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Full text of "Investigation of Communist propaganda in the United States. Hearing"

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GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

—PART 9— 

Student Groups, Distributors, and Propagandists 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICIN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JUNE 11 AND 12, 1958 



Printed foi* the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMEI^ 

AUG 8 1958 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1958 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Director 
II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 2423 

June 11, 1958: Testimony of — 

Irving Fishman 2426 

Sam Pevzner 2442 

Annette T. Rubinstein 2450 

June 12, 1958: Testimony of— 

Boris S. Cohen 2459 

Thomas J. Brandon 2468 

Nathan B. Lenvin 2472 

Index i 

ni 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the L'nited States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

•Js sf: ^ 5p 5p; >(" •!• 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

:le :{c :(: :f: :{: :Jc :{e 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

:l^ :^ :i: dfi !^ ^ illi 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 



The Kremlin-controlled international Communist-propaganda ma- 
chine is bombarding student and youth groups in the United States 
and throughout the free world with a flood of multilmgual propaganda, 
according to Irving Fishman, Deputy Collector of Customs ui New 
York City, who testified m the course of public hearings held by the 
Committee on Un-American Activities in Washmgton, D. C, on 
June 11 and 12, 1958. 

Although over one-half million pieces of Communist propaganda 
destined for student and youth groups enter the United States 
monthly, none of this material is labeled as Communist, or registered 
as requhed under the Foreign Agents Registration Act, because the 
Soviet apparatus has adopted the devious tactics of channelmg it 
into the United States thi'ough non-Communist countries, Mr. 
Fishman pomted out. 

Mr. Fishman asserted that there are two principal Commmiist- 
inspu'ed mternational youth groups. The fu'st is the International 
Union of Students, founded in 1946, with headquarters in Prague, 
Czechoslovakia, which has branches in most countries; and the 
second group is the World Federation of Democratic Youth, which 
claims over 85 million members in 97 countries of the world. Mr. 
Fishman's testimony was a result of a study on the subject matter 
which he made in Europe at the request of Chau'man Francis E. 
Walter. 

In the course of the hearings, the committee interrogated Sam 
Pevzner of New York City, who identified himself as a free-lance 
writer, but who refused to answer any questions respecting Com- 
munist Party membership and activities, and refused to comment 
respecting a number of articles bearing his name as author which have 
appeared in Commmiist publications. 

The committee likewise interrogated Annette T. Rubinstein, of New 
York City, who identified herself as a free-lance writer, a lecturer, and 
a former teacher. Miss Rubinstein likewise refused to answer any 
questions respecting Communist Party membership and activities, or 
to comment respecting a number of exhibits which were displayed to 
her bearing her name as a participant in several Communist enterprises. 
Boris Cohen, of New York City, testified that he was an owner of the 
Prompt Printing Press, Inc., which has over the course of many years 
printed several Communist publications. Mr. Cohen testified that 
he was not a member of the Communist Party as of the time of the 
hearings and that he had not been a member of the Communist Party 
since 1949. 

Thomas J. Brandon, of New York City, president of the Brandon 
Films, Inc., testified with respect to certain films from behind the 
Iron Cm'tain which his company distributes in the United States and 
which are imported by Ai'tkino Films, Inc., which is registered as a 

2423 



2424 COIMIVIUNIST PROPAGANDA 

foreign agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. Mr. Bran- 
don testified that, although his companj^ distributes Iron Curtain 
motion pictures which are imported by a registered agent, his company, 
the Brandon Films, Inc., is not itself within the piu-view of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act. 

Nathan B. Lenvin, Chief of the Registration Section of the Internal 
Security Division of the Department of Justice, testified that under 
the present interpretations of the Foreign Agents Registration Act, 
the agent of an agent of a foreign principal who disseminates Com- 
munist propaganda is not requii*ed to register under that act unless 
the organization with which such agent of an agent is dealing is in 
fact a foreign principal. Mr. Lenvin made certain suggestions to the 
committee respecting amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

—Part 9— 
Student Groups, Distributors, and Propogandists 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 11, 1958 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 
PUBLIC hearing 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to call, 
at 1 :35 p. m., in the Caucus Room, Old House Office Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman of the committee) 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter 
of Pennsylvania, Morgan M. Moulder of Missouri (appearance as 
noted), Edwin E. Willis of Louisiana, William M. Tuck of Virginia, 
and Gordon H. Scherer of Ohio (appearance as noted). 

Staff membei-s present: Richard Arens, staff director; Frank 
Bonora, investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

The purpose of these hearings here in Washington toda}^ and 
tomorrow is to inquire furth(T into the highly efficient and dangerous 
propaganda machinery of the Communist conspiracy. This com- 
mittee, which has been carefully examining this subject through 
investigations and hearings in major cities of our Nation, lias received 
extensive evidence regarding huge amounts of Communist propaganda 
imported into the United States from Iron Curtain countries and the 
distribution of this subversive material to large segments of our 
society, to the Commuiust-dominated foreign-language press, to cer- 
tain United States printing houses and Communist Party bookshops. 
These investigations and hearings have revealed the need for strength- 
ening existing legislation designed to identify and label Communist 
propaganda which is being disseminated in this country. 

The instant hearings will deal not only with imported Communist 
propaganda but also with American distributors of Iron Curtain 
propaganda, American propagandists for the Communist conspiracy 
and American printers of Communist propaganda. Under present 
interpretations of the Foreign Agents Registration Act domestic dis- 
tributors holding contracts with agents of a foreign principal are not 
always required to register. By the device of removing themselves 
one step from the source of the propaganda, certain Communist dis- 

2425 

27430— 58— pt. 9 2 



2426 CO^klMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

tributors escape the requirement to disclose pertinent information to 
the Department of Justice. American printers of Communist propa- 
ganda are similarly situated insofar as Federal scrutiny is concerned. 
These and related matters of equal significance are expected to be 
covered in these hearings. 

At this point, I ^vish to incorporate in the record the authorization 
of the House Committee on Un-American Activities for this series of 
hearings. 

(Excerpts from the minutes of the committee meeting held 
May 21, 1958:) 

Resolution for Washington Hearings, June 11-12, 1958 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted: 

"Be it Resolved, That a hearing by the committee or a subcommittee thereof, 
be held in Washington, D. C, beginning on the 11th day of June 1958, or on any 
other date fixed by the chairman of the committee, and that the staff be authorized 
to conduct investigations deemed reasonably necessary in preparation thereof, 
relating to the following subjects, and having the legislative purposes indicated: 

"1. Entry and dissemination within the United States of foreign Communist 
Party propaganda, the legislative purpose being to determine the necessity for, 
and advisability of, amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration Act, designed 
more effectively to counteract the Communist schemes and devices now used in 
avoiding the prohibitions of the act; 

"2. Execution by administrative agencies concerned of laws requiring the 
listing of printing presses and machines capable of being used to produce or 
publish printed matter, in the possession, custody, ownership or control of the 
Communist Party or Communist fronts, the legislative purpose being to assist 
Congress in appraising the administration of title 50, United States Code, section 
786 (6), and in developing such amendments to the Internal Security Act of 1950 
as it may deem necessary; 

"3. The diffusion within the United States of subversive Communist propa- 
ganda for the purpose of obtaining additional information for use by the com- 
mittee in its consideration of section 16 of H. R. 9352 relating to tlie proposed 
amendment of section 4 of the Communist Control Act of 1954, prescribing a 
penalty for knowingly and wilfully becoming or remaining a member of the 
Communist Party with knowledge of the purposes or objectives thereof. 

"4. Any other matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any 
subcommittee thereof appointed to conduct this hearing, may designate." 

The Chairman. Mr. Arens, will you call your first witness? 

]\Ir. Arens. Mr. Fishman, kindly stand while the chairman ad- 
ministers the oath. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand. 

Do 3'ou swear the testimom^ you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Fishman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING FISHMAN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

]Mr. Fishman. My name is Irving Fishman. I live in New York. 
And my official assignment is with the Treasury Department, Bureau 
of Customs. 

Currently, however, I have been on special assignment to the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, in order to abbreviate some of the pre- 
liminary testimon}^, may I ask you if it is not a fact that in the recent 
past the chairman of this committee, Mr. Walter, designated you as 
a special consultant to the committee and arranged for you to go to 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2427 

principal capitals in Europe for the pui'pose of ascertaining certain 
information? Is that correct? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go? 

Mr. FisHMAN. London, England; Paris, France; Berlin, Germany; 
Rome, Italy. 

(Representative Moulder entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. Is it a fact, Mr. Fishman, and I am again trying to 
abbreviate some of the testimony, that you contacted in the central 
capitals of non-Communist countries in Europe, your counterparts in 
security work, who were instrumental in giving you certain information 
concerning which you are to testify? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, j^ou have previously testified at length 
before this committee on several occasions, respecting Communist 
propaganda which comes into the United States from Iron Curtain 
countries; have you not? 

Mr. Fishman. I have. 

Mr. Arens. And Communist propaganda which comes into the 
United States from Iron Cm'tain countries, in general, is subject to 
scrutiny by the Customs Service, and is subject, in many instances, to 
certain provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act, is that 
correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. But the chairman of this committee and you in con- 
sultation were concerned about Communist propaganda which orig- 
inates in Iron Curtain countries, but which is transshipped into the 
United States from the non-Communist countries, that is correct- 
is it not? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Under the existing law and regulations is Communist 
propaganda which comes into the United States from friendly coun- 
tries subject to any scrutiny by the Customs Service or subject to 
any of the provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 

Mr. Fishman. I would lil^e to explore that very briefly. 

Actually the Foreign Agents Registration Act concerns itself to some 
degree with the agency relationship between the sender of this material 
to the United States and the foreign government itself. Following 
this principle the Department of Justice in an opinion sent to the 
Treasury Department and to the Post Office Department said that 
it may be presumed that political propaganda sent from the Soviet 
bloc countries to the United States has its source in the Soviet Gov- 
ernment and the Soviet bloc countries' governments. But on the 
other hand, the Justice Department has advised the Post Office 
Department and the Treasury Department that with regard to such 
propaganda emanating from friendlj^ nations, it is necessary to 
establish an agency relationship. 

Now, since that would be almost impossible without making an 
investigation in each instance, we limit our examination on all of this 
material coming from friendly countries. 

!Mr. Arens. As a practical matter, then it is true, is it not, Mr. 
Fishman, that all of the propaganda which comes from Iron Curtain 
countries, but which is transshipped via friendly countries, comes in 



2428 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

without scrutiny or without processing pursuant to the provisions of 
the Foreign Agents "Registration Act? 

Air. FisHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. So the record may be clear in an introductory manner, 
may I also ask you if the chairman did not in like manner solicit you 
in this study which you have made abroad with the security agencies 
of the friendly governments to develop and procure information re- 
specting the workhvide Communist 3^outh activities? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is correct. 

Air. Arexs. Would you kindly at the outset give us a word as to 
the volume of Communist propaganda which is coming into the United 
States now from non-Communist countries, but which originates, in 
the first instance, in Commimist countries? 

Air. FisHMAN. It would be extremely difficult to estimate this vol- 
ume, for the reason just explained. Under ordhiary circumstances, 
printed material and all other books, magazines and literature emanat- 
ing in friendly countries receives ordinary customs treatment for the 
purposes of determining dutiability and so on. We do not subject 
this material to the same type of scrutiny that we do printed ma- 
terial emanating from the Soviet bloc countries. 

Accordingly, since most of tliis material is passed at the the forty- 
five-and-some-odd ports of entry where we have no propaganda con- 
trol units, we would merely be estimating. I would assume from 
observations made that it reaches astronomical figures. 

Air. Arens. Did you converse with the authorities in the police 
agencies in these principal capitals in Europe with respect to any 
control they may be undertaking to exercise over this Communist 
propaganda which is being processed via their countries? 

Air. FisHMAN. Yes; I did. 

Air. Arens. What was the estimate, or what were their observations 
with respect to the quantity'"of this'material? 

Air. FisHMAN. The foreign governments w^ith whom this general 
situation was discussed pointed out that they had no legislation com- 
parable to the Foreign Agents Registration Act. They had no 
requirement that an agent of a foreign government register with the 
government in which the entry was made. Neither was it necessary 
for these foreign agents to keep these governments apprised of their 
activities. 

Their concern, of course, was with any propaganda material which 
advocated the overthrow of the particular country. They did know 
and did point out that there were in the respective countries many 
wholesale and retail establishments where all Communist propaganda 
material could be purchased for domestic consumption and for export 
to the United States. 

Air. Arens. How many establishments did you visit within the 
principal capitals of Europe which were developing or processing 
Communist material? 

Air. FiSHMAN. In each country in the company of government 
officials and in some areas as a tourist, I visited from 3 to 5 book- 
shops where all of the material such as we have previously discussed 
at our hearings was available for sale, either in retail or wholesale 
quantities. 

Mr. Arens. This is material wliicli lias been ])iiiile(l or dc^veloped 
in the Iron Curtain countries and processed through tlie non-Commu- 
nist countries, is that correct? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2429 

Mr. FisHMAN. Yes. In some areas the bookshops were directly 
associated with Soviet Union Governments. 

Mr. Arens. In addition to this materia], are there two other general 
classes of material coming into the United States, Mr. Fishman, 
namely, material which comes directly from Iron Curtain countries 
to the United States and, secondly, material which is developed, in 
the first instance, in a non-Communist country and sent into the 
United States? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Foreign Agents Registration Act cover the 
material which is developed in a non-Communist country? 

Mr. FiHHMAN. From the standpohit of control of importation, it 
does not. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about the general appraisal by 
the secinity officers abroad of the volume of this Communist material 
which is coming into the United States? 

Mr. Fishman. In most coimtries these officials were loath to esti- 
mate the volume. In 1 or 2 instances they mentioned the regular 
receipt of quantity shipments in^lots of 5,000 each and upwards. 

Mr. Arens. What is your general appraisal on the basis of your 
study of this problem in the course of the last several months as to 
the probable quantity of this material which is coming into the 
United States regularly? 

Mr. Fishman. It would be very difficult to make such an estimate. 
I would assume on the basis of our past experience that at any given 
port of entry there would be at least 15,000 to 20,000 individual pieces 
of prmted matter which arrives indirectly from the Soviet bloc 
coimtries. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time? 

Mr. Fishman. Each month. 

Mr. Arens. And would that be true in each of the forty-odd ports 
of entr}^? 

Mr. Fishman. My statement is based on my experience in many 
of the areas which I visited personally. It is safe to assume that 
since the propaganda program covers every area of the United States 
that that would be true. 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Fishman, as to this propaganda material which is 
coming into the United States, does the recipient pay the total cost 
of publication? 

Mr, Fishman. No, Most of these publications sell for a very 
nominal sum, and my estimate would be that it does not cover more 
than perhaps 5 to 10 percent of the actual cost of the publication. 

Mr. Arens. Does this material in every instance indicate to the 
reader that it is Communist material as such and created b}" the 
Communist conspiracy? 

Mr. Fishman. No; not at aU. As a matter of fact, first indications 
are that it may be published in the language coimtry, actually. If 
it was prmted in Spanish it might give the impression as having 
emanated in a Spanish-speaking coimtry, French language in France, 
and so on. 

