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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the State of California. Hearing"



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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA— Part 3 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



APRIL 12, 14, AND 23, 1954 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OBTICB 
*7718 WASHINGTON : 1964 




Boston Public Library 
superintendent of Documents 

SEP 8- 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House op Representati\t)s 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. NixON, Director of Research 

Courtney E. Owens, Acting Chief Investigator 

n 



CONTENTS 



Pag« 

April 12, 1954, testimony of Merton D. Sumner 4623 

April 14, 1954, testimony of Frances Burke (resumed) 4647 

April 23. 1954, testimony of : 

Elizabeth Foder 4653 

Eda C. Fowler 4657 

Leo I. Breger 4663 

John Dunkel 4668 

Irving Ravetch 4673 

Index i 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2cl session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and Hoiise of Representatives of the United States 
■)f America in Congress assembled; * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rltle X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEE 
rr ***** m 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWEES AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
anda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold .such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

(1) There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees : 

* It: * * * * * 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American i)ropaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary i-emedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFOENIA— Part 3 



MONDAY, APRIL 12, 1954 

United States House of Representatives, 

SUBCOMMITEE OF THE COMMITTEE ON Un- AMERICAN ACTIVITIES, 

Washington^ D. C. 

EXECUTIVE SESSION 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to call, at 2:30 p. m., in room 225, Old House Office 
Building, the Honorable Donald L. Jackson (acting chairman), pre- 
siding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Donald L. Jackson 
( luting chairman), and Clyde Doyle. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Courtney 
E. Owens, acting chief investigator ; Thomas W. Beale, Sr., chief clerk ; 
Donald T. Appell, investigator ; and Dolores Anderson, reporter. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you stand and be sworn, please? 

In the testimony you are about to give before this subcommittee, do 
you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Sumner. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. For the purpose of taking this testimony of the 
witness this afternoon, the Chair has appointed a subcommittee con- 
sisting of Messrs. Scherer, Doyle, and Jackson, with the latter as acting 
chairman. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please? 

TESTIMONY OF MERTON D. SUMNER 

Mr. Sumner. Merton D. Sumner, S-u-m-n-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Sumner. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Sumner. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Sumner? 

Mr. Sumner. At Cedar Springs, Mich., on October 17, 1910. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside now ? 

Mr. Sumner. At Barrington, 111., 207 Dundee Avenue. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your occupation? 

Mr. Sumner. I teach new personnel for the Jewel Tea Co., con- 
ducting a sales training school. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
educational training has been? 

4623 



4624 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Sumner. Four years of high school, and one year of college 
at Greenville, 111., equivalent to about 2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived at any time in San Diego, Calif.? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period of time were you a resident 
of that area ? 

Mr. Sumner. After I left the service. That would be the beginning 
approximately of 1940, or thereabouts, I believe. 

I know I was there in 1941, '42, '43, or '44. I don't remember just 
exactly when I came and when I left. 

Mr. Tavenner. But it would be roughly about those dates ? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your employment in San 
Diego, Calif.? 

Mr. Sumner. I had several jobs. I first went to work in the county 
hospital as an orderly. Then I took a civil-service examination for the 
post office and worked there for several years. 

Mr. Tavenner. About when did your employment begin in the post 
office? 

Mr. Sumner. In the post office ? I believe about 1940, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you continued how long ? 

Mr. Sumner. I think I was there nearly 4 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that mean that practically all the time you 
were in San Diego you were employed in the Post Office Department? 

Mr. Sumner. After I became a civilian, yes. More time in the post 
office than anywhere else. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the period of your service in the Armed 
Forces ? 

Mr. Sumner. Oh — give me a chance to get a date together here. I 
think it started about 1934. I believe I was there for 3 years and 8 
months, approximately. 

Mr. Taatenner. You mean at San Diego, Calif., while you were 
serving in the Marine Corps ? 

Mr. Sumner. Not always in San Diego, no, but those were the ap- 
proximate dates of my service. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. And then you received an honorable discharge, I 
assume ? 

Mr. Sumner. Medical discharge — otherwise honorable. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date of your discharge, approxi- 
mately ? 

Mr. Sumner. I think probably around — somewhere between '37 and 
'39, 1 believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you became a resident of San Diego, Calif., 
upon your discharge from the armed services ? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere did you go upon leaving San Diego in ap- 
proximately 1944 ? 

Mr. Sumner. To Grand Rapids, Mich., which is about 20 miles 
from my hometown where I was born. I didn't go directly to Grand 
Rapids, but in the vicinity of Grand Rapids — first I was out on a 
farm. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee is studying the activities of the Com- 
munist Party in the area of San Diego, Calif. Information has come 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4625 

to our attention indicating that you have some knowledge of the 
activities of that organization while you were employed by the post 
office. Is that true ? 

Mr. Sumner. I should have. I was a member of the Communist 
Party at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances or way under which you became a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. It was while I was still in the Marine Corps, 
aboard the U. S. S. Tuscaloosa at that time. Our ship was in drydock 
at Vallejo, getting barnacles scraped off and various repairs made. 
One afternoon I was strolling around the deck and there was a group 
of welders — spot welders and riveters, working on the ship and talk- 
ing about religion in a manner in which I had never heard before. 

Having come from a religious famil}' — a very strict religious fam- 
ily — I stopped and listened to the tone of the conversation, which was 
very antireligious. 

Mr. Jackson. These were civilian navy-yard workers, I gather. 

Mr. Sumner. Yes, sir. Civilian navy-yard workers aboard the 
ship. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the approximate date of this ? 

Mr. Sumner. I believe it was about a year before I received my 
discharge. 

Mr. Tavenner. That would be probably in 1938 ? 

Mr. Sumner. That would be pretty close. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. Proceed and tell us what occurred. 

Mr. Sumner. I listened for a while and walked by and then came 
back again and said "This conversation is interesting me in a way — 
may I ask whether you belong to some kind of group or organization 
that meets to discuss these things?" They said, "Yes, we do. Why, 
did you find our conversation interesting?" And I said "Yes, I did." 
They started talking among themselves for a while. They asked me 
a few questions — where I was born — what political party I was 
affiliated with — what my religious background was — and so I told 
them. They then wanted to know when I would get my next liberty, 
so I said it would possibly be that coming weekend. Then they said, 
"If you do, you are invited over to such and such an address." I 
don't remember the address now, and they wrote it down on a card 
and handed it to me. I asked if I was welcome to bring a friend along 
with me, a second-class radioman, who was my friend, and he said 
"Well, yes. At this meeting I see no reason why you shouldn't be 
allowed to do that." So I invited this friend of mine. I don't recall 
his name now. It was on a Saturday. We both had liberty — in fact 
we arranged it so we would have liberty together because we were 
curious about what this was all about. 

When we got there, we knocked at the door and someone asked us 
to come in. I showed this card. The man at the door said, "Wliy did 
j'ou come in uniform ?" And I said, "Why ? I didn't know there was 
anything wron^ with it." This was in peacetime and we could wear 
civvies. He said, "Well, come in." 

We went in and sat down. There were approximately 30 people 
present — mostly men and possibly 2 or 3 women. They were all of the 
same type — workmen — you could see that they were. Their conversa- 
tions went in the same manner and they w^ere talking about unions. 

47718—54 — pt. 3 2 



4626 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

This was pretty much over my head because up to this time I knew 
nothing about union organization — what their aims were or anything 
else. 

Before the meeting was through, however, we both became awart* 
of the fact that this was a meeting of the Vallejo Communist Party. 
Towards the close of the meeting the man who had invited us to 
attend in the first place came over and sat down beside us and asked if 
we were interested in joining. I said to my buddy, "What do you 
say we do to find out what it is all about?" He said, "I am game if 
you are." So they passed around cards. There were evidently n 
half-dozen people they had contacted like ourselves. All but one 
person there signed the card and paid dues. If I remember right 
they charged us a dollar — and told us when the next meeting would 
be. They said, "In the meantime, here is some literature. Take it 
back to your ship, study it over, but be careful where you keep it 
because the officers may not understand it if they see it." 

I put the literature inside my marine jacket and went aboard ship. 
We went down in the emergency radio room — read the literature 
through, and destroyed it. They were pamphlets on discrimination 
against the Jewish people — against Negro people in the United 
States — why the CIO was a better labor organization than the A. F. 
of L. because of the way in which it was organized — and something 
about the organization being more militant. I think there was a 
Communist Manifesto there also, in short form, by Karl Marx. We 
threw the stuff out of the porthole after we finished reading it. 

I didn't make any contact with the party from that time until I was 
out of the service and back in San Diego, in civilian life. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me interrupt you there. Do you recall who it 
was led this meeting you attended ? 

Mr. Sumner. No, I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you remember any of the names of the people? 

Mr. Sumner. Well, if you had asked me shortly after the meeting, 
I could have named them as Comrade Joe, Comrade Dick, Comrade 
Tom, and so forth. There were no last names mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you later on in your experience meet any of the 
individuals who were present at that meeting? 

Mr. Sumner. No, I have never seen them since that time, to my 
knowledge. 

(At this point Representative Donald L. Jackson left the hearing 
room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did this group have any name, or any designation 
of any type ? 

Mr. Sumner. Well, yes it did, because all groups have names, but 
I do not know what the name of this particular group was. I expect 
it was called a union unit of some type. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what union? I mean by that, was 
this group of Communist Party members who Avere in a particular 
union ? 

Mr. Sumner. I am pretty sure it was because they were all laboring 
people. It was very evident there were no professional people there, 
so it was not a mixed type of group. Tliey were all steamfitters, weld- 
ers, and shopmen of one type or another. It is possible they were all 
working aboard various ships, but of that I have no real knowledge. 



COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4627 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. What was your next contact with the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sumner. The next contact with the Communist Party was in 
5an Diego, at the International Book Shop. If I remember correctly, 
:he address was 635 E Street in San Diego. I went to the bookshop 
md told them of my previous contact with the party, and that I had 
lad no contact since, and asked them what group or unit I would affili- 
ite with in San Diego. 

Mr. Taahenner. When did that occur? 

Mr. Sumner. It occurred while I was working at the county hospi- 
tal. That would be a short time after my discharge from the service. 
[t must have been around '38 — 1938. 

Mr. Tavenner. Apparently it was about in the same year in which 
^ou had become a member, or was it in the following year ? 

Mr. Sumner. I believe it was the following year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. What occurred after the interview you 
bave just described ? 

Mr. Sumner. They said that I evidently knew very little about the 
party if this was the only contact I had had. I said that was correct, 
and I only knew what t had heard on the outside. So they said I 
had better go to a school which was a beginners school for new mem- 
bers and lasted a week, and I was expcted to attend each meeting. 
A-t the close of this week I would be given an opportunity to decide 
whether or not I wanted to join, because I would have to rejoin if I 
came in with them. They would want me to come in as a new member. 

So I signed up for the school. The school consisted of sessions on 
the history of the American labor movement — the history of the 
United States, from a Marxist viewpoint, which was to the effect that 
economic conditions determined trends of history, not morals — not 
the leadership of great men or the lack of leadership of great men — 
but everything is determined by economic conditions, and the man 
will think the way he does depending upon his own personal economic 
condition. 

This was the type of thing we were taught, and then we had sessions 
on the discrimination that existed in this country against certain mi- 
nority groups, such as the Negroes, the foreign born, and it even went 
back to the American Indians. Then at the close of this session we 
were given a questionnaire — a written questionnaire. One of the 
questions I remember because I evidently answered everything cor- 
rectly except this one. It was, "Do you feel that if communism came 
to the United States tomorrow, that it would benefit everyone?" I 
answered "Yes." The leader — his name was Dick, but I can't recall 
the last name — said there was where I was entirely wrong. I said 
"Why, what do you mean ? If it is all the fine things you have been 
saying, it seems to me that it would help everyone — minority, majority, 
and everybody else." He said, "Well, it wouldn't help the capitalistic 
owners of the country because we would line those all up against a 
wall and shoot them like dogs." I swallowed a couple of times and 
didn't have anything else to say. I didn't agree with him, however, 
because I felt at that time that if communism would come into this 
country that next week that it would benefit everyone. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give some identifying information regard- 
ing this person named Dick, or whom you referred to as Dick? 



4628 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Sumner. I can picture him in my mind. His wife's name was 
Jean. He had a very dark complexion — however, he was a blonde. 
He looked like he laid out hours and hours on the beach. This was 
the type of complexion he had — and very blonde hair. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a functionary in the party ? 

Mr. Sumner. To my knowledg at that time he was county organizer, 
or at least the San Diego City organizer of the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where he lived ? 

Mr. Sumner. No I don't. I was never in their home. I met him 
and his wife at the bookshop several times. They later were divorced 
and he married — I heard that he married, but I don't know for sure, 
One of the party members told me that he had married a Mexican gir] 
and disappeared, south of the border somewhere and left his wife and 
two or three children — small children. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where was this school held that you referred tol 

Mr. Sumner. It was held in the Workers' Alliance room which was 
adjacent to the bookshop and a part of the same building. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what city ? 

Mr. Sumner. San Diego, Calif. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you attend the school? 

Mr. Sumner. As I recall it — for a week. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you fix a date for the school? 

Mr. Sumner. I think I could if I dug into some of my old trunks 
down in the basement because I was elected, or named or chosen secre- 
tary for this particular school, to keep notes on the proceedings, anc 
I believe I still have those notes somewhere. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Would you produce them for a member of our stafl 
for our inspection. 

Mr. Sumner. I will if I can find them. They were in a notebook- 
well typed up and decorated with pictures. 

Mr. Tavenner. What type of pictures are you speaking of ? Picture; 
of individuals? 

Mr. Sumner. No. The pictures were of propaganda nature. Noth 
ing that would benefit the committee except to find out the result th( 
school would have on new people — how it would influence your think 
ing — for example, they would bring a statement that Dr. Alberi 
Einstein said. I remember that he said at one time that he felt th( 
Soviet Union was the greatest force in the world today — so I scurried 
around and got a picture of Albert Einstein to illustrate this state- 
ment. Those are the type of pictures I am referring to. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many persons attended this group ? 

Mr. Sumner. I believe in round numbers about a dozen, and I hav( 
all their names in this notebook, if I can find it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall independently of the notebook th( 
names of any of those who attended this school. 

Mr. Sumner. Well, let me see. Besides Dick and his wife Jean, 
there was a Comrade Bessie. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that a first name or a last name? 

Mr. Sumner. I believe a first name, sir. A Comrade Bessie. There 
was also a Comrade Dorothy, who was cross-eyed. Bessie was short 
and heavy set — about 48 or so, and Dorothy was also about that age, 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know their last names? 

Mr. Sumner. No I don't. Most of them would give their first 
names as I did. I went by the name of Don. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4629 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you learn the last names of any of the persons 
vho attended? 

Mr. Sumner. At that time I probably did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have that in your notebook? 

Mr. Sumner. It is possible. I don't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who any of the instructors were ? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. Dick, who was the organizer for either the 
;ounty or the city, and Bessie. I don't recall any of the sessions being 
leld by anyone else, except Dick and Bessie. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. After the completion of your training at this school, 
what further connection did you have with the Communist Party at 
3an Diego? 

Mr. Sumner. I was assigned to a unit there that met at the book- 
ihop. Now this was called — we met at the bookshop once a week. 
The unit was called a mixed unit. Why they called it a mixed unit 

am not certain. For example I could have been assigned to — well 
I was working at the county hospital which was not organized, so 
[ guess it couldn't have been a union group to which I was assigned. 
So I think the reason it was called a mixed unit was that most of them 
were new people, except there may have been some — well they couldn't 
call them supporters — but supporters from other groups would be 
in attendance. Members were left in this unit and then assigned to 
other units, one by one. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the approximate date when you were 
assigned to this group? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes; it was right after I had completed the week's 
schooling. 

Mr. TA\Ti:NNER. What year would that be? 

Mr. Sumner. I believe around 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many persons were in the group ? 

Mr. Sumner. Twelve. Oh, you mean in the unit ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Sumner. Around seven or eight. It was less than those who 
were in the school. All of them that went to the school didn't go on 
with it. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain in that group, or unit ? 

Mr. Sumner. All right now. About here my memory is becoming 
hazy. I don't know just why, but I can't remember how long I was 
in that unit, and I can't remember what unit I went to after that. 
I believe the next unit I went into was approximately 3 or 4 months 
after that — and it was a beach unit. It was called the beach unit 
because I moved to Ocean Beach, which was San Diego suburban. 
It was composed of people who lived in the beach sections, La Jolla, 
National City Beach, Point Loma Beach, Mission Beach, and Ocean 
Beach, and so on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the date when you changed your 
residence to that beach area ? 

Mr. Sumner. I can't recall the date, but it must have been in late 
1939 or maybe early 1940. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many persons composed the beach unit ? 

Mr. Sumner. I imagine about 30, if all of us got together. If we 
had a turnout of 12 or 13 workers we thought we were doing well. 

Mr. Ta\tnner. How long did you remain a member of that unit? 

^ Mr. Sumner. Until the unit was dissolved and started meeting as a 

city unit. That would be — I can't think of the year, but it would have 



4630 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

to be about the time that Hitler signed the nonaggression pact with 
the Soviet Union, because that was the time the San Diego Communist 
Party was most unpopuhir and the leaders felt that we should dissolve 
our units and meet as a city group. When various units would get i 
together, I imagine they contacted the other units in San Diego. When i 
we did get together it was to be by word of mouth, rather than using | 
a telephone or the mails as heretofore. If we wanted to call the meet- : 
ing for some little reason, we would just go around and contact the 
people. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the principal objective of this unit — the ■. 
beach unit of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sumner. Our principal objective was — we felt or at least I felt ) 
it was to hold study groups. We studied various economic conditions i 
and kept track of conditions and what was going on in the war. The j 
city organizer would come around and he would pick people fromi 
our unit to go out and do certain things — such as distributing leaflets 
and pamphlets that the party would put out. We circulated the 
People's World, which was published in San Francisco on Saturdays. 
We sold them. 

Mr. Tavenner. By this time were you familiar enough with the 
setup of the organization of the Communist Party to be able to tell 
the committee who the high functionaries were and what positions 
they held ? 

Mr. Sumner. Well, yes. The State man — you would hear the names 
of the State men quite often — such as Schneiderman, Bill, whose offices 
were in San Francisco. Pettis Perry, the Negro, was a State func- 
tionary, I believe, or he may have been a national functionary of th& 
])arty. He was a heavy set Negro. Anita Whitney, who was a State 
functionary — I believe it was State. Mother Bloor. These names 
were pretty common among members because we were constantly 
reading pamphlets put out by these people. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us the names of functionaries on the 
county level ? 

Mr. Sumner. County functionaries? They were different at dif- 
ferent times. It seemed about every 8 or 9 months there would be a 
complete reorganization — someone would come in and someone else- 
would go out. After Dick left, I believe the man who replaced him 
was Matt — I believe his first name was Matthew. I don't recall the 
last name. 

People who stayed were, however 

Mr. Tavenner. What was that name? 
Mr. Sumner. People who stayed on, whether county or not, were* 
the Deckers. I don't know whether it was spelled D-e-c-k-e-r or' 
D-e-k-k-e-r. Frances, and what was her husband's name now? It' 
was Frances Decker or Dekker, and I should know it because we al- 
ways said their names in the same breath — would it have been Bill? 
Anyway it was Decker, and her name was Frances. 
Mr. Doyle. How old a woman was she ? 

Mr. Sumner. She was young — anywhere in her 20's — a blond. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did she hold ? 

Mr. Sumner. I don't know but she was always there and taking! 

an active part. She could have been a secretary but I couldn't say 

for sure. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4631 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, are there any names you can now recall of 
persons who were functionaries on the county level ? 

Mr. Sumner, I only attended one meeting — one county meeting — 
it was for the purpose of electing officers and that was just before I 
left San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1944 ? 

Mr. Sumner. xVbout 1944, 1 believe so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there a city committee, or executive commit- 
tee of the Communist Party in San Diego with which you were 
familiar ? 

Mr. Sumner. Well, I was always familiar with the organizer of 
them. There was- 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the organizer ? 

Mr. Sumner. Matt — Matthew. There was a Vidaver. Right now 
1 can't say for sure if the two names go together or not, but it sounds 
awfully familiar. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can j'OU give us the names of any other members 
of the beach group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sumner. Beach Club — yes. 

There was a Jay and Alberta Fonts. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can 3'ou give any other identifying information 
regarding them, such as their occupations and their activities within 
the party. 

Mr. Sumner. Jay's activity was as a garbage collector, or rather his 
occupation was. 

Then there were the Berman's. The last name was Berman and 
the first name was — Mildred and Phil Berman, I imagine. It may 
have been spelled with 1 "n" instead of 2. Phil, I think, worked at 
the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp. I don't believe Mildred 
worked. 

Then Al — or xVlbert Pitt, and his wife's name was — no, I don't re- 
call it. 

There was an Alexander somebody, that we called Alex. He lived 
m Ocean Beach. 

There was a young couple from the Scripps Institute, and it was in 
La Jolla. I believe it is a part of California Tech, or UCLA. They 
were studying oceanography, or something of that type at Scripps 
in La Jolla. 

Then there was a young couple — I think the last name was Olsen — 
Dorothy Olsen. His name doesn't come back to me. 

There was another young couple — most of them were young couples. 
He came in from the United States Army and was in the group about 
a month or two and was gone again, and I can't recall his name. I 
should be able to because he was a so-called artist of the Home Front 
News, of which I was editor in chief. It was a propaganda sheet 
which we broadcast or put out from the beach neighborhood — we ran 
it off on the mimeograph. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that sponsored in any way by the Beach cell 
or group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. We had our name on it. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the general purpose of the news sheet 
or publication ? 

Mr. Sumner. The general purpose was to — I wish I had some copies 
of that — I don't think I saved any of those. I can give you what the 



4632 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

nature of the articles were that we ran. There was one article en- 
title4 "Why Don't We Give Our Soldiers the Vote?" Then there 
was one, "Wliy Doesn't the Government Support Tito in Yugoslavia?" 
He at that time was in the favor of Russia. Another one was on a 
local issue, "Let's Get Out to the Polls and Elect So-and-So as Mayor," 
and I can't even remember the name now. I got called on the carpet 
for that one because they informed me we weren't supposed to back 
anyone. I said, "Why? Isn't he a good man?" And they said, 
"Yes, but the majority of the people aren't for the Communist Party 
and that is pretty likely to lose him a lot of votes in the Beach area 
with the Communist name on the bottom of the sheet. That was the 
type of thing we had in the news slieet. Down at the bottom we would 
always say, "For information concerning the party, phone so-and-so," 
which was the bookshop address of the city headquarters of the party. 
Anyhow, the phone was in the book, and we always said to phone 
so-and-so, or write to so-and-so for additional information. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the name of this pamphlet or news 
sheet? 

Mr. Sumner. The Home Front News. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of the Beach 
group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sumner. Until the units were dissolved — not actually dis- 
solved, but we didn't meet anymore as groups. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. I believe you said that was approximately in the 
period of the signing of the Hitler-Stalin Pact? 

Mr. Sumner. I am trying to rationalize to myself that that was 
when it happened. I am trying to get clear in my mind why the 
units dissolved as such, and why we met as a city group. I can't 
think of any good reason why it was done, unless it was that reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your ex- 
perience in the Communist Party was, beginning at the time that 
the separate units were disbanded in San Diego and you began meet- 
ing as a city group. That is correct, isn't it, city group ? 

Mr. Sumner. I believe it was county because — and yet I am con- 
fused with the Grand Rapids units. I am putting the two of them 
together now in my mind. I keep getting this Grand Rapids group 
mixed up with San Diego. In San Diego it was city — it was still 
city in San Diego, We met at a woman's club — a Negro woman's club. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well — did this club or group know that the meet- 
ings you were holding were Communist Party meetings ? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee on what you base this statement, 
please. 

Mr. Sumner. Let's see — how did you — when we were notified we 
would just say we were having meetings and didn't say this was a 
Communist group meeting, and we were going to meet at such-and- 
such a time and would be there. Wlien we got there we called each 
other comrade this-and-tliat. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am speaking of the knowledge that it was a Com- 
munist Party meeting, not by the members in attendance, but I am 
talking now about this woman's club, this Negro woman's club which 
was allowing you to meet in their quarters. 

Mr. Sumner. Oh, of that I don't have any knowledge. I wondered 
myself sometimes about that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4633 

Mr. Tavenner. As far as your testimony, you couldn't say this 
relsvoman's club knew of the purpose of the meetings held by you in 
;heir club quarters, or that it was a Communist Party group that was 
neeting there ? 

Mr. Sumner. To my knowledge they didn't know that — however, I 
couldn't say for sure one way or another. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you please tell us your experiences from time 
to time in the city wide group meetings ? 

Mr. Sumner. Usually they would get an outside speaker who would 
come down from Frisco and Los Angeles. I know Pettis Perry was 
there once — -a Negro man, and I believe he was from Frisco. 

There were others whose names I don't recall. I saw them once or 
twice perhaps — but the name of Pettis Perry sticks with me. I just 
saw him that once, and of course it was all after Hitler attacked the 
Soviet Union and then we completely swung over into the war effort. 
It was a complete switch. You had to be able to turn some pretty 
quick somersaults overnight from time to time. 

We were told to cooperate in every way with the war effort and 
whatever we did, and whatever we did to not do it in a way as though 
we knew it all. They told us "You are going to even find some people 
among the American Red Cross and various safety organizations 
around the towns that can teach you a lot, and to become affiliated with 
these groups." We were to join a safety group of some kind — take 
first aid coui"ses, so that in case of attack we can be right out there in 
front. We were to be on record to be outstanding because the party 
might get to the place where it is looked upon pretty favorably in 
some circles and the harder we worked for the war effort, the more 
favorable our position would become. 

Mr. Tavenner. AAHiat was the source of those directives? 

Mr. Sumner. Men like Pettis Perry that would come in from 
Frisco. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were the meetings addressed by Pettis Perry and 
other persons holding similar positions closed meetings of the Com- 
munist Party, or were they open meetings that is, open to non-Com- 
munist Party members? 

Mr. Sumner. I believe they were closed. To my knowledge no in- 
vitations were given out except to party members. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did you receive your notice to attend such 
meetings ? 

Mr. Sumner. At that time, I believe, they were using the telephone 
again. They were notifying us by phone. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Who were the leaders of the county group at that 
time ? 

Mr. Sumner. Wlio were the leaders? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Sumner. The city group, I believe it would be, wouldn't it? 
The city group in San Diego ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you first ? How many persons composed 
the city group ? 

Mr. Sumner. There was the old beach unit, which was made up of 
approximately 30 members. There was a professional unit — I don't 
Imow what their membership would be. That would be made up of 
teachers and people of that nature. There were union groups, labor 

47718— 54— pt. 3 3 



4634 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

union units — an old labor union unit. I don't know how many mem- 
bers they had because I never attended one. And then there were 
members at large, or something of that sort. I don't know how they 
met or how they held themselves together, but once in a while a 
member at large would attend this city group. The membership took 
an active part in discussions, but had very little directives. You 
couldn't get up and say "let's do this or do that." You would act on 
a suggestion — perhaps it would be made by the Chair, and the Chair 
was the organizer^ — someone like Pettis Perry, who addressed the 
group, and the Chair would say, for instance : "You have heard the 
presentation. The motions are in order, and what is your desire to 
carry out this program?" 

Mr. Tavenner. About how man}^ organizations composed this city 
group of the Communist Party, roughly ? 

Mr. Sumner. There must have been about 80 members anyway in 
San Diego, but if w^e had 25 members — if 25 turned out for the city 
group, it would be good. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you occupy any position with the city group 
at any time, such as secretary or treasurer, or any other position ? 

Mr. Sumner. No, no. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Do you know who the chairman was ? 

Mr. Sumner. The chairman would have been the city organizer. 
This Matt, whom I think had a last name of Devalo — he had a little 
moustache, and Morgan Hull was the organizer at that time. He was- 
in there just a short period of time and then gone. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who succeeded Morgan Hull? 

Mr. Sumner. No, I think Morgan Hull, as I recall, was the organ- 
izer at the time I left San Diego, but who succeeded him I don't 
know, because I attended a county meeting just before leaving San 
Diego and I am pretty sure it was Morgan Hull who chaired that 
meeting. I think he was a county organizer. I think he chaired that 
meeting. 

Mr. Ta\"enner. Can you recall at this time any of the names of the 
members at large who attended these meetings? 

Mr. Sumner. The members at large — uh — no sir. They were dif- 
ferent at each time — there were always some people that were always 
there. There would be a half-dozen people wdio were always there. 
The rest of them you would see once and not see them again. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the names of any of the members 
at large in San Diego ? 

Mr. Sumner. No, I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. You referred to members of the professional group 
having attended the city wide meetings? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the names of any of the members of 
the professional gi'oup of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Sumner. No, I can't on that either. I don't — they attended 
rarely — they would send a delegate, who as I recall vras n differ -it 
person each time. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a list of names for the purpose of en- 

deavoinng to refresh your recollection of party members in San Diego. 

' Will you examine this list and if this list refreshes your recollection, 

tell the committee, please, the names of any appearing thereon who 

were known to you to have been members of the Communist Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4635 

If there is any individual you are not certain about do not mention 
his name or make reference to it in your testimony. 

Mr. Sumner. I don't recall any of these names, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. Will you give the committee the names 
of any persons known to you to have been members of the Communist 
Party who attended any of the meetings to which you have referred ? 

Mr. SuTviNER. Yes, this Alexander I named in the first part of the 
testimony. His first name has come to me. It is Ben Alexander. I 
am trying to think of any other names — no — I can't recall any other 
names at this time at least beyond the names I have already mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that you were a member of a group of the 
Communist Party just prior to your moving to the beach area ? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. I didn't ask you the names of those associated with 
you at that time, or of that group. Will you search your memory on 
that? 

Mr. Sumner. Largely that was the same group who attended the 
preliminary schooling which they gave us. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you have stated that this group was largely 
the same as the group who attended the school with you, and that you 
believed that you can reproduce their names accurately from your 
notes, if you are able to find them ? 

Mr. Sumner. I am hoping so. I know I put them down in the bot- 
tom of an old trunk. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what incidents 
occurred during the time you met with the city wide group of the 
Communist Party until the time you left San Diego ? 

Mr. Sumner. I don't quite get the nature of the question there. It 
isn't clear to me what you mean. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to know what particular activities the Com- 
munist Party engaged in during the period of time you are now testi- 
fying about ; that is, from the time you began attending the city wide 
meetings of the Connnunist Party until the time you left San Diego. 
Any activities Avhich would throw some light on the character of the 
Communist Party in San Diego. 

Mr. Sumner. The distribution of literature throughout the town, 
such as the People's World. Also an active part in any campaign 
which would come up. The party would determine which men, or 
group of men they said were the most liberal. You can put quotation 
marks around the word "liberal" if you like — at least that was the word 
they used for most progressive-liberals. 

Also the passing out of circulars. Also there was an organization 
which was chaired by a Communist functionary — I can't recall the 
name, but he was tall and blonde and young. This was the Americans 
for Democratic Action organization, at least that is the name in my 
mind right now. 

Also we supported the campaign of Governor Olsen and Leo Gal- 
lagher. Those two names I can remember, but I can't name any others. 
We went around nailing up billboards all over town on this. 

