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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the New England area. Hearings"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEW ENGLAND AREA— PART 1 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



MARCH 18, 1958 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
INDEX IN PART 3 




J 

UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
24777 WASHINGTON : 1958 

,:.,H,,..^J COLLEGE LIBRARY. 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
U81TED STATES GOVERNMENI 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Director 
II 



CONTENTS 



PART 1 

Page 

Synopsis 2081 

Tuesday, March 18, 1958: Testimony of— 

Armando Penha 2090 

Afternoon session: 

Armando Penha (resumed) 2111 

Ralph C. Lofsky 2133 

Samuel Appel 2139 

Armando Penha (resumed) 2151 

Samuel Appel (resumed) 2152 

Otis Archer Hood 2156 

Anne Burlak Timpson 2158 

Joseph Sherman 2164 

PART 2 

Wednesday, March 19, 1958: Testimony of — 

Irving Fishman 2174 

Eleanor Suske 2174 

Dorothy Friedman 2192 

Muriel Gravelle McAvoy 2201 

Afternoon session: 

Louis C. Wyman 2204 

Sidney Ravden 2224 

David Murray Fein (Fine) 2230 

Manuel Cordeiro, Jr 2241 

Olga Garczynski 2246 

Harold Lester Lewengrub - 2250 

James Rex 2256 

Evening session: 

Daniel Boone Schirmer 2258 

Armando Penha (resumed) 2268 

PART 3 

Thursday, March 20, 1958: Testimony of— 

Carol Harris Foster 2284 

Albert D'Orlando (executive testimony,' March 14, 1958, Wash- 
ington, D. C.) 2311 

Afternoon session: 

Arnold Schwartz 2321 

Paul S. Ecsenkrants 2328 

Robert Handman 2337 

Elias Snitzer 2340 

Homer B. Chase 2356 

George Sheldrick 2362 

Anthony DiBiase 2364 

Douglas Neil Perry 2367 

Armando Penha (resumed) 2371 

Douglas Neil Perry (resumed) 2372 

Jerry (Jerome) Olrich 2377 

Joseph K. Chase 2381 

Friday, March 21, 1958: Testimony of — 

Armando Penha (resumed) 2388 

Roy Rogerson 2403 

Philip W. Lefavour 2405 

Benning Maskiewicz 2412 

John Russo 2416 

John G. Hovan 2417 

' Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 

Ill 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Pubhc Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
****** 4i 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places" within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

* * * * * ^ 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of eacn Con- 
gress, 

******* 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND duties OF COMMITTEES 

******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of anj' such investi- 
gation, together with sucli recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not tlie House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas ma}' be issued under 
the signature of tlie cliairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

* * * * * * * 

20. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of tlie House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 



Public hearings weie held in Boston, Mass., March 18-21, 195H. 
during which the committee received valuable testimony concerning 
current Communist Party activities in the New England area. 

Armando Penha, an undercover operative for the FBI from 
1950 to the date of his appearance, testified extensively concerning 
the inner workings of the higher echelon of the Communist con- 
spiracy. Mr. Penha had held the positions of section organizer for the 
Communist Party in the New Bedford area ; chairman of the Bristol 
County, Mass., Communist Party; chairman of the Regional Section 
Organizers Committee; member of New England District Commit- 
tee; member from New England of the National Textile Commission; 
and attended meetings of the New England District Metals Commis- 
sion of the Communist Party. 

Assessing the seriousness of the Communist Party today, Mr. Penha 
declared : 

Based on my experiences, I feel — and I am sure that I am 
absolutely correct — that the Communist conspiracy, by and 
large today, is much stronger than it has ever been. * * * 
The party has strengthened itself every time that it weeds out 
weaklings, those that they suspect, those who do not accept 
the party discipline, and as such it becomes stronger. 

During the 8 years that he was in the Communist Party, Mr. Penha 
had known approximately 400 members of the party. Of this number, 
between 285 and 315 operated in the New England area. In the course 
of his testimony, Penha identified by name over 200 Communist Partj 
members he had personally known, including top-flight functionaries, 
of the National Committee of the Communist Party. 

In connection with the current organizational structure of the party, 
he testified : 

The Communist apparatus is established Avith the National 
Committee as being the top functionary body. 

In the National Committee level, there are also various 
types of national groups. You have your National Executive 
Committee, you have National Commissions, various depart- 
ments. In all I would say there are about 8 or 9. From there 
it drops down to the district level, New England being the 
District No. 1. Ncav England encompasses the areas of Ver- 
mont, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts. 

From the district level, it drops down to county level if 
they exist. At times they do not. From there it drops down 
to section levels, known as cities and its suburban areas. 
From there it drops down to clubs or cells. These are small 
groups. They comprise membership in specific areas, par- 

2081 



2082 COMMUNIST ACnVITIEiS IN THE NEW ENGXiAND AREA 

ticularly in organizations. From that it drops down to 
neighborhood groups or neighborhood clubs. From that it 
goes into individuals who, for one reason or another, should 
not be placed in clubs and/or cells. 

Mr. Penha testified that the revenue of the Communist Party is 
derived from many and varied sources, including : 

(a) Dues based on earnings. 

(b) Assessments, also based on earnings. 

(c) Financial "angels" who may or may not be actual party 
members, but who contribute to the party causes. Penha cited 
as an example one Maud D'haze, deceased, who left an estate of 
approximately $20,000. This estate was not left to the Communist 
Party per se, but to the leaders of the Communist Party in the 
New England area, with the understanding that the money would 
be directed ultimately into the coffers of the Communist Party. 
Penha identified D'haze and all of the beneficiaries as members 
of the Communist Party. Two of the beneficiaries, Anne Burlak 
Timpson and Otis Archer Hood, both leaders of the Communist 
Party in New England, were called as witnesses and interrogated 
concerning the distribution of the D'haze estate. Both invoked 
their constitutional privileges against self-incrimination. 

(d) Sale of various items. Penha cited as an example the 
sale of pen and pencil sets, 1,000 of which were sold by comrades 
within the New England district, with the proceeds directed into 
the party treasury. 

(e) Solicitation of funds through front groups which are cre- 
ated, or infiltrated and controlled, by the party, but which bear 
no open association with the party. Such funds ultimately are 
lodged in the party treasury. 

(/) From labor organizations controlled by the Communist 
Party. Cited as an example was the United Electrical, Radio & 
Machine Workers in the New Bedford area. 

The National Textile Commission of the Communist Party, of which 
Mr. Penha was a member, was established by the National Committee 
of the Communist Party in 1955. The purpose of the Textile Commis- 
sion was to direct further colonization and infiltration by the Commu- 
nist Party into the textile industry, particularly in the South. The 
North was to contribute experienced colonizers and money. In connec- 
tion with this endeavor, Mr. Penha took a trip to the South where he 
was in contact with top Communist Party leaders and colonizers, par- 
ticularly in North Carolina, a center of the textile industry in the 
South. The technique of colonization, according to Mr. Penha, is being 
applied by the party in all types of major industry. 

Mr. Penha who was in active contact with the Communist under- 
ground described the stringent security measures exercised in the un- 
derground operation. Some members completely divorced themselves 
from the open apparatus of the party and, in most instances, com- 
pletely separated themselves from their families. They assumed false 
identities and used various devices to alter their physical appearance. 
They lived in the homes of trusted party members and all contact with 
the open apparatus was handled through couriers. 

Mr. Penha furnished the committee a detailed summary of the Com- 
munist Party front groups which had formerly operated, or were cur- 
rently operating, in the New England area. He identified a number 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2083 

of members of the front groups as Communists. Some of the groups 
named as Communist fronts by Penha were the New England Citizens 
Concerned for Peace, the New Bedford Peace Committee, the New 
Bedford Committee to Fight Unemployment, the Progressive Party, 
the Labor Youth League, Save Our Sons Committee, and the Ameri- 
can Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. 

In 1952, while accompanying the New England district Communist 
organizer, Mike Russo, who was then operating in the background, 
Mr. Penha was present in a secret meeting with Jonathan and David 
Lubell, then students at Harvard University. The Lubells were Com- 
munist organizers among the students at various institutions of higher 
education in the Boston area. They turned over $150 which they had 
collected in dues from the students at these institutions. 

Another person who contributed materially to the committee's work 
in Boston was Mrs. Carol Foster of Nashua, N. H. Like Mr. Penha, 
Mrs. Foster had been an undercover operative for the FBI. She had 
been active in the party since 1947. Her principal area of activity was 
in the State of New Hampshire. She had held the office of secretary 
of the Nashua group of the Communist Party and was a member of 
the New Hampshire State Committee, which was a part of District 
1 of the Conununist Party, and encompassed most of New England. 

Mrs. Foster confirmed Mr. Penha's testimony that the Communist 
Party posed a serious threat to our country today. She identified sev- 
eral score individuals as Communist Party members in the New Eng- 
land area. 

Two of the persons she identified as members of the Communist 
Party were Rev. Albert D'Orlando and his wife, Polly. Mr. D'Orlando 
had been a minister of a church in Wilton, N. H., from approximately 
1946 to 1950. Mrs. Foster testified that she was introduced to Mr. 
D'Orlando by the Communist Party chairman of New Hampshire, 
Mrs. Elba Chase Nelson. For a period of several years she collected 
the Communist Party dues of Mr. D'Orlando and his wife. 

The Reverend Mr. D'Orlando, who now resides in New Orleans, La., 
appeared before the committee in executive session on March 14, 1958. 
When asked about his previous Communist Party membership, he 
invoked his constitutional privileges concerning the period prior to 
1946. He denied membership subsequent to that date, but testified that 
he had contributed money to the Communist Party during the time 
he was a minister in Wilton, N. H. 

Mrs. Foster also furnished valuable information concerning the op- 
eration of Communist-front groups, particularly the Progressive 
Party which, during its period of operation in New Hampshire, was 
completely controlled by the Communist Party. 

Irving Fishman, Deputy Collector of Customs at the Port of New 
York, and his administrative assistant. Miss Eleanor Suske, testified 
about the importation and dissemination of Communist propaganda 
in the Boston area. Mr. Fishman stressed the need for amendments 
to the Foreign Agents Registration Act to require the labeling of for- 
eign Communist propaganda prior to its importation. He stated that, 
based on a survey conducted by his office within a 2-month period im- 
mediately prior to the hearings, there were approximately 80,000 
pieces of foreign Communist propaganda passing through the port of 
New York, destined for the New England area. None of this propa- 



2084 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

ganda was labeled in accordance >Yith the provisions of the Foreign 
Agents Eegistration Act. 

Additional testimony concerning propaganda on the domestic level 
was given by Mr. Penha, who testified that the Communist Party had 
secreted mimeographing machines in the homes of trusted Commu- 
nist Party members. These machines were to be used to produce prop- 
aganda material in the event the party was forced to eliminate its open 
publications. 

Hon. Louis C. W^'man, Attorney General of the State of New Hamp- 
shire, testified extensively concerning various sections of H. R. 9987 
the omnibus security bill pending before the committee. 

In addition to the persons indicated above who cooperated with thr« 
committee, 29 other persons were called as witnesses. These persons 
had been identified under oath as members of the Communist Party 
and, in most instances, were leaders of the Communist Party in the 
New England area. Their employment covered a variety of occupa- 
tions and professions. Two of the witnesses, David M. Fein and Elias 
Snitzer, were professors at the Lowell Technological Institute. Mr. 
Fein denied current Communist Party membership, but invoked the 
privileges of the fifth amendment concerning prior membership, Mr. 
Snitzer likewise denied current Communist Party membership, but 
refused to give the committee any information when questioned con- 
cerning prior membership and activities in the Communist Party. 

Douglas Perry, UE organizer in the New England area, who 
had been identified by Mr. Penha as a hard-core Communist Party 
member, invoked constitutional privileges against self-incrimination 
when asked concerning the validity of Penha's testimony. 

Joseph Sherman and Benning Maskiewicz testified that they wer(i 

not citizens of the United States and refused to state whether or not 

I they were members of the Communist Party. ]Mr. Maskiewicz has 

, been a resident of the LTnited States for 46 years ; INIr. Sherman for 30 

years. The subcommittee recommended that both cases be referred to 

1 "the Immigration and Naturalization Service for possible deportation. 

Of the remaining witnesses, all invoked the fifth amendmei^t, with 
the exception of three. Two of these admitted Communist Part}' 
membership, and the third refused to answer any questions but in- 
voked the first amendment. 

In concluding the hearings the chairman of the subcommittee stated 
in part as follows: 

In the few days that we have been here, we believe we have 
had a fair sampling of several phases of Communist subver- 
sive operations, especially in this area. 

What then has been accomplished, in our judgment, as 
a result of these hearings? These are some of the accom- 
])lishments: 

In the first place, we have seen repetition here in the Bos- 
ton, New England area, of a pattern of Connnunist activities 
and techniques wliich verifies and confirms the very same pat- 
tern of secret and habitually deceitful and subvei'sive activi- 
ties and tactics throughout our Nation. 

"We also have brought forth reliable evidence proving that 
there is in this highly sensitive and important industrial area 
a Communist Party activity which should be paid more atten- 



COMMUlSriIST ACTrV'lTIES IN THE NEW ENGK\ND AREA 2085 

tioii by the public officials, both municipal and statewide, 
in cooperation witli the Federal officials. 

More specifically, there has been developed here new and 
convincing evidence regarding- the existing loopholes in the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act, and other existing legisla- 
tion, designed to identify and stem the flood of Communist 
propaganda that is daily reaching the shores of our Nation 
from Soviet Russia, and from other people, specifically doing 
it in cooperation with the Soviet Communist control of the 
Soviet Republic in thiscold war. 

And we wish to emphasize that this Comnuinist subversive 
activity right here in the New England area and throughout 
our Nation is part of the cold war — it is not just merely prop- 
aganda — it is part of the cold war. There are no bullets 
being fired, but it is w^ar nevertheless. 

There has also been revealed further reliable factual Com- 
munist underground strategy and tactics penetrating entirely 
legitimate and loyal organizations, church groups, labor 
groups, youth groups, schools, lodges, and public offices. 

There has also been revealed further definite information 
respecting efforts of the Communist conspiracy to penetrate 
certain vital industries by way of colonizing by Communists, 
many of whom hold high degrees in education, bachelors of 
science and engineers; and yet, fulfilling their Communist 
Party dedication, they take menial jobs, at far less salaries in 
sensitive industry in order to carry out Communist Party di- 
rectives, than they could earn at the profession for which 
they are especially equipped and trained. 

We will take back to Washington for consideration by the 
Congress all the factual material here gained in connection 
with our study and consideration for the enactment of 
legislation. 

There is, however, a collateral result, which is very valuable 
and continuing, as a result of these hearings, which I believe 
will have a salutary and important effect on this entire geo- 
graphical area. This should be a daily reminder for you 
folks who have the pleasure, privilege, and inspiration of 
living in this area, of the continuous Communist Party sub- 
versive threat, both day and night, not merely as a philo- 
sophical concept, but as a menacing dynamic force of intrigue 
and subversion, operating as part of the Soviet cold war 
against the American way of life, which was, in fact, born 
riffht here within a mile of this building. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
NEW ENGLAND AREA— PART 1 



TUESDAY, MARCH 18, 1958 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Boston^ Mass. 
public hearing 

A subcommittee of tlie Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 : 09 a. m. in courtroom No. 3, the United States 
Courthouse and Post Office Building, Boston, Mass., Hon. Morgan M. 
Moulder (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Morgan M. Moulder, 
of Missouri; Clyde Doyle, of California; Bernard W. Kearney, of 
New York; and Robert J. Mcintosh, of Michigan (appearance as 
noted) . 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; George C. 
Williams and Frank Bonora, investigators. 

(Committee members present: Representatives Moulder, Doyle, 
and Kearney.) 

Mr. Moulder. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Let the record show that pursuant to law and the rules of the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, Chairman Francis E. Walter has 
appointed a subcommittee for the purpose of conducting hearings 
here in Boston, Mass., composed of Representative Clyde Doyle, of 
California, who sits on my left, and Representative Bernard W. 
Kearney, of New York, who sits on my right. 

Other members who will be present tomorrow are Representative 
Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana, and Representative Robert J. Mc- 
intosh, of Michigan. 

I am Representative Morgan M. Moulder, acting chairman of the 
subcommittee. 

At this point there will be inserted in the record the resolution 
adopted on January 15, 1958, by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities authorizing the hearings. 

Let there also be inserted in the record at this point the order 
appointing the subcommittee. 

(The documents referred to follow:) 

Excerpt Feom the Minutes of Januaby 15, 1958 

A motion was made by Mr. Scherer, seconded by Mr. Willis, and unanimously 
carried, approving and authorizing the holding of hearings in Boston, Mass., 
or at such other place as the chairman may designate, on such date or dates as 
the chairman may determine, and continuing from day to day, time to time, and 
place to place until the hearings are completed, and the conduct of investigations 

2087 



« 



2088 COMMUNTIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW ENGK^JSTD AREA 

deemed reasonably necessary by the staff in preparation therefor, relating to the 
following subjects and having the legislative purposes indicated : 
, 1. The extent, character and objects of Communist infiltration and Conunuuist 
Party propaganda activities in the textile and other basic industries, both within 
and without the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the legislative purposes being : 
(a) To obtain additional information for use by the committee in its con- 
sideration of section 16 of H. R. 9352, relating to the proposed amendment of 
section 4 of the Communist Control Act of 1954, prescribing a penalty for 
knowingly and wilfully becoming or remaining a member of the Communist 
Party with knowledge of the purposes or objectives thereof ; and 

(6) To obtain additional information, adding to the committee's overall 
knowledge on the subject so that Congress may be kept informed and thus 
prepared to enact remedial legislation in the national defense, and for in- 
ternal security, when and if the exigencies of the situation require it. 

2. Execution by administrative agencies concerned of laws requiring the 
listing of printing presses and machines capable of being used to produce or 
publish printed matter in the possession, custody, ownership, or control of the 
Communist Party or Communist fronts, the legislative purpose being to assist 
Congress in appraising the administration of title 50, United States Code, section 
786 (6), and in developing such amendments to the Internal Security Act of 
1950 as it may deem necessary. 

3. Communist techniques and strategy in the raising of funds for the benefit 
of the Communist Party, the legislative purpose being to determine whether a 
recommendation should be made tightening the laws relating to tax exemption 
which labor xmions enjoy, and for the additional reasons set forth in items 1 (a) 
and (b) of this resolution. 

4. Entry and dissemination in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts of foreign 
Communist Party propaganda, the legislative purpose being to determine the 
necessity for, and advisability of, amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act designed more effectively to counteract the Communist schemes and devices 
now used in avoiding the prohibitions of the act. 

5. The extent, character and objects of Communist Party underground activi- 
ties within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the legislative purposes being 
set forth in items 1(a) and (b) of this resolution. 

6. Execution by administrative agencies concerned, of laws relating to de- 
portation of aliens who are members of the Communist Party, the legislative 
purpose being to assist Congress in appraising the administration of section 241 
(a) (6) of tlie Immigration and Nationality Act (66 Stat. 204-206), and in de- 
veloping such amendments to that act as may be deemed necessary. 

7. Any other matter within the jurisdiction of the committee which it, or 
any subcommittee thereof, appointed to conduct this hearing, may designate. 



March 12, 1958. 
To : Mr. Richaru Arens, Staff Director, House Committee on Un-American 
Activities: 
Pursuant to the provisions of law and the rules of this committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting 
of Representative Morgan M. Moulder, as chairman, and Representatives Clyde 
Doyle, Edwin E. Willis, Bernard W. Kearney, and Robert J. Mcintosh, as as- 
sociate members, to conduct hearings in Boston, Mass., Tuesday through Friday, 
March 18, 19, 20, and 21, 1958, at 10 a. m., on subjects under investigation by the 
committee and take such testimony on said days or succeeding days, as it may 
deem necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 12th day of March, 1958. 

Francis E. Walter, Chairman, 
Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Moulder. The hearings, which begin today in Boston, are in 
furtherance of the powers and duties of tlie committee pursuant to the 
provisions of Public Law GOl of the 79th Congress, which not only 
establishes the broad jurisdiction of this committee, but mandates 
this committee, along with other standing committees of the Congress, 
to exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administra- 



COMMTJlSniST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2089 

tive agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is 
within the jurisdiction of the committee. 

In response to this general mandate, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities is constantly checking factual information which will assist 
it in appraising the operation of such laws as the Internal Security 
Act of 1950, the Foreign Agents Registration Act, the Communist Con- 
trol Act of 1954, and various criminal statutes pertaining to subver- 
sion. 

We know that the strategy and tactics of the Communist conspiracy 
in the United States are constantly changing for the purpose of avoid- 
ing detection and in an attempt to beguile the American people and 
the Government respecting its true nature. To cope with these 
changes and to strengthen our security laws, a number of legislative 
proposals are pending before the committee. 

The most recent and comprehensive proposal is in the form of an 
omnibus security bill, H. R. 9937, which Chairman Walter introduced, 
and which represents the most comprehensive effort ever made to deal 
with the many legislative problems in the field of internal security. It 
is the hope of the committee that factual information obtained at this 
hearing will be of assistance in the consideration and appraisal of the 
numerous provisions of this bill. 

Wlien investigating Communists and Communist activities, this 
committee frequently has been met with numerous false and un- 
founded charges respecting the nature of our work and our objective. 
Such charges will not dissuade us from our duty. We seek the facts 
and only the facts. Insofar as it is within the power of this com- 
mittee, as a part of the United States Congress, we shall obtain 
the facts and we shall do so within the framework of carefully pre- 
scribed procedures of justice and fair play. 

The work of this committee becomes more difficult w^ith each pass- 
ing year because more and more the functions of the Communist 
mechanism operate underground. It is essential and important to 
remember that the effectiveness of the Communist operation bears 
absolutely no relationship to tlie size of the Communist Party as 
a formal entity. The fanatic, compact hard-core elite which today 
constitutes the backbone of the Communist operation in this country 
is a greater menace than ever before. 

They look for recessions and unemployment in every city so they 
iiave a tangible reception to their poisonous propaganda. 

It must also be borne in mind that the Communist operation, both 
above and below the surface, is part of a worldw^ide conspiracy backed 
by all of the material, financial, and educational resources of the 
Soviet empire which is, and has been for some time, at war with the 
one nation which stands in the way of its world domination — the 
United States of America. 

It is the standing rule of this committee that any person identified 
as a member of the Communist Party during the course of the com- 
mittee hearings will be given an early opportunity to appear before 
the committee, if he desires, for the purpose of denying or explaining 
any testimony adversely affecting him. It is also the policy of the 
committee to accord any witness the privilege of being represented 
by counsel ; but within the provisions of the rules of this committee, 
his sole and exclusive prerogative is to advise his client. 



2090 coMMuisrrsT AcrivmES m the new England area 

I would remind those present that a disturbance of any kind or an 
audible comment during the hearing will not be tolerated. This is 
a serious proceeding in which we are earnestly trying to discharge 
an important and arduous duty with the general objective of main- 
taining the security of this great Nation. 

The rules of the House of Kepresentatives prohibit the taking of 
pictures and broadcasting of any type during the course of the hear- 
ing, and we expect the photographers and broadcasters to cooperate 
and comply with this rule. 

Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Are you ready for the first witness, Mr. 
Chairman ? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Armando Penha, please come forward and remain 
standing while the chairman administers an oath to you. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which 
you are about to give before this subcommittee of the Committee on 
Un-American Activities will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Penha. I do. 

Mr. Moulder. Please have a seat. 

TESTIMONY OP ARMANDO PENHA 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Peniia. My name is Armando Penha. I live at 22 Dover 
Street, Fairhaven, Mass. I am an inspector at Acushnet Process Co., 
at present on leave of absence. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Penha, are you now, this moment, a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you ideologically in sympathy with the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Penha. Absolutely not, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When did you join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Penha. In the very early part of 1950. 

Mr. Arens. And during all that time you have been a member of 
the Communist Party at the behest of the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are here and now for the first time revealing public 
information which you have acquired as an undercover agent in the 
Communist Party; is that correct? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Penha, have you at any time since 1950 been 
in contact, directly or indirectly, with any agency of any State or of 
the Federal Government other than with the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation and with the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Mr. Penha. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You have over the course of the last several months 
been in close contact with the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ; is that correct ? 



COMMUNIST ACrrvmES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2091 

Mr. Penh A. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us the circumstances of your joining the 
Communist Party and precisely when you joined it. 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. Sometime in 1949, and I believe prior to that, 
I was under the impression, as an average American, that there was 
something that I could do in order to help our country maintain its 
freedom. At the time that Herbert Philbrick became known, I thought 
that there might be a possibility that I could offer my services to the 
Government. 

At a later date another undercover agent. Matt Cvetic, was dis- 
closed and more or less coincided with the fact that being an insur- 
ance salesman, which I believe was his occupation at one time, or 
connected with the insurance business, and where I was in the in- 
surance business, I felt then that, in all humility, I could offer my 
services if the Federal Bureau of Investigation would accept me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you oiTer your services to the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Akens. I will not at this time, Mr. Penha, dwell upon the_ de- 
tails of your admission into the Communist Party. I would like right 
now, if you please, sir, for you to tell us just the posts or offices or 
positions winch you have held within the Communist Party since you 
joined it in 1950. 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. Some of the positions and posts that I held 
in the Communist Party have been that of section organizer for the 
New Bedford area, that is, the head Communist for that area. And 
I have also been chairman of the Bristol County area for the Com- 
munist Party, which comprises the cities of New .Bedford, Taunton, 
and Fall River and its surrounding towns. 

I have also been chairman of the section organizers, Regional Sec- 
tion Organizers, I should say. Committee, which was a committee set 
up for the purpose of giving the opportunity, as the district leadership 
stated, to increase the knowledge and in the future to become district 
leaders. 

Among other positions I have held was that of being a member of 
the New England District Committee, which is the ranking committee 
that controls the Communist apparatus in New England. 

I have also been a member and delegate from New England for the 
Communist Party to the National Textile Commission in New York 
City. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat position do you presently hold in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Penha. My positions at the present are, to the best of my knowl- 
edge, district committee member, National Textile Commission mem- 
ber, and section organizer for New Bedford. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Penha, what is the last service which you 
have 

Mr. Penha. Mr. Director, may I just insert one correction there? 

Mr. Arens. If you please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. My name is rather unusual. I know that, but it is 
pronounced "Penya." 



24777— 58— pt 1- 



2092 COMMUNTST ACTIVITTES m THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Arens. We have in our associations with yon, as you know, used 
another name; and that is the reason why, I explain now, I have diffi- 
culty actually addressing you by your right name. Isn't that correct? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us now on this public record what was the last 
service which you performed for the Communist Party, and when — 
prior to your appearance here just a few moments ago ? 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, the last service was performed this past 
week, about three days ago ; and during most of the entire week, that 
service was as head of the party apparatus in New Bedford. 