Mr. Arens. So the recipient of this material would not know, 
unless he were thoroughly expert in the Communist line and Com- 
munist objectives that he had material which was developed by the 
Communists and spewn into this country; is that correct? 



2430 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Air. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Is this material under present interpretations of the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act subject to any inspection or labeling? 

Mr. FisHMAN. From the friendly countries? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us if you are conversant with the 
provisions of the omnibus security bill introduced by the chairman of 
this committee, Mr. Walter, H. R. 9937? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes. 

(Representative Scherer entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. What suggestions do you have regarding H. R. 9937 so 
as to meet this situation which you have discussed? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The necessity for establishuig this agency relation- 
ship I spoke of would, in my opinion, require a further amendment 
of the act to define as an agent of a foreign government anj^one who 
sends political Communist propaganda to the United States. The 
present significant amendments, as I see it, have to do with the labeling 
of this material and I thmk that the amendments to the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act would very materiall}'^ assist in our efforts 
to control Commmiist propaganda material. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us a word with respect to 
the principal countries through which this Communist propaganda is 
coming without any scrutiny or without any impact by the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Well, I would include all of the European countries, 
friendly countries, and we are more particularly at this moment 
concerned with a great deal of this material which comes into the 
United States through Canada. 

Mr. Arens. What is the quantity or the best estimate you can make 
as to the quantity of the material which comes into the United States 
through Canada? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. There are thousands of such publications involved. 
I do not have the figures. 

Mr. Arens. Are these thousands of publications individual publi- 
cations? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are they Communist publications? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. They all expound the Communist doctrine, but since 
tliey very carefully avoid the place of origin, I wouldn't know just 
where they were printed. 

Mr. Arens. Who are the principal recipients of this Communist 
propaganda which is coming into the United States via the non- 
Communist countries? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Individuals, for the most part, people engaged in 
mining work, manufactm'ing, industry, and of course in ahnost every 
instance the student groups in the colleges and uni^^^ersities and sec- 
ondaiy schools in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. In what languages is this Communist propaganda 
prepared? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. In some instances, in 6 or 7 languages. 

Mr. Arens. And to what countries other tlian the United States, 
is this Communist propaganda destined? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2431 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Our experience shows that a good deal of this mate- 
rial is intended for the Latin American countries. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any idea as to the quantit}^ of tlie material 
coming from the non-Communist countries into Latin America? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Some time ago we made some inquiry into the 
transshipment of this material through New Orleans, Louisiana, 
and we found that there were thousands of bags of mail each day 
which came from South American countries through New Orleans into 
other South American countries. 

Mr. Arens. What class of postage is applicable to this Communist 
propaganda? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Most of it comes parcel post, fourth-class mail. 

Mr. Arens. And it is not subject to inspection, is that correct? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. No. 

Mr. Arens. And it is never labeled; is that correct? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us just a word, please, Mr. Fishman, 
before we move on to the next general subject which we want to 
pursue with you, namely, students and student organizations over 
the world — give us just an idea, please, sir, of the type of material 
which comes in from the standpoint of subject matter and content? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The general class of propaganda hasn't changed 
except for the fact that it has become more subtle. It, of course, 
touches on most of the significant matters before the American 
public. It presents views from a Communist standpoint. 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead, please, sir. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. And of course it presents the situation in the Com- 
munist countries as being one round of good times, peace and pros- 
perity, sufRcient employment for all, and no one has any problems, 
and there are no difficulties at all. 

Of course, many of these publications recently have taken up the 
situation in Latin Am_erica. New Times, for example, in the last 
several issues has discussed the problems which confronted Vice 
President Nixon, and offered comments as to the reasons as well as 
the basis for the resentment of his visit. 

Mr. Arens. What is the principal line, or what are the principal 
lines of this Communist propaganda material? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The propaganda machine must have a whipping boy 
which changes from time to time. Currently, there is a good deal 
of effort being made to deal with the nuclear testing problem and 
voluminous material has been printed and sent to the United States, 
all dealing with this subject. 

Another very significant piece of propaganda now deals with the 
objections to colonialism, and we have a good deal of material here 
this morning which pomts up the efforts made to arouse interest in 
both of these issues. 

I wondered if you wanted this comment, which appeared in the New 
Times on the Vice President's visit? 

Mr. Arens. If you please, sir. 

Mr. Willis. What magazine is that? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. This is New Times, printed in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Willis. Printed in the Soviet Union? 

\h'. FiSHMAN. Yes. This is a weeldy journal. It is printed 
m Russian, English, French, German, Spanish, Polish, Czech, Ru- 



2432 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

manian and Swedish. And the little caption here says "The Un- 
wanted Guest." [Reading:] 

Vice President Richard Nixon has taken advantage of the invitation to attend 
the inauguration of President Arturo Frondizi of Argentina to visit seven other 
South American countries. He has already been in two of tliem — Uruguay and 
Paraguay. 

American papers say he has been entrusted with the delicate mission of dis- 
pelling, or at least mitigating, the strong anti-United States sentiment prevailing 
in these countries. 

It goes on : 

The Vice President has done his level best to convince the Latin Americans 
of Washington's "good will" toward their countries. In his speeches in Par- 
liaments, universities, and at banquets he has been painting a rosj' picture of the 
policy followed by the United States in this part of the world and has been generous 
with promises. 

But the South Americans are sick and tired of Washington's promises. Their 
public and business leaders asked Nixon to explain why the United States was 
pursuing a polic}^ detrimental to their countries' economies, whj' it was interfering 
in their internal affairs; and whj' it was supporting reactionary dictatorships. 

But it was perhaps in Buenos Aires and Montevideo that Nixon felt most 
uncomfortable, for, according to paper's himdreds of people in these two capitals 
greeted him with boos, whoops, and shouts of "Go homo, Nixon." 

In the next issue, of course, they followed Mr. Nixon into Uruguay 
and Paraguay, and this comment about President Eisenhower's 
efforts to raise the spirits of the Vice President bj' praising his courage, 
patience, and calmness, ends with: 

What encouragement for American leaders on good will missions to their 
southern neighbors. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Fishman, I should like to invite your atten- 
tion to the next general area of your inquiry, made at the behest of 
the chairman of this committee, namely, the world Communist 
student activities, or organizations and propaganda destined princi- 
pally to capture, control, the student organizations and the students' 
minds. 

Would you proceed, at your own pace, please, sir, at the outset to 
give us a little background and history of the world Communist 
student organization? 

Mr. Fishman. The propaganda machine overlooks no one and be- 
gins its program with the ver}^ young. We have been able to obtain 
publications in some of the bookshops abroad and we have seen 
many sent to the United States which approach communism and the 
Communist doctrine beginning w^ith comic books and little fairy tale 
books and winding up with learned material for the students in the 
colleges and universities. 

I have some samples of these which I would like to go into a little 
later, but I wanted to point out, first, that there are two major 
organizations that deal with student activities on a world wide basis. 
One is the 

Mr. Arens. You mean Communist organizations? 

Mr. Fishman. Communist-inspired organizations. 

They are very careful to avoid any mention of the fact that they 
have been inspired and also sponsored by the Communist propaganda 
machine. That, however, is ver}^ obvious from the material, and the 
approach to most of the problems that these publications take. 

There are two important organizations and these are the ones we 
would like to deal with. The first is the International Union of 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2433 

Students. This is a group that was founded in 1946 and its head- 
quarters are located in Prague, Czechoslovakia. 

The group, according to its constitution, considers itself as repre- 
senting all the students of the world. Its gatherings have been held 
over the years in major cities and the several Soviet bloc countries. 
Its constitution proclaims that this group will "build again a better 
world, desirous of liberty, peace and progress to take that place in the 
vanguard of the youth of the world which we have held so often 
before in the course of his tor}'." 

The purpose of the group, again as stated in this constitution, is to 
be an indispensable aid in the relationship of a just and lasting peace 
and equality of all peoples and it purports to defend the rights and 
interests of students to promote improvements in theh welfare and 
standards of education, and to help in preparing students for their 
tasks as democratic citizens. One of its aims is to achieve unity of 
all student movements in all countries. 

Mr. Arens. How many countries does it operate in? 

^Iv. FisHMAN. According to the publicity it operates in all countries 
and encompasses every language, every school, regardless of where it 
is situated. 

Mr. Arens. How many constituent members are there, or how 
man\' afhliates are there? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Well, the lUS doesn't list the number of students 
in this group, but the World Federation of Democratic Youth, which 
is the associated group, claims 85 million members in 97 

Mr. Arens. These are 85 million separate students? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. In 97 countries. 

Mr. Arens. In 97 countries tied in with this group which is a 
Communist-controlled student group ; is that correct? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead, please, sh. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. The constitution provides that its members are 
obliged to accept — — ■ 

Mr. ScHERER. May I interrupt, Mr. Chamnan? 

The Chairman. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you have any figures as to how many students 
there are in the United States that belong to this group? 

Mr. Fishman. No. No; I do not have that information. It would 
be almost impossible to estimate. What happens, actually, is that 
the International Union of Students, as well as the World Federation, 
claims an association with practically every school and every student 
organization in the United States. Many of the students' organiza- 
tions have permitted this claim because they are completely unaw^are 
of the type of organization that is involved here. 

Mr. Arens. Is the literature of this Communist-controlled organi- 
zation beamed into the principal schools and colleges of the United 
States? 

Mr. Fishman. Oh, yes. We have supplied to the committee on a 
confidential basis lists of names and addresses which show that copies 
of this material — and there are very many publications, individual 
publications, printed by both of these groups — have been addressed to 
almost every school in the United States and to every student group 
in the United States. 

27430 — 58 — pt. 9 — ■ — S 



2434 COIMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Arens. And this is Communist material coming into the 
United States outside the purview of the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act, is that correct? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. I was just going to make a very brief 
summary of this lUS and its activities. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately how many recipients in the United 
States, individual recipients, are there on the aggregate mailing lists 
who receive this Communist material, that is, student groups and 
students? 

Mr. FisHMAN. I would say 25,000, 1 would estimate of each publica- 
tion — between 25,000 and 50,000 are sent to the United States. 

Mr. Arexs. Of each publication? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Of each publication. 

Mr. Arens. How many publications are there? 

Mr. FisHMAN. The publications of lUS, for example, include News 
Service, lUS News, Student Sports, Medical Students, Agricultural 
Students, press communications, and many individual publications. 
I have some samples of them here which cover almost every field. 

Mr. Arens. ^'N'ould you say that there are approximately a dozen 
publications, separate publications, a month that come in from this 
international student organization? 

Mr. FisHMAN. At least. 

Mr. Arens. Would you say that substantially each of those has the 
same circulation as the other? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Then you would have, roughly speaking, 12 times 
50,000; is that correct? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. A month? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Coming into the United States which would mean 
about better than a half a million a month; is that correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Beamed to the schools and colleges and student 
groups in tlie United States; is that correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And does this material on its face indicate that it is 
material of the Communist conspiracy? 

Mr. Fishman. Oh, no; quite the contrary. It claims to have been 
printed by the International Union of Students, but there is no indi- 
cation that there is any Communist country interest. The publi- 
cation itself is just an ordinary pamphlet. These are some of them. 

Here is one on Algerian students. Here is another one, Students 
Say No. This deals with tlie atomic testings. The Struggle of the 
C37priot Student. The Struggle Against Thermonuclear Weapons as 
an Attack on the Church. 

Mr. Arens. The material you have in your hand, Mr. Fishman, 
presently, those several copies are all in English; are they not? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. In addition do the}^ have comparable material which 
is beamed to other student groups over the world in other languages? 

Mr. Fishman. Oh, yes. Recently there have been many multi- 
lingual publications. Here is the most reconL: Education Students. 
It is printed in three languages — English, French and Spanish. It 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2435 

is just 1 publication, with 1 page in English, 1 page in French, 
and 1 page in Spanish. 

Mr. Arens. Now, do you have an indication, Mr. Fishman, of the 
financing of the international Communist student operations? 

Mr. Fishman. The constitution purports to show that the financial 
resources of lUS are derived from subscriptions paid by member 
organizations and from sources arising out of student activities. 
There isn't any doubt, however, that the group is subsidized financially 
by the Soviet propaganda machine. 

It is interesting to note in one of these more recent publications 
that they give some figures on how much the group was able to raise — 
some $228,000 in their treasury at the time. 

Mr. Ap.ens. Is that one of the student groups controlled by the 
Communist propaganda? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. 

Mr. Aj'.ENS. That is the world fund of what organization? 

Mr. Fishman. This is the World Federation of Democratic Youth, 
the second group I mentioned. 

Mr. Ar.ENS. "Wliat publication are you reading from? 

Mr. Fishman. This is the report of the executive committee held 
in Budapest, February 12-15, 1958. 

Mr. Ar^ns. Can 3^ou tell us, Mr. Fishman, in connection with the 
Communist proaganda activities if there are any functions to be not(>d 
which are controlled by tne worldwide Communist apparatus for 
students? 

Mr. Fishman. This is a very active part of their program and each 
year elaborate plans are made to bring these m.a.ny students from as 
many countries into the Communist-controlled areas. Right at this 
moment these are the important meetings which are being held the 
balance of this year: 

There is the Fifth Congress of the International Union of Students 
to be held in Peking, Clunese People's Repubhc, September 4 to 13, 
1958. The agenda indicates that the meeting will discuss the develop- 
ments in the international students movement and the contribution of 
the lUwS and student organizations to defense of students' interests and 
the promotion of international student cooperation. This is one of 
the programs. 

Between August 16 and 22, 1958, there wih be an international 
conference on social and economic problems of students and worker 
students' organizations at Crakow, Poland. There will be an inter- 
national seminar on problems and activities of the national student 
organizations in the Sudan. There will be another one in the derno- 
cratic Republic of Germany. There will be another one in Siniai, 
Rumania, an international seminar of student editors, and another 
one in the German Democratic Republic, and the last one here men- 
tioned, July 23 to 30, international seminar on Russian language and 
literature, in Moscow. 

Mr. Arens. In addition to these seminars, to the conferences, does 
the Communist apparatus sponsor international students' sporting 
events, checker events or chess events and tlie like? 

Mr. Fishman. There is one that is now being held, one being spon- 
sored July 5 to 20 in Bulgaria. This is a poster which advertises the 
event. 



2436 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, you just mentioned a moment ago a 
situation in Germany. Did you have occasion in the course of your 
studies with the security officers in the friendly European countries, 
to get an idea about the Communist propaganda which is disseminated 
in those countries? 

Mr. Fishman. It was very interesting to learn of the activity of the 
East German Communist group to infiltrate and to make its mark on 
the student and youth in West German3^ I was told that millions 
of individually addressed mail packages containing Communist propa- 
ganda are seen every month, coming from the East Berlin area into 
the West Berlin area. 

I have obtained, on a confidential basis, and there is available for 
the committee, the actual statistics and it is revealing to see how 
much of an effort is being made to convince West Germany of the 
fact that they are bemg taken advantage of by the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Fishman, would you kindly tell us about the 
pen-pal program which you have discussed with us informally? 

