(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Investigation of Communist activities in the San Francisco area. Hearing"

t 



cK9 



JssHlEBi 



Bn 




Given By 



3^ 



^ >ar 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
SAN FRANCISCO AREA-Part 5 



VIL'I .^' •j'U'u'-'^ i!o.' s^ ' 



/) 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-THIRD CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



DECEMBER 5, 1953 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
4100.! WASHINGTON : 1954 



/ 



/ 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 1 6 1954 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois, Chairman 



BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 
DONALD L. JACKSON, California 
KIT CLARDY, Michigan 
GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Robert L 



FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri 
CLYDE DOYLE, California 
JAMES B. FRAZIER, Je., Tennessee 

KuNziG, Counsel 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Rdssell, Chief Investigator 

Thomas W. Beale, Sr., Chief Clerk 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 



II 



CONTENTS 



December 5, 1953, testimony of — Page 

Harrison George 342 1 

PauIChown 3432 

Bjorne Hailing 3440 

Richard Lynden 3442 

Herbert Naboisek 3446 

William J. Bailey 3456 

James Kendall 3460 

Index 3497 

EXHIBIT 

Kendall Exhibit No. 1 — National Organization of Masters, Mates, and Pilots of 
America, executive committee minutes, September 4, 1946, San Francisco, 
Calif., West Coast Local 90, containing a statement signed by James Kendall, 
dated September 4, 1946 (see p. 3489) 

rn 



Public Law 601, 79th Coxgkess 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted ty the Senate and House of Rept-esentatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

RiTLE X 
SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rttle XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to malie from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (11) 
the diffusion within the United States of subversive and nn-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (ill) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such Investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such Investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any sulx-ommittee. or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may bo served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 83D CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1953 
m ***** * 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, the following standing committees : 

******* 
(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

" * RtJLE XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
* * :!: tj! * * * 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such meetings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by such chairman, and may be served by any person desig- 
nated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
SAN FKANCISCO AKEA— PART 5 



SATURDAY, DECEMBER 5, 1953 

United States House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

PUBLIC hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Actvities met, 
pursuant to adjournment, at 9 : 36 a. m., in the hearing room of the 
board of supervisors, city hall, Hon. Harold H. Velde (chairman) 
presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Harold H. Velde 
(chairman) , Donald L. Jackson, Gordon H. Scherer, and Clyde Doyle 
(appearance noted in transcript). 

Staff members present : Robert L. Kunzig and Frank S. Ta vernier, 
Jr., counsel ; William A. Wheeler and W. Jackson Jones, investigators ; 
and Juliette P. Joray, acting clerk. 

Mr. Velde. The subcommittee will be in order. For the purposes 
of the hearing this morning I will appoint Mr. Scherer, Mr. Jackson, 
and myself as chairman. Mr. Doyle is on his way here. He has 
been detained on account of official business, but will be here very 
shortly. 

I would like at this time to state to those present that you are here 
as guests of the Congress of the United States. Any demonstration 
of approval or disapproval on the part of the audience will result in 
an order by the chairman for the immediate clearing of the hearing 
room. It is hoped that this action will not be necessary, but the Chair 
will not hesitate to take whatever action is necessary ancl is required to 
insure that the business of the United States Congress is conducted 
with dignity and expedition. 

Mr. Counsel, will you call your first ^'itness? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Harrison George. 

Mr. Veij)E. In the testimony you are about to give before this 
subcommittee do yoti solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole 
truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. George. Yes, sir. 

(At this point Representative Donald L. Jackson left the hearing 
room.) 

TESTIMONY OF HARRISON GEORGE, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr, Tavenner. You are Mr. Harrison George? 
Mr. George. Yes, sir. 

3421 



3422 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner, Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. George. Yes, sir ; to my left. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Speiser. Lawrence Speiser, staff counsel for the American Civil 
Liberties Union of Northern California, 503 Market Street, San 
Francisco. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I introduced in evidence Hudson 
Exhibit No. 1 during the testimony of Roy Hudson. This exhibit is 
a letter from Earl Browder, general secretary of the Communist 
Party, U.S.A., under date of November 27, 1939, addressed to the 
counsel of the Committee on Un-American Activities, enclosing a list 
of the national committee of the Communist Party, U.S.A., as elected 
at the tenth convention. 

TVniien I referred to that document at the time of its introduction in 
evidence, I read into the record the names of those who were on this 
committee. One of them was Harrison George. 

Mr. George, I think I should first ask you, however, when and 
where you were l)orn. 

Mr. George. Kansas, 1888. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your present occupation ? 

Mr. George. I am doing clerical work. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. George, I am not going to interrogate you re- 
garding the details of your affiliation with the Communist Party as 
a high functionary as shown by the exhibit, but I do want to question 
you about a matter which the committee has had under investigation 
for some time and the part that you played in it, if you played any 
part in it. 

The day before yesterday the committee in executive session took 
the testimony of Mr. Joe Koide, K-o-i-d-e, a Japanese national, re- 
garding certain propaganda activities under circumstances indicating 
their connection with the Cominform, and in order to base questions 
upon it intelligently, it will be necessary for me to read a part of Mr. 
Koide's testimony to you. 

Mr. Koide entered the United States as a student around 1925. He 
received his A. B. degree at the University of Denver in 1929. He 
states in substance in his testimony that he was extremely interested 
in aiding the Japanese people in resisting the military clique in Japan 
and that he considered that it was through the Communist Party that 
he could best accomplish that purpose. 

In a conference with Earl Browder, after Mr. Browder's return 
from China, he was assigned to school, after becoming a member of 
the Communist Party, in Moscow, where he remained for more than 
a year. 

Beginning at that point I will take up his testimony by reading 
it into the record so that you may understand : 

Question. What did you do upon your return to the United States? 

Answer. I contacted Clarence Hathaway. He had nothing to advise me at 
first. So I hung around about 3 weeks in New York. Then tinally Hathaway 
told me to proceed to the west coast. 

Question. Did he tell you what your assignment would be on the west coast? 

Answer. No. 

Question. Did he tell you who would contact you on the west coast? 

Answer. No. 

Question. What occurred? Did you go to the west coast as you were advised 
by Clarence Hathaway? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3423 

Answer. Yes. 

Question. What happened after you arrived on the west coast? 

Answer. I contacted Sam Darcy. 

Question. Then what happened? 

Answer. Sam Darcy wanted me to work for him. 

Question. What type of work did he want you to do? 

Answer. Well, he didn't specify, but he wanted me to work for the open party, 
engage in open activities. 

Question. Of the Communist Party? 

Answer. That's right. 

Question. What was the approximate date when you arrived on the west 
coast? 

Answer. About April 1933. 

Question. Did you engage in open party work? 

Answer. No. 

Question. Why? 

Answer. I didn't want to, that's one reason. Another was, Hathaway did 
tell me that "When you go to the west coast, get in touch with Darcy, and Darcy 
will tell you — or Darcy will let me get in touch with someone else. I am 
supposed to work for this person. 

Question. Well, after you failed to go along with the assignment of working 
with Sam Darcy what did you do? 

Answer. Sam Darcy took my address and promised that someone was to get 
in touch with me. 

Question. Did someone get in touch with you? 

Answer. Yes. 

Question. Who was it? 

Answer. Harrison George. 

Question. Tell the committee what occurred. 

Answer. After getting in touch with Harrison George 

Question. Just a moment. Did you get in touch with Harrison George, or did 
Harrison George get in touch with you? 

Answer. He got in touch with me. I started working with him in translations 
and writing articles in Japanese for propaganda purposes directed toward 
Japan. 

Question. Explain what you mean by propaganda being "directed toward 
Japan." 

Answer. All the articles written had in mind the Japanese common people 
of Japan, of the prospective, shall we say, target or readers that articles written 
for the Japanese people to read and then to digest. 

Question. What was the purpose? Was it to take advantage of the needs of 
the Japanese people in order to promote the interests of the Community Party in 
Japan? 

Answer. You know, to answer that question I have to remind one point. Be- 
tween 1929 or 1930, when I joined the party to 1933 many historic events took 
place in Japan and in the Asiatic Continent ; mainly that the military clique 
which were trying to capture power politically inside the country by 1933 almost 
succeeded in capturing the power, and by that time the independent Manchukuo 
Empire was already set up, and it was well underway to further conquer China 
and eventually to capture the United States, so far as the conquest of the Pacific 
is concerned. So at that time, so far as I was concerned, when I wrote it was 
more a question of arousing the people of Japan against the militarist power 
and militarist expansion policies, economic and political and socially, rather 
than to advance the aims or objectives or ultimate objectives of the Communist 
Party. It's more as a struggle against the existing power, to bring them down. 
Its initial stage of the fight, more or less. 

Question. Did Harrison George explain to yoti why the Comnmnist Party 
was interested in directing propaganda activities toward Japan? 

Answer. He didn't have to. Because I had the idea we had to do it. 

Question. Did you have any understanding with the Communists in Moscow 
as to what you would do in the future in the United States if they developed a 
plan by whicli you could be returned to the United States? 

I may interpolate there that the witness was faced with quite a 
predicament in having been sent to school in Moscow and being a 

41002^54— pt. 5 2 



3424 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Japanese national and not a national of the United States, so it was 
very difficult for the Soviets to get him returned to the United States. 
[Continuing to read :] 

Answer. Yes. 

Question. What was that? 

Answer. One of the difficulties standinj? in the way of my coming back to the 
United States, of getting out of Russia, was that they could not find any way 
of sending me back to the United States in the first place. And they didn't see 
much purpose in trying to work out plans to send me back to the United States 
Inasmuch as they did not know exactly what specific assignment they could 
give me. Therefore, I more or less proposed to those in charge in Moscow that 
thei-e is a job that should be done and could be done in the United States, 
especially in connection with propaganda being aimed toward Japan — if they 
could send me back to this country. 

Question. Therefore, you were carrying out the original plan made in Moscow 
when you started in this propaganda work with Harrison George on the west 
coast ; isn't that true? 

Answer. I just want to ask a question about that. Did you say "planned orig- 
inally in Moscow" ? 

Question. Yes. 

Answer. So far as I was concerned, when I came back to the United States I 
proceeded to do the kind of thing I wanted to do. 

Question. To what extent did Harrison George assist or function in connection 
with this propaganda work? 

Answer. He wrote articles. 

Question. Did you translate them into Japanese whenever he did? 

Answer. Yes. 

Question. What disposition was made of those articles? 

Answer. Those articles were published, printed. 

Question. In magazines or in pamphlet form? 

Answer. In magazine form. 

Question. Were those magazines published in this country or in Japan? 

Answer. In this country. 

Question. Were they sent to Japan for circulation there? 

Answer. Some I sent through the United States mail. 

Question. Were others sent? 

Answer. I cannot say. 

Question. Did you try to .send others? 

Answer. I ti'ied to send throiigh mail, yes, knowing full well that some of 
them would be confiscated at the customs in Japan. 

Question. But, however, didn't you attempt to send articles of that description 
by other means to Japan besides the mail? 

Answer. So far as I am concerned, no. 

Question. Well, even if you did not do it yourself, you do know as a matter 
of fact, do you not, that they were sent by other means? 

Answer. This is very hard to tell. I even doubt what I sent through mails, 
not many of them ever reached there. 

Question. Yes. I am not speaking of the success of the Japanese in censoring 
them or intercepting them. I am talking now only about the plan to try to get 
them to Japan. 

Answer. That part is not my work. 

Question. Whose work was that? 

Answer. I do not know. My part was to write the article, translate arti'cle, 
that's all. I see that it comes out. But after that 

Question. Well, what would be done with these articles when they were 
assembled? 

Answer. Printed? 

Question. Yes. And then what was done with them? 

Answer. I mailed some of them to Japan. 

Question. How were the others disposed of? 

Answer. This I cannot tell you, because I do not know. 

Question. You may not know what ultimately happened to them, but what 
did you do with them? You had to get rid of them. Did you give them to someone 
in the Communist Party? 

Answer. No. I had what I could handle — about two dozen copies — and the 
rest, I don't even see them myself. Because you understand the situation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3425 

If I printed 500, or maybe 200, it is fairly bulky. And at that time the condition 
in which I was living was that I didn't have a big house or anything like that ; 
I just had a room in a place. And you know how nosy those landladies are. I 
didn't want anything hanging around. 

Question. Nevertheless, in a matter in which you were so vitally interested 

Answer. That's right. 

Question. In which you had come from the East to the West to i)erform, where 
your whole ob.1ect in joining the Communist Party was in order to be of some 
help, as you thought, to the people of Japan, you wouldn't have left just to mere 
chance the accomplishment of the thing that you set out to do : Namely, to get 
these documents in the hands of the Japanese i)eople? 

Answer. I agree. 

Question. Isn't that right? 

Answer. That is true. But the fundamental question here is that there has to 
be a division of labor. 

Question. I recognize that. But equally true, you must have known what that 
division of labor was. 