I was approached to give advice and obtain consultation from me 
in order to equip themselves as to how they should conduct them- 
selves before this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us, without dwelling too long on it, 
just a word as to the technique and advice that j^ou, as a leading Com- 
munist in this area, gave the other comrades as to how they were to 
conduct themselves before this Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. One of the phases of my consultations and 
advice given to the comrades was supplying them with copies of re- 
ports of previous hearings in other areas throughout the countrj^, in 
order to acquaint the comrades as to the procedure, the line of ques- 
tioning, and how a hostile witness answers in turn. 

Mr. Arens. May I insert this at this point, if you please, sir : The 
instructions which you have, in the course of the last several days, 
been giving the other comrades as to how they are to conduct them- 
selves before this committee were given to you by other persons in 
the apparatus, isn't that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You were a conduit for transmission of that instruc- 
tion ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. We will get into that more a little later. 

Mr. Kearney. May I ask a question here, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Kearney. 

Mr. Kearney. Those persons to whom you gave such advice, were 
they all members of the party, or alleged members of the party, who 
were under subpena to appear here ? 

Mr. Penha. They were members of the Communist Party from 
the New Bedford area that were under subpena, yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. How many individuals were there, would you say? 

Mr. Penha. The ones that I contacted were three, sir, from the 
New Bedford area. I will correct that, sir, if I may? I stated that 
I contactecl. I was first approached by one of them, and then a pre 
liminary arrangement was made to contact the others. 

Mr. xIrens. We expect in the coui-se of the day to interrogate you 
on a number of items: and as we have told you and discussed with 
you privately, there are a number of items that we do not at this time 
want to go into with you in a public session because they necessitate 
considerable investigation. 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I should like at this time, as a point of departure in 
our general interrogation of you, please, sir, to ask you on the basis 
of your background and experience, how serious is the Communist 
Party menace in this area now ? 



COMMUlSnSiT ACTIVITIES EN THE NEW EiNGLAND AREA 2093 

Mr. Peniia. Well, may I answer this way, sir? 

In answer to your question as to how serious the Communist Party 
menace is in this area, I would like to answer on the basis of not only 
in this area but throughout the entire United States. 

Mr. Akens. Please do so. 

Mr. Penha. The reason for that is because of my experience and 
having been in various areas of the country, and I feel that I am 
better equipped to put it on a larger area than the New England area. 

Based on my experiences, I feel — and I am sure that I am absolutely 
correct — that the Communist conspiracy, by and large today, is much 
stronger than it has ever been. The question of numbers, as to how 
many persons are members of the Communist Party, the party in some 
way or other seemingly likes to play that up — as to loss of member- 
ship and so forth and that it has weakened. Nevertheless, that is not 
true. The party has strengthened itself e^ery time that it weeds out 
weaklings, those that they suspect, those who do not accept the party 
discipline, and as such it becomes stronger. 

By and large, I would say, organizationally speaking, I do not know 
of any organization in the world that can equip itself and state that 
it has the qualifications of the Communist Party to operate organi- 
zationally. 

jNIr. Arens. Is there a distinction that may justifiably be made be- 
tween a Communist and a technical member of the Communist Party 
as such? 

Mr. Penha. Would you please repeat that ? 

Mr. Arens. Are there Communists who are not technical members 
of the entity known as the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir ; there are. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Communist Party a political party ? 

Mr. Penha. The Communist Party is not a political party in the 
sense that we understand here in the United States the two 
existing political parties. It is a conspiracy. Its objective is to de- 
feat these very political parties that exist, along with other aims. 

INIr. Arens. How far underground is the Communist Party as an 
entity now? 

Mr. Penha. Unfortunately, sir, it is very much underground. I 
would say it is deep freeze. They do use some members on the open 
scale for propaganda purposes. 

Mr. Arens. We will get into a number of items along that line a 
little later. I want to t^ sure that this record reflects your best judg- 
ment, based upon this intense experience, with reference to this concept 
of the activity of the Communist Party. I observed you used the word 
''deep freeze." You do not mean to imply that the party is dormant, 
do you ? 

Mr. Penha. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. The party is very active right now, is it not? 

Mr. Penha. That is absolutely correct. 

Mr. Arens. How does the party gain its strength? By what de- 
vices, by what techniques does it gain its potency ? 

Mr. Penha. There are many ways. One of them I may stress at 
this point is by means of infiltration. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean by infiltration? Give us just a 
word about that, sir. 



2094 CK)MMIJ]SriST activities in the new ENGLAND AREIA 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, I will try to be brief on that, but it is ex- 
tremely difficult after 8 years to put in a nutshell just what infiltration 
is. However, I would say that infiltration is a means which the party 
uses in order to place a trusted member into industry or an organiza- 
tion for the purpose of serving the party's interests. In doing so, this 
party member is in position to influence the mass workers of that par- 
ticular organization. That is one of the aspects. 

We have also mass agitation. By mass agitation, the party finds 
here that it gives them an experience which I am sure that our exist- 
ing political parties would not care to use because they would not 
consider themselves political parties; and that is one way to agitate 
in a mass form. In this sense they do it on the basis of creating an 
issue. If that issue is one that can serve the people at that particular 
time, all well and good. However, as time goes on, if the party sees 
that that issue is not beneficial to the party — in other words, as a 
result of the party's putting its efforts into coordinating this issue 
and broadening it out to the extent that it adds its full impact, to 
the extent that the party feels that they have to gain control of this 
organization, they have to influence the masses involved in and around 
this organization, they will attempt also to influence any public of- 
ficials, whether it is local. State or Federal level. And mainly it 
serves as a basis — and I think this is the strongest point that I can 
raise — for giving a comrade the experience of leading masses, know- 
ing, how to handle situations, and above all it becomes a test for him 
as a leader — accepting party discipline and also in indicating to the 
party whether or not he has absorbed the organizational abilities 
that the party has attempted to convey to him. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any doubt in your mind, based upon your 
background and experience, but that the Communist apparatus in 
the United States represents foreign agents of the Soviet Union on 
American soil? 

Mr. Penha. There is no doubt at all, whatsoever in my mind. 

If I may, sir, I have a book here that will further implement not 
my opinion but the experiences that I have had in the Communist 
Party. In the Communist Party you do not criticize Russia. This 
fallacy of the Khrushchev enunciation on Stalin, of criticizing Russia, 
or criticizing some of its leaders or Stalin, is just another one of its 
gimmicks. It is another method of Mr. Khrushchev hoj)ing to attain 
the position and prestige of Mr. Stalin. 

Now. I would like to just quote from a book that in the past the 
party has screened. It is Leninist works and Marxist works 
or something that is more or less general and it is Russian ; it is not 
American. They may use parts of it, and so forth, which is not true. 
However, this book, Toward Soviet America — this book is published 
or, rather, written by Mr. Foster, an international leader in the Com- 
munist apparatus and national leader of the Communist Party. And 
I believe that in just reading a few lines here, it will indicate that 
my experiences and my belief that the Communist Party, U. S. A., is 
a tool of the Communist International bears out. 

Mr. Arens. Was that book given to you as part of your indoctrina- 
tion as a Communist ? 

Mr. Penha. This book was not, for one simple reason : They could 
not get it at the time and they in turn instructed me to see if I could 
get it elsewhere, which I was very fortunate in obtaining. 



COMMUNTST ACnVrTTES IN THE NEW EOSTGLAND AREA 2095 

Mr. Arens. We expect to develop this issue a little later on this 
afternoon. I would suggest that you might just summarize the quo- 
tations there unless they are rather brief. 

Mr. Penha. They are brief, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly allude to them, please, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. May I inquire ^ 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Doyle is recognized. 

Mr. Doyle. Wlien and where was the book published ? 

Mr. Penha. This book was published in the United States I believe 
in 1932. 

Mr. Doyle. Does it show in what city and by what publishing 
company ? 

Mr. Penha. It says here, "Printed for International Publishers by 
Coward-McCann, Inc., New York." 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Kearney ? 

Mr. I^arney. This is William Z. Foster you are talking about ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Wasn't he one of the 12 Communists who were in- 
dicted in the city of New York several years ago but was too ill to be 
tried? 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, it is sort of a farce to say that he was too ill. 
It was true that he did have a heart ailment. However, he was not 
too sick to write many books, many articles, and take a very active 
part in leading the Communist conspiracy in this country. 

Mr. Kearney. He is still well enough to be traveling around the 
country, preaching the doctrine of the Communist conspiracy today, 
isn't he? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. There again is one of the tactics 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. While you are looking for that quotation, may I ask 
you this question : Is the objective of the Communist apparatus in the 
United States conversion of the masses to communism or is it, on the 
other hand, conquest ? 

Mr. Penha. By and large the Communist Party Imows — and I am 
speaking from experiences as resulted from top meetings that have 
been told to me — that the Communist Party will never at any given 
moment be able to convert the American public at large. They rea- 
lize that. The only way is to make use of the tools that Lenin has 
handed down, mainly force and violence. 

Mr. Kearney. Doesn't Foster in his writings advocate force and 
violence ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes ; he does, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Didn't he say, whether it is in your book or not, that 
when the time came in this country the Communist Party would be 
backed by the force of the Red Army ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. He also states in this book that 
courts, lawyers, all types of legal apparatus that we have in our 
democratic system today will be abolished completely. 

Mr. Kearney. So, in other words, it is well for the American public 
to know today this is no game we are playing ? 

Mr. Penha. The thing I have to say in regard to that,^ sir, is that 
unfortunately there is too much complacency in the American public. 



2096 COMMUNTST ACTIVITTES ITST THE NEW EXGL.\ND AREA 

It is only when the house is on fire that they seem to be worried about 
what is going on, 

Mr. Kearney. Isn't Foster today the leader of the Soviet faction of 
the Communist Party in this country '^ 

Mr. Penha. Sir, that is a very good question. He very definitely is ; 
and a result of it is the fact that Jolin Gates, who had been in prison, 
who liad suffered as a Communist for the Communist cause, when 
he came out he took advantage of the Khrushchev denunciation and, 
as a result of that, he felt that there might be a possibility of estab- 
lishing communism as Tito did in Yugoslavia. However, Mr. Fos- 
ter saw fit not only to win the battle as he did, but to weed Johnny 
Gates out to the extent of putting the Daily Worker out of business, 
so that at a later time it will come into business as a tool and under 
the discipline of Mr. Foster and the Communist Party. 

Mr. Kearney. Would I be correct in bringing to the attention of 
the public of America this thought, that William Z. Foster is no 
more concerned with things representing America than, we will say 
for argument's sake, this committee is with what the Communist 
Party believes in and its philosophy ? 

Mr. Penha. Would you repeat that, sir? 

INIr. Kearney. In other words, let me put it this way : 

Foster today, and for many years last past — ever since he joined 
the Communist Party, the Communist conspiracy, whatever you want' 
to call it, with all his double talk — no more believes in things Ameri- 
can and the American way of life than we do in the Communist 
philosophy. 

]Mr. Penha. That is absolutely correct, sir, not only ]\Ir, Foster, 
but I would say all Communists that are hard-core members. They 
are not Americans. They are Communists. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, would you kindly allude to the quotation to 
which you referred ^ 

Mr. Penha, Yes, sir. Thank you, sir. And I quote : 

The Communist Party of the United States, in line with its program of 
class strnjrgle, unites with the revolutionary workers of the world. It is the 
American section of the Comiiumist International. The Communist Inter- 
national carries out a united revolutionary policy on a world scale with 
the necessary adaptations for the special conditions in the various countries. 
The Coniniunist International is a disciplined world party; only such a party 
can defeat world imperialism. Its leading party, by virtue of its great revo- 
lutionary experience, is the Russian Communist Party. 

I don't want to indulge any further because there is too much to 
go on. 

Mr. Doyle. On what page in the book is that, please ? 

Mr. Penha. Pages 258 and 250, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. We will in the course of the day have a great number 
of specific questions on various facets of the conspiratorial opera- 
tions in this area known to you. 

I should like to ask 2 or 3 more general questions before we pro- 
ceed in the exploration of these many facets. 

First is this : In the course of your experience in the Communist 
Party up to today, what percentage of the comrades in this area 
did you come to know in view of the security system that they had ? 

Mr. Penha. I will say, if I understand your question correctly, sir, 
it is pertaining to the New England area? 



COMMTlSrilST ACT'IVITIEiS EST THE NEW EIsTGLAJSTD AREA 2097 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. In the New England area, about what per- 
centage of the comrades in this area did you become acquainted with ? 

Mr. Penha. Over a period of 8 years, I would say that I came in 
contact with approximately 60 to 65 percent of its membership. 
That, in terms of numbers ■ 

Mr. Moulder. May I interrupt to ask : Did you cover the witness' 

background, where he was born 

• Mr. Arens. We expect to get into that in just a few moments. 

Mr. Moulder. Thank you. 

Mr. Penha. I would like to put it this way, sir, if I may, sir : During 
the 8 years that I was in the party, to the best of my recollection, I 
have known approximately 400 Communists. 

Mr. Arens. In the New England area ? 

Mr. Penha. In the New England area I would say it would be 
somewhere between 285 to 315. 

JMr. Arens. Now for the comrades w^iom you knew, what is your 
best judgment as to the percentage they represented of the total 
apparatus in the New England area ? 

Mr. Penha. I would like to put it this way if I may, sir. Every 
section or practically every section in New England, and that section — 
by that I mean city and its surrounding areas — had a section com- 
mittee along with a section organizer, who is the head. In the case 
of New Bedford, when I first joined the party and when I first 
became a member of the Section Committee, as I recall, I believe there 
were approximately 7 or 8 members in the section committee. That 
represents, I would say, very accurately, 10 members for each member 
in that committee; and tliat holds true for New England. 

Mr. Arens. Then is it true, if I interpret your testimony correctly, 
that for each person whom you know in the echelon within the Com- 
munist Party in which you circulated, there were approximately 10 
other comrades in some other phase of the Communist Party 
apparatus ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. For each member that you knew ? 

Mr. Penha. Not for each member that I knew, because I did know 
many rank and file, too. I would say for each committee that I have 
known throughout the areas which I have known, I would say that 
for each 1 that I knew as a member of that committee- there were 10 
Communists that he represented, directly or indirectly. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask how^ many committees you knew ? You have 
stated that there wxre 7 or 8 members in each section in each city. 
But how many committees ? 

Mr. Penha. May I correct that statement, sir ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Penha. I stated when I first came into the party and I was 
first elevated in New Bedford to the Section Coinmittee, there were 
either 7 or 8 members of that committee, I stated, in New Bedford. 
In some areas it does not apply, the same numbers. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, may I make my question clear ? How many cities 
or sections, to your knowledge as of now, have city committees, section 
committees, in New England? 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, I would say from my experiences and recol- 
lection, aside from New Bedford you also have Fall River ; you have 



2098 OOMMUNTST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Providence, R. I.; you have Sprino^field ; you have Lawrence; and 
you have various committees throughout greater Boston, Dorchester, 
and Rochester and so forth in Boston. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Moulder. May I suggest that the loudspeaking arrangement 
be turned lower or disconnected; we might hear the witness better 
without it than with it. 

Mr. Arens. Could you turn it down a little, please ? 

Now, sir, we have talked in general terms about the over-all ap- 
paratus. I have just 1 or 2 more questions and then I want to get into 
your own personal life, if you please, sir. 

You told us about the potency of the Communist apparatus, some- 
thing of the actual Communist agents at nerve centers in this society 
here in New England. Can you tell us the ratio, on the basis of 
your background and experience, of hard-core Communists to those 
who are under Communist discipline or who contribute to the work 
of the apparatus ? 

Mr. Penha. Sir, that is a question well put. I think it is a very 
pertinent one. You will find that approximately 40 to 60 percent of 
its membership are secret members, hard-core members, that are in- 
filtrated in various organizations, industry, fraternal organizations, 
and the like. This, of course, does not mean that this remaining 
portion are not hard core, but they are in other levels. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any way you could appraise for us, based upon 
your experience in the Communist Party, the numbers who are not 
actually within the apparatus consciously but who serve the work, 
purpose, and objective of the apparatus under the stimulus of the 
apparatus ? 

Mr. Penha. Sir, may I ask you this : Do I assume 

Mr. Moulder. May I interrupt, Mr. Arens ? Would you also add : 
"And also for the purpose of what they refer to as following a just 
and righteous cause, in many instances" ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir, if you please. 

Mr. Penha. That will be a loaded question. Sir, may I ask, first, 
I believe you are making reference to Communist sympathizers ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Penha. I would say this very strongly — and this does not 
apply only to New England — that for every member of the Commu- 
nist Party there exists a minimum of 10 sympathizers who, in turn, 
can branch out and influence other people. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I should like, with this general series of ques- 
tions, if you please, sir, to let the record now reflect something of 
your own personal background and experience and also a word about 
your own tribulations as a Christian gentleman within this Godless 
apparatus. 

Mr. Penha. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us where you were born, when, and a little of your 
educational background and the principal employments which you 
have had, a little about your family, and the like; and then we will 
proceed into the details of the conspiracy in this area. 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

I was born in New Bedford, Mass., June 5, 1920. In 1932 I went, 
together with my parents, to Portugal, and I remained there until 
1940. I came back to this country at that time. Shortly thereafter, 



COMMUNIST ACnvmEiS IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2099 

I was employed for the United States Government as a censor and 
translator for the Office of Censorship in New York City. 

In 1942 I went into the service and, subsequently, after that, I was 
called into the military intelligence and became a member of it for 
approximately 32 months. 

Wlien I was discharged from the service, I was employed by the 
John Hancock Life Insurance Co. as an insurance salesman. 

And may I add at this time that, as a result of becoming a member 
of the Communist Party, I was not only instructed but told that if 
1 wanted to progress, if I was to become a good, hard-core Commmiist, 
1 would have to leave such an employment and get into the industrial 
field. I did, at a sacrifice of approximately $45 to $50 a week. I first 
went to Simon Supply Co. as a salesclerk. Then I followed into Ace 
Cabinet and, subsequently, to Acushnet Process Co. 

Insofar as my educational background is concerned, I believe it is 
just a typical average American ; high school, business school, and a 
bachelor of laws degree. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, tell us just a word, if you please, about your 
family. Are you a family man? 

Mr. Penha. I am a familj' man;' yes, sir. I would like to add at 
this point, if I may — and I hope that the gentlemen of the connnittee 
will bear with me in taking a few minutes in explaining this, because 
I think it is highly pertinent — and that is, when I decided to join 
the Communist Party after approaching the FBI, I reported this to 
my wife. I felt it was my duty; that, if I was to ever succeed, she 
would have to share in the outcome. She said, "Yes." And I would 
say that were it not for my wife, I don't think I would have ever 
succeeded in the party. She has gone through many strenuous and 
difficult tasks in the party, entertaining party leaders, secret members, 
having them stay in my home, watching the children, seeing that they 
would not say anything out of line, and many other things. 

Mr. Arens. And could I impose upon your personal life just to 
this extent, not from the standpoint of prying but from the stand- 
point of making the record clear : Did the participation by yourself 
in the Communist Party in any way interfere with your normal par- 
ticipation in your religious convictions and in your religious ob- 
servances ? 

Mr. Penha, It certainly did, sir. I first would like to point out 
that, whether anyone present is a Jew, Protestant, or Catholic, let him 
remind himself that the fact he can go to his own church or synagogue 
at any time is a great privilege. I didn't realize this until I got into 
the party. Sometimes I felt I may have had a headache or something, 
today I will not go to Mass. Once I was in the party I realized the 
very thing that I wanted, that I needed to be close to me, I did not 
have, I could not have. 

As a result of that, in the 8 years, I believe, I have been inside of 
the church no more than 12 times, in various areas of the country, 
and this taking the best of measures. 

However, I would like to point out at this time that although I do 
know the person I am going to speak about is a very humble person, 
if I may say so, and would not like to have me mention him, but he has 
been my inspiration, spiritual, as I could not be in church. Msgr. 
Walter Furlong, from Newton, has given me the greatest guidance and 



2100 cx)MMTiN"iST ACTrv^rriES m the new England akie'a 

assistance. Were it not for him I do not believe I could have carried 
the load I did. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask why you did not go to church more than 12 
times in 8 years ? That is not quite clear to me. After you joined the 
party, why didn't you go? What did the party have to do with it, 
if anything ? They didn't control where you went to church, did they ? 

Mr. Penha. Sir, they controlled every movement of life. They are 
atheists by nature, and if you go to church they want to know why. 
Tliey do have some members that they want to be in church in order 
to infiltrate the various organizations within the church, but, as a 
whole, the hard-core Communists don't believe in it, to start with. 
And if I was to go in there I wouldn't be here today, I am sure. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I deliberately asked you that question so that the 
record would be more clear as to what the discipline of the Communist 
Party is so far as religion is concerned. 

Mr. Penha. It was very strong, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that we might 
take a 5-minute recess. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will recess for a period of 5 minutes. 

(Bripf recess.) 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

(Committee members present: Representatives Moulder, Doyle, and 
Kearney.) 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Arens, you may proceed with the interrogation of 
the witness. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, would you kindly tell us who actually re- 
cruited you into the Communist Party, where, and within what entity 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Penha. The person that recruited me into the Conimunist 
Party was Joseph Figueiredo. At that time he was a section organizer 
for the New Bedford area. I don't recall the rest of your question, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat section or what entity or unit or cell of the Com- 
munist Party did you first enter ? 

Mr. Penha. Well, I first entered a group which the section organizer, 
Joseph Figueiredo, was attempting to establish, and that was a so- 
called anti-Fascist group. It was, in other words, a group that was 
trying to make a wedge into the minority group in New Bedford, the 
Portuguese-speaking people, who by and large, I would say 99 percent, 
are anti-Communist. 

Mr. Arens. Was this group, notwithstanding the fact that 99 per- 
cent were anti-Communist, was it controlled by the conspiracy ? 

Mr. Penha. Sir, when I said 99 percent I meant the entire popula- 
tion of Portuguese extraction. 

Mr. Arens. I understand. 

Mr. Penha. I want you to understand that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I understand. Was there an entity or organization that 
you entered ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of it ? 

Mr. Penha. The organization that I entered — actually it was two- 
fold. I entered one without being a member of it, attending some of 
its meetings and seeing some of its members, and this one was known 
as the Alliance Liberal Portuguese Club (ALP). 

Mr. Arens. Did you enter it at the behest of the Communist Party ? 



COMMTJlSrrST ACTIVITIEiS IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2101 

Mr. Penha, I did not enter this club as a member. I entered this 
club in order to get acquainted with Communist sympathizers in there 
and to assist in the anti -Fascist action. The club that I entered 

Mr. Moulder. Was it a discussion group, that which is sometimes 
referred to by the Communists as a discussion group ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. I think, if you will permit me, sir, later on 
1 can go into that. 

Mr. Moulder. Proceed. 

Mr. Penha. The club that I did enter as a member, as a written 
member, was the Portuguese Republican Club of New Bedford. To 
show you the power, the influence of the Communist Party, in rela- 
tively 2 months as a member I became its secretary. 

Mr. Arens. That w^as because you were pushed by trained Com- 
munists ? 

Mr. Penha. Communist sympathizers in this club and ex-Commu- 
nists. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us the first cell or section of the 
Communist Party to which you were attached ? 

Mr. Penha. I was attached to the Section Committee, I believe ap- 
proximately in July or August of 1950. 

Mr. Arens. That was the New Bedford Section Committee? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, please, tell us the name of each person who at any 
time, to your certain knowledge, was a member of the New Bedford 
Section Committee of the Communist Party ; and I have admonished 
you, as you know, prior to your appearance today, that we do not 
want you to identify, or to suggest identification of, any person on 
this public record who is not to your certain knowledge, based upon 
attendance by you in closed party meetings with that person, a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. You understand that ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Now, would you kindly tell us the name 
of each person known to a certainty by you, because of attendance by 
you in a closed Communist cell meeting with that person, as a member 
of the New Bedford Section Committee. 

Mr. Penha. Sir, if I may first, I would like to state this 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Penha. The persons that I have stated in my contacts with 
you — and which I hope it will bear out here — are persons that I defi- 
nitely know^ as Communists, being a Communist leader, I absolutely 
would know them. 

Mr. xIrens. Would you kindly, then, give us the name of each per- 
son in the New Bedford Section Committee known by you to be a 
comrade ? 

Mr. Penha. In the New Bedford Section Committee? 

Mr. Arens. Would you excuse an interruption. I am sorry. After 
you have given us the name of the persons, give us just a word of 
characterization or description of that person, not physically, but 
from the standpoint of activity. 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

I should start with Joseph Figueiredo. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. His title was section organizer and chairman of the 
Section Committee. He was responsible for the entire Communist 
apparatus and its discipline among the members of the city. 



2102 coMivruNrsT activities in the new England area 

Mr. Arens. He is presently in California, is he not? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. What period of time are you covering now, Mr. 
Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. This is 1950, is it not ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. All right. 

Mr. Penha. The second member that I would like to bring to your 
attention, sir, is Eulalia Figueiredo. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about that person. Is that a man or 
woman, by the way ? 

Mr. Penha. She is a woman. Presently she is in Poland. She 
was deport^ed. She was the wife of Joseph Figueiredo. Her activi- 
ties were concentrated more so on imion organizations than front 
organizations. 

The next person is Mary Figueirido, no relation whatsoever to the 
previously identified Figueiredos. At that time she was employed at 
the Fiske Mills in New Bedford. The Fiske Mills, of course, today 
are not operating. But she was at that time. She was a leading 
comrade and she exerted great influence not only among the stewards 
but the local leadership, and that was her primary task, 

Mr. Arens. Wliat union was that ? _ _ 

Mr. Penha. That was Mary Figueirido that I am talking about. 

Mr. Arens. AVhat union ? 

Mr. Penha. The TWU A, sir, CIO. 

I may also say that she was an officer for several years, and the last 
time she was instructed not to become an officer because of a Taft- 
Hartley oath that she would have to undertake. 

The next person, at that time her name was Joy Clark. Today she 
is Joy Clark Figueiredo. She has since married Joseph Figueiredo. 
She was in charge of press^ literature, and dues. 

Mr. Arens. May I inquire whether or not you have information 
respecting any underground activities of Mary Figueirido ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, I have, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word of description on that and we will get 
into the underground operations a little later, but just a word, now, 
if you please, about Mary Figueirido's activity miderground. 

Mr. Penha. Well, one of her key activities was, of course, in and 
around the mill local. She was very instrumental in guiding the CIO 
leadership during her time of leadership. Subsequently, after that, 
in the early fifties, she became more or less a part of servicing Commu- 
nist Party sympathizers and members in their homes; and as such 
she was and could be used as a courier. 

