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Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the San Francisco area. Hearing"

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U. S; SUPT. OE DOCmiENTS 



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INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
SAN FRANCISCO AREA-Part 2 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-THIKD CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



DECEMBER 2, 1953 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
41002 WASHINGTON : 1954 




Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 1 6 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Repeesentatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 
BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 

DONALD L. JACKSON, California MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 

KIT CLARDY, Michigan CLYDE DOYLE, California 

GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio JAMES B. FRAZIER, JB., Tennessee 

Robert L. Kunzig, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Lodis J. Rdssell, Chief Investigator 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



December 2, 1953, testimony of: Page 

Rov Hudson 3159 

John W. Mass 3184 

Dickson P. Hill 3193 

George Van Frederick 3238 

James Fenton Wood 3242 

Eugene Alexander Toopeekoflf 3246 

Eugene Eagle 3251 

Dan Kew Mah 3254 

Kenneth Craig Austin 3257 

Index 3261 

EXHIBITS 

Hudson Exhibit No. 1. Letter dated November 27, 1939, written on letterhead 
of the Communist Party of U. S. A., national office, addressed to counsel of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, signed by Earl Browder, general 
secretary of the Communist Party, U. S. A. (see pp. 3160-3162). 

Hudson Exhibit No. 2. Letter, dated February 8, 1934, to H. Jackson, signed 
"fraternallv yours, Hudson" (see pp. 3164-3166). 

Hudson Exhibit No. 3. Daily Worker, November 6, 1933, article entitled, "38 
Workers' Organizations Endorse Communist Party Program" (see pp. 3167-3169). 

Hudson Exhibit No. 4. Letter, dated February 5, 1934, addressed to H. Jackson, 
and signed Hudson (see pp. 3172 and 3173)." 

Hudson Exhibit No. 5. Partv Organizer, Mav-June 1934, pages 25-30, article 
entitled "The Work of the Marine Union," by Roy Hudson (see pp. 3174-3176). 

Hudson Exhibit No. 6. Party Organizer, August 1937, pages 6--12, article 
entitled, "Building the Party in Marine," by Roy Hudson (see pp. 3177-3180). 

Hudson Exhibit No. 7. Party Organizer, May 1938, pages 10-13, article entitled, 
"Work Among the Masses," by Roy Hudson (see pp. 3180 and 3181). 

Mass Exhibit No. 1. San Francisco Unified School District, oath of allegiance, 
signed by John W. Mass on October 19, 1950, on reverse side of which is a 
statement written by John W. Mass as to his past Communist Party member- 
ship and other affiliations (see pp. 3187 and 3188). 

tu 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted iy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assemhled * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rtjle X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

* * * 4: * * * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

RXILE XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

* * * * i^ * * 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any nec- 
essary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees : 

^f * if m * *i * 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activties. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, pai)ers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
SAN FEANCISCO AKEA— PAET 2 



WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-Amerigan Activities, 

San Francisco^ Calif. 

PUBLIC hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to adjournment, at 9 : 35 a. m. in the hearing room of the 
board of supervisors, city hall, Hon. Harold H. Velde (chairman of 
the committee) presiding. 

Chairman members present: Representatives Harold H. Velde 
(chairman), Donald L. Jackson, Gordon H. Scherer, Morgan M. 
Moulder, and Clyde Doyle. 

Staff members present : Robert L. Kunzig and Frank S. Tavenner, 
Jr., counsel ; William A. Wheeler, investigator ; and Juliette P. Joray, 
acting clerk. 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order, please. 

This morning I am happy to welcome our colleague, the Honorable 
Morgan Moulder, of Missouri, who completes our subcommittee, to 
be here from now until Saturday, at which time we will be obliged to 
adjourn the hearings. 

Mr. Counsel^ do you have a witness? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir ; Mr. Roy Hudson, will you come forward, 
please ? 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Hudson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROY HUDSON, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

GEORGE ANDERSEN 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Hudson. Roy Hudson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acompanied by counsel? 

Mr. Hudson. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Anderson. My name is George Andersen. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Hudson ? 

Mr. Hudson. Nevada, Tonepah, Nev., April 9, 1904. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Hudson. San Francisco. 

3159 



3160 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Hudson. Grammar school through eighth grade. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I desire to offer in evidence, and 
ask that it be marked "Hudson Exhibit No. 1," a letter from Earl 
Browder, general secretary of the Communist Party, addressed to 
counsel for this committee under date of November 27, 1939, in which 
he gives a list of the national committee of the Communist Party, 
elected at the 10th convention. 

Mr. Velde. Do you offer that into evidence ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection it will be admitted at this point. 

(The letter from Earl Browder dated November 27, 1939, was re- 
ceived in evidence as Hudson Exhibit No. 1.) 

HUDSON EXHIBIT NO. 1 

Communist Paety of U. S. A. 

NATIONAL OFFICE 

William Z. Foster, Chairman 35 Bast 12th St., AL 4-2215 

Earl Browder, General Secretary P. O. Box 87, Sta. D., New York City 

November 27, 1939. 
Mr. Rhea Whitley, 

Counsel, Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir : I received by mail the subpena issued November 22 to me to appear 
In Washington, Tuesday, November 28 at 10 a. m., and to bring vs^ith me a list of 
the full names of the directors of Compro Daily, list of the full names of the 
members of the National Committee of the Communist Party of the United 
States, list of the full names of the members of the Political Committee of the 
Communist Party of the United States, list of the full names of the Secretariat 
of the Comintern, and a list of the districts of the Communist Party of the 
United States. 

My secretary informs me that in reply to my long-distance telephone inquiry 
you stated that it would not be necessary for me to appear personally if I mailed 
you the material requested. 

I am therefore enclosing the follovping materials : 

1. List of the full names of the members of the National Committee of the 
Communist Party of the United States. 

2. List of the full names of the members of the Political Committee of the Com- 
munist Party of the United States. 

3. List of the full names of the Secretariat of the Executive Committee of the 
Communist International (Comintern). 

4. List of the districts of the Communist Party of the United States. 

With regard to the requested list of the full names of the directors of the 
Compro Daily, I do not have such a list and have never had it. I have requested 
the lawyer of the Compro Daily to furnish me with such a list and whenever it 
comes to my hand I will send it on to you. 

I wish to call your attention to a correction in the list of the members of the 
National Committee of the Communist Party of the United States as T submit it 
herewith which omits the name of Mr. Rubin, which I gave to you in my letter of 
September 8. Since submitting the original list on September 8 I have learned 
that Mr. Rubin had tendered his resignation in October 10.38, and it had been 
accepted. This occurred at a time when I was absent from the country and it 
had not been called to my attention until the question came up on the basis of 
the list which I originally gave you. Please take note of this correction. 
Very truly yours, 

(s) Earl Browder, 
Earl Browder, 
General Secretary, Communist Party, U. S. A. 
EB:EC 
UOPWA LOC. 16 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3161 



National Committee of the Communist Party, U. 8. A., elected at the Tenth 

Convention 

Wm. Z. Foster, Chairman ; Earl Browder, General Secretary 



Members 

Israel Amter 
Max Bedacht 
Alex Bittelman 
A. W. Berry 
Ella R. Bloor 
Louis Budenz 
Peter V. Cacchione 
Morris Childs 
Gene Dennis 
Sam Don 
Elizabeth G. Flynn 

Candidates 

John Ballam 
Herbert Benjamin 
W. G. Binkley 
Don Burke 
Rose Biltmore 
Isadore Begun 
Ann Burlak 
Margaret Cowl 



James W. Ford 
Harrison George 
Ben Gold 
Gil Green 
Ray Hansboro 
Clarence Hathaway 
Jasper Haaland 
Angel Herndon 
Roy Hudson 
Jack Johnstone 
Charles Krumbein 



Sam Darcy 
Phil Frankfeld 
Harry Gwynn 
Robert Hall 
Albert Lannon 
Andrew Onda 
William Patterson 
Pettis Perry 



Robert Minor 
Steve Nelson 
William Schneiderman 
Jack Stachel 
Pat Toohey 
Alex Trachtenberg 
William Wiener 
Anita Whitney 
John Williamson 
Henry Winston 
Rose Wortis 



Morris Raport 
Earl Reno 
Carl Rose 
Nat Ross 
Otto Wangerin 
Maude White 
Wm. W. Weinstone 
Robert Woods 



Members of the Secretariat, Executive Committee of the Communist International 
(As elected at the Seventh World Congress, 1935) 



George DimitrofE, General Secretary 

M. Ercoli 

D. Z. Manuilsky 

Wilhelm Pieck 



Otto Kuusinen 
Andre Marty 
Klement Gottwald 



Candidate-members 
M. Florin 



M. A. Moskvin 



Members of Political Committee, CPTJSA 

Wm. Z. Foster James W. Ford 

Earl Browder C. A. Hathaway 

Alex Bittelman Roy Hudson 

Morris Childs Charles Krumbein 

Gene Dennis Robert Minor 



Wang Ming 

Jack Stachel 
Henry Winston 
Rose Wortis 



LIST OF DISTRICTS OF THE COMMUNIST PAETY, V. S. A., AND ADDRESSES 

Box 23, Essex Station, Boston, Mass. (Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 

Rhode Island, Vermont) 

35 East 12th Street, New York, N. Y. 

250 South Broad Street, Room 701, Philadelphia, Pa. 

729 Central Avenue, Kansas City, Kans. 

305 Seventh Avenue, Room 406, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

1524 Prospect Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 

5969 14th Street, Detroit, Mich. 

208 North Wells Street, Room 201, Chicago, 111. 

10 South 10th Street, Room 2, Minneapolis, Minn. 

516 Karbach Block, Omaha, Nebr. 

Post Office Box 1467, Fargo, N. Dak. 

Post Office Box 332, Seattle, Wash (Idaho, Washington) 

121 Haight Street, San Francisco, Calif. (Arizona, California, Nevada) 

1 William Street, Room 405, Newark, N. J. 

6 Church Street, Room 212, New Haven, Conn. 

Post Office Box 521, Greensboro, N. C. (North Carolina, South Carolina) 

Post Office Box 1871, Birmingham, Ala. (Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi) 

617 North Second Street, Room 902, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Post Office Box 2823, Denver, Colo. (Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming) 



3162 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Post Office 1834, Houston, Tex. 

506 North Vandeventer Street, Room 21, St. Louis, Mo. (Arkansas, Missouri) 

Post Office Box 92, Charleston, W. Va. 

Post Office Box 1043, Louisville, Ky. 

Post Office Box 465, New Orleans, La. 

Post Office Box N, West Bay Annex, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Post Office Box 366, Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Post Office Box 496, Ironvpood, Mich. 

Meridian Life Building, Room 401, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Post Office Box 132, Richmond, Va. 

Post Office Box 77, Butte, Mont. 

Box 245, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

222 Youngerman Building, Des Moines, Iowa 

Post Office Box 1692, Knoxville, Tenn. 

501 B North Eutaw Street, Baltimore, Md. 

74 West First Street South, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Mr, Tavenner. This list of the membership of the national com- 
mittee of the Communist Party includes William Z. Foster as chair- 
man, Earl Browder, general secretary, and among the members are 
such leaders in the Communist Party as Israel Amter, Max Bedacht, 
Alexander Bittelman, Ella R. Bloor, Liouis Budenz, Gene Dennis, 
Harrison George, Ben Gold, Clarence Hathaway, Steve Nelson — and 
without naming others, I will refer to just one more — Roy Hudson. 

Now, Mr. Hudson, the Committee on Un-American Activities has 
received a great deal of evidence since 1939 or really since 1934 re- 
garding the prominent part that you have played in the activities of 
the Communist Party. 

I will refer to only a few of them, such of them as designate what 
your official position has been from time to time as a leader in the 
Communist Party. The committee has received evidence that you 
were a delegate to the Seventh World Congress at Moscow July 1935, 
that is the World Congress of the Communist International; that 
you were a member of the central committee of the Communist Party 
in 1936 and for a number of years thereafter : that in 1938 you were 
trade union secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist 
Party; that in 1938 you were a member of the presiding committee 
for the 10th national convention; that in 1939 you were a fraternal 
delegate to the Communist Partv convention of Mexico and at the 
same time you were a member of the presiding committee of the Com- 
munist Party of Mexico. 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I have just introduced in evidence as a part of this 
hearing the letter from Earl Browder as secretary showing that in 
1939 you were a member of the national committee of the Communist 
Party. 

Our records show that in 1940 you were a member of the political 
bureau of the Communist Party and that in 1942 you were a member 
of the political committee of the Communist Party ; that is, the Com- 
munist Party of the United States. Our records show that in 1944 
you became vice president of the Communist Political Association. 
In 1946 our investigations have disclosed you were acting as a district 
secretary of the Communist Party of Pittsburgh, and that in 1948 
you were chairman of the western Pennsylvania district of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Now, this testimony has shown that you were an open member of 
the Communist Party up through the year 1938, and there has been 
evidence as to some of your activities since that time. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3163 

However, there has been information which has come to the com- 
mittee indicating that sometime after 1948, due to internal fights 
within the Communist Party, you had been more or less put on the 
shelf; that you have not for the past few years occupied the same 
prominence in the Communist Party that you had prior to that time 
and that you have not been active in the same way. 

There may be many reasons for that. 

Now, I want at this time to give you the opportunity, if you will 
take advantage of it, to declare yourself publicly and state whether 
or not at this time you still declare your allegiance to the Communist 
Party, an organization which is directed by a foreign power, or 
whether or not you will declare your allegiance directly and un- 
reservedly to the United States. 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson, Your question is so involved and complicated that I 
find it impossible to answer as it is. If you break it down, I will to 
the best of my ability answer it. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will be very glad to attempt to break it down. 

Are you now a functionary in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hudson. I stand on the fifth amendment and refuse to answer 
that question on the grounds of possible self-incrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now engaged in active work for the Com- 
munist Party ? 

]\Ir. Hudson. I stand on my previous answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hudson, I hand you a photostatic copy of a 
typewritten letter bearing date of February 8, 1931:, addressed to H. 
Jackson, signed "Fraternally yours, Hudson," and I will ask you to 
examine the signature and state whether or not it is your signature. 
The signature is on the last page, the third page. 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Tavenner. May I suggest that you answer the question instead 
of reading the entire 3-page letter at this time? 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You have not yet looked at the signature which is 
on the third page. 

Mr. Hudson. I would like to get acquainted with the document if 
it is supposed to be my signature. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will give you that opportunity, but first will you 
examine the signature and state whether or not it is yours ? 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson. I would like to read the document first. 

Mr. Andersen. I might add that the witness doesn't have his read- 
ing glasses with him. I happen to have mine, so I have to read it to 
him. 

Mr. Velde. Will the reading of the document enable you to deter- 
mine whether or not that is your signature ? 

Mr. Hudson. It might. 

Mr. Velde. Is that your position ? 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Well, first, will you examine the signature and state 
if you are in doubt that it is your signature ? Again I ask you to look 
at the third page. 

Mr. Velde. I believe the witness should be permitted to read the 
letter in its entirety. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well. 



3164 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr, Velde. If you will answer that question, 

Mr, Hudson, I am sorry ; I didn't hear you, 

Mr. Velde. Read the letter in its entirety, and then I hope that you 
"will answer the question as to your signature. 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr, Tavenner, Did you examine the signature ? 

Mr. Hudson. Yes. My answer is that I refuse to answer on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. It might be possible self-incrimina- 
tion. 

Mr. Tavenner, Were you acquainted with H, Jackson? 

Mr, Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is H. Jackson the same person as Harry Jackson? 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Moulder, Mr. Chairman, may I suggest that counsel identify 
H. Jackson more specifically ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Harry Jackson was identified by the witness here 
yesterday, Mr. Lou Rosser, as being a person known to him to have 
been a member of the Communist Party and engaged in certain other 
activities. 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the photostatic copy of the letter in 
evidence and ask that it be marked "Hudson Exhibit No. 2." 

Mr. Velde. Without objection it will be admitted in the record at 
this point. 

(Photostat of letter to H. Jackson, dated February 8, 1934, was 
received in evidence as Hudson exhibit No. 2.) 



HUDSON EXHIBIT NO. 2 



February 8, 1934. 



H. Jackson, 

437 Market Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

Dear Comrade Jackson : The news you write regarding the response of the 
Northwest to the convention is very good — and the rank and file delegation that 
went up certainly seenas to indicate that our policies are getting root. I trust 
that we are consolidating a real firm opposition group. In view of the ILA stand 
at the code hearings we certainly should be able to make headway all around — 
and should give an impetus to the convention. There is little to add upon 
my previous remarks and the wire concerning the stand of the officials. It is 
doubtful whether we will be able to get minutes of this hearing in view of my 
failure to pay the $80 for the last one. In case I do get them will shoot them 
right out. I agree with you that the place where the convention should be 
held should not become a breaking point — although it would be much more favor- 
able if it were held in Frisco. 

In regards to Saurwin — I believe I already mentioned that a new fellow there 
is now active by the name of Maxton. Do you know him? While it is true 
that Saurwin is not developed — it is also true that he is well acquainted with 
Pedro, has personal connections and seems to be fairly active and is getting some 
results — it might be a question whether it is advisable to withdraw him? 

Some of the Scharrenberg story will be used in the next Saturday's Daily — 
also next issue of Voice. I note that it was published in the Western Worker. 

In regard to the line on the question of the ISU becoming recognized by the 
code. It has been discussed — our basic task is clear — to rally the mass of 
workers in the fight for our code and against the application of the shipowners' 
code. This is the main tactic in defeating any move to herd them into the ISU. 
Secondly to call upon them to join our organization, etc., and to resist any effort 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3165 

to force them into the ISU. What would we do in case there was a mass senti" 
ment and move upon the part of the seamen for the ISU. Naturally, we would 
be reduced to an oppositional role, in the same sense as what happened in Frisco 
amongst the longshoremen. However, at the present the perspective and swing 
is all toward us — and if there was any widespread effort toward forcing the 
seamen into the ISU at the present time it is my opinion that it would even help 
us. We can say that during the past few months we have delivered some smash- 
ing blows to the ISU — although it would be an exaggeration to say that they are 
completely isolated. I will not go into details, but at the present moment we 
can say that in at least one port, Baltimore, the seamen are 100 percent behind 
us and our program — that in other ports, there has been a marked increase in our 
influence — that because of our recent strikes, the mass delegation, the present 
Munson line developments, and the Baltimore victories — that we are the 
organization that the seamen are thinking about. Finally, all reports at present 
indicate that on more and more ships the ISU officials are meeting with strong 
opposition from the crews — where a few months ago they were somewhat 
neutral, and your report about the ISU on west coast — makes our perspective 
even more favorable. With a continued energetic effort upon our part, par- 
ticularly upon the west coast, there is every possibility that we can defeat the 
ISU — even with the support of the NRA. 

Am glad to hear that you are going to write an article for the Voice. Now 
for Christ's sake don't forget it and get it in here on time. 

Things are moving fast around here. The Greylock, in Baltimore, is out on 
strike and has been offered a $10 wage increase. The Munsome still is 100 percent 
out — there are no other Munson Line ships in any of the ports — I won't say we 
will be able to pull many of them immediately — but we feel confident that within 
a week or 10 days we will have several more of the Munson ships out. I'm so 
damn busy that work piles up like hell. 

Now Harry, in connection with your statement on Mink. This statement will 
not be taken up in the fraction — and in my letter of the December 15 I told 
you that if you thought you must raise objections, it should be through the 
center. 

I want to make myself very clear on this — especially in view of your statement 
in the letter accompanying the statement. It is unfortunate that you don't keep 
carbon copies so therefore I will quote from your letter to make myself clear. 
You state "and we will not let anyone's petty politics take away from us capable 
forces etc. * * * i refer to Stachel in particular." 

From this you frankly state that George is where he is because of "someone's 
petty politics." I have the utmost confidence in you Jackson and under no gir- 
cumstances (sic) would I accuse you of factionalism — but frankly this is only- 
speculating on decisions and trying to find "factional" reasons, or "petty political" 
reasons for them being made. We must not only reject "petty politics" — but 
we must just as severely reject tendencies that see petty politics in every 
decision. 

Again why were the reasons he went: 

(1) He proposed, very strongly himself. 

(2) An even greater insistence upon the party of Ray — who when it looked 
like George might not go, raised particular hell. 

There were other factors, but these were the basic ones, and if there is any 
petty politics in them I will eat my hat. 

Now, final reasons why your recommendation is not going to be raised in the 
fraction — 

(1) Recommendations came from top "fraction — final decisions made by P. B. — 
and this year a stronger insistence that the candidates not become public prop- 
erty. Very few people know who they are — incidentally you should not have been 
informed — and I had hell raised with me already because people knew who 
shouldn't. Therefore to raise it in the fraction would be incorrect. 

(2) Fraction meetings — and Buro have been held — and no one has raised any 
objections and agreed with the formal "proposal" for his temporary leave. 

I have other ideas on the whole subject — but I believe the above make it 
clear why I take the stand I do and I hope you will understand them and the 
spirit I make them — even though there might be some sharp criticism. I still in- 
sist that the decision was a correct one and that you have no basis upon which 
to raise serious objections. However, if you are still of the same opinion, then 
you should and must raise them directly with the center. But imder no cir- 
cumstances is the question of where George is at to be raised with anyone on the 
coast. 



3166 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Well, giiess that's all. I have expressed myself rather honestly in order to 
clarify my stand — and hope you agree with it — but I am sure that any sharpness 
will not be taken in an uneomradely manner. 
With best of luck and drop a line from the North. 
Fraternally yours, 

Hudson. 
Am sending Telford the supplies you req (sic). 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Hudson, when you answer by saying "the same 
answer," you mean you are refusing to answer on the ground that it 
might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Hudson, Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire at this time to read certain portions of this 
letter and ask you questions with a view of obtaining an explanation 
of the meaning of certain things, whether or not you admit having 
written this letter : 

Now, Harry, in connection with your statement on Mink. This statement will 
not be taken up in the fraction — and in my letter of the December 1.5th I told 
you that if you thought you mnst raise objections, it should be through the 
Center. 

Is the term "center" the term usually used in connection with the 
central committee of the Communist Party ? 
Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 
Mr. Tavenner. What was Mink's first name? 
Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Are you acquainted with George Mink? 
Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 
Mr. Tavenner. I continue to read as follows : 

I want to make myself very clear on this — especially in view of your state- 
ment in the letter accompanying the statement. It is unfortunate that you 
don't keep carbon copies, so therefore I will quote from your letter to make 
myself clear. 

You state "and we will not let anyones petty politics take away from 
us capable forces, etc. * * * I refer to Stachel in particular." 

What position did Stachel hold at that time in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Hudson. My answer is the same as the previous one. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what position Harry Jackson held in 
the Communist Party at that time? 

Mr. Hudson. My answer is the same as the previous one. 

Mr. Tavenner. I continue to read : 

From this you frankly state that George is where he is because of "someone's 
petty politics." I have the utmost confidence in you Jackson, and — 

the following words are underscored — 

under no circumstances would I accuse you of factionalism — <but frankly this is 
only speculating on decisions and trying to find "factional" i-easons, or "petty 
political" reasons for them being made. We must not only reject "petty poli- 
tics" — but we must just as severely reject tendencies that see petty politics in 
every decision. 

Again, why were the reasons he went? Before proceeding with 
the reasons, where did George Mink go ? 

Mr. Hudson. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Ta"\^nner. Was George Mink connected with the shipping 
strike on the west coast in 1934? 

Mr. Hudson. Still stand on the previous answer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3167 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman, may the record show at this point 
that tlie witness declines to answer when he says "the same answer" ? 

Mr. Velde. Yes, the record will so show. 

IMr. Tavetstner. Mr. Chairman, I have before me the Jul}^ 1939 issue 
of the American Mercury. On page 305 this reference is made to 
George Mink : 

George Mink, once in the Moscow Profintern (Red International of Labor 
Unions), later a fourth section operative in Philadelphia and with Rubens on 
the New York waterfront. In July 1935 a Copenhagen court sent Mink to prison 
for Soviet espionage. 

Now, this letter was written in February 1934, the letter which I 
presented to you and which you read. 

I want to know if the mission on which George Minlc was sent was 
that which resulted in his arrest in Copenhagen and his trial for 
espionage in 1935? 

Mr. Hudson. I stand on the fifth amendment and refuse to answer 
on the grounds of possible self-incrimination. 

INIr. Tavenner. Was George Mink given a release from his ac- 
tivities in connection with the strike on the west coast and sent to the 
Continent of Europe on a mission for the Communist Party in con- 
nection with that strike ? 

Mr. Hudson. In my reply I stand on the same grounds, the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will proceed to read again. 

Aeain, why were the reasons he went: 

1. He proposed, very strongly himself. 

2. An even greater insistence upon.the part of Ray — who, when it looked like 
George might not go, raised particular hell. 

Who is Ray? 

Mr. Hudson. I stand on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. "What official position did Ray hold at that time in 
the union or any other organization to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Hudson. My answer is the same as the previous one. 

Mr. Ta^t.nner. Mr. Chairman, I have before me a photostatic copy 
of the Daily Worker of November 6, 1933. There is an article here, 
the headline of which is "38 Workers' Organizations Endorse Com- 
munist Party Program." The names of those organizations and the 
workers representing them appear in the article. Under the name of 
Marine Workers Industrial Union I find the name of Roy Hudson, na- 
tional secretary ; Thomas Ray, secretary ; and desire to offer the photo- 
static copy into evidence and ask it be marked "Hudson Exhibit No. 3." 

Mr. Velde. Without objection it will be included at this point. 

(Photostat of article from Daily Worker of November 6, 1933, was 
received in evidence as Hudson Exhibit No. 3. ) 

HUDSON EXHIBIT NO. 3 

[From Daily Worker, New York, November 6, 1933] 

38 Workers' Organizations Endorse Communist Party Program 

party's fight fob masses' needs cited in statement 

industrial unions, unemployed councils, women's councils among backers 

OP RED candidates 

New York. — Thirty-eight workers' organizations have endorsed the Communist 
Party ticket and program in the New York municipal elections. "No other has 



3168 COMJVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

shown daily its stubborn and ceaseless fight in the shops and streets for the needs 
of the masses," says the statement signed by these unions, unemployed councils, 
and fraternal organizations. 

Headed by such fighting unions as the Marine Worlcers Industrial Union, thc» 
Needle Trades Workers Industrial Union, the Steel and Metal Worliers Industrial 
Union, the organizations supporting the Comnjunist Tarty, state : 

"Only the Communist Party as the party of the working class represents the 
interests of the entire working population, stands squarely on the principle that 
the provision of adequate food, clothing, and shelter and the defense of the 
rights and living standards of the workers are the primary issues in this 
campaign." 

Among the organizations signing endorsement for the Communist candidates, 
are the Unemployed Councils, Friends of the Soviet Union, Councils of Working 
Class Women, Anti-Imperialist League, Workers Ex-Servicemen's League, and 
the Labor Sports Union. 
Needle Trades Industrial Union : 

Ben Gold, general secretary 

Louis Hynian, president 

Irving Potash, secretary 

Isadore Weisberg, manager, dress department 

Joseph Boruchowitz, manager of cloak department 

Samuel Burt, fur dressing department 

Ben Stallman, organizer of bathrobe department 

Dominick Montello, organizer of custom tailors 
Steel and Metal Workers Industrial Union : 

James Lustig, organizer 

James Matlis, secretary 
Marine Workers Industrial Union : 

Ray [sic Ray] Hudson, national secretary 

Thomas Ray, secretary 
Food Workers Industrial Union : 

Jay Rubin, general secretary 

William Albertson, organizer of hotel and restaurant department 

Sam Kramberg, organizer of cafeteria department 
Alteration Painters Union : Morris Kushinsky, secretary 
Shoe and Leather Workers Industrial Union : 

Fred Biedenkapp, organizer 

Isadore Rosenberg, secretary 
Building Maintenance Workers Industrial Union : Mort Sher, secretary 
Drygoods Workers Union : 

Louis Kfare, vice chairman 

Chester Fierstein, chairman 
Furniture Workers Industrial Union : Morris Pizer, secretary 
Independent Carpenters Union : 

Isaac Berman, organizer 

Herman Bogartz, secretary 

Nathan Ellin, treasurer 
Taxi Workers Union : 

Harold Eddy, organizer 

Abner Feigin, financial secretary 
Cleaners and Dyers Union : Max Rosenberg, secretary 
Laundry Workei-g Industrial Union : Sam Berland, secretary 
Building and Construction Workers League : 

Jack Taylor, secretary 

Sam Nessin, general secretary 
Trade Union Unity Council : 

Andy Overgaard, secretary 

Rose Wortis, assistant secretary 

Sheppard, organizer 
Office Workers Union : Laura Carmon, organizer 
Unemployed Council : 

Israel Amter, national secretary 

Carl Winter, secretary of Greater New York 

Richard Sullivan, organizer of Greater New York 
International I^ibor Defense: 

William Lawrence, secretary. New York district 

William Patterson, national secretary 

William Fitzgerald, organizer, Harlem section 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3169 

Workers International Relief : 

Pauline Rogers, New York City secretary 

Alfred Wagenknecht, national secretary 
Friends of the Soviet Union : B. Friedman, secretary 
Anti-Imperialist League : 

William Simons, national secretary 

John Bruno, secretary, New York. 
Anti-Imperialist Alliance : Y. Y. Hsu, national secretary 
AVorkers Ex-Servicemen's League : 

Harold Hiekersou, national secretary 

Joseph Singer, secretary, city committee 

Emanuel Levin, national chairman 

P. Cashione 
Council of Working Class Women : 

Clara Bodian, secretary 

Clara Shavelson, educational director 

Sarah Licht, organizer-secretary 
Labor Sports Union : Mack Gordon, secretary, New York district 
International Workers Order : 

Max Bedacht, national secretary, Jewish section 

Harry Schiller, New York City secretary 
Sadie Doroshkin, secretary city central 
Russian Mutual Aid : Joseph Soltan, president. New York district committee 
English Workers Clubs : 

J. Landy 

Edith Zucker 
Finnish Workers Federation 
Jewish City Club Committee : 

Abraham Laschowitzky, secretary 

Harry C. Costrell, national secretary 
Icor : 

S. Almazov, national secretary 

Abraham Olkin, secretary, New York district 
John Reed Club : Moe Brogin, executive secretary 
Peu (sic) & Hammer: M. Vetch 
League of Workers Theater : 

Harry Ellon, national secretary 

Alfred Sacks, executive director 

Mr. Tavenner. "Were 5^011 the national secretary of the Marine 
Workers' Industrial Union the date of the publication of this paper, 
November 6, 1933? 

