(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the State of Michigan. Hearings"

lii-. ■■.■..<r..-i;;!.-r.i 



r&" 



J\ 



o%'i^ i , h\^i 



"3i 




-&. 



3^ 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF MICHIGAN— Part 5 

(DETROIT— Labor) 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



MAY 7, 1954 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
48861 WASHINGTON : 1954 



Boston Public Library 
Cuperintondent of Documents 

SEP 28 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States Htjusr: of Rei^resentatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, JE., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavennee, Jr., Counsel 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

Courtney E. Owens, Acting Chief Investigator 

II 



CONTENTS 



May 7. H)ri4, testimony of — Page 

William Estes Fletcher 5296 

Bereniece Baldwin 5297 

Index i 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities operates is Public Law 601, T9th Congress [1946], 
chapter 753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of Afnerica, in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

(Rule X 
SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
* « * « 4: * 4c 

17. Coiniuittee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

{q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) Ttie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the tlnited States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
taclis the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 19r>3 

* m * m * * * 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected hy the House, at the comuiencement of each Congress, 
the following standing committees : 

******* 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWER AXD DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make, from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in tlie United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the Hou.se is not in .session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within rlie Cuited States, whetlier or not the House is sitting, 
Jhas recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of STK'h witnesses and the i)roductiou of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subconunittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
STATE OF MICHIGAN— PAKT 5 

(Detroit— Labor) 



FRIDAY, MAY 7, 1954 

United States House of Kepresentatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
, Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Detroit, Mich. 
public hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to notice, at 11 : 34 a. m., in room 859, Federal Building, 
Hon. Kit Clardy (acting chairman) presiding. 

Committee member present: Representative Kit Clardy (acting 
chairman). 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; Donald T. 
Appell and W. Jackson Jones, investigators; and Mrs. Juliette P. 
Joray, acting clerk. 

Mr. Clardy. The committee will be in session. Due to the fact that 
the subcommittee found it necessary to fly to Washington to vote on 
the seaway bill yesterday — I am thankful for the outcome on that — 
our plans had to be changed somewhat for that and other reasons. 
Congressman Scherer has another committee assignment that we 
decided could not be postponed. Congressman ISIoulder is en route 
somewhere between here and AYashington. Xeither his office nor any- 
one else has been able to determine precisely the moment of his arrival. 
We know he is on his way, but beyond that we know nothing, so we 
have been waiting in hopes that he would show up. 

Due to the fact that he isn't here and because of the rule that the 
committee scrupulously observes of having at least a quorum of the 
committee or the subcommittee present at the time of the hearing, 
when and if a witness who is not cooperative is on the stand, I have 
chosen not to go forward. 

As to this afternoon, whether Mr. Moulder shows up or not, 
Bereniece Baldwin will be the first witness, and the hearing will go 
forward at that time at 1 o'clock. 

As to how many others of you will be reached will depend entirely 
upon the length of time that her testimony may take. During the 
afternoon session a time for the appearance of witnesses that have 
been subpenaed for Detroit to appear will be announced. In other 
words, we will get as many witnesses on the stand and off this after- 
noon as we can. As to those not reached, I will then make a definite 
announcement as to the day on which you are to return. In all ]:)rob- 

5295 



5296 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

ability it will be a week from this coming Monday, that date being 
May 17, subject, of course, to additional information I hope to get 
between now and the time of the announcement this afternoon. Of 
course even if that announcement as to a firm date is made this after- 
noon, it is always possible that committee or congressional business 
may make a further postponement necessary, in which event everyone 
who is subpenaed will be notified in ample time through telegraphic 
notice as to what they should do. 

So at this time we adjourn the hearing now until 1 p. m. this 
afternoon. 

(Thereupon, at 11 :37 a. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 1 p. m. of the same day. ) 

AFTERNOON" SESSION 

(At the hour of 1 : 27 p. m. of the same day, the proceedings were 
resumed, Representative Kit Clardy being present.) 

Mr. Clardy. The committee will be in session. 

Since the noon recess we have learned that Congressman Moulder 
was taken ill at the airport in Washington and will be unable to be 
present. A little later on the Chair will make an announcement as 
promised this morning with regard to the disposition of those wit- 
nesses who were subpenaed to be here today. 

Are you ready, Counsel? 

You may proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. William Estes Fletcher, will you come for- 
ward, please? 

Mr. Clardy. Hold up your right hand. Do you solemnly swear that 
the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM ESTES FLETCHER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
HIS COUNSEL, BERNARD PROBE 

Mr. Fletcher. I do. Mr. Chairman, I would like to be represented 
by an attorney, if you please — I don't have an attorney here — Attorney 
Probe. 

Mr. Clardy. I didn't quite catch what you said. 

Mr. Fletcher. I said I would like to be represented by an attorney. 

Mr. Clardy. Very well, if you wish to. 

Mr. Fletcher. Attorney Probe. 

(Whereupon Bernard Probe came forward.) 

Mr. Clardy. This gentleman has been with us during the week. 
Will you identify yourself, however, for the record at this point. 

Mr. Probe. My name is Bernard Probe. 1 have offices in the National 
Bank Building. However, I would like to say this. Congressman 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon, Ave will have to go oA' the record if you want 
to say anything. 

Mr. Probe. That is all right. , 

Mr. Clardy. Oif the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

]VIr. CLiVRDY. Mr. Tavenner, I think I shall excuse this witness. It 
was your understanding — at least you conveyed it to me — that the 
witness would cooperate with the committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5297 

Mr. Tavenxer. I had that information, that there was a possi- 
bility of it. I wasn't certain. 

Mr. Clardy. At any rate, I will excuse yon at this time, and when 
we finish with Mrs. Baldwin, you will undoubtedly have finished talk- 
ing with counsel, and it may be possible that we call you again, 
depending upon your attitude. 

At the moment you are temporarily excused. 

I want to make it clear at this point that this committee will not 
under any circumstances go forward with only one member sitting 
unless there is a witness before it desirous of cooperating with the 
committee. In the event that a witness takes any other attitude, we 
refuse to hear the testimony. 

Now will you call Mrs. Baldwin. Mrs. Baldwin, will you stand 
and hold up your right hand. You do solemnly swear the testimony 
you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. I do. 

Mr. Clardy. You may be seated. You have been a witness before 
this committee before and have been sworn before, but I think it good 
form to go through it again. 

You may proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF BERENIECE BALDWIN 

Mr. Ta\t]:nner. What is your name, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Bereniece Baldwin. 

IMr. Ta^-enner. Mrs. Baldwin, You testified before the Committee 
on Un-American Activities in 1952, did you not ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. At that time you told the committee that you had 
been a member of the Communist Party, I believe, since 1943? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. And that during that period of time you had been 
working within the Communist Party for the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. My recollection is that you were called as a witness 
before this committee immediately after your return from Washing- 
ton where you had been engaged in testifying before the Subversive 
Activities Control Board. Now, because of this the staff had just 
a little over 24 hours to confer with you before you testified. During 
those conferences you made available to the staff of this committee 
information which came into your possession while you worked on 
the membership records of district 7 of the Communist Party. Be- 
cause of the lack of time to prepare, only a portion of the information 
which you made available to the committee was used in the course 
of your testimony when you appeared before the committee in 1952. 
Since that appearance it is true, is it not, that you have had a number 
of conferences with members of the staff of this committee and that 
you have rppeared before the committee in executive session in Wash- 
ington, D. C., and also in a public session in Ohio ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. In calling you today, the committee desires to have 
such further information as you may be able to give it regarding 

48861— 54— pt. 5 -2 



5298 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

some of the more active members of the Communist Party. How- 
ever, before going into those matters, I want to refer you to Johnson 
Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2,^ copies of which I handed you a few minutes 
ago. These are documents which the committee introduced in evidence 
several days ago. Exhibit No. 1 is entitled "Resolution on Concen- 
tration for Discussion at All Clubs, Sections, Commissions, and De- 
partments," and the second one is "Plan of Work for Dearborn Auto 
Section of the Communist Party." Can you throw any light on the 
things that occurred leading up to the issuance of this document by 
the Michigan State organization of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. The beginning of this resolution was brought 
out in a 1948 State convention, at which time they stressed what they 
called concentration in industry, specifically auto industries. From 
that 1948 conference, a 3-day conference, this was born out of it. In 
other words, I believe this document — in fact I know this document 
carries the fact that they had had 9 months' work testing it. 

Mr. Clardy. Say that last again. They had 9 months' work doing 
what? 

Mrs. Baldwin. They had 9 months trying to work on this plan. 

Mr. Clardy. In other words, this is the product of a lot of intensive 
thought and study and discussion. 

Mrs. Baldwin. And criticism, yes ; everything is involved of what 
has happened through the approximate 9-month period. 

Mr. Clardy. Then it is possible to say that it certainly represented 
the studied decision on the part of the Communist leaders as to strat- 
egy, method, and the other things that the document discusses ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is right, exactly what they were going to 
carry out. Also, in a functionaries' meeting held in March of 1949, 
many of the facts were brought out in that functionaries' meeting by 
our educational director, wlio was educational director at that time, 
James E. Jackson, and many excerpts are in here of his report at 
that functionary meeting. 

Mr. Clardy. Repeat that name again. 

Mrs. Baldwin. James E. Jackson, who was then educational direc- 
tor for district 7. 

Mr. Clardy. Was he named in your prior testimony? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. That is my recollection. 

Mr. Tavenner. He is now a fugitive, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Clardy. That is what I know. 

Mrs. Baldwin. This paper here, document, entitled "Resolution on 
Concentration for Discussion at All Clubs, Sections, Commissions, 
and Departments," was put out on a State level. Coming from that 
was a plan of work for each section, primarily the concentration 
sections such as auto miscellaneous section. Dearborn section, and so 
forth. 

Mr. Tavenner. The one tliat the committee has been able to secure 
relates to the Dearborn section of the Communist Party, does it 
not? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. 



^ See Investigation of Communist Activities in the State of Michigan, pt. 2, pp. 5116 and 
5122. These Iiad previously been introduced as evidence into the record as Schemanske 
Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5299 

]VIr. Tavenner. The Dearborn auto section ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Dearborn auto section. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there similar plans or somewhat similar plans 
prepared for the other sections ? 

Mrs. BALD\^^N. Oh, yes. We each had a section, but the concen- 
tration at that time was on the auto industry. That was the con- 
centration. 

Mr. Clardy. Is it fair to say that the substance of the documents 
you now hold and that have been placed in evidence was contained in 
the directives given to all other branches and sections of the party ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes — well, an instance of that, most of the com- 
munity clubs were required to help in the concentration program, 
which would be the auto industry, and their plan of work would 
carry such things. 

Mr. Clardy. All the rest of them not in the auto industry were 
advised of the contents of this in order to impress of them the impor- 
tance of helping in the auto industry itself ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is not my intention to go into detail in this docu- 
ment. We have read a great deal of it in evidence, but there are just 
one or two things that I want to call to your attention and ask you 
if you have any special knowledge regarding them. For instance, on 
page 4 of the document there is a paragraph, the first sentence of 
whicli is as follows — it is the last paragraph before you come to the 
heading "For a Struggle Against Tendencies of Economics" — the first 
sentence of which is as follows : 

Many comrades would be encouraged to volunteer to change their jobs to 
seek employment in large auto plants. 

Now, can you tell the committee what was done about that in the 
(Communist Part}', how that was translated into action in the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. That was activized on the plan of what were 
called colonizers. 

Mr. Tavenner. Colonizers? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. They would be people who had had thorough 
studying and schooling in mobilizing and organizing the Communist 
Party in general, and they would be put in — in other words, they 
would be the leading cadres that would be put into these various sec- 
tions. Some of them were brought from out of town; some of them 
were within the State itself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether persons were brought into 
the Detroit area from outside of the State of Michigaii for colonizing 
purposes ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, they were. 

Mr. Tavenner. I asked you about this for the first time just a few 
minutes ago, and I don't know whether you have had an opportunity 
to study the matter or to reflect upon the names of those who were 
brought in as colonizers. 

Mrs. Baldwin. No, I don't believe I would. 

Mr. Tavenner. If you do recall any at this time, I would like to 
ask you about them ; I would like you to tell us about them. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, there was one individual who was called 
Murray Borod. 

Mr. Clardy. In an advertisement that was published in a news- 



5300 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

paper here in town attacking the committee there is a Murray Borod 
listed among the 18 that are supposed to have authorized the publica- 
tion of this ad. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, that would be it. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Do you know whether any persons living in Detroit 
were sent out into other areas for the purpose of colonization of 
industry ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, many of our organizers. In this particular 
case, Jack "\^^lite, who had been an organizer for the party, was sent 
to Flint. 

Mr. Clardt. Again, may I interrupt you. I want to make it very 
clear on this record that the Jack White sitting here in the left-hand 
corner is not the Jack Wliite you had in mind. 