Mr. Arens. Did she ever, to your knowledge, arrange housing facili- 
ties for members of the underground in transit to this area ? 

Mr. Penha. Among other things that she did was infiltration of 
the Clube Alianca Liberal Portuguesa 

Mr. Arens. I didn't get that. 

Mr. Penha. As an officer. 

Mr. Arens. She became an officer of 



Ml'. Kearney. What was the name of the club ? 
Mr. Penha. The Alliance Liberal Portuguese Club (ALP) . 
Another was arranging places of meeting ; these were secret meet- 
ings for the underground members. 



OOMMUNTST ACTIVITIEiS IN THE NEW EflSTGLAND AREA 2103 

I may say that in each and every one I could go in quite detail 
if we had the time. 

Mr. Arens. After we have permitted you to identify people known 
by you as leading comrades in each of these several entities, we expect 
to get into the pattern of operation, the underground, and the like, 
so I will not ask you at this time to dwell upon that. 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, if you please, sir, was there another person who 
was known by you to be a comrade in the New Bedford Section 
Committee ? 

Mr. Penha. The other person was known as Nat Shelman, Nathaniel. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. He was a colonizer sent in from the district into the 
New Bedford area. 

Mr. Arens. We expect to get into the subject of colonization perhaps 
this afternoon with you. Could you tell us now what you mean by 
colonization ? 

Mr. Penha. What I mean by a colonizer is a person that is in- 
structed by the party to infiltrate key and basic industries, labor unions, 
and organizations to serve the party's interests. 

Mr. Arens. And Nat Shelman was to your certain knowledge a 
Communist Party colonizer ? 

Mr. Penha. Absolutely, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have the name of another person who to your 
certain knowledge was in the New Bedford Section ? 

Mr. Penha. The next person was Andie Shelman, his wife. She 
was also a colonizer. 

Would you give me the number, please, that I have given to that 
point, so I won't repeat ? 

Mr. Arens. I believe about a half dozen. 

May I suggest to you the name of Dan Amado. 

Mr. Penha. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes. Dan Amado was another member of the Sec- 
tion Committee, and the last one, of course, was myself. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us a word of characterization or descrip- 
tion of the activity of Dan Amado ? 

Mr. Penha. Dan Amado was a worker in the Goodyear plant and 
as such he was to carry the party's policy into the plant and influence 
as many of the people as he possibly could. I would like also to say 
that he was very active in Negro affairs because of the fact that he is 
of Cape Verdean extraction. 

Mr. Arens. We are in the period of 1950, shortly after you joined 
the Communist Party ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. In the chronology of your career ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were there other members who subsequently came into 
the New Bedford Section of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us who they were and a word of descrip- 
tion or characterization of them from the standpoint of their activity ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. The subsequent members of the Section Com- 



2104 coMiMTJisrrsT activitieis m the new exgll\nd area 

mittee took place as a result of the State law passed in 1951 outlawing 
the Communist Party in Massachusetts. 

In other words, some of the key membei-s took off, they flew the coop, 
as the party would say. As a result of that, when I became section 
organizer, I had to bring in other people, among them Douglas Perry, 
union organizer for the UE. I v.'ould say, although I anticipate on 
the question of infiltration and colonization that we are going to speak 
about him later — I will say one thing now, that a union organizer ; that 
is, a Communist, as the mandate of the party is, first, he is a Commu- 
nist, and, secondly, union organizer. 

Mr. Arens. Continue, 

Mr. Penh A. The next person, Olga Garczynski. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of characterization of her, please, sir. 

Mr. Peniia. Olga Garczynski is presently working at a plant that 
Avas known as the National Silver Co. It has recently been purchased 
by another company. She has been in the National Silver Co. working 
from within to organize the plant for tlie UE as instructed by the 
party. 

Mr. Arens. Could you kindly give us another name, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Manuel Coito. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha*. Manuel Coito was working at a textile plant in New 
Bedford. His influence cannot be minimized because of the fact that 
he knew and commanded a great deal of respect with the officers of 
that local. He was also very active in various organizations, par- 
ticularly Portuguese clubs in the area. 

Mr. Arens. xVll right, sir. Is there another name ? 

Mr. Penha. There is Roy Eogerson. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Roy Rogerson is employed at present and for many 
years at the Morse Drill & Machine Co. 

Mr. Kearney. "Where is that located ? 

Mr. Penha. That is in New Bedford, sir. 

He is considered one of the best hard-core members, along with 
Douglas Perry, in New England — not only in New Bedford. He has 
been very active in union matters relative to creating a greater wedge 
between management and the union, also in bringing about the party 
line that was his main task, and also running as a candidate for 
political office in order to bring about the party line in his campaign. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another name you should like to tell us about? 

Mr. Penha. I recall that Maud D'haze. who is now deceased, Avas 
also a member for a short time. 

Mr. xVrens. In view of the fact she is deceased, I suggest that we 
will not probe further w'ith reference to her. 

May I suggest the name Arnold Schwartz ? 

Mr. Penha. The next person is Arnold Schwartz. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about him, please, sir. 

]Mr. Penha. xVrnold Schwartz is originally from Ncav York, I be- 
lieve the Bronx. He is a colonizer. He was sent from the New York 
area into Now England for the ])urpose of colonization. The district 
in turn sent him into New Bedford area, where he obtained em])loy- 
ment at the Wamsutta Mills, a textile plant, as instructed by the party. 

The next i")erson is his wife, Rosaline Schwartz. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2105 

Mr. Arens. And a word about lier, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. She in turn was also a colonizer. When she came into 
our area, she was, of course, married. They had originally come 
together from New York. She also obtained employment in New 
Bedford as instructed by the party for the purposes of colonization. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other persons who, to your certain knowl- 
edge, were members at any time since 1950 in the New Bedford Section 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Penha. I would say that we did have, for example, acting mem- 
bers for a short period of time. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean by an acting member ? 

Mr. Penha. An acting member is one who is not elected to the com- 
mittee, but is a responsible hard-core member that we need for various 
reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Now, these persons whom you have just named were 
in the leader echelon in the New Bedford Section; isn't that correct? 

Mr. Penha. They were elected to the Section Committee, New Bed- 
ford. 

Mr. Arens. And for each one of these persons there were a number 
of other comrades who were not quite in this high status within the 
apparatus ? 

Mr. Penha. Very definitely so, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. May I interrupt to ask : You have used the phrase 
"instructed by the party." Would you explain that ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

When I say "instructed by the party," I make reference to the fact 
that when a section committee is holding a meeting, a district leader 
comes down and gives the party line, or policy, or instructions on each 
individual case. In other cases it may well be, as it happened in many 
instances, that the instructions were conveyed to me by a district 
leader because of the fact that I used to come into Boston very often. 

Mr. Arens. We expect in a little while, perhaps this afternoon, to 
interrogate you with respect to comrades within the New Bedford 
Section in the lower echelons. We are now interrogating you with 
reference to the leadership as you understand, do you not ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I would like, if you please, sir, to skip over to the 
Fall River Section Committee, the leadership in that area, and ask 
you to kindly tell us the names of persons who to your certain knowl- 
edge were on the Fall River Section Committee. 

Perhaps later we will interrogate you publicly with reference to the 
rank and file. 

Mr. Penha. James Rex. 

Mr. Arens. And a word of characterization about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. He was a person that was considered a hard-core 
member and was considered more or less the mouthpiece of the party 
in that area. 

When I say "the mouthpiece," it is a person that is used for the pur- 
poses of indicating to the public in that area that the party is legiti- 
mate and that it is operating in the open. He handled extensively 
literature, press, and dues. 

The next one is Ernie Audette. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a word of characterization of Ernie 
Audette? 



2106 COMMUNIST ACTIVinE& IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Penha. Certainly, sir. Ernie Audette was used for mass 
agitation and propaganda, mainly. 

Mr. AnENS. We will probe with you a little later as to what you 
mean by mass agitation and propaganda and some of the activities, 
but gives us, if you please, right now, just a thumbnail description 
of mass agitation and propaganda within the lingo of the conspiracy. 

Mr. Peniia. Mass agitation and propaganda that is utilized basi- 
cally in Communist fronts. If there is an issue that the party sees 
or can develop that will meet the immediate demands of the workers 
or the group of any particular organization, they are going to culti- 
vate it. They have extraordinary organizational abilities to do it. 
However, as time goes on, if they see that there is nothing else com- 
ing from it, other than helping that immediate cause, then it is of no 
benefit to the party and they will drop it. If, however, it does help 
the party, then it provides a means whereas the party can bring its 
line into undermining and smearing our democratic system. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another person who to your certain knowledge 
was a member of the Fall Kiver Section Committee ? 

Mr. Penha. There was Alex 

Mr. Arens. Was it Alex Sawchyn ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly give us a word of description of him, please. 

Mr. Penha. Alex was tied in with labor circles of the Fall River 
Section of the party, and it was his job to bring the party influence 
within the labor forces. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another name? May I suggest the name of 
Sam Appel ? 

Mr. Penha. I believe I stated that one. Maybe I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. I am afraid you did not. 

Mr. Penha. I am sorry, sir. 

Sam Appel was the key, the link, with the professional people of 
Fall River. By and large his responsibility lay on the basis of ac- 
tivity in Communist fronts; activities in the Progressive Party of 
Fall River, which he was responsible for ; and more important to the 
party at times, it is very important, finances, of which he was able to 
obtain large sums. 

Mr, Arens. Did he make substantial contributions, or did he chan- 
nel substantial funds to the Communist apparatus? 

Mr. Penha. I would say both, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, may I invite your attention to the Providence 
Section Committee, Providence, R. I., and ask you if you would 
kindly give us the name and a word of characterization of each person 
who, to your certain knowledge, was a member of that committee. 

We will not at the moment get below the section committee level, 
if you please, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. And would you also add the period of time to which 
you are now referring ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. What period of 
time were you connected with the Providence Section Committee? 

Mr. Penha. I would say approximately 1953, straight along the fol- 
lowing years. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Now, would you kindly proceed with 
your testimony ? 



«i:Vr>. 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2107 

Mr. Penha. I would just like to bring to the attention of the chair- 
man, which I am sure he realizes, that I am working strictly from 
memory, and it is a little difficult to ascertain exactly the dates. I 
will attempt to do my best. 

Mr. Moulder. We understand that. It is the approximate period 
of time that you are referring to. 

Mr. Penha. Thank you, sir. Thank you very kindly. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly proceed ? 

Mr. Penha. I shall start first with Geoffrey IVhite, as section or- 
ganizer and chairman of the Providence Section Committee. 

Mr. Arens. He just recently moved to California, did he not? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. I am not in possession of informa- 
tion as to why he went there, but I have a pretty good opinion why. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us, was he in the underground ? 

Mr. Penha. He was, yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. We are having difficulty trying to locate him. That is 
the reason I asked. 

Mr. Penha. I would say this about Geoffrey White. I think in de- 
scribing an individual such as Geoff'rey White would more or less clear 
the picture as to what a colonizer is. Geoff'rey White 

Mr. Arens. Is there another person, please ? Excuse me. 

Mr. Penha. Geoffrey White is an extremely brilliant individual. 
He is a Harvard graduate. He is an individual with vast experience 
in the Communist Party, who will follow the party line, and is a very 
hard-core disciplined Communist. He is also or was selected to be a 
colonizer twice, once in the Providence area, and the other time in 
the South. 

Mr. Arens. It is our information that Geoffrey White was one of 
those persons who, allegedly in the course of the last several months, 
has submitted what we might, with tongue in cheek, characterize as a 
resignation from the Communist Party. On the basis of your back- 
ground, experience, and information of Geoffrey White, do you think 
he actually resigned from the apparatus, in addition to technical 
resignation from the party ? 

Mr. Penha. Absolutely not, sir. In the first place, I knew Geoffrey 
White very well. I think I was one of the closest persons to him, 
other than the district organizer. Secondly, knowing that he was a 
hard-core Communist and knowing the techniques of the Communist 
Party, I am quite sure that his statement, made public, that he had 
resigned from the party was instructed by the party itself. 

Mr. Moulder. Where was this statement made ? 

Mr. Penha. One of the places, I believe, was the Daily Worker. 

Mr. Moulder. You say he is now active in California? 

Mr. Penha. Well, he subsequently left for California. It is my 
assumption here that he has gone there as a colonizer. That is one 
of the techniques of the party, to break away certain elements and 
then use them at a later date. That is what they call putting them 
on ice. 

Mr. Moulder. Putting on what ? 

Mr. Penha. Putting on ice. 

Mr. Arens. Or sleepers. They call that sleepers, don't they ? 

Mr. Penha. Or sleej^ers. That is correct, sir. 



24777— 58— pt. 1- 



2108 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Arens. AVill you kindly tell us whether or not there is another 
person known to you to be a member of the Providence, R. I., Section 
of the Communist Party apparatus? 

Mr. Pexiia. The next person is Ralph Lofsky. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Ralph Lofsky is the treasurer of the party. He handles 
the finances. But more important, he is the theoretician of the party 
in Rhode Island. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another person ? 

Mr. Penha. The next person is Jerry DiBiase. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Jerry DiBiase, in order to bring some light into his 
identity, I think it is important again to speak of Geoffrey White. 
When Geoffrey White was working in the plant in Rhode Island as a 
colonizer, he recruited Jerry DiBiase, which is another of the assets 
of a colonizer. Jerry DiBiase has been trained in the party for the 
purpose of being utilized as a colonizer. He has also been very active 
in the Labor Youth League. 

Mr. Moulder. Wliere are they now ? 

Mr. Penha. I beg your pardon, sir ? 

Mr. Moulder. Wlrere are they now and what are they doing at this 
time ? Do you know of your personal knowledge ? 

Mr. Penha. Are you referring to Jerry DiBiase, sir ? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

Mr. Penha. He may be ri^ht here in this room. I didn't look 
around sir. Do you mean reference where he has been working? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes, 

Mr. Penha. He has been in the Rhode Island section for some time. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, may I advise the Chair that a subpena 
has been served upon Jerry DiBiase for appearance during this series 
of hearings here in Boston. 

Is there another name ? 

Mr. Penha. The next person is Dorothy Friedman. Dorothy Fried- 
man was responsible for the party front organizations and establish- 
ing meetings and lectures for the party unnoticingly, of course, to 
many sources, that is, public sources. 

I may also point out at this time that during the time of the revolu- 
tion in Guatemala, she went there supposedly on a visit. I don't know 
exactly what it was. 

Mr. Kearney. That is a good time to go to any country, when there 
is a revolution going on. 

Mr. Penha. Especially a Communist, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. In addition to the suggestion made by ]\Ir. Arens, 
that you give a brief identification of persons which you name, so that 
they may not be confused with persons who may in no way be related 
to the Communist Party, could you also tell us what your latest in- 
formation or knowledge is concerning those persons as to what they 
are now doing and where they are now? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. With that understanding would you 
kindly proceed to the next name of a person known by you to be a 
member of the Providence Section Committee. 

Mr. Penha. The next person is Dave Kolodoff. Dave Kolodoff was 
responsible for press and literature. I believe, to the best of my recol- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2109 

lection, he is employed in a liquor package store which is owned by his 
parents. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know what city ? 

Mr. Penha. In Providence, R. I. 

Mr. Akens. All right, sir. Proceed then to the next name. 

Mr. Peniia. I am sorry — the question is for the next name ? 

Mr. Arens. If you please. May I suggest the name of Ann White ? 

Mr. Peniia. I am trying to think of the persons. I was wondering 
may I have a pad here so I could put down the names? 

Mr. Arens. Surely. 

Mr. Penha. I could put them down, and it would help me h.ecause I 
don't like to make a repetition. 

(Paper handed to witness.) 

Mr. Peniia. Thank you. 

The next person is Ann White. She is the wife of Geoffrey AVhite, 
She was — I would put, first, her occupation in order to establish the 
proper identity. She has been a housewife for a considerable length 
of tim.e. She has been in charge of the Labor Youth League in 
Rhode Island. She was also selected for the purposes of being sent 
to the South as a colonizer. 

Mr. Arens. May I suggest the name John Hovan ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. John Hovan was acting section organizer 
for a while, and also at different intervals he was a member of the 
Section Committee. He was employed for the same purposes of 
colonization in the Brown and Sharpe Manufacturing Company in 
Providence, among others. He has been in several other plants since 
then. 

Mr. Arens. May I suggest the name Frank Martin ? 

]\Ir. Penha. Frank ]\Iartin was the first section organizer for 
Providence, that is, the first from the time that I became active in the 
party. He was an able theoretician and liad excellent organization 
abilities. In 1955, I believe, at a district committee meeting, which 
as a member I was present, we voted to expel him at that timxC. 

Mr. Arens. Now, may I invite your attention to the Boston Sec- 
tion Committee of the Communist Party and ask you, first of all, to 
give us the date on which you were identified with the Boston Section 
Committee of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Penha. I believe the question referred to the committee as a 
whole and the meetings ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, if you please. • We want to proceed in a few mo- 
ments with identification of persons known to you to be on tlie Sec- 
tion Committee of Boston. 

We do not intend, at least for the next several minutes, to get into 
anyone below the Section Committee in Boston. 

Mr. Penha. I believe in — approximately sometime in 1954: or '53 — • 
I am a little vague on the years. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Penha. But I believe that would be the time. I would start 
oft' first with Margaret Hicks. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about her, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. I know she was active in Negi'o affairs, being that slie 
was a Negro in front organizations. 

Ann Garfield. 



2110 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Arens. And a word about her, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Ann Garfield vras active in Communist fronts, mainly. 
I don't think I have 

Mr. Arens. May I suggest the name of Jerry Olrich? 

Mr. Penha. That is what I was going to ask. I don't think I 
covered him. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly give us a word about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. He is a very able Marxist, a well indoctrinated, hard- 
core Marxist, and theoretician. Much of his advice is utilized be- 
cause of his vast experience and prestige in the party. 

Mr. Arens. May I make the record clear here ? The names which 
I have, from time to time, been prompting your memory with and 
suggesting are, in each and every instance, names which you have 
heretofore given us ? 

Mr. Penha. That is absolutely correct. 

Mr. Arens. In private session, is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. That is absolutely correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, may I suggest the name of Edith Abber ? 

Mr. Penha. Edith Abber was very active in various Communist 
fronts and particularly in issues that the party would raise, whether 
it be for peace, rent control, or what have you. 

Mr. Arens. And Anne Burlak Timpson. 

Mr. Penha. I want to just say one thing in addition to what I will 
continue on, but I have noticed in the press, not from this time but 
from the past, that Anne Burlak is known as the "Red Flame." 

Mr. Moulder. I did not understand that. 

Mr. Penha. She has been addressed i]i the newspaper, in the past 
I am referring to, as the "Eed Flame." I would like to state at this 
time that in the party she was more than the Red Flame. I don't 
know how the newspapers arrive at that phrase of calling her that, 
but they were very accurate in describing this person. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us now, please, a word of char- 
acterization or description of her activities ? 

Mr. Penha. Anne Burlak is a very ruthless, hard-core Communist. 
She spares no one in order to achieve further recognition from tlie 
top leadership. She is a past National Committee member of the 
Communist Party. She is, or rather she lias been, a paid functionary 
by the National Committee. 

Mr. Arens. Incidentally, have you seen her in the court room here 
this morning ? 

Mr. Penha. I haven't looked around to see. It is possible she may 
be. If you wish, I could look. 

Mr. Arens. No, I just wondered if you had seen her, because she 
is under subpena. 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess until 1 : 30 p. m. 

("\^niereupon, at 11 : 50 a. m. March 18, 1958, the committee re- 
cessed to reconvene at 1 : 30 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, MARCH 18, 1958 

(Committee members present: Representatives Moulder, Doyle, 
Kearney, and Mcintosh.) 

Mr, Moulder. The committee will be in order. 



CX)MMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2111 

Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Aiens ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, if you please, Mr. Chairman. 

TESTIMONY OF AHMANDO PENHA— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. I now invite your attention, if you please, sir, to tlie 
New England District Committee of the Communist Party and ask 
you to proceed, in like manner as this morning, to give us the name 
of each person who, to your certain knowledge, was a member of the 
New England District Committee of the Communist Party. First of 
all, please state the approximate time of your identification with that 
entity. 

Mr. Peniia. I wish to state at this time, Mr. Arens, that the first 
election held in New England for the officers of the District Com- 
mittee was held in 1955, prior to that it was either 1950 or 1951. This 
was the first permanent elected committee since that time. 

There were 18 members on the District Committee. There were 
two alternates and there was one member-at-large. 

As to the names, I shall start off with the easiest one — myself. Then 
there Avas Michael Russo, district organizer, then. He had come out 
in the open. 

Sidney Lipshires, Daniel B. Schirmer. 

Mr. Aeens. Was Sidney Lipshires district secretary ? 

Mr. Peniia. At that time he was ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. That is in 1955 ? 

Mr. Penha. That is November or December of 1955, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat position did Daniel B. Schirmer have? 

Mr. Penha. Daniel Boone Schirmer was party defense chairman 
for New England. 

jNIr. Arens. What do you mean by defense chairman? '\Vliat was 
his function ? 

Mr. Penha. His fimction was to act to coordinate and to hand 
down directives from the National Committee of the Communist Party 
in relation to: Number 1, to form all types of attacks against com- 
mittees such as this ; Number 2 would be to raise funds in the possi- 
bility of any arrests; Number 3 would be propaganda in order to 
undermine and harass the Government, both State and Federal. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Would you kindly proceed to the next 
name. 

Mr. Penha. Kitty Heck. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about her, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Kitty Heck, while in the imderground, she was a prod- 
uct from another state, iiyported here for underground work, mainly 
to serve as a courier for the party and also to coordinate some of the 
work that was handed down by National Committee directives. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Another name, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Geoflrey White, section organizer at the time, from 
Providence, R. I. 

Mr. Arens. You previously mentioned him. 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And gave us a word about him. All right, sir. Is 
there another name? 

Mr. Penha. The next one, Tony Passaretti, from Lawrence. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about him, please, sir. 



2112 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW ENGIjAND ARE.A 

Mr. Penha. Tony Passaretti was a section organizer for Lawrence. 
His task was to implement the party line and carry out its policies 
in tlie Lawrence area. 

ISIr. Arens. Another name, please, sir. 

Mr. Pexha. I would like to add two names here and, at the same 
time, explain why I am referring- to both of them rather than sepa- 
rately. 

One is Joe Chase and the other one is Bill Harrison. Bill Har- 
rison I know to be a writer. The important element liere tliat I 
would like to raise is that at the time of the election of the District 
Committee members, these two Communists were not present. Their 
names were proposed, acted on, and elected. They were the only 
two that were not present at the meeting. I do not know who this 
Chase is. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Do you have another name? 

Mr. Penha. Eddie Garfield. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about him, please, sir, 

Mr. Penha. Eddie Garfield is a former colonizer. He was also 
prominent in the plant which he colonized, as the editor of its paper 
in order to further bring out party propaganda. 

JNIr. Arens. Did he ever serve on the Metals Commission of the 
party ? 

Mr. Penha. He was also a member of the Xew England District 
Metals Commission. 

Mr. Arens. Give us just a word of description about that com- 
mission. 

Mr. Penha. Tlie New England District Metals Commission is a 
group which has been formed, and is part of a national chain directed 
by the National Committee, for the purposes of coordinating direc- 
tives issued by the National Committee relative to colonization, infil- 
tration, agitation, propaganda, and many other items, particularly 
the sending of colonizers to other areas. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Penha. The next name would be Robert Goodwin. 

Mr. Arens. A word about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Robert Goodwin, a former colonizer, chairman of tlie 
New England District Metals Commission. 

Mr. Arens. Where was he located, in what city ? 

Mr. Penha. He came from the Lynn area. 

The next person, Nat Mills, Natlianiel Mills. Nat Mills had been 
previously a colonizer for the party in this area. Subsequently, he 
became head of the Massachusetts Committee for the Bill of Rights. 

Mr. Arens. From whence did he come? • 

Mr. Penha. He was from the Lynn area. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Is tliere another name ? 

Mr. Penha. ]\Iargaret Hicks, from the Boston area. I have re- 
ferred to her before, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. You have alluded to her before and given a word of 
description. 

Mr. Penha. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another name ? 

Mr. Penha. Elba Chase, section organizer for New Hampshire. 

Mr. Arens. A Avord of description about her, please, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVrriES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2113 

Mr. Penha. Well, she is a section organizer, and her responsibility 
is parallel to all section organizers, that is, to huplement the party 
line, carry out its policies, and maintain party discipline in the area 
which they are responsible for. 

Mr. AuExs. Is there another name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Penha. There is also one that I recall now. I made reference 
a little while ago about two persons that w^ere not present. I just 
recall there was another one that was nominated and elected by the 
name of Ploward. 

Mr. xVrens. Is that his first name or last name ? 

Mr. Penha. I do not know, sir, because I don't know who he is. 

Mr. Arexs. Was he from Springfield ? 

Mr. Penha. Ke was to represent Springfield. His alternate was 
Paul Kosenkrants, I believe. 

Elba Chase had an alternate in the person of Hugo DeGregory. 

Mr. Arens. a word about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Hugo DeGregory was a very active Communist, both 
in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. In effect he was the key man 
in New Hampshire, because of the fact that Elba Chase, being an 
elderly Conmiunist, was not able to commute and contact the com- 
rades as effective!}" as Hugo. 

Mr. Arens. Was Otis Hood on the New England District Commit- 
tee in 1955 ? 

Mr. Penha. Otis Hood w^as also elected to the New England Dis- 
trict Committee at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Is he here present today? 

Mr. Penha. I Avould have to check, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Could you look over your right shoulder and see if 
you see him present here in the hearing room? 

]Mr. Penha. The gentleman is right there smiling at me. 

Mr. Kearney. I didn't get the answer of tlie witness there. 

Mr. Penha. I said the gentleman is right there smiling at me in 
the front row 

Mr, Kearney. What is his name? 

Mr. Penha. Otis Hood. 

Mr. Kearney. Is that the governor? 

Mr. Penha. Well, as far as the party theories go, when Socialism 
comes into the country that will be our next governor. 

Mr. Kearney. That will be the day. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another name, please, sir ? Excuse me. Would 
you want to characterize, give us a word of description of, the ac- 
tivities of Otis Hood? 

Mr. Penha. Yes. First, I would like to say, as all people present 
can see, that physically Otis Hood is a man of some stature. The 
same thing a])plies politically. He is ruthless. He is capable of 
anything and he will do anything in order to further his own personal 
aims, let alone tlie party's goal. 

Mr. Arens. What was his function as a member of the New England 
District Committee in 1955? 

IMr. Penha. He was assigned one or two areas which he was re- 
sponsible for. At the moment I don't recall it. 

Mr. Arens. Did he have a little something to do with press and 
literature ? 