Mr. Fishman. Both of the student groups have set up a system of 
exchanging addresses with people in the various countries and in each 
issue of these 2 magazines they list 50 to 100 names and addresses of 
students around the world, including the United States. 

The theory, of course, is that if you write and exchange j;our views 
you have that much more opportunity to know what is going on in 
the world. I think that the real purpose behind it is to obtain as 
many addresses as they possibly can in the United vStates to send this 
propaganda material to. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word about the legitimate organiza- 
tions, non-Communist organizations which the Communist student 
organizations are trying to woo or latch onto or identify themselves 
with? 

Mr. Fishman. Well, the World Federation of Democratic Youth 
had its inception with a very proper type of organization, the WAY, 
the World Association of Youth. They have since attempted to di- 
vorce themselves from this group, and the current publications try 
desperately to show that this initiating organization was actually a 
destructive type of organization. 

In addition, of course, as I have mentioned previously, both the 
lUS and World Federation of Democratic Youth list among their 
associated memberships the YMCA, for example, and also many other 
proper student organizations around the world. 

Mr. Arens. So the record may be clear, the YMCA has under- 
taken to cause this identification to be dissolved; has it not? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. As a matter of fact, in many Eu- 
ropean coimtries the student groups, the proper student groups have 
issued printed statements and disseminated these statements as widely 
as possible, indicating that the}' never intended to be associated with 
these Communist organizations, that they do not attend their meet- 
ings, or their conferences, and actually want no part of it. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Fishman, in the abbreviated time which 
we have had here, because of the fact that we were not able to sit this 
morning, we have tried to cover the principal highlights of your testi- 
mony. You have in private consultations supplied the committee 
through its staft' with considerable information, statistical and other- 
wise, on a confidential basis, is that correct? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2437 

Mr. FiSHMAX. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other principal points which you should 
like to cover in your public testimonj^ at this time? 

Mr. FisHMAN. We have, as you know, made some attempt to 
bring some examples of the type of material which is currently being 
sent to the United States; however, I believe that most of this can be 
covered in my report to the committee. 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps you can take just a few minutes of the com- 
mittee's time at this time to give the public record here the highlights 
of the content of some of this material. 

Mr. FiSHMAN. In World Student News, volume 12, 1958, which is 
one of the mainstays of the International Union of Students, comment 
is made about Colombia and one of the suggestions for the Colombia 
students is to 

Mr. Willis. What page is that? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. This is page 20-21. 

Mr. Willis. Go ahead. 

Mr. FiSHMAN (reading) : 

to proclaim as free countries in Latin America the Guianas, Belize, Puerto Rico, 
Curacao, and all the other territories occupied by the colonialist countries. 

To demand from the Government of the United States of America that it 
cease to send war supplies to the Latin American tyrants who use these arms to 
murder students, workers, and peasants, at the same time perpetuating themgelves 
in power against the will of the people. 

Mr. Arens. So the record may be clear, that is part of the propa- 
ganda that is being beamed into the South American countries by 
the Communist apparatus; is that correct? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. That is correct. On the back of this publication I 
would assume we have some 100 or 150 pen friends, names and 
addresses of people who would like to exchange correspondence. 

I would like to also point out that World Student News, which is 
a well prepared periodical, indicates that subscriptions are a dollar 
a year. In other words one may obtain a cop}'" each month for the 
smaU sum of $1 a year, hardly the cost of the paper on which it is 
printed. 

As to this publication, it is interesting to note some of the high- 
lights, the way in which such things are presented. On page 32 of 
this publication which is addressed, of course, to all students, it says 
[reading] : 

Just think about it. In your college how many students read this magazine 
every month? Is it enough? We know that in some cases a high proportion of 
students see it but there are many other student centers where only a handful 
get WSN regularly. Because of this a great mass of students are uninformed or 
misinformed about many important things. An enlightened rank and file is essen- 
tial to insure more progress at top student level and to bring the world student 
community together. 

There are many publications here dealing with the atom bomb. 
Here are posters indicating an "appeal to the students of the world," 
which students are asked to post in their schools. It is an appeal. 
[Heading :] 

Fellow Students of the World — of Europe, Asia, Africa, the Americas and Australia: 
We students everywhere cherish peace. We shall inherit the great achievements 

of culture and science in the full knowledge that there is now before us the prospect 

of a brilliant future for mani'-ind. 

A grave danger confronts the perspective of peace and prosperity. However, a 

danger created by the preparations for atomic war. The tremendous development 



2438 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

of nuclear weapons, the fantastic increase of their destructive power and, above 
all, the endless continuation of the nuclear weapons race represent an ever- 
present threat to world peace. 

It goes on to demand: 

THE PROHIBITION OF THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS 

Let US oppose the installation and expansion of foreign military bases with 
nuclear weapons. 

Fellow students, if we are all united against the danger of atomic war, we shall 
not he a small force. 

We call upon all students and their organizations — international, national and 
others — to act now for peace. 

This is printed in Leipzig, January 11, 1958, distributed widely 
throughout this country. 

I could go on here for an hour on some of these. 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps you could summarize just 2 or 3 of the key 
publications concerning which you should like to comment. 

Mr. FisHMAN. I think I mentioned here and brought out the efforts 
made to convince students of the significance of attending these con- 
ferences. Letters that are sent to many student organizations are 
interesting reading. One here discusses this international seminar on 
peaceful uses of atomic energy which is to be held in Moscow August 1 
to 8, 1958. The theme, ''Youth and the Peaceful Uses of Atomic 
Energy," the organizers, the Committee of Soviet Youth Organiza- 
tions, and it is to be held at Moscow University. 

The letter which is distributed with this printed material explaining 
the meeting reads: 

Enclosed is brief information on the seminar to be held this summer which our 
federation is actively supporting. 

The letter is on the letterhead of the World Federation of Demo- 
cratic Youth. It continues: 

Perhaps you have some ideas on the best way to use this material to encourage 
young people in your field of activity to participate. We think it is very important 
that your country be represented. 

Please inform us of your plans and the possibilities that you foresee. 

With best wishes. 

This is addressed to all student organizations at the colleges and 
universities in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, may I make a comment in the form of 
a question, so that this record is clear? 

The legislation which the chairman of this committee has introduced 
provides that this material ought to be labeled Communist material, 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. It is most significant in the case of 
this student material because it is printed in such a way and prepared 
in such a way that it seems to emanate from other foreign student 
groups. 

Mr. Arens. Now, so the record may be clear, the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act requires the registration with the Department of 
Justice of a person in the United States who distributes Communist 
propaganda as the agent of a Communist principal abroad; isn't that 
correct? 

Mr. Fishman. That is coiTCct. 

Mr. Arens. It also requires that the Communist propaganda itself 
be labeled as such before it is distributed; isn't that correct? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2439 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. But all of this material concerning which you have 
been addressing yourself today comes in without labeling and without 
registration; isn't that correct? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. I just wanted the record to be clear on the issue which 
your testimony presents. 

Now, would you kindly proceed for the next few minutes to give 
us the highlights of the contents of 1 or 2 other typical publications? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. As I mentioned before, this propaganda machine 
omits no angle. Several months we noted quite a number of indi- 
vidually addressed envelopes sent to younger students. It was appar- 
ent that there had recently been quite an effort made in the students' 
publications to obtain participation in what was referred to as a 
sputnik quiz, and this letter reads : 

Thank you for taking part in the sputnik quiz. Enclosed is the sputnik badge 
we promised you. In addition, we are sending you, under separate cover, a 
tourist booklet with information and pictures of many points of interest on 
tourist routes in the U. S. S. R. 

We will send you a copy of our summer program schedule as soon as we get it 
back from the printers. 

If you have any questions on life in the Soviet Union or requests for music, let 
us know and we will be happy to comply. 

Mr. Arens. This is an individually addressed letter to some 
student in the United States? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Yes. It contains some postcard pictm"es and also 
a sputnik badge. 

Mr. Arens. From what countries does this letter emanate? 

Mr. FisHMAN. From Moscow, U. S. S. R. This is a sputnik badge 
that you might like to have, and a couple of photographs. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another comment or so you would like to 
make, Mr. Fishman? 

Mr. Fishman. It is interesting to observe an example of the first 
sample batch of booklets that is sent to any student organization or 
young group in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Let the record be clear on this point. Does this 
material which you now have your hand on, which is being destined 
to a student group in the United States, anywhere in the material 
say "This is Communist; we are part of the conspiracy"? 

Mr. Fishman. No. You see this is an instruction and information 
type of material and one may presume that the material, since it 
deals with the Soviet Union, comes from tliat country. Of course 
there is no statement as is requhed by the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act. 

This package contains a book entitled "Moscow," which gives street 
routes and the same type of information that a tourist might find 
in any country or any city visited. 

Then there are pamphlets entitled "Lenin Central Museums," 
"Siberia Hydropower Project," "The Status of Women in the Soviet 
Union," "U. S. S. R. Facts and Figures," "Soviet Electric Power," 
"What Soviet Power Gave the Workin.g Class," "How Soviet People 
Live," "Soviet Industry," "Soviet Cultural," "What Soviet Power 
Gave the Workers' Families," "Soviet Age," "The Soviet Family 
Budget," "U. S. S. R., Land of Working People," and a book entitled 
"The Land of Soviets." 



2440 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Arens. To what group is all this destmed, Mr. Fishmaii? 

Mr. FisHMAN. This is the type of package which would go to 
students who indicated in any way any interest in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. Is there an addressee on that particular package? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. Yes. This is addressed to a college in Massachusetts. 

Mr. Arens. And there are similar packages addressed to schools 
and colleges over the country? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Arens. And did that particular package emanate from a non- 
Communist country? 

Mr. FisHMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And all packages of like characterization would he 
completel}'' beyond the pale or purview of the Foreign Agents Regis- 
tration Act? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right; under its present interpretation. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any further comment that you would like to 
make or any other point which we may not have covered in this 
highlighting of your testimony? 

Mr. FisHMAN. I don't think so. I think I covered most of it. 
There is a good deal of other material here, a lot of exhibits which I 
have picked up. 

Mr. Arens. You are in the process now, at the request of the 
chairman of this committee, of preparing an extensive, detailed report 
for him and for the committee; is that correct? 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. Would you say that this type of material you are 
telling us about is coming into the United States now at an accelerated 
rate over, say, what it was coming in some months ago when you 
testified in Buffalo? 

Mr. FiSHMAN. I can only repeat the testimony I then gave the 
committee. I think we showed that on the average there was an 
increase of between 25 and 30 percent each year, and on this same 
estimate, of course, we believe that there has been a comparable 
increase in this material. Of course, this is a fairly new program, this 
approach to the students. This is an attempt to arouse them to take 
an interest in what is explained as student life. 

Mr. ScHERER. I was referring to the total amount of Communist 
propaganda coming into the country, whether it is coming in now 
at an accelerated rate? 

Mr. FisHMAN. I definitely say it is on the increase. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fishman, you told us of the millions of students 
who are contacted by this Communist propaganda over the world. 
How many individual organizations are allied with the international 
Communist operation? 

Mr. Fishman. So far as the material which is published here, claim 
is made that the World Federation of Democratic Youth, for example, 
is allied with student organizations in 97 countries. 

Mr. Arens. How many organizations in the 97 countries? 

Mr. Fishman. I doubt very much whether they are listed. We 
know that covering the United States they omit no college or student 
group. 

Mr. Arens. Eveiy college and student group or virtually every 
college and student group in the United States is a recipient of this 
type of material, is that correct? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2441 

Mr. FisHMAN. That is right. How many of the individual stu- 
dents in the colleges are interested in this movement, or make any 
effort to take part in it, we would not know. 

Mr. Arens. Mv. Chairman, I suggest that we have only tried to 
cover the highliglits of Mr. Fishman's testimony today, because as 
you well know, he is in the process of preparing an extensive and 
detailed report to 3^oiu-self and to the members of the committee. 
We didn't want at this time to burden the committee with all the 
details. We thought it would be profitable to have the highlights 
presented in public session. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. Fishman, we congratulate you on the job that you have done 
and welcome you back home. 

Can you tell me whether or not any of these packets are sent in 
compliance mth requests? 

Mr. Fishman. The onl}' material here which I think was sent 
pursuant to request was this latest piece of material I read, this 
answer to tlie sputnik quiz. I would assume that in every case some- 
one in this country answered the quiz and received this badge. But 
apart from that type of thing, all of this other material, I would say 
that 99 percent of it is sent unsolicited. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us just an indication, if you are not 
violating confidence in doing so, of the aggregate number of people on 
the list which you supplied this committee on a confidential basis? 

Mr. Fishman. I think we covered one area of one specific part of 
the United States, one State, I think, and there were some thousands 
of names on that list. 

Mr. Arens. And because of reasons which are obvious you did not 
feel we should make that public at the present time? 

Mr. Fishman. Since the material is sent unsolicited, we think it 
would be violating a confidence to give the name of the individual 
organizations. 

Mr. Arens. Thousands in just one little section of the country? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Just one sampling list, regular recipients of the student 
Communist propaganda material? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Air. Willis. In fact you said that covers only one State of the 
Union? 

Mr. Fishman. One State. 

Mr. Willis. Or part of a State of the Union? 

Mr. Fishman. In connection with the investigation we are making, 
it just covered the one State. 

Mr. Scherer. One question. 

Does any of this material you have been talking about contain any 
advertising? 

Mr. Fishman. None. 

Very few periodicals published in the Soviet Union contain any 
advertising at all, other than soliciting interest in the publication or 
subscription information. 

Mr. Scherer. And practically the entire cost of the material had 
to be subsidized by somebody? 

Mr. Fishman. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you anj- idea who subsidizes it? 

27430— 58— pt. 9 i 



2442 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr, FisHMAN. It is obvious from the material itself, from the 
subjects covered that this is all one part of the general Soviet propa- 
ganda machine. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mr. Fishman. 

Mr. Willis. Just one question, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. Under what class of mail does this material enter? 

Mr. Fishman. Fourth class. 

Mr. Willis. Fourth class? 

Mr. Fishman. Parcel post, if it comes in packages. 

Mr. Willis. Does the Post Office Department run in the red on 
that clafs? 

Mr. Fishman. No; but it has the costs of handling and transpor- 
tation. 

Mr. Willis. So that in addition to the subsidy from those who pay 
for the printing and sending of these packages, it can be said that 
indirectly the taxpayers are absorbing part of the costs? 

Mr. Fishman. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Willis. To distribute this to the students and so on? 

Mr. Fishman. Yes. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mr. Fishman. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, as soon 
as Mr. Fishman has assembled the material there, will be Mr. Sam 
Pevzner. 

Mr. Sam Pevzner, please come forward. 

Mr. Pevzner, would you kindly come forward now, please? 

The Chairman. Raise yoiu* right hand, sir. 

Stand up, please. 

Mr. Pevzner. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help 
you, God? 

Mr. Pevzner. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAM PEVZNER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID REIN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Pevzner. Sam Pevzner, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Would you spell your name, please, so we have it cor- 
rect in the record? 

Mr. Pevzner. P-e-v-z-n-e-r. 

