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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Los Angeles, Calif., area. Hearings"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



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GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES, CALIF, AREA— PART 11 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPEESENTATIYES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



DECEMBER 16, 1953, JUNE 6, AND JULY 5, 1956 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 




(Released by committee and ordered to be printed) 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNJMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
77436 WASHINGTON : 1956 



HARVARD Cu;j.EGh LibRARV: 

DEPOoiftD BY THE 
UNITED STATF.c; r;n\/CD.M»,r».T 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Je., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

RiCHABD Aebns, Director 
U 



CONTENTS 



EXECUTIVE HEABINGS 

Fag« 

December 16, 1953 : Testimony of — 

Jerry Fielding 5769 

June 6, 1956 : Testimony of — 

Judith Poska 5775 

Virginia Viertel 5789 

Joseph- Ayeroff 5805 

July 5, 1956 : Testimony of — 

John Hubley 5809 

Index I 



* Ordered released by the committee. 

nx 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Beit enacted J)y the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

• • • • • • • :• 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) Tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a wh.ole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, character, 
and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (ii) the 
diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propaganda 
that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks the 
principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and (iii) 
all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investiga- 
tion, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times and 
places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has recessed, 
or has adjourned, to hold hearings, to require the attendance of such witnesses 
and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to take such testi- 
mony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the signature of the 
chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any member designated by 
any such chairman, and may be served by any person designated by any such 
chairman or member. 



RULiJiJS ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

******* 

Rule X 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress ; 
******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES • 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (2) 
the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propaganda 
that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks the 
principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and (3) 
all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investiga- 
tion, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times and 
places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has recessed, 
or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of such wit- 
nesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to take such 
testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the signature of 
the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any member designated 
by any such chairman, and may be served by any person designated by any such 
chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA— Part 11 



WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 16, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles^ Calif. 

executive session ^ 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a. m., in room G-41, Federal Building, Los 
Angeles, Calif., Hon. Donald L. Jackson (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Donald L. Jackson 
and Clyde Doyle, both of California. 

Staff member present: William A. Wlieeler, investigator. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. 

Will you raise your right hand Mr. Fielding? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give to this sub- 
committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Fielding. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 

Let the record show that for the purposes of this hearing this 
morning, and under the authority of Public Law 601, the chairman 
of the committee, Mr. Velde, of Illinois, has appointed a subcom- 
mittee of two consisting of Mr. Doyle and Mr. Jackson, as chair- 
man. Also, in pursuance of the provisions of Public Law 601 the 
committee has caused to be subpenaed the witness who is here this 
morning for the purpose of determining what, if any, information 
the witness may have in his possession which may be of help to the 
committee in proposing to the Congress such remedial legislation as 
may be considered desirable. 

Proceed, Mr. Wheeler. 

TESTIMONY OF JERRY FIELDING, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL 

HELD & BROOKS 

Mr. Wheeler. Will the witness state his full name, please? 
Mr. Fielding. My name is Jerry Fielding. 
Mr. Wheeler. Are you represented by counsel ? 
Mr. Fielding. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would counsel please identify themselves for the 
record ? 



1 Ordered released by the committee September 4, 1956. 

5769 



5770 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Held. If the committee please, this witness is represented by 
Held & Brooks, of Beverly Hills, Arthur A. Brooks, Jr., and Ben- 
jamin Held. 

Mr. Wheeler. The witness is appearing here this morning in re- 
sponse to a subpena ? 

Mr. Fielding. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where do you presently reside, Mr. Fielding? 

Mr. Fielding. I reside in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you give us a brief resume of your educational 
background ? 

Mr. Fielding. I was educated in the public schools and high schools 
of Pittsburgh, Pa. I did not attend the university. 

Mr. Whp:eler. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Fielding. I was born in 1922 in Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you mind giving us the month ? 

Mr. Fielding. June. 

Mr. Wheeler. And the day ? 

Mr. Fielding. I7th. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you give us a resume of your employment 
background since leaving school ? 

Mr. Fielding. Well, I have been employed as an arranger, composer, 
and conductor in the dance-band field and in the field of radio and 
television. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Fielding. I am a composer, arranger, and conductor. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you presently employed ? 

Mr. Fielding. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Mr. Wheeler. And by whom ? 

Mr. Fielding. I am presently employed by the National Broadcast- 
ing Co. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Fielding, are you acquainted with a person by 
the name of Judy Raymond ? 

Mr. Fielding. Well, sir, I respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, and I base my declination on the grounds of the fifth amendment 
of the Constitution. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, Judith Raymond testified before the 
committee in executive session on September 11, 1953. In the course 
of her testimony she testified to the effect that she joined the Com- 
munist Party in the late spring of 1945 and severed her relationship 
with the party in the early part of 1949. I refer to page 26 of her 
testimony. 

In the course of her testimony she related to the committee the group 
of the Communist Party to which she was assigned, and in identifying 
the individuals who were members of this group : 

Mr. Wheelek. Do you recall the names of the other members of this group? 

Miss Raymond. I have some of them. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you relate the ones you do recall, and also identify 
them as to their occupation or any other pertinent information that you may 
have concerning them? 

Miss Raymond. Muni Diamond ; Bill Wolff, a radio writer ; Jack and Mary 
Robinson, radio writers ; Gene Stone, a radio writer and partner of Jack Robin- 
son ; Angela Clarke, actress ; Reuben Ship, radio writer ; Jerry and Ann Fielding — 
Jerry is a musician and composer for radio. 



COIVIMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IX LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5771 

■\Voiild vou like to comment on this testimony, Mr. Fielding? 

Mr. Fielding. Well, sir, I would like to state that I am not a mem- 
ber of the Connnunist Party or any other affiliated or unaffiliated politi- 
cal oriranization. 

With regard to Miss— to the witness' testimony, I respectfully 
decline any further comment on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

]\Ir. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1952 ? 

]Mr. FiELDixG. I respectfully decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. AVheeler. Do I understand you state you are not a member of 
the Communist Party today; is that correct? 

Mr. FiELDixG. I stated that I am not a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party on De- 
cember lo, 1953 ? That was yesterday. 

Mr. Fielding. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

^Ir. Wheeler. Were you a member of a radio grou]3 of the Com- 
munist Party, as described by Judith Raymond ? 

Mr. Fielding. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with Muni Diamond ? 

Mr. Fielding. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

^h\ Wheeler. Mr. Fielding, do you know William Alland ? 

]Mr. Fielding. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. That is the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Fielding. The fifth amendment. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Chairman, Mr. William Alland appeared before 
the committee in executive session on November 23, 1953, and admitted 
prior Communist Party membership in the Hollywood area, testifying 
that he was a member of the radio branch of the Communist Party. 

And referring to page 54, Mr. Alland testified in response to Mr. 
Tavenner's questions : 

:\Ir. Tavenneb. I think it would be well at this point to tell the committee who 
were members of this radio group, and in doing so describe their position and 
activity in the party as well as you can ; and also which of them made the effort 
to have the meeting set at a time convenient to you and made an effort to bring 
you back into the Communist Party. 

Mr. Alland. Well, the radio branch consisted of Pauline Hopkins, Sam Moore, 
Reuben Ship. Mike Davidson, Virginia Mullen, Stanley Waxman, Jerry Fielding, 
Gene Stone, .Jack and Mary Robinson. 

Would you like to comment on the testimony of Mr. Alland ? 

Mr. Fielding. I decline to comment on the testimony of Mr. Alland 
on the grounds of the fifth amendment. However, I will state again 
that I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. My. Chairman, I see no reason to pursue this further. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask, Mr. \Vlieeler, to what year were you refer- 
ring when Mr. Fielding was a member in that group? 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Alland testified that he left the party in January 
or February 1949, and that was the last group to which he was 
assigned. So it would be in the year 1948. 

Mr. DoTLE. I will state this, Mr. Fielding, in asking you these ques- 
tions: I noticed you pledged your constitutional privilege in not 

77436 — 56 — pt. 11 2 



5772 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF,, AREA 

naming anyone, whether or not you knew then, and I can understand 
that. 

But, naturally, when you state you are not now a member of the 
Communist Party, in view of the sworn testimony that we have that 
you were several years ago a member of the Communist Party, I will 
state frankly I don't intend to ask you as to who was a member of the 
Communist Party with you in 1948 and 1949 or 1947, or when you 
were, if you were. 

I think, to be fair with you, the form of your answer makes me 
infer that there was a time when you were a member of the Communist 
Party. Now, this committee is in search, also, of any recommendation 
that it might receive from any American citizen as to their thinking 
in terms of legislation dealing with the subversives. You understand 
my statement ? We are looking for recommendations from patriotic 
citizens, thinking citizens, to help us understand their views regarding 
the field of legislation dealing with subversives. 

Now, whether or not you ever came in touch with any subversive 
activities any place, either in the group identified or any other group, 
have you any suggestion to make to us, Mr. Fielding, in that field? 

In other words, this is a subcommittee of Congress. Have you any 
suggestion to make to us ? I have never met you in my life, I am sure, 
and never talked with you. I don't know what your answer may be. 
But I am just asking you in good faith, have you any suggestion for us, 
young man ? You have an important employment ; have you any sug- 
gestion to make to us as a congressional committee ? 

Mr. Fielding. May I say. Congressman, that I have always been 
and do consider myself a good citizen of this country and a law-abiding 
citizen. My profession is the music business. I have no recommenda- 
tions to offer this committee as to legislation on the matters which you 
mentioned. 

The Congressman stated that there was an inference in his question, 
and I believe there is. And for that reason I have to decline further 
comment on this question on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. I know Mr. Jackson would join me in making one 
further comment to you as a young man. We hope the time will come 
before too long when, without your feeling any of your conscientious 
objections, you will come to the point where you, as a young American, 
will voluntarily say to some constituted authority, whether it is this 
committee or not, "I want to help you understand the problem of sub- 
versive activity in my country to the extent that I am able." 

One further comment, Mr. Fielding: I feel rather strongly that 
some of you young men and women who — again I will infer because 
of the form of your answer, I will infer you were at one time a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, whether yesterday you withdrew or 2 
years ago you withdrew — ^but there was a time, I infer, when you were 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Now, if that is true, and we have sworn testimony by plenty of 
witnesses that it is true, I want to urge you to get to the point where, 
as a patriotic American citizen, you can conscientiously say to the 
constituted law, "I may not be in a position to give you names of other 
men and women who were in the Communist Party with me, but I 
am now in a position to tell you what I know about that whole 
problem." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5773 

Again, I am not obviating the possibility that you will get to the 
point where you will feel that the safety of your Nation, against the 
Communist conspiracy, will call upon you to help your Government 
even by relating names of former associates in the Communist Party 
if and when you were in it; and I hope that time will come. 

I am not suggesting that you violate your conscientious scruples. 
But I have come to the point in my experience where I think there 
cannot be too many conscientious scruples when we face up to the 
fact of our own internal security as against the well-known subversive 
Communist conspiracy to use force and violence. I am not inferring 
that you advocated that, young fellow. 

It is fair for me to say that you — I am not inferring that you are 
advocating that philosophy, but I am saying to you that some top 
men and women in America, at the time you were a member of 
the Communist Party, if you were, at that time did advocate, and 
still advocate, force and violence in connection with their contem- 
plated revolution. 

I am not taking advantage of you to preach to you; believe me. 
But I do hope — and I am not criticizing your counsel in whatever 
way he advised you to answer, either — but I am saying that I hope 
you will get to the point where you can put the first thing first, which 
I believe is the internal security of your own Nation. 

That is all, Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Fielding, were you a member of the Communist 
Party when you entered the hearing room this morning ? 

Mr. Fielding. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. However, sir, I will state again — I will state that I am 
not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you be a member of the Communist Party when 
you leave this conference room ? 

Mr. Fielding. I have no intention of joining the Communist Party, 
Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. Jackson. Why have you no intention of joining the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Fielding. As I stated before to Congressman Doyle, sir, I have 
been a very busy musician and I intend to continue to be one ; and I 
do not contemplate any organized political activity. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you in the past contemplate such organized polit- 
ical activity? 

Mr. Fielding. Well, sir, I decline to answer that on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. Any reason why the witness should not be excused ? 

Mr. Wheeler. No. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused and released from the subpena. 



INVESTIGATION OF C03OIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA— Part 11 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 6, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles^ Calif. 
executive session * 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, piirsnant to call, at 10 : 05 a. m., in room 484 of the Statler Hotel, 
Los Angeles, Calif., Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Doyle and Jackson. 

Staif member present: William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Let the record show that, for the purpose of this hearing and under 
authority of Public Law 601, Francis E. Walter, chairman of the full 
cominittee, has designated Mr. Morgan M. Moulder, of Missouri ; Mr. 
Donald L. Jackson, of California ; and Mr. Clyde Doyle, of California, 
presiding, as a subcommittee of three. Mr. Jackson and myself, Mr. 
Dovle, are present. The hearing will proceed. 

Mr. Wheeler. The first witness is Miss Judith Poska. 

