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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the Baltimore, Md., area. Hearings"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN 
THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA— PART 1 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEfilCAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPEESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MAY 7 AND 8, 1957 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INDEX IN PART 2 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1957 



HAR/:.. CLlLlv 



.AkY. 



DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

RICHARD Arens, Director 
II 



CONTENTS 



PART I Pago 

Synopsis vii 

May 7, 1957: Testimony of— 

Clifford C. Miller, Jr 894 

Afternoon session: 

Aaron Ostrofsky 925 

Irving Spector 930 

William H. Wood 940 

Levy Williamson 943 

Joseph P. Henderson 946 

Benjamin M. Fino 949 

May 8, 1957: Testimony of— 

Sirkka Tuomi Lee (Mrs. Robert Lee) 957 

Irene Barkaga 965 

Fred Hallengren 973 

George A. Meyers 977 

Irving Kandel 982 

Afternoon session: 

Irving Kandel (resumed) 989 

William S. Johnson 991 

Jeanette Fino (Mrs. Benjamin M. Fino) 997 

Mary Roberts 1004 

PART 2 

May 9, 1957: Testimony of— 

Abraham Kotelchuck 1011 

Charles M. Craig, Sr 1023 

Abraham Kotelchuck (resumed) 1023 

Charles M. Craig, Sr. (resumed) 1024 

Milton Seif 1034 

Otto Yerrell 1041 

Afternoon session: 

Milton Bates 1047 

Claire Friedman Round 1057 

Elsie Winter 1060 

Herbert Nichol 1062 

Marcella Halper Avnet 1070 

Harold Buchman 1080 

Index I 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d. session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

RuleX 
sec. 121. standing committees 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Ttie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to retiuire the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent re- 
ports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch 
of the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

* * ^ * * * lit 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
****** * 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

* * ^ * iN * * 

Rule XI 

POWEES AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of 
the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 



Investigation of Communist Activities in the Baltimore, Md., Area, Parts 1 and 2 

Public hearings in Baltimore, Md., on May 7, 8, and 9, 1957, pro- 
vided the Conunittee on Un-American Activities with further infor- 
mation on Communist penetration of the major industrial areas of 
the United States, 

The most dramatic testimony came from Clifford Miller, an em- 
ployee of the Bethlehem Steel mill at Sparrows Point. 

Mr. Miller, a graduate of the University of West Virginia, was an 
active member of the Communist conspiracy until the time he took the 
stand to testify before the committee. In fact, he had met with his 
superior in the Communist Party only a couple of weeks prior to his 
appearance. 

Mr. Miller joined the Communist Party in 1948 and remained a 
member during 1948 and 1949, when, he testified : 

* * * as a result of uiy continued study of Marxism-Leninism, I decided ttiat 
instead of Marxism-Leninism being an ideology that should have my support, it 
was a diabolical ideology that should be fought * * *. 

In 1953 he rejoined the Communist Party at the behest of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation. He retained this role in the party until the 
time he appeared before the committee. 

In his testimony, Mr. Miller emphasized these two points: (1) 
The Communist conspiracy is more menacing today than it has ever 
been, and (2) the Communist Party today is almost entirely under- 
ground. 

Discussing the National Communist Party Convention held in 
New York in February of this year, Mr. Miller labeled as utter non- 
sense the avowed claim of the convention that the Communist Party 
in the United States has no direct connection with the Communist in- 
ternational organization dii'ected from Moscow, or that the Communist 
Party does not stand for obtaining its objectives through force and 
violence. Mr. JNIiller added that such assertions "will be believed only 
by those who have a predilection to believe such nonsense." 

I\Ir. Miller declared that the Bethlehem Steel plant at Sparrows 
Point is the focal point of Communist Party concentration in the Balti- 
more area ; that the main duties of members of the Steel Club of the 
Communist Party in Baltimore were to diligently attend union meet- 
ings, to obtain positions of importance in the union, and to influence 
fellow steelworkers and recruit them into the Communist Party. 

As an employee of Bethlehem Steel at Sparrows Point, and a mem- 
ber of the Steel Club of the Communist Party, Mr. Miller had learned 
the identity of approximately eight other Communist Party members 
who were also employees of Bethlehem Steel. Also, while a member 
of the Communist Party in 1948 and 1949, Mr. Miller had learned the 
identity of numerous other persons who were also party members. 

One of the individuals identified by Mr. Miller as a Communist 
Party member was Aaron Ostrofsky, Miller's immediate superior in 
the party just prior to Miller's appearance and testimony. Ostrofsky, 
he said, was chairman of the Steel Section of the Communist Party. 
Called as a witness and given an opportunity to affirm or deny Mr. 



VIII SYNOPSIS 

Miller's charges, Mr. Ostrofsky cliose to invoke the privileges of the 
fifth amendment. 

Other Bethlehem Steel employees identified by Mr. Miller as mem- 
bers of the Steel Club of the Communist Party were Irving Spector, 
William Wood, Levy Williamson, and Benjamin M. Fino. All of 
these invoked the privileges of the fifth amendment when asked to 
affirm or deny Mr. Miller's testimony about them. 

Miss Irene Barkaga, an undercover operative for the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation, from April 1952 to July 1954, testified at length 
concerning her activities in the Communist Party. During that 
period, she said, she met with several different groups. The size was 
limited for security reasons to no more than 3 or 4 members at any 
one time. She also met on several occasions with a group operating 
in the Communist Party underground and with the Communist Youth 
Connnission of the Communist Party in Baltimore. One of the high- 
lights of lier testimony was the disclosure that the Communist Party 
was attempting the penetration of non-Communist and/or anti-Com- 
munist groups in Baltimore. She cited instances of Communist Party 
members active in groups like the Parent Teachers Association, 
League of Women A^oters, and others. In Miss Barkaga's endeavor 
to obtain information for the FBI, slie w^as also active in several 
recognized Communist Party fronts, including the Labor Youth 
League and the Baltimore Youth for Peace. 

Three of the persons identified as members of the Communist Party 
by Miss Barkaga w^ere subpenaed as witnesses before the committee. 
They were Miss Sirkka Tuomi Lee, a secretary; Claire Friedman 
Round, a former school teacher; and Mr. Fred Hallengren, an airline 
mechanic. All three relied on the privilege of the fifth amendment 
to refuse answ^ering questions concerning Communist Party member- 
ship or activities. 

During the course of the hearings, the committee endeavored to 
obtain information on the Communist Party organizational structure 
of District 4, which encompasses Maryland and the District of Co- 
lumbia. George A. Meyers, who was convicted under the Smith Act 
and released from a Federal prison during the past year, was sub- 
penaed as a witness. He refused, liowever, to state whether or not he 
had resumed his duties as head of District 4. 

Irving Kandel, who was identified by Miller as head of District 4 
in Meyers' absence, also invoked tlie fifth amendment concerning his 
present or past leadership of District 4. 

William S. Johnson, who has been identified as a member of the 
Communist Party in sworn testimony by several individuals before 
the committee, also invoked the fifth amendment when asked whether 
or not he is currently head of the Communist Party in tlie District 
of Columbia. 

Mrs. Jeanette Fino, identified as a Communist Party member by 
Mr. Miller, refused to state whether she was a member of the Com- 
munist Party or whether she is currently the distributor of the Daily 
Worker in the Baltimore area. She persistently invoked tlie fifth 
amendment when the committe displayed to her canceled checks 
drawn by her and payable to the F & D Printing Co., wliich prints 
the Daily Worker. Some of these checks were dated as recently as 
March 1957. 

Mr. Charles Craig, who, like Clifford Miller and Irene Barkaga, 
had been a member of the Communist Party at the behest of Govern- 



SYNOPSIS IX 

ment agencies, testified concerning his knowledge and experiences in 
the Communist Party. He was a member of the Communist Party 
from 1943 until 1951 and was assigned to three separate clubs of the 
Communist Party. In them he held the offices of financial secretary 
and literary director. 

Mr, Craig identified a number of persons who were known to him 
to be Communist Party members. Among these were Milton Seif and 
Otto Yerrell, both of whom were employed at the Bethlehem ship- 
yard in the Baltimore area, Seif had appeared before a general exec- 
utive board of his union, the Industrial Union of Marine and Ship- 
building Workers of America, in March 1956, and had denied that he 
was, or had ever been, a member of the Communist Party, However, 
at the time, he was not placed mider oath ; and when questioned during 
the committee hearings as to the truth of his statements to the general 
executive board of his union, he pleaded the fifth amendment. 

Yerrell likewise invoked the fifth amendment when asked to affirm 
or deny Mr. Craig's identification of him as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party. Both Seif and Yerrell had previously been candidates 
for the State legislature on the Progressive Party ticket in the State of 
Maryland. 

Another person who was identified as a Communist by Mr, Craig 
was Abraham Kotelchuck, a former physicist at the Aberdeen Proving 
Ground who was dismissed by the Government in 1946 for security 
reasons. He subsequently obtained emploj^ment in industry in Balti- 
more. Kotelchuck relied on the fifth amendment in response to ques- 
tions concerning Communist activities. 

During the 3-day hearings in Baltimore, six other witnesses ap- 
peared: Mary Roberts, chairman of the Baltimore Committee To De- 
feat the Smith Act, who has been previously identified as a Communist 
Party member under oath before the Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities; Elsie Winter, an office worker who was active in the Parent 
Teachers Association and was identified as a Communist Party 
member by jVIr, Craig ; Milton Bates, a salesman who holds an LL. B. 
degree and was also identified by Craig; Herbert Xichol, a teacher at 
a private school in Baltimore, who has been identified under oath as a 
Communist Party member; Marcella Avnet, a former schoolteacher, 
active in the Parent Teachers Association and other organizations in 
the Baltimore area and who was identified by Craig and, previously, 
by another witness before this committee as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party; and Harold Buchman, practicing attorney in Baltimore, 
who was cochairman of the Progressive Party for the State of 
Maryland, 

All of them invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to furnish the 
committee any information concerning Communist Party activities in 
the Baltimore area. 

The accomplishments of the hearings were summed up by the chair- 
man of the subcommittee as — 

"First, we have confirmed the pattern which we have seen in other 
areas of the Communist operations of the conspiracy, 

"Second, we have received authoritative information by undercover 
agents which explodes the hoax which the Communist Party is seeking 
to perpetuate, that is, that it is just another innocent political 
movement. 

"Third, we have uncovered new fronts and new techniques of the 
Communist Party." 



INVESTIGATION OF C0M3IIINIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
BALTI3I0RE, MD., AREA— PART I 



TUESDAY, MAY 7, 1957 

United States House of IIepresentati\t:s, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Baltimore^ Md. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a. m., in room 556, Federal Building, Balti- 
more, Md., Hon, Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter 
of Pennsylvania and Robert J. Mcintosh of Michigan. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director; George C. Wil- 
liams and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Let the record show that pursuant to law and the rules of this 
committee, I have appointed a subcommittee for the purpose of con- 
ducting these hearings composed of Representative Edwin E. Willis 
of Louisiana, Representative Robert J. Mcintosh of Michigan, and 
myself as chairman. 

The autliorizing resolution was adopted by the committee on Janu- 
ary 22, 1957, and will be inserted in the record at this point. 

(The resolution follows :) 

A motion was made by Mr. Kearney, seconded by Mr. Willis, and unanimously 
carried, approving and authorizing the holding of hearings in the city of Balti- 
more, Md., beginning April .3. 1957, or such later date as the chairman may 
determine, and the conduct of investigations deemed reasonably necessary by the 
staff in preparation therefor, the subject of which hearings and the investiga- 
tions in connection therewith to include, in general, all matters within the juris- 
diction of the committee. 

Let there also be inserted in the record at this point the order by 
myself as chairman appointing this subcommittee. 

(The order follows :) 

To the Cleric of the Committee on Un-American Activities of the House of 
Representatives : 

ORDER FOR APPOINTMENT OF SUBCOMMITTEE 

Pursuant to the provisions of law and the rules of this committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of 
Representatives, consisting of Hon. Edwin E. Willis and Hon. Robert J. Mcintosh, 
associate members, and myself as chairman, to hold hearings in Baltimore, Md., 
beginning on May 7, 1957, on all matters within the jurisdiction of the committee, 
and to take testimony on said day or any succeeding days, and at such times and 
places as it may deem necessary, until its work is completed. 

891 



892 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

The clerk of the committee is directed to immediately notify the appointees 
of their appointment and to file this order as an official committee record in the 
order book kept for that purpose. 

Given under my hand this 2d day of May 1957. 

Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Vn-American Activities, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 

The hearings of this subcommittee of the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities here in Baltimore, which begin today, are in further- 
ance of the powers and duties of tlie committee pursuant to the pro- 
visions of Public Law 601 of the T9th Congress, which not only estab- 
lishes the broad jurisdiction of this committee, but mandates the 
committee, along with other standing committees of the Congress, to 
exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the adminis- 
trative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which 
is within the jurisdiction of the committee. A copy of the pertinent 
provisions of this law and rules at this point will be inserted in the 
record. 

(The documents referred to follow:) 

Be it enacted "by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United Statet 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-Ajnerican Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD,, AREA 893 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVEBSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 



(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
****** 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activites. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United 
States, (2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-Ameri- 
can propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin 
and attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Con- 
stitution, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of 
the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



894 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Accordinoly, within the fnimeAvork of this broad jurisdiction and 
objectives, this subconnnittee of the Committe on Un-American Ac- 
tivities is here in Baltimore for the purpose of receiving testimony 
respecting Communist activities. The importance of this area from 
the standpoint of national security cannot be overemphasized. In the 
first place, the Communist Party itself groups Baltimore and Wash- 
ington, D. C, as part of the same geographical jurisdiction. Thus, 
Communist activity in Baltimore has a direct connection with the 
web of sub\-ersion which the conspiracy seeks to weave at the Nation's 
capital. Furthermore, the city of Baltimore is not only a great sea- 
port which, I understand, ranks high in annual total tonnage, but is 
likewise a center for certain heavy industry which is vital to the 
defense of this country. 

One phase of our inquiry here which Avill be of special concern 
relates to the so-called "new look" of the Communist apparatus as 
devised by the recent national convention of the Communist Party 
held in February in Xew York City. We expect new strategy and 
new tactics — all designed to ensnare and deceive the unwary. Of one 
thing we are positive: The oljjective of the conspiracy will remain 
unchanged. 

At this time, I should like to call attention to certain fundamental 
procedures and policies of the connnittee which will be observed dur- 
ing these hearings. First of all, there will, of course, be no smoking 
at any time. Xo outbursts or evidence of approval or disapproval of 
any witnesses' statements will be permitted. The deputy marshals 
will escort from the room any persons who are disorderly. All wit- 
nesses are accoi'ded the privilege of counsel whose sole prerogative 
in these proceedings is to advise their clients of their legal rights. 
The photographers are permitted to take photographs of the wit- 
nesses any time before they are sworn, but if the witness objects to 
being photographed after he is sworn, pictures may not then be taken. 

Mr. Arens, will you call your first witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Clifford INIiller, please come forward. 

Kindly remain standing, Mr. Miller, while the chairman admin- 
isters an oath to you. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand, please. Do you swear that 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Miller. I do. 

The Chairman. Sit down, please. 

TESTIMONY OF CLIFFORD C. MILLER, JR. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Miller. My name is Clifford C. Miller. I live at 4802 Herring 
Run Drive, Baltimore 14, Md. And I am a steelworker. I work 
at Sparrows Point for Bethlehem Steel. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Miller, are you now at this moment a member of 
the Commmiist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I expect in the course of the interrogation, Mr. Miller, 
to inquire of you as to elements respecting your entire career in the 
Communist Party, but for present purposes, at the moment I should 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 895 

like to ask 3^011 are you ideologically in sympathy with the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Miller. No, sir ; I am not. 

Mr. Arexs. Your service in the Communist Party now is, and has 
been, as an undercover operative for intelligence agencies of your 
Government, is that correct ? 

Mr. Miller. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. ^Vlien did you last meet with the Communist Party 
as a Communist? 

]\Ir. Miller. My last such meeting with a comrade in the Commu- 
nist Party, who is my superior, was on April 25 of this year. 

Mr. Arex^s. And just in passing, who is that comrade in the Com- 
munist Party who is your superior in that operation? 

]\Ir. Miller. Aaron Ostrof sky. 

Mr. Arexs. Would you for this record kindly spell both his first 
and last name ? 

Mr. Miller. A-a-r-o-n 0-s-t-r-o-f-s-k-y. 

Mr. Arexs. And when did you last meet with the staff of the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Miller. I met with the staff of the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities yesterday afternoon at 4 : 30 in Clifton Park. 

Mr. Arexs. And under what name have you been Iniown in arrange- 
ments between yourself and the staff of the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Seai-s. 

]\Ir. Arexs. JNIr. Miller, I should like you to give us just a resume 
account of the last meeting which you had with the Communist Party 
which I understood 3^011 to say a few moments ago was on April 25, 
1957, at which time your superior, Aaron Ostrofsky, gave you certain 
instructions. 

Mr. Miller. The meeting of April 25 was unique in this sense : It 
deviated from the customary agenda of our meetings in that the entire 
discussion of the meeting concerned itself with the impending arrival 
of the House committee to this city. 

Mr. Arexs. Just tell us in your own words what transpired in that 
session. 

]Mr. JNIiller. "Well, Comrade Ostrofsky spoke in a highly critical 
voice concerning this committee, but he said that he didn't think that 
a great deal could be accomplished by this committee. He felt that 
the committee might ver3- well wind up its hearings in 1 day. 

Mr. Arex-^s. You were at that time under subpena for all intents and 
purposes as a hostile witness, were you not? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. What did Comrade Ostrofsky tell you with respect to 
your demeanor before this committee ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, as an alleged loyal member of the party, I 
brought out the fact to him that I thought that the only thing I could 
do would be to rel3' upon the fifth amendment in my testimony before 
this committee. 

He concurred in that but he added the strong recommendation that I 
get in touch with a lawyer. 

Mr. Arexs. Did he give you any instruction with reference to your 
conduct at the place of your employment ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir; he did. 



896 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. And what were those instructions ? 

Mr. Miller. He stated that it woukl be advantageous to me to in- 
form my fellow workers of the fact that I had received a subpena, that 
I should inform the officers of my local union, local union 2610, and 
that I should in addition inform the district office of our union con- 
cerning the fact that I had been subpenaed before this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Did h© tell what your response should be if you were 
interrogated by any of the officials at your place of employment with 
respect to your Communist Party membership? 

Mr. Miller. Well, he didn't give me explicit instructions as to what 
I should say to the officials of the company. However, Comrade 
Ostrofsky did tell me in the event that the president of my local union, 
John Euke, if he were to approach me concerning the subpena, and 
would hence try to elicit from me information as to whether I am or 
am not a Communist, that I should then inform him that I am not a 
member of the Communist Party, 

Mr. Arens. Before we go back and pick up the threads of your 
career in the Communist Party, would you tell this committee what 
was the appraisal of Mr. Ostrofsky of this committee and its staff? 

Mr. Miller. ]Mr. Ostrofsky- — and I don't think that his opinion 
was unique for a member of the Communist Party — ISIr. Ostrof- 
sky's opinion of this committee was about as low as it could possibly 
be. He felt that this committee was here to harass people, to try to 
blow up its own importance, and to try to grab headlines. He felt 
that the committee serves no salutary purpose in our society, and 
that it would be just as well, if not better, if the committee were 
dissolved. 

He called my attention to the fact that the California Bar Asso- 
ciation had come out against the committee. He pointed out that 
Representative James Roosevelt of California contemplates offering 
a resolution to the House of Representatives calling for the dissolu- 
tion of this committee. 

The Chair:man. Did he call to your attention the fact that when 
the House voted for the appropriation for this committee it was a 
unanimous vote, including that of Mr. Roosevelt ? 

Mr. IMiLLER. He didn't allude to that ; no, sir. 

Mr. Arens. ]Mr. Miller, please tell us where and when you were 
born. 

Mr. Miller. I was born in Charleston, W. Va., on April 24, 1921. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, just a word of your formal 
education. 

Mr. INIiLLER. I had 3 years — I was rather fortunate in that I was 
able in those 3 years to get a B. A. degree in history at West Virginia 
University. I went to summer school 1 year so I was able to get 
through the customary 4-year curriculum in 3 years. 

]Mr. Arens. "\Mien did you complete j'Our formal education? 

Mr. :Miller. In 1942. 

j\Ir. Arens. Please tell us the chronology of your principal em- 
ployments beginning at the time of the completion of your education. 

Mr. Miller. Well, I worked for the city of Morgantown for 
about 8 months prior to coming to Baltimore. I came to Baltimore 
in April of 1943, and almost immediately after coming here I became 
employed by the Glenn L. Martin Co. I worked for that company 
until June of 1945. Then I had a couple of short jobs and in De- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 897 

cember — I mean jobs of short duration — then in December of 1945 
I commenced working for Bethlehem Steel Co. at Sparro\YS Point. 
_ Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us the chronology of events, if you please, 
sir, which led to your joining of the Comnnmist Party. And I par- 
ticularly invite your attention to the matter of dates so that this record 
is clear as to the time that you actually joined the party, and the time 
of certain activities which we will discuss in a few moments. 

Mr. Mnj.ER. My best recollection on that, INIr. Arens, is that I en- 
tered the Communist Party in October of 1948. 

Mr. Arexs. Can you tell us of the events which led to your join- 
ing the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I became involved rather actively in the 1948 
Progressive Party campaign and it was in connection with that that 
1 met tlie people who — they dicbi't exactly recruit me — I went in on 
my own volition, but I met the people whom I was later to know 
in the party as Coimnunists. 

Mr. Arens. As of 1948, when you joined the party, were you ideol- 
ogically in sympathy with the party as you understood it? 

Mr. ^IiLLER, Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us who recruited you into the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Miller. Well, the two comrades who were most eager to get 
me to become a member of their party were Bob Lee and Joe Green- 
berg. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly pause when you identify any particu- 
lar person, and give us a little description of that person. First of all, 
who is Bob Lee ? 

Mr. Miller. Bob Lee at that time worked at Bethlehem Steel and 
he was quite active in the Wallace movement. And he came to my 
home and talked to me about becoming more active. I had indicated 
an interest in the Wallace movement, and he came to my home in the 
spring of 1948 and spoke to me along the lines of helping to organize 
a steelworkers-for- Wallace movement at Sparrows Point among the 
steelworkers. 

Mr. Arens. Did he subsequently recruit you into the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. MiLiJ^R. Well, I would like to emphasize that it wasn't basically 
that I was prevailed upon by him or by any one to join the party. 
I joined the party because at that time I was in sympathy with the 
Marxist ideology, and I felt that the Communist Party was the most 
effective vehicle for making the Communist ideology prevail. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us who is the Joe Greenberg you alluded 
to a few moments ago ? 

Mr. Mn.LER. He is a person whom I met shortly after I met Bob 
Lee, and I met him also in connection with the Progressive Party cam- 
paign. I met him as a steelworker and he was one of the active 
people in the steelworkers-for-Wallace movement. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever serve in a closed Communist Party meet- 
ing with Joe Greenberg ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now identify Bob Lee and Joe Green- 
berg as persons who, to your certain knowledge, were members of the 
Communist Party? 

92360— 57— pt. 1 2 



898 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Miller. I would say "were." I cannot testify as to their present 
membership. I can state categorically that in 1948 and 1949 they were 
members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first unit to which you were assigned in 
the Communist Party after you joined it in 1948 ? 

Mr. Miller. I was made affiliated with the Steel Club. 

Mr. Arens. And can you tell us a little bit about the Steel Club? 

Mr. Miller. Well, the Steel Club would meet — I must point out 
that steelworkers are shift workers and in order for all of them to be 
able to attend a meeting it is necessary to have a morning meeting and 
an evening meeting. That was customary at that time; for a morning 
meeting and evening to be held on a particular day. 

Those meetings would usually be held once a week or possibly every 
2 weeks. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, if you please, sir, the names of the persons who, 
to your certain knowledge, were members of the Steel Club of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Miller. In the 1948-49 period? 

Mr. Arens. In the 1948-49 period. 

Mr. Miller. All right, sir. 

Bob Lee, Joe Greenberg, who have already been so identified, Aaron 
Ostrofsky 

Mr. Arens. Would you hesitate a moment on each name and give us 
a word of description? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. Do you mean physical description? 

Mr. Arens. Just a little characterization of him. What post did he 
have in the Steel Club, who he is, and in this particular instance it is 
obvious, I take it, that he is the man who is presently your superior 
in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Miller. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. At least was until the time you took your oath before 
this committee a few moments ago. 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another person known by you to be a Com- 
munist in the Steel Club ? And this is at Bethlehem ; is it not? 

Mr. M1LI.ER. Yes, sir. You want me to continue to identify people 
who were members of the club ? 

Mr, Arens. To your certain knowledge. Those with whom you 
served in closed Communist Party meetings; yes, sir. 

Mr. Miller. Ben Fino. 

Mr. Arens. Please pause and give us just a word on Ben Fino. Is 
that B-e-n F-i-n-o? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. That is correct. 

He is a heavy-set rather swarthy person. I believe he is of Mexican 
origin. Young, I would say he is in his early thirties, 

Mr. Arens, AYliat did he do in the Steel Club? Did he hold any 
post of significance? 

Mr, Miller, No, sir; Comrade Fino was not what any of us consid- 
ered a particularly brilliant member of the party. 

Mr. Arens, Is there another person who to your certain knowledge 
was a member of the Steel Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller, Bill Wood. 

Mr. Arens, Give us, if you please, sir, a word of description of Bill 
Wood, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 899 

Mr. MiLLj^R. Bill Wood is a man of about my age, aromid 46, 48. 
He has very light hair and blue eyes. And he appears to be of per- 
haps Scandinavian origin, from his appearance. 

Mr. Arens. Was there another person who to your certain knowl- 
edge was a member of the Steel Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. ]MiLLER. Levy Williamson. 

Mr. Arexs. L-e-v-y ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Williamson, W-i-1-l-i-a-m-s-o-n ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of description about him, if you please, 
sir. 

Mr. Miller. He was a colored comrade of small build, and medium 
weight. I would say he was about 5 feet 6 inches or 5 feet 5 inches, and 
not very heavy. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us is there any other person who was a mem- 
ber of the Steel Club to which you were attached at Bethlehem Steel. 

Mr. Miller. Howard Silverberg. 

Mr. Arens. S-i-1-v-e-r-b-e-r-g? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Howard Silverberg ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a description of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Miller, Comrade Silverberg's occupational background was 
i!ot in the steel industry. Comrade Silverberg, I feel quite certain 
from information that he gave me, was in the main a seaman. But he 
had taken employment in the Bethlehem Steel Co. and it was in line 
with the policy of the party to get its members concentrated in heavy 
industry. And for the Baltimore area that would be the steel industry. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another person who, to your certain knowl- 
edge, was i\ meml)er of the Steel Club of the Connnunist Party at 
Bethlehem Steel? 

]Mr. Miller. There was, yes. There was Joe Henderson. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell Henderson ? 

Mr. Miller. I believe it is H-e-n-d-e-r-s-o-n. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a description of him, please, sir? 

Mr. Miller. He, too, was one of our Negro comrades, fairly 
tall individual about, I would say about 5 feet 11 inches, of lean or 
slender build, and he also belonged to my local 2610. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another person who, to your certain knowl- 
edge, was a member of the Steel Club of the Communist Party at 
Bethlehem Steel? 

Mr. Miller. There was one comrade who was a member of the 
party at the time but he was expelled from the party. Wliether 
he has since been restored to the good graces of the Communist 
Party, I wouldn't know. But he was a member of the party part 
of the time in that 1948-49 period, but he was expelled from the 
party some time, I believe, in the late summer of 1949. 

Mr. Arens. And who was he, please, sir ? 

Mr. Miller. Phil Gran. 

Mr. Arens. G-r-a-n? 

Mr. Miller. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Who was in charge of this particular club of the Com- 
mmiist Party at Bethlehem Steel ? 



900 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Miller. George Meyers. 

Mr. Akens. Do you hear and now identify him as a person who to 
your certain knowledge was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. He was the labor secretary of the Com- 
munist Party at that time. 

Mr. Arexs. What is the main objective of the Steel Club of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, sir, the main objective of the Steel Club of the 
Communist Party was to try to exert influence upon our fellow steel- 
workers, try to recruit them into the party, try to get the policies 
of the party into our union — into our trade union, and along that 
line it was one of our prime, one of our cardinal, duties as comrades 
to attend union meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any special assignments in your work 
in the Steel Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I had the duty of attending union meetings, 
the obligation of reading the party literature, the Daily and Sunday 
Worker, and of course tlie far more authoritative party publication, 
the publiciation called Political Affairs. And Masses and Main- 
stream, we also read that. 

jNIr. Arens. Did you have any responsibility or assignment to com- 
pile a report on certain matters at the direction of vour superior in 
the Steel Club? 

JNIr. Miller. Yes, sir. I was. I was given a research job for the 
party by my superior in the party, George JSIeyers. I was called upon 
by h'im to compile data concerning the steel industry : its ramifications, 
its productivity, the nmnber of employees, and so on. General infor- 
mation about the, steel industry that was available in the public library 
and it was there that I procured the information. 

^h\ Arens. In passing, perhaps you would be a little reluctant to 
admit it, you were a Phi Beta Kappa, were you not, in school ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Arens. It is an honorary scholastic fraternity, is it not? 

JNIr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Why would the Communist Party desire a penetration 
in the steel industry ? 

]\Ir. Miller. Well, that goes back to the basic theories of the Com- 
mmiist Party. I don't want to get into a long-winded discussion 
which perhaps wouldn't serve the puljlic good here, for the purposes 
of this committee, but the Communist Party considers that the group 
in society that will carry forward the revolutionary aims is the work- 
ing class. And th&y particularly feel that the Avorkers who are em- 
ployed in large basic industries are the ones who will play the key 
class role in the impending revolutionary struggle. 

Therefore, in an area such as Baltimore, the Communist Party 
would naturally look to the largest aggregation of workers as the 
group which should be the focal point of their concentration, and that 
would be the Sparrows Point area. 

^Ir. Arens. At this point, Mr. Miller, I should like to ask you, on 
the basis of your extensive experience in the Communist Party, which 
I think will be evident as we proceed in the chronology of your experi- 
ences, how serious is the Commmiist Party now to the security and 
welfare of this Nation? Is it just an aggregation of intellectual 
crackpots, or is it a serious conspii'acy ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 901 

Mr. Miller. In my opinion, and I have had — of course, as this 
testimony will brinir out — I ha^'e had intimate association with the 
Commun'ist conspiracy. In my opinion the Communist conspiracy is 
more menacing- today than it has ever been, 

Mr. Arens. Hoav far underground is the conspiracy ? 

Mr. ]MiLLER. It is way underground. It is almost entirely under- 
^ound. 

Mr. Arens. After you compiled this report, to whom did you deliver 
it? 

Mr. Miller. The report was delivered and was turned in at the 
Communist Party headquarters. At that time the party still had 
public headquarters at North Liberty Street. I believe it was 220 
North Liberty Street here in Baltimore, and I turned this report in 
to Dorothy Rose Blumberg. 

Mr. Arexs. Can you tell us during the course of this early expe- 
rience of yours in the Communist Party, during the period of 1948 
and 1949,' whether or not you attended study classes under the 
auspices of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, I did. Like so much other activity of the Com- 
munist Party, they would start out with plans for periodic study 
and then those plans are not followed through with any great con- 
sistency. I did attend some study groups, however. Not many. But 
most of my study was done on my own initiative, that is, I read quite 
a few of the Leninist classics, and it was always made clear to me that 
the basic Marxist-Leninist classics were the ultimate bible of the 
Communist Party. 

Now, of course when you speak to Communists, they point out that 
they don't take a dogmatic view of the writings of Marx, Engels, and 
Lenin. But when you get into the philosophical background of their 
beliefs, it is to those books that one must turn and to which they al- 
ways turn. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Miller, in the recent Communist Party National 
Convention in the United States, held in New York City in February, 
they had two general themes which they anounced to the world. The 
first is that the Communist Party cloes no longer, if it ever did, stand 
for its objectives by a device of force and violence, and secondly, that 
it has no immediate direct connection with the international organiza- 
tion directed from Moscow. 

On the basis of your background and intimate experience in the 
Communist Party as of this moment, please give us your appraisal 
of those two themes. 

Mr. jVIiller. I think those two themes are utter nonsense, and I 
think that they will be believed only by those who have a predilection 
to believe such nonsense. If you would like me to elaborate a bit, I 
will. 

Mr. Arexs. I don't want to impose upon you for an extensive dis- 
sertation on this, but I should like to have a brief summary, if you 
please, of the facts which cause you to reach that conclusion. 

Mr. Miller. Well, I would draw the counsel's attention to the 
Khrushchev speeches. There were two important speeches. And I 
would draw his attention to those speeches in which the emphasis is 
placed upon a return to Leninism. 