I believe it was during this time — no, that must have been earlier — 
an organization, or a letter-writing campaign it actually was — to 
organize as many people as possible to get interested in a letter-writ- 
ing campaign to Congress to free Tom Mooney from prison. Mass 
meetings were held at the Methodist Church in San Diego for this. 



4636 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Those mass meetings were not held under the name 
of the Communist Party, were they ? 

Mr. Sumner. No. Not under the name of the Communist Party, 
but we sponsored, or supported and worked in and through these meet- 
ings, to make sure there was plenty of literature passed out, and that 
type of thing. 

Mr. Tavenner. To w^hom did you pay Communist Party dues ? 

Mr. Sumner. I believe in the city we were paying to Frances 
Decker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether there 
were any instances that you know of in which members of the Com- 
munist Party were disciplined for a deviation from what was con- 
sidered to be Communist Party directives or the Communist Party 
line ? If so, will you tell the committee about them ? 

Mr. Sumner. The first instance that comes to my mind resulted 
from a discussion that the party was having on the Negro situation. 

(At this point Representative Clyde Doyle left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Sumner. This particular party member — I don't recall his 
name — said that the Negro people were — I am trying to think now just 
how he put it — that the Negro people were a minorit}^ part of this Na- 
tion, and the leader jumped up immediately and said "The Negro 
people are a nation themselves." The member got up again and said 
"Why do you say the Negro people are a nation in themselves ? They 
have no government and no organization." The leader then said, "You 
don't understand the meaning of the word 'nation.' A nation is a 
group of people who have a common interest — common background — 
and who have developed over a period of years why they have because 
of their economic conditions, and whether they are organized into an 
official government or not, that makes them an official nation." The 
gentleman from the floor said he couldn't understand that at all — that 
it didn't make sense to him — so the Chair informed him he was out of 
order and not to discuss it anymore but to come to him after the 
meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was the leader of that meeting? 

Mr. Sumner. I believe it was this Matt. 

Then there was another one on the Jewish situation. I believe this 
was away back in the bookshop. I never could put these two together 
in my mind because they seemed to me to be quite the opposite of what 
was said in the case of the Negro people. In the course of the conversa- 
tion one was asked "What would be your definition of a Jew?" He 
said it would be a person who belongs to the Jewish race, and the 
leader, who was this Dick, but I don't recall his last name, said, "That 
is where you are entirely wrong. The Jewish people are not a race — 
they are a religion." He said, "If a Catholic would renounce his 
religion tomorrow and accept the Jewish orthodoxy, he would be a 
Jew, or if a Jew would renounce his Jewish orthodoxy and accept 
Catholicism, he would be a Catholic." The man from the floor said 
"That doesn't make sense to me. It seems to me they are a race of 
people who have developed over a period of time and have the Jewish 
blood." The leader got mad and said "There is no difference in the 
blood of a Jew or of the blood of an Irishman." They got into quite 
an argument and it ended up the same way. "See me after the 
meeting." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4637 

In my mind this seemed to be a kind of an opposite approach and 
I conld never figure out the difference. 

Tlie only time I was ever reprimanded was in the first meeting 
when I answered the question that communism would be good for 
the entire country. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. "Were there any postal employees in San Diego who 
were members of the Communist Party at the same time that you were ? 

Mr. Sumner. I doubt it very much. If there had been I would 
have seen them at one meeting or the other. 

Mr. Tavenner. You testified that you left San Diego in 1944 and 
went to Grand Rapids, Mich. ? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What type of work were you engaged in in Grand 
Rapids? 

Mr. Sumner. In Grand Rapids the first thing I did out in the coun- 
fry — it was a rural community about 30 miles out of Grand Rapids — 
was to lease some property there and I went into "muck farming," 
or what we called "muck farming" there, and raised onions and 
cabbages. 

Mr, Tavenner. Did you affiliate with any party there at Grand 
Rapids? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee how that was done? 

Mr. Sumner. I took the address in the phone book. They had given 
me a letter in San Diego of transfer to Grand Rapids. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who gave you the letter ? 

Mr. Sumner. The organizer would be Morgan Hull. I had an ini- 
tial on it, but Frances Decker gave the letter to me. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was stated in the letter? 

Mr. Sumner. I believe it was a sealed letter, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. To whom was it addressed ? 

Mr. Sumner. To the Grand Rapids Communist Party ; that is, on 
the outside there was no address but must have been on the inside 
like that. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did you do Avith the letter? 

Mr. Sumner. I burned it. 

]Mr. Tavenner. Did you deliver it to the Communist Party head- 
quarters in Grand Rapids? 

Mr, Sumner. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did you make your contact with the Commu- 
nist Party in Grand Rapids ? 

Mr. Sumner. When I got to Grand Rapids I didn't know whether 
I wanted to get into it or not. There was a long period that I didn't 
contact them. It ran on for several months and one day, out of 
curiosity as much as anything else, I looked it up in the phone book. 

Here again it was in a bookshop in Grand Rapids, on Bond Avenue. 
I told them of my membersliip in San Diego and they said "Wliere 
have you been all this time?" I said "I have been trying to find you, 
and that I had a letter of transfer and wasn't too certain that I wanted 
to get started right away on this again." 

He was pretty mad and said, "Even if you lost or mislaid the letter, 
you could have found us. I don't see why you took all this time get- 
ting here. There are some back dues to pay, and if you are going to 



4638 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

belong to this group here you are going to have to buckle down because 
we don't do that sort of thing here." He proceeded to read me off 
pretty seriously. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was his name? 

Mr. Sumner. Muelder, M-u-e-1-d-e-r, I think it was spelled. It was 
his last name and I can't think of his first name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you unite w4th the Communist Party in Grand 
Kapids? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. I paid him my dues when I was in there and he 
said a card would be issued to me later. They first wanted to check to 
see if I had done anything I shouldn't have according to the Com- 
munist doctrine. They made some type of investigation, I imagine. 

Mr. Tavenner. How^ many members composd the Connnunist Party 
group in Grand Rapids? 

Mr. Sumner. Grand Rapids — I believe 30 or 35 members. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the principal activity in which that group 
engaged ? 

Mr. Sumner. Holding meetings. Passing out leaflets at — I am 
trying to think of the name of that place out in suburban Grand 
Rapids — it was a big plant out there. Oh, I believe it was General 
Motors. Passing out leaflets at the gate when they would come out. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were the leaflets prepared by the Communist Party 
and carrying the Connnunist Party line ? 

Mr. Sumner. As I recall it, they had the name of the Communist 
Party on the leaflets usually — yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat other activity was this group engaged in? 

Mr. Sumner. That is the only thing I can think of — the only thing 
I ever did, or the only thing I was ever asked to do. Weekends I was 
to distribute the Daily Worker. Oh, I remember another one. To 
make a door-to-door canvass of the town as closely as possible, which 
of course was never accomplished because there weren't enough mem- 
bers to go around. We w^ere assigned areas to make a door-to-door 
canvass to get the Communist Party on the ballot in the State of Mich- 
igan. They had to have so many signatures in order to make it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what year that was ? 

Mr. Sumner. Let's see — the last election was in 1950, right? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Sumner. It must have been — it must have been just prior to 
1946. That would be in 1945. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio were the leaders of the group ? 

Mr. Sumner. I have been thinking in terms of San Diego so long 
it is' hard to switch now to Grand Rapids. 

Well — the very active ones w^ere Kay Tenet, or T-e-n-n-e-n-t — it 
may have been spelled either way, but it was Kay, although Kay 
wasn't her real name. That is the name she went by but her name 
wasn't Kay. I don't remember what it was now, but she had told me 
later what it was. 

Abe S-a-b-o-l-i-n-s-k-i. That is the young Abe, not his father. 
His father was not a member because he was foreign-born and they 
wouldn't accept him. 

(At this point in the hearing Mr. Tavenner asked to be excused for 
a time and Donald T. Appell, committee investigator assumed the 
questioning of the witness.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4639 

Mr. Appell. Is young Sabolinski Abe or Tom ? 

Mr. Sumner. Abe. He had a brother killed in the war. I don't 
remember his name though. 

Mr. Appell. Did Abe Sabolinski contribute to the party activities 
in Grand Rapids? 

Mr. Sumner. The Senior Abe? 

Mr. Appell. Yes, the father. 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Both financial and otherwise? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. 

Mr. Appell. Do you know any specific financial contribution he 
made to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sumner. No, except I believe I have heard him saying so. I 
didn't see him hand out the money to them. He told me he had given 
money from time to time to them. 

The young Abe that you just told me off the record had been killed 
told me "I am going out on a campaign to get some money and I know 
Dad will give some, but gee whiz, I don't want Dad to do it all." 

Mr. Appell. What type of unit of the party were you assigned to 
there? The neighborhood group? What was its Communist Party 
name ? 

Mr. Sumner. Thfe West Side Group was the name of ours. 

Mr. Appell. Who were the members of the West Side Club, as best 
you can recall? 

Mr. Sumner. The Sabolinskis attended. Kay Tenet attended. 
Theodore Theodore, whom we called Ted. That was his first and last 
name. His wife was colored. 

Mr. Appell. Let me ask you if you knew certain individuals from 
the Grand Rapids area. I will name them and you can answer either 
«Yes'' or "No." 

Fred Fields? 

Mr. Sumner. Fred Fields; yes. 

Mr. AppEiiL. Was he a member of the West Side Club ? 

Mr. Sumner. Fred Fields — let's see, what was he now — he held 
some kind of an office for a time in Grand Rapids, but I don't recall 
what office it was. 

Mr. Appell. Ruth Gilbert ? Her maiden name was Williams. 

Mr. Sumner. Ruth Williams — I remember that name. 

Mr. Appell. How about William Glenn? 

Mr. Sumner. William Glenn, yes, and his wife, Virginia. William 
and Virginia Glenn; yes. 

Mr. Appell. Mike Redick^ 

Mr. Sumner. Mike Redick, yes. He was also, besides being a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, an insurance collector for the Interna- 
tional Rural Order of the IWO. 

Mr. Appell. Did you hold any office within the party there ? 

Mr. Sumner. Outside of the local unit, you mean ? 

Mr. Appell. That is the Communist Party itself. 

Mr. Sumner. Yes, in the Connnunist Party itself in a unit capacity. 
I was twice educational director of the unit. 

Mr. Appell. Wlio was chairman of the unit of the West Side Club ? 



4640 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA I 

Mr. Sumner. Well, it was chaired by the city organizer. He 
would go around and chair tlie units. He also chaired the city meet- 
ings that were held at the — no, it wasn't a city meeting. We met at 
Kay Tenet's house. She had a big house there. 

Mr. Appell. The party at Grand Rapids was always a large organi- 
zation as far as the rest of Michigan was concerned, outside of Flint? 

Mr. Sumner. It was the largest organization in western Michigan, 
to my knowledge. When we would get together at Kay Tenet's house, 
which was the western Michigan section, there were members coming 
in from Muskegon, Benton Harbor, St. Joe's, and Cadillac. We had 2 
from Muskegon, maybe 2 from St. Joe, and maybe 1 from Ludington. 

Mr. Appell. The St. Joe group had a larger unit, but they had a 
good concentration at Benton Harbor. The people who would come 
to the Tenet house were delegates from the St. Joe area? 

Mr. Sumner. Well, anyone could attend. Someone was supposed 
to represent the group, but anyone from these towns could come. 
In fact, they wanted them to come. There were about six who came in 
from Muskegon and they were pretty happy about them. 

Mr. Appell. Do you recall the identity of anyone from St. Joe 
or Benton Harbor? This Kay Tenet, for instance. I don't know if 
5 ou went into that previously, but if not, what was her occupation ? 

Mr. Sumner. She was related in some way to a furniture manu- 
facturer. I don't know just what the relationship was. She was 
single, and I don't know if she had been married or not but she was 
single at the time I knew her. She must have been in her fifties 
and she would I'un an advertisement or maybe 2 or 3 advertisements 
in a national magazine, such as the Better Homes and Gardens, and 
magazines of that nature, in whicli she would advertise a single 
chair — just one chair that this relative of hers would manufacture, 
and he would give her the commission evidently on all the chairs 
she sold as a result of the advertisement. I guess she sold quite a 
few. As far as I know she only used this way of making a living 
and she evidently did very well at it. She was pretty influential 
in town. She knew a lot of influential people. I don't know too 
much of her background but she knew everybody. She knew min- 
isters — she knew the chairman of the board of education — she held 
dinner parties at her home where she would invite different people 
and different speakers. She was — well frankly, I considered her 
the most intelligent member of the Grand Rapids group and I felt 
pretty close to her. My wife and I both did. We were friendly 
and I still feel that way. 

Mr. Appell. As of the time you left there was she still close to the 
party ? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes, and she is now, as far as I know. I can't figure 
just why. She has got too much on the ball to waste her time in 
there. 

Mr. Appell. When did you break with the Communist Party at 
Grand Rapids? 

Mr. Sumner. I didn't break. I never notified them that I was leav- 
ing. Grand Rapids may still feel — and Fran Decker too — they may 
still be under the impression that I still am a party member somewhere. 

Mr. Appell. She was in San Diego? 

Mr. Sumner. That's right. Probably Fran still thinks so. I 
imagine everyone with whom I have been in contact within the party 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4641 

thinks I am still a member, but the officials wouldn't think so because 
if they have checked the national headquarters they would find my 
;idues haven't been paid for the last 6 years. 

Mr. Appell. You ceased all party activities? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes, I went on the road for my company while my 
family still lived at Grand Rapids and I have had no connection 
with the party since then. 

Mr. Appell. When was that roughly ? Sometime in 1949 ? 

Mr. Sumner. Well, let's see. I have been with the company for 5 
years and I spent a year of that at Grand Rapids, so I went on the 
road for the company 4 years ago. 

Mr. Appell. So it was really 1949 ? 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. 1948 or so. Or 1949 or somewhere in there. 
Four years ago. 

Mr. Appell. I would like to give you an opportunity at this time, 
if you desire, to put into the record why you began your membership 
in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Sumner. I think it goes back to religion. I was raised in a 
very strict religious family. I mean very strict. Smoking was a 
sin — cardplaying was a sin — wearing a necktie was a sin — wearing 
jewelry was a sin — and of course dancing and all this type of activity 
were sin — movies and basketball, and so on. And yet my parents 
were very sincere Christians. I am not saying anything against the 
religion as such. 

Well, anyhow, up until the time I was graduated from high school 
I lived under this type of association, not only in my family life but 
with people who believed in the same way. We had one minister — I 
hope I am not making this too big but the reason I would like to say 
this is that I think it can give you some of the psychology the Com- 
munist Party can use in working on people's minds and getting them 
in. They have some pretty damn good psychologists in there. To 
get back, we had one minister who said in Sunday School one morn- 
ing — "You are going to hear, when you get out in the world — you 
are going to hear of modernism in religion. For example, they will 
tell you the reason the walls of Jericho fell down when the children 
marched around them" — if you will pardon me, my Dad is dead, 
and talking of this brings it all back to me — "they will tell you the 
reason this happened was because of certain vibrations, etc. In other 
words, they will tell you the Bible can be explained b}' rational means." 

That is where — I didn't know I was doing it — but that was where I 
first began to doubt many of the things the church was teaching me, 
and one day when I was in Grand Rapids I was walking down the 
street and saw a big sign upon one of the churches in town there that 
we as children were told never to go into. The sign said "Preston 
Bradley will speak here Thursday night." I didn't know who he was, 
but I went anyhow and it turned out he was the minister of the First 
Unitarian Church in Chicago. He talked of Thomas Paine, the early 
American radical. Preston Bradley just about murdered me that 
night, as far as all my past thinking of religion was concerned. I 
came out of there terrifically upset. I had nothing to look to because it 
seemed all my past foundations were torn out from under me — so I 
entered on a period where I went to every church I could find. Cath- 
olic, Jewish, Protestant, Christian Science, even Spiritualism, because 
I was seeking for something. At that time I hadn't found it — I mean 

47718— 54— pt. 3—4 



4642 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

when I was on board the ship while I was in the service — in the 
Marine Corps on board the Tuscaloosa. I came across these men 
and they were a group of men who were talking about religion, and 
because I was still seeking for something I was interested and stopped 
to listen to them. This was an entirely new thing to me — the things 
they were talking about, and the general tone of their conversation 
was that Jesus Christ was no supernatural man — he was just a car- 
penter. And yet, according to my past training, and so on, these men 
were what the majority of people would consider very antireligious. 
I considered them to be so, too, at that time, and still do in about 50 
percent of what they had to say. 

So, as I mentioned earlier in my testimony here, I asked them if 
there was some kind of group that met and discussed these things, 
and that I was interested. This turned out to be my first Communist 
Party meeting, and they gave me a party card. I had taken a buddy 
of mine who was aboard the same ship with me, and we both went 
to this meeting. Wlien we got there, however, they weren't discussing 
religion at all, but the trade-union movement. 

Mr. Appell. If I may interrupt here — the meeting in the church 
where Preston Bradley spoke — was that at Grand Rapids or in Chi- 
cago? 

Mr. Sumner. Grand Eapids. He was a minister of the First 
Unitarian Church in Chicago, but he was speaking in Grand Rapids. 
He is a good loyal American, and I didn't mean to infer he was not. 
I am a native of Grand Rapids. 

Mr. Appell. The conversation you overheard aboard the Tusca- 
loosa — when was that ? 

Mr. Sumner. That was approximately a year before I received my 
medical discharge from the Marine Corps. It must have been around 
1938 or 1939. 

Mr. Appell. These men that you heard talking — were they aboard 
the Tuscaloosa% 

Mr. Sumner. Yes. Our ship was in dry dock at Vallejo, actually 
at San Pedro — getting work done on it — some spot- welding, repairing 
the bulkhead and so on. These men were civilians employed by the 
Navy yard. When I asked them about a meeting they said if I would 
come to such and such a place I would hear more about it. So I took 
this friend of mine with me and we didn't know until we got there that 
it was a Communist Party meeting. 

Wliy did I join? I guess I joined because of ignorance, for one 
thing. For one thing, ignorance of the full scope or meaning of tlie 
Communist movement. For another thing, I was looking for some- 
thing to fill the big hole I had in my life. 

This particular meeting, however, was — like I said — all on trade- 
union movement things, which was entirely over my head because I 
knew nothing about the trade-union movement at that time. They 
asked if we wanted to join the group and things like where were we 
born, and so on, and were passing out the cards. My buddy and I 
decided to join for the fun of it ancl we did. They gave us a bunch of 
literature to read and we went back on board the ship. 

I read the literature and I didn't realize it at that particular time 
but the literature they gave us to read — to take back on board the 
ship — was literature on discrimination against the Jewish people — 
discrimination against the Negro people and articles along the line as 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4643 

to what we must have in this country, such as a complete brotherhood, 
and so on. I think if I had a different background — and these people 
knew ^vhat kind of pamphlets to give me, for instance because they 
played on my past religious experience and it made sense. The danger 
of the thing is that once they get you started and you become inter- 
ested, you are taken along enough, inch by inch and foot by foot until 
linally you wake up to the fact that you have accepted a lot of things 
that you don't really accept. For example, there is a terrific amount 
of hero worship involved. Every time Stalin opened his mouth and 
Browder opened his mouth and said this or that, you said, "Yea, 
Stalin" or "Yea, Browder" and it was the gospel truth, and you ac- 
cepted it. This was what I was particularly interested in getting 
away from. Now, here I was arriving at a place — and I could see it — 
where it didn't make sense to believe it just because Stalin opened 
his mouth and said something and you had to swallow it, any more 
than that it was a sin to wear a necktie or a ring. So there was this 
terrific amount of hero worship involved. Also you were expected 
to reverse your thinking overnight on major issues — such as when 
Hitler and Stalin signed the nonaggression pact, then we were sup- 
posed to be against war. Just as soon as Hitler attacked the Soviet 
Union, the America First Committee became eager for war. I haven't 
the kind of mind to do that. 

Why you go on and continue to be a member — that is something 
which I wish somebody would tell me. Frankly, I don't understand 
it but you are always waiting for a spot when something is going to 
happen so that you can break with the group so that it won't be con- 
spicuous enough for the group to notice and you can get out. I was 
longing for this opportunity. When my opportunity came with my 
company to leave Grand Rapids I decided this was it. I decided I 
was never going to contact another group and would be finished with 
this whole business and that is going to be that. In a group like that 
your mind can get to be at a place where you can get to believe just 
the opposite of what they had taught you, you should believe, because 
regardless of the theories and regardless of anything else — when so- 
and-so says something you had better do it, aiid there is a reason to do 
it or he wouldn't have said it. So their theories, to my way of think- 
ing, when they know of your background training and get you started 
and interested and make you think that it is one of the most wonder- 
ful things in tlie world — well you become pretty well saturated with 
it. Then when the time comes that you are saturated with it, almost 
anything they tell you to do, you do it because with these theories 
with which you were saturated. Anyhow, these people couldn't tell 
you both things — that you should have one big brotherhood and yet 
that you should do this and that against it. 

Mr. Appell. What things about the Communist Party did you, as 
a result of your membership in the Communist Party, find to be 
wrong, and which brought you to the point where you said to your- 
self "I am going to break away from it and have nothing more to do 
with it." 

Mr. Sumner. The first thing wrong about it is their authority — to 
follow the leadership and whatever is said must be done. You must 
be militant and follow this leadership because they have an inside 
knowledge, and even though it may be a thing you think you shouldn't 



4644 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

do, you should do it. Follow the leadership regardless. This defeats 
one of their so-called basic conceptions, which is a dictatorship of the 
proletariat. There is a contradiction there. 

Another thing that is wrong about it is that it completely destroys 
your liberty. You don't have freedom of thought — you don't have 
freedom of religion — ^you don't have freedom of expression, because 
you are supposed to talk, think, and live the party line, no matter 
whether it agrees exactly with what you are thinking or not. 

Another thing that is wrong with it is that it accepts the leadership 
of a foreign country, rather than the leadership of this country as 
final. It is the Soviet Union this and the Soviet Union that. Well, 
now, I believe that the Soviet Union has accomplished something that 
may not have been accomplished under the Czars. I don't go for the 
method in which they accomplished it, but you will have to admit the 
Soviet Union is ahead today agriculturally, mechanically, educa- 
tionally, et cetera, by its present setup. 

The way I look at it, you can go right back to our Founding Fathers 
here — the conception they had, and the reason we are as far ahead in 
this country as we are, is by following out these principles. And just 
like I think there are a lot of good things about the Soviet Union, I 
think the United States has a good many things which can be con- 
sidered to be entirely wrong. 

Mr. Appell. Did you find that the Communist Party basically — 
well, how they regarded the individual, whether they are black, white, 
Jewish, or what? 

Mr. Sumner. It has this regard for the individual — if the philos- 
ophy is right that they have, you can say it is regard for the individual. 
The philosophy is that only by serving the state can the individual 
eet what he should out of life — therefore it is to the individual's bene- 
fit or advantage if he serves the state. 

Mr. Appell. But I am talking about not the theory, but the practice. 

Mr, Sumner. In practice whatever they tell you to do, you do it or 
else you are in disfavor. You fear them. However, if anyone is 
threatened physically in the party I don't know of it, I never have 
been, 

Mr. Appell. We have seen in other localities the party advertises 
that it serves the best interests of labor, the best interests of the Negro, 
and other things, whereas in actual practice, they only serve their own 
end. They exploit the terrible situations that the Negro finds himself 
in, only to make capital among the Negroes — not to help the Negro 
gain what he justly deserves. 

Mr. Sumner, That would be a pretty hard thing to put your finger 
on and to say you know it is true. You don't see it come out in unit 
and citywide meetings. What goes on behind closed doors, I don't 
know. 

Mr. Appell. But with respect to their attitude? 

Mr. Sumner. But you do suspect those things. 

Mr. Appell, Mr, Sumner, for this record is there anything further 
you have not been asked about that you would care to tell us about? 

Mr, Sumner. No, I don't think this is the type of answer you are 
aiming for, but I have said it before and talked it over with my wife 
and other people that I wish there were some way that this problem 
could be — this Communist Party in the United States could be ap- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4645 



preached on a positive basis. My own thinking on the matter is this, 
that having the type of government, et cetera, that we do, and the 
setup we have here — we ought to have within our own framework 
something that is pitching for our own country the same way the 
Communists are pitching for theirs. As I look back on my high- 
school class in civics, we were just taught that this was our Govern- 
ment, et cetera. They didn't get down there and make you believe it 
like they should have. I know that isn't the kind of question you are 
asking, but I have no information at all that individual Communists, 
or their groups, or the Communist Party as a whole has done which 
you would call of a subversive nature — or information that you don't 

at already have. It was surprising to me when these things happened 

le like the stuff about the Rosenbergs. 

le Mr. Appell. Well, I know of nothing else at this time. There are 
probably others in the Grand Rapids area of whom you possess knowl- 
edge and about whom the committee could ask you, but the names that 
I went over with you today are all we have had time to prepare for. 

n I think with this that I will extend to you the thanks of the com- 
mittee, and express its appreciation for the information you have made 
available to it. 

Mr. Sumner. Thank you. I wish I could have been of more help. 
I look back now and realize that I could have — if I had known — I 
could have jotted down names, and so on, but it never dawned on me 
that I would be in a position where it would be of any interest. 

Mr. Appell. Well, thank you again, and you are excused at this 
time. 

(Whereupon, at 5:35 p. m., the executive session was adjourned 
subject to the call of the chairman.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA— Part 3 



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 14, 1954 

United States House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committ^ee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. C. 
executive session ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 : t>5 a. m., Old House Office Building, room 225, 
Hon. Donald L. Jackson, acting chairman, presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Donald L. Jackson 
and James B. Frazier, Jr. 

Staff members present: Robert L. Kunzig, counsel; Thomas W. 
Beale, Sr., chief clerk; and Dolores Anderson, reporter. 

Mr. Jackson. Let the record show that a subcommittee has been 
appointed by the chairman, for the purpose of taking the testimony 
this morning, consisting of Mr. Frazier and Mr. Jackson, with the 
latter as acting chairman. 

Will the witness rise and be sworn, please? 

In the testimony you are about to give do you solemnly swear to tell 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Burke. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr, Kunzig. 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you state your full name for the record, please? 

TESTIMONY OF FRANCES BURKE, ACCOMPANIED BY HER COUNSEL, 
DAVID REIN— Resumed 

Mrs. Burke. Frances Burke. 

Mr. Kunzig. Will counsel please identifv himself? 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, 711 14th Street, Washington, D, C. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is that "Mrs." Burke? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mrs. Burke, you stated as your name, Frances Burke. 
Is that your full name? Do you have any middle name or maiden 
name ? 

Mrs. Burke. My first name is Bertha. I never use it. My maiden 
name was Willard. 

Mr. Kunzig. Htive you been married anytime previously? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. What was your name at that time? 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs. Burke. I have been married several times. 

Mr. Kunzig. Could you give us that in the order in which it took 
place? 

1 Released by the committee. 



4648 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. Nields, Dessert, Decker, Copeland, and Burke. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your present address? 

Mrs. BuKKE. 14 Pitt Street, apartment 4-B, New York City. 

Mr. KuNziG. Could you give the committee a brief resume of your 
educational background ? 

Mrs. Burke. I went to school in Pasadena, Calif., elementary school, 
junior high, and high school. And I graduated from high school. 

Mr. KuNziG. "When did you graduate from high school ? 

Mrs. Burke. 1932. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your present age ? 

Mrs. Burke. 38. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, could you give the committee a brief resume of 
your employment background ? 

Mrs. Burke. I was employed by Fanchon & Marco, the dancing 
team. I worked for the May Co. in Los Angeles, and I worked for 
the Santa Barbara News Press. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you work for the Santa Barbara News 
Press ? 

Mrs. Burke. 1935. 

Mr. KuNziG. In what capacity was that ? 

Mrs. Burke. I was a clerical worker. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that all you have done ? 

Mrs. Burke. I worked for Sterns Department Store in New York 
City, the National City Bank, Security First National Bank in Los 
Angeles. Do you want all my places of employment ? 

Mr. KuNziG. The main ones, shall we say. 

Mrs. Burke. The First National Bank in San Diego. 

Mr. KuNziG. When was that ? 

Mrs. Burke. That was in 1940. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where are you employed now ? 

Mrs. Burke. District 65 in New York City. 

Mr. KuNziG. Of what ? 

Mrs. Burke. New York City, district 65. It is a union. 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you give us the title of the union ? 

Mrs. Burke. DPOWA, the Distributing, Processing, Office Workers 
of America. 

Mr. KuNziG. In what capacity are you employed there ? 

Mrs. Burke. I am a bookkeeper. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you tell us, in order, the places you resided, the 
year, and the year you left, from about 1938 on ? 

Mrs. Burke. 1938 on? 

Mr. KuNziG. Roughly, from that time. 

(Witness confers with counsel.) 

Mrs. Burke. Let's see. 1938 ; I was in Los Angeles, San Diego, and 
San Francisco. 

Mr. KuNziG. In all these different places at that time ? 

Mrs. Burke. From 1938 on ; yes. And Salinas. 

Mr. KuNziG. This was all in the year 1938 ? 

Mrs. Burke. Oh, no ; you said 1938 on — 1938 I was in Los Angeles. 
In 1939 1 was in Los Angeles. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where did you live at that time ? 

Mrs. Burke. My address? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes ; if you can recall. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4649 

Mrs. Burke. Oh, dear — I am sorry, I doirt remember the address. 

Mr. KuNZiG. All right. Where ^Yere you in 1940 ? 

Mrs. Burke. In early 1940 I was still in Los Angeles. Late in 1940 
1^11 was in San Diego. 

Mr. KuNziG. In late 1940 you moved to San Diego ^ 

Mi"s. Burke. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you recall where you lived in San Diego? The 
address ? 

Mrs. Burke. No ; not the first one. 

Mr. KuNziG. How long did you stay in San Diego? What years? 

Mrs. Burke. 1940— late 1940, and I left in 1945. 

Mr. KuNziG. So you lived contiimously in San Diego in late 1940 
until 1945? 

Mrs, Burke. Correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now can you tell us, to the best of your memory, the 
address you had in San Diego in those 5 years ? 

Mrs. Burke. The only street name I remember is Juniper Street, 
and I don't remember the number. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you li\e there the entire time? 

Mrs. Burke. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. Most of the time ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes; I woukl say so. 

Mr. KuNziG. You don't recall the street name or any number at all 
where you lived in the period of 5 years in San Diego ? 

Mrs. Burke. Well, wait a minute. Part of that time I lived on 
Georgia Street. 

Mr. KuNziG. Georgia Street in San Diego ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Were you married at that time in San Diego ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliich one of those you have mentioned to us were you 
married to at that time ? 

Mrs. Burke. Mr. Decker. 

Mr. KuNziG. That means you were Mrs. Decker then from 1940 to 
1945? 

Mrs. Burke. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. You mentioned — that was Mrs. Frances Decker. Is 
that the name you went by ? 

Mrs Burke. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Decker, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Burke. I decline to answer under the privilege of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. BuRiiE. I decline to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. To make the record clear, you decline always on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Burke. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are invoking the fifth amendment in your refusal 
to answer the questions ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Isn't it a fact that you held a position roughly from 
1942 to 1945 of executive secretary of the Communist Party in San 
Diego? 



4650 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mi-s. Burke. I decline to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Weren't you, in fact, the person who called others to 
meetings of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Burke. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Jackson. For the reason previously stated? 