Mr. Doyle. Will you please be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give to this 
subcommittee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
trutli, so help you God? 

Miss PosKA. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JUDITH POSKA 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your name, please ? 

Miss Poska. Judith Poska. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you born, Miss Poska ? 

Miss PosKA. I was born in Montana- — Utica. 

Mr. Jacksox. May I, Mr. Chairman, ask a question at this point ? 

I notice the witness is not accompanied by counsel. It is the prac- 
tice of tlie committee to allow witnesses to be accompanied by counsel 
if the witness so desires, and I should like to have it appear in the 
record that you have been informed of this fact and also to inquire 
whether or not you desire counsel. 

Miss Poska. Well, I didn't because I can only tell the truth. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well ; but I felt it should appear in the record 
that you have the privilege of counsel if you so desire. 



1 Ordered released by the committee August 7, 1956. 

5775 



5776 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I think that is well, Mr. Jackson. 

Are you perfectly willing to go ahead and testify ? 

Miss PosKA. Oh, certainly. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are appearing as a voluntary witness; is that 
correct ? 

Miss PosKA. I am ; that is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. What is your educational background ? 

Miss PosKA, I graduated from public school in Seattle. 

And I went into the Curtis Institute of Music when I was 12, 
and I had private tutors there. I studied French and English and 
things that go along with when you are young and you are taken 
out of public school; when you concentrate on a profession or a 
career, why, they have you study, make up your studies. You study 
English and that sort of thing. 

Mr. Wheeler. The Curtis Institute 

Miss PosKA. Is a musical institute, a school of music ; yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a musician by occupation ? 

Miss PosKA. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you pursuing that occupation at the present 
time? 

MissPosKA. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Miss Poska, during our hearings here in Los Angeles 
beginning on the 16th of April a former member of the Communist 
Party, Don Christlieb, stated in the course of his testimony that he 
knew you as a member of the Communist Party. Now, subsequent 
to his identification of you, I believe you became aware of his identifi- 
cation and notified the committee by telegram that you had not been 
a member of the Commmiist Party ; and I contacted you on the basis 
of that telegram. 

MissPosKA. That is right. 

Mr. Wheeler. And you desire to come before the committee and 
straighten out the record ? 

MissPosKA. That is correct. 

Mr. Wheller. Will you proceed with what you wish to say. 

Miss Poska. What you say is absolutely true. 

It was during the war and I think Russia had been in the war, 
oh, I don't know how long; but, anyway, all of us, all of my friends 
and myself included, were very anti-Nazi and anti-Fascist ; and play- 
ing around, why, I heard a lot of talk about the Marxist theory and 
how valiant the Russians were, and so on and so forth; and I didn't 
know from nothing about Marx or the Russian Revolution — I knew 
that it had occurred — so I thought it would be interesting, out of 
curiosity, to find out what Marx had to offer, what his theory was; 
because everyone was talking about it, and I seemed rather stupid 
tome. 

Anyway, subsequently Mischa Altman contacted me and invited 
me to go to meetings. Of course, at that time the Communist Party 
was a recognized party, it was on the ballot, et cetera; nothing was 
thought about it. 

However, I went to a few — I can't remember how many I went 
to because I didn't go regularly, for which they were pretty upset at 
me, plus the fact that when I did go to a meeting I never knew my 



COliIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5777 

lesson. I had other things to do, I wasn't married, and if I wanted 
to go out on a date, I went regardless of the meeting ; and they wanted 
to know why I wasn't there and where — I figured it wasn't any of 
their business. I was free, white, and 21 ; and I was going to — I didn't 
think that I should be regimented, and I didn't like regimentation. 

Mr. Jackson. Would you place this in the context of a time ? What 
was the time period ? 

Miss PosKA. You know, I don't remember. It must have been 1942 
or 1943. 

Mr. Wheeler. If I may intercede for a moment, the records of the 
Communist Party of Los Angeles County show that she was a member 
of the beginners' class in the year 1944. 

Miss PosKA. Was it then 1944 ? 

]\Ir. Wheeler. If that would help clarify it. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. I wanted to place this in its proper time period. 

Miss PosKA. It was long ago and I had forgotten it, and I wasn't 
enough interested to — you know, so it was 1944. So I was — I was 
there, and I didn't go to meetings regularly, and I was reprimanded 
and I didn't like it; and being religious — I am not fanatical, but I 
go to church, and I like to go ; if I want to go, I go ; if I don't want to 
go, I don't go. 

But, by the same token, I don't want someone to tell me not to go, 
any more than I want someone to tell me I am to go. I am free, and 
when my basic liberties are jeopardized, I don't like it at all. 

Mr. Wheeler. You were criticized for going to church by this 
group of people ? 

Miss PosKA. Well, it wasn't recommended. I mean, it wasn't the 
thing to do, you know. They frowned upon it, 

Mr. Wheeler. When I interviewed you last month there was some 
doubt in your mind whether you actually joined the Communist Party. 

Miss PosKA. To my knowledge, I didn't. I must have, but if they 
have me down maybe I signed something. If I did, I certainly wasn't 
aware of it at the time. That is how stupid I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you pay dues ? 

Miss PosK^v. No ; I didn't. That is one thing, I was supposed to 
give — I don't know how much, a certain percentage, I don't know 
exactly the percentage of everything I made; and I inquired as to 
why. Well, it went into the party. 

Mr. Jackson. Wlio instructed you that you were supposed to give 
a certain portion of your earnings ? 

Miss Posic^i. Well, if I remember, Altman. He was always at the 
meetings. 

Mr. Jackson. How did you meet Mr. Altman ? 

Miss PosKiV. He was a musician, and we worked together a long, 
long, time ago when I first came to Los Angeles. I had known him 
for many years. 

Mr. Jackson. When would that have been ? 

Miss Poska. I first came to Los Angeles in 1932. I had been he^-e 
about a year when I met him, I believe ; but I have to give him A for 
effort. They really worked on me, but the more they worked on me 
the less I liked it. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many meetings would you say you attended? 



5778 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Miss PosKA. Mr. Wheeler, I don't remember. I might have gone 
to a dozen, I might have gone to 10. I really— there weren't too 
many. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you say you were connected with this group 
for a period of 6 months or less ? 

Miss PosKA. I'd say 6 months, maybe. Maximum, 6 months. 

Mr. Wheeler. Over that period of time, did you attend approxi- 
mately 12 meetings ? i , • 1 1 

Miss PosKA. Well, I'd say. I never did keep track, but it could 
have been very easily. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Doyle, I have no further questions concerning 
the activities of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you, Mr. Jackson? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

I should like to discuss the meetings a little furtlier. Where were 
the meetings held which you attended ? 

Miss PosKA. They were always at a different place in a private— 
someone's private home. 

Mr. Jackson. Whose home? 

Miss PosKA. That I don't even remember, because they were always 
in someone's — some different person's place. They w^eren't musicians, 
because that I would remember. We were never at Christ lieb's house. 
I think once we went to Altman's place — we met at Altman's place ; 
and I don't even remember where he was living at the time. I do 
I'emember very distinctly that I was supposed to go to one place and 
I got lost. It was quite far away from where I was living, and I 
finally gave up and went home. I was disgusted with the whole 
business. 

Mr. Jackson. During your attendance at these 8 or 10 meetings, 
who else attended these meetings, in addition to yourself ? 

Miss PosKA. As a rule, Altman was always there, Christlieb some 
of the time, and then they were made up of, not musicians, but, oh, 
there would be radio actors and people from the arts and sciences in 
the different fi^elds ; maybe one would be a photographer. I know that 
once — oh, do you remember I told you who was there, a writer in these 
very well — John Howard Lawson was there at one meeting. 

Mr. Jackson. And who else? 

Miss PosKA. As I say, there were always very different, as a rule a 
different group, and I couldn't name you them because I don't remem- 
ber, and they weren't musicians. 

Mr. Jackson. You attended 8 or 10 or 12 meetings over a period 
of some months, during which time, and to the best of your knowledge, 
you can remember only Mr. Lawson and Mr. Altman and Mr. Christ- 
lieb? 

Miss Poska. Yes; and I think once or twice Mrs. Christlieb was 
there. 

Mr. Jackson. How were you notified as to where you were to go to 
these meetings ? How did you receive word on that ? 

Miss PosKA. Either Altman — usually Altman called me, or I think 
once or twice Christlieb called me. 

Mr. Jackson. They would tell you that the meeting was to be held 
in such and such a person's house ? 

Miss Poska. Such and such address. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5779 

Mr. Jackson. Such and such address, and without further identifi- 
cation of whose address it was ? 

MissPosKA. That is right. 

Mv. Jackson. And under the compulsion of your oath, are you pre- 
pared to say that you cannot now remember any other persons than the 
?) you have named, or the 4, inckiding Mrs. Christlieb ? 

Miss PosKA. Not by name, no, I can't. If I could, I certainly would 
tell you. 

Mr. Jackson. If not by name, can you identify any of these persons 
in any other way ^ 

Miss PosKA. No, except that, as I say, I know that there would be an 
actor or sometimes I know that I woulcl hear mention of photography 
and studio work, and they were from the — I take it for gi-anted they 
w^ere from the arts and sciences; but musicians, I never — the only ones 
that I saw I mentioned. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you know any of the actors ? 

Miss PosKA. They weren't well known, no. They weren't big names, 
because those I would remember. 

Mr. Jackson. When did you terminate your association Avith the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Poska. Well, I can't tell you exactly. It wasn't very long; I 
mean, that I stopped completely going to meetings. Wlien I stopped 
going to meetings they stopped speaking to me, too. 

Mr. Jackson. Was any effort made to get you to return to the 
party ? 

Miss Poska. No. No, they didn't. They just ignored me. 

Mr. Jackson. By "they," I suppose you mean the four persons 
you mentioned ? 

Miss PosKA. Christliebs and the Altmans. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Wheeler, is this substantially borne out by the 
Christlieb testimony ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. What is your present occupation ? 

Miss Poska. I am a musician. I play my violin and I am also in the 
real-estate business. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you now engaged professionally in the music 
field? 

Miss Poska. Well, I do free-lance work. I am not under contract. 

Mr. Jackson. I have nothing more, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wheeler. As the record stands. Miss Poska, I believe you do 
not deny that you were a member of the Communist Party, nor do you 
admit you were a member of the Communist Party. Is that correct? 

Miss Poska. To my knowledge I wasn't, but I must have been if they 
say that I was in the student class or the beginners' class or whatever 
it was. 

Mr. Wheeler. It would stand to reason if they asked you for a per- 
centage of your salary 

Miss Poska. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. I mean, they must have considered you as a member 
of their group? 

Miss Poska. They must have. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask this : Did you pay some percentage of your 
salary ? 

77436—56 — pt. 11 3 



5780 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Miss PosKA. Oil, never a penny. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever distribute any literature in the group? 
Miss PosKA. No ; I didn't. 
Mr. Doyle. Or buy any literature ? 

Miss PosKA. No. Whatever literature I had, they gave nie to read ; 
which I never 



Mr. Doyle. AVhen you went to the meetings, with whom did you go? 

Miss PosKA. I went by myself. 

Mr. Doyle. Did Mr. Lawson speak at that one meeting — if you 
remember ? 

Miss PosKA. Well, he sort of conducted the group. 

Mr. Doyle. What did you do to leave the group 'i 

Miss PosKA. What did I do ? 

Mr. DoTLE. Yes. 

Miss PosKA. I just quit going. I just stopped going to meetings. 

Mr. Doyle. Did Mr. Altman ask you to come back ? 

Miss PosKA. No, sir. They would tell me — they called me and 
would say, "Well, there is a meeting at such and such an address"; 
and I'd say, "Well, I don't think I can make it" ; and I didn't go ; and 
that was it. 

Mr. Doyle. They must have given you a membership card if they 
considered you a member. 

Miss PosKA. No ; I never got a membership card. 

Mr. Doyle. Did they give you any name other than your own to use ? 

MissPosKA. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you have the testimony here of the person who iden- 
tified her? 

Mr. Wheeler. No, sir; I do not. It was transcribed by reporters 
from Washington, D. C, and taken to Washington, D. C. 

I might mention, Mr. Doyle, that I have been advised that the records 
of the Communist Party disclose Miss Poska as a very unsatisfactory 
member. She was dropped by the Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. Can you help us to understand what there was about the 
Communist group that constrained you to leave it ? 

Miss PosKA. I don't like regimentation, Mr. Doyle, in any way, 
shape, or form. I don't like it and I won't have it. I am free and 
I am going to stay that way. 

Mr. Doyle. Did they discuss at any of the meetings at which you 
were ]:)resent, the matter of the relationship between our own Nation 
and Russia ? What was the discussion ? That is, the different philos- 
ophies of government. 

Miss Poska. We were supposed to study Marx, and I was supposed 
to read it, and we were supposed to know our lessons when we went 
there; but I never knew mine, and it was — of course, it was anti- 
capitalist, and I couldn't see anything wrong with our capitalistic 
system. I think it, so far, is the best I know of. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, you mentioned you never knew your lesson. 
Then you had a book on Marxism that you didn't study too much. 
You must have had a book for your lesson. 