Answer. No ; I don't. I don't know exactly what is the setup or anything like 
that. My part was to see to it that the article conies out. As to the disposition 
of the bulk of the material prepared, it was not my business or domain, and I did 
not ask questions on those matters. 

Question. Do you know where Harrison George lived? 

Answer. I do not know. 

Question. At that time you were doing this work with him? 

Answer. No. 

Question. How many articles did Harrison George write during the 18-month 
period you have spoken of? 

Answer. Probably between 2 and 3 dozen. 

Question. You. spoke of these articles having appeared in a magazine. What 
magazine? 

Answer. The name of the magazine is Pacific Worker. 

Question. Who published the Pacific Worker? 

Answer. We did. 

Question. What do you mean by we? 

Answer. Between him and me. But it had a notation, "Organ of the Pan- 
Pacific Trade Union Secretariat." That was the notation we had on it. What 
that had to do with us, I don't know, but we wrote it. 

Question. Who financed the publication of the magazine? 

Answer. I do not know for sure, but since it has been labeled as the official 
organ of the Pan-Pacific secretariat, I suppose it came from that source, and if 
it is, that fund should have come from RILU — Red International of Labor 
Unions, otherwise known as Profintern. But this is my assumption. 

Mr. Chairman, at this point I think I should, to form a basis for 
my questioning, read into this hearing and to this witness some of the 
testimony of Maj. Gen. Charles Willoughby. 

Mr. Velde. Without objection that permission is granted, and you 
may proceed to read. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. General Willoughby brought to our committee the 
secret Shanghai police files, and he based his testimony on those files 
regarding Communist Party activities in China. This is what Gen- 
eral Willoughby has to say regarding the Pan-Pacific Trade Union 
Secretariat, which is usually referred to as PPTUS. 

The Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat and its parent organization, the 
Shanghai branch of the far eastern bureau, were the most important and highly 
organized apparatus for Comintern labor activities in the Far East during the 
late 1020's and the early 1930's. The PPTUS set up in 1927 a conference in 
Hankow which was attended by several prominent Comintern leaders, including 
Lozovsky. a Comintern agent who rose fi'om secretary of the Profintern in 1928 
to ii transient position as leader of the Soviet labor movement. 

(Representative Clyde Doyle entered the hearing room at this 
point.) 



3426 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Velde, At this point may I interrupt to say that Mr. Doyle 
has arrived, and I now reconstitute the subcommittee, which will 
consist of Mr. Scherer, Mr. Jackson, Mr. Doyle, and myself as chair- 
man. You may proceed. 

Mr. Tavenner (continuing to read) : 

Another member of the Hankow conference who later became first head of the 
PPTUS was the American Communist, Earl Browder, who was assisted in his 
work in Shanghai by an American woman, Katherine Harrison. Other Ameri- 
cans, including a journalist, James H. Dolsen ; one Albert Edward Stewart, and 
Margaret Undjus, were prominent in the affairs of the PPTUS, as was the 
German woman, Irene Weidemeyer. 

I will not read further from his testimony except to indicate that 
this testimony related particularly to the Sorge spy incident in Japan 
and China. 

General Willoughby had this further to say : 

I pause here to establish the link in this police investigation. Sorge mentioned 
the Comintern group in Shanghai. 

He is referring there to Sorge's confession. 

This we pick up as the Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat since Noulens was 
arrested. Obviously this man Walsh or Eugene Dennis, and his subsequent 
connection with Browder establishes the strongest inference that he was asso- 
ciated with him then. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Counsel, have you the date of General Wil- 
loughby's testimony before this committee ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir ; he testified before the committee on August 
9, 22, and 23, 1951. 

Mr. Velde. And if I am not mistaken, General Willoughby was tlie 
chief intelligence officer of the United States Army operating directly 
under General MacArthur, is that right ? 

Mr. Tavenner. He was G-2 under General MacArthur during 
nearly all of the occupation of Japan. 

Mr. Speiser. Mr. Tavenner, I have a question. Did General Wil- 
loughby have any official position in Japan during the period of time 
that he was testifying — just a question with regard to his knowledge 
in the matter — was it indicated ? 

Mr. Velde. I am sure counsel knows his right to confer with the 
witness and not to ask any questions, but I think counsel could very 
well answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. General Willoughby spent nearly a year in 
investigating Communist activities in China and Japan, and he 
brought this committee a well-documented treatise on the subject and 
testified in person, and this is part of his testimony. 

Mr. Velde. But I think the question that was asked was, did he have 
any official connection with the intelligence service at the time he 
testified before our committee. 

Mr. Tavenner, I didn't understand that. 

Mr. Velde. My understanding is that he was retired at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. This committee got in touch with General Wil- 
loughby nearly a year before he testified, and he prepared this work 
for the committee "to prepare himself to testify, but could not appear 
before the committee until he returned to the United States, and this 
was within a week or a few weeks after his return to the United States, 
and he was retired, I believe, a short time after he testified. He was 
being processed at the time he testified, according to my recollection. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3427 

Mr. Velde. That is right ; I do recall that now, too. Yes ; you are 
riffht. He did have the connection at that time. 

Mv. Tavenner. He was undergoing physical examinations at the 
time. 

Continuing with the testimony of Mr. Joe Koide, K-o-i-d-e, the 
Japanese national : 

Question. What was the general nature or the propaganda material which you 
wrote for this magazine? 

Answer. This magazine was mainly concerned about analysis of the economic 
conditions in Japan under military rule, and also articles dealing with how to 
improve the conditions in the shops and factories and farms. 

Question. Did the magazine carry other pertinent information for Communist 
Party pui*poses as, for instance, was the custom of the Daily Worker and the 
People's World? 

Answer. No. This was mainly, basically, labor union publication, mainly, 
although it did have some articles dealing with international developments. 

Question. Do you know whether Hari-isou George was engaged in this form 
of Communist Party activity prior to your being associated with him in it? 

Answer. No, I do not know. 

Question. Was Harrison George associated with you in this work during the 
entire 18-month period? 

Answer. Yes. That is, I worked longer than that, but my association with 
him was about 18 months. But I worked longer than that. 

Question. Tell us the circumstances under which he changed the field of 
activity in which he was engaged. 

Answer. All I know was that he was taken out. I got that word that he's 
leaving, that I had to work with somebody else. 

Question. Do you know the reason for his being taken from that work? 

Answer. No; I do not know. 

Question. Do you know what his new assignment was? 

Answer. I did not know at that time, but shortly afterwards he became the 
editor of the People's World, the People's World established here. 

And if I may say so, he is not the type to do any conspiracy work or anything 
like tliat. He wanted to mix to i)eople and he wanted to do open and he didn't 
give a darn who he talked back to. He's a very independent and stubborn person, 
if I may say so. I think that's the reason he didn't last long in the party. 

Question. Was your work censored or edited in any way by the Communist 
Party members on a higlier level than yourself? 

Answer. No, except I got criticism once in a while later on. 

Question. From wliat source did you get criticism? 

Answer. Profintern source. 

Question. Tell the committee about it, please. 

Answer. Pardon me? 

Question. Tell the committee about it. 

Answer. Some examples : So far as writing and editing and publishing was con- 
cerned, we did it on our own, no one to censor, no one to edit. We did it on 
our own responsibility. 

Question. To whom do you refer when you say "we" ? 

Answer. To Harrison George and myself. 

However, there were cases wlien some of the articles we wrote or we published 
were severely criticized, and correction in print was demanded. 

Question. Now, are you speaking of corrections in the sense of typographical 
errors, or actual content of the articles? 

Answer. Actual content. And if I may say so, political orientation. 

Question. Describe more fully what you mean, giving an example, if you can. 

Answer. At one time I wrote an article on how to organize a shop committee. 
A few months later we received the manuscript with a notation that this 
article be printed in toto without any editing or abridging. And this article, the 
nature of this article was a bitter denunciation of the whole line of argument 
we put forth in the article, previous article, on the organization of shop com- 
mittee. 

Question. Who signed the critical article? 

Answer. This article bore the name of a Japanese representative to Profintern 
at that time. 

Question. What was his name? 



3428 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Answer. Tanaka. I don't know whether that's his real name or not, but this 
one Tanaka was on the executive committee of the Profintern at that time. I 
also do not know whether this article has actually been written by him or not. 
The fact is that article was sent to us to be printed, and there was no choice. 

Mr. Tavenner. Incidentally, that is not the Tanaka who is notoriously known 
in Japan as the author of the Tanaka Memorial. 

Question. In that instance the Comintern itself directed what you should 
publish; isn't that so? 

Answer. Well, I'd better say Profintern. 

Question. The Profintern. 

Answer. On this question I have to state that the magazine itself bore the 
title of official organ of the PPTUS. Now, if that is so, I think PPTUS has every 
right to criticize what we printed. 

Question. Were there any other instances in which you received criticism of 
that character from the Profintern or any other international Communist 
functionary group? 

Answer. Not that I know. There might have been some minor ones, but I do 
not remember. It was sucli small ones. But this was a big one, very big one. 

Question. Who replaced Harrison George in this work? 

Answer. Rude Baker. 

Question. Can you fix the date? 

Answer. Well, early in 1935 or some time in 1935 ; early 1935. 

Question. How long did you work with Rude Baker in this type of propaganda 
work? 

Answer. We parted in 1937. That is about 2 years. 

Question. Did you continue in the same general line of propaganda activity 
with Rude Baker as followed with Harrison George? 

Answer. No. 

Question. What was the difference? 

Answer. Up to that time I edited this official organ of the PPTUS, which, as I 
stated before, mainly concerned about economic labor-unicm problems. However, 
shortly after Rude Baker came 1 propo.sed, and later agreed, that I start entirely 
difTerent type of propaganda material. And I started a publication. Interna- 
tional Correspondence, a very small, about 16-page, pamphlet in .Japanese. This 
pamphlet dealt more with political problems rather tlian economic and labor- 
union problems. This proposal of mine coincided with the holding of tlie Seventh 
World Congress of the Communist International. This congress was held in 
1935, I believe. 

Question. July 1935? 

Answer, Was it July? 

Question. In Moscow? 

Answer. Yes. And this Congress adopted a new policy of people's front, and 
made a thorough examination of the past mistakes of the Communist Party 
throughout the world and adopted that new policy of people's front. And it was 
very urgent, I believed, that this new policy be spread to Japan. And that is 
one of the reasons I suggested to publish such a magazine. And also this fact 
made it possible for me to work more independently from Rude Baker. When I 
worked with Harrison George it was more or less a joint undertaking. He wrote 
son)ething; I wrote something. In this new adventure of mine, or enterprise of 
mine, I was my own boss. Balder wrote no articles. I didn't liave to take any 
articles from him to publish. 

Question. However, you were subordinate to Rude Baker in the iierformance of 
this work? 

Answer. I found that out. 

Question. How did you find that out? 

Answer. Since I was writing in Japanese and supplying no translation of the 
articles, most of the things I wrote Rude Baker did not know about for a long 
time. But after several months he did find out what I was writing about, and 
he started checking up on me, wanted to know what I was writing what I was 
going to write about in the next issue, and so forth. I did not like this interfer- 
ence. But it came to a point finally that I was put on the carpet for writing 
articles which has nationalistic tendencies or deviations; that I placed too much 
upon national phases rather than international aspect. 

Question. Do you recall any specific instance in which he charged you with 
deviations? 

Answer. No ; I do not recollect any .specific instances. But this criticism was 
labeled more against my response to his criticism rather than the article itself. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3429 

It started with his checking up on my articles, but when the break came it was 
more or less the question of my attitude toward the criticism. 

Question. What was the result of this criticism? 

Answer. I was told to get lost. 

Question. Did you get lost? 

Answer. Yes, I did. 

Question. Did that end your propaganda work for the Communist Party on the 
west coast? 

Answer. It did for over a year. I got completley lost. I didn't even try to 
look at anything communistic. I was sick and tired of the whole thing at that 
time. 

Then as far as the rest of his testimony is concerned, it doesn't relate 
to matters that I am interested in questioning you about, but in order 
that the story may be completed, a year later he was assigned to the 
publication in Japanese language of the history of communism in the 
Soviet Union. 

You have heard that testimony, Mr. George, and we are interested to 
find facts as to the method — first let us say as to the method, or as the 
witness said, as to the division of work in connection with the handling 
of this propaganda, how it was sent to Japan, by what method. Will 
you tell us that, please ? 

( At this point Mr. George conferred with Mr. Speiser. ) 

Mr. George. Well, it has been a very interesting recitation, but I 
don't see that under advice of counsel I can answer that question on 
the grounds of the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. You say on the advice of counsel ? 

Mr. George. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, of course you should seek your counsel's ad- 
vice, but the important thing here is not what your counsel says, but 
what you think. Are you contending in good faith that to answer the 
question might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr, George. Otherwise I wouldn't say so. 

Mr. Tam=:nner. I want to make certain that is your idea. 