A return to Leninism, by no stretch of the imagination, could be 
construed as a return to a more tranquil, pacific type of goal. Because 



902 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

all one has to do is to read the basic writings of Lenin, and I think 
one of the most instructive of those is the greatest classic, What Is To 
Be Done. One has only to read those to laiow that the Communist 
movement is dedicated to the violent overthrow of established govern- 
ments. I know that it has been the defense line of people who have 
been brought up before on Smith Act charges and so on, to say that 
what the prosecution or what the Government has done has been to 
take these Leninist sentences out of context. But I say that anyone 
can read those studies, those classical studies; and those sentences 
that allude to the use of force and violence are not taken out of 
context. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your membership in the Commu- 
nist Party — and we are now continuing in this 1948^9 period so 
the record will be clear, could you tell us the names of any other per- 
sons with whom you served in closed Communist Party meetings, 
who were to a certainty known by you to be members of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Jack Zucker was one such person. 

Mr. Aeens. Would you give us just a word of descri])tion of Jack 
Zucker. Is it Z-u-c-k-e-r ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of de.scription of him, please, sir. 

Mr. Miller. I would say he was about the counsePs size and build. 
He had graying hair. It was somewhat curly, as I recall, and I 
believe he had light eyes, I believe, possibly blue. 

Mr. Arens. "V^Hiat was his function as you knew him in the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Miller. Well, it came somewhat as a surprise to me to know 
that he was a Communist. I knew him — actual!}^, it shouldn't have 
surprised me too much because by the time I found out that he 
was a member of the Communist Party, I had also found out that 
many of my progressive colleagues, that is, colleagues in the Pro- 
gressive Party, were also members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Was he a member of the Steel Club ? 

Mr. Miller. No, sir ; he wasn't. 

Mr. AnENS. He was a member of another unit of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Miller. He was a member of another unit. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the unit to which he was attached? 

Mr. Miller. I wouldn't know. I would know he was an organizer 
for the United Electrical Workers Union. I know that. But just 
what the name of his imit would be, I don't know. I know that he 
attended one of those study classes that I was present at, and in 
which we discussed Lenin's Theory of Spontaneous Generation — 
something of spontaneity. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know where Jack Zucker is now ? 

Mr. Miller. No, sir ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. You said you do not know ? 

Mr. Miller. I do not know. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another person, irrespective of the unit of the 
Communist Party, to which he or she was attached here in Balti- 
more, who to your certain knowledge was during this 1948-49 period 
a member of the Commimist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. Jeanette Fino. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 903 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of descripiition of her, Mr. Miller, 
if you please. Is that F-i-n-o ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. She is a tall, rather slender lady. I would 
imagine she is in her early thirties, and I have come in contact with 
her in connection with the Progressive Party movement, and later 
on I saw her at membership meetings, closed membership meetings 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another person in like status whom you can 
now under oath identify as a person known by you to a certainty to 
be a Communist? 

Mr. Miller. Well, there was — of course I have mentioned George 
Meyers. There was Phil Frankfeld and his wife, Eegina Frankfeld. 

Mr. Arens. Were they Smith Act defendants ? 

Mr. ]\IiLLER. Yes, they were. 

Mr. Arens, Was George Meyers a Smith Act defendant? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Elsie Smith? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir, she is now deceased. I knew her as a Com- 
munist. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a Communist a person by the name 
of Sally Winkler, W-i-n-k-1-e-r? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir ; and also Irving Winkler. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us just a word of description about Sally 
Winkler and Irving Winkler ? 

Mr. Miller. They were both young people. Sally had dark hair 
and Irv, I believe, also had dark hair. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a comrade, as a Communist, a person 
by the name of Sam Schmerler, S-c-h-m-e-r-1-e-r? 

Mr. Miller. No, sir. I don't believe I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a comrade, a person by the name of 
Ruth Fox? 

Mr. IVIiLLER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us a word of description of that 
pei-son ? 

Mr. Miller. At that time she was a heavy-set brunette. In recent 
years, when I have seen her I have noticed she has lost some weight. 
She is a rather young person, too. 

Mr. Arens. IVliat has been the nature of her activities? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I can only allude to the fact that when the Com- 
munist Party had public hejtdquarters on Liberty Street, I ran into 
her as a functionary there. I think she was in some kind of secre- 
tarial position. I also encountered her in the Progressive Party and 
she was on the trip to Washington, the pilgrimage to Washington to 
protest the Mundt-Nixon bill. She was in on that. 

Mr. Arens. Have }^ou served in closed-party sessions with her? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person, or have you known a person, 
by the name of Mama Isaacs ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I am a little puzzled by that name. Is that M-a-m-a? 

Mr. Miller. I think that is a term of endearment that she — it is 
not her real name, of course. It is just an appelation. 

Mr. Arens. Something like Mother Bloor? 



904 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I-s-a-a-c-s, is that correct? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of description of her, please. 

Mr. Miller. She is an elderly lady. Probably in her sixties, I 
would think, of medium height and weight, and has gray hair. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know such a person as Lil Fenn, L-i-1 F-e-n-n ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a description of her ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. She wore glasses, I believe, and she was 
probably in her middle thirties, and she had brown eyes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know her as a Communist ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. A1 and Willie Blank. Do you know them? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. I know both of them as members of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. And give us a description of them, please, sir. 

Mr. Miller. They were young lads whom I encountered prior to 
having known them as members of the Communist Party, as members 
of the Young Progressives of America. They were two extremely 
articulate participants in that activity. They were young men, I think: 
they were a few years younger than myself. I guess they are in their 
early thirties now. 

Both have dark hair. Al was somewhat heavier than Willie, Willie 
was on the slim side, 

Mr. Arens, Phil Frankfeld, F-r-a-n-k-f-e-1-d? Did you know him 
as a Communist? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. At the 1948-i9 period — and of course this is 
public knowledge — he was the head of District 4 of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. And he was a defendant in the Smith Act trials? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Jack Freishtat, Did you know him as a comrade? 

Mr. Miller, Yes, sir, 

Mr, Arens, Give us, if you please, a word about him. 

Mr, IMiLLER. I met Comrade Freishtat the first time on a bus trip 
over to Washington in June of 1948 for the purpose of protesting 
the Mundt-Nixon bill. And at that time, of course, I didn't know him 
as a Communist, But later on I saw him, he attended Communist 
Party meetings at which I was present, 

Mr, Arens. The Mundt-Nixon bill, in passing, was the legislation 
which has now become the Internal Security Act, anti-Communist 
legislation ; isn't that correct ? 

Mr, Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know as a comrade a person by the name of 
Corinne Wood ? C-o-r-i-n-n-e W-o-o-d ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Arens, Give us a word of description about her, please, 

Mr. Miller. She too is a brunette in her thirties, I would say, of 
somewhat above average height, and of medium weight. She wears 
glasses. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have recollection as to any activities in which 
she eng-aged as a Communist ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 905 

Mr. Miller. My only recollection on that would be that she was 
present — she was present at Communist Party meetings at which I 
was present. 

Mr. Arexs. Eoy Wood. Have you identified him? 

No, you talked about Bill Wood, did you not? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Roy Wood, did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. He was not a member of our Steel Club, but 
I did know him as a Communist. 

Mr. Arexs. Can you give us a description of Eoy Wood? 

Mr. Miller. He is somewhat — my recollection is — he is somewhat 
smaller and less heavy than his brother Bill. 

Mr. Arens. He is the brother of Bill Wood ; is that correct? 

Mr. Miller. That is correct. 

Mr, Arens. And do you have a recollection of any specific activities 
which he engaged in in the 1948-49 period? 

Mr. ]\IiLLER. No. I can't think of any. I know he was present at 
some of the meetings at which I was present. I know that he had, I 
believe tliat he had, been a member of the Steel Club at one time, but 
the time that I was in the party, was ]iot a member. He had gone way 
out into left field and made an open avowal of his Communist affilia- 
tion, and I think that resulted in his being removed from his employ- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Howard Silverberg. Did you know her as a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And please tell us a word of description of her. S-i-1- 
v-e-r-b-e-r-g. Is that it ? 

Mr. Miller. That is correct. She was Howard Silverberg's wife, 
and she was a woman who, I say, would be in her forties, a brunette, 
rather tall, and of medium build. 

Mr. Arens. Claire Newman. N-e-w-m-a-n. Do you know that 
person ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, I knew her as a Communist. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a description about her ? 

Mr. Miller. She was a short, somewhat plump individual in her 
late thirties or early forties. She was in one of the other types of 
clubs. I know that. She was in one of the Communist clubs. 

Mr. Arens. Now, in 1949 the so-called Ober law passed in this 
State, did it not? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did the Communist Party take any steps to revamp its 
organizational structure as a result of the passage of the Ober law 
and thereafter the Internal Security Act and other anti-Communist 
legislation? 

Mr. JNIiLLER. While the Communist Party has ridiculed the Ober 
law, and cast aspersions upon those who have been charged with its 
enforcement, they nevertheless among themselves were very much 
upset, and very much disturbed by the passage of this law. They were 
extremely elated, I might point out in passing, they were extremely 
elated at Judge Sherbo's decision declaring the law unconstitutional. 
They considered that a major victory for them in this area. And 
when the law was — when it became clear that the law looked like it 



906 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

was going to pass, that resulted in the party in this area setting up 
very drastic security measures. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us a -word about those security measures taken by 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. I can speak with some intimate knowledge of that, be- 
cause up until tliose measures were put into effect, I had been meeting 
with our Steel Club, that is, the full contingent of the Steel Club. And 
after those measures were put in effect the Steel Club, as such, no longer 
met. Henceforth, meetings were held in much smaller groups. For 
instance. Comrade Lee was my superior and he was put in charge of 
n:ie and another comrade. And the three of us would meet from time 
to time, although usually — — 

Mr. Arens. You might hesitate there, if you please, sir, and tell 
us who were the three who met in this revised unit. 

Mr. Miller. There was Comrade Lee and myself and one of the 
Negro comrades. I believe I failed to mention his name. 

Mr. Arens. What is his name? 

Mr. Miller. His name is Giles Hobart. 

Mr. Arens. Would you spell that for us, please? 

Mr. Miller. G-i-1-e-s, is the first name. The last name spelling I 
am a little unsure of. H-o-b-a-r-t, I think. But I wouldn't want to be 
held to that. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please, sir. 

Mr. Miller. The theory was that, in tliis small group of wliich I 
was a member, I knew who my superior was; naturally tlie other com- 
rade Ivuew wlio lie was too. He knew wlio I was and I knew who he 
was. Theoretically, we weren't supposed to know — we were supposed 
to forget who the other j^eople were that we had been meeting with 
previously in the enlarged club. We were supposed to forget who 
other comrades were who had been in other clubs and whom we had 
seen from time to time in these enlarged public meetings. 

Mr. Arens. We have heard elsewhere, Mr. Miller, of what the other 
witnesses have described as a cutout system. Are you aware of the 
cutout system in the Communist Party structural apparatus now ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, that word "cutout" doesn't ring a bell with me. 
If you explain it perhaps 

Mr. Arens. Do the members of one unit have knowledge, as a rule, 
now of the personnel in similar units Avithin the same plant who are 
in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. The top man in a three-man group knows who his 
superior is. And on up the line in the hierarchy. But the person at 
the bottom in any group doesn't laiow who the other members are. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, let me see if I comprehend clearly what 
you are saying. At Bethlehem Steel you are now, at least until you 
took this oath and began to testify, a member of a Communist Party 
unit? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. At Bethlehem Steel ? 

Mr. Miller. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. The unit to which you presently are assigned is a very 
small unit, is it not ? 

Mr. Miller. Extremely small ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Who, to your certain knowledge, are members of the 
present unit at Bethlehem Steel to which you are attached ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 907 

Mr. IViiLLER. Well, I would have to go into that. If you wanted to 
touch on that chronologically, it would be better to go into that later. 
But I can go into it here if you would like. 

Mr. Arens. "We will proceed to do it chronologically. 

Do you i)resently know the basis of your status with this cutout 
system of the Communist Party, the names of other persons in other 
Communist cells at Bethlehem Steel ? 

Mr. MiLLP^K. I know, as a result of my liaving been shifted around 
in the apparatus, I know of the names of other people in the party. 
Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. But do you know their identity Avithin specific cells in 
Bethlehem Steel ? 

Mr. ]\IiLLER. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you informed, however, of the probability, we will 
put it, of other cells in existence in Bethlehem Steel ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. That was brought to my attention very dramati- 
cally. I was in a 3-man cell up until December, and then our group 
seemed to fall apart. One of our comrades became ill. The other 
comrade appeared to be on the verge of a very grave right-wing devia- 
tion, and didn't want to continue as a leader of the club. He had been 
the leader. He didn't want to continue. So I seemed at that time to 
be the only sturdy bulwark in that particular group. So arrange- 
ments were made for me to meet in the future with Comrade Ostrof- 
sky, and I have been meeting with him since the day after Christmas. 

Mr. Arexs. And that, in and of itself, under the new security ar- 
rangements, forms one cell ? 

Mr. Miller. That is right. 

Mr. Arexs. Within the operation of the conspiracy in this area at 
Bethlehem, is that correct ? 

Mr. ^Miller. My understanding is, ]Mr. Arens, that no cell meeting 
at the present time under the arrangements — and these arrangements 
now are just as they were when the Ober law was imminent, they were 
put in to effect then and they liave been in effect all the time 

The Chairmax. Wlio devised the program, do you know? 

Mr. Miller. Sir? 

The Chairmax. Who devised this so-called security program ? 

Mr. Miller. That would be a little difficult for me to give firsthand 
evidence on because of the nature of the oi'ganization, even at the 
time — even at the time that this stringent security system was put into 
effect. The nature of the organization was such that a rank and file 
member like myself wouldn't be informed who made tlie decision. 
The policy was for decisions to be made from the top and to trickle 
down to us. 

Mr. Arexs. Is that democratic centralism as they call it in the 
party ? 

Mr. Miller. That is what is euphemistically referred to as demo- 
cratic centralism. I think the emphasis should be on the centralism 
part. 

Mr. Arexs. In other words, it is a dictatorship democracy ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Of conflicting ideologies. 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Let us revert, if you please, so that we continue in the 
theme of your career in the Communist Party in the 1948-49 period, 



908 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Miller. How long did you remain in the Communist Party dur- 
ing this period of your activity and membership in the party ? 

Mr. MiLLEK. I remained in the party 1 year. Maybe a month more 
or less. It Tvas approximately 1 year. 

Mr. Arens. And then what happened, please, sir ? 

Mr. jSIiiiLER. At that time I would like to point out that when I 
entered the Communist Party I had already, while I was a Marxist, I 
had begun to have certain doubts about the basic ideology of Marxism 
which is dialectical materialism. I felt, though, that those doubts 
were not strong enough for me to renounce Marxism so what I would 
do, I would get in the party and if those doubts were resolved, I would 
be an established member in an etfective revolutionary organization. 
If they weren't resolved, if they became more pronounced, then I 
would get out. 

It turned out that, while I made every effort to get my doctrinal 
problems cleared up, I read Plekhanov's Treatises on Freedom and 
went into them very caiefully. I had a very profound discussion 
with Comrade Bob Lee on the problems that were troubling me. But 
instead of my doubts concerning the validity of Marxism being cleared 
up, they became more pronounced and things that I saw about the 
party made me become more skeptical about the party. So that as a 
result of my experience in the party, as a result of my continued study 
of Marxism-Leninism, I decided that instead of Marxism-Leninism 
being an ideology that should have my support, it was a diabolical 
ideology that should be fought and that I should have no part of it. 
Therefore, I dropj^ed out of the party in the latter part of 1949. 

Mr. Arens. And how long were you out of the party ? 

Mr. Miller. I was out of the party for almost 4 years. 

Mr. Arens. We use the term "party" in common parlance? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. It isn't a party, is it ? It is a conspiracy ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, only the naive, only the totalitarian liberal type 
of thinker today, knowing what we know today, could consider the 
Communist Party as just another party. I have heard it expressed, I 
luive heard that view expressed very recently, and to be frank with 
you, it turned my stomach because I felt that the person who expressed 
it surely knew better than to think such a thing. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, if you please, sir, the circumstances of your 
reaffiliation with the Communist Party. 

Mr. Miller. Well, I received a phone call 

Mr. Arens. Was that from an intelligence agency of this Govern- 
ment ? 

]\Ir. Miller. Yes. I was getting to that. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Miller. I received a phone call in August, 1952, from an agency 
of the Government, the Federal Bureau of Investigation. They re- 
quested me to come down and have a chat witli them. I did. And 
they interrogated me in great detail. They elicited from me the same 
type of information that you are now liaving nie bring out. They 
Aveiit into my thinking, my motivation for having been in the party, 
my reasons for going out. They really gave me a very thorough 
interrogation. 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 909 

Then they asked me if I would be interested in trying to get back 
into the party, into the Communist Party, and have relationship, 
or have contact with them. That is, be in the party for them. 

Mr. Arens. Let me be sure we have this correct. Was that in the 
fall of 1952? 

Mr. Miller. That would be in August that I was first approached 
about getting back into the party. 

Now, it took almost a year. It took almost a year for me to get 
back into the Communist Partj'. 

Mr. Arexs. Give us, if you please, sir, just a word about the device 
that you used to get back in the party. How did you go about becom- 
ing a comrade again ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I attacked it on two fronts. I knew that one of 
the cardinal obligations of a comrade is to attend his union meetings; 
and some time in the course of this interrogation, I hope to get an 
opportunity to make the record unequivocally clear on our union. I 
liope that I get that opportunity sometime in this interrogation. 

Mr. Arens. I will make a note of that and if I forget to ask you 
about it later on, you just volunteer it. But I think it would be 
helpful if we just stay in the chronology now. 

Mr. Miller. All right. 

I had been somewhat lax, as so many of us steelworkers are — and 
I suppose other workers are, too — I had been somewhat lax about 
attending union meetings. So when I decided to try to get back into 
the Communist Party I attended union meetings regularly. I didn't 
miss any of my local union meetings. I went to every one of them. 
But I didn't stop there. That was in 1952. 

I also presented myself to the Progressive Party headquarters here 
in Baltimore — they were on Pennsylvania Avenue at that time — and 
I offered my services in the Hallinan Bass campaign ; I offered to do 
what I could to help the campaign out. 

In addition to that, there fell into my hands a blank to be sent in 
in regard to the Civil Rights Congress — anyone interested. I figured 
that would be a good group to get into, to sort of move me along. So 
I sent that in, and I joined the Civil Rights Congress. 

Mr. Arens. The record is perfectly clear, is it not, that you were 
not as of this period in sympathy with the Communist Party? You 
abhorred it. You were only using these devices through various Com- 
munist fronts to ultimately become reaffiliated with the Communist 
Party so that you could serve your Government? Is that correct? 

Mr. Miller. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. That was at the behest and instigation and suggestion 
and request of an intelligence agency of this Government ? 

Mr. Miller. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please, sir. 

I\Ir. Miller. Another activity tliat I engaged in in that period was 
the Rosenberg campaign. The campaign to obtain clemency for the 
Rosenbergs. I made three trips to Washington in connection with 
that, and picketed the White House on three occasions. 

Another thing I did was, I was put in charge for a time of getting 
renewals and subscriptions to the National Guardian. So I engaged 
in that quite a bit. And I think the combination of these activities, 
plus the contact that I made with former comrades, resulted in my 
eventual restoration to the party. 



910 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

But it took, as I say, it took over a year for me to get back m. 
The Chairman. Mr. Arens, I think tliis would be a good time for 
a break. 
The committee will stand in recess for about 5 minutes. 
(Brief recess.) 

(Committee members present: Representatives Walter and Mc- 
intosh. ) 

The CHAiRjMAiSr. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Arens. Before the recess, Mr. Miller, you were describing the 
process by which you had reaffiliated with the Communist Party. 
Would you at this time tell us the date when you actually became a 
Communist again ? 

Mr. Miller. That would be in the early part of September 1953. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us the incident or incidents which actually 
caused you to be a Communist again. 

Mr. Miller. Well, I said I resumed going to union meetings. And 
one night there was, I believe in January, I sat down by Levy Wil- 
liamson. I nudged him, and I reached over and wliispered to him 
and I said, "I would like to get back in." I didn't indicate what I 
would like to get back into, but apparently he Iniew what I meant. 

A few weeks later George INIeyers paid me a visit at my residence, 
and he brought me several issues of the Cominform Bulletin — at that 
time the Cominform Bulletin was still printed — and which had been 
in the party. I had always liked to read the Cominform Bulletin 
because it gives a good global picture of the Communist conspiracy. 
So he left me several copies of that. That was in March of 1953. 

I felt quite elated by his visit because I felt that that meant that 
T was just practically back in the party. But it turned out that I 
was in error, that I had several more months to spend before I was to 
be readmitted into the Connnunist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us the essence of what transpired in 
those several months? 

Mr. ]\riLLER. Well, the most intense activity, of course, was the 
Rosenberg thing. That was the thing that had the great dramatic 
punch. That was the thing that the conspiracy, the Communist con- 
spiracy, hoped would help to depict American justice as a fraud and 
a farce. That was the most intense type of activity. 

]Mr. Arens. Were you told to study certain documents in this in- 
terim period before you actually attained full status as a Communist? 

Mr. INIiLLER. Well, no. ^AHien I had been in the ])arty before, I had 
been among those who attempted to make our organization as scholarly 
and as learned as possible. I had been among those who had stressed 
the importance of reading the classics as well as contemporary docu- 
ments. So I think it was probably felt that I had sufficient schooling 
in Marxist theory to not require any additional — -not require any pro- 
bationary period in order to be readmitted. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you actually attain status as a Communist 
again ? 

Mr. Miller. I was readmitted in September 1953. 

Bill Wood came over to my place and — oh, yes, prior to that he had 
approached me after a union meeting and said he wanted to see me, 
and so we arranged — we set up a meeting for him to come over to my 
place, my residence, and he came over as planned and we took a short 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 911 

walk and went into a tavern and had a couple of beers. It was then 
that I was told that I was back in the party. 

Mr, Arens. And what was the assignment you received at that 
time? 

Mr. Miller. At that time I was — it was arranged for me to meet 
with Comrade Wood at his home. I would meet with him every week 
or so on the average, I would say every 2 Meeks I would meet in his 
home. And at that time he and I would have — it would be a cell meet- 
ing under the type of security system that prevails at present. It 
would be considered a Steel Club, a club of the steel section of the 
party. 

Mr, Arens. And what did you do within tlie club ? 

Mr, Miller. There were — our agenda would be broken down into 
two parts. One part would be a study, either of some ^Marxist 
classic like Foundations of Leninism by Stalin — at that time Comrade 
Stalin hadn't been desanctilied, so his writings were in great vogue 
then among the party members — or we would read some article, 
pertinent article and discuss it — I mean it would be assigned and we 
would discuss some article from Political Affairs. The second part 
of the agenda would consist in a discussion of conditions in our par- 
ticular local union. And perhaps right here would be as good a time 
as any to make the record unequivocally clear as to our local miion 
and communism, 

I have complete confidence in the officers and in the overwhelming 
rank and file of our members as regards the Communist menace. I 
know that the president of our union, John Ruke, is very antagonistic 
to communism. And I hope that these investigations will assist our 
organization in cleaning its own house, and I think that it will. 

But getting back to answering your question, we would discuss the 
activities in the union, and our goal at all times was to attempt to in- 
fluence other people in the union, attempt witliin what limits we 
could to be officials in some capacity in the union, or to work with 
those, and encourage those whom we thought at some later date might 
be useful or sympathetic. 

Now, I might point out here that my status while I was in the 
party — my status was beneath that of Comrade Bill Wood, From the 
standpoint of doing the work of the party in the union or in the 
community, my position was infinitely superior to his because of 
the simple fact that he was a known member of the conspiracy 
and I was not. So that I would be able, due to the fact that my 
membership in the party was not known, I would be in a po- 
sition to move up in the union apparatus and get union assigmnents, 
and do union jobs that he wouldn't have an opportunity to do. He 
wouldn't be offered them. 

Mr, Arens, I expect to ask you about that in a moment. I wanted 
to just trace here the chronology of your cell, your activities in the 
cell. 

Did this particular cell to which you were attached at Bethlehem 
Steel after you reaffiliated with the Communist Party, change in 
pei^onnel or did the personnel remain stable ? 

Mr, Miller. No, sir; it changed. I remained under Comrade 
Wood's tutelage until May of 1954. At that time he told me that 
I would be assigned to a new club, and he told me with whom I would 
be and the place I was to go. 



912 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, please, sir, where you went and who were m the 
new club. 

Mr. Miller. It was on a Sunday morning in May — just which Sun- 
day I am not certain 

Mr. Arexs. And what year, please ? 

Mr. Miller. That was in 1954. I went to the home of a person 
whom up until then I didn't realize was a member of the Communist 
Party. That is, I realized it only when Comrade Wood told me that 
in the future I would meet with this individual. I had known him as 
a progressive but I had not known him as a Communist. 

Mr. Arens. AVlio is he ? 

Mr. Miller. Irving Spector. 

Mr. Arens. S-p-e-c-t-o-r ? Is that correct ? 

Mr. Miller. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And for how long did you maintain status in that par- 
ticular unit ? 

Mr. Miller. "Well, I went over that Sunday to go into a little bit 
more detail, and that club that I then became affiliated with was 
set up by Aaron Ostrofsky. He set the thing up, and he said that 
from now on you two comrades would meet together, and he said 
that he would try to meet with us from time to time. But he didn't 
meet with us very often. 

Now in answering 5'our immediate question, that club functioned 
until December 1956, and I might add that not only did it function, 
but we had an additional member put in it in the spring of 1955. 

Mr. Arens. And who was he, please, sir? 

Mr. Miller. That was Comrade Eddie Gof orth. 

Mr. Arens. Would you spell that last name for our record, please ? 

Mr. Miller. G-o-f-o-r-t-h. 

Mr. Arens. And what description did this club have within the 
Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, it was a steel club. It was composed of mem- 
bers of local 2610 at the Bethlehem Steel Co., and its purpose was to 
meet to discuss union matters, and to try to compare notes as to our 
success in becoming an influence in the union. And I might say 
that — and this is not intended as any reflection against any of the offi- 
cials in our union because they were oblivious of the fact that tliey 
were putting personnel into positions of influence and they didn't 
know they were Communists wlien they did it, so they are not to be 
censured for that in any way. In my opinion, I would say that our 
club was quite successful in obtaining influence in our local union 
which 

Mr. Arens. How ? 

Mr. ]\IiLLER. Well, Comrade Gof orth worked in the steam depart- 
ment. He became quite well known there. And in the election that 
was held, the union election was held last June, he ran — he was a 
candidate on the anti-Ruke slate. There were three slates. He was 
candidate on the Klauzenberg slate for the position of guide. And 
he received a — while he didn't win, he received a very handsome num- 
ber of votes. He received over a thousand votes, which was quite 
good. 

Mr. Arens. Did any of the comrades, to your certain knowledge, 
acquire status as shop stewards ? 



< 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD,, AREA 913 

Mr. Miller. I believe, as a member of the club, I advised — I was 
keen as a loyal member of the conspiracy. I veas very keen on secu- 
rity. And I pointed out that I didn't think it was feasible for any 
of us to put ourselves in a position where we were required to take 
loyalty oaths. 

That, I believe, was adhered to very rigidly up until last fall, and 
my understanding is that there was a feeling in the club at that time 
that things were relaxing somewhat, what was called the hysteria 
was waning, and it was felt that one could move into a shop steward 
position with impunity. 

So at that time if I am not mistaken — at least I was so informed 
by him — Irving Spector became a shop steward, 

Mr. Arens. Is he a shop steward now ? 

Mr. Miller. I couldn't say because of the fact I haven't been meet- 
ing with him since December, 

llr. Arens, Could you tell us during tliis particular period from 
May 1954 until December of 1956, within the particular cell that you 
have been alluding to, what did you do as a comrade under direction 
of the Communist Party, out at Bethlehem Steel ? 

Mr, Miller, Well, what I did, I was instructed to try to get to 
know the key people in my department in my zone of work. That 
was one thing I was instructed to do. Get on good terms with them. 
I wasn't supposed to try to recruit anybody because it was felt that 
that would be too hazardous a thing. 

Mr. Arens. Did you do any educational A^ork ? 

JNIr. ISIiller. I was made the chairman — I was put in charge of the 
educational work in our club, but I dichi't get a chance to accomplish 
much there because the club was broken up shortl}^ after I was made 
the educational director of it. 

]\Ir. Arexs. When was that ? In December of 1956 ? 

Mr. ]\IiLLER. That is when the club was broken up ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened from the standpoint of your career 
in the party beginning in December of 1956 ? 

Mr. Miller. Beginning in December of 1956 I was supposed to have 
had a meeting with Comrade Spector, He was supposed to have 
come over to see me, but he didn't show up, I became somewhat appre- 
hensive, I thought that there was a possibility that my role in the 
party had been somehow discovered and that I was out of the good 
gi'aces of the conspiracy. 

But it turned out that that was not the case. Aaron dropped by, 
Aaron Ostrofslry^ dropj)ed by and pointed out to me that Comrade 
Spector didn't feel tliat he wanted to continue as the head of the club, 
of the Steel Club at the present time. Comrade Goforth was not 
w^ell, and he — and Comrade Spector had some very serious problems 
that he had to think out in terms of communism. And that he just 
wanted to be relieved at the present time of the responsibility of being 
in charge of the club. And that for the time being he would — Comrade 
Ostrof sky said he would meet with me in my home. 

That didn't please me too much. What I attempted to do then was 
to suggest very strongly that I felt that as a comrade I could make my 
most effective contribution to the party if I were in a club. And I 
hoped that some effort would be made to get me put into a club. 



92360— 57— pt. 1- 



914 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

I even went so far as to point out that I felt I Avas fully qualified 
myself to be in charge of a club, and I would be willing to assume 
that responsibility if it were placed upon me. 

But as of the present moment, no place in a club has been found 
for me, and I strongly suspect that after today none will. 

Mr. Arens. You have, since December of 1956, been active in this 
cell with Comrade Ostrofsky ; is that correct ?- 

Mr. Miller. That is correct. 

]Mr. Arexs. What has been the Communist Party line that you 
alluded to a few moments ago, desanctification of Stalin'^ 

Mr. Miller. Well, that is a big subject, Mr. Arens. 

I could spend a couple of days probably going over the various 
ramifications of that but I will try to be as brief as possible. 

I think it really shook some of the comrades up quite a bit. Be- 
cause they had more or less placed the late Comrade Stalin on a 
pedestal. Every utterance from his mouth was in tlie category of 
holy writ, and when Comrade Khrushchev made his speech about 
the late Comrade Stalin, I think it shook some of the comrades up 
rather badly. I think that is reflected in the fact that there have 
been some defections from the party, like Howard Fast, who was 
one of the leading intellectiuil lights in the party; he has defected. 
You have had the emergence of the Gates faction in the party, but I 
think the people in the party wlio are dedicated Communists, while 
they were shaken up somewhat by this thing, I think that they have 
more or less got themselves pulled together, got themselves back on 
the wagon so to speak, and I think that at the present time my im- 
pression is that most of the people who are still in the party are not 
going to leave it because of the desanctification of Stalin. 

Mr. Arexs. Did Comrade Kandel take over on the issue of de- 
sanctification of Stalin? 

Mr. Miller. I believe his name has just now entered the discussion. 
Kandel, I might point out, was introduced to me, Irving Kandel, 
was introduced to me as the head of the party in the State of JNIary- 
land. 

Mr. Arens. How do you spell his last name ? 

Mr. Miller. K-a-n-d-e-1. 

Mr. Arexs. Where is he located ? 

Mr. Miller. His residence, I wouldn't know. I don't know where 
he lives. He lives in Baltimore some place. 

Mr. Arexs. What was the statement, what were the statements he 
made with reference to the desanctification of Stalin? 

Mr. Miller. Well, Comrade Kandel only met with our club twice. 
The second time he met with our club he discussed the Khrushchev 
report. And the general tenor of his remarks were — and he followed 
the article in a current issue of Political Affairs that dealt with 
that. He followed the article fairly closely, but the general tenor of 
his remarks was that it would be a good thing, that he felt that the 
party would benefit by this criticism, and it would open up new op- 
portunities for the party to strengthen itself, and self-criticism that 
would result would haA^e a beneficial effect. That was the general 
tone of his remarks on that. 

^ Mr. Arexs. Did any comrade to your knowledge get out a publica- 
tion or work on a publication known as Facts for Steel workers ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 915 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir. Our club, our Steel Club of the Communist 
Party — that was one of its assignments: To get out this mimeo- 
graphed newspaper called Facts for Steelworkers. 

There again I might point out that that paper didn't — Avasn't gotten 
out with any particular consistency. There might be a timelag in 
whicli no publication of it took place. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you or any of the comrades to your certain knowl- 
edge participate in the preparation of certain drafts which you an- 
ticipated might be used at the Xational Convention of the Communist 
Party in New York City ? 