Miss PosKA. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you buy that book? 

Miss PosKA. No, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5781 

Mr. Doyle. How many books on Marxism were you supposed to 
read? 

]Miss PosKA. I don't know, but I never even got through that one 
because I wasn't interested. 

Mr. Doyle. I wonder, was there any discussion at all of our own 
Government ? 

Miss PosKA. No, not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Doyle. As compared with the Marxist theory ? 

Miss PosKA. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Any criticism of our form of Government? 

Miss PosKA. No. I w^ouldn't say there was when I started — when 
I was going to the meetings. They always, of course, stressed, natu- 
rally, that the workers sliould — in Eussia what they are, and we are a 
capitalistic system; and that was better, they thought; and that is 
where I parted company also. 

]Mr. Doyle. On the matter of the literature; you say you do not 
know how many books on Marxism you had, but evidently you did not 
have your lesson in one of them ? 

]Miss PosKA. I didn't have them in anything they gave me. After 
I quit going to meetings, I threw them in the incinerator. 

Mr. Doyle. But I am wondering, did you get into the realm of 
helping them; be the librarian? 

Miss PosKA. No. 

Mr. Doy^le. Or distribute any of the literature ? 

^Nliss PosKA. No. 

^Ir. Doyle. By repute, I know generally they do that with a be- 
ginner. 

Miss PosKA. No. I never 



]Mr. Doyle. Who was the treasurer of the group ? There must have 
been someone who was announced as treasurer. 

Miss'PosKA. Altman, he was collecting. When anybody gave money 
for anything, why he collected it. They gave it to him. 

]Mr. Doyle. Didn't Mr. and Mrs. Altman once in a while pick you 
up and go with you ? 

Miss PosKA. No, sir. 

]Mr. Doyle. Or you with him ? 

Miss PosKA. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. "Wlio, then, was the chairman of the group if Altman 
was the collector of dues? "VS^io was the chairman of it? 

Miss PosKA. Well, he conducted the meetings. 

Mr. Doyle. Mischa Altman did ? 

Miss PosKA. Yes. 

]Mr. Doyle. And he collected tlie money, too? 

Miss PosKA. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Generally who phoned you as to where the meeting 
was to be held? 

Miss PosKA. It would be either Altman or Christlieb who would 
phone me. 

Mr. Doyle. Is Mr. Christlieb the one who identified the witness as 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes, sir. 



5782 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Doyle. Did you just drop out or did you send a written 
resignation 'i 

Miss PosKA. No, I just stopped. I just stopped going. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever see their filing system, card index, books, 
or records ? 

Miss PosKA. I never did, no. 

Mr. Doyle. How many members were in your group ? 

Miss PosKA. I don't know. At tlie meetings that i attended there 
wouldn't be more than 6 or 7. They were small. 

Mr. Doyle. Did the members participate in the discussion? You 
now were interested a little bit, at least. For instance, did you par- 
ticipate in the discussions, too, along with the rest of them? 

Miss PosKA. No. I was a pretty good listener. 

Mr. Doyle. You did not have your lesson ? 

Miss PosKA. I didn't. 

Mr. Doyle. They criticized you because you did not have your 
lesson ? 

Miss PosKA. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. So evidently you were expected to know your lesson? 

Miss PosKA. I was. I was supposed to have my lesson and I didn't. 

Mr. Jackson. Were these meetings which you attended closed meet- 
ings, or did you have the impression that you were free to bring 
with you anyone you wanted to bring? 

Miss PosKA. Well, I was never told that I could bring anyone and 
I never did take anyone; but I would — looking back on it, I would 
think that they were closed meetings. 

Mr. Jackson. I am not prompting you in this regard, but was it 
.your impression that you could not simply have taken a friend with 
you to the meeting ; is that a correct statement ? 

Miss PosKA. Well, that was — that would be the impression. 

Mr. Jackson. And at no time were you asked to contribute or to 
pay dues or to make any contribution ? 

Miss Poska. Well, yes, I was expected to give a certain percentage 
of everything I made. 

Mr. Jackson. And this you did not do ? 

Miss PosKA. I certainly didn't. 

Mr. Jackson. Was this remonstrated about by Mr. Altman or any 
of the other members? 

Miss Poska. Well, when I inquired — you see, I always like to know 
where my money is going. When I inquired where it was going he 
said, "Well, to the Communist Party." 

And I said, "What for?" 

"Well," he said, "you are not supposed to ask." 

I said, "I figure it is my money, it is my privilege to know." So I 
said, "I don't feel like it." 

Mr. Jackson. Have you followed the course of the recent hearings 
of this committee in Los Angeles? 

Miss PosKA. Where the musicians were involved, I did. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you, during the course of those hearings, see the 
photograph or read the testimony of any person who was known to 
you either as a Communist or non- Communist ? 

Miss PosKA._ Well, I wouldn't say — I couldn't say that anyone 
except Mr. Christlieb was to my knowledge a Communist. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5783 

]Mr. Jackson. Yes. Had you previously known any others who 
testified during the course of those hearings? 

Miss PosKA. Tliere wei-e a lot of musicians who testified that I 
know ; yes. 

Mr. Jacksox. Did you know any of them to have been members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss PosKA. No. I was very amazed. I think I told you, Mr. 
Wheeler, tliat I was dumfounded at some of the names that I read, 
completely dumfounded. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, inasmuch as the witness is not accom- 
panied by counsel, I should like to ask one more question. 

Mr. DovLE. Yes. 

Mr, Jacksox. That is, wliether or not you feel that your rights have 
been in any way abused by the subcommittee. 

Miss Poska. Here today ? 

Mr. Jackson. Here today. 

Miss PosKA. I should say not. 

Mr. Jacksox. And whether you have been in any way intimidated ? 

Miss Poska. Oh, no. 

yir. Jacksox. Or anything of that sort ? 

Miss PosKA. Oh, no. 

Mr. Jacksox. We so frequently meet with that charge. We like to 
have it in the record. I think, as a matter of fact, you probably feel 
much better for having gotten it ofi' your chest. 

Miss PosKA. I certainly do. I am very happy to have come down 
here this morning. 

Mr. Jacksox. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you feel tliat Mr. Wheeler, our investigator, has 
been perfectly fair to you in liis dealings with you ? 

Miss Poska. He has been wonderful, and I consider him my friend. 

Mr. Jackson. We are glad to say that he is probably the man with 
the most "former Communist" friends of anyone we know. 

^Ir. WiiEELEij. I would like to ask if you have been to the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation. 

Miss Poska. Yes ; I have. 

^Ir. Doyle. I want to ask one more question. 

One of tlie purposes of this committee under Public Law 601 is to 
try to find, from former Communists especially 

Miss Poska. Oh, that stigma. 

Mr. Doyle. I asked it that way in view of your testimony, because 
you say you must have been, even though you don't remember tech- 
nically being a member. Have you any suggestion to make to the 
Congress of the United States in the field of how to get at the subversive 
activities ? Was there anything subversive discussed in your presence ? 

Miss Poska. Never. 

Mr. Doyle. Not in any way ? 

Miss Poska. No, there wasn't, Mr. Doyle, not a thing ; because had 
there been, I would have been the first to go to the FBI, because we 
^vere at war and that was a very important thing to me. I liave con- 
sidered myself an American and a good one, and I shall always be; 
and anything subversive, believe me, I would be the first to — but 
nothing was ever subversive that was mentioned when I was going 
to meetings. 



5784 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Jackson. The phrase "former Communist" has been mentioned, 
and I think it slioiild be on the record that the committee and the 
country owes a very great debt of gratitude to former Communists who 
have seen it as their duty to come forward and tell the committee and 
the country what they know about it, having honestly and decisively 
broken with the Communist Party. 

So I do not, Mr. Chairman, consider that the term "former Com- 
munist" is anything but a term of approbation. 

Mr. Doyle. I remember your testimony that at the time you were 
in that group we were at war. All of the time that you were in the 
group was liussia our ally? 

Miss PosKA. Yes, it was. 

Mr. DoYLE. However at that sam.e period of time the group was 
being instructed of the difference between the Soviet system of 
government and our system as you described, capitalistic system ? 

Miss PosKA. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I want to make it clear in my own thinking. Russia 
was our ally, but at that time the Communist leaders in your presence 
were contrasting the Soviet system of government to ours. That leads 
me to think that there must have been a criticism of our form of 
fgovei-nment, because at least they w^ere contrasting our form of 
government with theirs, Avith the Russian system. That was a period 
during which we were allied with Russia, and I am wondering to 
what extent that was the subject of discussion during the time we 
were an ally of Russia. 

Miss PosKA. Well, as I said, I didn't go to subsequent meetings. 
I mean, I didn't go every single time there was a meeting ; and from 
what I learned — I mean, there was — they advocated or they agreed 
with the Russian system that the government own everything; and 
individual wealth or individual holdings wasn't such in Russia. 
Otherwise, I mean, as far as anything subversive 

Mr. Doyle. But it is interesting to me that during the time we 
were an ally with Russia, that there was a group of people who were 
evidently comparing, to the detriment of the capitalistic system which 
you have referred to — you said they used that term — evidently crit- 
icizing our form of government during the very time that they were 
an ally in a war against Mr. Hitler. 

Miss PosKA. I mean, I never did see anything wrong with our sys- 
tem of government. I think, as I said before, I think it is the best. 
However, they, when there would be any discussion, would compare 
them. I don't say that they — well, they would criticize to a certain 
extent, but not to any great extent where I would consider it subversive 
insofar as tearing it down, by any means whatsoever. 

Mr. Doyle. Along what line did they discuss our being an ally of 
Russia ? 

Miss PosKA. Well, they were for it at that time. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes; but did they seem to express an appreciation of 
the fact that we were joining with Russia and that we were an ally 
of Russia ? 

Miss PosKA. They were very happy that we were allied with Russia. 

Mr. Doyle. And yet they did compare to the detriment of our own 
country, the capitalistic system, as compared with the Soviet system ? 

Miss PosKA. Well, that was the line at that time. 

Mr. Doyle. I have nothing further, Mr. Jackson. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5785 

Mr. Jackson. Just one more thing. 

I should like to point out to the witness, to the best of my recollec- 
tion she has identihed four people, and I say this in all good faith 
and for your own protection. You have already said under the com- 
pulsion of your oath that you cannot identify any other person who 
was associated with you at your meetings. I want to point out that 
if, subsequently, future witnesses may testify to the contrary, that a 
very real danger to you exists. I would not want you, out of any moral 
compunctions or for any reasons, to refrain from telling us if there 
are anv more people with whom you were associated. 

I say that again, Mr. Chairman; I say this for the protection of 
the witness. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr, Jackson. We have had circumstances in the past Avhere wit- 
nesses for one reason or another felt that they should not disclose any 
names or some name; where subsequently it has developed that they 
were not testifying in full good faith, which presents the committee 
with only one course of action, and that is to refer the testimony to 
the Attorney General of the United States. I simply say that to you 
in order that perhp.ps out of the best of motives you may conceivably 
be withholding from us the name or names of some of the people with 
whom you were associated at that time. 

Miss PosKA. No; I am not. I think — I have been thinking about 
this ever since Mr. Wheeler first interviewed me. 

And I tried to think and tried to think, and I just^ — if I knew or if 
I could think, I w^ould certainly tell you. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes ; I am sure that is the case. 

But I felt that I should, Mr. Chairman, place that in the record 
in order that it might be absolutely clear to her. 

Miss PosKA. As I say, I have just told these gentlemen — I have 
been thinking ever since you first contacted me and we got together, 
I have been thinking and thinking back^ — whom, if anyone, I could 
i-emember who were at those meetings; and aside from the Altmans 
and the Christliebs, I just can't remember. 

Mr. Jackson. Of course, we don't expect you, nor do we want you, 
to be at all uncertain or haphazard about it. We want the facts that: 
are in your knowledge, and that is all. 

I have nothing further, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I think I recall in that connection. Miss Poska, your 
testimony is that tliere were only 6 or 8 people in the group. 

Miss PosKA. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. You have named 4 of them, so it would only be a matter 
of vour telling who the other 2 or 3 were. 

Mr. Jackson. Unless they were different people at different 
meetings. 

Miss Poska. At different times. 

Mr. Jackson. Which would substantially increase the number, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. How many totally different people Avonld yon say were 
in the group during the 8 or 10 or 12 meetings you attended? 

Miss PosKA. Almost every time there would be a different conglom- 
eration of people. 

Mr. Doyle. The Altmans and the Christliebs would make four. If 
the groups were not more numerous than 6 or 8 or 10, then you would 



5786 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

only liave at most 4 different people at each meeting. If these same 
four people attended. 

Miss PosKA. Now, for instance, I wouldn't say that they were all 
four there at the same time, you see. 

Mr. Doyle. I see. 

Miss PosKA, They w^eren't always there together. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Jackson is trying to be very fair and very explicit 
with you. 

Miss PosKA. I understand that. 