2114 C0M]MU]snsT AcnvrriES in the new England areiA 

Mr. Penha. He was for a time in charge for the entire state on 
press and literature. He was also responsible in coming down to 
Fall River from time to time. 

Mr. Arens. Is he a full-time functionary of the apparatus? 

Mr. Penha. I do not know, sir. 

Mr. Aeens. Is there another name, please, sir? 

May I suggest Edith Abber. 

Mr. Penha. Edith Abber. 

Mr. Arens. You have mentioned her. 

Mr. Penha. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. But was she a member of the New England District 
Committee ? 

Mr. Penha. She was a member. She was elected at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Anne Burlak. 

Mr. Penha. That is a must with her. 

Mr, Arens. Tell us a word about her. You have heretofore char- 
acterized her for us. Give us a word of her activities. 

Mr. Penha. I believe I have. 

Mr. Arens. I am sure you have. 

Mr. Penha. But whatever I have done would not be sufficient to 
cover the entire field on that person. 

Mr. Arens. Well, take a half minute or so, if you please, then, and 
give us a little more characterization on this public record of Anne 
Burlak. 

Mr. Penha. Anne Burlak, from my experiences in meetings at 
^vhich she has been present, has been one that will sort of sit on the 
side and when she finds the opportune time she takes out her whip — 
her whip is in her tongue ; she is vicious, unscrupulous — and she will 
do anything that she feels that is deemed necessary. 

I may add from my personal experience that she is a paid func- 
tionary from the National Committee and also a person that reports 
to the National Committee as to the activities, behavior, and function 
of other officials. 

Mr. Moulder. May I interrupt? For the purpose of clarification, 
you say she is ruthless, an aggressive person, who will do anything to 
obtain her objectives. What were those objectives and what are her 
purposes in conducting herself in the manner in which you havp. 
mentioned ? 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, they are twofold. One is her personal ambi- 
tion to further herself within the party, both in stature and authority. 
The other is to intimidate and decrease the influence of an}^ comrade 
at any given meeting that she feels in any given way is not following 
her hue of thinking or does not agree with her. She will use any 
and all terms which I wouldn't dare use here. 

Mr. Moulder. Wait a minute. Enforcing the Communist Party 
discipline, is that what you are referring to when you say she is ruth- 
less? 

Mr. Penha. That is absolutely correct, sir. 

Mr. ICearney. Is she presently in the room ? 

Mr. Penha. I would have to look around, sir. 
' Mr. Kearney. Take a look around. 

Mr. Penha. Yes. She is. 

Mr. Kearney. For my own personal reason would you point her 
out, please ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2115 

Mr. Penha. She is in the fourth row; she is, I believe, the third 
individual, that is smiling right at the present time. 

Mr. Moulder. Has she been subpenaed as a witness, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. l^ARNEY. A rather modest person. I can't see her. 

Mr. Arens. Now may I suggest the name of Ann Garfield? 

Mr. Peniia. Ann Garfield, the wife of Eddie Garfield, was also 
nominated and elected to the District Committee. 

Mr. Arens. May I suggest the name of Paul Rosenkrants ? 

Mr. Penha. Paul Rosenkrants was elected, I believe, as I recall as 
an alternate for the New England District Committee. 

Mr. Arens. Now, may I invite your attention, if you please, sir, to 
the Massachusetts Board. 

Mr. Penha. Sir, if I may, I wish to name one other person. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Penha. Pertaining to the committee. 

Mr. Arens. Please do so. 

Mr. Penha. That is the District Committee of the party. 

John Russo. Jolui Russo was the head of the Labor Youtli League 
for New England. He was not a member of the District Committee. 
He was considered a member-at-large, that is, he was to attend certain 
meetings as directed by the district which would encompass his field 
of specialty in the Youth, and at the same time obtain directives 
pertaining to the Youth. 

Mr. Arens, May I invite your attention to the Massachusetts Board 
of the Communist Party and suggest that since those whom I under- 
stand you have identified as members of tlie Massachusetts Board in 
our consultations with you have all been characterized in this public 
session, you just allude to each individual who was a member of the 
Massachusetts Board of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Penha. Margaret Hicks. Robert Goodwin. Mike Russo. 

Mr. Abens. Edith Abber? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, Edith Abber. 

Mr. Arens. How about Sidney Lipshires? 

Mr. Penha. Sidney Lipshires is also a member of that Board. 

Mr. Arens. And how about Kitty Heck? 

Mr. Penha. And Kitty Heck was at the time. 

Mr. Arens. And what is the time of which you are speaking ? 

Mr. Penha. This was November or December of 1955. 

Mr. Arens. Was Anne Burlak Timpson on that Board? 

Mr. Penha. I don't recall, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, give us a word of description of the Massachusetts 
Board. What is it or what was it? 

Mr, Penha. The Massachusetts State Board was enacted for the 
purpose of conducting the party activities throughout the various 
areas. It was to receive its directives from the secretariat of the 
district, which in turn received it from the National Committee. 

Mr. Arens. May I invite your attention to the New England Dis- 
trict Secretariat. First of all, tell us what the New England District 
Secretariat is and then give us the name of each person who, to your 
certain knowledge, was a member of that entity. 

Mr. Penha. The members were Mike Russo, Sidney Lipshires, 
Daniel Boone Schirmer. And may I add at this time that the Secre- 
tariat consisted of full-time paid functionaries of the party. In addi^ 



2116 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLANTD AREA 

tion to that, these Secretariat members were the ones most likely to, 
and certainly did, attend National Committee meetings or National 
Commission meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Now, if you please, sir, I should like to display to you 
each of four exhibits and invite your attention to the general subject 
matter of the organizational structure of the Communist Party, from 
the standpoint of the national organization, the district, section, in- 
dividual groups, industrial and neighborhood units, and other entities 
within the organizational structure of the apparatus. 

May I suggest that in view of your intimate familiarity with both 
the exhibits and with the structure, you might just proceed to first 
identify each of these exhibits which you have supplied to us and 
then proceed, at your own pace, to summarize this organizational 
structure. 

And, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the Chair order 
each of these exhibits as it is identified to be appropriately marked 
and included by reference in this record. 

]Mr. Moulder. It is so ordered. 

Do you wish to mark them now as exhibits so and so? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, if you please. 

Mr. Moulder. Before you give them to the witness you are ordered 
to do it. 

Mr. Arens. As he talks about them. 

Would you kindly tell us what this exhibit is now which I lay be- 
fore you which I have marked as "Penha Exhibit No. 1"? 

Mr. Penha. Sir, before I identify these exhibits, I would like to 
state that in order to make a full and complete report as to what 
they mean and for what purposes they were, it would take a great 
deal of time. I will attempt to cut the time element down and still 
maintain the substance of it. 

Mr, Arens. Would you kindly give us a word of identification first 
of all of each of these exhibits? The first exhibit I have marked 
Exhibit 1. Kindly give us a word of description of that so that it 
mav be appropriatelv alluded to by reference in the record. 

Mr. Penha. Exhibit No. 1, entitled "Role of Left." 

This was given to me by the then district organizer, Sidney Lip- 
shires. The purpose of this 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. Could you kindly date it for us? Was 
that in approximately 1950? 

Mr. Penha. I believe this was approximately in the latter part of 
1953, somewhere around that area, or 1954, possibly. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Characterize it for us if you would, 
please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. The purpose of this was first of all, as stated to me by 
Sidney Lipshires, that this was the latest party directive handed 
down to the district by the National Committee. The reason for 
that was so that the district, first and foremost, should acquaint itself 
with the subject matters in order to take proper action within the 
given areas in the district. 

Secondly, this was to be brought down to the various section levels; 
from there, there would be discussions, plans, and objectives related 
to the locals based on industrial clubs or cells, as they are known, in 
order to implement the party line in the "Role of Left." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2117 

(Document marked "Penha Exhibit No. 1," retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Arens. Would .you kindly, in like manner, characterize for us 
the document which I have marked "Penha Exhibit No. 2"? 

Mr. Penha. Exhibit No. 2, entitled "Strugole Against White Chau- 
vinism." This was used some time in the latter part of 1950, I be- 
lieve — at that time, upon the instruction of the National Committee, 
which had its pressures from Comrade Pettis Perry, that the party 
was imbedded with too much white chauvinism. 

Mr. Moulder. I don't understand you. I did not understand the 
words. 

Mr. Arens. A^Hiite chauvinism. I was about to ask him what the 
party means by white chauvinism. What is the factual situation 
which the party undertakes to cover with the term "white chauvin- 
ism" ? 

Mr. Penha. On the surface this means something that actually in 
reality is not. It means, as the party would like it to be, that white 
people are chauvinistic against the Negro people, they discriminate 
against them and the party likes to be known as the champion and 
protector of Negro rights, which fortunately in our country the major- 
ity of the Negroes do not think for a minute is true. They also feel 
that this would have some impact not only within the party but 
with its sympathizers and with such masses as labor organizations and 
of the kind where the party had influence in. As such the district 
organizer at that time, known as Manny Blum — Emanuel Blum would 
be his correct name — went throughout the district with a leading com- 
rade to make strict emphasis on this struggle against white chauvin- 
ism, to the extent of each section finding 1 or 2 party members which 
were proven already in the past to have been ideologically weak or 
not accepting party discipline to its fullest, and utilizing them as a 
target as being responsible for acts of white chauvinism and, therefore, 
expel them at that time. 

(Document marked "Penha Exhibit No. 2." retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, may I invite your attention to the document which 
I have marked "Penha Exhibit No. 3" and ask you to kindly character- 
ize this document. 

Mr. Penha. Exhibit No. 3, entitled "Two Speeches by Joseph 
Stalin." 

Mr. Arens. And the date, please, sir ? 

Mr. Penha. This is dated March 1050. This was issued by the Na- 
tional Education Department of the Communist Party in New York 
City. The speeches concern united front activities and trade union 
activities. 

Incidentally, this is the first time that the party has had these two 
articles translated into English ; and from this, they hoped to be able 
to gain new techniques and methods in order to better acquaint them- 
selves and work in these fields. 

(Document marked "Penha Exhibit No. 3," retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr, .Arens. Now, may I display to you a document which I have 
marked "Penha Exhibit No. 1" and ask you to kindly identify and 
characterize that document ? 



2118 COMMTJNTST ACTIVITIES m THE NEW EOSTGLAND AREA 

Mr. Penha. Exhibit No. 4 has no title. It was submitted by the 
National Administrative Committee of the Communist Party, dated 
February 19, 1955. Various discussions and meetings and various 
ways and means to project the ideas proposed in this report were made 
first in the district, which was received from the National Committee. 
Then in turn it went down the line, the section committees, to the clubs, 
and individual members that were not in the clubs. 

The purpose of this was basically to have a new approach on the 
general atmosphere insofar as peace went. In other words, let us 
speak about East- West trade, how many jobs it is going to create — 
however, our goal is recognition of Eed China in the United Nations, 
and it goes further on 

Mr. Moulder. You are reading now from Exliibit No. 4 ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

And it goes on about U. M. T. and the H Bomb, and West German 
rearmament and the same pattern follows as that related to China, as 
I stated. 

Ml'. Arens. This was a directive from the high echelon of the ap- 
paratus to the lower levels, is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. That was given to me by Sidney Lipshires, who was 
tlien the district organizer, after he had recently attended a National 
Committee meeting in New York City, based on the same document. 
This was to go right down the line on the other Lefties. 

(Document marked "Penha Exhibit No. 4" retained in Committee 
files.) 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly take a few minutes and state briefly 
for this record the present organizational structure of the Commu- 
nist apparatus in the United States ? 

Mr. Moulder. Wait. Before going into that — As I understand, 
this last exhibit. No. 4, was given to you by whom ? 

Mr. Penha. Sidney Lipshires. 

Mr. Moulder. And Exhibits Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 are admitted and 
made a part of the record of the committee. 

Mr. Penha. I could, if that is your desire, state who gave me 1, 2, 
and 3. 

Mr. Moulder. I think that would be a good idea. 

Mr. Arens. It might be helpful if you would do that, j)lease, sir. 

Mr. Penha. No. 3 was given to me by Joseph Figueiredo, the then 
section organizer for New Bedford. 

No. 1 was given to me by Sidney LiiDshires, the then district or- 
ganizer. 

"Struggle Against White Chauvinism," No. 2, was given to me by 
Joseph Figueiredo. 

Mr. Moulder. If the counsel does not need these exliibits while pro- 
ceeding with further interrogation of the witness, may the members 
of the committee see the exhibitsi 

Mr. Arens. Surely. 

If you would, kindly proceed at your own pace now to summarize 
for the committee on this public record the structural organization 
of Communist operations in the United States. 

Mr. Penha. Certainly, sir. It is all right now, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Proceed, if you please. 

Mr. Penha. The Communist apparatus is established with the Na- 
tional Committee as being the top functionary body. 



COMMUJSnST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2119 

In the National Committee level, there are also various types of 
national groups. You have your National Executive Committee, you 
have National Commissions, various departments. In all I would 
say there are about 8 or 9. From there it drops down to the district 
level, New England being the District No. 1. New England encom- 
passes the areas of Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts. 

From the district level, it drops down to county level if they exist. 
At times they do not. From there it drops down to section levels, 
known as cities and its suburban areas. From there it drops down 
to clubs or cells. These are small groups. They comprise member- 
ship in specific areas, particularly in organizations. From that it 
drops down to neighborhood groups or neighborhood clubs. From 
that it goes into individuals who, for one reason or another, should not 
be placed in clubs and/or cells. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I propose to leave this subject matter 
in the interrogation of the witness to get on to another subject matter. 

I wonder if any member of the committee has a question on this 
subject matter before we get on to the next subject matter? 

Mr. Doyle. I do, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Witness, I call your attention to Exhibit 3. I don't 
have it before me. I have Exhibit 4 in my hands. But I think you 
mentioned that Exhibit 3 had to do with the subject matter of trade 
unions. I wonder if that is correct. 

Mr. Moulder. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Penha. Sir, I believe in order to expedite matters, if you will 
look at the cover of that exhibit — I believe that is the yellow covered 
one — on the first page underneath the yellow page — you will see the 
contents of both speeches. 

Mr. Doyle. I see that. It is true. I want to call your attention, 
for the purpose of brevity, to Exhibit 4. On page 5 is this language : 

We want to emphasize again : the trade unions are the key to effecting a 
change in our country and fulfilling the perspectives for 1956. * * * We urge 
that meetings of trade union forces be organized to work out specific proposals 
on the issues discussed in this letter. 

May I ask you this : What is your experience as to whether or not 
the Communist Party here in the New England States has as one of 
its prime objectives the infiltration of trade unionism to the extent 
of trying to control it ? 

Mr. Penha. There is no doubt whatsoever in my mind, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I know the record shows that is true all over the United 
States. 

Mr. Penha. I am basing myself on experience which possibly, I be- 
lieve, may come further in the questioning. I don't know, but I believe 
it will. 

Mr. Arens. We have an area of inquiry, Mr. Doyle, on that. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to say that all the hearings which I attended 
as a member of this committee in these several years throughout the 
United States, I never heard a former Communist member testify on 
that subject but that he stated that a Communist in the trade union 
is a Communist before he is a trade unioiiist. In other words, he 
tries to make a tool out of trade unionism for the purpose of the Com- 
munist Party principles. 



2120 COMMUNTST ACTIVITIES EST THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Penha. Sir, lie does not try. He lias to. That is part ot 
party discipline. 

Mr. Doyle. One thing more. What did you do with Exhibits 1. 
2, 3, and 4 when they were delivered to yon ? How did you use them ? 

Mr. Pexha. They were used in clubs for purpose of discussions 
and to project in that area of New Bedford certain objectives to be 
carried out. 

Mr. Doyle. Were copies made of them or not ? 

Mr. Penha. Sir, in sections, a section organizer, being the top man, 
keeps these directives. Pie does not make copies. He may lend them 
to one or two given persons for a specific reason. 

JNIr. Doyle. I see. I thank you. 

Mr. Kearney. Will the gentleman yield there? 

In other words, he doesn't trust the comrades? 

Mr. Penha. In a nutshell, that is the truth. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Chairman, I proposed to interrogate the wit- 
ness respecting the general subject matter of Communist Party fi- 
nances. And I am sure he appreciates the necessity for brevity and 
summary. 

May I first of all ask you, in general what are the sources of revenue 
of the Communist Party operations in the United States? 

Mr, Penha. They are many, sir. We can start with dues. Dues do 
produce a certain amount of money that is beneficial to the party, but 
it represents more than that. It represents a compulsion by the party 
member to again realize that he is under party discipline. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word, if you please, sir, about the amount of 
the dues and the nature of the assessments. 

Mr. Penha. The dues may vary according to the occupation of a 
given Communist. As low as fifteen cents to as high as five dollars, 
in my area, a month. I know it goes higher than that in other areas. 

Mr. Arens. And how is the amount determined, by what yard- 
stick? 

Mr. Penha. That is determined by the section organizer in confer- 
ence with the district organizer. 

Mr. xVrens. Do you make a distinction between dues and assess- 
ments ? 

Mr. Penha. Absolutely, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What is the nature of the difference? 

Mr. Penha. The difference is that we have assessments in the Com- 
munist Party for one purpose only, and that is to bring into the minds 
of the party members that there is something very important to be 
done in this country. One of the angles that is used — and for that 
very fact assessments are utilized — is that one monthly dues payment 
is assessed to a Communist Party member, regardless of rank, to be 
sent to the South for purposes of infiltration. 

Mr. Kearney. May I interrupt, Mv. Chairman ? 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Kearney. 

Mr. Kearney. Is it true that the so-called assessment was also based 
upon the individual's earnings? 

Mr. Penha. That is absolutely true to a certain point, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Let me make myself clearer if I can. During the so- 
called Hollywood hearings of several years ago, we were advised by 
one of the directors in Hollywood, when I questioned him about what 
he meant by assessment, that he w^as assessed five percent of his salary. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIE'S IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2121 

And I asked him "What was yoiir salary," and he said "$5,000 a 
week." 

So evidently the Communist Party did rely principally upon the 
capitalistic system of the country in order to attain their so-called 
dues or assessments, because you can't get it from a poor devil who is 
out of work. 

Mr. Penha, The party bleeds its members just as it does its sympa- 
thizers and fellow travelers, no doubt about it. So what I wanted to 
clarify here, sir, on the question of dues, when I said that the section 
organizer, in conjunction with the district organizer, determines just 
what are the moneys to be received from each and every Communist, 
is that invariably the Comnuniists themselves will cry they have tre- 
mendous expenses in many conceivable manners. So that, therefore, 
we take it on the basis of making an evaluation, do they own their 
home, does their wife work, and several phases of that, and then we 
say, "According to your salary you will pay so much. However, you 
are obliged to give a sustainer every month, which is over and above 
your dues." 

Mr. Arens. Now, may I ask you about Communist Party "angels" 
or "angels" wlio contribute to the Communist Party? Is that a popu- 
lar terminolog}' used in the party ranks ? 

Mr. Penha. It is, and it is ironic that the party is the only group 
that is so ruthless and atheist and anti-God and still believes in angels. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about any experiences you personally 
have had as a comrade in soliciting and procuring funds from "angels" 
for the party ? 

Mr. Moulder. When you refer to "angels" you mean "financial an- 
gels," I assume. 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. They use it to their advantage in 
using the terminology. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any such experience and, if so, could 
you recount them on this record ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Please do. 

Mr. Penha. We had "angels" in various forms and degrees. We 
had one, for example, in the from of INIaud D'haze. 

Mr. Arens. Would you hesitate right there, please, sir. 

I have in my hand the will of Maud D'haze which will be identified 
on this record a little later on. 

Tell us first of all who was Maud D'haze. 

Mr. Penha. Maud D'haze was a devoted and hard-core Communist. 

Mr. Arens. Did she discuss with j^ou, when you were a comrade, the 
making of hei- will ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir ; she did. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us briefly about that incident. 

Mr. Penha. To start with, at several times she would have raised 
the question of leaving her moneys and estate to the party; that she 
had previous wills that were made out too openly ; and that at this time, 
she felt the party would not be able to receive it. At the time that she 
prepared hei-self to make this will, she was sick in the hospital. I saw 
her, I met with her; and slie hnd advised tliat I become part of the will, 
that is, to become one of the beneficiaries of the will. I refused at that 
time. I explained to her why. She accejited. However, she held me 
responsible to see that this money would get to the party. 



2122 COMMUISTTST ACTIVITIEiS IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREfA 

Mr. Arens. Tell me — ^you have before you a photostatic copy of the 
will — amon^ the beneficiaries of the will are there persons who, to 
your certain knowledge, were members of i he Communist Party ? 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir; the will was bequeathed to party members 
only, those being Otis Hood, Anne Timpson, Mary Figueirido and 
Louis D. Kushaff, who was to retain the use of the liome as long as 
he lived. 

Mr. Arens. When did the testator pass away ? 

Mr. Penha. 1953, shortly after Mothers Day. 

Mr. Arens. And was the property distributed to these comrades ? 

Mr. Penha. The property was entirely distributed to the comrades 
with the exception of a son of Maud b}^ a previous marriage. 

Mr. Arens. What was the approximate total value of the estate? 

Mr. Penha. Cash in the bank, $14,000 ; real estate, I believe, was in 
the neighborhood of $5,000 or $6,000. 

Mr. Arens. And was the real estate subsequently transferred by the 
recipient of the real estate via the will to some other persons do you 
know? 

Mr. Penha. Would you kindly phrase that again, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did the beneficiary under the will who took the real 
estate subsequently deed the real estate away ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And to whom did he convey it ? 

Mr. Penha. To the Communist Party in my own experience. 

Mr. Arens. I don't want to dwell on this particular item further 
at this time, but I should like to ask you if you have any other typical 
instances of the devices by which the Communist Party has enlarged 
its coffers. 

Mr. Penha. There are several, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You spoke a moment ago about the property going to 
the Communist Party. Upon the sale of the real estate, the proceeds of 
the property went to the Communist Party, is that correct? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was there any instance where you personally solicited 
funds from people of wealth who contributed money which found 
its way into the Communist Party coffers ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about one or two of these instances, please. 

Mr. Penha. In one instance Anne Burlak Timpson came to my 
home and instructed me to go to the home of a person whom she stated 
to be a Communist in the Cape. She also informed me that this com- 
rade, a wealthy comrade, was giving a thousand-dollar-a-year sustainer 
to the New York Party. It was felt by Anne Burlak that it was only 
fair and just that this comrade should continue to give this sustainer, 
but also should give something to Massachusetts. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Kearney is recognized. He wishes to ask a 
question. 

Mr. I^JEARNEY. Just to go back, if you don't mind, on the questions 
pertaining to this will. I understood you to say the real property in 
this will was transferred to the Communist Party. 

Mr. Penha. When I stated to the Communist Party, I meant to its 
members, sir. It finally got into the party itself. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2123 

Mr. Kearney. Now, I understood you further to say, there was 
$14,000 cash. 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you have any evidence of your own knowledge 
as to what became of the $14,000 cash, as to whether it reached the 
Communist Party or not ? 

Mr. Penha. I do, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Did it reach the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Penha. Absohitely it did, sir. I would say that it will take 
me possibly half an hour to describe the details about it, but I took 
an active part in it. 

INIr. Doyle. May I ask one question in that connection ? 

Then I presume what must have happened substantially was that 
these four individuals, four beneficiaries, who received equal shares 
of the $14,000 cash, less the cost of administration, although they 
received it as individuals, they turned it over to the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Penha. They absolutely turned it over to the Communist 
Party, sir, because I was responsible in the New Bedford area for 
two of the recipients, being Mary Figueirido and Louis Dimitroff 
Kushaff. 

Mr. Doyle. They were not named as trustees in any way for the 
benefit of the Communist Party in the will, were they ? 

Mr. Penha. The Communist Party was not mentioned as such. 

Mr. Doyle, Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. The executrix, Mary Figueirido was a Communist 
and is a Communist, is she not ? 

Mr. Penha. That is absolutely correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now may I invite your attention to another phase of 
Communist Party finances and ask you to what extent the Commun- 
ists have made money for the party by selling items. 

Mr. Penha. There have been various methods. One of them I shall 
present at this time. 

Mr. Arens. You are now displaying to the committee a pen and 
pencil set ? 

Mr. Penha. This is an Eversharp pen and pencil set. As you see, 
it has a label retailing for $8.75. The district, according to Sidney 
Lipshires, the then district organizer, informed me that we had 
in the district 1,000 sets that we had obtained. We were to sell them 
not for $8.75 but for $5. In turn, each section would receive out 
of the $5 for each set sold, $1.50. Ironically, that would not stay 
in the section, but rather it would be credited to the quota for the 
section which was to be turned over to the district. 

Mr. Arens. Were those so sold in accordance with that plan? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you the extent to which the coffers of the 
conspiracy have been swollen via funds contributed to what are gen- 
erally known as Communist Party fronts or other organizations con- 
trolled by the conspiracy ? 

Mr. Penha. Would you repeat that question, please? 

Mr. Arens. Have the cofi'ers of the conspiracy itself been swollen 
by money contributed into the coffers of the party via front groups, 
by way of front groups ? 

24777— 58— pt. 1 4 



2124 COJiCMUlSTTST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGK\ND AREA 

Mr. Peisha. Yes, sir. 

Mv. Arens. Give us just a word on that, please, sir, without con- 
suming more than a minimum of time. We covered so much with you 
in many, many hours of private consultation that we have difliculty 
presenting- the highlights in a brief public appearance. 

Mr. Penha. I would like to illustrate first the case of Eulalia 
Figueiredo. She was arrested. The party set forth a plan in order 
to obtain the maximum benefit out of it. This M'ould be in terms of 
})ropaganda, publicity, and finances. Much of the money received 
for Enlalia's defense was turned in to the Communist Party and not 
for her defense. I personally received, from time to time, many sums 
which I had to turn in. 

Mr. Arens. Now, may I inquire, have organizations which have 
been Communist controlled and are Communist controlled, such as 
UE, actually paid expenses of the Communist Party, though perhaps 
not making direct financial contributions to the party? 

Mr. Penha. In the UE I would like to illustrate two points among 
others. Time does not permit more. One is, Douglas Perry as a 
Connnunist member in the New Bedford area and a UE field organ- 
izer was instructed to have a so-called bookshop in the UE local, 
which would have strong Left works but not openly party material, 
such as books of Foster, but nevertheless books on the case of the 
Rosenbergs, Carl Marzani's book, magazines such as the March of 
Labor, and others. Some of these, the local had agreed to, others 
they did not. Doug was the one that manipulated that phase of it. 

Another way that Doug would handle funds would be that when 
we had meetings that took us out of town, whether it was my car or 
the one given by Sidney Lipshires, the payment of gas and oil would 
be taken by Doug as he could put it in expenses in the UE local as 
his own expenses. 

