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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the State of Michigan. Hearings"

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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF MICHIGAN— Part 4 

(DETROIT— Labor) 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



MAY 5, 1954 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 

i.</\ l.liNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1954 



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Boston Public Li'r/ary 
Cuperintcndent of Documents 

SEP 2 8 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, CaUfornia MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, JE., Tenness«e 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Thomas W. Bbalb, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

Courtney E. Owens, Acting Chief Investigator 

II 



C O N T E K 1^ S 

Page 

May 5, 1954, testimony of— 

James E. Cicliocki 5222 

Bolza Baxter, Jr 5227 

Bernard Bellinson 5249 

William H. Johnson 5255 

George Leroy Ellery 5282 

Paul Ross Baker 5286 

Evelyn Gladstone 5290 

Index i 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Conunittee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together, with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 

RuiE X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Ctongress, 
the following standing committees : 

• *****« 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

RuuE XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

• *«*««* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF MICHIGAN— PAET 4 

(Detroit— Labor) 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 5, 1954 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Detroit, Mich. 
public hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 9 : 35 a. m. in room 859, Federal Building, 
Hon, Kit Clardy (acting chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Kit Clardy (acting 
chairman), Gordon H. Scherer, and Morgan M. Moulder. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Donald 
T. Appell and W. Jackson Jones, investigators ; and Mrs. Juliette P. 
Joray, acting clerk. 

Mr. Clardy. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, yesterday, in order to work out our 
schedule I made a promise to counsel for one of the witnesses to 
call his case first this morning. 

Mr. Clardy. Who is that ? 

Mr. Tavenner, It is Mr, James Cichocki, 

Mr. Clardy, Very well. Before you proceed, though, I had in- 
tended to call Mr. Baxter. I see he is here this morning. I want to 
let him know that during the interval since last he was to the stand 
that the subcommittee has carefully gone over and considered the 
motion that was filed and has denied it and has concluded that mat- 
ter. But instead of going forward with you first as I had intended, 
I bow to the suggestion of Mr. Tavenner. Will you call your 
witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Cichocki, will you come forward, please? 

Mr. Nelson. May I respond for Mr. Cichocki ? 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon, sir. Will you identify yourself for the 
record ? 

Mr. Nelson. Walter M. Nelson, attorney for James Cichocki. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr, Nelson, may I suggest we will go off the record 
here because under the rules we do not permit counsel to address us 
on the record, so we will take a brief recess, and you may step up 
here to the bench, if you wish, and talk it over. 

(Whereupon, at 9 : 37 a, m,, the hearing was recessed.) 

(Whereupon, at 9 : 45 a. m,, the hearing was reconvened.) 

Mr. Clardy. Back on the record. 

5221 



5222 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Tavenner, I want to make a statement for the record. 

I have explained to Mr. Nelson, who is attorney for Mr. Cichocki, 
the rule which prohibits counsel from arguing or doing anything 
other than sitting beside the witness and advising him on his con- 
stitutional rights. But I have also told him, as I have others and as 
the committee has told others and as the rule specifically provides, 
that he may file a written statement of his objections to having his 
client photographed, which is the nubbin of the objection which he 
makes and that since he was apparently not advised as to precisely 
how to do it until we had this conversation, we will receive it as part 
of the record and as timely filed. 

We will accord him that privilege and will go forward with the 
matter by calling Mr. Cichocki and have it understood on the record 
that he has made timely objection to any photographs whatsoever. I 
want to caution the newspaper photographers that as soon as Mr. 
Cichocki is sworn and as the rule provides, no further pictures will be 
permitted of this particular witness. 

Mr. Cichocki, please. 

Hold up your right hand. You do solemnly swear the testimony 
you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Cichocki. I do. 

Mr. Clardy. You are accompanied by counsel. Will counsel please 
identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Nelson. Walter M. Nelson, 1438 Dime Building, Detroit. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Nelson, while you are not permitted to address the 
Chair, as I said, I have known you and of you for a great many years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 



TESTIMONY OF JAMES E. CICHOCKI, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, WALTER M. NELSON 



Mr. Cichocki. James E. Cichocki. 

Mr, Clardy. Pronounce it again for me. 

Mr. Cichocki. Well, it is pronounced ditferent ways, but Cichocki. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Cichocki? 

Mr. Cichocki. Detroit, Mich., October 7, 1917. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you resided in Detroit all your life? 

Mr. Cichocki. Thirty-six and a half years'. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation or profession? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. CiCHOCKL I am president of Local 742, UAW-CIO. 

Mr. Tavenner. How Jong have you held that ])osition? 

Mr. Cichocki. Seven years, nominated for 2 years this coming — lasti 
October — I mean last Thursday. 

Mr, Tavenner, Were you required under the Federal statutes to|lli 
sign an affidavit known as the Taft-Hartley affidavit? 

(At this point Mr. C'ichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki, 1 plead my ininuinity under tlie fifth amendment. 

Mr, Tavenner, Mr, Chairman, you will recall that there has been 
referred to the Conmiittee on Un-American Activities for considera- 
tion a bill dealing with a substitute relating to the present Taft- 
Hartley allidavit. 



1 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5223 

Mr. CL.VRDY. Yes, I am familiar with it. I liave been helping mark 
it up, as you know. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. And I had intended to question this witness with 
regard to the operation of the present act so far as he is aware of it. 

Mr. Clardt. Do you have a request to make of the Chair ? 

Mr. Tavexner. Yes, sir, I think the witness should be directed to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Clardy. I am in accord, and I direct that you answer the 
question, witness. 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. OciiocKi. I rely on 

Mr. C1..ARDY. Perhaps I should add a little note of explanation. Our 
interest in this information, us Mr. Tavenner has indicated, is solely 
for the purpose of obtaining facts and information to enable us to do 
a better job in drafting a piece of legislation which the committee is 
sponsoring, intended to supplant and take the place of the present 
Taft-Hartley oath provision, which I don't mind telling you I regard 
as in many ways unworkable and unwieldy and having otlier objec- 
tions. * 

Can we have something in the way of a proposed legislative substi- 
tute that is pretty well along the way, and what we are seeking and all 
we are seeking in this line of questions is to find out from you some 
facts that will either strengthen or maybe destroy the arguments and 
the conclusions that we have reached in attempting to put forward 
this new legislation. 

Now, will you proceed, Mr, Tavenner, and 1 have directed you to 
answer that question for the reason I have just indicated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not sure that the w itness has answered under 
the direction. 

Mr. Clardy. No ; he did not. 

Mr. Cichocki. I plead the immunity of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Clardy. You decline to answer on that ground? 

Mr. Cichocki. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Being the president of your local it is my recollec- 
tion of the language of the statute that you are required to execute the 
Taft-Hartley affidavit. Have you received any instructions or any 
suggestions from the Conmiunist Party as to how the Taft-Hartley 
affidavit is to be considered by members of the Communist Party who 
are required to sign it? Assuming that they occupy positions covered 
by the act. 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr, Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I plead the immunity of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been present on any occasion 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon, Mr. Tavenner. I direct the witness to answer 
that last question. 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I plead the immunity of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been ])resent on any occasion when the 
subject of execution of the Taft-Hartley affidavit, non- Communist 



48861—54 — pt. 4 2 



5224 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

affidavit, has been discussed by members of the Communist Party ; that 
is, persons known to you to be members of the Communist Party ? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I plead the immunity of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time during the 7-year period during which you have been 
president of Briggs Manufacturing Co. local UAW-CIO ? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I plead the immunity of the fifth amendment. 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Bereniece Baldwin? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I plead the immunity of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where is your residence in Detroit ? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. 5536 Field Avenue. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what area of Detroit is that ? 

Mr. Cichocki. East side of Detroit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever lived in the Hamtramck section? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I never lived in the Hamtramck section. ' 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever at any time been a member of the 
Young Communist League ? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I plead the immunity of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. In 1943 isn't it a fact, witness, that you were the presi- 
dent of the Foster-Mooney Branch of the Young Communist League? 

Mr. Cichocki. I plead the immunity of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. In 1944 did you live in Hamtramck ? 

Mr. Cichocki. No, sir. 

Mr. Nelson. Pardon me. Did he say "live" or "work" ? 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever live in Hamtramck ? 

Mr. Cichocki. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever work in Hamtramck ? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion whether he ever worked in Hamtramck. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes ; I so direct, witness. 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Why in the early part of 1944 did you transfer your 
membership in the Young Communist League from the Foster-Mooney 
Branch to the Hamtramdc section of the Communist Party ? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, now, isn't it a fact that the last year that the 
Communist Party issued membership cards was in the year 1948? 
Don't you know that as a matter of fact ? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5225 

Mr. ScHERER. Isn't it a fact that your Communist Party member- 
ship card issued in the year 1947 for the year 1948 was No. 71476? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Your Communist Party membership has continued up 
until the present moment, hasn't it? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon me. I think perhaps, due to the fact that some 
of you were not here on the opening day, that I had best repeat an in- 
junction that I gave at that time. I want to make it very clear that 
those in the audience are guests of the Congress of the United States 
and that we cannot and will not permit any demonstration of any 
kind. We would hate very much to be compelled to clear the court- 
room. The business of this committee will not permit interruptions 
of any kind. 

We have a very heavy schedule. It is going to be difficult, if not 
impossible, to finish all the work we have mapped out for us at this 
time, and so I suggest to you that you remain absolutely quiet through- 
out the proceeding. 

Mr. Tavenner, you may proceed. 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Witness, I hand you a photostatic copy of an 
excerpt from the September 3, 1948, issue of the Detroit News. It is 
entitled "A Labor Day Message to President Truman." The first 
paragi^aph of this letter or message is as follows : 

We, tlie undersigned trade unionists, protest the indictment of the 12 national 
leaders of the Communist Party under the undemocratic and antilabor Smith 
Act. 

Will you examine the document, please, and state whether or not 
you see your name to that message ? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you see your name signed to that message ? 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence for identi- 
fication and ask that it be marked Cichocki Exhibit No. 1. 

Mr. Clardy. It may be received. 

(The photostatic copy of excerpt from September 3, 1948, issue of 
Detroit News entitled "A Labor Day Message to President Truman," 
marked "Cichocki Exhibit No. 1" for identification, was received in 
evidence.)^ 

Mr. Tavenner. I now hand you a photostatic copy of a page from 
the September 28, 1943, issue of the Daily Worker, and the heading is : 

1,400 Unionists Hit Indictment of Communists, a partial list of the 1,100 trade- 
union leaders who have protested the indictment of the 12 Communist Party 
leaders. 

Will you examine the document and see whether or not your name 
appears as one of that list. I should have asked you whether or not 
your name appears in that list as president of your local. 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

* Retained in committee files. 



5226 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. CiCHOCKi. I rely on the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Isn't it a fact that it was the plan of the Communist 
Party to have responsible people in labor organizations oppose all 
2)roceedings against defendants under the Smith Act? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Tavenner, was it your intention to offer the docu- 
ment in evidence ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. I desire to offer the document described 
as the September 23, 1948, issue of the Daily Worker in evidence and 
suggest that it be marked Cichocki Exhibit No. 2 for identification. 

Mr. Clardy. It will be received. 

(The photostatic copy of page from September 28, 1943, issue of 
Daily Worker, entitled "1,400 Unionists Hit Indictment of Com- 
munists," marked Cichocki Exhibit No. 2 for identification, was re- 
ceived in evidence.)^ 

Mr. Nelson. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a point of information? 

Mr. Clardy, We will go off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Clardy. On the record. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you seen instructions at any time issued by 
the Communist Party to gi'oups of the Communist Party on that sub- 
ject — that is, the subject of action to be taken with regard to Smith 
Act prosecutions ? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Clardy. Any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, isn't it a fact that you have been identified 
with and active in at least 20 different Communist Party activities and 
front organizations during the past 10 years ? 

Mr. Cichocki. I rely on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Clardy. Any questions, Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr. Moulder. I have no questions but this : What is your occupa- 
tion now ? 

(At this point Mr. Cichocki conferred with Mr. Nelson.) 

Mr. Cichocki. I am president of Local 742, UAW-CIO. 

Mr. Clardy. Commonly known as the Briggs local? 

Mr. Cichocki. The Chrysler automotive body division. 

Mr. Clardy. Any further questions, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Bolza Baxter, please. 

Mr. Clardy. Hold up your right hand. 

^ Retained In committee files. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5227 

Mr. Baxter. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. Hold up your riglit hand. After you are sworn I 
will permit you to address the Chair. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
lie the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
(Jod? 

Mr. Baxter. I do. 

Mr. Clardy. All right. Will you identify your counsel^ Will 
you identify yourself, counsel ? 

Mr. Hexry. My name is Milton R. Henry. I represent the defend- 
ant, Bolza Baxter. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you both be seated now. I understand your 
witness has a remark lie would like to address to the Chair, and he may 
do so. 

TESTIMOITY OF BOLZA BAXTER, JR., ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, MILTON R. HENRY 

Mr. Baxter. First, Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask for point of 
clarification. 

Mr. Clardy. Very well. 

Mr. Baxter. The denial of my special appearance motion, I 
want ■ 

Mr. Cl.^.rdy. I don't follow you there. You say you want an 
explanation of the denial ? 

Mr. Baxter. Yes. I want to know if the denial means that you 
refuse to receive it or that it wouldn't be 

Mr. Clardy. No, I mean to say this, and I understand why you 
might be confused, because I did make a brief statement. As you 
know, I told you yesterday 1 intended to call you as the first witness. 
I was unaware of the promise Mr. Tavenner made to the counsel for 
the witness who just preceded you. The subcommittee has con- 
sidered the motion that you made, which, of course, in essence goes 
to the jurisdiction and the right of this committee in connection with 
your appearance here. We are receiving it for the files and are deny- 
ing the relief which you seek in the petition, so we will proceed. 

Mr. Baxter. Does that also mean, Mr. Chairman, that it will not 
be received for the record ? 

Mr. Clardy. Everything is received for the files and records of the 
committee, and it will be part of your file, you may be assured. 

Mr. Baxter. Thank you. 

Mr. Cl^vrdy. Now, Mr. Tavenner, will you proceed with your que.s- 
tions ? 

Mr. Baxter. Mr, Chairman, I would just like to make one observa- 
tion 

Mr. Clardy. Is this in the form of a question ? 

Mr. Baxter. Well, no, it is not in the form of a question. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you pause just a moment, and I will explain some- 
thing to you. If you will answer our questions as they are pro- 
pounded, freely and fairly, we will permit you at the conclusion of 
youi' testimony to make any relevant statement you may care to make. 
This rule is not made just applicable to you. It is a standing rule that 
is in print and has been for some time, a standing rule that if the 
witness refuses to answer and, in common parlance, "takes the fifth 



5228 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

amendment," we do not permit the introduction of a statement, written 
or oral. With that understanding, if you have any other question, 
we will get it out of the way before Mr. Tavenner starts. 

Mr. Baxter. I understand the procedure as far as the response to 
questions. But since this matter that I wanted to address you on had 
to do with some developments prior to my being sworn in, I think it 
is appropriate that I be permitted to comment on that aspect because 
it happened before this committee. 

Mr. Clardy. No, I am sure you would not under any circumstances 
want this committee to single you out for either a special favor or 
something unusual in the opposite direction and we have no inten- 
tion — — 

Mr. Baxter. That is precisely what has happened, and that is what 
I want to comment on. 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon me just a moment. 

Mr. Baxter. I want to indicate that I have been sworn under objec- 
tions. 

Mr. Clardy. Oh, well, I am sure of that. 

Mr. Baxter. And I want to also state that I strenuously object to 
the indignities that you have subjected my attorney to, and 

Mr. Clardy, May we go off the record just a moment. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Clardy. On the record. Will you proceed, Mr. Tavenner, with 
your questioning. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mr. Baxter. Bolza Baxter, Jr. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Baxter, do you appear here pursuant to a sub- 
pena served upon you by Mr. Donald T. Appell, investigator of the 
House of Kepresentatives, on the 2d day of December 1953 ? 

Mr. Baxter. I am here in response to a subpena served me under 
the signature of the Honorable Harold H. Velde. 

Mr. Tavenner. I offer the sub])ena in evidence, Mr. Chairman, and 
ask that it be marked "Baxter Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Clardy. It will be received. 

(The subpena of December 2, 1953, marked "Baxter Exhibit No. 1" 
was received in evidence.)^ 

Mr. Tavenner. Will the witness please examine the exhibit and 
state whether or not that is the subpena under which he appears? 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr, Baxter. This appears to be a copy of the subpena served me. 
I see it carries the signature of Harold Velde. I want to make it clear 
that I object to the form. The subpena is not addressed to me. It is 
addressed to one Donald Appell to summon me. I have never received 
a summons, and I want to indicate clearly that I don't waive any 
objections I have to the form of the subpena and its scope. 

Mr. Tavenner. A copy or the original was left with you at the time 
service was made by Mr. Appell, was it not ? 

Mr. Baxter. I received the subpena signed by Harold H. Velde. I 
am here in response to that subpena. 

Mr. Moulder. You received a copy of the document that has been 
fshown to you there ? 



* iRetained In committee files. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5229 

Mr. Baxter. I received a subpena under the signature of Harold 
H. Velde, and I am here in response to that subpena. I think that 
question is responsive, and I don't think it needs any ehaboration. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, Mr. Baxter, I am sure that you see what we are 
trying to get at. 

Mr. Baxter. I don't know what you are trying to get at. 

Mr. Clardy. I am sure you recognize this as an accurate copy of 
the actual document in the possession of the one who served the 
subpena, do you not? In other words, I don't want to quibble with 
you or you with me because I am sure you understand that this is 
merely a preliminary foundation question and nothing more. 

Mr. Baxter. Well, I don't want to quibble with you, Congressman. 

Mr. Clardy. Thank you. 

Mr. Baxter. The only point I am making here is that I am here in 
response to the subpena served me, and I think to that extent the 
answer is responsive and establishes the necessary facts to proceed. 

Mr. Clardy. It isn't responsive, but we will pass on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you chairman of the Labor Youth League of 
Michigan on the 2d day of December 1953 ? 

Mr. Baxter. I think I should make it clear at the outset that any- 
thing you ask me within the scope of the authority given you by the 
enabling resolution must necessarily be of such a nature as to come 
within the purview of either the Internal Security Act of 1950 or 
similar acts. Such acts are penal statutes, and the fifth amendment 
forbids inquiry into past conduct which may be construed by this 
committee or any other committee as penal in nature except after 
presentment or indictment of a grand jury, I invoke the due process 
section of the fifth amendment as well as other sections of the fifth 
amendment and will refuse to answer any questions that this com- 
mittee may care to ask me. I further decline to answer any questions 
before this committee and invoke my privilege under the (iue process 
clause of the fifth amendment against testifying before a committee 
whose power is derived from a resolution barred under the first 
amendment as well as my privilege under the first amendment to be 
free in the exercise of my rights to inquire, think, and speak from 
either prior or subsequent congressional harrassment through hear- 
ino;s, investigations, reports, subpenas, or through other devices. 

Mr. Scherer. Now, Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness 
to answer the question. 

Mr. CLAiiDY. Yes. I so direct. 

Mr. Baxter. I sought to make it clear at the outset. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct this witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Baxter. I understood you. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you keep quiet just a minute ? 

Mr. Baxter. No, you keep quiet. The question had already been 
put to me. 

Mr. Clardy. I think it would be well if we remember that the 
reporter can do a much better job if only one of us talks at a time, and 
we shall be more than patient with you, Mr. Baxter, but please refrain 
from interrupting any member of the committee or counsel. We 
will 

Mr. Baxter. He interrupted me, didn't he? 



5230 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon me. You are doing tlie very thing I am cau- 
tioning you against. At the moment that arrives for you to reply, we 
shall not cut you off unless you try to make a speech, in which event 
I shall be compelled to interrupt you and suggest that you direct 
yourself to the question. Now, hold still just a moment. Will you 
repeat your question, Mr. Scherer, because I didn't get either side of 
that last exchange. 

Mr. Scherer. I am asking that you direct this witness to answer 
the question asked by Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Ci^RDY. I did direct him and he 

Mr. Scherer. He started to make a speech. 

Mr. Baxter. I started to give my answer. 

Mr, Clardy. As I understaiid it, despite all the other things you - 
may have said, you did decline to answer on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Baxter. I did not yet. I was about to give my answer and 
would like to give it if the Congressman would permit me. 

Mr. Clardy. I will shorten it. Do you 

Mr. Baxter. Congressman Clardy, this is supposed to be a hearing,; 
my hearing as well as yours. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you invoke the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Baxter. I am entitled to respond to the 

Mr. Clardy. Do you invoke the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Baxter. I am as concerned with the taxpayers' money as you ' 
are, but I don't want the newspapers to say tomorrow that Baxter 
used the fifth amendment 57 times. I may use it 57 times, but I am 
going to use some other things also. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, may I give you a suggestion or two ? If you 
desire to refuse to answer on the ground of the fifth amendment or 
any of the other amendments, even though we do not recognize them, 
you are entitled to state that fact. State that first and then if there 
is some explanation which the Chair deems relevant and pertinent, 
we shall not cut you off at all. Only in the event that you attempt to 
make a stump speech, so to speak 

Mr. Baxter. What kind of speech ? 

Mr. Clardy. As we have heard many times, will I interrupt you at 
all. Let us get back to the question. Do you decline to answer on 
the ground of the fifth amenclment? 

Mr. Baxter. I decline to answer the question on the ground pre- 
viously stated which is the fifth amendment, and also the first amend- 
ment which prevents Congress from making laws in the area of speech, 
assembly, press, et cetera, and I think the committee in the very posing 
of the question is violating that amendment, and I assert that amend- 
ment in refusing to allow you to violate my rights under the first 
amendment as well as the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Clardy. Now, Mr. Baxter, so that we may, in your answering 
other questions, suggest, now that you have stated it rather fully, 
that in the next series, if you want to raise these objections that you 
have now voiced, you may do so and have full protection by saying 
that you decline to answer on the grounds already advanced, and that 
will Ix^ considered by the connnittee as a complete restatement each 
time of all of the grounds upon which you rely. 