Mr. Hudson. My answer is the same as the previous one. 

Mr. Tavenner. You take the position that to admit you held the 
position of national secretary of the Marine Workers' Industrial 
Union might subject you to criminal prosecution ? 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask the witness be directed to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Velde. Yes, the question ^is a very simple one. I can see no 
way in which the answer to the question could possibly incriminate 
you. You are directed to answer the question. 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson. I understand from the press that that organization 
that was mentioned has been placed on the so-called subversive list 
by the Attorney General, and therefore I stand on the fifth amend- 
ment and refuse to answer the question. I will not testify against 
myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I did not want to speak on the 
matter without refreshing my recollection. An examination of the 

41002 — 54 — pt. 2 2 



3170 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications, issued by this 
committee in 1951, does not contain a citation by any Government 
agency of the organization Marine Workers' Industrial Union. 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred witli Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Tavenner. So I again ask tlie witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Hudson. I still stand on the fifth amendment and decline to 
answer. But I read it some place in the paper somewhere. My mind 
is very distinct about it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Thomas Ray secretary of the Marine Workers' 
Industrial Union? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully ask that you direct 
the witness to answer that question. 

Mr. Velde. Yes, the Chair can see no reason 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Velde (continuing). That that would incriminate you, and 
you are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now continuing to read from the letter : 

There were other factors, but these were the basic ones, and if there is any 
petty politics in them I will eat my hat. 

Now final reasons why your recommendation is not going to be raised in the 
fraction 

1. Recommendations came from top fraction — final decisions made by P. B. — 

Does P. B. stand for politbureau of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

JNIr. Tavenner (continuing to read). 

And this year a stronger insistence that the candidates not become public 
property. 

Did that not mean that persons on the politbureau were not to be 
publicly known as members, and that that was the position that you 
took at that time ? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing to read). 

A very few people know who they are — incidentally you should not have been 
informed — and I had hell raised with me already because people knew who 
shouldn't. Therefore to raise it in the fraction would be incorrect. 

"Wliy all the secrecy about this matter ? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Can counsel define further for the record a "fraction" 
at this time ? 

Mr. Velde. I think it was defined by our witness yesterday, Mr. 
Rosser, but the Chair would appreciate it. 

Mr. Tavenner. That very question was asked the witness yester- 
day, a person who had been a high functionary in the Young Com- 
munist League, Mr. Lou Rosser, and he defined "fraction" as being 
a group of representatives in an industry who were members of the 
Communist Party and met on the Communist Party level to consider 
Communist Party affairs within that particular industry or unit. 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3171 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing to read) . 

2. Fraction meeting — and Buro have been held — and no one has raised any 
objections and agreed with the formal "proposal" for his temporary leave. 

Does that not indicate that the matter of George Mink's leave and 
his assignment to a place other than the west coast had been passed 
upon by the politbureau of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I continue to read : 

I have other ideas on the whole subject — but I believe the above make it clear 
why I take the stand I do and I hope you will understand them and the spirit I 
make them — even though there might be some sharp criticism. I still insist that 
the decision was a correct one and that you have no basis upon which to raise 
serious objections. However, if you are still of the same opinion, then you 
should and must raise them directly with the center. But under no circum- 
stances is the question of where George is at to be raised with anyone on the 
coast. 

What reason was there for the Communist Party to conceal from the 
rank and file labor-union members on the coast or even Communist 
Party members the fact that George Mink was being assigned to some 
particular process ? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer as the previous stand on the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. And on the same grounds ? 

Mr. Hudson. Fifth amendment, won't be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing to read) : 

Well, guess that's all. I have expressed myself rather honestly in order to 
clarify my stand— and hope you agree with it — but I am sure that any sharpness 
will not be taken in an uncomradely manner. 

With best of luck and drop a line from the North. 

Fraternally yours, Hudson. 

Didn't you severely take Harry Jackson to task for questioning a 
directive of the Communist Party with regard to an assignment to 
George Mink ? 

Mr. Hudson. My answer is the same as the previous one. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where George Mink is now ? 

Mr. Hudson. My answer is the same as the previous one. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hudson, I hand you a second letter, photostatic 
copy of a letter, bearing date of February 5, 1934, addressed to H. 
Jackson, purportedly signed "Hudson," and I will ask you to examine 
the signature of this letter and state whether or not it is a copy of your 
signature. 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson returned to the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you examine the signature, Mr. Hudson ? 

Mr. Hudson. I did ; my answer is the same as the previous one. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer returned to the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to introduce the photostatic copy of the 
letter into evidence and ask that it be marked "Hudson Exhibit No. 4.'" 

Mr. Velde. Hudson Exhibit No. 4? 



3172 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Veli^e. Without objection it will be admitted at this point. 
(Photostat of letter addressed to H. Jackson, dated February 5, 1934,. 
was received in evidence as Hudson exhibit No. 4.) 

HUDSON EXHIBIT NO. 4 

February 5, 1934. 
H. Jackson, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Dear Comrade Jackson : Have finally time to briefly answer your letter of 
the 30th, which came during the time I was out of town. 

It sure was too bad that I did not have the material sent out by the ILA before 
we went to Washington — especially the one containing the telegram to Ryan 
insisting upon their demands for a $1 hour — if we had of had this one — or 
known about it — we would have presented it there and it would have been 
dynamite. 

Today I have already sent you a wire containing the stand of the ILA at 
the hearing. There is little to add to this — there was absolutely no word saidb 
about the demands of the west coast or of their other peculiar problems. 

In connection with mistake in connection with calling the convention — it 
seems to me that this mistake about the convention being called for the purpose- 
of electing a new executive, originated, not in Everett, but in Frisco by this- 
guy Holman. 

In view of the stand taking (sic) by the ILA at the hearings — and on the basis 
of the more or less favorable report contained in your letter regards the ILA. 
response — there should be good ground for doing things, if a real push is started. 

Yes, I'm raising hell about no articles from you — and still don't think you 
can get out of it by passing the buck to Telford. You can write and the articles 
contained in the Waterfront Worker are god damn good — and there is no reason 
why we can't get some for the Voice. 

Right now I hereby give you an assignment to write a general article reviewing; 
the whole situation, past and present, in connection with the ILA for the coming 
issue of the Voice. 

And in regards to the tecknical (sic) help — I haven't got any "it" either, 
and certainly none to spare in sending you. Consequently no steno — and haven't 
bad none for 3 or 4 months. And we have 100 times more work here — say yoa 
should see the correspondence that piled up in my absence — it makes me sick 
to look at it all. So brother, steno or no steno — do your stuff. 

Am glad to hear that you got the guy off the mudflats and down on the water- 
front. 

Just a few words very briefly about here. The code delegation was a tre- 
mendous success. We have a mass movement in Baltimore, practically control- 
ling the town (hope we maintain and consolidate it). They have now began a 
struggle there for central shipping. The Munson Line plan looks good. I just 
spoke to Baltimore long distance and they inform me that the Munsomo is out 
100 percent in favor of our demands which will be presented on a company scale 
here in New York Wednesday. Our last Buro meeting was good and made a 
number of important decisions — will not go into detail concerning them because 
the minutes will be out shortly and will be sent you. So to conclude things are 
beginning to look a little better. 

In connection with the Northwest — the reports that I receive from there are 
fairly encouraging and some progress is to be recorded. I believe that now is- 
a very opportune time for you to go up there — not only will you be able to. 
stimulate the v/ork, but also will be able to clarify some problems that are 
developing there in regard to methods of work, etc. One thing that must be 
done is put the work inside the ILA on a more definite oppositional basis, in the 
sense that it will function through the medium of the opposition group and not 
solely through the channels of our union. 

In connection with the code — I think it is clear that our task is to intensify 
all of our work, both amongst the seamen and longshoremen, around the slogans — 
smash any attempt to enforce the shipowners code — strike for the code of the 
MWIU. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3173 

Will close this letter because have a large amount of other correspondence to 
answer. 

Best of luck, 

Hudson. 

P. S. — I have received vpord from Pedro that a new fellow by the name of 
Maxon has also been drawn into activities along with Saurin (sic) and that he is 
functioning as secretary, with Saurwiu as port organizer. Do you know unything 
about this — and do you know who this bird is? 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman, may I interpose a question at this 
point ? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Hudson, what was the date of that letter? 

Mr. Tavenner. February 5, 1934. 

Mr. Moulder. On the fifth day of February 1934 did you own a 
typewriter ? 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Velde, You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Hudson. I still stand on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. There is no way that owning a typewriter that I can. 
possibly see can tend to incriminate you. You certainly are directed 
to answer that question. 

Mr. Hudson. I read about them bringing in typewriters on other 
people. I stand on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. That was a matter of evidence. I know what you are 
referring to, but the mere owning of a typewriter would not tend to 
incriminate you. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you under the apprehension that there is a type- 
writer that might be brought in in case you answered the question? 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I will not take the time to read the 
second exhibit, as I do not think it is necessary to ask any question 
based on it at this time. 

Mr. Hudson, a witness by the name of Whittaker Chambers testi- 
fied before this committee on xA.ugust 30, 1948. In the course of his 
testimony he described the method of travel that he was accustomed 
to resort to in going from New York to Washington. He was asked 
the question by Mr. Nixon, now Vice President Nixon, "Did you 
travel to and from New York and Washington with him on any oc- 
casion?" "With him" meant J. Peters. 

Mr. Chambers. Yes, I did, both by train and by car. 
Mr. Nixon. With Mr. Peters? 

Mr. Chambers. Yes, sir. The car might make an interesting aside. 
Mr. Nixon. What? 

Mr. Chambers. The car might make an interesting aside. 
Mr. NixoN. Yes. 

Mr. Chambers. There was at that time working in the Bureau of Indian 
Affairs a Hungarian girl Communist 

And Mr. Chambers described her as a person who may have lived 
at your home, and he referred to you as a maritime organizer of some 
kind, and then he continues to state, 

and it was in her car that we traveled down there together. What year that 
would be I am not quite certain, but I should think it might be in 1936 or some- 
thing like that. 



3174 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Nixon. Was it just you and Mr. Peters alone in the car? 

Mr. Chambers. No, the girl was driving. I don't remember her name. 

Mr. NixoN. She drove the car? 

Mr. Chambers. I believe she was assistant to Mr. Collier. 

Can you identify the girl referred to by Mr. Chambers in that 
testimony ? 

Mr. Hudson. My answer is the same as the previous one. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hudson, I present to you photostatic copies of 
excerpts taken from the Party Organizer, a publication issued by the 
Communist Party, the issue being for May-June 1934, in which the 
article referred to is the Work of the Marine Union by Roy Hudson. 
I will ask you if you wrote that article and submitted it for publi- 
cation. 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson, Without reading it thoroughly my answer is the same 
as the previous one. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I again ask that the witness be di- 
rected to answer that question, whether he wrote the article in this 
book entitled the Work of the Marine Union. How can that possibly 
incriminate him? 

Mr. Velde. Yes, the Chair agrees. I don't see how it could possibly 
incriminate you, and so you are directed to answer the question, Mr. 
Hudson. 

Mr. Hudson. I stand on the fifth amendment and will not testify 
against myself. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Hudson Exhibit No. 5". 

Mr. Velde. It will be admitted without objection at this point. 

(Photostat of excerpts from the publication. Party Organizer for 
May-June 1934, was received in evidence as Hudson exhibit No. 5.) 

HUDSON EXHIBIT NO. 5 

[From the Party Organizer, May-June 1934, pp. 26-30] 

The Work of the Marine Union 

By Roy Hudson 

Fascism, war and revolutionary uprisincrs are on the order of the day. All 
of lis nocpnt these statements contained in the analysis of the ECCI and in 
Comrade Browder's report as undisputed facts. But when our comrades do 
th"ir evpryday work they say : "These thines are coming: on us maybe — but 
not now." Comrades, these facts are on us today; tomorrow they will be even 
closer upon us. 

Recently, we know every force in Cuba was mobilized to crush the revolutionary 
movement of the Cuban masses. Tn attempting to destroy the revolutionary 
organizations they aimed their main blow acainst the Cuban dock workers union 
and to dramatize their determination to smash this, the first blow was struck 
when an American ship left the Cuban port loaded with scab car^ro. 

The Cuban workers had more than a right to expect support from us. Their 
strugjrle was primarily acainst our own bos'^es here. What support did they 
get from us? It is true that on this ship in Havana members of our union 
succeeded in mobilizins; the seamen to refuse to unload the carffo. Tn New 
York we made feeble attempts to stop the unloadini?. The situation found us — 
the Communist Party, particularly in New York — orsranizationally weak, and 
slow politically in reacting to the situation, in realizing our responsibility and 
tasks. But here, riffbt on the order of the day, was a revolutionary situation 
where the masses were in motion, where we had concrete immediate tasks to 
support the Cuban workers who were moving forward toward the seizure of power, 
and struggling primarily against American imperialism. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3175 

Our comrades in the trade unions and in the party itself were not up to this 
situation. We were not prepared to act in a truly Bolshevik manner. We 
cannot be satisfied with some of the improvements in our work, in our small 
successes among the basic workers of the American working class. 

MASS AND NATIONAL STRUGGLE LED BY UNION 

This is true of what we have accomplished in the marine industry. We can 
say that in the period since the extraordinary conference there have been a num- 
ber of struggles of seamen and longshoremen led by our party — a mass campaign 
carried on against the NRA. We have seen the organized growth of the MWIU. 
Bringing the marine workers into the party has improved. There has been a 
beginning of a more serious approach on the part of the party committees to the 
question of work in this basic industry. I would like to touch upon a few of the 
lessons to be drawn as a result of some of our experiences. 

First, a number of strikes have taken place aboard ship. These struggles 
are beginning to take on a mass and national character. For instance, the strike 
of 14 coal ports in Boston is an example. We have been able to initiate these 
struggles, extend them to other ports, broaden them out from individual ship 
strikes to larger mass struggles becaose [sic] we have carried on the policy of 
concentration. Our main energy was concentrated upon 1 company and 45 
ship strikes were developed out of this concentration. As a result these struggles 
have become a lever which we are now using to set the masses into action and 
winning the mass of the workers. 

GOVERNMENT FORCED TO GRANT WORKERS CONTROL OF BELIEF 

In the field of unemployment in our union — the main impetus to the growth 
of struggles was the fact that our union participated in struggles of the unem- 
ployed. Some outstanding victories have been won, especially in Baltimore. 
What are the main results? Through the proper approach of our marine union 
to the question we forced real concessions in the form of relief from the Gov- 
ernment. More than this. In Baltimore we see this : that with our organized 
power, even at this time, we succeeded in forcing tlie Government to concede 
the right of the workers to control all the relief through their elected committees. 

The next question is. Is it possible at this time for us to build the revolutionary 
unions here in the United States? I say "Yes," comrades. This experience we 
have had among the seamen especially proves it. In this war industry the bosses 
recognize and fear us and have given full support to the officials of the ISU who 
have carried on a mass campaign in connection with the NRA. Despite this, 
we have prevented them from reestablishing themselves with any kind of mass 
base in our industry. We have placed ourselves at the head of every struggle of 
seamen that has taken place. The ISU and independent unions have not been 
able to push us aside. On the contrary, it is our union, the revolutionary union 
alone which can register growth amongst the seamen on the basis of the struggle 
against the NRA. This does not mean that we have exposed or isolated the 
fakers. On the contrary, they are still the main danger, but we have some suc- 
cesses. We have the initiative and our perspective here among the seamen must 
be to prevent the establishment of the ISU or independent unions, to win the 
masses of seamen from the revolutionary union. 

I think it is important to point out that we were able to conduct a successful 
struggle against the reformists because we are a national union and we have 
carried on a uniform fight in the principal ports of the United States. Another 
lesson that we must drill into the consciousness of all coastland districts is that 
a strike in the marine industry cannot be confined to one port. We must mobilize 
all the forces in various ports. The weakness of the Boston coal boat strike was 
precisely because the party was not conscious of this. We were not able to coordi- 
nate our work effectively in Norfolk by bringing the coal trimmers into action. 

OPPOSITION WORK IN REFORMIST UNIONS 

Not only have we made some headway in building our union as a revolutionary 
union. There have been some successes in developing an opposition movement. 
At the code hearings in Washington our union presented a statement defending 
the right of these workers, 12,000 of them, to organize into the ILA, protesting 
against a ruling of the NRA, and demanding the recognition of the union that 
the masses had gone into, the ILA. The officials who were present did not take 
any stand upon these matters. When the workers learned of our stand in 



3176 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

fighting for their rights, for the right of their organization to be recognized, 
what was the result. The result was that we won their confidence, that the 
opposition movement which we had built up over a period of time received 
a tremendous impetus. At one of the meetings, where they read the minutes, 
a proposal was made by a rank and file worker that they should give the 
$200 which they were going to give to some shyster lawyer, to the Red union, 
because we fought in their interest. As a result of adopting this correct position 
toward those workers inside the reformist union, our opposition movement de- 
veloped. We forced the calling of a rank and file convention. At this convention 
our whole program, including refusal to load ships flying the Nazi flag was 
adopted. 

There has been during this period some mobilization of the party apparatus 
of the mass organizations for support of winning the workers in the basic 
industries. I can cite some examples in this respect. Members of the needle 
trades attended our convention and they voluntarily decided as a part of the 
revolutionary working class they would assume some responsibility toward 
help extending the influence of the revolutionary movement where we were 
weakest. They pledged $25 a month to the Marine Workers Voice and kept 
this pledge. It is my opinion that we have many lessons to learn from the 
needle trades, and I say this is one example many other sections of the revolu- 
tionary movement could follow to good example. For instance. New Orleans 
which is a forgotten outpost of the revolutionary movement. We could make 
headway much faster if some sections who are stronger would realize the impor- 
tance of this work and undertake to support it. 

These are the signs showing the possibilities we have. They are fruits of an 
attempt to apply the open letter. But we have just scratched the surface. 

What things hold us up? We don't go ahead fast enough. 

Let us take the west coast. It is true we have established ourselves at the 
head of the fishermen and loggers, an agricultural union. These are tremendously 
important. But marine out there is still the basic task. What is happening 
there? While we captiired the agricultural workers 1,200 longshoremen joined 
the ILA. It does not help to say we are beginning to do opposition work there. 
If there had been a real orientation, if the pai*ty had mobilized its forces and 
given more guidance to marine, we would be more in the leadership, we would 
have organizational control of the longshoremen, who at one time refused to load 
munition against the Soviet Union. 

In New York there is a jieculiar problem. We cannot criticize New York as 
elsewhere because here there has been a more serious attempt to solve some of 
the problems, to work out a plan of action and mobilize the party forces. Let 
us just look at some of the things done in New York recently since the party 
conference. These are things we have been talking about for years. Some of 
the proposals just being put into effect, they were made so long ago and nothing 
done about them, that I forgot them all. It took so long to get arovmd to them. 
Such hesitation, such slowness, and even unwillingness to completely utilize all 
of our resources for realizing our concentration task. What New York needs 
now more than anything else is maybe an open letter on Bolshevik tempo. 

"we have the forces, we can go foewaed" 

Comrades, I say that this convention proves one thing: That the party is 
beginning to have an understanding of the open letter, has begun to learn how to 
apply it, is beginning to have results, and the result for one thing is, that we 
now have such a convention that has never taken place before in the history of 
the party. This convention shows us that the task can be done, that we are 
learning how. But we have been slow. Out of this convention must come the 
determination, grown out of the fact that it is possible for us to realize the 
tasks we set ourselves, that we are going to accomplish these things at the 
rate of 100 percent faster than in the past period. 

We have the policy, we have the experience, we have the forces. These forces 
are to be seen at this convention. I say, with this experience behind the line 
of the party presented to the convention by Comrade Browder, with Comrade 
Browder leading us, I say we can go forward to win the masses of workers of 
America, to go forward toward a Soviet America. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you another issue of the same publication 
for the month of August 1937 wherein appears an article entitled 
"Building the Party in Marine" by Roy Hudson, and I will ask you 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3177 

whether or not you were the author of that article and submitted it 
for publication? 

Mr. Hudson. My answer is the same as the previous one. 

Mr. Tavenner. 'I devsire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
it be marked "Hudson Exhibit No. 6." 

Mr. Velde. Without objection it will be admitted at this point. 

(Photostat of excerpts from the Party Organizer for August 1937 
was received in evidence as Hudson exhibit No. 6.) 

HUDSON EXHIBIT NO. 6 

[From Party Organizer, August 1937, pp. 6-12] 

Building the Party in Marine 

(By Roy Hudson) 

I wish to deal with some of our experiences in the marine industry in rela- 
tion to the present problems of the building and functioning of the party. The 
solution of these questions, in my opinion, is decisive in determining whether or 
not we will continue to give leadership to the masses. 

Today, in the marine industry, the militancy of the workers is high, the con- 
sciousness of their strength is increasing. Powerful unions have been estab- 
lished which, generally, have a wide degree of democracy. There is mass 
sentiment for and support of militant policies, progressive measures, and for 
the C. I. O. In this generally favorable situation, our party members have a 
chance to worli with tens of thousands of workers. We are an influence in 
determining policies. Large numbers of seamen, longshoremen, and other 
workers from the industry have joined the party in various ports from coast 
to coast. 

ACTIVIZINQ CUE PARTY MEMBERS 

How are we going to activize our party members, increase our influence, and 
build the party? The leadership of our party, the entire membership, in fact, 
must first of all understand more clearly than we do now what our tasks are in 
the present situation. Masses are in motion, fundamental changes are taking 
place, but all forces of labor of a progressive character are not yet utilizing their 
full strength to rally great masses of the people to combat and defeat reaction in 
this country, are not yet the backbone of the peace movement, and so forth. 

We Communists know that the masses cannot consolidate their present gains, 
increase their strength and continue to march forward unless their support for 
these questions is won, and unless out of the struggle for such issues there 
emerges a movement that will unite all the forces of labor, progressive and 
democratic, in this country. 

What is clear to us must be made clear to the masses. That is our task. We 
cannot influence the great movement of the people, we cannot give leadership 
solely through improving and strengthening our work within the mass organiza- 
tions of the people. We must also learn how to develop more the independent 
activities of the party, to establish the legality and citizenship of the party, as 
Comrade Browder put it. 

Because of our weakness in this respect, I say that the development of our 
independent activities is the key to the question at the present time, not only 
for the correct functioning of the party organization, for increased recruitment 
into the party, but for finally establishing leadership of our party among the 
masses. This is one of the conclusions we have come to in marine in tackling 
the problem of how to improve the life of our units and increase the effectiveness 
of our work. 

OUR party's work to aid SPAIN 

Let us take one example, the campaign for Spain. Up until a short time ago, 
Spain had not been made an issue among the masses in marine. We finally 
decided to raise the question, and let the party directly take the initiative. 
Through our party unit we got out a pamphlet ; we issued a number of leaflets 
in the name of the party, telling the marine workers concretely what they 
could do. We started a campaign openly in the name of the party. We tied up 
this work especially with the activities of our individual comrades on the 
docks, on the ships, and among the unemployed. 



3178 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

What results can we report? Take New York. Remember, the masses of 
the workers, and particularly the seamen, knew it was the party that took the 
initiative in raising this question. The union has now taken official action, 
has established an oflBcial seamen's committee in support of Spain. Large 
numbers of ships are taking up collections of funds. And if you will read the 
Daily Worker, next to the I. W. O. in New York, the seamen's union is leading 
in the collection of funds for Spain. Nearly every other seaman on the water- 
front is wearing a Lincoln Battalion button at this time. 

Among the longshoremen, where our movement is weakest, where the fear 
of intimidation exists, here it is very difficult to work; nevertheless, substantial 
sums of money are being collected. 

nEVELOPING INDEPENDENT ACTmTY 

In developing our independent activity it seems to me that agitation and 
propaganda will be of tremendous importance. To a certain extent the Daily 
Worker has been one of our main means of popularizing the role of the party 
among the maritime workers. This can be reflected in a number of places, at 
least in the East, where on nearly every major problem that has confronted 
the workers in the industry, the party had made clear its position in the Daily 
Worker, which in the struggle has been pretty well distributed and accepted 
by the workers. As a result of this systematic presentation of the party's 
policies on major questions, the party has established quite an authoritative 
position among large sections of the seamen. 

Take an example in connection with the recent change here in establishing 
the new union. A ship came in on the Pacific coast whose men couldn't under- 
stand the change which seemed to have happened overnight. The information 
they got from the union members thore did not convince them. One of the 
Avorkers on the ship, a nonparty worker, happened to get hold of the Daily 
Worker, in which there was an article explaining the policy. He took the 
article aboard the ship, where others read it and the policy was cleared up. 

Or take the example of a statement made b.v one of the workers in the union 
who is not too friendly toward the Communists, who occasionally Red-baits. 
When the men were confronted with diflSculty and a complicated situation in 
which the workers were uncertain because they weren't clear on policy, this 
worker made a remark, "It's time the Daily Worker came out with an article 
telling us what it is all about and what we should do." Large sef'tions of 
workers are beginning to look towards the party for some explanation of the 
policies confronting them. 

On the other hand, while we can report in strikes and struggles a real utiliza- 
tion of the Daily Worker and mass distribution of it, systematic efforts to build 
the Daily Worker do not exist. The fact that there is not a mass sale of the 
Daily Worker upon the waterfront is due mainly to neglect of this point. We 
must convince our comrades that we can establish the party among the workers 
openly. 

For example, about 8 or 9 months ago we had a situation in New York where 
the rank and file came into control of one of the unions. The workers elected 
new officials, among whom were some Communists. These had been active 
as Communists on the waterfront for years before the elections. Wliat was 
the first thing that happened after they were elected? Some of them came 
forward with the idea that a separate unit of officials only should he organized 
so as not to be exposed. We did not accept this proposal. We said that for 
us the time is past when, in order to maintain our position, we have to hide; 
the time has arrived when we are able to maintain our position only on the 
basis of establishing the right of the Communists to function in the union and 
to occupy posts when elected by the workers. For the Communists have no 
interests separate from those of the workers. The Communists have been in 
the forefront in efforts to strengthen and build the unions of the marine workers. 

The comrades remained in the unit and we recruited many new members. 
Strange to say, these comrades are not on the spot. With the help of the new 
members they are being more effective in their woi-k. 

ESTABLISHING THE LEGALITY OF OITR PARTY 

We have got to convince our comrades on two points. First of all, wh?n 
the work reaches a certain stage in the union, we must establish the "legality" 
of the party — the right of the Communists not alone to belong to the imions, 
but to hold positions. This is the most effective means of preventing the Red 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3179 

scare from arising, and of defeating it when it does arise. We must show our 
comrades that after a certain period, concealing our identity deliberately breeds 
distrust among workers. They cannot xniderstand wliy we are ashamed ; why 
we hide the fact that we are Communists. This makes it possible for the 
reactionaries to raise the Red scare and conduct a campaign against us. But 
once we establish the fact that we are Communists, especially through leading 
people who have previously shown fighting ability and have prestige among 
the workers because of their activity in building the union, we don't have to 
take a negative position but can take the offensive. 

Secondly, we have got to convince our comrades tliat only through the party 
taking the initiative on many questions, systematically coming forward as 
an organization, will we be able to win the workers on many important issues 
and thus improve the work of our comrades in strengthening the union. 

Let us take one example. A few weeks ago in New York a small ship with 
three comrades aboard held an open meeting on the ship which most of the 
crew who are not Communists attended. A discussion was held on the ship 
regarding the party and as a result of the discussion three of the members 
of the crew were recruited. 

Comrades, when we begin to see even isolated cases like this, it is important 
for us. It shows that our party members on the job felt that they had the 
confidence of the workers who were not Communists and knew that the workers 
had the strength in their union to give them protection. They were not afraid 
to come forward. Furthermore, all of these comrades had joined the party 
in recent months and were proud of the fact. Tliey were convinced they had 
the right to belong to the party ; they wanted to bring the party forward and 
show the party to the workers. The new comrades are showing more initiative 
in bringing forward the party. They avoid antagonizing tlie workers, and 
increase our influence. 

BECRUITING 

I want to deal now with recruiting and the functioning of the units. One 
of our units which had not been functioning proi)erly during the last few months 
began to function better as a result of developing independent activity. We 
then decided to strengthen the leadership of the unit and to give it a plan of 
action. Too often we come before workers with general tasks, with nothing 
specific. When we come to them with specific proposals the unit can become 
active in establishing leadership. Then we considered establishing more democ- 
racy in the unit. My opinion is that aside from the question of proper people 
to lead units and more clarity as to our tasks, the next thing is democracy, 
greater democracy, in the unit. I know that in the unit I belong to, the election 
of an organizer was rather formal. Until recently we did not even bother to 
elect an auditing committee to go over the finances of the unit and we did not 
bring the financial problems of the unit before the membership. We have begun 
to do this now and can note some change. 

The party, for the first time, is beginning to establish itself on the job as a re- 
sult of the work of the Communists on the ships. On 1 passenger ship a unit of 
about 6 people recruited 10 new members. On another large passenger ship a 
party unit of 2 or 3 people has grown to 16. A number of the people recruited 
into the party are a direct result of our work on the ships by the comrades who 
are on the job. 

During the strike in New York among the seamen we recruited between 250 
and .300 new people into the party. Following the strike some dropped out in the 
first month, but during the following 3 months 50 new members were recruited 
by the seamen, with a steady increase each month. 

Who are recruiting these people? The rank and filers are the main forces 
who are recruiting at this time, but leading comrades also participate. The 
Negro comrades, in the past 4 or 5 months, have shown the most initiative in 
recruiting. Eight or 9 months ago the seamen in New York had only 1 Negro 
comrade in the party ; now we have 40. 