Mr. George. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. If it is your idea, I cannot question you further 
about it. 

Mr. George. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it ? 

Mr. George. It is. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to call to your attention other evidence that 
the committee has received. Prior to locating the witness, Mr. Koide, 
testimony was received in executive session in Los Angeles — and it 
has now been released — taken on December 22, 1952. The witness was 
Anne Kinney, K-i-n-n-e-y. IMiss Kinney admitted her former Com- 
munist Party membership and told of her activities within the party. 
It is necessary that I base questions to you on her testimony, and so 
it is also necessary to read it to you. 

Mr. Velde. May I confer with counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

(At this point Mr. Velde conferred Avith Mr. Tavenner, and Mr. 
George conferred with Mr. Si)eiser.) 

Mr. T.WENNER. I am not certain just the date when this testimony 
was released and made public, but I liave before me the printed release 
of the committee which is entitled "Investigation of Communist Ac- 
tivities in the Los Angeles Area, Part 5." 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 



3430 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. TA^rENNER. This is a question asked of Miss Kinney by Mr. 
Wheeler : 

From September 1934 to the fall of 1935 you stated you were a member at 
large. What is meant by the term "meml)er at large"? 

Miss Kinney. You are not attached to any branch of any sort. 

Mr. Wheeler. For what reason? 

Miss Kinney. Because I was given a special assignment. 

Mr. Wheelek. In your opinion would you say that you were a member at large 
and not assigned to any group because of security reasons of the party? 

Miss Kinney. I presume so. 

Mr. WHEELBat. Were you assigned to any particular person? 

Miss Kinney. Yes, to Harrison George. 

Mr. Wheeleu. Will you further identify Mr. Harrison George? 

Miss Kinney. Harrison George was apparently carrying out some special as- 
signment which had to do with publishing what I think was a trade-union paper 
that was sent to Japan. I knew very little about it because all I was supposed 
to do was to pick up mail for him that was sent to various addresses and take 
it to him. 

Mr. Wheelek. Do you recall from whom you picked up the mail? 

Miss Kinney. No, I don't. I never made the arrangements for the use of the 
addresses. I simply went and got the envelopes and took them to George. 

Mr. Wheeler. Do you recall any of the addresses where you picked up the 
envelopes? 

Miss Kinney. No, I don't. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you at any time acquire any knowledge as to what the 
envelopes contained? 

MLss Kinney. No, I didn't, nor did I ever know where they came from. 

Mr. Wheeler. When assigned to Harrison George did you at any time have 
any knowledge of the branch of the party known as the Philippine committee? 

Miss Kinney. No. 

Now, did Miss Kinney operate as a mail courier for you in con- 
nection with the publication of this magazine, pamphlet, of which 
we have been talking? 

(At this point Mr. George conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. George. I decline to answei* on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

- Mr. Ta\-enner. Will you tell the committee the purposes of the 
Communist Party in engaging in this propaganda activity? 

Mr. George. That is a leading question, it seems to me. 

IVIr, Tavenner. Yes, and I am leading purposely in the hopes that 
I may get an answer. 

Mr. George. Well, I decline to answer on the same grounds as 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the publication to w^iich we have referred 
financed and directed by the Profintern ? 

Mr. George. I decline to answer on the same groimds. 

Mr. Tavenner, Mr. Chairman, it is apparent that the witness will 
not answer questions relating to this matter, so we will continue with 
the investigation. 

Mr. Velde. Well, Mr. George, if you were engaged in an operation 
that was sponsored by the Soviet Union as has been mentioned in the 
testimony of two witnesses, don't you think it vital to the security of 
our country at the present time that you assist this committee with 
information that you must have so that we might pass legislation 
which would further protect the security of the American people ? 

(At this point Mr. George conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. George. Well, some of your question was a presumption. But 
I would say I don't think what I would say would have any bearing 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3431 

Lil^on tliat thing. That is my opinion, and upon that opinion I base 
my declination to answer the question on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment as previously stated. 

Mr. ScHERER. What part of ]Mr. Velde's question was a presumption ? 

Mr. George. The presumption that the publication of this thing was 
for the Soviet government. 

Mr. ScHERER. Who was it for ? 

Mr. GEor.GE. That is not for me to say, but I say that is his presump- 
tion. 

Mr. ScHERER. Can you clear it up for us ? 

Mr. George. No. 

Mr. Velde. I believe you could clear it up for us, Mr. George, but 
apparently you are not going to assist this committee in any way. Do 
you have any further questions, Mr. Scherer? 

■Mr. ScHEKER. Did you ever receive any compensation, either di- 
rectly or indirectly, from the Soviet Union ? 

^Nlr. George. I think I better decline to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you decline ? 

Mr. George. I do so decline, yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you ever receive any compensation directly or 
indirectly from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. George. Same answer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. When our chairman asked you a minute ago about 
whether or not the publication was at the instance of the Soviet Union, 
I understood your answer to indicate that you felt that was a presump- 
tion on his part. Did I so understand ? 

Mr. George. That was my implication. 

Mr. DoTLE. Well, now 

Mr. Scherer. I can't hear the witness. 

Mr. George. That was my implication. 

Mr. Doyle. As long as you disagreed with his presumption, you 
tell us, please, in the interests of the national security of your own 
Nation, who it was as far as you know that was sponsoring the publi- 
cation of this? 

Mr. George. I decline to answer on the gi"ounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you turn up-^the microphone for the witness? 
His fifth amendments are weak here. 

Mr. Tavenner, One further question : "Wliere do you reside, Mr. 
George? 

]\Ir. George. Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavt5xner. What address? 

Mr. George. Residence? 1923 East Fourth Street, zone 33. 

Mr. Velde. What is your occupation at the present time? 

Mr. George. I am doing clerical work. 

Mr. Scherer. For whom ? 

Mr. George. Well, it is in a commercial enterprise owned by a doc- 
tor in Los Angeles. 

]Mr. Scherer. You are not today employed by the Communist Party 
then ? 

41002 — 54 — pt. 5 3 



3432 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

(At this point Mr. George conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. George. No, I am not employed by the Communist Party. 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you a member of the party today? 

(At this point Mr. George conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. George. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Velde, Mr. Counsel, is there any reason why this witness should 
be further retained under subpena ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Velde. If not, the witness is dismissed, and call your next wit- 
ness, please. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Paul Chown. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Chown. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL CHOWN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

GEORGE ANDERSEN 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Chown. My name is Paul Chown. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Chown. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Andersen. My name is (jeorge Andersen, att/orney at law, 240 
Montgomery Street. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Chown ? 

Mr. Chown. I was born in California. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Chown. I am field organizer for the United Electrical, Radio 
and Machine Workers of America. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you held that position? 

Mr. Chown. Approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was your employment prior to that? 

Mr. Chown. I would have to ask time to gather together all the 
information pertinent to that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, let us see if you can recall what your^i- 
ployment was immediately before you took your position with the UE. 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Chown. I was employed by the joint action committee of north- 
ern California local unions. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you so employed ? 

Mr. Chown. Oh, I believe it was 2 or 3 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. That employment then was in 1949 as nearly as 
you can recall ? 

Mr. Chown. 1950, 1 believe. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed in 1949 — let us put it this 
way : I would like to know what your employment has been since 1945. 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Maybe it would be easier to begin there and come 
up rather than go back. But you may do it either way you like. 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3433 

Mr. Chown. I have been in the trade union movement all of my 
adult life, and it would seem to me a lot easier if you asked me the 
particular organizations and the time you are interested in. 

Mr, Tavenner. Well, it is from 1945 on up until the time I have 
mentioned, 1950. 

Mr. Chown. Well, any particular year, counsel ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, let us begin with 1945 and state what it is. 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Tavenner. If it will simplify it any 

Mr. Andersen. Pardon me; we are consulting, if you don't mind. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me change the question, please, and then you 
can consult further. 

Mr. Andersen. You want to withdraw it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you how you were employed in 1948. 
Maybe that will simplify it. 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Chown, As best I can remember I was working for the Ala- 
meda CIO Council in 1948. As I said before, counsel, it would require 
my checking my records which I have at home as to the exact times 
of employment, months and dates and so forth. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed in 1947 ? 

Mr. Chown. In 1947 I worked for the, I believe, California CIO 
Council and the Alameda County CIO Council. 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Ir. Charles David Blodgett testified that he was 
employed by the Daily People's World for a period of about 2'^^ 
years covering the years of 1947, 1948, and up into 1949, so probably 
I should ask you also how you were employed in 1949 before closing 
the questions that I have in mind. 

Mr. Chown. I believe I was still employed by the Alameda County 
CIO Council in 1949. 

Mr. Tavenner. He stated that during that period of time he was 
in attendance and required to attend under the directions of Lloyd 
Lehman, the county chairman of the Communist Party of Alameda 
County, the meetings of the Political Affairs Committee of the Com- 
munist Party, and he described to some extent the operations of that 
committee, although he says he was there merely as an observer. He 
has identified you in the testimony as one of the persons who attended 
those meetings, and it was during substantially the period that I have 
asked you about. 

The committee would like you to tell them just what activities that 
group engaged in and who took part in it, so let me ask you first : Did 
you meet with that group? 

(At this point Mr, Chown conferred with Mr, Andersen.) 

Mr. Chown. Well, in the first place, I was not present at the time 
this man you allege so testified did so, and I would not be willing to 
take the opinion of this committee as to what was said or what was 
not said by this Mr. Blodgett, and I would certainly like to be able 
to examine the transcript or have it read here in detail. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you Imow the facts, and it wouldn't change 
the facts, regardless of what may be on the record as to what the 
witness said or my recollection of his testimony, so let me then put 
the question this way: Did you at anv time attend a meeting of the 
Political Affairs Committee of the Communist Party of Alameda 



3434 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

County, which you may answer independent of anyone else's 
testimony. 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. C'liowN. Well, it seems obvious to me this committee is tryinfj 
to link me in with the stool pi<;eon and with an attempt to smear some 
other people politically, and I am going to decline to answer that 
question based on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. My question related only to you, Mr. Chown. 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Chown. I heard what you said, and my answer is still the same, 
that no one appearing before this committee can hope to beat the 
problem of paid, professional, hopped-up perjurers who come in here 
and bear false witness. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Chown, let me again disabuse your mind of this. 
This committee has never paid any witness to appear before it to give 
testimony and doesn't direct the testimony of the witnesses. 

Mr. CiiowN. Mr. Velde, every stool pigeon I have ever known of 
has either been named or in some other way been 

Mr. Velde. This committee does not direct the testimony of any 
witness that comes before it. But as far as I am personally con- 
cerned, I will take the testimony of Mr. Blodgett as the truth rather 
than rely on anythino; that you might say before this committee. 

Mr. C'nowN. "Mr. Velde-^ — 

Mr. Velde. Is there anything further that 

Mr. Tavexner. I am not certain the record shows what the reason 
for his refusal to answer is. 

Mr. Velde. I think it was very clearly stated it was the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. If he did, I have no further questions. 

Mr. Chown. Wait a minute. I would like to answer the question. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. I note you say you were employed by the Cali- 
fornia CIO council and Alameda council of the CIO in California. 
I am not sure of the dates, but my recollection is that I have read 
and heard that the CIO council of California, certainly in the last 
4 or 5 years, took active means to kick out of CIO circles, so far as 
they knew or discovered. Communists. Wliat part did you play, if 
anv, as a CIO employee in kicking known Communists out of the 
CIO councils? 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Doyle. Would you please tell us? We are interested, among 
other things, in knowing what the methods were of these subversive 
commies in any field of endeavor in California, which is my native 
State, and you apparently have been employed by CIO councils 
several years. Now, what part did you play if any, in kicking any 
Communists out of the CIO councils ? 

Mr. Chown. I am afraid Mr. Doyle, that you are not familiar with 
what some of the real conflicts in the CIO have been. The real issue 
has been a question of whether or not the iniions, such as my union 
and many others that have for a long time had a clear and clean 
record of fighting to maintain this country and fightinjx for political 
freedom rather than political dictatorship — that was the split in the 
CIO. It had nothing to do with Communists or non-Communists; 
that was just a red herring that was dragged into it, and our fight 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3435 

was wlietlier or not our membership ^Yould be able to vote for who they 
w^anted for president rather than what a few people on top were 
trying to dictate to them to vote for. 

That was the issue, and as you ssij, I was opposed to qualify — I was 
better qualified to decide what those issues were, Congressman. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course I wasn't close to it at all. 

Mr. Chown. That is right. 

Mr. Doyle. But I am sure I have read reports by CIO publications 
in the last few years that there was a definite program to kick Com- 
nmnists out of the CIO in California, and you don't know anything 
about that ? 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Chown. I have read in the papers, too, about some honest, good 
people, for 15 and 18 years have been fighting for the working people, 
who have been dirtied up in this committee. If you don't put any 
substance in that, I don't think you should put any substance in what 
you have read about in relation to the CIO, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. ScHEKER. Are you still a member of the party today? 