]Mr. Miller. A letter was sent down from the Trade Union Com- 
mission of the party, of the Communist Party, in New York. 
It worked its way down to our club, our Steel Club, and this letter 
recommended that the comrades discuss the trade union resolution, 
and write down any criticisms they had of the draft resolution, and 
turn them in to our superiors in the party. 

I had a copy of that draft resolution given to me by Comrade 
Spector and w^ent over it carefully, and I wrote a brief critique of 
the main weaknesses which I thought were in it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Miller, I display to you now a photostatic reproduc- 
tion of a document. District Discussion Bulletin On the First Draft, 
Trade Union Resolution — and ask you to identify that document. 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir ; I wrote that. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest this document be marked 
"Miller Exhibit No. 1" and be incorporated in this record. 

The Chairman. Without objection that will be done. 

Miller Exhibit No. 1 
District Discussion Bulletin 

ON THE first DRAFT — TRADE UNION RESOLUTION 

In this comrade's view the first draft has many commendable features but it 
suffers somewhat from the general weaknesses of the general draft I'esolution, 
as pointed out by Comrade Foster. 

This comrade agrees entirely with Foster's criticism of the draft resolution 
as representing in many ways Right deviation. The Trade Union Resolution is 
also right wing in that it overlooks (with the exception of the class struggle) 
the great basic formulations of Marxism-Leninism and fails to emphasize the 
necessity of vigorously building an indigenous Communist Party on the founda- 
tions of Marxism-Leninism. 

The debonair tendency to consider Marx, Engels, Lenin (and yes, Stalin, too, 
in his finer moments) as passe must l)e ruthlessly fought, and the need to con- 
tinually examine their great teachings and their applicability to the American 
scene must never be overlooked. The ousting of Marx-Lenin from our ideology 
will not result in a stronger, more indigenous CP, but in the liquidation of our 
Party altogether. 

The Trade Union Resolution seems to this writer to slight the vanguard role 
that our Party must play in trade union activity. One never wins friends by an 
overdose of modesty any more than one does by bragging. Of course we should 
not be interested in "capturing" unions, but our members should be the best and 
most active unionists precisely because we agree with Lenin's correct under- 
standing of the relationship of Party work to trade union work. 

ON BUREAUCRACY 

A lot of discussion is taking place in our party regarding the American Road 
to Socialism, unity with other Socialist forces in America, changing the name 
of the Party, etc. 



916 COMMUNIST ACTR^TIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

To me it seems that one of tlie most important things that should be discussed 
and acted upon is the question of bureaucracy. Why Bureaucracy '? 

1. This is the question most discussed by the rank and file of our Party and 
yet the least talked and written about in the higher echelons of our Party — 
worst offender is the National Committee. 

2. The comrades who carried out policy in the main had the least or nothing 
to say about shaping the policy of our party. 

3. The listening posts of onv party are our comrades who work in the shops, 
and our comrades in the community and the mass organizations, yet no one 
listened to them when it came to shaping policy in the past. 

I believe it can be said without a doubt that our shop comrades, starting with 
the Wallace campaign in this district took a beating in their particular unions 
that to this day hasn't been overcome due to some of our wrong policies. It is 
to their credit that our shop comrades were some of the first people who fought 
for the correction of our policies, and methods of work in order to be able to 
continue to work in the shops and trade unions. 

In my opinion, certain basic steps have to be taken in order to set the stage 
for more free discussion and inviting our people to participate in making policies 
that tliep will have to carry out. 

1. That no one on any level of leadership has a divine right to leadership by 
virtue of seniority or even great personal sacrifices for our Party. All levels of 
leadership must be ready and willing to give up their posts whenever the mem- 
bership so desires without the necessity of waiting for a convention. (We must 
not overlook the personal sacrifices made by our membership in this district. 
Our membership has been subjected to jailings. Congressional inquisitions, living 
away from their families, loss of jobs, continual harassment, to one degree or 
another and have stood well against this enemy barrage.) 

2. That our old concept of democratic centralism must be revised. In report- 
ing what has taken place at one meeting or another, all the benefits of discus- 
sion both pro and con that went into the making of a particular decision must 
be made available to the membership so that they too can benefit from previous 
discussions held. The important thing is hoio was a decision reached, rather than 
by tvhoni. 

In looking around, we find that many ex-party members are victims of Party 
bureaucracy. We cannot set terms or conditions for their return to the Party. 
In many cases there are apologies due these people, let's make them without 
qualifications and get them back in. 

In our section, I feel (speaking for myself) that since it was reorganized 
(about five years ago), that nothing was shoved down anyone's throat though 
many times there were disagreements either in the section or between the dis- 
trict, section, and individuals. Before the carry outers of a policy did so, they 
made their own decisions independently through discussion. 

Shop Worker, 
one way to combat bureaucracy 

While the leadership Nationnlly as well as locally has recognized that bureauc- 
racy existed in our Party, they have not corrected or made an effort to correct 
their relationship with the comrades who dropped out or were forced to drop out 
because of a bureaucratic approach towards theiu. If the leadership is sincere — 
the first step to be taken should have been to cement relationships with the com- 
rades who have had differences with them. This rift has resulted in the disso- 
lution of clubs and in some instances entire sections. No effort has been made 
to collect dues, sustaining or moneys for the various drives, from comrades who 
were part of such clubs or sections. 

In some cases comrades have been ignored completely for the past nine or ten 
months. 

When enlarged section meetings were being held throughout the district, these 
people were not invited to attend such meetings where they could have the 
opportunity to discuss their grievances and criticisms with comrades outside of 
the district leadership. It would seem that since meetings between members of 
the District Committee and members with differences were held and were not 
fruitful, it would have been most correct for these comrades who are fighting 
for their position (whether right or wrong) to be given the same opportunities as 
everyone else instead of being pushed aside and finally forced to give up. Al.so, 
there it would have been most correct to have had a representative or delegate 
at the enlarged District meeting that was held since many of these comrades 
were involved in important concentration work which was dropped. They should 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIEIS IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 917 

have been invited, or at least have representation since the fact that they are not 
functioning as a section or club, is through no fault of their ovrn. 

The District is confronted with many problems today, as to the kind of organi- 
zation we want, what our role is, etc. It seems to us that first we must become 
a more unified Party by bringing back those comrades who never have given up 
their principals. 

We strongly recommend that a Grievance Committee be set up as quickly as 
possible so that by the time our Convention is held, these Comrades will once 
again be an active part of our Party. 

SOME KANDOJr THOUGHTS OF A SHOP WORKER OX THE STATUS OF THE CPUSA 

The main concern of American Communists should be to work for the develop- 
ment of the Party along the lines that will cause it to become a more indigenous 
political group, attuned to and reflecting the immediate and long range objectives 
of the American working class. 

Now it seems to this writer that if the above statement is true, we ought to 
curtail the amount of time that has been spent ou hashing and re-hashing the 
dismal "discovery" of Khrushchev that the CP has been afflicted by a "cult of the 
individual". The American Party had not suffered to any great extent from this 
malady, so it is rather fruitless for us to pore over this problem as much as we 
have, or be disturbed by it as so many comrades seem to have been. 

There is no doubt that the cult did develop under Stalin's not altogether benign 
influence, but the kind of excessive, tearful, melodramatic utterances that 
Khrushchev indulged in are, in this writer's opinion, of dubious value, or at any 
rate not entirely beneficial. The calm, reasonable tone displayed by the Peiping 
"Daily People's World" will far better benefit the CP than will Khrushchev's 
histrionics and so much of the kind of discussion that has been going on for 
the past few months in the Daily and Sunday Worker. Also, the fact that 
Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalin did not take place until after Stalin had been 
neatly tucked away causes the doubt to arise that Khrushchev may not have had 
the courage that one likes to expect of a Bolshevik leader. At least there seems 
little likelihood that a cult will ever arise about Khrushchev, for which one may 
take some comfort. 

In our Shop Club, a comrade has brought up the fact that the CPUSA is not 
really a vanguard of the working class, since a majority of comrades are not 
workers. There is merit in this anxiety over the composition of our Party, but 
in this problem too it is important to remain calm and not lose our sense of 
perspective. It has been traditionally true that Parties in most countries have, 
especially in the period when they were not serious contenders for power, had 
large proportions of members who were drawn from middle class, intellectual, 
and racial minority groups. These groups, of course, should be welcome in the 
Party, but before the Party can expect to achieve power it must become filled 
with members of the working class and reflect the new and constructive and 
robust qualities of that class. This is especially true in a country such as 
this, in which the industrial revolution has achieved such a supreme develop- 
ment. (It was not, of course, true in China since that country was mainly 
made up of peasants.) 

We should give serious thought to methods of making the Party in America 
more a working-class Party than it now is. Here ;ire a few thoughts on how this 
may be done: 

1. Now that the "heat" is ofl' the Party somewhat, comrades .should be en- 
couraged to get jobs in industry. I know that some have been, but this process 
should be stepped up with an eye especially to l)asic industries such as steel, 
coal mining, automobile, rubber, oil, meatpacking, electrical, and so on. In 
this way comrades who have not been considered workers will henceforth be 
so considered. 

2. We should use what we have more resourcefully. We do have comrades who 
are in industry. In the past there has been a tendency for the views of the rank 
and file working class comrades not to carry much weight in the organization. 
The worker comrades are the closest to the masses and know best what the 
masses want immediately ; the worker comrades alone can keep the Party from 
becoming isolated from the masses. The views of worker comrades should carry 
immense weight in the higher echelons of the Party. Let us say, for example, 
that 35% of the comrades are workers : these comrades' views should carry more 
influence than 35% because they represent the most important, vigorous, and 
youthful element in the Party. This is not intended as being boastful, but as 



918 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

simply a historical fact inherent in the class structure of society. This comrade 
does not think that workers who are Party members should become full-time 
Party functionaries : they are needed in the industries. But the present function- 
aries whose good intentions and loyalty to our Party and the working class 
are not questioned should lend a more solicitous ear. 

3. In order that worker comrades deserve the greater importance in the 
Party that this paper suggests they must make themselves better Party mem- 
bers. They must become masters of Marxist-Leninist theory. There is no 
reason why they can't. Part of each meeting should be spent discussing some 
previously assigned Marxist classic, or portion thereof, (a chapter say, from 
Anti-r>uhring) that has been carefully studied. It would be good for a comrade 
to prepare an objective-type exam, with true-false, multiple choice, and comple- 
tion questions to see that the comrades have studied their assignment. It 
should be considered inexcusable to not have one's assignment except on rare 
occasions when the exigencies of temporal life make it impossible. In order that 
the agenda of meetings may be completed it would be helpful if comrades would 
refrain from departing from the subject at hand and rambling off somewhere 
else. A better grasp of theory should be accompanied by better relations with 
fellow workers in the mills. In fact there should be a beneficial interaction 
between theory and practice. It seems that it would not be amiss to approach 
a trusted worker now and then with a little of CP teaching. After all, as Lenin 
points out, we should not depend on spontaneity to solve our problems for us. 

4. But at present being active trade unionists is considered the most im- 
portant immediate objective of the comrades in basic industry. But while doing 
this we must avoid right opportunism and never forget Comrade Stalin's advice 
that the function of the Party is to direct the work of such organizations as 
trade unions (p. 31 "On the Theory of Marxism"). 

5. We should resume getting out "Pacts for Steelworkers". This writer thinks 
that the policy in respect to this has been too timorous. We had put this paper 
out on the assumption that we shouldn't tell the luiion what to do. Of course 
we should avoid dictatorial mandates, but we should not hesitate to suggest 
what we think is best. We live in a society where innumerable groups are con- 
tinually trying to influence each other and make their particular views para- 
mount. It hardly behooves us to be so self effacing as to not follow the general 
pattern so prevalent in American life today. 

In conclusion this ^vriter would point out that while the Party has suffered 
many defeats in the past decade of repression and Cold War and has made many 
mistakes, the fact that it has survived is a testimonial to its vitality and to the 
fact that it has roots in American life and history. We are sometimes discour- 
aged by looking back to the Thirties too nostalgically. We should not forget 
that even then our Party was a minority group and never achieved the status 
and prestige that some, such as AVhittaker Chambers, attributed to it. We have 
not fallen so low as some may think * * * 

This is our first edition of the District Bulletin. We hope it meets with your 
approval. We are open to any ideas or criticisms any one may have on how we 
can improve on it. 

We would like to print many more District Bulletins before the Convention. 
We urge everyone to get their thoughts down on paper so that we can all benefit 
from each other's thinking. 

We ask that articles come in as quickly as possible. No letter will be edited. 
However, we ask you please to be as concise as possible. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you in the course of the hist year or so learned of 
the existence of other Communist Party clul)s at Bethlehem Steel at 
Sparrows Point ^ 

Mr. ]\IiLLER. I believe very strongly that other clubs exist. I have 
never been told that there are other clubs, but I will say this: I know 
that there is a steel section. Comrade Ostrofsky told me that he is in 
charge of the steel section at this time. He indicated he would like 
to continue to be in charge of it, but he hoped that there could be an 
election at which he could be elected, or someone else if the comrades 
preferred someone else. 

But I was somewdiat critical when I started meeting with Comrade 
Ostrofsky — I was somewhat critical of the fact that we didn't meet 



COMMUNIST ACTR-ITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 919 

very often. For a Avhile there we met only once every 3 weeks, and as 
a loyal zealous member of the conspiracy, 1 wanted to meet more often. 

1 felt that 3 weeks Avas too great a lapse, and that I would not be able 
to retain my militancy if I didn't meet a little more often than that. 

As an excuse for not meetino- more often with me, he pointed out 
that as the head of the steel section in Baltimore he had to meet with 
so many other comrades that it was just very difiicult for him to get 
to see me more often than he did. So that leads me to believe that other 
clubs do exist. 

^Ir. Arens. Did you, in the course of your experience in the last 

2 or 3 years in the Communist Party, rechannel your information from 
one intelligence agency to the officials of the office of the attorney gen- 
eral of the State of Maryland ^. 

jSIr. Miller. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you in tlie course of the last year or so been in 
intimate, frequent contact with the officials of the office of the attorney 
general, supplying them information, working with them? 

Mr. Miller. I have been working in the closest possible manner 
with the State law group since May of 1955. 

Mr. Arens. Now what is the Educator? 

Mr. Miller. The Educator is the newspaper that is published by 
our local unioiL 

]\rr. Arexs. Do you know any person as a Communist who is on 
the Educator. 

Mr. Miller. Xot at the present time. The previous administration 
of our union did place Conu'ade Spector on the stall of the Educator, 
and while there he wrote some articles for that publication for which 
he received a great deal of commendation not only by the other mem- 
bers of the club but by our superior. Comrade Kandel. 

Mr. Arexs. What has been the Communist Party line as announced 
to the comrades on the events in the recent past in Hungary, and more 
currently in Poland ? 

Mr. Miller. "Well, I would say this: That any comrade who was 
shaken up b}' the desanctification of Stalin was probably shaken up 
somewhat by the events in Hungary. But the dedicated Connnunist 
who was not shaken up by Stalin's desanctification has accepted the 
Comnnmist Party line on that. The line of the party that the events 
in Hungary — in which Red Army troops entered that country — the 
events there were precipitated by a Fascist uprising in that country 
that was aided and abetted by America and its agencies. 

The CiiAiRMAX. Do they believe that? Do they believe that the 
people who particii)ated in tlie revolution were participating in some 
sort of a Fascist uprising ( 

Mr. Miller. Yes sir. That would be correct as to the dedicated 
Communists. 

The CiiAiRMAx. Don't they know that those students were the ones 
who were selected because they were, what is the word, trustworthy ? 
The Communists selected certain groups of young people for educa- 
tion who were regarded as trustworthy because they all came from 
dedicated Connnunist families, and they were the people who led this 
uprising. They and the workers who were the Communist Party in 
Hungary. Do they not know that ? 

Mr. Miller. They are aware of that, yes, but they feel that these 
young people — they feel that these young people were tricked into 



920 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

this. They felt that there were certain grievances, there were low 
standards of living, there was too much of the control of the country 
by the Soviet Union — there were genuine gripes, but they feel that 
the young people and these other people who were instrumental in 
the revolution, their activity there of the Hmigarian j)eople, were 
duped into that by these Fascists who were in the pay of the American 
State Department. 

INIr. Arens. What has been your experience on the percentage of 
comrades who attend union meetings as compared to the percentage 
of rank and file of the non-Communist members ? 

Mr. Milli:r. Well, before I answer that question I would like to 
point out that I think it is an excellent idea for all union members 
to attend their meetings. I hope that what is disclosed here will 
encourage many who haA^e been lax in that to start attending. Be- 
cause only by active participation on the part of the rank and file 
in our trade unions can this Communist conspiracy be kept out of 
the unions. 

But in answering your question, it is a cardinal duty of the com- 
rades to attend their meetings. If they don't attend them, they get 
a dressing down for it. 

I would say that I can only think of one comrade, or two, that I 
knew were Communists who didn't seem to attend meetings. Which 
leads me to think that perhaps they are not members of the conspiracy 
at the present time. But every one that I know for a certainty are 
members of the conspiracy now, can always be depended upon to 
attend their union meetings unless their work schedule prevents it. 

Mr. Arens. What is the relationship between the Communist con- 
spiracy in the United States and the world Communist movement? 

Mr. INIiLLER. The Comnumist conspiracy in the United States is 
a part, a part of the international Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Arens. What did Kandel say, if you recall, with reference to 
the Khi'ushchev speech? 

Mr. Miller. Well, Kandel lauded that speech. He felt that the 
substance of that speech was sound and that we should study it care- 
fully and be guided by it. Now, there are other things which show 
the relationship there witli the international Communist conspiracy. 
One is tlie fact that the comrades are so elated, so elated over Com- 
uiunist successes in other countries. I know wlien the Rangoon con- 
ference was being held our club — the members of our Steel Club were 
quite elated over that. And they regarded Chou En-lai as the great 
liero, the man who stood out in that conference. They regarded that 
conference as helping to solidify the support of the neutralist nations 
and bring it under the orbit of the Soviet and Chinese Communist 
parties and governments. 

And something else, too: When the party members have heard 
these things about Stalin and things which luive happened in the 
Soviet Union which they have denied all along, haven't admitted 
even to themselves, and then when Khrushchev admitted them, well, 
heck, they have to moi-e or less go along with tliat. 

But Avhat liappens then ^ They sliift their allegiance to the great 
rising Communist government, the Chinese Communist Government. 

If you will notice, if you will examine the periodicals of the 
American Communist Party, you will see that they display, very 
prominently, articles by the Russian — the Chinese leaders of the Com- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD,, AREA 921 

munist Party. The Chinese Party is more and more getting the atten- 
tion and the support and the allegiance of the American Communists. 

Mr. Arexs. To your certain knowledge, what does the Communist 
conspiracy in this area do to have an impact upon the Congress of 
the United States and upon public opinion on the many issues in 
which they are interested ^ 

Mr. Miller. Well, I could think of several. One that strikes me 
as quite timely is the attitude of the Communist Party toward this 
committee, this House Un-American Activities Committee. 

Mr. Arexs. "What is the attitude of the Communist Party toward 
this committee^ We have a pretty good idea ourselves. 

Mr. Miller. I think the public record on that is rather voluminous. 
I have some personal knowledge of that in addition to the public 
record. 

The attitude of the Connnunist Party is tliat this committee is one 
of their worst antagonists. They like to tell themselves and others 
that this committee is a circus, that they are publicity hungry or that 
they are out to crush civil rights. But I thought it was significant 
that the last meeting I had in the Steel Club of the party, the meeting 
of April 25, it struck me as extremely significant that the entire course 
of the conversation for over 2 hours at that meeting concerned this 
committee. 

Now, if this committee is insignificant, if it is composed simply of 
clowns, publicity seekers, or reactionaries, why is it that the con- 
spiracy is so concerned with its presence here ? 

Mr, Arexs. AMiat did they say at this last session about the com- 
mittee and about our coming to Baltimore for this series of hearings? 

Mr. Miller. Well, they said that the purpose in coming here was 
simply to frighten and harass working people, and to try to cause 
people to lose their jobs, and just to help to create the hysteria. They 
pointed out that Comrade Ostrofsky seemed to thinlv that your com- 
mittee is in dire straits, that there is some danger that it might go 
out of existence. 

He felt that they have to keep things stirred up in order to justify 
their existence as a committee. That is his line. 

Another thing that is brought out is that this committee is out 
to break or weaken or interfere with unions. 

Now, I know that that is not true but it is believed. They have 
succeeded in con^dncing a lot of people that that is true. People who 
are opposed to communism, yet they have been — they have swallowed 
the Communist line on this committee and they believe that when 
this committee comes to an area that they are out to weaken or harass 
trade unions. 

Mr. Arexs. Did the word get to you while you were in the con- 
spiracy that the Communist Party has created, in the last several 
months, front organizations whose avowed objective is to discredit 
this committee? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I know this : That I was told that I should try 
to get comisel. I pointed out that I was going to rely on the fifth 
amendment all the way and I didn't feel like I needed a lawyer. I 
didn't know any lawyer that I could trust. Furthennore, I had a 
large family and didn't think that I could afford a lawyer. I was 
assured by my superior in the conspiracy not to worry about money, 
that funds were going to be raised. He told me that the American 



922 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Civil Liberties Union was going to take a very active part in these 
hearings. I hiter fonnd ont that he overestimated the role that this 
group was going to play. But as to the name of such a fund-raising 
group, I am not in possession of that. 

Mr. Arens. Did tlie Communist Party in your experience send let- 
ters to the editors of the papers on public issues ? 

Mr. Miller. I saw a letter in the paper not too long ago that was 
right cloAvn the Communist line. 

Now, I wasn't shown any letters. However, it was brought to my 
attention by Comrade Ostrofsky that a cartoon had appeared in one 
of our local newspapers, and he went out to his car — this was on April 
25 — he went out to his car and he brought this paper in to me and he 
showed me the cartoon which was on the editorial page. And he was 
quite elated at this cartoon. It was a cartoon that appeared in the 
Afro- American, which castigated, without any question, without any 
subtlety, castigated completely and fully the connnittee. 

The idea of it was that this committee is here to inaugurate a wave 
of Ku Klux Klanism and union busting. That was the gist of what 
the cartoon suggested. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Communist Party undertake to bring an im- 
pact upon the legislative bodies of our Nation by parades and by letters 
and by other such devices ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us from your own experience a word about 
that? 

Mr. Miller. Well, they were efl'ective; they were active in the 
Mundt-Nixon thing; they have had various civil rights rallies in 
Washington. One of the most highly dramatized and publicized 
things, of course, was the Eosenberg clemency appeal. 

Mr. Arens. What is the position of the Communist Party on the 
Immigration and Nationality Act, known as the Walter-McCarran 
Act? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I can't testify too much from my experience in 
the Steel Club because we didn't discuss that. But I do know from 
reading party publications that they are extremely opposed to that 
law. 

Mr. Arens. Does the Communist Party undertake to infiltrate non- 
Communist groups ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word of your experience on that ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, our union would be the main example. The by- 
laws of our union are very clear on Communist members. According 
to our bylaws, we aren't supposed to have thein. 

But, due to the concealment of membership, it is difficult to dis- 
close who members are. 

For instance, I was powerless, I was powerless to inform the officials 
of my union that Spector was a Communist when he was put on the 
newspaper, and he has been put on other committees. T was powerless 
to do anything because of the fact that if I were to state that Spector 
was a Communist, then that would have meant a confrontation be- 
tween Spector and myself which would have disclosed prematurely the 
role I have been playing. But their main area of penetration is 
in trade unions. And in this Baltimore area that would be in the steel 
industry. There are two locals, 2609 and 2610. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 923 

Mr. Arens. a little while ago, I believe you expressed yourself 
with reference to the seriousness of the Communist Party. Could 
you give us the further facts on that which caused you to reach that 
conclusion ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. I would like to elaborate a little on that if I may, 
Mr. Arens. I know it is fashionable among many of the intellectual 
elite of our Nation to contend that at the present time the Cominunist 
Party is on its last legs in this country, that it has lost two-thirds or 
more of its members, that it is in a weakened condition. And there is 
an element of truth in that. The party has lost members. The party 
does find it more difficult to function in an effective manner than it 
did. All that is true. 

But if you remember, if you keep in mind the fact that the Com- 
munist Party is a party of an international conspiracy, then the pic- 
ture looks a little more bleak. 

Mr. Arens. We have, according to Communist Party announce- 
ments, an estimated seventeen to eighteen thousand present members of 
the Communist Party. Those seventeen to eighteen thousand are really 
foreign agents on American soil, are they not? 

Mr. Miller. That is how it would seem to me ; yes. 

Now, I can only say this in further comment on that question : Every 
person that I have ever met in the Connnunist conspiracy has the 
potentiality in himself of making a worthwhile contribution to our 
American society. Again and again you read in the press about their 
isolation from the main stream of American life. That isolation has 
been imposed by themselves. If they could see their way clear, any 
of them, to break away from this conspiracy, they have the talents 
and the ability to make a worthwhile contribution to the American 
system of life. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any persons, not members of the Communist 
Party but under Communist Party discipline, who do the work of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Miller. There are people who will work with Communists. 
I guess you will find those everywhere. There are ])eople who are not 
Communists themselves but they will work, they will form a coalition 
or an alliance with Communists, they will welcome such people into 
their alinement, they will work with them, they will even give them 
places of authority knowing that they are Communists. I noticed in 
the last election our Steel Club was under orders to support one of the 
slates in the union election. One of the anti-Ruke's slates. Personally 
I w^ould have liked to have supported John Ruke, but I wasn't in any 
position to do so because I was under orders to support this other 
slate. 

Now, one of the people in this other slate said to Bill Wood that if 
this slate wins, if this slate wins we are going to see what we can do 
about making you a shop steward. 

So I give that as an illustration of the fact that there are people who 
are willing for opportunistic reasons, while they themselves are not 
a part of the conspiracy — perha])s never have been — yet they are 
willing to use people who are in the conspiracy to further their own 
objectives. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information to give us a word about the 
finances of the Communist Party? Did you pay dues while you were 
in the party ? 



924 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. MiixER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any way of knowing what happened to 
those dues ? 

Mr. Miller, Well, I suppose I should apologize to the party, be- 
cause I am somewhat in arrears on my dues. But as to what happened 
to them, they were turned over to comrade — the superior in the club. 
That would have been Comrade Wood at one time, and Comrade 
Spector, and lately I have been turning them over to Comrade 
Ostrofsky. 

Now, I would think that he must have turned them over to his 
superior in the apparatus. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Miller, we have, as this record reflects, interrogated 
you on a number of items. Is there any other item which we may not 
have touched upon in the course of our interrogation here that you 
would like to bring to the attention of this committee? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I have already alluded to the fact that our trade 
union, the overwhelming majority of its members and its officials, 
are opposed to communism, I would like to say that my position in 
the party, due to the security measures that the party has instituted, 
has been such that I have not been in a position — I have not been able 
to know who all the people are that are in my union who are Com- 
munists. I feel convinced that there are other clubs. I just wish that 
someone who is in the party, that is, in the conspiracy in Baltimore 
would defect who is in a position to disclose this information. But I 
suppose that that is a futile wish because I know that when Chambers 
made his disclosures he made the same plea, and it was not heeded 
by anyone. So I am sure that my voice, which is far less eloquent than 
his, will also go unheeded. 

Mr. Arens. Just a last question, if you please, Mr. Miller: Could 
you tell us just a word from the standpoint of personal interest of your 
own family life? You are a married man? 

Mr. JNiiLLER. Yes, 

Mr. Arens. You have children ? 

Mr. Miller, Yes, 

Mr. Arens. Would you tell us how many ? 

Mr. Miller. Five. 

Mr. Arens. Five children. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude the staff 
interrogation of this witness, I respectfully suggest that he be con- 
tinued under his subpena. 

The Chairman. Yes. Let that course be pursued. 

May I thank you, ISIr. Miller, on behalf of this committee, which is 
performing a very disagreeable task. Incidentally, when you said 
what you did about our being engaged in breaking labor organiza- 
tions, it might be interesting to note that I wrote the Government 
contracts law whicli is a forerunner of the Wage-Hour Act. My dis- 
tinguished colleague and I just hastily went over the record of the 
members of this committee, and we do not know of anyone on the 
committee who ever cast an antilabor vote. So, whatever was said 
about our objectives, of course, is out of the whole cloth. All of 
which causes us no concern. 

But I want to say to you that you have made a great contribution 
to the preservation of this great Eepublic. It took courage to do 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 925 

what you did tius morning, and I think that the entire country owes 
you a debt of gratitude. It is difficult to estimate the value of your 
testimony, but if it brings to the naive and the gullible some idea of 
how they are imposed upon, then you will have rendered a tremen- 
dous service. You are excused and you are continued under this 
subpena. 

The committee will stand in recess until 1 : 30 this afternoon. 

(Committee members present: Representatives Walter and Mc- 
intosh.) 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 05 p. m., Tuesday, May 7, 1957, the conmiittee 
was recessed, to reconvene at 1 : 30 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, MAY 7, 1957 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Arens. 

(Committee members present: Representatives Walter and Mc- 
intosh.) 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Aaron Ostrofsky, kindly come forward. 

(No response.) 

Mr. Arexs. Would you kindly call his name, Mr. Marshal, Mr. 
Aaron Ostrof skv'. He may be in the corridor. 

Mr. Bucii:max. Where is the witness stand ? 

Mr. Arexs. Right next to the re])orter, please, counsel. 

Mr. BucHMAX'. I want to ask, Mr. Chairman, that the television 
cameras be removed before my client takes the stand. 

The Chair:vian. All right. 

Mr. BuciiMAX'. Are the television cameras off ? 

The Chairmax. Yes; apparently. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Ostrofsky, will you kindly remain standing while 
an oath is administered to you ? 

The Chair:max'. Will you raise your right hand. Do you swear 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the w^hole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF AAEON OSTEOFSKY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

HAEOLD BUCHMAN 

Mr. Arex'S. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Ostrofsky. Aaron Ostrofsky. My name is Aaron Ostrofsky. 
I reside at 2312 Oswego Avenue, Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. xIrexs. And your occupation, please ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. My occupation is welder. 

Mr. Arexs. Where, please, sir ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. "Wliat's this ? 

Mr. Arexs. Where ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. Down at Bethlehem Steel Co. 

Mr. Arexs. You are appearing here today, Mr. Ostrofsky, in re- 
sponse to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. You are represented by comisel ? 



926 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. OsTRorsKY. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. BucHMAN. Harold Buchman, B-u-c-h-m-a-n, 205 Tower Build- 
ing, Baltimore 2, Md. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. I was born in Rumania in 1919, December 6. 

Mr. Arens. 'VVlien did you come to the United States for permanent 
residence ? 

Mr. OsTRorsKY. A^riien I was about 11 months old. 

Mr, Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. I am, sir. 

Mr. Arens. By derivation or by naturalization ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. By derivation. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, a brief sketch of your formal 
education. 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. I went to the public schools, junior high school 
and high school, and 2 years of evening college. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your formal education ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. I wouldn't remember the exact date. But approxi- 
mately it would be about 1938, 1 imagine. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you complete your formal education? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us, if you please, your principal em- 
ployments since completion of your formal education at Brooklyn 
College in 1938, 1 believe you said? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. I believe it was. 

Well, I worked in the men's hat line for a while at odd jobs. And 
then about 1940, I believe it was, I was unemployed for a while, 
and then I came to Baltimore for a job and I started to work in 
the shipyards. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to Baltimore? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. That would be approximately 1941. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you obtain your first employment after you 
came to Baltimore in 1941 ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. I believe it was at the Maryland Dry Dock Ship- 
yard. 

Mr. Arens. In wliat capacity? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. As a welder I worked tliere. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work there, please, sir? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. A short period. I guess about 3 months or so; 
4 months maybe. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next employment? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. I worked at Bethlehem Fairchild Shipyard at 
Bethlehem Steel Co. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work there and in what capacity ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I worked there from 1941 — as a welder, sir — from 
1941, then to 1944. I went in the service at that time, and I was in 
the United States Army, and then I was discharged. I believe it was 
November of 1945. 

Mr. Arens. Please give us just a word about your career in the 
Army. Where did you serve and in what branch of the service? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. 1 served in the infantry, that is the Army, the in- 
fantry part of the Army, and I served in France and Germany. And 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MP., AREA 927 

I received the purple heart and. the combat infantry badge and two 
battle stars. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a commission in the Army ? 

Mr, OsTROFSKY. No, I didn't, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you discharged in 1945? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. Yes, sir ; Pfc. 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly tell us wluit was your first principal employ- 
ment after your discliarge from the Army. 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. I came back to work in the Bethlehem Fairchild 
Shipyard in 1946, 1 believe it was. 