Mrs Burke. Yes ; for the reason previously stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you send out the following letter to a group of 
alleged members of the Communist Party during that period of time? 
[Reading :] 

Communist Political Association. 

Dear Member: We are trying to clear up our records in regard to dues pay- 
ments in order that we may collect them quickly and pass on to more important 
business. 

Our records show that you owe dues for the months of (May and June, C. P.), 
July, August, September. You still have the privilege of the $5 payment for 
6 months' dues. However, this will close on October 10. If you wish to take 
advantage of the saving, we urge that you either bring your payment to the oflice 
or the bookstore or mail it to us. We might add that this offer only holds good 
if you have made no dues payment since June. 

We would appreciate your prompt attention to this ; we would like very mucli 
to have a 100-percent dues-payment record through the end of the year. That 
way, none of us will be annoyed with notices or pleas and we can all start from 
scratch on January 1. H 

Fraternally yours, 

Frances Decker, Executive Secretary. 

P. S. : OflSce hours are from 11 a. m. to 6 p. m. daily. The address is 832 Fifth 
Avenue, room 5. The bookstore is located at 63.5 E Street, and the name is the 
Community Book Center. 

Mrs. Burke, did you send out such a letter to a group of alleged 
Communists in the San Diego area? 

Mrs. Burke. I decline to answer for the above aforestated reason. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever have any connection with the address 
832 Fifth Avenue, room 5 ? 

Mrs. Burke. I decline to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you attend or frequent the bookstore located at 
635 E Street? 

Mrs. Burke. I decline to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG, What iiiformation can you give the committee about 
the Community Book Center in San Diego? 

Mrs. Burke. I decline to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. I am going to hand you a list of names which is marked 
"Decker Exhibit No. 1,"' for identification, and ask you if you know 
any of these people as members of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Burke. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Jackson. For the reason previously stated, j^ou decline to 
answer ? 

Mrs. Burke. Yes. 

(At this point Representative James B. Frazier, Jr., entered the 
hearing room.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever notify members of a meeting to be held 
at Harvey Hall, 1041 Uth Avenue, San Diego, on the 28th of Janu- 
ary, 1945 ? 

Mrs. Burke. I decline to answer for the reason previously stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. This room, in which you held the meeting for the i 
purpose of nominating officers for the executive committee of the 
CPA — a letter signed by Frances Decker, executive secretary of the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4651 

'PA. It also lists it as a ''must meeting.'^ Did you send out such a 
jtter ? 

Mrs. Burke. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Burke, we feel the evidence this committee is in 
»ossession of shows you were executive secretary of the Communist 
'arty when you were a part of it. You have already said you are 
he Frances Decker in San Diego at this period of time. We feel you 
lave a great deal of evidence, particularly since you have been execu- 
ive secretary, that would assist this committee in its work in investi- 
gating subversive activities throughout the country. You could give 
IS this information if you wished to. I want to ask you once again — 
ron't you please cooperate with this committee and give us the in- 
ormation that lies within your knowledge regarding the activities 
tf the party within the San Diego area ? Will you cooperate ? 

Mrs. Burke. I am sorry, I decline to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. On the fifth amendment? The grounds you gave 
)ef ore ? 

Mrs. Burke. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I think further questions are probably 
iseless under the circumstances. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Frazier, do you have any questions? 

Mr. Frazeer. No sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
xcused ? 

Mr. KuNziG. No sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, you are excused. 

( Wliereupon, at 10 : 45 a. m.. Wednesday, April 14, 1954 the execu- 
tive session ended.) 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES INPHE 
STATE OF CALIFOENIA-Part 3 



FRIDAY, APRIL 23, 1954 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American AcTivrriES, 

Los Angeles^ Calif. 

EXECUTIVE session^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
net, pursuant to call, at 10 a. m., in room 1019, Western Pacific Build- 
ng, 1030 North Broadway, Los Angeles, Calif., Hon. Donald L. Jack- 
son (acting chairman), presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Donald L. Jackson 
and Clyde Doyle. 

Staff membei^ present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; and Wil- 
liam A. Wlieeler, investigator. 

Mr. Jackson. The conmiittee will be in order. 

Mrs. Foder, will you raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear that tlie evidence you shall give to this sub- 
committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. FoDER. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 

Let the record show that for the purpose of taking testimony today 
the chairman of the committee has appointed a subcommittee con- 
sisting of Messrs. Scherer, Doyle, and Jackson. Mr. Scherer is absent, 
but a quorum of the subcommittee is present. Mr. Jackson is acting 
chairman. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

TESTIMONY OF ELIZABETH FODER, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 
COUNSEL, BEN MARGOLIS 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 
Mrs. FoDER. Elizabeth Foder, F-o-d-e-r. 

Mr. Margolis. Maybe you want this for the record: I am Ben 
Margolis, representing Mrs. Foder. 
Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born, Mrs. Foder? 
Mrs. Foder. I was born in Budapest, Hungary. 



1 Released by the committee. 

4653 



4654 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you come to this country ? 

Mrs. FoDER. About 1900. 

Mr, Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen? 

Mrs. Foder. No. I have citizenship by derivation. 

INIr. Ta\t:nner. Through your father? 

Mrs. FoDER. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where was he naturalized? i 

Mrs. Foder. Well, I can't just remember right now, but I do have 
his certificate, as well as my own. I received a certificate showing 
citizenship by derivation, 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what your educational 
training has been? 

Mrs. Foder. High school, business college, and a year of college 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you attend business college? 

Mrs. Foder. In Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you complete that training? 

Mrs. Foder. The business college? About 1918. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you state that you had other educational train- 
ing after that ? 

JNlrs. Foder. I did. I completed my high school in evening courses 

Mr. Tavenner. AVill you tell the committee, please, how you liave 
been employed since 1940? 

Mrs. Foder. A])proximately 1940 to 1944 — I am not sure about the 
ending date — I was assistant clerk at the selective service board of the 
selective service. Lorain County. 

Mr. Tavenner. Lorain County, what State? 

Mvs. Foder. Ohio. 

Mr, Tavenner. Where did you reside in Ohio? 

Mrs. Foder. In Oberlin. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you live in Oberlin? 

Mrs. Foder. Approximately 15 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did vou leave Oberlin ? 

INIrs. Foder. I left in 1940. " 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you come to California from Oberlin? 

INIrs. Foder. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, if you will proceed to tell us of your othei 
employment. Did you have other employment after 1940 in Oberlin* 

Mrs, Foder, No, sir — yes ; I did. Excuse me. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was it, please? 

JNIrs. Foder, I managed a consumers' co-op for 1 year. 

Mr. Ta-\^nner. Is that all 

Mrs, Foder, That is all. 

Mr. Taatenner. In Oberlin? 

]\Irs. Foder. Right. 

Mr. TA^^':NNER. Where do you now reside? 

Mrs. Foder. 2018 Oi-is. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that in Los Angeles? 

Mrs. Foder, That is Compton. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived there continually since 1946 wher 
you arrived in California? 

Mrs. Foder, No, sir ; I came to Pomona. 

Mr. Taa-enner. How long did you live in Pomona? 

Mrs. Foder. I will have to s:iy ap})i'oximately 1952. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4655 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you employed in Pomona? 

Mrs, FoDER. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the nature of your employment? 

Mrs. Foder. I was a typist-clerk. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what type of work ? 

Mrs. Foder. I was with the Pomona Health Center as a typist -clerk 

the business office. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you employed there from ]94() until 1952 ? 

Mrs. Foder. No, sir. I was employed there September 1949 to 

ugust 1952. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your employment there prior to 1949 ? 

Mrs. Foder. I had a part-time job durin<i the registration, motor- 
ehicle registration. I was cashier and, oh, sort of checking the 
ashler's work. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been the nature of your employment at 

ompton since 1952? 

Mrs. Foder. I am in the division of vital records. I check for accur- 
cy and clerical errors, death records, and birth records. I share this 
7ork with a person who is my senior. I am in a subordinate ca])acity. 
t is clerical work. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask, is that employment with the State of 
yalifornia ? 

Mrs. Foder, No, county. 

Mr. Jackson. County of Los Angeles? 

Mrs, Foder, Yes, 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner, In 1948 

Mr. Jackson. Excuse me. Mr. Counsel, in view of the limited facil- 
ties for consultation, if at any time you feel you want to go outside and 
onsult with your client, it will be quite all right. 

Mr, Margolis, Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. If I understand your testimony correctly, you were 
mployed by the State of California in the health department, in the 
vork of the health department. 

Mrs. Foder. That is the county. It is the county. I thought you 
laid State. 

Mr. Tavenner. I did. Then 

Mrs, Foder, I have part-time work — now, the motor vehicles is a 
State — State of California Motor Vehicles. That was simply part- 
ime work. I did a little part-time work in the city attorney's office. 
3is secretary got ill and I substituted there about 3 weeks. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that at Pomona ? 

Mrs. Foder. Yes. But that wasn't permanent work ; just a fill-in on 
Uness. 

Mr. Tavenner, You held those positions between 1946 and 1949 ? 

Mrs. Fodder. Yes. In other words, up to 1949 I held no position. 
[ wasn't interested in work, particularly, and it did come in handy to 
jarn some extra money, and I did. These things came along, I heard 
)f them, and I applied. 

Mr. Tavenner, Have you knowingly been a member of the Com- 
nunist Party at any time since September 10, 1948 ? 

Mr, Margolis. May I ask a question ? Do you have any information 
:hat she has been ? 



4656 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. I have just asked the question. 

Mrs. FoDER. I am ready to answer. While I have done nothing 
wrong, I shall not answer that question. I am invoking the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you knowingly a member of the Communist 
Party while you resided in Oberlin, Ohio? 

Mrs. FoDER. That will have to be the same answer. 

Mr. Jackson. For the same reason ? 

Mrs. FoDER. For the same reason. 

Mr. Jackson. I am not prompting the witness, but I wish to make 
it clear that in an answer — it will be adequate to say, "The same answer 
for the same reasons," but I want to be sure that it is all there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you knowingly a member of any organization 
in Oberlin, Ohio, which advocated the use of force and violence as 
a method of overthrowing the Government of the United States, or 
of any State ? 

Mrs. FoDER. To my knowledge, I have never belonged to any group 
or organization that advocated the violent overthrow of the Govern- 
ment, nor had I ever been incited or in any way involved in such a 
thought, as a thought, even; nor have I ever entertained a thought. 
The whole thought is repugnant to my nature. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question w^as not what your personal belief maj 
be, but whether or not you were a member of an organization whict 
to your knowledge advocated the use of force and violence. 

Mrs. Foder. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you familiar, while living in Oberlin, Ohio 
with the basic principles of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Foder. I cannot or will not answer questions about the Com 
munist Party for reasons as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you not aware that one of the basic tenets o" 
the Communist Party is to advocate the use of force and violence ii 
the overthrow of the Government ? 

Mrs. Foder. I refuse to answer that question, as I have never know 
ingly advocated such a thing, or belonged to such a group, so I mus 
refuse to answer it on the same grounds as before. 

Mr. Tavenner. While you were living in Pomona did you becomi 
aware of the existence of a branch of the Communist Party, and di( 
you become a member of a branch of the Communist Party, in wha 
is known as the Ontario-Pomona-Claremont area of California, know 
ing that such an organization was a branch of the Communist Party 

Mrs. Foder. I refuse to answer this on the same grounds as the othei 
questions that are relating to the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner, Are you now knowingly a member of the Commu 
nist Party ? 

Mrs. Foder. Same answer, again. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. DoTLE. No question. 

Mr. Jackson. If there is nothing further, the witness may be ex 
cused from further attendance, under the subpena. Thank you. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Wheeler. Mrs. Fowler. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you please raise your right hand ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4657 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give to this sub- 
onimittee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
ruth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Fowler. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 

Mr. Tavexner. What is your name, please? 

TESTIMONY OF EDA C. FOWLER 

Mrs. Fowler. Eda C. Fowler, F-o-w-l-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you do not have counsel with you. 
t is the practice of the committee to advise every witness that they 
lave the right to consult counsel, if they desire, at any time during 
he questioning, or to have counsel with them. 

Mrs. Fowler. I understand. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you desire to proceed without counsel ? 

Mrs. Fowler. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born, Mrs. Fowler. 

Mrs. Fowler. In Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mrs. Fowler. At 1835 Longwood Avenue, Los Angeles 19. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Fowler. Since 1919. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. How long have you been known by the name of Eda 
Fowler ? 

Mrs. Fowler. My name is Eda C. Fowler. Well, I married Mr. 
Fowler in 1950, 1 think it was — been 4 years in August. 

Mr. Tavenner. When ? 

Mrs. Fowler. Four years in August. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your name prior to your marriage to 
Vlr. Fowler? 

Mrs. Fowler. Eda Johnston. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell Johnston? 

Mrs, Fowler. J-o-h-n-s-t-o-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that your married name at that time ? 

Mrs. Fowler, Yes. 

Mr, Tavenner. When were you married to Mr. Johnston ? 

Mrs. Fowler. In 1941, 

Mr, Tavenner. By what name were you known prior to 1941? 

Mrs, Fowler, Fogerlund, F-o-g-e-r-l-u-n-d, 

Mr, Tavenner. Were you known by another name ? 

Mrs. Fowler. My maiden name is Corlin, C-o-r-l-i-n, 

Mr. Tavenner. Did it have another spelling besides the one you 
have given us ? 

Mrs, Fowler, The name Corlin ? 

Mr, Tavenner. Yes, 

Mrs, Fowler, I believe that my father said that originally the Ger- 
man spelling was K-o-e-r-l-i-n, 

Mr, Tavenner, Will you tell the committee, please, briefly what 
your educational training has been ? 

Mrs. Fowler, I went through high school in Chicago, I have 
studied music and I have studied shorthand, and full commercial 
course here in Los Angeles. I can type and take dictation. 



4658 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your employment since 1940 1 

Mrs. Fowler. I am at present unemployed. In 19-lG I took a posi- 
tion with the Los Angeles County. I was referred there by the State 
unemployment office. 

I, previous to that, was unemployed due to a fall I had taken in my 
home, which lamed me. 

Prior to that I was a waitress at various places, for a year here and 
a year there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you name some of the places where you were 
engaged as a waitress ? 

Mrs. Fowler. I worked at the Elecla on 43d and Crenshaw. I 
worked at the May Co. Wilshire. I worked at Ginger's Coffee Shop. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where was that located ? 

Mrs. Fowler. Ginger's Coffee Shop? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Fowler. Near the corner of Washington and Rimpau. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the period of your employment there ? 

Mrs. Fowler. Well, I know that it was after the time came that I 
was — it was sometime in 1942, 1 believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period were you employed there ? 

Mrs. Fowler. I don't remember exactly. I believe there were twc 
periods. I worked there for a while, I believe, and then didn't work 
and then worked there again. I believe that that was the period thai 
in between I worked for the Western Stove Co., working with B-54's 
did skinning and riveting and drilling, things of that kind, making air- 
planes. And that was in — I believe I began there in August of 1945 
and continued to March or April of '43, 1 believe. I quit because of ar 
aluminum rash. I got a doctor's certificate to that effect, that I was 
getting it in my eyes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Mrs. Edith Macia 
M-a-c-i-a? 

Mrs. Fowler. I refuse to answer that question on the ground that ii 
may incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at any time a member of the West Adanif i 
branch or club of the Communist Party in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Fowler. Yes ; I was. 

Mr, Tavenner. Was Mrs. Macia a member of that club, also ? 

Mrs. Fowler. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds tha 
it may incriminate me. 

Tr. Tavenner. Well, I understood you to say that you were a mem 
ber of the West Adams Club. 

Mrs. Fowler. I was at one time a member of the West Adams brand 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not have the beneht of counsel, but it is dif 
ficult for me to understand that having admitted membership in thai 
club of the Communist Party, as to how it could possibly incriminate 
you to advise the committee regarding the membership in that grou| 
of Mrs. Macia or to admitting having known her. 

Mrs. Fowler. I do not know how it might incriminate me, but I re 
fuse to answer that question on the grounds that it might incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Plow long were you a member of that club or grour 
of the Communist Party ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4659 

Mrs. Fowler. I joined the Comniuiiist Party in 1938. I liad gravi- 
;Ued towards it, I imagine, as I look back, since 1930. I severed my 
onnection with the Communist Party — I don't remember the exact 
ime ; it was, I am sure, at least 4 years that I was a member, but it may 
lave been a little longer. I drifted away from it. I don't remember 
xactly when I decided that I was just too busy or too distinterested 
lid too much in disagreement with the Connnunist Party to further 
line any connection with it. I am sure that it was after 1942. It 
nay have been in '43. It may even have been as late as '4-1. But I 
hink that that is about the limit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, will you tell the committee, please, the cir- 
umstances under which vou became a member of the Communist 
^irty? 

Mrs. Fowler. Well, I had been seeking and searching for a solution 
'or what seemed to me at that time, and for many years, a solution 
o the decline of the American people, of that day, surely, the unem- 
)loyment problem. I had been laughed out of the unemployment 
•ffice on the ground that I was too old when I was 29 in 1930. The 
i:entleman says, "What^ 29^ You are too old." And I tried to 
niderstand why there should be that much unemployment. 

It seemed to me it would be good for the country if there was lots 
)f employment; certainly better for me. My children were — I think 
ny boy was a year old and my husband was in the hospital, and my 
[laughter was only about three and a half. This was in 1930. She 
:>vas born in '28. My husband was in the hospital with phlebitis, which 
aid him off his work for many months. 

And I remember — I think I tried charity. I did get some individual 
{^liarity from some very fine neighbors and friends of people that 
worked with my husband. And I tried F. D. R. in 1932. I thought 
that would solve it. I tried Upton Sinclair in 1934, and Utopians, I 
think, in 1935. 

And during that period from 19 — I guess this was 1933, when Upton 
Sinclair first began to run, talked of running on the Democratic ticket 
for Governor of California, and he went wholeheartedly into the theory 
that unemployment might be solved by that procedure of trying it on 
the "dog,'' as he said at that time. "You don't want the unemployed 
and you can't find anywhere to put them, let's put them to work pro- 
ducing for themselves and then they will not be a burden on you and 
they will not be going hungry." 

And I found that all these things were called Communistic. And I 
many times lieard Mr. Sinclair say that he was not Communistic and 
that he had nothing to do witli connnunism and was opposed to com- 
munism, and that the Communists were opposed to him. 

And from what reading I had done I couldn't understand where 
they were opposed to him and he opposed to them and why they said 
the things they said and why he said the things he said. I had never 
heard one talk, so I didn't know. But I was curious. 

And during all that time, billboards, churches, everybody — I can 
remember one sermon ; I went to church and the minister's topic, the 
topic of her sermon was Can You Be a Christian and Vote for Upton 
Sinclair? And his answer was that no, you couldn't, and that struck 
me as strange, because I had read the Bible and it seemed to me there 
was nothing un-Christian in Upton Sinclair's way of trying to end 
unemployment. 



4660 COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

So finally curiosity got the best of me, and my father and myself- 
I told my father, I says, "This thing is getting under my skin. 
would like to know what the Communists say. I would like to he< 
one." So I sought them out. I didn't know then they were in tl 
telephone book. I thought you had to go sneaking around and see 
you could find one. I didn't know you could look them up in tl 
telephone book. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was it that you sought them out and becan 
a member? 

Mrs. Fowler. It was in August of 1938, 1 believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere were you living at that time ? 

Mrs. Fowler. At 1835 Longwood Avenue. 

Mr. Tavenner. To what group of the Communist Party were yc 
assigned when you became a member? 

Mrs. Fowler. Well, first it was just a little study group. Thei 
was just a group of people that were not any more than I was, 
member. I w^asn't assigned to anything. I just went when tliere wj 
some discussion to take place, tell us about what their beliefs wer 
and finally, after several weeks, we were requested to join, formall 
join the party; and I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a State or County employee at any tin: 
during the period of your membership in the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Fowler. No. 

Mr. Jackson. May I interrupt a moment? My understanding c 
the testimony to this time is to the effect that the witness acknowledge 
her own membership in the Communist Party, but refuses to give an 
information as to those with w^hom she is associated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have only asked her regarding her possible a( 
quaintanceship with Mrs. Macia. I asked her if she was acquainte 
with Mrs. Macia and the witness refused to answer the question o 
tlie ground that to do so might tend to incriminate her. 

Mr. Jackson. In the absence of counsel for the witness, did tt 
committee counsel inform her of 

Mr. Tavenner. I informed the witness that as she had admitte 
membership in the AVest Adams brancli of the Communist Party 
did not see how it could possibly incriminate her to admit acquair 
tanceship with Mrs. Macia. I did not advise her that she had waive 
the right to rely upon the fifth amendment by having admitted he 
membership. I did not explain that to her. 

Mr. Jackson. I should want to have that appear in the record a 
this time; and I think the failure to so indicate in the record would b 
an error on our part. There have been findings in court that i.' 
answering questions, certain questions relating to membership in th; 
Communist Party and then declining to furnish the details as to tha 
membership and these activities in effect waive the immunity pro 
vided by the fifth amendment and furnish the basis for possibl 
citation for contempt of Congress, in the discretion of the committee 

Do you understand the purport of what I have said ? 

Mrs. Fowler. No ; I do not, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. That is to say that one cannot admit a certain portioi 
of his or her activities and then decline to answer questions relating 
to other activities. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4661 

Mr. Doyle. I think the record should show that you have returned 
J the hearing room after just being absent a few minutes. 

Mr. Jackson. Let us read into the record at this time the time of 
ly departure from the hearing room and my return. 

Mr. Wheeler. Congressman Jackson left at 10 : 20 and returned at 
0:35. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat the chairman has explained to you is that 
aving admitted membership in the Communist Party you cannot 
ecline now to give the committee all the information you have 
elating to your activities within the Communist Party, and that 
f other people, without the possibility of your being dealt with by 
''ongress as being in contempt of Congress. 

Mrs. Fowler. You are giving me this as legal information? 

Mr. Tavenner. So that you may fully understand. 

Mrs. Fowler. This is true that — I mean, you state that is true, that 

cannot exercise the fifth amendment at this point? 

Mr. Tavenner. After having admitted your Communist Party 
lembership. 

Mr. Jackson. Let me clarify that. You may exercise the fifth 
mendment from this point on, but the legality of the use of the fifth 
mendment is in serious question. I would not want the record to 
low that we have deprived you of the right to use it, but I do feel 
lat you should be warned that the use of it may be found to be an 
legal use of the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. FownLER. It may be found ? 

Mr. Jackson. It may be found. 

Mr. Tavenner. That has been the decision of the courts, that you 
/ould be no longer protected by the fifth amendment if you once 
3gally waived it. 

Mrs. Fowler. Can you give me the legal references to that? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. The Rogers case is one of the cases that so 
eld, Jane Rogers case. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. I think the point has been established, 
Ir. Counsel. 

The committee will suspend. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Jackson. On the record. 

Mr. DoTLE. I suggest this, Mr. Chairman, that the witness is here 
dthout counsel, and I would assume from her question to Mr. Taven- 
er, when she was informed that she possibly had waived her pro- 
Bction of the fifth amendment by volunteering she was a member of 
le Communist Party, I suggest we postpone any further hearing in 
lis matter until a later date, so that if you want to have counsel in 
le interim and come back. But at some time in the future we feel it 
;^ould be advisable that you consult legal counsel, because this is a 
ommittee of Congi'ess and we don't want any American citizen to be 

ft in the position in which he does not understand his constitutional 
ight. 

Mrs. Fowler. Would the public defender be available to me under 
lese circumstances ? 

Mr. Doyle. I don't know. Mr. Chairman ? 



4662 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. I don't know whether the public defender wonkl I 
available or not. That question has never, since I have been a m(>n 
ber of the committee, come up. 

However, the feeling of the subcommittee is that you have embarke 
upon a course of answers which might conceivably place you in jeoj 
ardy. The committee is of the opinion that to proceed in that ligh 
with the witness without benefit of counsel, would not be the be; 
course of action to pursue. 

In other words, this is being done by the committee in fairness t 
you ; and unless there is an objection, or unless the witness herself d( 
sires to proceed, the Chair would direct that the subpena be extende ; 
until such time as it would be possible to call the witness back, accon 
panied by counsel. 

Mrs. FowTLER. Well, I do not wish to spend money for counsel. ] 
counsel can be provided for me, I would be glad to accept it. I ha\ 
no money to spend for counsel at this time. 

Mr. Doyle. Then do we understand that even if this meeting w? 
postponed to a later date you wouldn't want to be left in the positio 
where you had to employ ]:)rivate counsel, but if there was some publ: 
lawyer or some public defender available, you might want to consu' 
him? We don't know whether the public defender's office furnish( 
counsel to witnesses before us. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will stand in recess for about 5 mir 
utes. 

(Short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Jackson. On the record. The committee will reconvene. 

It is the opinion of the subcommittee that you should not be pei 
mitted to proceed without benefit of counsel. And it is suggeste 
that 3^ou may be able to procure such counsel at the Civil Liberti( 
Union here in the city of Los Angeles. 

The subpena will be extended. You will be notified at a futui 
date as to the time and place of the next hearing. And I stress agai 
that we are doing this in your interest and not out of any selfis 
interest of the committee. We could, under the rules of the committe 
have properly proceeded at this time with the interrogation. But t 
do so might seriously prejudice your rights, might lead into a couri^l 
of action which might conceivably result in further action by th! 
Congress in this case. 

With that, the witness is excused and the subpena will be extende 
until a future date, and you will receive notification. I am sure tha 
you can find the address of the Civil Liberties Union in the telephon 
book, and you are advised to obtain the services of counsel at the earli 
est convenient moment. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

IVIr. Wheeler. Mr. Breger. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you please raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give to this sub 
committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but tli 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Breger. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4663 

TESTIMONY OF LEO I. BREGER. ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL. 
DANIEL G. MARSHALL 

' I Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please ? 
;• Mr. Marshall. Excuse me. 

Mr. Jackson. Off the record. 

Mr. Marshall. I would like this to be on the record, Mr. Jackson. 
; would like the record to show that Mr. Breger desires to have present 
iiis wife, who accompanied him here this morning, and just before 
ve got on the record now we asked permission to have Mrs. Breger 
md the Chair ruled that she should not be present and, accordingly, 
■xcluded her from the hearing. Is that correct, Mr. Jackson? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes ; with the further addenda that the policy of the 
■onimittee has been that executive hearings should be entirely execu- 
ive in nature and confined to counsel and witness. 

Mr. Doyle, And I suggest, Mr. Chairinan, too, that further, we 
lave our policy which is not to allow any situation to develop before 
)ur committee which may involve the confidential relationship between 
msband and wife before our committee. 

Mr. Marshall. May I have that statement of Mr. Doyle's read? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, the reporter Avill read it. 

(The record was read.) 

ISIr. Marshall. Now, before the 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. JVIarshall, I don't want to unduly labor this, but 
he rules of the committee, of course, are that counsel shall counsel 
vith the witness and advise him upon his constitutional rights, but 
,>hall not make motions or argue questions with the committee. 

Mr. Marshall. Mr. Jackson 

Mr. Jackson. I leaned over backwards on the opening statement 
because I didn't want to get controversy into the record, but at this 
:)oint I must ask committee counsel to proceed M'ith the questioning of 
he witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please? 

Mr. Breger. Leo I. Breger, B-r-e-g-e-r. 

^h\ Jackson. At this point I should also like to inform counsel 
[\vAt the consultation facilities in the room are very limited and if at 
my time he desires to consult outside the room, I hope counsel and 
the witness will feel free to do so. 

Mr. Marshall. We will avail ourselves of that right if the 
pccasion should arise. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied b}- counsel, Mr. Breger? 

Mr. Breger. I am. 

Ml'. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Marshall. Daniel G. Marshall, 1151 South Broadway, Los 
Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Breger? 

Mr, Breger. Mr. Counsel, Mr. Jackson, I just wonder if I might 
ask that I be given the right to object to this executive session, the 
character of it, and that I think a public session would be more to my 
interest and the interest of the committee's activities; and that my 
objection to the executive session be noted in the record. 

Mr. Jackson. It is so noted in the record. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Breger. October 29, 1910, New York City. 



4664 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere do you now reside ? 

Mr. Breger. 3547 Federal Avenue, Los Angeles 34. 

Mr. TA\TE]srNER. How long have you lived in Los Angeles? 

Mr. Breger. Since 1934. 

Mr. Ta-s^nner. Prior to that time did you reside in New York 
City? 

Mr. Breger. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Breger. I took a bachelor-of-science-degree course with the 
New York University and West Virginia University. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you mind giving the dates of the completion 
of your work at those two institutions ? 

Mr. Breger. I believe New York University was from 1928 to 1931; 
West Virginia University I attended the following year, 1932, but 
didn't receive my degree until I had completed some Army service 
many years later. I received my degree from West Virginia, given 
my credits from the Army training I received. They accepted that. 
I think I got my degree in 1947, which was a little belated, but very 
welcome. And took a year of graduate work, Univercity of Southern 
California, and Social Work School, and received a certificate of social 
work from the University of Southern California in 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you in the armed services of the 
United States? 

Mr. Breger. I think precisely a little more than 10 months — under 
a year, less than a year. 

Mr. Tavenner, And what was that date, approximately ? 

Mr. Breger. Yes. It was from about April 1945 until January of 
1946, 

Mr. Tavenner, What is your present occupation, trade, or employ- 
ment ? 

Mr, Breger, I am employed as a social case worker with the Los 
Angeles County Department of Charities, 

Mr, Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what the nature 
of your employment has been since 1934, when you first came to 
California? 

Mr. Breger, May I consult with counsel ? 

Mr, Jackson. Surely. 
. (At this point Mr. Breger conferred with Mr. Marshall.) 

Mr. Breger. Beginning in 1944, wiien I first came here, a varied! 
history, I was on WPA. I worked for myself. I had a sort of junk 
business for several years. Unemployed for some time. And I believe 
I got my first civil-service job with the War Department in 1940 here 
at Eighth and Figueroa. They were beginning to increase their 
personnel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me. I didn't get the date. 

Mr. Breger. I believe it was 1940, I took an examination as a clerk 
and was called to work for them, I believe the office was at Eighth 
and Figueroa.' That is a branch of the Army called the Corps of 
Engineers. And I worked for them and was promoted to an engi- 
neering aide and — let's see. The war started in 1941, Yes, I worked 
for them a little over a year, until 1942, when I asked for my release, 
because the Government was asking for people who worked in war 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4665 

actories and I felt we were more or less overstaffed, and I was granted 
erniission— at that time I think you had to ask permission to leave 
our employment because the jobs were frozen. 

I went to work in a small machine shop to learn to become a ma- 
hinist, and in 1942-44 I worked for different aircraft — Timm Air- 
raft, working on small parts of aircraft. And in 1945 I volunteered 
or the Army, and the draft board tried to dissuade me, and finally 
ccepted my offer and I was in the Army from March or April of 
945 until January of 1946. Went to work for the department of 
harities March of 1946, and have been there since. 

Mr. Jackson. You received an honorable discharge from the Army ? 

Mr. Breger. I did, and, in addition, some excellent training which 

utilized to complete my formal education, good enough to help me 
Dmplete my formal education. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has your w^ork since 1946 with the government — is 
c, State or county ? 