During the strike we had open unit meetings a number of times. Sometimes 
we had as many as five or six hundred seamen at these meetings. Party lead- 
ers would speak on the program of the party. At these open unit meetiuTs lead- 
ers of the strike would act as chairmen. We not only recruited people, but the 
Red scare wasn't raised on the waterfront. 

On the question of education and training of forces. I want to speak about 
the idea of orgnnizing training schools on an industrial basis. Following the 
strike here we had a 3-week marine school, to which we sent the most capable 



3180 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

people who were in the strike. We found that it enabled us to teach these com- 
rades more effectively, to get more results. In the future, I think that we 
should not only have these schools in marine, but in steel, auto and other 
industries. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a tliird and last article from the same 
publication, the issue being that of May 1938, and the article is en- 
titled "Work Among the Masses, a discussion on fractions," by Koy 
Hudson. Will you please state whether or not you were the author 
of the article and whether you submitted it for publication ? 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson. My answer is the same as the previous one. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
it be marked "Hudson Exhibit No. 7." 

Mr. Velde. Without objection it will be so admitted. 

(Photostat of excerpts from the Party Organizer for May 1938 was 
received in evidence as Hudson exhibit No. 7.) 

HUDSON EXHIBIT NO. 7 

[From Party Organizer, May 1938, pp. 10-13] 

Work Among the Masses 

a discussion on fractions 

(By Roy Hudson) 

The increased influence and strength of the party, as well as the growth of the 
general projrressive movement, necessitate that we adjust our methods of work 
to the conditions which confront us. In doing so we take into account the 
changes in the mass organizations in the direction of a more progressive and 
democratic character, as well as our relationship not only to the masses in these 
organizations, but to the progressive sections of the leadership. 

At the Party Builders Congress, Comrade Stachel, speaking of our work in 
trade unions and mass organizations, emphasized the need for a complete change 
in our fraction system and pointed out that we were already on the road to 
abolishing the party general fractions. 

What are the reasons for these changes? Will it lead to strengthening or 
weakening our work, and how will we be able to establish the influence of the 
party over wider sections of the working class movement? These are questions 
that will require examination and clarification at the coming convention. 

These steps do not mean changing our fundamental policies. The policy of 
the party has always been and remains that of helping to build and strengthen 
the mass organizations of the workers and people and to help realize the aims 
and purposes of these organizations. By exercising the same rights as other 
members. Communists always attempt to secure the adoption of policies that 
will most effectively enable the membership to advance and protect their interests ; 
and at the same time have the duty of supporting and fighting for those policies 
democratically arrived at and approved by the membership. Thus, the changes 
proposed do not mean revision of fundamental policies, but adjustment of 
methods in the light of changing conditions. 

FACTORS INFLUENCING OUR CHANGE 

What then are some of the factors that infiuence our whole approach to the 
problem ? 

First, the question of our work in fields under the influence of progressive 
policies, in which there is considerable democracy, and where the Communists 
are being accepted on a wider scale as part of the progressive movement and 
where in a number of cases we have established our "citizenship." Surely, here 
we must endeavor to influence the policies of these organizations in collabora- 
tion with all other progressive forces through the correctness of our arguments, 
and through exercising those rights guaranteed to every member — that of par- 
ticipating in shaping policies and determining leadership, through the exercise of 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3181 

democratic processes. In such circumstances, it would be harmful to carry over 
methods of work that were and are correct in organizations where reactionary 
bureaucrats use their usurped power to prevent democratic participation of the 
workers in the affairs of an organization. 

Organized fraction work, which under certain conditions serves to rally all 
scattered progressive forces and strengthen the fight for democracy and progres- 
sive policies, would, under different circumstances, build an artical [sic] bar- 
rier between the Communists and nonparty workers and seriously hinder the 
cooperation of all progressive forces. 

Let us see how the growth of the party affects this problem. Not only is our 
party a united party, whose membership can be relied upon to fight for its gen- 
eral policies, but the party is no longer the weak force it was a few years ago. 
We have cases, which unfortunately are not yet characteristic of the party's 
strength everywhere, where as many as seven or eight hundred Communists be- 
long to a given mass organization in one locality. That such organizations are 
democratic and progressive goes without saying: otherwise there would be 
something wrong with the Communists who are members of it. 

Here, the holding of general fraction meetings to discuss problems coming 
before the union is bound to create the feeling among nonparty workers that we 
have no confidence in them, that we are trying mechanically to influence and 
control the policies of the organization. Also, it contributes to an unhealthy 
atmosphere in the organization, in as much as it discourages the widest possible 
exchange of opinion at the meetings of the organization and the drawing in of 
the largest possible sections of membership into discussing the problems before 
their organization. 

Such a situation would inevitably breed distrust agains the Communists. The 
changes in our methods of work are a concession to this distrust, aimed at 
improving the relationship between the party and the masses, but a concession 
which will not weaken the activities of the party or the masses. 

EESPONSIBILITY OF COMMUNISTS IN MASS ORGANIZATIONS 

As for Communists who have been elected into the leadership by the members 
of the organization to which they belong, surely, the prestige of such Com- 
munists, and the confidence of the workers, would not be deserved if their 
authority and leadership were not won and maintained as a result of their own 
individual activities and ability to help the masses to arrive at correct decisions, 
as well as their direct responsibilty to the rank and file. 

If we are to lead, not through organized fraction work, but through greater 
Communist understanding, responsibility and work, then there will have to be 
greater emphasis upon individual responsibilitif, ability and knowledge. Every 
Communist will have to acquire a better understanding of the general policies 
and tactics of the party, of the teachings of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. 
Only if we are armed in this manner will the Communists be able even more 
effectively to help the masses, among whom we are working and whose problems 
we know, to arrive at correct answers to the immediate problems confronting 
them and systematically to win them for greater support of the policies of our 
party. It will also mean that the work of each comrade will be subject to 
a more critical review by the party and a consequent higher degree of discipline 
and Communist responsibility. 

Carrying through these changes will attach even greater importance to the 
work of shop, industrial and branch vmits, as the medium not only of develop- 
ing- the independent activities of the party, but as a most important center for 
arming our forces with the policies of the party. Greater stress will have to be 
laid upon regular attendance at unit meetings, upon improving the political life 
and the functioning of the lower party organizations through the more active 
participation of leading comrades. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Cliairman, I should like the record to show that 
in each instance the documents in question, the articles in question, 
were examined by the witness and by his attorney. 

Mr. Velde. The record will so state. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I shall not attempt to base ques- 
tions on these articles because of the shortness of time. I may want 
to refer to them at another time. 

Mr. Hudson, what is your present occupation ? 



3182 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Hudson. At present I am unemployed. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your last occupation? 

Mr. Hudson. Working- as a house painter. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been working as a house 
painter? 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson. A few years. 

Mr. Tavenner. What years ? 

Mr. Hudson. Well, I started working originally, as I recall it, in 
the trade about 1930. 

Mr. Tavenner. What time? 

INIr. Hudson. About 1930. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period of time were you regularly em- 
ployed in that work? 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you take up your residence in San 
Francisco? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that the Chair direct the witness to answer 
when he took up his residence in San Francisco ; I mean, it is getting 
silly. 

Mr. Velde. Absolutely; there is no reason why you should not 
answer that question. It couldn't possibly incriminate you. You 
are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think it is a nice town. 

Mr. Velde. Upon direction do you still refuse to answer? 

Mr. Hudson. Still refuse. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hudson, were you assigned by the Communist 
Party to the west coast in 1950 as the coast labor coordinator? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer as the previous one. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, although assigned to that posi- 
tion, yon were never able to actually serve in that capacity because 
of internal disputes within the Communist Party; isn't that true? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer as the previous one. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been unemployed ? 

Mi\ Hudson. About 2 weeks. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Hudson, have you ever resided in New York 
City? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer as the previous one. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you ever been employed in New York City ? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer as the previous one. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you ever lived in Chicago ? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer as the previous one. 

Mr. Jackson. I ask that the witness be directed to answer. 

Mr. Velde. You are directed to answer the question, Mr. Hudson, 

Mr. Hudson. I stand on the fifth amendment and refuse to testify 
against myself. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you ever been employed in Chicago? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Velde. You are directed to answer the question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3183 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I should like directions on all of these 
questions that I am asking. Have you ever resided in Detroit? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer as the previous one. 

Mr. Velde. You are directed to answer that question. 

]\Ir. Hudson. I stand on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you ever resided in Los Angeles? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Velde. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Hudson. Same as the previous answer. 

Mr. Jackson Have you ever resided in San Francisco? 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hudson. I really think that — is that a serious question? 

Mr. Jackson. That is a very serious question, Mr. Hudson ; it may 
develop to be quite a serious matter. 

Mr. Hudson. I have already answered it. 

Mr. Jackson. Will you answer it again, please? 

Mr, Hudson. I have. 

Mr. Jackson. You have resided in San Francisco? 

Mr. Hudson. I have. 

Mr. Jackson. Have you ever resided in Washington, D. C? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Jackson. Were you ever employed in any capacity in Wash- 
ington, D. C. ? 

Mr. Hudson. Same answer. 

Mr. Jackson. Are you here in response to a subpena? 

Mr. Hudson. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. When was the subpena delivered to you ? 

Mr. Hudson. Two or three weeks ago. I couldn't tell you the 
exact date. 

Mr. Jackson. Where was the subpena delivered to you ? 

Mr. Hudson. My home. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you receive it personally ? 

Mr. Hudson. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Counsel asked you the question as to whether 
or not you were a functionary, or ever had been, of the Communist 
Party. I want to ask a question whether or not you are now or ever 
have been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hudson. I stand on the fifth Amendment and refuse to testify 
against myself. 

Mr. Moulder. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. DoYLE. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Hudson, you have undoubtedly been a high func- 
tionary in the Communist Party. We are ascertaining from previous 
hearings that the Communist Party worked with Soviet Russia 
through the Soviet Embassies and consulates to give some of our 
scientific secrets to Soviet Russia. Have you ever participated in 
an espionage plot against the United States? 

(At this point Mr. Hudson conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 



3184 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Hudson. I refuse to answer on the same basis as previous 
answers. 

Mr. Velde. Is there any reason why this witness should be further 
retained, Mr. Counsel '^ 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Velde. If not, the witness is dismissed. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. John W. Mass. 

Mr. VeIjDE. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the 
■whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Mass. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN W. MASS, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Mass. John W. Mass. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Mass. I am, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Speiser. Lawrence Speiser, and I am the staif counsel of the 
American Civil Liberties Union, 503 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Mass ? 

Mr. Mass. In Chicago, December 24, 1911. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Mass. In Walnut Creek, Calif. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in California ? 

Mr. Mass. Since 1939 except for 3^ years in the service during the 
war. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live prior to 1939 ? 

Mr. Mass. Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your edu- 
cational training has been ? 

Mr. Mass. Parochial and public grammar school, public high 
school, public junior college in Chicago, a junior year at the University 
of Chicago, a senior year and a year and a half of graduate work at 
the University of California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you complete your graduate work at the 
University of California? 

Mr. Mass. In 1942. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your record 
of employment has been since the completion of your service in the 
Army? 

Mr. Mass. I have had a semester as junior high school teacher in 
Richmond, Calif. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat year? 

Mr. Mass. 1946, 1946. For a while, part time in an insurance office 
here in San FranciscOj probably 1947, and then since the fall of 1947 
to the present at the City College of San Francisco. 

Mr. Tavenner. From 1947 until the present time ? 

Mr. Mass. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. At what institution? 

Mr, Mass. The City College of San Francisco. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3185 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did you have any other employment during the 
period from 1947 until the present time? 

Mr. Mass. As well as I can recall there was simply some incidental 
aid on the writing of school papers, perhaps; perhaps an editing job 
on a master's thesis occasionally and so on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any other teaching experience between 
1947 and the present time other than that which you have mentioned? 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question, please ? 

Mr. Mass. I refuse to answer the question on the basis of the fifth 
amendment which provides that no person shall be compelled to be a 
witness against himself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you engage in any form of teaching during the 
year 1948 ? 

Mr. Mass. My answer 

Mr. Tavenner. Of which you have not advised the committee? 

Mr. Mass. My answer is the same as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the year 1949 ? 

Mr. Mass. My answer is the same as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1950? 

Mr. Mass. My answer is the same as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you engaged in teaching since 1950 in any 
school or in any group or in any institutions as to which you have not 
already advised us ? 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Mass. May I have the date again, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you taught at any time since 1950 ? 

Mr. Mass. Since 1950 ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Since 1950. I think I see what is perplexing you. 
Have you engaged in any teaching since October 19, 1950, which you 
have not advised the committee about in your former testimony ? 

Mr. Mass. Not as I can recall, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you engaged in any teaching between the 1st 
day of January 1950 and the 19th day of October 1950 about which you 
have not advised the committee ? 

Mr. Mass. I refuse to answer on the same basis as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Mass, the committee is in receipt of information 
which would indicate that you have a knowledge of Communist Party 
activities in this area. I am anxious to know whether your knowledge 
goes to the question of the existence of Communist Party activities 
within the teaching professon. Do you have any knowledge of Com- 
munist Party activities within the teaching profession? If you do, 
we want to know about it. 

Mr. Mass. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment as 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now consider that it is your duty to advise 
this committee regarding any knowledge you may have regarding the 
existence of Communist Party teachers that you may know about? 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Mass. I refuse to answer on the same basis as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you aware of the Communist Party purposes 
in organizing cells or groups of the Communist Party within the 
teaching profession? 

41002 — 54^pt. 2 3 



3186 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Mass. I refuse to answer on the same basis as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period in which you have been engaged 
as a teacher have you been affiliated in any way with the American 
Federation of Teachers? 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Mass. Yes, sir; I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you observe, while a member of that organiza- 
tion, that any effort was made by the Communist Party to capl ure it 
or to exert influence and control over it in the conduct of its affairs? 

Mr. Mass. Again I refuse to answer on the same basis as previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you read the testimony of the first witness that 
the committee heard in the field of education, Dr. Robert Gorham 
Davis, taken on February 25, 1953 ? 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Mass. No, sir ; I haven't. 

Mr, Tavenner. Well, in his testimony and in the testimony of many 
other patriotic teachers who were deceived in entering into the Com- 
munist Party, it was testified that the Communist Party had as one of 
its main objectives the capture of that organization. The committee 
has endeavored to find out to what extent that has been true in various 
sections of the country. Not only was it true at Harvard, and not 
only was it true at Yale, and not only has it been true in southern 
California, but we would like to ask you to tell this committee whether 
or not it was true here. 

Mr. Mass. I refuse to answer again on the basis as I have previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. And I may say, in behalf of that organization, that 
when it discovered wliat the purpose of the Communist Party was, it 
reorganized, and I do not mean to cast any reflection on the organiza- 
tion as such today, but it is important for this committee to know the 
workings of the Communist Party and the insidious means by which 
it endeavors to advance its principles through propaganda. 

Now, will you help us ? 

Mr. Mass. Again I choose not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a photostatic copy of an oath 
allegedly taken by you on the 19th day of October which is the oath 
of allegiance required by the San Francisco Unified School District. 
Will you examine it and state whether or not it is a copy of your 
signature? 

Mr. Mass. Again I refuse to answer on the basis that in doing so 
I would be simply testifying against myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Mass Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Velde. Without objection it will be so admitted. 

(Photostat of oath of allegiance required by the San Francisco Uni- 
fied School District was received in evidence as Mass Exhibit No. 1.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3187 



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3188 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

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COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3189 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like to read the oath. 

San Francisco Unified School District — Oath of Allegiance. 

I, John W. Mass, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend 
the Constitution of the United States and the constitution of the State of Cali- 
fornia against all enemies, foreign and domestic ; that I will bear true faith and 
allegiance to the Constitution of the United States and the constitution of the 
State of California; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental 
reservation or purpose of evasion ; and that I will well and faithfully discharge 
the duties upon which I am about to enter. 

And I do further swear (or affirm) that I do not advocate, nor am I a member 
of any party or organization, political or otherwise, that now advocates the over- 
throw of the Government of the United States or of the State of California by 
force or violence or other unlawful means ; that within the 5 years immediately 
preceding the taking of this oath (or affirmation) I have not been a member of 
any party or organization, political or otherwise, that advocated the overthrow 
of the Government of the United States or of the State of California by force or 
violence or other unlawful means except as follows : . 

And the exception is written in handwriting in ink : 

To the best of my knowledge and belief, no exceptions [over]. 

And on the back appears in ink in handwriting : 

Since it has been alleged by certain persons that the Communist Party and 
the California Labor School fall in the category described in the oath I am now 
taking, I feel compelled to state that I had been a member of the Communist 
Party from the fall of 1947 to the fall of 1949 and of the California Labor 
School from the fall of 1946 to the summer of 1950. However, I am definitely 
no longer connected with either of the above groups. Finally, at no time was 
I aware of nor did I hear of any person or group within these two organizations 
advocating either the overthrow of the Government by force or any other ac- 
tivity described in the oath. 

John W. Mass. 

Written before me this 19th day of October, 1950 

O. E. Anderson. 

'V\^iy haven't you been as frank with the committee as you were 
with the school authorities with regard to your knowledge of Com- 
munist Party activities in your field ? 

(At this point Mr, Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Mass. My answer is the same as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, was the statement that you made under oath 
true when you made it ? 

Mr. Mass. IVIy answer is the same as previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. As to whether he told the truth under oath, how 
could that incriminate him ? 

Mr. Velde. You are directed to answer the question. 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Mass. Again I refuse to answer the question on the same basis 
as previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer. You mean to say that if you tell this committee that 
you told the truth when you swore to that affidavit, that that would 
incriminate you ? 

Mr. Mass. My answer is the same as previously stated. 

Mr. Scherer, Then I would ask you, did you tell the truth when 
you signed that affidavit ? 

Mr. Mass. Again, sir, my answer is the same. 



3190 coMMTnsriST activities in the san francisco area 

Mr. ScHERER. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
since that date ? 

Mr. Mass. My answer is the same as previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you a member of the party today ? 

Mr. Mass. My answer is the same as previously stated. 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. No. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. Did I understand you to state your present occupa- 
tion? 

Mr. Mass. I am sorry, sir, I 

Mr. Moulder. Your present occupation. 

Mr. Mass. I am employed — I think — still at the City College of 
San Francisco. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Dotle. Professor, you stated that you were a member of the 
American Federation of Teachers, I believe, at one time. 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Mass. Yes, sir. 

Mr. DoTT.E. Were you an officer of that group ? 

Mr. Mass. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Wlien were you a member of it, during what period of 
time ? 

Mr. Mass. As well as I can recall, from about sometime in 1947 to 
the present. 

Mr. Dotle. And you are now a member of it? 

Mr. Mass. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. During the time that you have been a member of it 
have you ever been approached by any person known to you to be a 
member of the Communist Party inviting you to affiliate with the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr, Mass. Again I refuse to answer on the same basis as previously 
stated. 

Mr. Doyle. May I see that affidavit, please, Mr. Tavenner, by the 
gentleman before the school board of San Francisco ? 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask one question while you examine the affi- 
davit? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. What subjects do you teach — do I understand it to 
be the City College of 

Mr. Mass. San Francisco. 

Mr. Moulder. San Francisco ? 

Mr. Mass. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. What subjects do you teach in college? 

Mr. Mass. English and developmental reading. 

Mr. Moulder. In the teaching of those subjects does that include 
any teaching or discussion of philosophy or political science or gov- 
ernmental philosophy? 
Mr. Mass. No, sir. 
Mr. Moulder. Has it ever been discussed in your classes? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3191 

Mr. Mass. Maybe incidentally in relation to perhaps a reading or 
something, but never as a program. 

Mr. Doyle. May I renew, Mr. Chairman, my question ? 

According to your own affidavit, professor, you were a member of 
the Communist Party in the fall of 1947 to the fall of 1949 for a 
period of 2 years. Before you became a member of the Communist 
Party you read a good deal about it, didn't you, its objectives and 
purposes? You studied it before you joined it. You are an edu- 
cated man. 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Mass. My attorney advises me that this is a compound ques- 
tion. 

Mr. DoTLE. A what? 

Mr. Mass. A compound question. 

Mr. Doyle. I will make it simple. Before you joined the Com- 
mimist Party you read its principles, didn't you ? 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Doyle. Is that simple enough for you ? 

Mr. Mass. I refuse to answer again on the same basis as previously 
stated. 

Mr. Doyle. During the time you were a member of the Commu- 
nist Party, 2 years, did you read any of its platforms or declara- 
tions ? 

Mr. Mass. Again I refuse to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you subscribe to the People's Daily World or 
the Daily Worker or read any of its literature during the 2 years that 
you were a member of it ? 

Mr. Mass. Again I refuse to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Doyle. I can only draw one conclusion, and I feel that it is 
fair for me to say it to you. I can only draw one conclusion, and 
that is that when you signed this oath before the Board of Educa- 
tion of the City of San Francisco, you were covering up something. 
I am very disappointed that you, a public school teacher, should take 
the position before a committee of your own Government that you 
are in no position to help the committee know the manipulations of 
the Communist Party. 

If you were in good faith when you signed this oath before the 
school board, then there should be no compunctions on your part 
to help this committee uncover the facts with reference to the opera- 
tions of the Communist Party. In making that statement, professor, 
I just wish to call your attention that you have stated to the best of 
your knowledge and belief the Communist Party, when you were a 
member of it, did not advocate the forceful overthrow of our form 
of government. Now, if you believed that when you were a member 
of the Communist Party and when you signed this oath, why can't 
you come clean and help this committee understand how the Com- 
munist Party manipulated when you were a member of it ? 

In other words, sir, if the Communist Party, the cell of the Com- 
munist Party that you were a member of, did not advocate, so far 
as you knew, the forceful overthrow of the United States Govern- 
ment, then why don't you say so, and why don't you help this com- 
mittee in its search for the facts, to understand what the facts were. 

I am trying to be perfectly fair with you, sir; believe me, I am. I 



3192 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

am trying to be eminently fair with you. You have reserved excep- 
tion, and you have made it clear under oath that so far as you knew, 
you were not a member of any party that advocated the forceful over- 
throw of the United States. Now, having said that, why do you 
come here and refuse to help your own congressional committee get 
whatever facts you can give toward our job of legislating? 

You see what I am getting at, professor ? I am not trying to put 
you on the spot. I am just trying to help — well, I will put it to you 
this way : I am trying to put you on this sort of spot, that you may 
realize the kind of spot I am trying to put you on — the position that 
you take is that you are refusing to help your own United States con- 
gressional committee know what the facts are, even though you have 
sworn under oath that you didn't advocate the forceful overthrow nor 
did the Communist cell of which you were a member advocate the 
forceful overthrow. If it didn't, what are you afraid of ? How could 
it embarrass you ? How could it incriminate you, because, as I under- 
stand it, the violation of the law involved — if there was any — Mr. 
Counsel, is advocating the forceful and violent overthrow. That is 
the conspiracy. 

Now, if this gentleman was not a party to that, why shouldn't he 
come and help us know the facts ? 

(At this point Mr, Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser,) 

Mr, Mass. Sir, again my answer is that I do not wish to be a wit- 
ness against myself. 

Mr, Doyle, I am very sorry, sir, 

Mr. Moulder. I observe in this affidavit which counsel referred to 
as Mass Exhibit No. 1 that the handwriting referred to in his ques- 
tion states that 

Finally, at no time was I aware of nor did I hear of any person or group 
within these two organizations advocating either the overthrow of the Govern- 
ment by force or any other activity described in the oath. 

This, I believe, states that Mr. Mass did not hear nor was he aware 
of any such of the Communist Party advocating the overthrow by 
force. Now, can you answer this question, whether or not in your 
opinion now it is the objective of the Communist Party or of the Soviet 
Union to overthrow our form of government by force, if necessary ? 

(At this point Mr. Mass conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr, Mass, Sir, you are now in the realm of opinions, and I can 
merely say that again I do not wish to be a witness against myself, 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Mass, I have no questions to ask you, but I would 
like to make this observation : in my opinion any intelligent person — 
and I believe you certainly are an intelligent person — who in 1947 
became a member of the Communist Party, after having certainly 
read information put out by this committee and other committees of 
the CongTess concerning the nature of the Soviet conspiracy, the 
nature of the Communist Party conspiracy here in the United States 
must certainly be aware of the true facts or wants to give the true 
facts or is disloyal. 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Counsel, is there any reason why this witness 
should be further retained ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 



COMMUTSriST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3193 

Mr. Velde. The witness is dismissed, and the committee will stand 
in recess for 10 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 08 a. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 11 : 18 a. m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 11 : 23 a. m.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

Are you ready to proceed, Mr. Kunzig ? 

Mr. Kunzig. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Velde. Call your first witness. 

Mr. Kunzig. Dickson Hill, please step forward. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Hill. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DICKSON P. HILL 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you give your full name, please, Mr. Hill ? 

Mr. Hill. My name is Dickson P. Hill. 

Mr. Kunzig. I note that you are not accompanied by counsel. You 
understand, of course, Mr. Hill, your right to have a lawyer at your 
side if you so desire. Do you desire counsel. 

Mr. Hill. No, I don't. I am perfectly willing to give testimony as a 
service. 

Mr. Kunzig. Thank you, sir. Would you state, Mr. Hill, when and 
where you were born ? 

Mr. Hill. I was born in the State of Iowa in June of 1913. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you give the committee briefly your educational 
and occupational background ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, after leaving high school I went into the radio 
repair business, and I pretty much followed that line since that time. 
For a number of years I worked for a large company, Montgomery 
Ward Co. In fact, up until 1913, at which time I opened by own radio 
and television service shop in the Montclair district in Oakland. 

Mr. Kunzig. Is that your present occupation ? 

Mr. Hill. That is. 

Mr. Kunzig. Where do you presently reside, Mr. Hill ? 

Mr. Hill. In Oakland, in the Montclair area. 

Mr. Kunzig. Sir, this committee in the process of investigating 
Communist infiltration in and around the bay area of San Francisco 
has obtained evidence to the effect that you joined the Communist 
Party at the request of a Government agency ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Hill. That is correct, sir. ^ 

Mr. Kunzig. Would you tell the committee, sir, what Government 
agency requested you to join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. The Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Kunzig. Are we to understand then that you operated as an 
undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the FBI, 
within the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. That is correct, yes. 

Mr. Kunzig. Were you married at the time ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 



3194 COMMUNIST ACTIVrriES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. KuNZiG. Was your wife cognizant of this? 
Mr. Hill. My wife was also doing the same type of work that I had 
been doing. 

Mr. KuNziG. Your wife was also an undercover agent for the FBI 
within the Communist Party? 
Mr. Hill. That is correct, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. In what year did you become members of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. "We were contacted in the late summer or fall of 1944 
by the Bureau and asked to join or work, and we actually joined the 
party in the spring of 1945. 

Mr, KuNziG. When did you leave the party, if you have left the 
party ? 

Mr. Hill. I left the party in the fall of 1949. 

Mr. KuNziG. So that the testimony you are about to give would 
cover the period from 1944 roughly until 1949 of your own personal 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, that is correct. 
Mr. KuNziG. Do you have any children, sir ? 
Mr. Hill. Yes, sir ; I have three. 
Mr. KuNziG. What are their ages? 
Mr. Hill. Eight, thirteen, and eighteen. 

Mr. KuNziG. I think the committee would be interested in knowing 
something you have discussed with me. Did your children know of 
your activity within the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. No, they didn't. I am very much surprised. Naturally, 
when my wife went east in the spring to testify in Pittsburgh, and the 
first knowledge of it they had was when they picked up the evening 
paper and saw her picture. 

Mr. KuNziG. They never had any idea at any time that you were 
leading these dual lives, so to speak ? 
Mr. Hill. No, they didn't. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is it correct, sir, that you have never testified before? 
This is the first time that the testimony you are giving here today has 
ever been given by you ? 

Mr. Hill. That is correct ; yes. 

Mr. KuNZTG. We don't wish to go into any great detail, Mr. Hill, 
concerning the methods employed by you and your wife in joining the 
Communist Party for the FBI. However, we would like to know 
when you actually contacted these individuals whom you thought to 
be Communists and what actions led up to your membership. Would 
you describe that in some detail ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, we originally — my wife requested through sending 
a postcard to the Alameda^County office on Webster Street— requesting 
information on various subjects connected with liberal political activ- 
ity, and instead of mailing it to us, 2 people brought the literature and 
became quite closely acquainted with us. 

Mr. KuNziG. Who were those two people, Mr. Hill ? 
Mr. Hill. Katrina Manley and Marie Phillips. 
Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell those names so we get them abso- 
lutely correct? 

Mr. Hill. Katrina is spelled in the conventional manner, I believe, 
K-a-t-r-i-n-a, and Manley, of course, is M-a-n-1-e-y. The Phillips girl 
was M-a-r-i-e. Her last name, I believe was spelled P-h-i-1-l-i-ps. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3195 

Mr. KuNziG. Wlien those 2 people came to you what transpired ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, they came and struck up a conversation along the 
lines of the literature my wife had requested, as I recall, and brought 
her some literature, and tried to make contacts for future social as- 
sociations. 

Mr. KuNziG. What Communist activity did you engage in from 
the time of your first contact until you were asked to become a mem- 
ber of the party ; in other words, prior to the time ? I am interested 
in the period prior to the time you actually became a member. 

Mr. Hill. Well, we were taken to several meetings. I don't re- 
call the exact number, but I would say 2 or 3 at the Oakland Tech- 
nical High School, a meeting of the Communist Party, and we were 
taken to a meeting of the Communist Party held in an upstairs room 
at the Oakland Auditorium, at which I believe Anna Louise Strong 
gave an address. 

Mr. KuNziG. I would like to just go back one minute to pick up 
something you said there a moment ago because it quite surprised 
me. Do you mean that you attended meetings of the Comnmnist 
Party at a public high school ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where is this high school ? 

Mr. Hell. It is located on Broadway in Oakland. The reason 
there, I believe, for that is that at that time the party was considered 
strictly a political party and had access as any other political party 
to public buildings for meetings. 

Mr. KuNziG. This was 1944, if I recollect your testimony, is that 
right, the beginning of 1945 ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, in that area. 