Mr. MoiTLDER. May I intervene at this point? I wish to clear the 
record. On the face of the record, as far as your position is con- 
cerned, 3'ou say you received defense funds which you had to turn 
in. You mean that you had to turn it in where? 

Mr. Penha. I had to turn it in to my immediate superior, in this 
case being a district official. 

Mr, Moulder. For Communist Party purposes and not for the de- 
fense of the person for whom it was collected? 

Mr. Pexha. They had nothing to do with the defense, as we were 
credited with our quota in the end of the year. Each section has a 
(]Uota that they have to meet in order to bear the expenses of the 
district, and that was credited towards that quota. 

Mr. MouEDER. I understood what you meant, but on the record, 
reading on the face of it, it might be misunderstood. 

Mr. Peniia. I understand. Another phase relative to the UE is 
that of the Massachusetts Commission on Comnnmisin wliich had 
called UE on finances and some rank-and-file members before execu- 
tive and public hearings. We were informed at a District ^fetals 
Commission meeting which was held somewhere in the suburbs of 
Boston — I don't recall exactly anymore now where, but I believe it 
was Revere — that one of the'UE organizers, Chai'les Newell, had a 
period before the executive body. He had made a poor showing. In- 
sofar as the l^arty M-as concerned, he Avould have been a threat had he 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2125 

appeared before a public hearing. It was then decided and acted 
upon on the orders of Sidney Lipshires, the district director, by in- 
structing Doughis Perry and Alex Leith, a UE organizer and Com- 
munist member, to put the necessary pressure in the UE district in 
the form of having Charley NeAvell sent away, transferred, which he 
subsequently did. He went to California. In this respect the party 
had the advantage of not having him appear before a public hearing; 
and simultaneously on the question of funds, too, they held a party 
for him to which numerous people were invited, a sendotf party, from 
which again the party made some money. 

The points I would like to stress here are two very important ele- 
ments: 1. That here is a clear-cut indication, proof, call it what you 
may, of the Communist Party dominating a union ; 2. That it is a fact 
that union paying members don't know what is going on with their 
dues. The}^ are aiding and abetting the Communist conspiracy. It 
was their dues money that sent Charley Newell out of hei-e. 

Mr, Arens. Now may I invite your attention to the general subject 
of the National Textile Commission and ask you to proceed, again in 
summary form, to give us the crucial facts with respect to that entity. 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest a few minutes' recess? 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will stand in recess for a period of 
five minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

The Chair is pleased to announce that our colleague, Robert Mcin- 
tosh of Michigan, a member of the committee, is present. 

Mr. Arens. Eeady, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Moulder. Ready to proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Now may I invite your attention to the general subject 
of the National Textile Conunission of the Comnumist Party, asking 
you to give us first identification of that organization, something of 
its functions and activities, particularly in the New England area, 
Tf ith special reference to your own participation in its work. 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, before I commence on this subject, I would 
like to raise in my opinion a pertinent point — and that is not for the 
information of the committee, which I am well aware that you are 
acquainted with, but rather particulai-ly to the press — and tliat is, in 
speaking about the National Textile Commission, the feeling is com- 
mon that the textile industry as a whole in New England is a dying 
industry. The objectives in the program and the policies laid down 
by the National Committee in reference to tlie National Textile Com- 
mission bear out the importance of textiles. 

Now, in reference to the members of the National Textile Com- 
mission 

Mr. Arens. What is the National Textile Conunission, first of all, 
please sir ? 

Mr. Penha. The National Textile Commission is a top national 
organization organized by the National Committee of the Comnumist 
Party for the purposes of brin.ging about further colonization and 
infiltration in textiles, mainly to agitate the masses, create footholds 
in several areas, particularly the South; the sending of colonizers in 
order to reach the minds of the masses, as textiles in the South is a basic 



2126 coM]vixnsnsT AcnvrriES m the new England area 

and key industry. The party is very interested and makes extensive 
research and plans when it endeavors to get into any field. 

Mr. Arens. How potent is the work of the National Textile Com- 
mission? How effective from the standpoint of the Commmiist 
Party? 

Mr. Penha. It is very effective. That is why I illustrated the fact 
that the party does a great deal of research before it establishes any 
type of coimnission, department, or what have you, on a national level. 

]VIr. Aeens. Were you the New England delegate to one of the 
principal meetings of the Textile Commission in New York City? 

Mr. Peniia. I attended the National Textile Commission meeting in 
New York City as a new England delegate. I was instructed by the 
district organizer, Sidney Lipshires. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien? 

Mr. Penha. Approximately May or June of 1955. At the time 
that I went there, it was subject to the other members of the National 
Textile Commission to either accept or reject me as the delegate from 
New England. This was only a matter of more or less policy within 
the framework of the commission. Actually they knew they had to 
accept me. 

Mr. Arens. Was your attendance at this session an open attendance, 
or did you use certain secretive devices to arrive at the ultimate 
destination ? 

Mr. Penha. Well, sir, I attended approximately 3 or 4 meetings in 
New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Give us a word about them, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. I shall start with the first one. 

I was given by Sidney Lipshires a note which instructed me where 
to go in New York City, the date, the time, the place, and the method 
of recognition. I was to memorize this and destroy it. I proceeded 
to New York City; and, as prearranged with the district organizer 
in New England, I had to take several security measures. Among 
those was that of not going to the place of meeting directly. I took 
various types of transportation units. In particular, I recall, I 
went in a subway, and this is the instruction given to me to follow. 
I entered the last section of the subway and at a designated point I 
got off, waited until the door was just about to close, and put some 
pressure on it to open it to get out. In this way I would be able to 
offset anyone that would be following me. At the same time I could 
have a clear view of the platform in the subway. 

Following that I made various changes in subways, using the same 
method. I used taxis and buses. I lost many hours in reaching my 
point of destination. When I reached there I had with me a Popular 
Mechanics magazine. The person I was to meet would have the same. 
At that particular time and locale we were to be there. I don't recall 
the exact words that one was to say to the other, but they were in 
code form. Subsequent to that we assured ourselves that we were both 
the right parties, and then from there we proceeded to a secret liome 
to have our first meeting of the National Textile Commission. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us who are now, to your certain knowledge, the 
key people of the National Textile Commission of the Communist 
conspiracy in the United States. 

Mr. Penha. I shall start with the coordinator. The coordinator 
was the person that would be in contact with the National Trade Com- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIE'S IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREiA 2127 

mission and the National Committee. It was here in these groups 
that he would receive his directives and carry them through. His 
name is Fred Handman. At the time he was residing in New York 
City. His code name — we all had code names at the meeting, strange 
as it seems, being a secret meeting of bona fide members, hard-core 
members, we still were not supposed to know each other. His code 
name Avas Tom. I beg your pardon. His code name was 

Mr. Arens. His code name was Fred, was it not ? 

Mr. Penha. Was Fred. 

Mr. Arens. But his true name was Robert, was it not ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes. I am glad you made that correction. 

Mr. Arens. I want to get it straight on that. 

Mr. Penha. His true name was Robert Handman. 

Mr. Arens. And his code name was Fred, is that correct? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And he is head of the National Textile Commission and 
coordinated with the National Committee of the Communist Party, is 
that correct? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. You knew him in these secret meetings as Fred, by his 
code name, is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you have since identified him as Robert Handman 
by certain security devices, including photographs, is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. Tliat is correct. The intelligence agencies have pro- 
vided me with proper methods with which I was able to recognize 
a person and identify him by his true name. 

Mr. Arens. And there is no question in your mind whatsoever, 
while you are under oath, that this person whom you knew as head of 
the National Textile Commission under the code name of Fred is in 
truth and fact Robert Handman ? 

Mr. Penha. There is none whatsoever, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You will have an opportunity in another day or two 
to make further identification of him because he is under subpena 
likewise. 

Mr. Penha. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly proceed to give us another name. 

Mr. Penha. The next person, I believe his code name was Fred 
from New Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. Was that Sheldrick ? 

Mr. Penha. I did not know his name, that is, his true name, until 
after, I believe, the third meeting we held. We came out together 
for just about 3 or 4 minutes, and at that time he showed me a card 
from the post office stating that his mail was going to be under sur- 
veillance for the next 30 days. He had obtained this from a friend 
in the Post Office Department. 

Mr. Arens. Is this George Sheldrick now ? 

Mr. Penha. At that time when he showed me this, I noticed his 
name ; and subsequently in my reports to the intelligence agency with 
which I was working, it was definitely established as being George 
Sheldrick from New Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. And was his code name Jack ? 

Mr. Penha. I am quite sure it was Jack. 



2128 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES m THE NEW ENOLAND AREA 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Is there another person ^-ho, to your 
certain kno^Yledge, is on the National Textile Commission of the 
Communist operation in tlie United States ? 

Mr. Penha. There was another person representing the South, 
particularl}' the areas of North and South Carolina and Virginia. 
This person — I found his true identity to be William Evans. 

Mr. Arens. Was his code name Bill ? 

Mr. Pexiia. Yes, his code name was Bill. 

Mr. Arexs. And you ascertained to a moral certainty that Bill is 
Bill Evans, William Evans, by certain security devices which we will 
not discuss on a public record. Is that correct? 

Mr. Peniia. No, sir. I would not say that in the case of Evans. 
I went down South to the Carolinas on a mission of the party, and 
at that time the person that Avas to assist me was Bill Evans, and 
that is liow I found his true identity. 

Mr. Arens. He is the same person who served with you in New 
York City on the National Textile Commission of the Communist 
Party. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. All these persons Avere delegates from various areas, 
members of the National Textile Connnission. 

Mr. Arens. But, specifically, Bill Evans was one of those persons. 
Is that correct ? 

Mr. Penha. There is no doubt in my mind. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us just a word about this trip. 

Mr. Penha. Incidentally, if I may? 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Penha. While we are on identification, no one knew who I was 
at the time, too. I used the code name of Tom. And none of the 
other members in the commission were aware what my true name was 
or wlieve I came from in New England. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us about tliis trip that you made to the South, 
as a member of the National Textile Commission of Communist 
operation. First of all, where did you go ? 

Mr. Penha. I went to North and South Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. What year, please, sir ? 

Mr. Penha. This was approximately September of 1955. 

Mr. Arens. Who paid for your trip ? 

Mr. Penha. The expenses were incurred by the Communist Party. 
I was given $100 by the district organizer, Sidney Lipshires. 

Mr. Arens. What was the purpose of your trip ? 

Mr. Penha. Tlie purpose of the trip was, during one of tlio Na- 
tional Textile Commission meetings, it was felt that textiles in New 
England had a lot to contribute to the program that the National 
Tcxile Commission had for the South, the textile industry. As such, 
it was recommended at that meeting that I be delegated to go to the 
. South for the purposes of making observations as to Avhat were the 
conditions and wliat were areas into Avhich colonizers could be sent, to 
see how the local areas were operating in tlie textile industries, to 
meet with colonizers that had been sent there in previous years, to 
give a full report on the organizational setup of the various sections 
that I Avent into. 

Mr. Arens. Now may I invite your attention to this operation in 
Durham, North Carolina? To your certain knowledge were Com- 
munist Party colonizers sent to that area ? 



CX)MMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2129 

Mr, Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us the names of the principal colonizers 
who were sent there ? 

Mr. Penha. One was Oscar Berland. 

Mr. Arens. Was he from New York ? 

Mr. Peniia. He is originally from New York State. 

Mr. Arens. To your certain knowledge is he a Communist Paity 
colonizer? 

Mr. Penha. He is a Communist Party colonizer ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another person ? 

Mr. Penha. There is Marge Spurny. 

Mr. Arens. Where was she from originally ? 

Mr. Penha. I believe she was originally from New Jersey. Inci- 
dentally she, I found later, was a cousin of Geoffrey White. 

Mr. Arens. Was she to your certain knowledge a Communist Party 
colonizer who was sent, pursuant to your recommendations, into the 
Southland? 

Mr. Penha. Not on my recommendations. She had already been 
in the South when I got there. 

Mr. Arens. I see. All right. Is there another name ? 

Mr. Penha. There was a fellow by the name of William Robertson. 
He was from Virginia. 

Mr. Arens. Was he a Communist Party colonizer? 

Mr. Penha. Absolutely, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where was he sent? 

Mr. Penha. He was sent, I believe, to Erwin Mills in Durham. 

Mr. Arens. North Carolina ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir; in North Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another name ? 

Mr. Penha. Nat, Nathaniel Bond. 

Mr. Arens. Did he have an alias ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, he did. 

Mr. Arens. Was it Joe ? 

Mr. Penha. His alias was Joe, that is absolutely correct. I would 
like just to make a little emphasis on why there was an alias with 
him. He was a Negro, and the party felt that it would be rather 
strange for white comrades to meet with Negroes; and in order to 
protect both the white comrades and the Negro, it was felt that code 
names should be established. 

Mr. Arens. Was he to your certain knowledge a Communist Party 
colonizer who was sent into Durham, North Carolina ? 

Mr. Penha. From what I gathered while there, which I believe I 
reported when I came back, he is a native of one of the Southern 
States, but he was a colonizer. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another person ? May I suggest the name of 
Ella Irvine Matthews ? 

Mr. Penha. There was a couple that came to Durham after I came 
back from various trips that I made— I believe on the weekend that I 
was there — a couple by the name of William Matthews and Ella Le- 
vine Matthews, a young couple sent as colonizers from New York. 

Mr. Arens. So this record may be clear, j'ou have on some instances 
used the word "colonizers" rather than "Communist Party colonizers." 
When you used this word "colonizers" in each and every instance did 
you intend to encompass "Communist Party colonizers" ? 



2130 GOMMUlSniST ACTIVITIES EN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Penha. Absolutely, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, is there another j)erson ? 

Mr. Penha. In the Durham section? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. May I suggest the name of Jerome Van 
Camp ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. xVrens. Give us a ^Yord about him, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Jerome A-^an Camp, I believe, was also a Southerner 
from some other segment of that area ; and he had been sent into one 
of the major plants in Durham. I believe it was the Erwin Mills. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another name, please, sir? Mary Robertson — 
may I suggest her name ? 

Mr. Penha. Mary Eobertson, the wife of William Robertson. 

Mr. Arens. And a word about her, please, sir. 

Mr. Penha. She was a colonizer. At the time I arrived there, 
she was in a different type of occupation because of the fact that like 
a few others, as a result of this committee having been there and done 
an excellent job, they found themselves outside of their working base. 

Mr. Arens. When you say "this committee," you are alluding to 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Penha. That is correct, sir. As a result, she was working as 
a technician in the Duke University or Duke Hospital, within the cam- 
pus of Duke University. Presently, or to my last information I 
received, she has been living in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Now may I invite your attention to — 

Mr. Penha. I just would like to raise one thing before going into 
other names of other areas. These people that I mention — I think 
it is very important at this time to state that these are not just plain 
rank-and-file Communists. These are experts, hard-core Communists, 
very zealous, and adherents to party discipline at all times, and they 
are equipped by and large with college degrees, starting from bachelors 
to masters, most everyone. 

Mr. Arens. Of course when they get into the area they take menial 
jobs, do they not, and fail to reveal, or hide the college education they 
have had. Is that not true? 

Mr, Penha. This is not only happening in the South but also in 
the North. Their occupational and educational background is com- 
pletely omitted. Fictitious backgrounds are established because they 
feel they would never get a job if they put down their true back- 
ground. Any sane employer would say, "Wliy should you become a 
cleaner or what-have-you when you have a bachelor's or master's 
degree?" 

Mr. Arens. Now may I invite your attention to the Winston-Salem 
area and ask you, on the basis of your background and experience 
and operation as a member of the National Textile Commission, to tell 
us the names of persons who, to your certain knowledge, in the last two 
or three years have been Communist Party colonizers in the Winston- 
Salem, North Carolina, vicinity. 

Mr. Penha. Warren Williams who is also the section organizer for 
Winston-Salem area. 

Mr. Arens. What plant is he working in there, do you know ? 

Mr. Penha. I don't recall at the present. I did know. 

Mr. Arens. Is there another name ? How about his wife ? Is Re- 
becca Williams his wife? 



OOMMTnsnST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2131 

Mr. Penha. Rebecca Williams. Yes ; his wife. 

Mr. Arens. Is she likewise a colonizer ? 

Mr. Penha. I would not classify her as a colonizer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know her as a comrade ? 

Mr. Penha. I know her as a leading comrade in the area. 

Mr. Arens. George Van Camp ? 

Mr. Penha. I was just going to bring up George Van Camp, an- 
other colonizer. It is strange 

Mr. Arens. These are all m the Winston-Salem area now ? 

Mr. Penha. These are all Winston-Salem. It is rather strange for 
the average person to know of this, but it is nothing new or strange 
in the party, that George Van Camp, again a college graduate, pursued 
his studies in a college which I don't recall the name of in the religious 
life. So, therefore, I want to establish the point of how the party 
operates. I mean that is the important thing. Here is a man that 
spent several years and on paper it meant one thing, but in practice it 
was another. 

Mr. Arens. Betty Van Camp? 

Mr. Penha. Betty Van Camp, wife of George Van Camp, she 
is a member of the Section Committee of Winston-Salem. 

Mr. Arens. Was she likewise a colonizer in the Winston-Salem area ? 

Mr. Penha. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know her as a comrade ? 

Mr. Penha. I had secret meetings with her, too. 

Mr. Arens. As a comrade ? 

Mr. Penha. As a member of the Communist Party. I would like 
to point out here that the people that I am referring to during my trip 
in the South were all Communists ; because of the very fact that my 
mission was a secret mission, no one was supposed to know. I was 
only supposed to meet hard-core Communists, trusted members. 

Mr. Arens. Karl Korstad ? 

Mr. Penha. Karl Korstad was in charge of the High Point Indus- 
trial Commission, which is, I believe, some 25 miles from Winston- 
Salem. 

Mr. Arens. Ruth Van Camp ? 

Mr. Penha. Ruth Van Camp today is Ruth Van Camp Evans. She 
has married Bill Evans, whom we have reported. I would like to 
just illustrate a point here again of party finances. When I arrived 
there and after being through several areas and I landed in Winston- 
Salem, that day or the previous day Ruth Van Camp arrived from 
Florida. She had been sent to Florida by the State apparatus of the 
North Carolina Party for the purposes of establishing residence and 
obtaining a divorce in order to marry Bill Evans. The party felt 
that both of them could do a much more effective job if they were mar- 
ried. The matter of finances didn't mean anything in this case. 

Mr. Arens. How about the matter of morals? Did it mean any- 
thing? 

Mr. Penha. I raised the question that, as far as I knew, since she had 
been divorced relatively a very, very short time that if she did get 
married in Florida, and then they came back to Carolina to function, 
they would be subject to the laws of Carolina, and they would not be 
considered married. They were willing to take that risk. The party 
policy was the main thing they had to carry out. 



2132 COMlVnjNTST activities in the new ENGIiAND AREA 

Mr. Arexs. Frances Korstad ? 

Mr. Penha. Frances Korstad is the Avife of Karl. She is also a 
member of the High Point Industrial Commission. 

Mr. Arens. In North Carolina ? 

Mr. Penha. In North Carolina, I may add that Karl Korstad is 
considered one of the most able theoreticians of that area in North 
Carolina. 

Mr. Arens. Eugene Feldman ? 

Mr. Penha. Eugene Feldman is a colonizer who came from Ala- 
bama to Carolina. However, his native place was not Alabama either. 
It was some other state in the Union. Incidentally, he used to teach 
Sunday School in the synagogue in the area there at the same time. 

Mr. Arens. Now I should like to leave the National Textile Com- 
mission as a subject and invite your attention specifically to the sub- 
ject of Communist Party underground operations. May I ask, first 
of all, who are now, to your certain knowledge, the leaders of the 
Communist Part}^ underground in this area ? 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest, in view of the fact that we 
have approximately 6 other witnesses who were subpenaed to appear 
today and this witness has such a tremendous amount of information, 
that we, if it meets with the approval of the committee, suspend with 
this witness at this time in order to get along with our very heavy 
schedule. In the next several days while we are here we can resume 
with this witness. He can be available at the committee's pleasure, 
and then we will be able to get into other subjects with him. 

Mr. Doyle. The witness is under subpena. 

Mr. Arens. I remember suggesting that there be a record entry 
made that he is under continued subpena. Yes. sir. 

Mr, MoTTLDER. The record will show the witness is under subpena, 
and the subpena will continue in full force and effect. Having con- 
ferred with my colleagues on the committee, we have decided that 
you will be temporarily excused, Mr. Penha, as a witness, subject to 
recall at any time during the course of the hearings here. We would 
suggest that you remain in the hearing room to hear testimony of 
other witnesses who are now about to be called. 

The record will also show that, in accordance and pursuant to laws 
and the rules of the Committee on Un-American Activities, Chair- 
man Francis E. Walter has appointed a subcommittee for purposes of 
conducting hearings here in Boston, composed of Representative 
Clyde Doyle, of California ; Representative Edwin E. Willis, of Louis- 
iana; Representative Bernard W. Kearney, of New York: Represent- 
ative Robert J. Mcintosh, of Michigan; and myself, Morgan M. 
Moulder, as chairman of this subcommittee. At this time Mi'. Doyle, 
of California, Mr. Kearney, of New York, and Mr. Mcintosh, of 
Michigan, are present, and I, as chairman of the subcommittee, am 
]:)resent, thereby constituting a quorum of the committee. 

We wish to commend you, Mr. Penha, for the service which you 
have rendered to your country and your cooperation with this com- 
mittee, for the great work that you have performed in preserving 
our American way of life and in our fight to protect our security and 
American way of life from the Godless slavery of communism. We 
realize the sacrifice, the i)ersonal sacrifice, and the hard work you 
have performed as a loyal American citizen, in giving us the informa- 



^ COMMIHSriST activities in the new ENGLAND AREA 2133 

tion which you have given to us to enable us, as members of Congress, 
to enact legislation for the protection and security of our great Nation. 

We are deeply grateful to you for your great service to our coun- 
try, to the Congress, and to this committee. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Penha. Thank you, sir. 

jNIr. Moulder. You will be recalled for testimony which we expect 
to hear from you during this week. 

Mr. Penha. Thank you. 

Mr. Moulder. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Doyle. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that we emphasize that this 
witness is being continued under subpena from the United States 
Confress witli the full force and benetit of all the Federal depart- 
ments of law enforcement and protection behind it. 

Mr. Moulder. That is true. 

Mr. Pekha. Thank you. It is a comfort. 

Mr. Moulder. Thank you. We think you are a very line, loyal 
American citizen, and we appreciate what you have done. You are 
excused temporarily as a witness, Mr. Penha. 

As I have stated a quorum of the committee is present; and I ob- 
serve that we have an Irishman from California, Mr. Doyle, on my 
left and another Irishman, Mr. Kearney, of New York, on my right 
and a Scotsman, Mr. Mcintosh, on my left on the other end. 

Mr. Moulder. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, the next witness is Ralph Lofsky. 

Kindly come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath to you. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you 
are about to give before the Committee on Un-American Activities 
will be the trutli, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. LoFSKT. I do, Mr. Chairman. 

TESTIMONY OF RALPH C. LOFSKY^ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. LorsKY. May I ask a question first ? 

Mr. Arens. If you please, sir. 

Mr. LoFSKY. I think I understood the chairman correctly at the 
beginning of the liearings saying that no pictures would be taken. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is correct, and photographers and those 
who may be taking pictures will desist and refrain from taking pho- 
tographs of the witness while he is testifying, or at any time during 
the course of his testimony before this committee. 

Mr. LoFSKY. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. LoFSKY. My name is Ralph Lofsky. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly keep your voice up, sir? 

Mr. LoFSKY. I am sorry. My name is Ralph Lofsky. I live in 
Providence, Rhode Island, and I operate a small jewelry factory in 
Rhode Island. 



1 Voucher for witness fee signed Ralph "C." Lofsky. 



2134 COMMUNIST ACl^IVTHES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Lofsky, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. LoFSKT. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You do not have counsel ? 

Mr. LorsKY. No, sir, I do not. 

Mr. Arens. You understand you have the privilege of counsel 
under the rules of this committee? 

Mr. LoFSKY. I understand that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lofsky, how long have you been a resident of 
Providence, Ehode Island ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. All my life, sir. Well, there were a few short inter- 
ruptions. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. There were two periods in which I wasn't a resident. 
But essentially all my life. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lofsky, we have subpenaed you here before this 
committee because it is our understanding that you have information 
which you could contribute to the fund of knowledge of this com- 
mittee so that it can legislate, or recommend legislation, with refer- 
ence to the Communist operation in the United States. Particularly 
we understand you have information respecting finances and financial 
operations of the Communist Party. Do you have information, sir, 
respecting financing of the Communist Party in the New England 
area ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. I must respectfully decline that question, on the basis 
of my privilege of self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, that if you told this 
committee truthfully such information as you possess respecting 
financing of the Communist Party in the New England area, you 
would be supplying information which might be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. Sir, may I say this: I am not an attorney. I don't 
mean to be humorous, but the reason primarily that I don't have an 
attorney is that I didn't have, and didn't care to borrow, the money to 
bring an attorney from around here. 

Mr. Arens. Just ansv;er this question : Do you honestly fear crimi- 
nal prosecution if you told us truthfully ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. I don't know. I have been advised that unless I plead 
self-incrimination, sir, that there is a possibility of that ; and not being 
an attorney, I think that that is my right under the Constitution, and 
I wish to recognize it, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Armando Penha, 
the gentleman who just preceded you on the witness stand? 

Mr. LoFSKY. I decline to answer that on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. Arens. This gentleman this morning took an oath and, while he 
was testifying before this committee, he said that while he was an 
undercover operator in the Communist Party in this area he knew you 
as a Communist; he knew you as a section committee member of the 
Communist operation in Providence, E. I., in charge of dues and 
finances and the like. We want to give you an opportunity now, 
while you are under oath, to deny such an assertion respecting yourself. 
Do you care to avail yourself of that privilege ? 



COMMTHSnST ACTIVITTE:S IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2135 

Mr. LoFSKY. Again, sir, very respectfully I would decline to answer 
that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Aeens. Was Mr. Penha in error when he identified you as a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. LoFSKT. Sir, again I decline to answer; and, if I may, I would 
say this : Again I am not an attorney. I think, though, if I had the 
opportunity in a courtroom under equal court and American justice 
procedures, that I would be on certain grounds to answer many of 
these questions. I am only doing this in protection to myself, sir, 
which I understand is the only recourse that I have at this time. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party — now, 
this minute ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. Is it permissible to ask the committee a question, a 
legal question, I mean ? 

Mr. Akens. Kindly answer that question. Are you now a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. Well, sir, if I can't ask the question, I will have to 
decline to answer that question, too, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Moulder. I don't understand the witness. 

Mr. LoFSKY. I wanted to ask the question. I don't know whether it 
is according to 

Mr. Moulder. After you have responded to counsel's question. 