Mr. Doyle. But I have read those articles in CIO papers. 

Mr. Chown. Well, it seems to me that the best way to acquire some 
real knowledge of any situation is first-hand and not by what you read 
because these days it is pretty hard to get the truth out of what you 
see in newspapers. 

Mr. Velde. Will the gentleman yield for one question? 

Mr. Doi'LE. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Is the United Electrical Workers still a part of the 
official body of the CIO? 

Mr. Chowx. We separated ourselves from the CIO when they tried 
to politically' dictate to us what our members should do in elections 
and when they were using our dues money to try to raid and destroy 
our union. 

Mr. Velde. As a matter of act, you were kicked out of the CIO, 
isn't that true? 

Mr. Chown. As a matter of act, we suspended paying dues. We 
walked out first. 

Mr. Velde. Walked out before you were kicked out? 

Mr. Chown. That is right: we walked out. 

Mr. ScHEKER. AVell, I still think my question hasn't been answered. 
Are you still a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Chown. I will be glad to ask 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. ScHERER. That is all, are you still a member of the Communist 
Party today ? 

(At tliis jwint Mr. Chown conferred Avith Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Chown. Would you mind repeating the question? 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you still a member of the Communist Party 
today? 

Mr. Chown. Well, of course that is a loaded question like when did 
I stop beating my wife. However, I would like to say this in response 
to that problem : It seems to me that the question of asking a j)er- 
son's political belief tends to undermine the whole jihilosophical con- 
ce])t u]ion which our country has been founded, and that came first 
from the people in the l7th century, people like Voltaire and Jean 
Rousseau, people like John Locke of England, and out of those writ- 



3436 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

ings which said that free inquiry and freedom of the human mind was 
going: to be the tiling for progress, that is what we based our Con- 
stitution on, and that is why we have the high standard of living 
and the kind of scientific development we do today, and I am not 
just going to be a party in answering questions one way or another to 
draw down a dark curtain on free human inquiry, and that is what it 
gets to, start telling people what they are for or against. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am just asking you whether you happen to be a 
member of this consj^iracy that it threatening to overthrow this 
Constitution which 3'ou so glibly uphold. 

Mr. Chown. It happens I am not a member of any committee like 
this or similar to it, which ask people questions which in my opinion 
go toward destroying and undermining the basic rights that this 
country was founded on. 

Mr. ScHERER. You still haven't given an answer as to whether or 
not you are a member of the party today. 

Mr. Chown. I am going to decline to answer that question on the 
basis, first of all, of the first amendment which gives every man and 
woman supposedly freedom of association and freedom of speech 
and freedom of religion, and that is what I said before, that in rela- 
tion to how this country has operated and what has made us great 
hae been that we can have a conflict of ideas, and when you wipe out 
any conflict of ideas in the market place of political opinion, then 
we are on our first step to turning the clock back over 300 years, and 
I am not going to associate myself with any plots or schemes or plans 
which will head us in that direction. Also based on the fifth amend- 
ment I am going to decline to answer. 

Mr. ScriERER. I thought that would be your answer. 

Mr. Chown. Because I cannot know who will come here to bear 
false witness, and I know how this thing is set up where my attorney 
can't cross-examine people that come here, and we can't bring in our 
own witnesses and in our own behalf 

Mr. Doyle. Now Mr. Chairman, may I proceed and complete my 
questions ? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. ScHERER. I am sorry, Mr. Doyle. I thought you were finished. 

Mr. Doyle. That is all right. I was glad to have you interrupt 
temporarily. My questions will not be directed to your political 
beliefs, but I assume from your own testimony that you have been 
pretty closely in touch with the trade-union movement quite a while 
in California. As a matter of fact, you said all your adult life, 
and I am not interested, either, in inquiring into internal trade-union 
squabbles or difficulties. You have testified yourself voluntarily as 
to one difficulty apparently in trade unionism. I am not interested 
in that difficulty. But I am interested in seeing if I can get your 
cooperation in connection with your telling us whether or not to your 
personal knowledge, we will say, since 1945, 1946, 1947, there have 
been any persons subversively trying to destroy our form of consti- 
tution and government. 

You understand, of course, the meaning of "subversive." The rea- 
son I use that lancfuage is that that is the language used in Public 
Law 601 in which we are expresslv assigned to investigate the extent 
and character of subversive activities. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3437 

Of course we were not limited in that assignment because if there 
have been subversive activities to your personal knowledge— or don't 
you know ? Let me ask you this way, and that may make it shorter, 
so I won't have to ask so many questions, and so you won't have 
to make a speech. But can I ask you this way : Have you known 
in the last 5 years of any subversive activities in the trade-union 
movement here in California, to your own personal knowledge? 

Mr. Chown. Well, Mr. Doyle, the problem on that is, you mention 
the fact that subversive activity is supposed to be a simple and clear- 
cut thing, but I don't find it to be so. 

For example, you have a colleague in Congress, a fellow named 
Lane from Massachusetts, who introduced a bill which 

Mr. Doyle. Now 

Mr. Chown. Wait a minute. I want to say he introduced a bill 
defining subversive activity as anybody who engages in a work stop- 
page or slowdown and who should go to jail 2 to 10 years with a 
$10,000 fine. Is that the kind of subversive activity you mean? 

Mr. DoTLE. Of course I am taking the commonly accepted defini- 
tion, to destroy, to dissolve, to exterminate, as given by Mr. Webster. 
That is my definition. Take Mr. Webster's dictionary definition with 
which you are very familiar, I am sure. 

Mr. Chown. Well, I would say that those unions — the advancing 
of their constitutional provisions that would create second-class citi- 
zenship for various people, whether because of color or political be- 
liefs, that that is the type of subversive activity that has been going on 
in the labor movement in recent times. 

Mr. Doyle. No, no ; don't dodge the question, please. 

Mr. Velde. May I again advise the physical audience present that 
any expressions of disapproval or approval of anything that is said 
by the witness or counsel or a member of the committee will not be 
tolerated, and I would regret very much having to clear the hearing 
room, but in case there is further outburst, the chair will have to 
order the policemen to clear the hearing room. 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Doyle. Let me state this : I don't know as I ever met you, but 
I am in good faith in asking your cooperation. 

Mr. Chown. So am I. 

Mr. DoYLB. Well, I assume you are in trying to answer this ques- 
tion again. I am looking for information, if you have anv, under our 
assignment as a congressional committee under Public Law 601, to 
investigate the extent of subversive activities in any field. 

Mr. Chown. I will try to answer that question again. There have 
been a lot of inquiries about sabotage and so on and espionage. To the 
best of my knowledge and belief certainly in my union and, as far as 
I know about the longshoremen, warehousemen, steel workers, and auto 
workers, I have never heard of anybody being charged or indicted 
with any such actions here on the west coast, and that seems to me to 
speak pretty well for itself that the record of these people as loyal 
Americans is pretty hard to question. 

Mr. D0YI.E. Then you have no personal knowledge of any of it? 

Mr. Chown. Not as I understand and define the term "subversive," 
no. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you defined "subversive" according to your under- 
standing? 



3438 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Chown. As I understand it. I have no knowledfje of subversive 
activities, except to the extent that tliere are i^eople, of course, in Cali- 
fornia that would like to undermine tlie Bill of Rights, and I think 
again any attack on our Constitution 

Mr. Doyle. No, no ; don't dodge the question. 

Mr. Chown. That is what I define as subversive, like there are cer- 
tain Congressmen who would like to do away with the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. DoYi.E. Let me ask you this theri : Do you define persons m the 
Communist Party who favor the forceful and violent overthrow of our 
form of government as subversive? As long as we are discussing 
definitions. 

(At tliis point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. CiiowN. In my own acquaintance I know of no one who is 
actively engaged in organizing the forceful overthrow of this country. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, will you answer my question, please ? I didn't ask 
you whetlier or not you knew any. I "asked you if that was included 
in your definition of "subversive." You have had quite a consulta- 
tion with your counsel before you answered that, and that is all 
right. He has a right to advise you on your rights. 

Mr. CiiowN. That is still a privilege which I should enjoy before 
this committee. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right, and I cherish the continued opi^ortunity of 
every witness before this committee to have private counsel. But how 
will you answer my question, please? 

Mr. Chown. AVould you mind restating it? 

Mr, Doyle. Would the reporter please read it? 

(The question was read by the reporter as follows: 

Do you define persons in the Communist Party who favor the forceful and vio- 
lent overthrow of our form of government as subversive? 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Chown. It seems to me that that is a political question of certain 
presumptions as what the motivations of various people might be or a 
member of a political organization, and I am not going to get in a de- 
bate as to what the people who may be members of the Conununist 
Party — what they advocate and what they don't advocate. I am just 
not equipped to do that. 

Mr. Doyle. In other Avords, you don't know, is that it, what they 
advocate? Or do you know? 

Mr. Chown. I am saying that I am not going to get in a debate 
with you as what thev advocate or don't advocate. 

Mr. D0Y1.E. I will ask you, do you know what the Communist Party 
advocates in the United States? 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Chown. You want my opinion, is that it? 

Mr. DoYLE. No, I am asking if you know. 

Mr. Chown. Well, that still sounds like asking my opinion to me, 
and I am not going to debate the question of communism with you, 
Representative Doyle. 

:Mr. Doyle. I see you are not even going to discuss the question of 
whether or not you know who is subversive and who is not. 

Mr. Chown. t answered that as far as my understanding of what 
subversive is. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3439 

Mr. Doyle. I think I have no other questions from this witness. 

Mr, Velde. Is there any reason why this witness should be longer 
retained under subpena? 

Mr. Tavenxer. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask one or two more 
questions. 

Mr. Chown, in my opinion you made a very pertinent statement a 
moment ago. You stated the way to get information is to get it 
directly at first hand, so I am going back to my original question. I 
want to know about the activities of the Political Affairs Committee 
of the Communist Party of Alameda County and try to get from you 
first hand what knowledge you have, if any, of its operations. 

(At this point Mr. Chown conferred with ]Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Chown. Well, there again that assumes that I know something ; 
that is an "iffy" question, Counsel. 

INIr. Tavexner. No; of course I don't want an answer unless you 
know. Do you know? 

Mr. Chowx. You are asking me an "iffy" question. Now, my point 
in answer to that is that there again that goes to the matter of who 
I associate with and who I don't associate with under the first amend- 
ment, and with the way this setup has operated 

Mr. Velde. The situation is this: Regardless of whether it is an 
"iffy" question, will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Chown. Well, the problem is, you bring people in here to 
testify all week, and there is no basis for getting a crack at them to 
cross-examine. 

Mr. Velde. The problem is how can we get you to answer this 
question and give us some information. As Mr. Tavenner has very 
well pointed out, you mentioned yourself that the best place to get 
information is at the source of the information. We have sworn testi- 
mony that you were a member of the Communist Party and the Politi- 
cal Affairs Committee of it. 

Now, will you either admit, deny, or refuse to answer the question? 

Mr. Chown. Will you give my counsel an opportunity to cross- 
examine the witnesses who have so alleged ? 

Mr. Velde. That is not an answer or a denial or refusal to answer. 

Mr. Chown. It is a 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Chown. It is an aspect of it. 

Mr. Velde. Yes, you are certainly directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Chowx. Well, on the basis of the restrictions you place around 
it, I am going to decline to answer that based on the first amendment, 
and in fact, all of the amendments to the Constitution, and primarily 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. Anything fui-fher, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I have no further questions. 

JNIr. Velde. Is there any reason why this witness should be further 
retained under subpena? 

Mr. TA\n:NNER. No, sir. 

Mr. Velde. If not, the Avitness is dismissed, and the committee will 
be in recess for 10 minutes at this time. 

(Whereujion. at 11 a. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene at 
11:10 a.m.) 

41002 — 54 — pt. 5 4 



3440 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

(The hearing reconvened at 11 : 20 a. m.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order, please. Counsel, call 
your next witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. Bjorne Hailing. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Halling. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BJOKNE HALLING, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, GEORGE ANDEESEN 

Mr. Ktjnzig. Would you state your full name, please ? 

Mr. Halling. My name is Bjorne Hailing. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you spell it? 

Mr. Halling. The first name is B-j-o-r-n-e, and the second name is 
H-a-1-l-i-n-g. 

Mr. KuNziG. When and where were you born, Mr. Hailing? 

Mr. Halling. I was born in Norway. 

Mr. KuNZiG. "V^Hien? 

Mr. Halling. In 1909. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you today a naturalized citizen ? 

Mr. Halling. Yes, sir. 

Mr. KuNZiG. Wlien did you become naturalized.^ 

Mr. Halling. 1937. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your present address, please? 

Mr. Halling. 596 Page, P-a-g-e, Street, San Francisco. 

Mr. KuNziG. Wliere are you employed? 