Mrs. Baldwin. No, that is true. 

Mr. Clardy. This is Jack White of WJl? fame, pleasantly giving 
out the news every day. 

Mrs. Baldwin. I believe I made that clear at the other hearing. 

Mr. Clardy. I know you did, but seeing him sitting here, I thought 
it a good opportunity to give him a little plug. 

Go ahead. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat was the nature of the colonization work that 
was done at Flint? 

Mrs. Baldwin. First they established cells within the various auto 
plants, Buick and so forth, and they broke them down into small cells 
to recruit and re-recruit Communist Party members or progressives, 
whomever they could sell their program to. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were describing the colonization work that was 
done in Buick, in Flint. By that do you mean persons were sent fi'om 
Detroit to Flint to become employed in the Buick plant ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. In the Buick plant to help organize a Communist 
cell or cells within that particular plant ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the course of our hearing at Flint we will 
hear evidence regarding persons who came there from Detroit and 
other places under this colonization plan which you have just spoken 
of. 

That was one device, as I understand, by which the Communist 
Party implemented this directive, by getting people to go to various 
industries to be employed; that is, persons who were members of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is correct. I want to stress the point that they 
just wouldn't go into the ranks of the Communist Party and pick out 
any person. They would select what they would call their most mili- 
tant cadres, such 'as was in the case of Geneva Olmsted, who had also 
very extensive party training, ])ersons of that caliber. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Going back to your testimony before this committee 
in 1952, I believe you told us tliat you succeeded a person by the name 
of Mildred Perlstein as membership director of district No. 7 of the 
Communist Party, is that correct ? 
Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Prior to the time that you succeeded her — which 
I believe was in 1947, was it not ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. It was in the fall, I believe around October 1947, yes. 
Mr. Ta\t:nner. Prior to that time had you been associated in any- 
way with Mildred Perlstein in her work as membership director ? 



COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5301 

Mrs. Baldwin. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period of time ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. From approximately the summer or early spring 
of 1947 I worked with her constantly, and as I learned the technique 
and devices that were used, I was put into a step higher. For instance, 
I began baing assistant dues and membership director to her by hav- 
ing charge and responsibility of the lower east side section ; from there 
I eventually took on all outstate clubs and did mj^ work and con- 
tinued my work through my home. From there I went into drop 
box arrangement where I was stationed for the dues, and eventually 
in the fall of 1947 is wlien I became the membership and dues secretary 
for the registration of the party in 1948. 

JSIr. Tavexner. Well, during that period when you were perform- 
ing those services did you liave access to the membership records of 
the Communist Part}^ in district 7 ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Taa'enner. Did you have access to the records which identified 
the officers of the various units of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I had a mailing list, and some of the individuals 
w^ere officers of the various clubs which changed from year to year; I 
mean, there would be elections, and as they changed I would come into 
possession of the officers of those clubs. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, your connection with that work having been as 
early as the early part of 194G, you therefore were aware of the names 
of the officei's of these clubs virtually from the time of the transforma- 
tion of tlie party from the Connnunist Political Association to the 
Communist Party, were you not? 

Mrs. Baldwin. "Well, as far as having possession of the club leaders, 
that happened prior to even 1947. That began in 1945 when I began a 
period of working directly out of the district office, and that was my 
responsibility even at that time through the mailings and the other 
technical help. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to ask you at this time to inform the 
committee of tlie names of the officers and the persons whose activities 
stood out in the various groups of the Communist Party, and I will 
begin with the Flint section of the Communist Party. Will you tell 
us, please, wlio were the officers of the Flint section of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. In 1947, Jack White was responsible for the- 
dues and all other activities of the Flint-Pontiac section. Elinor Wid- 
mark was responsible for literature in the Biiick section, Lucile Angus 
was responsible for literature in the Chevrolet section, and Mary 
Walker was responsible for literature in the third ward. There were 
approximately 110 members in this club. 

Mr. Clardy. Now we are talking about the club at Flint? 

]Mrs. Baldwin. That is right, the Flint section. That was classified 
as a section. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I may be able to be of some assistance 
to the committee from work that we have done on these records by 
telling you as names are given wliether or not they have been identified 
by this witness before or whether they have been identified by other 
witnesses before. 

Mr. Cr.ARDT. I think that would be helpful if your notes will permit 
you to do it without any great delay. 



5302 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. Jack White was identified by tliis witness 
in 1952. The other persons just named have not been identified. After 
this I will just mention the names of those who have been identified. 
In order to get started with this right again, what was the name of 
the first person you mentioned after Jack White ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Elinor Widmark. 

Mr. Tavenner. She has not been named before. The second is? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Lucile Angus. 

Mr. Tavenner. The same is true of her ? 

Mr. Clardy. This is the first public identity ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. I believe the third was Mary Walker. 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is right. 

I have other chairmen, what we called the chairmen of the Flint 
club. They became sections. Before the colonizing and transforma- 
tion program was carried into effect, they had just a club there, of 
which Charles Shinn was chairman in 1945. 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon. Let us go back to the name of Walker. A^Hiat 
about her, or do you know at the moment ? 

Mr. Tavenner. She has not been identified. 

Mr. Clardy. Let us leave it this way to expedite it : Unless they have 
been identified previously, let the record show that this is the first 
public identity that has been made. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. [ 

Mr. Clardy. How about this last one ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Charles Shinn has not been identified prior to this 
time. How do you spell his last name ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. S-h-i-n-n. He was succeeded in 1946 by Russell 
Coppock. 

Mr. Tavenner. C-o-p-p-o-c-k? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was identified in 1952 by the witness Salisbury. 
Did Russell Coppock hold any other position ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes ; he was press chairman. 

In June of 1946 Bolza Baxter was succeeded by Geneva Olmsted. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did Bolza Baxter have at that time? 

Mrs. Baldwin. As chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was a witness before the committee at this ses- 
sion. Is there any other person connected with that group of the 
Communist Party? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes; Charles Mitchell handled different phases of 
club work. Joe Brant was the organizer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Joe Brant was identified by this witness in 1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Sylvia Brant, Joe Brant's wife, was the financial 
secretary. Shirley Foster was the educational chairman. Warren H. 
Carter was then literature director. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that complete the list of the principal mem- 
bers of that group ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. At that particular period, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of the officers, please, 
of the Bohn Club of the Comnumist Party. Before doing so in what 
general area was the Bohn Club located ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MJCHIGAN 5303 

Mrs. Baldwin. That club was the Communist members of the Bohn 
Ahiminum, also known as local No. 305. In 1946 John Reynolds was 
chairman. He was later succeeded by Fred Williams. 

Mr. Tavenner. Fred Williams was identified in 1952 by this witness. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Hilliard Chamblis became press chairman in 1946, 
and this work was taken over by a Frank McDonald. 

Mr.CLARDY. You had better spell that name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you spell Chamblis first? 

Mrs. Baldwin. C-h-a-m-b-1-i-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. Plilliard Chamblis was identified by this witness in 
1952, but Frank McDonald — will you spell McDonald ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. M-c-D-o-n-a-l-cl. 

Mr. Tavenner. He has not heretofore been identified. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Donnie Barron at that time — I am still speaking 
of the Bohn Club of the Communist Party — was the financial 
secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was also identified by this witness in 1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. John Reynolds became labor secretary of the Bohn 
Club. However, in 1947 for the 1948 party registration I<'red Wil- 
liams was issued registration cards. 

Mr. Tavenner. For that particular club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. For that particular club. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does that indicate that at that time the member- 
ship of the club was in the neighborhood of 51 persons ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Approximately, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, where the David 
White Club was located ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. The Dave White Club was in the west part of the 
city. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of Detroit? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Of Detroit, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, who the officers 
were of that group ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. In 1945 and 1946 Ruth Belmont was then 
chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell that ? 

Mi's. Baldwin. B-e-1-m-o-n-t. Dolores Storich was educational 
chairman. 

Mr. Tavt3nner. Spell that, please. 

Mrs. Baldwin. S-t-o-r-i-c-h. George Mogill, was literature chair- 
man. 

Mr. Tavenner. George Mogill was identified by this witness in 
1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Sandra Goldstick, who later became Mrs. Max 
Cliait was recording secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell that? 

Mrs. Baldwin. C-h-a-i-t. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who was press chairman of that 
club? 

Mrs. Baldwin. As I recall, I believe it was Max Chait. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know how many registration cards were 
issued for that club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. There were approximately 47 registration 
cards issued to that club for the 1948 registration. 



5304 COIMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there a club known as the General Motors 
Club? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, there was. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what general area of Detroit was that club 
located ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. The cluli would hold its meetings at various places, 
various clubrooms which the party was able to get, but it took in all 
General Motors workers at that time, within Wayne County and 
adjacent locales. 

Jack White was chairman, and Joe Brant became organizer in 
Flint. Now, there is the Flint part of the G. M. Club. We also had 
one in Detroit called G. M. East whicli was the Chevrolet transmis- 
sion. 

Mr. Tavenner. Both of those individuals. Jack White, and Joe 
Brant, you have already mentioned in your testimony today ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. that is right. Fred Fisch was chairman and 
responsible for general club activities of the G. M. East Club, located 
here in Wayne County and is the one I just mentioned being the 
Chevrolet transmission. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. He was identified by you in 1952. 

Mrs. Balda\t[N. Walter Dunn was financial secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. Walter Dunn appeared as a friendly witness in 
the hearings in 1952, admitted his prior Communist Party member- 
ship and that he had withdrawn from the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Baldwin. I liad the name of an M. Moxham, M-o-x-h-a-m. 
I did not become acquainted with that person, but I did direct mail 
to them. 

Mr. Tavenner. To them ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. To he or she, who was educational director. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there an organization in the Communist 
Party known as the Southfield Club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, there was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where was it located ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That was more or less on the north-south section 
or in around Southfield Eoad, in throngh that territory. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio were the officers of that club of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mrs. Baldwin. In 1045 and 1946 Thomas Bryant was chairman, 
B-r-y-a-n-t. 

Mr. Tavenner. Thomas Bryant, Mr. Chairman, Was a witness 
before the committee a few days ago but refused to testify. 

Mr. Clardy. I recall. 

INIr. Tavenner. He refused to testify as to any material question 
that was asked. 

Mr. Clardy. That is still quite vivid in my memory. 

Proceed. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Helen Rosenfeld Rollins was press chairman. Rol- 
lins is R-o-l-l-i-n-s. Esther Shapiro was the financial secretary. 

Mr. Taat.nner. Just a moment. Esther Shapiro was identified by 
this witness in 1952 here. Proceed please. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Florence Sniderman, S-n-i-d-e-r-m-a-n, council 
delegate. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Will you spell it louder so all can hear ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. S-n-i-d-e-r-m-a-n. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5305 

Mr. Ta\t2ner. Was there a Professional Club of the Communist 
Party organized within the Detroit area? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, there was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What can you tell us about the Professional Club? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, the Professional Club at that period — and I 
am speaking of 1945 and 1946 — would have embraced any people of 
the professional groups, such as doctors, musicians, lawyers, and it 
even took in civil workers at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of the officers of that 
club, that is, the Professional Club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. In 1945 and 1946, Paul Breitt was chairman, 
B-r-e-i-t-t, Jules Yanover was the educational director. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell it, please? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Y-a-n-o-v-e-r. 

Mr, TA^'ENNER. Jules Yanover was identified by the Witness 
O'Hair ^ in the 1952 hearings. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Jean Johnson was the press chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Jean Johnson was also identified by the same wit- 
ness who testified before the committee? 

Mr. Clardy. By the witness O'Hair? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. I am checking on you here on the annual report. I 
wasn't sure that you meant that. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have heard of the McGraw Club of the Com- 
munist Party. Will you tell us where it was located in a general 
way ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. That was also on the west side of the city in 
tlie McGraw Avenue area. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of its officers ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, In 1945 and 1946, Leo Cottrell was then chair- 
man, C-o-t-t-r-e-1-1. 

Mr. Tavenner. Leo Cottrell was identified by this witness in 1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Edward Crawford was the press chairman, C-r-a-w- 
f-o-r-d. Frank George was literature director, G-e-o-r-g-e. Rifka 
Maisenberg was executive secretary. M-a-i-s-e-n-b-e-r-g. 

Mr. Tavenner. Possibly you should spell the first name, too. 

Mrs. Baldwin. R-i-f-k-a. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have had evidence at this hearing as to the 
membership of various individuals in the Hamtramck Club of the 
Communist Party, Will you give us, please, the names of the officers 
of that club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. In 1945 and 1946, Tom Dombrowski was chair- 
man, D-o-m-b-r-o-w-s-k-i. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tom Dombrowski was identified as a member of 
the Communist Party during the course of the 1952 hearings by a 
witness by the name of Salisbury. Mr. Tom Dombrowski was called 
as a witness to Washinj;ton and refused to answer questions relating 
to alleged Communist Party membership on the ground that to do so 
might tend to incriminate him. 