Mr. LoFSKY. I wanted to ask tlie chairman a question. I don't know 
whether that is permitted or not, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you understand the question that has been asked ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. Yes, I do. But I did want to ask a question. How- 
ever, I think 

Mr. Moulder. You are directed to respond to the question. 

Mr. LoFSKY. I decline, sir, on the basis that it might be self-incrimi- 
nating. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. KJEARNEY. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question here ? 

Do I understand you decline to answer questions put to you by 
counsel as to whether you are a member of the Communist Party at 
this time ? Is that correct ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. That is correct, sir. I did. 

Mr. Kearney. All right then my question to you is: If you are 
not a member of the Communist Party at this time, would you so 
state to this committee ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. Sir, I am at a disadvantage at this point. 

Mr. Kearney. I know j^ou are not a lawyer. 

Mr. LoFSKY. If I had legal advice, I might be able to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Kearney. I heard that 2 or 3 times. That is a simple question. 

Mr. LoFSKY. If I had legal advice, I might be able to answer that 
question. Not having legal advice, I think for my own protection 

Mr. Kearney. Is there anything so 

Mr. LoFSKY. That is the question I wanted to ask the committee. 
I don't know whether the committee would be or not 

Mr. KJEARNEY. Wliy don't you ask the chairman now ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. The question I wanted to ask the committee is a legal 
question that I have no knowledge of, Mr. Chairman, and that is the 



2136 COMMUNIST ACTI\TTIES m THE NEW ENGLAND AREIA 

question of waiving of immunity. Now I don't know in answering 
some questions whether or not I might be waiving my immunity, in 
other words, waiving the right to further plead on the basis of self- 
incrimination. And it is only because of my ignorance of the law 
at this point that I feel that it is a much safer procedure for me to 

Mr. Moulder. As I understand, you have not answered any ques- 
tions yet. 

Mr. LoFSKT. I mean on some questions, for instance, which the 
counsel or the chairman may ask of me, I might be able to answer 
those questions if I knew that I would not be waiving my immunity 
and my Federal immunity in doing so. If I don't know that, sir, 
then I am pleading self-incrimination. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you mean there are some questions you would 
like to answer ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. No. I say there might be. 

Mr. Moulder. Then, the rule which you are referring to, would 
not, I think — I cannot see why it would — offer any solution to your 
problem if you refuse to answer any question. 

Mr. LoFSKY. I am not sure, Mr. Chairman. That is why I respect- 
fully decline to answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Kearney. I just want to finish this. 

Mr. Doyle. Go ahead. 

Mr. Kearney. The question that I asked you — if you were not a 
member of the Communist Party at the present time, would you so 
state in view of your previous answers ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. I think in reply to that (|uestion, if I was sure of the 
grounds of immunity, I would have an answer for it, sir. 

JNIr. Kearney. I did not get that. 

Mr. LoFSKY. I am not at all sure. I think it is very simple. I 
am appearing before this committee by myself. I don't want the' 
committee to think that I am being disrespectful because I intend no 
disrespect. However, I am not sure of my constitutional grounds. 
I do know — at least I think I know — that in pleading self-incrimina- 
tion I have a right to do that, and I am not sure in answering to some 
questions which might be put to me, including possibly yours, Mr. 
Kearney, is it — tliat if I answered tliis question, that I might not be 
waiving my furtlier right to plead on the fifth amendment ? I don't 
know the answer to that, Mr. Chairman. I very frankly say so. 

Mr. Kearney. I might state to the witness at this time — and I 
think the chairman will concur in my views — that any time you are 
m doubt as to wliat your constitutional rights are, appeal to the 
Chair, and he certainly will tell you what they are. It is not our 
])urpose to persecute a witness coming before this connnittee. All we 
are trying to seek is the truth, with your cooperation, if you feel like 
giving it to us. If you feel like taking refuge behind the first, fifth, 
or some of the other amendments that you might have in mind, the 
amendments to the Constitution- — if you feel your answers might place 
you in the position of self-incrimination, you certainly have the right 
to refuse to answer the questions. 

Mr. LoFSKY. It is on the basis of that right that I have taken that 
position. 

Mr. Doyle. Witness, you have been in the courtroom here all day, 
have you not ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIE1& IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREiA 2137 

Mr. LoFSKY. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I thought I saw you back there. 

Mr. LorsKY. Yes, sir. I was under subpena to appear at 10 o'clock 
this morning. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, you heard all the witness stated, did you 
not? 

Mr. LoFSKY. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Doyle. Was there anything he said about you that was not 
true? We always give a witness as prompt an opportunity as we can 
to deny any statement. You heard every statement he made. Now", 
v\'hat statement did he make about you that was not true ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. Well, Mr. Chairman, again I would prefer not to 
answer that on the basis that it may be incriminating. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. I heard you just a minute ago. You may not 
have intended to say it. But I heard you say, "I have been advised 
that I might waive my constitutional rights." 

Mr. LoFSKY. Not legally, sir. Not by 

Mr, Doyle. But you consulted with legal counsel before you came 
here a little bit at least, did you not ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Doyle. Sure you have. You came here fully advised about 
your legal rights, did you not ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. Well 

Mr. Doyle. You vrent to your lawyer and conferred with him 
about appearing here, did you not, and what your constitutional 
rights would be ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. So when you come here and say you do not know 
vfhat your constitutional rights are, that is false, is it not, because 
you have had legal advice ? 

Mr, LoFSKY. No, sir. I know my Constitutional — I think I Imow 
that my constitutional rights permit me to plead the fifth amendment. 

]Mr. Doyle. Yes, they do, 

Mr. LoFSKY. And at times the first amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. LoFSKY. And beyond that I am not a lawyer and don't know 
the technicality of it. 

Mr. Doyle. We could not object to that. The thing I noticed is 
your making believe here you have not had legal advice. 

Mr. LoFSKY. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. And now you say you liave. 

Mr. LoFSKY. I did consult my attorney. I said I didn't bring him 
down here. Obviously I didn't'. And I didn't bring him down for a 
personal reason. 

Mr. Doyle. I could tell from your answers that you had legal advice 
and that you knew fully what your constitutional rights were. And 
when you asked our distinguished chairman the question you did, you 
did it to make a front appearance. 

Mr. LoFSKY. No, sir. 

Mr. DoYi.E. As though you did not know what your rights were. 

Mr. LoFSKY. No, sir, I haven't 

Mr. Doyle. All the time you did know before you came in this 
room. 



2138 COMMUNIST ACTIVITTES IN THE NEW ENGLAND ARElA. 

Mr. LorsKY. I am sorry, sir, that is not the case. 

Mr. Doyle. We are wise as to what you folks do. 

Mr. Arens. Since you received your subpena to appear before this 
committee, have you conferred with reference to your appearance 
before this committee, with any person known by you to be a member 
of the Connnmiist Partv ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. I would decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens, I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. McIntosh. Mr. Witness, you suggest, at least I take it from 
your testimony, that you might be willing to cooperate with this 
committee if you were a little more certain of some of the implica- 
tions of your answers as to a waiver of your constitutional rights. 

Mr. LoFSKY. No. I didn't mean to leave that impression, sir. All 
1 said was that some questions which could be put to me, and I think 
were about to be put to me — that perhaps some questions might have 
been assuming something that wasn't so. Yet I could have answered 
if I knew exactly what my legal rights were. Since I don't, I prefer 
not to. 

Mr. McIntosh. Mr. Witness, we will be here a few days. Would 
it help this situation if we continued you under subpena, perhaps re- 
ferred you to the bar association, legal aid committee or something, 
to review this question, and then bring you back to the stand ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. No, sir, I don't think so, sir. 

Mr. McIntosh. That would not help ? 

Mr. LoFSKY. I don't think so. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, Mr. Witness, then regardless of all 
your talk about you are not present with any attorney, whether you 
received assistance from the legal aid portion of the bar association 
or any other attorney, your answers would still be the same, would 
they not? 

Mr. LorsKY. Sir, I feel that since I already have been sworn in as 
a witness and am appearing here, that there would be nothing to 
be served so far as I am concerned in 

Mr. Kearney. Nothing to be served upon further questioning you 
upon the part of the committee. That is all. 

Mr. Moulder. May I inquire of you — you made some statement 
about immunity — if this committee takes proper steps to assure j^ou 
of immunity from prosecution as a result of any answers which 
you may give to questions concerning Communist Party activities, 
would you then cooperate with the committee and answer those 
questions ? 

Mr. LoFSKY^. Sir, I can't answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. All right. 

Mr. LoFSKY. I am not a legal person. I don't know the answer. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest our next wit- 
ness, who was and is under subpena to appear before this committee, 
is Mary Figueirido. Her counsel presented me this morning with 
a doctor's certificate to the effect that Mrs. Figueirido is ill and being 
admitted to the hospital. I, therefore, respectfully suggest, Mr. 
Chairman, that there be a record entry that she be excused from ap- 
pearance before the committee now but be continued for an indefinite 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IjS' THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2139 

period under the subpena, pendiiio- a situation where she might regain 
her heahh. 

J\Ir. Moulder. Request of able counsel is approved, and it is so 
ordered. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Sam Appel. 

Kindly come forward if you please, sir, and remain standing while 
the chairman administers the oath. 

Mr. Appel. Mr. Chairman, please, I understood no pictures are to 
be taken. 

Mr. Moulder. No pictures will be taken. 

Will you hold up 3'our right hand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about to 
give before the subcommittee will be the truth, the wdiole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

JNIr. Appel. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL APPEL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
GERALD A. BERLIN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Appel. My name is Samuel Appel. I live in Fall Kiver, 
Mass., and I work in a dye house. 

I submitted a statement this morning to the counsel, which I would 
like now to read to you please, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are appeai'ing today, Mr. Appel, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Appel. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Appel. I am, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Berlin. Gerald A. Berlin, with offices in Boston. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Appel, with reference to the statement which 
you submitted, the rules of this committee provide any statement to 
be submitted by a witness shall be submitted 24 hours in advance 
before consideration by the committee. I now have the statement in 
my hand, which I shall submit to the committee for its consideration, 
deliberation, and to determine whether or not it shall incorporate the 
statement in this record by reference. 

While the committee is doing that, Mr. Appel, kindly tell us where 
and when you w^ere born. 

Mr. Appel. I was born August 21, 1007, in Poland. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you come to the United States? 

Mr. Appel. 1909. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a citizen of the United States. 

]\Ir. Appel. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a naturalized citizen ? 

Mr. Appel. Derivative naturalization. 

Mr. Arens. Give us please, sir, a word about your education. 

Mr. Appel. High school education and a bachelor of arts degree. 

Mr. Arens. From what university ? 

24777— 58— pt. 1 — —5 



2140 COMMUNIST ACTIVrTTES EST THE NEW ENGLAND ARElA 

Mr. Appel. Ohio State University. 

Mr. Arens. And was that in 1940 ? 

Mr. Appel. No, sir; in 1930. 

Mr. Arens. 1930. Then tell us, if you please, sir, the principal 
employments you have liad since you concluded your formal educa- 
tion. 

Mr. Appel. I have been a textile worker, shoe worker, and organizer 
for shoe workers' union for many years, and now working in a dye 
house. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity were you an organizer; for what 
group were you an organizer for the shoe workers industry? 

Mr. Appel. I was an organizer for the United Shoe Workers of 
America, CIO. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere were you employed as a representative of that 
entity, that organization ? 

Mr. Appel. In the Boston area, primarily. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time, please, sir ? 

Mr. Appel. Oh, about 10, 15 years, I guess, 10 or 12 years, some- 
thing like that — maybe more. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you lived in the Fall River area ? 

Mr. Appel. About 8 years, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And during that period of time have you always been 
engaged in your present occupation ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. For what firms or organizations do you work? 

Mr. Appel. I work for Spindle City Dye Works, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Specifically, what do you do there, sir? 

Mr. Appel. I work on production. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat do you produce ? 

Mr. Appel. We do dyeing of yarns and things of that sort, and I 
help in the scheduling of work. I do preparation of the work, and 
so forth. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. No, sir ; I am not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. Just one moment, sir. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Appel. I was a member of the Communist Party, but I want 
to make it quite clear now that I am not now ; and I will be glad to 
answer any questions this committee may ask me about my past 
membership, concerning myself ; but I will not answer any questions 
concerning any of my associates or any people I knew at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time were you a member of the 
Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Appel. The precise time is not too clear in my mind. How- 
ever, I think it was around tlie 1930's; and I left the early part of 
the 1950's, about 1951, 1952 — something like that. I am not too clear 
of the dates. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your membership in the Com- 
munist Party did you know a person by the name of Armando Penha? 

Mr. Appel. Just one moment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Appel. What is the pertinency of that question, sir ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2141 

Mr. Arens. The purpose of the question, among other things, is to 
confirm the testimony of a witness who testified under oath before 
this committee this morning, that while he was a member of the 
Communist Party, he knew you as a Communist. We expect also to 
explore with you factual information, during the course of your testi- 
mony, which will be helpful to this committee in consideration of a 
num"ber of legislative recommendations that are pending before tliis 
committee to undertake to strenthen this Nation against the Commu- 
nist conspiracy. 

Now, answer the question. 

Mr. Appel. I vaguely remember Mr. Penha— very faintly and 
vaguely. 

Mr. Arens. Did you break from the Communist Party in 1951? 

Mr. Appel. I didn't actually break ; I just dropped out. 

Mr. Arens. Are you completely, irrevocably, out of the Communist 
operations now ? 

Mr, Appel. I am, sir. 

Mr, Arens. Kindly tell us what post you held in the Communist 
Party during the period of some 20 years in which you were a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Appel. What relevancy does this have in this hearing now, sir? 

Mr. Arens. Considerable relevancy now, sir, in respect that this 
committee has under consideration a great number of proposals to 
strengthen this Nation against the penetration and operation of the 
Communist conspiracy in the United States. If you, as an individual, 
have been in the Communist conspiracy for 20 years, as you have 
just testified, you undoubtedly have an accumulation of information, 
factual material, which, if you will supply it to your Government, will 
be helpful to this committee in its appraisal of this legislation, for 
the purpose of recommending to the United States Congress changes 
Jn each of numerous enactments on the statute books, to enable your 
Government better to cope with this conspiracy. 

Now, will you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Moulder. May I say, and add to your statement, Mr. Arens: 
Recommendations with particular reference to the omnibus security 
bill introduced by the chairman of this committee, Mr. Walter, H. R. 
9937, and also in connection with amendments under consideration by 
the committee in connection with the Internal Security Act, the For- 
eign Agents Registration Act, the Communist Control Act of 1954. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Appel. Before I answer that statement, sir, will my statement 
here that I presented to you be a part of the record ? 

Mr. Arens. It has been submitted by myself, sir, to the committee 
for its consideration and determination as to whether or not it wants 
to order that statement to be a part of the record. 

Mr. Appel. I would like to put that statement in the record before 
I proceed with the further questioning. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question which is out- 
standing, namely, to tell this committee the positions or posts which 
you have held in the course of your 20 years' membership in the Com- 
munist Party?. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



2142 COMMUNIST ACTRTTIES IX THE NEW ENGLl\ND ARElA 

Mr. Ai'i'KK. I didn't hold any positions of any outstanding- nature 
of any kind. I was primarily concerned durino- those years with be- 
ing an oroanizer for a union. JSIy job consisted primarily of organ- 
izino- shoe workers, and my role in the Communist Party was very, 
very limited — actually to just about membership — and so I held no 
outstanding- posts or any positions that I can recall. 

Mr, xIrexs. Tell us, first of all tlien, please, sir, the first entity 
of the Connnunist Party with which you were identified in the course 
of your career in the party. 

Mr. Appel. I don't quite follow. 

Mr. Arens. To what cell, section, branch, unit, fraction of the Com- 
munist Party were you first attached ? 

Mr. Appel, I was a member of Shoe Workers Grouj), the Shoe 
"Workers Fraction. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere? 

Mr. Appel, In the Boston area. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you first become connected with that ? 

Mr. Appel. In the early lO-jO's ; the exact date I am not quite sure 
about. 

Mr. Arexs. How many members were there in that fraction ? 

Mr. Appel. At that time it varied, but at one time it may have been 
as high as 15 or 20 peo])le. 

Mr. Arexs. How long did you maintain an identification or affilia- 
tion with that fraction { 

Mr, Appel, About 1936-37, something like that. 

Mr. Arens, Then 1 take it for about 7 years you were identified with 
that particular fraction; is that correct? 

INIr. Appel. Possibly — I am not quite sure of the years, at the time, 
or anything of that sort. It has been a long time. 

Mr, Arens, During this period of time from 1030 to 1937, or there- 
abouts, were you connected with, attached to, or affiliated with, any 
other entity of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. Not that I can recall, sir. 

INIr. Arens. Tell us, please, sir, the functions you performed on 
behalf of the Communist Party as a member of this shoe fraction. 

Mr. Appel. I j^erformed no particular function. I was a member 
of the group and ])aid dues. We met, discussed questions about the 
industry, how to further the industry, the organization of the industry, 
and things to that effect. That is about — it has been sucli a long time, 
but that is about the effect of it. 

Mr. Arens. In addition to discussing what to do with the industry, 
what was done b}" the fraction or members of the fraction within 
the industry to further the Communist cause? 

Mr, Appel. It was no particular discussion about furthering the 
Communist cause, per se. What Ave were primarily concerned about 
was to organize the shoe workers and to see if we can improve some of 
the wages and conditions that existed at that time. 

Mr. Arens, What efforts were made to organize the shoe workers? 

Mr, Appel. Circulars were distributed by the union and by the 
Comnumists, to urge the members of the open shops to join the union, 
and assistance was given at times; at the beginning, before the union 
was even formed, the meeting hall Avas supplied us, at the time, to 
hel]) us organize a union. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2143 

Mr. Arens. Were the United Shoe Workers at this time controlled 
by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. No, sir ; they were not. 

Mr. Arens. Did it occupy or control any key posts in the United 
Shoe Workers ? 

Mr. Appel. The Communist Party, as such, did not occupy. I was 
chairman of the local union myself for a couple of years. 

Mr. Arens. Were you then a Communist ? 

Mr. Appel. I was a member of the Communist Party at that time. 

Mr. Moulder. I want to interrupt to clarify. There was then a 
legitimate labor union organization functioning in connection with 
the shoe factories ? 

Mr. Appel. Well, at that particular — at one time there wasn't. 
Afterwards, there was a labor union. At the beginning there was no 
union there at all. In other words, in the 1930's — the early 1930's — 
at first there was no organization. Then an organization came into 
being, a union came into being. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a comrade, a Communist, at the same time 
you were head of this local ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir ; I was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Were you taking instructions from the Communist 
Party concerning your activities within the local ? 

Mr. Appel. I don't recall receiving any specific instructions, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Who, to your certain knowledge, were Communists or 
comrades who were members of this shoe fraction of the Communist 
Party during the period of your connection with it ? 

Mr. Appel. Just one moment, sir. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Appel. What would be the pertinency of this question, par- 
ticularly to the subject matter under investigation today ? 

Mr. Arens. The purpose of the inquiry would be this, sir, namely, 
that if you tell us the names of people who were members of this frac- 
tion of the Communist Party in the shoe industry, if we do not have 
information from them or about them, they will be subpenaed before 
this committee, perhaps first in executive session, at which time we 
will undertake to elicit from them information which will add to 
the fund of knowledge of this committee, upon which it can base 
legislative recommendations undertaking to protect the Nation, under 
whose flag you have protection, against the operation of the Commu- 
nist conspiracy. 

Now, would you kindly answer the question : Who, to your certain 
knowledge, are persons known by you at any time to have been com- 
rades within this shoe fraction of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. On this question, sir, I must respectfully decline to 
answer on the groimd that it is a violation of the first amendment to 
the Constitution, which upholds my right of freedom of speech, free- 
dom of assembly, and freedom of free association, and was upheld by 
the United States Supreme Court under the Watkins decision, sir. I 
cannot answer that question under those circumstances. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this record 
now reflect an order and direction to this witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

24777— 58— pt 1 6 



2144 COMMUNIST AcrrvmES m the new England area 

Mr. Appel. I still respectfully decline to answer, on the grounds 
just stated. 

Mr. Akens. So the record may be perfectly clear, Mr. Chairman : 
Witness, in response to the question and the admonition and direction 
of the chairman, you are not invoking those provisions of tlie fifth 
amendment which give you a privilege not to incriminate yourself ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Appel. No; I refuse to answer on the grounds of the first 
amendment to the Constitution, and also on the matter that this 
inquiry is not pertinent to the situation at the present time. 

Mr. Arens. Now, so we may have still a parallel question to the 
last principal question : Are there any persons who, as late as 1951, 
when you broke from the Communist Party, were known by you to 
have been members of the shoe fraction of the Communist Party in 
this vicinity. 

Mr. Appel. I don't quite understand that at all. 

Mr. Arens. I will state it in another form. 

So that there may be a question parallel to the last outstanding 
principal question : Are there persons known to you to be Communists 
as late as 1951, who were, to your knowledge, members of this shoe 
fraction of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. I again must refuse to answer on the grounds that I 
have indicated, sir ; and as a matter of conscience, I will not name any 
people that I may have known. 

Mr. Arens. May I explain to you the pertinency of this last ques- 
tion, which is parallel to the principal question; and then I shall 
respectfully request the chairman to direct you to answer. 

There is pending before the Committee on Un-American Activities 
a number of legislative proposals and suggestions, in addition to 
actual bills. Among those are provisions which would preclude cer- 
tification by the National Labor Relations Board as a bargaining 
agency of any organization or unit which is controlled by the Com- 
munist Party. If you can tell us the names of persons who, to your 
certain knowledge, have been in the past members of the shoe fraction 
of the Communist Party in this area, we will undertake to subpena 
them before the committee, in order to elicit from them the extent to 
which the Communist Party has penetrated this particular industry, 
with the end in view of developing factual material which will enable 
the committee to recommend legislation on this vital issue. 

I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, with tliat explanation of per- 
tinency to the witness, that he be ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Appel. I know no one since 1951, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know anyone since 1950 ? 

Mr. Appel. I don't remember anybody, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What is the last period in which you did know some- 
one? 

Mr. Appel. I can't quite recall ; and if I did recall, I again would 
have to refer to my previous answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall anyone in the course of the last 5 years? 

Mr. Appel. I do not. I don't remember anybody since then. 



COMMUNIST AOnVITIEiS EST THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2145 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall anyone in the 1940's ? 

Mr. Appel. I must decline to answer that, sir, on the same grounds 
I stated before. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now completely, irrevocably, out of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. I am, sir ; definitely. 

Mr. Arens. Are you under Commmiist Party discipline? 

Mr. Appel. I am not under Communist Party discipline. 

Mr. Arens. Are you against the Communist Party principles ? 

Mr. Appel. I am opposed to their principles. 

Mr. Arens. Are you opposed to the function of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Appel. I am opposed to the function of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Do you regard the Commmiist Party as a threat to this 
Nation? 

Mr. Appel. I don't regard them as anything, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you regard them as a threat to this Nation ? 

Mr. Appel. I haven't regarded them as a threat. I don't think they 
are, personally. 

Mr. Arens. Why did you disassociate yourself, then, from the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. I didn't think the program was proper. I disagreed 
with the program and I didn't think it was a right thing to the United 
States, and I dropped out. 

Mr. Arens. How long did it take you to arrive at that particular 
judgment, you having been in the Communist Party twenty-some 
years ? 

Mr. Appel. It took me a number of years to think about these things, 
sir. But I definitely reached that conclusion in the early 1950's. 

Mr. Arens. What is it, specifically, that you have against the Com- 
munist Party, or that you protest within yourself against the Com- 
munist operations ? 

Mr. Appel. I don't believe that when I dropped out, my thinking 
was — I left the labor movement as such, and I didn't think that I could 
any further associate with the Communists and the labor movement, 
as such. I just simply dropped out, feeling that that was enough for 
me. That was my general reaction, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is there something about the Communist operation in 
this country, specifically, that caused you to develop an abhorrence 
of it? 

Mr. Appel. I wasn't too much aware of the operation itself, sir. 
I mean, I didn't participate too much in their operation, and wasn't 
too much aware of what they consider an operation ; but I personally 
felt that I had to get out. I couldn't go along with some of the policies 
and programs at that time, which I still don't recall what they were. 
I just dropped everything completely. 

Mr. Arens. Do you want now, as a citizen of this country, to do what 
you can to counter, block, stop the operations of the Communist con- 
spiracy in the United States ? 

Mr. Appel. Just one moment, sir. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Appel. Sir, if I knew of any specific crimes that were being 
committed by any one person or any group of persons 



2146 COMMUNrST ACTIVTTIES en the new ENGLAND AREtA 

Mr. Arens. I didn't ask you that question. 

Mr. AprEL. I would inform the proper agencies. Otherwise, I don't 
think that I can answer any further questions relative to the people. 

Mr. Arens. Have you submitted any information respecting the 
operation of the Communist Party to the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion ? 

Mr. Appel. I have not, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you contacted any intelligence agency or secu- 
rity agency of the State or Federal Government respecting any infor- 
mation which you may possess regarding the Communist Party 'i 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Appel. I gave all the information that I had available about 
myself to the State Commission against Communism. 

Mr. Arens. Have you told the State Commission against Commu- 
nism about Communist operations within this area that you knew 
about ? 

Mr. Appel. Whatever they asked, I answered all their questions, 
sir. I don't recall the questions. 

Mr. Arens. You told the names of the persons who, to your cer- 
tain knowledge, were in the operation ? 

Mr. Appel. I did not mention any names, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was the next affiliation which you had with an 
entity of the Communist conspiracy in this country? You told us 
from 1930 to 1937 you were in the shoe fraction. 

Mr. Appel. I had no other affiliation except general membership, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you maintain your membership ? 

Mr. Appel. In the Boston area. I mean, I didn't belong to any 
group or any particular unit or any particular branch of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Arens. To whom did you pay your dues ? 

Mr. Appel. To the secretary of the Communist Party at the time, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio was that person ? 

Mr. Appel. Again I must respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, sir ; since it involves association, it involves people ; and I camiot 
answer that under the first amendment and under the Watkins Su- 
preme Court decision. 

Mr. Arens. How long had you known that person to whom you paid 
your dues ? 

Mr. Appel. I don't recall that. 

Mr. Arens. What is the latest you knew that person to be a member 
of the Communist Party, the latest in chronology of your life? 

Mr. Appel. I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that person to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party as late as 1950? 