Mr. Breger, County employees. Los Angeles County is our em- 
loyer. Since 1946 I have worked continually for the same agency, 
ir the same kind of work. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Breger, the committee has received testimony 
rom Harold G. Ashe that approximately in the year 1935 there was 
3rmed in the city of Los Angeles a professional group of the Com- 
mnist Party, and that from that time on the Communist Party or- 
anization consisted of what was known as a downtown group of the 
iommunist Party in Los Angeles, and certain professional cells. 

Were you a member of either of those groups of the Communist 
'arty? That is, were you knowingly a member of the Communist 
'arty in one or the other of those groups at that time ? 

Mr. Breger. May I consult with counsel? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes; please do. 

(At this point Mr. Breger conferred with Mr. Marshall.) 

Mr. Breger. Mr. Jackson, Mr. Doyle, I believe Mr. Tavenner asked 
le a question, and I decline to answer this question for the foUow- 
\g reason : That this question, I feel, is an invasion of my rights 
s a decent, self-respecting American citizen, and I would degrade 
lyself and my family if I permitted this committee or any other 
ammittee to pry into my ideas and associations. The first and fifth 
mendments of our Bill of Rights afford the protection against such 
n invasion of my basic constitutional rights, and I decline to answer 
y reason of my rights under these amendments. 

Moreover, my invocation of the fifth amendment does not allow you 
r anyone else to infer any guilt or criminal proclivities on my part. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Breger, I have before me a photostatic copy of 
n affidavit of change of registration under date purportedly signed 
y you, under date of January 28, 1936. 

I hand it to you and ask you if you will identify that as constituting 

copy of the original which you executed. 

Mr. Breger. Mr. Jackson, Mr. Tavenner. I decline to answer this 
uestion on the same grounds that I stated in answer to the previous 
uestion. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
lat it be marked "Breger Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Jackson. It may be received. 



4666 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

(Affidavit of change of registration, January 28, 1936, was marki 
''Breger Exhibit No. 1.") ^ 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted from the face of the document, under 
9, the following : 

I intend to affiliate at the ensuing primary election with the Republican Par 
underneath which appears, 
Change to Communist, May 21, 193 — 

and the last figure of the year is not discernible. 

Did you change registration to that of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Marshall. May I see that document again ? 

Mr. Jacksoist. You may. 

Mr. Marshall. May we have that question read ? 

(The question was read.) 

Mr. Breger. This question, Mr. Tavenner, I decline to answer on t 
same grounds that I have given previously to the first question. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I just observe this : As I look at t 
same photostat of the record which the witness and his counsel ha 
observed, as long as the date which our committee counsel has call 
attention to, the last figure of it is not discernible, I think this phot; 
Stat exhibit just offered clearly shows that it is subscribed and sworn 
before Adelaid M. Mellon, deputy registrar of voters, on January c 
1936. That would apparently fix the date upon which the signatu 
was affixed to that registration. 

Mr. Tavenner. Immediately below the notation 

Change to Communist, May 21, 193 — 

with a figure not discernible, appears the following words : 
Canceled by transfer to 1503, 6-3-38, 

indicating June 3, 1938. 

Will you tell the committee, please, to what voting precinct 

May I change the question, please ? 

Immediatel}^ under the notation "Change to Communist, 5-2 
193 — ," which the last figure not discernible, it appears that tl 
registration was canceled by transfer to Precinct 1503 on June 3, 19^ 

Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not you register 
at any later date than June 3, 1938, as a Communist ? 

Mr. Breger. I decline to answer this question for the reasons givi 
previously, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Breger, I hand you a photostatic copy of } 
oath and affidavit purportedly signed by you and sworn to on t] 
26th day of July 1948, before Earl Lippold, county clerk, or, rathe 
before Marian Doran, deputy county clerk. 

Now, I will ask you to examine the document and state whether ^ 
not you executed the original thereof. 

Mr. Breger. To that question, Mr. Tavenner, I decline to answ' 
on the same basis as I have declined previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer this in evidence, the photostat 
copy of the oath and affidavit, and ask that it be marked "Breger E: 
hibit No. 2." 

Mr. Jackson. It will be admitted. 



1 Retained in committee files. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4667 

(Copy of oath and aiFidavit, July 26, 1948, was marked "Breger 
Exhibit No. 2.")2 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Breger, it is noted, upon examination of the 
locument, Breger exhibit No. 2, that section D provides as follows : 

Membership in organizations : I do further swear or affirm that I have never 
)een a member of, or directly or indirectly supported or followed any of the here- 
nafter listed organizations except those that I indicate by an X mark. 

Ajid there appear several pages of names of organizations, among 
:hem being American Commmiist Party. There appears no check 
nark indicating an answer to that question. 

Will you tell the committee, please, why it was that you did not 
mswer that question in your oath and affidavit? 

Mr. Breger. Excuse me just a moment. 

(At this point Mr. Berger conferred with Mr. Marshall.) 

Mr. Breger. Mr. Tavenner, I decline to answer that question for 
he reasons given to the answer of my first question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Berger, have you at any time since September 
10, 1948, knowingly been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Breger. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
mswer given previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is not true that you failed to answer the ques- 
tion D in the oath and affidavit because of the fact that you were at 
hat time or had been a member of the Conmiunist Party ? 

Mr. Breger. Same question, same answer, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at any time since September 10, 1948, 
linowingly a member of any organization with knowledge that it advo- 
ated the forceful and violent overthrow of the Government of the 
United States, or any State? 

Mr. Breger. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth-amendment 
protection, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Breger. Just a minute. I want to amend my last answer. 
In addition to the fifth amendment, the other grounds which I have 
stated previously in the answer to the first question, all my grounds, 
and that answer I want to hold true for this particular question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Breger. That is essentially the same question, and I reply with 
the same answer, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Breger, are you aware of the employment by 
the county of Los xYngeles of any person or persons known to be 
members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Breger. I must decline to answer that question on the basis 
of the answer given previously. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused from further attendance 

Mr. Marshall. There are reporters present 

Mr. Jackson. Just a moment. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 



^ Retained in committee files. 



4668 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFOKXIA 

Mr. Doyle. Mr, Marshall, you started to say there were reporters 
present. You don't mean reporters present in this executive hearing, 
they are outside this individual room. 

Mr. Marshall. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. You are under no restriction. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Dunkel. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you please raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give to this sub- 
committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Dunkel. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN DUNKEL 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Dunkel. John Dunkel, D-u-n-k-e-1. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are not accompanied by counsel,' 

Mr. Dunkel. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee wants you to understand that you 
are perfectly free to consult counsel at any time during your interro- 
gation and to have counsel with you if you so desire. 

Mr. Dunkel. Well, I don't really believe there is any necessity for it. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Do you appear here pursuant to a subpena served 
upon you, or are you appearing voluntarily ? 

Mr. Dunk:el. I am appearing voluntarily. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you have written a letter to the committee 
stating certain facts within your knowledge and requesting that the 
committee hear you. 

Mr. Dunkel, That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask this, in view of that, Mr. Counsel : 

Have you in any way, directly or any other way, been offered any 
reward or pay or inducement for appearing here voluntarily this 
morning? 

Mr. Dunkel. No, not at all, 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were your born, Mr. Dunkel? 

Mr. Dunkel. Springfield, Ohio, February 21, 1915. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the committee, please, a brief state- 
ment of your formal educational training ? 

Mr. Dunkel. I am a high-school graduate. I attended Wittenberg 
College in Springfield, Ohio, for 1 year. And that is all the formal 
educational training I have had. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is ^our profession, trade, or occupation ? 

Mr. Dunkel. I am a writer. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what general field? 

Mr. Dunkel. Well, I have been mostly in radio, radio writer and 
editor. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. Dunkel. 1933 Holly Drive, Hollywood. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in California ? 

Mr. Dunkel. Well, I first came here in 1933, and I have actually 
made it my home since that time, although I have been away for 
several months at a time. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4669 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the committee, please, just a brief 
statement of your employment since you have been in California? 

Mr. DuNKEL. At first I — mj^ first job in California was as play 
feader at the Pasadena Community Playhouse. And then I did free- 
lance radio writing until about 1040, when I was employed by the 
Columbia Broadcasting System. And I worked for them until 1945. 

Then I left to free lance for a year or so and went back to Columbia 
Broadcasting System in 1946, and was with them until 1949. Since 
that time I have been again doing some free-lance work, and also 
attempting to write a book. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what some of 
your principal radio- writing credits have been? 

Mr. DuNKEL. Well, I Was There — that was in my earlier association 
with Columbia, The Whistler, and later Escape, and I was editor 
of Suspense. There were others, of course, but those are the principal 
ones. 

Mr. Tavenner. It may be just as well that I ask you to tell the com- 
mittee in your own words what you desire to state about your knowl- 
edge of the Communist Party activities, principally in the field of 
radio writing. 

Mr. DuNKEL. Well, my actual knowledge is set forth pretty much 
in the letter which I wrote. I was approached in April of 1944 to join 
the Communist Party, and although I was certainly not a convinced 
Communist, I was curious mainly, and I finally agreed to join by sign- 
ing a pledge card; and I attended two meetings of the Hollvwood 
Radio Club. 

Mr. Taa-enner. Let me interrupt you there. It may be well at this 
point to tell the committee a little more in detail the circumstances 
under which you joined the party. 

Mr. DuNKEL. Well, I was contacted by Sam Moore, whom I knew, 
of course, because I was a member of the Radio Writers' Guild council. 

Mr. Ta\t;nner. What position did Sam Moore hold at that time in 
the Radio Writers' Council? 

Mr. Dunkel. Well, he has held a lot, and I believe at that time that 
lie was western vice president, but I cannot be absolutely certain. At 
any rate, he was a member of the council. 

Mr. Tavenner. And the leader in the entire field of radio, was he 
not? 

Mr. Dunkel. That is right, yes. 

]Mr. Ta\t:nner. Go ahead. 

Mr. Dunkel. And he contacted me. Well, actually, it was through 
Dwight Hauser, who also worked at CBS. and Dwight said that Sam 
wanted to talk to me. And 1 understood at that point that Dwight 
was a member of the party. So I had a luncheon date with Sam Moore 
and he talked with me about it and asked me to join, put it as a great 
honor. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think I should interrupt you at this moment to let 
the record show that Mr. Dwight Hauser has testified before the com- 
mittee, has fully cooperated with it, and, according to his testimony, 
withdrew from the party quite some years ago. 

Mr. Dunkel. I think that is true ; yes. 



4670 COMMUlSriST activities in the state of CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. And that Mr. Sam Moore was subpenaed as a wit- 
ness before the committee and refused to answer material questions 
on the grounds that to do so might tend to incriminate him. 

All right, sir. 

Mr. DuNKEL. I had quite a lot of respect for Sam Moore at this 
time, because he had been a leader in the guild and had accomplished 
a great deal for the guild, and so I was inclined to listen to what he 
had to say. And although I was not, as I say, convinced by any means, 
and I asked him if I — I would like to come to one meeting as an ob- 
server and see if it was anything that I would be interested in, and he 
said that wasn't possible and that signing the pledge card would be a 
requirement. And, as I say, I was curious. 

Mr. Tavenner. And you also, as I understand, felt flattered by a 
man in the position of Sam Moore having this personal conference 
with you when you were just a young writer at the time. 

Mr. DuNKEL. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Wliat was his position in the guild at that time that 
flattered you ? 

Mr. Dunkel. As I say, I can't remember exactly whether he was 
the vice president of the western region or simply a member of the 
council. But, at any rate, he was the acknowledged leader of the guild 
on the west coast. 

Mr. DoTLE. Thank you. 

Mr. Dunkel. Also, he had a rather good position as a radio writer. 
He was very well known, a very well known writer. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right, if you will proceed, please. 

Mr. Dunkel. Well, as I say, I signed the card and went to the first 
meeting, and I didn't like what I saw and I was not favorably! 
impressed. 

My mind is very hazy on the time element. I am not sure whether 
they were held every week or every other week, but, at any rate, li 
am sure I missed the next meeting. I didn't go to it. And I was ap- 
proached by two of the people and asked to come back. They obviously 
realized that I was not very enthusiastic, at any rate. 

And so I agreed to go back to one more meeting. And I had exactly 
the same impression at the second meeting. And the following Satur- 
day I went to an executive committee meeting, which I had heard 
was in progress, and I there told them that I could not be a member 
and that I wanted my name taken off of their membership list. 

Now, as I understand it, they didn't take it off for some time; and 
I was later dropped for nonpayment of dues. But, actually, I had 
never paid any dues, and had never been actively involved, except to 
attend those two meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the two persons that approached you 
about attending the second meeting? 

Mr. Dunkel. Henry Blankfort and Pauline Lauber. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was it that you saw in the two meetings that 
you attended which resulted in your change in attitude about becom- 
ing or remaining a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Dunkel. Mostly in the general attitude and the way things 
were handled. Now, I might call your attention to the fact that this 
was April 1944, and it was at the height of the peace offensive, the 
Browder — I don't know what it would be called, maybe a love feast — 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4671 

.erytliing was wonderful with America, and they stressed future 
)operation, and so forth. 

And, as a mater of fact, the only vote I ever cast in the party was 
) dissolve the party and form the Communist Political Association, 
believe it was called. So it was right at that point. Nothing 
lat was said in either of those two meetings seemed to me to be 
angerous or subversive at all, because they were saying exactly the 
lings that lots of other people were saying. There was no talk of 
^volution, or if it was anything like that that was mentioned, it was 
lat there was an end to that sort of thing, that from now on every- 
ling would be cooperation. 

Therefore, it wasn't exactly what was said, but the way the whole 
iing was handled. It was handled dictatorially, and, well, we were 
ind of preached to as if we couldn't think for ourselves. And there 
as no argument allowed, and very little discussion. And this was not 
ly idea of the way a political discussion should be handled, and it 
)nfirmed in my mind criticisms which I had heard but didn't quite 
elieve or wasn't sure about. 

Now they were confirmed in my mind and I felt that the critics 

f the Communist Party were probably right. And, therefore, the 

ariosity that had prompted my looking in it was pretty well satisfied. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. In other words, you appear to have entered the 

^ommunist Party with certain mental reservations in your mind 

Mr. DuNicEL. Very definitely. 

Mr. Tavenner. And finally resolved those reservations against the 
Communist Party. 
Mr. DuNKEL. Very quickly, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the leaders in the Conununist move- 
lent in this group ? 

Mr. DuNKEL. In this group the leader — I don't know what he was 
ailed — was Henry Blankfort, and Sam Moore seemed to be his 
s^istant. Pauline Lauber was secretary, I believe. 
There was a woman or girl, whose name I never learned, who was 
rea surer. And a man by the name of Robin Short seemed also to 
>e a member of the executive committee. That is all I can remember. 
Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell the committee or give the committee 
he names of any other persons who attended either of the meetings 
hat you attended? 

Mr. DuNKEL. I didn't know many of them. I was rather new 
n radio, outside of my CBS group. I didn't know many of them, 

•x(e})t Hy Alexander, 

?dr. Tavenner. Was he present? 

Mv. DuNKEL, He was present — and Georgia Backus. They were 
jotb members of the Radio Writers' Guild council. So I knew them. 
I knew, of course, my friend Irving Ravetch. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Irving Ravetch remained 
n the Communist Party, or left the Communist Party about the 
ime you did ? 

Mr. DuNKEL. I know that he did leave it at the same time, be- 
cause we more or less shared the experience, talked it over, and very 
iefinitely decided the same things about it. And he is still my friend, 
md I know how he feels about everything. And he has had no 
further activity at all. 



4672 CO]\iMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Do we understand correctly that you have had i 
association or affiliation with the Communist Party or its activitie 
to your knowledge, since that time ? 

Mr. DuNKEL. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the names of any other persons wl: 
were present at these meetings ? 

Mr. DuNKEL. No, I don't. I met Abe Burrows in the hall of Sai 
Moore's house wdien I arrived for the first meeting, I believe it wa 
and he was a member of the Radio Writers' Guild council at that tim 
and, of course, I knew him. But I cannot say that he stayed for th; , 
meeting, nor can I say positively that he was a member of the groui 
because I don't remember that he did — I don't remember seeing hii, 
again. 

I have seen newspaper reports, the names of people whom I kne 
later in radio as having been members of that group, but I didn 
know them and I cannot positively say that I saw tliem there. i 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. I don't, either. 

I wish to thank you for volunteering to help your Congress, tj 
United States Congi-ess, in trying to meet this problem, officially, c 
subversive activities in our country in the Communist Party or an 
other group or individual. 

Do you have any suggestions to make to the committee? 

Mr. DuNKEL. No. I have thought about it, and it is a difficult prol 
lem, I realize. And I just don't feel that I know enough about tl 
inner activities to really offer any constructive suggestions. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you find any difficulty in contacting the committ( 
to make your appearance? 

Mr. Dunkel. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Doyle. You found our staff cooperative ? 

Mr. Dunkel. Very cooperative. 

Mr. Doyle. You handled it yourself directly? You didn't ask ar 
intermediary ? 

Mr. Dunkel. I went to Dwight Hauser, when I saw that he ha 
testified, and asked him how to get in touch with you. 

Mr. Doyle. Can you think of any ways or means that the committ« 
might take to have other men and women in your profession, or relate 
thereto, to have a result such as yours, for a voluntary appearance, i 
help Congress understand this problem and better handle it? Is thei 
any way we can get to more people in your profession ? 

Mr. Dunkel. I don't really know any concrete steps that you ca 
take, but I do believe that the kind of treatment I have received, an 
Dwight Hauser told me that he received, is certainly helpful in thi 
regard. 

Mr. Doyle. Then we invite you to spread that word. 

Mr. Dunkel. All right. 

Mr. Doyle. We invite you, also, to — of course, it doesn't apply s 
much to you, sir, because you were only in a short time, but I fi'(; 
quently say to a person who has been in, put a lot of vim, vigor, an 
vitality into speaking and acting and working against the Communis 
conspiracy. 

Mr. Dunkel. I try to do that whenever I can, whenever I see ajj 
opportunity. But, Jis I say, I don't have a lot of annnunitioii. J 
didn't stay in long enough to really know the intricate working; 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4673 

' saw as much as I needed to see for my own particular point of view. 
5ut I couldn't 

Mr. Doyle. Possibly there will come a time when you can appropri- 
tely make a script of some sort or story of some sort. 

Mr. DuNKEL. I really hope that that is true : and I have thought a 
5t about it. and I hope I can do something. 

JNIr. DoYT.E. Did our counsel ask if Sam Moore ever urged you to 
et back in? 

Mr. DuNKEL. At the executive committee meeting where I resigned, 
to speak, he was present and he did talk to me quite a lot, but he 
ever again approached me, partly because I made my attitude quite 
'lear, and also in the following year or so I found an opportunity to 
p]K)se him on the Radio Writers" Guild council a couple of times, on 
^sues which I felt were more involved with the Communist line than 

itli the w^elfare of the guild. And, therefore, he knew my attitude 
retty clearly and he has never been very friendly with me since. 

Mr. Doyle. You weren't invited to that executive session? You 
ent yourself? 

Mr. DuNKEL. I went mj^self. 

My. Doyle. Thank you very much. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Ravetch. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Ravetch. will you raise your right hand? 

I )o you solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give to this sub- 
aiiimittee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 

uth, so help you God? 

Mr. Ravetch. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. Be seated, please. 

TESTIMONY OP IRVING RAVETCH 

Mr. Tavenner. AVliat is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Ravetch. Irving Ravetch. 

Mr, Tavenner. I note that you do not have counsel accompanying 
ou. It is the proper practice of the committee — I always explain to 
witnesses that they have the right to confer with counsel at any time 
.uring the period of their examination and to have counsel with them 
oth in open and executive meetings, if they so desire. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you desire to proceed w^ithout having counsel ? 

Mr. Ravetch. Yes, I do, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Ra\t5tch. Newark, N. J., November 14, 1920. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. Ravetch. I live at 4131^ Veteran Avenue in Los Angeles 24. 

Mr. Ta\t3nner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles? 

Mr. Ravetch. Well, I was a student here. I came from Long Beach, 
'alif., in 1939, and went to UCLA. So I guess 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Let me approach the matter another way. Will 
ou tell the committee, first, what educational training you have had, 
nd then follow it by a statement of what your employment or occupa- 
ion has been ? 

Mr. Ravetch. Well, I am a graduate of the University of California, 
t Los Angeles, graduating in 1941. I served in the Army briefly. 



4674 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

And then I went to work as a free-lance writer, or, rather, as a sta) 
writer at CBS in Hollywood. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that ? 

Mr. Ravetch. In 1943. After a year there I went to work a 
M. G. M. in Culver City, 1944, 1945, and 1946. Since 1946 I have bee 
a free-lance writer. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what field ? 

Mr. Ravetch. Motion pictures, largely; selling original stories t 
various studios, taking assignments from time to time with a studi( 
But under contract nowhere since then. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you worked particularly in the field of radio 

Mr. Ravetch. For 1 year back in 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you tell the committee, please, what some o 
your principal screen and radio credits have been ? 

Mr. Ravetch. My radio credits don't bear analysis, because as 
staff writer I was writing continuity for western singers or sta 
singers on the station. 

In pictures I have mainly written westerns. I have four wester 
credits, actually. 

Mr. Tavenner. What are they ? 

Mr. Ra\t:tch. The Outriders, M. G. M. Vengeance Valley, M. G. ]\ 
The original story of Lone Hand, Universal-International. Tb 
original story of Run For Cover, Pine-Thomas. The original stoT 
of Paid in Full, for Harry Joe Bown. And that's it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you appear here pursuant to a subpena, or ai 
3'ou appearing here voluntarily ? 

Mr. Ravetch. I am a voluntary witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has received a communication f roi | 
3^ou giving it certain facts regarding your experiences in connectio i 
with the Communist Party, and, as I understand it, you have indicate 
a desire and a willingness to appear under oath before the committe ; 

Mr. Ra\t;tch. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. To give it such facts as you have, is that correct 

Mr. Ravetch. That is correct ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well, sir, if you will proceed to tell the coir 
mittee whether or not you at any time became affiliated with tb 
Communist Party; if so, what were the circumstances under whic 
you became a Communist Party member, what your experiences wei 
while in the Communist Party, and if you withdrew from the Con 
munist Party, what the circumstances of your withdrawal were, 
believe that you can go ahead and cover that without my asking yo 
questions. 

Mr. Ravetch. Right. In April of 1944 for an extremely bri© 

Seriod, literally for 2 weeks, I was a member of the Communist Partj 
[y motives for joining, in trying to reconstruct them now, were ur 
reasoned, and actually, I suppose, partook of a reckless type of curi 
osity to see what was going on. I was a lot younger than I am now. 

The party's social program and its ardent desire to win the wai 
to finish off the war with Hitler, were rather attractive elements, an« 
I can only tell you that I was duped by thoni, as many other men o 
good will have been, because of these particular programs. 

Sitting in two Communist meetings in 1944 very quickly convince* 
me that I had made a mistake, and I got out instantly. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4675 

Mr. Tavenner. What is it that convinced you that you had made a 
nistake ? 

Mr. Ra VETCH. The reconstruction is very difficult. I realized it was 
roolish to be a Communist Party member. I realized I had made an 
jrror, a foolish error, at the time. I had, I quickly discovered, very 
ittle in common with the people I saw around me in the two meetings ; 
;hat there was an air of fanaticism, a kind of zealous fate which 
Tightened me and made me want to leave quickly. I simply came to 
;he conclusion that I was not a joiner, certainly not a joiner here, that 
[ didn't belong here. 

I perhaps can cite an example which might prove of interest: I 
vvas told the first time I sat in the meeting that Communists had a very 
l^pecial key, a key to knowledge and a way of life, that dialectical 
Marxism taught a man all he had to know to get along in the world. 

The speaker stated that Communists are said to follow a party line 
md people who level this charge themselves cite as an example the 
fact that two Communists at opposite ends of the pole in the world 
i:an get up and speak on the same topic and say almost literally the 
-ame ; if you have the key you can give the right answers. 

This was phony and I knew immediately that I had made a mistake. 

Mr. Tavenner. W^io made the address to you ? 

Mr. Ravetch. Henry Blankfort, who was apparently the chairman 
)f this group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the facts as to how you 
,rot into the party ? Did you solicit membership, or were you solicited 
o become a member ? 

\ Mr. Ravetch. Actually, I was solicited by Henry, the same Henry 
Blankfort, over a period of a few weeks, or even a few months. Dwight 
Hauser, who worked at CBS at the same time, and who didn't even 
remember me, quite logically 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean when he testified before the committee? 

Mr. Ravetch. That is right. He quite forgot me, I am certain, be- 
•aiise I was there so briefly; and we worked together at CBS, and I 
lecall his discussing the advantages of the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think the record should show at this place that 
Mr. Dwight Hauser cooperated fully with this committee and testi- 
fied before it and demonstrated that he had left the Communist Party 
in good faith and was no longer connected with it. 

Now, what were the actual circumstances surrounding your leaving 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ravetch. I simply never appeared again. I was not solicited 
to return. Nobody, apparently, even noticed that I dropped out. I 
went twice in April 1944, probably on succeeding weeks, on two suc- 
•eeding weeks. I never went again. I paid them not a cent in dues. 
[ ] )articipated in none of their discussions or any of their activities. 

I quite frankly must tell you that I never, apart from the literal fact 
'f being present — I don't consider myself, through conviction or any- 
thing else, a member of the party or that I ever was. 

Mr. DoTLE. Did you sign an application card to be a member, Mr. 
Ravetch? Did Mr. Blankfort present a card to you to sign, a pledge 
■ard or application card ? 

Mr. Ravetch. I was, it seems to me, so irresponsible about this move 
that I don't remember actually signing anything at any time. 



4676 COMIMUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell me who were the leaders of this group, 
so far as you could ascertain from the two meetings which you at- 
tended ? 

Mr. Ravetch. Henry Blankfort was apparently one leader. Sam 
Moore was apparently another. They appeared to share the respon- 
sibility for discussions and the routine of the meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether these two meetings that you 
attended were closed Communist Party meetings, in the sense that 
they were not open to attendance by nonmembers ? 

Mr. Ravetch. I seem to recall people coming in and going out in 
the course — the atmosphere was a very relaxed one, and certainly gave 
the impression of being nothing in the world like a subversive or 
undercover meeting. So I would be inclined to say, perhaps, it was 
an open meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you see dues collected at that meeting, or either 
of them ? 

Mr. Ravetch. I remember a short discussion about dues, about the 
necessity for supporting the party financially, but I don't actually 
think I saw anybody collect money. 

Mr. Tavenner. Communist Party business, however, was discussed 
at the meeting that you attended ? 

Mr. Ravetch. Yes. There was a discussion of the book review of, 
1 guess it was Earl Browder's pamphlet of the Conference at Teheran. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee who were present at 
these two meetings, as far as you can recall ? 

Mr. Ravetch. My information is extremely meager on this point. 
The people I knew were people with whom I had other contact in 
radio. Apart from the two gentlemen who appeared to be the co- 
chairmen and Mr. Hauser, there were Robin Short and Caren Kinzel. 
That's about five. Abe Burrows was present, or appeared to walk in 
and out at one point. 

Mr. Tavenner. In one or both meetings? Do you recall which 
one ? 

Mr. Ravetch. The first. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he take any part in the meeting itself ? 

Mr. Ravetch. He stood in the back of the room, which is why I amj 
of the impression that he came in, lingered briefly and went out again. 
I would say he did not take any part. 

My friend John Dunkel, who went in the party with me and out 
of the party with me in the same period, was also at one of them — 
not the second. 

Mr. Tavenni:r. Was an effort made at any time to get you back into , 
the party, or in attendance at meetings? 

Mr. Ravetch. Never again. I dropped out and never actually saw 
any of these people again since 1944 to this day to my knowledge. I 
don't believe I have seen any of them since 1944. 1 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were the meetings held ? I 

Mr. Ravetch. The first was held at the home of Sam Moore. The 
second was held somewhere on the Sunset Strip ; whose house I don't 
remember ; where the house was I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did you receive notice as to when, where and 
when, the meetings were to be held? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4677 

Mr. Ravetch. Well, at the time of my solicitation I was invited 
o appear at the first, and advance information was given at the first 
is to the second. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Do I understand that you have had no connection or 
ifRliation with the Communist Party since the time you withdrew ? 

Mr. Ravetch. Not at all. 

Mr. Ta\t:nnee. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. At tlie time you met Mr. Moore in connection with that 
Jommunist meeting, he was quite a leader, wasn't he, in the writers' 
ield? 

Mv. Ravetch. As I remember, Mr. Doyle, he was extremely active 
n the Radio Writers' Guild. But at that time I myself was not at all 
ictive in the guild, so that I didn't know him until this first meeting. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, you were in the party just for a couple of weeks, 
.nd that was during the period that Earl Browder was still head of 
he American Communist Party in April 1944 ? 

Mr. Ra\t:tch. Evidently he was. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you any suggestions to make to Congress through 
liis committee as to what we should do differently, if anything, on 
uiy level ? In other words, how can we obtain more cooperation from 
nore of your brilliant men in the writing field in helping us to un- 
'over real subversives? 

Do you have any suggestions ? 

Mr. Ravetch. That's a large question, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. Will you give it some definite thought? 

Mr. Ravetch. I surely will, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you have any difficulty in contacting our staff in 
jrder to meet with us today ? 

Mr. Ravetch. No. I met you through Mr. Wheeler, of course. I 
would like to go on record as saying I made a voluntary trip to the 
FBI in — at the time of the outbreak of the Korean war, and it finally 
seemed to me that the lines were pretty well drawn, and taking what- 
ever information PTiad. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you very much for that, and thanks for coming 
this morning. 

Let me suggest to you this, as I have to another 1 or 2 this morning 
in the writers' field that have been with us : You are, as an expert in 
your profession, in a field that is so possible for you to put a lot of 
vim, vigor, and vitality into some writing some day which will help 
immeasurably the American people understand more than we do know, 
even, the need of being vigilant, and also possibly how to better meet 
the problem. 

Let me suggest that you think along that line and see if in your 
rich experiences there won't come a time when you can attack that in 
some way and really make a great contribution in your own profes- 
sion, through your own professional writing, to meet this world 
conspiracy. 

Mr. Ravetch. I shall give it every thought, I assure you. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you again for coming. 

That is all. 