Mr. IlxxTKH. Is that an order, or is that a suggestion that you want 
me to consider? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5231 

Mr. Clardt. I am at no time, as chairman, attempting to tell you 
precisely what you may say. Your answer as you see fit, but of course 
at your own risk. Now will you proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Baxter, the subpena served upon you by Mr. 
Donald T. Appell, investigator of this committee, constituting Baxter 
Exhibit No. 1, requires you to produce all the books and records of 
the Liabor Youth League of Micliigan containing the names of all 
State and section officers of the Labor Youth League of Michigan. 
the names of all members of said league, all financial records of said 
league and the minutes of meetings held by the Labor Youth League 
of Michigan during the years of 1952 and 1953. Will you produce 
them now ? 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Baxter. Would you restate the question, please? 

Mr. Clardy. Read it. Miss Reporter. 

(The question was read by the reporter as follows :) 

Mr. Baxter, the subpena served upon you by Mr. Donald T. Appell, investigator 
of this committee, constituting Baxter Exhibit No. 1, requires you to produce 
all the books and records of the Labor Youth League of Michigan containing 
the names of all State and section officers of the Labor Youth League of Michigan, 
the names of all members of said league, all financial records of said league and 
the minutes of meetings held by the Labor Youth League of Michigan during the 
years of 1952 and 1953. Will you produce them now? 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Baxter. I will refuse to answer that question, relying on my 
rights under the first amendment and my rights under the fourth 
amendment my reasons being, I believe with all my heart that the 
American Constitution, specifically the first and fourth amendments 
which I am relying on, protect me against the compulsion of a subpena 
issued in the form that it was 

Mr. Clardy. May I interrupt to ask you a question so I will under- 
stand what you are getting at ? 

Mr. Baxter. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. You said you refuse to answer the question. By that 
did you mean you were making a flat refusal to produce the documents 
demanded by the subpena served upon you ? 

Mr. Baxter. I mean that I am refusing to answer the question put 
to me. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, you were asked to produce them, and I am merely 
trying to clarify it to be sure that you mean that you will not pro- 
duce them. Is that the intent of what you are saying ? 

Mr. Baxter. I mean I will refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Scherer. There is no question asked the witness. It was a di- 
rection to produce. 

Mr, Clardy. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. There is no question before the witness. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Tavenner, will you withdraw your question for a 
moment ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. The question is withdrawn. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Baxter, I will address a new admonition to you or 
suggestion. You have been commanded by the proper subpena duces 
tecum issued by this committee to produce the documents which Mr. 
Tavenner has described to you and which were properly described in 

48861 — 54 — pt. 4 3 



5232 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

the subpena. Will you now produce those for the committee at this 
time? 

Mr. Baxter. I will refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first amendment and the fourth amendment because I believe 
that the American Constitution, specifically those amendments com- 
bined, protect me against the compulsion of a subpena issued under 
the form you indicated to accomplish the ends therein described and 
because I believe that the fourth amendment invalidates a subpena 
which performs the efforts of a writ of assistance or general warrant, 
no matter what agency of Government issues the same, and because 
I believe that a subpena so framed as the one issued me is in fact 
no subpena to me at all in the contemplation of the law, and because 
I have heretofore in the courts been denied the right to object to the 
process and the irregularities attending its form and issuance, I will, 
without admitting or denying membership in the Labor Youth 
League or being in possession of any books and records, deny that 
under my privilege raised under the fourth amendment any duty 
imposes upon me to respond in any fashion to the command of the 
subpena and to the question that has been posed. I consider that to 
be my answer to the question raised. 

Mr. Clardy. I will come back to my question because I do not con- 
sider it as a direct answer to the request that I made and say you refuse 
to answer the question. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Clardy. Actually what I want to get at and to make sure on 
this record is that you will not at any time during the progress of this 
hearing produce for the Use of the committee the documents sought 
by the subpena duces tecum. Am I correct in my understanding that 
you will not produce them ? 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry) 

Mr. Baxter. I would like to pose a question at this point. 

Mr. Clardy. You answer my 

Mr. Baxter. Then I will come back to your question. 

Mr. Clardy. You answer me, sir, and then if you have a reasonable 
and proper question, I will be very glad • 

Mr. Baxter. I can't answer your question until I find out the answer 
to the question I am about to pose. 

Mr. Clardy. All right. May I point out to you 

Mr. Baxter. In other words 

Mr. Clardy. Hold still. I couldn't hear what you were saying 
because you cut in right in the middle of what I was saying. I think 
today you are doing your best to be a gentleman, sir. 

Mr. Baxter. I always do, Congressman. 

Mr. Clardy. And I hope that you will continue. Now, bear with 
me. Answer my question, and then if you have any relevant inquiry 
to make of the Chair, we will be most happy to give you any informa- 
tion you want. 

Mr. Baxter. Well, all I am saying is that I have what I consider to 
be a relevant point here which would assist me, perhaps, in respond- 
ing to your question. 

Mr. Clardy. All right. 

Mr. Baxter. I think in all fairness I should 

Mr. Clardy. State it if it will be brief. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5233 

Mr. Baxter. The question is simply this : For what purposes, what 
legislative purposes could the request for names of all members of the 
Labor Youth League have for this committee? 

Mr. Clardy. It will serve a most useful purpose for this committee 
to have information concerning the LYL, Labor Youth League, and 
all of its activities and the identity of its members. Beyond that the 
committee is not prepared to say anything further. It is our consid- 
ered judgment, having asked for the documents, that they will greatly 
help the committee in the expediting and in the handling of the prob- 
lems confronting it. Now will you come back to what I started out 
with a moment ago. I wanted this record to leave no doubt as to 
whether you intend to and will produce the records that have been 
subpenaed. Obviously, if by the end of the hearing you have not pro- 
duced them, the conclusion will be inescapable that you will not do 
so, but I am giving you an opportunity to say whether you will or will 
not at this juncture. 

Mr. Baxter, I have 

Mr. Clardy. Go ahead. 

Mr. Baxter. I have not admitted being either a member of, an 
officer of, or being in possession of any records of a Labor Youth 
LeagTie, and a yes or no answer to the question posed would tend to 
imply or would lead to the inescapable conclusion that I am in pos- 
session of such records, which I will not do, and I will assert the answer 
previously given for the previously stated reasons in refusing to re- 
spond to the question, and I will invoke the fifth amendment also in 
refusing to respond to that question. 

Mr. Clardy. Very well. The Chair now directs that you produce 
the documents called for in the subpena. 

Mr. Baxter. I think I made it clear that anything that this com- 
mittee may ask me, any demand that it may make of me comes under 
certain penal statutes, and it is my belief, and I assert that belief in 
refusing to respond to the question or the demand, that the fifth amend- 
ment forbids inquiry into past conduct which may be construed as 
penal in nature and to request me to produce anything except after 
presentment or indictment of a grand jury. I think that is the func- 
tion of a gi-and jury, and I don't think this committee has any right 
to make any such demands, and I will assert the fifth amendment in 
refusing to respond to the question posed. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Baxter. And the fourth and the first which I previously used. 

JVIr. Clardy. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVlien and where were you born, Mr. Baxter? 

Mr. Baxter. I was born in Franklin County, Fla., July 26, 1924. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Baxter. I reside at 5057 Holcomb, Detroit. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Detroit ? 

Mr. Baxter. Oh, approximately 3 years, pretty close to 3 years, 
maybe a few months off. 

Mr. Taatsnner. That takes you back to about 1951 ? 

Mr. Baxter. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live prior to 1951 ? 

Mr. Baxter. May I ask what relevance has that question ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask you to direct him to answer. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 



5234 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Clardt. Yes, answer the question, Mr. Baxter. 

Mr. Baxter. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Clardy. I say, you are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. SciTERER. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that this is not a laughing 
matter. I think the record should show that counsel and the witness, 
when they confer, have been laughing and smiling and 

Mr. Baxter. I don't know how the record can show that. Congress- 
man, based on what you observed. I think this is being a very serious 
matter, and I don't think it is your right to determine whether or not 
we smile or frown. 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon? 

Mr. Baxter. You have smiled. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Baxter, I told you earlier, we possess informa- 
tion 

Mr. Baxter. I have a right to consult with counsel. Congressman. 

Mr. Clardy. May I have the floor for a moment? As I explained 
to you, we have infinite patience — we have to have on this job — but 
if you choose to treat it lightly, as Congressman Scherer seems to 
think you do 

Mr. Baxter. That is entirely his opinion, Congressman Clardy. 

Mr. Clardy. Hold still just a minute, please. I am not trying to be 
arbitrary, and I don't think 

Mr. Baxter. You are trying to put me in jail, and this man is say- 
ing I don't take it seriously. 

Mr. Scherer. I think it is a typical display of the Communist 
tactics. 

Mr. Baxter. I don't care what you think it is. You are trying to 
put me in jail, and I insist on my right to defend myself, and it is no 
laughing matter. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Scherer. That is what I was calling to your attention, son. 

Mr. Baxter. Son — I am 28 years old. Congressman, so don't 
address me as "son." 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Baxter, please subside. We are not trying to 
do anything other than conduct this hearing in an orderly way, but 
I want to again admonish the audience. One more outburst of that 
kind, and you will leave me no recourse but to conduct this hearing 
without an audience. I hope I do not have to repeat again. 

Now, Mr. Baxter, you have a perfect right to conduct yourself 
there in any way you see fit, but so, also, does Mr. Scherer have a 
right to call to the attention of the record the fact that you were 
doing what he said you were. We do not have any intention of 
preventing you from doing it, but neither do we have any intention 
of allowing the record to not disclose what actually takes place and 
which cannot be recorded in the written word. Now, will you proceed, 
Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Baxter. Congressman Clardy, am I permitted to deny 

Mr. Clardy. Do you have a question ? 

Mr. Baxitsr. Yes. Am I permitted to deny what impressions Con- 
gressman Scherer may have gathered for the record? 

Mr. Clardy. T think not at this time, sir. 

Mr. Baxter. I mean, he is permitted to accuse me of something, 
but I am not permitted to deny 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5235 

Mr. Clardt. I saw you and counsel having a pretty good time 
together there myself. I refrained from saying anything about it. 
Even your attorney is amused now, and he is entitled to be. Per- 
haps this is funny, but let us get on with the business. Will you 
inquire, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. The chairman directed that the witness answer 
the question, but he has not replied to that. 

Mr. Baxter. I was in the process of conferring with counsel when 
I was interrupted by Congressman Scherer, so if I could confer 

Mr. Tavenner. Please proceed. 

Mr. Clarby. Proceed, if you have an answer. 

Mr. Baxter. Thank you. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Baxter. Could I have the question read, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I can save you the time in looking it up. It is not 
hard to remember. Where did you live prior to 1951 ? 

Mr. Clardy. That is a question you are directed to answer, Mr. 
Baxter. 

Mr. Baxter. That is a different question. That is not the ques- 
tion I was directed to answer. 

Mr. Clardy. Please don't argue with counsel. That was the ques- 
tion, and I now direct you to answer. 

Mr. Baxter. All right, all right, all right. I don't think, in spite 
of the tears rolling, that the question is relevant, and that I am com- 
pelled for any reason to respond to the question, but since you seem 
to be persistent, I will respond to that question. Prior to 1951, I 
think tlie question was, where did I reside. The answer to that ques- 
tion is, I resided in Flint, Mich. 

Mr. Clardy. You resided where ? 

Mr. Baxter. Plint, Mich. 

Mr, Clardy. How long did you reside there ? 

Mr. Baxter. Oh, approximately 9 years. It may be off somewhere 
there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, when you first 
came to the State of Michigan to make it your home ? 

Mr. Baxter. I believe it was somewhere around 1943. I wouldn't 
attempt to establish a date or anything of that sort. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you advise the committee briefly what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Baxter. Is it all right if I have just a few more minutes? I 
know I am taking a long time. 

Mr. Clardy. Surely. That doesn't seem a very difficult question 
because he merely wants to know where you got your education. You 
seem to have a pretty good one. I am a little bit interested myself in 
discovering when you went to the University of Michigan or some 
of the other schools we are acquainted with. 

Mr. Scherer. And what Communist Party schools because he 
seems to be pretty well schooled in Communist Party tactics as dis- 
played here this morning. 

Mr. Baxter. That is your opinion. I resent the inference. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you deny you went to a Communist Party school ? 

Mr. Baxter. I resent your suggestion. I don't have to answer the 
question, and when you ask me I will not answer it. 



5236 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask you to direct- 



Mr. Clardy. Witness, you are directed to answer the question. 

Mr, Baxter. Which question am I directed to answer at this point? 

Mr. Clardy. The last question. We will get back to the other one 
in a moment. 

Mr. Baxter. The last question is did I go to a Communist Party 
school ; is that right ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Yes. 

Mr. Baxter. Well; I will refuse to answer that question for the 
reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. I thought so. 

Mr. Baxter. And I will invoke the same privileges. 

Mr. Clardy. Let us get back to your education. 

Mr. Baxter. Your thoughts were correct, Congressman Scherer. 

Mr. Clardy. You may consult if you wish to do so because time 
is getting along, and we have a total of IT witnesses today, and it 
doesn't look like we are going to get to them. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Baxter. Could I have the question restated, please? 

Mr. Tavenner. Please read him the question. 

The question was read by the reporter as follows : 

Will you advise the committee briefly what your formal educational training 
has been? 

Mr. Baxter. Yes. I completed the 11th grade. I took all my 
formal education in the Jim Crowe South where I had to fight my 
way to school and away from school, and I was extremely fortunate in 
getting that far. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have an educational training in the city of 
New York? 

Mr. Baxter. I thought I said I had my educational training in 
Florida. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion of counsel. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes, you are so directed, witness. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Clardy. Answer the question as to whether or not you received 
any part of your education in the city of New York. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Baxter. Well, let me ask this question: I have received con- 
siderable education in Detroit by reading newspapers and certain 
books that were available to me. Do you consider that to be education ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course that is education, but did you attend any 
course of training in the city of New York ? 

Mr. Baxter. I will refuse to answer that question, relying on the 
fifth amendment privileges and also on the first amendment which 
prevents this committee from inquiring into what I read, where I 
assemble, et cetera. 

Mr. Scherer. You answered the question about your formal train- 
ing in Florida. Why do you refuse to answer then about the training 
you received in the city of New York? 

Mr. Baxter. Because I don't think I have to answer it; it is just 
that simple, and I invoke my privilege and refuse to answer. 
' Mr. Scherer. No, because it happened to be training in a Com- 
munist Party school. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5237 

Mr. Baxter. Are you accusing me, Congressman ? That is not your 
function. That is the property of the grand jury, and I think it 
should be stricken from the record, any accusations this Congressman 
may make against me. If you have any accusation to make against 
me, make it in a court of hiw. 

Mr. ScHERER. Is the accusation I made false ? 
( Mr. Baxter. You ain't got no right to make the accusation, and 
that is why I say it shouldn't go in the record. 

Mr. Scherer. I think I have, but is the accusation false ? 

Mr. Baxter. I have given my answer to those questions. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer whether the 
accusation I made is false. 

Mr. Baxter. I don't have to answer accusations you make, and I 
will not answer accusations you make, and I will rely on the privilege 
I have already indicated. 

' Mr. Clardy. The Congressman said to direct him. I think I should 
put it to him in another way with your consent. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Baxter, isn't it a fact that you did for a period of 
time attend a Communist training school in the city of New York? 
Now, I am going to give you an opportunity to deny if it is not true. 

Mr. Baxter. I don't have to deny anything before this committee. 
Are you reversing the due-process procedure ? In other words, I am 
guilty until I prove myself innocent; is that what you are saying? 
I say, "No, that is not the situation." 

Mr. Clardy. You heard my question. Do you answer the question ? 

Mr. Baxter. I have already answered the question already. I re- 
fuse to answer any questions about — I refuse to answer that particu- 
lar question, let me say, relying on the fifth -amendment privileges, 
and I don't think any inference should be drawn from it. I refuse to 
answer because I am given to understand I don't have to answer it 
under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Clardy. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Baxter, did the Communist Party play any 
part in the establishment of the Labor Youth League 

Mr. Baxter. Are you demanding to know whether I know or not? 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing). In the State of Michigan? Yes. 

Mr. Baxter. I don't think you have that right to demand whether 
I know something or not. What I know is my business. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask the witness be instructed to answer the ques- 
tion. Let us get this in the record right. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes; you are directed, but may I suggest one thing 
more, Mr. Baxter : you are ill serving your own cause to attempt to 
argue with counsel or with the committee when a question is pro- 
pounded. 

Mr. Baxter. I have no cause here. Congressman. I didn't volun- 
tarily walk in here. You sent for me, and I am saying that you are 
asking certain things of me that you have no right to ask, and I am 
going to invoke my constitutional privileges and prevent you from 
demanding an answer and getting it. 

Mr. Clardy. All I want to suggest is that, instead of indulging in 
that sort of statement and tirade, that you just say what you finished 
up with saying there, and we will get on with our business. We under- 



5238 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

stand your feelings. You have expressed them rather adequately, I 
think, and with that, will you proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. I think, Mr. Chairman, in light of the 

Mr. Baxter. Pardon me, Counsel. 

Mr. Clardy. Just a moment. 

Mr. Baxter. Did I 

Mr. Clardy. Just a moment. The Chair asked Mr. Tavenner to go 
forward. 

Mr. Baxter. Mr. Clardy, I just want to make sure 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Baxter, this committee is in charge of this pro- 
ceeding, not you. Don't get confused here. 

Mr. Baxter. I know, but there was quite an exchange. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Tavenner, will you proceed with what you had 
to say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, in light of the attitude of the wit- 
ness, I believe I will proceed to present to the committee now and to 
this witness excerpts from the testimony of a witness taken in execu- 
tive session 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Relating to a study that the committee is making 
of the Labor Youth League in the State of Michigan as a basis for 
questioning of this witness 

Mr. Baxter, Congressman, I object to having 

Mr. Tavenner. During the course of my presentation of tliis evi- 
dence 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I will desire to interrupt it and ask the witness 
certain questions. 

Mr. Clardy. Proceed, 

Mr. Baxter. I would object to having 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Baxter 

Mr. Baxter. Wait just a minute. 

Mr. Clardy. I am in control of the proceeding here, 

Mr. Baxter. I understand that, but 

Mr. Clardy. Will you subside, please ? 

Mr. Baxter. This Congressman — — 

Mr. Clardy. Do not interrupt me further. I insist that you remain 
quiet while counsel is proceeding in an orderly way. At the proper 
time questions will be addressed to you, based upon sworn testimony 
which was taken at a hearing over which I presided. Will you pro- 
ceed, Mr. Tavenner, to read that. 

(At this point Mr, Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Clardy. I direct Mr. Baxter to refrain from any interruptions i 
until a question is addressed to him. There will be no trouble or 
difficulty if you will obey the Chair's injunction. 

Mr, Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the committee, as a result of its 
investigation, has received information that a meeting of the youth 
group of the Communist Party, which is to be distinguished from the 
Labor Youth League, met near the city of Flint around September 1, 
1949, At that meeting, according to the testimony of this witness, 
a number of people were present, and and among them this witness, 
Bolza Baxter, May I ask you, Mr. Baxter, to tell this committee 
what you know of that meeting of the youth gi-oup of the Communist 
Party, if you attended it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5239 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Baxter, I would like to move that the question he stricken. I 
object to any testimony being introduced here by some stool pigeon 
who I have not had the opportunity to confront nor cross-examine. I 
think, if somebody is going to accuse me, I have that right, just as 
well as McCarthy and the rest of the people demanding it, and I ob- 
ject to the introduction of such testimony, and I think it should be 
stricken. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tions asked by counsel. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes, Mr. Baxter ; you are directed to answer that ques- 
tion. 

Mr, Baxter. What was the question ? 

Mr. Scherer. That is just a plan on his part. He knows the ques- 
tion as well as the rest of us. 

Mr. Clardy. Just a moment. 

Mr. Baxter. You are reading my mind now. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Baxter 

Mr. Baxter, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. I have a question that will supersede the one posed. 
If you do not know the question, then on what basis did you say what 
you did immediately preceding that ? You obviously are either mis- 
stating the fact as to whether you knew what the question was or you 
said something without any basis whatsoever. The two cannot stand. 
Which is it? 

Mr. Baxter. First of all, Congressman 

Mr. Clardy, Just answer the question. 

Mr. Baxter. I am going to answer the question. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you understand the question? 

Mr, Baxter. Did I understand the question? 

Mr. Clardy, Did you understand the question? 

Mr, Baxter, I understood the question at the outset, and then there 
was an exchange, and then you directed me to answer the question, so 
I want to make sure I understand what you are directing me to answer 
so I can respond properly in my opinion. That was my purpose. 
There was no other motive involved in my asking it be restated, 

Mr, Clardy, Proceed to answer the question, I am sure — and I 
say this knowing full well that it may invoke something from you — 
but I am sure that, at the time you said you didn't laiow the question, 
you did. Now, will you proceed to answer it because I am certain you 
know what we are trying to get at. 

Mr. Baxter. I will not answer it until I have the question restated. 
There has been quite an exchange, and I want to be sure what I am 
answering. 

Mr. Clardy, Very well ; you refuse to answer. Proceed. 

Mr. Baxter. I refuse to answer, invoking my privilege under the 
fifth amendment and the first amendment. 

Mr. SciiERER. Saved by the bell. 

Mr, Baxter, Thank goodness for the bell, 

Mr. Tavenner. Tlie committee is informed that 2 weeks later, near 
the middle of September 1949 there was a second meeting of this group 
called the youth group of the Communist Party, that this meeting 
took place in a farmhouse in Lapeer County. This meeting was at- 

48861— B4—pt, 4 1 



5240 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

tended by persons other than people of the community of Flint, or 
the city of Flint. One person from out of town, the committee is 
told, was Jack Gore, who presided as chaimian. At this meeting 
the committee was told that the youth club of the Communist Party 
was advised that it was to be dissolved, and from that time on the 
youth who were members of the youth gi-oup of the Communist Party 
would be, and I quote here the term used, "categorized as the Labor 
Youth League, and the Young Progressives." Do you know whether 
or not the youth group of the Communist Party was dissolved and its 
members were directed to get into the Labor Youth League and the 
Young Progressives at Flint? 

Mr. Baxter. What I know or what I do not know is my business. 
I don't think you have the right to demand of me what I know or 
what I do not know, and I will refuse to answer that question relying 
on my fifth amendment privileges and also the first amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend that meeting in the middle of 
September 1949? 