Mr. Velde. Wlio considered the Communist Party a political party 
at that time? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I understood at the time that we went in that it 
was considered that by the public, at least by the party members; 
at least that was explained to us in that way. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Were these meetings closed meetings in the sense 
that only members of the Communist Party were present, or were 
they more or less indoctrination meetings in which there was a mixed 
crowd of Communists and non-Communists? 

Mr. Hill. I couldn't state that definitely. As I recall, at least two 
of the meetings were, I believe, for just party members. We were more 
or less under the sponsorship of Katrina and Jack Manley. 

Mr. Jackson. But you do not know positively whether or not these 
were closed meetings? 

Mr. Hill. I couldn't say positively. The one at the Oakland Audi- 
torium was, I believe, a public meeting. 

Mr. Jackson. A public meeting ? 

Mr. Hill. I believe so. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know — and we would like to know if you do 
know — who secured the building? Who arranged the getting the 
use of the high school for these meetings ? 

Mr. Hill. I believe a person by the name of Willie Laughery was in- 
strumental. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that Wilhelmina Laughery ? 



3196 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr, HiIjL. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell Laughery , please ? 

Mr. Hill. L-a-u-g-h-e-r-y, I believe is the spelling on that. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Wilhelmina Laughery to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have mentioned the two people who first came to 
your home. Did you know them then to be members of the Com- 
munist Party as you went to meetings with them ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, at that time of course we had no way of knowing, 
but we assumed because of the fact that they were sponsoring us. 

Mr. KuNziG. And later did you find out that they were members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, definitely. 

Mr. KuNziG. So the names of these 3 people that you have mentioned 
so far this morning, you knew them of your own knowledge to be 
members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. At the time about which we are speaking ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Who actually recruited you in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I would say that Katrina and Jack Manley were 
most instrumental, although Marie Phillips, as I say, made 1 or 2 
of the original contacts. 

Mr. KuNziG. You mentioned Katrina Manley before. Is Jack 
Manley related to Katrina Manley ? 

Mr. Hill. That is the husband of Katrina Manley ; yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you knew Jack Manley also to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. And those two, husband and wife, recruited you into 
the party ? 

Mr. HiiJ.. That is right. 

JNIr. KuNziG. Can you give us any further identification and de- 
scription of Katrina and Jack Manley ? 

Mr. Hill, Well, they were people I would judge in their fifties; 
possibly Jack was a little older than that. Katrina Manley had a 
daughter by a previous marriage by the name of Dildar Sandow. 
That is about all I can give in the way of description. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you have any description as to whether this Dildar 
Sandow was a member of the Communist Party or a member of any 
group affiliated with the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, later in our association she was attending Cal 

Mr. KuNziG. You mean the University of California ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right — and was connected with the YCL group 
there. 

Mr. KuNZiG. The Young Communist League ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right; yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. You know that as a matter of your own knowledge? 

Mr. Hill. Well, being told by Katrina. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see. Were you ever issued a membership card in 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, we were. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wlio issued the card ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3197 

Mr. Hill. Well, they were presented to us by the Maiileys ; they were 
actually issued, of course, by the county. 

Mr. KuNziG. When you say the county, what do you mean ? 

Mr. Hill. The Alameda County office of the Communist Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you given any sort of specific instructions when 
you received this membership card, Mr. Hill ? 

Mr. Hill. Only general instructions that it must be kept well pro- 
tected and hidden, not to be shown to anyone. 

Mr. KuNziG. You, in other words, reached the conclusion then that 
this was a secret organization ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I would say so. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you assigned to any specific group or cell of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I wouldn't say assigned in that sense. We were 
taken to further meetings of the north Oakland branch, which was 
considered a branch of the party. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see. Well, now, where were these meetings of the 
north Oakland branch held, if you remember ? 

Mr. Hill. To the best of my recollection they were almost all held in 
the Oakland Technical High School, possibly — no, I believe they were 
all held in the Oakland High School. 

Mr. KuNziG. How long were you a member of this north Oakland 
club? 

Mr. Hill. I would say 4 or 5 months, possibly 6 months. 

Mr. KuNziG. Who were the officers of the north Oakland club ? 

Mr. Hill. A man by the name of George Edwards was the chairman. 

Mr. KuNziG. This would be the beginning of 1945, 1 assume, is that 
right? 

Mr. Hill, Yes, in the spring of 1945. 

Mr. KuNziG. George Edwards was the chairman ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Who else? 

Mr. Hill. I believt Katrina Manley was the secretary, and a man 
by the name of Eugent Toopeekoff . 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell that, please, if you can? 

Mr. Hill. I don't know that I can. I believe it is T-o-o-p-e-e- 
k-o-f -f ; I believe that is the correct spelling. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Eugene was the first name ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, Eugene. 

Mr. KuNZiG. What was his function ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, he took care of membership and dues collecting. 
I believe he was treasurer and membership director. 

Mr. Jackson. What was his occupation ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I inquired of Katrina at the time, and she said 
he was a civil engineer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know whether Toopeekoff at any time left 
the party, and if he did, if you know about it, would you describe 
the situation to us? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I know that after the north Oakland group was 
broken up into other groups, at that time he went into the county 
office as the county membership director, I believe, and then I pretty 
much lost track of him after that until he moved into our district, 
and in the course of club activities and club meetings — this goes on 
further into the story — in the course of an executive meeting deciding 



3198 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

why our membership was not as active as it should be, the question 
that was brought up was as to why Eugene Toopeekoff hadn't been 
active, and why, since he was in the Montclair district, in the 16th 
A. D. district, why he wasn't active in our group, and quite a num- 
ber of people had talked to him, had spoken to him, not getting very 
far, and I believe that it was recommended that a committee be sent 
to contact him and ask him to become active in our branch. 

(Representative Harold H. Velde left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Hill. And he was pretty cold toward the thing; the com- 
mittee wasn't well received. He had excuses that he was busy build- 
ing a wall around his home and had other activities and wasn't very 
much interested. 

Mr. KuNziG. This was at a later period, of course? 

Mr. Hill. Yes ; that was in a later period. 

Mr. KuNziG. Roughly, when ? Would that be 1948 or so ? 

Mr. Hill. Oh, I would say late 1947 or possibly 1948. 

Mr. KuNziG. You were giving us the names of the officers of the 
north Oakland club during the period of time that you were affiliated 
with it. Would you continue, if you can remember any other names 
of any other officers of the Communist club there ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I just couldn't tie down more than that. Being 
new in the party, we were kind of feeling our way around and trying 
to determine what was the structure. 

(Representative Harold H. Velde returned to the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Can you remember any of the names of the members 
of the north Oakland club during this early period of your Communist 
Party activities ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I can some. Can I refer to some notes that I made ? 

Mr. KuNziG. Please do. 

Mr. Hill. Well, on this list that I have I recognize a William 
Creque. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell that, please, sir ? 

Mr. Hill. That is C-r-e-q-u-e. I believe that is the correct spelling. 

Mr. KuNziG. You remember him as a member of the north Oakland 
club in early 1945? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know what his occupation was or anything 
about him ? 

Mr. Hill. I do not. 

Mr. KuNziG. You just recollect the name? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Any others ? 

Mr. Hill. His wife, Rosalie Creque. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you have any specific knowledge about her other 
than the name ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, she was a rather picturesque person. She dressed 
Tather differently than most people and was quite an interesting per- 
son, in appearance. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did she have any occupation or was she a housewife? 

Mr. Hill. I believe she was primarily a housewife. I once asked 
one of our other friends in the party if she was a fortune teller by any 
chance ; she gave that impression. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3199 

Mr. KuNziG. Any other names ? 

Mr. Hill. I believe Frances Tandy. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell that one, please, sir? 

Mr. Hill. That is T-a-n-d-y. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. You say you believe this person was. On what do 
you base your belief ? 

Mr. Hill. What was that? 

Mr. Jackson. I say your statement was that you believed Frances 
Tandy, or whatever the last name was, to have been a member of the 
north Oakland branch. Upon what do you base your belief in that 
regard ? 

Mr. Hill. I am going by a list here which I have prepared of names 
I have come in contact with in the party. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you determine at any time that she was a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hell. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are there any other names ? 

Mr. Hit J.. Why I hesitated there, I wasn't just dead positive of the 
north Oakland branch. 

Mr. Jackson. I see. 

Mr. KuNziG. But you were positive that she was a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Oh, j^es. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are there any others now with regard to the north 
Oakland branch before we turn to the other branches with which you 
were affiliated ? 

Mr. Hill. A man by the name of Bill Kutter, R-u-t-t-e-r ; I recall 
him well. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give us his occupation, please ? 

Mr. Hill. He had a connection with railroading. 

Mr. KuNziG. You don't have any idea  

Mr. Hill. I believe subsequently that I found out that he was the 
organizer or the chairman of the railroad branch or cell. 

Mr. KuNziG. Of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Of the Communist Party, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. In Alameda County ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Any others ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, there are others here, but I would rather not go on 
record as placing them in the north Oakland branch. I feel that they 
were, but I couldn't 

Mr. KuNziG. We will come to them later then. Let me ask you then, 
Mr. Hill, were you subsequently transferred to a second club or group 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes ; Alameda County was somewhat reorganized into 
better geographical breakdown, locations, and we were broken down in 
our area into what we called the 16th A. D., 16th assembly district 
branch of that party. That included the section in which we lived, 
Montclair section, of Oakland. 

Mr. KuNziG. When you say 16th assembly district, do you mean 
the regular assembly district for the California government? 



3200 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Hill. Yes, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know the reason why the party was reorgan- 
ized as you just mentioned? 

Mr. Hill. Well, that was pretty early in our experience in the party, 
and to my best knowledge it was a case of breaking the party up for 
better security, to lend better security measures to the thing, and also 
to bring people closer, meeting places closer, to their living quarters. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that why you were transferred, for example? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, we were right in the center of the district. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was this about the time that you had the problem be- 
tween the Communist Political Association and the Communist Party 
and so forth regarding the Duclos letter ? 

Mr. Hill, Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. It was at that time ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you describe your knowledge of that to the 
committee ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, the leadership, the leader of the Communist Party 
at that time. Earl Browder, had been criticized naturally by this man 
Duclos of France for his belief that the capitalistic system and the 
Communist system could work side by side in this country, and the 
criticism stemmed from Duclos' belief and understanding of Marx- 
ism and Leninism ; it appeared that it was impossible for the party to 
act properly in close relationship to capitalism. It had to be one or 
the other. 

Mr. KuNziG. This then is when Browder was removed and replaced 
by William Z.Foster? 

Mr. Hill. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever attend a Communist Party meeting 
where the Duclos letter was discussed ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where was this meeting held, and who was the princi- 
pal speaker? 

Mr. Hill. That was held in San Francisco, when an attorney, I 
believe, by the name of Aubrey Grossman, I believe — Grossman, 
yes 

Mr. KuNZiG. A-u-b-r-e-y? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. G-r-o-s-s-m-a-n, is that correct? 

Mr. Hill. Yes — and William Schneiderman spoke at that meet- 
ing. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know later, at that time or later, Aubrey 
Grossman to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I did; I mean, through intraparty communica- 
tions; yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. How long were you a member of the 16th Assembly 
District Club? 

Mr. Hill. Until we left the party in the fall of 1U49. 

Mr. KuNZiG. So for the entire time you were in the party your 
aflfiliation was with this 16th Assembly District Club ? 

Mr. Hill. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. If you can recall, could you give us the names of 
officers and members of the 16th Assembly District Club? I real- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3201 

ize that is over a period of time, but give them to us to the best of 
your ability. 

Mr. Hill. Well, that is rather a hard thing to pin down be- 
cause most of the officers in the club were shifted around quite a bit. 
I can give you the names of people who have at one time or other 
held office. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you please do that ? We will understand that 
it was during that period of 1946, 1947, 1948, and 1949. 

Mr. Hill. Membership chairman at one time was Katrina Manley. 
At one time it was James Wood. 

Mr. KuNziG. James Wood ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that his full name ? 

Mr. Hill. So far as I know. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew James Wood, then, of course, to be a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Hill. Yes. For a short period of time Emma Stanley. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know anything about her, her occupation, 
residence, or anything of that nature ? 

Mr. Hill. She was a county functionary. She had the office of 
treasurer, I believe, of Alameda County. I know she was in charge 
of making contacts both within the party and outside of the party 
for the purpose of collecting contributions, and she practically al- 
ways picked up the dues at our local meeting and took them to the 
county office. She was financial secretary, I believe was her title. 

Mr. KuNziG. These were Communist Party officers of which you 
were speaking ? 

Mr. Hill. These were the Communist Party officers of Alameda 
County. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. In response to counsel's question a moment ago you 
said you knew someone to be a member of the Communist Party. May 
I suggest you state your reason as to how and why you knew him to 
be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Do you recall the person I mentioned ? 

Mr. Moulder. I believe you named James Wood. I think that same 
rule should apply to anyone else you named as a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Hill. Well, in the case of James Wood, the people in our 
branch, I have personal knowledge of because I subsequently became 
the membership director of the branch, and I kept all the records, and 
I issued cards to the other membei-s, so I had direct, first-hand knowl- 
edge there. 

In the case of other people, some of them that I have mentioned have 
been through association, seeing them at closed meetings where you 
could only get in with a card. 

Mr. Velde. How would you describe a closed meeting, Mr. Hill ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I recall a meeting that was called at the Norway 
Hall in Oakland which was a closed meeting, and someone stayed at 
the door and actually checked cards in, checked people in from posi- 
tive knowledge. There is no secondhand arrangement; it was first- 
hand knowledge. 

41002^54 — pt. 2 4 



3202 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

This particular meeting that I recall to some extent — I recall a girl 
and her mother who had been previously expelled I believe previous to 
my time with the party, who, from information I had received from 
the Manleys, had been a long-time member, had tried to crash this 
party, and they had actually got in, and when it was discovered that 
she was there, she was carried out bodily by a man by the name of 
Bill Clifford and another man by the name of George Edwards, so 
they were very strict. 

Mr. Velde. In that particular instance they had determined that 
this person was no longer a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill.. That is right. 

Mr. Velde. So she could not attend a closed meeting ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I ask this question right along that 
line? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Was it an established practice during the time you 
were in the party to always require the identification of a party card 
to attend a closed meeting ? In other words, was that the only way you 
could attend? 

Mr. Hill. Further on in my experience in the party carrying a 
card was frowned on very definitely for security reasons because there 
had been occasions, especially in the case of women, where their 
purses had been lost ; they had been carrying them in their purses, and 
they were constantly afraid of the FBI finding or having them turned 
in, and so later on in the thing, when security was tightened up more, 
carrying cards was definitely frowned on, and admission to meetings 
of that sort was by recognition by responsible people. 

Mr. Velde. About what year was this that the carrying of cards 
was frowned upon ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, security tightened up strongly in about late 1947 
and 1948 — 1948 was a strong year for security. 

Mr. Velde. Again may I ask you, you are talking about the security 
within the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes ; that is right. 

Mr. Velde. Not the security of the United States ? 

Mr. Hill. No ; the security of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Moulder. That is, the secrecy of it? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. Then as I understand it, your statement would be that 
substantially beginning in 1947, if it was a closed meeting of the 
Communist Party, no cards were being carried or required, and it 
would at least require the identification at the door or some place 
before a person could get in ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes; definitely. 

Mr. Velde, Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. You had mentioned a moment ago Bill Clifford. I 
want to make sure the record is straight. Do you know any further 
facts about him, his occupation or anything of that nature? 

Mr. Hill, Well, later in my experience he was transferred — well, 
T believe at the time we were broken down into the 16th AD he was 
brought into our group, and as a card-carrying member — I issued 1 
or 2 cards to him. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3203 

Mr. KuNZiG. You therefore, of course, knew liim to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr, KuNziG. Do you happen to know Ms occupation at all, or is that 
not within your knowledge 'i 

Mr. Hill. He worked at several different jobs. The thing that 
stands out most is something to do with the plastering trade. 

Mr. KuNziG, You were going through various names of people 
whom you laiew to be members of the 16th AD club of the Communist 
Party. Would you continue with those names, please, sir? 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Hill. Well, so far as the executive officers are concerned, Ida 
Wood and Emma Stanley both held offices from time to time. My 
wife held an office for quite a length of time. She was an educational 
director. 

Mr. KuNziG. What was Ida Wood's occupation if she had one and 
if you remember ? 

Mr. Hill. She was part of the time a secretary or office worker in 
the Alameda County office. 

Mr. KuNziG. She was actually a paid worker, too, for the party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, yes; and then either in that time, in between that 
time or previous to it, she had worked for one of the CIO unions. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you happen to know which one or what type of 
union ? 

Mr. Hill. It was one of the unions that was housed in the CIO 
building on Grant Avenue there. She made mention, dropped it 
several times, that she worked there. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you go on with any other names of members 
whom you knew ? 

Mr. Hill. Emma Stanley I believe I named. She was the county 
functionary. She held office on several different occasions. A Eugene 
Eagle. 

Mr. KuNziG. Eugene Eagle? 

Mr. Hill. E-a-g-1-e, He was an optometrist. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where? 

Mr. Hill. I hope I used the right word there — optometrist, in the 
business of fitting glasses, at any rate. In San Francisco. He lived 
in Oakland. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew him, of course, to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes ; I issued cards to him. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer returned to the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Any others? 

Mr. Hill. A1 Stanley. 

Mr. KuNziG. Al? 

Mr. Hill. I believe the name was Albert; I wouldn't state that 
positively. Al, he always went by. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know his occupation or residence? 

Mr. Hill. My first knowledge of him was as he came out of the 
service, and I don't recall what he was doing. Later he had an agency 
for one of the hearing aid companies. 

Mr. KuNziG. In San Francisco or Oakland? 



3204 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Hill. Berkeley, I believe. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew him of your own knowledge to be a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 
Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Any others ? 

Mr. Hill. Charlotte Kyer. 

Mr. KuNziG. How do you spell that last name ? 

Mr. Hill. I am not sui^e of the spelling on that. I have written 
down here K-y-e-r, but it could have been K-e-i-e-r. I wouldn't state 
definitely. 

Mr. KuNziG. For the record would you put it down as K-y-e-r,^ 
Charlotte Kyer. Do you know lier occupation or residence? 

Mr. Hill. She lived in Oakland. She lived within the 16th as- 
sembly district. She did secretarial work, I believe. She was in- 
volveci in typing and that sort of thing. 

Mr, KuNziG. x ou knew her to be a member of the party. Did you 
issue a card to her ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes ; I have issued cards to her. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wlio else ? 

Mr. Hill. For a short period of time a girl by the name of Janet 
McHarg. 

Mr. KuNziG. How do you spell that ? 

Mr. Hill. I have M-c-H-a-r-g, which I believe is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know her occupation? 

Mr. Hill. She was a student. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliere was she a student ? 

Mr. Hill. At UC, California. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliile she was a student at the University of Califor- 
nia you knew her as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. I wouldn't want to state that positively. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did she attend Communist 

Mr. Hill. She was definitely a member of the party because I have 
issued cards to her, but I don't recall whether it was that period that 
she was a student. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see. But you know definitely she was a member of 
the party during that period of time ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. She was considered in the Alameda County Com- 
munist Party structure ; she was recognized as a more or less leader 
of People's Songs. 

Mr. KuNziG. People's Songs? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. What do you mean by that ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I don't know just how to explain that, but the 
party has songs which are more or less traditional with people in 
struggle and in getting along, and they are very much along the line 
of some of the things that Burl Ives does, chanties and 

Mr. KuNziG. Chants and that type of music, but as far as the words 
and the things used, it was Communist Party propaganda; is that 
right? 

Mr. Hill. In many cases ; yes. 

Mr. Jackson. I believe that People's Songs has been cited. 



1 Investigation reflects K-y-e-r to be correct spelling. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3205 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, sir; I was just going to read that. It has been 
cited by the California Committee on Un-American Activities in 
1948 as a Communist front which was incorporated January 31, 1946, 
in New York City. 

All the productions of People's Songs, Inc. follow the Communist Party line 
as assiduously as do the people behind the organization. 

Mr. Chairman, this would be a good place to stop. 

Mr. Velde. At this time the committee will stand in recess until 
1:30. 

(Whereupon, at 12 noon, the hearing was recessed, to reconvene at 
1 : 30 p. m. of the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(At the hour of 1 : 39 p. m. of the same day, the hearing was 
resumed, the following committee members being present: Repre- 
sentatives Donald L. Jackson (presiding), Gordon H. Scherer 
(appearance noted in transcript), Morgan M. Moulder, and Clyde 
Doyle.) 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. 

Let the record show that for the purpose of the hearing this after- 
noon the subcommittee will consist of Messrs. Scherer, Moulder, and 
Doyle, with Jackson as acting chairman. Congressman Velde is 
forced to be absent from this session on official business and for that 
reason will not be here this afternoon. 

Mr. Counsel, are you ready to proceed? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

TESTIMONY OF DICKSON P. HILL— Eesumed 

Mr. KimziG. Mr. Hill, we had stopped your testimony at lunch 
time, and you had been discussing Janet McHarg. I think that was 
the last person about whom you gave testimony, and you were dis- 
cussing the various members that you knew to be Communist Party 
members of the 16th assembly district. Could we continue where 
we stopped, and would you continue giving the names of those people 
whom you knew as members of the party ? 

Mr. Hill. Would you like me to continue with the official member- 
ship first? 

Mr. KuNziG . That is right. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. Hill. At one time for a short period a Mr. George Bratoff 

Mr. KuNziG. How do you spell that ? 

Mr. Hill. The spelling I have is B-r-a-t-o-f-f. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know the employment of George Bratoff ? 

Mr. Hill. The only thing that I knew regarding his employment 
was that he had a small store next to the union hall, the CIO hall, I 
believe, on Grant Avenue in Oakland, in which he sold dolls and art 
items, which he had explained during the course of one of our talks, 
he purchased through Amtorg, the Russian trading company. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you knew him to be a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I issued cards to him. 



3206 COMMUTSriST activities in the SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. If you know, did Bratoff have any other connections 
with the Russian Government beyond what you just testified to? ^ 

Mr. Hill. Well, on one occasion in talkino; with him at a meeting, 
he explained that he knew the people at the Russian consulate in San 
Francisco and was a guest there quite often and apparently had very 
close contact with the Russian Embassy. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were there any other members ? 

Mr. Hill. Jack Burris, B-u-r-r-i-s. 

Mr. KuNziG. What was his occupation, if you know ? 

Mr. Hill. I don't know that. He was a relative, cousin, I believe, 
of Jim Wood. 

Mr. KuNziG. Whom you have already mentioned this morning ? 

Mr. Hill. Mentioned before. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew tliis Jack Burris to be a member of the 
party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you give him a card ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes ; he was recruited during the time I was in the party. 

Mr. KuNziG. That is all you know about him at the present time? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you continue, please ? 

Mr. Hill. I have Hilda Woods, W-o-o-d-s, I believe, and she is, so 
far as I know, a housewife. She is not employed. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that Hilda Woods ? 

Mr. Hill. Hilda Woods, and her husband, Harrie Woods. That 
is spelled H-a-r-r-i-e. He was a woodworker, a carpenter, and at 
one time Katrina Manley explained to me that he helped to organize 
a club or a branch of woodworkers, and they were both apparently 
party members, affiliated with the Communist organization away 
back, as they seemed to know things and discuss things with other 
older people in the movement. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew them, however, both to be members of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. I issued cards to them both ; yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Any others? 

Mr. Hill. Emma Stanley I believe I have covered. 

Mr. KuNziG. You mentioned her ; yes. 

Mr. Hill. A1 Stanley, her husband, was covered? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

Mr. Hill. Elizabeth Augustine. 

Mr. KuNziG. Could you spell it? 

Mr. Hill. A-u-g-u-s-t-i-n-e, I believe. 

During her period in the party, the time I had contact with her, 
she married another member who was recruited, an Arthur Mayhew, 
M-a-y-h-e-w. 

Mr. KuNziG. Arthur Mayhew ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know anything either about her occupation 
or Mr. Mayhew's occupation ? 

Mr. Hill. She was the legal secretary to Bertram Edises. 

Mr. KuNziG. She was a secretary employed in Bertram Edises' law 
firm? 

Mr. Hill. That is right, and Mr. Mayhew was, I believe, going to 
school and doing some theater work at the time. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3207 

Mr. KuNziG. Please continue. 

Mr. Hill. Now, since that time there has been another change in 
her name. It is now Elizabeth McMullen, I believe. 

Mr. KuNziG. Can you spell that? 

Mr. Hill. M-c-M-u-1-l-e-n, if I remember correctly. He was also 
one of our members in the Communist Party in our group. 

Mr. KuNziG. What was McMuUen's first name ? 

Mr. HiiJL. Louis. 

Mr. KuNziG. L-o-u-i-s? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Him also you knew to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I issued cards, and his wife, Martha McMullen, his 
former wife, Martha McMullen, was also a member of our group. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Do you know anything about McMullen's occupation 
or his residence ? 

Mr. Hill. Mr. McMullen was employed in the automobile industry, 
I believe something in connection with radiator repairing, some phase 
of the automotive 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliere was that, do you know ? 

Mr. Hill. In Oakland, I believe. 

Mr. KuNziG. In Oakland? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. Mrs. McMullen, Martha McMullen, was employed 
possibly all the time I was contacting her with the VA, Veterans' 
Administration, Government employee. 

Mr. KuNziG. You mean she was an employee of the United States 
Government ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. Moulder. In what position of the Veterans' Administration? 

Mr. Hill. Well, it was clerical work of some sort. She did typing 
and filing and that sort of 

Mr. Moulder. What year was that ? 

Mr. Hill. 1947, 1946, 1947, possibly into 1948. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know whether she is still employed with the 
Federal Government? 

Mr. Hill. I don't believe she is. The last I heard she was working 
for Edises. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Is this the same Edises that you mentioned previously ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. The lawyer ? 

Mr. Hill. I don't know that personally. I was told by another 
member. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are there any other people whom you knew to be 
Communist Party members of the 16th Assembly District Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, these people I am mentioning, I have issued cards 
to all of them, so there is no doubt there as to their affiliation. I issued 
actual Communist Party cards, serially numbered. 

A lady by the name of Miriam Chown, C-h-o-w-n. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know her occupation? 

Mr. Hill. She was primarily a housewife. She worked from time 
to time on a number of county Communist Party committees, helping 
out in the party office, but I don't believe she had other employment 
than a houswife, formal employment. Her husband, Paul Chown, 



3208 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SA^T FRANCISCO AREA 

was never a member in our group, but he was always spoken of very 
highly by our older membership who knew that he was doing a very 
good job with the trade unions and that he belonged to a special 
group. 

Mr. KuNziG. You mean a special group of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. Of the Communist Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. So he was not a member of your group, but you knew 
him to be a member of a special group of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Mr. Kunzig, it is only in the interest of accuracy 
that the gentleman state at least who told him this. He says they 
always told him. It is hearsay. I don't want to be technical, but I 
think the record ought to show who told him he was doing a good job 
in the Communist cell in labor, for the purpose of accuracy of the 
record. 

Mr. Hill. On one occasion it was brought up in the course of being 
the membership director of the 16th Assembly District group. We 
were in executive meeting, going over possible new members of recruit- 
ment and objectives that we could work on, and from time to time, 
primarily to get information, I brought up people whom I had reason 
to believe were in the party, who were living in our area, who were 
not attending our meetings, and Mr. Chown was one of these people, 
and at least 2 people, Emma Stanley and Ida Wood, and on another 
occasion Katrina Manley, gave me that answer, that he had other 
assignments in a special group. 

Mr. Jackson. Is it your clear understanding that the other assign- 
ments were assignments in the Communist Party and for the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. That was the assumption that I — — 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. May I pursue this question further : The name of the 
person you said was with the Veterans' Adnpdnistration in the year 
1947 or 1948, did you report that fact to the FBI at that time ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Moulder. As soon as you discovered that she was an employee 
of the Government, did you report it to the FBI ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes -complete records. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you recall more definitely the date when you so 
reported ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I am bringing this up from my own recollection. 
I don't have actual records to go on. Those are the property of the 
Bureau. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you recall how long after you made that report 
that this woman maintained her position with the United States Gov- 
ernment, or was she one of those who has never been fired ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I don't recall during my time with the party that 
she was ever away from that job — oh, she had to leave when the Vet- 
erans' Administration program was curtailed in Oakland. 

Mr. ScHERER. Not, though, until it was curtailed ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. SciiERER. About how long was it after you made this report to 
the FBI before she was separated as a result of the curtailment of 
the program ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3209 

Mr. Hill. Well, I would state 2 years. 

Mr. KuNziG. For the record may I state, Mr. Chairman, that Paul 
Chown has been subpenaed for these hearings. I was going to ask 
you a bit later, but I will ask it now since it has already come into 
the picture, Mr. Hill. You have testified that you became a member 
of the Communist Party at the request of the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation, that you joined the end of 1944 roughly, or early in 1945, 
and left the Communist Party in the fall of 1949. I want to get 
this question on the record and get it absolutely clear for the record : 
During the period of time of your Communist Party membership did 
you report regularly to the Federal Bureau of Investigation all of 
your activities in the Communist Party and the activities of the other 
individuals you knew to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, all was reported in many different ways. 

Mr. KuNziG. Regularly reported to our FBI ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, would you continue naming the people whom you 
knew to be members of the party ? 

Mr. Hill. Jack Manley did we cover ? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 

Mr. Hill. And Katrina Manley, of course, we covered. Dr. Eugene 
Eagle. 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, you mentioned him. 

Mr. Hill. He was at one time one of the functionaries of our group, 
too. I don't recall, I believe at one time he was educational director. 

Mr. KuNziG. What would be the duties, Mr. Hill, of an educational 
director of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, the idea behind the educational director is having 
someone who can coordinate the Communist teachings between the 
county and State offices and the particular groups. I would say it 
was pretty much of a liaison job between the national, State, county, 
and the local cells. 