Mr. Doyle. But we are so anxious that you go out of the room feel- 
ing that you have given the best that you have according to your recol- 
lection, because we never know when some other witness is going to 
come forward and name other persons who might be in this same group. 

Miss PosKA. That is true. I realize that, and if 1 • 

Mr. Jackson. Even more than that, Mr. Chairman, if I may — 
someone who may have on a number of occasions accompanied you to 
the meeting — I don't say that that occurred, but I think that is what 
the chairman and I are trying to point out to you, that we do not want 
you advertently or inadvertently to place yourself in a position where 
subsequent testimony may tend to incriminate you. We want to be 
fair. We are trying; to be absolutely fair in this. 

Miss PosKA. Wait a minute ; to the best of my knowledge I always 
went alone. I don't remember of having gone with anyone. I know I 
had my own car, and I drove ; and I was living by myself at the time. 

Mr. Jackson. So far as I know there is no testimony to the contrary, 
but, again, I simply stress that. 

May I ask one question in conclusion ? 

Without prejudice to the right of our committee to release your testi- 
mony at any tmie, which, of course, is within the jurisdiction of the 
full committee, do you have any personal objection to the release of the 
testimony or to the fact of your testifying at this time — the fact of 
your cooperation with the committee ? 

Miss PosKA. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. I think she wants it released. 

Mr. Jackson. That is the point I wanted to make. 

Miss PosKA. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. I say that I am not binding the committee to take 
action one way or the other, but we should like to, in light of the fact 
that you have cooperated — at least, I should like to be able to say to 
the press that you did appear and cooperated fully with the committee. 

Miss PosKA. It would make me very happy. 

Mr. Doyle. What was your motive for coming forward and asking 
the hearing? 

Miss PosKA. Well, I didn't 

Mr. Doyle. Why did you do that? 

Miss PosKA. Why did I ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Miss PosKA. I was so stunned, and I was so mad and surprised that 
I wanted to get the record straight that I am not a Communist ; and to 
my knowledge — I mean, I wouldn't have anything to do with them, 
and to my knowledge I never was. But that is my only purpose. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. Thank you very much. 

I want to ask Mr. Jackson if he wants to ask any more questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I think in justice to Mr. Christlieb we 
should have it very clearly set forth in the record if the witness denies 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5787 

membership in the Communist Party. Mr. Christlieb has testified 
affirmatively that the witness was, to the best of his knowledge, a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, and I don't want to becloud his other 
identifications by any uncertainty in this case. It would seem to me 
from what has been adduced here today that the witness was indeed, 
whether she realized it or not, a member of the party. 

1 think you will appreciate, Mr. Chairman, the point I am making. 

Mr. Doyle. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. It is that there are other identifications which I do 
not want to see beclouded unless they should be beclouded, by any 
leaving of this in a cloud as to whether or not the witness was at one 
time a member of the Communist Party. So far as I personally am 
concerned, Mr. Chairman, the fact of attendance at what appear to 
have been closed meetings of the Communist Party, the fact of what 
appears to be recruitment by Mr. Altman, would lead me to believe that 
you had indeed — whether knowingly or not— become a member of the 
Communist Party. I simply want to make the record clear and not 
have tlie final record appear as being clouded by the profession of the 
witness as not knowing whether or not she had been a member of the 
party. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson. Let me go back on the record. 

Mr. Chairman, other individuals identified by Mr. Christlieb who 
were subsequently called before the committee to testify availed them- 
selves of the privileges of the fifth amendment in refusing to answer 
any questions having to do with their alleged activities within the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Or affirm their membership. 

Mr. Jackson. Or conversely, affirm the testimony of Mr. Christlieb 
as to their membership and activities in and on behalf of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. I am glad you added that, Mr. Jackson. 

T think to be perfectly fair with the witness, I should add that, too. 
As I hear your testimony, you state you don't know whether or not 
you were a member. I think that is the essense of your testimony so 
far as membership is concerned, you don't know whether or not you 
were technically; that fact as Mr. Jackson has mentioned, plus the 
fact that you refused to pay the dues they asked, that they asked you 
appareiitly to pay a percentage of your income as dues, and you say 
you never paid any of that percentage. 

Miss PosKA. No, sir ; I didn't. 

Mr. Doyle. But as Mr. Jackson points out, you have testified that 
these meetings were what you thought were closed meetings — you were 
not free to invite anyone to go with you ? 

In our experience that means that they are closed meetings, that 
you considered them a closed arrangement, not an invitational affair 
to which you could take another person. I want to be perfectlj'^ frank 
with you. From your testimony, my own conclusion is that whether 
you knew it or not you were a member of that group ; I can't draw any 
other conclusion. 

Miss PosKA. I obviously was. I very obviously was. 

Mr. Jackson. That I think must be the conclusion of any objective 
jjerson looking at it. I assure you we are not in any way trying, nor 

77436— 56— pt. 11 1 



5788 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

am I trying, to put any thouglits in your mind or words in your mouth, 
but I do want to protect the integrity of the testimony which we have 
received. 

MissPosKA. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr. Jackson. Which has proven itself so far as we have been able 
to explore it. I am sure you understand the situation in which the 
committee finds itself. 

MissPosKA. Surely. 

Mr. Jackson. Not to unduly embarrass you or not to question your 
word in any way, but if there is any doubt in your mind on the score 
of membership, I would feel, Mr. Chairman, as a member of the com- 
mittee, that we should ask for a denial of membership in order that 
the situation might be perfectly clear — either something more perhaps 
than simply it might have been and it might not have been, which 
tends to cloud the testimony of Mr. Christlieb. 

Perhaps I can simplify it by asking simply, if you deny that you 
were ever a member of the Communist Party. 

Miss PosKA. I can't deny it when my name is on the record of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Jackson. No. Your name might appear as mine might or Mr. 
Doyle's might, by someone simply writing it down, or the name of any 
other citizen whom an official of the Communist Party might perhaps 
want to demean by writing it in. I think this is an important matter, 
Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I do, too. 

Mr. Jackson. I cannot be personally satisfied with an answer, 
"Well, perhaps I was and perhaps I was not." We have had this here- 
tofore. I personally would be unwilling to accept such an answer. 

Mr. Doyle, May I supplement Mr. Jackson's thought to you. May 
I ask you this : During the time you attended the meetings, did you 
consider yourself in your own thinking a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss PosKA. No; I didn't. I didn't. I didn't consider myself a 
member. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle, may I ask one further question ? You read 
the reports of Mr, Christlieb's testimony. 

Miss PosKA. Yes. 

Mr, Jackson. Was that testimony in any respect, so far as it per- 
tained to you, false ? 

Miss PosKA. No. 

Mr, Jackson, Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson, I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you have anything further to add, Miss Poska ? 

Miss Poska. No ; I haven't. 

Mr. Doyle, Are you perfectly satisfied ? 

Miss Poska. I am very happy to have had this opportunity of 
getting all this off my chest. 

Mr. Jackson. Fine. 

Mr. Doyle. Is there anything else, Mr. Wheeler ? 

Mr, Wheeler. No. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you very much. We thank you for coming to 
this hearing. 



INVESTIGATION OF C03IMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA— Part II 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 6, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-Aimerican Activities, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

executrte session ^ 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 11 : 45 a. m., in room 484 of the Statler Hotel, Los 
Angeles, Calif., Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman) presiding. 

Committee member present : Representative Clyde Doyle of Cali- 
fornia. 

Staff member present : William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. Mrs. Viertel, will you rise, please, and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give to this sub- 
committee sliall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Viertel. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF VIRGINIA VIERTEL, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MARTIN GANG 

Mr. Wheeler, Will you state your full name, please ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Virginia Viertel. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes; Mr. Martin Gang. 

Mr. Doyle. Will counsel state his name for the record ? 

Mr. Gang. Martin Gang, 6400 Sunset Boulevard. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you born, Mrs. Viertel ? 

Mr. Viertel. Beaver, Pa., September 3, 1915. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you relate your educational backgi'ound? 

Mrs. Viertei>. I went to Fairfax High School in Los Angeles, and 
then years later I went 1 year at USC and 1 year at UCLA. 

Mr. Wheeler. "Wliat is your occupation ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Editor it has been. Nothing right now. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you referring to an editor in the motion picture 
industry ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Mostly not. 



1 Ordered released by the committee August 7, 1956. 

5789 



5790 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. Mostly not ? Then in what field ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. In books. Book publishing. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are appearing before the subcommittee at your 
own request ; is that correct ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe you know that you have been identified as a 
member of the Communist Party by witnesses before the committee? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes; I was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you please state when you first joined the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. It isn't entirely easy, but I think it was 1936 
or thereabouts. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did you terminate that membership? 

Mrs. Viertel. That, too, is not exactly a definite date, but it was 
certainly erratic after 1940; but I know that after — during 1945 I 
never saw anybody again. That was the final end. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you previously married to Budd Schulberg? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. When did the marriage terminate in divorce? 

Mrs. Viertel. In 1944, 1 think. Is that right ? 

Mr. Gang. You separated in 1942. 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe you said you separated in 1942, were di- 
vorced in 1944. 

Mrs. Viertel. 1944. 

Mr. Wheeler. I want the record clear. 

Mr. Gang. Make the record clear, would you ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Oh, yes. We separated in 1942 and were divorced 
in 1944. 

Mr. Wheeler. May the record show that you were divorced in 
January of 1944? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was your membership in the Communist Party 
during the entire period of your marriage to Mr. Schulberg ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. I was a member the whole time ; but, as I say, 
we often went away and we weren't in constant attendance. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you state your constant attendance, then, in 
the CoiiTmunist Party, if you possibly can? When did you start to 
draw away from membership — become disinterested? 

Mrs. Viertel. Oh, I should say in 1939. We had some small quar- 
rels and things in 1938 and 1939, really, but I guess in 1940, that was — 
I don't think we attended meetings regularly ever again. 

Mr. Wheeler. After 1940? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. But you still retained your membership to a later 
date? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes, but it really didn't matter. It is hard ; I know 
it seems strange, but membership one didn't think about. That was 
a rather loose — it was unimportant. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you pay Communist Party dues during the 
entire time of your membership ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5791 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes. Mine were nominal dues. Housewife dues. 
Fifty cents or a dollar. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wlien did you completely divorce yourself from the 
(Communist Party ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Well, completely in 1945. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask, up until what time did you pay dues ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Well, I imagine until 1940, because after that I did 
not go to regular meetings. I was not a regular member. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you tell the subcommittee, please, the reasons 
you joined the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes. It is really very simple, because we had just 
been through the depression and it hit most of us quite hard — if not us, 
because we were so young, we saw what happened, and we thought 
there must be economic reasons for this, and we all wanted to study 
and find out about it. It was bewildering to young people to have 
suddenly the whole world that we knew sort of crash, and then just 
on the humanitarian level, the unemployed, and the people were going 
through such hardships. That marks young people, I think, very 
much. It would take a very calloused young person not to respond 
some way. Then we were — and we responded in the only way we knew 
how, because we were intellectuals, so we studied and tried to find out 
about it. 

Then we were certainly anti-Fascist, and no other organization or 
group seemed to be doing anything about this at that time. There 
was nothing that one could — a young person could go to say, 
at least for guidance. Not even church groups. The Communist 
Party held out the only knowledge — when up in Imperial Valley, for 
example, where the poor were starving. Nobody helped except the 
Communist Party. They went in and raised money; for floods, for 
disasters of all kinds; and they seemed like a great humanitarian 
group. I think most of the young people were pleased to be noticed 
by them, 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever hold any office in the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No. 

]Mr. Wheeler. Neither on the county level nor on a club level? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you assigned to a club by the Communist 
Party? 

]\Ir. ViERTEL. Yes; I guess so. I must have been assigned, but I 
think I either— I must have started just with Budd, and then just 
continued with the writers' group. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are referring to Budd Schulberg? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes. I am sorry. 

Mr. Wheeler. "V\^iy did you leave the Communist Party? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. For many years, after 1940, really, there was no 
reason for me to be in it. I had sort of completed my study course, 
and that was the main reason I was in there, and that is why I returned 
a few times after 1940, just because they were discussing something I 
wanted to hear; and they were friends also. I mean, even though I 



5792 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

didn't agree with — and I began to realize, you know, we voted on 
things and that sort, it was nonsense because the things would come 
down from the top and we would vote either in agreement or dis- 
agreement, but that was — had very little bearing on anything. That 
was quite clear. At times irritating. 

Mr. Wheeler. In what specifically did you disagree with the 
Communist Party doctrine ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. All kinds of things. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mention them. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Oh, dear. That was a long time ago. 

Mostly it was on minor levels. The major issues until they switched 
and that sort of thing ; I do believe we either agreed or disagreed, but 
that was long after the fact. That is an incredible thing for that kind 
of an organization. I think generally to straighten it up on anything, 
I had been reading, and reading anti- Communist books for the first 
time, which was rather odd, and it became rather open. 