Mr. Baxter. Same answer, the same reason. Same answer, the 
same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. The testimony on this subject was as follows : 

We were told to meet on a Saturday afternoon at this farmhouse, and when 
we arrived, we found people from out of town there. I was quite surprised 
because I had thought that the meeting was more a recreational one tlian a 
business one. After we arrived the out-of-towner, Jack Gore, presided as chair- 
man, and we were told at that time that the Communist Youth Club was being 
dissolved and that from now on the youth would be categorized as the Labor 
Youth League and the Young Progressives, often called the YP. The reason for 
dissolving the Communist Youth Clubs was that they felt that there was a 
national need for a Marxist youth organization and a national need for a youth 
organization whose function was a progressive one, but not necessarily a Marx- 
ist one. At this meeting it was brought out that with the trend of the times as 
they were, including such factors as unemployment, war, that the youth was 
ready to be moved into progressive channels, and yet, because of the hysteria 
of communism existing in the country at the time, they would be hesitant to join 
a known Communist group. At this meeting it was pointed out that the leaders 
had met previously and had discussed these questions, and it was felt that the 
Labor Youth League and the Young Progressives would make a far more valu- 
able contribution than would the Communist youth if they were known as Com- 
munist youth. 

Naturally there were several questions asked, one of them being, "Well, does 
this mean we are not Communists any more?" They were answered that, no, 
it did not mean that we were not Communists any more because they would 
still abide by the rules and regulations of the section committee and that they' 
would still have contact with the Communist Party, but it would not be as active 
a contact as they would have had previous to the organization of the Labor 
Youth League and the Young Progressives. 

Question. Did you learn from any of the persons pesent of any action that 
had been taken on a national level regarding the youth work in the Communist 
Party? 

The Witness. Yes, I did. In May of 1949, I understand, although I was not 
present at that meeting, that the national youth leaders of the Communist 
Party met 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 
Mr. Tavenner (continuing to read) : 

In Chicago, on the northside, I believe. At this meeting it was decided that 
the Labor Youth League and the Young Progressives would be much more of a 
vanguard organization than 'the young Communists working within the frame- 
work of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Moulder. Whose test,imony is being read, Mr. Tavenner ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5241 

Mr. Clardt. Mr, Moulder, that is testimony that I took in an ex- 
ecutive session last week, and for security reasons at this time it would 
be inadvisable to mention the name. 

Mr. Baxter. Do you expect me to sit here and not object to that kind 
of testimony ? 

Mr. Clakdy. Never mind, no question has been addressed to you at 
all, sir. 

Mr, Baxter. But there is stuff being read in the record while I am 
sitting here. 

Mr, Clardy. That is enough. I do not want to be compelled to do 
something that I am sure you would not like. Let us not have any 
more interruption, please. I cautioned you before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there anything about that testimony which is 
erroneous ? 

Mr. Baxter. That is hearsay, and I don't have to refer to it or 
answer to it. 

Mr. Scherer, I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Clardy. You are directed to answer, witness. 

(At this point Mr, Baxter conferred with Mr, Henry,) 

Mr, Baxter. I will refuse to answer, invoking my fifth amendment 
privileges, and I further object to it being read in the record because 
it is hearsay. It is testimony of stool pigeons, and even a stool pigeon 
hasn't been presented here, and I will not answer for those reasons. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't know whose testimony that is, and you 
still call him a stool pigeon ? 

Mr, Baxter. You wouldn't tell Congressman Moulder whose testi- 
mony it was, so I am not answering. It is hearsay as far as I am con- 
cerned. 

Mr, Clardy, Proceed, Mr, Tavenner. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. In light of your question I will read this question : 

From whom did you learn that? 

The Witness. I learned it from Bolza Baxter. 

Now, was it true or not? 

Mr. Baxter. It is still hearsay. I refuse to answer. I invoke the 
fifth amendment, 

Mr, Scherer, It is not hearsay. It is direct positive evidence taken 
before this committee under oath, 

Mr. Baxter. That is what you say. It wasn't taken in a court of 
law, and it wasn't taken before me. I haven't had the opportunity to 
cross examine the stool pigeon. 

Mr. Scherer, It might be dangerous to have it taken before you. 

Mr, Baxter. Well, let me take that chance. Take it in a court of 
law. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, you' are taking enough chances as it is. Get 
on, Mr, Tavenner, 

Mr, Baxter. That is all right. Don't worry about that. 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Question. What further discussion was there at this meeting regarding the 
assignment of the Communist Party members to the Labor Youth League and 
to the Young Progressives or any other organizations? 

The Witness. It was also felt at that time that if the people were broken 
into halves, for instance, half native young people and the other half out-of- 
towners, colonizers, which I am sure will be taken up later, that the Flint 
people could give them directions as to the environment in Flint and the 



5242 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

activities of Flint, the history of Flint, so therefore not all out-of-towners 
were put in the Young Progressives, and not all out-of-towners were put in 
the Labor Youth League because there had to be some that were from Flint 
and that were well known who could give direction to the out-of-towners. 

Are you aware of a policy of the Communist Party in 1949 and 
1950 in Flint which resulted in bringing people in from the city of 
New York and other places to colonize industry, as it was referred 
to at that time ? 

Mr. Baxter. I am aware of the fact that there are those who made 
millions through the sale of comic books, dope, sex to teenagers, and 
who conspire by selling hatred and violence through these comic 
books to brutalize the young generation. I am aware of that. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Clardt. Yes, witness, you are directed to answer the question. 

Mr, Baxter. I object to the introduction of that testimony on the 
grounds that it is hearsay. 

Mr. Ta VENDER. He is not answering the question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Baxter. And I will refuse to answer any question that has 
to do with it, relying on my privileges under the fifth amendment 
and the first amendinent. 

Mr. Clardy. Very well. I am moved to remark at this time, be- 
cause of something the witness said — and this does not call for any 
comment by you, Mr. Baxter — that at the hearing last year in Los 
Angeles it developed that the Communist Party was using comic 
books as far down the scale as from the kindergarten on up to sell 
the Communist Party line. So what the witness had to say had a 
little familiar ring to me. 

Mr. Baxter. Do you have any evidence of that ? 

Mr. Clardy. At this moment I am going to call a 5-minute recess 
to give the reporter a breathing spell. 

(Wliereupon, at 11 : 05 a. m., the hearing was recessed, to recon- 
vene at 11: 10 a. m.) 

(Wliereupon, at 11: 12 a. m., the hearing was reconvened.) 

Mr. Clardy. The committee will be in order. The hearing will 
resume. 

Mr. Baxter. Mr. Chairman, I would like to move at this time 
that all the hearsay testimony be stricken from the record on the 
grounds that the rules of procedure set up by this committee provides 
that testimony taken in secret executive session must have approval 
of the majority of the members of the committee. I don't take it 
that there has been that majority approval, and on those grounds 
I move that it be stricken. 

Mr. Cl.\rdy. Motion denied. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Question. Will you tell the committee, please, who were present at this 
meeting as far as you can recall? 

The meeting referred to was a meeting of the Communist youth 
group of the Communist Party. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 
Mr. Baxter. I will refuse to answer. 
Mr. Tavenner. That is no question. 
Mr. Baxter. Oh, I am sorry. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5243 

Mr. Ta\i:nner. That is a question propounded to this witness. 
The witness replied in part, "Bolza Baxter, who was assigned to the 
Labor Youth League as its chairman." 

Were you assigned to the Labor Youth League at Flint as its 
chairman in September 1949? 

Mr. Baxter. I will invoke the fifth amendment privilege and 
refuse to answer that question. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr, Tavenner (reading) : 

Question. Were there any special qualifications considered in assigning per- 
sons to one group or the other ; that is, to the Labor Youth League or the Young 
Progressives? 

Answer. I mentioned some of them earlier, and that was whether they were 
residents of Flint in that division there. Some of the people had worked with 
the Young Progressives at the time of the Wallace campaign and were assigned 
to Young Progres.sives because they were active in this particular work, either 
in New York or in Michigan. The Young Progressives was to assume a different 
role than the Labor Youth League, as I have explained before. Its members 
were younger. They were to work with the students in Flint. Some of them 
were more sociable in that they had more organizational ability in social affairs. 
The crux of the whole situation right here is that the Young Progressives were 
a non-Marxist group, but they were given the understanding that they should 
develop young Marxists out of this group, to develop enough progressives within 
the Young Progressives to bring them over to the Labor Youth League, and from 
the Labor Youth League there would be few, perhaps vei*y few, would become 
young Marxists. In other words, the level of the political progressiveness of a 
person determined what organization they went into. There were other con- 
siderations also, hut this was the primary function. 

Question. Were any Communist Party functionaries present at the meeting 
of September 1949 which you have been describing? 

Answer. Yes, there was a Jack Gore. He was the chairman, State chairman, 
of the Labor Youth League, and Jack White, known as John White, who was 
the local functionary chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. May I interrupt you at this point. Since there is a 
Jack White of very prominent fame here in town, we had better make 
it clear you are not speaking of WJR's Jack White. 

Mr. Tavenner. This was in Flint. 

"What type of functionary was Mr. Wliite?" was the next question. 

Answer. Well, as far as I understand, he was the chairman of the Communist 
Party for Flint and the northern section. 

Question. The northern section of the Communist Party? 

Answer. Well, it was the northern section of Michigan. I mean he had Flint 
which was the biggest city, but I believe that he also contacted other people in 
Saginaw. 

Question. Who was the leader of the Labor Youth League? 

Answer. In Flint? 

Question. In Flint. 

Answer. Bolza Baxter. Bolza Baxter was elected chairman of the Flint 
Labor Youth League in Detroit, Mich., in June of 1949. 

Is that correct ? 

Mr. Baxter. I again object to the hearsay and refuse to answer the 
question on the fifth-amendment privileges. 

Mr. Tavenner. A question was asked of the witness to describe 
what went on at the meeting in Detroit in June of 1949, to which 
the witness answered : 

Various aspects of the organization of the Labor Youth League were discussed 
pro and con, what the function of the Labor Youth League would be, as I have 
described previously. This was a State meeting of the Labor Youth League, 
organization of the Labor Youth League. This was a direct result of the May 
meeting which I have described previously that was held in Chicago on the 



5244 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 



i 



North Side. The September meeting was a result of this June meeting. I 
was pointed out how important the Flint area was in the progressive movement. 
It was pointed out that Flint was one of the first cities to organize in the trade- 
unions, and, with the proper approach and with proper leadership, the pro- 
tential was great. The person who could be best fitted for this task and who 
was a Negro was Bolza Baxter. It was pointed out that the chairmanship should 
be assumed by a Negro because of the presentation of the Negros, and it would 
clearly indicate that the Labor Youth League, a Marxist-Leninist-Stanlinist 
organization, clearly was a friend of the Negro people of Flint. So therefore 
Jack Gore was assigned as State chairman, and Bolza Baxter was assigned as 
the Flint chairman of the Labor Youth League. 

Is that statement correct with regard to you ? 

Mr. Baxter. I again object to having that read into the record for 
the reasons stated, and I invoke my first and fifth amendment priv- 
ileges and refuse to answer that question. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Question. Was the functioning of Communist Party members discussed at 
this meeting? 

Answer. Yes, they were. The Communists — and this is a difficult thing to 
explain — were to function within the organizations in which they were assigned. 
If a person were assigned to the Labor Youth League, he would function within 
the realm of the Labor Youth League. He would be a Communist first and 
always. His ideology, his way of life, his organizational ability within the 
Labor Youth League, would remain on a Communist pattern, but the Labor 
Youth League was not considered a Communist organization, and it was never 
to be considered a Communist organization, but the leadership was Communist, 
had intended to be Communist, and they were to give direction to the people that 
were not Communists within the Labor Youth League. Basically the Labor 
Youth League was considered a Marxist-Leninist organization, and a working- 
class organization, but the Communists within the Labor Youth League were to 
function as Communists within that organization. 

Question. After becoming a member of the Communist Party did you learn 
whether or not the officials of the Labor Youth League were in fact members 
of the Communist Party? 

Answer. Yes. The leadership of the Labor Youth League was in fact and for 
all purposes members of the Communist Party. The officers of the Labor Youth 
League were always elected Communists. The meetings were such that be- 
cause they took the initative they would naturally be elected as its officers. 

Mr. Baxter, were you aware of Communist Party leadership within 
the Labor Youth League in Flint ? 

Mr. Baxter. Again I object to having that read into the record, 
and I will refuse to answer that question, relying on my first and fifth 
amendment privileges. 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Question. Will you describe to the committee, please, how the Labor Youth 
League functioned? 

The answer in part is as follows : 

The Labor Youth League's role was to recruit young people of a working-clasa i 
background. They were not interested in procuring memberships from soror- 
ities, from church groups who were not in sympathy with them, but with church 
groups who had a congregation of working-class background. The Labor Youth i 
League was to attract these young persons, not through literature directly, but : 
through a l)road social and cultural program. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 
Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Question. To what extent, if any, were the meetings planned and organized I 
in advance by members of the Communist Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5245 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 
Mr. TA^^N^rER. The reply was as follows : 

The educational classes were publicized, and enrollment blanks were sent out 
that there would be a discussion, for instance, on Negro rights. Negro young 
people would be invited to attend. It was assumed that the known Communists 
would attend the meeting along with the non-Communists who had just come 
to the meeting out of curiosity 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 
Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Or perhaps they were just free that evening or a friend of theirs was attending 
ing. The classes would start out simply by saying to perhaps a young Negro 
who was attending : "Do you think that you have full Negro rights under the 
Constitution of the United States? After all, in the Constitution" — they would 
use this — "it says 'life, liberty, and justice for all.' Do you think that you have 
justice?" The answer would usually be in a negative phase because a young 
student would not know how to answer it. Understandably he couldn't say 
"Yes" and understandably he couldn't very well say "No." He didn't know why 
the question was being asked. Then a young Negro comrade would say, "Well, 
I don't think I have got my rights. They will make one a foreman that hasn't 
been working there as long as I have. I can't live on the same side of the street 
as the white people. I don't think I have my rights. Do you think you have 
I, yours?" 

Then naturally the young Negro student would say "No." From this line of 
questioning there would be other subjects entered into the discussion, such as 
"What do you think of the Ku Klux Klan?" Naturally they would disapprove 
I of the Ku Klux Klan. Before you knew what would happen, the solution to the 
i; question was Marxist, and most generally the young Negro students would agree 
to the Marxist solution to the question. All in all, the Communists controlled 
the educational classes because they had the answers. There was no give and 
take because if a young student happened to disagree, there were many young 
Communists there that were only too numerous and only too willing to show 
him how he was wrong. The young student would be outnumbered. 

Question. Who were the principal leaders in the Labor Youth League who took 
charge of these educational meetings or so-called educational meetings? 

Among those named by the witness was Bolza Baxter. Mr. Baxter, 
does that description adequately portray the activities of the Labor 
Youth League in Flint insofar as you were concerned ? 

Mr. Baxter. I object. It is hearsay. I invoke the privilege of the 
fifth amendment, the first amendment, and refuse to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner (reading). 

Question. Do you know how the work within the Labor Youth League in 
Flint compared with the work of that organization throughout the State 
generally? 

Answer. The Labor Youth League of Flint was considered the most successful 
and militant league in the State of Michigan. Very often Jack Gore, State chair- 
man, would commend Flint for the excellent job that was being done. Very 
often they would cite Flint as an example as what could be done with groups 
of people. This success was attributed to Mr. Baxter; that is, Bolza Baxter, 
and his militant leadership. The Labor Youth League in Flint was the only one 
that had its separate headquarters r it was the only one that maintained a 
separate office, and it was financially very successful, often contributing to the 
State Labor Youth League. The Labor Youth League in Flint was the one that 
had the most constructive educational program, the most constructive social 
program, and the most successful in its membership per ratio of the population 
of Flint. It was the league that was often commended for the element of work- 
ing-class youths who were members. A good 70 percent of them or 75 percent of 
them were factory workers, and a good majority were young Negro members. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 
Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Question. Did any local members of the Labor Youth League receive State or 
national recognition for their services? 



5246 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Answer. Yes, they did. 

Question. Will you tell the committee about that? 

Answei'. Bolza Baxter received State and national recognition. 

Question. In what form? 

He was later appointed State chairman. 

Does that description adequately portray your activities within 
the Labor Youth League in Flint, Mr. Baxter ? 

Mr. Baxter. I object against the hearsay being introduced into 
the record. Relying on the first and fifth amendment, I refuse to 
answer. 

Mr. Clardy. I think perhaps at this juncture I should correct your 
impression. It is obvious that 

Mr. Baxter. Whose impression, mine? 

Mr. Clardy. Not being an attorney, you are not aware of what con- 
stitutes hearsay. This is sworn testimony taken before me by a per- 
son who was testifying on the basis of firsthand knowledge of the 
statements being made. Now^, hearsay consists of someone relating 
something they have heard from someone else. I tell you that so while 
you can raise it if you want, that is not hearsay. 

Mr. Baxter. That is your interpretation of the word. I think it 
is different. 

Mr. Clardy. I understand that you as an ordinary civilian and not 
an attorney may differ with me, and that is your privilege. "Will you 
proceed ? 

Mr. Baxter. I definitely differ. Congressman. I have not been 
confronted by the stool pigeon. 

Mr. Clardy. You are being confronted with the sworn testimony of 
a witness who was 

Mr. Baxter. Which hasn't been approved by the full committee. 

Mr. Clardy (continuing) . Present at the time and places mentioned 
in the testimony. 

Mr. Baxter. It is not subject to cross-examination. 

Mr. Clardy. You will have before this is through an ample oppor- 
tunity to discover a lot of other things, too. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Baxter, I hand you a pamphlet entitled "Meet 
the Communists." Have you ever seen that pamphlet before or one 
like it? 

Mr. Baxter. Are you demanding to know what I have seen in my 
lifetime? 

Mr. Clardy. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Baxter. Well, I will refuse to answer it, relying on the first 
amendment privileges and the fifth amendment. I don't think this 
committee has a right to demand to know what I have seen. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you engage in the activity of distributing that 
pamphlet among the schoolchildren of Flint, Mich., in April of 1948? 

Mr. Baxter. Is that a question directed to me? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Baxitsr. I refuse to answer, invoking the fifth amendment 
privileges. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you hold any official position in the Communist 
Party at this time? 

Mr. Baxter. My politics is my business. I am not admitting any 
political affiliations before this connnitlee, and I will refuse to answer 
your question, invoking the first amendment and the fifth amendment 
privileges. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5247 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Baxter. The same answer to that question for the same reason. 
I think it is the same question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Baxter. Well, for the sake of being monotonous, I repeat, I will 
refuse to answer that question, relying on the first amendment and fifth 
amendment privileges. My politics is my business ; it is private. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. Any questions, Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. How many years have you been on the payroll of the 
Communist Party ? 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Baxter. That is an accusation which I don't think you are 
authorized to make. You aren't a witness sworn to give testimony 
against me whom I am permitted to cross-examine, and I will refuse to 
answer that question, invoking my first amendment privileges and 
fifth amendment privileges. 

Mr. Scherer. It was a question, but assuming that it was an accusa- 
tion, as you claim it to be, was the accusation true or false? 

Mr. Baxter. I would assume that since it was an accusation, and 
you aren't authorized to make accusations, then you should withdraw 
the accusation. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you answer the question, please, witness. He 
asked you whether the statement which you said you regarded as an 
accusation was true or false. 

Mr. Baxter. I am not obligated to answer any such question or 
any such charge by Congressman Scherer, and I will invoke the fifth 
amendment privileges and refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Clardy. Any questions, Mr. Moulder ? 

Mr. Moulder. I have one question to ask. Wliat is your definition 
of a stoolpigeon ? 

Mr. Baxter. Well, I would say that a stoolpigeon is lower than a 
snake and would do anything for a price, would lie and cheat, and 
would lie on their mother, if necessary. They are the lowest creatures 
on the face of the earth, and I would not dignify them by even consid- 
ering any allegation that they may make. 

(At this i3oint Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Baxter. And before we are concluded 

Mr. Clardy. We are not through with you yet. 

Mr. Baxter. All right. I just want to make this point. 

Mr. Clardy. No; you are not being asked any question now. I 
have a question or two to ask you, though, if Mr. Moulder has con- 
cluded. I don't imagine you are satisfied with that attempt, but we 
will pass it. Mr. Baxter, some time ago did you not release a state- 
ment to the newspapers dealing with the service of the committee's 
subpena upon you in which you admitted that you were the chairman 
of the Labor Youth League? I am just asking you if you didn't 
release such a statement. 

Mr. Baxter. Well, I am going to answer you. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, I hope you are. 

Mr. Baxter, Any statement that I may or may not have issued 
comes under the first amendment privileges. I consider that freedom 

48861— 54— pt. 4 5 



6248 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

of speech, and I don't have to answer before this committee for any- 
thing; I said to the press or outside of these hearing rooms, just like 
you don't have to answer for the claim that we rehearsed the disrup- 
tion of the proceedings on Monday. 

Mr. Clardy. Now, come back to my question. 

Mr. Baxter. And I will refuse to answer that question. 

]\[r. Clardy, Was there a news release— listen to my question. Was 
there a news release put out by you and published in the press in which 
you stated that you were the chairman of the LYL? Now, I direct you 
to answer that because I think that you are not entitled to the privilege 
under the fifth amendment, so I direct that you answer. 

Mr. Baxter. Well, I think I am entitled to the privilege in refusing 
to answer any questions that has to do with speeches I may have made 
or statements that I may have issued, invoking the first and fifth 
amendments and refusing to answer that question. 

Mr. Clardy. All right. Very well. 

(At this point Mr. Baxter conferred with Mr. Henry.) 

Mr. Clardy. Did you not attend a convention of the Labor Youth 
League on March 22 last year, 1953, at which you were introduced 
as chairman of that group? 

Mr. Baxter. I think any question that has to do with any meeting 
that I may or may not have attended is purely personal and private 
and is prohibited — your question is prohibited by the fiirst amend- 
ment. I invoke that amendment and also invoke the fifth amendment 
privileges and refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Clardy. Was not that convention held at Jericho Temple at 
2705 Joy Road and were you not introduced by Tom Dennis, one of 
the Smith Act defendants who was recently convicted? 

Mr. Baxter. Same answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you have any further questions, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Taxtsnner. No, sir. 

]SIr. Clardy. Witness excused. The subpena as to you is not dis- 
missed, but you are excused from the stand, so there will be no mis- 
understanding in your mind. You will be subject to further call of 
the committee if it desires to do so after studying this record. 

