court, you would be slapped in jail in 5 minutes for 
that conduct. 

Mr. Steinberg. I wouldn't be slapped in jail. Don't talk to me that 
way. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that you admon- 
ish the counsel to restrain himself and observe the rules of this 
committee. 

Mr. Steinberg. I think counsel should be admonished. He shouldn't 
tell me I would be put in jail. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. Just a minute, Counsel. 

What is your answer to the question. Witness ? 

Mr. Wangerin. Would you repeat the question, please ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you want the question repeated, Witness ? 

Mr. Wangerin. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly repeat the question. 

(Record read by the reporter.) 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendment and also I object on the grounds that this 
has nothing to do with the purpose of this hearing. 

Mr. Arens. Are you registered or have you ever been registered 
under the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. DoYT.E. I direct you to answer the question. Witness. It is 
very pertinent. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, and that portion of the amendment that says no person can be 
compelled to testify against themselves. 

Mr. D0YI.E. In other words. Witness, if you admitted that you had 
registered with the United States Government according to the ques- 
tion our distinguished counsel asked you, it would tend to incriminate 
you. Is that your position ? In other words, your registration with 
the United States Government — a public document would incriminate 
you. Is that your position ? How ridiculous can a person be in claim- 
ing that ? 

Mr. Wangerin. Would you please read the question back? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAG.\NDA IN U. S. 579 

(Record read by the reporter.) 

Mr. "Wangerin. I still refuse to answer the question on the basis 
of the fifth amendment which says that no person can be compelled 
to testify against himself. 

Mr. Doyle. I can see, Witness, how it might incriminate you if you 
hadn't obej'ed the law and registered. I can understand that. But 
how it could incriminate you if you complied with the law I don't 
understand. But you, of course, have a constitutional privilege to 
plead if you plead it in good faith and you acted accordmg to your 
counsel. Proceed. 

Mr. Arexs. The Foreign Agents Registration Act provides, in 
substance, that any person who is the agent of a foreign principal 
and who disseminates Coimnunist propaganda in the United States 
must register with the Department of Justice and must label, pur- 
suant to the Foreign Agents Registration Act, the Communist propa- 
go.nda W'hich he disseminates in the United States. 

We lay before you, now, two publications which were purchased 
from you at your store. The first is the Soviet Union (No. 1 (83) 
1957) purchased by an investigator of this stajff the other day. The 
other is Xew Times, identified as a Communist publication from 
abroad (January 3, 1957). 

Kindly look at those docmnents and tell this committee, while you 
are nnder oath, first of all, whether or not you see in the documents 
any label pursuant to the provisions of the Foreign Agents Registra- 
tion Act ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Waxgerin. I refuse to answer this question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

(Documents marked "Wangerin Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. Do you carry those publications in your store as a 
matter of regular business practice? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arexs. By "those publications" I mean the Soviet Union and 
the New Times. 

Mr. Waxgerix. Same answer. 

Mr. Arexs. We lay before you a photostatic reproduction of one 
of 3^our advertisements of the Modern Book Store in w^hich you had 
a sale, 10- to 80-percent discount on all books. I observe here, among 
the books on which you have the discount and which you apparently 
are pushing for sale, are reports from the Soviet Union by Malenkov, 
Molotov, Bulganin, Mikoyan, all reduced to 10 cents apiece. Then I 
observe here about a dozen or so specialties from the Soviet Union, 
Materialism and the Dialectical Method, Ten Classics of Marxism, 
Mao Tse-tung Selected Works, and Selected Works of Marx and 
Engels, and the like. 

Kindly look at this document, w'hich will be displayed to you, and 
tell us, first of all, whether or not that is a true and correct reproduc- 
tion of the advertisement of your store, or the leaflet issued by your 
store for prospective customers? 

Mr. Doyle. Among the foreign-born and foreign-ancestered peo- 
ple, foreign people primarily. 



580 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Steinberg. There are all kinds of books, if the court please, 
American books 

Mr. DoTLE. I recognize that. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, do you want to testify ? I suggest you submit 
yourself to oath and we will interrogate you. 

While you are examining that, may I invite your attention to other 
pages of the book list, from your store, of periodicals, such as Chinese 
Literature, China Reconstructs, China Pictorial, People's China ; also 
listed as Soviet Union periodicals, some of which I cannot pronounce 
such as Soviet Literature, cultural items, and then the old-line Com- 
munist publications : Political Affairs, Mainstream, and the like. 

Kindly look at these pages, while your counsel is examining the 
first pages, and see if you will be good enough to help this Committee 
on Un-American Activities in its work by verifying the authenticity 
of those price lists. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer this question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments, and that this has nothing to do with the 
purpose of this hearing. 

(Document marlced "Wangerin Exhibit No. 4," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Is your bookstore a corporation or an operation by a 
private entrepreneur, registered under the Foreign Agents Registra- 
tion Act ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer this question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendment, and further that has nothing to do 
with the purposes of this meeting. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us what a stool pigeon is ? Do you know 
what that term means ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I refuse to answer that question based on the first 
and fifth amendment and on the further grounds that any answer, 
any opinion as to this question that I might express may be used by 
this committee against me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wangerin, I want to call to your attention excerpts 
from a photostatic copy of a letter from a stool pigeon by the name of 
Earl Browder, who was then general secretary of the Communist 
Party. Back in 1939 he addressed a letter to the Committee on Un- 
American Activities, and the committee was in its initial stages of 
exploration and investigations at that time. He says in this letter, 
which I am going to display to you in a moment, that he acknowledges 
receipt of the subpena that was served upon him and he is enclosing 
a list, full names of the members of the National Committee of the 
Communist Party and the candidates of the National Committee of 
the Communist Party as of that date ; and curiously enough under the 
National Committee of the Communist Party USA, elected at the 
10th convention, we see here listed the name of Otto Wangerin, 
W-a-n-g-e-r-i-n. 

Was Earl Browder misrepresenting to the Committee on Un- 
American Activities back in 1939 when he asserted in that letter that 
you were one of the top officials — one of the members of the National 



InVes^tigatiox of communist propaganda in u. s. 581 

Committee of this conspiratorial apparatus known as the Communist 
Party? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Waxgerin. I decline to answer the question on the oasis of 
the first and fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Wangerin Exhibit No. 5" and retained m 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arexs. I Avould like to read you some testimony. In June of 
1956 this committee held hearings in St. Louis, Mo. At that time a 
man testified by the name of Thomas A. Younglove, Y-o-u-n-g-l-o-v-e. 
He stated that lie had been a member of the Communist Party, and 
he continued in his testimony, under oath, as follows : 

And the national officer of the railroad workers of the Communist Party stated, 
before a select group at State headquarters — and this man's name was Otto W. 
Wangerin. He was from Chicago. I can spell it, but I don't know if it would 
be correct. 

Question : 

Do you know what position he held in the Communist Party ? 

Answer, by Mr. Younglove. under oath : 

He was introduced by a man by the name of Herman Webb as being a national 
organizer for the Communist Party within the railroad workers. He also 
referred to that position in the course of his talk. 

While you are under oath, tell tliis committee was Mr. Younglove 
lying or was he telling the truth when he testified under oath before 
this committee and identified you as a national organizer of this con- 
spiratorial apparatus known as the Communist Party ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. Could I see that document, please? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. I heard your counsel tell you to ask for it. 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendment. 

]Mr. Arens. Perhaps you can help us with another document. It is 
a photograph of yourself in a parade. May 1, 1948, carrying a banner 
and this banner is entitled "Communist Party of Illinois," and there 
you are helping to carry a banner in the parade. 

Look at the photograph please, and tell us if it is going to incrimi- 
nate you to identify your own picture? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Doyle. What year was that, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arens. May 1, 1948. 

He is carrying a banner entitled "Communist Party of Illinois." 

Mr. DoTiiE. Here in Chicago ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

That was 2 years before the passage of the Internal Security Act, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wangerin. I refuse to answer the question on the same basis. 



582 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 







INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 583 

Mr. Arens. Now, we would like to display to you, if j^ou please, sir, 
a photostatic reproduction of the letter on the Civil Rights Congress 
of Illinois letterhead, under your signature as administrative secre- 
tary. The Civil Rights Congress is masquerading behind Abraham 
Lincoln, calling upon all our fellows who love liberty to advocate the 
repeal of the Walter-McCarran Act, and, advocating the repeal of the 
thought-control Smith Act, pursuant to which the Communist trait- 
ors were put in jail, and the like. 