Will you proceed ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Mike Sprowso, S-p-r-o-w-s-o, was press chairman, 
Verna McAllister, M-c-A-1-l-i-s-t-e-r, was executive secretary. 

1 Richard Franklin O'Hair. 
48861 — 54— pt. 5 3 



5306 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, Verna McAllister was identified by 
this witness in 1952, and in the course of her testimony — that is, this 
witness' testimony — it was brought out that the home that was oc- 
cupied by Verna McAllister at the time she left Detroit was used as a 
mail drop. 

Mr. Clardy. Is that the witness that was sent to California? Just 
2 or 3 weeks ago we had a hearing in San Diego. We located Verna 
McAllister there, her married name now being Danger. She was 
called as a witness. She admitted the address that she had used in 
Detroit and her former name as Verna McAllister, but she refused to 
answer all other questions on the ground of the fifth amendment. 
However, testimony was introduced in the course of that hearing that 
she was very active in the Communist Party and one of the leading 
functionaries there now. 

Will you proceed ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Harry Kutkowski, Iv-u-t-k-o-w-s-k-i, was educa- 
tional director. Pete Gabriel, G-a-b-r-i-e-1, was literature chairman. 
In 1947, Niemski of 5856 Chene was chairman and Anton Kosheway, 
K-o-s-h-e-w-a-y, was responsible for the dues. 

Mr. Tavenner. Neither of these persons^ Mr. Chairman, has been 
identified before this committee prior to this time, l)ut I should say 
out of all fairness, as to Anton Kosheway, that he has appeared as a 
witness in several cases for the United States Government in immi- 
gration and naturalization matters, so I assume from that that he 
is no longer a member of the Communist Pai'ty and has broken, severed 
all connection, witli the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Baldwin. In 1917, Joe Chrin, C-h-r-i-n, became chairman of 
the Hamtramck youth group. Al Krup 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment, please. Joe Chrin was one of the 
early witnesses we had during the course of our hearings in Detroit 
on Monday. He refused to testify. I believe it was on Tuesday that 
he appeared as a witness. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Al Krup, K-r-u-p, and Steve Cerousky, C-e-r-o-u- 
s-k-y, were also members of the Hamtramck youth group. 

Mr. Tavenner. For purposes of further identity, can you give their 
addresses at that time ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. I have Al Krup's address. It was 8212 Win- 
kelman, W-i-n-]i;-e-l-m-a-n, and Steve Cerousky's was 2450 Holbrook. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have learned at various places in the country, 
particularly in California, the names of the clubs corresponded with 
the number of the Congressional District or the legislative assembly. 
We have heard several times during the course of our investigation in 
Detroit that in some instances that polic}^ was followed liere. We have 
heard, for instance, of the 14th Congressional Chib, What did that 
jnean ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That was in the 14th Congressional District. 

Mr. Tavenner. That means the Communist Party club within the 
14th Congressional District ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is correct. We also had a First Congressional 
District and a few others from time to time within the Congressional 
District. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us take the 14th Congressional District, please, 
and give us the names of the officers of the 14th Congressional Dis- 
trict Cbib. 



I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5307 

Mrs. Baldwin. In 1945 and prior to that Stanley Adamski, 
A-d-a-m-s-k-i, was chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. He has been identified by this witness before ; that 
is, in the 1952 hearings. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Milton Schleicher, S-c-h-1-e-i-c-h-e-r, was press 
chairman. George Cook was educational director. 

Mr. Tavenner. George Cook was previously identified by this wit- 
ness also. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Hope Smith was executive secretary. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. The same is true of Hope Smith. 

Mrs. Baldwin. However, in 1947, Leslie Roquemore of 684 Ten- 
nessee became chairman. Roquemore is R-o-q-u-e-m-o-r-e. 

Mr. Tavenner. You spoke of the First Congressional Club. Will 
you give us the names of the members of that club, please; that is, 
the officers? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. Gus Polites was chairman in 1945 and 1946, 
P-o-l-i-t-e-s. He was later succeeded by Frank Sykes, S-y-k-e-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. Frank Sykes was identified by this witness in 1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Aldo Sandretto, S-a-n-d-r-e-t-t-o. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the spelling of the first name A-l-d-o ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, it is. 

Mr. Tavenner. This person was also identified by the witness in 
1952. 

Mrs. Baldw^in. In 1947 Steve Rodick, R-o-d-i-c-k, became chair- 
man, and in 1948 Aldo Sandretto at 3551 Kanter became chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell Sandretto ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. It is the same one I spelled before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you already identified that person? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes; I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. I don't recall that name. 

Mrs. Baldwin. I just read it now. 

Mr. Tavenner. I beg your pardon. I see. 

Mrs. Baldwin. He was executive secretary in 1945 and 1946. Jolm 
Domarian, D-o-m-a-r-i-a-n, was responsible for dues, and Frank 
Sykes, wliom I liave just mentioned, at 13971 Fleming, became chair- 
man at times during the club meetings. 

Mr. Tavenxku. Was there a club known b}' the name of Fenkell 
Club? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes; there was, and that was also located or took 
in members of the Fenkell district. It was on a community basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. F-e-n-k-e-1-1. 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of those persons, please, 
who were officers of that club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. Phil Halper, H-a-1-p-e-r, was chairman in 
1945 and 1946. Ed Wolf, W-o-l-f, was the press chairman and was 
later succeeded by R. E. Mullins, M-u-1-l-i-n-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there a club known as the Ford Motor Build- 
ing Club? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes ; there was. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Describe that club a little more fully for us, please. 
What was meant by the Ford Motor Building Club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, as I 

Mr. Tavenner. In what unit was that ? 



5308 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mrs. Baldwin. That would include, take in, all of those in the 
Ford — in the motor building. I understand that it was broken down 
into various departments, and this happened to be the motor build- 
ing, the Communist Party members, of coiirse. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the officers of that club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Edwin V. Martin, M-a-r-t-i-n, was the press direc- 
tor, and Vernia L. Wilson assisted with presswork also. 

Mr. Tavenner. There was a group known as the Ford Production 
Foundry Club. Will you give us the names of the officers of that 
club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. The foundry Ford unit, Leo Cottrell — and 
this is still in 1945 and 1946, and perhaps a little time later — Leo 
Cottrell, C-o-t-t-r-e-1-1, was chairman. Tessie Suttles was press chair- 
man, T-e-s-s-i-e S-u-t-t-1-e-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. I should state, Mr. Chairman, that Leo Cottrell was 
identified by this witness in 1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Harold Franklin, Fr-a-n-k-1-i-n, was educational 
and literature director. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he the person known as ''Big Pipe" Franklin ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. I may be mistaken, but at any rate Harold Franklin 
apppeared as a witness before the committee in 1952 and refused to 
testify and was indentified by you during that hearing. We have heard 
of the Dearborn Club of the Communist Party ; in fact, this plan of 
operations, known as Johnson Exhibit No. 2, was made out for the 
Dearborn auto section. This is the Dearborn Club. What is the 
difference between the Dearborn auto section and the Dearborn Club? 

Mrs. Baldwin. They became sections when the concentration be- 
came evident or was put into process or to be processed. Prior to that 
time it was just the Dearborn Club or the Ford foundry, and so forth, 
which was still classified as being in the Dearborn section. In 1948, 
at the time of the concentration, they then became sections. There 
was a Dearborn section and a Ford section. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of the officers in the 
Dearborn Club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. This is still in 1945 and 1946: George Nathan, 
N-a-t-h-a-n, was educational director. Leo Krugh, K-r-u-g-h, was 
chairman. Milo Marotich, M-a-r-o-t-i-c-h, was press chairman, and 
James Nemetli, N-e-m-e-t-h, was the organizational secretarv. Charles 
Regan. R-e-g-a-n, was financial secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the spelling, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. R-e-g-a-n. Florian Kapata, K-a-p-a-t-a, was press 
chairman. Mike Zurovich, Z-u-r-o-v-i-c-h, was literature chairman, 
and Alonzo Ansell, A-n-s-e-1-1, was just a member at large. 

Mr. Tavenner. What do you mean by member at large of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. We had two categories in the early part of 1947 
and 1946, whereby we would have members at large who were not 
able to attend meetings, or they may live out of territory or perhaps 
they lived in a territory but did not belong to a certain shop group, 
so they were clasified as members at large. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there an organization known as the Downtown 
Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes ; there was. 



COMJMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5309 

Mr. TA\^N]srER. Will you give us the names of the officers of that 
club T)lease ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. In 1945 and 1946, Art McPhaul, M-c-P-h-a-u-1, was 
chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was identified by you in the 1952 hearings, was 
he not ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes ; he was. 

Mr. Tavenner. He also appeared as a witness and refused to answer 
material questions regarding his alleged membiership in the Commu- 
nist Party on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Keva Redstone, R-e-d-s-t-o-n-e, R-e-v-a, was dues 
secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. That person was identified by you in 1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Ray Blossom 

Mr. Tavenner. I beg your pardon. That person was identified by 
the witness Dunn ^ rather than by you at the 1952 hearing. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Ray Blossom, B-1-o-s-s-o-m, was membership 
director. 

Mr. Tavenner. Ray Blossom was identified by this witness in 1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Alice FeiTis. F-e-r-r-i-s. was literature rliairman. 

For the 1948 party registration, which began in the fall of 1947, 
Helen Allison was given approximately 10 to 12 registration cards 
for this group. 

Mr. Tavenner. "\'\niat position does that indicate that Helen Allison 
held at the time ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, in the fall of 1947 each member of the State 
commission or the State board received the responsibility of seeing 
that a given number of clubs were registered in record time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there a Midtown Club of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes ; there was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of the officers, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Matilda Maxwell, M-a-x-w-e-1-1, was chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Matilda Maxwell was identified by Mr. O'Hair- in 
the course of the 1952 hearings. 

Mrs. Baldwin. And Maurice Cook, C-o-o-k, later became chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Maurice Cook was identified by this witness in 1952. 

Mrs. Bald\vin. Terry Clark, C-l-a-r-k, was press chairman and was 
succeeded by James Woodley, W-o-o-d-l-e-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Terry Clark was identified also by Mr. O'Hair in 
1952. 

Mrs. Bald\vin. In 1947, Mary Bray, B-r-a-y, 5338 Beauhies, became 
chairman, and Maurice Cook, of 242 Marston, became the educational 
director. 

Mr. Tavenner. Maurice Cook was identified in 1952, bu^ I am not 
certain whether it was by vou, Mrs. Baldwin, or whether it was by 
Mr. O'Hair. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Midge or Mildred Reed, 5250 John R., and Matilda 
Maxwell Parrish — it is the same Matilda I previously mentioned — 
Parrish, P-a-r-r-i-s-h, of 252 East Palmer, were held responsible for 
dues. 

Mr. Clardt. We will take a five-minute recess. 

(T\niereupon, at 2:33 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 2 :38 p.m.) 

^ Walter Scott Dunn. 

2 Richard Franklin O'Hair 



5310 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

(Whereupon, at 2 :52 p. m., the hearing was reconvened.) 

Mr. Clardy. The hearing will come to order. 

The Chair has an announcement to make at this time. Due to the 
unfortunate circumstance that prevented Congressman Moulder from 
returning after we had voted on the seaway bill yesterday, it is, of 
course, under our rules impossible to go forward with any hearing of 
witnesses who do not desire to and will not cooperate with the com- 
mittee, and due to the fact that w^e have a rather full schedule at both 
Lansing and Flint, under the direction of Chairman Velde I can only 
transfer some four of those that are under subpena yet to appear 
before us here in Detroit to the Lansing hearing. Those four will be 
Jolin Houston, Harold Shapiro, Richard Davis, and Vera Raymond. 
All the other witnesses under subpena to appear here at Detroit on 
any of the days the hearing was scheduled are, by the order and direc- 
tion of Chairman Velde of the committe, now instructed to report in 
this room in the Federal Building here in Detroit at 9 :oO a. m. on 
Tuesday, May 25. We have some hope that at that time it may be 
possible to completely cover the list of witnesses who have not been 
heard. 

Now I will repeat that so there will be no possibility of misunder- 
standing, and then what I say will be in shorter form, repeated in the 
form of either a telegram or a written communication of some kind, 
advising you of the postponement of your date of appearance here. 

Four witnesses are now under instructions from the committee to 
be in the hearing room which will be in the House of Representatives 
of Michigan in the State Capitol, next Monday, the 10th day of May, 
at 9 :30 a. m., those four being John Houston, Harold Shapiro, Richard 
Davis, and Vera Raymond. 

All the rest of the witnesses who are under subpena and who have 
not yet been heard will report at 9 : 30 a. m., in this room at the 25th 
day of May, that day being a Tuesday. It is hoped that we may be 
able to hear everyone on that day. If not, we will continue the hear- 
ings over on the morning of the 26th, but I think we can hnish them 
all on that one day. 