Mr. Baxter. I just wanted to add this point. 

Mr. Clardy. Dismissed for the day. No, the witness is dismissed. 
Call your next witness, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Bernard Bellinson. 

]\Ir. Clardy. You do solemnly swear the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Belltnson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. You may be seated. I see you are accompanied by 
counsel. Will you identify yourselves for the record? 

Mr. SciiNAAR. My name is Mitchell Schnnar. S-c-h-n-a-a-r. As 
to the photographers, Congressman, I would like 

Mr. Clardy. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Ci-ARDY. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5249 

TESTIMONY OF BEKNARD BELIINSON, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, MITCHELL SCHNAAR 

Mr. Bellinsox. My name is Bernard Bellinson. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. When and where were 3^011 born? 

]Mr. Bellinson. Excuse me. I have a statement that I would like 
to put into the record at this time. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, you wnll answer the question. If you do 
answer the questions and have a relevant statement, at the conclusion 
of your testimony you may be afl'orded the opportunity, but tlie state- 
ment will have to be fjermane, but it will not be permitted unless and 
until you have answered the questions propounded to you. 

Mr. Bellinson. Can I please say something? 

Mr. Clardy. You may not say anything yet. 

]Mr. Bellinson. But this is my answer to all the questions about 
this committee. 

Mr. Clardy. Now, witness, please refrain from interrupting me or 
counsel at any time. You were present when I admonished the prior 
witness, I am sure, and you understand that in order to conduct this 
business in the proper atmosphere and in the proper way, one of us 
have to speak at a time, no more. You will not be permitted, I repeat, 
to make any self-serving statement of any kind until the conclusion 
of your testimony, and only then in the event that you have answered 
the questions and not refused to answer on the fifth or so other amend- 
ment, so proceed. 

Mr. Bellinson. Congressman, you let the other witnesses make a 
statement or present a statement into the record. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, I will not entertain any further statement 
of any kind at this time until you have answered the question. Now, 
we are more than patient, and we will not in anyway cut you off if you 
follow the procedure that I outlined. But you must obey the rules. 
We cannot have it any other way. Will you proceed, Mr. Tavenner, 
and reask your question? 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Bellinson. I was born January 25, 1928, in a hospital in New 
York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. Bellinson. 3221 Gladstone. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the city of Detroit? 

Mr. Bellinson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in the city of Detroit? 

Mr. Bellinson. Approximately 5 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that mean that you came to Michigan in 1949 
or 1950? 

JNIr. Bellinson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived in Detroit the entire period since 
your arrival in Michigan? 

(At this point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. Bellinson. I refuse to answer that question on the privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your purpose in leaving New York and 
coming to the great State of Michigan? 



5250 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Bellinson. Well, you see, attorney, I had to make a living 
because my parents, my father, was out of a job, and for that reason 
I came here. There was work at that time, and economically and for 
the higher standard of living I decided to come here. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any other reason ? 

Mr. Clardy. Would you repeat that, witness ? I didn't relate that 
to a proper date. What date was that? 

Mr. Bellinson. What? 

Mr. Tavenner. That you came here. 

Mr. Bellinson. The attorney said what date it was. I said approxi- 
mately 5 years. 

Mr. Clardy. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any other reason for coming to 
Detroit? 

(At this point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. Bellinson. I respectfully decline to answer that question under 
the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Weren't you directed in the city of New York what 
nature of employment you should seek in Detroit ? 

Mr. Bellinson. Same answer, same question. 

(At this point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. Bellinson. Same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party before 
coming to Detroit? 

Mr. Bellinson. At this time I would like to answer this question in 
the following manner: I respectfully refuse to answer this or similar 
questions of this character for the following reasons: No. 1, the ques- 
tion violates the freedom of press, speech, and assembly guaranteed to 
all individuals in the first amendment to the Constitution which this 
committee is trying to deprive me of; No. 2, this committee spreads 
hysteria, fear, intimidation and is in direct violation of the ninth and 
tenth amendments which give Congress the right to be a legislative 
and not a judicial body, and this is a public trial where due process of 
law is being deprived ; No. 3, this question violates the right of privi- 
lege as granted in the fourth amendment; No. 4, this question violates 
the fifth and sixth amendments which guarantee that no person shall 
be denied life, liberty, and property without due process of law, trial 
by jury, the right to know the nature and cause of the accusation, the 
right to confront and cross-examine the accusers by your attorney 
which are denied by this committee. This committee violates all con- 
stitutional rights and legal court proceedings and is only a star 
chamber inquisitorial hearing. I further refuse this or other ques- 
tions of this character for these reasons and primarily on my fifth 
amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you aware of any policy on the part of the 
Communist Party to engage in what has been frequently termed colo- 
nization of industry by the Communist Party? 

Mr. Bellinson. Same answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. By "colonization of industry" I mean the change 
of your occupation and your entering a field in which the Conmiunist 
Party desires one to enter. You understand the meaning of it. 

Mr. Bellinson. I just heard the testimony of some hearsay wit- 
ness before a one-man hearing — everybody disagrees with one-man 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5251 

hearings — and that is what was said by some witness in a closed execu- 
tive session, and I understand what that 

Mr. Tavenner. You understand what it means? 

Mr. Bellinson. Yes. 

Mr. SciiERER. Have you ever heard that before that time ? 
(At this point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you ever heard of colonization before ? 

Mr. Bellinson. Same answer, same question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. You never heard of colonization be- 
fore you heard the testimony of the witness read to this morning ? 

Mr. Bellinson. Same answer, same question — same reasons. 

Mr. Scherer. The fact is, you knew about it in 1949 or 1950 when 
you came over here at the direction of the Communist Party as a 
part of the group to colonize certain Detroit basic industry, did you 
not? 

(At this point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. Bellinson. Congressman, if you would like to testify, I would 
gladly relinquish my chair for you, but j-ou 

Mr. Scherer. Did your lawyer tell you to say that now ? About my 
testifying? 

Mr. Bellinson. But you have the right of congressional immunity, 
and you can say anything you want here, and you can't be sued. 

Mr. Scherer. Is what I said true or false ? 

Mr. Bellinson. What are you trying to do? Are you trying to 
change the whole clue-process-of-law provisions in the Constitution? 

Mr. Scherer. I think I understand clue process. 

Mr. Ci^RDY. Witness, answer the question that Congressman 
Scherer propounded. 

Mr. Scherer. Is what I said true or false ? 

Mr. Clardy. The same answer for the same reasons that I have 
said before. 

Mr. Tavenner. What employment did you obtain when j^ou came to 
Detroit? 

Mr. Bellinson. I worked at Briggs. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you hold an official position in your union ? 

(At this point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me withdraw that question for the moment. 
You are not employed by Briggs at this time, are you? 

Mr. Bellinson. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where are you employed now? 

(At tliis point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. Bellinson. I work at the Ford Motor Co. Rouge plant. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you begin your employment with the 
Ford Motor Co. ? 

Mr. Bellinson. The exact date I am not sure. I think it is about 
December 26, 1949. 

Mr. Tavenner. 1949? 

Mr. Bellinson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was very soon after you arrived in Detroit, 
was it not? 

Mr. Bellinson. No, I wouldn't say it was very soon. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Well, how long was it after you arrived here before 
you got employment in that plant ? 



5252 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Bellinson. Well, I had different jobs before I worked at Ford. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. How long, I say, was it ? 

Mr. Bellinson. Oh, a couple of months. 

Mr. Tavenner. A couple of months? 

Mr. Bellinson. I was laid off, and I went to apply for another job. 
That is what I did, and that is why I had different jobs. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Did you have any instruction prior to your coming 
to the city of Detroit that you were to obtain a position in a basic 
industry ? 

Mr. Bellinson. I refuse to answer that question based on my fifth- 
amendment privilege. 

: Mr. SciiERER. What type of work were you doing in New York 
before you came to Detroit ? 

Mr. Bellinson. Well, I had many part-time jobs. I am only 26 
years old. Congressman, and I was in the Army, and it doesn't leave 
me very much — very many years. 

Mr. Scherer. I understand, but what type of work were you doing 
before you came to Detroit? 

Mr. Bellinson. I had different types of 

Mr. Scherer. What was your last job? 

Mr. Bellinson. Well, working in a grocery store. 

Mr. Scherer. What was the one before that? 

Mr. Bellinson. I mean, they have all been part-time jobs that I 
have had, and with school, I don't remember. I have worked since 
I have been 12 years old, so I don't know. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, you and I have something in common then. 
That is about the only thing. 

Mr. Bellinson. The only difference of you and I is that, you see, 
my record is known to the public, and I am not afraid of my record. 
But you won't admit your record. Yesterday you asked one of the 
witnesses about public housing. Did you vote against the i)ublic hous- 
ing bill in Congress? 

Mr. Clardy. Now that will be just about enough, witness. 

Do you folks in the audience want to attend this afternoon or not ? 
And I am in deadly earnest. Those doors are going to remain closed 
this afternoon if I hear one more demonstration of that kind, and none 
of you will be admitted other than the people that are to be called as 
witnesses or their attorneys. This may be a humorous proceeding to 
some of you sitting in the audience. It is not such to the Congress of 
the United States, and, thank God, to the vast majority of the people 
in this country. 

(At this point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. Clardy. We will not tolerate any more demonstrations. I 
repeat it, we will not tolerate it. Now, will you resume. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. What was the first job you had when you came 
to Detroit? 

Mr. Bellinson. I worked at Briggs. 

Mr. Scherer. And what type of work did you do at Briggs? 

Mr. Bellinson. I worked in the shipping department. 

Mr. Clardy. May I interject? Then when you came here, the type 
of work that you did was somewhat of a change from the work you 
had been doing in New York? 

Mr. Bellinson. No, I looked for different types of jobs, and I 
worked at the Jewish Community Center for a while, and I looked for 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5253 

a job "which would pay me sufficient amount of money — you see, I am 
not satisfied if I would make $50 a week, and you know, yourself, 
that 

Mr. Clardt. You didn't answer my question. 

Mr. Bellixson. That because of the unions today there is a higher 
standard of living in the automobile industry than there is in the 
grocery store. 

Mr. Clardy. Now to come back to my question. You did, then, 
drift into a different line of employment than you had followed in 
New York, didn't you ? 

Mr. Bellinson. I looked for a job where I would make sufficient 
amount of money 

Mr. Clardy. All right, if you won't answer the question. Proceed, 
Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, the fact is that you were directed to go to the 
Ford plant to seek employment, wasn't that the fact? 

Mr. Bellinson. I refuse to answer that question based on my fifth 
amendment privilege. 

Mr. Clardy. AVell, to be specific, you were directed by the Com-< 
munist Party to seek that for the purposes of the party, were you 
not? 

Mr. Bellinson. You see, you have congressional immunity here. 

Mr. Clardy. Just answer the question, Witness. Were you not di- 
rected by the Communist Party and no one else to seek employment 
in the motor industry in Detroit in order to further the interests of 
the Communist Party? 

(At this point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

]\Ir. Scherer. Specifically, local 600 at the Ford plant. 

Mr. Clardy. Now either answer or decline. 

Mr. Bellinson. I was laid oflf from work, and I went to look for a 
job, and the Ford Motor Co, hired me, and that is the answer, and for 
any other reason I use my fifth amendment privilege. 

Mr. Clardy. Very well. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. What was your educational training? 

Mr. Clardy. I went to public school, I went to high school, I went 
2 years to college. 

Mr, Clardy. I didn't catch that, three ? 

Mr. Bellinson. Approximately 2 years to college. 

Mr. Clardy. Two years? 

Mr. Bellinson. Approximately, yes, sir. 

Mr, Tavenner, "Wliat college? 

Mr. Bellinson. New York University. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Bellinson. I thought that I answered those questions before, 
and I state again here that I refuse to answer that question on the basis 
of the 1st, the 4th, the 6th, the 9th, the 10th, and primarily on my 
6th amendment privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you ever a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bellinson. Same answer, same reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr, Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. No. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr, Moulder, 



5254 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Moulder. I just wanted to know, what are your duties of em 
ployment now at Ford? 

MV. Bellinson. I work on the assembly line. 

Mr. Moulder. And to be more specific what is the exact work tha 
you perform ? 

Mr. Bellinson. Well, I work on the assembly line. I mean, d 
you want me to show you what I do ? 

Mr. Moulder. Well, no, I mean what part of the assembly ? 

Mr. Bellinson. Building motors. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you belong to local 600? 

(At this point, Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Local 600, UAW? 

(At this point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. Bellinson. I think it has been in the papers before what imio: 
I belong to, and I think it is a matter of public knowledge what union 
I belong to, and I refuse to answer any question based on my fifth- 
amendment privilege. 

Mr. Clardt. Now, Witness, may I tell you that having stated as 
you did that it is a matter of public knowledge that you are such, 
you do not and will not have the benefit of the fifth amendment. I 
accordingly direct you to answer that question. 

(At this point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. Bellinson. I said it was a matter of public record what union 
I may belong to, and I refuse to answer any further question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment privilege and the reasons that I have 
stated previously. 

Mr. Clardy. I have a question. It is my understanding, and I want 
you to tell me whether it is correct or not, that at the time the interna- 
tional administrator took over for a period of time local 600, that you 
and a nimiber of others were removed from your positions in the union 
because of Communist affiliations. Now, is that or is that not correct? 

Mr. Bellinson. Anything that goes on in my union or in any union 
is not the business of this committee, and I refuse to answer any ques- 
tions in relationship to my union or any union on the fifth-amendment 
privilege, and the other reasons that I have given before. 

Mr. Claiujy. Any further questions, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Bellinson. At this time I would like to present this statement 
to the committee to put into the record. 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon just a moment. Mr. Moulder? Mr. Moulder 
has some questions. 

Mr. Moulder. I wanted to ask you, when you came to Detroit seek- 
ing employment, who recommended you for your position of employ- 
ment at the Ford Motor Co. ? 

Mr. Bellinson. I don't Imow what you are implying by that ques- 
tion, but I, as other thousands of w^orkers who are unemployed today, 
would go to work at any place where there was hiring. I was laid off 
at that time, I had a part-time job at the Jewish Community Center, 
and for that reason I was interested in making more money as every- 
body else is. 

Mr. Moulder. To whom did you apply for employment at the Ford 
Motor Co. ? 

Mr. Bellinson. I went to the employment office. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5255 

Mr. Moulder. Do you remember the person you discussed your 
application with? 

Mr. Bellinson. No, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Were you a member then of the union of which you 
are now a member? 

(At this point Mr. Bellinson conferred with Mr. Schnaar.) 

Mr. Bellinson. As I stated before, my union activities are the busi- 
ness of the union and it has nothing to do with this committee's hearing, 
and I refuse to answer that question based on my fiftli-amendment 
privilege. 

Mr. ScHERER. Again I ask you, witness, if it isn't a fact that you 
sought employment at the Ford plant and eventually obtained it as 
a result of a directive to you by the CommunistParty ? 

Mr. Bellinson. Same answer, same reasons. 

Mr. Clardy. Any further questions, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness dismissed. The committee stands in recess 
until 1:30. 

Mr. Bellinson, I would just like to make a statement here. 

Mr. Clardy. The record is closed. We will recess. 

(Thereupon, at 12: 02 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 1 : 30 p. m. of the same day.) 

afternoon session 

(At the hour of 1 : 35 p. m. of the same day, the proceedings were 
resumed. Representatives Kit Clardy (acting chairman), Gordon H. 
Scherer, and Morgan M. Moulder being present. ) 

Mr. Clardy. The hearing will resume. Are you ready, Mr. Tav- 
enner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. Mr. William H. Johnson, will you come 
forward, please? 

Mr. Clardy. Will you raise your right hand? Do you solemnly 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Johnson. I do. 

Mr. Clardy. Since you are accompanied by counsel, will counsel 
please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Franklin. Godfrey Franklin. 

Mr. Johnson. Mr. Chairman, I don't have counsel. This happens 
to be a personal friend of mine, and, if the committee has no objection, 
I would wish that he would be permitted to sit here with me. 

Mr. Clardy. You may be accompanied that way if you wish. I 
intended that statement as a compliment. Don't take it in any other 
way, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM H. JOHNSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
GODFREY FRANKLIN 

Mr. Johnson. William H. Johnson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and where w^ere you born, Mr. Johnson ? 

Mr. Johnson. Born in Nashville, Tenn., on November 1, 1916. 

48801^54— pt. 4 6 



5256 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Johnson. 2296 West Boston Boulevard. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the city of Detroit ? 

Mr. Johnson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in the city of Detroit? 

Mr. Johnson. Oh, since 1927, March of 1927. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your edu- 
cational training has been ? 

Mr. Johnson. I am a graduate of Wayne University Law School. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the year in which you received your 
degree ? 

Mr. Johnson. 1952, 1 believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been admitted to the practice of law ? 

Mr. Johnson. No, I haven't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Johnson, the investigation conducted by the 
committee indicates you have held a number of responsible positions 
in your union. What union is it that you are a member of ? 

Mr. Johnson. Local 600, UAW-CIO. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat are the positions that you have held, the 
principal positions you have held, in local 600 of the UAW? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, within the unit and within the local union 
I have been a member of the bargaining committee several times. 
I have been the recording secretary of the local union — this is the 
third time that I have held that position over the years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are those terms for 2 years each ? 

Mr. Johnson. No, this is the first 2-year term that we have had. 
It started last year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then you have been recording secretary for either 
3 or 4 years ? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, 2 previous terms, 1 in 1946 — well, I was first 
elected in 1946. Then I was reelected in 1947, and then I was elected 
last year, 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any other position in your local 
union besides that of recording secretary since 1946 ? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, since 1946 I was twice president of one of 
the units, the Dearborn iron foundry unit. 

Mr. Tavenner. What years were you president of those units? 

Mr. Johnson. 1950 was the first term and 1952 the second term. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Johnson, the committee has been investigat- 
ing for some period of time the objectives of the Communist Party 
and their efforts to infiltrate various organizations in the United 
States, including labor unions. I would like to ask you if, during 
the period of your vast experience in the union, you have had oc- 
casion to learn of an effort on the part of the Communist Party to 
become active within the framework of your union ? 

Mr. Johnson. I would appreciate it if you would make the ques- 
tion a little more specific. That is a pretty general question, calling 
for a pretty general answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, it is, but I think it is susceptible of an answer. 
In other words, what I want to know is whether or not you know 
whether the Communist Party has endeavored to exercise its influence 
and its control within the framework of your union? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, as a leader within the local union and as a 
political individual within the local union, I have heard rumors, but 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5257 

to just make a flat statement "Yes" or "No," that is quite a difficult 
thing to do. I know of other organizations that have, through rumor 
or allegation or 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, of course, you are a person directly connected 
with this union in a responsible position. 

Mr. Johnson. That is true. 

Mr. Taa-enner. I would think you would be in a position to know 
without having to rely upon rumor. 

Mr. Johnson. Well, that question to me seems to imply that I 
would be in a position to know what the activities of the Communist 
Party are. About all that I could see of those types of activities are 
what I have read about in newspapers. I mean, those are things of 
such a general nature. 

Mr. Tavenner. To make it more specific 

Mr. Johnson. I would appreciate it. 

Mr. Tavenner. To make it more specific, during the year that you 
were president, for instance, of the Dearborn 

Mr. Johnson. Iron foundry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Iron foundry, did any member of the Communist 
Party endeavor to take any action tending to influence the conduct of 
the affairs of the union to your knowledge? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, to answer that question would make it a prime 
requisite that I would be able to identify who was and who wasn't 
a member of the Communist Party. I couldn't do that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You cannot tell the committee anything about the 
activities of the Communist Party within your union? You don't 
mean to say that ; do you ? 

Mr. Johnson. Frankly, I still wish you would make the question 
more specific because I can't identify who is a Communist and who 
isn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, has anyone 

Mr. Johnson. I mean, if someone would stand up in a membership 
meeting while I was chairing the meeting and make a motion, I 
couldn't say that he is a Communist or he is not a Communist. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, let us put the question this way : In the prac- 
tical operation of the affairs of your union — and by asking these ques- 
tions I want it plainly understood tliat I am not endeavoring to inquire 
as to any intraunion dispute or affair, but only for the purpose of 
ascertaining the methods of operation of the Communist Party and 
the extent of its success or failure. Now, in the way in which your 
union transacts its business, do you have a group which you call the 
progressive caucus of your union ? 

Mr. Johnson. We have a progressive caucus; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have been a member of it, haven't you ? 

Mr. Johnson. That is tiTie. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. You have been chairman of it, haven't you ? 

Mr. Johnson. Never the local caucus ; no. I can't recall that I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, have you been chairman of the 

Mr. Johnson. I was chairman of a unit caucus. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the unit caucus ? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes. ■ 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you chairman of the unit caucus? 



5258 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Johnson. Oli, I guess that would go all the way from about — 
from 1945 up to, oh, the last time I was chairman. By that, let me 
explain this. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Johnson. I was always chairman of my own caucus. It was 
more commonly called the Bill Johnson caucus. That was the caucus 
composed of people who supported me for either election or reelection. 
Every candidate had his own caucus, so to speak. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; but what we were speaking of was the pro- 
gressive caucus which you mentioned a moment ago. You said you 
had been chairman of the progressive caucus of the unit? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes; at times. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean ; within the unit ? 

Mr. Johnson. Within the building, within the particular building. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that mean Dearborn ? 

Mr. Johnson. Within the foundry, foundry building. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would that caucus meet prior to action that was 
being taken by your union on various matters? 

Mr. Johnson. No; that caucus met whenever I called it to meet, 
and we met on problems that were essential to the unit, such as a 
caucus would generally decide who they were going to run for unit 
officers, the same as my political caucus does. 

Mr, Tavenner. Well, now, was there an inner caucus within your 
progressive caucus? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, there might have been. I didn't know any- 
thing about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. You wouldn't know ? 

Mr. Johnson. I guess there are caucuses within every caucus. I 
guess it is safe to say that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, do you know of any inner caucus in which 
the members of the Communist Party have participated within your 
unit ? 

Mr, Johnson. No ; not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Not to your knowledge? 