Mr. Halling. I am a longshoreman. 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Chairman, I am in possession of testimony here 
taken under oath in executive session of this committee of one Ernest, 
E-r-n-e-s-t, Leroy, L-e-r-o-y, Seymour, S-e-y-m-o-u-r. The original 
testimony was taken November 6, 1953, and a supplemental part which 
I request permission to read was taken November 22, 1953, this year. 

Mr. Velde. Would you also identify Mr. Seymour a little better, 
please? 

Mr. Kunzig. Mr. Seymour is an admitted former member of the 
Communist Party acting here in San Francisco. He cooperated, Mr. 
Chairman, fully with the committee. 

The questions went as follows : 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever have an occasion to meet Pat Tobin as a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Seymour. Yes, under the same circumstances as Neil Crowe and Don 
Cameron. 

Mr. Wkeeler. Did you ever have the occasion to meet Al Saxton as a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Seymotjr. Yes ; Al Saxton was a member of the Communist Party of the 
American Communications Association in San Francisco group from 1944 until 
1946. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever have the occasion to meet Robert or Bob Sherman 
as a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Rettmour. Yes ; under the same circumstances as Al Saxton. 

Mr. WHEETjini. Did you ever have occasion to meet Nathan Jacobson as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Seymour. Yes ; in 1942 at one or more Communist Party meetings of the 
waterfront section in San Francisco. 

Mr. Wheeler. What union was he a member of? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3441 

Mr. Seymoxjb, The Marine Cooks and Stewards Union. He was an ofBcial of 
that union. 

Mr. Wheeli:r. Did you ever have any occasion to meet David Jenkins as a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Seymouu. Yes; under the same circumstances as Nathan Jacobson. He 
was in the same union. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever have the occasion to meet Carl Williams as a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Seymour. Yes; under the same circumstances as Nathan Jacobson. H« 
was also a member of the same union. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever have any occasion to meet Archie Brown as a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Seymour. Yes ; he represented the San Francisco County committee of the 
Communist Party at policy meetings with the bay area utility workers' caucus of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever have occasion to meet Joe Lynch as a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Seymour. Yes ; Joe Lynch was the control of the National Maritime Union 
in Portland, Greg., in October of 1946. 

Mr. Wheeler. You attended meetings in Portland with Joe Lynch when your 
ship docked there? 

Mr. Seymour. No ; we had a personal meeting with Joe Lynch in the offices of 
the National Maritime Union. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you discuss with others Communist Party membership at 
that time? 

Mr. Seymour. AVe discussed Communist Party policy in relation to the Na- 
tional Maritime Union. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever have occasion to meet Bjorne Hailing as a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Seymour. Yes. He attended a meeting of the waterfront section of the 
Communist Party in the fall of 1944 and gave the CIO's unofficial opinion of 
some action which the waterfront section happened to be planning on taking. 
I can't recall definitely what the point was, but he was invited to speak. 

Mr. Wheeler. It was just one meeting? 

Mr. Seymour. Yes. 

Mr. Wheeler. Was this a closed' Communist Party meeting? 

Mr. Seymolti. Yes, definitely a closed meeting. 

Mr. Wheeler. Did you ever have occasion to meet Herb Kalman as a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Seymour. Yes ; I knew him as a member of the Communist Party in a 
local group in Berkeley. I met him at one or two meetings in atwut 1947. 

Before I ask any further questions, would counsel please state his 
name and address for the record ? 

Mr. Andersen. Yes. My name is George Andersen. I am a lawyer. 
My address is 240 Montgomery Street. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Hailing, I have just read to you this testimony of 
Ernest Leroy Seymour, given under oath before an executive session 
of this committee in which he identifies 5^ou as a member of the Com- 
munist Party. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

(At this point Mr. Hailing conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Halling. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

(At this point !Mr. Halling conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Halling. Same answer. 

Mr, Kunzig. Do you know or did you ever know Ernest Leroy 
Seymour? 

^Ir. Halling. To the best of my knowledge I wouldn't know him 
if I found him in my soup. 

Mr. Kunzig. Have you ever been a member of the board of directors 
of the California Labor School, Mr. Halling? 



3442 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

(At this point Mr. Hailing conferred with Mr. Andersen.) 

Mr. Hai.ling. I decline to answer. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Chairaian, I think I have no further questions. 
It is obvious the witness is going to take the fifth amendment on all 
questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. DoTLE. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. Is there any reason why this witness then should be 
further retained ? 

Mr. KuNziG. No, sir. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused, and you may call your next 
witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Richard Lynden. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Lynden. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EICHARB LYNDEN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, GEOEGE ANDERSEN 

Mr. Lynden. Counsel, may I make a request to address a message 
to the chairman? I would like to submit a detailed statement in 
respect to the character and structure of our union which is noAV in 
preparation, and I would like to have it made part of the proceeding 
here. 

Mr. Velde. Well, the committee will take any statement that is 
submitted and consider it for insertion into the record. 

Mr. Lynden. Would it be made part of the proceeding? 

Mr. Velde. Well, I can't tell until we see that statement of course, 
until the members 

Mr. Lynden. I can tell you the nature of the statement. It deals 
with the structure of the union. 

Mr. Velde. There is no question pending at the present time. 

Mr. Lynden. I am makinc" a i-equest. 

Mr. Velde. You will abide by those instructions. Proceed, Mr. 
Counsel. 

Mr. Lynden. Mr, Chairman, I am making a request to the cliaii-man 
of the committee. 

Mr. Velde. The committee has taken the request, and I have given 
you the policy of the committee on it. We will take your statement 
into consideration, as we do all statements that are submitted to the 
committee. 

Mv. KuNZTG. I think it should be very clear in the record, too, 
Mr. Chairman, that we are here investigating communism and indi- 
viduals who may have been active in communism, and not the union. 

Ml-. Velde. Certainly that should be definitely 

Mr. Lynden. You are not doing anything of the kind, and that is 
not true. 

Mr. KiTNZTG. Mr. Lynden, will you ]:)lease state your name for 
the record? 



COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3443 

Mr. Lynden. My name is Richard Lynden, L-y-n-d-e-n. I am 
secretary treasurer of the Warehouse Union local 6. 

Mr. KuNziG. "WTien and where were you born, sir ? 

Mr. Lyndex. I was born in San Francisco in 1910. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would counsel once again please state his name and 
address for the record ? 

Mr. AxDERSEX. Yes. My name is George Andersen. I am a law- 
yer. My address is 240 Montgomery Street. 

Mr. KuNZKi. What is your present address, Mr. Lynden? 

Mr. Lyndex. 255 Ninth Street. 

Mr. KuNzm. Before this committee previously in this week a Mr. 
Rosser gave testimony as follows, and I will read it and recall it 
to your mind : 

.Mr. RossKK. Hedley, H-e-rt-l-e-y ; Posner, P-o-s-n-e-r — his name — Posey,* 
P-o-s-e-y — I have forgotten the first name, Communist Party member who was a 
member of ttie waveluiuseineu's union and who was assigned hy the political 
action — that is Dave Hedley- — to head the drive in the Fillmore district. That 
is where at that time the majority of Negroes and Japanese and minorities lived 
here in Frisco. Also we had a meeting with Dick Lynden. 

Que.stion. What is the name? 

Answer. Richard Lynden. Richard Lynden is one of the officials of local 6 
of the warehousemens union, either the president or the secretary treasurer, I 
have forgotten. 

Question. Now, you are speaking of the Communist Party members? 

Answer. Yes ; Dick Lynden is a member. I knew him when he was a member 
of the Young Communist League. I worked with Dick Lynden on the State 
committee of the Young Communist League, and tlien I knew him as a Commu- 
nist, as I said, when he became an official of local 6 of the warehousemen's union 
here in the city. Dick Lynden was very active. He came from San Jose and then 
moved up here to Frisco, and through the party's manipulations he soon became 
the leader of this big union here in San Francisco. 

I want to ask you, Mr. Lynden, have you ever been a member of 
tlie Young Communist League? 

Mr. Lyxdex. I want to answer that question in this way : I feel 
that I should not answer the question because I think that I am in 
danger of entrapment b}^ this committee. It is well known that the 
president of the international union that I belong to, Harry Bridges, 
had three trials. 

Mr. Velde, Do you mean incrimination ? 

Mr. Lyxdex. I can answer the question. You know, you can frame 
the question, but you can't frame my answers, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. All right. You meant entrapment and not incrimina- 
tion. 

Mr. Lyxdex. I mean that this committee can entrap me, and tlie 
best ])roof 1 can offer you of that is wliat hajipened in tlie case of my 
international president, that he was brought to trial three times. He 
was cleared of any membership in or affiliation with the Communist 
Party. The fact of the matter is that these trials apparently are 
going to continue, the ])rosecution of Mr. Bridges has been continued 
and unremittingly. 

Now, this trial cost my union 

Mr. Velde. AVitness, there is no use going any furtlier. We have 
a number of witnesses to be called yet, and we have heard this same 
line many, many times. Mr. Bridges is not here as a witness. You 



1 Further idciitifiod as Max Posey. 



3444 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

are here as a witness at the present time to answer questions put to 
you by our counsel and by the members. 

Mr. Lynden. Mr. Velde, if you don't mind, I will answer the ques- 
tions in my own way. 

Mr. Velde. That is not an answer to the question. 

Mr. Lynden. It is a direct answer to the question 

Mr. Velde. Let me ask the question ao;ain : Have you ever been a 
member of the Younof Communist League ? 

Mr. Lynden. I will proceed to answer that again in my own way. 
1 don't know anything about your lawyer's techniques, but I know 
how to answer that question, and I tell you I am not going to answer it. 

Mr. Velde. The question is very simple. 

Mr. Lynden. And I am not going to answer it. 

Mr. Velde. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Lynden. I am not going to answer it because tiie president of 
my international union got in a load of trouble trying to answer this 
question forthrightly in the same circumstances. You people bring 
people up here and expect to embarrass them in the eyes of the public 
by asking them questions of this nature. 

Mr. Velde. That is not an answer to the question. You are here 
as a witness, sir. Will you answer the question or refuse to answer it? 

Mr. Lynden. I will decline to answer the question, and I will state 
the reasons why. Mr. Velde, if you will quit just for a minute trying 
to frame my answer, I will have the answer out. 

Mr. Velde. I am not trying to frame your answer. You can answer 
the question very simply, and I wish you would. 

Mr. Lynden. The answer to the question is I am declining to answer, 
and I am doing it because I don't want to run these risks. In the 
case of Mr. Bridges it cost our union over a half a million dollars to 
defend him in the three trials. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Lynden. I am not going to run that risk when some paid stool 
pigeon comes in here and drops my name before the committee. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from Ohio, Mr. 
Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I submit the reasons the witness is giving are not a 
legitimate reason for not answering the question. It is a speech, and 
I am going to ask the Chair to direct him to desist from making a 
speech because the reasons he is attempting to give 

Mr. Lynden. Mr. Scherer, you make speeches all the time in this 
committee and gratuitous remarks, and I am addressing myself to the 
question. 

Mr. Velde. The gentleman from Ohio is making an observation and 
request. 

Mr. Scherer. I am going to ask that the Chair have the witness 
removed from the room unless he answers the questions. 

Mr. Velde. Or declines to answer them on a legal basis. 

Mr. Lynden. I am declining to answer 

Mr. Velde. You are again asked, Mr. Witness, or you are directed 
to answer the question asked of you. 

Mr. Lynden. I will decline to answer the question on the ground, 
No. 1, of the first amendment, that it is none of this committee's busi- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3445 

ness. I decline further to answer on the ground of the fifth amend- 
ment, which protects me in my right not to bear witness against myself, 
and I want to say that the ILWU 

Mr. ScHERER. I submit the witness has answered the question. 

Mr. Lynden. I haven't answered it. I haven't completed my 
answer to the question. 

Mr. Velde. You refuse to answer the question. Proceed, Mr. Coun- 
sel. Do you have anything further ? 

Mr. Lynden. I am declining to answer the question on the further 
ground that my union does not want to be put to the expense of any 
more perjury trials. Mr. Rosser came in here 

Mr. Scherer. Now, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any further questions, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Scherer. I suggest that you follow my suggestion. 

Mr. Velde. What is your suggestion, Mr. Scherer? That he be 
directed to answer the question; is that your suggestion? 

Mr. Scherer. My suggestion is, if he persists in this type of conduct, 
that he be ordered to leave the room. 

Mr. Lynden. You invited me here. That isn't a very good way to 
shown your hospitality. 

Mr. Scherer. He is in contempt of this committee and in contempt 
of the United States. His whole attitude shows it, and the record 
with recoi'd my remarks. 

Mr. Velde. First of all, do you have anything further, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. KuNziG. I haven't asked yet whether he has ever been a member 
of the Communist Party, or whether he is now a member of the party. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed. 

Mr. KuNziG. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party, JMr. Lynden ? 