Mr. Arens. And in w^hat capacity ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. As a welder, sir. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you maintain that employment ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. Until the place closed down, which I believe was 
about November 1946. 

Mr. Arens. "Would it be convenient for you to keep your voice up a 
little as we are having difficulty in hearing you. 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. Can I move this ? 

Mr. Arens. Surely. Accommodate yourself there, if you please, 
sir. 

Am I clear in my impression from your testimony a moment ago 
that you worked in that employment until 1946 after you were dis- 
charged from the Army ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. I worked — I started back in 1946 and worked 
clean up until November of 1946. That is when the yard closed. In 
other words, the yard itself was still there, but I mean it closed as 
the Bethlehem Fairchild Shipyard. 

Mr. Arens. I understand. Tell us, please, of your next employ- 
ment. 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. After that I think I had a lapse of 38 days be- 
tween there and the Bethlehem Steel Co. at Sparrows Point. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you assume employment there? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. As a welder, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been continuously employed there ever 
since ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you held a position in a labor organization 
while you have been employed at the Bethlehem Steel Corp. ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. Well, I feel that any answer I would give to that 
would be testimony against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps you didn't understand tlie question. 

Have you been identified with a la])or organization while you luive 
been employed at the Bethlehem Steel Corp. beginning in late 1946 ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. I started to answer it. I feel that any answer 
I would give to that could be used as testimony against myself, and 
I feel that under the provisions of the Constitution that no man 
shall be compelled to testify against himself. 

Mr. Arens. Let me ask you this, please, sir: Do you honestly 
apprehend if you told this committee truthfully while you are under 
oath whether or not you have been active in, or a member of, a 
labor organization, you would be supplying information wliich might 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr, OsTROFSKY. Well, I think I gave you my answer, sir. 



928 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Mr, Chairman, I respectfully suggest now on this 
record this Avitness be ordered and directed to answer the last out- 
standing principal question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

The. CiTAiRMAx. What crime do you think you might be charged 
with if you admitted that you were a member of, or an officer of, a 
labor organization ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. Well, sir, I said that it might. And, therefore, 
I am standing on that answer, sir, that I feel that this thing might 
tend to incriminate me. 

The CiiAiRMAX. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

JNIr. OsTROFSKT. Can I get the question clarified tliat you are 
presenting now that you want me to answer ? 

The Chairman. Read the question. 

(The reporter read from his notes as requested.) • 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. That is the question that I answered, sir. That 
I feel I am not compelled 

The Ch AIRMAN. Then as I understand you, you decline to answer 
the question, invoking the fifth amendment? 

Mr. BucHMAN. JSIay I consult with my client ? 

The Chairman. Surely. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. Well, to that question that you asked me, you said 
ihat that question — you are asking me would it tend to in any way 
incriminate me. Is that what you said, sir ? 

The Chairman. No. I said did you decline to answer the question 
on the grounds that tlie answer might incriminate you, and you are, 
therefore, invoking the fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. Are you saying then — let me get this straight, then. 
Would a truthful answer to that question tend to incriminate me? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. I said that it might tend to incriminate me, sir. 
Under the provisions of the Constitution. 

The Chairman. And you, therefore, refuse to answer the question ? 

Mr. OsTOOFSKY. That is right, sir. 

The Chairman. On what ground ? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. On the ground that it might tend to incriminate 
me. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Ostrofsky, this morning Clifford Miller took an 
oath before this committee, laid his liberty on the line, and testified 
while he was under oatli that as a member of the Communist Party he 
knew you as a Communist. I want to give you an opportunity while 
you are under oath to deny it. Was ]Mr. INIiller lying or was he telling 
tlie truth when he identified you as a Communist? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. Well, I will have to refuse to answer that question 
on the grounds that it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You are not under any compulsion. You said 
"I will have to refuse to answer." You are not under any compul- 
sion. Do you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I say I decline to answer that question because 
I feel just like I did. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 929 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Miller, would 3^011 stand in the court room, please. 

Mr. Ostrofsky, would 3^ou kindly accommodate us by looking to 
your left at this man who said he knew you as a Communist. Do you 
know Cliti'ord Miller, the man standing there who is facing you, look- 
ing you in the face ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds, that it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arexs. "Who is George Meyers ? Could you help us on that ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Jeanette Fino, F-i-n-o? Coidd you help us 
on that, sir? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to have 3'ou help tliis committee trying 
to develop facts, as we are, to protect the security of this Nation under 
whose flag you have protection. Tell us if you know anything about 
the Freedom of the Press Committee. Is there such an organization 
in Baltimore? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. Let's get one thing clear, if you please, sir. Do you 
honestly feel, Mr. Ostrofsky, that if you told this committee truth- 
fully what you Iniow about the Freedom of the Press Committee, 
you would be supplying information which might be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that he be 
ordered and directed to answer the last outstanding principal question 
which goes to the good faith of this witness in invoking the fifth 
amendment. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I didn't hear what you said, sir. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Ostrofsky. Would you repeat that again, please, sir? 

Mr. Arexs. The question is simply this, in its simplest form : Do 
3'ou now, while you are under oath, fear that if ^^ou told this committee 
truthfullv Avliat you know about tlie Freedom of the Press Committee 
here in Baltimore, you would be supplying information which might 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I said that it might tend to incriminate me, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know Levy Williamson ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
it ma}^ tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arexs. Bill Wood? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. The same ground, sir; I refuse to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Arexs. Eddie Goforth? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. Same grounds, sir; I refuse to answer that ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Arex. Irving Spector. 

92360—57 — pt. 1 1 



930 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. The same ground, sir; I refuse to answer that 
question. 

Mr, Arens. Benjamin Fino? 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. The same grounds, sir; I refuse to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you presently have information affecting the secu- 
rity of the United States 

^Ir. OsTROFSKY. I don't quite understand that question. 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. Could you 

Mr. ArejSts. Do you presently have information about a conspira- 
torial operation designed to overthrow the Government of the United 
States by force and violence ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. OsTROFSKY. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the Communist 
conspiracy in this community ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. In connecetion with what, sir? I don't quite un- 
derstand that question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently have information respecting the 
Communist conspiracy in this community ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. Could I consult with my attorney, sir ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Ostrofsky. I will have to refuse to answer that question, sir, 
on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ostrofsky. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the 
grounds it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

The witness is excused and you may sign your voucher. 
Call 3^our next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Irving Spector, kindly come forward. 

Mr. BucHMAN. The same request, no television. 

Are the cameras off, jSIr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. I understand so. 

Mr. Arens. Please remain standing, Mr. Spector, while the chair- 
man administers an oath to you. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand? Do j'Ou swear 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

]Mr. Spector. I do. 

Mr. BucHMAN. Mr. Chairman, I think that camera there is on. 

The Chairman. You know the rules. I am sure you will comply 
with them. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING SPECTOR, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HAROLD BUCHMAN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Spector. My name is Irving Spector. I live at 4005 Fernhill 
4venue, in Baltimore. I work at the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 931 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Spector, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Spector. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Spector. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Spector. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. BucHMAN. Harold Buchman, 205 Tower Building;, Baltimore 
2, Md. 

Mr. Arexs. "\Alien and where were you born, Mr. Spector ? 

Mr. Spector. Born in Massachusetts in 1915. 

Mr. Arens. I wonder if it would be convenient for you to raise 
your voice a little. 

Mr. Spector. I was born in Massachusetts in 1915. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, please, sir, about your formal education. 

Mr. Spector. I went to public school and to a city college, that is 
not the name of it, you know, a college that is run by the city of 
Chicago, in Chicago, for about a year and a half. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

]\lr. Spector. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Then give us, if you please, sir, just the principal 
employments which you had after you completed your formal educa- 
tion. 

Mr. Spector. The major ones were 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sector. The major ones were employment by the United States 
Government for a period, and then various sales jobs. 

Mr. Arens. Hesitate there, if you please, sir. 

Mr. Spector. Surely. 

Mr. xVrens. What was your emplo^'ment with the United States 
Government ? Give us a brief summary of that. 

Mr. Spector. From approximately the end of 1936 until, I believe 
it was around the midle of 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed by the United States Gov- 
ernment i 

Mr. Spector. I was employed first by the Social Security Board and 
then by the War Department. 

Mr. Arens. Where were vou employed by the Social Security 
Board? 

Mr. Spector. In Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Spector. Clerk of some sort. I don't recall 

Mr. Arens. For how long ^ Approximately. Just your best recol- 
lection, please. 

Mr. Spector. Five or six years. Somewhere in there. 

Mr. Arens. Then where were j'ou employed by the War Depart- 
ment ? 

Mr. Spector. Iii Aberdeen Proving Ground. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be convenient for you to raise your voice ? Wf 
have a little disturbance here. 

Mr. Spector. Would it he convenient for the disturbance to sub- 
side? 



932 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell iis- 



Mr. Spector. Abeideen Proving Ground. 

Mr. Arexs. In what capacity were yon employed in Aberdeen ? 

Mr. Speotok. Assistant engineering aide, I believe, or computer, or 
something along those lines. 

Mr. Arexs. During what period of time were you employed there? 

Mr. Spector. From approximately 1941 — this is, you know, give 
or take a year — until 1940 — the middle of 1946 or thereabouts, exclud- 
ing a year in the service, 

Mr. Arexs. "When were you in the service? 

Mr. Spector. P'rom 1045 to 1946. 

]Mr. Arexs. What precipitated your disassociation from the em- 
ployment at Aberdeen Proving Ground ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. I refuse to answer that question under the fifth amend- 
ment, which gives me the privilege of not testifying against myself. 

Mr. Arexs. You were dismissed for security reasons, were you not, 
Mr. Spector? 

Mr. Spector. The same answer as previously. 

Mr. Arexs. AVhat was your employment immediately after vour 
disassociation from the Aberdeen Proving Ground employment? 

Mr. Spector. There were a number of very short periods of em- 
ployment in dift'erent places, and it would be difficult to place them. 

Mr. Arex^s. Could you give us- 



Mr. Spector. The first major one 

Mr. Arex'S. a few of them ? 

Mr. Spector. A few ? 

Mr. Arexs. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Spector. I believe I worked for a shirt company as bookkeeper 
for a few months. And for a radio parts sales outfit as a salesman for 
a short period. And then I worked for a hat company as a salesman 
for a period. 

Mr. Akens. Then when was your next principal employment and 
where ? 

Mr. Spector. My next principal employment was at Bethlehem 
Steel Co. 

Mr. Akens. That began when, please, sir ? 

Mr. Spector. Four years ago. 

Mr. Arexs. Have 3'ou been continuously employed ever since? 

Mr. Spector. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to the labor organization that is oper- 
ating there at Bethlehem ? 

Mr. Spector. I don't follow you. 

Mr. Aeens. Do you belong to local 2610 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. I will have to take the same privilege I did pre- 
viously. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that last outstanding principal ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Spector. I took the privilege of the fifth amenchnent on that, 
sir. 

The Chairman. Wliat criminal prosecution do you think you 
would be confronted with if you would admit that you were a mem- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 933 

ber of a local of the SWOC, a very reputable labor organization? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. I will have to take the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment in the answer. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to display to you now, please, sir, an 
exhibit. It is called the Educator of local 2610, United States of 
America, AFL-CIO of June 1956. On page 11 of this publication, 
appears a picture of I. Spector, S-p-e-c-t-o-r, who is identified in this 
publication as a shop steward. 

Kindly look at that publication and tell this committee, or be 
good enough to identify the photograph as that of your own. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel, and examined document.) 

Mr. Spector. It looks like a picture of me, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Could you help us a little further? Is the identi- 
fication accurate under the photograph of you as a shop steward 
there ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. I will take the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. Are you a shop steward ? 

Mr. Spector. Same answer; the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. What crime do you think you could be charged with 
if you admitted you were a shop steward ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

The Chairman. What crime is that ? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. Spector. I will have to take the fifth amendment on that. 

The Chairman. No, you don't have to. 

Mr. Spector. Well, I take the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. You mean by that that you invoke the privilege of 
the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Spector. I invoke the fifth-amendment privilege. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest this document which I have 
been showing to the witness be appropriately marked and incorporated 
by reference in the record. 

The Chairman. It will be so incorporated. 

(Document marked "Spector Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I would like to direct your attention to a photostatic 
reproduction of a Declaration of Appointee, bearing the signature of 
Irving Spector, in which the applicant is making application for em- 
ployment at the Aberdeen (Aid.) Proving Ground. And in this 
declaration, immediately preceding the signature, is a question: 

Are you a member of any Communist or German Bund organization or any 
political party or organization which advocates the overthrow of our consti- 
tutional form of government in the United States, or do you have membership 
in or any affiliation with any group, association, or organization which advo- 
cates, or lends support to any organization or movement advocating, the over- 
throw of our constitutional form of government in the United States? 

And there is a blank space for a "Yes" or "No" answer. And "No" 
is filled in. 

Then immediately after that is the following : 

If so, name the organization and give complete details on sheet to be at- 
tached hereto. 



934 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

If you please, sir, while you are under oath kindly look at this 
document with particular reference to the signature and tell this 
committee whether or not that is a true and correct reproduction of a 
document signed by you on the date specified. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel and examined document.) 

Mr. Spector. I will take the privilege of the fifth amendment on 
that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is that your your signature on this document? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write "No" on this document, the copy of 
which I have in my hand ? 

Mr. Spector. Same answer, sir. 

(Document marked "Spector Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
signed this document soliciting employment at the Aberdeen Proving 
Ground ? 

Mr. Spector. Same answer as previously. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Spector, as a witness you shall be entitled, at the 
conclusion of your testimony, to a witness fee. So that there will be 
no possible suggestion of entrapment here, I want to ask you if you 
will now, while you are under oath, sign the voucher so that there 
may be a comparison of your signature with the signature on the 
document which I now hold in my hand. If so, I invite you now to 
sign the document. 

Mr. BucHMAN. Has his testimony been concluded ? 

Mr. Arens. No, it has not. I am asking him now if he would accom- 
modate the Committee on Un-American Activities by signing his pay 
voucher now. 

Mr. BuciiMAN. We prefer to sign at conclusion of the testimony. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Witness, would you kindly answer the question? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. I will be willing to sign that at the conclusion of the 
testimony. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien you applied for your employment at Bethlehem 
Steel Corp., did you tell Bethlehem Steel about your previous employ- 
ment at the Aberdeen Proving Ground ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 935 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

Mr. Spector. To the best of my recollection, I wasn't asked about 
it, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you now, please, sir, a photo- 
static reproduction of the application for employment at Bethlehem 
Steel Corp., bearing your signature, on the reverse side of which the 
applicant is requested to list previous employments. 

Kindly look at that document and tell us, first of all, whether or 
not that is a true and correct copy of the original document, bearing 
your signature, when you applied for employment at the Bethlehem 
Steel Corp. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. I will refuse — oh, I will have to refuse to answer 
that on the previously stated grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you see anywhere on that document, Mr. Spector, 
any allusion or reference to previous employment by the applicant 
with the Aberdeen Proving Ground ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. No, it is not there, apparently. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at the time make known to the people at Beth- 
lehem the fact of your previous employment at Aberdeen Proving 
Ground ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. I will take the privilege under the fifth amendment, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not you notified the Bethlehem Steel Corp. of 
your previous employment at Aberdeen Proving Ground, you would 
be supplying information which might be used against you in a crimi- 
nal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. It might. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the docu- 
ment wdiich I have displayed to him, the application for employment 
at the Bethlehem Steel Corp., be incorporated in this record. 

The Chairman. That will be incorporated. 



936 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 
(Document marked "Spector Exhibit No. 3," follows :) 

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Mr. Arens. While you were at Aberdeen Pr(jviiig Ground, were 
you under the discipline and control of the Comnumist Party? 

Mr, Spector. I will invoke the fifth amendment as previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently a subscriber to Masses and Main- 
stream ? 

Mr. Spector. Same answer as previously. 

Mr. Arens. "What is your present address ? 

Mr. Spector. 4005 Fernhill. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Spector, this morning Clitl'ord Miller took an oath 
before this committee and testified tliat, as a member of the Com- 



938 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

niunist Party, he knew you as a Communist. We want to give you 
an opportunity now, while you are under oath, to deny it. 

Mr. Spectok. I will invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Miller, would you kindly stand there? 

Will you please accommodate us, Mr. Spector, by looking over your 
left shoulder? You will see Mr. Miller there. Do you know that 
man who is standing there ? 

Mr. Spector. I will invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

The Chairman. What is the nature of your present employment? 

Mr. Speotor. I do maintenance work. 

The Chairman. Maintenance of what? 

Mr. Spector. Electrical maintenance. I work on parts of cranes. 

Mr. McIntosh. What was the nature of your assignment at Aber- 
deen Proving Ground during the war? 

Mr. Spector. I previously stated that I was employed there as a 
computer or assistant engineer, to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. McIntosh. What projects specifically, if you recall, did you 
work on during that period? 

Mr. Spector. I coulcbi't recall. It had something to do with 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. SpECTOit. To tlie best of my memory, I did certain computa- 
tions for ballistics data that was needed for range — for firing pro- 
grams that went on down there. 

Mr. McIntosh. Wliat was your assignment during the period you 
were in service? 

Mr. Spector. I was in the Navy. I was in the ETM, electronics 
technician mate, I w^as being trained for. 

The Chairman. Where were you stationed ? 

Mr. Spector. I was in various schools during the period. In Michi- 
gan — no, Indiana, Illinois, Gulfport. 

Mr. McIntosh. Did you have any field duty of any sort. ? 

Mr. Spector. I can't hear you. 

Mr. McIntosh. Were you ever assigned to operational units? 

Mr. Spector. No, the war ended while I was still in the school. I 
was discharged while still in school. 

Mr. INIclNTOSH. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Spector, I would like to display to you now a clip- 
ping from the Washington Evening Star of July 26, 1946, with refer- 
ence to the discharge of a number of people from the Aberdeen Proving 
Ground by the War Department on the ground that they were mem- 
bers of the Communist Party. According to this article, these people 
categorically denied in sworn statements that they liave ever been, 
or now are, members of the Communist Party. 

I lay this before you purely for the purpose of refreshing your recol- 
lection, and ask you if you have a recollection of issuing a statement 
on that date indicated in the article in the Evening Star, that you 
were not then, and never had been, a member of the Communist Party. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you issue such a statement on the date indicated 
in the article ? 

Mr. Spector. I invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

(Document marked "Spector Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 939 

Mr. Aeexs. You weren't before a congressional committee or sub- 
jected to an oath at tliat time, were you, Mr. Spector? 

(The witness conferred with his counseL) 

]\Ir. Arens. Are you now a Communist ? 

Mr. Spector. I will invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Abe Kotelcliuck, 
K-o-t-e-l-c-h-u-c-k ? 

Mr. Spector. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Was there any one who was disassociated from the 
Aberdeen Proving Ground at the same time you were disassociated 
from the Aberdeen Proving Ground '. 

Mr. Spector. I invoke the same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kotelchuck himself was fired the same time you 
were on security grounds, is that true % 

Mr. Spector. I invoke the same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Phil Weiss, 
W-e-i-s-s ? 

Mr. Spector. I invoke the same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of R. J. Mendel- 
sehn, M-e-n-d-e-1-s-e-h-n ? 

Mr. Spector. I invoke tlie same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. We would like to have you help us now, if you please, 
Mr. Spector. We are trying to develop information to protect the 
security of this Nation. Do you know of an organization called a 
Committee for the Benefit of Screened Seamen '\ 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. I invoke the same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel that if you told this committee 
while you are under oatli, what information you have in your posses- 
sion respecting a Committee for the Benefit of Screened Seamen, you 
would be supplying information which might be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Spector. It might. 

Mr. Arens. Are you acquainted with Jeanette Fino? 

Mr. Spector. I invoke tlie same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Eddie Goforth? 

Mr. Spector. I invoke the same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of an organization dedicated to 
the overthrow of the Government of the United States by force and 
violence % 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. Not as far as I know. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you acquire that knowledge ? 

Mr. Spector. I don't understand your question. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of an organization that is di- 
rected, dominated, and controlled by a foreign power? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Spector. Not as far as I know, not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Spector. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest tliat will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Tlie Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. McIntosh. No questions. 



940 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

The Chairman. The witness is excused, and I suppose you will now 
be willing to affix your signature to a voucher. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
William Wood. 

Please remain standing Avhile the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Wood. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM H. WOOD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

ALAN H. MURRELL 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Wood. William H. Wood, 7219 Martell Avenue, Baltimore, Md. 
I am a steelworker. 

Mr. Arens. And where are you employed, Mr. Wood 'I 

Mr. Wood. I am employed at Bethlehem Steel. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities 'I 

Mr. MuRRELL. Just a moment, my client has requested that his 
appearance here not be televised. 

Mr. Arens. Very well. 

You are appearing today in response to a subpena which was served 
upon you by tlie House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Wood. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And vou are represented by counsel ( 

Mr. Wood. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. MuRRELL. My name is Alan H. Murrell, M-u-r-r-e-1-1. I am a 
member of the Baltimore Bar. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born, please, sir ? 

Mr. Wood. I was born in Boise, Idaho, June 30, 1918. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, just a word about your formal 
education. 

Mr. Wood. I had roughly 2 years, 2i/2 years college and received an 
associate of arts at Boise Junior College, and of course high school 
and grade scliool before that. 

Mr. Arens. And then a thumbnail sketch, please, of your principal 
employments since you have completed your formal education. 

Mr. Wood. Prior to becoming a steelworker, my many employment 
was hard-times itinerant. A month here, two months there, and so 
forth. The only steady job I ever had is my present employment 
with Bethlehem Steel Co., which dates from January, I believe, 1942. 
Not the exact date, I would have to refresh my memory to know. 

Mr. Arens. You have been continuously employed since? 

Mr. Wood. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And have you been continuously employed in the same 
type of work ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 941 

Mr. Wood. No. I mean I — I would not say so. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, the various types of work in 
which you have been engaged. 

Mr. Wood. I liave been a, first, what they called a stoker, I believe, 
a long time ago. Then a mechanical — then after my military service 
which broke into this — mechanical helper, and a crane operator and 
sometimes an extra repairman on a temporary basis. 

Mr. Arens. During what period of time were you in military 
service ? 

Mr. Wood. During the war, from June 1942 to December 1945. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Commmiist Party during 
your military service ? 

Mr. Wood. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
any answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. "\Vliere did you serve in the military service ? 

Mr. Wood. In the United States and in the European theater of 
operations. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? I don't quite understand. In the 
infantry ? 

Mr. Wood. I was an infantryman. I had about 10 months at the 
front in Western Europe, was wounded, and also decorated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently hold any Reserve commission? 

Mr. Wood. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you held a Reserve commission since your disas- 
sociation from the military service, active service ? 

Mr. Wood. I have. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time did you hold a military Re- 
serve commission ? 

Mr, Wood. My — over a period of roughly 7 years, I believe. This is 
not — I w^ould not want to be held to this. I mean without reference 
to dates on the thing. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to a labor organization ? 

Mr. Wood. I do. 

Mr. Arens. What is the name of the labor organization? 

Mr. Wood. I belong to the United Steelworkers of America, local 
2610. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held a post or office in the labor or- 
ganization. United Steelworkers ? 

Mr. Wood. I was once a shop steward. 

Mr. Arens, When was that, please, sir? 

Mr. Wood. Around 8, 10 years ago. I don't know the exact date. 

Mr. Arens. You do not presently hold such a post? 

Mr. Wood. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Mary Mark- 
ward? 

Mr. Wood. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
an}'^ answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mary Markward testified before this committee that 
she knew you as a Communist. Was she lying or was she telling the 
truth? 

Mr. Wood. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
any answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wood, this morning Mr. Clifford Miller took an 
oath before this committee and said that he was a member of the 



942 COlMMUlSriST activities in the BALTIMORE, MD,, AREA 

Communist Party, working under cover to serve his Government, 
and that, while he has been a member of the Communist Party, he has 
known you as a Communist. We want to give you an opportunity 
now, while you are under oath, to deny it. Would you care to do so ? 

Mr. Wood. I do not. 

Mr. Aeens. Was Mr. Miller lying or was he telling the truth when 
he identified you as a person known by him to a certainty to be a 
member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Wood. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
any answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Clifford Miller ? 

Mr. Wood. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
any answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arexs. We would like to display to you now a photostatic 
reproduction of an article appearing in the Daily Worker of New 
York, Monday, November 1, 1948.'' The article is entitled "The 
Heroes of Yesterday Speak Up Today," attacking those who are 
engaged in the type of work in which we are presently engaged here. 
And calling upon the President of the United States, the then Pres- 
ident of the United States, to cause the indictments against the 12 
Communist leaders to be dismissed. 

This is signed by a number of persons who identified themselves as 
a veterans' group, and calls for preparation for a "National Con- 
ference of A'eteran Groups." Among those whose names appear here, 
is the name of William H. Wood, of Baltimore, Md. Would you 
kindly look at that exhibit while I display it to you and tell this 
connnittee while you are under oath whether or not you lent your 
name consciously to that enterprise ? 

(The witness examined the document.) 

Mr. Wood. I refuse to answer that question on the gi'ounds that 
any answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arexs. I respectfully suggest, jSIr. Chairman, that this docu- 
ment be marked as an exhibit and be incorporated in the record by 
reference. 

The Chair:man. That may be marked and so incorporated. 

(Document marked "Wood Exhibit No. 1," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Wood, I display to you a document which 
has already been identified in this record this morning. The head- 
ing of this document is "District Discussion Bulletin, On the First 
Draft — Trade Union Resolution." Kindly look at this document, if 
you please, sir, and tell this committee whether or not you have ever 
seen that document before or the original, of which that is a photo- 
stat. 

(The witness examined the document.) 

Mr. Wood. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
any answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

(Document previously designated "Miller Exhibit No. 1," retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact that you participated in the preparation of this docu- 
ment at the behest of, and for the purpose of facilitating the work of, 
the Communist Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 943 

Mr. Wood. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
any answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the man who preceded you to the wit- 
ness stand ? 

]\Ir. Wood. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
any answer I miglit give might tend to incriminate me. 

yh\ Arens. Do you know the man who preceded him to the witness 
stand, Aaron Ostrof slvy ? 

]Mr. Wood. I hkewise refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that any answer 1 might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Wood, this committee is trying to develop factual 
information which the committee can use in the furtherance of its 
overall duties to develop legislation and for other purposes to pro- 
tect the security of this country, principally agamst the Communist 
conspiracy. Do you presently have information respecting the opera- 
tion of the Communist Party in the Baltimore area? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wood. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
any answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

^Ir. Arens. Just so the record is clear — I am not too vivid — are 
you at this moment a Comnuniist? 

Mr. Wood, I refuse to answer that question on the ground that any 
answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. McIntosh. No questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused from further hearmg under 
the subpena and may collect his witness fee. 

We will take a short recess. 

(Brief recess.) 

The Chairman. Call your next witness, Mr. Arens. 

(Committee members present: Representatives Walter and Mcin- 
tosh.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Le^^ Williamson. I am not certain of the pro- 
mniciation. Please come forward and remain standing while the 
chairman administers an oath to you. 

Mr. Williamson. I make a request that I not be televised. 

The Chairman. Would you raise your voice. I cannot hear you. 

Mr. Williamson. I would like to request not to be televised or my 
testimony carried over any public-address system. 

Mr. Arens. Very well. Please remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Williamson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LEVY WILLIAMSON. ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
CHARLES P. HOWAED, JE., AND LLEWELLYN W. WOOLFOED 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 



944 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Williamson. Mj name is Levy Williamson. I live at 2729 
Mura Street. Occupation, steelworker, Bethlehem Steel, Sparrows 
Point. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing here today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Williamson. I am. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by comisel ? 

Mr. Williamson. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you each kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Howard. Yes. I am attorney Charles P. Howard, ,Tr., mem- 
ber of the Monumental Bar Association. 

Mr. WooLFORD. I am Llewellyn W. Woolford, member of the Mon- 
umental Bar Association. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and when were you born ? 

Mr. Williamson. I was born in South Carolina, June 5, 1915. 

Mr. Arens. And just a word about your education. 

Mr. Williamson. I went to school and was promoted to the sixth 
grade, which I never did enter back on. I only finished fifth-grade 
education. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at Bethlehem Steel ? 

Mr. Williamson. To my correct recollection, I think it is about 18 
years, the 4th of October coming. 

Mr. Arens. 'V^^iat jobs have you held during these last 18 years ? 

Mr. Williamson. One. 

Mr. Arens. And what is that specifically ? 

Mr. WiLLLiAMSON. A ladle liner. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Steelworkers local at Bethle- 
hem Steel, Sparrows Point? 

Mr. Williamson. I claim the privilege of the fifth amendment and 
refuse to answer that question on the grounds it may tend to incrim- 
inate me. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest the witness be ordered and di- 
rected to answer that question, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question whether 
or not you are a member of a labor union. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Williamson. I claim the protection of the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. Do you honestly feel that if you answered that 
question you would be subjected to a criminal prosecution? 

Mr. Williamson. I also claim the protection of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

The Chairman. What crime do you think you would be guilty of 
if you admitted you belonged to a labor union ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Williamson. I refuse to answer that question on the ground 
that anything I say might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. "Who is Jesse Reed ? '\'\^io was he ? 

Mr. Williamson. I claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You were chairman of the Jesse Eeed Committee, were 
you not, some few years ago ? 

Mr. Williamson. I still claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be convenient for you to keep your voice up 
a little, please ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 945 

Mr. WiiiLiAMSON. I will try. 

Mr. Arens. What groups do you belong to besides, or in addition 
to, the labor organization? Any groups, clubs, or organizations of 
any kind ? 

Mr. Williamson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any groups that you can tell us 
about without disclosing information that could be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Williamson. I will claim the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio is Dundalk Turner? Can you help us on that? 

Mr. Williamson. I refuse on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You were a member of the Dundalk Turner Club of 
the Communist Party for some years, were you not ? 

INIr. Williamson. I claim the privilege of the fifth amendment 
and refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Clifford Miller ? 

Mr. Williamson. 1 also claim the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly keep your voice up a little? 

Mr. Williamson. I said I also claim the privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Clifford Miller this morning identified you as a Com- 
nmuist. He did so wliile he was under oath. We would like to 
give you an opportunity now to deny it while you are under oath. 
Would you care to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

Mr. Williamson. No. 

Mr. Arens. Was Clifford Miller lying when he said this morning 
that he knew you as a Communist, or was Clifford Miller telling the 
truth? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Williamson. 1 claim the protection of the fifth amenchnent 
and refuse to answer that question. It may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever made known to your fellow workers 
out there at Bethlehem that you are a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Williamson. I also claim the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the man who preceded you to the witness 
stand, who just sat there before you did? Can you help us on that? 

Mr. Williamson. 1 also claim the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. How about Aaron Ostrof sky ? Could you help us on 
that? 

Mr. Williamson. I also claim the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. This committee is trying to develop information re- 
specting the Communist conspiracy. Do you have any information 
on the Communist conspiracy here in I^altimore? 

Mr. Williamson. I claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you at this moment a member of the Communist 
conspiracy ? 

92360— 57— pt. 1 5 



946 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

iNIi'. Williamson. I also claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr, Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chair^ian. Any questions? 

Mr. McIxTosH. No questions. 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arexs. Joseph Henderson, kindly come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you remain standing and raise your right 
hand. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Henderson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH P. HENDERSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, WILLIAM H. MURPHY 

Mr. Ari':ns. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Henderson. My name is Joseph P. Henderson, 725 North 
Avondale Road. Steelworker, currently employed by Bethlehem Steel 
Co., Sparrows Point. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mr. Henderson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Henderson. Yes. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Murphy. William H. Murphy, 14 East Pleasant Street. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at Bethlehem Steel ? 

Mr. Henderson. Approximately 8 years. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Henderson. Laborer. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to your 
employment at Bethlehem Steel ? 

Mr. Henderson. With Rustless Iron & Steel, or American Rolling 
Mills Co. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mr. Henderson. I don't know the address. It is near Biddle Street 
and Edison Highway. 

Mr. Arens. In the Baltimore area? 

Mr. Henderson. In the Baltimore area. 

Mr. Arens, How long were you employed there ? 

Mr. Henderson. Approximately 8 or 9 months. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity, please? 

Mr. Henderson. Laborer, or let's see — an annealer's helper. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately prior to that 
employment ? 

Mr. Henderson. I was for a time employed by the Progressive 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that ? 

Mr. Henderson. The offices were in the 

Mr. Aeens. Was that here in Baltimore? 

Mr. Henderson. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 947 

Mr. Arexs. In what capacity were you employed by the Progres- 
sive Party? 

Mr. Hexdersox. As an organizer. 

Mr. xVrexs. ^Yho employed you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Air. Henderson. What do you mean who employed me ? 

Mr. Arens. You had someone who employed you, did you not? 

(The witness confererd with his counsel.) 