Mr. Willis. A little louder, please. 

Mr. Pevzner. P-e-v-z-n-e-r. 

My occupation, free-lance writer. 

Mr. Arens. And your residence, please, su'. 

Mr. Pevzner. 4 West 93d, New York City. 

Ml'. Arens. You are appearmg today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mr. Pevzner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Pevzner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2443 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Pevzner, where are you employed? 

Mr. Pevzner. I state I am a free-lance writer now. 

Mr. Arens. Where are j'ou employed? Where do you do your 
work? 

Mr. Pevzner. Self-employed, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you last employed prior to your free-lance 
writing occupation? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Pevzner. On the grounds of the first amendment and ninth 
and tenth amendments and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
where you were last employed you would be supplying information 
which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Pevzner. I already stated my point. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully submit the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer this last principal question. 

The Chairman. I don't think he has invoked the fifth amendment. 
Did he? 

You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Pevzner. My answer is that I refuse to answer the question 
on the grounds of the fifth amendment, not testifying against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in the recent past connected with a publica- 
tion known as Jewish Life? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been in the recent past connected with 
Progressive Jew^ish Life, Inc.? 

Mr. Pevz>jer. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to lay before you, if you please, sir, 
a photostatic copy of a sworn statement under date of September 18, 
1956, required under the postal laws which refers to an organization 
known as Progressive Jewish Life, Inc., publishers of a monthly 
publication known as Jewish Life, on which are listed the names of 
three officers, Albert E. Kahn, president, Louis Harap, secretary, and 
Sam Pevzner, treasurer. 

I should like to have j^ou examine that document and tell the com- 
mittee whether or not that document is a true and correct copy of a 
document filed by you or to your certain knowledge by your associates, 
and whether or not it sets forth the facts with reference to the publica- 
tion Jewish Life? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds as 
previously stated. 

(Document marked "Pevzner Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Air. Arens. Have you been connected in the course of your wTiting 
career with a publication knoAvii as the New Order? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. x\rens. I lay before you now, if you please, sh, a thermofax 
reproduction of a masthead of a publication known as the New Order, 
in which the editor is listed as Sam Pevzner, P-e-v-z-n-e-r. The IS' ew 
Order was published at one time by the International Workers Order. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee, if you please, 
sir, whether or not that document truly and correctly identifies your 
one-time status with that publication. 



2444 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the first 
amendn]i.ent, interference with the freedom of the press, and on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Pevzner Exhibit No. 2," retained in committee 
fUes.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a mem.ber of the Young Com- 
munist League? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been an autlior of certain pubUcations 
for the Young Communist League of America? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you, if you please, a thermofax reproduc- 
tion of a yearbook of the Young Coro,munist League of America, in 
which appears the nam.e of Sam. Pevzner, national secretary, Youth 
Division of the IWO. Kindly look at that document and tell this 
committee whether or not that truly and correctly describes your 
status with that organization. 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Pevzner Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been on the managing board of a pub- 
lication called The Cham.pion? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the sam.e grounds, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you, if you please, sir, a thermofax repro- 
duction of a masthead of The Cham.pion, in which a person kno\vn as 
Sam Pevzner is listed as a member of the managing board of the 
publication. 

Kindly look at that and tell us whether or not that refreshes your 
recollection and whether or not that truly and correctly reflects your 
status with that publication. 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds, sir. 

(Document marked "Pevzner Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the record 
at this time show the official citation of The Champion as an official 
organ of the Young Communist League and also of the International 
Workers Order as determined by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, reflected in the Guide to Subversive Organizations, page 99. 

Where were you last employed, Mr. Pevzner? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been presently employed as a free- 
lance writer? 

Mr. Pevzner. Since January 1, 1958. 

Mr. Arens. And for what publications do you write? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr, Arens. Do you use any name other than yoiu- own — a nom 
de plume? 

Mr, Pevzner. I refuse that on the same grounds, sir, 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been known by any name other than 
the name Sam Pevzner? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you since you began your career in January 1958 
as a free-lance wi-iter used any name professionally other than the 
name Sam Pevzner? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2445 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us at the present time whether or not any 
of the entities, constituent parts of the International Workei-s Order, 
are still functioning? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds as 
previously given. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Pevzner, we know that the International Workei-s 
Order, and it is a matter of public information, was technically dis- 
solved by the State of New York some few years ago on the ground 
that it was not in truth and in fact a bona fide insurance organization 
but was an arm of the Communist Party. You can help this com- 
mittee and help your Government if you can tell us the names and 
identifications of any of the presently existing entities which were 
previously part of the International Workers Order. 

Would you kindly do so? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a national youth director of the Inter- 
national Workers Order? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you, if you please, sir, a thermofax repro- 
duction of a page from the Fraternal Outlook, publication of the 
one-time International Workei-s Order, in which appears a photograph 
of a person identified in the publication as Sam Pevzner, formerly 
a national youth director. Will you kindly look at that document 
and tell us whether or not that is a true and correct reproduction of 
yourself? 

Mr. Pevzner. Refuse to answer that on the same grounds, sir. 

(Document marked "Pevzner Exhibit No. 5" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you been on the Executive Board of the Inter- 
national Workers Order? 

Mr. Pevzner. Refuse to answer that on the same gi'ounds. 

Ivlr. Arens. Have you been one of the leaders in the Communist 
May Day parades in the course of the last few years? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that, sir, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now, if you please, sir, the photo- 
graphs taken in recent celebrations of the May Day parade. Com- 
munist celebrations in New York City, in which appear reproductions 
of your o^vn physical appearance, one here at the microphone and 
another on the speakers' platform. 

Kindly look at those documents and tell this committee while you 
are under oath whether or not they present true and correct repro- 
ductions of yourself and whether or not you did participate in a 
leadership capacity in the May Day parade? 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that this year, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arens. It was 1955, I believe. 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell this committee, if you please, what is the 
publication known as Jewish Currents? 

Mr. Pevzner. Refuse to answer that on the same grounds, sir. 

The Chairman. Jewish Currents? 

Mr. Arens. Jewish Currents, yes, sir. 

I have here, if you please, sir, a photostatic reproduction of a letter 
dated November 14, 1957, less than a year ago, addressed to, "Dear 



2446 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Friend," witli reference to an emergency conference on Jewish Currents 
held in New York City on November 9. The letter as it will show 
when it is read indicates that the conference was to discuss the future 
of this magazine called Jewish Currents. One of the authors of the 
letter is Sam Pevzner. There is a signature, "Sam Pevzner." 

Kmdl}' look at this document, which I am displaying to you, namelj", 
the thermofax reproduction of the letter, and tell this committee 
while you are under oath whether you are the author of that letter 
and whether or not that is a true and correct reproduction of your 
own signature? 

Mr. Pevzner. Refuse to answer that on the same grounds, sir. 

(Document marked "Pevzner Exhibit No. 6" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, I lay before you a copy of Jewish Currents of 
March 1958, a few months ago, in which the editorial board appears, 
and according to the masthead of this publication, Jewish Currents, 
the name Sam Pevzner appears as a member of the editorial board. 

Kindly look at this publication, the original publication, which I 
shall display to you, and tell this committee whether or not you are 
truly and correctly identified in that publication as a member of its 
editorial board. 

Mr. Pevzner. Refuse to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

(Document marked "Pevzner Exhibit No. 7" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Scherer. Was that during the time you were a free lance 
writer, witness? 

Mr. Arens. A couple months ago. 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking the witness. 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment and first amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you in the course of the last year or so been a 
propagandist for the Communist Party in attacking the Committee on 
Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Pevzner. Refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

I will say as an individual I had my say about the Un-American 
Committee, and I agree with the New York Times and other instru- 
mentalities in this country that the Un-American Activities Com- 
mittee has outlived its usefulness and is doing more harm than good 
throughout the world to the United States. That is only a personal 
opinion of mine, 

Mr. Scherer. Have you received, since you have been a free lance 
writer, any compensation, directlv or indirectly, from the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr, Scherer. In other words, has the Communist Party been pay- 
ing you to say these things about the Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mr. Pevzner, I refuse to answer on the same grounds, sir, 

Mr, Scherer, Just a moment. Do you deny that you received 
compensation from the Communist Party for attacking the committee? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2447 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer, on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, which does not mean I am guilty — the fifth amendment was 
drafted to defend and protect the innocent. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you innocent of the inference I have made? 

Air. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you an article from the Jewish Life, May 
1957 issue, in which the chah-man of this committee is attacked by 
yourself and in which the committee itself is attacked. 

Kindly look at this article which I lay before you and tell this com- 
mittee whether or not you are the author of the article. 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

(Document marked "Pevzner Exhibit No. 8" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Air. Pevzner, now I wish to lay before you a publica- 
tion, Jewish Life, of April 1957, and in all earnestness solicit from you 
information with respect to certain cultural clubs which the Jewish 
Life in this article discusses. 

May I read for the record the fii'st paragraph of this particular 
article, beginning on page 32 of the April 1957 issue of Jewish Life 
entitled "City Committee of Jewish Clubs." [Reading:] 

An event of importance to all progressive Jews took place when the New York 
City Committee of Jewish Clubs held its first annual conference on March 3. 
The City Committee of Jewish Clubs is the leading body of 12 English-speaking 
cultural and fraternal clubs in New York. The 58 delegates attending the con- 
ference heard Sam Pevzner, executive director of the City Committee, describe 
the beginnings of the club movement and the value of such organizations in the 
Jewish community. The clubs, he said, similar to manj^ other organizations, 
"are deeply interested in the welfare of the Jewish people and in the solution of 
their problems." 

First of all, woidd you tell us. Air. Pevzner, what was it that j^ou 
were an executive director of? It said you were executive director 
of the "City Committee." What were you executive director of? 
City committee of what? 

Air. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first amend- 
ment, which protects the right of free assembly and free speech and 
also on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Air. Arens. Sir, can you tell us what are these 12 English-speaking 
cultural and fraternal clubs in New York? 

Air. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Pevzner Exhibit No. 9" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Air. Arens. Ai-e those 12 English-speaking and fraternal clubs in 
New York, which are described in this particular article, and the dele- 
gates which you were addressing controlled by the Communist Party? 

Air. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previously 
stated. 

Air. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, if you gave a truth- 
ful answer to the last principal question you would be supplying in- 
formation which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Air. Pevzner. I alread}^ stated my answer. 

Mr. Arens. A!r. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the last question. 

Air. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, which protects and gives the right not to be a witness against 
himself. 



2448 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment, which protects the witness against bearing witness against 
himself. I can't make it clearer. 

The Chairman. I understand. Go ahead. 

Mr. Arens. Did 3"ou attend and address this conference concern- 
ing which I have read from the April 1957 issue of Jewish Life? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is this an error? Was the Jewish Life publication in 
error when it said you were executive director of the City Committee 
and did so address this conference? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens, Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previously 
given. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Lautner? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. John Lautner has told this committee under oath that 
while he was a top-flight member of the Communist Party, he knew 
you, sir, as a member of the Communist Party and of the conspiratorial 
apparatus of the Communist Party. We should like to give you an 
opportunity now to deny that statement while you arc under oath. 

Do you care to avail yourself of that privilege? 

Mr. Pevzner. Well, from what I read I know Lautner is a low- 
flight human being, but I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Did he lie when he identified you as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. What did you say about Lautner? 

Mr. Pevzner. I said my personal opinion — he said he is a high- 
flight American; I said he is a low-flight American, in my personal 
opinion. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you know Lautner? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment, sir. I know I read about him. 

Mr. Scherer. You said you read about him. It is a fact you have 
done more than read about him; isn't it? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You said you read about him. 

I ask, Mr. Chairman, that you direct him to answer the question. 
He has opened the door. He wanted this committee to believe the 
only thing he knew about Lautner was what he read about him. 

I am asking you if it isn't a fact you know Lautner personally, 
rather than just having read about him. 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are du'ected to answer that question. 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2449 

Mr. Arens. Have you made contributions in the course of the last 
year or so to the Communist Daily Worker? 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you, if you please, sir, a thermofax repro- 
duction of a page from the November 10, 1957, Communist Daily 
Worker, in which they list the donations received by the Communist 
Daily Worker over a period of time. They list here that they have 
received $50 from one Sam Pevzner. Would you kindly look at that 
document and tell us whether or not it truly and correctly represents 
the facts. 

Mr. Pevzner. I can't read it, sir. I mean I can't see. I can't 
make out the names. 

Mr. Arens. Right here where I am pointing. 

Mr. Pevzner. Up here? 

Mr. Arens. It says, ''Sam Pevzner, $50." 

Mr. Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

(Document marked "Pevzner Exhibit No. 10" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently have an official connection with 
Jewish Life? 

Mr, Pevzner. I refuse to answer on the grounds I previously 
stated, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Have you any questions? 

Mr. ScHERER. I don't know. Counsel, did you ask the witness 
whether he is a member of the party at this moment? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 

Mr. Pevzner. Pardon me, sir 

The Chairman. It seems to me a tragic thing that somebody 
would take advantage of a fine people and bring the kind of criticism 
that must necessarily flow from your association with magazines that 
in no wise are connected with the Jewish people. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Pevzner. I have dedicated my whole life to the interests of 
the Jewish people. 

The Chairman. I Ivuow. 

Mr. Pevzner. And no one can question that, sir. And I think 
if this committee would interrogate about individual bombings of 
synagogues and among Negro homes they might be doing something 
in this country instead of mvestigating opinions. 

The Chairman. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the next witness 
will be Annette T. Rubinstein. 

Will you kindly come forward? 

Would you kindly stand while the chairman administers an oath 
to you? 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Miss Rubinstein. I do. 



2450 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

TESTIMONY OF ANNETTE T. RUBINSTEIN; ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, DAVID REIN 

Mr, Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Miss Rubinstein. Annette T. Rubinstein, 59 West 71st Street, 
New York City. At present I am a free lance \\'Titer and a lecturer. 
I was a teacher. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Miss Rubinstein. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel? 

Miss Rubinstein. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, 71*1 14th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed — -is it Miss or Mrs.? 

Miss Rubinstein. Miss. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Rubinstein. 

Miss Rubinstein. Self-employed. 

Mr. Arens. What do you write? 

Miss Rubinstein. Well, one of my most recent was The Great 
Tradition in English Literature From Shakespeare to Shaw. That is 
a 960-page history of English literature. I edited, I Vote My Con- 
science, letters and speeches and so on, of the late Congressman 
Vito Marcantonio. I wrote a book published by the Journal of 
Philosophy, Realistic Ethics, mostly in the field of literature, I would 
say. 

Mr. Arens. And where have you lectured or talked? 

Miss Rubinstein. Oh, I have lectured and talked — I was until 
1952 principal of the Robert Louis Stevenson High School in New 
York, and I have lectured in, I suppose, 500 women's clubs and temple 
sisterhoods and ladies' aid societies and philanthropic groups, cultural 
groups and so on, all over the country. 

Mr. Arens. Have you lectured at the Jefferson School of Social 
Science in New York City? 

Miss Rubinstein. Well, I think on that I am going to refuse to 
answer on the grounds that it is an mvasion of privacy according to 
the first amendment and also on the grounds that no one need testify 
against herself under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you consider it an invasion of your privacy to 
ask you about these other groups to whom you have freely admitted 
you lectured? 