Now, if there are any among you at this time, after that annomice- 
ment, who desire to leave, you may do so now so that the disturbance 
created by people leaving may be over as soon as possible, and we 
will get on with the hearing. 

We will suspend for a few moments while that is done. 

There is one further thing. The deputy clerk sitting in front of 
me to the right will be in room 957 for the witnesses to sign the neces- 
sary vouchers and to have the little matter of witness fees and things 
of that sort taken care of, so if you will repair to that room now, Mrs. 
Joray will go along with you and take care of it. The committee 
will recess. 

(Whereupon, at 2 : 57 p. m., the hearing was recessed.) 

(Whereupon, at 3 : 01 p. m., the hearing was reconvened.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Baldwin, where was the Oakland Club of 
Detroit located ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. The Oakland Club was also located around Oak- 
land Avenue. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names, please, of the officers 
of that club? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5311 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, Merrill Work, W-o-r-k, was chairman and 
later succeeded by Charles Mason. Work is W-o-r-k, and Mason, 
M-a-s-o-n. Dolly Mason was executive secretary. Deri Jenkins, 
membership chairman, D-e-r-i J-e-n-k-i-n-s. 

Mr. Tavennee. May I interrupt a moment. Merrill Work men- 
tioned a few names back was identified by you in 1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Saul Broat, B-r-o-a-t, was press chairman, but in 
1946 he left for Calif ornia. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where he went in California? 

Mrs. Baldwin. No, I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Saul Broat appeared as a witness in the 1952 hear- 
ings and was identified by this witness at that time. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Jean Kapnick was literature chairman, K-a-p- 
n-i-c-k. Curt Davis was labor chairman, D-a-v-i-s. 

Mr. Tavenner, This witness identified Curt Davis in the 1952 hear- 
ings. Curt Davis has been a witness during the course of this hearing. 

We have heard of the 12th Street Club during the course of our 
hearing at this time. Will you give us the names of the officers of 
that club, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That was also located in the territory of 12th Street. 
Eve Neidleman, was chairman, and she was succeeded by Ben Plot- 
kins in 1946, P-1-o-t-kins. Bob Taylor, T-a-y-1-o-r, took care of 
the press work. Lydia Mates, M-a-t-e-s, was organizer and executive 
secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner, Lydia Mates has previously been identified by this 
witness. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Marie Sampey, as she was then knt>wn, is now Mrs. 
Raymond Bascom, B-a-s-c-o-m. She was executive chairlady. In 
3 947, Kay Hall of 2670 East Congress, became chairman, and Gene 
Cunningham, 205 Melbourne, became responsible for dues. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Was there a club known as the Plymouth Club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, there was, and that was the Communist Party 
members within the Plymouth local. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of the officers of that 
club, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. In 1945 and 1946 Ralph Fileccia was chairman, 
F-i-1-e-c-c-i-a. Charles Lindouf , L-i-n-d-o-u-f , was press chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Charles Lindouf was identified by this witness in 
1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Fred Gebelle, G-e-b-e-1-l-e, was financial and mem- 
bership director. 

Mr. Tavenner, Fred Gebelle was identified by this witness in 
1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Elmer Burnetti, B-u-r-n-e-t-t-i, was recording sec- 
retary, and Wallace Batholomew was educational director, B-a-r-t-h- 
o-1-o-m-e-w. 

Mrs. Tavenner. Will you give us now the names of the officers of 
the Packard Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. Andrew Beldean, B-e-1-d-e-a-n, was chair- 
man and in 1946 was succeeded by Neal Weston, W-e-s-t-o-n, Felix 
B. Maise was organizational secretary, M-a-i-s-e. Paul Brooks was 
educational chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Paul Brooks was identified by this witness in 1952. 



5312 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mrs. Baldwin. James Hollis was press and literature cliairmaii, 
H-o-l-l-i-s, and in 1946 Katherine Ripken became literature chair- 
man, R-i-p-k-e-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. Katherine Ripken was identified in 1952 by the 
Witness Dnnn. Will you give us now the names of the officers of the 
United States Rubber Club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. In 1945 and 1946 a B. ^Vliitlow, W-h-i-t-1-o-w, was 
chairman. John Peteray, also known as Richards, P-e-t-e-r-a-y, was 
financial secretary. Leslie Nalley was just a member, N-a-1-l-e-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have heard of a club known as the Tom Paine 
Club. Let us know where that club was located ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. It had no particular address. It was just more or 
less of a semiprof essional section. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Vlio were its officers ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Dave Silverberg, S-i-1-v-e-r-b-e-r-g, was chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dave Silverberg was identified in 1952 by the wit- 
ness O'Hair. Proceed, please. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Jessie Blakka, B-1-a-k-k-a, was executive and finan- 
cial secretary. Sam Kelman, K-e-1-m-a-n, was educational chairman. 
Corrine Furay was educational chairman. Corrine Furay was liter- 
ature chairman of URA Y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Corrine Furay was identified by this witness in 
1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. In 194Y for the 1948 party registration about 11 
cards were issued to the chairman of that club, which in that case 
would have been Dave Silverberg. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have heard of another club called the Nat 
Turner Club. Will you give us, please, the names of the officers of 
that club, but before doing so tell us more about the character of the 
club and where it was located. 

Mrs. Baldwin. The Nat Turner Club was located on the east side 
of the city, more or less down river. It later became part of what was 
known as the lower east side section. 

The chairman was Heywood Maben. The organizational chair- 
man was Carneller Foreman, C-a-r-n-e-1-l-e-r, Foreman. Eleanor 
Perkins was financial secretary, P-e-r-k-i-n-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me interrupt, please. Carneller Foreman was 
identified by this witness in 1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Jerry or Gerald Boyd was educational chairman, 
B-o-y-d. 

Mr. Tavenner. This person was also identified by the witness in 
1952. 

Some clubs are described by numerals. Here is one called local 155. 
Wliat is the significance of that designation? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That would be the Communist Party members 
within the given local, 155. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what branch of the industry local 
155 was working in ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. No : I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of its officers, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Tom Parry, P-a-r-r-y, was the chairman. Art 
Peters, P-e-t-e-r-s, was secretary and treasurer. Sam Sweet, S-w-e-e-t, 
was educational chairman. Mike Zackler took care of the press and 
literature. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5313 

Mr. Taa^nner. Z-a-c-k-1-e-r? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. 

Mr. TA^rENNER. I understand there is a club by the name of Michigan 
Club of the Communist Party. Will you give us any descriptive infor- 
mation you have regarding that club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. When I went into the party in 1943 it was 
then the headquarters of the Michigan Club which was centered on 
Michigan Avenue, and that is where they would usually meet. Later 
it became a Dearborn headquarters section and also the Ford head- 
quarters section. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of the officers of that 
club, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. In 1945 and 1946, John Hell was chairman. Nat 
Wald 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Just a moment. Nat Wald was identified in 1952 
by the witness Salisbury. 

' Mrs. Baldwin. Nat Wald, W-a-l-d, was the organizer. Clem Dalton, 
D-a-1-t-o-n, was the membership chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. He has been identified by this witness in 1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. George Kantechey was dues chairman, K-a-n-t-e-c-h- 
e-y. Ed Lock was the educational chairman. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Ed Lock was identified by this witness in 1952, was 
called at that hearing as a witness and refused to answer any mate- 
rial questions, relying upon the fifth amendment as the reason for 
his refusal. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Walter Litivin, L-i-t-i-v-i-n, was literature chair- 
man. Steve Simmons, or Stephen Schemanske, was the press chair- 
man. 

Mr. Tavenner. Stephen Schemanske was identified during the 
course of this hearing and was one of the witness in the Smith Act 
trials who testified in behalf of the government and had been employed 
by the Federal Bureau of Investigation to work within the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mrs. Baldwin. In 1947 for the 1948 registration approximately 67 
registration cards were given to Clem Dalton who was then club chair- 
man for registration of the members. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the Joe York Club of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. The Joe York Club was a youth group, and in most 
cases it was comprised of university members, university students from 
the various colleges. 

Mr. Tavenner. They were not limited to any one particular college? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Not' at first, no. Later on it became known as the 
U. of M., which the Ralpli Neafus and et cetera, and Wayne Univer- 
sity, and Lansing had their own group. It was just known as the 
Lansing group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere was this Joe York Club centered, in Detroit 
or Lansing or where ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. This was in the Wayne County area at that time, 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of the other officers, 
please, and that would be in 1945 and 1946. 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is correct, yes. Peter Dopulos, Jr., D-o-p-u- 
1-o-s, was chairman and was later succeeded by Jack Palmquist. 



5314 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Tavenner. Jack Palmquist was identified by this witness in 
1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Kenny Goodman, membership chairman and also 
took care of the finances, G-o-o-d-m-a-n. June Keil was recording 
secretary, K-e-i-L Annabel Purdy was educational chairman and 
was later succeeded by Mary Maraniss, M-a-r-a-n-i-s-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mary Maraniss was identified by this witness in 
1952. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Anna Vidakis was literature chairman, V-i-d-a- 
k-i-s. Joan Ellis was press chairman and was later succeeded by 
Georgianna Panaretos, P-a-n-a-r-e-t-o-s. Alex Seller, S-e-l-l-e-r, was 
the social chairman and was later succeeded by Rolf Cahn, C-a-h-n, 
and for the 1948 registration approximately 43 registration cards 
were issued to the chairman of that club, which was Peter Dopulos, 
Jr. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there a club in the Del-Ra}^ area ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes ; there was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did it bear the name of Del-Ray Club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes ; it did. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Will you give us the names of its officers, please? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Louis Lenny, L-e-n-n-y, and Paul Boatin, 
B-o-a-t-i-n, acted as cochairmen. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Boatin was identified by this witness in 1952, and 
he also appeared as a witness before the committee but refused to 
testify as to material matters on the grounds that to do so might tend 
to incriminate him. 

Mrs. Baldwin. George Bufford, B-u-f-f-o-r-d, was dues chairman 
and later succeeded by Joe Miller, M-i-1-l-e-r. Tersil Obriot, 
0-b-r-i-o-t, was press and literature chairman. 

Approximately 21 cards were issued to this club. They were issued 
to Clem Dalton in 1947 for the 1948 registration. 

Mr. Tavennkr. We have heard of the Ben Davis Club; where was 
that located ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That was located more or less in the northwest 
section. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of its members, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. In 1945 and 1946 William Fletcher was chair- 
man. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. Were you in the hearing room 
just before you were called as a witness this afternoon ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Before I entered as a witness? 

Mr. Tavenner. Before you were called to the witness stand? 

Mrs. Baldwin. No, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. No, Mr. Tavenner, she wasn't present when Mr. 
Fletcher was called to the stand. 

Mr. Tavenner. You didn't observe Mr. Fletcher at the witness table, 
did you? 

Mrs. Baldwin. No; I didn't. But I saw him in the hall during 
the recess. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Clardy. In other words, you recognized him as the same Mr. 
Fletcher you have identified? 

Mrs. Baldwin. As the Bill Fletcher that we knew him as. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5315 

Mr. Tavexner. He was the chairman of the Ben Davis Club of the 
Communist Party? 

Mi-s. Baldwin. He was. 

Mr. Tav'enner. All right, if you will proceed, please. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Jeanette Ross was organizational secretar3^ E-o-s-s. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Let me stop you there just a moment. William 
Fletcher — can you tell the committee something of his activities in 
the Communist Party; that is, anything that you can recall at this 
moment ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, he was very active during my debut into the 
Communist Party, which was in the spring of 1943. He participated 
in the State convention in May of 1944 and was active, as I recall, until 
the party was reconstituted, the latter part of 1945. 

Mr. Tavenner. "When did you leave the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Baldwin. In October of 1950 I went underground. I left it, 
1 presume, in 1952. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether William Fletcher was active 
in the party when you went underground in 1950? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. Did you have any information as to 
whether or not he withdrew from the Communist Party prior to the 
time you went underground? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I had been told he had withdrawn from the 
party. 

Mr. Clardy. Repeat that, he was what? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That he had withdrawn from the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know about when it was he withdrew from 
the party? 

Mrs. Baldwin. As I recall, it was approximately 1946. 1 know it 
was after the party was reconstituted. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Clardy. I tliink at this point, Mr. Tavenner, I should interject 
the remark that it was on the basis of that knowledge that we had 
assumed that the witness might cooperate and called him and had also 
had some discussion, or the staff had, with him that led us to think 
that he would cooperate and get into the record through his own words 
the things that Mi's. Baldwin has just said. 

We do not want in any way to have anything appear in our records 
that will reflect upon any of those called before us, and in this case 
it was our understanding that the witness had left the party, and we 
wanted that clearly on the record because it has, to our knowledge, 
become quite widespread that he was a member, but the fact that he 
had withdrawn had not been given equal circulation. 