Mr. Henderson. I would invoke the fifth amendment. I decline to 
answer that question. 

iSIr. Arens. Were you a member of the Progressive Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Henderson. I invoke the fifth amendment and decline to 
answer. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you were a member of the Progressive 
Party, were you likewise a member of some other party ? 

Mr. Henderson. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
that any answer I give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work as an organizer for the Pro- 
gressive Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Arens. Your best recollection, approximately. 

Mr. Henderson. A few months. I don't know. Six months, pos- 
sibly more, possibly less. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to a labor organization now ? Do you 
belong to this Steelworkers local at Bethlehem Steel ? 

Mr. Henderson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And have you ever held any office or post in that or- 
ganization ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Henderson. I ran for the office of shop steward but was never 
certified so, therefore. I never actually held an office. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever lield an office in a labor organization? 

Mr. Henderson. May I confer ? 

Mr. Arens. Surely. 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Henderson. I Avish to invoke the fifth amendment and decline 
to answer that. 

]Mr. Arens. Have you ever been an international representative for 
a labor organization ? 

Mr. Henderson. I decline to answer that on the grounds that any 
answer I gave might tend to incriminate me. 

]\Ir. Arens. Would it be convenient for you to keep your voice up 
a little, ]:)lease. Would you kindly repeat your answer to the question. 

Mr. Henderson. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
tliat any answer I gave might tend to incriminate me. 

]\Ir. Arens. ^^Hiy weren't you certified as a shop steward? Could 
you help us on that ? 

Mr. Henderson. Here again I decline to answer on the grounds that 
any answer I gave might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. I have in my hand a photostatic reproduction of the 
AVorker of Sunday May 25,"^ 1947 (p. 9). The heading is "550 T^nion 



948 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Officials Assail 'Red Hunt.' '" It is an attack against the Committee 
on ITn-American Activities. It says among other things : 

Every American has the right to membership and activity in a political 
party which functions fully w^ithin the Constitution. If American Communists 
are denied the right to political activity, employment and all the basic American 
freedoms, then the entire labor and progressive movement of the Nation is faced 
with repression, discrimination, and defeat. 

The aim of the House Committee on Un-American Activities is not security 
for our Nation and freedom from fear. This committee aims to create fear, 
doubt, and suspicion and thus to shatter the unity of American trade unions 
and progre.ssives generally. 

In the name of hunting Communists the committee is seeking their basic free- 
doms — freedom of speech and religion, freedom from involuntary servitude 
through abrogation of the right to strike. 

We oppose red-baiting and the baiting of any minority groups. 

We take our stand against the perversion of constitutional government — the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

We call on all trade unions and progressives to unite, to defeat this program 
of reaction. 

Here is a list of those persons who joined in this statement, and 
we see the name of Joseph Henderson, international representative, 
Baltimore. 

I should like to display this to you, if you please, and ask you if you 
would be good enough to tell us whether or not that refreshes your 
recollection as to your participation in that statement. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Could you help us on that, please ? 

Mr. Henderson. I claim the privilege and invoke the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Does this statement which I just read truly and ac- 
curately reflect your sentiments ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Henderson. I take the privilege and decline to answer that 
question on the grounds that any answer I gave might tend to in- 
criminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the exhibit 
which I have just displayed to the witness be appropriately marked 
and incorporated by reference in this record. 

The Chairman. That may be incorporated. 

(Document marked "Henderson Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Were you directed by the Communist Party to come to 
the Baltimore area to obtain employment? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Henderson. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
that any answer I gave might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. This morning Clifford Miller testified under oath that 
he knew you as a Communist. We would like to afford you the op- 
portunity to deny it while you are under oath. Would you care to 
avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

Mr. Henderson. Here again, I decline to answer on the grounds 
that any answer I gave might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Was Miller lying or was he telling the truth when he 
said he knew you as a Communist ? 

Mr. Henderson. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Civil Rights Con- 
gress? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 949 

Mr. Henderson. I decline to answer on the grounds that any answer 
I gave might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the person who preceded you to the wit- 
ness stand ? 

Mr. Henderson. I decline to answer on the ground that any answer 
I gave might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. That will conclude the staff interrogation of this wit- 
ness. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. McIntosh. No questions. 

The Chairman. Where did you live before you came to Baltimore ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Henderson. Washington, D. C. 

The Chairman. Of what organizations were you a member when 
you were in Washington ? 

Mr. Henderson. I decline to answer on the grounds that any answer 
I gave might tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. What work did you do in Washington ? 

Mr. Henderson. I refuse to answer on the ground that any answer 
I gave might tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. I am asking you now wliere you were employed in 
Washington. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Henderson. I refuse to answer on the grounds that any answer 
I gave might tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. All right. You are excused from your subpena. 

You may call your next witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Benjamin Fino, F-i-n-o. 

Mr. Fino, please remain standing while the chairman administers 
an oath to you. 

Mr. Murphy. My client desires not to have his testimony televised. 

Mr. Arens. Very well. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand. Do you swear 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Fino. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BENJAMIN M. FINO, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

KARL F. BIENER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Fino. My name is Benjamin M. Fino. I live at 3105 Mondaw- 
min Avenue, Baltimore 16. And right now I am a steelworker by 
necessity. 

Mr. Arens. AA'liei-e are vou eiiii)lov(Hl I \ doirl believe vou told us 
that. 

Mr. Fino. S})arrows Point. 

Mr. Arens. Bethlehem Steel 'I 

Mr. Fino. Right. 

Mr. Arens. Is it Feeno or Fino ? 

Mr. Fino. It is either way, it can be Feeno or Fino. 



92360— 57— pt. 1 6 



950 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena wliicli 
was served upon yon by the House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities ? 

Mr. Find. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel? 

Mr. FiNo. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. BiENER. My name is Karl F. Biener. I am a member of the 
Baltimore bar. 

Mr. Arens. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. FiNO. I was born in Texas, May 24, 1915. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about your education. 

Mr. FiNO. I went through high*^ school, and I went to Texas Uni- 
versity. I have a B. S. in mining engineering. 

Mr. Arens. You have a bachelor of science in mining and metal- 
lurgy, is that right % 

Mr. FiNo. jSIining engineering. 

Mr, Arens. And that is the University of Texas % 

Mr. FiNo. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education ? 

Mr. FiNO. I had a course in Washington, a night course in chemistry. 

Mr. Arens. Washington, D. C, or the State of Washington ? 

Mr. Find. Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your course at Texas University 
for which you received a degree in engineering, mining engineering ? 

Mr. Find. 1940. 

Mr. Arens. Now, kindly give us the principal employments which 
you have had since you completed your education in 1940. 

Mr. Find. Well, I worked down in Mexico for about a year. 

Mr. Arens. A^-liere did you work in Mexico ? 

Mr. Find. Contra Estaca, Sinaloa, 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in English what that is. 

Mr. Find. That is the name of the town. 

Mr. Arens. Where w^ere you employed in the town ? 

Mr. Find. In the mine, of course. Naturally. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed there ? 

Mr. Find. I worked there about a year. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment ? 

Mr. Find. Next employment was at the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Mr. Arens. That is for the United States Government? 

Mr. Find. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Beginning when ? 

Mr. Find. I don't know the precise date. 

Mr. Arens. Your best recollection. We are not going to hold you 
to it too precisely. 

Mr. Find. About IMarch, let's see, March 1941, I think it was. 

Mr. Arens. And where was that ? 

Mr. FiNO. In Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. How did you procure tliat employment, do you recall? 

INIr. FiNO. Civil service examination. 

Mr. Arens. '\'\niat did you do in Washington, D. C. ? 

Mr. Find. I was an engineering draftsman. 

Mr. Arens. "\^niere were vou emploj^ed ? 

Mr. FiNO. Department of Commerce. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 951 

Mr. AnENS. Who was your immediate superior ? 

Mr. Find. I don't recall. We had so many feuds around there, 
they changed bosses so often. 

Mr. Arens. Was your employment with the United States Govern- 
ment suggested, facilitated, or directed in any manner by any person 
known by you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Find. I needed a job, that is all. 

Mr. Arens. Did any Communist have anything to do with procure- 
ment of this employment in the United States Government? 

Mr. FiNO. I had to take an examination for it, anyway. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Find. I had to take an examination for the employment. 

Mr. Arens. Did any Communist suggest to you that you take the 
examination ? 

Mr. FiNO. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Did any Communist have anything to do whatsoever 
with your procurement of that employment to your knowledge? 

Mr. Find. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. How^ long did you work there ? 

Mr. FiNO. I worked tliere until December 6 of that year, of 1941. 

Mr. Arens. Then what happened ? 

Mr. Find. Well, anotlier department offered me a better job, and 
I couldn't resign. I liad to go through a lot of red tape to get the 
other job. 

Mr. Arens. What other job was that, in what other department? 

Mr. FiNO. I think it was the Geological Survey offered me a much 
better job, and I couldn't accept it because tliey wouldn't release me 
where I worked. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your employment with United 
States Geodetic Survey, did you have access to confidential or re- 
stricted information ? 

Mr. Find. I guess I did. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of tlie confidential or restricted 
information to which you had access ? 

Mr. FiNO. You draw maps. I mean everything is, all the infor- 
mation, for that matter. 

Mr. Arens. Was it confidential, restricted, security information? 

Mr. FiNo. Well 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Find. Would you explain it carefully? Everything is confi- 
dential in Washington, for that matter. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in the course of your employment with the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey make available to any 
person not authorized by law to receive the same, any confidential or 
security information ? 

Mr. FiNO. I hardly knew anybody in Washington at tlie time. 

Mr. Arens. Just answer the question, ])lease. Did you during the 
course of your 

Mr. FiNO. No ; of course not. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. What was your next employment after 
your 

Mr. FiNO. I quit there and went to work in a mine down in Mexico 
for about 3 months with the Anaconda Copper Co. 



952 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Akens. AVas the disassociation of your employment with the 
United States Government wholly and purely voluntary on your 
part? 

Mr. Find. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment? 

Mr. FiNo. I worked with Anaconda Copper Co. as mining engineer 
for 3 months. I got a wire from the Navy Department who offered me 
a better job, so I quit there and came back to Washington. 

Mr. Arens. Had you had an application pending at the Navy for 
this better job? 

Mr. FiNo. I had applications all over the country. I didn't care 
where I worked. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your employment in this mining 
work, prior to the time that you got this job in the Navy, were you 
associated in any way with the International Union of Mine, Mill, and 
Smelter Workers? 

Mr. FiNo. I don't think engineers belong to unions. Not to my 
knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Were you associated in any way with that organization? 

Mr. Find. No ; not that I know of. 

Mr. Arens. "iVliere was this next job, with the Navy ? 

Mr. Find. Navy Hydrographic Office. 

Mr. Arens. I couldn't hear you. 

Mr. FiNO. Navy Hydrographic Office. 

Mr. Arens. In Washington? 

Mr. Fino. In Washington. 

Mr. Arens. Did you take the job ? 

Mr. FiNo. Sure. 

Mr. Arens. ^AHiat did you do ? 

Mr. FiNo, Same thing I did before, except I got more pay for it. 

Mr. Arens. AYliat period of time did this commence ? 

Mr. FiNo. Let me see. About 1943, I think. The summer of 1942. 

Mr. Arens. Was the material with which you were working classi- 
fied? 

Mr. FiNO. As I said before, everything is confidential in Washington. 

Mr. Arens. Was this particular material classified ? 

Mr. Find. Sure, everything is on secrecy. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question. 

Mr. FiNO. Everything is. 

Mr. Arens. Was this particular material with which you were work- 
ing classified ? 

Mr. FiNo. Definitely ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed at this establishment ? 

Mr. FiNO. Until I decided to join the service. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien was that? 

Mr. FiNo. I volunteered, I think it was June or July of 1943 I joined 
the Army, and then volunteered into paratroops and went overseas 
and served in the Philippines and New Guinea. 

Mr. Arens. When did you leave the service ? 

Mr. FiNO. When they discharged me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a commission ? 

Mr. FiNo. No. I was just a private. 

Mr. Arens. In the infantry ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 953 

Mr. FiNO. In the engineer battalion, paratroop engineer battalion. 
Demolition squad. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the period of service in the Military Establishment of this Govern- 
ment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fixo. Not to my knowledge. 

]Mr. Arens. Had j^ou been a member of the Communist Party prior 
to your entrance into the Military Establishment? 

Mr. FiNO. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. Now, pick us up in the chronology of your 
life, if you please, in 1943. When were you discharged from the 
military ? 

Mr. FiNo. In 1946 I was discharged. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. 1946. 

What was your lirst employment after you were discharged ? 

Mr. Find. I went to work right away. Because I didn't have any 
money. I went to work for the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Mr. Arens. Where ? 

Mr. FiNO. We had a job traveling all over the country, all along 
the coastline on the eastern seashore. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you work? 

Mr. FiNO. I was a surveyor if you want to call it that. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you maintain that employment ? 

Mr. FiNO. I maintained it for about a year. 

Mr. Arens. And then what happened ? 

Mr. FiNO. I got tired of traveling back and forth. Every time you 
survey an area, you have to move and you never make friends. You 
never get acquainted with anybody. 

Mr. Arens. What were you surveying ? 

Mr. FiNO. Shoreline survey. 

Mr. Arens. Was your work confidential or restricted? 

Mr. Find. I don't think so. Everybody — we got the information 
from a lot of cities like Baltimore — ^I mean Philadelphia, they fur- 
nished all the information to anybod}- that wanted it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you prepare maps as a result of your work ? 

Mr. FiNO. We didn't actuall}- draw the maps. We just took down 
the notes, the information. Someone else prepared it. 

Mr. Arens. The work you were doing was not restricted or confi- 
dential, is that correct? 

Mr. FiNO. No. 

Mr, xIrens. What happened in 1947 if anything ? 

Mr. FiNO. I quit down there and I got a job. I came here to Balti- 
more to look around for a job. 

Mr. Arens. What caused you to come to Baltimore ? 

Mr. FiNO. I was unemployed. 

Mr. Arens. How did you happen to select this particular town? 

Mr. FiNO. Well, I happened to know a girl here or so. That is the 
reason I came to this town. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Then what did you do from the stand- 
point of trying to procure employment ? 

Mr. Find. I looked around for several jobs, and things were pretty 
slow here. 

Mr. Arens. This was in 1947 ? 



954 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., ARE4 

Mr. FiNo. That is right. I made several applications, and things 
looked dead. The war was over. There wasn't any work around 
here. I finally got a job at Sparrows Point. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been continuously employed at Sparrows 
Point since 1947 ? 

Mr. Find. That is right. I worked 10 years. I think I missed 
about a week in 10 years' time. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the organizations that you have become affiliated 
Avith since your arrival here in Baltimore to look for work. 

Mr. FiNO. I am a member of the union, that is about all. 

Mr. Arens. Is that all ? 

Mr. FiNO. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Is that tlie only organization of which you have been 
a member in the course of the last few years ? 

Mr. FiNO. To the best of my 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. FiNo. I invoke my privilege to the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any organization that you belong to other than 
this union you mentioned a moment ago ? 

Mr. FiNo. I invoke my privilege to the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you held any post or office in the union? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. FiNo. No. No, I haven't. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
were doing this survey work on the coast for the United States Gov- 
ernment ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. In the 1946 and 1947 period. 

Mr. FiNO. I will invoke my privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you wore the uniform of this country during the period of your 
service in the Army? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. FiNO. I think I answered that question previously. 

Mr. Arens. Then answer it again, please, sir. 

Mr. Find, Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party any time 
from the day of your discharge by the United States Army until 
the day of your acquisition of this employment that took yon to the 
west coast with the 

Mr. FiNO. Not the west coast ; the east coast. 

Mr. Arens. East coast with this map work for the Government? 

Mr. Find. State your question again slowly, please. 

Mr. Arens. You have told us a moment ago that you had no 
knowledge of Communist Party membership during the period of 
your service in the military. That is correct, is it not? 

Mr. FiNO. That is correct. Excuse me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you join the Communist Party, or were you a 
Communist, at any time after your discharge from the Army and 
before you acquired this job with the United States Government in 
this surveying work ? 

Mr. FiNO. I am sorry. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. FiNO. Not to my knowledge. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 955 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time prior to your entrance into the military service ? 

Mr. Find. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Comnuinist Party at any 
time in your life prior to the time that you arrived here in this com- 
munity in Baltimore to solicit employment? 

Mr. FiNO. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you held any office or post in the labor organiza- 
tion out at Sparrows Point ? 

Mr. Find. No. My time is very limited for any kind of activity. 
I travel 50 miles to work, and that doesn't leave time for any kind 
of activity. 

Mr. Arens. Was your time so limited that you didn't have a little 
time to spare for the National Committee to Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case ? Were you able to find a little time for that activity ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. FiNo. I invoke my privilege to the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Was your time so limited that you could not participate 
in the formation and control of the Progressive Party here? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Find. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Was your time so limited that you could not participate 
in the work of the Labor Youth League here 2 

Mr. Find. The same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Was your time so limited that you could not partici- 
pate in the work of the Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mr. FiNO. Same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Was your time so limited tliat you could not partici- 
pate in the work of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. FiNO. Same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Irving Kandel? Do you know him? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Find. Same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. He taught classes, Communist Party classes, in your 
home, did he not ? 

Mr. Find. Is that so ? Same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. INIr. Fino, this morning Clifford Miller testified before 
this committee while lie was under oath that he knew you as a Com- 
munist. We Avould like to give you an opportunity now to deny it 
w^hile you are under oath. Would you care to avail yourself of that 
opportunity ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Find. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Has your time been so limited that you have not been 
able to participate in the Baltimore Freedom of the Press Committee? 

Mr. Fino. The same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Was Miller lying or was he telling the truth tliis morn- 
ing w^hen he took an oath iind identified you as a person known by 
him, to a certainty, to be a member of the Connnunist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Fino. Fifth amendment. 



956 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Look over your left shoulder, if you please, and you 
will see Mr. INIiller standing. Will you kindly stand, Mr. Miller? 
Do you know that man standing there? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. FiNO. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Mr. Mcintosh? 

Mr. McIntosh. You have answered the question, Mr. Fino, re- 
garding your Communist affiliations at various periods with the an- 
swer that you were not to your knowledge. Does that mean no ? Or 
does that mean yes ? Or what does it mean ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Find. That is right. As far as I know, I wasn't a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. McIntosh. Do you suggest that it is possible to be a member 
without knowing it ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. McIntosh. Is it possible to be a member without knowing that 
you are a member ? 

Mr. Find. That could be a bare possibility, too, I mean. But I 
invoke the fiftli amendment. 

Mr. McIntosii. That is all. No further questions. 

The Chairman. There were witnesses subpenaed for this after- 
noon from whom we anticipated we would get a little cooperation, 
and they were excused, so all subpenas returnable for today are return- 
able tomorrow. 

That will conclude tlie hearing today. We will convene tomorrow 
morning at 10 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 3 : 05 p. m., Tuesday, May 7, the hearing Avas re- 
cessed, to reconvene at 10 a. m. Wednesday, May 8, 1957.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
BALTIMORE, MD., AREA— PART I 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 8, 1957 

United States House of Kepresentatives, 

Subcommittee or the 
Committee of Un-Americ;ax Activities, 

Baltimore, Md. 

PUBLIC HExVKlXG 

The subcoiiuuittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursiumt to recess, at 10 a. m., in room 556, Federal Building, 
Baltimore, Md., Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter 
of Pennsjdvania (chairman), and Robert J. Mcintosh of Michigan. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, director ; George C. Williams 
and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

The CiiAiRMAX. The subcommittee will be in order. Mr. Arens, 
will you call your witness I 

Mr. Arens. Sirkka Lee, kindly come forward. 

I believe it is Mrs. Sirkka Lee. Would you kindly remain standing- 
while the chairman administers an oath to you ? 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God i 

Mrs. Lee. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MES. SIEKKA TUOMI LEE, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ALAN H. MUERELL 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself b}" name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mrs. Lee. My name is Sirkka Tuomi Lee. That is spelled 
S-i-r-k-k-a. My middle name is T-u-o-m-i. The last name doesn't need 
any spelling ; it is Lee, L-e-e. 

Mr. Arens. Your residence? 

Mrs. Lee. 808 South Umbra Street, Baltimore 24, ^Nld. 

Mr. Arens. Your occupation, pleased 

Mrs. Lee. I am a secretary. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mrs. Lee. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel? 

Mrs. Lee. Yes. 

]\Ir. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself ? 

957 



958 COAIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. MuRRELL. I am Alan H. Murrell, member of the Baltimore 
bar. 

Mr. Arens. ]Mrs. Lee, for the purpose of identification, are you the 
wife of Bob Lee, Eobert Lee ? 

Mrs. Lee. Excuse me one minute, please. 

(The witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Arexs. Where are you employed, please? 

Mrs. Lee. I always wait for the laughs to die down. 

I am employed at Eastern Stainless Steel Corp., Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Arens. You are employed there as a secretary ? 

Mrs. Lee. Yes, indeed. 

Mr, Arens. How long have you been so employed, please ? 

Mrs. Lee. I have been there now for 41/0 years, 

Mr. Arens. "What was your employment immediately prior to your 
present employment ? 

Mrs. Lee. Excuse me 1 minute ; I want to make sure I understand 
that, to have everything correct. 

The Chairman. Just to the best of your recollection. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. For 1 month prior to when I went to Stainless Steel, I 
was employed as a secretary at the Progressive Party office for the 
1952 elections. Prior to that 

Mr. Arens. Who engaged you at the Progressive Party ? 

Mrs. Lee. Mr. Arens, I must refuse, or I will refuse, to answer that 
question on the basis that any answer I might give might tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Let us see if we understand you correctly. 

You feel that if you told this committee who employed you, you 
might be confronted with a criminal prosecution ? 

Mrs. Lee. I must answer that the same way; and I will answer that 
sir. I refuse to answer that question on the basis that any answer I 
give might tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Lee. I beg your pardon ? 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer that question. 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Lee. Senator Walter, you direct I answer the question. Al- 
though I dislike doing this in general, it was public information that 
the head of the Progressive Party at that particular time was INIr. 
Milton Bates ; and he employed me to do office work. 

Mr. Arens. What was your permanent or significant employment 
prior to your present employment ? 

Mrs. Lee, My permanent ? 

Mr, Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Lee. Prior to this, you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Lee, Eight, Well, I was — I worked for Mr, Paul Berman, an 
attorney, for 8 months prior to that, as a secretary also. 

Mrs. Arens. Was that in Baltimore ? 

Mrs. Lee. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment prior to that employment ? 

Mrs, Lee, I was at Lever Bros, Co,, also as a stenographer. I 



COMMUNIST ACTRITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 959 

worked in the stenographic pool. I was there for approximately 18 
months. 

Mr. Akens. Do you recall the employment immediately preceding 
your employment at Lever Bros. ? 

Mrs. Lee. I was in New York prior to that, you see. And I came 
to Baltimore in September of 1950, and for a month I worked for an 
attorney, but I can't remember his name. It was not even a month. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment in New York prior to 
September 1950 ? 

Mrs. Lee. Could I sort of interject my schooling there? Maybe 
that will explain what I did in New York. 

Mr. Arens. Surely. 

Mrs. Lee. I have always been very much interested in tlie theater. 
As a matter of fact, I studied at the Peabody here under Mrs. Born- 
shein, dramatics. I joined the Army, the Women's Auxiliary Corps 
in 1943, in June. I was in the Arni}^ for 2 years and 3 months. I 
served overseas 18 months. 

Mr. Arexs. Where did jou serve in the WACs ? 

Mrs. Lee. In tliis country I served at Daytona Beach, in the train- 
ing center, as a secretary. And then also at Charleston, S. C, port 
of debarkation. You know, when the wounded GIs came back. By 
that time I would also give monologues to GIs, programs, socials, and 
so on. 

Mr. Arens. May I interject this question, please? What was the 
period of your service in the WACs ? 

Mrs. Lee. Now, that was, I actually enlisted in June of 1943, and I 
was discharged honorably in October of 1945. 

Mr. Arens. During the period of your service in the WACs, were 
you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Lee. Excuse me I minute. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Arens, on the basis 
that any answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you, if you please, certain 
documents. The first is a letter to the editor of the Baltimore Sun, 
dated January 29, 1953, which is signed by Sirkka Tuomi, in which 
the author attacks the McCarran-Walter Act and, among other things, 
expresses a personal opinion that this law is the most infamous intro- 
duced and adopted in our land. 

I should like first of all, if you please, to display this letter 
to you and ask you if you will be good enough to verify the authen- 
ticity of the letter as a letter sent by yourself to the paper? 

Mr. MuRRELL. You do not contend that is a letter, do you ? I un- 
derstood that was the basis on which you offered it. It appears to 
me to be a clipping from a newspaper, a photostatic copy of a clipping 
from a newspaper. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
now be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

The document is a reproduction, as is evident. It says here, "To 
the Editor of the Evening Sun — Sir," and is signed by Sirkka Tuomi. 

Will you kindly look at this document and tell this committee 
whether or not you will verify the authenticity of this document as a 
true and correct copy of a letter you sent to the editor of the Sun ? 

Mrs. Lee. Excuse me 1 minute. I want to make sure. 



960 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

(The witness conferred with her connseL) 

Mrs. Lee. Yes, I did : and, by the way, I think that if eA^ery Ameri- 
can feels that he would like to express himself where there are open 
forums, such as the Evening Sun, which I think is wonderful and 
most democratic, I think he should. This is in regard to anything. 

(Document marked "I^e Exhibit No. 1," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the time 
you dispatched this letter to this publication, this paper here in 
Baltimore ? 

Mrs. Lee. I refuse to answer that question, Mr. Arens, on the basis 
that any answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Was this letter you sent, in furtherance of any 
responsibility, duty, or direction which you had as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. I refuse to answer that question, also, sir, on the basis 
that any answer I give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. I should like, if you please, to display to you still an- 
other letter to the editor, appearing in the Baltimore Sun, dated April 
20, 1957, bearing the signature of Mrs. Sirkka Tuomi Lee. 

Mrs. Lee. Sirkka, please. 

Mr. Arens. I am sorry, Sirkka Tuomi Lee. 

Will you kindly look at this thermof ax reproduction of this news- 
paper article and accommodate the conmiittee, if you please, by telling 
us whether or not that is a true and correct reproduction of a letter 
sent by yourself to the editor of the Baltimore Sun for publication? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. Yes, indeed. As you can see, I take my duty, as well as 
my privilege, as an American citizen to speak up where I feel there 
is an injustice. 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 2," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly speak up now and tell this committee 
whether or not you are presently a Communist ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. That was a good delivery. I desire to, and I will, claim 
that any answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. I see in this letter which you dispatched to the editor 
of the Baltimore Sun, an appeal for people to join certain groups, 
various civic, social, religious, and the like. 

Would you kindly tell us now the civic and social groups to which 
you belong in furtherance of the objective which you pronounce in 
this letter? 

Mrs. Lee. '\'\^iat is the objective which I pronounced in that letter, 
sir? 

Mr. Arens. The objective which you pronounced in the letter, as I 
recited a moment ago, is for people to join civic and religious and 
social groups in the community. So I am, therefore, asking you, if 
you please, ma'am, the specific social, civic, or religious groups of 
which you are currently a member. 

Mr. Lee. Excuse me. I want to be sure I understand this. Could 
I see that letter again because it is in one paragraph, it is out of 
context. 



COMMUKIST ACTIVITIES IK THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 96l 

Mr. Arens. Certainly. I invite 3"our attention specifically, if you 
please, to the last paragraph in the letter. 

Mrs. Lee. I just want to be sure. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. Could I read this letter out loud, the wliole tiling ? 

Mr. Arexs. Well, it is a little long. 

Mrs. Lee. It will help, I will read fast, please. 

Mr. Arens. All right. 

Mrs. Lee. Because my idea — I was trying to get across is some- 
thing which I think is pretty good. 

Mr. Arens. First may I just ask this : Were you a Communist when 
you wrote that letter? 

Mrs. Lee. Before I answer that, could I read this, please ? 

The Chairman. Will you answer the question, please ? 

Mrs. Lee. All right. Senator Walter. 

The Chairman. Please do not call me Senator. 

Mrs. Lee. You are Representative Walter? 

The Chairman. Mr. Walter. 

Mrs. Lee. I wrote this letter in regard to a letter that appeared in 
the Sunday paper. I said : 

Sir : Mr. Frederick Friese's letter to the Sun on retirement is very interesting 
and certainly can provoke a lot of discussion. 

Due to better diet, improved medical care, living and working conditions, more 
people are I'eaching retirement age and living many years beyond that. This is 
truly wonderful because man, after a productive life, should be able to have his 
rest and enjoy this world. 

However, there are a certain number of factors which enter into the picture 
and the one which concerns many ijeople who would like to (but cannot afford 
to) retire is the low rate of social security paid out, as an average. Quite a 
few people who are now retiring lost everything they had during the depression, 
and since social security wasn't in existence until 1936, they aren't in as good 
a position as a person who starts his payments when first beginning work. So 
from the economic angle, there is a problem. 

I agi-ee with INlr. Friese in regard to hobbies — however, a great many who 
are now retiring worked 15 and 16 hours a day in their youth before unions estab- 
lished the 8-hour working day. They barely existed with the low wages, and after 
a long, hard day were not able to come home and develop a hobby. 

It is a difficult matter for an older person to pick up a hobby, and he should 
have guidance and help. Perhaps it would be a good idea if one of our govern- 
ments (Federal, State, or city) would have special agencies devoted to assisting 
people prior to, as well as after, retirement to find different subjects of interest 
and be given the feeling they aren't being thrown on the heap, discarded, because 
they are old and are not considered productive any longer. Perhaps part-time 
work, similar to a hobby of some type, could be found for retired people — its 
purpose being two-fold: to let them work for money (self-respect is involved 
here) and let them know they belong and are needed. 

When people work in civic groups, church organizations, PTA's, scouts, "Y's," 
?tc., they are truly not only performing a service to the fuutre, but they are 
helping themselves by keeping an interest in the world about us. This is some- 
•^hing which older people could continue doing in moderation. 

Mr. Arens. Do 3'ou belong to the PTA ? 

Mrs. Lee. I regret to say I have no children and I love children, 
but I can^t — well, I could. 

Mr. Arens. I mean the social groups or community groups of which 
you are currently a member, if you please. 

Mrs. Lee. Social and community groups? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Lee. I belong to the international center of the YAVCA. 

Mr. Arens. How lono- have vou belono-ed to that oro-anization ? 



962 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mrs. Lee. About 3 years. My interests are primarily cultural. 

Mr. Arens. Have you made known to your associates and comem- 
bers of your organization any affiliation which you may have with the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Lee. Excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. I refuse to answer that question on the basis that any 
answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Was your membership in that organization to which 
you have just alluded stimulated or suggested by any person known 
by you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Lee. By any person known by me to be a member ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. I refuse to answer that question on the basis that any 
answer I give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly proceed to tell us of any other organi- 
zation of which you are a member or with which you are allied ? 

Mrs. Lee. Excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. I belong to an organization which is strictly cultural and 
fraternal and that is the Finnish group in Highlandtown. My main 
interest there, actually, ^Ir. Arens — you might want to know this — 
is to try to work with the young people, to try to develop some kind 
of center for them. We have plays. I direct Christmas plays and, 
generally, summer plays for the children. These are generally the 
grandchildren of the older people. I try to sort of preserve an inter- 
est in different cultural groups. We have different folk dances and 
so on. 

Mr. Arens. How many children do you liave under your super- 
vision or who are in your custody in this program ? 

Mrs. Lee. I have a teen-ager group. It fluctuates. 

Mr. Arens. Approximately the number. I don't mean to be too 
specific here, if you please. 

Mrs. Lee. I would say, off' and on, I have directed children per- 
haps about 40 or so that have been in different musicals. 

Mr. Arens. Do you teach them anything besides dramatics? 

Mrs. Lee. No, sir ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you made known to their parents whether or not 
you are a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. I refuse to answer that question on the basis that any 
answer I give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Is this a nationality group organization you spoke of, 
I believe you said Finnish group ? 

Mrs. Lee. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Has it at any time been connected with the Interna- 
tional Workers Order ? 

Mrs. Lee. The group itself, you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. The organization. Has it at any time been connected 
with the International Workers Order ? 

Mrs. Lee. I refuse to answer that question on the basis that any 
answer I jjive might tend to incriminate me. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD,, AREA 963 

Mr. Arexs. Does this nationality group organization ^vitll which 
you are connected import into the Ttnited States literature of any 
kind? 

Mrs. Lee. This particular organization import literature ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; or does it receive literature from abroad ? 

Mrs. Lee. Which country from abroad '. "Would you be specific ? 

Mr. Arexs. You just tell me first of all. if you please, ma'am, if it 
does receive literature from abroad and then we will proceed from 
there. Let us take first things first. 

Mrs. Lee. I know that individuals are interested in getting records, 
dance records, from Finland; but it is not a specific policy of any 
organization. I know that some people get books, you know, novels. 