Miss Rubinstein. To ask the specific names of them, yes, sir, I 
would. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a thermofax reproduction of an 
announcement of the Jefferson School of Social Science for its courses 
of study, and on page 21 appears the name of Annette T. Rubinstein 
as instructor or professor of certain courses in that school in the fall 
course of 1956. 

Kindly look at that document and tell this committee whether or 
not that truthfully and accurately represents your status with the 
Jefferson School of Social Science at that time. 



COIVIMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2451 

Miss KuBiNSTEiN. I regret that I must refuse to answer this on the 
same grounds that were previously given. 

The Chairman. Just a minute. 

Do you feel that you might be subjected to a criminal prosecution if 
you admitted yom- connection with that school? 

Miss Rubinstein. As I read the fifth amendment, it doesn't say 
anything about criminal. But it does say that no one need to testify 
against himself. 

The Chairman. In a criminal prosecution. It does say criminal. 

Miss Rubinstein. I would stand on the fifth amendment on that; 
yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. What is that Jefferson School? 

Mr. Arens. The Jefferson School of Social Science is a Communist- 
controlled school, and has been repeatedly cited as part of the Com- 
munist propaganda operation in the United States. 

Miss Rubinstein, I lay before you now comparable announcements 
over the course of the last several years of the Jefferson School of 
Social Science in which Annette Rubinstein is listed as an instructor 
in several coiu'ses there. 

Kindly look at these exhibits which I am now displaying to you, 
and tell this committee whether or not you are truthfully and 
accurately described in them as a member of the faculty of the 
Jefferson School of Social Science. 

Miss Rubinstein. I am sorry, but I must continue to stand on my 
rights under the fifth amendment and first amendment to refuse to 
answer these questions. 

(Documents marked "Rubinstein Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. What is the Sunday evening forum? Could you tell 
us about that? Could you tell us what the Sunday evening forum is? 

Miss Rubinstein. Will you make that a more specific question? 

\lx. Arens. Yes. 

I have before me now a reproduction of the Communist Daily 
Worker of Sunday, May 4, 1958, in which a Sunday evening forum 
at Adelphi Hall is described. I will lay this before you in just a 
moment. 

Among those who are going to be heard at this Sunday evening 
forum with reference to paths to socialism and Soviet economic 
progress is listed Annette Rubinstein. 

Kindly look at this article which I am now displaying to you 
and see if that refreshes your recollection. 

Aliss Rubinstein. Just to correct the reading into the record, it 
says here that Annette Rubinstein is going to speak on four poUtical 
playwrights — Shaw, O'Casey, Brecht, and Sartre. 

But I am sorry. I must refuse to answer except for just reading 
from it to correct the title that you had read into the record. 

Mr. Arens. I am sorry if I gave the Avrong characterization. 

Does this Communist Daily Worker of Sunday, May 4, 1958, 
accurately describe you as one of the lecturers for some of these 
classes? 

Miss Rubinstein. I am sorry, I must continue to stand on my 
rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Rubinstein Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 



2452 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Arens. Do you loiow Victor Perlo? 

Miss Rubinstein. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you known him? 

Miss Rubinstein. I have seen him for some years. I don't 
know him well, but I've seen about, I should say, 3, 4 years perhaps. 

Mr. Arens. What has been the nature of your acquaintanceship 
with him, please? 

Miss Rubinstein. Social. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the extent of your acquaintanceship with him? 

Miss Rubinstein. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever served in a closed Communist Party 
meeting with Victor Perlo? 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm sorry, but obviously I must refuse to answer 
that on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, you said you knew Victor Perlo socially, 
did you not? 

Miss Rubinstein. Socially, yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Is that the only \vB,y j^ou know him, socially? 

Miss Rubinstein. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. You did not know him then in connection with any 
Communist Party activities? 

Miss Rubinstein. Well, as I say, any questions about Communist 
Party activities I must claim the protection of the first amendment 
for political privacy, and the protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. If you only knew him socially, then you should not 
hesitate to say that you did not know him in connection with any 
Communist Party activities. 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm sorry, on that question I will have to con- 
tinue to stand on the protection of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been active in protesting the security screen- 
ing by the Coast Guard of merchant seamen and longshoremen? 

Perhaps I could refresh your recollection. You seem to be hesitant 
there. 

I have before me a thermofax reproduction of an article in the 
Communist Daily Worker of March 16, 1956, in which Annette 
Rubinstein is listed as chau'inau of a public meeting to protest the 
Coast Guard screening of merchant seamen and longshoremen. 

Kindly look at this article and tell this committee while you are 
under oath whether or not that refreshes your recollection with 
reference to your activity in that enterprise. 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm sorry that I will have to refuse to answer 
this question as an invasion of privacy under the first amendment and 
imder my rights under the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Rubinstein Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you been one of the speakers of the East Side 
Committee of American-Soviet Friendship in its rally tribute to the 
Red army in February 1944? Do you recall that? 

Miss Rubinstein. I don't recall it. But, in any case, I would have 
to stand on the protection of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a tliermofax reproduction of the 
announcement of that meeting in wliich Dr. Annette T. Rubinstein is 
listed as one of the speakers in the tribute to the Red army. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2453 

Woiild 3^ou kindly look at this and tell this committee whether or 
not that refreshes your recollection with reference to your activities 
in that enterprise? 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm sorry, but I will have to refuse to answer 
that under my rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "Rubinstein Exhibit No. 4" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Is the "Dr." an accurate description of you there? 
Are you a doctor? 

Miss Rubinstein. Oh, yes. I have a Ph. D. from Columbia Uni- 
versity. 

Mr. Arens. What is your Ph. D. degree in? 

Miss Rubinstein. Philosophy. 

Mr. Arens. When did you procure that? 

Miss Rubinstein. 1933. 

Mr. Arens. Would you just tell us the highlights of your em- 
ployment since you procured your Ph. D. degree in philosophy from 
Columbia University? 

Miss Rubinstein. Yes. Well, I taught philosophy at New York 
University. Well, that was just before. I taught from 1929 to 1931 or 
1932 at New York University. Then in 1934 I became principal of the 
Robert Louis Stevenson School in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a high school? 

Miss Rubinstein. Well, it was a 12-year school. It began with 
kindergarten and went right up to high school. 

Mr. Arens. You were principal of it? 

Miss Rubinstein. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time? 

Miss Rubinstein. 1934 to 1952. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist during any period of time that 
you were principal of that school? 

Miss Rubinstein. Well, obviously I must refuse to answer that 
under my rights of privacy under the first amendment and the protec- 
tion of the fifth amendment . 

The Chairman. In view of the fact that you have told us all about 
your activities in school and teaching, why do you consider this 
question an invasion of your privacy? 

Miss Rubinstein. It is a question as to my political beliefs or 
affiliations. Obviously it is an invasion of my privacy. 

Mr. Arens. Aside from any political beliefs or affiliations, while you 
were principal of that high school in New York City or that school in 
New York Citv, were you under the discipline of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Rubinstein. You mean was I a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Miss Rubinstein. I just said I refused to answer that question 
under my rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Then proceed to tell us your next employment or 
occupation. 

Miss Rubinstein. In 1952 I resigned as principal and since then, 
the next 2 or 3—1 completed this long history of English literature, 
The Great Tradition of English Literature from Shakespeare to Shaw, 
And then after that I • 



2454 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Arens. Was your resignation voluntary or involuntary? 

Miss Rubinstein. It was a voluntary resignation. 

Mr. Arens. Was it precipitated or caused or stimulated in any 
way by any element that you would like to tell us about? 

Miss Rubinstein. No. 

Mr. Arens. Was it because they were breathing hot on your neck? 

Miss Rubinstein. Wlio's "they"? 

Mr. Arens. People who were trying to expose Communists in the 
public-school system in New York City. 

Miss Rubinstein. To begin with, this was not a public school. 

Mr. Arens. In a school system. 

Miss Rubinstein. It was a voluntary resignation. 

Whatever I wanted to write — a book — I may have had other per- 
sonal feelings about it, but it was a voluntary resignation. 

Mr. Arens. Did it happen to coincide with any governmental 
activity relating to Communists and Communist Party members who 
were in the teaching profession? 

Miss Rubinstein. Not that I know of, of any specific nature. 

Such activities as this committee or the Feinberg law in New York, 
and so on, had been going on for a long time. 

Mr. Arens. Did that have any connection with your resignation 
at all? 

Miss Rubinstein. No. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged in writing this book? 

Miss Rubinstein. Let me see. 

It came out the beginning of 1954, I think, and then after that I 
was working on this posthumous collection of the late Congressman 
Marcantonio's papers and so on, which came out just about a year 
and a-half, 2 years ago, I guess. And now I am working on a history 
of American literature, which should come out in about 3 years. 

Mr. Ap.ens. In the interim you have been active in offering a num- 
ber of articles for Jewish Life, the Communist Worker, Masses and 
Mainstream, and the like, have you not? 

Miss Rubinstein. I think I will have to claim the protection of 
the first and fifth amendments as to the specific periodicals for which 
I have been writing. 

Mr. Ap.ens. Are there any non-Communist periodicals for which 
you have been writing in the course of the last several years? 

Miss Rubinstein. I thinlv I will have to claim the protection of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I have here — and I thiiilv, in the interest of economy 
of time, I will group them — a number of exhibits of articles in which 
Dr. Annette Rubinstein is listed as a speaker, chairman of various 
events, signer, promoter of various enterprises; one. Jury on Trial, 
the People of New York Must Protest Biased Juries, Dr. Annette 
Rubinstein listed as a speaker. Another one, about the same period 
of time — 1949 — where Dr. Annette Rubinstein is to be a speaker on 
Bill of Rights versus Trial by Jury. Another one, Women Fight 
Deportation Meeting, at which Dr. Annette Rubinstein is to be a 
speaker. 

Another one in which a number of people in New York City re- 
quested, including Dr. Annette Rubinstein, reasonable bail for the 11 
convicted Communists; a rally in 1950, in which Dr. Annette Rubin- 
stein joins with a number of other people in protesting the suspension 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2455 

of certain Communist teachers who had been suspended from their 
jobs. Another in which 150 women sign a plea for amnesty for the 
11 Communists, including Dr. Annette Rubmstein. Another one in 
which a number of people, including Dr. Annette Rubinstein, author 
and literary critic, have a rally on behalf of Communist Elizabeth 
Gurley Flynn. 

Kindly take a look at those seven exhibits. I see you have been 
glancing at them while I have been putting them on the table before 
you. 

Tell us whether or not your activity in each of these enterprises is 
truly and correctly described in those published articles, copies of 
which I have laid before you. 

Miss Rubinstein. I am sorry. I will have to claim the protection 
of the first and fifth amendments against identifying any of these 
particular events. 

(Seven documents combined, marked "Rubinstein Exhibit No. 5," 
retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I should like to cover some of your activities 
as a propagandist for the Communist Party. 

Miss Rubinstein. That's not a question, I take it. That is your 
inference or assertion. 

Mr. Arens. Are you and have you been a propagandist for the 
Communist Party? 

Miss Rubinstein. On this I must claim the protection of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to call your attention, if you please, to the 
November 1948 issue of Jewish Life, in which an article appears by 
Dr. Annette Rubinstein entitled, "Twenty-five Years of the Jewish 
American Novel." 

Kindly look at the reproduction of that article I lay before you, and 
tell this committee whether or not you are the Annette Rubinstein 
who authored that article, and whether or not you are truly and 
correctl3'' described there. 

Miss Rubinstein. I am sorry, I will have to refuse to answer on 
the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Rubinstein Exhibit No. 6" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I should like to lay before you, if you please, a thermo- 
fax reproduction of an article in the June 1955 issue of Masses and 
Mainstream, in which Annette Rubinstein is listed as the author of 
an article concerning The Searching Light, a book by Martha Dodd. 

Look at this reproduction and tell us whether or not you are truth- 
fully and accurately described there as the author of this particular 
article. 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm sorry, I shall have to refuse to answer this 
on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Rubinstein Exhibit No. 7" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a thermofax reproduction from a 
publication called Mainstream, in which your name appears as a 
contributing editor. Kindly look at this document, issue of Septem- 
ber 1956, and tell this committee while you are under oath whether 
or not you are truly and accurately described. 



2456 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm sorry, I shall have to refuse to answer this 
on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Rubinstein Exhibit No. 8," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you, at any time, been an author of certain 
articles appearing in the Communist Daily Worker? 

Miss Rubinstein. I shall have to refuse to answer that on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you, if you please, a thermofax reproduc- 
tion of the Communist Daily Worker of August 12, 1956, in which 
Annette T. Rubinstein is listed as the editor of a certain book. Kindly 
look at that document and tell us whether or not you are truly and 
accurately described there. 

Miss Rubinstein. Well, I have testified that I am the editor of 
I Vote My Conscience, which is mentioned there. 

(Document marked "Rubinstein Exhibit No. 9" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Are you the author of an article appearing in Jewish 
Life entitled "A Garland for the Rosenbergs"? 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm sorry, I shall have to refuse to answer on 
the grounds previously given. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before j^ou now an original copy of the Jewish 
Life of June 1957, in which appears an article, A Garland for the 
Rosenbergs, by Annette T. Rubinstein. 

Kindly look at that publication as I now display it to you and tell 
this committee while you are under oath whether or not you were 
the author of that article? 

Miss Rubinstein. I am sorry, I shall have to refuse to answer 
that on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Rubinstein Exhibit No. 10," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you authored a number of book reviews in the 
Communist Daily Worker, including a book review on a book by 
Albert Maltz. 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm sorry, I shall have to refuse to answer that 
on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly tell us a word about your 
candidacy for public office? Have you run for public office? 

Miss Rubinstein. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And were you a Communist when vou ran for public 
office? 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm sorry, but you are asking the same question, 
and I must give you the same answer. 

I ran for public office on the American Labor Party ticket. I ran 
for a number of offices. The most recent, I think, was for Congress. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you run for Congress on the American 
Labor Party ticket? 

Miss Rubinstein. I think it was in a special election when Con- 
gressman Sol Bloom died. I think it was 1948, but I'm not quite 
certain. I ran against F. D. R., Jr. 

Mr. Arens. It wasn't 1949; was it? 

Miss Rubinstein. It may have been 1949. 

Mr. Arens. This perhaps will refresh your recollection. 

Miss Rubinstein. Yes. It was the spring of 1949. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2457 

Mr. Arens. Now, Miss Rubinstein, this com.mittee is interested in 
an organization called the Fund for Social Analysis. Do you have 
any connection with that organization? 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm sorry, I shall have to refuse to answer that 
under the same gi'ounds. 

Mr. Arens. I have here in my hand a reproduction of an article 
taken from Mainstream of just a month or so ago, April of 1958. I 
should like to read an excerpt from this article, and then display the 
entire article to you. [Reading :] 

The Fund for Social Analysis has just been organized as an informal group of 
individuals interested in aiding research on problems of Marxist theory and its 
application, bringing together people who want to encourage such studies, and 
to provide financial assistance toward their production. 