Mr. KuNziG. While we are on the subject, you have said that you, 
yourself, issued the membership cards. Would you tell the committee, 
please, what were the duties of the membership director, such as 
you^— 

Mr. Hill. Well, naturally the first duty was to issue cards and to 
keep track of dues payments, keep track of special contributions, and 
part of the time to keep track of whether or not people were subscrib- 
ing to the Political Affairs magazine and to the People's World, the 
Communist paper, and one very definite function was to do as much 
as possible toward effecting security within the party. If you saw 
anything out of line, it was pretty much the duty of the membership 
director to bring it up before the executive committee, and in some 
cases a person might be called up and asked questions. 

In 1948, I believe it was, when there was great pressure on 
security 

Mr. KuNziG. You mean within the party ? 

Mr. Hill. Within the party. There was great stress put on the 
handling of registration cards, the reregistering of people. In the 
past the method of issuing a new card was not too well cut, well de- 
fined. We might ask for their old card ; we might not — usually not — 
but the party security commission found that some of the cards were 
getting out and getting into Government files, and so there was a 



3210 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

membership meeting called for all the membership directors in the 
party, in the section. One of these meetings I attended where instruc- 
tions were given to under no circumstances reregister a member unless 
they turned in their old card or signed a formal statement explaining 
the disposition of their card. 

Now, some people automatically, when they received a card, would 
tear it up ; they would destroy it right there, so that there was no pos- 
sibility of its being found. Those people would have to write a 
statement giving the reasons for doing that and the fact that they 
had done it and sign their names. 

Mr. KuNziG. Who would keep those statements then ? 

Mr. Hill. Those were given to me or the membership director, who- 
ever it might be. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were they locked in files then ? 

Mr. Hill. No, they were taken at the end of the registration pe- 
riod — at that i)articular time they tried to organize the registration 
all for one evening. At the close of that meeting we had to take those 
cards personally and the statements to an East Oakland address, 
where happened to live the head of the Alameda County — or the sec- 
tion, I should say — membership director, and they told us that they 
were to be destroyed there by fire, to be burned there. I didn't see 
them burned. I did deliver them there. 

Mr. KuNziG. You turned them over, in other words, then to the 
membership director of a higher echelon of the department ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right, of the section. 

Mr. KuNziG. That being higher than the group you were connected 
witli ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Could you give us further names that you recollect of 
peoj)]e whom you knew to be members of the Communist Party with 
you during the time that you were reporting regularly to the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Hill. There was a man by the name of Gene Lien. Whether 
that is L-e-i-n or L-i-e-n, I don't know.^ 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that G-e-n-e ? 

Mr. Hill, I had him written as Gene, G-e-n-e, and that is all I ever 
had was G-e-n-e. That could be short for Eugene or a wrong spelling 
of G-e-a-n, I don't know. 

Mr. KuNziG. It is a man, I take it ; is that right ? 

Mr. Hill. A man. The joker there is, though, his wife whose 
name was also Jean Lien. 

Mr. KuNziG. J-e-a-n, I take it, this time. 

Mr. Hill. Right. And he had something to do with the laboratory 
at Berkeley, at the University of California. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was he an employee or professor ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, that I don't know. This information came to me 
when I questioned someone in the executive committee meeting. 
These people were transferred in from southern California, I believe. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know what laboratory he had anything to do 
with? 

Mr. Hill. What was that ? 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know what laboratory it was at all ? 



1 Further investigation indicates that the correct spelling is L-l-e-n, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3211 

Mr, Hill. Well, the atomic energy laboratory at Berkeley is what 
I was told. 

Mr. KuNziG. You were told this by Communist functionaries ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. But the two people, the husband and wife, you knew 
them personally to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I issued them cards and later transferred them out 
and back to southern California, to Sherman Oaks. 

Mr. MouLDEE. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder, You say you issued the cards. 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you ever get the spelling of their names ? 

Mr. Hill. Wliat? 

Mr. Moulder. You had to spell their names when you issued the 
cards ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, right. I had her as J-e-a-n ; I had him as G-e-n-e. 

Mr. Moulder. How did you spell the full name on the cards when 
they were issued ? 

Mr. Hill. I am bringing this up from memory, I don't know, L-i-e-u 
or L-e-i-n. 

Mr. Moulder. Wlio told you 

Mr. Hill. L-e-i-n, as I recall, was the correct one. 

Mr. IMouLDER. Wlio told you they were employed at the laboratory ? 

Mr. Hill. Katrina Manley. 

Mr. Moulder. Wliat was the approximate date ? 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr, Hill. That must have been in 1947. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you make a record of those names that you 
issued cards to for the use of the FBI ? 

Mr. Hill, Yes ; the cards were all photostated. 

Mr. Moulder. And did you then copy those ? I see you are reading 
from notes. 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr, Moulder. Did you copy the names then on the notes that you 
are now^ reading from? 

Mr. Hill, No ; I just brought these out of memory. 

Mr. Jackson. I gather you kept no duplicate records. 

Mr. Hill. I kept no records at all. 

Mr. KuNziG, Would you continue then, sir, with the members of 
the 16th Assembly District Club. 

Mr. Hill. Incidentally, on that- Mr. Lien, he told the membership 
at one time that he was working as a carpenter and trying to build 
a home for himself on Grizzly Peak Boulevard. That is all the in- 
formation I have on that. 

I have Jean Hedley, H-e-d-1-e-y, J-e-a-n. She was primarily a 
housewife. She did help out on county committees. 

I have Marie Phillips. I believe that was covered. I have Earl 
Phillips, the husband of Marie Phillips. 

Mr. KuNziG, Wliat was his occupation, if you know? 

Mr. Hill. He worked for the Shell Development Co. in Emeryville. 
He worked as a mechanic there, I believe. 



3212 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr, KuNZiG. You knew him to be a member of the party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes; I issued a card. However, later on in the associa- 
tion he had slowed down very definitely on attending meetings of our 
branch, and then they moved to another location in Oakland, and I 
brought up in executive meeting one day that I thought that a com- 
mittee should go and see them and see why they weren^ attending our 
meetings, and someone came up very quickly, someone from the county 
office, that he was going to transfer to another branch. 

I said, "Well, then, we had better find out what branch and issue 
a transfer card so that they have a record of dues," and they said, well, 
they weren't sure what branch he was transferring to, but that he was 
doing organizational work at the Shell Development Co., and the thing 
so far as I was concerned was dropped about there. I couldn't bring 
it up conveniently to get any more on it. That was the end. I didn't 
ever issue a transfer card. 

Mr. KuNziG. I would like to say at this point, Mr. Hill — and this 
statement goes for all the coming questions and past ones, too, for 
that matter — with regard to membership of various people, if you 
know, if it lies within your knowledge, that some of these people or 
any of these persons left the party and resigned from the party, would 
you please state that as we go along. I just want to make that flat 
statement to cover any situation that may arise along those lines. 

We would, of course, like to laiow very much if some of these people 
left the party. 

Now, are there any other members of the IGth Assembly District 
Club? 

Mr. Hill, I have Godine Eagle. She is wife of Dr. Eugene Eagle,, 
housewife and Cal student, G-o-d-i-n-e. 

Mr. Ktjnztg. You knew her to be a member of the party ? 

Mr, Hill, Yes, although she was quite inactive. 

Mr. KuNziG. She was less active than her husband ? 

Mr. Hill. Definitely, yes. I have Pete Matanami. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell that ? 

Mr, Hill. I don't know. 

Mr. KuNziG. To the best of your ability, 

Mr, HiiJL., M-a-t-a-n-a-m-i to the best of my ability. He was an 
auto worker. He worked at the east Oakland Chevrolet plant. 

Mr. KuNziG, You knew him to be a member of the party ? 

Mr, Hill, He was a member in the north Oakland group and was 
transferred with the rest of us to the 16th Assembly District group. 
I did issue him cards, 

Mr, KuNziG. He was in both the groups of which you were a 
member ? 

Mr, Hill, That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Any others? 

Mr. Hill. I have Emmett Teague, T-e-a-g-u-e. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know his occupation, if any? 

Mr. Hill. He worked in the sign industry, sign painting. He was 
a very close friend of Clarence Tobey, both in the same union. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell Tobey? 

Mr. Hill. T-o-b-e-y. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did vou know him to be a member of the party, too? 

Mr. Hill. Mr. Tobey? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes. 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3213 

Mr. Hill. Yes; he was the county chairman for quite some time. 
He, I believe, was instrumental in recruiting Mr. Teague into the 
party, Mr. Teague was never very active. We had a great deal 
of trouble getting him to meetings; he just drifted off, nothing much 
happened. 

I have a lady by the name of Rosalind Lindesmith, L-i-n-d-e- 
s-m-i-t-h as I have the spelling. She was an Oakland public health 
nurse and did quite a lot of work in trying to organize people, recruit 
people, within the Oakland city nurse corps into the Communist 
Party. She distributed literature, took out the People's World 
paper, people who were interested, and invited them to open meetings. 

Mr. KuNziG. Who was her employer? Was she in public 
employment ? 

Mr. Hill. City of Oakland, I believe. 

Mr. KuNziG. She attempted to recruit members, as you say, of 
the nursing group employed by the city of Oakland ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you happen to know whether she presently is 
employed by the city of Oakland? 

Mr. Hill. I think she is not. 

Mrs. Englehart. 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you spell that ? 

Mr. Hill. E-n-g-1-e-h-a-r-t. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know her first name ? 

Mr. Hill. The initial, I believe, was "A." I didn't know what it 
stood for, no. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew her as Mrs. Englehart ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know her to be a member of the party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, we had a great deal of difficulty getting her to 
meetings. She was a garment worker in San Francisco. She was 
transferred out in New York City, and she worked rather long hours, 
and the only way we could get her to meetings was to send someone 
over after her and take her back. She was very inactive. 

A young man by the name of Sig, S-i-g,^ Hesse, H-e-s-s-e. Now 
that could be just one "S." 

Mr. KuNziG. What was Mr. Hesse's occupation ? 

Mr. Hill. He was a UCLA student in southern California and was 
transferred up here. He was a student at Cal. I was told that he 
was active in the YCL, Young Communist League, at Cal. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you knew him to be a member of your own group 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Hill. I picked up his transfer card from Los Angeles and 
issued him a new card in our group. 

Mr. KuNziG. How old was he, roughly, if you know ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I would say just under or slightly over 20, 19 
to 21. 

Mr. KuNziG. And this would be in the period of 1947, roughly, 
1948? 

Mr. Hill. Somewhere in there, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. In that period of time ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 



* Identified further as Sigfried Hesse. 



3214 coMMxnsriST activities est the san francisco area 

(Eepresentative Gordon H. Seherer returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you continue, please? 

Mr. Hill. Now, those are primarily the people that I can readily 
bring to mind in our particular branch. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see. Well, we will come to some of the others then 
perhaps later. 

Mr. Hill, could you explain to the committee : For what reason did 
you sever your membership in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, the main thing, there was the tremendous mental 
pressure on my wife and myself. It came to the point where she 
was so upset by the meetings, by the agitation that constantly went 
on in the meetings, the running down of everything, that she would 
shy away from meetings. 

She refused practically to attend for the last 6 or 7 months of our 
association. I consequently had to cover up for her, which made 
an extra burden. As I told you before, I am in business, and I was 
attempting to run a business and attempting to keep my Communist 
Party affiliation covered up there, and on the other hand, I was try- 
ing to keep my other connections covered up within the party, and 
I found myself under mental pressure that was just too great, and an 
opportunity arose to drop out, which we did. 

The Bureau tried very hard to get us to continue, but we both 
felt that we had contributed something, and we just couldn't really 
take too much more so far as the pressure was concerned. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You had been contributing and working for the FBI 
as an undercover agent then for a little over 4 years ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. When you felt that the pressure was such that you 
finally left the party? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNZiG. In your position as membership director of the 16th 
Assembly District Club did you ever have occasion, Mr. Hill, to at- 
tend various meetings of the Communist Party other than your own 
regular group ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I attended section membership directors' meetings. 

Mr. KuNZiG. The section is the next higher echelon, is that it? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. I attended county membership directors^ 
meetings, which is the next higher step. I attended State function- 
aries' meetings. I will say "meetings" — possibly two ; one definitely. 

Mr. KuNziG. When would that have been, if you know ? 

Mr. Hill. That was early in the association. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Can you remember any of the names of the Commu- 
nist Party members with whom 3^011 met in these various higher meet- 
ings of higher echelon groups? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. We are only interested in the people whom you knew 
to be members of the Communist Party at that time. 

Mr. Hill. I have a Frank Parsons. 

Mr. KuNziG. How do you spell that, sir ? 

Mr. Hill. P-a-r-s-o-n-s. 

Mr. KuNziG. What was Mr. Parsons' occupation, if you know? 

Mr. Hill. I do not know. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3215 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you meet with him in a closed session of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. I have attended meetings that were — I don't recall 
whether it was membership or a general meeting, but they were closed 
meetings, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. In other words, to get in everybody had to be a 
member of the Communist Party 'i 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. You met him inside? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask, can you further identify the man, be- 
cause there may be several people by the name of Frank Parsons. 
It would be an injustice to persons of that name unless you can 
specifically state the person named so we know more about him. 

Mr. Hill. So far as identifying him is concerned, I couldn't say 
that I could make a definite identification. As I recall, it rose through 
hearing the name spoken when I was attending a meeting he 
addressed. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you meet him ? 

Mr. Hill. Not directly ; no. In the course of the meeting he spoke. 

Mr. Moulder. On what subject did he speak? 

Mr. Hill. I don't recall. 

Mr. Moulder. How do you know of your own knowledge that he 
was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. By the fact that he was at the meeting. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are there any others, and let us be — as Mr. Moulder 
was trying to say — as specific as we possibly can be on identifications. 

Mr. Hill. Bill Lowe. 

Mr. KuNziG. Spell it. 

Mr. Hill. L-o-w-e. 

Mr. KuNziG. Bill Lowe? 

Mr. Hill. Right. He was affiliated with one of the Berkeley 
groups, and I met him at a fund-raising party at Emma Stanley's 
home. I beg your pardon, I don't mean to say I met him. I was 
at this function with him where he was being addressed. 

Mr. KuNziG. It was a closed function of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. I wouldn't say it was closed; no. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask. Can you specify where the meeting was 
held ? Be a little more specific. 

Mr. Hill. Yes; it was held at 6682 Pinehaven Road in Oakland. 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you tell us, then, how you know that this par- 
ticular person was a member of the Communist Party? As we said, 
we are only interested in those who are members. 

Mr. Hill. The only information I have is from other people on the 
executive board mentioning Bill as being — whatever his function was. 
I think he was — well, he was a functionary at any rate. I can't recall 
his capacity. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are there any others, Mr. Hill ? 



3216 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Hill. I have a Leila Thompson. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell Leila ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, actually I have seen it spelled several ways. 

Mr. KuNziG. Thompson is the last name ? 

Mr. Hill. Thompson is the name. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know where she works ? 

Mr. Hill. I can't recall. She has had committee jobs with the 
county — functionary jobs. 

Mr. KuNziG. You mean of the county of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. The Communist Party ; right. 

Mr. KuNziG. How do you know that she was a member of the party ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I attended a session of a Marxist seminar at her 
home. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was this a Communist Party meeting ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes ; it was definitely a closed meeting. 

Mr. KuNziG. At her home ? 

Mr. Hill. At her home, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know where that was ? 

Mr. Hill. In east Oakland, upstairs, as I recall. I couldn't give 
you the address. * 

Mr. KuNziG. Are there any other people whom you met as members 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. I have one which actually, so far as I am concerned — I 
have no definite knowledge, only indirect. Rose Segure. 

Mr. Doyle. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that if he has nothing except 
indirect knowledge, that he doesn't give the name in public. 

Mr Tackson. Yes, I think that unless he has positive personal 
knowLdge, unless there is positive personal knowledge on the part of 
the witness as to membership, the identification should be stricken 
from the record. It would be appreciated by the committee if the 
press will bear with us in that regard. 

Mr. Doyle. May I say, Mr. Chairman, that I make that observatidm 
subject, however, to the possibility that the witness has been able to 
identify this person definitely through our staff or the FBI. If that 
is the case, even though he doesn't remember it now, I think that is a 
different situation. I want to emphasize, I think the witness only 
ought to give us the names of people that he personally knows were 
Commimists. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, I think the witness understands that the com- 
mittee is not interested in hearsay, but we want to know the names of 
those individuals who are positively known to you personally to have 
been members of the Communist Party. 

If there is any question, the additional information can be given 
to the investigative staff. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Hill, the 16th Assembly District Club of the Com- 
munist Party was in Oakland as you have testified; that is correct, 
is it not ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is it a correct assumption that your club fell within 
the jurisdiction then of the Communist Party of Alameda County? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. Kttnzig. Into how many sections, if you can tell us, of the Com- 
munist Party was Alameda County divided ? 

Mr. Hill. I couldn't tell you that definitely. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3217 

Mr. KuNziG. Can you give us a rough number, I mean, to the best 
of your knowledge? 

Was it 2; was it 30? 

Mr. Hill. Well, there was West Oakland, East Oakland, Alameda, 
Berkeley, and 

Mr. KuNziG. They are the ones of which you know definitely your- 
self? 

Mr. Hill. I mean, they are basic ones. How those are split up in 
addition 

Mr. KuNziG. If there were others, it doesn't lie within your knowl- 
edge, in other words. 

Now, who were the top Communist Party officials for Alameda 
County while you were a member? 

Mr. Hill. Steve Nelson was the first chairman or organizer of the 
Alameda County branch of the party when I came in. When he left 
for the East, Clarence Tobey. 

Mr. KuNziG. T-o-b-e-y? 

Mr. Hill. T-o-b-e-y. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have already mentioned him this morning ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat other officers ? 

Mr. Hill. And after that I believe Mr. Lehman, Lloyd Lehman. 

Mr. KuNziG. L-1-o-y-d L-e-h-m-a-n ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. What position did he hold ? 

Mr. Hill. He was the county organizer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Of course it goes without saying you knew hi> to be 
a member of the Communist Party. What other officials of th© party 
in Alameda County? 

Mr. Hill. At one time a Mary Sherwood was the county membership 
director. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mary Sherwood ? 

Mr. Hill. Sherwood. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know anything about her occupation or where 
she lived ? 

Mr. Hill. I don't know. 

Mr. KuNziG. The sum total of your knowledge is that a Mary Sher- 
wood was the membership director ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. For the county. 

Mr. Hill. Tliat is riglit, county. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are there any others ? 

Mr. Hill. And a Carol Barnes, C-a-r-o-1 Barnes. 

Mr. KuNziG. That was a man ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. I believe at the time of my association with him 
he was the Peoples' World, the Communist paper director for the 
county. 

Mr. KuNziG. What would his function or duties be as the People's 
World director for the county of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, he would contact the various People's World direc- 
tors of the branches and coordinate their activities with the county and 
the State office in stimulating circulation of the paper^ stimulating 

41002 — 54^pt. 2 5 



3218 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

interest in the paper. I don't believe he had anything to do with press 
releases. It was primarily a circulation job, to build circulation. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew Carol Barnes to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know any other officials for Alameda County? 

Mr. Hill. Katrina Manley. 

Mr. KuNziG. Whom you have already mentioned this morning? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Wayne Hultgren, H-u-1-t-g-r-e-n ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat was his capacity ? 

Mr. Hill. I don't recall. He was a county functionary, though. 

Mr. KuNZiG. He was a county functionary of Alameda County of 
the Conmiunist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew him to be such? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know anything about his occupation or his 
work, employment? 

Mr. Hill. That I don't. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are there any others in this capacity at this county 
level? 

Mr. Hill. Emma Stanley. 

Mr. KuNziG. Whom you have already mentioned. 

Mr. Hill. Mentioned before. 

Mr. KuNziG. She was a county functionary ? 

Mr. Hill. She was a county functionar3\ and I believe she was the 
financial director of the Alameda County Communist Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about a Wesley Bodkin, B-o-d-k-i-n ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. In what capacity? 

Mr. Hill. I don't recall. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You mean you knew Wesley Bodkin as a party func- 
tionary ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. At the county level ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you knew him to be a member of the party, but 
you don't know what his specific function was ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right ; I did know, but I don't recall. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are there any others that you can recall from the 
county level, before I turn to the section level ? 

Mr. Hill. Eay Thompson. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that R-a-y T-h-o-m-p-s-o-n? 

Mr. Hill. Right. He was on the security commission, the county 
security commission. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now that you have mentioned the county security 
commission, Mr. Hill, could you tell the committee briefly what a 
county Communist Party security commission is ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, their responsibility there is to maintain a well- 
integrated organization within the party. Part of their responsi- 
bility is to attempt to prevent security leaks, to try to straighten out 
people who are not following the party line in any way. In other 



COMJNIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3219 

words, it is more or less of a policing body. They interrogated people 
on cliarges brought up against them. 

Mr. KuNziG. Charges brought up by the Communist Party against 
them, you mean ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. And they recommended or executed ex- 
pulsion where they found it was necessary. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was being hauled up before a meeting of the security 
committee a serious matter to be considered in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. Very definitely ; yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did members worry about that sort of thing? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I have heard mentioned several times that certain 
people were brought before the county security commission and ex- 
pelled, brought up by charges, and it was said in a manner that would 
indicate that they thought that was the lowest conduct. 

Mr. KuNziG. I think it is interesting to note for the record, Mr, 
Chairman, that this coincides exactly with the testimony of Dr. Bella 
Dodd taken before this committee in New York City, the opposite 
end of this country, the same effect as to the working of the security 
commission of the Communist Party. 

Did you know a Nori Lafferty, N-o-r-i L-a-f-f-e-r-t-y? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, yes; I attended a meeting at her home. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You knew her to be a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Hill. At the time I attended the meeting she was the county 
membersliip director. 

Mr. KuNziG. Of Alameda County ? 

Mr. Hill. Of Alameda County. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about Bernadette Doyle? 

Mr. Hill. I attended 1 or 2 early meetings with her, 

Mr. KuNziG. Were these closed meetings so that only Communists 
got in ? 

Mr. Hill. One was. 

Mr. KuNziG. So you knew her to be a member of the Communist 
Party of your own personal knowledge ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. I, however, didn't issue a card or anything of that 
sort. 

Mr. KuNziG. Your knowledge comes from sitting in a meeting with 
her? 

Mr. Hill. And from her writings in the party and her functions in 
the party. 

Mr. KuNziG. What were her functions, if you know ? 

Mr. Hill. I believe that she was the educational director for the 
State at one time. 

Mr. KuNziG. Can you estimate a date to the best of your knowledge? 
But it would have been from the period from 1945 to 1949. 

Mr. Hill. Much of the information there was filled in for me by 
Katrina Manley, questioning her about certain people that we met. 
She would outline the background in an educational manner. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now I would like to turn your attention, Mr. Hill, to 
the section that encompassed your club. We will turn from the county 
down to the section. Who were the officials of the section ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, of course that changed at least twice during the 
time I was in the party. 

Mr. KuNziG. Give it to the best of your recollection. 



3220 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Hill. Part of the duration of my membership Florence Tobey 
was the section chairman or organizer. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have already mentioned her. Is she any relation 
to Clarence Tobey ? 

Mr. Hill. The wife. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you knew both husband and wife to be members 
of the party ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. They were expelled from the party during the 
time I was in, and a man by the name of Jim JNIcFadden took her posi- 
tion as the chairman of the section, east Oakland section. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know what his occupation was? 

Mr. Hill. I don't recall now. 

Mr, DoTLE. I will ask the counsel if the witness can say what the 
cause of expulsion was. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you tell us the cause of the expulsion, if you 
know? 

Mr. Hill. I believe basically it was the charge of white chauvinism, 
a term that is used in the party. I mean, is it all right to bring up 
another member of the family ? 

Mr. Jackson. A member of the party? 

Mr. Hill. I only know on hearsay. 

Mr. Jackson. I would suggest that you do not mention the other 
party. 

Mr. KuNziG. Then you can't state the reasons for expulsion, I take 
it, without mentioning the name of the other person whom we do not 
wish 

Mr. Hill. I can't explain it, no. 

Mr. KuNZiG. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, perhaps we could get this 
explanation in executive session. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Frances Capelle? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. What position did she hold with your section ? 

Mr. HiLi.. She was the membership director of the section. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know any further identification on Frances 
Capelle, her occupation or anything of that nature ? 

Mr. Hill. I don't recall. 

Mr. KuNZiG. But since you knew her as the section membership 
director, of course it goes without saying that you knew her as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. 

You testified that you attended executive meetings of your branch. 
Do you recall, Mr. Hill, what was generally discussed at these meet- 
ings? What took place ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, a very wide variety of subjects, one of which, of 
course, was always stimulating membership, stimulating the process 
of recruiting new members to the party, methods of so doing, plan- 
ning meetings, planning group meetings, planning educational talks 
to be given at future meetings, planning concentration points — a term 
used in the party — and one of our concentration points happened to 
be the Westinghouse Electric plant in Emeryville. 

Mr. KuNziG. What would be discussed about the Westinghouse 
Electric plant? 

Mr. Hill. Methods of selling the People's World at the gate, meth- 
ods of getting workers there interested in the party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3221 

Mr. KuNziG. What would be the purpose of getting workers from 
Westinghouse into the party ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, of course the basic idea there was to try to organize 
a Communist cell in the plant. The objective at that period of the 
party all the way through after the change in party line, after the 
Duclos letter, was to do everything possible to work into industrial 
plants in the country. That was nationwide. That wasn't just locaL 

Mr. KuNziG. But you saw of your own knowledge and with your 
own eyes that policy of attempting, on the part of the Communist 
Party, to work into industrial plants was carried out? You saw them 
endeavor to do that? 

Mr. Hill. Oh, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You endeavored yourself? 

Mr. Hill. Right. That was also a good source of getting signers 
for the third-party petitions, the Independent Progressive Party 
petitions to hairye it placed on the ballot. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you explain about this Independent Progres- 
sive Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, as much as I know, the party felt that in 

Mr. KuNziG. When you say ''the party," let us make it specific. 

Mr. Hill. The Communist Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. You mean the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. All right. 

Mr. Hill. Leadership felt that the development of a third party 
as a media to work around, as an issue to work with, would be very 
advantageous. The object, of course, was to give the party rank and 
file, the party membership, a chance to go to homes, to distribute and 
sell the People's World, the Communist paper, to get into the homes 
after taking out free copies for a f ollowup, to try to sell a subscription, 
to get third-party petitions signed ; in other words, to give the party 
a chance to bring in new people. 

It was considered, hoped, to be a very rich source of new recruits, 
using another political party as an issue. They felt that they could 
give very good reasons for people not supporting the Republican or 
the Democratic Parties, and they felt there was a great need for 
another party, and that it was a very opportune moment to work in 
that manner in enlarging the party. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever hear of a Political Affairs Committee 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I did. 

Mr. KuNziG. What was the Political Affairs Committee of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. I can't say enough on that to be very revealing. I know 
there was a Political Affairs Committee, and I know that many house- 
wives were asked to help out in the thing. But the complete function 
of it escapes me. 

Mr. Jackson. At this time the committee will stand in recess until 
3 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 2:43 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 3 p. m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 3 p. m.) 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will be in order. 

Will you proceed, Mr. Counsel. 



3222 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr, KuNziG. Mr. Hill, you have mentioned your own club of the 
Communist Party, and you have mentioned section and the county 
group. I am going to read to you a list of alleged Communist Party- 
clubs in this area in Alameda County and ask you whether you have 
heard of these clubs, whether you know of the existence of these clubs. 
I realize that clubs rise and then die again, and the time element in 
these clubs is during the period of time that you were active in the 
Communist Party. 

Do you know of a Harbor Homes Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I have heard of that club. I have seen it listed in 
financial drives, and I have talked to people about the club. 

Mr. Ktjnzig. How about the Abe Lincoln Club ? 

Mr. Hill. I have just heard of that. 

Mr. KuNziG. You heard it mentioned in your Communist meet- 
ings and so forth ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Albany El Cerrito Club? 

Mr. Hill. I have heard that mentioned on several occasions. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever hear of an Anita Whitney Club in 
Oakland? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, yes. 

Mr. Ktjnzig. You knew of the existence of that club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know generally where these were located? 
If you do know, in the course of the interrogation will you indicate in 
what particular area of the section or district it was located ? 

Mr. KuNziG. How about a Ben Davis Club ? 

Mr. Hill. I have heard that mentioned. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know an Anna Mcintosh ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. What was Anna Mcintosh's connection with the Ben 
Davis Club? 

Mr. Hill. Katrina Manley told me that she was the organizer of 
that branch. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Anna Mcintosh to be a member of tho 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. I have attended meetings, meetings that would be closed 
if she wasn't. 

Mr. Jackson. That is, closed meetings of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, the Bernadette Doyle Club. You have already 
mentioned Bernadette Doyle today. 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever hear of a Bernadette Doyle Club? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have mentioned Nori LafFerty. Did you know 
her to be a member of that club? 

Mr. Hill. I can't say that I did, no. 

Mr. KuNziG. But you knew Nori Lafferty to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, definitely. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Florence Hutchinson? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3223 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know her to be a member of the Communist 

Party? 
Mr. Hill. Only that she attended the functionary meetings. 
Mr. KuNziG. Communist Party functionary meetings? 
Mr. Hill. That is right. 
Mr. KuNziG. Were they meetings at which only party members were 

allowed in ? 

Mr. Hill. Eight. 

Mr. KuNziG. You attended them with her? 

Mr. Hill. Eight — not with her in the sense that I went with her, 
but was in a group. 

Mr. KuNziG. You sat in a meeting with her and other people? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, did you ever hear of the Mother Bloor Club? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know where that was, where it was situated? 

Mr. Hill. I am afraid I can't say. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You just knew of the existence of the club? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. I have seen it listed on the reports. 

Mr. KuNziG. Party reports which came before your eyes, is that 
it? 

Mr. Hill. Well, generally fund-raising campaigns where we had 
certain quotas; one branch was pitted against another, lists come 
through to the executive officers as comparison of the standings and 
also on People's World drives. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were all these clubs in the general Bay area? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. How about any campus clubs? Did you ever know 
of the Merriman Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where was that? 

Mr. Hill. That was in Berkeley. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about the H. Alden Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. These are all clubs 

Mr. Hill. Those are young college people primarily. 