(Whereupon the witness was excused and the hearing was ad- 
journed subject to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX TO PART 3 



INDIVIDUALS 

Paga 

lexander, Beu 4635 

Jexander, Hy 4671 

.she, Harold G 4665 

;ackus, Georgia 4671 

terman, Mildred (Mrs. Phil Berman) 4631 

lerruan, Phil 4631 

51ankfort, Henry 4670, 4671, 4675, 4676 

Jloor, Ella Reeve 4630 

Jradley, Preston 4641, 4642 

5reger, Leo I 4663-i668 (testimony) 

5rowder, Earl 4643, 4670, 4676, 4677 

>rown, Harry Joe 4674 

5urke, Frances {see also Decker, Frances; formerly Nields; Dessert; 

Decker; Copeland) 4647-4651 (testimony) 

5urro\vs, Abe 4672, 4676 

opeland, Frances {see also Burke, Frances; Decker, Frances) 4648 

orliu, Eda {see also Fowler, Eda C.) 4657 

)ecker, Frances {see also Burke, Frances) 4630,4636,4637,4640,4648 

)essert, Frances {see also Burke, Frances; Decker, Frances) 4648 

)evalo, Matt 4634 

)oran, Marian 4666 

)unkel, John 4668-4678 (testimony), 4676 

Cinstein, Albert 4628 

shields, Fred 4639 

'^der, Elizabeth 4653-4657 (testimony) 

^'ogerlund, Eda {see also Fowler, Eda C.) 4657 

^uts, Alberta (Mrs. Jay Fonts) 4631 

-'outs. Jay 4631 

^'owler, Eda C. {see also Johnston, Eda; Fogerlund, Eda; Corlin, Eda) 

4657^662 (testimony) 

jallagher, Leo 4(535 

Jilbert, Ruth 4639 

ilenn, Virginia (Mrs. William Glenn) 4639 

jlenn, William 4639 

Sauser, Dwight 4669, 4672, 4675, 4676 

lull, Morgan 4634, 4637 

fohnston, Eda, {see also Fowler, Eda C.) 4657 

Sinzel, Caren 4676 

auber, Pauline 4670, 4671 

Lippold, Earl 4666 

Macia, Edith 4658, 4660 

Margolis, Ben 4653-4657 

Marshall, Daniel G 4663-4668 

Mellon, Adelaid M 4666 

Mooney, Tom 4635 

VIoore, Sam 4669-4672, 4673, 4676, 4677 

\luelder 4638 

Vields, Fi-ances {see also Burke, Frances; Decker, Frances) 4(>48 

Olseu, Dorothy 4631 

Pitt, Albert 4631 

Perry, Pettis 4630, 4633, 4634 

Ravetch, Irving 4671,4673-4677 (testimony) 

Redick, Mike 4639 

Rein, David 4647^651 



ii INDEX 

Pai 

Saboliuski, Abe 4638, 46c 

Schneiderman, Bill : 46i 

Short, Ilobin 4671, 401 

Sinclair, Upton 46;" 

Sumner, Merton D 4623-4645 (testimonj 

Tenet, Kay (or Tennent) 4638,4639,46- 

Theodore, Theodore 46:: 

Vidaver, Matthew (Matt) 4(5; 

Whitney, Anita 46): 

Williams, Ruth 46r 

ORGANIZATIONS 

A. F. of L - 461 

CIO 46: 

America First Committee 46-J 

American Red Cross 46; 

Americans for Democratic Action 46." 

California Institute of Technology 46c 

Columbia Broadcasting System 4669, 4671, 4674, 461 

Communist Party, Grand Rapids 4637, 4638, 46. 

Communist Party, Grand Rapids, West Side Group 46? 

Communist Party, Hollywood Radio Club 46( 

Communist Party, Los Angeles, Calif., West Adams Branch 4658, 46( 

Communist Party, San Diego, Calif 4624, 4631, 46: 

Communist Party, San Diego Beach Club 4631, 46; 

Communist Party, Vallejo, Calif 461 

Communist Political Association 4650, 461 

Community Book Center, San Diego 46" 

Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp 46; 

Distributing, I'rocessing, Office Workers of America 46- 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 461 

General Motors 46' 

International Book Shop, San Diego 4til 

International Rural Order of the IWO 46; 

International Workers' Order 4(k 

Los Angeles County Department of Charities 4(;( 

Marine Corps 4624, 4625, 4<1- 

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 46: 

New York University 4(>( 

Pasadena Community Playhouse -t(>< 

Pine-Thomas , 46'i 

Pomona Health Center 46t 

Post Office Department 461 

Radio Writers' Guild 4671-4673, 46'. 

Santa Barbara News Press 4t>. 

Screen Writers' Guild 4(;i 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography 4ti; 

Social Work School 46( 

Timm Aircraft 46t 

U. S. S. Tuscaloosa 4625, 46-1 

Universal-Internati(>nal 4tiT 

University of California at Los Angeles 4631, 467 

University of Southern California 4iH; 

Utopians , 4im 

West Virginia University 466 

Western Stove Co . 4ti5 

Wittenberg College, Springfield, Ohio 466 

Workers' Alliance 462 

Works Progress Administration 466 

PUBLICATIONS 

Better Homes and Gardens 464 

Daily People's World 4630, 463 

Daily Worker 463: 

Home Front News 4631, 463: 

o 



u^vy 



^ 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA— Part 4 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



]OMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIYES 



EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



APRIL 19, 1954 
(MORNING SESSION) 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
47718 WASHINGTON : 1954 




Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

SEP 8- 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN,ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, JE., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Fbank S. Tavennek, Jr., Counsel 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

Courtney E. Owens, Acting Chief Investigator 

n 



CONTENTS 



pril 19, 1954, testimony of— P««» 

Daniel Pomeroy Taylor 4680 

Ddex i 

(Testimony of Sterling Campbell Alexander and Philip Berman, also 
heard on this date, is printed in part 5 of this series.) 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted h^ the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEE 
4i ***** * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

RXJLE XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

^ ^ !|S Sp ^ flS V 

(q) ( 1 ) Commi ttee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to malie from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and Un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 

* * 4: * * * « 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

(1) There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Coi 
gress, the following standing committees : 

8|» ^ ^ >)C ^ ^ !|C 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

* * ij: 4: » » « 

Rule XI 

POWER AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
4: « H: $ H: * 4: 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, cha 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United State 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American props 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin an 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constiti 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congreji 
In any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to tt: 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such invest 
gallon, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-America 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such timt- 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, hai 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendant 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, an 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued unde 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by an 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desii 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF CALIFOENIA— Part 4 



MONDAY, APRIL 19, 1954 

United States House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 

San Diego^ Calif. 
public hearing 

The Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to notice, at 9 : 05 a. m., in the Chamber of Commerce 
Building, Hon. Donald L. Jackson (acting chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Donald L. Jackson 
and Clyde Doyle. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; William 
A. Wheeler, staff investigator ; and Mrs. Billie Wheeler, acting for the 
clerk. 

Mr. Jackson. Under the authority conferred upon the chairman of 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities and pursuant to the 
rules of the House of Representatives and of the committee, the 
Honorable Harold H. Velde has appointed a subcommittee of two 
members to take the testimony of witnesses in the current hearings 
which will continue through Thursday noon. 

Out of hearings heretofore conducted in other sections of the coun- 
try there has developed information which indicates that a significant 
effort was made by the Communist Party to organize its activities in 
this general area. San Diego is not only important from the stand- 
point of a concentrated defense production but also as an important 
link in international communications. Any successful effort on the 
part of the Communist Party to infiltrate its agents into these impor- 
tant activities would present an apparent danger to the security of our 
country. 

Under the rules of the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties, television is permitted as a public service and in order that as 
many citizens as possible may be kept full}^ advised of the important 
worlv being done by the committee. All public media of information 
will get the fullest possible opportunity to transmit to the American 
people the testimony developed in these hearings and relating to the 
subject of the investigation. It is anticipated that some witnesses 
may object to the presence here in the room of television and radio 
facilities. Under the rules of the committee such witnesses may not 
be photographed during the course of their testimony. However, the 
Chair wishes to make it clear that any interruption of public-service 
broadcasts will come as a result of the demand by witnesses and will 

4679 



4680 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

not constitute an interference by the committee of legitimate means 
of public information. 

The chairman wishes to caution the audience in the hearing room 
against any demonstration of approval or disapproval respecting the 
testimony of witnesses. The committee is here upon the business oi 
the Congress and decorum and dignity will be maintained during the 
course of the hearings. Any demonstration will result in clearing oi 
the room. The Chair hopes that this step will not be necessary, but 
wishes to make it clear that there will be no hesitancy in so domg in 
the event of audible expressions of approval or disapproval. 

The committee appreciates the courtesy extended by the San Diegc 
Chamber of Commerce in making this hearing room available. 

Mr. Counsel, are you ready to proceed ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Who is your first witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. My first witness is Mr. Daniel Pomeroy Taylor. 
Mr. Taylor, will you come forward, please ? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Taylor, will you raise your right hand, pleased 

In the testimony you are about to give before this subcommittee, dc 
you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the whole truth and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Taylor. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Be seated, please. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us your name, please ? 

TESTIMONY OF DANIEL POMEROY TAYLOR 

Mr. Taylor. Daniel Pomeroy Taylor. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is the practice of the committee to explain t( 
every witness that he has the privilege of having counsel with him 
It is noted that you do not have counsel with you, so I want to make i- 
plain that you have that right at any time during the hearing that yoi 
may desire. 

Mr. Taylor. I waive counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner, When and where were you born, Mr. Taylor ? 

Mr. Taylor. In Oak Park, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date of your birth ? 

Mr. Taylor. November 20, 1913. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Taylor. In Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Taylor. For the past 121/2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time where did you live ? 

Mr. Taylor. In San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly, what 
your education and training has been ? 

Mr. Taylor. I graduated from San Diego High School in 1931. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been the nature of your employment 
since 1935 ? 

Mr. Taylor. I was on the Federal writers' project for 3 years and 
then in the city school system. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will give us the date, the approximate years in 
which you were working with the Federal writers' project? 



COMMUlSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4681 

Mr. Taylor. 1936 to 1939, inclusive. 

Mr. Tavenner. And then what was your employment ? 

Mr. Taylor. Following that ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Taylor. I worked as public-relations counsel for the evening 
adult education department of the San Diego school system. 

Mr. Tavenner. And for how long a period of time were you so 
employed ? 

IVIr. Taylor. Six or seven months. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment ? 

Mr. Taylor. I went to Los Angeles in May, 1941, and was employed 
by Vimcar Steel Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Taylor, are you now a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Taylor, No; I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the approximate 
date that you became a member and the approximate time that you 
withdrew from the Communist Party? 

Mr. Taylor. I joined the Communist Party in August 1935 and left 
in November 1941. 

Mr. Taa-enner. According to your record of employment, most of 
that period of time you were in the San Diego area, were you not? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances under which you became a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Taylor. It is a rather long story. Do you mind if it takes a 
few minutes? 

Mr. Ta\tsnner. Well, just take enough time that in your judgment 
would give the committee a pretty accurate idea of what led you into 
the Communist Party and what motivated you in going into the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. TayTvOR. To begin with, my cousin is Anna Louise Strong who 
was editor of the English edition of the Moscow News, in Moscow, 
Russia, and she is also the author of many books about Russia, and in 
my teens I naturally read those books, and although my family did 
not think well of her, I was somewhat influenced by her books and 
tier writings. I also aspired to write, and I worked for my school 
papers at Memorial Junior High School, where I was the editor of 
the paper, and I was a reporter for the school paper in the San Diego 
High School. 

Then in February 1935, an article which I wrote was published 
m the New Republic, a magazine which I had been a reader of for 
many years, and a Communist acquaintance that used to spend a great 
ieal of time at the San Diego Public Library, where I met him, when 
le discovered that I had had an article published in a national maga- 
dne, he notified the Communist Party leadership in San Diego and 
:old them he thought I was worth concentrating upon in the hopes of 
recruiting me. 

About 2 weeks after the article was published in the magazine a 
jarload of Communists visited my home, all smiles, and endeavored 

47718—54 — pt. 4 2 



4682 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

to win my friendship. They congratulated me on my article and they 
invited me to a house social that evening, and at that house social I 
met Stanley Hancock who was the head of the Communist Party in 
San Diego, and he also 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Let me interrupt you at that point. Mr. Chair- 
man, reference was made to Stanley Hancock. I should refresh 
your recollection that his testimony was taken in Washington within 
the past 30 days. He told the committee his connection with the 
Communist Party and when he withdrew from the Communist Party, 
and he has cooperated fully with the committee.^ 

Mr. Jackson. Yes; the subcommittee heard the testimony of Mr. 
Hancock and it should show in the record that his testimony was very 
complete and that it added a great deal to the sum total of knowledge 
possessed by the committee on the activities of the Communist Party 
in the San Diego area. 

Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. If you will continue, please. 

Mr. Taylor. Hancock asked me was I regularly employed and I 
said right then I was not employed. That is, that I was spending my 
time writing and sending articles and stories to the national maga- 
zines, and he said that he believed that he could find me a job writing, 
working for the San Diego city schools, and I was somewhat surprised, 
as he was introduced to me as a Communist, although when the people 
visited my home that day I didn't know they were Communists; I 
thought they were just readers of the magazine. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you later find them to be Communists? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes ; within a few weeks. I didn't know it that night. 
I thought Stanley Hancock was the only Communist at that house 
social. 

But within a few days Stanley Hancock obtained a job for me 
writing for the San Diego city schools' curriculum project. It was 
some kind of a make-work project during the depression to write 
books for the schoolchildren of San Diego, and that summer of 1935 
I wrote a book for the San Diego city schools entitled "Ebbtide 
Friends." 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was that? 

Mr. Taylor. Ebbtide Friends, which was used in the San Diego 
schools for the fifth-grade children. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me interrupt you at this moment. Do you 
know how it was that Hancock had influence enough to obtain this 
position for you ? 

Mr. Taylor. The Communist Party had a great deal of influence 
in the State relief administration and it was through those channels 
that he was able to obtain jobs for people whom he wished to enmesh 
in his organization. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. All right. If you will proceed now with what 
occurred. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Counsel, I would like to interpose a question. 

Do you know who Mr. Hancock contacted relative to your employ- 
ment on this writing project? 

Mr. Taylor. No ; I have no idea as to that. 



* See pt. 2 of this title, pp. 4S64-4692. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4683 

Within a few weeks after I began working for this city schools' 
?iirriciihim job, Stanley Hancock asked me to join the Communist 
Party, and I told him I didn't care to, and I wasn't interested in 
oining, and he said, "Well, we will talk it over at some later date," 
3ut at least twice a week I was pressured with a membership card 
md asked to join — they had me organize a gi'oup called the Unem- 
ployed Council, of which I was the president, and I felt that maybe 
f i did some activity such as that for them that they wouldn't keep 
iisisting that I join the Communist Party. 

Finally extreme pressure was put on, several months passed, and 

was practically told if I didn't join the Communist Party that they 
Aould consider me hostile, and that a hostile person would certainly 
xiy a penalty of some kind. It was more or less of a threat, higli- 
)iessure tactics. ^ _ ^ 

I didn't join immediately when he said that, but I joined about that 
iine, and that was about 1935. I joined soon after the heat was 
nd on, you might say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the names of the group 
^vbo called upon you and whom you later found to be members of the 

onnnunist Party, at the time you published your successful article 
n the New Republic? I want you to give names only of those you 
ater found to be members of the Communist Party from your own 
mowledge. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I wish to state at that point I am glad 
:hat counsel has called the attention of the witness to the fact that we 
Dnly want any witness, either this or any other witness, to give in 
Dublic the names of people whom he positively can identify as Com- 
nunists. We don't want hearsay or rumor or anything less than 
jositive identification. I am sure that my distinguished chairman 
igrees with that. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Taylor. These Communists who visited me and first brought 
ne into contact with the Communist Party were Bessie A. Keckler 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name, please ? 

Mr. Taylor. K-e-c-k-1-e-r. James Toback. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell it ? 

Mr. Taylor. T-o-b-a-c-k. I can't remember who the other 2 or 3 
vere. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, if I understand your testimony correctly, you 
►ecame an organizer of the Unemployed Council in San Diego and 
)ecame its first president prior to your joining the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat positions did you later hold in the Communist 
^arty? 

Mr. Taylor. I was the continuous educational director of the Com- 
aunist Party for 4 years. I was continuous chairman of the Com- 
Qunist Party here for a little over a year, and continuous organizer 
•f tlie Communist Party in San Diego for approximately 1 year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the group or 
ell of the Communist Party to which you were first assigned upon 
»ecoming a member ? 

Mr. Taylor. In August of 1935 I was assigned to a small neighbor- 
Lood unit of the Communist Party, possibly 7 or 8 members. 



1 



il 



4684 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Did it have a name ? 

Mr. Taylob. It probably had a number, but I don't remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain in that group ? 

Mr. Tatlor. It might have had a name. It met in Logan Heights 
and it might have been called the Logan Heights unit. I believe i\ 
was so called sometimes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of that par 
ticular unit of the party ? 

Mr. Taylor. Until the spring of 1936. 

Mr. Tavenner. During that period of time from August 1935 unti 
the spring of 1936, what was your chief activity in the Communis 
Party? 

Mr. Taylor. I was assigned to work as assistant editor of the Trad( 
Union News, a weekly labor paper put out by Stanley Hancock, an( 
was assigned to continue my official capacity in the Unemployed Coun| 
cil, and for a while I was assigned to youth work. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me take those matters up in the order — excu& 
me. Possibly you were going to mention something else. 

Mr. Taylor. No ; I cannot think of anything else. 

Mr. Tavenner, Let me ask you about your work in the Unemployec 
Council. Were there other members of the Communist Party locate( 
within that organization ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes ; there were quite a few. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many would you judge ? 

Mr. Taylor. Possibly 25 or 30 altogether in the county. Maybe 4C 
I really don't know how many in the entire county because there wer 
locals of this Unemployed Council throughout the county. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the Communist Party particularly intereste' 
in the work of the Unemployed Council ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes ; it was a main front activity during the depressior 

Mr. Tavenner. I wish you would tell the committee, please, ho^ 
the Communist Party functioned in connection with the work of it 
members in the Unemployed Council. By that I mean tell the com 
mittee what the Communist Party sought to accomplish and how i 
proceeded to act within the Communist Party. 

Mr. Taylor. The Communist Party controlled the Unemployei 
Councils by having their Communist Party members in positions o 
leadership in nearly all the cases, and these members, these Communist 
were required to appear before the leadership of the Communist Part; 
once a week or once every other week, and sometimes they were give: 
orders as to the activities that Unemployed Councils were to engage ir 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee the general nature c 
those directives or instructions, generally. 

Mr. Taylor. Well, those were days of strife. The Unemploye<|ii 
Councils held mass demonstrations, mass protests, picket lines; the; 
would picket relief headquarters ; they would picket the city hall ant 
board of supervisors' meetings, or would crowd them with member 
so that every seat was taken in order to endeavor to get those bodie 
to go along with policies which the Communist Party was endorsing 
Also the Unemployed Council had people stationed at all the relie 
headquarters so if a person, say, who was not a resident of San Dieg| 
failed to get a food order or grocery order, as it was called, the Un 
employed Council people would take the person back upstairs an< 
intimidate the social service workers into writing out grocery orders 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4685 

This high-pressure type of thing made friends for the Unemployed 
Councils and those members who told the recipient that they were 
Communists, which they often did, and they would say, "I am a Com- 
Qunist, and see what Communist tactics can do for you," and the 
ocial-service workers were usually scared to death. 

Mr. Jackson. This organized intimidation constituted authority 
rhich in fact was directed and dictated by the Communist Party ? 
]VIr. Taylor. It was. 

]\Ir. Ta\tenner. You stated that the Communist Party members took 
'eo])le upstairs who had been denied grocery orders. I don't under- 
taiid just what you mean by taking them upstairs. Did you have an 
ilice or a place of business in the same building? 
Mr. Taylor. No. I should have said that the county welfare office 
t that time was in the Spreckels Building on the second and third 
oors. When I said the Communists took them upstairs, they waited 
n the ground floor and questioned everybody who came down from 
le relief office, and if a person was not a resident, they could not 
btain a grocery order, if they were transient. In many cases there 
as always a delay because the social-service workers wanted to in- 
estigate the person to see if they lived at the address which they 
ved at, and this constituted a delay for 2 or 3 days before the person 
iceived the grocery order. The Communist would take the unem- 
loyed person upstairs to the relief workers and demand a grocery 
rder, and generally those tactics would get it. 

]\rr. Tavenner. Do you know of any instances in which the Com- 
unist Party took just the reverse attitude and interested themselves 
I denying relief to any particular class of individuals ? 
Mr. Taylor. In cases of people who turned against the Communist 
arty, members, I should say, who differed with the Communist Party, 
le Communist Party would retaliate by endeavoring to have these 
jople thrown off of their job, fired, or thrown off the relief rolls, if 
ley were on the relief rolls. When such methods of intimidation were 
lown to the other members, that kept such members from dropping 
it of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you mean the Communist Party leadership would 
'?liberately deprive San Diego citizens of necessary food because 
ley opposed the Communist Party in San Diego? 
Mr. Taylor. I knew of people who had lived for many years in 
iin Diego who were forced to leave town and take up residence some- 
hore else simply because the Communist Party was making it so 
'ffirult for them to make a livelihood. 

Mr. Jackson. Then it could be stated that the Communist Party 
: torest in a welfare case was political rather than economic, is that a 
: ir statement of fact ; they were not interested in the economics of the 
latter at all, but very much interested in the politics of the indi- 
vhial concerned. 

Mr. Taylor. They were solely interested in themselves, the Com- 
aunists were, solely interested in their own organization. 
INIr. Doyle. In other words, Mr. Chairman, they were willing to let 
] tip children and babies go hungry merely because their parents op- 
]iRed the Communist Party. 

Mr. Taylor. If that person had been a member of the Communist 
lirty. As a rule they wouldn^t take this action against an average 



4686 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

person who happened to be against the Communists, but upon then 
own dissidents. 

Mr. Doyle. I understand that, but in other words, if a former mem- 
ber withdrew from the party or refused to cooperate, then they weni 
to the extent of intimidating social welfare and social workers to th( 
point that they would deny these former Communist Party members 
food, even though there might be small children and babies in thos< 
families ? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. As a matter of punishment and retribution? 

Mr. Taylor. And in order to prevent other people from dropping 
out of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has been accustomed to hear dissi 
dents within the Communist Party spoken of as Trotskyites. Is tha 
in a general way what you are speaking of ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, but in those early depression days there was U' 
actual Trotskyite organization as such. There were a few, mayb 
one or two Trotskyites in those days, but they didn't have really ai 
organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliy was it the Communist Party was intereste" 
in the work of the Unemployed Council in the manner in which yo 
have described ; what did they seek to accomplish by that activity ? 

Mr. Taylor, Well, their purposes were twofold. They wanted t 
build an organization of unemployed people, WPA people and reliei 
ites that could carry out the policies of the Communist Party, an( 
secondly, they used this organization as a field for recruiting into th 
Communist Party, and as a method of spreading Communist infoi 
mation among a larger group of people than if there were no sue 
Unemployed Council. 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you tell the committee, please, how the decisio 
was reached to take a given line of conduct in the Unemploye, 
Council ? 

Mr. Taylor. The decision was invariably reached by the Communi 
Party leadership. The Unemployed Council leaders took no action ( 
any importance on their own. They took all of their orders, and a( 
vice from the Communist Party leadership of San Diego, and, ( 
course, that was true in other cities. 

Mr. TwENNER. How long did you remain in the work of the JJi J 
employed Council ? 

Mr. Taylor. Until approximately February 1936. , 

Mr. Tavenner, Well, did you during that period of time becon ^ 
active in any other enterprise of the Unemployed Council ; did it, f^ 
instance, publish any circulars or paper of its own ? 

Mr. Taylor. Oh, yes. I was editor of a biweekly newspaper e i 
titled the "Unemployed News" in 1935. 

Mr, Tavenner. You told us also that you were assisting Mr, Ha: 
cock as associate editor of the Trade Union News. Was that durir 
this same period ? 

Mr, Taylor. That was the same period, 1935, 
Mr, Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what the natu 
of this publication known as the Trade Union News was ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4687 

Mr. Taylor. The Trade Union News was an 8- or 10-page paper 
which was mailed to several thousand A. F. of L. members in San 
Diego City, and the material in the paper was given by Communist 
Party members who were active in the A. F. of L. There was a 
Communist in nearly every union in San Diego, and these people at- 
tended meetings and gave to the Communist Party the results of those 
meetings, the action taken, and also meetings of the San Diego County 
Federated Trades and Labor Council, it was this information which 
Stanley Hancock and I wrote down and put in the weekly newspaper, 
the Trade Union News, and mailed it to several thousand A. F. of L. 
members. 

Mr. Tavenner. How was the publication financed ? 

]\Ir. Taylor. It was financed by the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. During this period of time, what percentage of 
your time was devoted to the work of the Communist Party through 
active participation in the party and through active participation as 
a member of a front organization of the party, namely, the Unem- 
ployed Council? 

Mr. Taylor. I should say it entailed 3 or 4 hours every day, an 
average of 30 or 40 hours a week. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend meetings of the Communist Party 
frequently at night? 

Mr. Taylor. Every member is required to attend a weekly meeting 
of the Communist Party and he is also required to attend his union 
or front meeting once a week or oftener, and is expected to take a 

gart in the leadership meetings of his front organization or union, 
[e is expected to push himself into leadership. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us at this time, please, what organ- 
izational setup of the Communist Party was here in San Diego during 
tlie early period of your membership? 

Mr. Taylor. The organizational setup of the Communist Party at 
San Diego? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Taylor. Its leadership, well, first, it was composed of 15 or 16 
units which had approximately a dozen or more members. Then there 
was a county executive committee which represented the leadership 
of the San Diego Communist Party and once every 2 months a meeting 
was held of the common committee, an organization of approximately 
40 or 50 Communists in San Diego who represented the leadership of 
the Communist Party units. 

I\Ir. Tavenner. Now, the first unit that you became a member of 
was a group of 7 or 8, I understood you to say, and you think it was 
called the Logan Heights gi^oup or unit of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

jNIr. Ta-s^nner. Will you tell the committee, please, who was the 
leader of that group when you first became a member of it? 

Mr. Taylor. James Toback. 

Mr. Tavenner. James Toback? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr, Tavenner. Can you give us names of other members of that 
group, and in giving us that information I would like for you to 
identify them as well as you can by their occupation, if you know 
what that was, and tell the committee anything you can recall about 
their activities within the group. 



4688 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Taylor. James Toback was the unit organizer of the first unit 
of the Communist Party which I was in. He was unemployed at 
that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat part did Toback play, if any, in recruiting 
you into the party ? I am not certain that I have asked you that. 

Mr. Taylor. James Toback was one of those who recruited me, a 
cosigner for me. Every recruit is supposed to have two people vouch 
for him or cosign for him. 

Mr. Tavenner. And Toback was one? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was the other? 

Mr. Taylor. Leo Gregovich. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name ? 

Mr. Taylor. G-r-e-g-o-v-i-c-h. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. If you will proceed. 

Mr. Taylor. Leo Gregovich was a cook; I don't remember where 
he worked. He was an officer in the Cooks & Waitresses' Union in San 
Diego, and he was a member of the county leadership of San Diego. 
Those are the only two I can think of at this time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you transferred later to a different group oi 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. In the spring of 1936 1 went into a different unit 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose or the reason for transfer- 
ring you to another group. 

Mr. Taylor. The second group which I was sent into was more 
representative of the people whom I was working with in from 
organizations. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did this group have a name ? 

Mr. Taylor. It possibly had a number, but I do not remember it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Approximately how many persons comprised this 
second group ? 

Mr. Taylor. I would say 13 or 14. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the leader of the group ? 

Mr. Taylor. They often changed their unit organizers, sometimes 
every few months, and I can't remember any particular one wh( 
seemed to be the outstanding organizer. j 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of those who wer( 
members of this group, as far as you can recall, and again give us 
only the names of those that you are positive in your own mind wen 
members of the Communist Party, and any other identifying inf orma 
tion that you can give us. 

Mr. Taylor. Well, there was Mr. and Mrs. Bert Jones and Mr. anc 
Mrs. Newsome, N-e-w-s-o-m-e. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall Mr. Newsome's first name? 

Mr. Taylor. Cosby, C-o-s-b-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. And do you recall his wife's first name? 

Mr. Taylor. Geneva. Then there was Mr. and Mrs. Carroll 
Hunnewell. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell that last name ? 

Mr. Taylor, H-u-n-n-e-w-e-1-1. James Toback was also a member. 
I think that is all I can remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that Mr. Bert Jones and his wife were 
members. Do you recall the wife's name? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4689 

Mr. Taylor. I don't recall right now. I don't quite recall her name. 
Oil, Martha Jones. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Now, will you tell the committee as nearly as you 
what the activities of this group were? 

Mr. Taylor. This group was interested in unemployed activity 
mainly, and to some extent in boring into the American Federation 
of Labor. It had a twofold job. 

Mr. Tavenner. How^ long were you a member of this group ? 
Mr. Taylor. Throughout the year 1937. 1936, rather. 
Mr. Tavenner. Did you particrpate during the period you were a 
member of this group in any effort to bore within labor, as you 
mentioned ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. James Toback and I were assigned to work in the 
retail clerks union, A. F. of L. 

Mr. Ta\\enner. Well, were you a clerk? 

Mr. Tayi.or. No, nor was Toback. 

Mr. Tavenner. How could you become a member of the clerks' 
inion if you were not employed as a clerk? 

Mr. Taylor. The Communist Party found a sympathetic merchant 
vv^ho agreed to tell the union if they phoned him that I was a clerk for 
lim. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you were not a clerk ? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was that merchant ? 

Mr. Taylor. I can't remember his name right now. 

Mr. Ta\t<:nner. What was the nature of his business ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, he had an upholstering and furniture store at 
52d and University in San Diego. The 20th Century Upholsterer, 

believe. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Did you at any time talk to him about this plan, 
id he ever mention to you, that is, the proprietor of this mercantile 
)usiness, that you were supposed to be employed as a clerk in his 
tore to be entitled to membership while actually you were not so 
mployed ? 

Mr. Taylor. I saw him a few months later and he told me he had 
leen getting quite a number of phone calls and people dropping in 
rom the AFL to check me, whether I was a clerk there, and he said 
t was kind of interesting. He always told them I was out on sales- 
fianship business. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, it was by this method that the Communist 
*arty got you into the clerks union ^ 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were other persons gotten into the clerks union by a 
imilar method who were not actuallv employed as clerks? 

Mr. Taylor. At least 10 or 11 others. 

Mr. Tavenner. Members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give tlie committee, please, the names of 
le Communist Party members who were not clerks but who were 
iccessful in infiltrating the union although not employed in a manner 
lat would entitle them to become members? 

Mr. Taylor. I can only think of 2, Mrs. Esco Richardson and Paul 

lexander. 

47718— 54— pt. 4 3 



4690 COMMUlSriST activities in the state of CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Paul Alexander? 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Pavil Alexander used any 
other name ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, his initials are S. C. Alexander. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether that is Sterling C. or Sterling ' 
Campbell Alexander ? 

Mr. Taylor. I believe he told me that at one time. 

Mr. Tavenner. But he was commonly known in this vicinity as 
Paul Alexander? 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long- had you known Paul Alexander before 
lie became a member of the clerks union? 

Mr. Taylor. I had known Paul Alexander since March 1935. 

Mr, Tavenner. Had you known him as a Coinmimist Part}- member 
during that period of time ? 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have told us that Paul Alexander and Mrs. 
Esco Richardson — do you remember what her first name was? 

Mr. Taylor. Jen, Jen Eichardson. 

Mr. Tavenner. And possibly 9 or 10 others 

Mr. Taylor. Eiglit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Eight, did you say ? 

Mr. Taylor. About eight others. 

Mr. Tavenner. About eight others became members of the clerks 
union. Who gave you directions to become a member of the clerks 
union ? 

Mr. Taylor. The directives came from the county executive com- 
mittee of the Communist Party in San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. It may be well for you to give us at this time, il 
you can recall, the names of the members of the executive county com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Taylor. The county organizer of the Communist Party was 
Stanley Hancock; the county chairman, Paul Alexander; the count} 
trade union director was Leo Gregovich; the county unemploymeni 
director was Mrs. Keckler; the county control officer was James 
Toback. I believe that is all I can recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, this executive committee gave you directions 
to become a member of the clerks union ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What did the executive committee of the Commu- 
nist Party seek to accomplish within the clerks union ? I 

Mr. Taylor. They sought to control it. At that time they were try- 
ing to capture the American Federation of Labor; they were tryins 
to capture the San Diego Federated Trades and Labor Council, wliicl 
was the leading body of the A. F. of L. in San Diego. In every unioi 
where the Communist Party sent members, they endeavored to gel 
Communist Party leaders as heads of that body, the Federated Trades 
and Labor Council, in order to get leadership of that body and control, 
which they almost did. 