It goes on to describe the organization, the grants-in-aid that are 
being developed for the Fund for Social Analysis: address, 165 Broad- 
way'', New York. And among those who are listed here in this article 
on the committee on awards of the Fund for Social Action 

Miss Rubinstein. Fund for Social Analysis. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. Fund for Social Analysis — is Annette- 
Rubinstein. 

Kindly look at that document and tell us whether or not you are 
truthfully and correctly described there as a member of the committee 
on awards of the Fund for Social Analysis in New York City. 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm soriy, I shall have to refuse to answer this 
on the same ground. 

(Document marked ''Rubinstein Exhibit No. 11," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. The others who are listed here with you as members 
of this committee on awards, which is to make awards over the country 
for this Fund for Social Analysis, is Russell Nixon. Do you know 
him? 

Miss Rubinstein. I am afraid I shall have to refuse to answer 
that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Russell Nixon has been identified before this commit- 
tee under oath as a member of the Communist Party. Do you know 
that to be a fact? 

Miss Rubinstein. You tell it to me, and I don't doubt you, 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Russell Nixon is a 
Communist? 

Miss Rubinstein. I'm sorry, I shall have to refuse to answer that 
on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Another pei-son who is listed here as a comember with 
you on the committee on awards of the Fund for Social Analj^sis 
is Frank Coe. Do you know Frank Coe? 

Miss Rubinstein. I shall have to refuse to answer that on the 
same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Another person who is listed here on this document 
as a member with you on the committee on awards of the Fund for 
Social Analj-sis is Irving Kaplan. Do you know Irving Kaplan? 

Miss Rubinstein. I sluill have to refuse to answer that on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Another person who is listed here as a member of this, 
committee on awards with you is Harry MagdofF. 

Miss Rubinstein. I shall have to refuse to answer that on the 
same grounds. 



2458 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Arens. Harry Magdoff has been identified before this com- 
mittee as a member of the Commmiist Party, a one-time member of 
the Communist Party. Do you know whether or not Harry Magdoff 
is a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Rubinstein. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Another person who is listed with you as a comember 
of this committee on awards of the Fund for Social Analysis is Stanley 
Moore. Do you know Stanley Moore? 

Miss Rubinstein. I shall have to refuse to answer that on the 
same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Does the record reflect that I asked you with respect 
to J. Raymond Walsh? If not, I should like to ask you, Do you know 
J, Raymond Walsh who was a member of this committee with you? 

Miss Rubinstein. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. According to this publication, grants are being made 
by this committee on awards from $500 to $3,000 for various projects 
over the country. Would you be good enough to tell this Committee 
on Un-American Activities whether or not this is a true and correct 
statement with respect to the grants and awards being made by this 
Fund for Social Analysis? 

Miss Rubinstein. I will have to refuse to answer that on the same 
grounds. 

The Chairman. What is the source of the income of this 
organization? 

Miss Rubinstein. As I think the record shows, I have refused to 
answer as to any connection with this organization or any knowledge 
of it. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, if you told this committee 
whether or not you are connected with the Fund for Social Analysis 
you would be supplying information which might be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding? 

Miss Rubinstein. I think the protection of the fifth amendment 
is clear, and that one does not have to point out in what way it might 
tend to work against one. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a speaker at a Carnegie Hall May Day 
celebration in April of this year, April 27? 

(The witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Just a few weeks ago. 

Miss Rubinstein. I am sony, I shall have to refuse to answer 
that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Rubinstein. I think you have already 

In any case, I shall refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that we conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions you desire to ask at this 
time? 

Mr. Willis. No. 

The Chairman. Tlie witness is excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock 
tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 3:25 p. m. Wednesday, June 11, the committee 
was recessed, to reconvene at 10 a. m. Thursday, June 12, 1958.) 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

—Part 9— 
Student Groups, Distributors, and Propagandists 



THURSDAY, JUNE 12, 1958 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 
public hearing 

The Committee on Un-American Activities met, pursuant to recess, 
at 10:20 a. m., in the Caucus Room, Old House Office Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman of the committee) 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter 
of Pennsylvania, Edwin E. Willis of Louisiana (appearance as noted), 
and William M. Tuck of Virginia. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; and Frank 
Bonora, investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your first witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Boris Cohen, kmdly come forward, and remain 
standmg while the chairman administers an oath to you. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so heliD you God? 

Mr. Cohen. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF BORIS S. COHEN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

FRANK J. DONNER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Cohen, My name is Boris Cohen, 185 Gramercy Avenue, 
New York 27, N. Y., commercial printer. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Cohen, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Cohen. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be convenient for you to keep your voice up 
a little bit? The acoustics in this room are rather poor. 

Mr, Cohen. I will. 

2459 



2460 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel? 

Mr. Cohen. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. DoNNER. Frank J. Donner, 342 Madison Avenue, New York 
City. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Cohen, would you kindly, for this record, spell 
your name so we have it correctly? 

Mr. Cohen. Boris, B-o-r-i-s S. Cohen, C-o-h-e-n. 

Mr. Arens. Where were j^ou born, Mr. Cohen? 

Mr. Cohen. Russia. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Cohen. 1894. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States for perma- 
nent residence? 

Mr. Cohen. 1906. 

Mr. Arens. Is Boris Cohen the name under whicli you were born 
or have you changed your nam.e at any time? 

Mr. Cohen. I was born under the name of Boris Cohen, but I am 
a citizen under the name of Benjamin Cohen. 

Mr. Arens. Have you gone under any name other than the name 
Boris Cohen during your adult life? 

Mr. Cohen. No. 

Mr. Arens. "Where are you employed? 

Mr. Cohen. I own the Prompt Printing Press, Inc. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you owned tlie Prompt Printing Press?' 

Mr. Cohen. Twenty-five years last Februar}^ 

Mr. Arens. Isn't the Prompt Printing Press a corporation? 

Mr. Cohen. Right. 

Mr. Arens. And you own the majority of the stock? 

Mr, Cohen. Right. 

Ml'. Arens. How many employees with the Prompt Printing- 
Press? 

Mr. Cohen. Today about 12. 

Mr. Arens. Where is the Prompt Fruiting Press located? 

Mr. Cohen. 113 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us, please, what is the label or bug of the 
Prompt Printing Press? 

Mr. Cohen. The Allied Printing Trades Council label. Our 
number is 209. 

Mr. Arens. Do j^ou also own or have you owned the New Union 
Press? 

Mr. Cohen, I am the minority stockholder in the New Union Press. 

Mr. Arens, Give us just a word of description of the New Union 
Press. 

Mr, Cohen. Commercial printing. 

Mr. Arens. What is the bug of the New Union Press? 

Mr. Cohen. 412. 

Mr, Arens, Does the Prompt Printing Press print Political Affairs? 

Mr, Cohen, It does. 

Mr. Arens. Whom do you contract for printing Political Affairs? 

Mr. Cohen. The New Century Publishers. 

The Chairman. What was that, Mr. Cohen? 

Mr. Cohen. The New Century Publishers, 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2461 

Mr. Arbns. Who in the New C'entury Publishers is the person with 
whom you deal in your negotiations for printing? 

Mr. Cohen. Joseph Felshin. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell it? 

Mr. Cohen. F-e-1-s-h-i-n. 

Mr. Arens. Do you also print at the Prompt Printing Press, 
Jewish Currents? 

Mr. Cohen. I do. 

Air. Arens. How long have you printed Jewish Currents? 

Mr. Cohen. Jewish C'Urrents I think is a new publication, i)rintiiig 
probably starting the begiiniing of this year. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be convenient for you to keep your voice up a 
little more, please, Mr. Cohen? 

Mr. Cohen. I will. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us what is the volume that you print of 
Political Affairs? 

Mr. Cohen. Today it is 5,750 copies. 

Mr. Arens. Do you actually circulate the copies or do you then 
turn them over to the editors of Political Affairs? 

Mr. Cohen. To the publishers of Political Affairs. 

Mr. Arens. To the publishers. How man}^ copies do you print 
regularly of Jewish Currents? 

Mr. Cohen. Four thousand copies. 

Mr. Arens. And do you circulate those or do you cause those to 
be sent back to the publisher? 

Mr. Cohen. To the publisher. 

Mr. Arens. Do you or have you also printed eTewisli Life? 

Mr. Cohen. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Jewish Life is no longer published? 

Mr. Cohen. Right; no longer published. 

Mr. Arens. Was it succeeded by Jewish Currents? 

Mr. Cohen. Right. 

Mr. Arens. Vvliat was the circidation or the numljer you printed 
of JcAnsh Life? 

Mr. Cohen. About the same, which is 4,000. 

Air. Arens. Whom did you contract for printing Jewish Life? 

Air. Cohen. Air. Harap. 

Air. Arens. Would you kindly give his fuil name? 

Air. Cohen. H-a-r-a-p. 

Air. Arens. First name, please. 

Air. Cohen. I really don't remember. 

Air. Arens. Where is he located? 

Air. Cohen. In the offices of Jewish Life. 

Air. Arens. Where are those? 

Air. Cohen. I don't remember. 

Air. Arens. Do you also print Alainstream? 

Air. Cohen. Right. 

Mr. Arens. And how many copies of Mainstream do you print 
per month? 

Air. Cohen. Three thousand, five hundred. 

Air. Arens. Do you turn 3"our printed copies over to the publishers 
for their distribution as vou do with vour other publications? 

Air. Cohen. Right. 



2462 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 



Air. Arens. Whom do you contract for the printing of Main- 
stream? 

Mr. Cohen. Mr. Felshin of the New Century PubHshers. 

Mr. Arens. Have you also printed the Party Voice? 

Mr. Cohen. I do. 

Mr. Arens. That was pubhshed by what organization? 

Mr. Cohen. The New York State Coimnunist Party. 

Mr. Arens. And whom did you contract for the printing of Party 
Voice? 

Mr. Cohen. Kecently it is Mr. WilHam Weinstone. 

Mr. Arens. Wilham? 

Mr. Cohen. Weinstone. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you printed Party Voice? 

Mr. Cohen. Quite a number of years. 

Mr. Arens. How many copies ol Party Voice do you print? 

Mr. Cohen. Two thousand, five hundred. 

Mr. Arens. Over the course of what time do you print 2,500? 

Mr. Cohen. Lately there was 1 or 2 issues printed altogether — 
lately there was only one issue printed. 

Mr. Arens. \Mien was that printed? 

Mr. Cohen. In the month of Februarj^, I think. 

Mr. Arens. Is Party Voice published regularly? 

Mr. Cohen. It has not been published for about 10 months or so. 

Mr. Arens. When was this recent issue published? 

Cohen. I think it was in February or March, something like 



Mr 

that? 
Mr 
Mr 



Arens. Do you publish or print the Worker? 
Cohen. No; we don't. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever printed the Worker? 

Mr. Cohen. Never. 

The Chairman. Mr. Cohen, as to the title of this magazine, Jemsh 
Currents, how do you suppose it got its title? 

Mr. Cohen. I wouldn't know. 

The Chairman. This is not an official Jewish publication; is it? 

Mr. Cohen. I wouldn't know. 

The Chairman. There is nothing in the publication to indicate 
that it expresses a Jewish viewpoint; is there? 

Mr. Cohen. I wouldn't know. I am only a printer. 

The Chairman. I think it is a terrible thing that this sort of thing 
goes on because thousands of fine people are stigmatized needlessly 
just because somebody publishing a magazine is maldng capital out 
of a religion and a race of fine people. I think it is a dreadful thing. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Cohen, are you a member of the Communist 



Party? 

Mr. Cohen. 

Mr. Arens. 
Party? 

Mr. Cohen. 

Mr. Arens. 



I am not now a member of the Communist Party. 
Have 3^ou ever been a member of the Communist 



I plead the fifth. 

Were you a member of tlie Communist Party at any 
time in the course of the year 1958? 

Mr. Cohen. I am not a member of the Communist Party since 
1949. 
Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of John Lautner? 
Mr. Cohen. I saw his name in the press. I don't recoUect 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2463 

Mr. Arens. John Lautiier testified before this committee that 
while lie was a member of the Communist Party he knew 3^011 as a 
Communist. Was he in error on that? 

Mr. Cohen. I plead the fifth on everything before 1949. 

The Chairman. 1948? 

Mr. DoNNER. 1949. 

Mr. Cohen. 1949. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Cohen, did yom- Prompt Press print this pamphlet, 
Books on Trial, The Case of Alexander Trachtenberg? 

Mr. Cohen. From the label I would derive that we did. 

Mr. Arens. Did yom- Prompt Press print this publication, Pitts- 
biu-gh: Peace on Trial, by Art Shields? 

Mr. Cohen. I would not remember, but our label is on it. 

Mr. Arens. Did your Prompt Press print the publication, Mr. 
President, Free Earl Browder? 

Mr. Cohen. From the label I would say yes; we did. 

Mr. Arens. Did your Prompt Press print this circular. Prominent 
Citizens, Labor Leaders, Call to Elect Benjamin J. Davis, Jr., to the 
City Council? 

Mr. Cohen. By the label I would say we did. 

Mr. Arens. In these publications, which I have just displayed to 
you, do you recall whom you contracted for the printing of these 
publications? 

Mr. Cohen. No; I wouldn't unless it is a pubhsher's name given on 
the publication. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a booldet entitled ''The Reign of 
Witches, the Struggle Against the Alien and Sedition Laws," by 
Elizabeth Lawson, with an introduction by William L. Patterson. 

Kindly look at that publication and tell this committee whether or 
not Prompt Press printed it. 

Mr. Cohen. By the label I would say "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now, if you please, sir, Voices for 
Freedom, #2. 

Kindly look at that document, published under the auspices of the 
Civil Rights Congress, and tell us whether or not your company printed 
that. 

Mr. Cohen. Again, by the label, I would say, "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a document entitled "The 5 Cent Fare 
in Danger," published by the Civic Research Bureau in New York. 

Kindly tell us whether or not your firm printed that publication. 

Mr. Cohen. Again, by the label, I would say, "Yes". 

Mr. Arens. Here is a pubUcation by Albert E. Kahn, Vengeance on 
the Young, The Story of the Smith Act Children. Kmdly look at 
that and tell us whether or not you printed that publication. 

Mr. Cohen. Again, by the label, I would say, "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a publication of the Metropolitan 
Music School, Inc., in New York City, which was recently cited by the 
Committee on Un-American Activities as a Communist-controlled 
enterprise. 

Kindly look at that publication and teU the committee whether or 
not your firm printed that document. 

Mr. Cohen. Again, by the label, I would say, "Yes." 



2464 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you another pamplilet entitled, "Due 
Process in a Political Trial; The Record versus The Press, in the Foley 
Square Trial of the 12 Communist Leaders." 

Kmdly look at this document and tell the committee ^\llether or 
not your iirm printed it. 

Mr. Cohen. By the label I would say "Yes". 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a publication dated AprU 1958, New 
World Review. Kindlj- look at this document and tell the committee 
whether or not your firm printed it? 

Mr. Cohen. Yes, we did. 

M]-. Arens. Do you recall with whom you contracted for the 
printing of this New World RevieW' ? 