Mr. KuNziG. Any connection with the university ? 

Mr. Hill, Yes — well, that is, they were students of the university 
largely. 

Mr. KuNziG. I want to make it very clear for the record, Mr. 
Hill, all these clubs are clubs which you have known of as Com- 
munist Party clubs? 

IMr. Hill. Yes. 

]Mr. KuNziG. Actual groups in which Communists met? 

Mr. Hill. Eight. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about the Cannery Workers' Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes; I know of that through a person with whom I 
have attended meetings, a girl by the name of — her nickname was 
Dobie Walker Eoberson. Dobie was the name she went by in the 
party. 

Mr. KuNziG. Could it have been Doris Walker Eoberson? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, that would be it ; Doris, that is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know her to be a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 



3224 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you tell us something about Doris Walker 
Roberson ? 

Mr. HiLi^. Direct knowledge, the only knowledge I have is that 
she was the organizer of the Cannery Workers' branch ; that was her 
responsibility. Indirectly, through briefing by other people on the 
executive board, that she was an attorney. 

Mr. KuNziG. A member of the bar ? 

Mr. Hill. A member of the bar, and that she had gone into this 
other work ; that she actually was a member of the bar. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you knew her definitely to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes — well, I knew her in that she attended meetings that 
were definitely closed, that is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you ever hear of the Central Berkeley Club? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. About the Dorie Miller Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Lily Belle in connection with the 
Dorie Miller Club? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. "Wlio was Lily Belle? 

Mr. Hill. She was a Negro lady who had a connection with — what 
I am trying to say is that I believe she and Katrina Manley and my 
wife were part of the committee on women's problems in the party. 
I realize that is rather vague, but that is what is coining to my mind. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew Lily Belle then to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about the Codornices Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Was there such a club in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you know a Mary Bradsher in connection with 
that club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. B-r-a-d-s-h-e-r? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you know Mary Bradsher to be a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. In that she came into the Alameda County office of the 
Communist Party and was a rather close friend of Emma Stanley and 
Ida Wood. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you ever attend a meeting of the Communist 
Party where she was present? 

Mr. Hill. Wliere she was present? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. Hill. I probably did, but I would rather not say definitely 
because I can't recall a definite instance. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I have in my hands a deposition taken 
the second day of November 1953 from Mary Elizabeth Parrott Brad- 
sher in which she goes into detail under oath before this committee as 
to her previous Communist Party activities, and cooperated at length 
with this committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3225 

JNIr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know of an East Oakland Club of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. In connection with that club did you know Clarence 
Tobey ? You have already mentioned Mr. Tobey. 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. And how about Roger Capelle ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. And Frances Capelle I believe you already discussed. 

Mr. Hill. Wife. 

Mr. KuNziG. All those three people you Imew as connected with 
the East Oakland Club of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, how about the East Lake Club, did you ever hear 
of that? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, T have heard it mentioned. It wasn't in existence 
at the time I was in the party, I believe, or possibly it was 

Mr. KuNziG. Prior to that time? 

Mr. Hill. Just prior to that time, but I have definitely heard the 
name. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about the Encinal Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about the Evans Carlson Club ? 

Mr, Hill. I know the name. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was that a club of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. These clubs — and I want this to be clear for the rec- 
ord — Mr. Hill, were all in Alameda County, is that right ? 

Mr. Hill, Kight, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG, How about the Railroad Workers' Club, does that 
strike a chord in your memory ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, yes ; a man by the name of Bill Rutter, I believe I 
have already testified, was the organizer of that group at one time 
at any rate. 

]\Ir. KuNziG. Did you ever hear of a Frances Brown Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was that a club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about the Harriet Tubman Club ? 

Mr. Hill, Yes, 

Mr, KuNziG. The Haywood Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, 

Mr. KuNziG, H-a-y-w-o-o-d? 

Mr. Hill. No, I believe that that would be Hayward. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell it then to the best of your knowledge? 

Mr. Hill, H-a-y-w-a-r-d, To the best of my knowledge there was 
no activity there. It was primarily Russell city, which is quite con- 
nected with Hayward. There was a Russell city branch. 

Mr, KuNziG, How about the Herman Boetcher Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew that as a club of the Communist Party in 
Alameda County? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, right. 



3226 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. Joe Hill Club? 

Mr. Hill. I have heard the name. I don't recall having seen it 
on lists. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about the Mome Smolan Club? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew that to be a club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you know where any of these were located geo- 
graphically ? 

Mr. Hill. Actually it is hard for an outsider to believe that you 
can be in the party and not know the location of a branch, but you 
can be. There are many things that you know of in the party that 
you don't know, the physical location or you don't know the whole 
detail, but you know of it. 

Mr. Jackson, Very well. 

Mr. KuNziG. We are to understand then that the knowledge of these 
clubs came from records and documents and so forth which would come 
before you, and you would know they existed, even though perhaps 
you never attended any meetings at these clubs? 

Mr. Hill. Right, right. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about the Steve Nelson Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I have heard the name, but I frankly don't believe it 
ever existed. I think it was an honorary name of a club that was used 
temporarily. 

Mr. KuNziG. In honor of Steve Nelson, in other words ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. So you don't know if there was any actual membership 
of that club ? 

Mr. Hill. I couldn't say that there was. I don't recall anything of it. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about a John Reed Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. The Transformer Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. What field was the Transformer Club in, if you know ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, that was in the electrical workers' field, and while 
about all I had was second-hand information, Katrina Manley ex- 
plained that it was an organization of people in the electrical workers' 
industry, Westinghouse, and I believe General Electric. 

Mr, KuNziG. Did you ever hear of a super-hush-hush group called 
the special section in connection with that ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes ; not just in that way, but the special section was re- 
ferred to often. 

Mr. KuNziG. And what was it, if you know ? 

Mr. Hill, Well, from what I could glean it was professionals who 
didn't want to be known even within the party. 

Mr, KuNziG. How about the Maritime Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. That is a club that you knew of in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. The Mike Quinn Club ? 

Mr. Hill. I believe that was Berkeley. 

Mr. KuNziG. Was that a student group, too ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3227 

Mr, Hill. I believe so. I am a little confused on that because there 
was a Mike Quinn Club in Los Angeles in connection with UCLA, and 
I have seen it in the reports, but I am also j)Ositive there was one in 
Berkeley, a branch. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know of the Bethune Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. That was in Alameda County also ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. The North Oakland Professional Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. That was referred to commonly, but in my own mind 
I always felt that the special section and the professional club were one 
and the same. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have already mentioned Paul Chown. Did you 
know him to be active in the North Oakland Professional Club ? 

Mr. Hill. On two occasions where I brought up the issue of why he 
wasn't attending our meetings, why he wasn't coming to our meetings, 
since his wife was, and since they were living in our area, and the 
answer was that he was in the special club or in the professional club, 
I beg your pardon. 

Mr. KuNziG. Which you just said you thought were the same ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about Eobert Treuhaf t ? 

Mr. Hill. The same there. 

Mr. KuNziG. The same thing ; in other words, he was 

Mr. Hill. I was questioned there, too, and the answer was that 
he attended another branch, the professional. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew Robert Treuhaft to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you have any further identification of Robert 
Treuhaft? 

Mr. Hill. He is an attorney; he is associated with the Bertram 
Edises firm. His wife, Decca Treuhaft, D-e-c-c-a, was a member of 
our 16th Assembly District group. 

Mr. KuNziG. You knew her to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Decca Treuhaft ? 

Mr. Hill. I issued cards to her. She also was one of our func- 
tionaries at one time ; I mean in our particular branch, and then she 
had county functionary jobs. I think toward the last she headed 
the political affairs committee while in the county. 

Mr. KinsrziG. Did you know of a Paul Robeson Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. South Berkeley Club? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Southwest Berkeley Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. These are all different clubs, is that right? 

Mr. Hill. To my knowledge, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know of a Thomas Jefferson Club in con- 
nection with Government employees? 



3228 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Hill. I have heard it mentioned; I have heard it on two 
occasions, and on both occasions it was pointed out that they were 
Government workers in a very small club. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know the Tom Paine Club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. West Oakland Club? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I think the West Oakland Club, as was the East 
Oakland Club, was more or less of a section rather than a club. I think 
it was all-inclusive of the various branches in the section. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Morris Keller in connection with 
this group ? 

Mr. Hill. I have heard the name, yes, and I attended a meeting 
where he had been. I was told afterwards, so that is as close as I can 
come on that. 

Mr. KuNziG. This meetinoj that he had attended was a meeting of 
members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. It was a security meeting. 

Mr. KuNziG. A security meeting, you say ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel, wait just a minute, please. I have asked the 
chairman whether he thought that sort of testimony ought to stand 
as sufficient naming of a man as a Communist. Personally I don't. 
All this witness says is that he was told that this man had been at 
a meeting. He has no personal knowledge himself. I think that is 
going pretty far afield. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you receive any information subsequently in any 
other way which would serve to strengthen your identification of the 
individual in question ? 

]Mr. Hill. Well, the name was discussed — I mean, the name was 
brought up by several people on the executive committee from time 
to time ; the name arose. 

Mr. Jackson. Specifically as a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, that is different testimony. I mean, that is addi- 
tional to what he stated before. 

I want to say again, counsel, I think this witness ought not to give 
hearsay. He is going far afield in my book, and I simply want to be 
very careful ; otherwise we will do damage to people that aon't deserve 
it.  

Mr. KuNZiG. I have instructed and will continue to instruct, and I 
have said several times, Mr. Doyle, today that we are only interested — 
I will say it again to Mr. Hill — in people whom you can identify and 
whom you knew to be members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. I know you have, counsel, and I want to compliment 
you on taking that position. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well ; proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know the Woodworkers' Club ? 

Mr. Hill. I have heard of it, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have already mentioned, I believe, Harrie Woods 
and Hilda Woods in connection with that group ? 

Mr. Hill. Well, Harrie Woods possibly, but I don't think Hilda 
Woods. They were both, of course, members of our group. 

Mr. Ktjnzig. I see. But you don't know whether Hilda Woods was 
a member of the Woodworkers' Club ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3229 

Mr. Hill. No, I don't. 

Mr. KuNziG. But Harrie Woods was? 

Mr. Hill. At one time. . 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Josephine Woods Eidenoff, E-i-d-e-n- 

o-f-f? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, but I don't think that is the correct spelhng. I 

was trying to think. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is the spelling to the best of your recollection i 

Mr. Hill. I don't think it is "hoff." 

Mr. KuNziG. E-i-d-e-n-o-f -f ^ 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Thank you. What is your knowledge of Josephine 
Woods Eidenoff ? 

Mr. Hill. She is the daughter of Hilda and Harrie Woods. She 
was a Communist Party member. 1 issued cards. 

Mr. KuNziG. So you knew all of them to be Communist Party mem- 
bers when you issued cards ? 

Mr. Hill. Also her sister, Dorothy. 

Mr. KuNziG. Dorothy Woods? 

Mr. Hill. Dorothy Woods, right. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about a Canal Club, C-a-n-a-1? 

Mr. Hill. I have heard of it. 

Mr. Ktjnzig. Victory Club ? 

Mr. Hill. I have heard of it. 

Mr. Ktjnzig. Now, that concludes the list of names of clubs that I 
said I wanted to read to you. All those clubs that you have heard of 
were Communist Party clubs in Alameda County, right? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, there are a few more names here I would like 
to go into, Mr. Hill. I will ask you whether you knew these people 
to be members of the Communist Party. Did you know a Kobert 
Neville, N-e-v-i-1-l-e? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. How did you know Robert Neville, and what was his 
occupation if you can tell us ? 

Mr. Hill. I don't know what his occupation was. I attended meet- 
ings with him at the labor school in Oakland. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. KuNziG. A Communist Party meeting? 

Mr. Hill. Closed meeting, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about Billie Wachtel, B-i-1-l-i-e W-a-c-h-t-e-1 ? ^ 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know her to be a member of the Communist 

Party? 

Mr. Hill. I attended closed meetings with her. 

Mr. KimziG. Where would they have been if you remember, 

Mr. Hill. One was at Norway Hall, as I recall. 

Mr. KuNziG. Roughly when, if you know. Was it the early part 
of your membership or the latter part ? 

Mr. Hill. I would say in the early part. 

Mr. KuNziG. Which would be 1946 or that period of time? 

1 This person is believed to be the same as Billie Wachter, identified by Ames. 



3230 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Hill. I would say 1946 probably. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Nat Yanish, Y-a-n-i-s-h, and Ann 
Yanish? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were they related ? 

Mr. Hill. Husband and wife, yes. 

Mr. KuNZTG. Did you know them both to be members of the Com- 
munist Party ? v^i 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat was Mr. Yanish's occupation, if you know? 

Mr. Hill. He worked for the People's World. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know in what capacity he worked ? 

Mr. Hill. He was from the State, from San Francisco. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a Doris Fogarty ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. In what capacity did you know her ? 

Mr. Hill. She attended our meetings when I was in the north Oak- 
land branch. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know her work or her residence or any further 
identification of Doris Fogarty ? 

Mr. Hill. I have been to her home, but I can't recall right off. 

Mr. KuNziG. You don't remember where ? 

Mr. Hill. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you at Communist Party meetings in her home ? 

Mr. Hill. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. Not party meetings ? 

Mr. Hill. No. 

Mr. KuNziG. The meetings you attended with her were elsewhere? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about a Bimbo Brown? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. How did you know Mr. Bimbo Brown ? 

Mr. Hill. He gave a talk before a panel in a meeting at San Fran- 
cisco at the time of the Duclos letter revelation. 

Mr. KuNziG. Communist Party meeting? Did you know any other 
members of the Brown family as Communists? 

Mr. Hill. I can't say that I do. 

Mr. Doyle. May the witness fix the date of that Duclos letter which 
was considered out here by the Communist Party club, out here in the 
West ? A month, if you know ; approximately the month and the year. 

Mr. Hill. It was very early in my career in the party. It must have 
been in the spring of 1945, 1 believe. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about a Pat Fogarty ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that any relation to the previous Doris Fogarty 
that we mentioned ? 

Mr. Hill. I believe they were husband and wife, to the best of my 
knowledge. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about a Gordon Williams ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. How did you know Gordon Williams? Was that in 
connection with the labor school ! 

Mr. Hill. Right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3231 

Mr, KuNziG. You knew him to be a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Only through the fact that I attended a meeting there 
that was a closed meeting with his presence. 

Mr. KuNziG. We will understand for the future testimony here, Mr. 
Hill, that if you attended a closed meeting of the Communist Party 
where only Communist Party members were in attendance, that you 
knew them to be members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Hill. In that particular case he was another person who lived 
in our community, and I brought the issue up in an executive com- 
mittee as to why he wasn't attending and why his wife wasn't attend- 
ing our meetings, and it was pointed out that they were in another 
group, and nothing more was brought up on it. 

Mr. Jackson. But prior to that you had attended closed meetings of 
the Communist Party 

Mr. Hill. I wouldn't say whether it was prior or after on that. 

Mr. Jackson. Well, on some occasion ? 

Mr, Hill. Yes, and the same with his wife. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about an Edward Barlow, B-a-r-1-o-w ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. And Elizabeth Barlow? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were they related? 

Mr. Hill. Husband and wife, I believe, at the time. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where did you meet with them as members of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. Several meetings which I can't recall ; one I recall very 
vividly, a meeting in east Oakland, in the rumpus room of their home. 

Mr. Jackson. Closed meeting of the party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes ; security meeting, in fact. 

Mr. KuNziG. Jessie Pedrick, P-e-d-r-i-c-k? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know her to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. In what capacity? How did you get this knowledge? 

]!ilr. Hill. Well, she may have at sometime held a position ; so far 
as 1 know, just rank and file. 

Mr. KuNziG. Rank-and-file member? 

JMr. Hill. Yes. 

]Mr. KuNziG. Did you meet with her as a member ? 

Iilr. Hill. At a meeting, yes ; closed meeting. 

]Mr. Jackson. The Chair avouM like to say that in the matter of 
identifications which are made from the witness chair that the policy 
of the committee has long been that any person who feels that he or 
she has been adversely affected by such testimony should contact the 
counsel of the committee in order that an official denial or affirmation 
may be entered on the record and that the person be given an oppor- 
tunity to so confirm or deny the allegations. 

Mr. DoTXE. Mr. Chairman, I think as long as our subcommittee 
chairman has specifically mentioned that, it might be appropriate 
for me at this point, instead of later in the record where I intended 
to have it introduced, to read rule 10 of our committee. 



3232 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

I would like permission to read it at this point. It will just take a 
minute. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. Doyle. It is right on the same subject. 

I read rule 10 of the rules of procedure of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities adopted July 15, 1953 : 

THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS AFFECTED BY A HEARING 

Where practicable, any person named in a public hearing before the com- 
mittee or any subcommittee as subversive, Fascist, Communist, or aflSliated 
with one or more subversive-front organizations who has not been previously 
so named shall, within a reasonable time thereafter, be notified by registered 
letter to the address last known to the committee of such fact, including (1) 
a statement that he has been so named; (2) the date and place of said hearing; 
(3) the name of person who so testified ; (4) the name of the subversive, Fascist, 
Communist, or front organization with which he has been identified; and (5) 
copy of the printed rules of procedure of the committee. 

(b) Any person so notified who believes that his character or reputation has 
been adversely affected or to whom has been imputed subversive activity may, 
within 15 days after receipt of such notice (1) communicate with the counsel of 
the committee and/or (2) request to appear at his own expense in person before 
the committee or any subcommittee thereof in public session and give testimony 
in denial or affirmation relevant and germane to the subject of the investigation. 

Any such person testifying under the provisions of (b) (2) above shall be 
accorded the same privileges as any other witness appearing before the com- 
mittee and may be questioned concerning any matter relevant and germane to 
the subject of the investigation. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you, Mr. Doyle. 

The committee is anxious to insure that no innocent parties be 
damaged in any way by testimony. It is certain that in extensive 
hearings of this kind there will be duplications of names of indi- 
viduals who are not in fact the persons intended by the witness. The 
committee invites those individuals to communicate with the commit- 
tee in order that it may be clear, wherever possible, that they were not 
the ones so identified. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Van Frederick ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. How did you know Van Frederick ? 

Mr. Hill. I met him at the home of Emma Stanley. He was intro- 
duced as a functionary of the Codornices Village branch. 

Mr. KuNziG. As a Communist Party functionary ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Did you know him ever as George Van Frederick? 

Mr. Hill. I don't recall that I ever heard the name George. "Van" 
they always called him. 

Mr. KuNZiG. You knew him as Van Frederick ? 

Mr. Hill. Eight. 

Mr. KuNziG. Buddy Green? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I attended meetings with him. 

Mr. KuNziG. You attended meetings with Buddy Green of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know what his work was, his employment, 
address, any information? 

Mr. Hill. He was Negro. 

Mr. KuNziG. Negro? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3233 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know where he was employed ? 

Mr. Hill. That I don't, no. 

Mr. KuNziG. The sum total of your knowledge then is that you at- 
tended meetings with a Negro by the name of Buddy Green ^ 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Who was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about Paul Heide, H-e-i-d-e, and Ruby Heide? 

Mr. Hill. Well, I brought both of those names up before the execu- 
tive committee several times in a search for membership, and on the 
occasions that they were brought up they were in their own group 
branches. 

Mr. KuNziG. Of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Of the Communist Party. 

Mr. KuNziG. And therefore did not come into your group, is that it? 

Mr. Hill. Did not attend our group. 

Mr. KuNziG. This came to your attention then in the capacity you 
have already testified before, that you were a membership director, 
and as membership director, you would bring these people's names up ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. And so the records would come to your attention ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about Herb Kalman, K-a-1-m-a-n ? 

Mr. Hill. I knew of him as the husband of 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know a group of Kalmans as members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, I have attended meetings with some of them. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Can you give any information as to their first names 
or identify them further? 

Mr. Hill. One was Bernice. 

Mr. KuNziG. Bernice Kalman ? 

Mr. Hill. One was Herb. 

Mr. KuNziG. You did attend meetings with Bernice Kalman and 
with Herb Kalman ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat does Bernice Kalman do, if you know ? 

Mr. Hill. I can't recall. 

Mr. KuNziG. David Kinkead, K-i-n-k-e-a-d ? 

Mr. KuNziG. David Kinkead? 

Mr. Hill. Well, there is another case where — on many occasions I 
had to get names by asking other people who a person was that I saw 
at a meeting. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you see a person at a meeting which was a Com- 
munist Party meeting who was then identified to you by someone else 
as David Kinkead? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. I think that should stand, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. jACKsoisr. Very well. 

Mr. KuNziG. And again for the sake of getting the record correct, 
Mr. Hill, you made such reports to the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation ? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

41002— 54— pt. 2 6 



3234 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. Johnny Lindesmitli, L-i-n-d-e-s-m-i-t-li? 

Mr. Hill. Right. 

Mr. KuNziG. Do you know Johnny Lindesmith's occupation, work ? 

Mr. Hill. He was a piano tuner. 

Mr. KuNziG. And a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. He was not a member of our branch, and I would say that 
I had never determined that he was. He was the husband of Rosalind 
Lindesmith, and he did stay in the house during meetings sometimes, 
and he did come to pick her up for meetings and would sit through the 
latter part of the meeting. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you know Rosalind Lindesmith to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. I have issued cards to her. 

Mr. KuNziG. You have issued cards to Rosalind Lindesmith? 

Mr. Jackson". Were these closed meetings of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. He would come into a closed meeting during the 
latter part of the meeting and remain and take her out of the meeting ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Mr. Chairman, that is pretty close there. I am 
not sure ; I think we ought to have further identification. The fact 
that a group of neighbors let a man come in and take his wife home 
is no sign that he was a member of the group, as I see it. 

Mr. Jackson. The Chair is constrained to say that it depends on 
what the group of neighbors was doing. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr. Jackson. It has been testified by the witness that this group 
of neighbors was engaged in a Communist Party meeting which was 
closed. Therefore, it would seem to me that closed meetings of the 
Communist Party where none but Communist Party members could 
enter would well establish 

Mr. Moulder. I think the record speaks for itself. You don't say 
he is a Communist or was ; is or was ? 

Mr. Hill. That is right. 

Mr. Moulder. Just as you describe, if you want to let the record 
stand that way. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. Kunzig. Joseph Melia ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr, Kunzig. How did you know Joseph Melia ? 

Mr. Hill. I attended several meetings, closed meetings, where he 
was in attendance. The final thing was he was set up as a director 
of the IPP within the party, and he came to the various branches and 
made talks, lectures, on the formation of the Independent Progressive 
Party. 

Mr, Kunzig. You knew him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Hill. To that extent, yes. That was a coimty job that he had, 
this IPP job. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I ask how that record stands? 
T\niat was the name of the last man that you said came to the meetings 
and talked about the IPP? Do you identify him as a Communist? 



COM]MUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3235 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. That last man ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. At closed meetings of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Counsel, may we have the remaining names upon which the 
committee has information? 

Mr. KuNziG. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Will the investigator please take the list to the wit- 
ness, and if the witness is able to identify any of the names out of his 
own knowledge from attendance at closed sessions of the Communist 
Party or by the fact of having issued a card, will the witness please 
state those names and pass over the others ? 

Mr. Hill. Eude Lambert, in attendance at a closed meeting. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you have any further identification as to occupa- 
tion or the location of the meeting ? 

Mr. Hn.L. He was referred to as a member of the security com- 
mission, Alameda County Security Commission. 

Mr. Jackson. Eef erred to in the meeting ? 

Mr. Hill. As a member of the commission. 

Mr. Moulder. That is the Communist commission you are referring 
to? 

Mr. PIiLL. Yes. 

Josephine Eidenoff, who has been covered. 

Loretta Starvus of the California State board of the Communist 
Party. 

Celeste Strack of the California State board of the Communist 
Party. 

George Edwards as the West Oakland organizer of the Commu- 
nist Party. 

There are three names here I would like to confer with somebody 
on. 

(At this point Mr. Hill conferred with Mr. Wheeler.) 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Counsel, quite obviously there is some ques- 
tion as to the names involved. Is the committee in possession of the 
information ? 

Mr. Wheeler. He is ready, Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Hill. I have a case here of a man who lived in our district, was 
within our jurisdiction. His wife attended our meetings, was a mem- 
ber of our group, but the man himself did not attend our group. Again 
I brought this up in executive committee meeting, and it was pointed 
out that he attended meetings in Itis own branch. 

Mr. Jackson. This was an authoritative statement in a committee 
meeting, in closed meeting of the Communist Party by someone who 
had enough authority to speak on the subject? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, yes. Should that name be brought up ? 

Mr. Doyle. I would object to it. I think it has to be personal knowl- 
edge rather than hearsay in this kind of a case. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well ; the committee is in possession of the in- 
formation in any event. 

Mr. Hill. I will pass the others. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well ; proceed, Mr. Counsel. 



3236 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, the witness has gone into great detail 
concerning chibs which he knew, members, people with whom he met as 
Communists, and he has completed the testimony, and I have no fur- 
ther questions to ask at this time. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Moulder. 

IMr. Moulder. Just 1 or 2, Mr. Chairman. In order to clear up some 
of the possible inferences that might be drawn from your testimony, 
the position M^hich you held was in the l()th Assembly Club ; is that the 
way you referred to it ? 

Mr, Hill. Yes, Assembly District. 

Mr. Moulder. Would you give us the approximate total member- 
ship, Communist membership, of that organization which you have re- 
ferred to as the 16th Assembly Branch of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Hill. It would be rather hard to give that as of a particular 
date. 

Mr. Moulder. Well, I am just referring to the approximate average 
membership of that organization. 

Mr. Hill. I would say in the twenties. 

Mr. Moulder. Approximately 20 in number? 

Mr. Hill. In the upper twenties, 24, 25, 22. 

Mr. Moulder. Within that area of the 16th assembly district were 
there other clubs such as you mentioned awhile ago ; that is, by local 
names ? 

Mr. Hill. No, our 16th Assembly District was the branch. 

Mr. Moulder. I see. 

Mr. Hill. It was under the east Oakland section. 

Mr. Moulder. In your testimony you have identified or referred to 
approximately 30 local clubs that were named to you by counsel. Can 
you give us, according to your best opinion, the approximate or average 
number or membership of the Communists in each of those clubs ? 

Mr. Hill. I am afraid that would just border on guess work en- 
tirely, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Isn't it true that sometimes there may have been a 
club, say, here in Alameda County called the Ben Davis Club that may- 
be only 3 or 4 persons were actually members of that club ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Isn't it true that in many instances they didn't get — in 
fact, it would be a rather large club that would be composed of 20 mem- 
bers, such as your 16th assembly 1 

Mr. Hill. In some cases, yes. 

Mr. Moulder. It would be what you might call a little home club 
where 2 people might invite 2 or 3 other people, and that is called a 
club ; is that it ? 

Mr. Hill. It could be very easily, yes. 

Mr. Moulder. For example, I especially want to clarify your testi- 
mony when you made refei-ence to the Railroad Workers' Club. That 
might have been composed of only 1 or 2 railroad workers or maybe 
1 or 2 persons that once worked with a railroad that might have been 
members of that club ; isn't that so ? The point I am getting at is not 
to give the impression that there was a large number of railroad work- 
ers because that was not true ; isn't that so ? 

Mr. Hill. That would be true ; yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3237 

Mr. Moulder. It might be only 2 or 3 or 4 people belonging to that 
club, and one of which might have been a railroad worker, or there 
might not have been any railroad workers as members of the club, but 
just a name given to it by Communist leadership in order to give the 
impression the railroad workers were participating in their organiza- 
tion ; isn't that so ? 

Mr. Hill. True, for propaganda purposes. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes. That is all. 

Mr. Hill. xVnother point on that issue : It could also parallel our 
club, which I can recall was as low as 5 members and as high as 35 
members. 

Mr. Moulder. Which club is that ? 

Mr. Hill. Our 16th Assembly District group. There was quite a 
lot of fluctuation. 

Mr. Moulder. I am just clarifying those things just so that someone 
might not get the erroneous impression, the basis for exaggeration 
that this was composed of thousands and thousands of people, some- 
thing of that sort. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Hill, please tell us the month in 1945 you went to 
work for the FBI and the month you left the FBI in 1949 for the 
record. I think it is important that we have that — not the day, but 
the month. You began in the early spring in 1945, you said, and you 
left in the fall of 1949. 

Mr. Hill. I would say we left in — this is as nearly as I can figure —  
in September or October, possibly as late as November in 1949. 

Mr. Doyle. You went to work what month ? 

Mr. Hill. In approximately April of 1945. 

Mr. Doyle. Your wife went to work the same month and quit the 
same month ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes, although we were actually reporting information of 
meetings and things, names and one thing and another, back as far as 
the late summer and fall of 1944. 

Mr. Doyle. And then after you quit with the FBI, did you continue 
to furnish classified information to them after, say, November of 
1949? 

Mr. Hill. On anything that we could ; yes. 

Mr. Doyle. How long did you continue doing that ? 

Mr. Hill. Up until the time we were uncovered, when my wife 
testified in the east this spring in Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Doyle. One more question. We all know that the Duclos letter, 
which was released from France in the early spring 1945, was a very 
important document in the interests of the Communist conspiracy all 
over the world. At that time he testified, and we know as a matter 
of record. Earl Browder was deposed or removed, and Will Foster 
was put in. 

Now, do you know whether or not it is a fact that in connection with 
the promulgation of the Duclos let.ter, when Mr. Foster came in, 
there was almost a complete reversal in policy within the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr, Doyle. In other words, they began again to advocate more 
openly force and violence? 



3238 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr, Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. They began to do it in their meetings ? 

Mr. Hill. Closed meetings, yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Closed meetings. All right, thank you. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Hill, when you were subpenaed did you go up 
to the Federal Bureau ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. When you were subpenaed by this committee ? 

Mr. Hill. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Did the Federal Bureau have any knowledge of your 
subpena at the time you appeared there ? 

Mr. Hill. I can't answer that question ; I mean, I don't know the 
answer to the question. 

Mr. Jackson. I understood from the staff 

Mr. Hill. I believe they did know of it. 

Mr. Jackson. Were you given any promise or payment or any 
emolument for your appearance here today ? 