Mr. Johnson. I mean everything the members of the caucus had to 
say, they would say it at the meeting. If 3 or 4 individuals would 
decide to step outside the caucus and think of some other things or 
plan to do some other things, I wouldn't have any way of knowing 
that, the same as if it was a Republican or Democratic caucus. I 
couldn't answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVhere would you hold the caucus meeting? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, generally wherever we could get a place to meet, 
wherever we could get a place to meet. We would sometimes meet in 
the basement of one of the fellows' homes if he had a large basement. 
Generally, the consideration we were concerned with was that no one 
had too much money to pay for a meeting hall, and wherever we could 
get a reasonably cheap place to meet, some place that would cost $2, 
$3, $5, something like that, we would meet. We didn't have any 
particular place to meet. We didn't meet that often. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever meet in Communist headquarters? 

Mr. Johnson. Never to my recollection. • We may have met in 
some place that might have been supposed to have been, I don't know. 
You would have to identify tlie place. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5259 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask : Wouldn't you oppose any effort on the 
part of the Communists to dominate or control or influence organized 
labor or unions? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Or your union? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. You say you would? 

Mr. Johnson. I would. 

Mr. Moulder. Of course, I, myself, am in favor of organized labor 
and support it, and I think it is an essential part of our economy 
and a must and necessity for our country and protection of the labor- 
ing people to have strong, organized unions. 

I am liappy to hear you say, for the protection of organized labor 
and for its best interest, that you oppose any Communist influence 
within organized labor. 

Mr. Johnson. I certainly would. 

Mr. Clardy. Have you done so ? 

Mr. Johnson. To the best of my knowledge I believe I have. 

Mr. Moulder. In further commenting on that, as you know, of 
course, the aim of communism is to ultimately destroy organized 
labor and unions because they are not tolerated in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Clardy. Was that not in the form of a question ? 

Mr. Moulder. No ; I made that comment. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you agree with the comment of Congressman 
Moulder ? 

Mr. Johnson. To the 

Mr. Clardy. To the general effect that the Communist Party is 
obviously dedicated to' the destruction of the union movement when 
once they gain power and control ? 

Mr. Johnson. I have heard a lot of evidence to that effect. 

Mr. Clardy. Is that your honest belief ? 

Mr. Johnson. I think I would subscribe to that. 

Mr. Moulder. And, in further commenting, it is my opinion that 
organized labor has made every effort and successfully so, to rid itself 
of Communist influence in this country. 

Mr. Johnson. That is true. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes, they have; in a great many places. Of course, 
there are still, as we all know, some places where the fight is still 
going on, and it hasn't reached a complete victory for those who do 
oppose it. There is no need to go into details, but I am sure you 
will agree maybe that there are still some sore spots scattered about 
the Nation in some of the union groups, and we, on this committee 
are doing our best to try to help those who would root them out, as 
Congressman Scherer suggested to me here. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. What motor plant was it in which your local had 
jurisdiction ? 

Mr. Johnson. You mean what company ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Johnson. Ford Motor Co. ; Rouge plant. 

(At this point Mr. Johnson conferred with Mr. Franklin.) 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has received information that Phil 
Schatz and James Jackson were full-time Communist Party employees 



5260 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

assigned to the Ford section of the Communist Party. Did you ever 
meet with either or both of them in connection with the business of 
your union ? 

Mr. Johnson. I believe I met with Jackson once. I don't recall 
whether Scliatz was present or not. It was on the question of speedup 
or something like that, within the unit. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee is also advised that William Allan, 
Carl Winter, and Ned Ganley 

Mr. Johnson. AVhat Ganley was that? 

Mr. Tavenner. Ned Ganley. Am I incorrect in the first name? 

Mr. Johnson. I know of a Nat Ganley. 

Mr. Tavenner. Possibly it is Nat Ganley. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes, Mr. Counsel, it is; N-a-t. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were top leaders in the Communist Party and were 
they interested in the Ford section of the Communist Party. Did 
you confer with them or any of them at any time regarding the busi- 
ness of the union ? 

Mr. Johnson. I conferred once with — who was the first one you 
named ? 

Mr. Tavenner. William Allan. 

Mr. Johnson. No ; you named 2 or 3. 

Mr. Tavenner. Carl Winter. 

Mr. Johnson. Carl Winter. I conferred once with Carl Winter 
at my own request. We had a particular problem within the unit 
where we thought we could possibly get a better working relationship 
in the unit if people that we felt were associated with tlie Communist 
Party would cease certain disruptive activities within the unit. That 
was in the early part of 1946, 1 believe. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Well, what was the nature of the disruptive work 
of the Communist Party witliin your unit ? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, it was sniping generally at the elected chair- 
man of the unit. I don't know where you 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you confer with him at any later time than 
1946? 

Mr. Johnson. No, I never did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Dave Moore was active in 
Communist Party matters within your local ? 

Mr. Johnson. No, to the best of my knowledge Dave Moore is not 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not speaking of whether he is a member now. 

Mr. Johnson. Well, as far as I know, he has never been — I mean, of 
my own knowledge. I haven't known Dave Moore too long, but I 
have never known of him 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at any time, in behalf of your union, ask 
the Ford section of the Communist Party for any assistance in the 
matter of printing of leaflets or the distribution of leaflets relating 
to various issues ? 

Mr. Johnson. I can recall one time — now, I am not certain as to 
just what this setup was. I was told about it, and I availed myself of 
it. I remember in 1949, I believe, when I first ran for chairman of 
the foundry unit that some of our caucus members had arranged to 
have some mimeographing work down by — I think this was at the 
headquarters of the Progressive Party or some district headquarters 
or something, and we had some leaflets printed up there for the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5261 

purpose of — they were political campaign leaflets to be used in the 
election. If the Communist Party had anything to do with it, I 
didn't know anything about it, I think that was in 

]Mr. Tavenner. Where did they go to have that work performed? 

Mr, Johnson. Oh, we went to a place over on Michigan Avenue. 
There was a store front. I think it had the name of the Progressive 
Party right on the front of it, if I recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you remember the address? 

Mr. Johnson, No, 1 don't, 

Mr, Tavenner, Was that 5642 Michigan Avenue ? 

Mr, Johnson, I believe that was — wait a minute, maybe I am mis- 
taken. Maybe there were two places. I remember that one of the 
places had the name of the Progressive Party, I believe, on the glass 
or on a sign or something. There was a mimeograph machine there, 
and we had some political campaign leaflets run off there. Then we 
ntight have at another place at 5642, too. 

Mr. Tavenner. You think there were 2 different places ? 

Mr. Johnson, I am pretty sure of it, although I am not sure of the 
time, the exact time, 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Well, did you hold any of your caucus meetings — I 
might say of an inner gi^oup of your caucus — at 5642 Michigan 
Avenue ? 

INIr. Johnson. No, I never held any caucus meetings there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever go to 5642 Michigan Avenue on any 
type of business? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, I think we did have the use of a mimeograph 
machine there. I think I went there to get some leaflets, to have some 
leaflets mimeographed. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVhen you got the leaflets prepared at 5642, who 
composed the material- 



Mr. Johnson. I always write my own 

Mr. Taa'enner (continuing). — that went in them? You wrote 
them yourself? 

Mr. Johnson. I write my own leaflets. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you confer with others in the preparation of 
those leaflets? 

Mr, Johnson. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive the assistance of any persons in 
the preparation of the leaflets, either by way of the material that 
went into them or the printing of them, by persons who were not 
members of your union? 

l^Ir. Johnson. You mean did anyone operate the mimeograph 
machine? 

Mr. Tavenner. I mean arrange to have them operated or prepare 
the material who were not members of your union? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, I prepared my own material. Just how the 
arrangement was worked out to get the use of the machine, I don't 
know. I was just informed that it was there if I wanted to avail 
myself of it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, what I am trying to find out, of course, is 
to what extent, if any, you either sought or accepted the assistance 
of the Communist Party in any of the affairs of your union ? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, as far as I know, the Communist Party didn't 
have anything to do with it, as far as I know. I mean, I had a leaflet 



5262 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

that I wanted mimeographed for distribution at the gates as we 
usually do in our campaigns, and I understood there was a place 
where I could get the leaflet mimeographed, run off the machine, 
and it would cost me just a slight cost for the paper involved. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you raise your voice a little. It is difficult to hear 
up here. We have some competition, but we don't dare close the win- 
dows because it becomes too hot. Apparently somebody downstairs 
has decided to make it very hot for everybody up here. 

Mr. Johnson. Well, I was stating I understood we could get mimeo- 
graphed service there very cheaply if we would just pay the cost of 
the materials used, the ink and paper. Not having a lot of money of 
my own and needing the material for the campaign, I used that service. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that service performed by the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Johnson. Not to my knowledge, it wasn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then according to your testimony up to the present 
time, as far as I can understand it, you are stating that there was no 
cooperation of any kind in the operation of the affairs of your union 
as far as you are concerned with the Communist Party, is that the 
position I understand that you are taking? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, again that is an awfully general question. I 
have tried to respond to the questions that you have asked, but that 
question is of such a general nature. I wish you could again be more 
specific with the question. I am not trying to avoid answering. I 
fully want to answer every question that you ask me, but it is difficult 
to answer a very general question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, necessarily it must be general. Wliat do you 
know about Communist Party activities within your union? You 
either know or you don't know. 

Mr. Johnson. I assume that question would cover the whole period 
of time the union has been organized, is that it ? 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Well, you don't have to make it as all-embracive as 
that. Let us take from 1946. 

Mr. Johnson. From 1946 what do I know of the 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, of the activities of the Communist Party 
within your union. 

Mr. Johnson. Well, as I stated to you before, I did have one meet- 
ing with Carl Winter in 1946, at which time — well, it wasn't just 
myself ; it was myself and two others. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio were they ? 

Mr. Johnson. We sought to 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were they ? 

Mr. Johnson. It was the chairman of the unit and one other fellow. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were they ? 

Mr. Johnson. Horace Sheffield was the chairman of the unit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was the other person ? 

Mr. Johnson. Leroy Krawford was the other person. The three 
of us had a meeting with Carl Winter, and we thought that through 
such a meeting we could end the sniping, the internal dissension and 
the bickering that was going on with the unit that we thouglit was 
probably directed by people who were either close to the Comnumist 
Party or party members. We didn't know, but we had reason to sus- 
pect that, and we thought that if some of their pronouncements were 
correct in terms of trying to build the labor movement, they would 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF IVOCHIGAN 5263 

cease activities that were detrimental to the hibor movement, or at 
least to that unit of the labor movement. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did all appearances of activity on the part of the 
ComjBunist Party within your union cease after that conference < 

Mr. JoiixsoN. No, there was no change in the situation. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is going on today, isn't it ? 

Mr. Johnson. No ; that is something I didn't say. I said it didn't 
cease at that time. That was 194:6. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then when did it cease? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, I was speaking of an isolated instance that 
happened in a particular unit in 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did that isolated incident cease? 

Mr. Johnson. I say the situation that developed then didn't change 
any. It was the same way — I mean the chairman of the unit, Shef- 
field, myself, and this other person, were opposed to these people we 
thought were disruptive and beiiig in an opposing political gi'oup 
we thought them politically 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you observed any activity on the part of the 
Communist Party within your union since that time ? 

Mr. Johnson. You mean of the same general character? 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Of any character. 

Mr. Johnson. Well, you would have to define to me what these 
types of activities are. I may have one construction ; you may have 
another. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, the facts are within your knowledge, whatever 
they are. 

Mr. Johnson. But you are asking the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I can't anticipate what you may know about it. 

Mr. Johnson. I can't anticipate what you are trying to arrive at. 
If I could, maybe I could be of some assistance. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you would just answer the question, that would 
solve the whole problem. 

Mr. Johnson. Well, if we are speaking of the labor movement as 
it is, I don't know of any — I can't put my finger on any such activity. 

Mr. Clardy. By that answer do you mean that you do not know 
of any Communist activity whatsoever within the union of which you 
are a member as of now ? 

Mr. Johnson. Not that I can put my finger on. 

Mr. Clardy. You are not aware of any such, then ? 

Mr. Johnson. Not that I could identify. I am not saying that 
tliere isn't, because there are 55,000 members in our local, but I mean 
I fim speaking of what I can personally identify myself. 

Mr. Clardy. You are saying, then, that no evidence of any kind 
dealing with possible Communist activity in your union has come to 
your attention within recent months? 

Mr. Johnson. Not that I can recall. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Were James Jackson, Phillip Schatz, and Billy 
Allan, or any one of them, members of your union ? 

Mr. Johnson. Not to my knowledge they weren't. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. It has been testified before the committee that each 
of these persons w^ere members — in fact, leading figures — in the Com- 
munist Party in the city of Detroit, and that they did do work within 
your union, notwithstanding the fact they were not members of your 
union. 



5264 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Johnson. I thought you asked me were they members of my 
union. 

Mr. Tavenner. I did. 

Mr. Johnson. I said, "No"; not to my knowledge they weren't. 

Mr. Tavenner, Well, did they perform any service of any char- 
acter within your union ? 

Mr. Johnson. You mean of a paid service ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, no. I said of any character. 

Did they confer with the membership? Were they parties directly 
or indirectly in any caucus? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, all that I know is that Billy Allan, being a 
newspaper reporter, would call the local for a story, just like any other 
newspaperman would. We have that happening all the time. 

Mr. Ta%^nner. Was that the sole objective of Mr. Allan, to get a 
newspaper story ? 

Mr. Johnson. I don't know what his objective was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, was that the sole activity in which he engaged 
as far as you know ? 

Mr. Johnson. I don't know what motivated him. 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. I am not speaking of his motive. I am speaking of 
his activity. 

Mr. Johnson. Well, as far as I would presume — I mean, if a news- 
paperman called me and asked me for a story on some incident, and I 
related of my own knowledge what the situation was, I would assume 
that he wanted that information for the press. What his motive 
would be, I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course I am not speaking of the matter of ob- 
taining news to print in his column of the Daily Worker. I am speak- 
ing of his activities in the Communist Party or his activities within 
your own union. 

Mr. Johnson. He wasn't a member of our union. I don't know of 
any activities he had within our union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he meet with the officers of your union at any 
time? 

Mr. Johnson. I can't recall of any time that he ever met with the 
officers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he meet with the inner caucus of your progres- 
sive caucus at any time? 

Mr. Johnson. He might have. I don't recall, but the inner caucus — 
I don't know what the inner caucus is. What is the inner caucus? 

Mr. Tavenner. I thought you agreed that there was always within 
a caucus a smaller group within that number tliat met separately. 

Mr. Johnson. Well, if I M-as a Republican, for example, and I be- 
longed to a particular congressional district — or a Democrat foi- that 
matter — I can assume that there will be members within all of those 
congressional districts or units, there may be a few people that may 
not agree with what the majority M'ants, and I presume they would 
meet, I don't know. That is just a general presumption based on a 
general question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Possibly this would clarify the question for you: 
Tlie committee has sworn testimony that the inner caucus of thie broad 
progressive movement at Ford's was controlled and dominated by 
Communist Party leadership. Upon a direction and final decision of 
full-time Communist Party organizers the candidates were selected for 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5265 

various offices, not only with the various units of the Ford Rouge plant, 
but also on the local level. Now, does that clarify it any for you? 
Is that true within your own knowledge? 

Mr. Johnson. AVithin my own knowledge, within my own caucus, I 
was the candidate for president.- It was my caucus, and I don't know 
of anyone else that came within that caucus to run against me, because 
I made sure that the people that were in that caucus were supporting 
me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, but I was speaking of the progressive caucus 
of which you said you were the chairman. I am not speaking about 
I your individual caucus. 

I Mr. Johnson. Well, the caucus that I was chairman of was my 
I individual caucus. There were several others there. They each were 
, gathered around each one of the aspirants to the office. Each aspirant 
had his own group. I had mine. But there was no Communist Party 
i leadership telling us who to select. 

Mr. Tavennek. Is there a caucus within Ford which nominates 
officers for the national organization? 

Mr. Johnson. National organization? 

Mr. Tavenner. From the local. 

Mr. Johnson. You mean for the entire UAW? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

I Mr. Johnson. There is no caucus set up for that purpose, no. I 

! mean, if we are going to support an individual for president of the 

UAW, it is just something that is discussed among all the leadership 

that are of a mind to support a candidate that may be opposed to 

the present president. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, is there a caucus for the selection of officers on 
a local level? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, we always have a caucus, yes. 

Mr. Tavicnnkr. Now, did that caucus or any branch of it ever meet 
in the Communist Party headquarters? 

Mr. Johnson. Not to my knowledge they didn't. 

;Mr. Clardy. Do you know where the Communist Party headquar- 
ters are ? 

Mr. Johnson. Frankly no, I didn't. 

Mr. Clardy. Have you ever been there? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, I knew — in 1946 it was my knowledge that 
, the Communist Party headquarters was in the Lawyers' Building. 

Mr. Clardy. Have you ever been there? 

Mr. Johnson. I went there, yes, at the time I indicated. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Tavenner, was that the headquarters yoil had in 
mind in your question, or were you thinking of another location? 

Mr. Taatsnner, It is 5642 Michigan Avenue, the place I was re- 
ferring to. 

Mr. Johnson. I never knew that to be the headquarters. I always 
thought it was in the Lawyers' Building. 

Mr. Clardy. You are familiar with the location that counsel 
mentioned? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes, I indicated that I had a leaflet run off there 
once. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes. Did you ever attend any meeting there? 

Mr. Johnson. Not in 1946, no. 



5266 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Clardy. Well, at any time. My question isn't limited as to 
time. 

Mr. Johnson. I was there to get the leaflet mimeographed. 

Mr. Clardy. No, I said attend any meeting. You went to get the 
leaflets, and of course I am assuming that that was not a meeting. 

Mr. Johnson. No, it was not a meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think I can clarify one thing. 

Mr. Clardy. May I get one answer here, and then you may clarify. 
Did you ever attend any kind of a meeting at that location ? 

Mr. Johnson. I believe I did attend 1 or 2 meetings there prior to 
1946. 

Mr. Clapidy. I see. All right, counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. My questions were relating to the Communist Party 
headquarters of the Ford section. That was at 5642. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, I understood that. 

Mr. Tavenner. But the one the witness referred to was the State 
headquarters of the Communist Party, which are two separate places. 

Were you made aware of the Communist Party objectives in your 
union from any source since 1949? 

Mr. Johnson. No, I can't say that I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think it would be appropriate at 
this time to make public certain objectives of the Communist Party 
from the Communist Party's own mouth, so to speak. 

Mr. Clardy. Very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. Which may enable the witness to testify more defi- 
nitely on that subject. 

Mr. Clardy. All right. 

Mr. Tavenner. This is a rather extensive document, Mr. Chairman, 
which has come into the hands of the committee staff only recently 
and which is now being made public for the first time, and it points 
up at the hand of the Communist Party itself the main objectives of 
the Communist Party in your union, Mr. Johnson, as well as other 
automobile unions. I will not attempt to read all of this document 
because of its length and the shortness of time, but I will turn to 
page 2 and will read parts of it. This is a document which, from the 
content of it, shows that it emanated from State headquarters of the 
Communist Pai'ty, and from its content it shows that it was directed 
for the orientation of tliB work of all Communist Party clubs and 
commissions and gi-oups in the State of Michigan, and I have asked 
the investigator to hand you and your counsel copies of it so that 
you may follow it as I go over it. 

Mr. Olardy. It may be called a party directive, may it not, counsel? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir, and it analyzes the problems of the Com- 
munist Party and is a very enlightening document. I will begin 
reading in the break in the page near the bottom of page 2. First of 
all I will read the first paragraph as an introduction. The heading 
of this document is ^ 

RICSOLTJTION ON CONCKNTRATION FOR DISCUSSION AT ALL CLUBS. SECTIONS, 
COMMISSIONS, AND DE2>AKTMENTS 

(hir i)arty in Michisaii has a gi'eat responsibility to move the auto workers 
into stnigf^Ie against their exploiters — the auto liaroiis and their stooges in 
Government. The auto monoiKtlists are a key sei'tion of American imperialism, 

> This is printed in its entirety as Scheuianslce Exhibit No. 1, in pt. 2, p. 5116, of this 
series of hearings. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5267 

which seeks political and economic domination of the world, and the crushing 
of the people's democracies and the Soviet Union through a predatory war. 

To make this more applicable to oiir problems in Detroit we come to 
the break in the page near the bottom of the page 2 : 

Our State committee has just reviewed 9 months of concentration work by our 
party, since the last State convention. In that time our party has increased 
its attention to the problems of the auto workers. The face of our party has 
been presented to the auto workers to a greater degree than in the past 10 years. 
We have seen the development of economic struggles, dramatized in the Ford 
strike against speedup, despite the stifling attempts of Reuther. A beginning has 
been made in the development of the united front from below. 

This period of time has seen the consolidation of some party shop clubs, an 
improvement in the sale of party literature, a greater utilization of the Michigan 
Worker as the major instrument for the concentration work. Among our com- 
rades in auto, there is higher morale, and greater confidence in the determination 
of the State leadership of the party to decisively influence the auto workers. 

This resolution, based on the discussion of the State committee, and the 
experiences in the past 9 months, will attempt to present some of the major 
problems necessary to be overcome in charting the next steps. 

The next has a heading at the top of page 3 — 

FOR A DRASTIC IMPROVEMENT IN THE WORK AMONG GENERAL MOTORS WORKERS 

This is a precondition for further advancement in auto. GM employs 350,000 
auto workers of the 1 million within the UAW. Saginaw Valley, comprising 
Flint, Pontiac, and Saginaw, is the heart of the GM empire, with 150,000 auto 
workers. The city of Flint has some 56,000 GM workers. Flint is the key to 
moving the GM division of the UAW, the division which Reuther heads, and 
therefore the key to striking a powerful blow against social democracy. What- 
ever develops in Flint has great influence on the entire UAW, 

The UAW convention exposed the weakness of our party's industrial con- 
centration method of work in auto. The anti-Reuther forces did not have a 
majority base iu any one of the auto's big three. Where party work was on a 
relatively higher level as la Ford, the anti-Reuther strength was greatest. In 
GM, our main national concentration sector, the progressives were weakest 
of all. Flint and Pontiac, with strong anti-Reuther forces in the past, were 
Reuther strongholds in this convention despite the mass dissatisfaction of the 
GM workers with wage cuts, increased speedup, phony umpires, and frozen 
contracts. It's therefore clear that we need a drastic improvement in our work 
in auto, in the first place in our work in GM, without in any way curtailing 
our work in Ford which remains our main concentration point in Michigan's 
Wayne County. 

In other words, Mr. Johnson, there is the statement of the party 
that as far as the party is concerned, Ford is the main concentration 
point. 