Kindly look at this document, signed Otto Wangerin, administra- 
tive secretary on the letterhead of the Civil Rights Congress of Illi- 
nois, dated February 28, 1953, and see if you will be good enough to 
help this Committee on Un-American Activities in its work by verify- 
ing the authenticity of your signature appearing there. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer the question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wangerin, although I feel you have been a little 
less than frank with the committee, I want to be absolutely f I'ank with 
you. We are going to lay before you a pay voucher, pursuant to 
which when you sign it you will receive your witness fee. I want to be 
frank with you and say the reason I want to have you sign it, while 
you are under oath, is that I want to compare the signature you af- 
fixed to this Civil Riglits Congress letter and the signature which I 
hope you will afix to the voucher we now lay before you. 

Would you kindly affix your signature to that voucher now? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I will sign it after I have finished testifying. 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that if, as and 
when Mr. Wangerin affixes his signature to a pay voucher to receive 
his witness fee that that part of the pay voucher be incorporated in 
the body of the record so it may be compared with the signature ap- 
pearing on the letter of the Civil Rights Congress of Illinois with 
Mr. Wangerin identified as administrative secretary of that organi- 
zation. 

Mr. Doyle. So ordered. 



584 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 



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hs"*? joiaeri us ta th rs : <; -ni sncawftg* all of th^m tc got new sasabars, "iT« « 
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a,rt<i asauaiataricc-s. Sij-G t!>3 sRclos-sd ^"£l'i i££ X£x^££, J!||*ii ,LLt2£ .iEi?.!'." * 



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tions.?. contjri^isti&a, for 
the CSC Action FiiadI 



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mVESTIGATIOX OF COIMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. 3. 



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586 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wangerin, in addition to your operation of the 
bookstore and your candidacy and your status in the Communist 
Party, you have also been a professor or instructor, have you not? 
Coukl you help us on that ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer on the same grounds, that it 
has nothing to do with this hearing. 

Mr. Arens. We have a thermofax reproduction of a bulletin 
(spring term April 8 to June 22, 1940) of the Workers School, 431 
South Dearborn Street, Chicago, in which they announce the spring 
term. On the inside appears this Workers School schedule of classes. 
We see a course on trade unionism, theory and practice, and the in- 
structor as listed here is Otto Wangerin. 

Kindly look at that document and see if you will be cooperative 
enough with this committee to verify its authenticity. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer on the grounds that this has 
nothing to do with the purpose of this hearing. 

(Document marked "Wangerin Exhibit No. 9," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Scherer. He declined to answer on the grounds that this ques- 
tion had nothing to do with this hearing. 

I ask that you direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. DoTLE. I direct the witness to answer this question. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. That is better. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of John A. Rossen, 
E-o-s-s-e-n? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. That is the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. He is scheduled to be the next witness. I thought per- 
haps you might help us a little and give us information about him. 

Do you honestly feel if you told us the truth of the knowledge you 
have respecting John A. Rossen you might be supplying information 
that could be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Wangerin. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Scherer. Where were you born, Mr. Witness ? 
(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer on the same grounds, the first 
and fifth. 

Mr. DoYEE. I instruct you to answer, Witness. That is a basic ques- 
tion of identification arid certainly the United States Congress is 
entitled to know where the people it protects are born. 
(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. St. Paul, Minn. 

Mr. Scherer. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 
(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 587 

Mr. Wangerin". I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the ^Yitness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. DoTLE. You are directed to answer the question, Witness. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, that portion which says no person is compelled to be a witness 
against himself or to incriminate himself. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you honestly believe. Witness, if you told us how 
long you lived in Chicago tliat such an answer might tend to incrim- 
inate you ? Do you honestly believe that ? 

Mr. Wangerin. Same answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I alwaj'S thought Chicago was a city of law-abiding 
citizens. I didn't know it was a place you would be ashamed to admit 
that you lived in. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer my ques- 
tion as to whether or not be honestly believes that to answer that ques- 
tion might tend to incriminate him. 

Mr. DoTLE. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Wangerin. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that in the presence of this wit- 
ness another witness be sworn. 

Will you kindly stand and be sworn Mr. Jones ? 

Mr. DoYLE. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Jones. I do. 

Mr. Steinberg. May I ask for the privilege to cross-examine this 
witness? 

Mr. Arens. You know you are asking for something that is in vio- 
] ation of the rules. 

Mr. Steinberg. May I have a ruling from the Chair ? 

Mr. Scherer. You have violated the rules consistently for 2 days. 
If you continue to do that once more, as much as I dislike to, I am 
going to move that you be ejected from the courtroom. You know you 
can't cross-examine this witness. 

Mr. Doyee. Counsel doesn't need to make a showing. 

Mr. Scherer. You have done that consistently for 2 days now. 

TESTIMONY OE W. JACKSON JONES 

Mr. Arens. Are you W. Jackson Jones, an investigator of the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Jones. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jones, I lay before you two publications. The 
first is Soviet Union, No. 1 (83) 1957. 'The second is New Times, 
January 3, 1957. 

I ask you if you purchased those in the course of the last several days 
here in Chicago ? 

Mr. Jont:s. They were purchased. 

Mr. Arens. And from whom did you purchase them, and where ? 

Mr. Jones. They were purchased from Mr. Wangerin at the Modern 
Book Store, 64 West Randolph Street. 



588 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. Is Mr. Wangerin the gentleman who is seated in the 
principal witness chair ? 

Mr. Jones. He is one and the same. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall, Mr. Jones, approximately when you made 
that purchase, what day, how long ago ? 

Mr. Jones. It was on Friday of last week. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wangerin, you heard the testimony of Mr. Jones. 
Do you recall the incident to whicli he just alluded in his testimony, 
to wit, that he purchased these two publications in your establishment ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. I decline to answer the question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendment and that the question has nothing to do with 
the hearing. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Jones, j^ou know, of course, that under the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act, the agent of a foreign principal who dis- 
seminates Communist propaganda in the United States is obliged to do 
two things: First, to register with the Department of Justice under 
the Foreign Agents Registration Act and, secondly, to label the Com- 
munist propaganda so that the recipient will know that he is getting 
Communist literature. 

Did you after an examination see anywhere on either of those doc- 
uments you purchased at the Modern Book Store from Mr. Wan- 
gerin, the label that is required bv the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act? 

Mr. Jones. These documents do not bear the label. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, Mr. Jones. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectful!}' suggest that will conclude the staff 
interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. Arens, doesn't tlie record clearly show that across 
the country there are certain book stores, which are substantially 
known to the people Avho buy certain literature, as Communist Party 
depositories for Communist Party literature and pamphlets, and so 
forth? 

Mr. Arens. That is correct ; yes, sir. 

Mr. DoYLE. And they also are known to us to sell the same type of 
literature by titles and authors that is shown in the testimony today 
that this man sells here in Chicago. 

Mr. Arexs. And our concern at that point, Mr. Chairman, is not 
their selling of the literature, but it is tlieir overt flouting of the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, 3^ou are going to look into it to see whether 
or not this man has comj^lied with the law, I take it? 

Mr. Arens. It is clear he has not complied with the law. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I would like to know. I would like to iiave a 
report on it. Because I used to be a book salesman, myself, I am 
interested to know. 

As I take it this witness was a member of the National Comini|:t.ee of 
the Communist Party in this country in 1939. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. According to the signature of Earl Browder? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; who was then general secretaiy. 

Mr. Doyle. And who was then the national head of the Coniniunist 
Party of tlie United States? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 589 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I take it tliut ^Ir. Browder was not misrepresenting. 

Mr. Arens. Well, if he was misrepresenting:, the witness was given 
an opportunity to straighten him out. 

Mr. Doyle. The thing that I can't help but notice, Witness, is this 
sheet here which was distributed from a Communist Party office in 
Chicago, according to the address, lists you as one of the subpenaed. 
You claimed your privilege, but there has been introduced, in the 
record here, a document showing that you were an instructor in trade 
miionism, apparently while you were a member of the National Com- 
mittee of the Communist Party. 

In my book it is another case involving you as a Communist leader 
in this country trying to influence and dominate the trade-union move- 
ment in this country. 

And that is what Conmiunists always try to do. They try to use 
organized labor for their filthy purpose, and they always place the 
Communist Party philosophy ahead of free American trade unionism. 
I have never known it to fail. 

I came from a family of working people. It makes me shiver when 
I see the extent to which Communist functionaries try to abuse and 
use the American trade-union movement for their own filthy purpose, 
to take control of xYmerican labor for the sake of communism, and that 
is what you do. 