Mr. Cohen. Mrs. Jessica Smith. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not she is or ever has l)een 
a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Cohen. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a booklet entitled. Film Sense. 
Kindly look at this document and tell the committee whether or not 
your firm prints it. 

Mr. Cohen. By the label I would say "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us while 1 am procuring additional 
exhibits to display to you, IVIr. Cohen, the aggregate volume of 
busmess of Prompt Press per vear? 

Mr. Cohen. Today it is about $125,000. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat percentage of that business comes from Com- 
mmiist organizations and Communist fronts and what percent from 
non-Communist organizations and non-Communist groups? 

Mr. Cohen. I would say, including all the publishers and the 
magazines, about 50 percent. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a pamphlet entitled "Joseph 
Stalin For Peaceful Coexistence, Postwar Interview's," under the 
auspices of the International Publishers, New York. 

Kindly teU us whether or not your firm prints that. 

Mr. Cohen. By the label, yes. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a book entitled, "Materialism and the 
Dialectical Alethod," by Maurice Cornforth, under the auspices of 
International Publishers, New York. 

Kindly look at that document and tell tlie committee wdiether or 
not your firm printed that document. 

Air. Cohen. By the label, yes. 

(At this point Representative Willis entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a booklet entitled, "The Income 
'Revolution,' " by Victor Perlo, in collaboration with Labor Research 
Association. Kindly tell this committee whether or not your firm 
prints that. 

Mr. Cohen. Yes; by the label, yes. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a seiies of documents: Murder at the 
Kemerovo Mines: Trotskyite PJottei-s at Work; Amnesty; Conspiracy 
To Sti-angle Labor; A Letter to Congress: Defeat the Anti-Labor Smith 
Bill; Elizabeth Gurley Flynn vSpeaks to the Court; The Anatomy of 
McCarthyism; Milestones in the History of the Communist Party; 
On Guard Against Browderism, Titoism, Trotskyism; Pettis Perry 
Speaks to the Court; The Smith Act — A Threat to Labor; Socialism, 
the Road to Peace, Prosperity, and Freedom; Stand Up for Freedom; 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2465 

The Steel Workers and the Fight for Labor's Rights; The Trucks Act, 
Michigan's Blueprint for a Fascist State ; The Truth About the Com- 
munists; World Capitalism and World Socialism; The "Free Press"; 
and How To Protect Yourself From the Atom Bomb.' 

Kindly, if you please, sir, glance at those documents and tell this 
committee whether or not your firm prints the booklets I have 
named for you. 

Mr. CoHEx. All these cany the label. I would say we have printed 
them. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell the committee, if you please, sir, what is 
your best judgment or estimate as of the moment as to the total 
volume of these publications which your firm prints a year, or say in 
the last year. 

Mr. Cohen. The total volume outside of the periodicals is almost 
none. No publications have been issued last year, maybe with the 
exception of 2 or ?>, to my memory, outside of the regular periodical 
publications. 

Mr. Akexs. What is the total volume of >'our publications per year? 

Mr. Cohex. I gave you the figure before. I never made a total of 
the sum of the circulation of every paper that was printed. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us just a word of characteriza- 
tion again on this New Union Press? 

Air. Cohen. The New Union Press is a printing job; does com- 
mercial work and prints for whatever work it can get. 

Mv. Arens. You said a few moments ago that 50 percent of your 
business is with Communist Party groups, Communist fronts; is that 
correct? 

Mr. Cohen. We don't separate it in that particular fashion; 50 
percent is what you would call Communist works. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any registration with the Department of 
Justice by the Prompt Press? 

Mr. Cohen. No. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any labeling on any of this material which 
Ave have characterized as material published for the Communist Party 
and for the Communist front groups, any labeling to indicate that it 
is being cKsseminated by Communist fronts? 

Mr. Cohen. I have no idea. I don't know what you are talking 
about. 

Mr. Arens. In any event, you do not register under the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act, do you? 

Mr. Cohen. We are not publishers. We are only commercial 
printers. 

Mr. Arens. And there is no bug indicating that the publications 
are Communist or Communist front publications, is there? 

Mr. Cohen. There is none that I know of. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Now Union Press function as a subordinate 
corporation or unit to the Prompt Press, or is it an independent 
corporation? 

Mr. Cohen. It is an independent corporation. 

Mr. Arens. Where is it located? 

Mr. Cohen. 119 or 113 Fourth Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. Is there an exchange of personnel between the Prompt 
Press and the NeA\' I'^nion Prc^ss? 

' Publications referred to marked "Cohen Exhibits Nos. 1-33" and retained in committee flies. 



2466 coiviMinsriST propaganda 

Mr, CoHEN". No. Each one lias its own staff. 

Mr. Arens. And jou are a minority stockholder? 

Mr. Cohen. Right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you hold an office? 

Mr. Cohen. I do. 

Mr. Arens. What is your ofnce? 

Mr. Cohen. Treasurer. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been treasurer of the New Union 
Press? 

Mr. Cohen. For the entire existence of the New Union Press. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time has that been? 

Mr. Cohen. 15-20 years, something like that. 

Mr. Arens. That is in the same building as the Prompt Press? 

Mr. Cohen. That is right. It is on the same floor. 

Mr. Arens. Who is the president of the New Union Press? 

Mr. Cohen. Mr. Leichtman. 

Mr. Arens. And his first name, please, sir? 

Mr. Cohen. Carl. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly spell his last name for us? 

Mr. Cohen. Leichtman. L-e-i-c-h-t-m-a-n. 

Mr. Arens. Is he also the majority stockholder of the New Union 
Press? 

Mr. Cohen. Correct. 

Mr. Arens. Who are the other principal officers of the New Union 
Press? 

Mr. Cohen. None. 

Mr. Arens. Does the New Union Press print, as you have said 
the Prompt Press does, considerable work for the Communist Party 
and for Communist front groups? 

Mr. Cohen. The New Union Press is an independent corporation 
which seeks for work and bids for whatever they get. 

Mr. Arens. What percentage of the work for the New Union 
Press would you estimate is done for Communist front groups or the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Cohen. Very little. 

Mr. Arens. Did the New Union Press print this document for the 
American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, a call to a 
conference? 

Kindly look at that document and tell us whether or not the New 
Union Press printed it. 

Mr. Cohen. The only thing I can tell by this document is the fact 
that it carries the label 412. 

Mr. Arens. And is that the label of the New Union Press? 

Mr. Cohen. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Used by the New Union Press? 

Mr. Cohen. Right. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us, if you please sir, whether or not the 
New Union Press printed this document. Proceedings — New York 
State Model Legislature of Youth, January 28-30, 1938, held at 
College of the City of New York, under the auspices of American 
Youth Congress. 

Kindly look at that and tell us whether or not it was printed by 
the New Union Press. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2467 

Mr. Cohen. That is kind of an old document, 1938, but it carries 
the label 214. 

Mr. Arens. Would you say it was printed by the New Union 
Press? 

Mr. Cohen. I would. 

Mr. Arens. I have here a publication of the Jefferson 

Mr. Cohen. By the way, on the previous one, I think the label 
was 214 — it was not 412— therefore this was not printed by the New 
Union Press. I am sorry. 

Mr. Arens. The document. Proceedings — New York State Model 
Legislatm*e for Youth, was not printed 

Mr. Cohen. Yes; 214. That is not the label of the New Union 
Press. 

Mr. Arens. Did the New Union Press have a label ever as this one? 

Mr, Cohen. No; definitely not. 

Mr. Arens. All right. Thank you for clarifying that. 

Did the New Union Press print this document, Jefferson School of 
Social Science, mnter, 1956? 

Mr. Cohen. 412 — it is the New Union Press. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. 

I have here a document entitled, "National Committee to Defend 
Dr. W. E. DuBois and Associates in the Peace Information Center." 

Kindly look at this document and tell the committee whether or 
not in yom- judgment it was printed by the New Union Press. 

Mr. Cohen. It carries the label 412. It was probably printed 
that way. 

By the way, on this previous document. New Union Press printed 
only the headline, not the circular. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir, 

I have here several documents which I shall group together and 
display to you. 

Another one is by the National Committee To Defend Dr, W. E. 
DuBois and Associates in the Peace Information Center; letterheads 
of the National Council of the Ai'ts, Sciences, and Professions; the 
National Non-Partisan Committee To Defend the Rights of the 12 
Communist Leaders; and the publications, Due Process in a Political 
Trial; American Review on the Soviet Union, Special War Issue; In 
Fact; and Science and Societ}". 

Kindh^ look at those and tell the committee whether or not they 
were printed by the New Union Press. 

Mr. Cohen. They all carry the label 412, and they probably were 
printed^ — -I mean they are printed by the New Union Press, 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a publication entitled, ''The Slavic 
American." 

Kindly look at this document and tell the committee whether or 
not that was printed b}^ the New Union Press. 

\lr. Cohen. It carries the label 412 and the answer is probably the 
same. 

Mr. Arexs. Finally, I lay before j^ou a publication entitled, 
"Social Work Today." ^ Kindly look at that publication and tell the 
committee whether or not it is printed hj the New Union Press. 

Mr. Cohen. Yes; it carries the same label. 

Mr. Arens. Is the New Union Press registered under the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act? 

1 All publications referred to retained in committee files. 



2468 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Cohen, No. 

Mr. Arens. Does the New Union Press affix to any of the publi- 
cations which I have just displayed to you prior to their delivery to 
the printer or to the publisher any indication that the publications 
are published under the auspices of either the Communist Party or 
Communist fronts? 

Mr. Cohen. I do not understand the question. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any labeling affixed to any of these publica- 
tions I have just displayed to you which you have said were printed 
by the New Union Press — any labeling indicating that these publi- 
cations are publications of the Communist Party or of a Communist 
front? 

Mr. Cohen. No; wc do not label it, because in the case of New 
Union Press, as with every printer in every case, we do not read the 
text and we do not know whether it is the Communist Party or the 
Republican or Democratic Parties. 

Mr. Arens. What is the aggregate business of the New Union Press 
per year? 

Mr. Cohen. About $100,000. 

Mr. Arens. What percentage of that business comes from the 
Communist Party or from a Communist front? 

Mr. Cohen. A very small percentage. I wouldn't say more than 
about 10 percent. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of any other firm in New York City that 
prints Communist Party literature or Communist Party publications? 

Mr. Cohen. I have not made any check of it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

The witness is excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Arens. Thomas J. Brandon, if you please, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Brandon. I do. 

Mr. Fanelli. Mr. Chauman, may I request that any photographs 
be taken just before or just after and not during the course of the 
proceedings? 

The Chairman. That is right. 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS J. BRANDON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOSEPH A. FANELLI 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation? 

Mr. Brandon. \ly name is Thomas J. Brandon. I reside at 420 
Riverside Drive, New York City. My occupation is motion-picture 
distributor. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Brandon, in response to 
a subpena which was issued upon 3'^ou by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Brandon. I am. I do appear in that capacity. 

Mr. Arens. And you arc represented by counsel? 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2469 

Mr. Brandon. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Fanelli. Joseph A. Fanelli, and I maintain offices at 1701 
K Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. And your employment, please, Mr. Brandon? 

Mr. Brandon. I am employed by Brandon Films, Inc. 

Mr. Arens. What is your connection with Brandon Films? 

Mr. Brandon. I am president of the company. 

Mr. Arens. How long has the company been in e.xistence? 

Mr. Brandoin. About 18 years. 

Mr. Arens. It is a corporation? 

Mr. Brandon. It is. 

Mr. Arens. And the office that you hold, please, sir? 

Mr, Brandon. Is the president. 

Mr. Arens. And who are the other principal officers? 

Mr. Brandon. My wife, Lillian Brandon. 

Mr. Arens. Her office, please? 

Mr. Brandon. Her office, vice president; and Edith Zornow, 
secretary. 

Mr. Arens. Do you own the principal stock and majority stock of 
the corporation? 

Mv. Brandon. I do, yes. 

Mr. Arens. What is the nature of the business of Brandon Films, 
Inc.? 

Mr. Brandon. Brandon Films Co., is a motion-picture library. It 
is a distributor of films. We rent films and we sell films. 

Mr. Arens, What is the total volume of business at Brandon 
Films? 

Mr. Brandon. Well, at the present time, approximately $150,000 
a year. 

Mr. Arens. Is Brandon Films, or are you registered as a foreign 
agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 

Mr. Brandon. We are not, and I am not. 

Mr, Arens. Does Brandon Films import into the United States 
foreign films? 

Mr. Brandon. Some, 

Mr. Arens. From what countries does Brandon Films import 
foreign films? 

Mr. Brandon. Import, direct import, Ireland, Denmark, Belgium, 
France, or Japan, excuse me. 

Mr. Arens. Does Brandon Films handle films which arc brouglit 
into the country from Iron Curtain countnes? 

Mr. Brandon. Some. 

Mr. Arens. And from what Iron Curtain countries does Brandon 
Films handle the films? 

Mr. Brandon. We handle some films that come from U. S. S. R. 
There are a few that come not du-ectly to me, but they come from 
Poland, 2 or 3, and a couple from Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. Arens. By what route or device does Brandon Films procure 
these films which come from the Iron Curtain countries? 

Mr. Brandon. Counsel, it is not a device: a route. 

Mr. Arens. A route. I didn't mean anj'thing surreptitious 
about it. 



2470 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Brandon. Not at all. It is well known in the trade. I hold 
a contract with a company called Ai'tkino Films, Inc. They import 
such films. 

Mr. Arens. Artkino specializes in importation of films from Iron 
Cm-tain countries, does it not? 

Mr. Brandon. I think so. 

Mr. Arens. Do jou have a contract with Artkino? 

Mr. Brandon. I do. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you had a contract with Ai'tkino? 

Mr. Brandon. Oh, I have had a contract with them since 1954. 

Mr. Arens. Artkino is registered as a foreign agent under the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act, is it not? 

Mr. Brandon. It is. 

Mr. Arens. Do you as one who contracts with Ai'tkino, cause to be 
affixed anj" place to the films which you procure via Ai'tkmo from 
behind the Iron Curtain, any indication that these films are labeled in 
accordance with the provisions of the Foreign Agents Registration Act? 

Mr. Brandon. I purchase films from them and I carry their insignia 
exactly as given to me. In fact, I don't put my name on them. 

Mr. Arens. I don't believe you quite gave me a response to my 
question. 

Mr. Brandon. Would you clarify it for me? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

You have told us now that you contract ^\^th Artkino which in turn 
procures films from beliind the Iron Curtain. 

Mr. Brandon. Y"es. 

Mr. Arens. Do you, on the films which you procure from Artkino, 
cause to be aflSxed to the films any labeling as required by the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act? 

Mr. Brandon. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat do you cause to be affixed there? 

Mr. Brandon. A short little frame which I haven't read recently, 
but it is their label, the label wliich they are required to have under 
certain circumstances and for certain t3'pes of films, but I take their 
films with that label, which they are required, and I order copies of 
that film with their label, and therefore the films which I sell or rent 
have the identification on, which they are obliged to carry. 

Mr. Arens. With what firms, theaters, in the United States do you 
contract for the display of films imported by Ai'tkino into the United 
States from behind the Iron Curtain? 