IVIr. Lynden. I am going to decline to answer that question on the 
same grounds that I stated previously. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you now a member 

Mr. Lynden. I don't intend 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you today a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lynden. And I don't intend, even if you rig the questions and 
hurry them along, to get pushed into any other answers than the ones 
that I have given. 

Mr. KuNziG. Well, just answer this question. 

Mr. Lynden. The record is pretty clear. 

Mr. KuNziG. Are you today, this very minute, a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Lynden. I decline to answer that question again on the ground 
of the fifth amendment, and I don't wish to bear witness against myself. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. KuNziG. No further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. No quastions. 

Mr. Velde. The witness is excused. Call your next witness. 

Mr. KuNziG. Mr. Herb Naboisek. 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the tinith, so help you God ? 

Mr. Naboisek. I do. 



3446 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

TESTIMONY OP HERBERT NABOISEK, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr. KuNziG. Would you state your name, sir, please ? 

Mr. Naboisek. Herbert Naboisek, N-a-b-o-i-s-e-k. 

Mr. KuNziG. What is your address, Mr. Naboisek ? 

Mr. Naboisek. I live at 837 San Luis Road, Berkeley. 

Mr. KuNziG. Would counsel please state his name and address for 
the record ? 

Mr. Speiser. I am Lawrence Speiser, the staff counsel of the Amer- 
ican Civil Liberties Union of north California, 503 Market Street, San 
Francisco. 

Mr. KuNziG. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Naboisek. I was born in New York in 1907. 

Mr. KuNziG. Where are you presently employed ? 

(At this point Mr. Naboisek conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Naboisek. I decline on ^rrounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I can't possibly see how his present 
employment would tend to incriminate him, and I ask that you direct 
the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Velde. Yes, the witness is directed to answer that question. 
The direction is based on the reason that I expressed, I believe, yester- 
day, that we have an obligation imposed upon us by the House of 
Representatives of the United States Congress to ascertain the extent 
of the Communist and other subversive influences in all fields of 
American life and all types of employment. So you are directed to 
answer that question. 

(At this point Mr. Naboisek conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Naboisek. I refuse on the same grounds, as I stated a moment 

' "^Mr. KuNziG. Do you teach in any way at the University of Cali- 
fornia at Berkeley ? 

Mr. Naboisek. No, I don't. 

I^Ir. KuNziG. Are you connected in any way with the University of 
California? . 

(At this point Mr. Naboisek conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Naboisek. I decline to state for the reasons that I gave a moment 

ago. . 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I can't jjossibly see whether he is or 
whether he is not connected with the University of California Avould 
tend to incriminate him. 

Mr. Velde. I certainly don't, either. 

Mr Scherer. I ask that he be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. A^ELDE. I don't think the University of California by any stretch 
of the imagination is engaged in any illegal enterj^rise. Anyone 
should be willing to admit their association or connection with it, so 
you are directed to answer the question. 

(At this point Mr. Naboisek conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Naboisek. I do research work at the university m the depart- 
ment of psychology. 

Mr. Velde. Thank you. 

Mr. KuNziG. Now, 'there is testimony before this committee, Mr. 
Naboisek, given by Mary Elizabeth Parrott Bradsher, sworn testi- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3447 

mony on the 2d day of November 1953. We have already mentioned 
Mrs. Bradsher prior to these hearings this week in San Francisco. 

She was asked the following question and gave the following 
answer : 

Question. Mrs. Bradsher, to the best of .your recollection can you tell me whom 
you met and worked with as members of the Communist Party since the reforma- 
tion of the Communist Party in October 1945 until you became inactive in the 
party ? 

Answer. There was a fellow named Jerry ; there was Jean Frederick and 
Van Frederick ; Marian Redner, whom we knew as Marian Hammond, and Gene 
Hammond ; Bill Redner ; Clara and Bob Ragland, Bimbo Brown ; Ella and Jack 
Gonzoles ; Bruce Anderson ; and June and Herb Naboisek. 

I would like to ask you, have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party, Mr. Naboisek ? 

Mr. Naboisek. When you read that, you mentioned before this 
person who gave this testimony became inactive and mentioned me. 
Would you specify what the date was that she said she became 
inactive ? 

Mr. KuNziG (reading). 

I ceased any great amount of activity in 1947. 

So that would have been prior to 1947, Mr. Naboisek, in the period 
1945-46, that period of time. 

(At this point Mr. Naboisek conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Naboisek. Would you repeat the question? 

Mr. Ktjnzig. The question is, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Naboisek. Well, I would like to put my answer in this way: 
I am not a member of the Communist Party. I wasn't back to 1947, 
as indicated by the testimony of that witness, and as for any other 
period, I decline to state on grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. Let me ask you, were you a member of the Communist 
Party then in 1947? 

Mr. Naboisek. I decline to state. 

Mr. KuNziG. Were you a member in 1946? 

Mr. Naboisek. I decline to state, 

Mr. KuNziG. 1945 ? 

Mr. Naboisek. I decline to state. 

Mr. KuNziG. 1944? 

Mr. Naboisek. I decline to state; I decline to state all questions 
of that nature. 

Mr. KuNziG. Any year I ask back before 1944 you will decline to 
answer ? 

Mr. Naboisek. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. And you are not now a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Naboisek. That is right. 

Mr. KuNziG. What occupation did you have during the war years, 
Mr. Naboisek? 

Mr. Naboisek. T was in the United States Army in the armored 
command. 

Mr. KuNziG. Then let me ask you, were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party when you were in the United States Army in the armored 
command ? 

41002—54 — pt. 5 5 



3448 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Naboisek. I decline to answer any questions prior to 1947 about 
membership in the Communist Party, 

Mr. KuNZiG. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. I think you said you were eno;aged or employed by 
the University of California in research in psychology. 

Mr. Naboisek. That is correct. 

Mr. Doyle. I know therefore you must have certain college degrees. 

]\Ir. Naboisek. I do. 

Mr. Doyle. What degrees ? 

Mr. Naboisek. I am a Ph. D. in psychology. 

Mr. Doyle. I assumed you were, and I asked you that because I ex- 
pect your cooperation with us as a committee of the United States 
Congress, as long as you are not now a Communist, since 1947, whether 
or not you were before you decline to state, but as long as you are a 
Ph. D. in psychology — I am not, but I want to be perfectly frank with 
you. In my asking these 2 or 3 questions, psychologically I assume 
you were prior to 1948 a member of the Communist Party. 

Now, as you know, Doctor, one of the assignments this committee 
has is to study the extent of subversive activities in the United States, 
whether it originates in the United States or originates in foreign 
countries, and it is fair for me to say to you that preliminary to this 
question I assume that you, not being a member of the Communist 
Party, are therefore not bound by any former relationships when it 
comes to the matter of the internal security of our own Nation, which 
is your Nation. Is that a correct assumption, that assumption on my 
part ? 

(At this point Mr. Naboisek conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Naboisek. I think it is. 

Mr. Doyle. Very good. 

(Kepresentative Donald L. Jackson returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Doyle. Therefore, can you help us briefly in our investigation 
of subversive activities in the bay area, with special reference to any 
opinion you may have to the extent of subversive activities, say, at the 
University of California, since 1947 first and last, because that is the 
period you say you were not a member of the party, and you have 
stated now that you are not bound by any limitations by reason of any 
former affiliation. 

(At this point Mr. Naboisek conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Naboisek. It is pretty obvious, it seems to me, Mr. Doyle, that 
if I have said that I know nothing particularly since 1947 about politi- 
cal activities, that I wouldn't be aware of activities of the nature as 
you indicate. I think I ought to go a little further and say that so far 
as I know, I never have known an individual or have been associated 
with anyone who has in any way, so far as I coidd tell, performed any 
action that I regard as being subversive in any way. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, then, as I understand your testimony, it is that 
you have never known anyone at the university in connection there- 
with or attending there who had any subversive attitudes toward this 
constitutional form of government? 

Mr. Naboisek. That is absolutely correct. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3449 

Mr. Doyle. Are you aware of any subversive or un-American propa- 
ganda now at or in connection with the University of California 
campus at Berkeley ? 

Mr. Naboisek. No. 

Mr. Doyle. Since 1947? 

Mr. Naboisek. I can't say that I have. 

Mr. DoYiJE. Well, a minute ago you said that you had no kiiowledge 
of anything particularly. I caught that word "particularly." In my 
book that opens a question of whether or not you mean 100 percent 
or 90 percent. 

Mr. Xaboisek. No, I was merely specifying that I have been so 
busy in my profession that I have had no time for any kind of outside 
activity, political or even social, for that matter. 

Mr. Doyle. Well without asking you to violate your own conscience 
in connection with claiming the constitutional protections, may 1 ask 
3'ou this question : In your study of psychology what are some of the 
reasons why people join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Naboisek. I don't think those reasons, Mr. Doyle, are psycho- 
logical at all. I think many of the witnesses who have appeared before 
this committee have been persons who became nuiture adults at the 
time, for example, of the depression in the 19o0's. At a time like that, 
it seems to me, any person who had an inquiring mind, who was 
idealistic, would have felt that there was something basically wrong 
in the management of, we will say, economical and social aifairs in 
this country, and looked for a better way, and looked for the answers 
in every possible direction that they could have found. 

Many such people felt that an approach which nowadays is so 
condemned, at that time was the only answer. Along the same line 
I think that people who look at the world as it is today, who fear the 
threat of an atomic war, for example, and feel and have the honest 
feeling that under the present administration, and even under the past 
administration, for that matter, we were rapidly approaching a point 
where we would get into a position from which we could not back out 
from a war in which the whole world would be annihilated — such con- 
siderations would make people feel that there must be some other and 
a far-reaching difference in approach to how such questions are 
handled. 

Now, these differences of opinion and these feelings that these 
questions are serious and take a serious and sincere approach, even 
though it might bring on them risks and dangers, such people might 
often feel that they would take the risk of being extremists or being 
called extiemists by other persons and yet be completely honest and 
not subversive. 

Now those reasons are not psychological. 

Mr. Doyle. "What is the basis of those reasons if they are not psycho- 
logical '. What is the fundamental basis of those two reasons you 
have given \ 

Mr. Naboisek. Those are reasons based on people's experience of 
political attitudes, of economic realities, of the bearing that economic 
realities have on political decisions that the leaders of our country 
mjike and so forth. When they feel — lots of people do feel that these 
things could endanger the welfare of the country, and then they feel 
that the matter of risk to themselves, or reputation, loss of enq)loy- 



3450 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

ment and so forth — they feel there is nothing for them to do con- 
scientiously but take extreme positions. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask this personal question: How old were you 
during the depression of the thirties? 

Mr. Naboisek. I was 25 years old. 

Mr. Doyle. You are familiar with the Duclos letter which came to 
this country from France by the route from Moscow, I think in May 
1945, aren't you ? 

Mr. Naboisek. I have heard of it, although I have never read it. 

Mr. Doyle. You have nover read it. Well, you are familiar with 
the fact that as a result of the coming of that letter to this country 
largely, Earl Browder was kicked out of the leadership of the Amer- 
ican Communist Party because he advocated the possibility of the 
Communist system of government and our own American constitu- 
tional system of government living in the same world side by side. 
You are familiar with that fact, aren't you? 

Mr. Naboisek. Well, I have read statements that in general seem 
to be like that, yes. 

Mr. Doyle. Do I understand then that you feel a person, since the 
Duclos letter, which delineated the fact that the two systems could 
not exist side by side in the same world — do I understand your testi- 
mony that an American citizen can be patriotic and abide within the 
four corners of the United States Constitution and be a member of 
the Communist Party which has been proven to be an international 
conspiracy at all times and especially since April 1945 ? 

Mr. Scherer. I don't gather that the witness said tliat. I have 
been trying to follow him closely. 

;Mr. Doyle. Well, perhaps my question— —  

Mr. Scherer. 1 think it has been very fair. I may not agree with 
his conclusions, but I think he has been extremely honest. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course I am not inferring he is not. 

Mr. Scherer. No, I didn't mean 

Mr. Doyle. Here is a brilliant ediicator. and we are searching, 
Doctor, for w\ays and means by which we might understand as legis- 
lators the problem of legislation in the United States Congress. You 
understand the import of my question ? 

Mr. Naboisek. Well, I do. I really don't see how I could answer 
that because I have not thought about it, but it seems to me that what 
you are asking me now is to give you my personal opinion. I think 
that to give an opinion on a question which seems to be so important 
would be a very w^rong thing for me to do until I had thought about 
it, until I could give you an answer that I have 

Mr. DoYi.E. I don't want less tlian a considered opinion. 

Mr. Naboisek. I can't give you that. 

Mr. DoY^.E. Then I will not press you for it because only a con- 
sidered opinion will be helpful to us as legislators. 

One further question, ^Ii-. Chairman. Again in our search for the 
basis of possible change or additional legislation in Congress on this 
subject of subversive and un-American propaganda and activities in 
our country, liave you any suggestion to give this committee in the 
field of possible legislation on the subject? 