Mr. Wheeler. You state one reason you became interested in the 
Communist Party was its stand on the rise of nazism and fascism in 
Europe. What was your reaction to the Stalin-Hitler pact? 

Mrs. VnsRTEL. Frankly, I thought it was a good maneuver to gain 
time. 

Mr. Wheeler. How was that explained to you ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. We were away. It wasn't explained. As you know, 
we were living in the East then and out of contact with all party mem- 
bers ; and the Daily Worker just didn't mention it, as you know, for 
several days. They didn't know what to saj^ Budd Schulberg got 
terribly upset and that was really the end for him, I think. 

It didn't bother me. I didn't really think it was a pact between 
these two people — two countries, on any other level except that I 
think — I thought Russia was pressed for time, and this was kind of a 
good stalling maneuver. I have been wrong on everything, so I can 
be wrong on a few more things. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall the names of any individuals you met 
as members of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes, of course. People in my group ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Budd Schulberg, Ring Lardner, Jr., Dalton Trumbo, 
Bob Rossen, Albert Maltz; and ordinarily wives, too; though later 
not. 

Mr. Wheeler. For the record, I think it should be shown that Budd 
Schulberg has appeared before the committee several years ago and 
cooperated. 

Mr. Gang. I might say that in helping Mrs. Viertel prepare for this 
thing, I gave her a copy of Mr. Schulberg's testimony so she might 
read it and refresh her recollection as to what happened those many 
years ago, and I am sure she did read it. 

Mrs. Viertel. I did read it, but it didn't refresh too much because 
he knew people I didn't know, and so on. 

Mr. Gang. I see. 

Mr. Wheeler. We have the testimony. 

Mr. Doyle. Were these 4 to 6 people you have just named known to 
you to be members of this Communist group ? 

Mrs. Viertel. I assumed they were, as they undoubtedly assumed I 
was. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5793 

Mr. D0YI.E. Did you attend meetings, closed meetings, of the Com- 
munist Party with them? 

Mrs. YiERTEL. Yes, though very often one didn't know whether it 
was a closed or open meeting, it seems to me. I mean, I have no defi- 
nite proof that thej^ were, but I assume they were. 

Mr. Doyle. May I make it clear? Do you recall attending any 
closed meetings of the group at which these 4 or 5 people you named 
were also present with you? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes, and there must have been others, too. 

Mr. DoYT^. I mean meetings at which a non-Communist would not 
have been admitted. 

IMrs. ViERTEL. Probably, yes. 

Mr. Gang. Off the record. 

Mr. Doyle, Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Doyle. Back on the record. 

Mr. Wheeler. There has been previous testimony before the com- 
mittee. It appears in part 4, Communist Infiltration of the Holly- 
wood Motion Picture Industry; the hearings which were held 
September 17, 18, and 19, 1951, wherein you were identified as a 
member of the Communist Party and a member of a Communist 
Party group. This testimony reflects that the following individuals 
were members of the group : Gordon Kahn — do you recall Mr. Kahn 
as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I knew him very well. He may have been in my 
group and may not. I certainly attended meetings with him, 

Mr. Wheeler, You have attended meetings with him ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Communist Party meetings? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes, but I just don't know whether he was in my 
particular group or not. 

Mr. Doyle. Were those closed Communist Party meetings ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No. They would be — I don't believe I ever was in 
a closed meeting with him. 

Mr. Wheeler. On what would you base your identification that he 
was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I assumed he was a Communist from conversations. 
He was in our group, social group. He spoke Communist the way we 
all did. I don't know what he would have been doing there if he 
hadn't been. 

Mr. Wheeler. He has been previously identified before the com- 
mittee, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Wheeler. Maurice Rapf. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes ; I am sorry. He was— I believe he was in the 
closed group with us. 

Mr. Wheeler. I believe you mentioned Eing Lardner, Jr. ? 

Mr. Gang. She did. 

Mr. Wheeler, Budd Schulberg, Sam Ornitz. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I don't think he was in our little group. It was 
rather small. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know him ? 



5794 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mrs, ViERTEL. I knew him, and I knew him to be a Communist from 
his own saying so. 

May I smoke ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall anyone else who was a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Well, I am sure I would. It is awful to be so vague. 
Like Maurice Eapf . I knew him very well, but I hadn't thought of 
him until you mentioned his name. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Jerome Chodorov ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes; I knew him very well, but not politically. I 
just knew him as a friend. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Frank Davis ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes ; I knew him. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Viertel. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Doyle. Back on the record. 

Mr, Wheeler. Did you know John Howard Lawson ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes, John Howard Lawson. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Young Communist League 
prior to your membership in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. I don't know whether I was really a member, 
but I went to YCL meetings ; but I don't think I was 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Elizabeth Wilson ? 

Mrs, Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. She appeared before the committee as a cooperative 
witness, and in the course of her testimony identified you as being in 
attendance at meetings of the Young Communist group. 

Mrs. Viertel. Well, we went together to a YCL convention in San 
Francisco, and I drove her, but I think that was the only time I was 
ever in an actual meeting. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you selected as a delegate by the YCL ? 

Mrs, Viertel, No, I just wanted to go. I had never been. 

Mr, Doyle. Wliat year would that have been ? 

Mr, Gang. 1937 or 1938. 

Mrs, Viertel, It must have been. It was very early. 

Mr, Doyle, Would it have been 1937 or 1938 ? 

Mrs. Viertel. I would think 1937. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you drove from Los Angeles to San 
Francisco ? 

Mrs, Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. You must have been interested. 

Mrs. Viertel, I never had been to San Francisco, either; and a 
group of us went up, I can't remember anybody else. I know Betty 
Anderson was with us, but I don't know what other characters I took 
up there. 

Mr, Wheeler, Did you use another name when you joined the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mrs, Viertel. No. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5795 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have a Communist Party name? 

Mrs. ViEKTEL. No. The American consul in Zurich told me I had 
and told me the name, and he asked me if I knew this woman, and I 
said, ''No,-' absolutely conhdent; and he said it was I. So apparently 
I had another name and just didn't know it. 

Mr. Wheeler. When were you interviewed by the American con- 
sulate in Zurich? 

Mrs. A iertel. Two years ago. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was it in regard to Communist Party membership ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. It was in regard to my passport. If I intended living 
in Europe 

Mr. Wheeler. Our records show that you used the name Joan 
Benton. 

Mrs. Viertel. That is what he said, but I had no way of knowing 
that. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall if you were ever a member of the Sam 
Adams Club of the Comnumist Party, Hollywood section ? 

Mrs. Yiertel. I never heard of that. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever attend any closed meetings of the Com- 
munist Party after the year 1945 ? 

Mrs. Viertel, No ; nor open ones, either. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Leon Becker as a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Viertel. No. I knew Leon very well. I knew he went to a 
study group, and I don't know 

Mr. "Wheeler. Did Leon Becker reside in your and your former 
husband's home for a while ? 

jNIrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. And Lester Koenig ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. They both resided with you ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. We shared a house. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Lester Koenig was a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Viertel. There again I assumed he was, but he was not in my 
group. 

Mr. Wheeler. What year did they reside at 3'our home ? 

Mrs. Viertel. I suppose it was 1938 and possibly the beginning of 
1939, I am not sure. I am sorry. I know the house and all that, 
but I am not sure when. 1938 or 1939, as I recollect. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you go to Mexico City in 1939 ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who accompanied you on the trip ? 

Mrs. Viertel. 1939, my former sister-in-law, Sonia Schulberg, and 
John Spivak. 

Mr. Wheeler. John Spivak ? 

Mrs. Viertel. John L. Spivak. Now, he had Communist Party 
contacts, but I didn't know that he was a party member. 

Mr. Wheeler. For what reason did you travel to Mexico ? 

Mrs. Viertel. He didn't know how to drive, and I told him I would 
drive him, because he wanted to go down — he wanted me to take 



5796 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

photographs, which I did, of what he thought were Japanese fortifica- 
tions in Mexico — not fortifications, but spies, apparently, who were 
working at odd jobs, and ships that came into the harbor with all 
kinds of — I don't know — terrible things on them; and I did take 
pictures and they were published in Ken magazine, which became 
defunct. That was the purpose of the trip, but mostly it was just a 
wonderful time. Sonia and I had a great time. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where did you stay in Mexico ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Well, all kinds of little — it wasn't Mexico City. We 
went down as far as Guaymas. 

Mr. Wheeler. I mean, what coastal towns did you visit ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL, Guaymas. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was that the only place ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. The only coastal. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you have a contact with any other person while 
in Mexico City or in Mexico ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No. We didn't know anybody. 

Mr. Wheeler. Just the three of you went 2 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. That would be your former 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Sister-in-law. 

Mr. Wheeler. Sonia Schulberg. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. We w^ere left to our own devices, except the time 
where I took pictures of the Japanese barber who was supposed 
to be a spy, and the fishing boat that had some sort of equipment. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did the Communist Party in Los Angeles County 
or the State of California know you were making this trip ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you gone ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I don't remember. I suppose 10 days. Something 
like that. 

Mr. Wheeler. How far is Guaymas? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. It is really the Gulf of California. It is that — you 
get there much faster by boat from Ensenada down to Guaymas, which 
is an ordinary fishing run when you charter fishing boats. Tliey often 
go down as far as Guaymas. We went down through Hermosillo. 
I guess the border was Nogales. We never met anyone that he was 
seeing because he would disappear on these mysterious missions in 
the evening and so on. We didn't know where he went and he didn't 
tell us about it, either. 

Mr. Wheeler. In other words, you were not in constant contact 
with him ? 

Mr. ViERTEL. No, indeed. 

Mr. Wheeler. You were gone 10 days. It would take what — 2 days 
to get down there ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No. We stayed some time in Hermosillo, and then 
we took a little longer than we thought because the road ended and 
we had to drive over desert and we didn't know where we were going. 
We stayed in Guaymas some time. A few days, anyway. 

Mr. Wheeler. You say he would leave every night? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. And during the day, too. 

Mr. Wheeler. During the day, too? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5797 

Mrs. ViERTEL. He was making phone calls, busy seeing people. 
He didn't tell and we didn't care. We weren't interested in what 
he w^as doing. 

Mr. AVheeler. How did you first meet this John Spivak? 

Mrs. Viertel. At our house, I guess; through Budd, I imagine. 

Mr. Doyle. "We will take a short recess. 

(Short recess taken.) 

Mr. Doyle. You may proceed, Mr. Wheeler. 

Mr. Wheeler. How^ long after you met Mr. Spivak did you make 
the trip to Mexico ? 

Mrs. Viertel. I have no idea when I met him. It seems to me 
Budd must have known him from college, I should say. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was he the same age ? 

]Mrs. Viertel. No. No. He w^as older, but he must have known 
him because that was Budd's most active political tie in all sorts of 
fields. Not as a Communist, I don't mean, but as editor of the paper 
and so on he met other editors, writers, and there were lecturers ; and 
Spivak was one of tlie well-known fellows in young intellectual circles. 
We did read liis books and so on. I can't remember the names of them 
any more. He spoke at all kinds of meetings, different kinds of meet- 
ings, you know. 

Mr. Wheeler. You married Budd Schulberg on December 31, 1936 ? 

Mrs. Viertel. 1936. 

Mr. Wheeler. This trip to Mexico was in the year 1939, and that 
would date your meeting with Mr. Spivak between 1936 and 1939 ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Not necessarily. 

Mr. Wheeler. You said Budd Schulberg introduced you two at 
the house. I assume that you were married ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Oh, we lived w^ith his father after we w^ere married, 
and I was there considerably before we were married — I mean, there 
quite a lot. I knew all his friends. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you meet Mr. Spivak before or after your 
marriage ? 

Mrs. Viertel. I wouldn't know, because w^e were married in the 
house tliat we finally lived in, but that was his father's house. 

jNIr. Wheeler. How many times did you see Mr. Spivak, before 
the trip to Mexico ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Oh, I have no idea. I am sorry. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you consider yourself a good friend of his at 
that time ? 

Mrs. Viertel. No. 

Mr. WiiEFXER. What I am trying to get at, is it unusual for two 
women to drive a man to Mexico ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Not really. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wliat w-ere the reasons behind it? I mean, how well 
did you know him, as a good friend ? Did he frequent your home ? 

Mrs. Viertel. He made long-distance phone calls. 

Mr. Wheeler. You are being very vague about it. 

Mrs. Viertel. I don't mean to be vague. 

Mr. Wheeler. Here is a man you and your sister-in-law went to 
Mexico Mnth for 10 days, and it seems to me 

Mrs. Viertel. We had known him around. He had come to the 
beach house. We had known him a long time, but we weren't intimate 
friends. 



5798 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Wheeler. For whom did he write ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Papers, magazines; I don't really know what ones 
they were. This particular one was for Ken, Ken magazine. It is 
not any more, but he had an assignment to go down and see about the 
Japanese spies, and we simply thought it would be a nice trip. We 
liad made many trips together, my sister-in-law and I. We were very 
I'lose. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you see Mr. Spivak subsequent to the time of 
the trip to Mexico ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I think he left. I don't remember seeing him. 