We thought in justice and fairness it would be well to give him that 
opportunity. 

You may proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. You told us that William Fletcher was 
chairman at one time. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you proceed, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Reva Bernstein, I3-e-r-n-s-t-e-i-n, was a member 
who was active and handled various phases of the party club work 
from time to time. Elsie 



5316 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. Had you given us the name of the 
organizational secretary ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. I believe I have. Jeanette Ross. I believe I had 
gone into that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Excuse me. Go ahead. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Elsie Nichamin, N-i-c-h-a-m-i-n, was the financial 
secretary. Milton Santwire was the labor chairman and also a council 
delegate. 

Mr. Clardy. Pardon, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. I think we should have something to say about the 
witness Santwire she has just identified. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. The witness, Milton Santwire, testified 
during the course of the Smith Act cases in behalf of the Government. 
He had been working within the Communist Party under the employ- 
ment of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Clardy. Proceed. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Leonard Smith, S-m-i-t-h, was the press chairman. 
Evelyn Cochran was the literature chairman, and in 1947, for the 1948 
registration, there were approximately 11 cards issued to this club. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Will you tell us now, please, the names of the officers 
of the Muskegon Club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Hoke Higdon was chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Hoke Higdon was identified during the 1952 hear- 
ings by Mr. Salisbury. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Barbara Higdon, H-i-g-d-o-n, was press chairman. 
Violet Meyers, M-e-y-e-r-s, secretary and treasurer and was later suc- 
ceeded by Frank Melder, and J. R. Grant, G-r-a-n-t, was director of 
union activities. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us now the names of the Grand 
Rapids officers, the officers of the Grand Rapids Club of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. Fred Darcy was recording secretary, 
D-a-r-c-y. William Glenn was the educational chairman, G-1-e-n-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. William Glenn was identified by this witness in 
1952 and appeared as a witness before the committee. He refused to 
answer material questions on the ground that to do so might tend to 
incriminate him. Proceed. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Ruth Gilbert Williams was the labor chairman, 
W-i-1-l-i-a-m-s. Eighteen cards, 18 registration cards, were issued to 
this club for the 1948 registration. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you now give us the names of the Ypsilanti 
Club, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. As chairman in 1945 and 1946 — Tom Dennis was 
chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tom or Thomas Dennis was identified by this wit- 
ness in 1952 and was later indicted as one of the Smith Act defendants 
and has been tried and convicted. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Mrs. Zacky Chevalier was dues chairman, Z-a-c-k-y 
C-h-e-v-a-1-i-e-r. D. George Matnick was the press chairman, M-a-t- 
n-i-c-k. In 1947 John Williams of 306 South Hamilton, Ypsilanti, 
was listed as financial secretary of this club, and as I recall, he was 
issued registration cards for that particular section. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there a club at Ann Arbor, Mich. ? 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5317 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, there was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it called the Ann Arbor Club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, it was. I believe it was called at that time 
the A. A. Town. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you give us the names of the officers of that 
club, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Katherine Shorfman 

Mr. Tavenner. That is over what period of time ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. 1945 and 1946 — Mary Cummins, C-u-m-m-i-n-s, 
Mary Loeser, L-o-e-s-e-r, Jean Langerman, L-a-n-g-e-r-m a n. 

In 1947 Dorothy Gritfel, G-r-i-f-f-e-1, of 7305 South State Street, 
was an official of this club and assisted by Millie Mclntire, 436 Fourth 
Street, who was responsible for dues. 

Mr. Tavenner. Millie Mclntire was identified by this witness in 
1952. 

You spoke a little earlier Avhen we were referring to Ann Arbor to 
a club knoAvn as the Ealpli Neafus Club. Will you tell us what that 
club was '. 

Mr. Clakdy. You had better spell that. 

Mr. Tavenner. N-e-a-f -u-s. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, the Ralph Neafus Club was confined primarily 
to students, U. of M. students. 

Mr. Tavenner. University of Michigan ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, it was a campus club. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what you know 
of that club, as to its officers, and its operations ;' 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, its operations were just like all the other 
Communist operations, anything of an agitational nature, anything 
that u})set the students, anything that had to do with State or Federal 
legislation, they were busy with their pamphets. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of its officers, please, if 
you recall, or any other persons connected with it that you can now 
recall. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Ed Shafi'er, S-h-a-e-f-f-e-r, who resided at 530 Hill 
Street, was the individual I sent a letter to. He was the one that I 
had advised on taking over the membership and dues secretary task 
for 1947. 

Mr. Clardv. Are we : lire of the spelling on that name? I thought 
it was spelled S-li-a-f-f-e-r. Let me check back. Is his first name 
Edward and his middk- name Harry '. 

Mrs. Baldwin. I don't know his middle name. 

Mr. Clardy. His first name is Edward ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. 

Mr. Clady. Counsel, do you know which of the spellings 

Mr. Tavenner. The correct spelling according to our information 
is S-h-a-f-f-e-r. 

Mr. Clardy. That is the way I have noted that it was spelled in 
the public press, following his release of the first information that 
got to the public about his having been supenaed, so I think that last 
spelling must be correct. Proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say that you have had official communications 
as a functionary of tlie Communist Party with him ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is correct ; yes. 



5318 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. Can you recall the approximate date? 
Do you know in what year you had that communication with him ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes ; in the early fall or summer of 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any other students that you had official 
contact with who were members of that club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. In response to the letter I had written to Mr. 
Shaffer I received a reply from a Bill Carter who informed me at that 
time that he was assuming the responsibilities for dues and other club 
work of the Ralph Neaf us Club. 

Mr. Clardy. Would you repeat that name again ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Bill Carter, C-a-r-t-e-r. He gave his address at that 
time as 508 Hill Street in Ann Arbor. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does not that rather indicate that at the time you 
wrote to Mr. Shaffer that he may not have been there or held some 
other position within the Neafus Club due to the fact that you re- 
ceived a reply from Mr. Carter ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, as I recall, my notes indicated that he was 
the chairman of that club, and that is why I directed my correspond- 
ence to him, to find out who I would contact to send me the member- 
ship information. 

Mr. Clardy. Let me see if I understand. You addressed your let- 
ter to Mr. Shaffer ? 

Mr. Baldwin. Yes. 

Mr. Clardy. But you received a reply from Mr. Carter ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, I also received a reply from Mr. Shaffer stat- 
ing that Bill Carter was assuming the responsibilities. 

Mr. Clardy. I see. In other words, Mr. Carter confirmed what Mr. 
Shaffer told you about Mr. Carter's having charge of. a certain part 
of the activities ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is true. Well, then, in the early part of 1948 
they again changed officers, obviously, because I received a letter from 
Betty Houston, who stated at that time she was living at 221 North 
Fifth Avenue, Ann Arbor, and had assumed the duties as dues secre- 
tary. From there on my correspondence was with her. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the name of the husband of Betty 
Houston ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, John Houston. 

Mr. Clardy. Were you in the courtroom at the time I made the 
announcement about continuing subpenas and certain persons were to 
appear at the Lansing hearings ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you recognize any of those four that I named, or 
did you see them ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. I recognized the name John Houston. 

Mr. Clardy. Did you observe him in the audience, or did you observe 
him at all ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. No, I did not. 

Mr. Clardy. I see. I am informed by the investigator that he was 
not present in the room. 

Mr. Tavenner. I might say, Mr. Chairman, that as a result of a 
request by his counsel and by him as to inconvenience that he would 
undergo to appear here at the time when it looked like we could reach 
him that we agreed to transfer him to Lansing, and he has been notified 
to appear at Lansing. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5319 

Did you know John Houston, the husband of Betty Houston, to be 
a member of the Communist Party ? ^ . -, ■, ^ 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, my records indicate that m 1947 he held a 
Communist Party membership card number 69464, and also in Decem- 
ber it came to my attention, and I issued him a transfer card to New 
York, which was later rescinded because they said that Betty and 
John Houston had returned to Ann Arbor, and he was a member; 
he was listed at that time as a member of the Ralph Neafus Club. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you aware of the existence of a campus club 
at Wayne University ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, it was known or called the Wayne youth 
group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wayne youth group ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, Wayne Youth Club or Wayne youth group. 
Mr. Tavenner. Of the Communist Party ? 
Mrs. Baldwin. Of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVill you tell the committee, please, who were the 
officers of that club ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. George Shenkar was chairman, S-h-e-n-k-a-r. 
Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, George Shenkar was also identified 
during the course of this hearing by Witness Mikkelsen.^ 
Proceed, please. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Gene Kowalski, K-o-w-a-l-s-k-i, was dues and finan- 
cial secretary. In the early part of 1946 he was replaced by Edward 
Black, B-1-a-c-k. John Cherveny, C-h-e-r-v-e-n-y, was a member of 
the executive board. 

Mr. Tavenner. John Cherveny was identified by this witness in 
1952. He appeared as a witness in those hearings. He refused to 
testify as to any material matter on the basis that to do so might tend 
to incriminate him. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Sidney Graber, G-r-a-b-e-r, was the organizational 
secretary, and he was the person to whom I directed my correspondence 
in OctoJber 1947, informing him that I had become the membership 
and dues secretary for district 7. 

Mr, Tavenner. Sidney Graber was a witness before this committee 
during the course of this hearing and refused to testify as to his 
alleged Communist Party membership on tlie ground tliat to do so 
might tend to incriminate him. 

Did you know a person by the name of Al Milstein ? 
Mrs. Baldwin. I did not know him personally. However, I did 
handle a transfer card dealing with him. 
Mr. Tavenner. A transfer card ? 
Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what you know about 

his transfer card. I assume you mean Communist Party transfer card. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I do. He was transferred from New Orleans 

into the Communist Party here in Wayne County, and he was put at 

that time into the Ralph Neafus Club. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. I would like to ask you a few questions regarding 
Communist Party functions that you attended. Did you attend a 
meeting of the auto miscellaneous section of the Communist Party 
wliich we are informed was held on May 7, 1949 ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, I usually attended all of them, as I was the 
membership director, financial secretary. 

^ Harold M. Mikkelson. 



5320 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell us where that meeting was held ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. At 2419 Grand River. That was the auto miscel- 
laneous section headquarters at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVlio was the chairman of that meeting that was 
held on May 7, 1949? 

Mrs. Baldwin, As I recall, Edith Van Horn was given charge of 
the meeting. She was employed at the Dodge Motor Co. at that time. 

Mr. Tavennkr. You identified her at the 1952 hearings. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a member of the Communist Party, I believe. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell me in just a fev,- words what was the 
general purpose of that meeting ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. As I recall, that was to organize for a peace 
petition, as I recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted from the plan of operation of the Dear- 
born auto section, Johnson Exhibit No. 2, that that was one of the 
general plans of work for the Communist Party. 

Wliat position were you in during the course of that meeting to 
know who attended ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. I was registrar ; I mean, I was 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat do you mean by "registrar" ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, I was assigned to see that the people who 
entered there were known. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were known members of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Were known members of the Communist Party, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. So it was both registrar and security, was it not? 

Mrs. Baldwin. That is true. 

INIr. Tavenner. Did you, at the time, record for purposes of delivery 
to the Federal Bureau of Investigation the names of those who 
attended ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Will you give us their names, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Oscar Rhodes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, when it comes to these names, many 
of them have been identified by this witness before, and I think it 
will hasten matters for us to assume that the names she gives have 
been identified by her before unless I state otherwise. 

Mr. Clardt. Very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, just reverse the |)roceedings. 

Mr. Clardy. Very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you start again please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Oscar Rhodes, Harold Wells, W-e-1-l-s, and Bob 
Purdy of GM, Phil Horowitz, H-o-r-o-w-i-t-z. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is the first time he has been identified before 
this committee. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Chai'les Lindouf, who is now living in Sweden. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell that name, please. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Sweden? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, Lindouf. 

Mrs. Baldwin. L-i-n-d-o-u-f. Lee St. John, S-t. J-o-h-n, and he was 
believed to have used the alias Miller, M-i-1-l-e-r, in the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. This is the first time he has been identified. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Herman Burt was of Midland Steel, B-u-r-t. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5321 

Imogene Brantley, B-r-a-n-t-1-e-y, Sven Falk of Packard. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the tirst name, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. S-v-e-n. Jr*lnl Carroll, C-a-r-r-o-1-1. 