Mr. Naboisek. Well, I liave tried to be fair to the committee, and 
I will make a statement which I feel again is fair. I agree with 
many of the witnesses who have appeared here that the intent of this 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3451 

committee is not what it claims that it is. I am getting around to 
answering your question about what is subversive and your request 
for information about what is subversive. 

I think anybody who is accustomed to weighing performance against 
statements by people who tell you or try to tell you what they are 
trying to do would easily see from the performance of this committee 
that they do not do what they say they are. 

One such, I might as well say, is^ this question about the employ- 
ment of witnesses who have appeared before this committee. Now, 
it seems to me that if this committee is looking for information about 
which to legislate, and this is your question, that it would not press 
people for employment — for that kind of identifying information 
because it has had sufficient experience certainly in its 15 years of 
history as to what happens to witnesses who appear here. 

Now, that to me is certainly in direct contradiction to the stated 
purposes of the committee to legislate. 

Now, with regard to the subversive activities other witnesses have 
questioned the conmiittee with regard to what it feels are subversive 
activities. I would like to make this point because I have heard you, 
Mr. Doyle, say a number of times, talk a number of times, about the 
international Communist conspiracy. Now, the point that I want 
to make is that it certainly is easy to make people appear to be con- 
spirators if all persons who have authority in the community engaged 
in a hunt for those who have been in some way associated with such 
activities or who don't like the political opinions they advocate, or 
who don't like people getting together about issues which are impor- 
tant to the community and so on. 

Now, when people are after you, you certainly don't — you look 
out, you tend to try to protect yourself by hiding from those who 
em}:)loy all of the forces of the law who are engaged in a search 
for you. 

What I am trying to say is that it is very easy to make people 
to look like conspirators, even when, if they were permitted the free- 
dom to express their views, they would probably be very glad to 
do so openly because their views are not the kinds of views so far 
as I have even known about which a person should be in the least 
ashamed. Now 

ISIr. Velde. Will the gentleman yield just a minute there so I can 
make an observation in that respect, too? I appreciate that the wit- 
ness has a right to express his vie-ws as we do here, too, and that is 
the great American right. I believe in it, and I know you do. But 
it is my opinion, and I think the opinion of the other authorities, 
that unless you actively advocate and teach the overthrow of our 
form of government by force and violence, you can still be a member 
of the Communist Party, and you have committed no crime what- 
soever. 

Mr. Naboisek. You are not being very realistic. 

Mr. Velde. That is the reason we are asking you to give us any 
information about any Communist activities you might have so we 
can determine whether or not a great percentage of the Communist 
Party members were engaged in teaching and advocating the over- 
throw of our form of government of the United States. I am sure 
that a great majority of those we call friendly witnesses who have 



3452 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

named Communists in the past had no intention whatsoever of over- 
throwino: our form of government. There are some, I am also sorry 
to say, Avho did attempt to overthrow our form of government by 
force and violence. 

I can think of no one before this committee — I am sure there 
hasn't been anyone before this committee, and I don't think before 
any of the other committees of Congress, who has ever come and 
told the truth about their past connections — that have been incrimi- 
nated in any way. 

Mr. Naboisek. Well, with regard to that, ISlr. Velde, I might say 
that there are many people who are not in the least ashamed of the 
fact that they have, say, at certain periods been members of the Com- 
munist Party, but who know from the procedures of this committee 
that to answer such questions would be to involve other persons in the 
difficulties that seem to be inevitable from appearing before it as a 
witness. 

Now, this is the committee's fault because the committee does cause 
damage to reputations in communities in which people live, and there- 
fore I think any honest person would certainly not answer any ques- 
tions of this committee that would involve other persons. For that 
reason I, myself, also have used the fifth amendment for what I 
think is its proper use, to protect innocent persons from damage which 
is inflicted by this committee. 

Mr. SciiERER. Did you hear Blodgett's testimony, read his testi- 
mony, the witness who was before the committee the other day ? 

Mr. Naboisek. No, I didn't. 

Mr. ScHERER. You haven't had the opportunity to read that? 

Mr. Naboisek. No. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. DoTi.E. Well, of course, doctor, as a result of FBI agents such 
as have testified here and others in different parts of the country 
having been for long periods of time members of Communist cells 
in this country, we have uncontradicted evidence of the fact that cer- 
tain Communists and in certain cells in the United States certain 
Communist leaders have and still do advocate force and violent over- 
throw^ of the United States Government. That is one thing, whether 
you know it or not. We have that. 

The second thing is that we know for a fact through that channel 
and others that the Communist Party line today, this very day, in 
this country is that Communist Party members who are called before 
this committee shall plead the first or fifth amendments, whether 
they do it sincerely or not, you see. Therefore we are under the 
burden of responsibility of making as sure as we may that persons 
do answer in good faith and sincerely. 

One further statement. 

Mr. Velde. If you have much further, Mr, Doyle, we will adojurn. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Dovr.E. I want to call your attention — I Avoiild like this witness 
to be back after lunch for a minute or two. 

Mr. Velde. That is perfectly all right. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3453 

Mr. Doyle. I do want to make this observation : You are aware^ 
are you not, that every American jury in the United States before 
which alleged Communists, conspirators, have been tried under the 
Smith Act in the last 2 years in 10 or 12 different areas of the United 
States as I recall it — that every American jury has found every de- 
fendant in every one of those cases, with the exception of one de- 
fendant as far as I know, guilty of participating in an avowed con- 
spiracy to forcefully overthrow the United States Government. 

Mr. Naboisek. j\Ir. Doyle, could I ask you a fair question? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Naboisek. In all of these trials under the Smith Act the acts 
under which these people were convicted were such as having read 
books, having met in somebody's home, having expressed an opinion. 
My question to you is this : Do you think that people in the United 
States, that any American citizen, should be sent to prison because he 
read a book, met at somebody's house, expressed an opinion? 

Mr. Doyle. No; you are mistaken, Doctor, and I am glad to see you 
have kept yourself informed since 1947. I had kind of gotten the 
impression that you hadn't been very close to the Communist problem 
since 1947. But I see you have kept up to date on these different 
problems involving the Communist conspiracy, and I assumed you 
would as a distinguished educator. 

NoAv, that is not the basis of the instructions to the jury by the 
American judges, and you are radically wrong in your declaration, 
and I submit to you that you had better get into the clerk's room of this 
court and this county and other courts and read the instructions to 
the jury because your statement is not the fundamental reason these 
defendants have been found guilty. 

Mr. Naboisek. Oh, I know that. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I just want the record clear, that you do know, 
and I want to say this in closing, that I don't know of any member of 
this committee that thinks a man ought to go to prison because of any 
book he reads or because of the fact that he expresses an opinion. In 
my book controversy is the life blood of America and the freedom to 
discuss controversial subjects within the limits of the Constitution. 

Mr. Naboisek. I don't understand what that last phrase of yours 
means. 

Mr. DoYi.E. That means they have to discuss in a patriotic vein 
without participating in an avowed conspiracy to overthrow by force 
and violence, and that means sub-\^rsive in my language. 

Mr. Naboisek. That is a curious stand to take, Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. There is nothing curious about it. 

Mr. Naboisek. Wlio is to define what is patriotic and therefore what 
I can discuss and what I can't discuss? 

ISIr. Doyle. The law of the land defines that. 

Mr. Naboisek. As defined by whom ? 

Mr. Doyle. The Supreme Court. 

^Ir. KrNZTG. There are 1 or 2 important questions I feel should be 
asked at this time. 

Mv. Naboisek, you said under oath a little while ago that you were 
taking the fifth amendment here today to protect other persons. 

(At this point Mr. Naboisek conferred with Mr. Speiser.) 



3454 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Naboisek. I think that what I said, Mr. Counsel, was that other 
people had refrained from discussing; their views, their activities be- 
fore this committee for fear of involving persons in the damage which 
occurs to them when they appear here. I don't believe that I said 
that that was the reason why I was using the fifth amendment. 

Mr. KuNziG. It sounded very much like that. Let us make it clear. 
Are you using the fifth amendment in the only way that it may be 
used, to protect yourself ? 

Mr. Naboisek. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. KuNziG. Because you fear that you may incriminate yourself, 
is that correct? 

Mr. Naboisek. No ; I am using it because as I understand the fifth 
amendment, it is a committee like this cannot compel a witness to 
testify against himself. 

Mr. KuNziG. In a criminal proceeding, don't forget that last little 
phrase, because that is in the fifth amendment, too. 

One further question. You talked at great length about the 1930's 
hunger and poverty and so forth. I just want to ask you one further 
question. In 1946 and 1947 after the letter referred to by Mr. Doyle, 
it was perfectly clear that the Communist Party was a conspiracy 
to overthrow this government by force and violence. Just once and 
for the clarity of the record, were you a member of this Communist 
Party in 1946 and 1947— not the '30s— 1946 and 1947 ? 

Mr. Naboisek. On the grounds of the fifth amendment I will not 
answer that question. 

Mr. KuNziG. Thank you. I think you have made your position 
clear. 

Mr. Doyle, Mr. Chairman, may the record show this to be a fact — 
I want the gentleman to tell me if it is not a fact. I have never met 
jou before, have I, that you know ? 

Mr. Naboisek. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Doyle. I think, Mr. Chairman, that this discussion between the 
doctor and myself, in which I was seeking for his suggestion as to 
legislation, is concrete evidence of the fact that we do go into that 
field of investigation without knowing in advance what the answer 
of the witness may be in that particular field, and I want to thank 
you for giving that. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, several questions, if I may. I must apologize 
for not being here during the course of your testimony, but I was 
necessarily absent on business of the committee. 

Do you believe, sir, that the theft of official documents from the 
files of the United States Government, the photographing of those 
documents, their transmittal to agents of a foreign power, is an ex- 
pression of boyish precocity, or is that a conspiracy? 

(At this point Mr. Naboisek conferred with INIr. Speiser.) 

Mr. Naboisek. I think it is very plain, Mr. Jackson, that there 
are laws in this country which cover crimes, and that those things, 
those acts which you have just indicated, are crimes. It is not the 
business, as I see, of this committee to be concerned with what is 
someone else's business, namely, the Department of Justice, and that 
all of this fanfare and so forth is really quite irrelevant to the question 
that you are asking. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3455 

Mr. Jackson. Well, the answer is brilliantly put, but it is not an 
answer to my question. Do you consider those acts to be the acts 
of a conspiracy, or do you feel that they are just in the normal 

Mr. Naboisek. I feel that those are criminal acts. 

Mr. Jackson. Do you realize, sir, that it was this committee that 
disclosed the nature of that form of subversion ? Whether it should 
have been done by someone else is not the question. The point is 
that it was not done; that had it not been for this committee, the 
House Committee on tin- American Activities, so far as we know that 
sort of thing might have continued to this day. I was very much 
interested— and I will be very brief, Mr. Chairman— in your very 
lucid and brilliant explanation as to why, in your opinion, many 
people enter into the Communist Party. I think there is a great 
deal of truth in what you have to say. 

I should like to have, sir, your opinion as to why people remained 
in the Communist Party following the attack by North Korea and 
the subsequent entry of Red China against the forces of the United 
Nations, in the light of contemporary history, in light of the fact 
that we know today that men and women, human beings, are strug- 
gling through the night trying to reach a free world, carrying with 
rhem the evidence of physical torture. 

We know that yesterday there developed in Washington, out of the 
result of congressional inquiry, testimony that proves that American 
GI's with their hands bound behind them were shot through the head. 

I say, sir, that that is part of the international Communist con- 
spiracy, and as soon as this committee and all the other agencies of 
government find out about it our civilization, in my humble opinion, 
will be much safer than it has been for a long time. 

I have no question unless you want to explain why, in your opinion, 
people stayed in the Communist Party in the face of atrocities, 
brutality, savagery unknown to civilization since Genghis Klian and 
Adolf Hitler. 

Mr. Naboisek. Well, I would not be afraid to answer that, Mr. 
Jackson, but I think that it would take me some time, I have tried 
to be very fair to this committee, and I think that I could give an 
answer that, so far as I can see, would answer your question. 

Now, I don't know whether you will give me sufficient time to do 
that, or whether you merely wanted in this instance to express the 
feelings that you have. If you want to give me an opportunity — 
and I imagine it would take some tjme, I would be very glad to do so. 

Mr. Jackson. That matter lies within the discretion of the com- 
mittee so far as I am concerned, and I would personally vote to have 
inserted into the record your statement as to why you people 
can remain in this conspiracy and still have any true feeling for 
humanity, for international law, for common human decency. 

Mr. Velde. The Chair would concur with that, and we do have a 
great number of witnesses called. Doctor, and I think that it is time 
to adjourn, and we would like to dismiss you as soon as we possibly can. 

Do you have any questions ? 

Mr. Scherer. No. I think we should have his statement in the 
record. I would like to have it. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle, do you concur ? 