]Mr. Wheeler. When is the last time you heard of him? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I haven't heard of him at all. 

Mr. Wheeler. He completely dropped out of sight ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I don't remember ever seeing him. 

Mr. Wheeler. No more phone calls, no contact ? 

]Mrs. ViERTEL. He went East, and we certainly never looked him 
lip, so I don't know what happened to him. 

Mr. Wheeler. How many pictures were taken in Mexico? 

Mrs. Vierticl. Oh, I took endless pictures — you mean photographs 
that I took? 

Mr. Wheeler. Yes. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Oh, quite a lot. Several film packs. I had an old 
Graflex. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you give all of them to Mr. Spivak ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes, all the ones that he could use of the boats. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were they turned over to any other person ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No. I have no idea what happened to them. 

Mr. Wheeler. They were all turned over to Mr. Spivak. How many 
trips did you make to Mexico ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I made another one 

Mr. Wheeler. Either before or subsequent. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Well, lots across the border here, but into Mexico 
proper. 

Mr. Wheeler. Let us take Mexico proper. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I think the only other one was, I guess, 1942. 

Mr. Wheeler. July 30? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I don't know the date. 

Mr. Wheeler. That is the date you returned. 

Mrs. ViERTEL, Oh. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you in Mexico on this trip ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. A few days. I don't know exactly how long. 

Mr. Wheeler. Who accompanied you on the trip ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No one. I went down to see my husband who was 
there working. 

Mr. Wheeler. In Mexico City? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did this trip to Mexico in 1942 have any bearing 
on your Communist Party membership ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No ; I went down to ask him for a divorce. That is 
all I went for. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did the trip to Mexico in 1939 have any bearing on 
your Communist Party membership ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Not to us ; no. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5799^ 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you know Mr. Spivak was a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mrs, ViER'iTL. I don't know that he was a member. 

Mr. Wheeler. What was his political philosophy, if you recall? 
He was in your home. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Well, he was certainly left, I would saj^; but I don't 
know that he was — I don't know really. 

Mr. Wheeler. How did you consider him ? I mean, certainly being^ 
a member of the Conmiunist Party you wouldn't have constant asso- 
ciation or n;o on a trip with him if he was a Fascist. 

Mrs. Viertel. No ; certainly not. That doesn't necessarily mean he 
was a Communist. 

Mr. Wheeler. No ; I am not saying he was a Communist. 

Mrs. Viertel. He was certainly nothing — as I said, he was left^ 
what we considered left. 

Mr. Wheeler. His philosophy, then, was acceptable to you ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes, certainly. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you detained at the border on July 30, 1942 ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. "Wliat transpired ? 

Mrs. Viertel. I can't remember except that they asked me all kinds 
of — I don't even know who they were, but I was called aside when 
we got to the office, you know, and asked whom I had seen in Mexico ; 
and I guess that I must have said — and I couldn't understand why 
they were questioning me. I really didn't understand that at alL 
That was mystifying. I still don't know why. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you see anyone in Mexico besides your husband ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. I saw an associate of my husband at that time,, 
who to my knowledge had no connection with the party. 

Mr. Wheeler. How long were you detained at the border, Mrs. 
Viertel ? 

Mrs. Viertel. I don't remember that, either. 

Mr. Wheeler. You said it was unusual to be detained. 

Mrs. Viertel. Just to be detained was incredible, but I don't re- 
member how long it was. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was it an hour ? 

Mrs. Viertel. I think so. 

Mr. Wheeler. Half a day ? 

Mrs. Viertel. No ; I guess it was an hour or so. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you tell us, please, what they asked you 
while you were being detained there ? 

Mrs. Viertel. I believe they asked me who I had seen in Mexico; 
and I answered, "My husband." 

Oh, yes, I do remember. They asked me if I had seen anyone who 
was connected in any way with the Falangist group, and I can remem- 
ber being amazed, because that obviously would have been the Fascist 
group in Spain, and why I would have seen them in Mexico bewildered 
me. 

I don't remember anything else they asked me. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was your luggage in your possession at the time 
you were interviewed — I assume it was customs. 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes ; it was customs. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was your luggage in your possession ? 



5800 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I don't remember, because it was after a plane flight 
and I don't know whether the higgage wns out and I had it or whether 
it was still in the plane or the baggage room. I don't know. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you know whether or not your luggage was 
searched ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No ; I don't know. 

Mr, Wheeler. Now, on both your trips to Mexico — these two trips 
we are specifically talking about- — you went without the knowledge 
of the Communist Party ; is that right ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL, Well, I don't think it is quite right to say without 
the knowledge. Without the sanction. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you go there at the direction of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No ; certainly not. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, may I ask this: Did you go of your own voli- 
tion but with their approval ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No. Just of my own volition, and my friends cer- 
tainly knew I was going; but it had no bearing on the party at all. 

( Discussion off the record. ) ' 

Mr. Wheeler. Proceed. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I would like to make it clear that on neither trip to 
Mexico was there anything concerned except my own personal life, 
and specifically nothing with reference to the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you questioned by the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did they discuss these trips to Mexico with you? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes, and I told them the same thing, that I didn't 
understand it. 

Mr. AVheeler. Did the American consul ask you ? 

Mrs. Viertel, No. 

Mr. Wheler. You were interviewed twice, weren't you, while in 
Europe ? 

Mrs. Viertel. More than twice I went to see him. He was very 
sympathetic, very nice. We tried to work out — I told him just about 
everything I have said now, really. 

Mr. Wheler. In 1943 did you reside at 1439 Stone Canyon Koad ? 

Mrs. Viertel, What year ? 

Mr. Wheeler. 1943. 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Wheeler. They have a reference liere that on August 21 of that 
year a benefit for the People's World was held at that address. 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. I gave my house for this occasion. I didn't 
have anything else to do with it except giving the house for the party. 

Mr. Wheeler, Did you offer your house for other occasions ? 

Mrs. Viertel. I may have. I don't remember, but that was — I re- 
member it was a very large group, and I had to clean up afterward for 
days. 

Mr. Doyle. How would you describe the large group ? How many 
people ? 

Mrs. Viertel. There were hundreds there. 

Mr. Doyle. 200, 500, 700 ? 

Mrs. Viertel, I don't know, but just hundreds. I never saw so 
many people in one house and the garden ; but hundredp, certainly. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5801 

Mr. Wheeler. I have a reference that your former husband, Budd 
Schulbeig, made a trip to the Soviet Union. Did you accompany him 
on that trip ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No. I didn't know him tlien. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was that prior to your marriage ? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Wheeler. Back on the record. 

Can you identify anyone else you knew to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party i 

Mrs. Viertel. I don't think so. I am sure I could have known ■ 

Mr. Gang. In other words, if the names were put to you they might 
refresh your recollection ? 

Mrs. Viertel. That is the only way. 

Mr. Gang. If you want to do that, Bill, go ahead. 

Mr. Wheeler. I don't think so, because most of the names that I 
would mention have already been publicly identified. 

]\Irs. Viertel. Yes. I was surprised when I read Budd's statement 
of people that I didn't know in the paper. I have been surprised 
steadily. 

Mr. Wheeler. What led to your complete break with the Commu- 
nist Party in 1945 ? 

!Mrs. Viertel. Well, I really hadn't attended meetings regularly 
at all, as you know, since 1940, but every now and then and so on ; but 
it Avas impossible with my new marriage. 

Mr. Gang. Fix that. "V^'liom did you marry ? 

Mrs. Viertel. To Peter Viertel. 

]Mr. Wheeler. When did you marry him? 

Mrs. Viertel. In 1944. 

Mr. Gang. Then tell what happened. 

Mrs. ViERTELL. Then he was overseas, and I had a baby, and during 
the time I was pregnant I lived at Malibu. I was very far away and 
I simjjly dropped those contacts. It wasn't possible for me to even 
see my friends any more unless they came to see me, which they did 
occasionally, but I didn't go to meetings and I kind of officially 
dropped out — not officially, but more or less dropped out. I do be- 
lieve I went back to 1 or 2 meetings during the time I was pregnant. 
Then after I had the baby I never returned to any meeting. 

jNIy husband returned in 1945, and it was impossible for me to see 
any of my old friends, even, after his return, because he was so vio- 
lently anti-Communist ; not only in the large sense, but even against 
the individuals who were that far left; and consequently I made new 
friends, didn't even see the old friends again, and never — not socially 
or in the party did I have the same contacts. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Gang. Any questions. Congressman Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. As I recall it, you had some kind of a break in 1940, but 
in 1943 you evidently were gracious enough to the old group to have 
hundreds of people use your garden? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes, that is all. 

]\Ir. Doyle. The Communist group. 

Mrs. Viertel, Certainly. That seems strange, but it isn't because — 
it was for the newspaper, after all, and it was always folding. It 



5802 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

never had enough money to go on, and so on ; so we would give a party 
and make some money for it. 

In 1943 I believe it was — I did go to groups from time to time, but 
not — it wasn't regular. I was working and it wasn't the way it was. 

Mr. Doyle. Was there ever a time when you felt that the teachings 
of the Communist Party, as contrasted to the principles of our own 
Nation, were inconsistent? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Tlie teachings, the things we learned were excellent ^ 
but we didn't learn Communist Party methods nor did we know what 
the Communist Party was out to get. 

Mr. Doyle. When did you learn that? 

Mrs. Viertel. Oh, sloAvly, irrevocably it came over us, most of us^ 
I think. There wasn't one definite time I can say I realized at that 
moment that it was an organization which we had no business belong- 
ing to, because we didn't really understand its aims or its methods. 

Mr. Doyle. How would you state what you ultimately learned that 
the Communist Party was out to get, as you say ? What major things 
would you refer to? 

Mrs. Viertel. I suppose what we said of the capital press was partly 
responsible. You can't help reading it in Time and every magazine^ 
every newspaper. When they said that the funds that we raised for 
Spain were mishandled, well, this was a great blow, and I didn't be- 
lieve it at the time. Slowly I realized we had no way of knowing what 
happened to the money that we raised ; there was no real accounting ; 
and I think you begin to suspect, or I began to suspect, first of all,. 
Russia. The people who were running Russia were not, to my mind, 
splendid citizens, clearly. I hated the hero worship of Stalin, and the 
reverse now is equally unattractive. There were many things we 
didn't pay any attention to because I — and I imagine many people felt 
the same way — Russia could make all the mistakes they wanted, it 
didn't matter. That was not our country. We were trying to improve 
our own country. If it was a failure there, we hoped it wouldn't be. 
The whole Socialist experiment was not our country. During the 
trials I didn't even read about them. I said, "Suppose it is ghastly. 
That has no bearing on America." 

Mr. Doyle. But were you not trying to apply the Socialist doctrine 
of the Soviet Union to our country ? 

Mrs. Viertel. We were learning about it. There was certainly no 
opportunity for application. 

Mr. Doyle. But in theory you were trying to apply it as a Commu- 
nist? 

Mrs. Viertel. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. The Soviet Socialist state in theory, at least ? 

Mrs. Viertel. No. It was just a Socialist state. We hoped America 
would finally get^ — would finally become Socialist. 

Mr. Gang. What about the democracy in the Communist Party? 
How did it operate ? Was there any ? 

Mrs. Viertel. It was pretty ghastly. That also was another disen- 
chanting thing. As I said, when we were to have a little election or 
voice "Yes" or "No" on something that had come dov\m — and I can't 
remember the things any more — it w^as clear that we had no ^'oice. 

Mr. Doyle. As a matter of practice within the Communist Party 
during the years you were in it, was there applied democracy or ap- 
plied democratic processes ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5803 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Oh, yes : theoretically. 

Mr. Gang. But actually? You are making it very difficult for us 
here. Don't be so (inicky. Tell the facts. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. No; it certainly wasn't in our little group. It wasn't. 
Someone would take charge, and that would be it. 

Mr. DoYLE. I am deliberately asking you a few questions to get the 
benefit of your conclusions. You have had an unusual experience and 
can be helpful to us in Congress in understanding it. 

Mrs. YiERTEL. I was such an unimportant member. This is another 
problem : that I wasn't in on the higher level. 

Mr. DoYLE. But you were an intellectual in the Communist Party. 

Mrs. YiERTEL. Yes; that is the only reason I got in, and for intel- 
lectual reasons I think most of us got out, for the same accumulation of 
them, not just one thing. 

Mr. Doyle. As you know, the committee exists by authority of Con- 
gress to learn in what way we can conclude means to recommend to 
Congress different or additional legislation. 

Should we modify, change, amend, or add to the present laws? 
Have you any thought in that field? In other words, is Congress 
meeting the problem so far as legislation is concerned ? If not, where- 
in are we failing ? 

Mr. Gang. May I ask, what you mentioned to me off the record in 
that line, do you mean what laws could be passed to help prevent such 
a vacuum for the young as existed in the 1930's when young people were 
sucked into it ? 

Mrs. YiERTEL. I don't think they need to be, frankly. I don't think 
conditions are the same now. The young people I know now are not 
interested remotely, and I think the times have changed, especially 
in our country. There is no reason for it. There is no need to find 

Mv. Doyle. Why did you come forward and volunteer to come be- 
fore the committee ? 