I want to ask this question, Mr. Wangerin. Do you get these pam- 
phlets about China and the Soviet program in China directly from 
China, or do you buy them from some place in this comitry to resell ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wangerin. Mr. Chairman, I decline to answer that question on 
the basis of the first and fifth amendments and that your question has 
nothing to do with the purpose of this hearing. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, it has everything to do with this. We are 
permitted under tlie law and my pronouncement was that we would 
go into the Comnuu^iist conspiracy wherever it exists in the field of 
newspapers or conununications, and a bookstore is pretty near next 
door to a newspaper. 

I will ask you this question : Do you get your pamphlets on Marx- 
ism and other periodicals lauding the Soviet system from Russia as 
some bookstores do that I have learned about, or do you get them 
from some wholesale distributor in this country ? 

How in the world could that tend to incriminate you, to tell us how 
you trade legally ? 

Mr. Wangerin. Same answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I think that is all from this witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
John Rossen, R-o-s-s-e-n. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. RossEN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. DoYLE. Counsel, Mr. Scherer, yesterday the identified Com- 
munists who were before us, as I recall it, all claimed that we were 
interfering with the freedom of the press, interfering with freedom. 

I have here this morning, and I am going to mention the paper, 



590 



INVESTIGATION OF COIVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 



the New York Times, March 27, New York. And on the front page 
in a square is a picture of an envelope, airmail, New York, It was 
mailed from New York, February 18, to someone in Budapest, Hun- 
gary, with American postage on it, and the postage is canceled, the 
name of the sender is canceled. And this says, photocopy of an en- 
velope sent back here from Hungary because of postmark over the 
stamp. And the postmark over the stamp, you may be interested to 
know, was the postmark which is used now I believe over all United 
States postage, or most of it, is three words "Crusade for Freedom." 
Those are the three words. And the Communist postoffice in Hungary 
returned three of these to the New York postoffice according to this 
article in the New York Times this morning, refusing delivery to 
citizens of Budapest, Hungary, because it had "Crusade for Freedom" 
over the stamp. 

Is that what you call freedom of the press? That is the kind of 
freedom that these Communists yesterday would want to impose on 
the American press. They would want a controlled press and control 
it for their filthy Communist Party philosophy and purposes. 

Here is a good illustration of the unwillingness of a Communist- 
controlled country, Hungary, to let three words go in on the top of an 
envelope "Crusade for Freedom." 

I would like, Mr. Arens, to have this included in the record of 
these hearings. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

(Photostat of airmail envelope and New York Times article 
follow.) 

Hungary Bars U. S. Letters With *Crusade' Postmark 




I 

I 



AIR LETTER 
AEROGRAMME 



V!A AIR MAIL 
PAR AVION 



Ret«ur. Non admt*. 



T1i« t««l o« lh« potunarfc ii contrirr to 
8M:ltan t. Arikl* 1. ol Chaptsr I, ol lb« 
Unlvanel I'onwl tonvtmlon lher«Ior« 
lb* Hungarian I'oul OH'.ta h»» i»tur««d 
Iba Ivtier lo II* *»ndrr. 




I 
^ 



Tm New York Tmn 

Photo copy of an envelope sent back here from Hunj^ary beraunf of pontnurk over th« ntamp 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 



591 



[The New York Times, March 27, 1957] 



By John W. Finney 

Hungary is returning letters from this 
country in protest against an ofiicial United 
States postmark urging support of the Cru- 
sade for Freedom. Three returned letters 
were received by the post office here yester- 
day. The Post Office Department is expect- 
ing a flood of undelivered letters from Com- 
munist Hungary. The postmark to which 
Hungary objects reads : "Support Your Cru- 
sade for Freedom." Hungarian officials 
contend that the postmark is intended to 
incite further revolts by "counterrevolution- 
aries" and that it does not promote "interna- 
tional cooperation" in mail service. The 
cancellation mark has been used periodically 
by the post office for the last 4 years. This 
is the first time, however, that the Hun- 
garian Government has objected to it. 

Crusade for Freedom is a private organi- 
zation that supports Radio Free Europe, and 
Free Europe Press. The organization has 
been denounced by the Soviet Union, which 
asserts that it was established to finance 
and direct subversive activity within Com- 
munist countries. 

Postmaster Robert H. Schaffer said the 
Hungarian Post Office's action came to light 
yesterday when officials at the Morgan 
station, which handles foreign mail, called 
him to ask why the mail was being returned. 

STICKER EXPLAINS REASON 

The official Hungarian reason was 
on a sticker placed on the envelope, 
sticker read in English : 



;iven 
The 



''The text of the postmark is contrary to 
Section 2, Article 1 of Chapter 1 of the Uni- 
versal Postal Convention. Therefore, the 
Hungarian Post Office has returned the letter 
to its sender." 

Section 2 says the purpose of the Postal 
Union is "to assure the organization and 
improvement of the various postal services 
and to promote in that sphere the develop- 
ment of international cooperation." 

Mr. Schaeffer denied that the postmark 
violated the postal convention. He said the 
cancellation had been used in January of 
1954 and 1955 and in the first 3 mouths of 
1956 and 1957. The postmark has been used 
by the post offices here and in Philadelphia, 
Chicago, and Los Angeles. 

The New York Post Office sends about 
1.750 letters a day to Hungary by air and 
ship. 

On March 8 Hungary delivered diplomatic 
notes to the American and British Legations 
in Budapest protesting the cancellation 
marks on letters reaching Hungary from the 
United States and Canada. 

A Canadian postmark to which Hungary 
objected read : "Why wait for spring? Do it 
now." Hungary contended the postmark 
showed that the Canadian Government would 
"welcome new counterrevolutionary activity 
and bloodshed in Hungary." The Canadian 
Government explained, however, that the 
postmark was merely a call to Canadians to 
fix up their homes, and had nothing to do 
with Hungary. 



Mr. DoYLE. Proceed. 



TESTIMONY OF JOHIT (A.) ROSSEN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
IRVING G. STEINBERG 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation, 

Mr. KossEN. My name is John Eossen, I live at 5715 Blackstone, 
Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Do you care to complete your answer ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. RossEN. In veplj to that, I would like to say to the distin- 
guished counsel of the committee that he can go straight to — the Con- 
stitution and he will see that this third part of the question is an 
invasion of my rights under the first and fifth amendments to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of an organization dedicated to 
the overthrow of the Constitution of the United States by force and 
violence ? 

Mr. RossEN. Again, I will say to the distinguished counsel that 
he can go straight to- — the Constitution 

Mr. Arens. I suggest that the witness be ordered and directed to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. 

I want the record to show and you to know, that we realize that 
you are intending by the inflection of your voice and the hesitancy 
of your language to tell this counsel to go someplace other than 
straight to the Constitution. If you do it again, we are going to put 
you in contempt. You are not as smart as you think you are. 



592 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. Mr, Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the last question which is outstanding 
on this record. 

Mr. Doyle. You may be a theater manager, but you don't make 
a show out of this. You will get that clear. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, may I respectfully request that the 
question outstanding has not been answered and there is a request that 
the witness be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. DoYT.E. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEN. I refuse to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena that 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. RossEX. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. RossEN. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Covmsel, will you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr. Steinberg. Irving G. Steinberg, 180 West Washington. 

Mr. Arens. JSIr. Rossen, do you know the gentleman who preceded 
you on the witness stand, Mr. Otto Wangerin ? 

Mr. Rossen. I refuse to answer on the grounds the question is a 
violation of my rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
truthfully, while you are under oath, whether or not you know Mr. 
Otto Wangerin, you would be supplying information which might 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rossen. I decline to answer on the grounds that the question 
violates — is an invasion of my riglits under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you, Witness, to answer the question. 

Mr. Scherer. Even Mr. Beck knew yesterday he had to answer 
that question "Yes" when lie was asked if he honestly felt that 
question 

Mr. Rossen. Do you mind reading the question back again ? 

Mr. Arens. The last outstanding question is this : Do you honestly 
apprehend, sir, if you told tliis committee truthfully, while you are 
under oath, whether or not j^ou know Otto Wangerin, you would 
be supplying information which might be used against you in a crim- 
inal proceeding? And you have a direction from the chairman to 
answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rossen. I repeat my refusal to answer under the grounds that I 
can't be compelled to testify against myself on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. We have a thermofax reproduction of the testimony 
given before this committee on June 5, 1956, by Thomas A. Younglove, 
in which Mr. Younglove, while lie was under oath, before this com- 
mittee in our hearings in St. Louis, Mo., identified you as a person 



INVESTIGATION OF CO]MMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 593 

known to him to be a member of the Commmiist Party. Was Mr. 
Yoimglove lyino; or was he telling the truth ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEN. May I see the document ? 