Mr. Brandon. No theaters, because we purchase from them films 
which 

Mr. Arens. B}^ "them" you mean by Artkino? 

Mr. Brandon. By Artkino — which they have abead}^ distributed 
to theaters themselves or which they have sold in some cases to other 
companies which have distributed to theaters. I huj from them the 
right to rent out 16-millimeter, that is, small-size copies of these 
films which have appeared in many theaters, or, I don't know how 
many, but some theaters, and I then rent those out to whoever is 
interested. 

Mr. Arens. Kindl}^ give us a little bit more detail on the groups, 
organizations, or persons to whom you rent or sell these films which 
3^ou procure from Artkino which in tm-n procures them from behind 
the Iron Curtain. 



COMMUNIST PROPAG.\NDA 2471 

Mr. Brandon. I will be glad to, to the best of my recollections. 

The films which I procm^e from them and have an interest in are 
foreign language for those who are interested in that language, for 
those who are interested in the background of that country, and to 
some people who consider some of these films of high artistic quality, 
some of them. 

Now, that naturally means that market is the Navy, the Army, 
any institution which is interested in studjang foreign languages and 
backgrounds. There are only a few. And clubs and societies, film 
clubs, film societies, camera groups, which may be interested in the 
entertainment art quality of some of the pictures. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us the names of principal clubs and groups 
to which you rent or sell these films which you procure from Artkino, 
which in turn procures them from behind the Iron Curtain. 

Mr. Brandon. Counsel, I have no objection to doing it, but I 
have to think for a moment of the names. I don't handle the actual 
bookings. 

Mr. Arens. The principal ones, please, su*. 

Mr. Brandon. There are no national ones. They are local film 
societies^ — the Film Society for Albuquerque, N. Mex., I have seen 
on the books sometime. 

Mr. Arens. What is the total volume of your business on the 
rental or sale of the films from behind the Iron Cm-tain? 

Mr. Brandon. I would guess between 5 and 7 percent, counsel. 

Mr. Arens. That is 5 and 7 percent of $100,000 a year? 

Mr. Brandon. You do me injustice^ — ^$150,000. 

Mr. Arens. $150,000 a year. "V^Tiat percentage of the handlmg of 
yom' Iron Curtain films is a rental as distinct from a sale? 

Mr. Brandon. The bulk of it is rental. 

Mr. Arens. How many films do you handle from behmd the Iron 
Cm'tain in the com'se of a year? 

Mr. Brandon. We have in the catalog, and we have altogether- — 
you have them, haven't you, Mr. Bonora — 35 to 40. 

Mr. Fanelli. Just answer the questions. 

Mr. Brandon. About 35 to 40 films from the Iron Cm-tain countries. 

Mr. Arens. Which you handle per year? 

Mr. Brandon. No, no. Which I handle and which I • 

Mr. Arens. You rent or 

Mr. Brandon. Which I have available for me. 

Mr. Arens. Can you help us and give us an idea of the number of 
showings in the com'se of a year of these films from behind the Iron 
Cm-tain which you handle? 

Mr. Brandon. I would say of the 35 or 40 we have available — 
it varies with the times and the periods of the 3"ear, but I would guess 
it may be one a month or roughly one and a half a month. 

Mr. Arens. Of each one or 

Mr. Brandon. Strike an average and saj' probably 30 or 35 show- 
ing in a month of all the films. 

Mr. Arens. Of all of the films exclusive — we are speaking now of 
behind the Iron Cm-tain 

Mr. Brandon. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Those that originate behind the Iron Curtain. 

Do 5'ou know of any other firms besides yom- own which contract 
with Artkino for fUms, including films from behind the Iron Curtain? 



2472 COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 

Mr. Brandon. Well, I don't know of any names directly, but I 
believe that Ai'tkino has been selling films to other companies. 

Mr. Arens. You have no specific information? 

Mr. Brandon. Well, I don't, 

Mr. Arens, Do you process any domestic films developed b}^ the 
Communist Party or by Communist fronts? 

Mr. Brandon, I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Any questions? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lenvin, would you kindly come forward. 

The Chairman. Would you raise your right liand. Do you 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Lenvin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF NATHAN B. LENVIN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Lenvin. My name is Nathan B. Lenvin, L-e-n-v-i-n. I am 
Chief of the Registration Section of the Internal Secui-ity Division of 
the Department of Justice, and I reside in Arlington, Va. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you occupied your post as Chief of the 
Registration Section? 

Mr. Lenvin. Approximately 4 years. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, Mr. Lenvin, for the purpose of 
this record, a brief resume of the principal provisions of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act, insofar as they apply to the dissemination 
in the United States of political propaganda. 

Mr. Lenvin. The act is designed to acquaint the recipients of 
political propaganda with the identity and relationships of people 
who are responsible for the dissemination of the propaganda material, 
with foreign principals as defined by the act, so that they can appraise 
and evaluate the material in the light of the disseminator's relation- 
ships. 

Mr. Arens. Under the present interpretations of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act, is the agent of an agent of a foreign principal 
who disseminates Communist propaganda in the United States 
required to register? 

Mr, Lenvin, Only in a limited sense, wherein it can be established 
that the agent is subsidized by a foreign government or forcugn 
political party. 

Mr, Arens. In other words, in the instance of the gentleman who 
just preceded you on the stand, who contracts with an agent of a 
foreign principal and who disseminates in the United States foreign 
political propaganda, he is not required under present interpretations 
to register? 

Mr. Lenvin. That is correct; unless we could establish that 
Artkino, with whom the contract was made, was in fact a foreign 
principal as defined by statute, in that it was subsidized by a foreign 
government or foreign political party. 



COMMUNIST PROPAGANDA 2473 

Mr. Arens. Are you familiar witli the bill introduced by the chair- 
man of this committee, H. R. 9937, which deals with, among other 
things. Communist propaganda and the registration of foreign agents? 

Mr. Lenvin. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Would the provisions of the chairman's bill cope with 
this very situation which you have pointed out? 

Mr. Lenvin. Not entirely. It does enlarge the provisions of the 
definition of the term, ''foreign principal," so as to include a domestic 
organization which is substantially controlled, financed, directed, or 
subsidized bj^ a foreign government or foreign political party. 

The Chairman. Do you think the la.Jiguage is inadequate to meet 
the entire situation? 

Mr. Lenvin. It is not a question, su-, of its inadequacy. Since 
this particular statute is designed to require the registration of persons 
who are in an agency capacity, this situation is not within the scope 
of the whole framework of the statute. 

Mr. Arens. The chairman's bill enlarges the definition of a foreign 
principal so as to include a domestic corporation which is substantially 
directed or financed by a foreign government. Is that not correct? 

Mr. Lenvin. Directed, controlled, financed, or subsidized by a 
foreign government or foreign political party. 

jVIr. Arens. At the present time, such a domestic corporation is not 
by present construction encompassed within the registration provi- 
sions of tlie Foreign Registration Act. Is that correct? 

"Sir. Lenvin. Well, no. It does not come within the definition of 
the term "foreign principal," so that an agent of such a domestic cor- 
poration as 5^ou have just described would not be required to register. 

The Chairiman. We are disturbed by not only this terrific problem, 
as I see it, but by the possibility of doing something that might even- 
tually become a censorship, something that every member of this 
committee is very much opposed to. I hope that you will pay much 
attention to the language that is in this bill, because I am not thor- 
oughly satisfied that the powers herein created, might not be abused. 
I would like 'to go into that phase of it at a future date. When we 
have a hearing on this section of the bill, we will call you, because I 
think that is terribly important. 

Mr. Lenvin. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. The country is being flooded, literally flooded at 
every port of entry with foreign propaganda, and at the same time 
in the United States there are people such as this witness who testified 
this morning, who are taking that same material and publishing it 
here. 

It is not a question of censoring the material or determining whether 
or not the material requires registration as much as it is determining 
whether or not the disseminator's activities are substantially sub- 
sidized, dictated, or controlled by a foreign power. Of course, in that 
instance he would hav^e to register. 

But it is a very fine point, and I liope you will give it much con- 
sideration. We have been disturbed by it. 

Mr. Lenvin. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. We are not going to enact anj' legislation that will 
set up a committee of the Congress or the Attorney General as an 
authorit}' to go into a printing house and say, "Look, you are publish- 
ing this, and in our judgment it is propaganda. Therefore, you have 



2474 COAOIUNIST PROPAGANDA 

violated the Foreign Agents Registration Act." It is not a very far cry 
from what we say in the bill to that very situation. 

Mr. Lenvin. I just thought j^ou might be interested, sir, in knowing 
that the Internal Security Act of 1950 does contain a labeling pro- 
vision in it. 

The Chairman. That language, I think, is not strong enough, 
because the Supreme Court, in its desire to invade the legislation field 
completel}^, will distort the meaning, I am sure, and for that reason I 
think that in our proposed legislation, we ought to make doubly sure 
that we are meeting this situation. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lenvin, in the instance which was developed in the 
testimony this morning, the witness has a contract with Ai^tkino for 
the purpose of distributing in the United States films which Artkino 
procures from behind the Iron Curtain. Assuming for the sake of this 
question that Artkino is found to be a domestic corporation sub- 
stantially directed or financed by a foreign government, then, under 
the provisions of H. R. 9937, the gentleman who appeared today, if 
he distributes those films, would have to register and cause them to be 
labeled. Is that correct? 

Mr. Lenvin. Substantially, I would think you are correct, in that if 
we would find from the arrangements that — well, let me start off by 
saying that if you would find that Artkino is substantially directed, 
controlled, or financed by a foreign government, under the provisions 
of the bill, Artkino would then be a foreign principal. And if Brandon 
Films relationship with Artkino were such as to create an agency 
relationship, then he would be required to register. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information now as to whether or not 
Artkino is substantially directed or financed by a foreign government? 

Mr. Lenvin. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, that will conclude the staff interroga- 
tion of this witness. 

The Chairman. I think we will adjom-n at this time. The com- 
mittee will stand recessed. 

(Whereupon, at 11:20 a. m. Thursday, June 12, 1958, the committee 
adjom-ned, subject to call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuaxs 

Page 

Bloom, Sol 2456 

Brandon, Lillian (Mrs. Thomas J. Brandon) 2469 

Brandon, Thomas J 2423, 2424, 2468-2472 (testimony) 

Browder, Earl 2463 

Coe, Frank 2457 

Cohen, Boris S. (Benjamin) 2423, 2459-2468 (testimony) 

Cornforth, Maurice 2464 

Davis, Benjamin J., Jr 2463 

Dodd, Martha 2455 

Donner, Frank J 2459 

DuBois, W. E. B 2467 

Fanelli, Joseph A 2468 

Felshin, Joseph :. 2461, 2462 

Fishman, Irving 2423, 2426-2442 (testimony) 

Flynn, Elizabeth Gm-ley 2455, 2464 

Frondizi, Arturo 2432 

Harap, Louis 2443, 2461 

Kahn, Albert E 2443, 2463 

Kaplan, Irving 2457 

Lautner, John 2448, 2462, 2463 

Lawson , Elizabeth 2463 

Leichtman , Carl 2466 

Lenvin, Nathan B 2424, 2472-2474 (testimony) 

Magdoff, Harry 2457, 2458 

Maltz, Albert 2456 

Marcantonio, Vito 2450, 2454 

Moore, Stanley 2458 

Nixon, Richard M 2431, 2432 

Nixon, Russell 2457 

Patterson, William L 2463 

Perlo, Victor 2452, 2464 

Perry, Pettis 2464 

Pevzner, Sam 2423,2442-2449 (testimony) 

Rein, David 2442, 2450 

Roosevelt, Franklin D., Jr 2456 

Rubinstein, Annette T 2423, 2450-2458 (testimony) 

Shields, Art 2463 

Smith, Jessica 2464 

Trachtenberg, Alexander 2463 

Walsh, J. Raymond 2458 

Weinstone, William 24i)2 

Zornow, Edith 24*19 

Organizations 

Allied Printing Trades Council 24o0 

American Labor Party 24'>6 

Artkino Films, Inc 2423, 2470-2472, 2474 

Brandon Films, Inc 2423, 2424, 2469, 2471, 2474 

City Committee of Jewish Clubs (New York). {See New York City Com- 
mittee of Jewish Clubs.) 

Committee of Soviet Youth Organizations 2438 

Communist Party, New York State 2462 

Fund for Social Analysis .,_ 2457, 24,=>8 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

International Union of Students (I US) 2423, 2432-2437 

Fifth Congress, September 4-13, 1958, Peking, China 2435 

International Workers Order 2443-2445 

Jefferson School of Social Science 2450, 2451 

Metropolitan Music School, Inc 2463 

New Century Publishers 2460, 2462 

New Union Press 2460, 2465-2468 

New York City Committee of Jewish Clubs 2447 

Progressive Jewish Life, Inc . 2443 

Prompt Printing Press, Inc 2423, 2460, 2461, 2463-2466 

Robert Louis Stevenson High School (New York CitjO 2450, 2453 

L^nited States Government: 

Justice Department 2427, 2438, 2472 

Treasury Department, Bureau of Customs 2426 

World Association of Youth (WAY) 2436 

World Federation of Democratic Youth 2423, 2433, 2435, 2436, 2438, 2440 

YMCA 2436 

Yovmg Communist League 2444 

Publications 

Agricultural Students 2434 

Champion, The 2444 

Education Students 2434 

Fraternal Outlook 2445 

Great Tradition in English Literature From Shakespeare to Shaw, The 2450 

How Soviet People Live (pamphlet) 2439 

lUS News 2434 

I Vote Mj' Conscience 2450, 2456 

Jewish Currents 2445, 2446, 2461, 2462 

Jewish Life 2443, 2447, 2454, 2461 

Land of Soviets, The (book) 2439 

Lenin Ceiatral Museums (pamphlet) 2439 

Mainstream 2455, 2461, 2462 

Masses and Mainstream 2454 

Medical Students 2434 

Moscow (book) 2439 

New Order 2443 

New Times 2431 

New World Review 2464 

News Service (lUS) 2434 

Party Voice 2462 

Political Affairs 2460, 2461 

Realistic Ethics (book) 2450 

Siberia Hydropower Project (pamphlet) 2439 

Soviet Age (pamphlet) 2439 

Soviet Cultural (pamphlet) 2439 

Soviet Electric Power (pamphlet) 2439 

Soviet Family Budget, The (pamphlet) 2439 

Soviet Industry (pamphlet) 2439 

Status of Women in the Soviet Union, The (pamphlet) 2439 

Struggle Against Thermonuclear Weapons as an Attack on the Church, The 

(pamphlet) 2434 

Struggle of the Cypriot Student, The (pamphlet) 2434 

Student Sports 2434 

Students Sav No (pamphlet) 2434 

U. S. S. R. Facts and Figures (pamphlet) 2439 

U. S. S. R., Land of Working People (pamphlet) 2439 

What Soviet Power Gave the Workers' Families (pamphlet) 2439 

W^hat Soviet Power Gave the Working Class (pamphlet) 2439 

Worker, The 2454 

World Student News 2437 

O 



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