Mrs. YiERTEL. There are an awful lot of circumstances altogether. 
I think probably I would just have let it go, because my life is pretty 
busy just being a mother, you know; but they know about Peter, cer- 
tainly 

jNlr. Gang. But the point Mr. Doyle made is do you feel that you 
want to tell the committee of Congress everything you know to help 
them in legislating or not legislating on the problem ? 

Mrs. YiERTEL. Yes, certainly; but whatever I know, I didn't be- 
lieve before anything I could say would be of any help, because I 
didn't know enough. I knew nothing new. I didn't know as much 
as most people, so I didn't think it was urgent or interesting be- 
fore. 

Mr. Doyle. Let me ask one concluding question. 

Off the record please, Mr. Reporter. 

(Discussion off' the record.) 

Mr. Doyle. Now, is the identification that we have previously men- 
tioned true ? 

Mrs. YiERTEL. Yes. 

Mr. DoYLE. You heard Mr, Wheeler refer to your identification as 
a member of the Communist Party as having been made by certain 
persons ? 



5804 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Was that identification correct? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes ; it was. 

Mr. Doyle. And true? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I want to ask this : If in the future you learn of other 
former Communists who come to the point where they wonder whether 
or not they are welcome to come before the committee, will you make 
it clear that they are welcome ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I do believe everybody knows that they can. 

Mr. DoYLE. You think that is generally known now ? 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Yes. 

Mr. DoYLE. Because we have that standing rule and invitation to 
appear before the committee. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I think they often don't know where you are, pos- 
rsibly. 

Mr. DoYLE. That is true. They can always get in touch with Mr. 
Wheeler. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. I also want to state I am grateful indeed to Mr. 
Wheeler and Mr. Doyle for letting me come and clear up whatever 
I could. 

Mr. Doyle. We want to thank you very much. 

Mrs. ViERTEL. Thank you. I am sorry I was vague and not help- 
iul. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 50 p. m., Wednesday, June 6, 1956, the executive 
hearing of the witness was adjourned.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA— Part 11 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 6, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Los^ Angeles^ Calif. 

executive session ^ 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 3 p. m., in room 484 of the Statler Hotel, Los 
Ajigeles, Calif ., Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Clyde Doyle and 
Donald L, Jackson, of California. 

Staff member present : William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Ayeroff , will you rise, please, and be svrorn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give to this sub- 
committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth' so help you God ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH AYEROFF 

Mr. Wheeler. Will you state your full name ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. Joseph Ayeroff. 

Mr. Wheeler. When and where were you born, Mr. Ayeroff ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. New York City, August 16, 1911. 

Mr. Wheeler. I see you are not represented by counsel. 

Mr. Ayeroff. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. You have that privilege if you so desire. Do you 
wish to proceed without counsel ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, that is perfectly satisfactory to you, Mr. 
Ayeroff, to proceed without a lawyer ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. If I need a lawyer, I can always get one. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you tell the committee of your educational 
background ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I was born in New York City. We moved to Utah 
when I was a year old. We farmed there, Sanpete County, until we 
were about five. 

We moved to Aurora. I attended public schools of Utah, Lincoln, 
Nebr. ; Denver, Colo. ; the coal mining towns of Pennsylvania ; moved 



1 Ordered released by the committee August 7, 1956. 

5805 



5806 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

back to New York ; moved up to upper New York ; attended the high 
schools of New York City, and I attended the College of the City of 
New York for 5 years. 

Mr. Wheeler. Would you relate your employment since leaving 
college ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. Since leaving college I was a salesman for an import- 
ing concern, Lavin & Lauer, at 225 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 
That was immediately upon completion of college. 

I came to California in 1933. I was in the employ of my uncle, the 
Economy Printing Co., until I entered the armed services in 1942. 

Upon completion of my military service, my brother and myself are 
in the furniture and appliance business. We operate two stores ; one 
at 1066 South La Cienega Boulevard, and the other in North Holly- 
wood at 5716 Lankershim. 

Mr. Wheeler. Wlien were you discharged from the Army ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I imagine about the end of 1945. 

Mr. Wheeler. Where were you stationed while in the Army ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I was inducted at Azusa, which was at Riverside, and 
I was stationed at Fort Worden, Wash., for a short period of time, and 
the rest of the time I was stationed at the port of embarkation, San 
Francisco, attached to the commanding general, doing special service 
in the orientation department of the Army. 

Mr. Wheeler. The committee in the past has received considerable 
testimony regarding the techniques employed by the Communist Party 
in infiltrating major political parties. We have testimony from for- 
mer members of the Communist Party who have identified you as a 
member of the Communist Party, and as having been instrumental in 
the infiltration of a major political party. We desire to go into that- 
First, I would like to ask you, have you been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment, that my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Mr. Louis Rosser ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Rosser, on Tuesday, January 15, 1952, identified 
you as a member of the Communist Party. Was he correct in this 
identification ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you acquainted with or have you ever known 
Max Silver? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Silver testified before the committee in executive 
session, and he likewise identified you as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. Was Mr. Silver correct? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr .Wheeler. While in the city of San Francisco, were you active 
in the American Veterans Committee ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you the head of chapter No. 1 of the American 
Veterans Committee in San Francisco? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5807 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
in tlie Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

]\Ir. Wheeler. Are you familiar with a club called the Liberal 
Club? This organization was functioning at New York City Col- 
lege in 1931, at which time I believe you were attending New York 
City College. 

Mr, Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you know Alice Orans ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

jNIr. Wheeler. Have you ever attended any Communist meetings 
with Alice Orans ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Wheeler. Are you a member of the Henry Eaton Post of the 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. We have no record of you serving in the Loyalist 
forces in Spain. Did you ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Were you a member of the Young Communist 
League ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Our record shows that you participated in a number 
of functions for youth sponsored by the Communist Party. It shows 
that you were elected chairman of the second session of the American 
Youth Congress at a meeting held at Siegal Hall. This was some 
time ago. 

Mr. Ayeroff. It must have been. I refuse to answer on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. Have you supported the Communist Party press, the 
Daily People's World? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Wheeler. According to the People's World of December 30, 
1949, Ayeroff Bros., 1066 South La Cienega, sent heartiest greetings 
to the Daily People's World ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. You are reading it there. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was it correct or not? Did you send heartiest 
greetings to the People's World ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. I refuse to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Wheeler. You do have a store located at 1066 South La 
Cienega ? 

Mr. Ayeroff. Yes ; we do. 

Mr. Wheeler. There are a number of references, Mr. Chairman, to 
Ayeroff Bros., Joseph Ayeroff, and, in fact, to the whole family. I 
can see no reason for pursuing this interrogation. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. Any questions, Mr. Jackson ? 

Mr. Jackson. 1 have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions, Mr. Ayeroff. 

Mr. Wheeler. I have nothing further. 

Mr. Doyt.e. Mr. Ayeroff, thank you very much. 

(Whereupon, at 3 :' 15 p. m., Wednesday, June 6, 1956, the executive 
heai-ing of the witness was adjourned.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE. 
LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA— Part 11 



THURSDAY, JULY 5, 1956 

United States House of Rjpresentatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. C. 

executive session ^ 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 10 a. m., pursuant to notice, in room 227 of the House Office Build- 
ing, Hon. Clyde Doyle (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Clyde Doyle, of Cali- 
fornia (presiding), and Donald L. Jackson, of California. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, counsel ; and Courtney 
E, Owens, investigator. 

Mr. Doyle. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Will you please rise and be sworn ? Do you solemnly swear to tell 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you. 
God? 

Mr. HuBLEY. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN HUBLEY; ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ARTHUR P. McNULTY 

Mr. Tavenn:er. Will you state your name, please, Mr. Hubley ? 

Mr. HuBLJEY. John Hubley. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel accompanying the witness please 
identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. McNuLTY. My name is Arthur P. McNulty. I am from New 
York City, and my office address is 101 West 57th Street, New York 

City. 

May I just ask one question preliminary? I do not know what the 
requirements of a quorum are for the committee, and I believe it is 
three. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think that the chairman should announce the mem- 
bers of the subcommittee. 

Mr. Doyle. I was going to remark after the witness gave his name, 
that by virtue of direction of the chairman of the full committee, a 
subcommittee of three has been named to hold this hearing: Repre- 
sentatives Donald L. Jackson, of California, Clyde Doyle, of Cali- 
fornia, as subcommittee chairman, and Mr. Edwin E. Willis, of Louisi- 



» Ordered released by the committee September 4, 1956. 

5809 



5810 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

ana. Two of the three members of the subcommittee being present, 
there is a quorum of the subcommittee. 

Mr, Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Hubley ? 

Mr. HuBLET. I was born in Marinette, Wis., in 1914. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Hubley. In New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in New York Cit}^ ? 

Mr. Hubley. Approximately 4 or 5 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your oc- 
cupation is? 

Mr. Hubley. I am an artist, a film artist, a cartoonist, director of 
animated cartoons, and producer of animated cartoon films. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a producer, are you the head of a company, or 
a corporation? 

Mr. Hubley. I am head of a company called Story Board, Inc. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what business is it engaged ? 

Mr. Hubley. It is engaged in the production of animated film. 

Mr. Tavenner, How long have you been the head of that company ? 

Mr, Hubley, The company was formed about 2 years ago, 

Mr, Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly what 
your formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Hubley. I went to high school in Michigan, 1 year or, I believe, 
1 or 2 years of college in Los Angeles, and 8 years of art school in 
Los Angeles, 

Mr. Tavenner. What school did you attend in Los Angeles? 

Mr. Hubley, The Art Center School. 

Mr. Tavenner, Wliat was the date of the completion of your formal 
educational training in Los Angeles ? 

Mr, Hubley, Approximately 1936. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did vou serve in the Armed Forces of the United 
States? 

Mr, Hubley, Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner, During what period of time ? 

Mr. Hubley. The period of 1942 to 1945. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your em- 
ployment was between 1936 and 1942? 

Mr. Hubley. I was employed at the Walt Disney Studio as an art 
director or what is known in our trade as a layout man, 

Mr, Tavenner. Over what period of time were you so employed? 

Mr. Hubley. From 1936 to 1941. From 1941 until 1942 I was em^^ 
ployed in the same capacity, by Screen Gems, Inc. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Mr. Hubley, In Hollywood. 

Mr. Ta^^enner, On return from your service in the Armed Forces 
in 1945, how were you employed? 

Mr, Hubley. I was employed as a director, an artist in an organi- 
zation called United Productions of America. 

Mr. Ta-s^nner. That would be from 1945 until what date ? 

Mr. Hubley. Until 1952. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER, And since 1952, how have you been employed? 

Mr, Hubley. I have been free lancing and I have been employed 
by Story Board, Inc. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr, Hubley, this committee began its investigation 
of Communist activities — that is, Communist infiltration into the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5811 

entertainment field — back in March 1951, and it has been engaged 
constantly since that time in making investigations in that field. 
It has come to the attention of the committee that there was a 
group of artists, some of them being in the cartoonist field, and 
being employed at Walt Disney Studios, who met as a group of Com- 
munist Party members. Some of these homes in which the meetings 
were held were said to be the homes of William Pomerance, Edward 
Biberman, and others. 

According to the information that came to the committee through 
sworn testimony, it appeared that at some of these meetings the ques- 
tion of the use of arts was fully discussed from the viewpoint of having 
art to carry a particular message as distinguished from the practice 
of art for art's sake. 

Our purpose in calling you here today, as part of our investigation 
into this field, is to inquire as to what knowledge you have, if any, of 
sucli meetings. Let me ask you first. Were you acquainted with 
Edward Biberman ? 

Mr. HuBLEY. Well, in answer to your question, Mr. Tavenner, I 
would like to state that I feel that in the area of politics and in the 
area associations, workwise or social, that I do not feel personally 
that your committee should ask me to reveal or speak on these matters, 
either with my opinions or my associations. 

Mr. TA^TNNER. By that do you mean that you decline to answer 
the question ? 

Mr. HuBLEY. Well, I would mean that I do not consider 

Mr. Tavenner. You are expressing a reason why you would prefer 
not to answer the question, but you have not clearly stated whether 
or not you are merely raising an objection or whether you are actually 
refusing to answer the question, 

Mr. HuBLEY. Well, I am raising an objection to the line of ques- 
tioning in the sense that I do not agree that it is a proper question 
for a person such as myself to be asked. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that a substantive question 
be put to the witness in order that we may clarify this matter. 

Mr. Tavenner. My c{uestion was whether or not this witness knew 
Edward Biberman. In view of the witness' statement, I think that 
it is perfectly proper to direct that he answer. 

Mr. Doyle. I might state this to the witness, that the committee 
does not feel that in asking that question, that we are going into the 
field of your political beliefs. Under Public Law 601, we are directed 
by Congress to go into any field in which it appears that there is infil- 
tration by Soviet communism, whether it is in art, music, literature, 
government, or labor, or the legal profession. 