Mr. Appel. I don't see the relevancy of that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. The relevancy of it is this : If you tell us the name of 
that person to whom you paid your dues, since one of the items of 
interest to this committee is Communist Party finances, we would 
subpena that person before us with the hope that we might be able 
to elicit from that person certain information respecting the financing 
of this conspiratorial operation against this Government. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2147 

Kindly tell us, if you please, sir, the name of the person to whom 
you paid your dues when you were a member of the Communist Party 
as late as 1951. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Appel. Again, sir, I will have to respectfully decline to answer 
that question on the ground that I don't believe that it is pertinent. 
I don't think it conforms with the first amendment to the Constitution, 
which gives me a right of free association. I will not become an in- 
former for this committee or for anyone else, sir; and I, therefore, 
respectfully decline, to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

I may saj' to you it is not in the spirit of threat, but for the purpose 
of fully advising you of the possible dangers you might be placing 
yourself in, in refusing to answer. You may be guilty of contempt 
of Congress. 

Mr. Appel. I still maintain my position, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever paid any money to x4.rmando Penha ? 

Mr. Appel. Kot that I recall, sir. I don't remember giving him any 
money. His statement this morning, as far as I was concerned, is 
absolutely incorrect, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever secretly maintain a mimeograph machine 
in your home ? 

Mr. Appel. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever maintain a mimeograph machine in your 
honje ? 

Mr. Appel. I have a typewriter. I may have had a mimeograph. 
I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Was that mimeograph used for Communist Party 
functions ? 

Mr. Appel. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you turn over to Penha a mimeograph machine ? 

Mr. Appel. I don't recall, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in the underground ? 

Mr. Appel. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What groups, if any, did you penetrate, while you were 
a member of the Communist Party, on behalf of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Appel. I didn't penetrate any groups, sir, as far as I know, 
on behalf of anybody, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you as a comrade, a member, or active in the 
Progressive Party operations in this area ? 

Mr. Appel. I was a member of the Progressive Party on my own 
behalf, sir. I believed in its principles and I joined the Progressive 
Party on my own behalf. 

Mr. Arens. Was that simultaneously with your membership in the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. I was a member of the Communist Party at the time I 
was a member of the Progressive Party, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever work with the International Workers 
Order? 



2148 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGI^AND AREIA. 

Mr. Appel. I didn't work, sir; I was a member of the Interna- 
tional Workers Order. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the International Workei-s Or- 
der simultaneously with your membership in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. I was a member of the International Workers Order, 
paid my dues there for benefits, and that is all, sir. I did not take 
any active part in it, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever a member of the so-called Jewish Sec- 
tion of the Communist Party in Fall River? 

Mr. Appel. No, sir ; I was not, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is there or was there such a section ? 

Mr. Appel. Not that I know of , sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever a member of the Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mr. Appel. I may have been, but I don't recall, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Appel ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. You were present in the court room all day, were you 
not? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I am sure I saw you on the second row on the left 

Mr. Appel. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. — all day. And I think just a minute ago when our 
director here asked you if you heard Mr. Penha's statement this morn- 
ing 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I will ask you if j^ou did hear it. 

Mr. Appel. I recall hearing his statement, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I think I heard you say just a minute ago, referring to 
his statement, and I wrote it down : "His statement this morning was 
absolutely correct, as far as I am concerned." 

Mr. Appel. No — "incorrect." 

Mr. Doyle. Oh, incorrect. Wliat part of his statement was incor- 
rect? 

Mr. Appel. He made — well, his general statement about me that — 
if I recall, he said something to the effect that I was a "link" to pro- 
fessional people, and I was a channel for money and things to that 
effect, and that is not true, sir. I deny that statement. 

Mr. Doyle. Is there anything he said about you that was true? 

Mr. Appel. That is all he said about me, sir. Oh, he also said I 
was a member of some section committee in Fall River. I was not 
a member of any section committee in Fall River, sir, 

Mr. Doyle. Everything he said about you was false; is that cor- 
rect? 

Mr. Appel. As far as I can recall, the statement he made, as far as 
I remember, was incorrect, sir, to my best knowledge. 

Mr. Doyle. By using the term "incorrect" do you mean that it was 
false? 

Mr. Appel. I said "incorrect," sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, do you say it was false and untrue ? 

Mr. Appel. Just one moment, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AKEA 2149 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Appel. Let me put it this way, sir : I don't know whether Mr. 
Penha deliberately made a misstatement or not, sir; but the facts as 
he enunciated them were not true, as far as I was concerned, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. You heard all his statement. What else in 
the statement he made about the Communist Party in this area, as far 
as you know, was not true ? 

Mr. Appel. He made a lot of statements, sir, and it would be — I 
didn't take any notes on his statements, so I can't directly answer your 
question, sir. 

Mr. DoYT.E. I noticed you were very attentive to what was going 
on ; and when the press stepped over to try to take your picture, you 
hid your face. You were quite aware of what was going on. 

Mr. Appel. Correct, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. And that is all right. So you heard the full statement 
that Penha made, didn't you ? 

Mr. Appel. I heard a statement, sir ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Is there any part of that statement about the Com- 
munist Party operations in this area which, to your knowledge, was 
not true ? 

Mr. Appel. Mr. Doyle, sir, he made 

Mr. Doyle. During the 20 years that you were a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. Just one moment, sir. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Appel. Mr. Doyle, sir, Mr. Penha made a lot of statements, 
primarily over a period of time after I dropped out of membership 
of the Communist Party, sir. I am not familiar with the functioning 
or the activities of the Communist Party after I dropped out. But 
if the chairman will give me a copy of the transcript, possibly I can 
go over the material and point out where he was — at the part of time 
I was there — whether he was correct or incorrect. 

Mr. Doyle. You stated a few minutes ago, in answer to Mr. Arens' 
question — and I wrote it down : "I was primarily concerned with being 
an organizer for a union, during those years. I was concerned pri- 
marily with membership." Do you remember stating that ? 

Mr. Appel. Membership in the union ; that was my 

Mr. Doyle. In the union. 

Mr. Appel. That is in 

Mr. Doyle. You were a UE organizer, weren't you ? 

Mr. Appel. No; I was not; I was a member of the United Shoe 
Workers of America. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you ever a UE organizer ? 

Mr. Appel. No ; I was not, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Did the membership of the United Shoe Workers union 
know that you were a member of the Communist Party while you were 
chairman of the local union ? 

Mr. Appel. Many of them did know, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever announce it publicly ? 

Mr. Appel. I made no public statements about it, sir. Wlien the 
person asked me the question, I didn't deny it at the time, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. How many members of the union — and I will not ask 
you their names ; but I will tell you in frankness, that as far as I am 
concerned, I will not ask you the names but I will ask general ques- 



2150 COIMMUNIST ACTrVTTTEiS IN THE N^W ENGLAND AREIA 

tions — How many members of this union of which you were chair- 
man or president were members of the Communist Party at the same 
time you were ? 

Mr. Appel. It is hard to assess that, sir, because the membership of 
the union fluctuated, and the membership in the Communist Party 
at the time fluctuated also, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Approximately what percent ? 

Mr. Appel. What percentage? 

Mr. DoTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Appel. Oh, very few, a very small percentage, sir. My local 
union — at one time, the local union had a membership of 2,000, and 
possibly there may have been 15 or 20 members of the Communist 
Party in that local union at that time. 

Mr. Doyle. Wlien your local union had a few thousand members 
in it, were you a member of the Communist Party while you were 
president ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir ; I was. 

]Mr. Doyle. At the same time, when you had 1,000 members or 
more. Now, I presume that the Communist Party members in the 
union held caucuses; didn't they? You held secret caucuses for 
planned work ? 

Mr. Appel. We held meetings, yes, sir; a long time ago. A long 
time ago, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, of course. But you held caucuses and no one else 
was present except the Communists who were members of the union ; 
isn't that true ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sometimes we did. It is true. 

Mr. Doyle. It is true all over the country. In other words, your 
Communist Party members of this union — in which there were a 
thousand or more members, and only 15 of them were Communists — 
were holding secret meetings to decide ways and means to take con- 
trol and keep control of the union policy ; isn't that true ? 

Mr. Appel. I don't — to be honest with you, sir, I am trying to be 
very honest, because it has been a long time ago 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. But you have a pretty good memory. 

Mr. Appel. No. 

Mr. Doyle. You are a very able gentleman. You have a perfectly 
good memory in my book. 

Mr. Appel. Sir, can you remember back 25 and 30 years ago, and 
20 years ago under certain circumstances ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, I can, on most important events. 

Mr. Appel. It is very difficult for me, sir, to remember all incidents 
and particularities. 

Mr. Doyle. But you have testified when Mr. Arens was asking 
about having meetings. 

Mr. Appel. Yes, we did have meetings. 

Mr. Doyle. And I have had experience enough over this country in 
these things to know that the Communist Party members also hold 
secret meetings to determine how they can control organized labor; 
and yours is another case, apparently, of exactly the same thing. 

Mr. Appel. Let me put it this way 

Mr. Doyle. You held secret caucuses as Communists, didn't you, to 
determine who would be elected as officers of the union? 



OOMMminST ACnVITIEiS IN THE NEW EOSTGLAND ARElA. 2151 

Mr. Appel. On occasion we did ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. You remember that ? 

Mr. Appel. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. In fact, at no time after you became chairman of the 
union and a member of the Communist Party, did you give up, as 
chairman of the union, trying to control the union for the Communist 
Party policies, did you ? 

Mr. Appel. I did not try to control the union, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Why did you hold secret meetings, then, to determine 
who the officers would be ? 

Mr. Appel. It wasn't the question only of officers at the time. We 
held meetings to see how we could better organize the union. The 
union was not fully organized. We were trying to see what we could 
do to better organize the union at the time, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Why didn't you call in nonunion members or non-Com- 
munist members of the union at these secret caucuses ? 

Mr. Appel. We did, sir. We had meetings of nonunion and union 
and non- Communist members. 

Mr. Doyle. But you had secret caucuses of the Communist members. 

Mr. Appel. We did, sir, at times ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, I want to ask you again, to make sure that the 
record speaks clearly: You heard the preliminary statement by our 
distinguished subcommittee chairman read this morning, didn't you ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Doyle. So that, at that time, you heard a perfectly clear state- 
ment of what pertinent information we were going to ask for; isn't 
that true ? 

Mr. Appel. I couldn't quite understand the statement, sir. He read 
it, and I tried to follow it, but it is very vague in my mind. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. If the chairman please, I should like to direct one ques- 
tion to Armando Penha, sitting to my right, with reference to this 
mimeograph machine, so the record may be clear on that. 

Mr. Moulder. Very well. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF ARMANDO PENHA— Eesumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Penha, you are still under oath. 

Do you have information respecting a mimeograph machine which 
you procured from the witness who is in the principal witness chair 
now, Mr. Appel ? 

Mr. Penha. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly ^ive us briefly the facts on that, sir. 

Mr. Penha. Some time in 1951, 1 believe about the middle of 1951, 
Sam got in touch with me. He was quite nervous because of the fact 
that the State law outlawing Communist Party in 1951 had taken effect 
in February, and it seemed that it was getting on his nerves, and he 
wanted at this time to dispose of any incriminating evidence. He 
had in his possesison at that time a Communist Party mimeograph 
machine, which was placed there in hiding. He wanted me to take it 
away from there, and I went up there. I took it, and that was, of 
course, reported to the intelligence agencies at the time, and the loca- 
tion of it. 



2152 COMMUNIST AcnvrriES m the new England area 

Mr. Abens. Wliere is it now, by the way ? 
Mr. Penha. It is in my home. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL APPEL— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Appel, does the statement now made by Mr. Penha 
refresh your recollection with reference to the facts in connection with 
this mimeograph machine ? 

Mr. Appel. I am trying to remember that, sir. It is vague. There 
is a vague recollection in my mind. It may be possibly true, but I am 
not too sure. It is a long time ago, and I really can't visualize it. 
It may be so, but I am not quite sure. 

Mr. Arens. Did the enactment of this State law have anything to 
do with your conclusion that you had better disassociate yourself from 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Appel. No; that wasn't the primary factor. I was just plain 
disgust — I just gave up. That is all there is to it. 

Mr. Moulder. You can remember whether or not you had a mimeo- 
graph machine ? 

Mr. Appel. I am trying to recall that. There is a vague recollection 
in my mind. Maybe it is so, but I am not quite sure about it. As a 
matter of fact, I wouldn't have recognized Mr. Penha. 

Mr. Penha. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Moulder. That was only 7 years ago. 

Mr. Appel. Seven years ago. 

Mr. Moulder. You surely recall whether or not you had a mimeo- 
graph machine in your home. 

Mr. Appel. I don't place that — I don't remember. Honestly, I am 
not quite sure. It may be so but I am not 

Mr. Penha. Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Penha, do you wish to add some additional state- 
ment? 

Mr. Penha, I would like to assist ex-comrade Sam on this point, 
to refresh him where the mimeograph machine was. It was in his 
cellar, about middleways against the wall, covered with some old 
blankets. Maybe that would refresh his memory. 

Mr. Moulder. All right. You have heard that statement. Is 
that — - 

Mr. Appel. I heard the statement. It is still the same. I may have 
had — I can't quite place it exactly — it may have been true. I can't 
place it exactly. 

Mr. Doyle. I have one more question. 

Mr. Appel, I heard you state, and I wrote it down when 
you said it — you said "I found out it was not good for the United 
States." That was at the time you withdrew from the Communist 
Party. You said it was not good for the United States. 

Mr. Appel. I think I may have said that, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I am quite sure you made that statement, almost word 
for word. 

Now, what did you find out was not good for the United States? 
I am not asking you for names of people. I am asking you what you 
discovered in the Communist outfit, after being in it 27 years, that 
was not good for the United States. 



COMMUIOST ACnVrriEiS in the new ENGLAND ARElA. 2153 

Mr. Appel. I think your number of years is a little bit incorrect. 

Mr. Doyle. How many years was it, if I am wrong ? 

Mr. Appel. About 20 years. 

Mr. Doyle. 20 instead of 27. 

Mr. Appel. Right. 

Mr. Doyle. That isn't chickenf eed. 

Mr. Appel. As far as the Communist Party, I felt at this time when 
I dropped out that it was not in accordance with the wishes of the 
American people, that the people were not accepting communism; 
and I felt then that I didn't think that I should remain a member of 
an organization that was not in keeping with the American tradition 
at the time. 

Mr. Moulder. All right. Thank you. 

Mr. Kearney ? 

Mr. Kearney. You, Mr. "Apple," stated during your testimony, as 
I recollect, that the statement of Mr. Penha was false; is that correct? 

Mr. Appel. I said I think Mr. Penha's statement was mistaken, I 
didn't say quite 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Penha identified you as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ; did he not ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes ; he did, sir. I didn't deny it, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Was that part of it false? 

Mr. Appel. No, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. I have been looking over your statement that you 
handed to counsel this morning. 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. And did I understand you hold a B. A. from Ohio 
State University ? 

Mr. Appel. A what, sir ? I didn't hear you, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. A degree of B. A. 

Mr. Appel. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you believe, or did you believe, that the Com- 
munist conspiracy in this country, call it the Communist Party, was 
a political party? 

Mr. Appel. IVhen I was a member, I did believe that, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Well, how can you reconcile that thought then, Mr. 
Apple ? 

Mr. Appel. "Appel," sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Appel, pardon me. 

Did you object to taking any directives from the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Appel. I took no directives from the Soviet Union, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. As a member of the party, the party was directed by 
directives from the Soviet Union ; was it not ? 

Mr. Appel. I didn't know about that, sir. I was not aware of that, 
sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you ever find it out, after your 20 years in the 
party? 

Mr. Appel. I didn't find that out, sir, personally ; no, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. So that you remained a member ^f the Communist 
Party for 20 years and still didn't know what its objectives were? 

Mr. Appel. I did not know, as you stated the objectives. I didn't 
know they stated those objectives. To me that wasn't the objective. 
That wasn't my objective. 



2154 COMMUNIST ACTIVmE-S IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Kearney. Did you ever hear of one William Z. Foster ? 

Mr. Appel. I heard the name, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Do jou know \Yho he was, Mr. Appel ? 

Mr. Appel. Chairman of the Communist Party at one time, sir, I 
believe. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you ever read any of his writings ? 

Mr. Appel. Not particularly. I read a statement of his occasion- 
ally. I never read his book or anything of that sort. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you ever read the statement that I made this 
morning, that Foster said, "when the revolution came " 

Mr. Appel. I did not read that statement. 

Mr. Kearney. That is one statem.ent you did not read ? 

Mr. Appel. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. Kearney. That has a tremendous bearing upon the American 
way of life, has it not, a statement like that ? 

Mr. Appel. Yes, sir. I disagree wholeheartedly with a statement of 
that kind, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you write this statement that was given to 
counsel this morning ? 

Mr. Appel. What was that, sir ? 

Mr. Kearney. Did you write this statement yourself ? 

Mr. Appel. That was with the assistance of counsel, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. I will tell you frankly the reason why I asked. In 
looking it over, it has so many of the usual phrases characteristic of 
previous statements that I have seen in hundreds of hearings that to 
me it is a typical statement of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Appel. This statement, sir, w^as prepared with counsel. I had 
very little legal phraseology — it is very raw and new to me, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Are there any other questions ? 

Mr. McIntosh. Did you ever have any disagreements with party 
policy, as it went pretty well around and around the barn during the 
20-year period, with regard to our foreign relations? 

Mr. Appel. I didn't participate, sir, in any policymaking, and I 
didn't participate too much in policy discussions. I just went along, 
and that was all, sir. 

Mr. McIntosh. Did you ever have any difficulty in adjusting your 
own thinking to some of the abrupt changes of policy of the American 
Communist Party, in concurrence with the Russians ? 

Mr. Appel. Well, there were — for instance, the time of the Soviet- 
Nazi Pact, I couldn't quite follow that and understand that, and said 
so ; but that was about it, sir. 

Mr. McIntosh. Didn't that move you to disassociate yourself? 

Mr. Appel. Leave? No; I just stayed on, sir. 

Mr. McIntosh. I have another question. You testified initially 
that the witness sitting here who has been on the stand most of the day 
was incorrect — I believe that was the precise phrase you used — in 
regards to several things he said about you personally, concerning the 
section at Fall River, and your function, which you said was not your 
function, and the mimeograph machine matter. 

Now, do I understand in this recent exchange that you are not quite 
as prepared to challenge the correctness of this statement with regard 
to the mimeograph machine ? 

Mr. Appel. I am not prepared to challenge that statement on the 
mimeograph because I have a vague recollection, but not a firm recol- 



COMMtOSriST ACTIVITIES. IN THE NEW EN^GLAND AREA 2155 

lection. On the other things, I am very definitely challenging his 
statement, sir. 

Mr. McIntosh. You did have a basement in the house ? 

Mr. Appel. What is that, sir ? 

Mr. McIntosh. Did you have a basement in the house ? 

Mr. Appel. I certainly have a basement in the house. 

Mr. McIntosh. Then without the necessity of studying this record, 
you paid close attention to this witness' statement. I refer again to 
the principal witness today. Are there any other inaccuracies, falsi- 
ties, incorrect statements with regard to his entire testimony that you 
would like to point out to this committee at this time, based on your 
knowledge of party functioning in this general area ^ 

Mr. Ajpel. Mr. Penha testified from, primarily from the period 
1950-51 up. I dropped out of all activity about 1950. I am not 
familiar with any of the things that went on after that, sir. 

Mr. McIntosh. His testimony covered a little greater scope than 
that period of time. I ask for a direct answer, if you would : 

Is there any inaccuracy, falsehood, or incorrectness that you care to 
point out at this time with regard to the testimony of this man who 
testified most of the day ? 

Mr. Appel. I don't know, sir — I don't know, I don't recall. As I 
said, his testimony was primarily after 1951. 

Mr. McIntosh. Is your answer yes or no ? 

Mr. Appel. My answer is "No" because I don't Iviiow. 

Mr. Moulder. May I inquire : You do know the witness, Mr. Penha, 
don't you ? 

Mr. Appel. As I said, I recognize him very vaguely today, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you ever recall his being in your home i 

Mr. Appel. I have a vague recollection of him being in my home, 
sir. 

Mr. Moulder. What was the occasion of his visit to your home ? 

Mr. Appel. I don't remember, sir. I really don't remember. 

Mr. Moulder. You remember his being in the home but you do not 
recall the reason ? 

Mr. Appel. I remember him vaguely, but I don't remember what he 
was doing there or what he wanted. 

Mr. Moulder. What other reason would he have for being there 
except in connection with the mimeograph machine ? 

Mr. Appel. Sir, this mimeograph thing was also a complete sur- 
prise because I didn't recall that at all. I vaguely remember him 
being in my home once, and that is all I can recall of him being there. 
I don't know what lie was tliere for. I don't remember what he was 
there for. 

Mr. JMouLDER. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Berlin. Mr. Counsel 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if vou please, Mr. Chairman, will be 
Mr. Otis Hood. 

Mr. Appel. May I put this in the record, please ? 

Mr. Berlin. May we mark this for identification? 

Mr. Arens. We will handle that. 

Mr. Appel. May I put that in the record ? 



2156 COMMUNIST AcrrvrriES in the new England area 

Mr. Berlin. May I mark the statement for identification in the 
event, Mr. Chairman, you do not decide to enter it in the record? I 
should like the statement to be marked for identification. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes; it will be marked as "Appel Exhibit No. 1," 
offered by this witness. 

Mr. Berlin. All right; with the request that it be entered in the 
file. 

Mr. Moulder. It is filed. 

(Document marked "Appel Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, is Mr. 
Otis Hood. Kindly come forward and remain standing while the 
chairman administers the oath to you. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which 
you are about to give before this subcommittee will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Hood. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Have a seat, please. 

Mr. Hood. May I stand, if you don't mind ? 

Mr. Moulder. You may be seated. 

Mr. Hood. Wliat? 

Mr. Moulder. You may be seated. 

Mr. Hood. You prefer that I be seated ? 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. 

Mr. Hood. I would rather stand up, but if you insist, I will sit. 

TESTIMONY OF OTIS ARCHEE HOOD 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Hood. My name is Otis Archer Hood. I live at 33 Fayston 
Street, Roxbury, and I am a commercial sculptor. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hood, we do not propose in this interrogation, to 
interrogate you with reference to a number of items which have been 
the subject of public testimony before a number of forums. We have 
only one or two questions we want to pose to you. 

First, I should ask : You are appearing today in response to a sub- 
pena which was served upon you? 

Mr. Hood. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are not represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Hood. I am not. 

Mr. Arens. You know you have the privilege of counsel ? 

Mr. Hood. I know. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Hood, this morning there was testimony with ref- 
erence to yourself being a beneficiary of a will which was drawn by 
Maud D'haze. Did you know that lady ? 

Mr. Hood. I will decline to answer that question under the first 
amendment; that my knowledge and my association with other people 
is protected by the first amendment of the United States Constitution, 
and I cannot be compelled to talk about my associations, my affilia- 
tions, and so forth. 

Mr. AitENS. Mr. Chairaian, I respectfully suggest now that the 
witness be ordered and directed to answer that question. 



OOMMUTsTIST ACTIVITIEiS EST THE NEW EOSTGLAND ARElA 2157 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so ordered and directed to answer 
the question ; and in connection with that request, may I say that this 
direction is not given in the spirit of threats or coercion, but for the 
purpose of advising and informing you of the possible danger of 
your being guilty of contempt of Congi'ess. 

Mr. Arens. May I further explain, if you please, Mr. Chairman, 
the pertinency, by saying we have testimony to the effect that this 
lady, who is now deceased, made a will of which you were one of the 
beneficiaries — you, among others — and certain of that money was 
channeled to the Communist Party. Now, would you kindly answer 
the question ? 

Mr. Hood. I will decline to answer the question because I think that 
it might open up a whole line of questions. Somewhere along the 
line might be questions which I would refuse to answer on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment, which protects me from being compelled to 
be a witness against myself. Therefore, I will refuse to answer that 
question on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a beneficiary of the will of Maud D'haze ? 

Mr. Hood. I will refuse to answer this question mider the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask the witness: You have been present 
in the hearing room during all of this day ? 

Mr. Hood. Yes. It has been a very boring experience. 

Mr. Moulder. You heard the testimony of the other witnesses and 
heard the statement made by counsel concerning our interest in the 
operation of the Communist Party, as to its financial assistance and 
how it recives financial assistance and also our interest and desire to 
pass legislation which has been mentioned by counsel. All of that 
you have heard. 

Mr. Hood. I have heard. 

Mr. Moulder. And thoroughly understood; is that correct? 

Mr. Hood. That is right. 

Mr. Moulder. Again, after that statement then, the Chair does 
order and direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Hood. You are ordering me again to answer the question? 

Mr. jMoulder. Yes. 

Mr. Hood. I will decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment to the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Just so the record can be brought up to date are you 
now, on March 18, 1958, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hood. That would be a very difficult question to answer truth- 
fully under the circumstances. I heard the Communist Party de- 
scribed here this morning in words and form of description that I 
could not recognize the existence of any such organzation. Certainly 
I was never connected with any such organization that I would 
recognize by that description. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know the man who made the description, Mr. 
Penha ? 

Mr. Hood, That I will have to refuse to answer, also. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Doyle, have you any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 



2158 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES m THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Kearney? 

Mr. Kearney. Just a couple, Mr. Hood. Your voice dropped there 
a little. 

Mr. Hood. Maybe I got away from the mike. 

Mr. Kearney. I think I heard you right — I understood you to say, 
in answer to a question, "Yes, and these hearings were very boring" ? 

Mr. Hood. Yes, sir ; to me they were very boring. 

Mr. Kearney. As boring as running for Governor of the State of 
Massachusetts ? 

Mr. Hood. What is that? 

Mr. Kearney. Was it as boring to you as running for Governor 
of the State of Massachusetts ? 

Mr. Hood. I will decline to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. That is all. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Mcintosh, have you any questions? 

Mr. McIntosh. I have no questions. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman, is Anne 
Burlak Timpson. 

Kindly come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers an oath. 

Mr. Moulder. Hold up your right hand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony that you are about to 
give before the subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ANNE BTJRLAK TIMPSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, WILLIAM P. HOMANS, JR. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mrs. Timpson. Is this drinkable? Is that water for us? Is that 
for me ? Is that water drinkable ? 

Mr. HoMANS. The witness wanted to know if she may drink the 
water ? Has it been used by someone else ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. May I have a drink ? This is a fresh glass of water ? 
Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mrs. Timpson. My name is Anne Burlak Timpson. I live at 11 
Wabeno Street, in Roxbury, Massachusetts. Primarily I am a home- 
maker. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mrs. Timpson. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented b}'' counsel ? 

Mrs. Timpson. Yes, sir; I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. HoMANs. My name is William P. Homans, Jr. I have offices 
at 1 Court Street, Boston. 

Mr. Arens. You said primarily you were a homemaker. Do you 
have another activity that is less than that which is primary in which 
you are engaged ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIEiS IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2159 

Mrs. TiMPSON. I have a part-time clerical job. 