Mr. Hill. No. 

Mr. Jackson. On behalf of the committee and Congress I want to 
extend our thanks to you for your testimony which has given some 
indication of the wide extent of Communist operations in the Alameda 
area. It is through the nature of testimony of this kind and through 
the nature of the reports which you submitted to the Federal Bureau 
over a long period of time that this committee and others have been 
able to piece together the pattern of Communist operations. 

I think that the Congress and the Nation owe a debt of thanks to 
those who are willing to in large part cut themselves off from family 
life and other social life in order to enter into the conspiracies for 
the purpose of gathering vital information of this kind. 

You will be continued under the protection of Federal subpena until 
notified to the contrary. 

Mr. Counsel, is there any reason why the witness should be further 
retained ? 

Mr. Kunzig. No, sir ; there is none. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well ; with the thanks of the committee you are 
excused. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr, Van Frederick, please. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about 
to give you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Frederick. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed, please. 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE VAN FREDERICK, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, RICHARD GLADSTEIN 

Mr. Kunzig. Will you state your full name, please? 
Mr. Frederick. George Van Frederick. 
Mr. Kunzig. How do you spell Frederick ? 
Mr. Frederick. F-r-e-d-e-r-i-c-k. 
Mr. Kunzig. Wlien and where were you born, sir? 
Mr. Frederick. Close to Enid, Okla., July 2, 1910. 
Mr. Kunzig. Would counsel please state his name and address for 
the record? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3239 

Mr. Gladstein. Yes. My name is Richard Gladstein, attorney at 
law, 240 Montgomery, San Francisco. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Frederick, were you present in the room to hear 
the testimony of the last witness, at least in the last hour or two 'i 

Mr. Frederick. I was. 

Mr. KuNziG. Then you heard the last witness identify you as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

(At this point Mr. Frederick conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Frederick. I heard what he said. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(At this point Mr. Frederick conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Frederick. Mr. Counsel, I feel that my political convictions, 
my political ideas, are my own business. I decline to answer 

(At this point Mr. Frederick conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you attempting to say, sir, that you do not wish to 
answer the question and that you refuse to answer on the ground 
that you might incriminate yourself ? 

Mr. Frederick. Mr. Counsel, I wish to answer this question in my 
own way. 

]Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I recommend that the witness be di- 
rected to answer the question. Have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? It is very simple ; he can say "Yes" or "No," or 
he can refuse to answer. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer the question. Fol- 
lowing that answer he will be given every opportunity to explain his 
reasons. 

(At this point Mr. Frederick conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Frederick. I decline to tell this committee anything of my 
political activities, based upon the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. And in response to the specific question you decline 
to answer ? 

Mr. Frederick. Yes. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Are we to understand, Mr. Frederick, that you feel 
that membership in the Communist Party is merely a political matter? 

(At this point Mr. Frederick conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Frederick. Mr. Counsel, Mr. Chairman, I believe it is written 
in the laws of this country that you can be a member of any political 
organization, any organization, without having to be interrogated or 
intimidated. 

Mr. KuNziG. Then you feel the Communist Party is merely a politi- 
cal organization and nothing more ? 

(At this point Mr. Frederick conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Frederick. I understand that the laws are written such that 
you can be a member of the Communist Party, because the Commu- 
nist Party legally — it is legal to belong to the Communist Party ; also 
to be an officer of this party. 

Mr. KuNZTG. You are absolutely right ; it is not illegal to be a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party. Therefore, how could you possibly 
feel it would incriminate you to answer the question? 

(At this point Mr. Frederick conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Frederick. Because I heard your chairman say that being a 
member of the Communist Party is the same thing as being a part of a 
subversive conspiracy. 



3240 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. KuNZiG. That was not only said by the chairman, but was also 
said, Mr. Frederick, by justices of the Supreme Court of the United 
States of America. 

Now I have another question to ask you. I have here testimony by 
Mary Elizabeth Parrott Bradsher, taken the 2d day of November 1953, 
when she was asked the following question : 

Mrs. Bradsher, to the best of your recollection can you tell me whom you met 
and worked with as members of the Communist Party since the reformation of 
the Communist Party in October 1945 until you became inactive? 

And her answer was : 

There was a fellow named Jerry ; there was a Jean Fredericks and a Van 
Fredericks, man and wife; Marian Redner, R-e-d-n-er, whom we knew as Marian 
Hammond and Jean Hammond ; Bill Redner ; Clara and Bob Ragland, 
R-a-s-1-a-n-d ; Bimbo Brown ; Ella and Jack Gonzales, G-o-n-z-a-l-e-s ; Bruce An- 
derson ; June and Herb Naboisek, N-a-b-o-i-s-e-k ; Frank Parsons ; Bob Neville, 
N-e-v-i-1-l-e 

(At this point Mr. Frederick conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 
Mr. KuNziG (continuing to read) . 

Ray Thompson ; Naomi and Al White ; Gene and Jean Lien ; and Willie 
Laughery, L-a-u-g-h-e-r-y ; and a D. D. Jones. 

In that group named by Mrs. Bradsher is Van Fredericks named 
as a member of the Communist Party. Do you wish to affirm or deny 
that statement ? 

Mr. Frederick. Mr. Counsel, before I answer this question I would 
like to understand as to whether the committee, according to what I 
read in the paper, is going to refuse to answer the questions to me and 
my lawyer for the suit I have filed against them, causing me to lose 
my job with the corporation with which I was working here m San 
Francisco, or if by the fact that you refuse questions, refuse to answer 
questions, as the press has stated, that if this is the case, then are there 
2 laws written, one for Congressmen, and one for common citizens like 
myself. 

Mr. Jacilsgn. There has been — while the chair is not inclined to 
engage in personalities — no refusal on the part of anyone with respect 
to the suit in question. The matter is taking its due course and due 
process in the courts, it is my understanding, and we will see what 
comes out of that action. 

However, at the present moment there is a question pending from 
the counsel which I wish we could have answered, 

Mr. Frederick. I read in the paper, in the San Francisco 
Chronicle 

Mr. Jackson. What you read in the paper, sir, is not of the slightest 
moment at this time. There is a question pending, and I wish you 
would answer it or decline to answer it. 

(At this point Mr. Frederick conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Frederick. May I consult with my attorney for a moment 'i 

Mr. Jackson. Of course, at any time. 

(At this point Mr. Frederick conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Frederick. Mr. Counsel and Mr. Chairman, I am not inter- 
ested in commenting on what this last witness has said. I decline on 
the grounds of the fifth amendment which the Constitution affords 
me. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, Mr. Frederick, would you state your address, 
please, for the record ? I don't believe we got that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3241 j 

Mr. Frederick. My address at present is 2011 Bridgeway, Sausalito, 
Calif. 

Mr. KuNziG. And what employment have you had recently that 
you just discussed where you are no longer employed? 

(At this point Mr. Frederick conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Frederick. For the past 3 years I have been a draftsman. This 
was up until the time your man served me with a subpena in my home, 
and I was iired by the company with which I was employed at that 
time. 

Mr. KuNziG. What was the company ? 

Mr. Frederick. Bechtel Corp. 

Mr, KuNziG. Would you spell that, please? 

Mr. Frederick. B-e-c-h-t-e-1 Corp. 

Mr. KtTNziG. What type of work does that corporation do? 

Mr. Frederick. Engineering and construction, 

Mr. KuNziG. Does the company, if it lies within your knowledge, 
do any defense work of any kind whatsoever ? 

Mr, Frp:derick, Not to my knowledge, I was strictly on power- 
plant for Pacific Gas & Electric, 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

Mr. Jacksgist. Mr, Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer, No, 

Mr, Jackson. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder, No questions. 

Mr, Jackson, Mr, Doyle, 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Mr. Chairman, the record ought to show — 
and I may say for the gentleman — the fact that a man is subpenaed 
is no sign that he is guilty of anything, and this committee regrets 
that any employer discharges any person merely because a person 
has been subpenaed to come before this committee. 

This committee is interested in finding facts, whatever they may 
be. I wish to say that so far as I am concerned that the fact that any 
witness is subpenaed before this committee doesn't mean in my book 
that he is a bad citizen 

(At this point Mr, Frederick conferred with Mr, Gladstein,) 

Mr. Doyle, Nor that he is subversive necessarily. 

Of course I do think very clearly the record shows that by and 
large men who have continued to be Communists since 1945, since the 
Duclos letter, do it Avith their eyes open, and that most of them are 
probably members of the Communist conspiracy if they are still 
Communists after April 1945, 

I just wish to say, Mr. Chairman — and I know you other members 
quite agree with me — the fact that a man is subpenaed is no sign he 
is a bad citizen in any sense. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness — — 

Mr. Frederick. Mr. Doyle — may I ask Mr. Doyle a question? 

Mr. KuNziG. There is no further 

Mr. Frederick. May I say something to Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Jackson, Is there a question pending? 

Mr. KuNziG. There is no question, Mr, Chairman, 

Mr, Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

(At this point Mr, Frederick conferred with Mr, Gladstein.) 



*3242 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. KuNziG. No, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Frederick. May I reply to Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Jackson. I don't know that the observation 



Mr. Doyle. I didn't make a statement in order to ask for a reply 
at all. I just felt that you were entitled to have that statement from 
me as one member of the committee, and I know no record to the 
contrary. 

Mr. Frederick. I would like to invite you, Mr. Doyle, to talk to 
Bechtel and get my job back for me, and I will tell you why. I have 
a daughter 17 years old who lives with me, one that does not live with 
me that I have to support. I have a pregnant wife. This job is very 
important to me. I invite you personally to go to Bechtel and get my 
job back for me. 

Mr. Jackson. May I extend you an invitation to answer the ques- 
tion as to whether you are now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Frederick. I have answered that. 

Mr. Jackson. You decline to answer that question ? 

Mr. Frederick. I have answered it. It is in the record. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Is there any reason why the witness should not be excused? 

Mr. KuNziG. There is no reason, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused. 

Mr. KuNziG. James Fenton Wood. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemnly swear in the testimonj?^ you are 
about to give you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Wood. I do. 

Mr. Jackson. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES FENTON WOOD, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, RICHARD GLADSTEIN 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Chairman, I don't wish to have these photographers 
photograph me while I am testifying. They can photograph me be- 
fore or afterwards. Is that permissible? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, if the press will. 

Mr. Wood. Is that agreeable with the press? Before or after, 
please. 

Mr. Jackson. Let it be understood that the press is here as a public 
information media. I am not going to restrict them unduly to any 
activities that may take place during the course of your interrogation. 
If it is convenient for the press to get their pictures now or later, 
that is quite all right. 

If there are developments 

Mr. Wood. I asked the press to agree to that. 

I have one more request : I would like them not to turn up this 
microphone when I am consulting. There was a return when he was 
turning up that microphone. I want private. 

Mr. ScHERER. If counsel will leave his hand off the microphone 
when he talks to you, that won't happen. 

Mr. Wood. I know enough about electricity to know they were 
turning it up. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3243 

Mr. Jackson. There will be no changing of the volume unless it 
is necessary because someone has placed his hand over it and we are 
getting feedback, in which instance it will be turned down. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your full name for the record, please? 

Mr. Wood. James Fenton Wood. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would counsel please state his name and address for 
the record ? 

Mr. Gladstein. My name is Richard Gladstein, attorney at law, 
240 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

Mr. KuNziG. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Wood. Ogden, Utah, 1918. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your present address, sir? 

Mr. Wood. 975 Grove Street. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Where is that? 

Mr. Wood. San Francisco. 

Mr. KuNziG. And your present occupation, sir ? 

Mr. Wood. I was a draftsman until I was laid off just recently due 
to a subpena. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliere were you a draftsman ? 

Mr. Wood. At Bechtel Corp. 

Mr. KuNziG. The same corporation as the last witness? 

Mr. Wood. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, were you present in the room and did you hear 
the testimony previously given during this day with regard to 
yourself ? 

(At this point Mr. Wood conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Wood. I heard part of this testimony that was given. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you hear the testimony of Mr. Hill to the effect 
that he knew you as a member of the Communist Party in Alameda 
County ? 

Mr. Wood. I heard the testimony. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(At this point Mr. Wood conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Wood. I first want to say that I would never admit having 
known Mr. Hill. I think it would be the most degrading thing I 
could think of doing. 

Mr. KuNziG. Just answer the question instead of worrying about 
degrading yourself. Just answer the question. Have you ever been 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Wood. Well, I wish to say that I decline on the first amend- 
ment because this is an invasion of my private political beliefs. I 
fought in the Army as a citizen to insure that private political free- 
dom of thought would continue to exist and also 

Mr. KuNziG. You do know, don't you, the Supreme Court of the 
United States has settled the question of whether you can use the 
first amendment in a situation like this? The people who used it 
went to prison. Is there any other amendment you would like to 
use? 

(At this point Mr. Wood conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Wood. I have no knowledge that the Supreme Court has 
made such a decision. If they are about to act on it, that may be a 
different thing. 



3244 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. KuNZiG. This was several years ago, but just answer the ques- 
tion. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

(At this point Mr. Wood conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Wood. I want to state that I still believe that the first amend- 
ment is a very valid reason for declining to answer such a question, 
and once more, I am told that I should invoke the fifth amendment, 
so I will. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Now, you are refusing then to answer on the ground 
that to answer might incriminate you, is that correct? 

Mr. Wood. Could you state the question again ? 

Mr. KuNZiG. I am stating so w^e get the record straight, I want 
to understand : Are you refusing to answer the question on the 
grounds that it may incriminate you to so answer ? 

(At this point Mr. Wood conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr, Wood. Yes, I am. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Wood, I decline to answer on the grounds that the fifth amend- 
ment to the Constitution gays I do not have to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Jackson. The committee is aware of what the Constitution 
says. 

Mr. Wood. You asked me my reason. You asked me a question; 
I am answering. 

Mr, Jackson, The committee has listened for a long time to what 
the Constitution says, and I am sure they are as fully aware of it as 
is the witness, 

Mr, Wood, I think they should take it to heart a little bit, 

Mr, Jackson, That we are doing and trying to preserve it. Are 
there any further questions? 

Mr. KuNziG. I would just like to aslv one more. Was Dickson 
Hill correct in his identification of you as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

(At this point Mr. Wood conferred with Mr, Gladstein,) 

Mr, Wood, I have answered the question that you infer, and I de- 
cline to answer further, 

Mr. KuNziG. You refuse to answer this particular question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment, is that right ? 

(At this point Mr. Wood conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Wood. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG, No further questions, Mr, Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. None, 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr, Moulder, Did you ever meet or know Mr. Hill before in your 
life? 

(At this point Mr. Wood conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Wood. Same answer, 

Mr, Jackson, For the same reasons ? 

Mr. Wood, Same reason. 

Mr. Moulder. How old are you ? 

Mr. Wood. Thirty-five. 

Mr. Moulder. Are you married? 

Mr. Wood. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3245 

Mr. Moulder. Have you ever served in any branch of the armed 
services ? 

Mr. Wood. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. Wliat branch? 

Mr. Wood. Army, 

Mr. Moulder. How long were you in the Army ? 

Mr. Wood. Three years. I would like to make a statement for the 
reason I was there. 

Mr. Moulder. I was asking that for the record for your own 

Mr. Wood. I would like 

Mr. Mout.der. You were three years in the armed services? 

Mr. Wood. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. In the Army ? 

Mr. Wood. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder, Did you serve overseas? 

Mr. Wood. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. As what? 

Mr. Wood. I was with the Air Force ? 

Mr. Moulder. In the Air Force ? 

Mr. Wood. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. What section of the overseas service were you in ? 

Mr. Wood. I was a radio technician. 

Mr. Moulder. Where? 

Mr. Wood. I was in England for most of the time and went to 
France, Belgium, Holland. 

Mr. Moulder. In what business is the Bechtel Corp. engaged ? 

Mr. Wood. Engineering, construction. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you were in the United States Army ? 

(At this point Mr. Wood conferred with Mr. Gladstein.) 

Mr. Wood. I think this question has been previously asked, and I 
refuse to answer further. 

Mr. ScHERER. For the same reason ? 

Mr. Wood. Same reason. 

Mr. Moulder. One more question : Was your discharge honorable or 
dishonorable ? 

Mr. Wood. Honorable. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

Mr. Wood. I also have citations, I might mention. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? The witness is excused. 

Mr. Wood. Will the committee take action to get me my job back? 

Mr. Jackson. Will you take action to cooperate with the committee 
in telling us what you know about the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Wood. If the committee will abide in a constitutional 



manner- 



Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused. 

Next witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Eugene Toopeekoff. 



3246 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about 
to give to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EUGENE ALEXANDER TOOPEEKOFF, ACCOMPANIED 
BY HIS COUNSEL, LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr. KuNziG. Will you state your full name, please ? 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. Eugene Alexander Toopeekoff. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell that, please ? 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. T-o-o-p-e-e-k-o-f-f. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see that you are represented by counsel. Would 
counsel please state his name and office address for the record ? 

Mr. Speiser. Lawrence Speiser, and I am the staff counsel of the 
American Civil Liberties Union. My office address is 503 Market 
Street, San Francisco. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, would you state when and where you were born, 
Mr. Toopeekoff? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I was born in Russia on February 12, 1900. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your present residence, sir ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. 1050 Mountain Boulevard, Oakland 11, Calif. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where are you presently employed, Mr. Toopeekoff ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. C. C. Moore & Co., engineers. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell that company, please ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. C. C.— that is initials — Moore, M-o-o-r-e. 

Mr. KuNziG. Is that at 450 Mission Street ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. In San Francisco ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. San Francisco. 

Mr. KuNziG. What type of work do you do there ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Draftsman. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you present in the room to hear the testimony 
of the witness, Mr. Hill, today ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. A part of the time. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you hear Mr. Hill's testimony regarding yourself 
as a member of the Communist Party ? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Yes, I have. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party, 
Mr. Toopeekoff? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Would you state your answer once more ? 

Mr. KuNziG. What is that ? 

Mr. Toofeekoff. Wliat was the question once more? 

Mr. KuNziG, I believe it was, Have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
self-incrimination, or I don't want to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. KuNziG. You refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. But at the same time I would like to state that I 
am not now and I have not been a member of the Communist Party 
for the past 5 years. 

Mr. KuNziG. For the past 5 years ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3247 

Mr. Jackson. Wlien did vou leave the Communist Party ? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1950? 
I presume the answer is "No" since you said you were not in the 
last 5 years. 

Mr. TooPEKOFF. That is correct ; last 5 years. 

Mr. KuNziG. The answer is "No," you were not a member of the Com- 
munist Party in 1950 ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. That is correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. How about 1949; were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party in 1949 ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Well, I believe that the 5-year period will take 
you to December 1, 1948, sir, if my calculations are correct. 

Mr. KuNziG. Then suppose I ask you, were you a member of the 
Communist Party on December 2, 1948 ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I would say "No." 

Mr. KuNziG. How about November 30, 1948 ? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
November 30 ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I will claim the privilege of protection, 

Mr. KuNZiG. Of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. That is right. 

Mr. KuNZiG. So you refuse to answer the question as regards to 
November 30, 1948, but you were not a member on December 2 '? How 
about December 1 ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I would claim the protection, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. The switch came somewhere between the first and the 
second ; is that right ? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I claim the privilege, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Toopeekoff', are you a naturalized citizen at the 
present time ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I am, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. When did you become a naturalized citizen? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I believe that was in May 1934. That is correct, 
yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, I would like to ask you, going back through the 
years now, Mr. Toopeekoff, were you a member of the Communist 
Party in 1947? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I wish to claim the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment, protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNZiG. 1946? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Answer would be the same. 

Mr. KuNziG. 1945? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Would be the same. 

Mr. KuNziG. 1944? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I would like to claim the privilege of protection, 

Mr. KuNziG. 1943 ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Same thing, sir. 

Mr. KuNZiG. 1942? 



3248 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. I came to California in April 1942. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you join the Communist Party when you came to 
California ? Is that the point ? 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. I would claim the protection of the Constitution. 

Mr. KuNziG. You didn't answer my other question, though. In 
1942 were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. No ; I was not a member of the Communist Party 
on the day when I went to California. 

Mr. KuNziG. So you refuse to answer the question between 1942 and 
1948, I guess it was, wasn't it ? Check the record again, will you ? 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. Yes, sir; December 1, 1948. 

Mr. KuNziG. I see. Did you ever engage in your work that you 
told us about as an engineer — as a draftsman, did you ever engage in 
war work of any kind, any confidential work? 

Mr. TooFEEKOFF. I dou't believe so, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you do any work that had to do with the war 
during those periods in the United States ? 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. Yes, I did ; yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. What type of work was that? 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. Draftsman, drafting work. 

Mr. KuNziG. Draftsman work that had to do with the war eilort? 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. That is right, sir. 

Mr. KuNziG. During the time that you were doing that work were 
you a member of the Communist Party ? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. ToopEEKOFF. I will claim the protection of the fifth amend- 
ment to the Constitution. 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr, KuNzm. Would you give the committee a resume of your em- 
ployment background, Mr. Toopeekoff, since you came to this coun- 
try, let us say ? 

Mr. Toopj:ekoff, Since I came to this country. Would you mind if 
I will refer to the records I have here ? 

Mr. KuNziG. No ; go right ahead. 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Since I came to United States in the fall of 1923, 
I was employed at Armour & Co. in Chicago, stockyards. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliat type of work? 

Mr. Toopeekoff, I was steamfitter helper. 

Mr. Jackson. How long did that employment last ? What period 
of time ? 

Mr, Toopeekoff, I would say it lasted from 1923 through 1928, 
sir, 

Mr, Jackson, If you can, will you give the approximate period of 
time involved in each of your 

Mr. Toopeekoff, Well, I would say I was employed on and off 
while going to school — that is, at the same job — and that was about 5 
years altogether, in the capacities of steamfitter helper first, and then 
in the engineering department of the same company, Armour & Co. 
stockyards. 

That was Armour. Then I was also employed by X-L Refrigerat- 
ing Co., also in Chicago, I would say maybe for a year. 

Then again I was intermittently employed by a fellow by the name 
of G. P, Swartz, also in Chicago, I believe his name was S-w-a-r-t-z, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3249 

G. P. The work also was of an intermittent nature while going to 
school. 

Then I was employed by Emergency Relief Commission. That was 
a period, I don't remember exactly, of perhaps a year, year and a half. 
I have down here 1932, 1934. 

Then I went to Rochester, N. Y., and I worked with American Zinc 
Corp. I have it down here as 1934, 1935. Then I came back to Chi- 
cago and worked for United States Cold Storage Co. in Chicago on 
Pershing Road, and the period I have here is close to 6 years. That 
takes me down to 1941. 

I was unemployed for a period of time, 1941, and then I went to 
Sturgeon Bay, Wis., and at the end of my unemployment period I 
found a job with Leathem D. Smith Co. They were shipbuilders 
located in Sturgeon Bay, Wis., and I was with them until spring of 
1942. 

Then I came back to Chicago, and I worked for perhaps a couple 
of weeks at the Aircraft Production Engineers. That was in the year 
1942, spring of it, and then I boarded a bus and came to California. 
That was in the spring, April of 1942. 

Mr. Jackson. What is your record of employment since 1942? 

Mr. ToopEEKOFF. When I came to California I started to work 
for Pacific Bridge Co. in Alameda, and I was there, I believe, up to 
February 1943. Then I changed the employment to Kaiser Cargo 
offices in Oakland, downtown Oakland, and I believe I worked there 
up to October of 1943. Then I changed employment to that of Walsh- 
Kaiser Co. — W-a-1-s-h, Their offices, temporary offices, were located 
in San Francisco in the same building where — I think it was on Mont- 
gomery Street. 

Mr. Jackson. What type of work was performed by that organiza- 
tion? 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. That particular work, draftsman also. That was 
as a draftsman, too. 

Mr. Jacksox. What type of work did the firm do ? ^"SHiat was the 
nature of that ? 

Mr. TooPEEKOFF. That was in connection — Walsh-Kaiser were 
building some of the cargo ships, I think, and the ships were designed 
by another engineering office — what was it, I am sorry, I have forgot- 
ten ; it was on Montgomery Street, an engineering office specializing 
in maritime construction, and we did some work in connection with 
their work. I believe we were subcontractors or something like that, 
doing some detail work for that company. 

I am sorry I don't remember the name of that, that Walsh-Kaiser. 
Then I changed my employment to that of United Engineering in 
Alameda where I was up to November 1945. Then I was employed by 
E. J. Wegener, AY-e-g-e-n-e-r, and I believe I was with his office up to 
May 1946. 

Then I went back to Cincinnati Engineering and stayed there up 
until December of 1946, and then I changed the job and went to work 
for C. C. IMoore Co., and I was then employed by that concern as of 
the moment. 

Mr. KuNziG. ISIr. Chairman, I have no further questions to ask. 
I would like to suggest that since the witness obviously keeps most 
exact records about various things that he has done in his life, that 

41002—54 — pt. 2 7 



3250 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

I am sure if he would answer the questions that were asked, he could 
be of oreat assistance to this committee from the records which he 
obviously keeps. 

I hope that at some time in the future, if this witness sees fit to 
answer these questions, he can come before this committee and an- 
swer them and be of the gi*eat assistance that I feel sure he could 
be. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Sclierer. 

Mr. ScHERER. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. How old were you when you came to the United 
States from Russia? 

Mv. TooPEEKOFF. I camc in 1923, so that makes it 23 years old, 
sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Are your parents still living over there ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. No, they are not. I mean, they are deceased. 

Mr. Moulder. Since arrival in this country have you at any time 
been in contact with the Soviet Union consul or Embassy or any of 
their representatives over in this country ? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I don't believe so, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. Tliat is all. 

Mr. Doyle. After you left the Communist Party as a member, did 
you take any steps to let your friends and neighbors know that you 
retired from the party, and if so, what steps ? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Toopeekoff. I am sorry, sir; that is a compound question. 
Would you please break it down so that I can answer it? 

Mr. Doyle. I note the same distinguished counsel is with you now 
as was here this morning. He called attention then that it was a com- 
pound question that was asked. Well, I will try to make it simple for 
you. Wliat have you done, if anything, since you left the Communist 
Party membership to inform any of your friends and neighbors that 
you no longer were a member of the Communist Party ? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Toopeekoff. It sounds exactly the same way, sir. It is a com- 
pound question. I am sorry, but that is the way it looks and sounds 
to me. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you don't want to answer it. You know 
what I mean by the question, don't you ? That is in plain English lan- 
guage, isn't it? You understand what I am asking you to answer, 
don't you ? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Well, sir, you have asked me a question on which 
I have claimed the privilege of protection under the fifth and the first 
amendments before, and I have answered those. 

Mr. Doyle. I am sure you didn't answer that question before, sir. 
I am sure that it was not asked you. 

Mr. Toopekoff. Well, the implication is still there, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I think I have no more questions. 

Mr. Jackson. I believe j^ou said, sir, tliat you were not presently 
a member of the Communist Party ; is that correct? 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Yes, yes. 

Mr. Jackson. The only conclusion that one can draw is that during 
the period about which you refused to testify you were a member of 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3251 

the Communist Party or were otherwise involved in something which 

would involve a measure of self-incrimination for you to answer 

questions. Over that period of time did you take any step or make any 

move which you consider to have been the act of a disloyal citizen 

during the period of time in question ? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Toopeekoff. Would you let me read a statement which I have 

prepared for the committee ? That would answer your question. 
Mr. Jackson. The committee will be very happy to receive in 

written form any statement that you have, and, subject to the rules 

of the committee, it may be inserted in the record. 
Mr. Toopeekoff. I see. 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 
Mr. Toopeekoff. I am pretty sure the statement will answer the 

question, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Is it possible to answer the question briefly as to 

whether or not you engaged in any disloyal activity or any activity of 

a subversive nature during the period of time about which you refused 

to answer questions ? 

(At this point Mr. Toopeekoff conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

^Ir. Toopeekoff. I am not going to read the whole statement. 1 

will just read the part of it that applies to your question : 

I have never been a spy nor have I ever advocated the overthrow of our Gov- 
ernnient by force and violence. I have not been a witness to anyone advocating 
the overthrow of our Government by force and violence. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. KuNziG. No, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused. 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Eugene Eagle. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you are about 
to give you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

jMr. Eagle. Yes, I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EUGENE EAGLE, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

JULIUS M. KELLEE 

INIr. KuNziG. Would you state your full name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Eagle. Mv full name is Eugene Eagle, E-a-g-1-e. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would counsel please state his name and address for 
the record, sir ? 

Mr. Keller. Yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Counsel, would you kindly now state your name and 
address for the record? 

Mr. Keller. My name is Julius INI. Keller, 68 Post Street, San 
Francisco. 

Mr. KuNziG. Dr. Eagle, would you please state your present 
address? 

Mr. Eagle. 1324 Broadway, San Francisco. 
. Mr. KuNZiG. And your occupation, sir ? 

]\Ir. Eagle. I am an optometrist. 

IVIr. KuNziG. Were you present in the room to hear the testimony 
of the witness prior 



3252 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Eagle. I heard the testimony, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Did you hear the testimony given by Mr. Hill earlier 
that he kneAv you to be a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Eagle. I heard the testimony, yes. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party, 
Dr. Eagle? 

Mr. Eagle. For the last couple of days and weeks I have been won- 
dering just what Congress took up before they began these un-Ameri- 
can investigations • 



Mr. Jackson. Will the witness kindly confine his remarks to the 
answer of the question. 

Mr. Eagle. I am going to answer that question, sir, and I would like 
for the committee 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, answer it, and then if you have any ex- 
planation to make, we will be very happy to 

Mr. Eagle. I would like for the committee to accord me the same 
courtesy in answering these questions as they did a couple of other 
witnesses here yesterday, 

Mr. Jackson. You will be accorded every courtesy which is consis- 
tent with your own conduct toward the committee. If you will an- 
swer the question which is presently pending, you will be given an 
opportunity to explain your answer. 

Mr. Eagle. The sum total of my answer to that question is that I 
refuse to answer that question on various grounds. 