Our leadership must face this problem and map out comprehensive proposals 
for continuous assistance and attention to this: The No. 1 Concentration on 
a State scale. 

Now appears the heading which is emphasized in capital letters and 
underscored, which is as follows : 

FOR AN IDEOLOGICAL CAMPAIGN ON THE ROLE OF THE WORKING CLASS AS THE PRE- 
REQUISITE FOR WINNING THE ENTIRE PARTY AND PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT FOR CON- 
CENTRATION WORK 

Experience in the last 9 months has revealed that the mobilization of the entire 
party in Wayne County to carry through the concentration objectives around 
the Wayne County concentration on Ford, is totally inadequate. We have failed 
to carry through a consistent widespread ideological campaign within our party, 
as the basic prerequisite for concrete organizational steps to bring about a 
situation in which concentrated activity among auto workers, and particularly 
Ford, will be the basic method of work of the entire party. Such an ideological 



5268 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

campaign is necessary to take our concentration work out of the realm of another 
"task." Gus Hall, in his article in April's Political Affairs, expresses our tasks 
in this regard appropriately : 

You know who Gus Hall is, do you not, Mr. Johnson ? 

Mr. Johnson. I am not certain. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Gus Hall is one of the original defendants in 
the Smith Act cases. 

Mr. Johnson. I thought so. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe you — did you sign a petition in his defense 
at one time or a request of some character 

Mr. Johnson. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. In his defense ? 

Mr. Johnson. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right, sir. 

Mr. Johnson. Before you read further, I think it ought to be 
pointed out on the record that what you have extracted from this 
rather lengthy document thus far, a document which originated with 
the Communists and may be said to be one chapter in the Communist 
"bible," has pretty definitely established one of the main points on 
which we were seeking evidence when we came to Michigan, and that 
was that the Communist Party has regarded the auto industry as one 
of the keys to its success in the United States and one of the keys in its 
efforts to paralyze this Nation in the event of conflict with Soviet 
Russia. 

(At this point Mr. Johnson conferred with Mr. Franklin.) 

Mr. Clardy. As you correctly read, they decry the fact that there 
has not been enough effort to support Communist Russia, and there 
has been too much attack directed toward her, but in particular I am 
interested in the fact that it clearly now is an admission that in Detroit, 
Flint, and the other places in the State where the auto industry is 
large, the Communists are making their strongest efforts because of the 
reasons I have already recited. 

I think any going forward — I don't know what you have in mind 

next, but I am particularly interested in a foUowup on that that will 

commence in the last paragraph at the bottom of page 3. Did you 

have anything intervening between where you read and that point? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Let us hear it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Referring to the article from Gus Hall, I read the 
following from this document : 

As a result of our experience, it is now clear that industrial concentra- 
tion cannot be viewed as a task ; it is not an assignment that you give to one 
section of the party. Industrial concentration is a basic Leninist method 
of work for the whole party. Industrial concentration means giving life to 
some basic Leninist concepts of a Marxist Party. It gives life to the Leninist 
concept of the Communist Party as the vanguard of the working class. It gives 
meaning to the whole idea that ours is a working-class party. It gives life to 
the concept that we must take hold of the main link, the link that will move 
everything else at the given moment. 

Mr. Clardy. That, of course, is a short summary of what I was 
trying to say before. They regard obviously the industrial concen- 
tration, as they speak of the auto plants here, as the key to the whole 
movement and as the link, as they put it, that will move everything 
else at a given moment. In other words, a revolution will be launched 
with this as the base of operations. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5269 

Mr. Moulder. May I now make a comment? This statement you 
;are presenting here doesn't within itself constitute any proof of any- 
thing. Certainly it isn't any evidence against the witness now before 
the committee and certainly shouldn't reflect on him. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Moulder, may I suggest: This was presented as 
an exhibit by a witness who has testified about the general subject 
in one of the executive sessions we held last week, and it is linked up 
with pretty nearly every aspect of the party. At the moment, since 
that was in executive session, we are putting it in here in the open 
session, where it logically belongs as we are completing what we want 
to do here in Detroit. The links that tie it up with the other will 
be revealed, of course, when that additional testimony is authorized 
to be published. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think what Mr. Moulder meant, that it shouldn't 
be tied in with this particular witness. I don't think that is the intent. 

Mr. Clardy. Oh, no. But it comes at a good time. 

Mr. ScHERER. I agree with you there. 

Mr. Tavenner. The witness has stated that he did not know the 
objectives of the Communist Party within Ford, so I am producing 
those objectives now as stated by the Communist Party with the hope 
that he may recognize some of them after we have completed the 
document. 

Mr. Scherer. I think that is proper. I think what Mr. Moulder 
had in mind, that there shouldn't be any inference drawn at this point, 
at least, that the witness had anything to do with this document or 
the promulgation of the theories contained in the document. 
, Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I think counsel's purpose of introducing the docu- 
ment at this time is proper in order to question the witness, but I 
certainly don't feel that we would want to leave the impression that 
this particular witness has had any part in the promulgation of the 
policies and theories contained in the document. 

Mr. Clardy. As I understand it, counsel, you intend when this is 
completed, to ask witness whether or not he has seen evidence of the 
carrying out of the directive from which you are reading. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is exactly it, sir. 

Mr. Ci-ARDY. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will skip the rest of the statement by Gus Hall 
and begin on page 4. 

Mr. Clardy. Before you do that, I wish you would do as I sug- 
gested and commence at the bottom of page 3 because there is a sum- 
mation there that I think is extremely important that begins. 

The working class will not play this decisive role automatically. It must 
be organized, 

and so on. 
Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

It must be organized, it must be made conscious of being a class in struggle 
with the capitalist class, it must be infused \\ath political consciousness, 
it must be taught how to unravel the hidden forms of slavery and exploi- 
tation, it must be guided along the road to victory over its class foe. Marx- 
ism-Leninism is the key to accomplishing all these tasks. We must use this 
key by concentrated attention to this all-important and decisive section of 
the population. 

Mr. Clardy. Now I want you to read the next paragraph there 
because it, in my opinion, is as short a summary as I have seen as 



5270 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

to the coldblooded determination of the Communist Party to take 
over through that method. Now, will you read that. 
Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Industrial coucentration is tlie basic method and approach toward everything 
we do. Issues and tactics will change, but the role of the working class in 
general and of the workers in basic industry in particular is a constant, perma- 
nent element in all industrial concentration plans or objectives. Industrial 
concentration is the method of work of the party of a "new type." 

Finally, industrial concentration is not a seasonal occupation. It is not 
a method of work that we will use only for a period of time. It is a permanent 
method of work. 

Mr. Clardy. Now, Mr. Counsel, I think I should comment at this 
time that this, I believe, is the first time this committee has been 
able to place its hands on a Communist document in which they have 
admitted, as they do here, the prime importance to them of taking 
over, in this area particularly, because they regard it as the key to 
everything. I think this document has more significance than almost 
anything else the committee has uncovered in all its years of operation. 

Mr. ScHERER. It explains some of this colonization we were talking 
about this morning. 

Mr. Clardy. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. Sending Communists from other parts of the country 
to infiltrate the local auto unions. 

Mr. Clardy. I want to bear down heavily in this record on the 
fact of the last sentence you read, that it is a permanent method 
of work, to do just exactly what they are suggesting in this docu- 
ment. In other words, it is not a part-time job; it is not one that 
will cease when our committee or other committees are on the job 
exposing, and then resume the moment that our back in turned. It 
will be carried on continuously without break or interruption, and 
therefore ; 

Mr. Tavenner. It will be noted, Mr. Chairman, that the word I 
"permanent" is underscored for emphasis. [ 

Mr. Clardy. That is right, and also in the precedins; paragraph j 
they speak of the word "method" as having importance because they 
underscore that when they are talking about the fact that issues and 
tactics may change, but this method that they are talking about is the 
key to everything. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

It is necessary to restate once again why Ford is the major concentration 
of Wayne County. Local 600 is the larsrest industrial unit in the world. The 
entire labor movement watches local 600 as a barometer indicating trends in 
the course and policies of American labor. Local 600 has been and still remains 
the biggest bulwark against the domination of thft labor movement by the social 
democratic leadership and policies of the UAW. 

That is an argument, is it not, Mr. Johnson, against the national 
organization with which your local is affiliated? Do you not inter- 
pret it so ? 

Mr. Johnson. It would appear that they are opposed to the 

Mr. Clardy. It would definitely appear that the Communist Party 
didn't like, at the time they issued this, the leadership and didn't like 
the methods and didn't like what was going on at all. 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 



COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5271 

Local 600 has the largest concentration of Negro workers in America, the 
foundry alone employing some 6,000 Negro workers. The plant is located in the 
16th Congressional District, the largest working-class district in the United 
States, populated by many national groups. This district alone has three 
heavily populated Negro communities, Inkster, Ecorse, and River Rouge. The 
Rouge, with its 60,000 industrial workers, the heavy concentrated population 
of foreign born, and the strong progressive Negro communities, all combine to 
make Ford the greatest potential force for peace, democracy, and socialism in 
Wayne County. 

Mr. Clardt. "Wliat tliey are really meaning there is that this is their 
greatest opportunity, the greatest opportunity for the Communist 
Party. They always manage to identify themselves with peace and 
with democracy, 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Such an understanding flowing from the ideological campaign would help to 
reorient every aspect of party work and party organization toward the central 
objectives of reaching, influencing, and winning the workers in auto. It would 
insure that auto would become the knowledge, concern, and everyday activity 
of all leaders and organizations of our party on all levels. It would assist all 
clubs of the party to undertake specific responsibility with regard to the main 
concentration of Wayne County, Ford, and to the miscellaneous auto section. 
Clubs would strive to recruit shopworkers, with the aim of changing the com- 
position of many community and nationality clubs to embrace a majority of 
autoworkers and their families. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, now, that, as I interpret it, is a plain, unvar- 
nished statement of their intentions to infiltrate every community 
group that they can and to take it over through familiar Communist 
tactics so that they would expand their control far beyond any union, 
but into every activity that comes along. 

Mr. Tavenner. I might remind you, Mr. Chairman, that the testi- 
mony of Mr. Mikkelsen bore very strongly on this point. He stated 
the purpose of the organization of the downriver grouj:) of the Com- 
munist Party and the 4 or 5 groups in that section was to aid the 
Ford section of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Clardy. That is right. Bearing in mind the fact that there are 
some people who think that the Communist Party has completed its 
work or has at least laid off for the time being, I hope those folks will 
note the fact that the Communists themselves say it is a permanent 
method of work, and they have admitted in this document that they 
intend to follow precisely the lines that this committee has been trying 
to get across since the first day it was organized. The danger is 
present and imminent. It is with us today, and I hope no one will 
miss that fact. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, we have taken evidence in many 
parts of the country, endeavoring to establish what the Communist 
Party plan was with regard to colonization which we heard something 
about here this morning. We have shown some instances of it in 
Boston and other places. 

Mr. Clardy. But that was through verbal testimony without any 
documents to back up. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, and in the face of constant denials from Com- 
munist Party sources that there was ever any such plan. 

Mr. Clardy. All right. With that in mind, read the next para- 
graph. 



5272 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Many comrades would be encouraged to volunteer to change their jobs to seek 
employment in large auto plants. Hundreds of additional comrades would bfr 
reenroUed in an ever growing brigade to go out early in the morning, in the 
afternoon and late evenings, to sell the Michigan Worker, party literature, or 
distribute leaflets at shops and in communities where autoworkers work and live. 
To organize and influence the wives and children of autoworkers through activ- 
ities in the communities. In short, the activities of every club, section, depart- 
ment, commission, progressive mass organizaiton wolud be directed toward help- 
ing in every way to achieve our objectives of auto concentration. No club or 
group of our party can grow and develop if its plans, perspective and activity 
are not constantly related to reaching, influencing and recruiting autoworkers. 

The next heading is capitalized and underscored : 

FOR A STRUGGLE AGAINST STRONG TENDENCIES OF ECONOMISM WHICH ENDANGERS 
OUR WORK IN THE TRADE UNION MOVEMENT 

and at this point, Mr. Chairman, I would like to call your attention 
to that part of the testimony of Dr. Dodd, Dr. Bella Dodd, that I read 
in evidence when the first witness took the stand during these hearings* 
Dr. Dodd commented upon the attitude of the Communist Party to- 
ward unions. Dr. Dodd said that their objective was not merely to 
consider the economic problems of the worker, but it was more a ques- 
tion of political effect. This is the language she used : 

They— 

meaning the Communist Party — 

regarded with contempt unions engaged in what is called economism ; that is, im- 
proving the economic conditions. It is only important if it can be politicalized. 

Now that was Dr. Dodd's testimony before our committee and which 
we have quoted on other occasions. 

Now, this is what the Communist Party itself says about that sub- 
ject, which demonstrates where their real interest lies : 

The key link to accomplishing our objectives in auto concentration, is a 
forthright recognition of the need to struggle against and overcome strong 
tendencies of economism which have weakened our activity. This is a deep- 
rooted problem of long duration which has plagued us for many years. The 
recent period has not been distinguished by a vigilant struggle against it. 

Mr. CiiARDY, Now I want you to bear down heavily on the next one. 
Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Too much of our party work and activity is confined to narrow trade-union 
issues. 

Mr. Johnson, have you observed in connection with your union 
any effort to minimize economism as is spoken of here and exaggerate i j 
the question of political activities of your union ? I j 

Mr. Johnson. Well, this is the first time I have come in contact ; 
with the term "economism." I thought at first it related to economy 
or conservation of funds or assets or something of that type, but in the 
context that it is used here I don't believe I have noticed any attempts 
on that level. All of our political activity is directed by our PAC 
which is national within the autoworkers' union, and whatever our 
political action decisions are made by our legislative bodies within the 
union, we follow those decisions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, if you have never been aware before this ino- 
ment of what the objectives of the Communist Party are in your union, 
aren't you rather alarmed ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5273 

Mr. Johnson. Well, it doesn't alarm me too much as far as my 

I union is concerned. I think perhaps this is a statement of — you say 
this is a Communist Party document. It appears to me it would be 
a statement of the Communist Party as they view the labor move- 
ment and my section of the labor movement. It certainly isn't mine. 
I would have to be in their position to appreciate what they are 
trying to put across here. I don't follow all of this. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't follow what the Communist Party is 
endeavoring to do to your union through that expression, which is 
this: That too much of the Communist Party's work has been con- 
fined to the narrow trade-union issues and not enough to strengthen- 
ing the political struggle ? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, I don't know what that means. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us read on and see if it enlightens us : 

It reveals itself most sharply in the neglect and underestimation of the party 
organization, unstable status of the shop clubs of our party, and the alarmingly 
low rate of recruitment of autoworkers into the party. Further evidence is our 
failure to fully utilize the major instruments of the party for mass education, 
and our acceptance of low standards of performance as our accepted norm. 
Our work is characterized by a continuous hesitation to undertake energetic 
action to move the workers into struggle on any questions outside of the imme- 
diate "practical" trade-union issues, particularly the struggle for Negro rights. 
Defense of the 12, activity in opposition to the North Atlantic Pact, and so forth. 
The sporadic activity to help build the Progressive Party, the poor attendance of 
, autoworkers at the Marxist Michigan School of Social Science, all flow from 
economist tendencies which pervades our organization. One has but to analyze 
the subjects of discussion at the club meetings in the past months to realize that 
political education, which would lead to action on the major political questions 
of the day, are not always the predominant feature of our meetings. All this 
requires an intense ideological campaign against economism through systematic 
study and discussion of Lenin's What Is To Be Done? 

(At this point Mr. Johnson conferred with ]\Ir. Franklin.) 
Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Unless the state board and state committee helps raise the political content 
and activity of our comrades in the shops, then the ability to lead workers effec- 
tively in resistance to the coming economic crisis will be most difficult. The 
root source of basic economic problems autoworkers face (speedup, short work- 
week, unemployment, impending wage cuts, attacks against Negro autoworkers, 
discrimination, etc.) is directly the result of the imperialist war program of the 
Wall Street monopolists and their efforts to create a Fascist United States. The 
auto barons and their lackeys in the labor movement are trying to put over a 
guns, not butter, economy. This understanding is the touchstone of everything, 
j The role assigned to the ACTU, Trotskyites, and especially the Social Dem- 
! ocrats, is precisely to mislead and dull the fighting resistance of the workers. 
' The betrayal by Eeuther of the recent Ford strike against speedup was the 
' logical consequence of his unqualified support for the Truman Doctrine, the 
Marshall plan, aud now the North Atlantic Military Alliance, stepping stones 
toward fascism and imperialist war. To justify such betrayals he has often 
unashamedly admitted that these "sacrifices" were necessary in order that the 
jWar program be put over. 

Communist auto workers understand this. Therefore they make a key con- 
trilnition to the welfare of their fellow workers when they constantly strive to 
help raise the level of political consciousness and understanding. Only in so 
doing are the guarantees created to successfully re.sist the attempts of the 
monopolists and their lackeys to place the burden of the coming economic crisis 
on the backs of the workers. 

In this period of mounting, crucial struggles, continuing economist trends and 
tendencies serve only to impair the class consciousness and understanding of 
workers. It becomes an impediment to the full mobilization of auto workers in 
the struggle against hunger, war, and fascism. 

The struggle against economist trends has to turn from words and talk to 
deeds and action. The same organizing genious and zeal for detail, the same 



5274 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

alertness which Communist auto workers have learned in helping to organize, 
build, and defend their local unions, must now be reflected in organizing the 
fight for peace ; organizing the fight for Negro rights ; organizing the defense of 
democratic rights ; organizing to bring the case of the 12 before their fellow 
workers and local unions. 

In the coming months there will take place the full unfolding of the struggle 
of the auto workers to break through the deadlocked 1949 economic and bargain- 
ing demands and make the auto barons pay for the unfolding economic crisis. 

(Representative Morgan M. Moulder left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

To help guarantee this fight and break the deadlock, our party projects the 
following main campaigns for the next 3V2 months ; the fight for peace, defense of 
the 12, fight against white chauvinism and for Negro rights, full participation in 
municipal elections. To the extent that these questions become the concern 
of the auto workers and they move on them, to that extent will be their victory 
on the economic questions. 

Mr. Chairman, that explains why so much of this evidence has in- 
dicated activities along those lines. 

Mr. Clardy. I think that is enough out of that particular document. 
There are some other things I am interested in, but I believe that ade- 
quately sets forth the major part of what I had in mind and what you 
had in mind. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. I will make just brief reference, if it 
please the chairman, to the second document which relates to this same 
general matter. This seems to be a document of implementation in 
which the directives from the article that we did refer to are the 
directives to be put in force. I will not take time to read it, but just 
merely point out that it follows the same general line, but describes 
in detail how the objectives that were mentioned are to be accom- 
plished, 

Mr. Clardt. Yes, it goes into detail even to telling how much litera- 
ture shall be distributed and what kind and what meetings shall be 
held and what topics shall be discussed and what activities shall be 
engaged in generally, doesn't it? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir, and it concludes : 

Organization of a Ford Workers Committee for Release of the 12. 
This committee to sponsor radio time, leaflets, letters to Ford Facts, tele- 
gram campaign. 

Building delegations to be sent to New York to see Medina. 

Speakers before building meetings. 

Mass meeting to be organized in Dearborn. 

Gigantic banquet in honor of Bill McKie. 

And then in the same detail the plan is set forth as to what is to be I 
done for the struggle for Negro rights which the Communist Party 1 
is endeavoring to assert as an issue for its own political purposes. 1 
There are nine different categories under that document. 

Now, Mr. Johnson, having read that document 

Mr. Johnson. Which one ? 

Mr. Tavenner. The first document — somewhat in detail, I would 
like to ask you what you have observed in your own union to indicatei 
that the Communist Party has set about the accomplishment of thei 
things mentioned in this document. 

(At this point Mr. Johnson conferred with Mr. Franklin.) 

Mr. Johnson. Well, this is the firet time I have seen this. Of 
course I haven't had a chance to read it with the same degree of con- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5275 

centration that you have, so I am still not altogether familiar with 
what they are talking about or driving at in this. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you like to answer at some future date ? 

Mr. Johnson. You mean after reading this? 

Mr. Tavenner. After reading it and studying it, to what extent in 
your judgment the Communist Party has succeeded or failed in ac- 
complishing the objects which it has set forth. 

( Representative Morgan M. Moulder returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Johnson. I think I can draw the general conclusion from what 
I have heard you read that they have evidently failed. It seems — 
one section here seems to indicate that they have evidently failed — let 
us see if I can find the section. 

Mr. Tavenner. The document, as you will notice on the last page, 
was prepared in November 1949, August 8, 1 think, 1949. 

Mr. Clardy. Am I to understand, Witness — and I do so understand 
from what you say — that this is the first time you have seen a copy of 
the document in question? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes, it is. 

Mr, Clardy. Well, I think that we will call a recess for 5 minutes 
at this time, and maybe you can inspect it a little bit during that time. 

(Whereupon, at 2: 55 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 3 p. m.) 

(Whereupon, at 3 : 10 p. m., the hearing was reconvened.) 

Mr. Clardy. The hearing wnll resume. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think I should oflfer the two docu- 
ments in evidence marking the first one presented as "Johnson Ex- 
hibit No. 1" and the second as "JohnsxDu Exhibit No. 2." 

Mr. Clardy. They will be received. 

(The documents, "Resolution on Concentration for Discussion at 
all Clubs, Sections, Commissions and Departments" and "Plan of 
Work Dearborn Auto Section From July 15 to November 1, 1949," 
marked "Johnson Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2" respectively were received 
in evidence.)^ 

Mr. Johnson. I would like to raise a question as to w^hy these are 
marked Johnson exhibits. I don't know anything about these exhib- 
its. They don't mention me. 

Mr. Clardy. That is a technicality, sir, to indicate the point in the 
record as to which matters are introduced. It has no other sig- 
nificance than that. 

Mr. Johnson. I would generally assume that when an exhibit is 
marked in a manner like that, it would pertain directly to me. I 
think it should be marked committee exhibit. It is not my exhibit. 

Mr. Clardy. I gave you the explanation. There is nothing unusual 
about that. We have put them by the hundreds in that same fashion 
without any particular reference to anybody or anything. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Johnson. I would just like the record to show that it doesn't 
refer to me. I don't know anything about them. 

Mr. Moulder. I think the witness is correct in his contention on 
that point. 