Tliat is the basis of this question. We have not, and we will not, 
go into your political beliefs. We cannot accept your objection as a 
valid answer to the question. 

So that my duty as subcommittee chairman is, in view of that fact, 
to instruct you to answer the question, because an objection is not a 
declining to answer, as we see it. I do instruct you to answer the 
question, whatever your answer may be. 

Mr, Hubley, Well, since the question was framed within the refer- 
ence to political activities, and also associations, I choose to invoke my 
constitutional privilege under the first amendment and under the 
fifth amendment. 



5812 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Doyle, This committee recognizes the invoking of those privi- 
leges as entirely proper where conscientiously used. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, is it not the view of the committee 
that it recognizes the fifth amendment may be a valid reason for 
refusing to answer a question of that type, but the first amendment 
would not be ? 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr, Tavenner. Have you at any time been acquainted with William 
Pomerance ? 

Mr, HuBLEY, May I consult counsel ? 

Mr, Tavenner. Surely. 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr, Htjbley. Since you, in your previous questioning have referred 
to Mr. Pomerance in a certain connection, I decline on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with David Hilberman? 

Mr, Hubley, Yes ; I am, 

Mr. Tavenner. Where was Hilberman employed during the period 
you were employed by the Walt Disney Studios? 

Mr. PItTBLEY. As I recall, Hilberman was employed at the Walt 
Disney Studio around 1940. 

Mr. McNuLTY. Mr. Chairman, may I just talk with the witness at 
this time ? 

Mr. Doyle. You may confer with your client at any time. 

(Witness consulted his counsel. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. Was David Hilberman known to you to be a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hubley. This is a similar question, Mr. Counsel, to the other 
one and I have already stated my intention, I think, rather clearly on 
questions of this kind. 

Mr. Doyle. We cannot accept that as a satisfactory answer to the 
question. If you mean by your ansAver that you plead your consti- 
■tutional privilege to this question, the same as you did the previous 
one, then I suggest you make it clear that you plead your constitutional 
privilege if that is consistent with your counsel's advice to you. 

But, the form of your answer is not satisfactory to the committee ; 
that is what I am saying to you. 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Hubley. It is consistent with my counsel's advice and also with 
my own conscience and advice that I invoke the rights under the con- 
stitution in all questions of this kind. 

Mr. Tavenner, Do you refuse to answer the question that I asked 
you on the ground of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Hubley. The first and fifth amendments, 

Mr, Tavenner, I say, do you ? 

Mr, Hubley. Yes, 

Mr, Tavenner, I just wanted the record to show plainly what your 
position is. Are you acquainted with Bernyce Polifka Fleury? 

Mr, Hubley. Yes, sir. I worked with her from time to time in 
various capacities in the studios. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she employed at the Walt Disney Studio at 
the time that you were ? 

Mr. Hubley. I honestly do not recall that she was employed at the 
jDisney Studio. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5813 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall where she was employed ? 

Mr. HuBLEY. I believe she worked at Warner Bros., and I believe 
she worked at UPA. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Was she knoAvn to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Hubley. I must decline ao:ain on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend any meeting of the Communist Party 
at wliicli Ed Biberman and David Hilberman and Bernyce Fleury, or 
any one of them was present ? 

Mr. Hurley. I decline on the grounds of the first and fifth amend- 
ments to discuss any kind of associations. 

Mr. McNuLTY. Mr. Chairman, may I ask that if possible counsel 
might make it somewhat definite, any meetings and what period he 
had in mind ? 

Mr. Tavenner. My question is whether you attended one at any 
time ? 
. Mr. McNuLTY. Then the answer will stand, I take it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question now ? 

Mr. HuBLEY. I decline on constitutional grounds to discuss this type 
of question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware of the existence of an organized 
group of the Communist Party made up principally of artists from 
the cartoonist and painters' field while you were in Hollywood prior 
to your entry into the Armed Forces of the United States? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Hubley. Well, it is a question regarding politics and I will 
stand on the same grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hubley. I would reply on the same grounds to that question 
or a question of whether I was a Democrat, Republican, or anything 
else. 

Mr. Tavenner. I was afraid that that was your conception, prob- 
ably, of the Communist Party, when you spoke of politics. It has 
been demonstrated by testimony before this committee over long 
periods of time, and it has been demonstrated by findings of fact by 
the Congress of the United States, and by the Federal courts that the 
Communist Party is not a political party in the sense that we under- 
stand the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, for instatice, 
to be political parties. 

So, that may alter your decision as to whether or not you will 
answer these questions if we make it plain to you it is not a political 
party. The Communist Party has been held to be a conspiratorial 
apparatus, and it is not a political party. 

With that explanation, will you change your replies ? 

Mr. Hubley. I think it is still a matter of opinion, legal or otherwise. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then, because you consider it a political party the 
same as a Democratic or Republican Party, you refuse to testify? 

(Witness consulted his counsel.) 

Mr. Hubley. I decline to answer that question on all grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. On the grounds previously asserted by you ? 

Mr. Hubley. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
living in Hollywood? 

Mr. Hubley. This is the same form of question, it seems to me, and 
1 will invoke the constitutional privileges again. 



5814 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Jackson, do you have any questions ? 

Mr. Jackson. I think not, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I have one. 

We liave evidence from other witnesses who were at one time mem- 
bers of the Communist conspiracy, artists and painters, and so forth^ 
from Hollywood and other places. At times their artistical interests 
were directed in order to put across a certain message sponsored by 
Soviet communism, rather than art for art's sake. That, of course, is 
one of the purposes of this question, fundamentally to see if we can 
get your help, as an artist, to understand the extent, if in your expe- 
rience, communism tried or succeeded in directing your specialized 
talents to put across a certain communistic message rather than art for 
art's sake. 

I am making that statement to you as one man to another because our 
field as your Congressman is to try to discover ways in which that was 
done, and from your experience if at all, learn how Congress may un- 
dertake to more intelligently and efficiently legislate or handle the 
problem. 

That is not politics, it is art. I want to ask you very frankly, in 
the field of art, if you can help us understand or learn in what way, 
the Communists sought, through your talented ability to influence a 
message other than just for art's sake? Is that a fair question to 
you ? 

Mr. HuBLEY. I have a lot of opinions about art as well as I am 
sure all artists do and it is an endless discussion and I do not think 
that this would serve purpose here. I would like to simply say in 
answer to that, that I have 30 years of creative work and that I stand 
on that. 

It is public work, and anyone is welcome to examine it and to look 
at it, and I stand on my work, and not on my opinions. My opinions 
can change, and I have changed them many times, all through my life, 
and I like the right we have to be able to change them. But the work 
stands. I have no shame about it. If anyone wants to examine it, it 
is there. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, did you feel that any of your creative work was 
the result of the infiltration or influence or the pressures or the pro- 
mulgation of the Communist influence in Hollywood? Did you re- 
produce any creative work in whole or in part as a result of any Com- 
munist infiltration in your own consciousness ? 

Mr. HuBLEY. My work has been my own work, and my own talent, 
and my own opinions. 

Mr. Doyle. Was that work influenced by Communist pressure 
directly or indirectly ? Was your creative work a result of your opinion 
which was shaped in whole or in part by the influence of communism 
which you may have been surrounded in whole or in part? 

Mr. HuBLEY. There are many influences on every person, and the 
ones on me were many, and I do not know. Your question is not very 
specific. As I told you, when you are discussing Communist ideas, I 
do not believe it is the proper kind of a question here, and I have 
declined to state opinions or otherwise in this area. That is on con- 
stitutional grounds. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN LOS ANGELES, CALIF., AREA 5815 

]Mr. Doyle. I am always disappointed as a Member of Congress and 
a fello\A- citizen when a person sucli as you with particular creative 
ability, does not take the opportunity to help your Congress under- 
stand more in detail the extent to which communism has infiltrated in 
your particular art or craft. 

I am just stating that to you as one man to another. It is again a 
case where I recognize a great creative ability, and of course, we would 
not l)e calling you this morning if we did not have an idea, a rather 
definite idea, that you could help us. 

Mr. HriJLEY. Well, I would like to say, and it may be a lielp or not, 
that this creative ability that you recognize can only flourish in a 
climate of complete fi-eedom and complete free ability to explore and 
to think and to experiment. 

Mr. Doyle. We have abundant testimony by former active Com- 
munists in your field, in the held of music and in the field of literature 
that they do not have or did not experience, while they were members 
of the Communist group, complete freedom. That is one of the things 
that we are trying to understand, so that we can help protect our 
Nation more thoroughly against the inhltration and the taking away 
of complete freedom. 

]Mr. Jacksox. J have several questions to ask to clear the record. 

Of course, I think that there is an abundance of testimony that in- 
dicates that anyone who is in the Communist Party as an artist had 
absolutely no freedom, and he was in a mental philosophical strait- 
jacket. 

However, there is sworn testimony before the committee that you 
were in fact a member of the Communist Party. Is that testimony 
true or false ? 

Mr. HuBLEY. I decline to answer the question. 

jNIr. Jackson. The testimony also indicates that you attended closed 
meetings of the Communist Party. Is that testimony true or false? 

]Mr. HuBLEY. I decline to answer on the previous grounds. 

Mr. Jacksox. Did you contribute your talents in any way to the 
Communist Party or the Communist-front organizations? 

Mr. HuBLEY. I decline to answer. 

]\Ir. Jackson. For the reasons previously stated? 

Mr. Ht^BLEY. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you contribute funds to the Communist Party, 
directly or indirectly, or to any Communist-front organization? 

Mr. HuBLEY. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you today a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Plt'BLEY. This question is again, I feel, the same kind of in- 
fringement that the others were, and I invoke the privilege of the first 
and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Jackson. I have no fui'ther questions, Mr. Chairman. But I 
move the release of the testimony of the witness, subject to the will of 
the full committee. 

]Mr. DoYLE. Let the record so show. 

Are there any other questions? 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no other questions. 

jNIr. Doyle. Thank you, Mr. Counsel, and the witness. 

(Thereupon, at 12: 10 p. m., Thursday, July 5, 1956, the executive 
] tearing of the witness adjourned.) 



INDEX 



INDIVIDUALS 

Page- 

Alland, William 5771 

Altman, Mischa 5776-5782, 5785, 5787 

Altman, Mrs. Mischa 5779, 5781, 5785- 

Anderson, Betty. ( See Wilson, Elizabeth. ) 

Ayeroff, Joseph 5805-5807 (testimony) 

Becker, Leon 5795- 

Benton, Joan. (See Viertel, Virginia.) 

Biberman, Edward 5811, 5813 

Brooks, Arthur A., Jr 5769 

Chodorov, Jerome 5794 

Christlieb, Donald 5776, 5778, 5779, 5781, 5782, 5785-5788 

Christlieb, Pearl (Mrs. Donald Christlieb) 5778, 5779, 5785 

Clarke, Angela 5770 

Davidson, Mike 5771 

Davis, Frank 5794 

Diamond, Muni 5770, 5771 

Fielding, Ann (Mrs. Jerry Fielding) 5770 

Fielding, Jerry 5769-5773 (testimony) 

Fleury, Bernyce Polifka 5812, 5813 

Gang, Martin 5789 

Held, Benjamin 5769 

Hilberman, David 5812, 5813 

Hopkins, Pauline 5771 

Hubley, John 5809-5815, (testimony) 

Kahn, Gordon 5793 

Koenig, Lester 5795 

Lardner, Ring, Jr 5792, 5793 

Lawson, John Howard 5778, 5780, 5794 

McNulty, Arthur P 5809 

Maltz, Albert 5792 

Moore, Sam 577I 

Mullen, Virginia 5771 

Orans, Alice 5807 

Ornitz, Sam 5793 

Pomerance, William 5811, 5812 

Po.ska, Judith 5775-5788 (testimony) 

Rapf, Maurice 5793, 5794 

Raymond, Judith 5770, 5771 

Robinson, Jack 5770, 5771 

Robinson, Mary (Mrs. Jack Robinson) 5770,5771 

Rossen, Bob 5792 

Rosser, Louis 5806 

Schulberg, Budd 5790-5793, 5797, 5801 

Schulberg, Sonia 5795, 5796- 

Ship, Reuben 5770, 5771 

Silver, Max 5806 

Spivak, John L 5795, 5797-5799- 

Stone, Gene 5771 

Trumbo, Dalton 5792 

Viertel, Peter 5801 

Viertel, Virginia (Mrs. Peter Viertel; also known as Joan Benton )__ 57S9-5804 

(testimony) 

i 



INDEX 

Piige 

Waxman, Stanley 5771 

Wilson, Elizabeth (nee Anderson) 5794 

Wolff, Bill 5770 

Organizations 

American Veterans Committee, San Francisco Chapter, No. 1 5806 

American Youth Congress, Los Angeles 5807 

City College of New York, Liberal Club__— 5807 

Communist Party, California : 
Hollywood : 

Kadio Branch 5771 

Sam Adams Club 5795 

Ken (publication) 5798 

Walt Disney Studios 5811, 5812 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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