Mr. Arens. Surely. Perhaps that would help refresh your recol- 
lection. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KossEN. In view of the fact that T never had the chance to 
cross-examine or question this Mr. Younglove, I refuse to answer the 
question on the basis of the first and fifth amendments to the Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. Whether you had the chance or not, you have now 
the opportunity to tell this committee whether Mr. Younglove was 
lying or telling the truth to the committee. 

" Mr. Doyle. And if you are telling the truth, instead of Mr. Young- 
love, he would be a perjurer. We will find out which one is perjuring 
himself. So you have your chance now to put Mr. Younglove in a 
classification of a perjurer if he wasn't telling the truth. 

Mr. RossEX. Well, sir, the best witness against Mr. Younglove 
would be himself, and I would just love the opportunity to cross- 
examine. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer the question, Witness. 

Mr. RossEN. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Unfortunately, we do not have with us today Jeremy 
Selden for you to cross-examine him. Maybe he is in the same situa- 
tion as Mr. Younglove. I would like to invite your attention to a 
photostatic copy of an article by Jeremy, J-e-r-e-m-y Selden in the 
Communist Daily Worker of October 3, 1948. Your photograph is 
also there. The title of this article is "Workingmen's Answer to 
Winchell," and the subheading reads as follows : 

Communist Party Organizer Johnny Rossen conducts a radio program and 
a newsletter that have eastern Missouri and southern Illinois talking. How 
Johnny combines gags and politics to fight reaction's lies. 

I would like to read a few little excerpts from this, and, as I say, 
I am very sorry we do not have Selden here so you could cross-examine 
him. I am sure if a man called me a Communist I would certainly 
deny it under oath. I thought perhaps you would. 

"Johnny" has become an institution in eastern Missouri and southern Illinois. 

"Johnny," you see, happens to be Johnny Rossen, field organizer for the Com- 
munist Party in southern Illinois, and his racy, hard-hitting, popular-style, 15- 
minute weekly radio "Newsletter of the Air," has brought a remarkable response 
from radio listeners. 

I wdll skip several paragraphs, and we read this under your photo- 
graph : 

Johnny, who is a veteran of the Lincoln Brigade, and of World War II, is 
especially proud of the fact that a number of his listeners, who had never before 
had contact with the labor or progressive movement, are now active workers 
in the progressive party. But, most of all, he is proud of his radio listeners 
who have been recruited into the Communist Party. 

Now, while you are under oath, in view of that very serious indict- 
ment of you as part of a traitorist conspiracy, would you care to deny 



594 INVESTIGATION OF COIMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

it and denounce the author of that article as a perjurer and as a 
defamer of vour character, or was he, on the other hand, telling the 
truth '^ 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

(Document marked "Eossen exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Doyle. This might be a case, Mr. Arens, but it is not too possi- 
ble, where Mr. Eossen wants to claim this author is a perjurer and 
not telling the truth. It might be possible that we could arrange a 
meeting, where Mr. Eossen could come back sometime in the next 
few months and have this author present so he could face him. 

Mr. Arens. I would suggest at least as a preliminary matter he 
could, while he is under oath, stand up like a red-blooded American 
and deny he has ever been a member of this conspiracy. That might 
be a start. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. Let us find out who is perjuring himself. 

Mr. Eossen. In reply to this question, I would say that the question 
very obviously is an interference and an attempt to interfere with 
the freedom of the radio as well as freedom of speech and the press, 
and, therefore, I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Doyle. May I just say that the thing we are trying to do is to 
find out the extent to which identified Communists are using the radio 
as a means to perpetuate or promulgate the Communist conspiracy. 

You have been identified to us as a Communist. Therefore, we are 
interested to know the extent to which you use the radio for that pur- 
pose. We think it is legitimate and very important to know whether 
or not you do. 

Mr. Arens. We have two documents to display to you, please, Mr. 
Eossen. The first is a letterhead of the Chicago Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship, elated March 19, 1952, on which your name appears 
as executive director. 

(Document marked "Eossen Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files. 

The second is a photostatic reproduction of a check, drawn on the 
Amalgamated Trust & Savings Bank, which you signed as executive 
director of the Chicago Council of American- Soviet Friendship, Inc. 
The check is for $20, payable to the Fine Arts Building, and is dated 
March 5, 1954. 

Kindly look at those two documents and see if you will be good 
enough to verify their authenticity for us ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. "Wliile you are examining that document, or while your 
counsel is, may I make this further request, Mr. Eossen: Mr. Jones 
of our staff is going to lay before you a pay voucher, which, when you 
sign it, makes available to you the pay due you as a witness before this 
committee. 

I am going to ask yon if you will kindly sign that document now, 
while you are under oath, so we may compare that signature on the 
check and on another document that is to follow. Would vou be good 



IN^'ESTIGATION OF COIVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA EST U. S. 595 

enough to accommodate the committee to that extent, please, Mr. Ros- 
sen? 

Mr. RossEN. I will sign the pay voucher later. 

^Ir. Aeens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that if, as and 
when Mr. Rossen affixes his signature to the voucher that part of the 
voucher bearing his signature be incorporated in the body of the record 
so there may be a comparison of his signatures on other documents. 

Mr. Doyle. So ordered. 

Mr. RossEN. With reference to these alleged documents. I refuse 
to answer the question on the basis that these documents have nothing 
to do with this hearing or with the powers of the committee, and on 
the further grounds that the request to answer the question is an inva- 
sion of my rights under the first and fif tli amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Rossen, we want to lay before you a photostatic 
rejDroduction of an application for public place of amusement license — 
which you signed as president of the L. M. S. Amusement Company, 
Inc., dated December 28, 1956. The building or ground to be oper- 
ated by this L. M. S. Amusement Co., according to the application, 
is known as a Cinema Annex, a movie company, located at 3210 
Madison Avenue here in Chicago. 



596 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 



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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 597 



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598 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Kindly look at that document, as Mr. Jones displays it to you, and 
tell this committee, while you are under oath, if you will accommodate 
us by verifying the authenticity of your signature and the contents 
of that document ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

^^^Il< Pom CZ 221 lOM Il-U (COS) 

CITY OF CHICAGO 
OFFICE OF THE CITY COLLECTOR 

107 aXY HALL 



Application for Public Place of Amusement License 



Date ^"^/^^ iqS"^ 

ro THE CITY COLLECTOR, CITY OF CHICAGO : ''^ 

, 1,V» J?f.""'''"Kf^-*'', """"V *"■ '"'" °^ '^^ property hereinafter described hereby makes application for 
a 1 cense for a publicplace of amusement under the provisions of Chapter 104.1 of the Munidpal Code of 
Chicago, making a part of said application the follou mg presentations ^ 

Applicant's name ^■■-■-■^ ■■■^^■'■'^■^■^ , C^-<L 

(I( as LD<Jivj4uaI, giTe nunc in full; if « coTvoraticai, lo itatc) * 

If applicant is a cojrooration, give full names and residence addresses of the principal officers: 
President....w/..-../j...P..^.?..«-.;^ -i2..<.!T!..J^.bf^:::f^rf:r^ 5.''>:Vrr^ 

I y^ (Residence addretf) 



Secretary. 

, (Residence addreaa) 

Treasurer " 



(Residence address) 

Location for which license is sought .V...1?'/ .'^.. .^??^?r-*-'*^-''-<' c'^v^^/ 

(Street and 



Applicant intends starting operating at this location on ^rr.V^!r*iC5<<r<r-. 

Building, ground or enclosure is known as .(r^-rrf!::.^**^:^ Ci,.<ff<„<M,Ar:rtL 

Kind of amusement(s) to be conducted .^I^^^Vr^f.DOr^ 



195.. 



If Class 1, give: (a) Maximum seating capacity ^!?r^...^' /S-<V .'-.^5-*^ /^^ 

(b) Maximum additional fJoor and field area (except seat space) /..*). ..'P<^...sq. ft. 

Period for which license is sought: 

Annual period ending December 31. 19 i 

Other than annual: ^a... months days. From J..... 19."^.^ To 

Description of property used or intended for use as a public place of amusement 



k./n. 19^7 



I.s applicant the owner of said property? \li).. Is applicant the Ie»»«e of said property? 

GUARANTY 

For and in consideration of the issuance of the license applied for the appHcant(s) jointly and 
severally, hereby guarantee(s) to the City of Oiicago the payment of the taxes imposed up<in any and alt 
amusements at the licensed premises, during the period for which license is sought in the manner and at 
the times provided in Chapter 104 (Amusements) of the Municipal Code of Chicago. 

(If a corpormtion, sign here! 