Mr. Arens. "V\^iere are you employed ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. I would like you to explain to me what pertinency 
that has to your hearing. 

Mr. Arens. I will be delighted to do so. 

This Committee on Un-American Activities is undertaking to 
marshal facts on which it can legislate or recommend legislation to 
protect this country against the Communist conspiracy. You have 
been identified repeatedly — publicly and privately — as a member of 
that conspiracy. If you will tell us now where you have been em- 
ployed that information, added to other information that we have, 
will help this committee in the task in which we are engaged. 

Now, would you kindly answer the question ? 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question be- 
cause it has no pertinencv at all to this hearing. 

Mr. Arens. In view of the explanation, I respectfully suggest, Mr. 
Chairman, that the witness be ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so ordered and directed. As I stated 
to the other witnesses while you were here in the hearing room, the 
direction is not given in a spirit of threat or coercion, but to advise 
and inform you of the possible dangers of your being guilty of contempt 
of Congress. 

Mi'S. TiMPSON. Mr. Chairman, there have been many people fired 
from their jobs as a result of hearings just like this. Is it pertinent to 
the work of your committee to add another person to the list of the 
unemployed in this country ? 

Mr. Moulder. That is not responsive to the question. You are 
again directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. I will stand on my constitutional rights of the first 
amendment, and refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. We have just two other matters we want to pursue with 
you. We don't want to go into matters that have already been gone 
into. We want to go into matters which are pertinent to the general 
area of this inquiry. 

Where were you born ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. In the United States, sir, in Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Arens. Now, please tell us, have you ever applied for a United 
States passport as a citizen of the United States ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Do you want me to answer now ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, please. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Yes, I have traveled abroad. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. And I have applied — naturally, have had to have 
a passport. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Kindly tell us when you traveled abroad. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. 1931, and again in 1935, 1 think. 

Mr. Arens. Have you traveled abroad at any time since 1935 ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you travel with a United States passport? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Yes, sir. 

24777— 58— pt. 1 7 



2160 cx)MMU]srrsT activtttes m the n^w England area 

Mr. Arens. "Where did you go, please ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Wait just a minute. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. Will the reporter read the last question. 

(The record was read by the reporter.) 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Well, I traveled through England, France, Poland, 
Soviet Union ; coming back I went through Denmark and Stockliolm. 

Mr. Arens. Was it in the thirties that you went to the Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Yes. That is the only time I went abroad. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you traveled in the Soviet Union ? 

Mrs, TiMPSON. Now you are entering into the area of political be- 
liefs and associations, and that I am protected by the Constitution of 
the United States. I am not going to be a party to violating that 
Constitution, with you or anybody else. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of an organization dedicated 
to the forcible overthrow of the Government of the United States and 
the destruction of that Constitution ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. I am opposed to force and violence in any form, sir ; 
and I would not belong to an organization that, to my knowledge, 
advocated force and violence. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Communist Party today ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. That you have no right to ask me under our present 
Constitution, and you have been so informed by the Supreme Court 
of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully^ suggest that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. Does the Communist Party believe in the overthrow 
of our present form of Government by force and violence ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. I have never heard, anywhere in my presence, any- 
one advocate the overthrow of the United States Government by force 
and violence. I would oppose any kind of such suggestion. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you know whether or not the Communist Party 
advocates the change of our Government by force and violence ? 
^ Mrs. TiMPSON. I have never heard of any one in my presence at any 
time advocate force and violence or force and violent overthrow of 
the United States Government. 

Mr. Arens. Just so we can bring the record to date: Are you 
now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. That question I will have to decline to answer on 
the basis of the first amendment of the Constitution, because you are 
invading my rights, my political rights of beliefs and associations, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have another reason ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. That is sufficient. That is what the Constitution 
says. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question whether or not she is 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Don't threaten me, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. HoMANS. I will advise you, Mrs. Timpson, that under the Con- 
stitution and the fifth amendment to the Constitution, it is not neces- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIEiS IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2161 

sary that you have committed a crime in order for you to legitimately 
avail yourself of the privilege of the fifth amendment. It need only 
be that the question may tend to incriminate you, and the courts have 
held that you need not be guilty of a crime in order to safeguard and 
avail yourself of the provisions of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. I order and direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. On the basis of that, I will decline to answer on 
the basis of the fifth amendment, which says I do not have to be a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. Moulder. Very well. Proceed with the next question, Mr. 
Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I should like to ask you about the finances of 
the Communist Party. 

I hold in my hand a photostatic copy of a will made by Maud 
D'haze, written by her, dated May 15, 1953, in which you, among 
others, are named as a beneficiary. 

Did you receive property pursuant to the will of Maud D'haze ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Will you explain what that has to do with this 
hearing, and with the thing you are investigating ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, I will be glad to, in anticipation, that you will 
answer the question. 

This Committee on Un-American Activities is trying to develop 
factual material which it may use in appraising legislation to safe- 
guard this country against the operations of the Communist con- 
spiracy. 

One of the areas of inquiry relates to Communist Party finances. 
We have information, which is on this record today by a live witness 
under oath, to the effect that you, among others, received certain 
property from Maud D'haze who had been a Communist prior to her 
demise; that you, as a Communist, transmitted some of that property, 
at least, to the Communist Party. 

Now, please answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Mr. Chairman, I can't for the life of me 

Mr. Moulder. Just one moment, will you, please? Mr. Mcintosh 
is recognized. 

Mr. McIntosh. I just wanted to get straight with you, Counsel, 
that while we have no objection to your advising your client publicly 
or privately, as you wish, that the previous advice given to your 
client into the microphone was your choice and not ours. I mean 
we are not infringing on the privacy of your advice. 

Mr. Homans. I understand that, Congressman. 

Mr. McIntosh. We like to get some of these things clear. 

Mr. HoMANS. Thank you very much, Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. Moulder. Now, you may give your answer to the question. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. I lost the question, I am afraid. 

Mr. Arens. The question is : Did you receive property pursuant to 
the will of Maud D'haze ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. I can't see where receiving property of any kind 
under a will has anything at all to do with the issue which you are 
investigating here. Congressman. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the 
witness be ordered and directed to answer the question. 



2162 CJOMMUNrST activities in the new ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Then I shall have to decline to answer that question 
on the basis of the first amendment of the Constitution and the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arexs. Yes, I will be glad to, in anticipation that you will 
say "I shall have to decline." You don't have to decline. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. I mean I will decline. I have that privilege, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. That is right; you have. You can just say "I de- 
cline." You don't have to say "I have to decline." 

Mrs. TnMPSON. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, although there are a number of items 
we could pursue with this witness, they are items which have been the 
subject of inquiry by our committee, both publicly and in executive 
session, and in view of the press of time and desire to avoid duplication 
of eli'ort, I respectfully suggest tliis will conclude the stall' interro- 
gation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Doyle, do you have any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. You stated that you liave never heard anyone state in 
your presence that the Communist Party stood for force and violence. 
I presume from your statements, and what I heard of you, that you 
are pretty well read on the objectives and principles of the Commu- 
nist Party. Is that true ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. I read many things, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. There is certainly no reason why a person should 
not be well read and be as well informed and enlightened as possible. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. That is right. A i)erson should read everything. 
President Eisenhower said we should read everything, including books 
issued by the Communists. 

Mr. Doyle. This Nation, thank God — its origin is based upon honest 
differences of opinion. True? 

Mrs. TiMPsoN. Granted. 

Mr. Doyle. I understand that and fight for that. 

Mrs. TiMPsoN. Granted. 

Mr. Doyle. And you have a perfect right to read literature if you 
want to : 

Now I am asking you again if it is not a fact that you have read 
Communist Party literature ? 

Mrs. TiMPSON. I have read both Communist and non-Communist 
literature. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. Now, on the subject of force and violence, 
I refer to a recent book by J. Edgar Hoover, just off the press, and I 
refer to page 345. He quotes Mr. Lenin, whom I assume you have 
read: 

The replacement of the bourgeois by the proletarian state is impossible 
without a violent revolution. 

And then Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, head of our FBI, on page 7, said: 
"William Z. Foster" — whom no doubt you have heard about and read 
about : 

William Z. Foster, long-time head of the Communist movement in our country, 
has boasted that the Communist revolution, after the actual seizure of power, 
would "develop even more swiftly" than the Russian. 

All industry would be nationalized and farms taken away from their owners. 
A small-business man is just as guilty as a large businessman ; both must be 
liquidated. Rents, profits, and insurance would be abolished. Countless occu- 



COMMUNTST ACnVITIEiS IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2163 

pations, termed by the Communists as "useless and parasitic," would be ended. 
Here is a part of their list: wholesalers, jobbers, real-estate men and stock- 
brokers, advertising specialists, traveling salesmen, lawyers, "whole rafts of 
government bureaucrats, police, clericals, and sundry capitalist quacks, fakers, 
and grafters." The Communists have a special disdain for lawyers. Perhaps 
it is because there will be no need for lawyers when there are no rights to 
defend. At any rate, Foster has said, "The pest of lawyers will be abolished." 

Action would be drastic, immediate, and without appeal. An armed "Red 
Guard" would enforce the orders of party henchmen. Hotels, country clubs, and 
swimming pools would be used for the benefit of "workers," meaning, in most 
cases, party bosses. The workingman in the mines, factories, and mills would 
be told to work certain hours for certain wages. 

Mr. D0T1.E. Now I skip and read one thing more 

Mrs. TiMrsoN. What is that you are reading, sir ? 

Mr. Doyle. I am reading the book of J. Edgar Hoover. I invite 
you to read it. It is just off the press. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Would you mind giving me a copy ? 

Mr. DoTLE. It costs $5. 

Mrs. TiMPSON, You don't think I want to invest that much? 

Mr. Doyle. If I thought it w^ould convert you out of communism 
I would get you one. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. You might try, 

Mr. Doyle. Let me read just one more paragraph, and this deals 
with the subject of force and violence. As I noticed, you quite proudly 
stated you never heard it mentioned in your presence. 

Mrs. TiMPSON, That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Here is what Mr. Hoover says on page 21 : 

What about force and violence? Must they be used? Marx emphasized that 
capitalist society, most naturally, would not voluntarily turn over its factories, 
banks, and money to the workers. Moreover, it would probably organize a 
"counter-revolution" — which means, defending itself. Hence, under the leader- 
ship of the Communist Party, the workers must, if necessary, be prepared to use 
force, that is, violent revolution. If the capitalists submit peacefully, good ; 
if they resist, slaughter them. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes, you can laugh. I notice you are, but anything 
that J. Edgar Hoover says, I think, is taken by the great mass of 
the American public as pretty near fact, instead of what the Com- 
munist Party or any of its members say in this country, thank God. 

Mrs. TuiPSON". What is your question, sir ? 

Mr. Doyle. I have no question. 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Oh, it was just a free lecture. 

Mr. Doyle. I just wanted to read you this, much as I loiow — 

Mrs. TiMPSON. Thank you. 

Mr. Doyle. — it is something you are familiar with, as far as the 
statements of Marx and Lenin are concerned, although you do not 
admit it. 

That is all. 

Mr. INIouLDER. Mr. Kearney, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Kearney. I have no questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Mcintosh? 

Mr McIntosii. No questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you any additional questions, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arens. No thank you, sir. 

Mr, Moulder. The witness is excused. 



2164 (X)iMMTJNTST AcnvrriES nsr the new England area 

Mr. Arens. The next witness, if you please, Mr. Chairman — and 
may I advise, this will be the last witness called today — is Mr. Joseph 
Sherman. 

Kindly come forward and remain standing while the chairman 
administers the oath. 

Mr. Sherman. No pictures — ^you said "No pictures," and I want 
instructions. 

That is very nice. Here we are trying to figure out order — I don't 
care. 

Mr. Kearney. According to the rules of this committee, the press 
has the right to take pictures of a witness before he testifies but 
not while he is testifying. 

Mr. Sherman. If I was to ask to destroy these pictures because 
the committee has asked 20 times not to take these pictures, and these 
pictures are taken — there you go again, on top of it. 

Now, go ahead. That "is very nice. The committee is holding out 
an order. Take more. I haven't taken pictures in a long time. 

Mr. Moulder. Will you be sworn as a witness ? 

Mr. Arens. Kindly stand while the chairman administers the oath 
to you. 

Mr. Sherman. I am sorry. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give before this subcommittee, will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Sherman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH SHERMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
GABRIEL KANTROVITZ 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Sherman. My name is Joseph Sherman. I live at 38 Walnut 
Park, Roxbury, Massachusetts. I am a truck driver on a cleaning 
establishment. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be convenient for you to keep your voice up, 
please, sir? 

Would you kindly give us your occupation again! I don't believe 
it was clear to the stenographer. 

Mr. Sherman. I am a truck driver for a cleaning establishment. 

Mr. Moulder. May I admonish the witness in this respect : He was 
speaking very loud and clearly one moment ago, and we could hear 
you, but now we cannot hear you. 

Mr. Sherman. Unless this thing doesn't carry — I am trying to speak 
right next into it. 

Mr. Moulder. That one in front of you is the one you should use. 

Mr. Sherman. This? 

Mr. Moulder. That is correct. 
. Mr. Sherman. I am a truck driver for a cleaning establishment, 
that is, servicing the public, cleaning and pressing of garments. 

Mr. Arens. In what city, please ? 

Mr. Sherman. Greater Boston. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subjDena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities. 



COMMUNTST ACTIVITIEiS IN THE N^W EOSTGLAND AREA 2165 

Mr. Shekman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Sherman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Kantrovitz. Gabriel Kantrovitz, 294 Washington Street, 
Boston. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Sherman, where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Sherman. I was born in Poland, 1906. 

Mr. Moulder. I didn't hear you. 

Mr. Sherman. I was born in Poland, 1906. 

Mr. Arens. "When did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Sherman. I came to the United States on August 21, 1 believe, 
1920. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Sherman. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You are an alien ? 

Mr. Sherman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever applied for naturalization ? 

Mr. Sherman. Well, there is a long story, sir, if I am permitted, 
and it is necessary in explanation here. It cannot be answered Yes 
or No. If I am permitted ? 

Mr. Moulder. The committee members cannot hear you. 

Mr. Arens. Use about the same volume on your voice that you did 
when you were protesting the pictures a few moments ago — we heard 
you then. 

Mr. Sherman. Would it help if I stood up ? 

Mr. Arens. Just raise your voice, please, sir. 

Mr. Sherman. I would like to ask the committee for an explana- 
tion in answering this question, because this is a question that cannot 
be answered Yes or No. If I am permitted, I would answer this 
question because there is a long story 

Mr. Arens. Just answer the simple question : Have you ever filed 
an application for naturalization ? 

Mr. Sherman. Again I must say that there is a reason why I did 
not file. After I had found that 

Mr. Moulder. Answer the question, and then give your reason. 

Mr. Arens. Did you file ? 

Mr. Sherman. I did not, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sherman. I must decline, sir, to answer that on the ground 
that it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sherman. I must decline to answer that, sir, on the ground 
that it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever traveled abroad ? 

Mr. Sherman. I must decline to answer this question on the grounds 
that it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now an alien ? 

Mr. Sherman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you an alien Communist ? 

Mr. Sherman. I decline to answer that, sir, on the ground that it 
might incriminate me. 



2166 COMMUNIST ACTIVmEiS IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Abens. Were you a member of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade ? 

Mr. Shekivian. I decline to answer that, sir, on the ground it might 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. "\'\'lien did you last take a trip abroad ? 

Mr. Sherman. I decline to answer that on the ground that it might 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever applied for a United States passport? 

Mr. Sherman. I decline to answer that, sir, on the ground that it 
might incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
whether or not you applied for a United States passport, you would 
be supplying information which might be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sherman. Would you mind, sir, to repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, if you told this com- 
mittee truthfully whether or not you ever applied for a United States 
passport, you would be supplying information which might be used 
against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sherman. "Whatever I answer here is nothing but the truth. 
The reason 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, may I make an observation here? 
It seems to me that in the testimony of this witness, this is a case that 
should be immediately processed to the Immigration authorities look- 
ing toward deportation, and I certainly would recommend and would 
urge as a vote of this committee, to return it to the full committee, that 
such proceedings be taken. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, there is an outstanding question on this record, 
namely : Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this committee 
truthfully while you are under oath whether or not you have ever 
applied for a United States passport, you would be supplying infor- 
mation which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sherman. In spite of my innocence, gentlemen, I still decline 
to answer, that it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been innocent of any application for a United 
States passport? 

Mr. Sherman. I have stated that, despite my innocence, that the 
truth 

Mr. Arens. What innocence ? Are you innocent of membership in 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Sherman. I am innocent of telling the truth here, nothing but 
the truth ; and the only reason I decline to answer such certain ques- 
tions is fear that they may incriminate me. This is my only reason. 
I employ the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. As an alien, have you ever applied for what is tech- 
nically known as a re-entry permit ? 

Mr. Sherman. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the same 
reason and same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been back to the country of your birth? 

Mr. Sherman. I decline to answer that on the same reason, the same 
grounds. 



i 



COMMUlSriiST ACTIVITIES m THE NEW ENGLiAND AREA 2167 

Mr. Arens. To what organizations do you belong ? 

Mr. Sherman. I decline to answer on the first amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I am going to ask you this question : What or- 
ganizations do you now belong to which are not Communist organi- 
zations ? 

Mr. Sherman. I decline to answer that, sir, on the same grounds 
and the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is so ordered and directed. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Moulder. I will restate that the witness is ordered and directed 
to answer the question as directed by counsel. 

Mr. Sherman. I am applying the first amendment that gives me 
the right to associations and speech, and that is the reason why I de- 
cline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, in view of that explanation, I respect- 
fully suggest that the record again reflect an order and direction from 
this committee for the witness to answer the question — and I will 
explain the pertinency of it to the witness — so that there will be no 
question that this record is abundantly clear as to the nature of the 
information we are endeavoring to elicit from the witness. 

We have abimdance of information to the effect that Communists 
have been in a process over this Nation of penetrating non-Communist 
organizations; that the Communist conspiracy is developing in. this 
country what is known in Communist jargon as a "united front tactic." 
We have information to the effect that this witness is and has been a 
member of the Communist conspiracy. 

We want to ask this witness not about Communist operations in 
which he is engaged at the moment, but about non-Communist or- 
ganizations in which he may be a participant, for the reason that this 
committee has under consideration a number of suggested provisions 
of law which would help protect this country against this subversive 
conspiracy. 

With that explanation, Mr. Witness, I respectfully request you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. And you are directed by the committee to answer 
the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sherman. With the advice of my counsel, I am employing 
the first amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. I didn't understand. 

Mr. Sherman. With the advice of my counsel on this question, I 
am employing the first amendment. 

Mr. Arens. And let the record be absolutely clear. You are not 
invoking- 



Mr. Sherman. I am invoking 

Mr. Arens. — those provisions of the fifth amendment which give 
you a privilege against self-incrimination ? 

Mr. Sherman. Let me repeat my answer, then. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sherman. I am relying on the first amendment, with the advice 
of my counsel, and due process of the fifth amendment. 



2168 COMMUNIST ACTIV1TIE>S m THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Aren"S. But you are not relying — Counsel, you may advise 
him — you are not relying upon those portions of the fifth amendment 
■which endow you with a privilege against self -incrunination ; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Sherman. I am employing all of the fifth amendment that pro- 
tects me from being a witness against myself. 

Mr. Aeens. Then you are changing your reasons, are you not ? 

Mr. S HERMAN. That is the reason. 

Mr. Arens. Let's get to the prmcipal question: Do you honestly 
apprehend, sir, if you told this committee truthfully the non-Com- 
munist Party organizations of which you are a member, you would 
be supplying information which might be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sherman. With the advice of my counsel, I decline to answer 
for the same reasons. 

Mr. Abens. Mr, Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that outstanding principal ques- 
tion, for the reason we are testing the witness' good faith in the invo- 
cation of the fifth amendment. The fifth amendment has not been 
put in the Constitution, the Courts have said repeatedly, for purposes 
of mockery. If the witness is invoking the fifth amendment in good 
faith, he can and should answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. I believe the record reveals what counsel said, to be 
the truth. Therefore you are directed by the committee to answer 
the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sherman. My counsel advises me to rely on the first amend- 
ment and all of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I want the record to be abundantly clear, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Do you understand, Mr. Witness, that I am asking you whether or 
not if you told this committee truthfully the non-Communist organi- 
zations which you are a member of, you would be supplying informa- 
tion which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? Do 
you understand the question ? 

Mr. Sherman. (Nods). 

Mr. Arens. Your nod "Yes" is not on the record. Kindly give us 
a negative or an affirmative response. 

Mr. Sherman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You understand the question ? 

Then I respectfully implore you to answer the question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Sherman. My counsel advises me to apply the first amendment, 
that it deals with the association of people and organizations, and the 
fifth amendment, that it deals with due proces of law and not to be a 
witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Doyle, have you any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. Witness, how many vears did you say you had been 
within the continental United States ? 

Mr. Sherman. I came to this country in 1920. 



COMMUNIST ACnVITIEiS EST THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2169 

Mr. DoTLE. From Poland? 

Mr. Sherman. Poland, sir, right. 

Mr. Doyle. And I think you said you had not applied for citizen- 
ship papers after you came here in 1920. 

Mr. Sherman. I have asked for an explanation, which I was not 
given the right to explain, and you would readily see the reason why I 
have not applied. In my explanation, if I was permitted to, you would 
see why I have not applied. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, tell us why you have not applied. 

Mr. Sherman. All right. 

Mr. Doyle. Since 1920. That is 38 years. 

Mr. Sherman. Well 

Mr. Doyle. How old a man are you ? 

Mr. Sherman. I am 52 at the moment. 

Mr. Doyle. 52? 

Mr. Sherman. Correct, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Tell us why you have not applied for citizenship in the 
country in which you are claiming constitutional privileges. 

Mr. Sherman. Firstly, I want to state that I would appreciate 
greatly if I was to be given the opportunity of becoming a citizen of 
the United States. 

Mr. Doyle. Speak a little louder, please. 

Mr. Sherman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Could you truthfully take an oath as now required in 
the application for citizenship that you are not now, nor have you ever 
been, a member of an organization dedicated to the overthrow of the 
Government by force and violence ? 

Mr. Sherman. I don't know which question to answer first. Wliat 
I started to speak about 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Sherman. Or this question now. 

Mr. Doyle. You answer the director's question, first, sir. 

Mr. Sherman. Wliatever I say here is absolutely the truth, and the 
only reason I am employing my right and taking advantage of the 
Constitution rights is simply not to be incriminated in the future. 

Mr. Doyle. All right. Now answer my question. You answered 
him the same way you did before. Why haven't you applied for 
citizenship papers in 38 years ? 

Mr. Sherman. I came to this country in 1914 as a boy and that was 
the f urtherest thing in my mind, not knowing anything about citizen- 
ship, when you first come to this country. 

Mr. Doyle. You are an adult now. Why haven't you applied for 
citizenship papers ? 

Mr. Sherman. Due to the fact that all of the children in my family 
were under the impression they were citizens of my father's citizen's 
papers, derivative citizens. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever go to the Immigration Service of 
our country to find out whether or not you could apply for citizenship 
papers ? 

Mr. Sherman. Sir, my personal life was so involved with 

Mr. Doyle. Never mind your personal life. Answer my question. 

Mr. Sherman. That was the reason for me not doing. I was in- 
volved with a dying wife for many years. 



2170 OOMMIJNIST ACTIVinES IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 

Mr. Doyle. Your wife has been dead many years. You have had 
25 years since that time. 

Mr. Sherman. My wife is not dead 25 years. 

Mr. Doyle. How many years has she been dead ? 

Mr. Sherman. My wife died in 1951. 

Mr. Doyle. 7 years. 

Mr. Sherman. And she was sick for many, many years. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you applied since your wife died, for citizenship 
papers ? 

Mr. Sherman. Pardon, sir ? 

Mr. Doyle. Have you applied for citizenship papers in the United 
States since your wife died 7 years ago ? 

Mr. Sherman. No. Since then I have been running to doctors, and 
I am a sick man today, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes? 

Mr. Sherman. Arthritis, ulcerated stomach. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you work every day ? 

Mr. Sherman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. You are not too sick to work ? 

Mr. Sherman. I must. 

Mr. Doyle, ^Vliy haven't you walked over to the Immigration office 
and applied for citizenship ? 

Mr. Sherman. Due to the fact when I get through with the day's 
work, sir, I am tired. 

Mr. Doyle. Why don't you lay off a half day and do your duty to 
your country ? 

Mr. Sherman. I am not in a position financially to do so, and I am 
in the future trying to, even under a financial sacrifice. 

Mr. Doyle. You have good clothes, a clean shirt on, your hair is 
combed, you have good spectacles. You have a good, clean tie on. 
Why don't you lay off long enough to go to the Immigration Serv- 
ice here in Boston and apply for citizenship papers ?_ 

Mr. Sherman. For your information, sir, this suit that I am wear- 
ing now and which is nice and clean is a suit bought for the last 9 
years, and this is the first suit in 9 years. And you know how long 
it takes to save up for a suit. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I submit then that this is the most dis- 
gusting incomprehensible testimony I have ever heard on this com- 
mittee from a man who is claiming the protection of our country ; and 
I want to join Mr. Kearney when this meeting is over and vote to 
recommend that this man be recommended to the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service to be deported. 

You can't make monkeys of the people of the United States of 
America, like you have been doing, apparently. 

Mr. Moulder. May I first advise and warn those who are attending 
(he hearing that you are permitted here in this public and open hear- 
ing and that demonstrations, for or against the witness, will not be 
tolerated and those, of course, who violate that rule will necessarily 
have to leave the hearing room. 

Do you have any questions, Mr. Kearney ? 

Mr. Kearney. 1 have no questions, Mr. Chairman, only to reiterate 
what I said a few minutes ago — that I watched the witness and lis- 
tened to his attempted answers, and personally, I don't think there is 
a word of truth in them. 



COMMUlSnST ACnVITIEiS IN THE NEW ENGLAND AREA 2171 

As Mr. Doyle from California has stated, when the full subcom- 
mittee meets it is my intention to move to the full committee that this 
matter be referred to the proper authorities for action. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Mcintosh ? 

Mr. McIntosh. I have no questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Are there any other questions of this witness? 

Mr. Arens. No. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. That will conclude 
the staff interrogation. 

Mr. Moulder. I likewise wish to concur with my colleagues on the 
committee, that unanimously, your case be referred to the Immigra- 
tion authorities. 

The committee will stand in recess mitil 10 a. m., tomorrow. 

(Whereupon at 5 : 23 p. m. Tuesday, March 18, 1958, the subcom- 
mittee recessed to reconvene at 10 a. m., Wednesday, March 19, 1958.) 



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