Mr. Tavenner. And in order to do that, they desired to infiltratf 
the unions from the lowest level and build from the ground up, is tlml 
what, in substance, you are saying? 

Mr. Tayi.or. That is correct. 



CO:vnvIUNIST activities in the state of CALIFORNIA 4691 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what your group of the 
Communist Party did after obtaining membership in the clerks union; 
how did you impose the Communist Party will or decisions upon the 
group ? 

Mr. Taylor. Every week the Communist members of a trade union 
met in what they called a fraction meeting in which they discussed the 
aims and policies, plans, strategy, tactics, w^hich the Communists were 
going to carry out at the next union meeting, or the next meeting of 
its board of officers, so they could work as a unit, working in unison, 
and put their policies through. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course, the Comnumist Party membership of 
this group was unknown to the rank and file membership of the union ? 
Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 

yh\ Jacksox. Mr. Counsel, at that point, was that also true of the 
Trade Union Xews, which I recall from your previous testimony, was 
financed by the Communist Party; did those who subscribed or re- 
ceived the Trade Union News have any knowledge that the Communist 
Party was in fact dictating editorial policy and also contributing 
largely to its support ? 

Mr. Taylor, Oh, yes. The American Federation of Labor in San 
Diego had their own newspaper called the Labor Leader, and it exposed 
constantly this Communist paper and told its members that it was put 
out by the Connuunist Party. 

Mr. Jackson. So those who received the Trade Union News were 
pretty well aware of the fact that it was Communist dominated? 
Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask a question on that point, Mr. Chairman ? 
Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. From what source did you build up a circulation of 8 
to 10 thousand copies, as you said ? 
Mr. Taylor. Two thousand. 

Mr. Doyle. Oh, 2,000. May I go back and ask these 2 or 3 ques- 
tions about these 8 or 10 fraudulent clerks ? As I understand, there 
were 8 or 10 of these, you included, that were on the employed list of 
this merchant out on o2d. Were they all on that list ? 

Mr. Taylor. No, I don't think so. I think I was the only one. 
Mr. Doyle. Were you on his payroll, actually ? 
Mr. Taylor. I don't think so. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever receive any checks from him for any 
purpose ''i 

Mr. Taylor. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever go in there and turn in any orders to him 
as a result of your solicitation of orders ? 

Mr. Taylor. No, I only saw him once or twice, I think, in all of 
my employment with him. 

Mr. Doyle. How long did you perpetrate that sort of a fraud with 
this fraudulent employer ? 

Mr. Taylor. For several months, and then in the middle of 1936 
I became manager of the — or part manager and part-time clerk at the 
International Book Store at 635 E Street, San Diego, and thereby 
terminated my dubious employment with the upholsterer. 

Mr. Doyle. Are you in a position to say whether you were the only 
one in that fraudulent employment relationship in upholstering, or 
were there more than you as a Comnumist in there, in that relationship ? 



4692 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. TATX.OR. I don't believe I ever inquired of the other Commu- 
nist as to where they were supposed to be employed. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you ever identify that particular upholsterer who 
perpetrated that fraud with you as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. No. I never knew him as a member of the Communist 
Party. He was just considered a sympathizer. I never heard that 
he was a member. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you have described to the committee just how 
the Communist Party functioned in order to wield an influence within 
that local. Was your group successful in securing the election of any 
particular individuals as officers of that union ? 

Mr. Taylor. We succeeded in electing one Communist to the posi- 
tion of secretary of this union. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of that Communist 5 

Mr. Taylor. I am not certain at this time. That was many years 
ago. Eighteen years ago. I don't remember who. And myself, ] 
was elected as a delegate to the San Diego County Federated Trader 
and Labor Council. I don't know at this time whether Communists 
were elected to leadership. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the approximate membership of the loca 
which you had joined? 

Mr. Taylor. It was a small local to begin with. I don't know, o: 
course, the total membership. There were probably 25 or 30 peoph 
in attendance early in 1936, and the local grew until finally it was hav 
ing membership meetings of 2 or 3 hundred people. But I don't knovl 
what the actual dues-paying membership was. | 

Mr. Tavenner. It would seem obvious that you had a little diffi 
culty in controlling a meeting if there were only 20, 25 to 30 member 
present when you had as many as 8 to 11 Communist Party member 
there. 

Mr. Taylor. Actually, we didn't have too much difficulty becaus- 
the average non-Communist will not get up and speak and he is no 
working with a clique or group, so a group of 8 or 9 people in a crowc 
of 300 can completely control it by getting up and endorsing and sup 
porting each other and speaking for an issue and the membershi] 
thinks this must be popular if 8 or 9 people are so intense about it 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Isn't it true, however, if the membership of tha 
union had been aware of the danger of Communist infiltration b 
appearance at those meetings, they could have voted the Communist 
out of any position of influence entirely and whipped the Communist 
in that group? 

Mr. Tayi.or. Yes, that is correct. The membership did not kno^" 
Avho were Communists in their local, didn't know that there were am 
at all. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of the local ? 

Mr. TAYT.0R. It was the Ketail Clerks' International Protective As 
sociation. I don't remember the number of the local. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there any other matter in which the Com 
munist Party wielded an influence within that local while you wer 
a member of it? 



Mr. Taylor. Yes. The Communist Party decided toward the latte: ^ 
half of 193(5 that they should swing the clerks union into the CIO 



to 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4693 

which had just taken shape nationally. Also at this time, approxi- 
mately either late 1936 or early 1937, rather, of which I am speaking, 
the Communist Party had nearly seized control of the Federated 
JTrades and Labor Council by packing it with their members and sym- 
Ipathizers, and early in 1937 the national organization of the A. F. of L. 
swooped down just in time and lifted the charter of the Federated 
Trades and Labor Council to prevent the Communists from seizing 
complete control of the labor movement in San Diego, and this quick 
decisive action. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. Let's leave the thread of your 
story a minute and follow what you have just said. You had been 
elected through the efforts of the Communist Party to the position of 
delegate to this trade council as a result of the work of the Communists 
in this group, is that correct? 

Mr. Taylor. I was elected by the Retail Clerks Union. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Yes. And by that method the Communist Party 
njot a representative on the trade council? 

Mr. Tatt.or. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many other Communists, that is, persons 
Snown to you through your own knowledge to be Conununists, were 
similarly successful in getting on the trade council? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, I would say 20 or 25. 

Mr. Tavenner. Twenty or twenty-five out of a total membership 
)f how many? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, that doesn't include sympathizers. Those 25 
Dommunists had a great many other delegates who worked with them 
land in glove who, however, were not Communists. I would say 
;here were nearly 150 delegates at this time to the Federated Trades 
md Labor Council and the Communist Party controlled nearly half 
)f them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee at this point in your 
estimony, if you can recall, who the Communist Party members were 
)f the trade council, persons who like yourself had been successful 
n being elected to that group as delegates from their respective 
mions? 

Mr. Tayl<3r. I can only think of a few names because I was not 
vorking with these other Communists as a Communist, so I didn't 
enow them all personally, but the head of the Federated Trades and 
-/abor Council was a Communist, his name was A. C. Rogers. He 
vas the organizational secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether that is senior or junior? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, it must be senior. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can 3^0 u give the committee some indication of his 
ige at that time? 

Mr. Tayi^or. I would say he was a man of 38. 

Mr. Tavenner. How was he employed? If you know. 

Mr. Taylor. A. C. Rogers, I believe, belonged to the office workers 
mion. 

. Mr. Tavenner. He was a member of the Communist Party and was 
uccessful in getting on the labor council by the same methods that, 
'ou were successful ? 

Mr. Taylor. Of course, I can't say as to that. A. C. Rogers was a 
aan of unusual ability, that is, he was personally a very capable 



4694 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

man, and he was very sincere about union work. He was a unionist 
at heart and he had been misguided into thinking that the Communist 
Party was for labor. He reached his position due to sheer ability, in 
my opinion, although he was duped and later found out he was duped 
and broke with the Communist Party and is no longer a Communist. 
Mr. Tavenxer. Will you give the committee the names of others 
whom you know of your personal knowledge were members of the 
party and were meml)ers of the labor council ? 

Mr. Jackson. And further, if the witness will also state, if he knows, 
whether or not they terminated their association with the Communist 
Party at any time subsequent to that. 

Mr. Taylor. I can think of one other. A man named Carroll 
Hunnewell, two r's in Carroll. He was a delegate from the tailors 
union, I believe, cleaning establishment union, perhaps, would be more 
correct. And offhand I can't think of any others right at this time. 
There was a Lydick, John Lydick, who joined the Communist Party 
for a while. He was a delegate for the various trade and labor coun- 
cils, and he became the organizational secretar}^ of this trade council 
after A. C. Rogers left. 
Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me. What was his name ? 
Mr. Taylor. John Lydick. 
Mr. Tavt.nner. Will you spell the name? 

Mr. Taylor. L-y-d-i-c-k. He was an officer of the plasterers 
union. He also broke with the Communist Party shortly after, I 
would say very soon after, some time in the middle of 1937. 
Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us the names of any others? 
Mr. Taylor. Offhand I can't think of any others. That happened 
17 years ago, and the only ones that I worked with were the Com- 
munists in the clerks union, those are the only ones that I was asso- 
ciated with. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with a person by the name 
of Saul Barnhart ? 
Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of your own personal knowledge 
whether he was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. I never saw Saul Barnhart at a Connnunist Party 
meeting, but he was generally in the Communist Party headquartei"s, 
which at that time was at 852 Eighth Avenue, San Diego, just across 
from the public library. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, Saul Barnhart was identified as a 
delegate from the tailors union who was a member of this group by 
the witness Stanley Hancock. 

Now I interrupted — in order to get before the committee the method 
of procedure in the labor council, I interrupted your story as to what 
was occurring within your local, when the Communist Party decided 
to take it out of the A. F. of L. and into the CIO. 
Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you proceed witli that, please ? 
Mr. Taylor. When the A. F. of L. purged itself from the Com- 
munists in 1037 and completely destroyed the Communist influence 
in the Federated Trades and I^abor Council, the Communists in the 
retail clerks union, most of them, began to get desperate and felt 
that they would be expelled from tliat union and their charter lifted. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4695.. 

so the}' determined to try to pull this organization into the ClO, to* 
desert the A. F. of L. The result was that the Communists put the 
j)ressure on the leadership of the clerks union, most of whom were not 
Conmiunists, and convinced them of the necessity of calling an elec- 
tion of the entire membershi):* to vote whether to join the CIO. At 
this period — I should mention this was the period of the famous sit- 
down strikes — if you remember back 16 or 17 yesLYS ago there was 
a national wave of sitdown strikes in department stores, clerk sit- 
down strikes. It just lasted a few months but it was sort of a mass 
hysteria that swept the country as a mass enthusiasm of clerks hoping 
to get wage increases by sitdown strikes. I believe these sitdown 
sfi-ikes followed similar sitdown strikes in automotive industries and 
otliers. So there had been a large influx of clerks into the retail clerks 
union in 1937. As I say, the membership meetings were in the hun- 
dreds of this one local. One of the Communists, whose name I do 
not recall, he was recording secretary of the local, he was ordered by 
tlie union officials to send out postcards to every member of the retail 
clerks union to advise them an in:iportant meeting was coining up 
at such-and-such a day and place to decide whether to remain in 
tlie A. F. of L. or to go into the CIO clerks, and this Communist, 
wliether b}^ accident or purposely, I never knew, he neglected to mail 
out the cards of membership, possibly feeling that the membership 
A\ ould not vote for it. The result was that we had a large hall and 
only 20 or 25 people, clerks, showed up who were close enough to 
the organization to know about it. The membership wasn't there, and 
liit was at this- 

Mr. Tavenner. Were the Communist Party members there ? 
Mr. Tatlor. Oh, yes; the Communist Party members were there. 
Mr. TA\T.NisrER. A hundred percent ? 

Mr. Taitlok. One hundred percent, and of course, they outvoted 
the non-Communists who wanted to stay in the A. F. of L. And at 
this meeting a vote was taken over my protest, I didn't agree with it 
at all. I was the only- 
Mr. Tam^xner. So you were the only Communist that did ? 
Mr. Tayi.or. I was the only Communist who got up and said we 
should not hold a vote without the entire membership there since a 
mistake had been made and the cards were not sent out, and I was 
under a cloud with the Communists for a month or two as a result 
of my bucking the policy of this Communist faction, but as a result 
of that meeting, the clerks union in the A. F. of L. was completely 
destroyed. The membership, the hundreds, it may have been thou 
sands of membei-s, when they read the newspapers the next day that 
the Retail Clerks Union switched to CIO, they said to themselves, 
'Why weren't we notified, who is running this organization, a clique," 
and naturally since this was done undemocratically, the entire member 
ship melted awa3% like ice on a hot day, and some of them even mailed 
in their cards and said, "I wouldn't have anything more to do with 
such an undemocratic organization," and it hurt the prestige of the 
A. F. of L., such skulduggery, and it also ruined a good union, and 
bhe charter, of course, when this happened, the A. F. of L. immediately 
Dicked up the charter and the books and everything, because the union 
lad left the A. F. of L., and that was the end of the Communist 
Bxperiment in the destruction of a good trade union 



4696 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Jackson. Were you disciplined in any way for your action in 
opposing the vote at that time ? 

Mr. Taylor. No, because it was obvious in a few days that tlie 
Communist faction had made a mistake, so the other members of the 
faction were disciplined in a way and some of them left town. Wlien 
it was discovered that they had made a mistake, they failed to swing 
the organization bodily into the CIO, that was the Communist desire, 
and since they had failed to do that, they lost their prestige and I 
gained a small amount of prestige with the Communist leadership for 
having followed the correct policy, although I was not successful in 
what I attempted. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' statement that 
he gained a little prestige from having taken the only correct policy, 
however, the action you took was not the policy of the Communist 
Party before you took it, was it ? In other w ords, the actions you took 
were contrary to the Communist Party, actually ? 

Mr. Taylor. The Communist Party gave orders to the Communist 
faction in the Retail Clerks Union to swing the A. F. of L'. union 
into the CIO, but they didn't intend for it to be done in such a clumsy 
fashion that it really destroyed the organization. They wished to 
control it, but they didn't at that time wish to completely destroy it. 

Mr. Tavenner. The only opposition on your part to the Communist 
Party was the holding of the meeting without notice ; isn't that correct? 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct. And the Communist who neglected 
to mail out those cards was practically banished, because he left town 
shortly afterward. He was being criticized too severely by the Com- 
munist leadership. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he actually employed as a clerk? 

Mr. Taylor. He was probably the only Communist who was a clerk. 
He worked as a shoe clerk. I really don't remember his name. 

Mr. Tavener. Well, after that fatal mistake, or fatal action, which- 
ever it may have been, on his part, in not mailing the notices to the 
membership, what did he do ? 

Mr. Taylor. What did he do ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Taylor. He tried to explain to the union leadership that he 
had given the cards to somebody to mail, and they had neglected to, 
but he never did bring forth any such person, and nobody believed 
his story. They sensed that he had simply overlooked mailing the 
notices on purpose. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he make any explanation to the Communist 
Party members in any Communist Party group meeting ? 

Mr. Taylor. I didn't attend any investigation that the Communist 
Party held over this. They undoubtedly did. The Communist lead- 
ership in San Diego undoubtedly had an investigation in San Diego 
as to how it happened that this Communist group completely de- 
stroyed a union. I wasn't at such a meeting and I do not know what 
transpired. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did this individual make any statement to you as 
to his purpose in leaving San Diego or the reason for his leaving? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. He said he didn't care for the climate in San 
Diego any more; that he thought he would go to a different altitude, 
Salt Lake City. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4697 

Mr. Tavenner, So he left not only tlie Communist Party here, but 
he left his job? 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct, 

Mr. Tavenner. And went into other fields ? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. Jackson. And left a very fine climate. 

Mr. Taylor. And a good climate. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did that end your activity within a labor 
union ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. That ended my activity in the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, and all of the other Communists who had en- 
deavored to capture the American Federation of Labor in 1937, and 
the Communists never did regain their influence in the American Fed- 
eration of Labor in San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. So that was the climax of the unsuccessful efforts 
of the Communist Party to control labor unions in this area ? 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. That is, as far as your knowledge is concerned. 

Mr. Taylor. As far as my knowledge is concerned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell the committee about when your ac- 
tivities within the clerks union were thus terminated ? 

Mr. Taylor. I don't remember the date of this period. It was early 
in 1937 when the charter was lifted of the Federated Trades and 
Labor Council, and then the Retail Clerks Union was smashed by the 
Communists. I don't know the month. 

Mr. Tavenner. During this period of time when you were active 
in this union, did you engage in other Communist Party activities? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. In early 1937 the State Federation of Labor 
held a convention in San Diego at the Eagles' Hall, and the Com- 
munists attempted on a statewide scale to capture that. And they 
managed to get as many Communists as possible sent from unions 
throughout California, to send them as delegates to this convention 
of the American Federation of Labor in 1937, hoping to capture it. 
The leadership at that time was under an anti-Communist group. I 
was not a delegate, but I was an observer and reporter with Stanley 
Hancock. We attended all meetings of this AFL convention, took 
notes and watched the progress of the Communist Party trying to cap- 
ture it. But they completely failed to have enough Communist dele- 
gates, and this, of course, was early in 1937, earlier than the inci- 
dents which I have just previously mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. All of which demonstrates the importance of a local 
labor organization being alert and resisting the inroads of the Com- 
munist Party on the lowest levels of their unions. 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Counsel, if I may comment at that point, I 
should state that we have hundreds of pages of sworn testimony which 
indicates beyond any peradventure of a doubt that apathy on the part 
of the bulk of a membership of any given organization has contributed 
greatly to Communist efforts. In some instances labor unions, youth 
groups, schools, and churches have been infiltrated and taken over by 
this small minority to which this witness has referred. 

Sometimes we feel, on the committee, too much stress is laid upon 
the point of numbers. It is quite obvious from the testimony of this 

47718 — 54— pt. 4 1 



4698 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

witness that it required a very small number of members of the Com- 
munist Party to exercise its will vipon the majority of the members 
of the group, and in effect, completely control and disrupt the activi- 
ties of the organization. 

That, I say again, is well established in testimony. There are hun- 
dreds and probably thousands of pages of testimony which indicate 
that that apathy, that neglect of responsibility of the membership in 
organizations has led directly to Communist control of the group. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. What other Communist activities were you engaged 
in during this period ? 

Mr. Taylor. I was expected to help in youth work in the organiza- 
tion called the Young Communist League, and with the destruction of 
the clerks union by the Communists, I was sent into a new organization 
called the "Workers' Alliance, which was created out of the old Unem- 
ployed Councils. 

The Workers' Alliance was a national Communist-front organi- 
zation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before you tell us about your experience in that 
organization, let me ask you if you did any writing or editorial work 
during the period that you were also engaged in union activities? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. I was a reporter for the People's World and 
shortly after, late in 1937 or 1938, 1 was made a reporter for the Daily 
Worker in New York. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. I hand you an identification card saying, "This is 
to certify that Dan Forrest Taylor is a special correspondent of the 
Daily Worker," signed, "C. A. Hathaway, editor of the Daily Worker." 
That is your identification card ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes ; it is. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of your work as a representa- 
tive of the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Taylor. I was supposed to send them an average of one article 
a day about the events, usually Communist-inspired events, whicli 
were transpiring in San Diego. They also wanted me to write full- 
page fiction and articles for their magazine section, which I did do on 
occasion. 

The Daily Worker and the People's World of San Francisco pub- 
lished 1 or 2 articles in each issue by me. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. What was the function of the People's World in this 
area? 

Mr. Taylor. The People's World was not labeled a Communist 
paper. It had grown out of an official Communist paper called the 
Western Worker, which was also published in San Francisco and 
which carried on its masthead, "Official Organ of the Communist 
Party in California." 

The People's World endeavored to rid itself of the Communist label 
and become a broader paper and to get subscribers who were not 
Communists. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, this paper may have attempted to 
get rid of its label, but according to the testimony in San Francisco 
last December it was shown by members of tlieir staff that virtually 
the entire staff membership were members of the Communist Party, 
that they accepted Communist Party directives as to the editorial 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4699 

content of the paper, and this committee, as you know, is now engaged 
in the work of an investigation of that periodical. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. The witness David Blodgett, who was a re- 
porter for the Daily People's World, testified fully as to the ex- 
tent of Communist direction of the Daily People's World, and stated 
that it was an organ of Communist opinion and was used in large 
part to bring to the attention of Communist Party members the 
current and official line of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Witness, I understood you to say that this 
group endeavored to get rid of the party label. Do you know why it 
desired to get rid of the party label although still being operated 
and managed through directives of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. For the reason that when it was labeled the 
Western Worker on the second page over the editorial page had the 
wording, "Official Organ of the Communist Party," they had no suc- 
cess at all in making this paper popular; they couldn't gain sub- 
scribers outside of their own Communist Party members, and when 
they would distribute this paper to union meetings, the average A. F. 
of L. member would take the papers and tear them up. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't the reason for that the fact that the Coni- 
munist Party could not sell its line directly to the people of this 
country, that they must resort to deceit and circumvention in order 
to accomplish its purpose ? 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. And therefore knowledge of their activities and 
the nature of them is essential for people to appraise their efforts and 
their work and to evaluate it ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee any further experiences 
you had as a representative of that paper? Tell the committee, 
please, how your connection with the People's World was obtained. 

Mr. Taylor. Well, that was simply an assignment which Stanley 
Hancock and the countv executive committee asked of me while I was 
writing for the Trade t^nion News much of the same material, usually 
just a carbon copy I mailed, was supposed to mail to the People's 
World and the Daily Worker. 

Mr, Tavenner. Did you receive any compensation for articles that 
you sent to the People's World ? 

Mr. Taylor. No. If a Communist receives a party assignment he 
is not supposed to be compensated. That is just another of his tasks. 

Mr. Jackson. That was not the case of a paid party functionary? 

Mr. Taylor. There was only one paid party functionary at tliat 
time and that was Stanley Hancock, and I don't believe that he was 
on the payroll directly. He received an expense account. 

Mr. Jackson. The point is that not all of the assignments in the 
Communist Party are a labor of love. Some are paid. 

Mr. Taylor. Oh, definitely. But I can only speak of San Diego. 
Oh, definitely, they have a great number of people on their payroll. 

Mr. Jackson. Is this a good time to take a break, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. This is a convenient place, yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Before we take a break, there is always brought up 
in the course of these hearings the matter of the jurisdiction of the 
committee. 



4700 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

I am willing to prophesy that in a number of cases during this 
hearing the authority of the jurisdiction of the committee will be 
questioned. I would like to have Mr, Doyle read into the record for 
me the authority and the jurisdiction of the committee. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I think it well that the group here in 
this room or any person hearing the proceedings be reminded that 
this subcommittee is here under Public Law 601, enacted by the 79th 
Congress in 1 946 . I read the text thereof : 

The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, 
character, and objects of Un-American propaganda activities in the United 
States, (2) the diiTusion within the United States of subversive and Un- 
American propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic 
origin and attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by 
our Constitution, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would 
aid Congress in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or 
to the clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attend- 
ance of such witnesses, and the production of such books, papers, and docu- 
ments ; and to take such testimony, as it deems necessary, subpenas may be 
issued under the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcom- 
mittee, or by any member designated by any such chairman, and may be served 
by any person designated by any such chairman or member. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities consists of nine members. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, I haven't spoken to you of this, but as I entered 
the hall here this morning an hour ago, there was handed to me on 
lettersize paper without any official heading thereon, a mimeographed 
sheet entitled, "The Time Has Come." Of course, that is the freedom 
of an American citizen to hand out literature. Thank God it is, 
and I know we will always fight for that freedom of the press and 
freedom of public expression, but as you know, I am a registered 
Democrat. 

Mr. Jackson. I have heard of that. 

Mr. DoTLE. You have heard it said and I am very proud of it. 
But at the bottom of this sheet the only indication of who is respon- 
sible for it is this: "Thirtieth District Young Democrats." 

Now, while I live in Los Angeles County, I am not familiar with 
whether there is such an organization as 30th District Young Demo- 
crats or not, but I think, Mr. Chairman, the public is entitled to know 
whether or not there is such an official group of Young Democrats 
in San Diego County, and if there is who the officers thereof are, and 
I would like to say that I, as a Democrat, would appreciate very much 
if there is such an organized group of San Diego County, that they 
will identify themselves to me during these hearings so we may know 
whether this is just a phony designation by whoever wrote up this 
sheet, or whether or not a really constituted group of young American 
citizens is sponsoring this. Again I say if they are it is their perfect 
right, but I do think that a sheet like this, the public is entitled to 
know who the officers thereof are and whether there is in fact such 
an organization. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4701 

The reason I make that statement is that I as a Democrat would 
appreciate knowing whether or not the Democratic organization is 
really sponsoring that announcement. 

If there is, during the hearings I would like to have that organiza- 
tion identified to me just as a neighbor Democrat of southern 
California. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you, Mr. Doyle. 

That is not to be interpreted as any partisan byplay on the part 
of the committee, because this committee prides itself on the fact that 
our approach to this work must necessarily be bipartisan and non- 
partisan. Those that would like to divide us would like nothing 
better than to insert a wedge between the members of the committee. 
I make this statement as chairman of this subcommittee, and as one 
who has approached his labors on this committee, as have all the 
members of the committee, in the spirit of Public Law 601, and with 
the determination not to be swerved from the duty which has been laid 
on us by the Congress of the United States. 

At this time the committee will stand in recess. 

(Whereupon a short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. Will the witness 
take the chair, please ? 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Taylor, it has been called to my attention that 
the identification card issued to you by the Daily Worker carried 
your name as Dan Forrest Taylor, where your middle name, accord- 
ing to your testimony, is some other name. Will you explain that to 
us? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, that is correct. I began writing in 1933 under 
the name of Dan Forrest Taylor because by father, who was a teacher 
of mathematics at San Diego High School for 25 years had the same 
name as mine, and I didn't wish my writings to be confused with him. 
My father had written 6 mathematics text books which were in use all 
over the United States in public schools, so for that reason I dropped 
the middle name Pomeroy and used Forrest as my pen name, Dan 
Forrest Taylor. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period of time that you were working 
as associate editor of the Trade Union News, did you also do editorial 
work for a paper known as Common Sense ? 

Mr. Taylor. Not at that time. In late 1937 or possibly 1938 the 
Communist Party made me the editor of a biweekly, 8-page paper in 
San Diego entitled "Common Sense," which expired after a few 
months, 6 or 7 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it staffed and financed by the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, it was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your position with it? 

Mr. Taylor. I was the editor. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did it have a business manager or other executive ? 

Mr. Taylor. No, it didn't have. It had a staff of 3 or 4 people who 
helped publish it, and they usually rotated, changed the staff, different 
people sometimes every issue. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, who were asso- 
ciated with that publication, as far as you can recall ? 



']i 



4702 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN" THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Taylor. There was only one I can recall, and that was the 
organizer of the East San Diego unit of the Communist Party, s 
woman named Keckler. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall a person by the name of Orville James 
having been connected with that publication? 

Mr. Taylor, No, Orville James was not connected with the papei fi 
Common Sense to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Orville James ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, he was an excellent artist, did the drawings foi 
the CIO Aircraft News in 1937-39. 

Mr. Tavenner. But he was not connected in any way with Commor 
Sense? 

Mr. Taylor. No. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Do you know whether or not he was a member ol 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, he was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give any further identifying informa- 
tion as to the group that he was a member of or his activities withir 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. I don't know too much about him. He worked ai 
Solar Aircraft and was an artist for the Aircraft News in those earlj 
days. I have no idea what he is doing now. I think he left Sai 
Diego about 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you told the committee upon the com 
pletion of your sojourn in the labor field that you — — 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I just at that point interrupt th( 
witness ? Of course, I don't know Orville James, but I am wondering 
Mr. Chairman, if that is sufficient identification of him as a membe: 
of the Communist Party. For me it is not, if that is all you are goinj 
to get about Orville James. I would feel that the witness ought t( 
identify him more than he has, how he knows he is a member of tht 
Communist Party, or was. 

Mr. Jackson. I think he should, if the witness can, give some infor 
mation relative to Orville James, whether or not you knew him as i 
member of the Communist Party, or whether or not you attendee 
closed sessions of the Communist Party with him, whether he himsel 
identified himself to you as a member of the Communist Party, or jusi 
from what source does your information come. 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, I saw him at closed meetings of the Communipi 
Party, and he on occasions mentioned to me that he was a member 
I knew him as a member. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. That is sufficient. 

Mr. Tavenner. You indicated that after the completion of youi 
work within the field of labor that you became a member of the 
Workers' Alliance. Will you tell the committee what led up to that 
assignment to you ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, I was working for the Federal Writers' Project 
at that time and since my activities had made me known as a Com^ 
munist in San Diego, I was no longer effective in any union field.' 
so I was assigned to work in the Workers' Alliance and to edit their I 
newspaper, which I did for 3 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the newspaper called ? 

Mr. Taylor. The Organizer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4703 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any other experience connected with 
he Workers' Alliance ? 

Mr. Taylor. In 1939 I was made organizer of the professional local 
if the Workers' Alliance which was attempting to bring in white- 
ollar workers, artists, singers, and all the cultural field in which the 
Vorks Progress Administration at that time had many professional 
)eople employed and it was felt a local strictly for them would be 
lore to their liking. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. To what extent was the Communist Party interested 
II the work of the Workers' Alliance ? 

Mr. Taylor. The Communist Party controlled and directed every 
iiove of the Workers' Alliance in San Diego. 

Mr. TA\rENNER. It did what? I didn't understand. 

Mr. Taylor. It directed and controlled it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee how it obtained that 
nich influence within the Workers' Alliance? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, actually the Communist Party was the founder, 
aganizer of the Workers" Alliance. It originally was the Unemployed 
youncil, and it was simply a matter of changing its name. The Work- 
rs' Alliance in open meeting affiliated itself with a national body 
ailed the Workers' Alliance, \Yhich was a Communist front also and 
he majority of the leaders of the Workers' Alliance in San Diego were 
Communist Part}^ members. 

Mr. TA\rENNER. Can you tell the the committee at this time any 
•articular projects or any particular objectives that the Communist 
^uty was able to bring about within the Workers' Alliance? 

]Mr. Taylor. Well, the Workers' Alliance, which was an organiza- 
ion of over a thousand members, I don't remember the number, prob- 
bly between one and two thousand, engaged in various political activi- 
ies. Its work was similar to that of the Unemployed Council's, ex- 
ept that the Workers' Alliance did not admit to being Communist. 
Che Communist leaders in it were advised generally to deny that they 
s^ere Communists to the public, and they did not want, similar to their 
lewspaper, they wanted to give it a non-Communist appearance, and 
hat was the attempt that was made by the W^orkers' Alliance. Their 
ctivities, as I say, were approximately the same as the Unemployed 
council's. They endeavored to get people in the relief and WPA that 
v-ere friendly to the Workers' Alliance. If there were hostile people 
here, why, the Workers' Alliance put on a campaign to have them 
emoved or sent elsewhere. It was a matter of building up the pres- 
ige of the Workers' Alliance with the local authorities of the Works 
Progress Administration and county welfare and relief. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain active in the Workers" 
alliance ? 