Mr. Tavenner. This is the first identification of Mr. Carroll. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Cliff Bollin, Jr. Ernie Syversen, S-y-v-e-r-s-e-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. This is likewise his first identification. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Merrill Work. W-o-r-k, Scotty — Sidney was his 
name — Barclay, B-a-r-c-1-a-y, Walter Christie, C-h-r-i-s-t-i-e, and 
Paul Endicott, E-n-d-i-c-o-t-t. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Baldwin, there was another meeting reported 
to us at the auto miscellaneous section of the Communist Party held 
on June 25, 1949. Were you present at that meeting i 

]\Irs. Baldwin. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you act in the same capacity as the former 
meeting ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the general nature of the meeting ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. The general nature of that meeting, I believe, was 
a press gathering; I mean, to see that the Michigan edition of the 
Worker was circulated, and it also took care of literature, and we had 
union reports from Nat Ganley. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will 3'ou give us the names, please, of those who 
were present ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Nat Ganley, John Nowak. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is his first identification. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Phil Hodak, H-o-d-a-k. 

Mr. Tavenner. First identification. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Wallace Christie. 

Mr. Tavenner. First identification. You had better spell that 
name, please. 

Mrs. Baldwin. C-h-r-i-s-t-i-e. That is the same one that I men- 
tioned in the previous meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, I see. 

Mrs. Baldwin. And Oscar Rhodes. Bob Brown is now deceased. 
Eobert Cummins, C-u-m-m-i-n-s, Cliff Bolin, and Edith Van Horn. 

INIr. Tavenner. Did you attend a closed meeting of the auto mis- 
cellaneous section of the Communist Party on July 23, 1949, in which 
the meeting embraced the representatives from the Ford section and 
the Dearborn section of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I did, and that was attended by a national 
officer of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was that ? 

]\[rs. Baldwin. Johnny Gates, or John Gates. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of the meeting ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. The purpose of that was to usher Nat Ganley out 
of the press work. He had been editor of the Michigan edition of 
the Worker up to that point, and also to impress upon tlie Communist 
Party members the need of getting petitions out in the unions, raising 
the resolutions within the unions on the indictment of the 11 Com- 
munist Party leaders. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was one of the main plans set forth in this 
plan of action known as Johnson Exhibit No. 2, to create sentiment in 



5322 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

favor of the 12, as it was stated, so that is another instance of the 
work that was done pursuant to those directives. 

Will you tell the committee, please, who were present from tli3 
various sections represented at that meeting ? 

Mrs, Baldwin. Yes. Ann Vartainian, who is now Mrs. Paul 
Boatin, was there from the Dearborn section. From the Ford section 
we have Paul Boatin, B-o-a-t-i-n, Tersil Obriot, 0-b-r-i-o-t, Nelson 
Davis, Harold Robertson, R-o-b-e-r-t-s-o-n, Ed Lock, John Gallo, 
G-a-1-l-o, and Max Chait, C-h-a-i-t. 

From the auto miscellaneous section were Ernie Sorenson, S-o-r-e-n- 
s-o-n, Cliff Bollin, Jr., Merrill Work, Paul Brooks, Scotty Barclay, 
Phil Horowitz, Ed Pietrowski, P-i-e-t-r-o-w-s-k-i, Bob Cummins, and 
Bob Brown, who is deceased. 

From the packing unit, Olga Zenchuck was present, Z-e-n-c-h-u-c-k. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend an executive meeting of the auto 
miscellaneous section of the Communist Party on August 6, 1949 ? 
Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell the committee at this time the general 
nature or the general purpose of that meeting ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. This was in connection with the peace ]^eti- 
tions, a mobilization, an organizing meeting, to circulate and glean 
names for the peace petitions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were present at these ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Nat Ganley, Bob Cummins, Lee Marsh, jNI-a-r-s-h, 
and James Plater. He was from local 922. He replaced Walter 
Warner, the regular club chairman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Lee Marsh and James Plater have not been pre' 
viously identified. Did you attend a mobilization of the Communist 
Party at Yeamens Hall on January 26, 1950 ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were representatives present from various labor 



unions 



Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, they were. There was Curt and Sally Davis, 
D-a-v-i-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. What plant were they from? 

Mrs. Baldwin. They were from the Dodge cell, 

Mr. Tavenner, Very well. Will you give us others from the Dodge 
plant? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Paul Henley, PI-e-n-1-e-y, Charles Walters, 
W-a-1-t-e-r-s, and Leroy Ellery, E-1-l-e-r-y, and a Sid. He was known 
to me only as Sid, from the youth section. Harry Boskey, B-o-s-k-e-y, 
who is now residing in Canada, and Nat Ganley, He was from local 
155. 

Mr. Ta\"enner. Wlio were present from Briggs? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Don DeBlois, Milton Schleicher. From Plymouth, 
Charles Lindouf, whom I said is now living in Sweden, and an Amiel 
of whom I did not get his last name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the name, please? 

Mrs. I^aldwin. A-m-i-e-1. From Chrysler was represented Cliff 
Bollin, Jr., Van Brooks, B-r-o-o-k-s, and James Cooper, C-o-o-p-e-r. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend an organization conference of the 
Communist Party at Jericho Temple, 2705 Joy Road, on April 21 
and 22, 1950? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I did. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5323 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell us about that meeting, please ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. That meeting was more or less a report from 
the various clubs on the activities, each chairman of the club giving 
a report on what they had done and expected to do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall who was chairman of the meeting ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. Phil Schatz was chairman of that meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was one of the Smith Act defendants, was he 
not, in Detroit 'i 

Mrs. Baldwin. Pie was, yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the names of those who were 
present, please? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Saul Wellman. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was one of the Smith Act defendants, I believe. 

Mrs. Baldwin. He was also. He gave the main report. Tom 
Dennis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Another Smith Act defendant. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Bill McKie, M-c-K-i-e. Nat Ganley. 

Mr. Tavenner. Also a Smith Act defendant. 

Mrs. Baldwin. A Mr. Spiegel, S-p-i-e-g-e-1, from upper peninsula, 
Max Chait, Billy Allan. 

Mr. Tavenner. He was a Smith Act defendant also, was he not? 

Mrs. Baldwin. He was. Marvin Gladstone, who was then organ- 
izer of Washtenaw County. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment Marvin Gladstone. Do you know 
his wife's name? 

Mrs. Baldwin, No, I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Marvin Gladstone has been previously identified in 
the testimony as a member of the Communist Party by this witness. 

Mrs. Baldwin. From the district office, Helen Allison Winter, 
Mrs. Carl Winter. 

Mr. Tavenner. Also a Smith Act defendant. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, she is. Tom Dennis, Ann Beiswenger, 
B-e-i-s-w-e-n-g-e-r, Faye Gingold, G-i-n-g-o-l-d, Saul Wellman, 
W-e-1-l-m-a-n. From the Ford and Dearborn, Phil Schatz. Nelson 
Davis, Steve Simmons, Max Chait, Dave Moore, M-o-o-r-e, and Bill 
McKie. The auto miscellaneous representatives were Herman 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment before we go into that. 

Mr. Chairman, may we have a few minutes recess ? 

Mr. Clardy. Very well. Take a 5-minute recess. 

(Whereupon, at o : 58 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 4 :03 p.m.) 

(Wliereupon, at 4: 10 p. m., the hearing was reconvened.) 

Mr. Clardy. The hearing will resume. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Baldwin, I will ask you, because of the lateness 
of the hour, not to spell the names. We will check the spelling with 
you after you have testified. 

You were about to name those present at this meeting in the auto 
miscellaneous group which was held on April 21 and 22, 1950. Will 
you give us those who were in attendance from the auto miscellaneous 
club? 

Mrs. Baldwin. From the auto miscellaneous club, Herman Burt, 
Nat Ganley, Edith Van Horn, Bob Cummins, Oscar Rhodes, Van 
Brooks, and that Van is his first name; Brooks is the second. Fred 
AVilliams, Russ Kitto, Jerry Boyd, James Walker, Paul Brooks, Eddie 



5324 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Pietrowski, Eobert Purely, Gladys Purely, Sven Falk, Nick Swetniek^ 
Cliff Bollin, Jr., Scotty Barclay, Imogene Brantley, and a Mr. Jack- 
son from local 205. 

From the Daily Worker office, Billy Allan, Izzy Berensen, Louis 
Klitzner, Betty Thomas Mayen, Phil Halper. 

In the youth section, Bernie Bellinson, Jack Gore, Nate Mitchnick, 
Ernie Ellis, and Freddie Patterson. 

Polish section, Ben Kocel. 

Outstate, Jack White from Flint, Jack Palmquist, Jr., Matt Savola 
from upper peninsula, Marvin Gladstone from WashtenaAv County, 
Larry Davis, and Ellen Dennis. 

Larry Davis was from the Port Huron section, New Baltimore. 
Ellen Davis represented Washtenaw County. 

East side community, Mary Bray, James Harris. Fred Jones. 

From the west side section, Phil Raymond, George Mogill, and 
Mrs. George or known as Billie Mogill, Zina Brandi Haskell, Raj^ 
Haskell, Reva Bernstein, Lydia Mates, Kathy Lee Bizziochi, Mary 
Maraniss, John Edmonds. 

From the professional section was Mrs. Coleman or Marian Young, 
and Harold Shapiro. 

Mr. Ta VENDER. Did you attend a meeting in June 1950 of the func- 
tionaries of the Communist Party at the Civic Center, 114 Erskine 
Detroit? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give the names of those who attended ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. The following were in attendance 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you, were you in the same position to 
accurately ascertain those present at this meeting as the former 
meetings? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, I had been chosen as one of the security groups. 
There were 3 of us, and I was 1 of those. It was my duty to reo-ister 
the names as the}^ entered the meeting hall after they had been iden- 
tified. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the other two working with you in con- 
nection with that matter? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Paul Brooks and Oscar Rhodes and a few of the 
otlier organizers were on the securitv list. 

Helen Allison Winter; Carl Winter, who was then chairman of 
district 7 of the Communist Party, Michigan; Saul Welhnan ; Bill 
Allan ; Mabel Mitchell, who was circulation manager for the Michigan 
Worker ; Mary Bray, who was organizer for the East Side Council and 
a Midtown Club member; Mrs. Bill Morrey, member of the Nat 
Turner; Carneller Foreman, member of the JS'at Turner Club; Bob 
Rowlson, was not as yet assigned to a club; Milly Rowlson, his wife, 
was a member of Twelfth Street Club ; Russ Kitto, a member of the 
Eddie Elberts Club, which was of the auto miscellaneous section; Mrs. 
Russ Kitto was a member of Oakland Club ; Don De Blois, educational 
division of the Briggs Club; Faye Grossman, educational division of 
the Oakland Club; and just Albert, a memb:^r of the Joe Hill Club; 
Ed Buczak, member of the Polish section; Nat Wnld, member of the 
Michigan Club; Steve Simmons, member of the Michigan Club; Ray 
Haskell, member of the Freiheit Club; Zina Brandi, member of Mid- 
town; Ida Olshansky, member of the Twelfth Street; Orville Allen, 
Steel and Foster section; Harold Robertson, member of local 600; 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5325 

Alice Kocel, member of tlie Polish young group; John Isaac, mem- 
ber of Freiheit; Mrs. Lila Isaacs, member of the Bloor Club; May 
Allen, 14th Club; Ed Crawford, McGraw Club; Oscar Rhodes, auto 
section organizational secretary and a member of Briggs Club ; Scotty 
Barclay was chairman of the Hudson cell of the auto miscellaneous 
section; Ike Greenberg, Ben Davis Club; Goldie Greenberg, Ben 
Davis Club; Mrs. Beverly Rhodes, Ben Davis; Alonzo Ansell, mem- 
ber of the Dearborn section; Saul Grossman, member of Twelfth 
Street Club ; James Tsinis, member pf the Greek section ; Mr. Douglas, 
member of McGraw ; Elliott Maraniss, Southfield Club : Mary Mara- 
niss, Southfield Club ; Bob Cummins, De Soto ; Nelson Davis, local 600 ; 
Jack Wliite, Flint; Murray Borod, organizer of the Flint section; 
Geneva Olmsted, Negro commission in Flint; Chuck, executive board, 
Flint. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me interrupt you a moment, please. What do 
you mean by "Negro commission, Flint" ? 

jNIrs. Baldwin. Well, there w^as a Negro commission organized, and 
she was the chairman or the officer in charge of that Negro commission. 

Mr. Tavenjnter. All right. 