1 See Schemanske Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2, pt. 2 of this title, pp. 5116 and 5122. 



5276 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Johnson. Sure, I don't know anything about this. 

Mr. Clardt. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call your attention to the second 
document, Mr. Johnson, on page 2 of section 4, entitled "Role of Com- 
munists in the Progressive Coalition." There you will see in the 
first sentence it is stated — 

Individual Communists are expected to show the greatest personal responsi- 
bility in helping to build and strengthen the Progressive coalition on a local 
wide scale as well as in the buildings. The coalition must develop beyond a 
temporary electoral combination into a permanent and stable organization, func- 
tioning on an all-year round basis, reacting to issues, putting out material, hold- 
ing meetings, organizing activity on the issues facing the Ford workers. 

Can you enlighten us in any way on the role of the Communist 
Party and the progressive coalition as you saw it? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, with respect to what is printed here in this 
document, the only enlightenment I could throw on that is that the 
caucuses are generally not held until just before election time. 

Mr. Tavenner. You started to state to the committee what was said 
in the document, as I understood you. I think you had some comment 
to make about what is said there. 

Mr. Johnson. Well, with respect to what is contained here, the 
only thing I could add by way of clarification is that as far as my 
own caucus was concerned, we never met except at around election 
times, and then only to get together funds and plan the election cam- 
paign. I don't know what they are alluding to here. Evidently 
that is something entirely different from what we did. Within the 
local union I don't recall any caucuses being held except at around 
election time, and that is customary in all unions, I suppose. 

I want the committee to be aware of one fact. I didn't — what is 
written here I only accept at face value. I don't know what the think- 
ing, the motivation, the purpose of it is. All I can express is what 
I have done myself as an individual, and within my own caucus we met 
at election times to try to pick a slate of officers that were acceptable 
to the majority within the group and then go out and get them 
elected, and that happens in every political group. Otherwise they 
wouldn't get elected. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you any information that you can now give 
the committee, after having read some of the principal parts of these 
two documents, regarding the Communist Party purposes in connec- 
tion with Ford in general as to the extent of success or failure of the 
Communist Party and the attainment of its objectives? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, I looked over this document during the recess, 
and the impression that I gained from looking at it is that they state 
that their objections — on page 2 

There are eight objectives listed there, and as they would relate to 
my union, one of them says, "to stimulate the broadest united front 
actions of employed and unemployed." Well, at that time I don't 
recall there being any unemployed in our plant, so I really don't see 
what they are driving at as far as our plant is concerned. If I recall [ 
correctly, in 1949 we were at a pretty high peak of employment. We 
had no unemployment that I can recall. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, of course, I presume that you have undoubtedly 
noted that facts never hamper the Communists when they are putting 
out their literature, and the fact that there may have been a peak of 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5277 

employment at that time would not stop them at all in reciting to 
the contrary. I am sure you must have discovered that that is a 
•common Communist practice, have you not? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, I can assume that from looking at this, be- 
cause it wasn't the case in my local union. We didn't have any sub- 
stantial unemployment that I can 

Mr. Clakdy. My question was, haven't you noted that that is a 
common tactic, practice, on the part of the Communists to never allow 
themselves to be hampered by the truth and by the facts ? 

Mr. Johnson. I can assume that is true. 

On the second point there under those objectives, it seems to me 
that is something you would have to understand Marxism, I guess, 
to understand what they are driving at, and I certainly don't under- 
stand it, so I won't even attempt to interpret it. On the third 
one 

Mr. ScHERER. You say you are a graduate lawyer of Wayne Uni- 
versity ? 

Mr. Johnson. I said I was a graduate law student. I am a grad- 
uate of the law school. I didn't say I was a lawyer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Graduate of the law school. 

Mr. Clardy. As I understand, you did not take the bar, so you are 
not a practicing attorney ? 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Johnson. No, I am not an attorney at all. I make a distinction 
between a law student and an attorney. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, if you completed your law education, you at 
least did not take the further step of taking the bar examination and 
being admitted to practice ? 

Mr. Johnson. That is correct, not as yet. 

Mr. Clardy. I thought I so understood when I said that. 

Mr. Johnson. On the third point, to heighten the unity between the 
Negro and white workers, as long as I can recall, there has always been 
a great degree of unity between NegTo and white in the local union. 
We have never had any major or racial problem within the local 
union since the union has been organized in Ford. 

Mr. Clardy. That phrase, "white chauvanism" then had no appli- 
cation certainly so far as you observed it in your local ? 

Mr. Johnson. I really don't know what they are driving at as white 
chauvanism. 

Mr. Clardy. It is rather obscure, but it is a mouth-filling word that 
they use continually to foment trouble between your race and mine, 
sir, and I am sure that from what you are saying you observed no 
such thing in your local. 

Mr. Johnson. No, there has never been any — the only time there 
was any racial problem at all in the local was prior to the formation 
of the local during the strike in 1941. There was a substantial number 
of Negro workers and other workers, perhaps 20,000 of them, that 
remained within the plant during the strike in 1941, and a substantial 
number of those were in the foundry unit, because a percentage of 
them mistrusted the union at first because of the discrimination that 
Was practiced in unions generally prior to the inception of the union 
at Ford. Other than that I don't recall of any period at all where 
there was any racial tension within the local union, not even during 



5278 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

the race riots in Detroit, and of course I wasn't here. I was in the 
service at the time, but I have been told that there was no untoward 
accident at all — or incident at all — within the confines of the Rouge 
plant. Now, the fourth point here, I don't know of any — it says to 
lead widespread rank-and-file movements in the plant. Well, we have 
always congratulated ourselves on the fact that we think we have per- 
haps the most wideawake group of rank-and-file members in our union 
and in any comparable union anywhere in the world, for that matter, 
so the fact that Ford workers are intelligent doesn't surprise me. I 
have known that all along. 

Number 5, 1 don't quite follow what they are driving at in number 
5, to help build, broaden, and unify a coalition of progressive forces. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of course those are, as stated in the heading, objec- 
tives stated broadly. They are general objectives of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Johnson. There is another section here that I noted, the next 
paragraph states, 

We have seen the development of economic struggles dramatized in the Ford 
strike against speedup despite the stifling attempts of Reuther. 

Well, the international union gave the local union complete support 
in that strike. We won the strike against the Ford Motor Co. and as 
a result of that we got some contract changes in 1949 that obviates 
that problem to some extent. I dont see the connection between this 
statement and the strike. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I think we are just wasting time. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you have any more subjects to cover, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. I might ask the witness one question further about 
the document. 

Mr. ScHERER. Quibbling now, Mr. Tavenner, the witness is; it is 
obvious. 

Mr. Tavenner. The document recognizes a plan to encourage vol- 
unteers to change their jobs to seek employment in large auto plants. 
Were you familiar with any plan of that character, or did it come 
to your attention ? 

Mr. Johnson. I am sorry. I was concentrating on the remark of the 
gentleman to the left of the chairman. He stated I was quibbling. 
I wish he would clarify that, please. 

Mr. Scherer. I mean just what I say. 

Mr. Johnson. Quibbling. I am afraid if I answered, it would be 
claimed that I was quibbling. I dont know how to answer the ques- 
tion, to be honest with you. 

Mr. Clardy. Is there a question pending, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, I asked the witness if there came to his atten- 
tion at any time a matter referred to in this directive where persons 
were directed to change their jobs, to seek employment in large auto 
plants. Was that situation drawn to your attention at any time? 

Mr. Johnson. No, it wasn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. It has been referred to often as colonization ofl 
industry by the Communist Party. 

During the course of the hearings in 1952 a question was asked I 
Harold Franklin who was a witness as to whether or not you were a 
member of the Communist Party, and he refused to answer it. Do youi 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5279 

know of any reason why he should have refused to answer that 
question ? 

Mr. Johnson, As to whether or not I was a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Johnson. I guess it was just his general objection to answering 
at all, I guess. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, had you been a member of the Communist 
Party at any time ? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes, I was ; in 1942. 

Mr. Tavenner. 1942? 

Mr. Johnson. 1943, 1 believe. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. How long did you remain a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, I would like to state this, that in 1942, in No- 
vember of 1942 I was fired by the Ford Motor Co. for allegedly re- 
fusing to instruct a group of w^orkers to return to work who had walked 
off their jobs. Actually I had simply told the fellows that they had 
to make the decision themselves ; I wasn't going to tell them to leave 
the job, and I wasn't going to tell them to stay on the job. I thought 
they had a just grievance; we had a grievance in the tile, but I was 
fired because they claimed I refused to undertake an obligation to 
make the men go back to work. I was fired for about 2 months. That 
was in November, I believe, of 1942, and I was reinstated in January, 
I believe, of 1943, and at that time I was pretty sore at the Ford Motor 
Co., I guess, because I felt I had been unfairly discharged ; I hadn't 
done anything that I thought was a justification for the discharge, 
and in resentment I did pay 60 cents for a membership in the Com- 
munist Party. A month later I was inducted in the service of the 
United States Army and was there for 2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you reaffiliate with the Communist Party on 
your return from the Army ? 

Mr. Johnson. In 1945 I was approached by an individual who told 
me of the formation of the Communist Political Association, and I 
understood that it was a political party that had changed its old 
stand — that had changed its previous stand and position and was co- 
operating with the Government of the United States, was not a party 
of communism as it had been in the past, and based on that assumption 
I joined it. 

Mr. Tavenner. What year was that ? 

Mr. Johnson. 1945. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member ? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, I remained a member of — well, let me try to 
explain it. I have seen in these proceedings from the 1952 hearing 
that the Communist Political Association was supposed to be dis- 
banded in May of 1945. But it was in May of 1945 that I joined it, 
and actually the only thing that I can recall is that we would have a 
meeting once in a while. The meeting was open to anybody that cared 
to come into the meeting, and I think it lasted for about 4 or 5 months, 
if my recollection services me correct, and just sort of 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, I am informed that in some areas in the coun- 
try the local groups of the Communist Political Association waited a 
little while before taking action upon developments generally in the 



5280 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

country, and there could have been a period of a few months before 
it was converted to the Communist Party again. 

Mr. Johnson, Well, that kind of confused me because I can't recall 
exactly the dates, but I am certain that it wasn't in May of 1945, be- 
cause I didn't get out of the Army until May of 1945, and it was then 
that I joined the Communist Political Association. 

Mr. Tavennek. Well, how long were you affiliated with the Com- 
munist Party or the Communist Political Association ? 

Mr. Johnson. I can't state for 

Mr. Tavenner. From the time of your rejoining in 1945 ? 

Mr. Johnson. Until, I would say, the late spring of 1946. You 
will recall in my earlier testimony I stated that we had a meeting 
with Carl Winter at which time we sought to end some disruption that 
was taking place within the unit. As a result of that meeting I could 
see then that nothing was going to be done toward eliminating the 
disruption and the confusion that was created within the unit, and I 
just decided, well, then, as far as I was concerned, I didn't want any- 
thing else to do with it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, what did you do about it ? 

Mr. Johnson. I just quit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Notwithstanding you quit the party from the stand- 
point of being a member, a dues-paying member of it, did you continue 
to collaborate with the members of the party in its work in connection 
with your union ? 

Mr. Johnson. No, I did not. I wasn't in any meetings with anyone 
from that group. I wasn't aware of what their purposes or their 
objectives were, and I just was not in contact with them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is your union taking any action of any character 
to discourage or to prevent Communist infiltration into your union ? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes, sir, we are. Since 1948 the membership of 
local 600, in a referendum vote, directed that the local union officers 
sign the Taft-Hartley affidavits as a prerequisite to holding office 
within our local union, and that has been the rule within our local 
union since 1948. No member may be a local union officer unless he 
has first signed the non-Communist affidavit under the Taft-Hartley 
law. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, of course that is only a part of it. The Com- 
munist Party, by the methods that have been demonstrated time and 
again before this committee has ways and means of influencing the 
action of the Communist Party without necessarily being membei^s 
of the official family. Have you taken any precautions of any charac- 
ter to prevent their getting control of, for instance, the progressive 
caucus ? 

Mr. Johnson. Well, in 1950, in the summer of 1950, the local union's 
general council — that is the highest legislative body within the local 
union — directed that all officers, committeemen — that is, the unit offi- 
cers, committeemen, as well as general council delegates, anyone hold- 
ing an elective or appointive office within the local union, is to sign a 
loyalty affidavit. That was in the summer of 1950. I am trying to 
tell you the actions of our broad general membership as taking steps 
in tlie direction to prevent anybody who is a member of the Communist 
Party from coming into the leadership of the local union or any of its 
units, and these are actions that were taken by the highest legislative 
body within the union, within our local union. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5281 

Mr. Tavenner. I take it then from what you say that you would be 
opposed to the Communist Party concentrating its efforts upon — 
making its main concentration point in Wayne County upon the work 
in Ford ? 

Mr. Johnson. I certainly would be. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do I understand by that that you would oppose it? 

Mr. Johnson. I certainly would. 

Mr. Tavenner. In every way that you could ? 

Mr. Johnson. I certainly would. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do I understand from that that you consider that 
it is a dangerous influence upon the legitimate work of the trade 
unions ? 

Mr. Johnson. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you not alarmed with the statements contained 
in this document, it was not so much the issues of the union they were 
interested in as it was matters of political moment ? 

Mr. Johnson. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you answer? 

Mr. Johnson. I said that was true. I agreed with it. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you gentlemen, either of you, have any questions 2 

Mr. Moulder. No. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. Mr. Chairman, while I think this witness, if 
he wanted to, could give us a great deal more information than he 
has, I think he is to be complimented for answering most of the Ques- 
tions fairly and fully and not using the fifth amendment to avoid 
answering the pertinent questions, at least. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you have any questions, Mr. Moulder? 

Mr. Moulder. No. 

Mr. Clardy. The witness will be excused. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. George Leroy Ellery. 

Mr. Crockett. Mr. Chairman, may we go off the record before the 
oath is administered ? 

Mr. Clardy. First we will swear the witness. The witness will 
hold up his right hand. 

Mr. Crockett. He has certain objections 

Mr. Clardy. The w^itness will please hold up his right hand at this 
time. After he is sworn I will permit the witness to address the 
Chair, but not before then. 

Mr. Ellery. I have here— — 

Mr. Clardy. Hold up your hand. Witness, and be sworn. Now do 
you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Ellery. I do. 

Mr, Clardy. I see you are represented by counsel. Will you iden- 
tify yourself on the record, sir? 

Mr. Crockett. George W. Crockett, Jr., 3220 Cadillac Tower, 
Detroit. 

Mr. Clardy. Be seated. Now, Witness, if you have some question 
you wish to address to the committee that is pertinent to the hearing 
^oing forward, the Chair will entertain it — not a written statement, 
however. 



5282 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE LEROY ELLERY, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, GEORGE W. CROCKETT, JR. 

Mr. Ellery. Mr. Chairman 



Mr. Clardy. Do you have a question? If you are going to read 
that long prepared statement, I shall not permit it. 

(At this point Mr. Elleiy conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Ellery. I have a 

Mr. Clardy. Let me make myself clear, Witness. You have been 
here and have heard the Chair's ruling on these things. I cannot 
possibly, in your case, make an exception any more than I could for 
anyone else. If you have a brief question to address to the Chair 
about our procedure or anything else pertinent, all right, but I see 
you have a lengthy typewiitten statement consisting of at least 
2 pages, and maybe more, for all I can tell from here. I shall not 
permit that until and unless you have answered the questions pro- 
pounded by the committee. If you do that, and if the statement is 
pertinent, at the conclusion it may be permitted. Otherwise it will 
not be entertained in any f oral at any time. 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Clardy. I think, Mr. Tavenner, we might as well proceed with 
the first question. 

Tr. Tavenner. Mr. Ellery, when and where were you born ? 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Ellery. I believe the chairman said if I had a question I could 
state it. 

Mr. Clardy. I can't hear you. 

Mr. Ellery. I believe the chairman said if I had a question I could 
state it. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, I changed my instruction when you refused to 
say anything at all, and I have instructed him to proceed, and he will 
proceed. 

Mr. Ellery. I have a motion to quash the subpena, and I would 
like to give my reasons for it. 

Mr. Clardy. No ; we will not entertain a verbal motion of that kind. 
If you have a written motion there, you may file it with the counsel, 
and it will be given due consideration. 

Mr. Ellery. I only have one copy. 

Mr. Clardy. Even though it is filed late — under the rules it should 
have been filed i:)rior to today — but if you file it 

Mr. Ellery. I would like a ruling on my motion to quash the sub- 
pena, and I would like my right to read the written reasons. 

Mr. Clardy. You submit it in writing to us, and we will entertain)^ 
it at the proper time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is your name signed to it ? 

Mr. Ellery. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right ; thank you, sir. 

When and where were 3'ou born, Mr. Ellery ? 

Mr. Ellery. I was born in Detroit, Mich., on July 1, 1930. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now reside in Detroit? 

Mr. Ellery. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived in Detroit during your entire life? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5283 

Mr. Ellery. Yes. May I qualify that ? I have made my residence 
in Detroit for my entire life. I have, of course, been outside the city 
occassionally. 

Mr. Tavexner. Have you served in the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Ellery. I have. 

Mr. Tavenxer. When was that, in what jjeriod of time, approxi- 
mately ? 

Mr. Ellery. I believe it was September 1950 to May 1951. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Will you tell the committee, please, whether or not 
you have been a member of the Labor Youth League in Detroit ? 

Mr. Clardy. Before you answer that, Iwant to make a statement 
for the record. I have inspected the motion you filed — and I am 
interrupting prior to the asking of that rather pertinent question to 
let you know tliat oi; inspection I find that this is precisely the same 
in content, if not almost in language, as the several other motions that 
have been filed with us attacking the constitutionality of the act creat- 
ing and authorizing this committee to operate and objecting to the 
procedure and other matters. The motion is denied. 

Mr. Tavex^ner. Will you answer the question, please ? 

Mr. Ellery. Will you restate it ? I was interrupted. 

Mr. Tavt^xx-^er. You would like for me to restate it? 

Mr. Ellery. Yes, please. 

Mr. Taa-ex^xer. Have you at any time been a member of the Labor 
Youth League in the city of Detroit? 

Mr, Ellery. I would like to say this, that in the reasons that I gave 
to quash the subpena, included among them was that I believe the 
committee is exceeding its constitutional powers and asking questions 
of political belief, and since — — 

Mr. Clardy. Keep you voice a little higher, AVitness. It is difficult 
to hear. 

Mr. Ellery. And since the previous testimony has indicated that 
the Labor Youth League is an organization which is of a political 
character, I must cite the reasons that I have given in my motion to 
quash the subpena, and further I urge my constitutional grounds under 
my privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Mr. Ellery, we have just heard read in testimony 
here a document of the Communist Party outlining certain objectives 
that it had in connection with the automobile industry in this area. 
One of its projects or one of the things upon which it proposed to 
center its efforts after 1949 was increased training on the part of 
Communist Party members at the ]\Iichigan School of Social Science. 
Did you attend the Michigan School of Social Science in 1949 ^ 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Tavexner. And, if you did, I would like you to tell the commit- 
tee the circumstances under which you entered that school. 

Mr. Ellery. I understand that the school has been mentioned as a 
political-type school ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Tavexxer. It was a school of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Ellj^iry. Well, since that is a political question, I must refuse to 
answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. TA^^XT^^ER. The committee is informed that on January 28, 1950, 
a Communist Party mobilization was held at Yeamen's Hall in De- 
troit. Were you a representative to that meeting from the Dodge 
section of the Communist Party ? 



5284 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Ellert. Again I may point out this is a political question, and 
therefore I must again state my reasons are the same as before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party j 

Mr. Ellery. This is becoming a little repetitious. It is a political 
question. I will give the same reasons as I gave before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Ellery. Well, the same reasons as I gave before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Same question, same answer? 

I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. Any questions ? 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

Mr. Clardy. Any questions? 

Mr. Moulder. In what branch of the armed services did you serve? 

Mr. E'llery. I took basic training under the Corps of Combat 
Engineers. 

Mr. Moulder. That was in the Army ? 

Mr. Ellery. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. You served in the Army during what period of time? 

Mr. Ellery. To the best of my recollection it was from September 
1950 to May 1951, 1 believe I stated. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you serve out your full period of enlistment? 

Mr. Ellery. No, I did not. 

Mr. Moulder. For what reason were you discharged so early. 

Mr. Ellery. I was never given an official reason. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you receive an honorable discharge or dishonor- 
able discharge ? 

Mr. Ellery. I did not receive a dishonorable discharge. I received 
a general discharge under honorable conditions. 

Mr. Scherer. When was it that you picketed the Army recruiting 
station here in Detroit? 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Ellery. I assume you believe that this is a political picketing. 
I therefore refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. I don't know what kind of picketing it was, but on 
February 7, 1948, our information indicates that you picketed the 
Army recruiting station in Detroit. 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Scherer. Did you so picket on February 7, irrespective of your 
reason ? 

Mr. Ellery. I will give the same reasons and the same answer as I 
did before. 

Mr. Scherer. Was that before or after your discharge? 

Mr. Ellery. Was wliat? 

Mr. Scherer. Wlien you were picketing the 

Mr. ElIvEry. Well, the same reason, the same answer. I don't 
answer the question on the grounds of the fifth amendment and all the 
others. 

Mr. Scherer. Why did you picket the Federal Building on April 
28, 1950 ? TVliat was the reason for that picketing? 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Ellery. May I ask if that was the period when the House 
Un-American Activities was here? 

Mr. Clardy. No ; it was not. We will answer that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5285 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you picket it when we were here the last time? 

Mr. Ellery. The same reason ; the same answer. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ? 

Mr. Ellery. I said I will give the same reasons, the 1st and 5th 
amendment, as cited in the motion to quash the subpena. 

Mr. Scherer. But you asked the question whether or not that was 
the time the commitee was here on a previous occasion. 

Mr. Ellery. Well, I just didn't know the time. 

Mr. Scherer. Your last Communist Party card was issued in June 
1948. That was the last time the party issued cards. Is it not a 
fact that the number of that card was 72419 ? 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Ellery. Mr. Congressman, that is what you are testifying to. 
As for myself, I give the same answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Scherer. Well, you call it my testimony. Was my testimony 
false? 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Ellery. Well, I certainly hesitate to call a Congressman a liar, 
but I give the same reason and the same answer. 

Mr. Scherer. Don't hesitate at all. That has been done many times. 