Mr. Taylor. Until early in 1940. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, who as members 
if the Communist Party were active in the Avork of the Workers' 
Llliance in addition to yourself ? 

Mr. Taylor. The organizer of the Workers' Alliance was a man 
lamed C. V. Walilenmaier. He was also a member of the county exec- 
itive committee of the Communist Party and was the Communist 
drector for that line of work for that field. The others I mentioned, 
ones and Newsome, they were the principal guiding lights of the 
Vorkers' Alliance. They were the hardest workers in that organiza- 



4704 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

tion, and then, of course, there were other Communists that came and 
went over the years, some for a few months, and others for a year, but 
I don't recall many of their names. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, you have told us of this second group of the 
Communist Party to which you were assigned, and I think that was 
from a period in 1936 on up to the end of your Communist Partj 
activities in San Diego. Was there a third group during that period \ 

Mr. Taylor. There was a third group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before we come to the third group, will you tel] 
the committee, please, who composed this second group? I am told 
you have already given us that testimony. Then let us proceed with 
the third group. 

Mr. Taylor. The third group, that is the third unit of the Com- 
munist Party which I was sent into in 1937, was composed of mud 
the same people as the second group with the addition of Esco Richard 
son, Jen Richardson, and C. V. Wahlenmaier. That is all I can think 
of at the moment. It was a group of 14 to 20 people. It varied. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with a person by the name oJ 
La Verne Lym, L-y-m ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes ; he was also a member of that unit for a year oi 
two. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether he was also on the executive 
committee of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes; he was made a member of the county executive 
committee of the Communist Party in 1938, I believe, when he wa 
appointed People's World director for San Diego County. He was ii 
charge of circulation of the People's World in the city. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you write for that paper during the period o: 
time he was circulation manager, did you say ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. You did ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall his wife as a member of the Commu 
nist Party? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes ; his wife's name was Frances, and she was also { 
member of my unit, Communist unit. 

Mr. Tavenner. During this period of time from 1936 to 1940, whei 
3^ou were a member of the second and third group which you havi 
described, did you hold any office in either of those local groups o: 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes; I was invariably the educational director of m] 
unit in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were your duties as educational director? 

Mr. Taylor. My duties were to give or lead a 1-hour discussion ii 
each week at our unit meeting on some interests of particular impor 
tance at that particular week, some issue that the Communist Part^ 
was interested in, or sometimes the education discussions were on mor( 
theoretical mattei^s, but my job was to give assignments to member 
of my Communist unit to make short reports so as to involve them ir 
tlie discussion, and also to see that the members of my Communist uni 
kept up with their reading. The Communists are supposed to spenc 
a few hours every week reading Communist pamphlets, books, anc 
newspapers, and it is the duty of the educational director of the unii 
to see that they are keeping up with their reading, and particularly 



)ffi 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4705 

that they are not spending any time reading anti-Communist litera- 
ti ue or seeing that they don't even read the regular press. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall that there was an effort made by the 
Communist Party to prevent its membership from reading literature 
or periodicals against the Communist Party? 

Mr. Taylor. Oh, yes ; this was the policy of the Communist Party. 
A member who was caught reading an anti-Communist book would 
find himself in very serious difficulties. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by serious difficulties? 
Mr. Taylor. Well, he could be brought up on charges, charges of 
expulsion, charges of what they call cleviationism. He would find 
himself suspect. They would say, "If you have any time to read, read 
the Communist publications, don't read those that are hostile." And 
they had so many publications put out, they put out so many scores of 
pamphlets each year and dozens of books and scores of magazines, that 
it is almost impossible for the average Communist to even keep up 
with the flood of material that the Communists put out in this country. 
So if they have any time to read, the educational director is sup- 
posed to see, and his county organizer, unit organizer, is supposed to 
see that they read Communist material only. 
Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask this question: Did I understand the Com- 
' munist Party tried to keep the Communist Party members from even 
reading the daily press ? I think I heard you say that. 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. If it was discovered the}' were reading the local 
I press rather than — if they were reading it and ignoring the People's 
World, this was a serious thing, so considered by the Communist 
leadership. It was perfectly all right to read the daily press in San 
Diego or any other daily metropolitan daily press if they read the 
People's World as w^ell. 

Mr. Doyle. What was your experience as educational director, did 
you find many of them that were neglecting the Communist paper in 
favor of the daily press or vice versa ? 

Mr. Taylor. I found that the membership, I would say 100 per- 
cent, subscribed or bought the People's World. This was expected of 
them, and most of them, 95 percent of them, refused to read the metro- 
politan press, of this city. 
Mr. Jackson. That all has a slight odor of book burning. 
Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. About which the Daily Worker and the People's 
World make such a clamor when it concerns any other particular 
philosophy. 

Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period that you were the educational 
director, did you receive any instructions from any particular member 
of the Communist Party on a higher level ? 

_Mr. Taylor. While I was a member of the county executive com- 
mittee, while I was county educational director, did I receive orders 
from higher levels? 
Mr. Ta\t:nner. Yes. 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. I received directives from the State Communist 
Party headquarters in San Francisco at 121 Eighth Street as to 
methods of conducting, methods of holding educationals, and as to 



[: 



4706 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

classes that we held in San Diego. One duty of the county educa- 
tional director was to hold public classes in communism and alliec 
subjects, also to hold private party schools, and I was also in charge 
of mass meetings, rallies, in organizing them, meetings that wen 
held by the Communist Party or by front organizations that we com- 
pletely controlled. 

Mr. Tavenner. What other positions did you hold in the Commu 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. I was manager of International Book Shop in Sar 
Diego for nearly 4 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where was that bookshop located ? 

Mr. Taylor. At 635 E Street. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee about the history of it 
its establishment and its objectives and what part the Communisi 
Party jjlayed in its operations. 

Mr. Taylor. It had been set up, probably in 1933 or 1934, possibly 
1934. It had been set up by the Communist Party under a State licens( 
obtained in the name of the Workers' Club, of San Diego, offices a 
852 Eighth Street. The bookshop was located on the second flooi 
at 852 Eighth Street, and the Communist leadership decided that r 
would be better to have this bookshop on the main floor on the stree" 
where it would attract a larger group of people because generally r 
was only Communists that walked upstairs at 852 Eighth Street 
The others would be afraid of getting kicked downstairs. 

So in 1935, toward the last of the year, the premises at 653 E Street 
at San Diego, were rented by the Workers' Club. The Workers' Clul 
was an underground licensed, legally licensed, organization in Cali 
fornia, licensed under the laws of California. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by referring to it as an under 
ground club ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, in the early, very early 1930's the Communis 
Party wanted to open up headquarters in San Diego but they didn' 
dare do so under the name of the Communist Party, so they incorpo 
rated themselves into an organization called the Workers' Club, whicl 
was simply another name for the Commmiist Party. They were th« 
organization that rented their various Commmiist Party headquarters 
It was a legal organization so it couldn't be outlawed. 

The bookshop in San Diego had a regular yearly license which ii 
paid the State, I think it was $25 a year, which was the bookstore 
license in those days, and the Workers' Club paid that license eacl 
year, but the bookstore itself attempted to have a broader selection o: 
books than just Communist, after it moved to its new location, anc 
generally the books in the window were not of a Comnuniist nature 
in order to attract non-Communists. 

Mr. Tavenner. What about the books on the shelves ? 

Mr. Taylor. About 90 percent of the books on the shelves wer< 
Communist and the rest were innocuous; we had nothing anti-Com- 
munist. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the bookshop used in any way in the plan oJ 
recruiting members into the Connnunibt Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, it was a field for reci'uiting. Wherever the 
Communist Party issued leaflets in Snn Diego, and they distributed 
tens of thousands of leaflets over San Diego each year, the address or 
the leaflets was always 653 E Street, International P>ook Shop, so some 



'■[\i 



COMMUXIST ACTRITIES IX THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4707 

J leople who were curious or interested would come in and buy material 
„r talk with me and the other people. I wasn't the clerk there vei'y 
luch. There were other clerks but I managed the store in the evening, 
[lat is, the business end of it. 

Mr. Tavexnek. Will you tell the committee wl\at other positions you 
leld in the Comnnniist Party in San Diego? Wern't you at one time 
he chairman of the San Diego unit of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. After Paul Alexander left as county 
hairman of the Communist Party, a position which he held for sev- 
ral years, I in 1939 and early 1940 was made chairman of the county 
rganization of the Communist Party, and then following that, in 
(tiid-1940 I was made county organizer after Esco Richardson left, 
^Csco Eicluirdson was the leader of tlie party after Stanley Hancock 
eft in 19;]T. 

Mr. Tavexxek. Now. as liead of the Communist Party in San Diego, 
LOW did you receive your directives from the Connnunist Party as to 
he course that you sliould folh^w^ 

Mr. Taylor. The directive, the leadership of the Communist Party 
vas, of course, undertaken by tlie county executive committee, a body 
f () to 8 people, the most active, well-read, well-versed Communists 
n the county, but at that time in 1940 and also in late 1939, the State 
f California sent an underground organizer to San Diego to more or 
ess guide it, to be the actual boss of the Communist Party. He was 
lot k'uown publicly. He was a very secret individual; he was com- 
)letely unknown to the autliorities, the police, but he gave the prin- 
ipal orders and directives to the Communist Party. 
Mr. Tavexxer. Who was that individual ? 

Mr. Tayi.or. That man's name was Leech, Bert Leech. He was 

ent to San Diego on the payroll of the Communist Party at San Fran- 

isco, and he was the actual boss of the Ccmimunist Party in 1940, 

although I Avas known as the leader of the party, and he gave, of course, 

nany orders to me. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Did he use any form of emploj'ment or have occa- 
lion to conceal his true identity? 
Mr. Taylor. I don't remember whether he worked, or if he worked, 
am not familiar with that. 

Mr. Jacksox. Mr. Counsel, not to anticipate 3'our questions, but as 
oimt}' organizer. Mi-. Ta3dor, you must have been in a position to 
mow the number of branches which were then operating in the 
ounty. Can you give us an estimate as to that mnnber ? 

Mr. Taylor. It varied between 12 and 18 units or branches of the 
IJonnnunist Paity in San Diego County. I believe it was 12 in 1940. 
The membership was falling every year from 1935 to 1940. The 
nembership was constantly declining in the Communist Party and a 
unnber of branches were declining. 
Mr. Jacksox. What was the reason for that decline? 
Mr. Taylor. Well, the fact that the people were better off economi- 
cally, the country was pulling out of the de])ression, and Communists, 
is a rule, do not remain very long in the party because they soon realize 
hat it is an un-American organization ancl that it is two faced com- 
pletely; that it will say nice things on the surface, that is, make 
promises to people for many fine goals and then the members discover 
hat the Communist Partv is not sincere and does not actuallv believe 



4708 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 



tro 



in the program that it spreads among the people in order to fool tht 
people. 

Mr. Jackson. Could you give us any estimate as to the numbei 
of members or the total membership as of the period in question wher 
you say there were 12 to 18 branches in operation; what would tha 
have constituted in point of numbers? 

Mr, Taylor. I ]iever saw the membership books of the Communis" 
Party. In fact, the members of the county membership director wer< 
never even supposed to show them to the county executive committee 
They never let their left hand know what their right hand was doing 
They kept that membership as secret as possible. I was told whei 
I joined in 1935 there were 300 or 400 members. The membershij 
director said to me at one time when I inquired as to how many there 
were, she said 300 or 400 members. 

Mr. Jackson. Who was the membership director? 

Mr. Taylor. Mrs. Keckler at that time, I believe. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, I don't understand your observatior 
wherein you say that Communist Party members don't stay in vei'j 
long. You stayed in about 6 years before you got your eyes open 
That is a long time in my book. Why did you stay in so long? 

Mr. Taylor, I became known within a year or two, say the firsi 
year and a half, I became known to the San Diego press as a Com 
munist, my name began appearing in the newspapers quite often, anc 
I had gotten myself out on a limb. I wasn't able to obtain employ 
ment in San Diego without — I mean, no one wanted to employ a knowi 
Communist, so it was a matter of simply drifting, you might say 
that is, I remained a member, although each year I began to realize 
more and more that it was a very diabolical organization. 

Mr. Doyle. When did you first begin to realize it was a very dia 
bolical organization ? 

Mr. Taylor. It began dawning on me in 1938. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you were 3 years old then in the Com 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at any time become a member of the State 
central committee of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Our investigation shows that that occurred in 1940; 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee how membership in the|l 
State central committee was obtained by you ? 

Mr. Taylor. Tlie Conununist Party did not have elections for their 
leaders. The members of the executive committee of the Communist 
Party of San Diego were always co-oped. This means that the top|a 
leadership selects likely active Comnninists to leadership without any 
vote of the memfeership or without any vote of the Communist group. 
The members of the State central committee of the Communist Party 
are selected in the same way. The San Diego Communist member- 
ship was never asked to choose its State lenders. The State leader- 
ship selected them and I was selected in 1040 by the State leadership i 
in San Francisco to be on that committee, the State central committee 



ii 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4709 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your func- 
ions were as a member of that committee ? 
f Mr. Taylor. I was supposed to attend meetings of the State cen- 
ral committee at least once every other month and to carry directives 
rom the State leadership to the county leadership in San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right; if you will proceed, if there is anything 
Ise about your work on the State central committee. 

Mr. Taylor. Well, of course, we generally have to make a report 
the meetings of the State central committee of Communist Party 
s to activities in San Diego, and I was often questioned as to suc- 
esses or failures of the party in San Diego. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, in addition to the regular work of the State 

n entral committee, was it necessary to have certain legally named 

lersons recorded at Sacramento under the laws of the State of Cali- 

ornia as members who may be in fact different from the actual meiii- 

ers of the State central committee ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, that is correct. Any legal political organiza- 
ion must file with the registrar a list of their members of the State 
ommittee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you. know whether in filing those lists the Com- 
lunist Party always reported for recording purposes the true names 
f the members of the State central committee ? 

Mr. Taylor. The names that were filed in Sacramento with the 
tate registrar, is that it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. State secretary, I believe. 

Mr. Taylor. State secretary. These were not necessarily the names 
f the Communist State leadership. This was more of a dummy com- 
littee. They did not want the true State leaders known, so actual- 
7 there were two State committees of the Communist Party in Cali- 
ornia. One was actually a fraudulent committee, dummy commit- 
ees, whose names were sent to Sacramento, and then there was the 
rue committee which held the reins of leadership which met in San 
rancisco. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, you were a member of the true committee in 
940, were you not? 

Mr. Taylor. I was a member of both committees. 

Mr. Ta%'enner. AVhy was it that your name was used on this f raudu- 
nt group that you speak of, or the dummy committee which was 
iven to the Secretary of State ? 

Mr. Taylor. It was necessary to have Communist registered voters 
n that State committee which were registered at Sacramento and 
here were only a few Communists in San Diego, only a half dozen, 

believe, who registered Communist at the courthouse, so naturally 
liose names had to be used with the State registrar in Sacramento. 

Mr. Tavenner. So in your case, for instance, it was publicly known 
lat you were a member of the Communist Party, and therefore your 
ame would be on both groups, both the one that was registered with 
le Secretary of State as well as the active membership of the com- 
littee? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, the Communist Party ordered me in late 1937 
r early 1938 to register Communist at the courthouse in San Diego,, 
or the reasons that they needed, there had to be, they said, a certain 
umber of registered Communists in order for the Communist Party 
stay on the ballot, and they made sure in every county that there 



4710 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

were half a dozen or more people registered as Communists. Other- 
wise, if there were no one registered as Communist, the Communisl 
Party would be thrown off the ballot. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I hand you a photostatic copy of the lisl 
of Communist Party members of the State central committee oj 
September 19, 1940, which, Mr. Chairman, the committee obtainec 
through a subpena duces tecum, and I will ask you to examine the lisl 
and state whetlier or not your name appears as one of the members 
Will you look at the back page? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you identify any persons from San Diegc 
who were members of the State central committee for that yeai 
whose names do not appear on the official list registered with the Sec- 
retary of State ? I can simply file the matter — — 

Mr. Taylor. I believe I understand your question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to find out if there were any persons wh( 
were members of the actual committee whose names were not reportec 
publicly to the Secretary of State as required by law ? 

Mr. Taylor. Throughout the State of California ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes ; if you know of any members of that committeei 

Mr. Taylor. I see one name missing here. The head of the Stat( 
Communist organization in California and the leader of the Stati 
central committee's name isn't on the members registered with the Sec 
retary of State. His name was William Schneiderman. His nami 
isn't there. No, it is here. My mistake. William SchneidermaD 
Then there was a Betty Gannett. Betty Gannett's name is not here 
She was the second most important Communist leader in California 

Mr. Tavenner, Mr. Chairman, we have gone through the alpha 
betical list, and just as an aid and to save time, we have listed thos 
in that document whose addresses are given as San Diego, Calif 
and I w'ill read them for the benefit of the witness. 

Clair Aderer, Mellisse Gragg, La Verne Lym, Esco Richardsoi 
Dan Taylor : All with the address of San Diego. 

Now, were all of those persons members of the actual functionin; 
committee or were some of them the names just used for the fraudulen 
purposes you mentioned earlier in your testimony ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. The only two of those names you read, the onl; 
two that were on the actual State central committee were Esco Rich 
ardson and myself, and this other name which you mentioned, Mel 
lisse Gragg, was not a member of the Connnunist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Not a member ? 

Mr. Taylor. Not a member. Could I interpolate a statement here 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Taylor. I would like to say that proves to me, although '. 
didn't know this, that proves to me that the trick the Communist: 
played in Los Angeles about the same time was putting the nami 
of Lucille Ball on this Communist committee, and I believe LucilL 
Ball was never a Communist, but her name appeared on this, isn' 
that right? 

Mr. Tavenner. That is true, 

Mr. Taylor. I knew Mellisse Gragg personally. She was a ven 
nice little old lady about 70 years old at that time and she was no 
a member of the Communist Party, and her name appears here, whicl 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4711 

s proof to me that Lucille Ball's name was put there, although she 
rt'as probably not a Communist. 

Mr. Tavenner. La Verne Lym, that name appears there. Was 
hat person known to you as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes ; he was the People's World director. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquainted with Clair Aderer? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that person a member of the Communist Party 
:o your knowledge ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes ; she was a rank-and-file member. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any members of the actual functioning 
committee whose names do not appear in the list for 1940 that were 
filed with the secretary of state ? 

Mr. Taylor. In San Diego ? 

Mr. Tavenner. In San Diego. 

Mr. Taylor. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and 
isk that it be marked "Taylor exhibit No. 1," Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. It will be admitted. 

(The document above referred to was marked "Taylor Exhibit 
No. 1" for identification and received in evidence.)^ 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, we have also produced under sub- 
poua duces tecum, similar records for the years 1934, 1936, and 1942, 
which I would like to have introduced into evidence and ask they be 
marked "Taylor exhibits Nos. 2, 3, and 4." 

Mr. Jackson. They will be admitted. 

(The documents above referred to were marked "Taylor Exhibits 
Nos. 2, 3, and 4" for identification and received in evidence.)^ 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, for the sake of saving time, rather 
than to have the witness search out these names alphabetically in 
the list, the staff has prepared a list from these records of persons 
with addresses at San Diego who were reported to the secretary of 
tate for the years 1934, 1936, and 1942. I believe they should be 
read into the record. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. For the sake of clarity. 

Mr. Doyle. Reported to the secretary of state as the State commit- 
tee of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of record in the State at Sacramento. 

As I read these names, Mr. Taylor, I wish you would state whether 
or not they are known to you personally, from your own personal 
knowledge, to have been members of the Communist Party. 

There may be others here, as in the instance of the person you 
mentioned a few months ago, Miss or Mrs. Gragg, who may not have 
been members of the party. 

Robert S. Anguis. This is for the year 1934. 

Mr. Taylor. I did not know the man. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were not a member of tlie Communist Party 
|inl934? 

Mr. Taylor. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at any later time acquire any knowledge, 
personal knowledge, regarding Robert S. Anguis ? 



* Retained in committee files. 



4712 COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Taylor. How do you spell that name ? 

Mr. Tavenner. A-n-g-u-i-s. 

Mr. Taylor. I never heard the name until this minute. 

Mr. Tavenner. Forest Beyrer. 

Mr. Tayix^r. I knew Forest Beyrer as a Communist. He quit t > 
Communist Party shortly after I entered it. 

Mr. Tavenner. William H. Bradley, 4127 Marlborough, San Die- • 
Calif. 

Mr. Taylor. I can't place any such person. 

Mr. Tavenner. William O. Grady, 3646 45th Street, San Diego 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. Is that Brady or Grady? 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Grady, G-r-a-d-y. 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, there was a carpenter named Bill Grady in the 
Communist Party in 1934 and part of 1935. He dropped out about 
the time I entered. 

Mr. Tavenner. Xathaniel Griffin, 4056 8th Avenue. 

Mr. Taylor. Nathaniel Griffin dropped out of the Communist Parry 
before I entered. At least that is what he told me, and I believe it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Stanley B. Hancock has already been identified by 
you. Claude L. Jones, J-o-n-e-s, Route 1, Box 83. 

Mr. Taylor. Claude Jones was also a carpenter and he told me that 
he dropped out of tlie Communist Party just before I entered it. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have identified Bessie A. Keckler. 

Mr. Tayi.or. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Roy W. Noel, N-o-e-1, no address other than San 
Diego. 



a 



la 



in 



M 



Mr. TAYI.0R. I knew Rov Noel, but never in the Communist Party. 
He might have dropped out before I joined it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Everett O. Still, S-t-i-1-1, 2637 K Street, San Diego. 

Mr. Taylor. I knew Everett Still personally as a member when^' 
I was in the Communist Party. He dropped out in late 1935.. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dorothy Thayer, T-h-a-y-e-r, 3541 Marlborough, 
San Diego. 

Mr. Taylor. I never have heard of the name until now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Robert Thayer, same address. 

Mr. Taylor, No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, that completes the names on the 1934 list, 

1936 : Edna Mae Eby, E-b-y, 233 Lincoln Avenue. 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. El Cahone. 

Mr. Tayloi'l. Yes, I knew that person in the Communist Party. 
That person dropped out early in 1938. 

Mr. Tavenner. Stanley Hancock appears again. Bessie A. Keckler 
appears again. 

Lacey Kyle, K-y-l-e, Route 1, National City, Calif. 

Mr. Taylor. I knew Lacey Kyle as a customer of the International 
Book Sliop, but I never saw Lacey Kyle at a Communist meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Therefore you cannot tell the committee that he 
was a member of the Communist Party to your knowledge. 

Mr. Taylor. No. 

;Mr. Tavenner. Esco L. Richardson, 414 West 16th Street, National f«r 
^ity. 

Mr. Taylor. Yes ; he was a member of my Counnuuist unit for quite 
some time. 



M 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4713 

Mr. Tavenner. Henry E. Sliriim, S-h-r-u-m. 

Mr. Taylor. I knew Henry Shrnm as a sympathizer of the Com- 
lunist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me make this suggestion : Unless you are cer- 
ain in your own mind, unless you can positively identify the witness 
s a person known to you to have been a member of the Communist 
*arty, I believe that you should not make statements that might be 
iterpreted one way or another, if you understand what I mean. 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. May the Chair interpose a question. 

It is true, is it not, that the names that are now being read were 
ertified to the secretary of state of the State of California in accord- 
nce with the Electoral Code as members of the Communist Party 
nd so appeared in public records ? 

Mr. Tavenner, That is correct; and I overlooked that fact. 

Mr. Taylor. They must have been registered Communists at the 
ourthouse or they couldn't be on the list. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. Everett O. Still, the same name that was 
lentioned in 1934. 

Herbert Stredwick, S-t-r-e-d-w-i-c-k, route 2, box 483, San Diego. 

Mr. Taylor. I didn't know liim as a Communist Party member. 

Mr. Taa^nner. I have read to you the list for 1940. In 1942 there 
ppears only one name, Matthew S. Vidaver, V-i-d-a-v-e-r, 3026 45th 
treet, San Diego. You were not here in the Communist Party at 
tiat time, but have you ever known him as a member of the Com- 
mnist Party ? At that time ? 

Mr. Taylor. No ; I never heard of him. 

Mr. Jackson. I think during this interlude that the Lucille Ball 
latter should be more clearly put in the record. I believe Miss Ball 
ad knowledge of registration in the Communist Party, but denied 
ny activity or of having attended any party functions during the 
eriod of time she was registered. We should get that matter very 
efinitely in the record. 

Mr. Taylor. Might I say that because a person registers at the 
ourthouse as a Democrat or Republican, it doesn't mean they beloni^ 
r are dues-paying members of either organization. 

Mr. Jackson. That is very true. However, the fact of the regis- 

ation is a matter of public record and was so acknowledged to be. 
Fo connotation should be drawn as to whether or not she took part 
1 any activity whatever. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I ask this question, in view of that 
bservation. You referred to the major political parties. What is 
our experience, if any, as to whether or not people who registered 
Is Communists in California during your membership therein, were 
ctive members of the Communist Party? In other words, would 
eople register or did they register as Communists unless in fact 
ley were as a rule Communists? 

Mr. Taylor. Sometimes they would register Communist but not 
e active in any way in the Communist Party ; in no way at all, as in 
le case of Mellisse Gragg. She was never active in the Communist 
•arty, although she was registered Communist, and her name appears . 
n the State central committee registered at Sacramento. 

]\Ir. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 



4714 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Taatenner. Will you tell the committee, please, whether o 
not there was a group or cell of the Communist Party within Scripp 
Institution of Oceanography? 

Mr. Taylor. I believe it was in 1940 when Esco Richardson aske- 
me to do a chore for him. He asked me if I would go out and delive 
an educational lecture to a Communist Party group at Scripps Insti 
tution of Oceanography and I told him I would. I hadn't known o 
the existence of any such group there, but I went out to the meetin 
and delivered a lecture for about 45 minutes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many persons attended that meeting? 

Mr. Taylor. There were probably 10 or 11 in all. I am not to 
certain. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where was the meeting held ? 

Mr. Taylor. It was held in one of the cottages on the grounds o 
the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you see anyone at the meeting you had evei 
met before ? 

Mr. Taylor. Only one. That was Paul Alexander. 

Mr. Tavenner. Paul Alexander ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, do you know the reason for Paul Alexander 
being at the meeting ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, he was assigned — I learned from him that h 
had been assigned to lead and guide and direct this group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that a highly secret matter ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes; it was. In fact, Paul Alexander felt that 
shouldn't even have been let in on the secret. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you know that ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, from what he said. He said that he expecte 
Richardson and he thought Richardson should have been a little moi 
secretive, and he didn't want more people to know about this. 

Mr. Tavenner. At this particular time did you hold any positio 
in the Communist Party yourself? 

Mr. Taylor. I was county educational director. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you as county educational director did nc 
know of the existence of this group ? 

Mr. Taylor. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position in the Communist Party did Rici' 
ardson hold at that time? 

Mr. Taylor. He was the county organizer and Paul Alexander wa 
the chairman, the county chairman. This might have been in lat 
1 939. I am not too positive as to the date. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you given the names of any of the person 
present at that meeting while you were there ? 

Mr. Taylor. No; I don't believe any names were mentioned at all 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you introduced to any of the members? 

Mr. Taylor. Possibly, yes ; first names. Bill, Bob, or Paul, like thai 
I don't even remember any of the first names. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did it appear to be a group of students or wa 
it a group of persons older than students, who would normally have 
some connection with the school in an official way? 

Mr. Taylor. They seemed to be representative of an official capac 
ity. They were older than students. They were generally in thei] 
middle twenties. I understood, I was told they were associate instruc 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4715 

tors or part of the personnel. They were part of the personnel of 
Scripps Institute living on the grounds. I don't know what they would 
be called. 

Mr. DoYi^E. Mr. Chairman, may I ask at this point, I want to sug- 
gest to the witness that he be very, very sure now in his testimony 
of who he refers to and what he knows for himself, and what he 
knows by hearsay involving this institution. I would like to question 
him on just one or two points. 

I think you said just a minute ago that they were representatives 
of the institution. Now, that might lead, Mr. Witness, to a pretty 
strong inference that they were there in an official capacity. You 
don't mean that ; do you ? 

Mr. Taylor. No. It might have been a poor choice of words. They 
all said, they all told me where they lived. They lived on the grounds 
of the Scripps Institute, and that they worked there. 

Mr. Doyle. They all told you that ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. Not the women, some of the wives didn't work 
there. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, it was in a private cottage; as far as you know 
it was in a residence ; wasn't it ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Was it at night? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. And Paul Alexander told you it was a group from 
Scripps? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes; a group of resident people; I don't remember 
the terms used. I don't remember just what capacity they had. 

Mr. Doyle. You don't remember just what he told you? 

Mr. Taylor. No ; I am trying to recollect, but I am afraid I can't. 

Mr. Doyle, Mr. Chairman, the reason I took occasion to ask these 
questions, it manifestly involves a public institution more or less, 
and I wanted to be sure the witness was aware of the fact that people 
would rely on the language you use, Mr. Witness, in connection with 
this incident at Scripps that you were there and the occasion. 

That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many did you say were in attendance? 

Mr. Taylor. Well around 10, 1 should say, 10 or maybe 11. 

Mr. Tavenner. You spoke of it being a mixed group of men and 
women. 

Mr. Taylor. It was about 14 years ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Taylor. I don't remember how many women were there, maybe 
2 or 3, possibly 2 or 3. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether any of the group were hus- 
bands and wives ? 

Mr. Taylor. I think they all were. The women were married to 
the men there. I mean the individuals there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you invited back on any further occasion ? 

Mr. Taylor. No ; I was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. But Mr. Paul Alexander had the assignment of 
developing this group ? 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 



4716 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I don't know whether we should go 
into another matter now or whether Ave are close enough to an adjourn- 
ing period and you wnsh to adjourn. 

Mr. Jackson. At this time the subcommittee will stand in recess 
until 1 : 30 and the room will please be cleared. 

(Whereupon at 12 : 05 p. m., a recess was taken until 1 : 30 p. m. of 
the same clay, Monday, April 19, 1954.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(The subcommittee reconvened, pursuant to recess, at 1:30 p. m., 
Congressmen Donald L. Jackson and Clyde Doyle being present. ) 
Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. 
Do you wish to recall Mr. Taylor ? 
Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Taylor. 

TESTIMONY OF DANIEL POMEROY TAYLOR— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Taylor, you told us this morning that one of 
your assignments in the Communist Party was to engage in the work 
of the Young Communist League. 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee about that assignment, 
tliat is, what the nature of it was and what your activities were. 

Mr. Taylor. In 1935 there were two units of a Young Communist 
League and I was assigned to one of them. The leaders were Mrs. 
Hancock, that is Mrs. Winnie Hancock, the wife of Stanley Hancock, 
and Ray Berquist. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the last name ? 

Mr. Taylor. B-e-r-q-u-i-s-t, and Bob Feller, F-e-1-l-e-r, and they 
were supposed to concentrate on San Diego State College in an attempt 
to organize a branch of the American Student Union and from there 
to recruit college students into the Young Communist League. 