Mrs. Baldwin. JNIilton Schleicher, financial secretary, Briggs Club ; 
]\Irs. Joe Schleinher was a nonmember ; Val Clough, member, GOO ; Mrs. 
Ed Lock, just a member; Marvin Gladstone, organizer AVashtenaw 
County; Curt Davis, chairman of Dodge Club; Sally Davis, financial 
secretary of the Dodge Club ; Malcolm Wright, member of the Dodge 
Club ; Paul Brooks, chairman of Murray Club ; Merrill Work, chair- 
man of local 835, Communist Party club ; Louie Klitzner, member of 
LaBelle ; Dolores Storich, membership director of the Twelfth Street 
Club; Gladys Purdy, chairman of Soutlifield; Ann Beiswenger, mem- 
ber of Ford plastic; Sylvia Alston, member of the State literature 
committee; Rifka ]\Iaisenberg, chairman of the State literature com- 
mission ; Gus Polites, member of the Greek group ; Lee Marsh, chair- 
man of the youth group ; Nat Ganley, chairman of auto miscellaneous, 
and also a member of 155 Communist Party club; Lenny Cohen, mem- 
ber of the youth section; Bob Purdy, chairman, GM East; Harry 
Boskey, financial secretary, Packard ; Bob Brown, executive board of 
Packard; Al Storich, member of the Dave "^Aliite section; Art Mc- 
Phaul, member Ford pressed steel, local 600; Mrs. Art McPhaul, mem- 
ber of the Ford pressed steel ; Gert Schatz, literature director. Twelfth 
Street Club; Jack Gore, member of tlie youtli section; Bill, no last 
name, member of Budd Wlieel; Chris Alston, member of Packard 
Club ; Van Brooks, chairman of the Joe Hill ; James Harris, president 
of the Tenants Council Club, Downtown Club also; Sid Linn, organ- 
izer of the Dave "Wliite section. 

Mr. Tavennek. In the year 1950 did you attend a course of instruc- 
tion in Communist Party matters ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. I certainly did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell us briefly about that, please. 

Mrs. Baldwin. I attended a course on the History of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union and that was taught by Ann Beiswenger. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, who attended 
that course with you ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Those who were students in that course were Ellen 
Dennis, Bereniece Baldwin, Ernest something, Ann Crowe, Harold 



5326 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 

Smith, Tillie Sigadelli, and a diet, Annie Cash, an Arnold, and 
Marian Coleman Young. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did the school last ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. We began that on the History of the Communist 
Party of the Soviet Union and had three different sections. We had 
to go over into 1951 in order to complete the book which was founded 
on the complete revolution of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. You had to do what ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. We had to extend over past the term period of the 
Michigan School of Social Science under which this was taught. 

Mr, Tavenner. Do you know about how long you were in that 
particular course? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. At that time ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. From the summer of 1949, into tlie spring of 1950, 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there a second school on that subject, or was 
it a continuation of the same school ? 

Mrs. Baldwin. Well, the brochure on that particular classed two 
terms. We had a fall term, and tlien a spring term, which went into 
Januaiy of 1950, but we also had an extension course on that, to com- 
plete the book, which would carry past actually the period it had been 
specified. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any other persons who became mem- 
bers of this study group besides those that you have already men- 
tioned. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Yes, there were. In the second part of it, Ernie 
Persons joined us, Evelyn Loeser, Roberta Myers, Ellen Dennis, Joan 
Ellis, and the members I have just mentioned ])reviously. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, this links up the testimony that we 
had planned to present at this time. 

Mr. Clardy. Does that conclude the list of identities that slie was 
prepared to ma^ e at this hearing ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Do you have any fui'ther questions on any otlier suIj- 
ject, or can those be deferred to some otlier time, if we think it im- 
portant ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, I think it should be deferred. 

Mr. Clardy. Then that concludes your examination of this witness ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Clardy. Mrs. Baldwin, I don't think I need to repeat the thanks 
that were extended to you at the prior hearing in 195i^. I merely 
need say that the subcommittee feels exactly as the prior subcommittee 
felt. You have made an important contribution in our work, in our 
research, and in our efforts to discover as nmch as Ave can about the 
conspiracy. I only wish that the message that I think your testimony 
carries with it could be heard by everyone in the State of iSIichigan. 
and for that matter, in the United States. 1 want to again thank you 
and let you know that we do dee])ly appreciate your contribution. 

Mrs. Baldwin. Thank you. 

Mr. Clardy. Witness excused. Now, before the hearing is con- 
cluded here and adjourned to Lansing, the Chair wants to make a 
few observations and to say a few words about some of those who 
have cooperated with us, but particularly I would like first to call 
your attention to the fact that the hearings that have been carried 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN 5327 

on here thus far this week are precisely the kind of hearin^js the com- 
mittee has been conductino; at other places and at other times. There 
is nothing unusual about it. We are, I am afraid, not as sensational 
in our presentation as, perhaps, the people who have not witnessed 
them may think or believe, and I don't think that anyone who has 
observed these hearings will be able to recognize them from the de- 
scription that you sometimes read in the left wing press and from the 
left wing columnists and the left wing commentators. 

I am certainly thankful that here in Michigan we have a press that 
is adequately and fairly and completely represented by men of good 
will and people of considerable talent and ability, because I do want 
to thank the press for the more than excellent reporting, the clear fac- 
tual reporting, that has gone forth from this hearing room during 
the time that we are here. I thank all of the men at the press table 
for the press services, and three Detroit newspapers are to be con- 
gratulated on doing an excellent job of fair reporting. I only wish 
that we could have the same kind everywhere we go and on every 
hearing that we carry on. 

And, of course, because of the fact that the name Jack White has 
enterecl into this proceeding on several occasions, I can't let the day 
pass without pointing out that he has done an excellent job in con- 
densing and reporting the proceedings that we have carried on, along 
with his partner in crime, Joe Hainline, both of whom I listen to quite 
regularly when I am able to be back in INIichigan. 

Now, we have had great cooperation from Commissioner Joseph 
Childs, of the State Police, and the men that are with him. We haA'e 
had cooperation from the Detroit police and from Commissioner Leo- 
nard; from the Detroit Loyalty Commission, of which Mr. May is 
chairman; and, of course, I think you gentlemen of the press, along 
with us, owe a little bit of thanks to the building superintendent for 
the way they have taken care of us and to the marshal's office in really 
helping me keep the proceedings well in hand ; and, by the way, I think 
I should point out that, with a few exceptions that called for a little 
attention, this audience in the main has been very, very good and quiet, 
and I have no criticism, and in the main the attorneys who have ap- 
peared are the same way, 

I hope no one will draw the unpopular conclusion about these attor- 
jieys who have to appear on behalf of unpopular clients. No onus 
should be attached to any attorney who is called on to represent persons, 
whether they be Communists or criminals or what have you. Being 
an attorney myself, I realize that it is absolutely necessary that attor- 
neys give their best to anyone who desires their services, and I think 
that, with one or two exceptions, the attorneys here have been very 
fair. I regret very much that on the first day of the hearing, in order 
to secure the quiet and in order to be able to carry on the business of 
the committee, it was necessary to take the drastic action that I did, 
but I think that everyone must agree that on Wednesday the gentle- 
man acted as he should, as a gentleman, and that, despite all of the 
rather vicious attacks that have been made upon the committee and 
upon me personally, alleging that I am anti-Negro and all that sort 
of thing, despite all of those attacks, I have only the kindliest feelings 
for all of them who have appeared before us. 

Now, in concluding, I want to straighten out one misapprehension 
that I find voiced by a number of people, and that is the belief that 



5328 coMMUisriST activities in the state of Michigan 

we came into Michigan and that we go other places for the purpose, 
for example, of investigating communism in some certain school or to 
investigate it in some other institution or in some group. That never 
has been the purpose of the committee. It is not now the purpose. 
TVe are not engaged in that kind of an investigation; we are inter- 
ested in finding and exposing Communists whoever they may be and 
whatever station in life they may occupy. We are not attempting to 
investigate, for example, Wayne University or University of ]\Iichi- 
gan or any of the other great schools in my State. We have attempted 
no such investigation. We will not attempt any such. We do not want 
the unfair inference to be drawn that because some few people may 
come from those institutions that the committee believes that they 
are or that they have a faculty or student body that is infested with 
Communists and communism. We hold no such belief at all, and the 
same applies to the labor group. We are not attacking any labor 
union. We have not investigated any labor union. We do not intend 
to do that. "Wliat we do intend to do is to continue in what we think 
is a fair way to uncover these people that we regard as dangerous to 
the safety of this Nation and to uncover them to expose their methods 
to show the nature of the organization to which they belong and in 
general to let the public, as well as the Congress, know and under- 
stand the scope and extent of the Communist conspiracy. 

At the adjourned hearing we hope to clean it up in one day and 
dispose of the witnesses primarily because we do not want to keep 
people under subpena for a great length of time. We think that is 
unfair. We want to give them an o]jportunity to take the stand and 
to answer fair questions as quickly as we can and dispose of the prob- 
lems so far as they are concerned. I am certain no one desires that 
more than I do; and, while it may be difficult for us to fit another 
hearing into our schedule because of the busy days that are ahead of 
us, we are going to endeavor to do that. Now we adjourn the hearing 
to convene again at 9 :30 a. m. on Monday next, May 10, in the house 
chamber of the capital at Lansing, Mich. 

(Whereupon, at 4 : 35 p. m., the hearing was recessed until 9 : 30 a. m. 
Monday, May 10, 1954.) 



INDEX TO PART 5 



INDHIDUALS 



Page 

Adamski, Stanley 5307 

Allan, William 5323, 5324 

Allen, May 5825 

Allen, Oryille 5824 

Allison, Helen 5309 

Alston, Chris 5325 

Alston, Sylyia (Mrs. Chris Alston) 5325 

Ans-us, Lucile 5801, 5302 

Ansell. Alonzo 5308, 5325 

Baldwin, Bereniece 5295, 5297-5328 (testimony) 

Barclay, Sidney (Scotty) 5321, 5322, 5324, 5325 

Barron, Donnie 5303 

Bartholomew, Wallace 5311 

Bascom, Mrs. Raymond (Mrs. Marie Bascom ; see also Sampey, Marie) 5811 

Baxter, Bolza 5802 

Beiswenger, Ann 5823, 532-5 

Beldean, Andrew 5311 

Bellinson, Bernie 5324 

Belmont, Ruth 5303 

Berensen, Izzy 5324 

Bernstein, Reva 5315, 5324 

Bizziochi, Kathy Lee ^ 5324 

Black, Edward 5319 

Blakka. Jessie 5312 

Blossom, Ray 5309 

Boatin, Mrs. Paul (Ann Boatin; see also Vartainian, Ann) 5322 

Boatin, Paul 5814, 5322 

Bollin, Cliff. Jr 5.321, 5322, 5824 

Borod, Murray 5299, 5300, .5325 

Boskey, Harry 5322, 5325 

Boyd, Gerald (Jerry) 5312, 5323 

Brandi, Zina 5324 

Brant, Joe 5302, 5304 

Brant, Sylvia 5302 

Brantley, Imogene 5321, 5324 

Bray, Mary 5809, 5.824 

Breitt, Paul 5803 

Broat, Saul 5811 

Brooks, Paul 5311, 5322-5325 

Brooks, Van 5322, 5323, 5325 

Brown, Bob 5321, 5322, 5325 

Bryant, Thomas 5304 

Buczak, Ed 5324 

Bufford, George 5314 

Burnetii, Elmer . 5811 

Burt, Herman 5320, 5323 

Cahn, Rolf 5314 

Carroll, Phil 5321 

Carter, Bill 5318 

Carter, Warren H 5302 

Cash, Annie 5326 

Cerousky, Steve 5306 

Chait, Max 5303, 5322, 5323 

Chait, Sandra (Mrs. Max Chait; see also Goldstick, Sandra) 5303 



li INDEX 

fage 
Chamblis, Hilliard 5303 

Oherveny, John 5319 

Chevalier, Mrs. Zacky 5316 

Chllcls, Joseph 5327 

Chrin. Joe 5308 

Christie, Wallace 5321 

Christie, Walter 5321 

Clark, Terrv 5309 

Clouffh, Val 5325 

Cochran. Evelyn 5316 

Cohen. Lenny 5325 

Coleman, Mrs. Marian (see also Young, Marian) 5324 

Cook, Georpe 5307 

Cook, Maurice 5309 

Cooper, James 5.322 

Coppock, Rnssell 5302 

Cottrell, Leo 5305. 5308 

Crawford. Edward 5305, 5.325 

Crowe. Ann 5.325 

Cummins, Mary 5317 

Cummins, Robert (Bob) 5321-5323,5325 

Cunningham. Gene .5311 

Dalton. Clem 5313, 5314 

Darcv, Fred 5316 

Davis, Curt 5311, 5322, 5325 

Davis, Ellen .5324 

Davis. Larry 5324 

Davis, Nelson 5322, 5323, 5325 

Davis, Richard 5310 

Davis, Sally 5322, 5325 

DeBlois. Don .5322. 5.324 

Dennis, Ellen .5324-5.3L~6 

Dennis, Thomas ,5.316, .5323 

Doniarian, John 5307 

Dcmibrowski, Tom 5305 

Dopulos, Peter, .Tr 5.313, 5314 

Douglas, Mr 5325 

Dunn. Walter Scott 5304, 5309, .5.312 

Edmonds, Jotm .5324 

Ellery, Leroy ,5.322 

Ellis, Ernie 5324 

Ellis, .Joan 5314, 5326 

Endicott, Paul 5.321 

Falk. Sven 5321, 5324 

Ferris, Alice 5309 

FilPccia, Ralph 5311 

Fiscli. Fred 5304 

Fletcher. William Estes 5296-5297 (testimony), .5314, .5315 

Foreman, Carneller 5312, 5324 

Foster, Shirley 5302 

Franklin, Harold 5308 

Furay, Corrine .5312 

Gabriel, Pete 5306 

Gallo, .John 5322 

Ganley, Xat 5321-5323, 5.325 

<]!ates, .John 5321 

Gebelle, Fred 5311 

George, Frank , 5305 

Gingold, Faye .5323 

Gladstone, Iviarvin 5323-5325 

(ilenn. William .5316 

• Joldstick, Sandra (see also Chait, Sandra) 5303 

Goodman, Kenny 5314 

(Jore. Jack 5324, 5325 

Graber, Sidney 5319 

Grunt. J. R 5.316 



INDEX iii 

Page 

<i!reenber.i;, Goldie oS'i") 