' (Corpont« Hum) 

Bv 



l_ . (V'l-^a^, 



Attest Vr..:....>.^irT!Tr.j 




(Individual or partnerahjp sign here) 

(Seal) 

- (Seat> 



(Residence address if applicant is an individual) 
RossEN Exhibit No. 5 



mVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 599 

Mr. RossEN. I consider this question an effort of the committee to 
invade another field which is protected to the public by the first amend- 
ment ; namely, the field of the showing of movies, and I don't think it 
is within the province of this committee to make any laws or recom- 
mendations concerning laws concerning- the censorship of films or the 
showing of films. I, therefore, decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that it violates the first and the fifth amendments to the Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you do not think that Congress has the 
right or a duty to investigate and report to the American people the 
extent to which identified Communists, like you, propose to use the 
films as a deliberate means of communication of the Communist 
ideology to the American people ; is that correct? 
(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. DoYivE. Congress has fomid and the courts have found the 
Communist Party to be a foreign ideological conspiracy, and yet you 
do not think we have the right to inform the American people, of the 
extent to which the Communist Party of this country, through you and 
othei*s identified as Communist leaders, are undertaking to control 
the press, the radio, the television, or anything else, in order to mis- 
lead and misinform the American people ? 

Mr. RossEN. My answer to that, sir 

Mr. DoTLE. Go ahead and answer it. 

Mr. RossEN. Is that who is to determine which of these movies is 
Communist or good or bad. Some people think things are Commvi- 
nist because they don't like them. And that seems to be the case with 
this committee. Practically anything they don't like is Communist, 
Communist influenced, or Communist inspired. The Constitution 
very clearly defends the right of the people to freedom of speech, and 
that includes freedom of movies, too. 

Mr. DoYLE. That is right. 

Mr. RossEN. And I think the Congressmen should keep that in 
mind. 

^fr. ScHERER. Mr. Doyle wasn't talking about the movie itself; he 
was talking about individuals like yourself who are engaged in the 
activities in which you are engaged. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. We are not investigating the press, as such, movies, 
as such, but we are investigating individuals who exert their inflvience 
in those various fields, and we feel that the American people and the 
Congress have a right to know. 

You have a right to show all those movies, you have a right to print 
anything you want, but we think the American people have a right 
to know when Communists are giving them that type of propaganda. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEX. Some people, sir — may I answer you, sir? Some peo- 
ple call others Communists because they are against segregation. 
There is a man in Chicago who was called a Communist because in 
Louisville, Ky., he rented his home or sold liis home to a Negro. Are 
you going to call him a Communist for that ? Apparently you do. 
Some people do. Who is to determine who is a Communist? 

Mr. Doyle. We can detei-mine you are one. The record shows it,, 
and you don't deny it. And you are a Communist functionary. 



600 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

I hesitate as an American citizen with children to think that you 
are going to get an avenue to further spill the Communist philosophy 
into the minds and eyes of young people every chance you get, just like 
you are now doing in this witness chair. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I would like to ask you, first of all, are you reg- 
istered, or is the Cinema Annex registered under the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEN. I decline to answer under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask you to direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you. Witness, to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEN. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment which gives me a right not to testify against myself. 

Mr. Arens. I have here several postcards from the Cinema Annex 
advertising, soliciting customers to come see some of the movies. The 
first one is a postcard advertising the movie on June 24, "3 brandnew 
documentaries, SEE: How Russians Live; How They Work, Play; 
\Vliat They Eat, Wear; In the Soviet Union." Then, an added 
feature, ''Anton Chekhov's Powerful Drama, The Upheaval." 

Mr. RossEN. May I correct the counsel ? "Chekhov" did you say ? 

Mr. Arens. Can you help me on that ? 

Mr. RossEN. I was wondering if I heard you correctly ? 

Mr. Arens. You help me then, would you, please, sir? 

Mr. RossEN. After the hearing perhaps I will be glad to. 

Mr. Arens. After you are released from under oath — 

Mr. Rossen. I will educate you. 

Mr. Arens. free from pains and — 

Mr. Rossen. Would you like to meet on an equal basis outside? 
We are not on an equal basis here. Let's recognize that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. While you are under oath, tell this committee if you 
procured and had displayed at your theater, the Cinema Annex, the 
magnificent production. In the Soviet Union, plus Anton Chekhov's 
powerful drama. The Upheaval and the popular Soviet novel, The 
Zhurbin Family, all in magicolor. 

Look at that card now and tell us, if you please, sir, first of all, if 
I pronounced this man's name correctly and, secondly, if those are 
films which you displayed and third, I am going to ask you if you 
registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act before you 
displayed them? 

(Document marked "Rossen Exhibit No. 6" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Scherer. May I make a little comment ? 

Mr. Doyle. Sure. 

Mr. ScHERER. This demonstrates what I was trying to say a few 
minutes ago. Neither this committee nor the Congress, nor anyone, 
can or wants to prevent him from showing these films. He has a 
right after this hearing today to go and show this film or any other 
similar film. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. "\'\^at we think we have a right to do is show 
to the American people, at least, the fact that this man who is show- 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 601 

mn: these films is himself a Communist Parly fiinctionai y. the man 
who invites the people to come see these movies. They should know 
an(l have the ri<rht to know what to expect from an individual like 
that. That is the purpose. We nmst keep our eye o-hied to that ])oint. 

Mr. Arf.xs. Also. Mr. Scherer, if I may be permitted to comment, 
it is the concern of the committee that those fihiLS and these propa- 
<randa ])ublications of the Communist Party are not labeled in accord- 
ance witli the i)rovisi<>ns of the Foreiszn A.£rents Ke^istration Act 
in order tliat tlie recipient and viewer would know lie is seeintr Com- 
munist poison. 

Mr. ScHEKKR. One of tlie pui'])oses of these hearings is to recom- 
mend loo;islation that would strengthen the act as regards these in- 
dividuals who have been violating the act so they may be compelled 
to comply with the Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

?»Ir. I);)YLK. Thank yon, Mr. Scherer. I join in your remarks, of 
course. 

Mr. Akexs. AVould you be good enough to accommodate the coni- 
ridttee by telling ns about that name if I pronounced it correctly, first 
of all, and, secondly, if that is a true and correct reproduction of a 
bulletin sent out from your theater? 

Mr. KossEX. I will be glad to accommodate the distinguished coim- 
sel. The name is '"Anton Chekhov." 

Mr. Arexs. ITow do you know that^ 

Mr. RossEX. It is from my accjuaintance with some of the liter- 
ary works. Of course, 1 don't expect counsel to be as acquainted with 
it as I am. I do happen to know about him. 

Mr. Scherer. You say the acquaintance witli that name is from 
your acquaintance Avith what literary works? 

Afr. RossEX. World literature. 

Mr. S("iiERER. World literature^ 

Mr. RossEX'. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that your only acquaintance with that name? Are 
you telling us the truth? Isn't your ac(|uaintance with tliat name the 
fact you showed that ])icture ? 

Mr. RossEx. That is right. This man happened to be dead a long 
time. I couldn't have much other acquaintance. I am not sure counsel 
is aware of that. He has been dead about 50 yeai's. 

Mr. Scherer. You say your acquaintance is through world litera- 
ture. Your acquaintance is that you showed it at your movie: isn't 
it ? You showed a movie with that name. You opened the door. 

]Mr. RossEx. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. ScHf:RER. ]\Ii'. Chairman, I ask he be directed to answer the 
question. He opened the door, and now he adds the fifth amendment 
to that question. He wanted to lead this committee and the press to 
believe that the only connection or the only knowledge he had of that 
name was through his knowledge of world literature. Now, I submit 
he may have had that knowledge, but that certainly isn't the only 
knowledge he has of that name. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question, W^itness. 

Mr. RossEX'. May I respectfully call to your attention, sir, that 
there is a question pending which hasn't been answered? 

90S44— 57— pt. 7 9 



602 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer this ques- 
tion of mine and any question that may be pending be withdrawn, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes ; we withdraw the other question temporarily. You 
answer this question. You opened the door. I think it is merely ele- 
mentary law when you do that the other people can walk through that. 

Mr. Rossen. I ask that both the questions be read. 

Mr. ScHERER. I will repeat the question that I want answered. I 
am prefacing it with this statement, that you said voluntarily that 
your acquaintance with that name — I can't pronounce it — with that 
name came through your knowledge of world literature. Now my 
question to you : Isn't it a fact that you had additional knowledge of 
that name from the fact that you have shown a movie bearing that 
name in your movie house ? Isn't that a fact ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEN. May I ask that both the questions be read? 