Mr, Tavenner, Was that work undertaken ? 

Mr. Taylor. They were not very effective at San Diego State Col- 
lege and I don't believe they ever had much success in those depression 
years at San Diego State College, none that I can recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there any further information regarding the 
activities of the Young Communist League that you can now give the 
committee ? 

Mr, Taylor. The Young Communist League in San Diego was a 
very small organization. I doubt if they had more than 14 or 15 mem- 
bers, and they were losing members quite fast. It was quite an un- 
stable organization and there were periods in which it would fold up 
completely. I know it was not very — there were many months in 
1936 when it completely fell apart, then they attempted to organize 
it again in 1937, but it did not make much headway. 

Mr, Tavenner, During the course of the testimony you have given 
us the names of quite a number of persons who have been identified 
with the Communist Party in this area, either as officials of the 
Communist Party or representatives on the State central committee 
and rank and file members of your particular groups of the Communist 
Party, However, you told us there were anywhere from 12 to 18 
different groups of the Communist Party here. 



)f 



?a 



Hi 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4717 

"\^Tiat opportunity did you have to meet members of these other 
groups, that is, groups that you were not a member of ? 

Mr. Taylor. I was expected to visit several of the other groups at 
east once or twice a year to observe how they were functioning and 
lelp them in their educational work. Of course I didn't — there must 
lave been some that I didn't go to. The industrial section of the 

ommunist Party at San Diego which I was out of touch with in 1938, 

was never invited there to speak because many of the Communists 
vho were employed in industry wanted to have as few visitors as pos- 
ible outside their group. They were always afraid of detection so 
here were probably 5 or 6 — I believe 5 or 6 units of the Communist 
Party that I would visit once or twice a year. 

There was an East San Diego Communist Party, a National City 
mit of the Communist Party, a Logan Heights Communist Party. 
They had one in Encinitas and one in Pacific Beach. And, of course, 
he one in downtown San Diego was the unit which I belonged to. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Will you give the committee the names of any other 
)ersons who can be recalled by you, that is, persons known to jou 
o have been members of the Communist Party and not already identi- 
led by you. 

Mr. Taylor. I mentioned the most that I can think of offhand. 

Mr. Jacksox. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Can j'ou recall any others ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, I recall only one at this time, one James ]McDer- 
Qott, of La Mesa. He was a member of the Communist Party for 
everal 3'ears and one of the leaders of the La Mesa unit of the Com- 
Qunist Party. He broke with the Communist Party about late 1928. 

Mr. Ta\t:xxer. Are you acquainted with a person bv the name of 
:arlCallendar? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. TA^^:xxER. What were the circumstances under which you 
lecame acquainted with him ? 

Mr. Taylor. Carl Callendar was a customer on a few occasions at 
he International Book Shoj). He would probably drop in once 

month, he would talk and purchase a few pamphlets, and he was 
ecruited into the Communist Party early sometime in 1936, as I 
emember, late 1936 or early 1937, but as I remember he did not 
emain ven' long at that time and dropped out because of reasons 
i bad health. 

Mr. Ta\-exxer. Were vou acquainted with a person by the name 
fDelgado? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Ta\t:xxer. "Wliat was his first name ? 

Mr. Taylor. Mike Delgado, he was the unit organizer of the 
National City unit of the Communist Party. 

Mr. TA^'EXXER. You have mentioned in the course of your testi- 
lony several times a Communist Party member by the name of Paul 
Jexander. 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Ta\texxer. In what business was Mr. Alexander engaged, do 
ou know ? 

Mr. Taylor. No. His health wasn't, I believe, good enough for him 

work too steadily. No, I don't know what occupation he had. 



4718 COMMUNIST activities in the state of CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, how money 
was raised for the purpose of carrying on the expenses of the Com- 
munist Party in this area. Do you have any personal knowledge of 
that? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, the Communist Party had a number of financial 
contributors of business people who may have been close to the So- 
cialist Party back in earlier days, anywhere from 1910 through the 
1920's. When the Socialist Party dropped out of activity in San 
Diego, the Communist Party went to work trying to raise money from 
these people who had formerly been sympathetic to the Socialist 
Party. There was a vacuum there in the absence of the Socialist 
Party and the pressure of the Communists on these people, some oi 
them having successful businesses, and they would attempt to ast 
them for monthly donations. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were substantial contributions made from those 
sources ? 

Mr. Taylor. Of course I have no knowledge of how much wa? 
raised because I was not too closely connected with the financial ends 

Mr. Tavenner. It was not one of your duties to solicit for sucl 
contributions ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, for a few months I was given a list of small 
business people to go around once a month and ask them for $10 each 
but that was just for a short period. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many persons did you have on that list wh< 
were contributing as much as $10 a month? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, the Communist Party in, I would say, 194C 
gave me a list of 7 or 8 small stores on Fifth Street between Marke 
and E, and these people, the owners of these stores were generall; 
refugees from Russia, people who I think most of them had left Russi; 
as young men, boys in their teens, and wherever the Communist Part; 
discovered that a businessman in San Diego had a Russian back 
ground and was born in Russia, they would go to him and talk to hir 
and say they would like a monthly contribution to the Communis 
Party, and even though the man might not have been sympathetic a 
all, he felt that perhaps he had better contribute five or ten dollar 
rather than suffer any possible consequences. It was more or less 
case of intimidation. 

Mr. Ta"\^nner. I wonder, Mr. Chairman, if we had better proceed 
in executive session for the further consideration of that matter. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, I think so. 

Mr. Taylor. This, as I say, happened in 1940 and it was just for 
few months; I hadn't laid any groundwork, I didn't know the me; 
personally, but I was given a card which said, which entitled mysel 
to collect funds for the Communist Party and it seemed that man^ 
of these people told me that they certainly didn't agree with what wa 
going on in Russia, but they would usually say, "Well, I made a pledg 
that I would help, so here is $10." They weren't a bit happy about ii 
I wasn't either, to tell you the truth, but it was an assignment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of any other assignments that wer 
given by the Communist Party which related to the raising of fundi 
substantial funds, for the use of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, not too much. I know there was a circle o 
sympathizers, nonparty sympathizers, whom I knew — whom I hearc 
rather, from other Communist leaders. 



I'C 



msi 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4719 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I expect your testimony there is probably 

] ';i tsay when you say, "I heard." 
Mv. Taylor. Yes. I heard it in meetings of the Communist execu- 

ue committee. 

Mv. Tavenner. But did you have any personal knowledge by way 
• conversation with Mr. Paul Alexander of any assignment that he 
id with regard to the procurement of funds for use by the Com- 
unist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, I recall one case of an elderly gentleman who 
is not a Communist, but had been a Socialist sympathizer at least 
ck before World War I, and this man, Henry Weihe, W-e-i-h-e, had 
>ught $10,000 worth of Soviet gold bonds right after the Russian 
volution, I don't know how long after, probably in 1920 or 1921, 
d Paul Alexander told me that he had been assigned by the Com- 
unist Party to try to convince Mr. Weihe to donate, to make a dona- 
)n of that $10,000 back to the Communist Party rather than give it 
any of his heirs. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he an elderly person; that is, Mr. Weihe? 
Mr. Taylor. Yes ; I think he was over 65 at that time, as I remember. 
ight around 65 in 1939, when I first heard of this. 
Mr. Tavenner. Wliat were the circumstances under which Mr. Alex- 

^ der told you of this ? 
Mr. Taylor. Well, I simply noticed that the two men, Alexander 
id Weihe, seemed to be inseparable companions. They came to the 
ternational Book Store together and they went to social functions, 
cial parties, and house parties and open Communist meetings to- 
ther and I asked Paul Alexander how it happened that he was 
sorting Weihe about so much. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where that conversation took place? 
Mr. Taylor. Yes ; in the book store at 635 Eighth Street. 
Mr. Tavenner. Did I understand you to say that that was during 

Jie year 1939? 
Mr. Taylor. I believe it was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not the two traveled in 
ar together; that is, Mr. AVeihe and Mr. Alexander? 
Mr. Taylor. Yes ; I generally saw them in Alexander's car, and he 
,d a Ford coupe, I believe. Mr. Weihe didn't have a car. 
Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether in your conversation with 
Alexander about this matter that the attitude of the Eussian 
)vernment about paying the bonds was discussed ? 
Mr. Taylor. Yes; Alexander said that the Soviet Union would 
ther that this money, this $10,000, went into the coffers of the Com- 
inist Party, rather than have it paid to any of Henry Weihe's heirs. 
Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any conversation with Mr. Alexander 
any later date as to whether or not he had been successful in getting 
is $10,000 from Mr. Weihe for Communist Party purposes? 
Mr. Taylor. No; I never discussed it with him again. In fact, I 
't the Communist Party in San Diego in May 1941, and I never saw 

?r m. since until this morning in this hall. 
Mr. Tavenner. I believe you told us in the early part of your testi- 
my that you went to Los Angeles in 1940. 
Mr. Taylor. 1941. 



if 



4720 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. 1941. Did you retain your Communist Party mem | 
bership after going to Los Angeles ? J 

Mr. Taylor. Yes, I did. »« 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period of time ? '« 

Mr. Taylor. Approximately 7 months. c 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attain any position in the Communist Part^ lo 
in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Taylor. When I went to Los Angeles, I dropped in one evening 
to the workers' school, which was then located at Second and Sprinj 
Streets, I believe, in Los Angeles, and I was asked by the head of th 
workers' school if I would accept the job as an associate instructor 

Mr. Tavenner. And did you accept it ? 

Mr. Taylor. I said I was busy, and the head of the workers' schoo 
must have checked and found that I wasn't very busy, and I wa 
ordered to teach a class. 

Mr. Tavenner. And how long did you engage in that work ? 

Mr. Taylor. For 4 or 5 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, the circum 
stances under which you left the Communist Party ? And by that 
mean why you left and how you managed to get out of the party. 

Mr. Taylor. In November 1941, the head of the workers' school i; 
Los Angeles came out to a meeting of the industrial section leadershij 
of which I was then a member. As I mentioned, I obtained a job a 
Vimcar Steel and was put into an industrial section of the Communis 
Party and was selected as one of the industrial section leaders. 

The head of the workers' school came to the meeting of this indus 
trial section of approximately 15 or 16 Communists, they were th 
leadership of several Communist industrial units, and to everyone 
surprise she asked for my expulsion from the Communist Party o 
the grounds that it was her opinion I was no longer a Communis 
that I didn't agree with the Communist Party, and she considere 
that I shouldn't be in the Communist Party. It boiled down to th 
fact they had grown suspicious of me. To ^ive a brief explanatio 
of what caused that, it was discovered early m that same year whi] 
I was in San Diego, it was discovered that the FBI was obtainin 
information from the county Communist leadership and everybod 
was suspecting everybody else, so I fell under the most suspicion, an 
that was one of the reasons why I was asked in April 1941 by the Con 
munist Party leadership — they said that I had been transferred t 
San Francisco, that I was to work in San Francisco, and I said I woul 
rather, if I had to leave, I would rather go to Los Angeles, and so 
left and went to Los Angeles, and Communists, of course, are nc 
supposed to dispute orders, they are supposed to go where they sen'||i'l 
you 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean you were required to give up your posi 
tion ? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. And your employment here? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. And go and do the work of the party in some ot 
place? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, I was on the Communist Party payroll. 

Mr. Tavenner. At that time? 



to 



COMMUNIST ACTI^^ITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4721 

Mr. Taylor. At that time, in late 1940 and early 1941. But instead 
f going to San Francisco I went to Los Angeles and obtained employ- 
lent at Vimcar Steel, hoping that I could drop out of the Communist 
*arty, but there were Communists in the plant, and I was again sur- 
ounded by Communists. It was then that they asked me to come 
own to the workers' school, and there I was asked to teach a class. 

I apparently wasn't ready to make a sharp break at that time, and 

didn't make a complete break until November of 1941, when the 
ommunist Party brought charges of expulsion against me. 

At this particular meeting the head of the workers' school was un- 
iccessful, because the majority of the Communists at this meeting 
lid they didn't think any evidence had been brought against me, that 
ley didn't think I should be expelled, so the following week the same 
ead of the workers' school came back and asked that I be relieved 
f the membership in the State central committee and be relieved of 
11 Communist leadership for a period of 1 year, at which time I broke 
)mpletely, that is, I moved my place of residence and I changed my 
jcupation, and from then on avoided contact with the Communist 
arty and broke completely. 

Mr. Tavenner. The charges for which you were dropped related 

the suspicion that you had given information to the Federal Bureau 
f Investigation? 

Mr. Taylor. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner, Did I understand that correctly? 

Mr. Taylor. I believe that had something to do with it. I wish 
lose charges had been correct. At that time I was not in contact 
ith any Government agency. But I should have been. 
Mr. Tavenner. You have been to a Government agency since that 
me, have you not ? 

Mr. Taylor. I was threatened in 1942 by a man who is the head of 
e San Pedro Communist Party, I was threatened, he said, "You 
ive been doing a lot of talking on this job against communism 
nongst liberals and amongst the men here, and I just want to warn 
m," he said, "that if you go to the FBI, we are going to make it 
ugh for you," so with such a challenge, I went to the FBI. 
Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was that individual ? 

Mr. Taylor. I haven't thought of his name for years. Joseph 
)lomon. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give any further identifying information 
lating to him ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, he was raised in San Diego, although he was 
ring in San Pedro at the time. He went through San Diego High 
jhool and graduated and he worked in San Diego until approxi- 
ately 1939, early 1939, when he went to Los Angeles and took up 
sidence. 

Mr. Jackson. In what work was he engaged at that time ? 
Mr. Taylor. He was working as a welder in the shipyards, Todd 
lipyards. Not a welder; a burner, a burner in Todd Shipyards. 
Mr. Tavenner. Have you been affiliated or connected in any way 
ith Communist Party activity since the date of your breaking with 
e Communist Party ? 
- Mr. Taylor. No, I have not. 



4722 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Tavenner. Has any effort been made to get you to return to tl 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. No, there has not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think I have no further question 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Mr. Chairman, may I ask counsel a questio 
please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. DorLE. What is the fact whether or not this witness has nam( 
any individual, more than one or one, as a Communist and identifi( 
them as such for the first time those persons have been named in pu 
lie? Are there such persons who have been named today for tl 
first time in public ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, all of the individuals mentioned by hii 
with the exception of certain leaders, like Schneiderman and a fe 
others have been named for the first time in public session. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, then I think it very appropriate, do] 
you, that I call attention to the p;roup that are here with us in tl 
meeting to the fact that under rule 10 of our established set of ru] 
guiding this committee, which was adopted July,l, 1953, that the [c 
persons named today for the first time before this committee in pub 
under rule 10, and sa it is short I will read it. 



Rights of persons affected by hearing : 

Where practicable, any person named in a public hearing before the cc 
mittee or any subcommittee as subversive, Fascist, Communist, or affiliated w 
one or more subversive-front organization, who have not been previously nam 
shall within a reasonable time thereafter, be notified by registered letter, to • 
address last known to the committee, of such fact, including : 

(1) A statement that he has been so named ; 

(2) The date and place of said hearing; 

(3) The name of the person who so testified ; 

(4) The name of the subversive Fascist, Communist, or front organizat 
with whom he has been identified ; 

(.5) A copy of the printed rules of procedure of the committee. 

B. Any person, so notified, who believes that his character or reputation '. 
been adversely affected or to whom has been imputed subversive activity, n 
within 15 days after receipt of said notice: 

(1) Comnjunicate with the counsel of the committee, and/or 

(2) Request to appear at his own expense in person before the committee 
any subcommittee thereof in public session and give testimony, in denial 
afiirmation, relevant and germane 1o the subject of the investigation. 

C. Any such person testifying under the provisions of B (2) above shall 
accorded the same privileges as any other witness appearing before the ci 
mittee, and may be questioned concerning any matter relevant and germam 
the subject of the investigation. 

I thought, Mr. Chairman, it appropriate at this point to read t 
into the record so that those who hear it in this hearing will be p 
sibly advised that this com^mittee has established this procedi 
whereby it is no longer true that a person named before this comn 
tee never hears about it except by accident. 

If we have the address of that person that person does receive 
registered mail a notice, as you will observe in rule 10. 

I might state, Mr. Chairman, I think it is a fact that this comn 
tee for the first time in the history of any congressional committee 
the history of our great Congress has adopted such procedure 
the protection of people who are entitled to clear their record if tl 
so desire. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4723 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you, Mr. Doyle. 

The administrative clerk of the committee will, upon receipt of the 
;ranscript of this hearing, so notify all individuals who have been 
lamed for the first time. 

We have been advised that Senator Fred Kraft, a member of the 
California] State committee on un-American activities, who has 
lone an excellent job in the State of California, is in the hearing room. 

We are very happy to have you, Senator, and hope you will stay 
IS long as you wish. 

Do you have any further questions, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Mr. Chairman, I have two questions. 

You said, Mr. Witness, "I was ordered to teach a class." I wrote 
t down. I think that was in November of 1941. 

Mr. Taylor. No, that was in May 1941, 

Mr. Doyle. Were you not on the payroll of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Taylor. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Who ordered you to teach a class, and why would you 
alve orders from Communist Party leaders if you were not being paid 
o teach, why did you teach merely because somebody told you to? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, many of their teachers were unpaid teachers. 
;t was just one evening — well, two evenings a week, and many of 
heir teachers were unpaid. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, apparently you were under the discipline of the 
Communist Party or you wouldn't have taken their orders. 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. DoYT.E. Three times you emphasized that you were expected to 
lelp and ordered to help in youth work. Now, that, of course, deals 
vith our young people, our teenagers and young Americans, without 

doubt the most important segment in our country, the young people. 

What did you actually do in youth work; you said it didn't amount 
o much, but what did you do individually ? 

Mr. Taylor. My activity in youth work was organizing a young 
Iramatic group of actors. We put on one-act plays, many of which I 
^'rote. These plays were presented at house socials and Sunday pie- 
ties. Nearly every Sunday the}^ have a large picnic, with 200 people, 
)ossibly, in attendance, and my sole activity in j'Outh work in 1936 was 
rganizing this group of young actors who were called the Labor 
theater. 

Mr. DoYLE. May I make this observation. You tell me if I am in 

rror. As I understand it, the Communist Party historically em- 

tlthasizes and places great emphasis upon the youth work, trying to get 

pi he American youth into the party affiliation as soon as practicable; 

jipn't that true ? 

Mr. Taylor. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. And that there is considerable money spent on the na- 
ional level and State level and on down to the local level of Com- 
lunist Party activities to try to capture the minds and the lives of the 
oung American folks, is that true ? 

Mr. Taylor, That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. One more question, Mr. Chairman. 

On this San Diego State College, you said that there were only 14 
r 15 members there, not very effective, in those depression years. If 



4724 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

you have an opinion as to wliy that effort to <i:et San Die<jo State 
College students into the party activities; why Avasn't it effective? 
You tried to do it. 

Mr. Taylor. Apparently I didn't make myself too clear. I meant 
that there were about 14 members of the Young Communist League, 
but these 14 were not at State College. The Communist Party re- 
quested, ordered them to concentrate on trying to get a foothold in 
San Diego State College, and I can only think of 2 students at San 
Diego State College in 1936 that were Communists, one was named 
Tony Kerrigan, and the other fellow, his name eludes me. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. Well, I wanted that clarified in my own mind. 

Mr. Taylor. With such a small base they were unable to do much oul 
there. 

Mr. DoYT.E. But you were in charge of the youth work at that time' 

Mr. Taylor. No, I wasn't in charge of the youth work. 

Mr. Doyle. Who was ? 

Mr. Taylor. Well, I mentioned the leadership of the Young Com 
munist League was Winnie Hancock, Bob Feller, and Ray Berquistjii 

Mr. Doyle. I think that is all. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, there is another question I believe '.\j'. 
should ask the witness. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask two questions here. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. During the course of your associations with the Com 
munist Party and front organizations in the general area of SajPa 
Diego, did you have occasion to meet or to engage in any activity wit! d 
an individual by the name of Schwartz, S-c-h-w-a-r-t-z ? 

Mr. Taylor. What was his first name? 

Mr. Jackson. I am sorry, I don't know the first name. 

Mr. Taylor. I never knew a Communist by the name of Schwart; 

Mr. Jackson. Did you ever know anyone who entered into any con 
pact or any agreement with the Communist Party bj' the name c 
Schwartz ? 

Mr. Taylor. Entered into an agreement with the Communis 
Party? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Taylor. Well, I did know a man named Schwartz who was |iiit 
sympathizer, but the name is an exceedingly common name. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you have any personal relationship with th 
individual, the one you knew as a sympathizer? 

Mr. Taylor. I never collected any money from him. I didn't ha"\ 
too much connection with him. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Counsel, are you in possession of the name 
There has been a name mentioned here several times today of a pr* 
vious organizer here in the district whom we subpenaed and hearfigli 
in Washington. My recollection is that the name was Bert. 

Mr. Taylor. Mr. Chairman, could I make a statement? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, please do. 

Mr. Taylor. I would like to point out for your edification and ui 
derstanding of people in general, that the methods, like you mentione 
the methods in which the Communists recruited people, I would sa 
more than 9 out of 10 people who were recruited to communism we] 
high pressured into it. They were surrounded by Communists, tlfoiis 



iiiei 
Fitli 
iifoi 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 4725 

Coimnunists did favors for them, got them jobs, such as they did me, 
hey got me a job that I enjoyed, and surrounded me, and when we 
i^ere out to their house socials, and that was after doing favors for 
eople and getting them obligated, then the Communists put the 
ressure on to recruit them. 

So I think that should be kept in mind that 9 out of 10 or possibly 

liore Communists were sold a bum bill of goods. They were told a 

bt of, given a lot of rosy promises, that is what the Communist Party 

Dood for, they claimed they stood for everything fine, you know, their 

rogram was quite a chocolate-coated document, and looked good on 

! le surface to a lot of liberal peoj^le, and so people who joined the Com- 

fiunist Party not only were pressured into joining, but many of them 

ad decent motives, or I would say nearly all of them had decent 

(iiotives, and they had no inkling that they were doing anything 

raitorous or doing anything of harm to the United States. This in 

lie depression and during the war years never entered the mind of 

I recruit to communism, that he was being disloyal, because the Com- 

'fumists said it was not a disloyal act. 

The Communists claimed Russia to be a great good friend of the 
Tnited States until the last 8 years, and the Communists claimed that 
ley had a program and they had a social and economic understanding 
lat could benefit the entire American people, so a lot of gullible 
eople like myself were influenced and high-pressured, and that is the 

ory of 99 percent of the American people that joined the Communist 
'arty and that is why I don't think there should be any — I agree 

ith you, I don't think you believe either there should be any hj^steria 
V any reprisals against those individuals who made a mistake or who 

ere high-pressured into joining the Communist Party. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee, I might say, and I am sure that Mr. 
)oyle agrees with me, finds itself under the necessity of calling people 

hose membership extends back across the years; in some instances 
le conmiittee must pursue that course in the light of the fact that the 
mith Act defendants of today were people who were branch members 
1 many cases many years ago. 

We have no way of telling the present status of a member of the 
Communist Party until under oath he is asked to furnish the com- 
littee with whatever information he may have in his possession. 

Relative to your own case and the testimony you have given here 
)day, we want to extend the thanks of the committee and of the Con- 
ress of the United States for your helpfulness and your cooperation 
1 adding to the sum total of knowledge which the American people 
ow possess relative to the operations of the Communist Party. 

The fact that the American peojile are today probably better in- 
jfcrmed with reference to the activities of what has been found in the 
ighest court of the land to represent an international conspiracy is 
ue in large part to the fact that people like yourself who have broken 
ith the party have expressed the willingness to come forward with 
if ormation which is in their possession. 

Is there anything further, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner, No, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, perhaps in view of the witness' observa- 
ons, I am sure it would be enlightening to all of us for me to read 



4726 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA 

the statement by the Vice President of the United States, which 
appeared in the Los Angeles Examiner on Sunday, April 18, 1954, 
right along that line. I will only read a portion. 

On page 6, section 1, part A, Vice President Nixon, who by the way, 
was on this committee as you know for years, said : 

The big question posed by the Oppenheimer case is whether the Government 
should take the position that past associations, even if foresworn, should ever 
preclude Government employment. "I do not believe it should," Nixon said, 
adding, "I believe each case should be considered on its merits particularly when 
dealing with an ideology which during the 1930's had such an appeal among the 
intelligensia and various other groups." 

I thought in view of the witness' observation and yours, Mr. Chair- 
man, that observation this last week from our distinguished Vice 
President would be appropriate. 

I wish to urge the very point you, Mr. Chairman, have urged, but 
I do wish to again urge that this committee, in order to do its official 
job for the United States Congress under Public Law 601, must go 
back as far as is reasonable to find out the extent and the nature and 
the methods and the technique which was employed by the Communist 
Party back in 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, and 1940, because our evidence, I 
am sure you will agree, Mr. Chairman, the undisputed evidence under 
oath before our committees, the very methods which you, Mr. Taylor, 
said were used when you were the head of the party in this country, 
are still used by the American Communist Party in the United States 
of America, subversively. 

They are still in a conspiracy to subvert labor unions and church 
groups and YMCA's and any group in which they can conspiratorially 
infiltrate as a bunch of sneaks and undercover dangerous American 
citizens. 

I just want to take this position at this hearing, Mr. Chairman. As 
far as I am concerned, any American citizen who stayed in the party 
and is actively working in it since April 1945, at least, the date of the 
Duclos letter, is the citizen that needs to be scanned and scanned 
mighty close. But that is not eliminating the need of scanning him 
before that date. But April 1945, the date the Duclos letter came to 
this country it was declared that the two systems of economics, the 
American system and the Soviet system could not get alon^ side by 
side in the same world. Since that date any American citizen who 
stayed in the Communist Party has done so with his eyes open. The 
Soviet system is determined to overcome and conquer the American 
system of free enterprise, so we are in that challenge and that is why 
this committee is here under direction of Congress to stay on the job 
to uncover the subversive, traitorous, sabotage and treason that is 
going on. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Counsel, do you have any further questions ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Taylor, with thanks from the committee, you are 
excused from further attendance under your subpena. 

( Wliereupon, at 2 : 25 p. m., the witness was excused and the hearing 
continued with the testimony of Sterling Campbell Alexander and 
Philip Berman, which is printed in part 5 of this series.) 



INDEX TO PART 4 



INDIVIDUALS 

Pa^e 

lerer, Clair 4710, 4711 

exander, Paul {see also Alexander, Sterling Campbell) 4689, 

4690, 4707, 4714, 4715, 4717, 4719 

3xander, Sterling Campbell (see also Alexander, Paul) 4690 

guis, Robert S . . 4711, 4712 

11, Lucille 4710, 4711, 4713 

rnhart, Sol 4694 

rquist, Ray — . 4716, 4724 

yrer. Forest 4712 

)dgett, David . 4699 

adley, William H 4712 

hone, El 4712 

llendar. Earl 4717 

Igado, Mike . 4717 

clos 4726 

y, Edna Mae -, 4712 

Her, Bob 4716, 4724 

nnett, Betty . 4710 

ady, William O. (Bill) 4712 

agg, Mellisse 4710, 4711, 4713 

egovich, Lee 4688, 4690 

iffiu, Nathaniel ^_ 4712 

ncock, Stanley B_4682^684, 4686, 4687, 4690, 4694, 4697, 4699, 4707, 4712, 4716 

ncoek, Winnie (Mrs. Stanley Hancock) 4716, 4724 

thaway, C. A .__ 4698 

nuewell, Carroll 4688, 4694 

mnewell, Mrs. Carroll 4688 

nes, Orville 4702 

les, Bert . 4688, 4703 

les, Claude L 4712 

les, Martha (Mrs. Bert Jones) 4688, 4689 

ckler, Bessie A 4683, 4690, 4708, 4712 

rrigan, Tony 4724 

le, Lacey , , 4712 

?ch, Bert 4707 

flick, John 4694 

m, Frances (Mrs. La Verne Lym) , 4704 

m, La Verne 4704, 4710 

Dermott, James 4717 

svsom, Cosby . 4688, 4703 

wsom, Geneva (Mrs. Cosby Newsom) 4688 

on. Vice President 4726 

Bl, Roy W , 4712 

penheimer 4726 

!hardson, Esco 4704, 4707, 4710, 4712, 4714 

hardson, Mrs. Esco 46S9 

Jhardson, Jen i , ^ 4704 

?ers, A. C ,31 4693, 4694 

ineiderman, William 4710, 4722 

iwartz, Mr ^~__~ ' 4704 

'um, Henry E 7 3 4713 

Eel, Vimcar 4720. 4721 

fill, Everett O , ~ 4712, 4713 



ii INDEX 

Pag( 

Stredwick, Herbert 471J 

Strong, Anna Lonise 468: 

Taylor, Dan Forrest (see also Taylor, Daniel Pomeroy) 4(398, 470: 

Taylor, Daniel Pomeroy (see also Taylor, Dan Forrest) 4680-4726 (testimony; 

Thayer, Dorothy 471; 

Thayer, Robert . 471! 

Toback, James 4683, 4687-469( 

Vidaver, Matthew S 4711 

Weihe, Henry . 471! 

Wahlenmaier, C. V __^ 4703, 470- 

ORGANIZATIONS 

American Federation of Labor 4687 

4689, 4690, 4691, 4693-4697, 469! 

American Student Union 471i 

California State Federation of Labor 469 

Communist Party, California State Central Committee 4708, 470! 

Communist Party, East San Diego Unit 4702, 471' 

Communist Party, Encinitas, California 471' 

CommunLst Partv, Pacific Beach, California 471 

Communist Party, San Diego 4682, 4683, 4685, 4707, 4708, 471 

Communist Party, San Diego County 470 

Communist Party, San Diego, Logan Heights Unit 4684, 4687, 471 

Communist Party, San Diego, National City Unit 471' 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 4692, 4694-469 

Cooks & Waitresses' Union, San Diego 468 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 4720, 472 

Federal Writers' Project 4680, 470 

Federated Trades and Labor Council, San Diego County 4681 

4690, 4692^694, 469 

International Book Store, San Diego 4691, 4706, 4712, 4717, 471 

Retail Clerks' International Protective Association 469 

Retail Clerks Union 4693, 4695-469 

San Diego Public Library 468 

San Diego State College 4716, 4723, 472 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography 4714, 471 

Socialist Party 471 

Todd Shipyards 472 

Twentieth Century Upholsterer, San Diego 468 

Unemployed Council 4683-4687, 4698. 470 

Workers' Alliance 4698, 4702, 470 

Workers' Club, San Diego 470 

Works Progress Administration 4686, 470 

Young Communist League 4698, 4716, 472 

Young Democrats, San Diego County 470 

Young Democrats, Thirtieth District, San Diego 470 

Young ]VIen'.s Christian Association 472' 

PUBLICATIONS 

CIO Aircraft News ^ 470: 

Common Sense 4701, 470! 

Daily People's World 4698, 4699, 4701, 470? 

Daily Worker 4698, 4699, 4701, 470i 

Labor Leader 469: 

Los Angeles Examiner 472( 

Moscow News, Moscow, Russia 468] 

New Republic 4681, 46S 

The Organizer 470! 

Trade Union News 4684, 4686, 4687. 4691, 4699, 470: 

Unemployed News 468( 

Western Worker 4698, 469f| 

O 



3 9999 05445 3Ui:u 



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