Oreeuberg, Ike 5325 

<Jriffel, Dorothy -^SIT 

Orossmau, Faye 5324 

Grossman, Saul 5325 

Hainline, Joe 5327 

Hall, Ray 5311 

Halper, Phil 5307, 5324 

Harris, James 5324, 5325 

Haskell, Kay 5324 

Haskell, Zina Braudi 5324 

Hell, John 5313 

Henley, Paul 5322 

Higdon, Barbara 5316 

Higdon, Hoke 5316 

Hodak, Phil 5321 

HoUis, James 5312 

Horowitz, Phil 5320 

Houston, Betty (Mrs. John Houston) 5318, 5319 

Houston, John 5310, 5318, 5319 

Isaacs, Lila 1 5325 

Isaacs, John 5325 

Jackson, Mr 5324 

.lackson, James E 5298 

Jenkins, Deri 5311 

Johnson, Jean 5305 

Jones, Fred 5324 

Kantechey, George 5313 

Kanter 5307 

Kapata, Florian 5308 

Kapnick, Jean 5311 

Keil, June 5314 

Kelman, Sam 5312 

Kitto, Russ 5323, 5324 

Kitto, Mrs. Russ 5324 

Klitzner, Louis 5324, 5325 

Kocel, Alice 5325 

Kocel, Ben 5324 

Kosheway, Anton 5306 

Kowalski, Gene 5319 

Krugh, I^o 5308 

Krup, Al 530H 

Kutkowski. Harry 5306 

Langer, Verna (see also McAllister, Verna) 5306 

Langerman, Jean 5317 

Lenny, Louis 5314 

Lindouf, Charles 5311, 5320, 5322 

Linn. Sid 5325 

Litivin, Walter 5313 

Lock, Ed 5313, 5322 

Lock, Mrs. Ed : 5325 

Loeser, Evelyn 5326 

Lioeser, Mary 5317 

Maben, Hey wood 5312 

Maise, Felix B 5311 

Maisenberg. Rifka 5305, 5325 

Maraniss, Elliott 5325 

Maraniss, Mary (Mrs. Elliott Maraniss) 5314, 5324, 5325 

Marotich, Milo 5308 

Marsh, Lee 5322, 5325 

Martin, Edwin V 5308 

Mason, Charles 5311 

Mason, Dolly 5311 

Mates. Lydia 5311, 5324 

Matnick, I). George 5316 

Maxwell, Matilda {see also Parrish, Matilda Maxwell i 5309 



iv INDEX 

Page 

Mayen, Betty Thomas 5324 

McAllister, Verna {see also Langer, Verna) 5305, 5306 

McDonald, Frank 5303 

Mclntire, Millie 5317 

McKie, Bill 5323 

McPhaul, Art 5309, 5325 

McPliaul, Mrs. Art 5325 

Melder, Frank 5316 

Meyers, Roberta 5326 

Meyers, Violet 5316 

Mikkelseu, Harold M 5319 

Miller (alias for Lee St. John) 5320 

Miller, Joe 5314 

Milstein, Al 5319 

Mitchell, Charles 5302 

Mitchell, Mabel 5324 

Mitchnick, Nate 5324 

Mogill, Billie (Mrs. George Mogill) 5324 

Mogill, George 5303, 5324 

Moore, Dave 5323 

Morrey, Mrs. Bill 5324 

Moxham, M 5304 

Mullins, R. E 5307 

Nalley, Leslie 5312. 

Nathan, George 5308 

Neidleman, Eve 5311 

Nemeth, James 530S 

Nichamin, Elsie 5316 

Niemski 5306 

Nowak, John 5321 

Obriot, Tersil 5314, 5322 

O'Hair, Richard Franklin 5305, 5309, 5312 

Olmsted, Geneva 5300, 5302, 5325. 

Olshansky, Ida 5324 

Palmquist, Jack 5313, 5314, 5324 

Panaretos, Georgianna 5314 

Parrish, Matilda Maxwell (see also Maxwell, Matilda) 530^ 

Parry, Tom 5312: 

Patterson, Freddie 5324 

Perkins, Eleanor 5312: 

Perlstein, Mildred 5300 

Persons, Ernie 5326- 

Peteray, John - 5312 

Peters, Art ^ 5312 

Pietrowski, Ed 5322-5324 

Plater, James 5322 

Plotkins, Ben 5311 

Pontes, Gus 5307, 5325 

Probe, Bernard 5296, 5297 

Purdy, Annabel 5314 

Purdv, Gladys 5324, 5325 

Purdy, Bob (Robert) 5320, 5324, 5325 

Raymond, Phil 5324 

Raymond, Vera 5310 

Redstone, Reva 5309 

Reed, Mildred (Midge) 5309 

Regan, Charles 5308 

Reynolds, John 5303 

Rhodes, Beverly 5325 

Rhodes, Oscar 5320, 5321, 5323-5325 

Ripken, Katherine 5312 

Hoborlson, Harold 5322, 5324 

Rodlck, Steve 5307 

Rollins, Helen Rosenfeld 5304 

Ro(iwmoi-e, Leslie 5307 



INDEX V 

Pag« 

Ross, Jeanette 5315, 5316 

Rowlson, Bob 5324 

Rowlson, Milly (Mrs. Bob Rowlson) 5324 

St. John, Lee (alias Miller) 5320 

Salisbury, Wayne B 5305, 5316 

Sampey, Marie {see also Bascom, Marie) 5311 

Sandretto, Aldo 5307 

Santwire, Milton 5316 

Savola, Matt 5324 

Schatz, Gert 5325 

Schatz. Phil 5323 

Schemanske, Stephen (see also Simmons, Steve) 5313 

Schleicher, Milton 5307, 5322,5325 

Schleinher, Mrs. Joe 5325 

Seller, Alex 5314 

Shaffer, Edward 5317, 5318 

Shapiro, Esther 5304 

Shapiro, Harold 5310, 5324 

Shenkar, George 5319 

Shinn, Charles 5302 

Shorfmau, Katherine _ 5317 

Sigadelli, Tillie 5326 

Silverberg, Dave 5312 

Simmons, Steve (see also Schemanske, Steve) 5313, 5323, 5324 

Smith, Harold 5326 

Smith, Hope 5307 

Smith, Leonard 5316 

Sniderman, Florence 5304 

Sorenson, Ernie 5322 

Spiegel, Mr 5323 

Sprowso, Mike 53' )5 

Storich, Al 5325 

Storich, Dolores 5303, 5325 

Suttles, Tessie 5308 

Sweet, Sam 5312 

Swetnick, Nick 5324 

Sykes, Frank 5307 

Syversen, Ernie 5321 

Taylor, Bob 5311 

Tsinis, James 5325 

Van Horn, Edith 5320, 5321, 5823 

Vartainian, Ann (Mrs. Paul Boatin) 5322 

Vidakis, Anna 5314 

Wald, Nat 5313, 5324 

Walker, James ^ .5823 

Walker, Mary 5301, 5302 

Walters, Charles 5322 

Warner, Walter 5322 

Wellman, Saul 5323, 5324 

Wells, Harold 5320 

Weston, Neal 5311 

White, Jack 5300-5302, 5304, 5324, 5325 

White, Jack (radio newscaster) 5300,5.327 

Whitlow, B 5312 

Widmark, Elinor 5301, 5302 

Williams, Fred 5303, 5323 

Williams, John 5316 

Williams, Ruth Gilbert 5316 

Wilson, Veruia L 5308 

Winter, Carl 5324 

Winter, Helen Allison (Mrs. Carl Winter) 5323, 5324 

Wolf, Ed 5307 

Woodley, James 5.301) 

Work, Merrill 5311, 5321, 5322, 5325 

Wright, Malcolm 5325 



V'i INDEX 

Pag« 

Yktiover, Jules 5303 

YoiuifT, Marian (see also Coleman, Mrs. Marian) 5324, 5326 

Zackler, Mike 5312 

Zenchuck, Olga 5322 

Zurovich. Mike 5308 

Organizations and Pubications 

Communist Party. Michigan (District 7) 5298, 5300, 5324 

Ann Arbor Club 53X7 

Ann Arbor Town Clvib 5317 

Auto miscellanwms section 5319, 5320, 5322, 5324, 5325 

Auto miscellaneous section, Hudson cell 5325 

P.en Davis Club 5314, 5315, 5325 

Bloor Club 5325 

Bohn Aluminum Club 5302, 5303 

P.rigus Club 5322, 5324, 5325 

Budfl Wheel Club 5325 

Buick section 5301 

Chevrolet secticm 5301 

Chrysler section 5322 

David White Club 530n, 5325 

Dearborn auto section 5298, 5299, 5321 

Dearl)orn Club 5308, 532.5. 

Dearborn headquarters section 5313. 

Del-Kay Club 5314 

De Soto section 5325. 

Dodce cell 5322, 5325 

Downtown Club (Detroit) .5308, 5325 

East Club General Motors 5304 

East side Comnumity section (Detroit) 5324 

East Side Council (Detroit) 5324 

Eddie Elberts Club 5324 

Fenkell Club (Detroit) 5307 

First Congressional District Club 530t), 5307 

Flint section 5301, 5324, 5.325 

Flint General Motors Club 5304 

Flint-Pontiac section 5301 

Ford headquarters section .5313 

Ford Production Foundry Club 530S 

Ford section 5321 

Ford section, Motor Building Club ^_-_ 5307 

Ford section, plastic branch 5325 

Ford section. Pressed Steel Club . 5325 

Fourteenth Congressional District Club 5306, 53ir5- 

Freiheit Club ^-, 5324, 5325 

General Motors Club ^^- 5304, 5325 

Grand Rapids Club 531(i 

Greek section .--^^ — 5325 

Hamtramck Club 5305 

Hamtramck Youth Group 5301] 

Joe Hill Club 5324,5325 

.Toe York Club 5313 

LaBelle Club 5325- 

Lansing 5313 

Literature Committee — .-. 5325- 

Local 305 Club (see also Communist Party, Michigan, Bohn Aluminum 

Club) 5303. 

McGraw Club 5305, 5325 

^Michigan Avenue Club 5313, 5324 

Midtown Club 5309. 5324 

Murray C^ub 5325 

Muskeaon Club 5310. 

Nat Turner Club 5312, 5321 

Negro ('ommission (Flint) 5325 

Oakland Club 5310, 532*4 



p 



INDEX Tii 



Comuiuuist Party, Michigan — Continued Page 

Packard Club 5311, 5321, 5325 

Plymoutli Club 5311, 5322 

Polish section 5324 

Polish youth group 5325 

Port Huron section 5324 

Professional Club 5305, 5324 

Ralph Neafus Club 5313, 5317-5310 

Southfield Club 5304, 5325 

Steel and Foster section 5324 

Tenants Council Club (Detroit) 5325 

Tom Paine Club 5312 

Twelfth Street Club 5311, 5324, 5325 

United Auto Workers Club, Local 205 5324 

United Auto Workers Club, Local 155 5325 

United Auto Workers Cluh, Local 835 5325 

United States Rubber Club 5312 

Washtenaw County 5325 

Wayne University Club 5313, 5319 

Wayne Youth Club 5319 

West side section 5324 

Ypsilanti Chib 5316 

Communist Political Association 5301 

Congress of Industrial Organizations, United Auto W^oi-kers 5324, 5325 

Daily Worker 5324 

Detroit Loyalty Commission 5327 

Dodge Motor Co 5320 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 5297,5313,5316,5320 

General IMotors Corp 5320 

General Motors Corp., Chevrolet Division 5304 

Michigan School of Social Science 5326 

Michigan Worker 5321, 5324 

Midland Steel Co 5320 

Suliversive Activities Control Board 5207 

United Auto Workers, Ford Local 600 5325 

United Auto Workers, Local 155 5322, 5325 

University of Michigan 5328. 

Wayne University 5319, 5328, 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

Jlllllliliilfil , 

3 9999 05445 3319