Mr. Arens. From what countries ? 

Mrs. Lee. Sometimes the relatives send them to them. Now, this 
is to the best of my knowledge. I don't know everybody. Like 
they will send to a relatiA'e or they will see something advertised in 
the Finnish newspaper, and they are interested and curious to see 
what goes on over there although that is not their main interest. 

Mr. Arens. I don't want to embarrass you by asking your age, but 
you are a native-born citizen, are you not ? 

Mrs. Lee. I am not ashamed of my age. 

Mr. Arens. You were born in the United States ? 

Mrs. Lee. Yes ; I was born in Minnesota. 

Mr. Arens. But you have Finnish ancestors, ties in Finland? 

Mrs. Lee. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arens, may I ask, is Baltimore one of the 
ports to which Communist propaganda is sent ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir; a very significant quantity of Communist 
propaganda from the Iron Curtain bloc arrives at the port of Balti- 
more. 

The Chairman. In significant quantity ? 

]\Ir. Arens. Yes, sir; and our investigation, as I believe the dis- 
tinguished chairman knows, disclosed that vast quantities of foreign 
Communist propaganda arrives in the United States by the ton in 
violation of law. 

Mrs. Lee. That has nothing to do, sir 



Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about another organization in which you 
are active? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

]\Irs. Lee. I will put it this way : Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been connected with the Committee to Defeat 
the Smith Act ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Li:e. I refuse to answer that question on the basis that any 
answer I might give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. The Committee to Defeat the Smith Act was a com- 
mittee formed for the purpose of bringing pressure on the Congress, 
was it not, to try to emasculate the provisions of that law which was 
designed to prosecute Communist conspirators? Are you aware of 
the pi'ovisions of the Smith Act ? 

Mrs. Lee. I have read of it ; yes, indeed. 

Mr. Arens. Are you connected, or have you been connected, with 
the American Committee for Protection of Foreicn Born I 



964 COIXOIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mrs. Lee. I refuse to answer that question on the basis that any 
answer I mioht give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Was it the American Committee for Protection of For- 
eign Born that stimuhitecl you to address this communication to the 
editor of the local newspaper attacking the Immigration and Xa- 
tionality Act ? 

Mrs. Lee. "WHiich letter is that ? 

Mr. Arens, The first letter I displayed to you. 

Mrs. Lee. And you are asking if I was told to do it or something like 
that? 

Mr. Arexs. If the information which stimulated you to write this 
article came from the American Committee for Protection of Foreign 
Born. 

Mrs. Lee. Well, sir, I will tell you, I was stimulated to write the 
article by the McCarran- Walter Act. 

jNIr. Arexs. Have you ever read the McCarran-Walter Act ? 

Mrs. Lee. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Arexs. IVliat particular provisions of the Walter-McCarran 
Act were abhorrent to you and caused you to say in your letter it was 
the most infamous law ever introduced in the land ? Can you recall 
the particular provisions which were especially abhorrent to you? 

]Mrs. Lee. Yes ; I can recall some of the provisions which President 
Eisenhower, himself, has found to be most injudicious. 

Mr. Arexs. A^^lat about the provisions which are designed to ex- 
clude the importation of Communists; were those particularly ab- 
horrent to you ? 

Mrs. Lee. Let me }:>ut it this way : The whole act, in my opinion, 
should be rewritten. Tlie (piota provisions were very unfair and 
over 150 organizations tliroughout the country have protested not 
only the quota, but the racial and religious implications of the act. 
Not only that 

The Chairmax. What are the religious implications? There are 
none actually, because religion is not mentioned anywiiere in the law. 
No one is admitted or excluded because of any religious belief or 
connection or affiliation. I have heard that before. That is the usual 
line. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know a person by the name of Mitzi Swan? 

Mrs. Lee. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that any 
an.swer I give might tend to incriminate me, sir. 

Mv. Arexs. Do you know a person by tlie name of Irene Barkaga ? 

Mrs. Lee. I refuse to answ^er that question on tlie grounds that 
any answer I miglit give might tend to incriminate me. 

Mv. Arexs. Miss Barkaga, w^ill j'ou stand up? Mrs. Lee, do you 
know the lady standing over to the left? 

(The witness conferred with lier counsel.) 

Mrs. Lee. I refuse to answer that question on the ground that 
any answer I might give might tend to incriminate .>ne. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staif interrogation of this witness. 

The CiiAiRMAX'. Are there any questions? 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arexs. ISIiss Irene Barkaga, kindly come forward, please. 
Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath to 
you. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 965 

The Chairmax. \\'ill you raise your right liaiid, please? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, tlie whole trutli, and nothing but the truth, so help a'ou 
God? 

Miss Barkaga. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF IRENE BAEKAGA 

Mr. Arens. Kindh^ identify yourself by name, address, and oc- 
cupation. 

Miss Barkaga. My name is Irene Barkaga. I live at 1507 Eastern 
Avenue. I work for Bendix Radio. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Barkaga, will you kindly spell your name? 

Miss Barkaga. It is B-a-r-k-a-g-a. 

Mr. Arens. Mias Barkaga, do you know the lady who is standing 
liere now at tlie clerk's desk ? 

jNIiss Barkaga. Yes ; I do. 

]Mr. Arens. Have you ever served in the Communist Party with 
her ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now, under oath, identify her as a 
l)erson known by jou to be a Communist? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed? 

Miss Barkaga. Bendix Radio. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so emj^loyed? 

Miss Barkaga. I liave been there since July, 1951. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? 

Miss Barkaga. Well 

Mr. Arens. Miss Barkaga, Could you keep your voice up a little 
bit. It is a little difficult to hear you otherwise. 

Miss Barkaga. I work at Bendix Radio, and I work in the shop 
on Government work. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed there? 

Miss Barkaga. Since Jul}', 1951. 

Mr. Arens. Now, tell this committee, have you ever been a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes; I have. 

Mr. Arens. So that the record is absolutely clear at this point, was 
your membership at the suggestion and request of an intelligence 
agency of this Government ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes ; of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been in sympathy with the Communist 
Party or its movement? 

Miss Barkaga. No, never. 

Mr. Arens. You have only been a member of the Communist Party 
for the purpose of procuring information to serve your Government ; 
is that correct? 

Miss Barkaga. That is correct. 

Mr. xVrens. Before we proceed further, and so that our record will 
reflect the chronology of j-our activities in the Communist Party, 
kindly tell us what were the dates of your actual service in the Com- 
munist Party? When did you join and when did you disassociate 
youi'self from the party? 

92360— 57— pt. 1 7 



966 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Miss Barkaga. I joined the party in April of 1952 and I was 
dropped as of July, 1954. 

Mr. Arexs. "Was all of yonr service in the Communist Party in 
the Baltimore area? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Tell us, if you please. Miss Barkaoa, in yonr own 
words, the circumstances which led to your actual joining of the 
party, or, to put it another way, the route you took to finally obtain 
the objective that the intelligence agency had for you to become a 
Communist. 

Mis?i Barkaga. Yes. "\Mien T was requested to try to join the 
Communist Party, I met Avith the suspected Communist Party mem- 
bers, and later I joined organized front groups. 

^Ir. Arens. "WHiat were some of the front groups you joined in 
order to get as close as possible to the party ? 

]Miss Barkaga. I joined the Baltimore Youth for Peace — later, or 
about the same time, a group which I call the "Sewing Group." We 
worked on different things. Those were the first two organizations 
I joined. 

Mr. Areks. Did yoii thereafter become identified or join or become 
active in the Committee To Defeat the Smith Act? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. I attended the meetings. 

]\rr. Arexs. VTlw actually enlisted you in the Comnnmist Party 
and when ? 

Miss Barkaga. On April 1952, Jean Silverberg asked me to join 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arexs. Would you hesitate there, please, aud let us be sure 
this record reflects the correct identification and spelling of this lady's 
name. Is it Jeau ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. And Silverberg. Would you kindly spell that. Is it 
S-i-1 - v-e-r-b-e-r-g ? 

Miss Barkaga. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you know her, and do you now testify under oath 
that you knew her, as a Communist ? 

]\riss Barkaga. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Arexs. During yonr membership in the Communist Party, 
were you assigned to any particular group? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes: thi-ee groups where membership changed with- 
in the periods of membership. 

Mr. Arexs. Let us begin with the first group. Could you tell us, 
first of all, the identity of the group ; what group was it ? 

]\Iiss Barkaga. I don't remember any name. 

Mr. Arexs. It did not have any name ? 

Miss Barkaga. I don't remember any name. . 

Mr. Arexs. Who were the other ])ersons to your certain knowl- 
edge, who were members of this first group or cell of the Communist 
Party to which you were assigned ? 

Miss Barkaga. Well, it was Coriniie Wood, Fred Ilallengren, and 
Jean Silverberg. 

]\Ir. Arexs. Let us be sure we have the correct spellings of those 
names, and the identification absolutely certain. 

Is Jean Silverberg the same lady who recruited you into the Com- 
munist Party and about whom you have already told us? 



COMMUNIST ACTrV'ITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 967 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Corinne Wood. Is that C-o-r-r-i-n-e — W-o-o-d? 

Miss Barkaga. I believe I would spell it with one E, two N's. 

Mr. Arens. And Fred Hallengren, tlie other person you told us 
about who was in this first cell ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Is that H-a-l-l-e-n-g-r-e-n? 

Miss Barkaga. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. Who was the leader of this particular cell to which 
you were first assigned by the Communist Party ? 

Miss Barkaga. I am not sure, but I believe it was Jean Silverberg. 

Mr. Arens. Plow long did you remain in this first group? 

Mss Barkaga. From April 1952 until, I believe, September of 1952. 

Mr. Arens. Where were the meetings held ? 

Miss Barkaga. In members* homes. 

Mr. Arexs. From one home to another ? 

Miss Bark.\ga. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Then what was the next group to which you were 
assigned? I understood you to say a moment ago you were in the 
first group until Sej^tember 1952. 

Miss Barkaga. That is correct. 

Mr, Arexs. Will you tell us about the second group, please? 

Miss Barkaga. Milton Xewman and Mitzi Freishtat Swan were 
brought into our group. 

Mr. Arens. That was the old group merely expanded ? 

Miss Bark.\ga. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Is that M-i-1-t-o-n N-e-w-m-a-n ? 

Miss Barkaga. I think it is. 

Mr. Arexs. This Mitzi Freishtat Swan, M-i-t-z-i; is that correct? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Freishtat; F-r-e-i-s-h-t-a-t-d? 

Miss Barkaga. I don't think it has a D. 

Mr. Arexs. Were the persons who were in the first cell likewise in 
the expanded cell ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. How long did you remain in this second group? 

Miss Barkaga. Until about December of 1952. 

Mr. Arexs. This Mitzi Freishtat was Mitzi Freishtat Swan ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Miss Arexs. S-w-a-n was her married name ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You remained in the second group until December? 

Miss Barkaga. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. What happened in December ? 

]\Iiss Barkaga. Mitzi Swan and I were put into a group with Sirldia 
Tuomi Lee, Kirsten Hallengren, and Joseph Kralik. 

Mr. Arexs. You and Mitzi Swan were put into a group with others ; 
is that correct? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Was the lady who preceded you to the witness stand — 
who has been, and who identified herself as Mrs. Sirkka Tuomi Lee — 
in that group ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. That was a closed Conununity Party cell group ? 



968 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Who were the names of the others again, please ? 

Miss Barkaga. Kirsten Hallengren. 

Mr. Arens. Is that K-i-r-s-t-e-n ? 

Miss Barkaga. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. And Hallengren, H-a-1-l-e-n-g-r-e-n? 

Miss Barkaga. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Who was the last j^erson ? 

Miss Barkaga. Joseph Kralik. 

Mr. Arens. K-r-a-1-i-k ? 

Miss Barkaga. I believe that is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Now, were these the only cells to which you were ac- 
tually attached during your experience in the Communist Party ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now, did you, in addition to your activity and work 
within theses cells, also attend other Communist Party meetings ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about those, in your own words, if you please. 

Miss Barkaga. Well, in December 1952, in January of 1953, I at- 
tended a meeting with Mitzi Swan and Irving Kandel. 

Mr. Arens. You have already told us who Mitzi Swan is. Tell us 
who was, or is, Irving Kandel 'I Is that K-a-n-d-e-1 ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes, 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us who he was. 

Miss Barkaga, I did know who he was before, but I believe he was 
a member of the underground. 

Mr. Arens. What type of meetings were these that you held with 
these two people? 

Miss Barkaga. Underground meetings. 

Mr. Arens. What gave you the impression that they were under- 
ground meetings ? I understood you to say you believed they were. 

Miss Barkaga. When Kandel came to the first meeting, he did not 
give the name; but I recognized him, I had met him before I had 
joined the party. He said he is not living at home ; he is living under 
a diU'erent name, and this is necessary to keep the party from being 
decapitated. 

Mr. Arens. Was that part of the security operation of the party ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall any other security measures which were 
taken by the Communist Party during this period ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. I was told to arrive at a certain time; I 
arrived a little early once and was reprimanded by Mitzi Swan. 

Mr. Arens. Where were these underground meetings held ? 

Miss Barkaga. Mitzi Swan's home. 

Mr. Arens. During your membership in the Community Party, 
did you ever attend a meeting of the Conununist Youth Commission ? 

Miss Barkaga. I am not sure, but I believe it was a meeting of the 
Communist Youth Commission. 

Mr. Arens. What are the facts, as you presently recall them, which 
causes you to reach that conclusion '\ 

Miss Barkaga. I attended this meeting about December 1952, and 
present were George Meyers, head of the Communist Party, and Mitzi 
Swan, Irving Winkler. 

Mr. Arens. W-i-n-k-1-e-r? 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 969 

Miss Barkaga. That is right, and Claire Friedman Round. 

Mr. Arens. What transpired at that meeting ? 

Miss Barkaga. I am afraid I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when was the meeting held ? 

Miss Bark-vga. Around December, 19.52, at Mitzi Swan's home. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall any other security measures which the 
Communist Party ^started during your experience in the party ? 

Miss Barkaga.' Well, we met in small groups. I remember at one 
meeting, Fred Hallengren said ''Comrade" xVbe Kotelchuck. He was 
reprimanded for that," and he changed that to "Brother" Kotelchuck. 

Mr. Arens. You probably heard, did you not, the testimony of 
Clifford Miller yesterday ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr, Arens. Were you present wiien he testified ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Miller in any cell with you ? 

Miss Barkaga. ISTo. 

Mr. Arens. Was he active in any operation in which you were ac- 
tive as a Communist in this very community ? 

Miss Barkaga. I don't think I have ever seen him. 

Mr. Arens. You have never seen him ? 

Miss Barkaga. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, although he was intensively active in 
the Communist Party up until yesterday when he testified — and you 
were active for a period of 2 years in the Communist Party here — 
you have neA^er made the acquaintance of one another ; is that correct ? 

Miss Barkaga, That is correct. 

Mr. Arens, I understood you to say earlier. Miss Barkaga, that you 
disassociated yourself, or were disassociated, from the Communist 
Party in 1954; is that correct? 

Miss Barkaga. That is right. 

Mr. Arens, Can you tell us what happened then? 

Miss Barkaga. Well, in May of 1953, sir, Sirkka Tuomi Lee told 
me that I was being "put on ice" and she would be my contact. 

]Mr. Arens. When she said "put on ice," what is the significance of 
that terminology ? 

jNIiss Barkaga. I wasn't to attend any party meetings. 

Mr. Arens. You were to be a nondisclosed member of the opei'ation ; 
is that correct ? 

Miss Barkaga. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens, Was Mrs, Lee your supei'ior in the Communist Party ? 

Miss Barkaga, I don't know, 1 believe she was, 

Mr. Arens. What did you do when you were put on ice, to use 
the terminology w^hich you phrased here a moment ago ? 

Miss Barkaga. Well, we made appointments and met a few times, 
Init most of the times she made an appointment to see me, but broke the 
appointment or else never showed up. But I didn't do much of 
anything, 

jVIr, Arens. You said earlier that in the route that you took in order 
to become finally, as the ultimate objective, a Communist, you joined a 
number of front groups? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 



970 COJVCMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Are there persons in these various groups in the com- 
munity here whom you know as Communists, or whom you knew as 
Communists ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us some of them. How about the Balti- 
more Youth for Peace? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. Mitzi Swan and Claire Friedman Round 
were members of the Communist Party and active in that group. 

Mr. Arens. Were they active in the leadership of Baltimore Youth 
for Peace ? 

Miss Barkaga. I believe Mitzi Swan was chairman of the Baltimore 
Youth for Peace. 

Mr. Arens. How about the Maryland Peace Council? Did you 
know comrades who were active in positions of leadersliip in the 
Maryland Peace Council ? 

Miss Barkaga. No, I did not. 

Mr. Arens. You mentioned tlie Labor Youth League earlier. Did 
you subsequently determine that certain members of the Labor Youth 
League were also Communist Party members? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. Mitzi Swan and Claire Friedman Eound. 

Mr. Arens. Tliey were in the Labor Youth League ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. I believe Mitzi Swan was chairman also of the 
Labor Youth League. 

Mr. Arens. Did they attend the meetings at the direction of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Barkaga.. I believe so, but I can't say for sure. 

Mr. Arens. You also mentioned a sewing group as I recall. Can 
you give us a little better description of the sewing group with which 
you were connected ? 

Miss Barkaga. As best I can remember, a group of us women got 
together and either made sewing — I made an apron for myself — and 
others were working on other things ; I am not sure, but I believe at 
that time Sirkka was working on some play. 

IMr. Arens. Were there Communist ladies in the sewing group? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes, I believe Sirkka Tuomi and Kirsten Hallen- 
gren. 

Mr. Arens. Was the sewing group a conduit or route into the Com- 
munist Party? 

Miss Barkaga. I think so. 

Mr. Arens. How about the Jesse Reed Committee ? Did you have 
any connection at any time with the Jesse Reed Committee ? 

;^Iiss Barkaga. Yes, I was a member. I had a membership card to 
the Jesse Reed Committee. 

JNIr. Arens. What is the Jesse Reed Committee ? Can vou help us 
on that? 

Miss Barkaga. It is a group organized to help young Negroes con- 
victed of crime around Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. That is what they tell the worhl is the purpose ; is that 
correct ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is it controlled by the Communist Party ? 

Miss Barkaga. I think so. 

Mr. Arens. Who was chairman of the Jesse Reed Committee dur- 
ing your connection with that group ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 971 

Miss Bakkaga, 1 believe it was at one time Levy AVilliainson was 
chairman. 

Mr. AitExs. He was the man who was on the stand yesterday. Did 
you see liim here yesterday ^ 

Miss Barkaga. I wasn't here. 

Mr. Arexs. You were not liere yesterday ? 

Miss Barkaga. Not all day. 

Mr. Arexs. You attended meetings of the Committee to Defeat the 
Smith Act; is that correct? 

Mr. Arexs. Do you recall aii}^ members of the Communist Party, 
comrades known b^' you to be in the party, who were active in the 
Committee To Defeat the Smith Act ? 

^liss Barkaga. No, not actually — persons I know were not actually 
there. Thev were present at this one meeting 1 atterided on the Smith 
Act. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you have in mind, Miss Barkaga, any instances in 
wliich comrades penetrated non-Communist, or even anti-Commu- 
nist, organizations for tlie purpose of promulgating the objectives of 
the Connnunist Party i 

Miss Barkaga. Well, I believe Jean Silverberg and Corinne Wood 
attended the meetings of the League of Women Voters. 

Mr. Arexs. Was tliat at the direction of the Communist Party? 

Miss Barkaga. I can't say for sure. 

Mr. Arexs. But you were under the impression at least that they 
were active in the League of Women Voters ; is that correct ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes, and Corinne Wood and I attended a meeting 
of the PTA of a scliool to which lier children belong. 

Sirkka Tuomi Lee and I and someone else had dinner at the In- 
ternational Y's, a sort of dinner of all nations, something like that. 

And Jean Silverberg and I bowled with the St. Rita's Bowling 
League which was in Dundalk. 

Milton Xewman was active in his group of his housing projects. 

Mr. Arex'S. Would it be convenient for you to raise your voice a 
little more, please ? 

You stated earlier, Miss Barkaga, that j'ou v>-ere employed with 
the Bendix Radio Corp. here in Baltimore ; is that correct? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes. 

Mr. Arex^s. In connection with your employment, are you a mem- 
ber of a labor union ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes; I am. 

Mr. Arex's. Have you ever held an official position in the union? 

ISIiss Barkaga. I was elected shop steward. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you were a shop steward ? 

Miss Barkaga. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Arex's. What was the reaction of tlie party to your election as 
shop steward? 

Miss Barkaga. Sirkka Tuomi Lee told me that the leaders Avere 
pleased to hear I was elected as shop steward. 

Mr. Arexs. Did the Communist Party at any time undertake to 
influence you in yonr activities as a shop steward or witliin tlie lal)or 
union ? 

Miss Barkaga. Well, I was offered a semisalaried job, which meant 
I would have had to drop out of the union; and I told this to Mitzi 



972 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Swan about the time I was meeting with Kandel. She told me not 
to take the job, 

I showed one grievance 1 had written against the supervisor to 
Sirkka Tuomi Lee. She made a few suggestions, but thought it was 
all right. 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge, are there any members of the Com- 
munist Party presently employed at the Bendix Radio Corp. ? 

Miss liAmvAGA. No. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

I should like personally, on behalf of the staif, to thank her because 
slie has been exceedingly nervous. It is the first time slie lias ever 
appeared in public for a presentation of this kind. 

The Chairman. Miss Barkaga, I would like to say to you what I 
said yesterday to Mr. Miller, what you did is not an easy thing. What 
we are doing is very distasteful to ns. 

As elected representatives of the people, it is nauseating to be com- 
pelled to sit here and hear our fellow citizens take refuge behind an 
amendment of the Constitution which is designed to protect people. 

All of us have a job to do, and we hope that the result of our labors 
will be an awareness on the part of all the American people so that 
they, witliout governmental activities, can deal with this problem and 
will deal with it. 

The only reason why there is any signilicant group of Connnunists 
in the United States is because the people have been unwilling to 
throw them out of decent organizations. 

I trust that, as a result of the work which you have been doing, the 
American people will decide that they vrill do something about this 
very serious problem. 

The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

( A short recess was taken. ) 

The Chairman. The committee Avill be in order. Mr. Arens, will 
you call your next witness. 

Mr, Arens. Fred Hallengren, will you come forward? Will you 
please remain standing, Mr. Hallengren, while the chairman adminis- 
ters an oath to you ? 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand. 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Hallengren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Murrell. ]\Ir. Arens, Mr. Hallengren expresses a desire he not 
be televised during the questioning. 

The Chairman. I think the counsel should present his request to 
the Chair. 

Mr. Murrell. I will direct it to you, Mr. Walter. I will repeat 
my request on behalf of Mr. Hallengren that he not be televised dur- 
ing the questioning. 

The Chairman. The television people have been instructed that, in 
the event the witness does not desire to be televised, they will not 
televise him. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 973 

TESTIMONY OF FRED HALLENGREN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

ALAN H. MURRELL 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Hallengrex. I am Fred Hallengren. I reside with my fam- 
ily in our home at 608 Savage Street, Baltimore 24. 

Mr. Arens. And 3^our occupation, if you please ? 

Mr. PIallengren. I am an airplane mechanic. 

Mr. Arens. Where, pleased 

Mr. Hallengren. At Friendship Airport. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, INIr. Hallengren, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Hallengren. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by this committee? 

Mr. Hallengren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Hallengren. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you identify yourself? 

Mr. Murrell. ]\Iy name is Alan H. ]\Iurrell. I am a member of the 
Baltimore Bar. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity are vou employed at Friendship 
Airport? 

Mr. Hallengren. I am an airplane mechanic, an airplane engine 
mechanic. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been so engaged ? 

Mr. Hallengren. That is my entire work. I have always worked 
on airplanes since I come out of school. 

Mr. Arens. How long have 3^ou been engaged at Friendship Air- 
i:)ort ? 

Mr. Hallengren. Since it opened. 

Mr. Arens. For what company are you employed ? 

Mr. Hallengren. I work for Capital Airlines, one of the major air- 
lines in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. How" long has Capital Airlines, with which you are 
employed, been operating there? 

Mr. Hallengren. They have been operating at Friendship Airport 
since the opening day in June 11)50. 

Mr. Arens. What was your emplo3anent immediately preceding 
your present employment? 

Mr. Hallengren. I went to work for Capital Airlines January 
1946, January 8, 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you physically employed prior to the time 
you were employed at Friendship Airport? 

Mr. Hallengren. Well, Capital Airlines was operating at Balti- 
more Municipal Airport at that time in East Baltimore, Harbor Field 
was the name. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged there, please? 

Mr. Hallengren. June 1948, until we moved to Friendship Air- 
port. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly tell us now the employment which 
you had preceding the employment you have just described? 



974 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD,, AREA 

Mr. Hallengken. I was an inspector for Capital Airlines. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that, please? 

Mr. Hallengren. In Washington, D. C. 

Mr, Arexs. The National Airport ? 

Mr. Hallexgrex. That is the Washington National Airport. 

Mr. Arexs. How long were you engaged there as inspector for 
Capital Airlines ? 

Mr. Hallexgrex. Well, I first was hired as an experienced air- 
plane mechanic. At the end of the war, we expanded tremendously, 
as all other airlines did; and we bought a lot of war surplus airplanes 
from the United States Army, and those Army airplanes were built 
for hauling heavy loads — I must explain how this operates because 
you won't understand. 

Mr. Arexs. We are not interested in building this record on that 
particular phase of your knowledge. We are interested, if you please, 
sir, on the dates of your employment. Now, kindly tell us the dates 
of your employment at the National Capital Airport in Washington. 

Mr. Hallexgrex. Washington, D. C, January 8, 1946. 

Mr. Arex^s. What employment preceded that employment? 

Mr. Hallex^grex^. I worked for Trans World, Intercontinental di- 
vision. That is TWA Airlines. 

Mr. Arex'S. "Wliere was that? 

Mr. Hallexgrex^ At Washington Airport. 

iNIr. Arexs. How long did you work for them ? 

Mr. Hallexgrex. Approximately a year and a half. 

Mr. Arexs. All right, sir. Will you kindly tell us now the employ- 
ment which antedated that? 

Mr. Hallex'GRex^ I worked for the Civil Aeronautics Administra- 
tion at Washington National Air])Oi't. 

INIr. Arexs. Did you have a civil-service job? 

Mr. Hallex-^grex. Yes, sir, I did; I had a civil-service job. 

Mv. Arex's. "\^liat was your job? 

Mr. Hallex^grex. I was an airplane and airplane engine mechanic 
for the United States Government. 

Mr. Arexs. How long did you have that employment? 

jNIr. Hallex'^grex. I went to work for the Government about Octo- 
ber 1942. 

Mr. Arexs. It terminated when, please ? 

Mr. Hallengren. It terminated approximately June or July. I 
believe it was July 1944 

Mr. Arexs. Was the termination of your employment occasioned 
by voluntary action on your part, or were you discharged ? 

Mr. Hallex^grex. I was discharged. I was asked to go to Dallas, 
and I did not wish to go to Dallas. So I went to work for TWA. 

Mr. Arens. Was that the sole and exclusive reason why your em- 
ployment with the United States Government was terminated? 

Mr. Hallex^grex. As far as I know. 

Mr. Arex^s. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the period of your service with the Civil Aeronautics Administration 
in Washington ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hallexgrex. I refuse to answer that on the ground my answer 
might tend to incriminate me. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 975 

Mr. Arens. "\^^iere antl when were you born ? 

Mr. Hallengren. I was born October 4, 1908. 

Mr. Arens. l^Tiere, please, sir? 

Mr. Hallengren. At Jamaica, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about your formal education, please, 
sir. 

Mr. Hallengren. I went to school in New York State. Then I 
went to a technical training school in St. Louis, Mo., taking up airplane 
mechanics and airplane engine mechanics. 

]Mr. Arens. "When did you complete that training ? 

Mr. Hallengren. I completed that education in the summer of 
1931. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a sketcli of the employment wliich you had 
before assuming emploj'ment with the Federal Government in 1942. 

Mr. Hallengren. I had to work my apprenticeship to qualify for 
a United States Government license. So I worked 2 years, wherever 
I could, as apprentice and 1 leariied to fly during the same time. Then 
I obtained a position as an airplane mechanic in Newark, N. J. ; and 
many small groups of people organized airlines, and one was organized 
out of our Newark Airport. It was called Central Airlines. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work for Central Airlines ? 

Mr. Hallengren. I went to work for Central Airlines in February 
1935. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Hallengren. I worked for Central Airlines until the end of 
1936. I was contacted by a friend of mine who was working in a 
California airplane factory and he said, "I can get you 6 cents an hour 
more if you come out here, Freddy." 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of the firm witli which you were 
employed ? 

Mr.'HALLENGREN. Consolidated Aircraft Corp. in San Diego, Calif. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed there ? 

Mr. Hallengren. I went to work for them the first of the year in 
1937 until about August 1938. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Hallengren. I went to work for Eastern Air Lines. 

Mr. Arens. Where ? 

Mr. Hallengren. In Washington, D. C, in September, 1938. 

Mr. Arens. I take it during all that employment which you are 
describing, you were engaged in mechanical work for the airlines? 

Mr. Hallengren. Yes, sir; always airplane mechanics work. 

Mr. Arens. You are a licensed Government mechanic? 

Mr. Hallengren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Government ratings? 

Mr. Hallengren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In aircraft engines? 

Mr. Hallengren. Aircraft is one license. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have one in aircraft instruments? 

Mr. Hallengren. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have one in the construction and operation of 
aircraft ? 

Mr. Hallengren. I don't have tlie instructor's permit. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any permit in the construction and oper- 
ation of aircraft? 



976 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Hallengren. No, sir; I just have mechanics. 

Mr. Arens. You have a Government mechanic's permit? 

Mr. Hallengren. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a permit under Government CAA regu- 
lations ? 

Mr. Hallengren. Yes. sir. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you had that permit ? 

Mr. Hallengren. I received that in November 1932. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other permits or licenses from the 
Federal Government ? 

Mr. Hallengren. No, sir; I don't. 

Mr. Arens. You gave us your last employment in this chronology 
of your work. What was the next employment that followed? 

Mr. Hallengren. I went to work for Pan American Airways in 
Baltimore, Md., in 1939. 

Mr. Arens. And your next one, please, sir. 

Mr. Hallengren. I went to work for the United States Govern- 
ment, October 1942. 

Mr. Arens. Is tliat the CAA employment you liave already men- 
tioned? 

Mr. Hallengren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you connected, a member of. or active in, any 
committee in behalf of IMorton Sobeli in the Baltimore area? 

Mr. PIallengren. I refuse to answer that on the ground it might 
tend to intimidate me. 

Mr. Arens. I did not hear you. 

Mr. Hallengren. I refuse to answer that on the grounds that it 
might tend to intimidate me. 

Mr. Arens. You said it might intimidate you? You mean 
incriminate? 

Mr. Hallengren. Incriminate, excuse me. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Morton Sobell ? 

Mr. Hallengren. I refuse to answer that on the ground that my 
answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Just a little while ago, in the course of the last half 
hour or so, a young lady, Miss Irene Barkaga, testified, under oath, 
and said that while she was an undercover agent in the Communist 
Party slie knew you as a Communist. 

We want to give you now, while you are under oath, an opportunity 
to deny it. Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity? 

Mr. Hallengren. I refuse to answer that question on the ground 
my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Are you this minute a member of the Communist con- 
spiratorial apparatus in Baltimore? 

Mr. Hallengren. I refuse to answer that on the grounds my answer 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Sir. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes 'the 
staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness may be excused. Please call your 
next witness. 

Mr. Arens, Mr. George Meyers, kindly come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 



COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 977 

truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 
Mr. Meyers. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF GEOEGE A. MEYERS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FOEER 

Mr. Arexs. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. JSIeyers. My name is George Meyers. I live at 2410 Callow 
Avenue. 

On the question of occupation, I want to say that I consider this 
hearing a violation of the Constitution under the first amendment; 
and I will refuse to answer for that reason. Also, on the basis that 
my rights under the fifth amendment I do not have to testify against 
myself. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, that if you told this 
committee truthfully what your present occupation is, you would be 
supplying information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. IVIeyers. It is possible. 

Mr. Arexs. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties? 

Mr. Meyers. I was told, commanded, to be here. 

Mr. Arexs. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. JVIeyers. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. Will counsel identify himself ? 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, Washington, D. C, 

Mr, Arexs. Mr. Meyers, I intend in this interrogation to confine 
the interrogation exclusively to activities or status by yourself since 
March 24, 1955, on which date, as a matter of public information, 
you were released from the Federal penitentiary for conviction under 
the Smith Act. I should like to display to you, if you please, sir, 
a photostatic reproduction of a document entitled, "Excerpts From 
the 1956 Election Policy Statement Adopted by the National Election 
Conference Held by the Communist Party, USA," in which is set 
forth the body of this statement and at the end of which document 
appears a typed letter, addressed to a resident of Baltimore comment- 
ing upon that statement, bearing the signature "George A. Meyers, 
2419 Callow Avenue, Apartment 5, Baltimore 17, Md." 