Mr. Clardy. Are you answering the question ? 

Mr. Ellery. I said I give the same reasons and the same answer as 
in my motion to quash the subpena. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. I have one more question. Wliere are you now 
employed? 

]Mr. Ellery. I am employed at the Dodge main plant of the 
Chrysler Corp. 

Mr. Moulder. Where do you reside in Detroit ? 

Mr. Ellery. 7329 Prairie Avenue. 

Mr. Moulder. How long have you been employed at the Dodge 
plant? 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Ellery. I have been employed approximately 6 years, about 
5:1/0. 

Mr. Moulder. What are your duties now 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Moulder. In your employment, in the performance of your 
work ? 

Mr. Ellery. I am a truckdriver. 

Mr. Moulder. That is all. 
. Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, are you now or have you ever been a member 
of any organization whose avowed purpose is the overthrow of this 
Government through the use of force and violence? 

(At this i3oint Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Ellery. I would like you to be a little more specific. I couldn't 
answer that question of a general character like that. 

Mr. Clardy. Which word in the question is not understood by you ? 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Ellery. Well, I am answering in respect that it was a general 
question. 

Mr. Clardy. I have propounded the question, and I now direct you 
to answer the question. 



52S6 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF ISHCHIGAN 

(At this point Mr. Ellery conferred with Mr. Crockett.) 

Mr. Elleky. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Ci.ARDY. Witness dismissed. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Paul Ross Baker, will yon come forward, please? 

Mr. Clardy. Hold up your right hand. Do you solemnly swear that 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Baker. I do. 

Mr. Clardy. Be seated, and since you are accompanied by counsel, 
will counsel identify himself for the record, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mr. Simmons. C. LeBron Simmons, 585 Gratiot Street, Detroit. 

Mr. Tavenner (addressing witness) . What is your name, please? 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Your name, I mean. 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL ROSS BAKER, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, C. LeBRON SIMMONS 

Mr. Baker. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Tavenner. Speak a little louder, please. 

Mr. Baker. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask if pictures could 
be 

Mr. Clardy. I can't hear a word you say, for some reason or other. 

Mr. Tavenner. He is asking about photographs, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Baker. During the time that I am in the witness chair, could 
the pictures be stopped ? 

Mr. Clardy. Flashlights will be stopped, gentlemen, from here on 
out. Now proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Baker. Paul Eoss Baker. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Baker ? 

Mr. Baker. I was born in 1925 in Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Mr, Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Baker. Willow Run Village, Mich. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Willow Run? 

Mr, Baker. I have lived in Willow Run since September 1951. 

Mr. Tavenner. 1951 ? 

Mr. Baker. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time where you did you reside ? 

Mr. Baker. I would like to ask the committee of what relevancy 
this is to the purposes and activities of the committee. 

Mr. Clardy. I should tell you, witness, that neither counsel nor the' 
committee ask questions that we do not deem relevant, and we deem 
that such, and to help you with your answer, prior to your coming 
here, I believe you were attending Michigan State College, were you 
not? 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Baker. I refuse — I would like to state that I would like to 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Baker. Because the committee has indicated that they deem 
this relevant, I would like to refuse to answer the question or decline 
to answer on the basis of the fifth, first, and sixth amendments. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVIl'IES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5287 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, I am sure that you did attend Michigan 
State College, and since I am a resident of East Lansing also, I am 
:sure there can be nothing incriminating in your admitting that fact. 
I direct you to answer that question which was whether or not you 
were a student at Michigan State College prior to the time that you 
icame to the Willow Run location in 1951. 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Baker. I would like to state that I would like to give the same 
answer as I gave before with the same reasons, and if I in the future 
decline to answer any questions, I would like to have it be known in 
the record that it will be for the same grounds. 

Mr. Clardt. You need only state at that time for the same reasons, 
but I nuist advise you at this time that an inquiry as to whether or 
not you attended a college, if answered honestly, either "yes" or 
''no'', could not possibly incriminate you, and I do not think you are 
entitled to the ])rotection of the fifth amendment. The advice upon 
which you have acted is not sound in the opinion of the Chair, but 
you are entitled to raise it if you wish at your own risk. Proceed, 
Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have vou lived at a residence known as Trailer 
K-r,0 

Mr. Bakeh. I decline 

Mr. Tavenner. Out at Michigan State College ? 

Mr. Baker. I decline to answer on the same grounds as previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat has been your employment at Willow Run 
since September 1951? 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Baker. I decline to answer on the same grounds as previously 
stated. 

Mr. SciiERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes, I do direct you to answer that last question. 

Mr. Baker. I decline to answer upon the same grounds, the same 
reasons. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present position ? 

Mr. Sciierer. Just a minute, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Clardy. Witness, I think that the connnittee should take a few 
moments to suggest that you should reconsider the answer to those 
<luestions on which I have directed you to answer. We have no 
desire whatever to see anybody ensnare himself by following advice 
that is not good or sound, as you obviously are in this instance. The 
questions upon which you were directed to answer could not, in the 
judgment of the committee, furnish a foundation for a proper invo- 
cation of the fifth amendment. We have no desire whatever to do 
anything that will harm you. If anything comes of this, it will be 
entirely due to your own action, and I beg of you at this time to 
reconsider and to permit us to restate those questions and give you 
an opportunity to clear the record. Now, won't you do that? 

Mr. Baker. I must decline for the same reasons. I thank you for 
giving me your advice, as you put it, but upon the knowledge that I 
have of the committee and its activities and functions, and with the 



5288 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

apprehensions I have for its overstepping its bounds according to my \ 
constitutional rights, I must decline. 

Mr. Tavenner. How are you now employed ? 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Baker. I must refuse to answer upon the same grounds as pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Clardy. I direct you answer that question. Unless you are* 
actually engaged in some criminal conspiracy, unless you are engaged 
in something that is of criminal nature, merely stating the nature of 
your employment cannot possibly incriminate you. It is a misuse of ! 
the fifth amendment, and I direct that you answer that question. 

Mr. Baker. I would like to ask the Chair of what 

Mr. Clardy. Just answer the question. I will not answer any more 
questions. I have done my best to help you and to prevent you from 
making a mistake. Now, from here on out you are on your own, and 
I am directing you to answer that question. 

Mr. Baker. Mr. Chairman, in directing me to answer it, are you 
saying that this question is material or relevant to the 

Mr. Clardy. Definitely, very definitely. 

Mr. Baker. Well, therefore, I must decline to answer upon grounds i 
previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Witness, it should be obvious to you and to your coun- 
sel that you are clearly in contempt of Congress. 

Mr. Baker. That is the inference that you make, Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, the courts have so held on that, and where there i 
is doubt we never make that statement. In this instance you are badly 
advised, and I suggest you take your time in answering the rest of! 
them from here on out. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the United States Marine 
Corps between 1943 and 1946 ? 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Baker. Yes; I was a member of the Marine Corps in those 
years. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you returned in 1946, where did you makei 
your residence; at what place did you make your residence? 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Baker. I decline to answer, based upon the same grounds as« 
previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. I think you should direct the witness to answer th» 
question. 

Mr. Clardy. Yes ; I so direct. 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Clardy. Let him reply, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Baker. Mr. Chairman, is this question also relevant to your — 

Mr. Clardy. I told you earlier. Witness, that the committee is noti 
given to asking questions unless they deem them relevant and perti-' 
nent to the subject of the inquiry. The answer to your question is 
"Yes." Now will you proceed to answer it or decline as you may 
desire. 

Mr. Baker. Therefore I must decline, upon the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. After your service in the Armed Forces of thei 
United States, did you attend an educational institution at the expense 
of the United States Government under the GI bill of rights ? 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES ESI THE STATE OF AaCHIGAN 5289 

Mr. Baker. I decline to answer that question upon the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Clardy. I direct that you answer. That invocation of the fifth 
amendment on such a question is a direct ailront to the dignity of the 
Congress of the United States, to assert that an act passed by Congress 
bestowing benefits upon worthy veterans who have fought in support 
of the things this Nation stands for is obviously so far from my pro- 
tection by the fifth amendment that it ought to be clear even to you, 
and that is why I direct you to reply. 

Mr. Baker. I am very much aware of my esteem for the Congress 
of the United States, but I still decline to answer your question and 
this committee's question of that nature on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. How could it possibly incriminate you to tell this 
committee whether or not you received the benefit of Government 
funds under the GI bill of rights? 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Clardy. We are not asking you as to whether you used those 
funds for some improper purpose ; not at all. 

Mr. Baker. I do not have to answer any question regarding the 
reasons besides the stated reason for my declining to answer. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, that may be your judgment on it, but you are 
sadly in error, sir. I am indeed sorry to see you follow this course. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been acquainted at any time with a person 
by the name of Bolza Baxter? 

Mr. Baker. I must decline to answer upon the same grounds as 
previously stated. 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Baker. I decline to answer upon the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time that you received benefits under the GI bill of rights. 

Mr. Baker. I decline to answer upon the same grounds. 

Mr, Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Baker. I decline to answer upon the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. Have you ever been a member of an organization 
whose avowed purpose is to destroy this Nation through the use of 
force and violence? 

(At this point Mr. Baker conferred with Mr. Simmons.) 

Mr. Baker. I decline to answer upon the same grounds. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness dismissed. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Evelyn Gladstone. 

Mr. Clardy. Will you hold up your right hand ? Do you solemnly 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Gladstone. I do. 

Mr. Clardy. I see you are accompanied by counsel. Will counsel 
please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Starr. 'l. R. Starr, 2017 Dime Building, Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. Clardy. I should state for the record 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mr. Clardy. If you will both give me your attention for a moment, 
I should state for the record that the document which is not labeled 



5290 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

at the top, but which I construe to be a motion for dismissal of the 
snbpena, lias been handed to the committee, and the motion is denied. 
The motion will be placed in the file. 

Mr. Tavexner. What is your name, please? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mr. Starr. Would you hold it a minute, please? 

TESTIMONY OF EVELYN GLADSTONE, ACCOMPANIED BY HER 
COUNSEL, I. R. STARR 

Mrs. Gladstone. Mr. Chairman, I believe there are other motions 
on that same sheet of paper which I would like the Chair to consider 
before I begin my testimony. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, I can tell you that we considered that as one 
entire document. You raised several points or objections. If you 
want to speak of them as several different motions, all right, but the 
entire document and whatever it contains is denied. Any request for 
relief thereon is denied, would be a better way to stale it. 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with ]Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. I am ready for the question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenxer. What is your name, ])lease? 

Mrs. Gladstone. Mrs. Evelyn Gladstone. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am sorry; will you speak a little louder? 

Mrs. Gladstone. Mrs. Evelyn Gladstone. 

Mr. Tavenner, What was your maiden name? 

Mrs. Gladstone. Evelyn Gesotf ; G-e-s-o-f -f . 

Mr. Tavenner. W^here do you now reside ? 

Mrs. Gladstone. At 30530 Pierce Road in Garden City. 

Mr, Tavenner. Michigan ? 

Mrs. Gladstone. Michigan. 

Mr, Tavenner. Of what place are you a native; that is, where were 
you born? 

Mrs. Gladstone, riiiladelphia. Pa, 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you move to Michigan ? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs, Gladstone. In 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner, From Philadelphia. 

Mrs. Gladstone. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. To what place did you move in Michigan when you I 
came from Philadelphia in 1944 ? 

(At this point Mrs, Gladstone conferred with Mr, Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. May I confer with my counsel, please? 

Mr, Tavenner. Certainly. 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs, Gladstone. I should clarify that in 1944 I did not make Mich^ 
igan my legal residence. I merely came here as a student, and my 
legal residence renuiined Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr, Clardy, You came as a student to the University of Michigan 
at Ann Arbor, did you not, at that time ? 

Mrs, Gladstone, That is correct. 

Mr, Tavenner, When did you make Michigan your place of resi- 
dence ; that is, your domicile, legal domicile ? 

Mrs, Gladstone. Upon my — let me see — when I became of voting 
age. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5291 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere did you become a resident of Michigan, what 

place ? 

Mrs. Gladstone. In Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived there continuously until the time 
you moved to Garden City ? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr, Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you at the present time an officer of an organiza- 
tion entitled the Better Schools Committee of Garden City ? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. I will decline to answer that question on the basis 
of tlie first amendment which guarantees me the privacy of certain 
associations that I may or may not form and on the basis of the fifth 
amendment which, as you well know the text of it. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. How could it be that membership in a Better 
Schools Committee could possibly incriminate you ? 

Mrs. Gladstone. Well ■ 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. Mr. Counsel, since I do not have the benefit of 
knowing what your next six questions may be or what line of question- 
ing my answer may open to you, I invoke the same privileges that I 
invoked before. 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I will have to ask that the witness 
be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Clardy. I so direct. 

Mrs. Gladstone. I will decline to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated with the understanding that the protection 
given me and other citizens of our country is not limited to self- 
incrimination or any other meaning that this counsel chooses to 
give it. 

Mr. Clardy. Isn't the Better Schools Committee a public organ- 
ization in that community ? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. Mr. Chairman, that may or may not be so, but 
in declining to answer this question, I do so without aspersions cast 
upon any organization, but merely to protect my rights since I fear 
that in answering any questions before this committee I may waive 
certain of my constitutional privileges which are given me in the 
Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Clardy. Well, I must say the Chair is moved to say that today 
I have seen the worst type of legal advice given to witnesses appear- 
ing before us that I have ever heard before in all the time I have been 
on the committee. Now, I want to ask you this: You are in fact an 
officer of that organization, aren't you ? 

Mrs. Gladstone. Are you asking me a question, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Clardy. I am. 

Mrs. Gladstone. I must decline to answer the question for the same 
grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Clardy. I direct that you answer. 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. If you will represent to me that my answering 
of that question will not constitute a waiver of any of my privileges, 
I will answer it. 



5292 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Clardt. It is not the custom of this committee or any other 
committee of Congress to enter into bargains or deals. 

Mrs. Gladstone. I am not asking for a bargain or deal. 

Mr. Clardy. I will bring this to a head: When you were at the' 
school from which I also graduated, the University of Michigan at 
Ann Arbor, were you not a member of the Ralph Neaf us section of the i 
Communist Party? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. We dropped the other question then. 

Mr. Clardy. You refused to answer it. I am moving on to this. 

Mrs. Gladstone. I see. I refuse to answer that question also, Mr. 
Chairman, on the gi-ounds previously stated. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you not in 1948 transfer from that student sectioni 
of the Communist Party to the organization at Ann Arbor called thei 
Town Club — and not to be confused with the Town Club of Lansingj 
to which I belong ? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. I don't want to confuse the proceedings here anyi] 
more than you do, Mr. Chairman. I will decline to answer that ques- 
tion on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Clardy. Are you now or have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. I invoke my same privileges as previously stated. ' 

Mr. Clardy. Are you now or have you ever been a member of any ; 
organization whose avowed purpose is the destruction of this Govern- 
ment through the use of force and violence ? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. I decline to answer that question also on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Clardy. Mr. Tavenner, unless you have some very important, 
questions, I think I will dismiss this witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask one question ? 

Mr. Clardy. You may ask as many as you want, but I tell you how 
I feel about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now hold a certificate to teach at Garden; 
City? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. I have no contract with any board of education at» 
this time. I am a full-time employee as a wife and a mother at thiS' 
time. 

Mr. Clardy. You were asked whether you held a certificate, not' 
whether you were employed and using it. You didn't answer thei 
question. 

Mrs. Gladstone. Will you restate the question ? I misunderstood. 
You said provision to teach in Garden City. That would imply a 
contract. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now hold a certificate to teach in Garden 
City? 

Mrs. Gladstone. The teaching certificates are not given in localities. 
They come through the State, Mr. Counsel. 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have a teacher's certificate at the present 
time? 



I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5293 

Mrs. Gladstone. To the best of my knowledge my provisional 
certificate has expired. It expired in 1952, which I might explain, 
I the reason for that being that I received a secondary certificate, 
and in order to get a permanent certificate, you must teach for 3 
consecutive years in your field, and I changed fields before the 5-year 
period expired, and therefore that was the reason that it expired, that 
the certificate expired. 

Mr. Ci^AKDY. Your answer is, you do not hold a permanent certif- 
icate. 

Mrs. Gladstone. No, I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you renewed your certificate since that time 
or at any time ? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. Is your question, have I applied for a renewel of 
the certificate ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, you may answer it that way. That was not 
my exact question, but you may answer that first. Have you applied 
to renew your certificate ? 

Mrs. Gladstone. No, I have not applied to renew my certificate. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has it been renewed ? 

Mrs. Gladstone. No, it has not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you teach in 1952 ? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. Is that question relevant to these proceedings, 
I Mr. Counsel 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Gladstone. Well, then, I will decline to answer that ques- 
tion for the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardt. Mr. Scherer ? 

Mr. Scherer. Just one question, witness: How long were you a 
reporter for the Daily Worker ? 

(At this point Mrs. Gladstone conferred with Mr. Starr.) 

Mrs. Gladstone. Is that a question ? 

Mr. Scherer. Oh, yes. How long ? 

Mrs. Gladstone. It seems a little presumptive, but I will decline 
to answer that question for the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you deny that you were a reporter for the Daily 
Worker ? 

Mrs. Gladstone. I decline to answer for the same reasons, Mr. 
i Congressman. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you ever have a byline in that paper ? 

Mrs. Gladstone. I decline to answer for the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Clardt. Mr. Moulder, any questions ? 

Mr. Moulder. No questions. 

Mr. Clardy. Any further questions, Mr. Tavenner ? 
y Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

' Mr. Clardy. Witness excused, and due to the lateness of the hour, 
I have an announcement to make, and will the room please remain 
quiet until I have finished it. 

The committee members find it necessary to take an early plane 
for Washington because a matter of intense interest to the State 
comes up on the vote tomorrow, and that is the St. Lawrence seaway 



5294 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

project. Accordingly there will be no session of the committee to- 
morrow, Thursday. 

There will be a session in this same place on Friday. So all of the 
witnesses who have been subpenaed to appear up to and including 
today and subpenaed for appearance tomorrow or Friday or any 
other day of the week and have not been called will appear at 9 : 30 
a. m. on Friday morning next. 

The hearing is adjourned until Friday morning at 9 : 30 a. m. 

(Whereupon, at 4 : 23 p. m., the hearing was recessed until 9 : 30 
a. m., Friday, May 7, 1954.) 



INDEX TO PART 4 



Individuals 

Page 

Allan, William (Billy) 5260,5263,5264 

Appell, Donald T 5228, 5231 

Baker, Paul Ross 5286-5290 (testimony) 

Baldwin, Bereniece 5224 

Baxter, Bolza, Jr 5226,5227-5248 (testimony), 5289 

Bellinson, Bernard 5248,5249-5255 (testimony) 

Cicliocki, James E 5221,5222-5227 (testimony) 

Crockett, George W., Jr 5281, 5282-5286 

Dennis, Tom 5248 

Dodd, Bella 5272 

Ellery, George Leroy 5281,5282-5286 (testimony) 

Franklin, Godfrey - 5255-5281 

Franklin, Harold 5278 

Ganley, Nat 5260 

Gesoff, Evelyn (Evelyn Gladstone) 5290 

Gladstone, Evelyn (Evelyn Gesoff) 5289, 5290-5294 (testimony) 

Gore, Jack 5240, 5243-5245 

Hall, Gus 5268, 5269 

Henry, Milton R 5227-5248 

Jackson, James 5259, 5260, 5263 

Johnson, William H 5255-5281 (testimony) 

Krawford, Leroy 5262 

McKie, Bill 5274 

Medina 5274 

Mikkelsen, Harold M 5271 

Moore, Dave 5260 

Nelson, Walter M 5221, 5222-5227 

Reuther, Walter 5267, 5273 

Schatz, Phil 5259, 5263 

Schnaar, Mitchell 5248, 5249-5255 

Sheffield, Horace 5262, 5263 

Simmons, C. LeBron 5286-5290 

Starr, I. R 5289,5290-5294 

Truman, Harry S 5225 

White, Jack (radio newscaster) 5243 

White, John (Jack) 5243 

Winter, Carl 5260, 5262, 5280 

Organizations 

Better SehooLs Committee of Garden City, Mich 5291 

Briggs Manufacturing Co 5224, 5251, 5252 

Chrysler Corp 5226 

Chrysler Corp., Dodge plant 5285 

Communist Party, Michigan : 

Ann Arbor Town Club 5292 

Dodge section 5283 

Ford section 5260 

Ralph Neafus section 5292 

Communist Political Association 5279, 5280 

Communist Youth Club 5240 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Congress of Iiidnstrial Organisations 5222 

5224, 5226, 5254, 5256, 5265, 5267, 5270, 5272 

Dodge plant. Chrysler Corp 5285 

Ford Motor Co 5251, 

5253-5255, 5259, 5267, 5269-5271, 5274, 5277, 527S-5289 

Ford Motor Co.. Ronge plant 5251,5259,5265,5278 

General Motors 5267 

Independent Progressive Party 5260, 5261 

Jewish Community Center 5252,5254 

Ku Klux Klan 5245 

Labor Youth League 5229, 5231-5233, 5237, 5238, 5240-5248, 5283 

Labor Youth League, Detroit 5283 

Labor Youth League. Flint 5243-5246 

Labor Youth League, Michigan 5229,5231,5238,5243 

Michigan School of Social Science 5273,5283 

Michigan State College 5286, 5287 

New York University 5253 

North Atlantic Military Alliance 5273 

North Atlantic Pact 5273 

Political Action Committee, CIO 5272 

Progressive Partv. {See Independent Progressive Party.) 

United Auto Workers, CIO 5222, 5224, 5226, 5254, 5256, 5265, 5267, 5270 

United Auto Workers, Briggs Manufacturing Co. Local, CIO 5224 

United Auto Workers, Local 600. CIO 5254,5256,5270 

United Auto Workers, Local 742, CIO 5222,5226 

United States Marine Corps 5288 

University of Michigan 5235, 5290, 5292 

Wayne University 5277 

Wayne University Law School 5256 

Young Communist League 5224 

Young Communist League, Foster-Mooney branch 5224 1 

Young Progressives 5240-5243 

Young Progressives. Flint, Mich 5240 

PtJBLlCATIONS 

Daily Worker 5225, 5226, 5264, 5293 

Detroit News 5225 

Ford Facts 5274 

Michigan Worker 5272 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

Jlllllilillli,, 

3 9999 05445 3319