Mr. ScHERER. No. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. Scherer repeated his question. You heard it. You 
consulted with your counsel when you heard it. 

Mr. RossEN. Could I ask that the last question be read ? 

Mr. Scherer. No. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEN. I am sorry I can't answer it, because I don't know 
what it is. 

Mr. Scherer. I will repeat it once more. I think you are just 
fencing. You volunteered the statement to this committee that your 
knowledge of that name Chekhov, or whatever it is, resulted from your 
knowledge of world literature. My question to j^ou is: Isn't it a fact 
that you had knowledge of that name from some other source, namely, 
by reason of the fact that you showed a movie in your theater involving 
that name? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEN. I decline to answer that question on the basis that the 
question is not within the province of the authority of this committee 
to inquire into; that is, it is a violation of the first and fifth amend- 
ments. If I answer the question it may be the basis for a link of evi- 
dence tliat will tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I submit that since by opening the 
door by his voluntary statement he waived any right that he might 
have had to invoke the fifth amendment. Therefore, I ask you to 
direct the witness to answer my question. 

Mr. Doyle. I will not only "direct him, but agi*ee with you whole- 
heartedly. 

I direct you to answer that question, Witness. It is elementary law. 
Mr. Scherer and I are both lawyers, as well as your own counsel. You 
opened the door. Even if it is a little crack, it is big enough for the 
adverse party to get into, and we are walking into it and directing you 
to answer the question. 

Mr. RossEN. I decline to answer the question on the basis of the fifth 
amendment, which protects me against testifying against myself. 

Mr. Scherer. All right. Counsel, you may proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Rossen, we displayed to you just a moment ago 
a postcard exhibit emanating from your theater, and I have several 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 603 

more. I will group thein together here and then I will ask you if 
you would be good enough to acconmiodate the committee by verifying 
their authenticity. 

First is March 31, 1955, A Festival of Polish Motion Pictures, at the 
Cinema Annex Theater, 3210 West Madison, Chicago. 

The next is They Sing, They Dance; The Earth Our Planet; and 
The Last Stop, the'celebrated Polish tilm classic. 

The next is a film advertised by the Cinema Annex, "Scoop, 1 week 
only, beginning Friday, February 4 (1955), actual camera report of 
the recent visit of a Britisli cultural delegation to Moscow, We Visit 
Moscow." On the same program — you will have to help me on these 
names, too — Chabukiani * * * Lepeshinskaya ; Ulanova, dance "Cin- 
derella.'" Then there is the Latest Newsreel, U. S. S. R., and Children 
in the U. S. S. R. ; also features the "First all-color feature from 
Prague, Czechoslovakia. It was 2 years in the making." 

The next document, "It is the sensational color documentary, A Visit 
to India, a full length feature on the visit of B. & K. to India last 
November." I assume "B. & K." means Bulganin and Khrushchev 
to India, last November. 

Please look at these advertisements, leaflets from your theater, the 
Cinema Annex, and see if you will be good enough to verify their 
authenticity for this committee. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

(Documents marked "Rossen Exhibits No. 7," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. RossEN. I consider this question to be an effort to impose a 
censorship on movies, which is similar to efforts in other 

Mr. ScHERER. I told you you can go and show those tomorrow and 
the Constitution of the United States 

Mr. Rossen. And the movie industry has enough trouble with cen- 
sorship right today, it so happens right here in the city of Chicago. 
Therefore, I feel I am protecting not only my own interest but the 
interest of the movie industry as a whole, and I refuse to answer the 
question on the basis of the first and fifth amendments to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am sure the great movie industry in this country 
does not solicit the help of a Communist functionary to protect its 
interests. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you a photostatic copy of 
an article from the Communist Daily Worker of New York of Fri- 
day, July 26, 1940, captioned "Jobless Picket State Capitol in Mis- 
souri," demanding more relief. According to this article: 

John Rossen. chairman of the Workers Alliance of St. Louis shouted : ''The 
crisis of hungry babies will be on your conscience when you're campaigning 
unless you stay in session and vote adequate relief." 

The speaker — 

of the Missouri Legislature — 

first threatened to personally eject Rossen, but then assigned a sergeant-at-arms 
to do it. 

Look at that article in the Communist Daily Worker of Friday, 
July 26, 1940, and tell us whether or not that is a true and accurate 
account of the facts. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 



604 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. Arens. Does that article refresh your recollection? 

Mr. RossEN. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

(Document marked "Rossen Exhibit No. 8," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Rossen, I want to ask you a question now about a 
matter that doesn't pertain even remotely to the press or journalism 
or motion pictures or theater or anything of that kind. It is about 
your aspirations for public service. It is an article appearing here 
in the Communist Sunday Worker, New York, March 2, 1941, with 
your photogi-aph, "Jack Rossen, Lincoln Brigade veteran and candi- 
date for mayor."' 

Do you recall your political aspirations as accounted there in the 
Communist Sunday Worker? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rossen. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

(Document marked "Rossen Exhibit No. 9," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Rossen, we have already displayed to you exhibits 
here identifying you as the executive director of the Chicago Council, 
of American-Soviet Friendship. Now, I want to display to you an 
advertisement appearing in a student publication of the University of 
Chicago, January 6, 1956. It is a ])ublication called The Chicago 
Maroon. In this publication of the University of Chicago we see this 
advertisement from the organization in which you have been identified 
as executive director. This advertisement is entitled "Indian 
Students" and reads as follows : 

Indian students: Just received from U. S. S. R. : Plioto album of Jawaliarlal 
Nehru in the Soviet Union — text in Englisli and Russian. $2.00. 

Album of paintings of India by Russian artists. .$3.o(>. 

Full texts of speeches by Indian and Soviet Leaders during liulganin's tour 
of India. 

All students doing researcli on or interested in the Soviet Union ai-e invited 
to use our expanded oflices and library. Open Monday thru Saturday, 9 
a. m. to 5 p. m. Suite 403, 189 W. Madison. 

And two phone numbers are given : "Chicago Council of American- 
Soviet Friendship." 

We would like to have you tell us while you are under oath about 
these students, if any, from the Chicago T^nhersity, who were wooed 
into this net of the Chicago Council of American-Soviet Friendship to 
use the offices and the librai-y, and also whether or not, when you placed 
that ad in the CMiicago Maroon, the I^niversity of Chicago student 
paper, you made known to them you were a Communist agent. 

Mr. Rossen. I would like to have the question read back to me, 
please. 

Mr. Arens. Read the question. 

(Record read by the reporter.) 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rossen. I consider the question too long and too complex, and 
I would like to have it broken up. 

Mr. Arens. We will break it up and be glad to acconnnodate you. 

First of all, did you place the ad in the University of Chicago 
student paper? 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 605 

Mr. KosKN. 1 decline to answer on the basis that this is an attempt 
to interfere with freedom of the press, and 1 decline to answer on the 
basis of the first amendment and the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Can you help this conunittee and the Government wdio 
are tryinjj to develop facts to protect this gi-eat Nation, by telling us 
whether any of the students of the ('hica<»:o University did respond to 
to tlie ad and did come to the libiary of the Chicago Council of Ameri- 
can-Soviet Friendship ^ 

Mr. llossEN. I consider this an outra^ieous invasion of the rijrhts of 
academic freedom, and 1 therefore decline to answer the (] nest ion, as 
it is the rig:ht of the students to inquire into whatever nuitters they 
want. Therefore, I decline to answer the question on the basis of 
the first and hfth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Can you answer the third part of the question? Now 
that we have broken it up, 1 thougiit you mioht respond. AVhen you 
placed that ad in the University of Chicago paper did you make 
known to the students tliere that you were a member of the cons])ira- 
torial ai)i)aratus designed to destroy the Constitution of the Ignited 
States — undermine this gieat Kepublic under whose flag you have 
protection t 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEX. 1 decline to answer on the basis of the hrst and lifth 
amendments. 

(Document marked ''Kossen Exhibit Xo. 10'' and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Yix. Chaiinian, 1 res])ectfully suggest that will conchide 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. ]Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Eossen, where were you born '. 

(Witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. RossEx. I decline to answer on the basis of the lirst and Hfth 
amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the v.itness to answer il\e ques- 
tion as to where he was born. 

Mr. DoYEE. I instruct you to answer. It is basic, and you and yonr 
counsel know it is. Xow, ])lease, answer. 

Mr. Scherer. How can it possibly incriminate anyone to say where 
he was born 't 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEN. I decline to answer on the ground tiiat it is not relevant 
or material. 