Kindly look at this document, if you please, sir, and accommodate 
this committee by telling us whether or not that is a true and correct 
reproduction of a letter prepared, or caused to be prepared, by your- 
self and signed by yourself. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel) 

]Mr. Meyers. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. I just won- 
der how you got the letter. It is a personal letter. 

The Chaiemax. What is the date of that? 

Mr. Arexs. October 11, 1956, is the date, Mr. Chairman. I re- 
spectfully suggest that this document be appropriately marked and 
incorporated in the record. 

The Chairman. The document will be so marked and incorpo- 
rated. 



978 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

(Document marked "Meyers Exhibit No. 1," follows :) 

Meyeks Exhibit No. 1 

Excerpts From the 1956 Election Policy Statement Adopted by the National 
Election Conference Held by the Communist Party, U. S. A. 

Organized labor and its allies have indicated clearly their objectives in this 
election campaign : 

1. To press vigorously on all candidates a program that meets the needs of 
the people. 

2. To take all practical measures to help guarantee the defeat of the Cadillac 
Cabinet, and McCarthyite and Dixiecrat Congressman. 

These objectives will receive the support of workers and progressives. 

It is well known that the Communists have a viewpoint that goes far beyond 
that of most leaders of organized labor. We hold that sooner of later labor and 
its allies must organize politically with far greater independence if they are 
to act effectively against the giant monopolies who dominate the life of the 
Nation. Labor will one day not only have to curb the trusts but organize politi- 
cally so that the trusts become the common property of the American people- — 
that is, organize for socialism. 

But that, however, is not the question of the 1956 election. 

The chief issues which we feel must be advanced for the national welfare 
today are : 

On peace. — End the cold war ; adopt a settled policy of peaceful co-existence 
with Socialist and all other nations, excluding war as a method of settling 
international differences ; strengthen the universal character of the United 
Nations as a peace agency by seating Peoples China and other nations seeking 
U. N. admission ; outlaw atomic war, reduce world armaments by agreements, 
promote world trade, end H-bomb tests and the peacetime draft. 

On civil rights and civil liberties. — Prompt Federal enforcement of the Su- 
preme Court desegregation decision through every channel open to the execu- 
tive ; firm action against those who advocate and practice force and violence 
against the Supreme Court decision ; a legislative program to guarantee full 
political and economic rights to the Negro people. North and South ; end Senate 
filibustering by changing rule 22 ; replace the seniority system of naming con- 
gressional chairmen with a democratic system based on merit ; end the witch 
hunt of the last 10 years, with its congressional inquisitions, loyalty-security 
programs, and the inevitable system of faceless informers ; repeal the Taft- 
Hartley, McCarran and Smith Acts ; end Smith Act prosecutions and extend 
amnesty to all political prisoners. 

On economic security. — A rapid shift from a swollen arms program to a wel- 
fare economy, with increased minimum wages, widened social security and a 
giant school, housing, health and hospital program, legislation to gain farm 
income parity for the family-type farm and an enlarged program for surplus 
food distribution at home and abi-oad ; stop the Federal give-aways of our 
power, agricultural and mineral resources ; legislation to attain the shorter 
workweek with no reduction in pay and guaranties against unemployment due 
to automation ; nationalization of the atomic energy industry. 

>:= * >:= * * « * 

While the Conununist Party makes no endorsement of Presidential candidates, 
its members, whether in trade unions or other civic bodies, will associate them- 
selves with the political efforts of their organization in the struggle against 
big business and its candidates. 

Already the growing strength of the labor, Negro, and farm movements have 
won significant commitments from the major candidates. Irrespective of the 
outcome of the elections, the independent movement of the people will have to 
wage mighty legislative and political struggles for the needs of the people and 
eventually effect a new political alinement in the Nation. 

For, in the last analysis, only struggle, only the unity of labor and its allies 
on issues — before, during, and after election campaigns — can guarantee that 
Deace, security, and democracy can be won. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 979 

Mr. Arens. Now, 1 want to invite your attention, Mr. Meyers, par- 
ticularly to the body of the letter which bears your signature and 
this particular part of the body of the letter: 

The party is going through a real crisis, and frankly speaking, I think it 
was long overdue. The final outcome is yet to be decided. Regardless, I have 
the greatest confidence in the future of our labor movement, and its ability to 
bring about a Socialist America. 

Did you write tliose words, or cause those words to be written, to 
your correspondent I 

(The witness conferred with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Meyers. I refuse to answer on the grounds I previously stated. 

Mr. Arexs. Is a Socialist America your objective? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Meyers. I am a firm advocate of socialism. I think that is 
the best form of government. 

The CuAiRMxYN. Where are you employed, ]\Ir. Meyers? 

Mr. Meyers. Well, I answered that earlier, or rather I refused to 
answer it, Mr. Walter, on the basis of the first and fifth amendment. 

The CiiAiRMAX. You were not trying to create the impression that 
you are employed in anything connected with tlie labor movement, 
were you? 

Mr. Meyers. What do you mean trying to create an impression? 
I am not trying to create an impression for anyone. I came here 
because I was commanded to. 

The Chairman. Subpenaed. 

Mr. Meyers. Commanded, it said on the subpena. What kind of 
language is that? 

Mv. Arens. You say you are a firm advocate of socialism. Are you 
likewise a firm advocate of communism? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Meyers. How do you differentiate? 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arens, ask him : xVre you a Communist ? That 
will simplify the whole thing. Are you a Communist? 

Mr. Mei-ers. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are now head of District 4 of the Communist con- 
spiracy, which encompasses Maryland and the District of Columbia. 

jNIr. Meyers. I am not now, nor have ever been, the head of any 
conspiracy. 

Mr. Arens. Are you, or have you ever been, a member of an organi- 
zation dedicated to the overthrow of the Government of the United 
States by force and violence ? 

Mr. Meyers. Never in my life. 

Mr, Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Meyers. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I observe here in the statement that, among the ob- 
jectives announced by the Communist Party on this document bear- 
ing the letter which was displayed to you, there was : 

End the witch hunt of the last 10 years, with its congressional inquisitions, 
loyalty-security programs, and the inevitable system of faceless informers ; 



980 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

repeal the Taft-Hartley, McCarrau and Siuith Acts ; and Smith Act prosecu- 
tions and extend amnesty to all political prisoners. 

Are these part of your objectives in your work ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Meyers. I would have to have a clarification of the question, 
please. If you mean how I feel about them 

Mr. Aeens. I see here your protest about "faceless informers." 
Did you liear the young lady testify a little wliile ago that she knew 
you as a Communist ? 

Mr. Meters. Yes ; I heard her. 

Mr. Arens. Was she telling the truth ? 

Mr. Meyers. I am going to refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to display to you now a document : 

Please Post TOWN MEETING Panel Discussion. "Are Congressional Investi- 
tions, And The Security Program, A Safeguard Or A Threat To Democracy?" 

This panel discussion, according to this document, is to be held 
May 10, 1957, at 8:30 p. m.. Mount Lebanon Baptist Church, in the 
lecture room, 2320 Eeisterstown Road. 

I observe here that one of the panelists is "George Myers, Com- 
munist Party member, Smith Act defendant." 

Kindly look at that document and tell us whether or not that re- 
freshes your recollection, Avhether or not you participated in that panel 
discussion on the problem of congressional committees and their witch 
hunts? 

Mr. Meyers. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you truthfully and accurately describee! in this 
leaflet as Communist Party member. Smith Act defendant? 

Mr, Meyers. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr, Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this docu- 
ment be appropriately marked and be incorporated by reference in 
the record. 

The Chairman. It may be so marked and incorporated. 

(Document marked "Meyers Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mitee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Could you help this committee, Mr. Meyers, to develop 
facts by which we can protect this country ? Can you tell who is the 
head of the District of Columbia Communist Party ? 

Mr. Meyers. I want to correct or, at least, set certain things 
straight. I am not going to help this committee in any way, shape, 
or form. I consider it an unconstitutional committee, and I have no 
intention of being any kind of friendly witness. 

The Chairman. Why do you not direct the Communist Party to 
test the question of constitutionality of the act of Congress which 
created this committee in the court? Why not go to the Supreme 
Court and find out ? 

Mr. Meyers. I just gave you my opinion. 

Mr. Arens. Now, can you tell us, during the period immediately 
prior to Marcli 24, 1956, who assumed the duty that you had? 

Mr. Meyers. iVssumed the duties I had ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes; in this area. Who was your successor during a 
period immediately prior to March 24, 1956? 

Mr. Meyers. I don't quite follow you. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AKEA 981 

Mr. Arens. Immediately prior to Marcii 24, IDoO, you were not 
in circulation, were you 'i 

Mr. Meyers. I was in prison as a result of a f rameup ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Who assumed your duties during that period when you 
were in prison ? 

Mr. Meters. Duties? What duties? 

Mr. Arens. The duties that you had innnediately prior to the time 
you found yourself in prison. AVho was your successor in that post 
of responsibility which you had ? Could you help us on that ? 

Mr. Meyers. In what capacity ? Duties in what capacity ? 

Mr. Arens. In the full-time occupation in which you were engaged 
innnediately prior to tlie time you f oinid yourself in prison. 

Mr. JMeyers. I am going to refuse to answer on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Irv ing Kandel? 

Mr. Meyers. I refuse to answer to answer on the ground previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of William S. John- 
son? 

Mr. IMeyers. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. He is one of your subordinates in charge of the Com- 
munist Party in the District of Columbia, is he not? 

Mr. Meyers. You have my answer. I refuse to answer on the 
grounds of the first and iif th amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, in the course of the last year or so, at the 
time of tlie Khrushchev speech, taken any change of position with 
reference to Comrade Stalin ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

^Ir. Meyers. How do you mean? What jjoint are you trying to 
make ? 

Mr. Arens. I believe you know. Have you taken a change of posi- 
tion wath reference to Joseph Stalin as a result of the famous Khru- 
shchev speech of desanctification ? 

Mr. Meyers. I am perfectly willing to discuss my opinions, politi- 
cal, personal, and so on, but not under the duress of this committee. 

^Ir. Arens. I liave in my hand a thermofax copy of the Communist 
Worker of Sunday, October 7, 1956, showing a letter to the editor, 
signed George Meyers, 2419 Callow Avenue, Apartment 5, Baltimore 
17, Md. Do vou recall addressing that letter to the editor of the 
Worker? 

Mr, Meyers. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that document be 
appropriately marked and incorporated by reference in the record. 

The Chairman. It may be so marked and incorporated. 

(Document marked "Meyers Exhibit No, 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. What was 3- our position witli refeience to the events in 
Hungary of some several montlis ago? 

Mr. Meyers. As I said ])reviously, I prefer to discuss my opinions, 
but not under tlie duress of tliis connnittee. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person ijy the name of Clifford Miller? 

Mr. JNIeyers. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

]Mr. Arens. Now, he was not a faceless informer. He had a face 
yesterday when he said he knew you as a Communist. Could you tell 

92360 — 57— pt. 1 8 



982 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THP] BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

US whether or not he was being trutliful with this committee when 
he w^as under oath and identified you as one who was currently active 
in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Meyers. I refuse to answer on tlie gromids previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfiilly suggest that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused from further attendance 
at this hearing. 

Mr. Arens. Will Irving Kandel kindly come forward, please. 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God. 

Mr. Kandel. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING KANDEL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Kandel. I believe, as close as I can figure, that those are three 
separate questions. I wonder if you would be good enough, to avoid 
possible confusion, to give your questions one at a time. 

Mr. Arens. Before you do that, do you know the gentleman who 
is standing here at the clerk's desk signing the voucher ? 

Mr, Kandel. Now, which one of these questions do you want me 
to answer first? 

The Chairman. The first question has been withdrawn. You have 
been asked if you know the man who was signing this paper. Do you 
know him? 

Mr. Kandel. There is no man there. 

The Chairman. There he is. Turn around, you will see. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know him ? 

Mr. Kandel. Just a moment, now. I assmne. Congressman Walter, 
that your command "turn around" is your way of asking a question. 

The Chairman. It is not any command. I just thought I would 
refresh your recollection or assist you because the man was standing 
here and moved. Proceed, JNIr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kandel. I wonder if you would mind 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that you, the chair- 
man, direct an order to the witness to answer that question. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Kandel. My name is Irving Knndel. I live in the nine hundred 
block, Brooks Lane. 

Now, you ask me my occupation. I wonder what relevancy this 
question has to the ostensible purpose of this committee. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer the question because I believe this 
question violates my rights under the first amendment, and further, 
I claim my privilege imder the fifth amendment not to be a witness 
against myself. 



CORIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 983 

The Chairman. Do you honestly feel that if yon answered the ques- 
tion as to your occupation you might incriminate yourself ? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kandel. It might. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena served 
upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Kandel. Can we get this out of the way because I find this 
just a bit disturbing? I don't mind the pictures being taken. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Kandel. I received the subpena served by two men. 

Mr. Arens. xVnd you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Kandel. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on this 
record ? 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. You work at the Fisher Brush Machinery Co. in Balti- 
more, do you not ? 

Mr. Kandel. I have already refused to answer a question of that 
kind. I still refuse to answer that question. 

Mr, Arens. I put it to you as a fact that you work at the Fisher 
Brush Machinery Co. in Baltimore, and I ask you now to confirm or 
deny that fact. 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the same ground. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that, if you told this com- 
mitee truthfully while you are under oath whether or not you worked 
at Fisher Brush Machinery Co. in Baltimore, you would be supply- 
ing information which could be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding? 

Mr. Kandel. It might. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Clifford Miller? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously given. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Irene Barkaga? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously given. 

Mr. Arens. Both of these persons in the course of the last day or 
so — Mr. Miller yesterday, and Miss Barkaga today — took an oath and 
identified you as a member of the Communist conspiratorial appa- 
ratus in this community. Were they telling the truth? 

Mr. Kandel, Now, of course, I don't know what they said. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer that question or to invoke his rights 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kandel. I would like an explanation in order to clarify the 
question. What do you mean by those sinister words, Communist 
conspiracy ? 

The Chairman. Let us clear this up. Were you here yesterday? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kandel. No ; I wasn't here yesterday. 

The Chairman. Were you here all morning? 

Mr. Kandel. I responded to a subpena which was served upon 
me, which called on me to be here at 10 a. m., and I was. 



984 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

The Chairman. Did you hear the young lady sitting over there in 
this chair to your left testify this morning ? 

Mr. IvANDEL. Well, I was here. I would not, under oath, say that 
I listened attentivel}'^ to every single word that this person gave here, 
I was here, though. 

The Chairman. Now, I will give you in a word what her testi- 
mony was. She testified to the effect that you were a Communist. 
Was she correct ? 

Mr. IvANDEL. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously given. 

Mr. Arens. You have told us your name is Irving Kandel. How 
do you spell that, please ? 

Mr. I\A.NDEL. I spell it I-r-v-i-n-g. 

Mr. Ap.ens. And your last name ? 

Mr. IvANDEL. K-a-n-d-e-1. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only name you have ever used in your life ? 

Mr. ICandel. To what other name do you make reference? 

Mr. Arens. Have you used any name other than the name Irv- 
ing Kandel ? 

Mr. IvANDEL. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously given. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used the name Henry Eoss ? 

Mr, IvANDEL. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
given. 

Mr. Arens. Are }■ ou a member of a labor organization ? 

Mr. Kandel. I don't know what connection this question has with 
the ostensible purpose of this committee. I don't know what legis- 
lation would be forthcoming. If I belonged, or do not belong, to 
any organization. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the wit- 
ness be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer on the gromid previously given. 

The Chairman. That means that the answer might tend to incrim- 
inate you ? 

Mr. IC\NDEL. It might. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. IvANDEL. In the United States in 1912. 

Mr. Arens. What State? 

Mr. Kandel. New York. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about your education. 

Mr. Kandel. In a word ? 

The Chairman. As many words as you need. 

Mr. Kandel. I will be glad to. I started out by going to grammar 
school, graduated, proceeded from there to junior high school. I went 
through junior high school. It may well be that after that I took 
one or two additional courses, but I can't remember exactly the con- 
sequences. 

The Chairman. Did you take the courses ? We are not concerned 
with the consequences. We are merely asking you whether or not you 
took the courses. 

Mr. Kandel. The consequences I referred to, do with successfully 
completing the course. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you last engage in your formal study ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 985 

Mr. IvANDEL. Well, a man should never stop studying. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us when it was you last were engaged in 
formal study in an institution. 

Mr. IvANDEL. I assume by that you mean a school of some kind? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. IvANDEL. Well, it might be in 1943. 

Mr. Arens. What school was that, please, sir? 

Mr. Kandel. I believe it was a Navy school. As I remember, it 
was a school run by the man by the name of Henry Ford for his com- 
pany and utilized by the United States Navj\ 

Mr. AiiENs. Were you then a member of the United States Navy? 

Mr. Kandel. A member^ 1 was enlisted. I was recruited, drafted. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, please, sir, the period of your service in the 
Navy? 

Mr. IvANDEL. To the best of my knowledge and belief, it was some- 
time during the war, 1943, 1944, 1945 perhaps. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you serve in the Navy ? 

Mr. Kandel. I served wherever they sent me. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere did they send you ? 

Mr. IvANDEL. They first sent me to boot camp. As I remember, 
this place was in the neighborhood of Sampson, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please, sir, and tell us other places 
where you served in the Navy. 

jNIr. Kandel. If my memory does not fail me, I believe I went from 
there by way of Canada to Dearborn, Mich. ; and from that point, to 
the best of my knowledge and belief, I was transferred to Norfolk, 
Va., I believe it is — and from there to San Francisco. From there to 
the Eniwetok group. Well, that was in the Pacific, and it is hard to 
say when you are in the Pacific exactly where you are. 

Mr. Arens. Was all of the period of your active service aboard ves- 
sels in the Pacific ? 

Mr. Kandel. Well, my whole period of service was active. 

Mr. Arens. Was your entire period of service aboard vessels in the 
Pacific? 

Mr. Kandel. No. 

INIr. Arens. Tell us then where else you served. 

Mr. IvANDEL. If I remember the name of the place. I believe it was 
called Tokyo Bay. 

Mr. Arens. Was the entire period of your service aboard vessels 
in the Navy in the Pacific area ? 

]Mr. Kandel. What area do you have in mind when you say Pacific 
area? 

Mr. Arens. Did you serve in the Atlantic ? 

Mr. Kandel. No. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. Did you receive a commission in the 
Navy? 

Mr. Kandel. To do what ? 

Mr. Arens. A commission as a commissioned officer ? 

Mr. Kandel. I was an officer. I was a noncommissioned officer. 

Mr. Arens. What was your rank ? 

The Chairman. Rating. 

Mr. Arens. Your rating ? 

The Chairman. We want to keep this absolutely accurate. 



986 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Kandel. Splendid idea. Accuracy in this committee would 
be a welcome event. I was a machinist mate, repair, third class. 

Mr. Arens. And to complete the picture and to be accurate about 
it all, were you a member of the Communist Party while you were in 
the Navy ? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive an honorable discharge from the Navy ? 

Mr. Kandel. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When was that, please, sir ? 

Mr. Kandel. At the end of my service. 

Mr. Arens. What year was that ? 

Mr. IvANDEL. To the best of my recollection, it was around that 
period of 194G, perhaps. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first principal employment after the 
discharge which you received from the Navy during this period 
around 1946 ? 

Mr. IvANDEL. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. And how long did that employment last ? 

Mr. Kandel. To what emplo3'ment do you make reference? 

Mr. Arens. The employment that you had immediately after your 
discharge from the Navy. 

Mr. Kandel. Have you established that I have employment? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question with regard to 
the employment you do not see fit to talk about. How long did you 
continue in the employment that you will not talk about? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens, Have you had any employment since your discharge 
from the United States Navy until the present time, concerning which 
you can tell this committee without disclosing any information which 
could be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kandel. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Arens. I will say it again. 

Mr. IViVNDEL. Please say it in an understandable way. 

Mr, Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Kandel. I say, will you please state the question in an under- 
standable way ? My point is tliat I don't see any sense in repeating the 
same question that I didn't understand in the first place. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any employment since your discharge 
from the United States Navy until the present time that you can tell 
us about without giving facts which, in your estimation, might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Kandel. Well, I thnik it would be less difficult if you proceeded 
one by one ; and in that way I could examine each particular case on its 
merit rather than making a blanket statement covering a period of 
many years. 

Mr. Arens. Do you now understand the question ? 

Mr. Kandel. I am not sure, but I am trying to indicate a way of 
approaching this matter which would make more sense. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD,, AREA 987 

Mr. Arens. How long did your first employment last after your dis- 
charge from the United States Navy ? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Now, what was your next employment after your first 
employment ? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. And what was your next employment ? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that previous question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Arens. And what was your next employment? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment? 

Mr. Kandel. Have you kept a record? I think I have lost count 
there. 

Mr. Arens. Let us say there are six. We will assume there are six. 

Mr. Kandel. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir, did you have another employment? 
Did you have a seventh employment ? 

Mr, Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

The Chairman. Maybe I could clarify the situation. 

Mr. Kandel. I wish you would, Congressman. 

The Chairman. Yes. I will endeavor to, with one simple little 
question : 

Have you ever done anything since you were discharged from the 
Navy except work for the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kandel. That is about the simplest question I have heard in 
a long time. 

The Chairman. Yes, it is very simple. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kandel. You see, there is a premise in your question, simple 
though it may be. The premise is that I worked for the Communist 
Party. 

The Chairman. Well, have you ? 

Mr. Kandel. Now, you are asking that as a question, have I 
worked for the Communist Party ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

The Chairman. Now, you see, we have clarified the entire situa- 
tion. Go ahead, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Kandel. Well, to the extent it can be clarified, perhaps it has 
been. 

Mr. Arens. I want to display to you a copy of the Communist New 
York Daily Worker, Monday, November 1, 1948, "The Heroes of 
Yesterday Speak Up Today!" World War II veterans demand dis- 
missal of indictments of the Smith Act defendants. 

It is a letter addressed to the then President of the United States 
and to the then Attorney General of the United States urging the 
dismissal of the indictments against the 12 Communist leaders. 

Kindly look at that, if you please, sir. 



988 COMMUNI.ST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mv. Kandel. As soon as my eyes recover their normalcy, I will be 
glad to. 

Mr. Arens. Yon will see on that particular document 

Mr. Kandel. If I read it, I am sure I will see it. 

Mr. Akens. Yon will see, if yon please, sir, on that document a list 
of names of persons who are dispatching that letter, including the 
name of Irving Kandel. Kindly help us, if you please, by verifying 
the authenticity of that document and certifying the participation by 
yourself in that enterprise. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kandel. I am sorry, I was reading or trying to read. I really 
can't. This is a poor — now, would you mind, Mr. Arens, repeating 
your question? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; does that refresh your recollection with reference 
to your participation in that enterprise? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest this document be 
appropriately marked and incorporated by reference in this record. 

Tlie Chairman. It may be so marked and incorpoi-ated. 

(The document previously designated "Wood Exhibit No. 1," 
retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. xA_re yon a member of a labor organization ? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

The Chairman. The committee will recess until 1 : 30. The witness 
will continue under subpena. 

(Thereupon, at 12 : 30 p. m., Wednesday, May 8, 1957, the committee 
was recessed, to reconvene at 1 : 30 p. m., same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, MAY 8, 1957 

The committee recovened at 1 : 30 p. m., upon the expiration of the 
recess. 

The Chairman. The hearing will come to order. 

During the recess the president of local 2610 has delivered to me a 
statement concerning the attitude of the union on these fifth-amend- 
ment witnesses and the j^rocedures that will be employed by the union 
in order to make a complete investigation to determine whether or not 
the people are no longer eligible for membership in the union. 

I hope that those employers in heavy industry will learn some- 
thing from the action taken by the union and also make an inquiry 
into the eligibility of employees for work in sensitive positions, par- 
ticularly in view of the fact that much of the work done in this area 
has to do with national defense. 

The statement reads as follows : 

The constitution of the International Union of the United Steelworkers of 
Amei'ifa says no person shall be eligible for membership or hold any office in 
the international or local union who is a member, consistent supporter, or who 
actively participates in the activities of the Communist Party. 

In view of the recent developments disclosed by the House committee's hear- 
ings in Baltimore on un-American activities, I am inuuediately appointing a 
committee to investigate and prepare charges where there are indications our 
constitution is violated. I also^ intend to instruct my committee to meet with 
Clifford Miller who is a member of mv local to determine the extent of Com- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 989 

munist intiltration iu my organization so that proper safeguards can be taken 
and the general ranks and tile can be advised of any inliltration. The com- 
mittee will also be instructed to determine if the AFL-CIO Co<le of Ethics have 
been violated by members of my local using tlie fifth amendment. 

There is no room in my organization for men who have an allegiance or 
sympathy with a government that is inimical to the i)est interest of the United 
States Government. 

John E. Ruke, 
President, Local 2610, United States of America, AFL-CIO. 

"Will you call your witness, please. 

Mr. xVkens. ]Mr. Kandel, will you kindly resume the witness stand. 

TESTIMONY OF IRVING KANDEL— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Kandel, how long have 3'ou lived at your present 
residence ? 

Mr. Kandel. Rouglily about a year, give or take a month or 2 
months. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us the exact street address, please, sir ? 

Mr. Kandel. 932 Brooks Lane. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you live immediately prior to tlie time that 
you lived at 932 Brooks Lane ? 

Mr. Kandel. I don't see where this question is relevant to the osten- 
sible purpose of this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, 1 respectfully suggest that you direct 
and order the witness to answer the question. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Kandel. Prior to my living at 932 Brooks Lane, I lived at 2400 
Linden Avenue. 

Mr. Arexs. How long did you live there, please, sir 'I 

Mr. Kandel. Now, what connection does this question have 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kandel. Well, roughly as a guess, maybe 18 months. 

Mr. Arens. Then tell us where you lived prior to the time you lived 
at that place. 

Mr. Kandel. Willi? 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Kandel. I say, will I? 

Mr. Arens. If you please, sir. 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on tlie grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

The Chairman. Do I understand you to contend that, if you would 
answer the question as to where you lived, you are fearful j^ou would 
be prosecuted criminally ? 

Mr. Kandel. I did answer the question where I lived. 

Mr. Arens. Let the record be clear. You lived at 932 Brooks Lane 
as of what period? 

Mr. Kandel. Now. 

Mr. Arens. And you told us where you lived immediately prior to 
the time you lived at 932 Brooks Lane ; is that correct? 

Mr. Kandel. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. But you will not tell us where you lived prior to the 
time, the second preceding time ; is that correct ? Where did you live 
in 1952 and 1953? 



990 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly feel if you told this committee truth- 
fully where you lived in 1952 and 1953, you would be supplying infor- 
mation which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Kandel. Well, if I feel anything, ]Mr. Arens, I feel that hon- 
estly I don't know what purpose you have in making excessive use 
of this word "honestly."' Have I any reason to believe that my answers 
have not been honest or that my feelings have not been honest? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
now on the stand be directed to answer the outstanding question. 

The Chairman. The witness wnll answer. 

Mr. Kandel. It is possible. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in 1952 and 1953 live at 940 North Broadway, 
Baltimore ? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

The Chairman. Did you ever live at 940 North Broadway, at any 
time ? 

Mr. Kandel. You have no particular time in mind in your ques- 
tion, as distinguished from the previous question ? 

The Chairman. At any time from this moment to the date of your 
birth, have you ever lived at that address ? 

Mr. Kandel. Congressman, that is a long, long time. 

The Chairman. Well, answer the question. 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I put it as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or deny the 
fact, that during 1952 and 1953, in an underground operation of the 
Communist conspiracy, you lived at 940 North Broadway under the 
alias of Plenry Ross. If that is not the fact, you deny it while you are 
under oath. 

Mr. Kandel. You say you state that as a fact? Do you have some 
supporting evidence ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. You have told us previously about your education. I 
would like you to tell us about any tutoring you have done. Will you 
tell us if, in the course of the last few years, you have been an in- 
structor in any type of classes?- 

Mr. Kandel. What type of class do 3'ou have in mind? 

Mr. Arens. Any type of classes. 

Mr. Kandel. Your question is so broad and general that it becomes 
almost impossible. A casual conversation might be considered by some 
as a class, or any kind of conversation might be considered tutoring. 

The Chairman. Have you ever taught in a Communist school? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Mr. and Mrs. Sam Schmerler? 
S-c-h-m-e-r-1-e-r ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 991 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. You taught Communist Party classes in their home, 
did you not? 

Mr. Kandel. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Did you succeed George Meyers as head of the Com- 
munist Party in District 4 while Meyers was in the penitentiary? 

Mr. Kandel. It seems to me that that is a loaded question. You 
contain in it a statement, a numlier of premises which have not been 
established to my knowledge. 

Mr. McIntosh. Would you care to deny the premises, sir ? Would 
you care to deny, under oath, the premises which you suggest are in the 
question ? 

Mr. Kandel. I don't care to ; no. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this record 
reflect an order to the witness to answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Ivandel. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that concludes the staff inter- 
I'ogation of this Avitness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. Will William Johnson please come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please. 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Johnson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM S. JOHNSON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FOEER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Johnson. William S. Johnson, .500 block of Twenty-fourth 
Street Northeast, Washington, D. C. Occupation, cook. 

Mr. Arens. Where, please ? 

Mr. Johnson. At Cy's Restaurant in Silver Spring. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties? 

Mr. Johnson. Are you asking that question ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Johnson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Johnson. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on the 
record ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any occupation other than the occupation 
as a cook which you liave just announced to the committee? 

Mr. Johnson. Let us see. When you say any otlier occupation, I 
imagine you are referring to other tliinas I have done; is that right? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Johnson. I am a waiter, as well as a cook. That has been the 
principal occupation that I have followed over a number of years, 



992 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD,, AREA 

either waiting, in the form of waiting on table, or director of service 
or cook. 

Mr. Arens. How long liave you been employed in this type of work 
in the Wasliington, D. C., area ? 

Mr. Johnson. For the past 30 years. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of this employment, have you had 
an office or post of responsibility in a labor organization ? 

Mr. Johnson, I did. 

Mr. Arens. What organization was that ? 

Mr. Johnson. The hotel and restaurant employees, I was business 
manager. 

Mr. Arens. "VVliat post did you hold ? 

Mr. Johnson. Business manager. 

Mr. Arens. And over what period of time ? 

Mr. Johnson. Over a period of 10 years. 

Mr. Arens. When were those 10 years ? 

Mr. Johnson. From 1939 untill949. 

Mr. Arens. Did you also hold the post of business agent of AFL 
local 209, Cooks, Pastry Cooks and Kitchen Employees' Union ? 

Mr. Johnson. That is the one I just referred to. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. I was under the impression you 
referred to another one. Is that the only office you have held in a 
labor organization ? 

Mr. Johnson. I was subsequently an assistant organizer and busi- 
ness agent for the waiters' branch of the same general organization, 

Mr. Arens. When was that and where were you located ? 

Mr. Johnson. That was actually in 1939, but the organization I 
referred to as being one general organization, it was divided, that is, 
the cooks and waiters all were one and it was divided in 1941. That 
is the cooks were separated. So the answer I give relative to 1939 
covered this period of being an organizer and assistant business 
agent in 1939 in the said organization. 
"Mr. Arens. Do you know, or have you ever known, a person by the 
name of Mary Markward, M-a-r-k-w-a-r-d ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of my 
rights under the first amendment and my privilege under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mary Stalcup Markward took an oath before this com- 
mittee in 1954. In the course of her testimony, she identified you as a 
person known by her to have been a member of the Communist Party. 
Was Mary Markward in error ? 

Mr. Johnson, I refuse to answer the question for the same reason. 

Mr. AiiENS. Do you know a person, or have you known a person, by 
the name of Henry Thomas ? 

Mr, Johnson. I refuse to answer the question for the same reason 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Thomas likewise testified under oath before this 
committee that he knew you as a member of the Communist Party. 
Do you care, while you are under oath, to deny his assertion ? 

Mr, Johnson, No, I don't care to deny it, 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Thomas in error, or was he accurate, in his 
designation of you as a person known by him to be a Communist ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer the question for the same reasons 
stated previously. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE^ MD., AREA 993 

Mr. Arens. Do j'oii know, or have you known, a person by the name 
of Dorothy P^unn, F-u-n-n? 

Mr. JoHxsox. i refuse to answer the question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Aeexs. Dorothy Funn took an oath before this committee and 
identified you as a member of the Connnunist Party. Was she m 
error, or was she accurate, in her description of j'ou ? 