I was very much struck with awe at the friendly witnesses. I have 
been and am very much an admirer of the American production tech- 
niques, and I notice that one of the things we produce best and quickest 
today are Communists. In Hitler Germany they produced Jews 

Mr. Jackson. The committee is not here to listen to a lesson in his- 
tory nor in constitutional law. It is here to ask you some questions, to 
seek some information from you, to elicit some answers from you. 

(At this point Mr. Eagle conferred with Mr. Keller.) 

Mr. Jackson. You have declined to answer tlie question? 

Mr. Eagle. I decline to answer the question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment, and I mean the entire fifth amendment. I also de- 
cline to answer on several other grounds. I decline to answer on the 
grounds of the fourth amendment ; I decline an answer on the grounds 
of the first amendment and on the grounds of the tenth amendment. 
Such an answer maybe is a compound answer. 

Mr. Jackson. That is sufficient answer. 

Mr. Eagle. I would like to 

My. Jackson. Nothing further is needed. 

Mr. Eagle. This committee came all the way from Washington to 
hear me say that ? 

I understand this committee came 

Mr. Jackson. Jnst a moment. The Chair again feels constrained 
to warn the audience that any demonstration of any sort, of approval 
or disapproval, will immediately result in the clearing of the hearing 
room. This is the second time that it has been necessary to bring 
this to the attention of the audience. This is a congressional com- 
mittee operating under the authority and the power of the United 
States Government. There will be dignity and decorum in the hear- 
ing room if it is necessary to clear the entire hearing room in order 
to achieve it. 



COMMXmiST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3253 

The officers about the hearing room will please observe those who 
are responsible for any further outbreaks and will take them out of 
the hearing room. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, Dr. Eagle, would you answer this question: 
Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Eagle. In view of what has gone before in this hearing, and 
in view of the fact that people like Truman and Clark are suspected 
of harboring or aiding or aoetting foreign countries, in view of the 
general situation in this country, I will have to plead and stand on 
the privilege guaranteed in the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, this witness does not have to stand on 
anything. Do you stand on the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Eagle. I do stand on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Let the witness clearly understand that lie is under 
no compulsion to stand on anything. If he chooses to take his con- 
stitutional privilege, that is his privilege. He is under no compulsion 
to do so. 

Mr. Eagle. I feel that I am 

Mr. Jackson. Do you liave any questions, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. No questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. No. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

Mr. KuNziG. No, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Tlie witness is excused. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mrs. Bernice Kalman. 

Mr. Treuhaft. That witness was called for yesterday's session, I 
believe ; she received a telegi'am stating that she should be here yester- 
day. She was here with her attorney at that time. Her attorney 
is unable to attend today and asked me to state that if the committee 
wishes to notify her of some convenient time when she may be heard, 
that she will be here. 

She was not given any instructions yesterday about returning. 
She was subpenaecl for yesterday, not for today. 

Mr. Jackson. I am advised by counsel that the earliest time that we 
can accommodate the witness will be Friday. However, I am further 
advised that the subpenas which are issued are on a continuing basis, 
subject to the work of the committee which it is not possible to plan 
in advance to an hour. Therefore, any other witnesses who may be 
in the hearing room are expected to return tomorrow. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Would the gentleman who has just spoken please 
identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Treuhaft. Yes; my name is Robert Treuhaft. I am an at- 
torney. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well; Friday morning at 10 o'clock for the 
witness. 

Do 3"ou liave any further witnesses? 



41002— 54— pt. 2- 



3254 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Treuitaft. I might say that I am not the attorney for this 
Avitness. All I can do is communicate the information to the attor- 
ney for the witness. 

Mr. ScHERER. Who is the attorney for the witness? 

Mr. Treuhaft. The attorney for the witness is Mr. Edward Gro- 
gan, G-r-o-g-a-n. 

Mr. Doyle. You a])peared here at his request, didn't you? 

Mr. Treuiiaft. I did. 

Mr. DoYLfi. You appeared here at the request of the attorney for 
the lady? 

Mr. TRP:uiiArT. I did. 

Mr. Doyle. You apj^eared here, therefore, officially for him as her 
attorney. 

Mr. Treuiiaft. I appeared here at his request and as a courtesy to 
him. 

Mr. Doyle. And you will report to him immediately that that hour 
is set? 4 

Mr. Treuiiaft. I will likewise, as a matter of courtesy, infonn him 
of what the members of the committee have said. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I am a member of the bar also, and I know that 
we will receive his and your cooperation. 

Mr. Treuiiaft. Yes. I trust that tlie subpenas that are issued and 
the proceedings in which you are a member of the bar are in better 
form than the subpenas that are issued here. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. As long as the subpenas are answered, 
that is all. 

Do you liave any further witnesses? 

Mr. KuNziG. Dan Mali, M-a-h. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you solemuly swear in the testimony you are 
about to give to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Mah. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DAN KEW MAH, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

CHARLES R. GARRY 

Mv. KuxziG. Would you state your full name for the record, please? 

Mr. Mah. Dan Kew Mah. 

Mr. KuxziG. Would you spell it, please ? 

Mr. Mah. D-a-n K-e-w M-a-h. 

My. Kunzig. Wliat is your present address, Mr. Mah ? 

Mr. Mah. San Francisco, Calif. 

Mr. Kunzig. And your street address, please ? 

Mr. Mah. San Francisco, Calif. 

]Mr. Kunzig. There must be more. Would you give us the street, 
jjlease ? 

(At this po'mt INTr. Mah conferred with Mr. Garry.) 

Mr. Mah. I will write the address down and give it to the com- 
mittee secretly. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, if you will furnish the committee with 
your address, it will be satisfactory. 

Mr. Kunzig. Would the counsel please state his name and address 
for the record ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3255 

Mr. Garry. Charles E. Garry, G-a-r-r-y, 68 Post Street, attorney 
at law. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Mr. Mali, what is j'oiir present employment? 

(At this point Mr. Mah conferred with Mr. Garry.) 

Mr. Mail I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. SciiERER. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, you direct the witness to 
answer. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, it is part of proper identification. I think the 
question is entirely proper. You are directed to answer the question 
as to your present occupation. 

(At this point Mr. Mali conferred with ISIr. Garry.) 

Mr. Mail On the following grounds. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you persist in your refusal to answer ? 

Mr. Mah. Well, this is a private matter. From some of the testi- 
mony I have heard today, people has been deprived of their jobs, and 
I don't wish to be deprived of my job. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you persist in your declination to answer? 

Mr. Mail I certainly do. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. For what reasons ? 

Mr. Mah. On the ground that I do not wish to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. Jackson. Would disclosing the true nature of your employ- 
ment be a criminal offense ? 

(At this point Mr. Mah conferred with Mr. Garry.) 

Mr. Mau. I decline to answer that. 

(At this point Mr. Mah conferred with Mr. Garry.) 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Mali, in the case of the United State,^ of America 
V. William Schiielderman. in the United States District Court, South- 
ern District of California, Central Division, there was testimony taken 
Tuesday, April 1, 1952, where testimony was given by William Ford 
to the following effect — I will read it to you : 

Have you attended any Communist Party meetings at which Oleta O'Connor 
Yates was present other than the one you have just related ? 

Yes; I have. She attended a meeting of the executive committee of my 
branch of the party in my apartment at 926 Grove Street, San Francisco. 

And when did that take place? 

That took place in about, as near as I can recall, September of 1946. 

And who else was present at that meeting? 

Harry Williams was present and Dan Mah. D-a-n M-a-h. 

Then Mr. Ken Stone says : 

Your Honor, may I assist the reporter on that? It is my understanding the 
name is spelled M-a-h. 

The court asked, "Does that refresh your recollection?" 

x\nd the witness said, "yes, sir." 

Now, Mr. Mah, have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

(At this time Mr. Mah conferred with Mr. Garry.) 

Mr. Mail Before I answer this question I wish to state that I 
didn't get an opportunity to finish my answer to the last question 
because I did not wish to interrupt the chairman when he spoke. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. Complete the answer to your last 
question. 

Mr. Mail What I wished to say, following what I said, was that 
on the same ground, which I failed to inject into the record. 



3256 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, and now, the question, I believe, pending 
is, have you ever been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mail I refuse to answer that question on the ground of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Moulder, 

Mr. Moulder. May I suggest you give him an opportunity to deny, 
affirm, or explain that testimony which you have read to him, Mr. 
Counsel. 

Mr. KuNziG. I now wish to ask you, Mr. Mali, whether you would 
please affirm or deny this testimony taken in the United States court 
record in which you were identified as having been present at Com- 
munist Party meetings. 

(At this point Mr. Mali conferred with Mr. Garry.) 

Mr. Mah. I would decline to answer that question on the ground 
of the first amendment and also on the ground of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. When and where were you born, Mr. Mali? 

Mr. Mail When was I born ? 

Mr. KuNziG. And where; yes. 

Mr. Mail I was born in Fresno, Calif., in the year August 27, 1899. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. JVIali, are you now a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Mail I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you give the committee a resume of your 
employment background? 

(At this point Mr. Mali conferred with Mr. Garry.) 

Mr. Mah. I decline to answer that question on the ground of the 
first amendment, because I don't think this is any affair of this com- 
mittee. It is a private matter, and also on the ground of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Mali, I will come back to this in a moment. 
Wliere did you attend school here ? 

Mr. Mah. In Fresno, Calif. 

Mr. KuNziG. How far did you go in school ? 

Mr. Mail First year high. 

Mr. KuNziG. What was the name of the high school ? 

Mr. Mah. Fresno High School. 

Mr. KuNziG. What year did you graduate? 

Mr. Mail I did not graduate. I said first year high. 

Mr. KuNziG. You are absolutely correct. What year did you leave 
high school, to the best of your recollection ? 

Mr. Mah. Approximately 1914. 

Mr. KuNziG. In 1914 what was the first employment you had after 
you got out of school, after you left school ? 

Mr. Mah. I have already stated the reason I will not answer that 
question. 

Mr. KuNziG. You refuse to answer — let me make sure that this is 
clear for the record — what your employment was in 1914 when you 
left high school at the end of the first year because you fear that 
to answer that question might tend to incriminate you, is that correct? 
In 1953 ? 

Mr. Mah. For the same three reasons I gave. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that the witness 
be directed to answer this question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3257 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is so directed. 

Mr. Mah. On the ground of the first amendment, because I don't 
believe it is any concern of the committee, and also as a private matter, 
and thirdly on the ground of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Mah, I now ask you this question : Will you give 
the committee, please, in detail your employment from the time you 
left school until the present time ? 

Mr. Mah. For the very same reason I just gave previously. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request the witness be 
ordered to answer this question. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Mah. Mr. Chairman, I can't understand ; I have already gave 
the reasons. 

Mr. Jackson. That is quite all right; you can persist in your 
declination if you desire. However, you are directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Mah. On the grounds of the first amendment, I don't believe 
it is any concern of this committee; secondly, it is purely a private 
matter ; thirdly, on the ground of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. You decline to answer? 

Mr. Mah, I decline to answer on all those grounds. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Moulder. 

Mr. Moulder. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

Mr. KuNziG. No, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Kenneth Austin. 

Mr. Mah. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman, before I am ex- 
cused ? I would like to ask a question. I have been served a subpena 
to be here, and I am here, but I also would like to make the statement 
to the committee 

Mr. Jackson. The committee will receive the statement, and if it 
is in accordance with the rules of the committee, it may be incor- 
porated in the record. The statement will be received. The witness 
is excused. 

(Addressing Mr. Austin.) Do you solemnly swear in the testimony 
you are about to give you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Austin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF KENNETH CRAIG AUSTIN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your full name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Austin. Kenneth Craig Austin. 

Mr. Kunzig. What is your present address, Mr. Austin? 



3258 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Austin. Apartment 33, 535 Columbus Avenue, San Francisco, 
Calif. ; phone number is Douglas 2-5055. 

Mr. KuNziG. Thank you very much for the complete answer. Now, 
Mr. Austin, would you tell us your present employment, please ? 

Mr. Austin. My present employment is longshoreman. 

Mr. KuxziG. Where are you employed ? 

Mr. Austin. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Kunzig. Are you connected with the ILWU, Mr. Austin ? 

Mr. Austin. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first and 
the fifth amendments for the reason that I believe the committee ask- 
ing me such a question would open the gate so that they could ask me 
questions as to the names of persons, and at this time I would like to 
state that on the grounds of the first amendment and the fifth amend- 
ment I would like to inform the committee that I will ansAver no ques- 
tions as regards my private opinions 

Mr. Jackson. You can inform the committee — — 

Mr. Austin. My religious convictions 

Mr. Jackson. The witness will be in order. You can inform the 
committee as to your intentions when the questions are asked you. I 
understand that the first declination is on the grounds of the first and 
fifth amendment, is that correct ? 

Mr. Austin. That is true, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. Kunzig. Counsel, we recognize you as having been here previ- 
ously today with other witnesses, but would you kindly state your 
name again for this record? 

Mr. Speiser. My name is LaAvrence Speiser. I am the staff counsel 
of the American Civil Liberties Union, 503 Market Street, San Fran- 
cisco. 

Mr. Kunzig. Now, ]\Ir. Austin, in the same testimony given in the 
United States District Court, Southern District Court of California, 
Central Division, in United States of America v. William Schneider- 
man et al, on Tuesday, April 1, 1952, testimony Avas taken as follows : 

Question of INIr. William Ford, Mr. Ford was asked, 

Mr. Ford, were you present at a meeting of the Cominunist Party in which 
action was tal^en with respect to Walter Lambert? 

Yes, I was. 

Where did that meeting take place? 

The meeting took place at 10 Golden Gate Avenue. 

And when did it take place? 

I think I stated previously here May or June of 1946. 

Who was present at the meeting? 

William Schneiderman, Oleta Yates, Rude Lambert, and that is all the de- 
fendants that I know of that were present. 

Is this the same meeting that you were testifying to a few moments ago? 

It is the same meeting. 

Anyone else present besides the defendants in this case whom you have named? 

The defendants, Mr. Chairman, were defendants in the Smith Act 
case that was being tried. 
And the answer says : 

There are two different defendants, persons who were brought up on charges 
within the party of antiparty and antilabor activity. 
Suppose you name them. 
Levin Mosskoff ; Rude Lambert's brother. 
What wasi his name? 
Walter Lambert ; Kenny Austin, and Elaine Jay. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3259 

Then he went on to say : 

The majority of my particular branch were members of this meetin.a', Com- 
munist Party meeting. 

Mr. Austin, do you care to affirm or deny that testimony as to 
Avhether you were present at this Communist Party meeting as testi- 
fied to in public record of a court of this State ? 

Mr. Austin. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first and the 
fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United States ; it is none 
of the business of this committee. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Austin, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Austin. I decline to answer on the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Austin. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first and 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairman, I have no other questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. INIoulder. 

Mr. Moulder. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

Mr. Jackson. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

Mr. KuNziG. No, sir, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Jackson. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Austin. Thank you. I would like to make formal request that 
I be paid for today inasmuch as I lost a day's work. 

Mr. Jackson. If you will see the administrative clerk of the com- 
mittee, you will get your transportation, which is the custom of the 
committee. 

Mr. KuNziG. I am glad the witness just mentioned that. I was 
about to make a statement, Mr. Chairman, that all those who testified 
today please, if you will, report to the committee clerk sitting on 
my right to sign proper papers for the witness fees and transportation. 

Mr. Jackson. At this time the committee will stand in recess until 
9 : 30 tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 5 : 15 p. m., the hearing was recessed until 9 : 30 
a. m., Thursday, December 3, 1953.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Albertson, William 31GS 

Aldeu, H 3223 

Almazov, S - 3169 

Amter, Israel 3161, 3162, 3168 

Andersen, George 8159-3184 

Anderson, Bruce 3240 

Anderson, O. E 3187-3189 

Augustine, Elizabeth 32U6 

Austin, Kenneth Craig (Kenny) 3257-3259 (testimony) 

Ballam, John 3161 

Barlow, Edward 3231 

Barlow, Elizabeth 3231 

Barnes, Carol 3217, 3218 

Bedacht, Max 3161, 3162, 3169 

Begun, Isadore 3161 

Benjamin, Herbert 3161 

Berland, Sam 3168 

Bernian, Isaac 3168 

Berry, A. W 3161 

Biedenkapp, Fred 3168 

Biltmore, Hose 3131 

Binkley, W. G 3161 

Bittelman, Alexander (Alex) 3161,3162 

Bloor, Ella R 3161,3162 

I'.loor, Mother 3223 

Bodian, Clara 3169 

Bodkin, Wesley .3218 

Boetcher, Herman 3225 

Bosartz, Herman 3168 

Boruchowitz, Joseph '. 3168 

Bradsher, Mary Elizabeth Parrott.: 3240, 3224 

Bratoff, George 3205, 3206 

Brogin, Moe 3169 

Browder, Earl 3160-3162, 3174, 3176, 3177, 3200, 3237 

Brown, Bimbo 3230, 3240 

Brown, Frances 322.") 

Bruno, John 3169 

Budenz, Louis 3161, 3162 

Burke, Don 3161 

Burlak, Ann 3161 

Burris, Jack 3206 

Burt, Samuel ? 3188 

Cacchione. Peter V 3161 

Capelle, Frances 3220, 3225 

Capelle, Roger 3225 

Carlson, Evans 3225 

Carmon, Laura 3168 

Cashione, P 3169 

Chambers. Whittaker 3173 

Childs, ISIorris 3161 

Chown, Miriam 3207 

Chown, Paul 3207-3209, 3227 

Clifeord, Bill 3202 

Collier, Mr 3174 

Costrell, Harry C 3169 

3261 



3262 INDEX 

Page 

Cowl, Margaret 3161 

Creque, Rosalie 3198 

Creque, William 3198 

Darcy, Sam 3101 

Davis, Ben 3222, 323(5 

Davis, Robert Gorliam 318(> 

Dennis, Gene 3161, 3162 

Dimitrofe, George 3161 

Dodd, Bella . 3219 

Don, Sam 3161 

Doroslikin, Sadie 3160 

Doyle, Bernadette 3219, 3222 

Dnclos ^- 3200, 3221, 3230, 3237 

Easle, Eugene 3203, 3209, 3212, 3251-3253 (testimony) 

Eddy, Harold 3168 

Edises, Bertram 3206, 3207, 3227 

Edwards, George 3197, 3202, 3235 

Eidenoff, Josephine Woods 3229, 3235 

Elion, Harry 3169 

Ellin, Nathan , 3168 

Enalehart, Mrs 3213 

Ercoli, M , 3161 

Feigin, Abner 3168 

Fierstein, Chester 3168 

Fitzgerald, William 3168 

Florin, M 3161 

Flynn, Elizabeth G 3161 

Fogarty, Doris 3230 

Fogarty, Pat 3230 

Ford. James W 3161 

Ford, William 3255, 3258 

Foster. William Z 3160-3162, 3200, 3237 

Frankfeld, Phil 3161 

Frederick. George Van 3232, 3238-3242 (testimony^ 

Fredericks. Jean 3210 

Freilericks, Van 3232, 3240 

Friedman. B 3169 

Garry. Charles R 3254-3257 

George. Harrison 3161, 3162 

Gladstein, Richard 3238-3245 

Gold. Ren 3161. 3162, 3168 

Gonzales, Ella 3240 

Gonzales. Jack 3240 

Gordon, Mack . 3169 

Gottwald. Klement .3161 

Green, Buddy 32.32, 32.'^3 

Green. Gil 3161 

Grogan, Edward 3254 

Grossman. Aubrey 3200 

Gwynn. Harry 3161 

Haaland. Jasper .3161 

Hall, Robert 3161 

Hammond, Jean 3240 

Hammond, Marian (Marian Redner) 3240 

Hansboro, Ray 3161 

Hathaway, Clarence 3161, 3162 

Hedley. Jean 3211 

Heide. Paul 3233 

Heide. Ruby 32.33 

Herndon, Angelo 3161 

Hesse. Sigfried (Sig) 3213 

Hickerson. Harold 3169 

Hill. Dickson P 3193-3238 (testimony), 3243, 3244. .32.52 

Holman 3172 

Hsu. Y. Y 3169 

Hudson, Rov 3159-3184 (testimony) 

Hultgren, Wayne 3218 



INDEX 3263 

Page 

Hutcliinson, Florence 3222 

Hyman, Louis 3168 

Ives, Burl 3204 

Jackson, H 3163, 8164, 3165, 3171, 3172 

Jackson, Harry 3164, 3166, 3171 

Jay, Elaine 3258 

Johnstone, Jack 3161 

Jones, D. D 3240 

Kalmau, Bernice 3233, 3253 

Kalman. Herb 3233 

Keller, Julius M 3251-3253 

Keller, Morris 3228 

Kfare, Louis 3168 

Kinkead, David 3233 

Kramberjr, Sam 3168 

Krumbein, Charles 3161 

Kushinsky, Morris 3168 

Kuusinen, Otto 3161 

Kyer. Charlotte 3204 

Lafferty, Nori 3219, 3222 

Lambert, Rude 3235, 3258 

Lambert, Walter 3258 

Landy, J 3169 

Lannon, Albert '. 3161 

Laschowitzky, Abraham 3169 

Laughery, Wilhelmina (Willie) 3195,3196,3240 

Lawrence, William 3168 

Lehman. Lloyd 3217 

Levin, Emanuel 3169 

Licht, Sarah 3169 

Lieu, Gene 3210, 3211. 3240 

Lien, Jean 8210, 3211, 3240 

Lindesmith, Johnny 3234 

Lindesmith, Rosalind 3213, 8234 

Lowe, Bill 3215 

Lustig, James 3168 

Mah, Dan Kew 3195,3196,3202,3209 (testimony) 

Manlev. Jack 3195,3196,3202,3209 

Manley, Kathrina 8194-3197. 

3201, 3202, 3206, 3208, 3209, 3211. 3218. 3219, 8222, 3224. 3226 

Manuilsky, D. Z 3161 

Marty. Andre 3161 

Mass, John W 3184-3192 (testimony) 

Matanami, Pete 3212 

Matlis, James 316S 

Maxon 3173 

Maxton 3164 

Mayhew. Arthur 3206 

McFadden. Jim 3220 

McHarg. Janet 3204, 3205 

Mcintosh, Anita 3222 

McMuUen. Elizabeth I 3207 

McMullen, Louis 8207 

McMullen, Martha 3207 

Melia. Joseph 3234 

Miller, Doris 3224 

Ming, Wang 3161 

Mink, George 3165-3167, 3171 

Minor. Robert 3161 

Montello, Dominick 3168 

Moskvin. M. A .3161 

Mosskoff. Levin .3258 

Naboisek, Herb 3240 

Naboisek. June 3240 

Nelson, Steve 3161, 3162, 3217, 3226 

Nessin. Sam 3168 



3264 INDEX 

Pag« 

Neville, Robert (Bob) 3229,3240 

Nixon, Vice President 3173 

Olkin, Abraham 3169 

( )nda. Andrew 3161 

Over^'aard. Andy 3168 

Parsons, Frank 3214, 3240 

Patterson. William 3161, 3168 

Pedrick. Jessie 3231 

Perrv, Pettis 3161 

Peters. J 3173, 3174 

Phillips, Earl 3211 

Phillips. Marie 3194, 3196, 3211 

Pieck. Wilhelm 3161 

Pizer. Morris 3168 

Potash. Irving 3168 

Quinn. Mike 3226, 3227 

Ragland, Bob 3240 

Ragland, Clara 3240 

Raport, Morris 3161 

Rav, Thomas 3167, 3168, 3170 

Redner, Bill 3240 

Redner. Marian. (See Marian Hammond.) 

Reed, John 3226 

Reno, Earl 3161 

Roberson, Doris Walker (Dobie) 3223, 3224 

Robeson, Paul 3227 

Rogers, Pauline 3169 

Rose, Carl 3161 

Rosenberg, Isadore 3168 

Rosenberg, Max 3168 

Rose, Nat 3161 

Rosser, Lou 3164, 3170 

Rubens 3167 

Rubin, Mr 3160 

Rubin, Jay 3168 

Rutter, Bill 3199, 3225 

Ryan 3172 

Sacks, Alfred 3169 

Sandow, Dildar 3196 

Saurwin 3164, 3173 

Rcharrenberg 3164 

Schiller, Harry 3169 

Schneiderman, William 3161, 3200, 3255, 3258 

Segure, Rose 3216 

Shavelson, Clara 3169 

Sheppard 3168 

Sher, Mort 3168 

Sherwood, Mary 3217 

Simons, William 3169 

Singer, Joseph 3169 

Smolan, Morrie 3226 

Soltan, Joseph 3169 

Speiser, Lawrence 3184-3192, 3246-3251, 3257-3259 

Stachel, Jack 3161, 3165, 3166, 3180 

Stallman, Ben 3168 

Stanley, Al 3203, 3206 

Stanley, Emma 3201, 3203, 3206, 3208, 3215, 3218, 3224, 3232 

Starvus, Loretta 3225 

Stone, Ken 3255 

Strack, Celeste 3235 

Strons, Anna Louise 3195 

Sullivan. Richard 3168 

Tandy, Frances 3199 

Taylor, Jack 3168 

Teague, Emmett 3212, 3213 

Thompson. Leila 3216 

Thompson, Ray 3218 



INDEX 3265 

Page 

Tobey, Clarence 3213, 3217, 3220, 3225 

Tobey, Florence 3220 

Toohey, Pat 31G1 

Toopeekoff, Eugene Alexander 3197,3198,3245,3246-3251 (testimony) 

'J'rachteuberg, Alex 3161 

Treuhaft, Decca 3227 

Treiihaft, Robert 3227, 3253, 3254 

Tubman, Harriet 3225 

Vetch, M 3169 

W'achtel, Billie 3229 

Wachter, Billie 3229 

Wagenknecht, Alfred 3169 

Wangerin, Otto 3161 

Weinstone, William W 3161 

Weisberg, Isadore 3168 

White, Al 3240 

White, Maude 3161 

White, Naomi 3240 

Whitley, Rhea 3160 

Whitney, Anita 3161, 3222 

Wiener, William 3161 

Williams, Gordon 3230 

Williams, Harry 3255 

Williamson, John 3161 

Winston, Henry 3161 

Winter, Carl 3168 

Wood, James Fenton 3201,3242-3245 (testimony) 

Wood, Ida 3203, 3208, 3224 

Wood, Jim 3206 

Woods, Dorothy 3229 

Woods, Harrie 3206, 3228, 3229 

Woods, Hilda 3206, 3228, 3229 

Woods, Robert 3161 

Wortis, Rose 3161, 3168 

Yanish, Ann 3230 

Yanish, Nat 3230 

Yates, Oleta O'Connor 3255, 3258 

Zucker, Edith 3169 

Organizations 

Air Force 3245 

Alteration Painters' Union 3168 

American Civil Liberties Union 3184, 3246, 3258 

American Federation of Teachers 3186 

Amtorg 3205 

Anti-Imperialist Alliance 3169 

Anti-Imperialist League 3168, 3169 

Bechtel Corp 3241, 3243, 3245 

Board of Education of the City of San Francisco 3191 

Building and Construction Workers League 3168 

Building Maintenance Workers Industrial Union 3168 

Bureau of Indian Affairs . 3173 

California Labor School 3188, 3189 

Cannery Workers 3224 

City College of San Francisco 3184 

Cleaners and Dyers Union 3168 

Comintern 3160 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 3177, 3203, 3205 

Councils of Working Class Women 3168, 3169 

Drygoods Workers' Union , 3168 

ECCI 3174 

English Workers' Clubs 3169 

Federal Bureau of Investigation. 3193, 3202, 3208-3211, 3214, 3216, 3233, 3237, 3238 
Finnish Workers Federation . . 3169 



3266 INDEX 

Page 

Food Workers Industrial Union 3168 

l-'riends of tlie Soviet Union 3168, 3169 

Furniture Workers Industrial Union 3168 

(Jreater New York Unemployed Council 3168 

Greylock 3165 

Harvard University 3186 

K'Oli 3i(;y 

Independent Carpenters Union — 3168 

Independent Progressive Party 3221, 3234 

International Labor Defense 3168 

International Longshoremens Association 3164, 3172, 3175, 3176 

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union 325S 

International iSeamans' Union 3164, 3165, 3175 

International Workers Order 3169, 3178 

Jewish City Club Committee 3169 

John Keed Club 3169 

Labor Sports Union 3168, 3169 

Laundry Workers Industrial Union 3168 

League of Workers Theater 3169 

Lincoln Battalion 3178 

Marine Workers' Industrial Union 3167-3170, 3172, 3175 

IMunsome 3165 

^lunsonio 3172 

Munson Line 3172 

Nati(mal Recovery Administration 3165, 3175 

Needle Trades Workers' Industrial Union 3168 

Norway Hall (Oakland) 3201 

Oakland Auditorium 3195 

Oakland High School 3197 

Oakland Technical High School . 3195, 3197 

Office Workers' Union 3168 

Pacific Gas & Electric 3241 

IVople\s Songs 3204, 3205 

I'olitical Affairs Committee of the Communist Party 3221 

Protintern ., 3167 

Red International of Labor Unions 3167 

Russian Mutual Aid 3169 

San Francisco Unified School District 3186, 3187, 3189 

Sheet Development Co., Emeryville 3211,3212 

Shoe and Leather Workers Industrial Union 3168 

Steel and Metal Workers' Industrial Union 3168 

Supreme Court of the United States 3240, 3243 

Taxi Workers' Union 3168 

Trade Union Unity Council 3168 

United States Army 3245 

University of California 3184, 3196, 3204 

I^niversity of California, Berkeley 3210 

T'niversity of California, Los Angeles 3213, 3227 

University of Chicago 3184 

Veterans' Administration 3207, 3208 

Workers Ex-Servicemen's League 3168, 3169 

Workers International Relief 3169 

Yale University 3186 

Young Communist League 3170,3196,3213 

Publications 

American Mercury 3167 

Daily AVorker 3167, 3178, 3191 

Marine Workers' Voice 3164, 3165, 3172, 3176 

Party Organizer 3174, 3177, 318O 

People's Daily AVorld 3191, 3209, 3213, 3217, 3220, 3221, 3230 

Political Affairs 3209 

San Francisco Chronicle 3240 

Waterfront Worker 3172 

Western Worker 3164 



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