Mr. Scherer. Are you a citizen of the United States? That is rele- 
vant to the hearing. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. RossEx. Yes. I was born in St. Louis, ^fo. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you traveled abroad '. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEN. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and Hfth 
amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you ever been to Russia I 

(Witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Rossex. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and Hfth 
amendments. 



606 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you ever made application for a passport? 

Mr. KossEN. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you ever received any compensation directly or 
indirectly from the Communist Party or the Russian Government? 

Mr. RossEN. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you ever had any contacts of any kind with 
the Russian secret police operating in this country ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossEN. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think you are properly invoking the fifth amend- 
ment w^hen you answer thusly to that question. 

I have no f urtlier questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you, Mr. Jones, pass this to the witness ? 

Witness, this pamphlet circulated within tlie last several days here, 
entitled "Your Right," circulated by the Chicago Committee To 
Preserve American Freedoms, I believe — is that the name of it, Coun- 
sel ? You have it in your hand. 

Mr. Steinberc;. Committee To Preserve .Vmerican Freedoms, if tlie 
committee please. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you seen that before, Mr. Rossen ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rossex. I decline to answer on the basis of the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Mr. Doyle. I notice- — and I call your attention to the last page 
thereof — as long as you are familiar with it you won't have to work 
hard to find what I refer to — the last page, item 3 : 

Write our Congressman and urge abolition of the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities. Ctiicago area Congressmen are : 

I call vour attention to that because that lists there by name and dis- 
trict tlie name of every Congressman or Congresswoman from the 
Chicago area of both parties. Democrats and Republicans. Mr. 
Scherer is a member of one of the major parties, and I am a member 
of the other major political party. We are not members of the same 
political party. 

But yesterday another identified Communist, Mrs. DeSchaaf, here 
on the witness stand, identified an article by lier which she had printed 
in the foreign language newspaper — I think it was June of 1951, as 
I recall — in which she writes of "so-called representatives of democ- 
racy." 

I consider her testimony through that news article to be a slur on 
every Chicago Congressman of both parties that they are merely 
"so-called representatives of democracy." That is the intent that I 
get out of this sheet. 

Mr. Scherer. That is fine, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I want you as a Communist Party leader to know that 
I, as a California Congressman, regard this sheet here in connection 
with your testimony, and that of others, as a deliberate slur on every 
Congressman from the State of Illinois, to say nothing of the slur on 
democracy. I think you folks ought to be ashamed of yourselves. 

Naturally, when I get back to Washington tonight or tomorrow, 
your Illinois Congressmen in both parties will be made aware of this 
kind of a malicious slur ao-ainst them. 



INYESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 607 

Is this witness excused, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I want to read a short statement, please. 

This 2-day hearing of this subcommittee of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities of the House of Representatives is concluded 
with a few remarks at the close of hearings, as is customary. 

As one result of these Chicago hearings, we now have certain infor- 
mation which we will find especially valuable, even though accumu- 
lative, when it is added to similar facts which we have ascertained 
in several other of our largest metropolitan areas, as to the extent, 
character, and methods used by identified Communists, who are either 
in control, management, or employ of foreign-language newspapers 
in these heavily populated regions, to influence and prejudice Amer- 
ican citizens of foreign birth or ancestry and to encourage them to 
join up with the Comnnmist Party in its subversive propaganda 
activities to destroy our constitutional form of government. 

In this connection, I wish to make it perfectly clear, not only this 
committee but I am sure all of Congress regards the great, great, 
great majority of foreign-born citizens, and children of foreign-born 
parents, as intensely loyal and patriotic. It is a very, very small 
minority who have been or can be persuaded to get into the Com- 
munist conspiracy. 

But the shocking extent to which this subversive attack dares go, 
even in time of our national emergency when we were at war to pro- 
tect these American freedoms, is clearly illustrated by the unpatriotic 
and reprehensible means used by editor Nellie DeSchaaf of the Eng- 
lish section of the foreign-language paper Vilnis, when she described 
in her published and widely distributed column to her readers, FBI 
agents as "bloodhounds." Again, when she and the owners and man- 
agement of that same foreign-language paper, identified as Com- 
munists, reprinted without making any effort to ascertain the truth 
or falsity thereof, during the Korean war a column printed in an- 
other Communist-controlled paper supporting the Xorth Korean 
Communist Army, amongst other dastardly falsehoods, charged the 
American military with "putting American war prisoners to death 
with live steam'' and with manipulating 18 torture rooms. 

As my distinguished committee colleague, Mr. Scherer, said at the 
time this evidence of treacherous Communist Party propaganda 
through this foreign-language paper was put into the record of this 
hearing on yesterday, it amounted to giving aid and comfort to the 
enem}^ by that paper, by their writers, by their management, and by 
their control. 

But we of the committee are frequently exposing such rotten, un- 
patriotic, subversive propaganda by Communists through Communist- 
controlled channels, including Communist fronts and the radio, and 
through pictures, too, exhibited by this last witness. 

These and similar hearings by this committee, and by a correspond- 
ing committee in the United States Senate, clearly add to the infor- 
mation and factual data necessary to the United States Congress 
to legislate adequately and fairly, always having in mind the con- 
stitutional guarantees and rights of every American citizen. 

The Internal Security xict, the Communist Control Act, the Im- 
munity Act, together with many portions of other basic security 
legislation, all designed to protect our national security against sub- 



608 INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 

versive propaganda and activities, and protect our democratic way of 
life and our constitutional representative government, have been 
added to our legislative strength and resources, to a large degree, by 
these public hearings throughout our Nation. The resulting tie-in 
between hearings in Los Angeles, Xew York, Chicago, New Orleans, 
Detroit, Boston, Washington, Seattle, have all materially aided the 
legislative purpose of this and other similar congressional committees 
toward legislative enactment of laws on an intelligent and informed 
basis. 

Anothei' signilicaiit point of evidence went into the record yester- 
day when the article of June 1951, printed in Vilnis, and again ad- 
mittedly written by ""Housemother" Nellie DeSchaaf, charged Mem- 
bers of Congress from Chicago and elsewhere with being ""so-called 
representatives of democracy." Tliis is the Communist Party line, 
emanating from the control of the Communist Party in the Ignited 
States by the Communist Party in the Soviet Union, designed to 
deliberately mislead the foreign born in the United States against our 
form of I'epresentative government. 

In view of the oft-repeated charge made yesterday, especially 
by the witnesses wdio claimed the first, as well as the fifth amerid- 
ment privilege, that this connnittee hearing was interfering with the 
freedom of the press — although it sliould appear to all as crystal 
(dear that we have not done so — I restate tlie substance of what I 
announced yesterday in my opening remarks; to wit, that the pri- 
mary jnirpose of this iufpiiry was to the extent to whicli the for- 
eign-language i)ress in the Chicago area is either dominated or inhl- 
trated by Connnmiists. This primary purpose, not being the exclu- 
sive purpose, of course, we have followed. 

Needless to say, all of the benehcial results of such hearings do not 
appear through the facts gained or lack of facts gained from an 
adverse witness on the witness stand. It should be stated that our 
expert committee investigators, were ably assisted by the Chicago 
Police Department for a considerable })eriod of time before this hear- 
ing began. They manifestly learned much that we have not yet 
produced in public. They learned much that could not be best pro- 
duced in oral testimony at this time. 

The freedom of the press which our avowed Connnunist citizens 
seek to obtain is the freedom to control the press for the Com- 
munist subversive propaganda machine. The Communist-controlled 
press in our Nation owes it allegiance to the same fettered control 
of the press which Soviet connnunism exercises over the Soviet 
press. These same Communist-controlled foreign-language papers 
are allowed, under our American freedom, to go right along and 
print their papers and propagandize falsely and maliciously against 
our form of government; but, at least, their foreign ideology- 
controlled press jiolicy is being exposed nK)re and more to daylight 
and information. 

No American-controlled news{)aper published in Soviet Eussia, 
falsely attacking the Soviet system of government, as does the Com- 
munist-controlled press in the United States, would be continued even 
to the next edition. 

Now, one word about the turn aboutface, represented by the recent 
convention of the Communist Party, U. S. A., in New York, to have 
been made in which they claimed freedom of control and dictation 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA IN U. S. 609 

from any foreign or iiiteniationul Coiiuiiunist control. If tJiey were 
in good faith to be released from international control, why was tlie 
principal i)aper read before that ConHiiunist convention in our own 
country in February and why did that come from the French Com- 
munist Duclos, the same man who wrote the Duclos letter of 1045 to 
the American Communist Party at the time Earl Browder was 
deposed ? 