Mr. JoHxsoN. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason 
stated previously. 

Mr. Arens. My associate on the staff, Mr. Williams, is going to 
display to you certain documents. The first document we have is an 
article in the Communist Worker of Sunday, August 29, 1948, "The 
First Line of Defense," Statement by Xegro Americans to the Presi- 
dent and Attorney General of the United States, protesting the activ- 
ities of the Committee on Un-American Activities to frighten people, 
to intimidate progressive organizations and the like. 

That statement of protest is signed by a number of people, includ- 
ing, according to the article, William S. Johnson. Kindly look at that 
aiticle and tell this committee, while you are under oath, whether or 
not that refreshes your recollection and whether or not you con- 
sciously lent your name to the endorsement of that statement. 

Mr. Jonxsox. I refuse to answer the question for the same reasons 
stated previously. 

(Document marked "Johnson Exhibit Xo. 1,"' and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. We are going to display to you, if you please, from 
the Washington Post of May 18, 19-18, an advertisement attacking the 
Atundt bill then pending in the House of Representatives. The bill 
wliich subsequently became the Internal Security Act of 1950. This 
j)rotest which appeared in the Washington Post is simied by a num- 
ber of people. It urges the reader to write their Congressmen to 
defeat this legislation. 

Among those whose names appear here as sponsors of this adver- 
t isement is William S. Johnson. Kindly look at that document as Mr. 
Williams displays it to you, and tell this committee whether or not 
you consciously lent your name to that enterprise. 

Mr. JoHxsox. Having recollection of that document, looking over 
a n limber of organizations, I recall that there was a type of repressive 
legislation promoted at that time; and I, along with several others, 
incltuling the National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People, did sign such a document. 

(Document marked "Johnson Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. xViJKxs. Are you a member of the NAACP ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnson. I don't see where a question like that is pertinent 
to this type of hearing. However, I am a member. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been a member of that orxraniza- 
tion? 

Mr. JoHNSOx^. Some thirty-odd years. 

Mr. Arens. Do you hold, or have you held, an office of responsibil- 
ity in the organization ? 



994 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. JoHissON. I consider this type of questioning — what does this 
have to do with the hciaring ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I suggest the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. FoRER. Will you repeat the question for the benefit of the 
chairman? Do you recall what the question is, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. Yes, I recall very well. 

Mr. FoRER. The witness is directed to answer how long has he been 
a member of the NAACP ? 

Mr. Arens. The question is have you ever held an office or post 
of responsibility in the NAACP ? 

Mr. Johnson. No. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been a member of the NAACP? 

Mr. Johnson. That is the same question you just asked. I told 
you around 30 years. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the two 
documents which were displayed to the witness be appropriately 
marked and incorporated by reference in this record. 

The Chairman. That may be done. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the man who preceded you to the wit- 
ness stand ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer the (Question for the same reasons 
stated previously. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the man who preceded him, George 
Meyers ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer the question for the same reasons 
stated previously. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the names of the organizations to which you 
currently belong. You have told us about the NAACP. Are there 
any other organizations you belong to now ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer the question for the same reasons 
stated previously. 

Mr. Arens. INIeyers, who preceded you to the witness stand, is 
your Communist Party boss, is he not ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer the question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that you are presently the leader of the Communist 
Party of the District of Columbia. 

Mr. floHNSON. I refuse to answer the question for tlie same reasons 
stated previously. 

Ml-. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Johnson. South Carolina. 

Mi\ Arens. When ? 

Mr. Johnson. June 27, 1901. 

Mr. Arens. How much education have you had, please ? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, by the time I was 5 years old until I reached 
13 or IJ:, I went to the log cabin schools up in the Sand Hills from the 
Congaree Kiver and entered Columbia in my early boyhood days. I 
went to Benedict College at Columbia 9 years. Came to Washington 
in 1926 and had some college work at Howard University. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a degree at Howard University ? 

Mr. Johnson. I did not. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete the work that you did at How- 
ard Univei-sity ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 995 

Mr. Johnson. I went to Ploward University part of 192G, part of 
1927, and part of 1928. 

Mr. Arens. What type of course or courses did you take there? 

Mr. Johnson. The school of liberal arts. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first principal employment after you 
completed the work you did do at Howard University? 

Mr. Johnson. I imaoine you mean steady employment? 

Mr. Arens. That is right. 

Mr. Johnson. I worked at the Continental Hotel from about 1929, 
or thereabouts, as a waiter — as a special waiter, as a banquet waiter, 
!ind subsequently as a headwaiter. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment, please? 

Mr. Johnson. My next employment was with the union. 

Mr. Arens. What union 

Mr. Johnson. Correction. The next employment after the Con- 
tinental was at the Hamilton Hotel. 

Mr. Arens. Then was your next employment with the union ? 

Mr. Johnson. The union. 

Mr. Arens. What year did that begin ? 

Mr. Johnson. 1939 or about that time. It might have been early 
1940. 

jMr. Arens. "Wlio employed you at the union ? 

Mr. Johnson. Who employed me? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Johnson. I was elected by the membership. 

Mr. Arens. Who was your immediate supervisor in the union? 

Mr. Johnson. I didn't have any immediate supervisor. 

Mr. Arens. To whom did you report ? 

Mr. Johnson. To the membership. 

Mr. Arens. Was the local to which you were attached connected 
with an international ? 

Mr. Johnson. It was. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio was head of the international ? 

Mr. Johnson. At that time, Edward Florey. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you engaged by the union? 

Mr. Johnson. Ten years. 

Mr. Arens. What caused your disassociation from the union? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
stated previously. 

Mr. Arens. Was your disassociation voluntary ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
stated previously. 

Mr. Arens. Were you fired from the union ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
stated previously. 

Mr. Arens. Was your employment with the union caused, directly 
or indirectly to your knowledge, by a person known by you to be a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

]Mr. Arens. Were you a Conimunist while you were employed by the 
union ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason 
stated previously. 



996 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment immediately after your 
disassociation from the union ? 

Mr. Johnson. I beg your pardon, don't go so fast. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next employment immediately after 
your disassociation from the union? 

Mr. Johnson. I worked a few places — a day here and a day there. 
1 don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. What was your principal employment ? 

Mr. Johnson. My principal employment was the present job, 

Mr. Arens. Do you, in addition to your present job, have an extra- 
curricular employment ? 

Mr. Johnson. Extracurricular, what do you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. Outside employment. 

Mr. Johnson, I don't have any outside employment. 

Mr. xVrens. Are you district director of the Communist party of 
the District of Columbia ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
stated previously, 

Mr. Arens. This Committee on Un-American Activities is here, as 
it is and will be in other places, for the purpose of developing facts 
respecting the security of this country and the operation of the Com- 
munist conspiracy. Do you presently have information about the 
Communist Partv activities at the seat of the Nation's Capital in 
Washington, D. C, ? 

Mr. Johnson. That question is a little long. I would like you to 
lestate the question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently have information respecting the 
operation of the Communist Partv at tlie seat of the Nation's Capital 
at Washington, D. C. ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
stated previously. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend the Communist Party National Con- 
vention in New York City in February ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason 
stated previously. 

Mr, Arens, Have you ever traveled outside of continental United 
States? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnson. Some years ago when I was a boy in school, I had a 
])leasant trip across Canada. Outside of that, I have never been out- 
side the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever applied for a United States passport? 

Mr. Johnson. No. 

Mr. Arens. If this committee should initiate proceedings under the 
Immunity Act, whereby you would be granted immunity from crimi- 
nal prosecution based upon any information you would sup])ly to this 
committee, avouIcI you avail yourself of that opportunity and testify 
fully and freely without reservation on all matters within the juris- 
diction of this committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Johnson. I do not consider this Committee on Un-American 
Activities a duly constitutional committee under the first and fifth 
amendments ; and if I were granted immunity, I would not cooperate 
with this committee under duress. Further, I feel, like the Mundt 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 997 

law, there is serious question and serious doubts as to the constitu- 
tionality of that act. 

Mr, Aeens. Do you presently know of persons eniploj^ed in the 
Government of the United States, the seat of the Nation's Capital, in 
"Washington, who to your certain knowledge are members of the Com- 
nuniist Party ? 

Mr. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
stated previously. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes the 
staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions? 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. Will Claire Friedman Eound come forward? 

Mr. Chairman, there may be some question as to whether or not she 
was scheduled to ap})ear toda}' or tomorrow. Therefore, I respectfully 
suggest we call another witness at this time. 

Jeanette Fino. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers the oath. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mrs. Fixo. I do. 

Mr. BiENER. Mrs. Fino would like to have her testimony not tele- 
vised. 

The Chairman. All right. 

TESTIMONY OF MES. JEANETTE FINO, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

KAEL BIENER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mrs. FiNO. My name is Jeanette Fino. I live at 3105 Mondawmin 
Avenue, Baltimore. As of last Friday I worked as a waitress. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mrs. FiNo. I am. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. FiNo. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself on the record. 

Mr. Biener. Karl Biener, B-i-e-n-e-r, member of the Baltimore bar. 

Mr. Arens. Are you Mrs. or Miss ? 

Mrs. FiNo. Mrs. 

Mr. Arens. For the purpose of identification, are you the wife of 
Benjamin Fino? 

Mrs. Fino. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. A^^iere were you last employed? 

Mrs. Fino. As of last Friday, I was still employed. After today, 
I don't know whether I will still be employed. To my knowledge, at 
the present time I am still employed by the Sunray Drug Co. 

Mr. Arens. In Baltimore ? 

Mrs. Fino. In Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed by that establish- 
ment ? 

92360— 57— pt. 1 9 



998 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mrs. FiNo. I liave been working as a part-time waitress for, I would 
say, about the last 2 months. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment, if any, immediately pre- 
ceding your present employment ? 

Mrs. FiNo. I was a housewife before that. Then I worked as a 
part-time waitress — no, wait a minute. I worked as an office worker 
for the J. & J. Messer Co., a wholesale plumbing house. 

Mr. Arens. Here in the Baltimore area 'I 

Mrs. FiNO. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What employment preceded that, please ? 

Mrs. Find. I was a part-time waitress at the Shuster Delicatessen 
in Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat employment preceded that ? 

Mrs. Find. I w^as a waitress at Horn & Horn, Inc. 

Mr. Arens. ^^Hiat employment preceded that, please ? 

Mrs. FiNo. I worked as a part-time w^aitress at Dow^ Restaurant in 
Baltimore. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever work for the United States Government^ 

Mrs. FiNO. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and w^hen ? 

Mrs. Find. The Navy Department, in Arlington, Va., from March 
1942 to about May 1944. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mrs. FiNO. I took a civil-service examination for a file clerk. 

Mr. Arens. Did you work as a file clerk ? 

JNIrs. FiNO. Immediately when I was hired, I worked as a file clerk. 
When my supervisor found I could type, I did statistical typing. 

Mr. Arens. During any of the period of your service for the United 
States Navy Department, did you at any time have access to restricted 
or confidential information? 

jNIrs. FiNO. I think most of the papers that passed the desk were 
classified. 

Mr. Arens. During the period of your service with the United 
States Navy Department, ' were you a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Find. I claim my privilege under the fifth amendment. I re- 
fuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, at any time during the period of your service 
with the Ignited States Navy Department, transmit, or cause to be 
transmitted, to any person not authorized to receive the same, con- 
fidential, classified, or restricted information ? 

Mrs. FiNO. I did not, unless the last time I was before tlie com- 
mittee when I spoke about my job. If that w^as considered to be an 
unauthorized source, then that was it. 

Mr. Arens. Were you under the Communist Party discipline at the 
time you worked for the United States Govei-nment ? 

Mrs. FiNo. I refuse to answ^er that question on the previous grounds 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Was your disassociation from the United States Navy 
Department wholly voluntary? 

INIrs. Find. It -was. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not you were the subject of a 
loyalty investigation? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 999 

Mrs. FiNO. I do not know. The Navy Deparlinent never canie to 
me abont it. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you connected with the Baltimore Freedom of the 
Press Committee? 

Mrs. FiNO. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you certain documents and 
see if you won't help this committee here today. 

The first document is the photostatic reproduction of an applica- 
tion for a post office box for the Baltimore Freedom of the Press 
Committee. The applicant's signature here as chairman is Mrs. James 
K. Fino. 

( The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Find. I believe you read the name wrong as it appears here, but 
I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. Kindly look at that docvnnent and 
tell this committee whether or not you executed the original of that 
document. 

Mrs. FiNO. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Well, accommodate me if you please, and tell me how 
I read it wrong? 

Mrs. FiNO. You pronounced it incorrectly. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. It is Jeanette Fino. Did you 
execute that document ? 

Mrs. Find. I refuse to answer the question on the gi'ounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to ask if you could also acconnnodate 
us by verifying the authenticity of a signature of Mrs. Jeanette K. 
Fino, appearing on this photostatic reproduction of a verification of 
leference of ajjplicant for post office box for the Baltimore Freedom 
of the Press Committee. Please look at this and see if you will ac- 
commodate this committee by verifying the authenticity of that docu- 
ment and the authenticity of the signature appearing there. 

Mrs. Fino. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
jjreviously stated. 

(Docmnents marked "Jeanette K. Fino Exhibit No. 1," and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Without undertaking to impose myself on you too long, 
you will observe in this first document I displayed to you, the name of 
Mary Roberts is listed by yourself in the document as a reference for 
your integrity and reliability. Do you know Mary Roberts ? 

Mrs. Fino. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know INIarv Roberts to be a member of tlie Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Fino. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Would you accommodate the committee please, by 
telling us what is an organization known as the F, & D. Printing 
Co.? Is there such an oi-ganizatiou ^ 

Mrs. Fino. I refuse to answer thai (piestion for the same i-easons 
previously stated. 



1000 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 



Mr. ApvEns. I should like to display to you now, if you please, a 
series of photostatic copies of checks made payable to the F. & D. 
Printing Co. in various amounts, drawn on tlie Fidelity-Baltimore 
National Bank & Trust Co., Baltimore, Md., all signed by Jeanette 
Fino. Will you kindly look at those, as I display them to you, and 
see if you will be good enough to verify the authenticity of those 
documents? Would you help us on that, please? 

Mrs. Fixo. What was the question, please? 

]\Ir. Arens. Would you verify the authenticity of these checks 
drawn by yourself, payable to tlie F. c^- D. Printing Co. ? 

Mrs. Find. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

(Documents marked "Jeanette K. Fino Exhibit No. 2," follow :) 

Jeanette K. Fino Exhibit No. 2 




• **** ****** l3At.TtMO?»R.Mtl'fq^^^^^..,.r.',,T'^'! iuS^ 



Fie-EUTV^fi^iiMORE Nationai Bank 

& liR SI8T Co«f%SV 










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SJSOiJCftixJJiBtKStS^ 



JtAHETTE FJIv'O 



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FtDEttTV-BALTrMOKE NATI?JN,a BaNK 



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COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1001 










Mr. Arens. Now, the F. & D. Printing Co. is the company ^yhich 
prints the Daily Worker in New York ; isn't that correct % 

Mrs. FiNO. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

The Chairman. Who endorsed the checks ? 

Mr. Arens. F. & "D. Printino- Co. It is a stamped endorsement. 

I would like to display to you, please, two other documents which 
are ledger sheets for the account of Jeanette Fino, Baltimore, Md., 
2736 Eeisterstown Road and 3105 Mondawmin Avenue. Kindly look 
at those documents, if you please, and tell us if you will accommo- 
date us by verifying their authenticity. 

Mrs. Find. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason 
previously stated. 

(Documents marked "Jeanette K. Fino Exhibit No. 3," and retained 
in committee files.) 

The Chairman. Mr. Arens, what are the dates ou those checks? 

Mr. Arens. At the moment they are not offered, but they are May 
13, 1956; March 3, 1957; February 1, 1957, and February 19, 1956. 

The Chairman. Do they purport to be remittances of tlie Daily 
Worker this year in Baltimore? 

Mr. Arens. They are remittances paid to the F. & D. Printing Co., 
which is the printing company which prints tlie Comnnmist Daily 
Worker in New York City. 



1002 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

The Chairman. Perhaps this Avill answer the question which has 
been in my mind ever since I read recently that the Daily Worker 
said it would have gone out of business if it had not been for the 
contributions that came from around the country. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to lay before you, if you please, a copy of 
an article a])pearinjo; in the New York Times of March 28, 1956, allud- 
ing to the Communist Daily Worker in the community of New York 
City. In the course of this article the following appears. I will 
invite your attention to this specific language, if you please : 

The Worker's editorial staff moved down to the seventh floor of the building 
that is occupied by a job-printing concern, the F. & D. Publishing Co., Inc., 
which prints the Worker. 

Is that statement appearing in the New York Times, stating that 
the F. & D. Publishing Co. does the printing of the Worker, truthful, 
accurate, and correct, to your knowledge ? 

Mrs. FiNO. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

(Document marked "Jeanette K. Fino Exhibit No. 4," and retained 
in committee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that each of these 
various exhibits which I have displayed to the witness be appropri- 
ately marked and reproduced or incorporated by reference in the 
record. 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

Mr. Arens. Did you procure copies of the Daily Worker from the 
F. & D. Printing Co. for the purpose of causing them to be circulated 
or distributed under the auspices of the Baltimore Freedom of the 
Press Committee in the Baltimore area ? 

Mrs. Find. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about an organization — is there to 
your knowledge, such an organization as the Committee for the Bene- 
fit of Screened Seamen ? 

Mrs. Fino. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. ^^^lat meetings have you held in your home in the 
course of the last 2 or 3 years? Meetings other than just social 
gatherings. 

Mrs. Fino. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact that your home is the central 
meeting place of the leadership of the so-called Committee of Screened 
Seamen, consisting of persons who have been screened off on security 
gi-ounds from United States vessels. If that is not a fact, please deny 
it while you are under oath. 

]\Irs. Fino. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you active in the Labor Youth League? 

Mrs. Fino. I refuse to answ^er that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the nuiii who preceded you to the witness 
stand, William S. Johnson? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1003 

Mrs. FiNO. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know the man who preceded him to the wit- 
ness stand, Irving Kandel ? 

Mrs. FiNO. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. And do you know the person who preceded him to 
the witness stand, George JSIeyers? 

Mrs. FiNO. I refuse to answer that (question. 

Mr. Arens. We have testimony wliicli has been given in the hist 
day or so during our hearings that your home lias been used as a 
center for instruction and that among the instructors was one Irving 
Kandel. Please acconnnodate this committee of the Govermnent of 
the Ignited States by telling us whether or not that testimony was 
true. 

Mrs. FiNO. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
[)reviously stated. Pardon me. I don't think 1 gave a full answer on 
the 3 or 4 previous questions. 

Mr. Arens. You desii-e to invoke the provisions of the fifth 
amendment on each? 

JNIrs. FiNO. That is right. Thank you. 

Mr, Arens. Do you honestly feel, if you told us truthfully the 
answer to each of those three preceding principal questions, you 
would be giving information which might be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding? 

Mrs. FiNO. It might. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Miller, would you stand up, please. Mrs. Fino, this 
gentleman, to your left and to my right, testified yesterday that, while 
he was an undercover agent for the security agencies of this Govern- 
ment in the Communist conspiracy, he knew you as a Communist. We 
want to give you an opportunity now, while you are under oath, to 
deny it. Do you care to avail yourself of that opportunity ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Fixo. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. Excuse me a moment. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Fixo. I would just like to state for the record, I don't know 
whether there is another Jeanette Fino that was described as tall and 
slender in 1948. This Jeanette Fino may have been tall, but I weighed 
175 pounds at the time. 

Mr. Arexs. Let us get the record clear. 

Mrs. Fixo, I weighed 175 pounds. If that is slender, well, thank 
you. 

Mr. Arexs. Believe me, we would deplore a situation of false identi- 
fication. Will this gentleman kindly stand again. 

Mr. Miller said he knew you as a Communist. AYas he mistaken? 
Was he in error or was he telling the truth? 

Mrs, Fixo. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason 
previously stated, 

Mr. Arexs. During the period of your service in the United States 
Navy Department, you told us you had access to confidential restricted 
information. 

Mrs. Fixo, I said I thought it was classified. 

Mr. Arexs. Classified information. Did you have access to the 
personnel transfer records ? 



1004 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mrs. FiNo. I refuse to answer that question on the same reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to whether or not 
she had access to the personnel transfer records? 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mrs. Find. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons 
previously stated. 

The Chairman. Did you have access to the records of those men 
who were separated from employment because they were not cleared 
security wise ? 

Mrs. Find. I don't understand the question, Mr. Walter. 

The Chairman. I am thinking now in terms of this organization of 
men who lost their jobs because the}' were security risks. Did you 
have access to the information on merchant seamen who lost their 
jobs because they were security risks ? 

Mrs. FiNo. I worked for the Navy Department, sir, for the Bureau 
of Naval Officer Personnel. 

Mr. Arens. Let us get the record clear as to the type of information 
to which you had access. I do not want you in a public session to 
disclose the information, but I want to ask you this so there will be no 
question on this record : 

Did you have access to the infonnation in the possession of the 
United States Navy during the period of your service with the Navy 
Department as to who was being transferred where? 

(The witness consulted with her counsel.) 

Mrs. FiNO. I would like a point of clarification. I would like to 
say the unit for the Navy I worked for did a strictly statistical job 
of computing the cost of officer travel for their estimate for the budget 
each year. That was the purpose of the miit. 

Mr. Arens. In the process of computing the cost of transferring 
people, did you have access to the information as to who was being- 
transferred where ? 

Mrs. FiNO. After the transfer took place. 

Mr. Arens. You had the information, however? 

Mrs. FiNO. After the transfer took place. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Will Mary Roberts kindly come forward. 

Mr. Buchman. Mr. Chairman, I would like to request that the 
television cameras be removed for this witness. 

The Chairman. That request will be complied with. 

Mr. Are'ns. Would you kindly stand while the chairman adminis- 
I ers an oath to you. 

The Chairman. Do you swear that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
.-,0 help you God? 

Mrs. Roberts. T do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. MARY ROBERTS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

HAROLD BUCHMAN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1005 

Mrs. KoBERTS. ]\Iy name is Maiy Roberts. 

Mr. Arexs. AVould it be convenient for you to raise your voice, 
please ? 

Mrs. Egberts. My name is Mary Roberts. I live at 3800 West 
Garrison Avenue. I am a liousewife. 

Mr, Arens. I wonder if I could ask you a^ain to raise your voice. 
The acoustics are not too good. Would you repeat your answer, 
please ? 

Mrs. Roberts. The name is Mary Roberts. 

JNIr. Arens. Is it ]\Iiss or Mrs. ? 

Mrs. Roberts. Mrs. The address is 3800 Garrison Avenue, Balti- 
more. I am a liousewife. 

Mr. xVrens. You are appearing today, Mrs. Roberts, in response to 
a subpena served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mrs. Roberts. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented hj counsel ? 

Mrs. Roberts. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you identify yourself on the record? 

Mr. BucHMAN. Harold Buchman, Baltimore Bar. 

]\Ir. Arens. Do you know the lady who preceded j'OU to the witness 
stand ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Roberts. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment which provides that I do not have to be a witness 
against myself. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you, if j^ou please, two 
documents. The first is a thermofax reproduction of a verification 
of reference of an applicant for a post office box in which your name, 
Mrs. Mary Roberts, appears, and on which, in your handwriting, 
appears a statement that the applicant, Mrs. Fino, is a responsible 
party who has applied, according to this document, for a post office 
box for the Baltimore Freedom of the Press Committee. 

Kindly look at that document, if you please, and see if you will 
be good enough to verify the authenticity of it. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Roberts. I am a slow reader. If you have time — I liave taken 
the day off so I have time. Now, that was an awfully long question. 

]Mrs. Arens. Let us take it little by little. Is this your signature 
on this document in which you say that Mrs. Fino is a responsible 
party, or something to that effect ? 

Mrs. Roberts. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds as 
previously stated. 

(Document marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. I should like to display to you a ])liotost:itic roj>ro- 
duction of an application for post office box for a Committee To Defeat 
the Smith Act. The date is August 25, 1952. The signature of tlie 
applicant for tlie post office box of the Committee To Defeat tlie 
Smith Act is ]\Iary Roberts. 

Kindly look at this document and see if you will verify the authen- 
ticity of that document and of your signature appearing on it. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 



1006 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mrs. Roberts. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously ^stated. 

(Docmnent marked "Roberts Exhibit No. 2" follows :) 



(Ke». »-U) 



Roberts Exhibit No. 2 

'''■' AL/G 



Fy.rm,<^i APPLICATION FS« POST OFRCE BOX ^^r 2<^1952 

Thejtoderiu^net] liercky applies for the use of « b<>x in the |M>«t office at 

Qi^<^'P^£^-:'r^O^ andagree. 

to comply with the iwslal repulalionn and rules relative l<> ilie renting and u!>e of [Mxil-office boxes. 

If the l>o\ is rmled for a rorporatiun, the a[>plirant alxHild write on the linen belnw the name of the 
corporation: if for a linn, the name of the tirm and the full name of each of its raemberg whose mail is 

S.finalur.- of applicant ^^^1,:^-^ J^C^.^C^Jh±^ 

(^har.iriir of bii>iiio-'s -i-f r^\iAa.jtr'^\-^Sy^-^.^t^J^ yy . 

Du6iM.-.a,l,lr.-.s ^ ^ ^'f .. , ^Li^"'-^'-^ 

Re.i,l.n.e ad.Jres. ..'^^1 O^.W- M^L^'t^^.A^^^^. /^ ^-^^^ 

A..igned liox No. ^S.'^.J' ^ <^ ^ / A. ...//.^ / '^ V 



^/ (^ 



i 



Mr. Arens. Are you the leader of the Committee to Defeat the 
Smith Act? 

Mrs. Roberts. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds as 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Are you one of the leaders of the Baltimore Freedom 
of the Press Committee ? 

Mrs. Roberts. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds 
as previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Mary Markward ? 

Mrs. Roberts. I refuse to ansAver that, as well, on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mary Markward appeared before this committee and 
testified under oath that she knew you as a member of the Communist 
Party. Do you care, while you are under oath, to avail yourself 
of the opportunity to deny it ? 

Mrs. Roberts. I don't care to avail myself of the opportunity to 
either deny or affirm. Instead, I decline to answer the c|uestion on 
the grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Where is your home at the present time ? 

Mrs. Roberts. 3800 West Garrison Avenue. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a library there ? 

Mrs. Roberts. A library ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, ma'am. 

Mrs. Roberts. What are you referring to % 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a library of books ? 

Mrs. Roberts. A lending library ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1007 

Mr. Arens. No, do you have an accunmlation of books and literature 
there? 

Mrs. Egberts. Unfortunately, maybe not enough ; but by the way, 
how do you come to probe into the fact whether I have a library 
or not? 

Mr. Arexs. Will you kindly answer tlie question? Do you have 
a library, an accumulation of books and literature at your liome? 

Mrs. Egberts. Sir, I question your right to ask me what books I have 
in my home. 

Mr. Arexs. I ask you now, do 3'ou have a library for the Communist 
Party, a library of "books and literature and publications presently 
maintained in your home I 

Mrs. Egberts. I am afraid I do not understand that question. It 
is much too complicated for me. 

Mr. Arexs. I will repeat it. 

Mr. Egberts. Fme. 

Mr. Arexs. Is your library the source for the Communist Party 
of Connnunist books, literature, periodicals of various kinds ^ That 
is pretty plain. I think you understand that, do you not? 

Mrs. Egberts. No, I really don't. What do you mean by source ? 

Mr. Arexs. Does your home have an assemblage of books, litera- 
ture, and periodicals issued by the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Egberts. I have my own books. I do not know what you are 
referring to. 

Mr. Arexs. Are they Communist Party books ? 

Mrs. Egberts. I have books that belong to me. 

Mr. Arexs. Are they Communist books ? 

Mrs. Egberts, I refuse to answer that question on the previously 
stated grounds of the fifth amendment, and I would like to add that 
I don't appreciate your line of questioning about books in my home. 

Now, I made that point before. I frankly don't know what you 
are referring to; and, of course, if the chairs were reversed, I don't 
think you would appreciate if someone summoned you and asked you 
what books you have at home. 

Mr. Arexs. Is the Daily Worker disseminated from your home in 
the Baltimore area ? 

Mrs. Egberts. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds as 
previously stated, and adding my previous remarks to it. It applies 
to that question as well. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you a member of the Civil Eights Congress ? 

Mrs. Egberts. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds as 
previously stated. 

^Ir. Arexs. Are you a member of any of the Eosenberg-Sobell 
committees ? 

Mrs. Egberts. I refuse to answer that question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. Are you a member of the Labor Youth League? 

Mrs. Egberts. You don't give me a chance to even finish. 

Mr. Arexs. I beg your pardon, I certainly intend to. 

Mrs. Egberts. That is good. 

]\lr. Arexs. Have you completed your answer ? 

Mrs. Egberts. I have completed my answer to the previous ques- 
tion. 



1008 COMMUlSriST activities in the BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of, or leader of, the Labor 
Youth League? 

Mrs. Egberts. I refuse to answer that question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. This committee of the United States Congress is seek- 
ing information on which to recommend legislation and for other pur- 
poses to protect the internal security of this country mider whose 
flag you have protection. 

Do you presently have information which you could give this com- 
mittee respecting operations of the Communist Party in the Baltimore 
area ? 

Mrs. Egberts. You have first stated a fact which is open to debate, 
it is your opinion. If you will ask me a direct question, I will try to 
give you a direct answer. 

Mr. Arens. ]Mr. Chairman, tlie question is very clear on this record. 
I respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and directed to 
answer tlie question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Egberts. May I have the question again ? 

The Chairman. Eead the question to the witness. 

(The pending question, as above recorded, was read b}^ the re- 
porter.) 

Mrs. Egberts. As I have said before, there was a statement pre- 
ceding the question. To the question, my answer is that I refuse to 
answer on the grounds as previousl}^ stated. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Egberts. In EacoA^ E-a-c-o-v. 

Mr. Arens. "\^^iere is that, please ? 

Mrs. Egberts. It is a small village in Poland. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mrs. Egberts. In 1926. 

Mr. Arens. Were you admitted for permanent residence ? 

Mrs. Egberts. I was. 

Mr. Arens. Are j^ou a citizen of the United States ? 

Mrs. Egberts. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen by naturalization or derivation ? 

Mrs. Egberts. What does that mean ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you naturalized in a Federal court ? 

Mrs. Egberts. No, I was not. 

Mr. xViJSEXs. You are a citizen by derivation from your parents; is 
that correct ? 

Mrs. Egberts. That is correct. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you ever traleved abroad sir.ce you arrived in 
the United States ? 

Mrs. Egberts. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have 3'ou ever applied for a passport? 

Mrs. Egberts. No. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, a word about your education. 
"\Yliere were you educated ? 

Mrs. Egberts. "Wliat do you refer to as education ? 

Mr. Arens. What schools did you attend ? 

Mrs. Egberts. I attended up to the fourth grade. 

Mr. Arens. Did that complete your formal education? 

Mrs. Egberts. That completed my formal education. 



I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE BALTIMORE, MD., AREA 1009 

Mr. Arens. What was your last principal employment preceding 
the employment about which you just tolcl us. 

;Mrs. Roberts. I worked in various needle trade shops, shops that 
produced clothing of various types. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived in the Baltimore area? 

Mrs. Roberts. I think I came here in 1931. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you live prior to that time ? 

Mrs. Roberts. In Philadelphia. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you live in Philadelphia ? 

Mrs. Roberts. From the time I came to the United States. 

Mr. Arexs. "Wliat organizations do you belong to in the Baltimore 
area? 

]Mrs. Roberts. I refuse to answer that question on the previously 
stated ground, and I don't think that you should question me about it. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any organizations not under Com- 
munist discipline or control ? 

Mrs. Roberts. I wouldn't know what you mean by that question. 

j\Ir. Arens. Well, do you belong to any sewing club 

Mrs. Roberts. Let me add here that the Imperial Wizard of the Ku 
Klux Klan named the Antidefamation League and the NAACP last 
Sunday's progi'am as Communist-dominated organizations. So, you 
see, these questions are very difficult to define. I wish that you would 
not probe my mind and I would not probe yours, what you mean by 
questions. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you belong to the PTA ? 

Mrs. Roberts. ]\Iy child is now in college, and therefore there is no 
PTA there. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any women's social organizations ? 

Mrs. Roberts. I refuse to answer that question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you belong to any card clubs ? 

Mrs. Roberts. I refuse to answer that question on the previously 
stated ground ; and you are probing, once again, as to how I live, and 
I resent that probing. It is not your business as to whether I play 
cards or I don't play cards. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, this moment, a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Roberts. I refuse to answer that question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. The w^itness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess, to meet at 10 o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 

(Thereupon, at 2:40 p. m. Wednesday, May 8, the committee was 
recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m. Thursday, May 9, 1957.) 

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