The C^onnnunist Party in the L'nited States is constantly developing 
new techniques, ever-changing masquerades and facades, behind 
which to i^erform its corispiratorial work. It is because of this 
fact that our work on the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties must be relentless and continuous, in order that we may detect 
the new techniques and devices of the conspiracy, and, through this 
to devise legishitive weapons with wliich to protect American freedom. 

Oui' task is becoming increasingly more difticult because every 
year the Communist conspiracy, overseas and here, goes deeper and 
deeper underground. Long ago the Communist Party divested it- 
self of the ideological dupes and the opportunists. Today the Com- 
munist Party, although numerically smaller than in previous years, 
constitutes a greater menace than ever before. The membership in 
this conspiracy in our country consists almost exclusively of trained 
hard-core Communist agents of the Kremlin who are the equivalent 
of the foreign agents on American soil. 

In the face of this situation the American people must be more 
vigilant than ever and must be more informed than ever. They must 
realize that the Communist operation in this country is onl}' part 
of a worldwide conspiracy in a global war — in which our American 
way of life is ])itted against the Comnumist way of life — in which 
the forces of freedom are in constant battle with international com- 
munism. In that battle, the price is, first, the minds of men; second, 
continents: and third, the world itself. It is a battle which the 
free world cannot afford to lose, and we in Congress are proud and 
pleased to be in the front rank of that battle to protect our American 
freedoms. 

In closing. I want to express the appreciation of this committee 
and of the United States Congress to the many people Avho have 
cooperated with the subcommittee during our stay here in Chicago. 
Our thanks go to the United States marshal and his deputies, to 
the Chicago Police Department, both before and during these hear- 
ings; to the distinguished United States district judge who assigned 
us the privilege of using this courtroom in this building, to the cus- 
todian of this building and all his associates, to the representatives 
of the press, the free press, the radio, the television, as well as to many 
others who cooperated with this subcommittee and its staff' in the 
preparation and conduct of these hearings. 

My last word is that we also much appreciate the very evident 
cooperation of all the people in this room yesterday and today in 
making it easy for this committee to perform our work because there 
was no disturbance of any kind. On behalf of the United States 
Congress, I am honored to say, thank you. 

The committee stands adjourned. 

(AMiereupon, at 11:50 a. m., "Wednesday, March 27, 1957. the 
.-ubconnnittee recessed subject to the call of the Chair. ) 



INDEX 



Individuaxs 

Page 

Audrulis, Vincent 508, 573 

Baldwin, Bereniece 553 

Herman, Leo 536 

Borich, Frank 491 

Braden, Carl 503, 511 

Brandt, Joe 495 

I '.rook. Calvin 538 

r-nwder. Earl 496, 580,588,589 

i:uta, Irene 573 

Cnrr, Sam 492 

(Vnkof 491 

Chekhov, Anton 600-602 

Czarnowski, Anzelm 571-573 (testimony) 

DeSchaaf, Nellie 499-515 (testimony), 520, 606-608 

Dimitroff. Stancho 561 

Duclos, Jacques 496, 497 

Finney, John W 591 

Fisher, Leo 491, 535 

Ford. James 491 

Gebert, Boleslaw 553 

Gelfand, Louis 572 

(rlickman, Irving 572 

Hart, Pearl M 499, 552, 556, 565 

Heikkinen, Knut 544 

Hillman, Sidney 527 

Hirsch. Carl 576 

Hyun, Peter 507 

Jones. W. Jackson 587-588 (testimony) 

Klanyac. Albert 572 

Kling. Jack 495 

Knicrbt. John S 501 

Kncpl. Alice M 555 

Knelmrski. Wladislaw 552-555 (testimony) 

Landv, Avro 491 

Lautner, John 485-499 (testimony). 525. 530. 54L 557. 558 

Markoff. Nicholas 561.565-571 (testimony) 

Minerich, Anthony 491,528-536 (testimony) 

Mircheff. Bocho 491,492,555,556-564 (testimony) 

Muste. A. J 487 

O'Connor. Harvey 503, 511 

Pauliukas. Jacob (also known as Mike Zaldakas)__ 500,508,515-522 (testimony) 
Pauliukas. Mike. (See Pauliukas, Jacob.) 

Pirinskv, George 566 

Pruseika. Leon 508,520,522-527 (testimony) 

Ra.ikovich, Nicholas 536 

Ravmond. Charles 537 

Rossen, John A 586,591-607 (testimony) 

Rossen. L 598 

Sas. Louis 491 

Schnffer. Robert H 591 

Selden, .Jeremy 593 

Sergo. .John 572 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

.Sergo, Raymond 571, 572 

Hergo, Raymond Mathew 572,573 

Steinberg, Irving G 515, 522, 528, 539, 576, 591 

Strazdas, Steven 520 

Thomas, Norman 487 

Trace, Cecile 511 

Vidmar. John, Jr 536 

VoydanoCf, Smeale 561 

Walsh. Milce. (See Wastila, George M.) 

Wangerin, Otto H 492, 576-589 ( testimony ), 592 

Wastila, George M. (also known as Mike Walsh) 491,539-551 (testimony) 

Webb, Herman 581 

Wellman, vSol 495 

Winston. Henry 487 

Yonik. Alice 508, 520, 573 

Yonnglove, Thomas A 581,592, 593 

Zaldakas. Mike. (See Pauliukas, Jacob.) 

Znskar, John 536-538 (testimony) 

Organizations 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade 593 

American Finnish Publishers, Inc 540 

Bulgarian-American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 557 

Bulgarian-American Peoples League 561 

Chicago Committee To Preserve Freedom of Speech and the Press 509, 535 

Chicago Council of American-Soviet Friendship 594, 596, 604 

Cinema Annex (Theater) 595, 598, 600, 603 

Civil Rights Congress, Illinois 584 

Committee To Preserve American Freedoms 511, 514, 535, 576 

Commimist Information Bureau 497 

Communist Part,y, USA 487, 489 

National structure : 

16th National Convention, February 9-12, 1957, New York City__ 488 

Hungarian National Bureau 485, 486 

National Coumiittee 488, 489. 492, 580 

National Training School 485, 486 

Nationality Groups Commission 486, 489 

Review Commission 48r» 

Illinois 593 

Michigan : 

Control Commission 485 

Detroit 490 

New York 486 

New York City 543 

Harlem Section 491 

Review Commission 486 

Penns.vlvania, Pittsburgh 531 

West Virginia 486 

Croatian Fraternal Order 491 

Crusade for Freedom 590, 591 

Finnish-American Mutual Aid Societ.v. IWO 545 

General Motors Corp.. Electromotive Division 572 

GIos Ludow.v Association 553 

International Workers Order 489, 490 

Hungarian Section 486 

L. M. S. Amusement Co., Inc 595,598 

Modern Book Store 576, 577, 579, 587 

Narodni Glasnik Publishing Co. Inc 531 

rniversit.v of Chicago 604 

Workers Alliance (St. Louis) 603 

Workers Publishing Association, Inc 519 

Workers School (Chicago) 586 



INDEX iii 

PlBLICATIONS 

Pagl' 

Chicago ^Maroou, The H04 

Children in the U. S. S. II. (film) (50?. 

China Pictoriiil 580 

China lieeonstrncts ."iSO 

( "hinese Literature .ISO 

Daily Worker, Illinois Section .">7(» 

p:arrli Our Planet, The (film) (50H 

Fi-iend.shii) r>77 

Glos Ludowy .">2, r).~);^> 

In the Soviet Union (film) (500 

International Affaii's 41)7 

Korean Independent ."»0r). r>07 

Last Stop, The (>(« 

Latest Xewsreel, U. S. S. R. (film) (W.', 

Ludova Noviny .">;'>s 

Mainstream .~>,S0 

Mao Tse-tung Selected Works 579 

^Materialism and the Dialectical Method 570 

Xaisten Viiri .540 

Narodna Volya 401'. .557, 561, 5(5?., 505. .5(50 

Xarodni Glasnik 401, .531, .535 

New Times 570, 5S7 

New York Times 501 

Newsletter of the Air (radio program) ,50.S 

Peoi)le's Army News 507 

I'eoi)le's China .5S(I 

Political Affairs .5X0 

Selected Works of Marx and Engels 570 

Soviet Literature 580 

Soviet T'nion 570, 587 

Ten Classics of Marxism 570 

They Sing. Tliey Dance (film) 603 

Tyomies Eteenpain 540, .544 

Upheaval, The (film) 6(K» 

Vilnis 404, 490, 500, 502, .504, 508, 519, 520, .523 

Visit to India, A (film) 603 

We Visit ^loscow (film) 603 

Your Right (leaflet) 511. 514 

Zhurhin Family, The (book) HOO 



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