41002—54 — pt. 5 6 



3456 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr, Doyle. Yes, I would like to have it, and I would like to see the 
chairman ask him to file it with the committee promptly. 

Mr. Velde. As promptly as you have it, we will be glad to receive 
it, sir. The witness is dismissed, and the committee will stand in 
adjournment until 1 : 45. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 20 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 1 : 45 p. m. of the same day. ) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(At the hour of 2 : 05 p. m. of the same day, the hearing was resumed, 
the following committee members being present: Representatives 
Harold H. Velde (chairman), Donald L. Jackson, Gordon H. Scherer, 
and Clyde Doyle. ) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will be in order. 

Before proceeding with further witnesses, I would like to make a 
brief announcement in order to correct any erroneous impression 
that may have resulted from the testimony of Donald Ames during 
the committee hearings yesterday relating to a bookstore in Berkeley 
at which he obtained Marxist literature during his membership in the 
Communist Party as an undercover agent for the FBI. The Chair 
wishes to state that after discussing this portion of the testimony 
with Mr. Ames and following an examination of the record that the 
testimony of the witness related to a bookstore in Berkeley and is not 
the Berkeley Bookstore. No inferences whatever should be drawn by 
anyone from the testimony by Mr. Ames of the place where he secured 
his Communist information that it was the Berkeley Bookstore. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Mr. William Bailey, will you come forward, please, 
sir? 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony you are about to give before this sub- 
committee do you solemnly swear that you will tell the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Bailey. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM J. BAILEY, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, DORIS BRIN WALKER 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Bailey. William J. Bailey. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel, Mr. Bailey? 

Mr. Bailey. I am, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify herself for the record? 

Mrs. Walker. Doris Brin Walker, attorney at law, 345 Franklin 
Street, San Francisco. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Bailey? 

Mr. Bailey. January 23, 1910, Jersey City, N. J. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state to the committee, please, what your 
educational training has been ? 

Mr. Bailey. My educational training consists of going to school for 
about 4 years, and I graduated — not graduated, but I left school at 
the fourth grade, grammar school. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Bailey. I don't think that concerns this committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3457 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask that the chairman direct the witness to 
answer the question? 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Velde. Yes, it does concern the committee as I have explained 
previously, Mr. Witness, and yon are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Bailey. I am willing to answer the question, Mr, Velde, if you 
would tell me how it would pertain to this committee. 

Mr. Velde. Well, I don't want to bore you or other members of 
the committee, but I feel it my duty to tell you that it does very 
definitely pertain to the work of the committee. The committee is 
authorized and directed by a resolution of the House of Representa- 
tives of the United States Congress to investigate subversive activities 
and propaganda and to recommend remedial legislation which would 
capably handle the problem of all subversion. 

The information that we seek is how far Communists and other 
subversive activities have penetrated into all types of employment, so 
therefore your employment is a very pertinent matter to this com- 
mittee. 

Now, will you answer the question, under direction, where are you 
presently employed? 

Mr. Bailey. I am unemployed. 

Mr. Tavenner. How were you employed in 1946? 

(At this point Mr, Bailey conferred with Mrs. Walker.) 

Mr. Bailey. Mr. Chairman, not being quite familiar with where I 
was employed, I feel I should decline to answ^er that question on 
grounds of the fifth amendment, and secondl}^, on the grounds I don't 
think it is any of your business where I was employed, 

Mr, Ta\tnner, You are relying on the fifth amendment as the 
grounds for your refusal to answer ? 

Mr. Bailey. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I can't possibly see how his employ- 
ment in 1946 — unless he was employed in some way with the Commu- 
nist conspiracy — could incriminate him, and I therefore ask that you 
direct him to answer the question, 

Mr, Velde, The Chair concurs, and the witness is directed to answer 
the question as to his employment in 19-1:6. 

(At this point Mr. Bailey conferred with Mrs. Walker.) 

Mr. Bailey. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Counsel, I think I could save the 
committee a lot of time if you would allow me to read a statement off 
that I have laboriously put down on paper which may help you to 
determine all future answers about names of organizations, names of 
people, and so on and so forth right down the line. 

Mr. Velde. Does this statement show where you were emploved in 
1946, Mr. Witness? 

]\Ir. Baiij3Y. I don't know if it does or not; if you allow me to 
read it 

Mr. Scherer. Did you write it, or did somebody else write it for 
you ? 

Mr. Bailey. I am quite capable of writing my oAvn statements. Mr. 
Congressman. Why do you make that type' of inference? Do I look 
like an idiot or a dummy here that I have to have ghost writers write 
statements for me? 



3458 COMMtWIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you write it, that is all I want to know. 

Mr. Bailey. I wrote the statement. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 

Mr. Bailey. I said it was a statement from William J. Bailey. I 
would like to read the statement. 

Mr. Velde. May I see the statement to see whether or not it relates 
to your employment in 1946 ? 

Mr. Bailey. Well, I will show you the statement, Mr. Velde. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, may I make a suggestion, or are you 
reading? 

Mr. Velde. Just a minute, please. 

The Chair yields to the gentleman from Ohio. 

Mr. ScHERER. May I suggest, will you caution some of the spectators 
at least about demonstrations, and I suggest that you instruct the 
police to remove those that they may see breaking your instructions 
with reference to the 

Mr. Velde. Certainly the gentleman's suggestion is well taken, 
and I authorize the police at this time, should any individual or number 
of individuals in the audience start creating a demonstration of any 
kind, on the record to remove them from the hearing room. 

As far as the statement is concerned, it will be taken by the committee 
in line with its policy in the past and its duties and considered for in- 
sertion into the record. 

However, as you probably knew when you submitted this statement, 
there is nothing in here relative to your employment in 1946. 

Now, will you answer the question from your own knowledge, where 
were you employed in 1946 ? 

Mr. Bailey. I think the record 

Mr. Velde. That is under direction of this Chair. 

Mr. Bailey. I think the record will show, Mr. Velde, that I said, 
not being aware of where I worked in 1946, that rather than to drag 
this thing all the way over the place, I decided to rely on the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Velde. And you decline to answer the question ? 

Mr. Bailey. Certainly I decline to answer the question on the fol- 
lowing ground that I gave. 

Mr. Velde. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at any time during 1946 acting as the 
west-coast coordinator of the seamen's branches or waterfront iDranches 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bailey. Where would you get that information ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it wrong? 

Mr. Bailey. Well, where would you get the information ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it wrong? 

Mr. Bailey. Well, Mr. Chairman — 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Bailey. I declined to answer that question or any other ques- 
tions dealing with organizations, names, or anything else. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman I ask that you direct this contemptu- 
ous witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Velde. Certainly the witness is purely in contempt of this com- 
mittee, and you are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Bailey. I just gave an answer, Mr. Velde. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3459 

(At this point Mr. Bailey conferred with Mrs. Walker.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Will you proceed with the next question now ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. ScHERER. No further questions. 

Mr. Doyle. No questions. 

Mr. Velde. Is there any reason why this witness should be longer 
held under subpena? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think I should ask the witness 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any more questions ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I think I should ask the witness if he desires to state 
the grounds upon which he refuses to answer that question. 

(At this point Mr. Bailey conferred with Mrs. Walker.) 

Mr. Bailey. Mr. Chairman and Mr. Counsel, I refuse to answer that 
question on grounds that I refuse to be a witness against myself, which 
is imbedded in the fifth amendment of the Constitution which is still 
part of the land — part of the law. 

Mr. Velde. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bailey. Well, frankly, Mr. Chairman, I don't think that is any 
of your business. 

Mr. Velde. Well, regardless of whether it is our business or not 

Mr. Bailey. I would give you the same answer I have given the FBI, 
riot squads, police department, and everybody else, that it just is none 
of your business. 

Mr. Velde. Let the record show that the witness has raised his voice 
in contempt of the committee of Congress, and in the Chair's opinion, 
and I think that the other members of this committee will agree with 
me, it is the business of this committee to determine whether or not you 
are a member of the Communist Party, the Communist conspiracy, at 
the present time, I can assure you. 

Mr. Bailey. That is your conclusion. 

Mr. Velde. And that is the only reason you have for not answer- 
ing the question. 

(At this point Mr. Bailey conferred with Mrs. Walker.) 

Mr. Velde. We are giving you every chance in the world, as coun- 
sel did in his last question to you 

Mr. Scherer. I think we should dismiss the witness. 

Mr. Velde. Let the record show, too, that the witness is now being 
represented by counsel, conferring with counsel. 

Mr. Scherer. And has consulted with counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. No further questions. 

Mrs. Walker. W7.S there a direction to the witness to answer the 
last question? 

Mr. Velde. No ; there was no direction on that. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Velde. Is there any reason why this witness should be further 
retained under subpena? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Velde. If not, the witness is dismissed at this time. 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. James Kendall, please. 



3460 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Velde. In the testimony yon are about to give before this sub- 
committee do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Kendall. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES KENDALL 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Kendall. James Kendall. 

Mr. Tavenner. And when and where were you born, ]\Ir. Kendall? 

Mr. Kendall. I was born August 3, 1922, in South Bend, Ind. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. Kendall. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is the rule and practice of the committee to advise 
every witness of his right to counsel, to have counsel w^ith him at the 
time he testifies or to consult witli counsel at any time he desires during 
the course of his testimony. 

Now, in light of that, do you desire counsel ? 

Mr. Kendall. No, sir; as an American of average intelligence I 
believe I can answer your questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Kendall, will you tell the committee, please, 
what your formal educational training has been? 

Mr. Kendall. I graduated from high school, and I started to 
college, which I attended approximately 1 year. 

Mr. Tavenner, Wliere did you attend college. 

Mr. Kendall. San Diego State. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. In what year did you complete your college work ? 

Mr. Kendall. 1939. 

Mr. Taa^nner. After the completion of your college work how 
were you first employed? 

Mr. Kendall. A friend of mine and myself decided we would like 
to go to sea, and we set out and came to San Francisco and eventually 
ended up in Seattle where I got my ordinary seaman papers in the 
merchant marine, eventually sailing to Alaska. From that time for 
a while I was in the merchant marine on the various jobs. 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period of time were you in the mer- 
chant marine? 

Mr. Kendall. From the year 1'940, I would say to 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner, During that period of time did you become a mem- 
ber of any union or unions ? 

Mr, Kendall, Yes; in approximately February of 1942 in the port 
of Seattle, Wash., I signed up as a member of the National Maritime 
Union affiliated with the CIO by a port agent who at that time was 
named Eugene Williams. 

Mr. Tavenner, Did you later become a member of any other 
union ? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes, in 1944 I became a member of the Masters, Mates 
and Pilots affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, 

Mr, Tavenner. Now, Mr. Kendall, it is not my desire or purpose to 
ask you any question calling for a discussion of any problem between 
labor and management or employers, and it is not my purpose to go 
into any question involving any internal disputes within any labor 
organization of which you have been a member. It is ray sole purpose 
and intention to ask you questions relating to your knowledge, if you 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3461 

have knowledge, of Communist Party activities within the unions of 
which you were a member and also any knowledge you had of other 
Communist Party activities outside of those unions. 

Now, what has been your opportunity to know of Communist Party 
activities in general? 

Mr. Kendall. In approximately April of 1942 I was on shore — 
on the beach, as a seaman likes to use the term — ^liere in San Fran- 
cisco, and while in union hall awaiting assignment to a ship I was 
recruited into the Communist Party of the United States by David 
Saunders. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Wliat was the date? 

Mr. Kendall. It was in April of 1942. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a result of that were you assigned to any special 
group of the Communist Party or cell of the party ? 

Mr. Kendall. By the mere fact of being a seaman I was auto- 
matically in the waterfront section of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that in San Francisco? 

Mr. Kendall. In the port of San Francisco; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain a member of that group 
or branch of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kendall. Officially I remained a member of that particular 
branch or group, I would say, about 1946 ; probably officially in the 
eyes of the Communist Party I remained in until about 1948. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. Where were the meetings held of that group of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Kendall. When I first joined there was a basemeiit on Stockton 
Street. I don't remember the address, naturally, but it was held be- 
low this Chinese laundry or some other facility run by some Chinese 
folks, and in the basement we held meetings there. Eventuall}^ we 
moved over on to North Broadway in which they had rented a hall — 
that is, upstairs over a grocery store — and the remaining time that I 
was in the Communist Party their meetings were held in that location. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were yo'^^ ^ member of the National Maritime 
Union at the time you became a member of the Comjnunist Party? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes, I had not been a member, as you can tell, very 
long. In the meantime, Eugene Williams became agent of the port 
of San Francisco. Willie Hernley was the agent at Seattle, and it was 
in this hall that I was recruited. 

Mr. Ta\t3nner. Were you at sea frequently during the period that 
you were a member of this group of the party ? 

Mr. Kendall. Oh, yes; I would say over the entire period I went 
to sea I doubt very much — including the period I attended a particular 
school — if I was ever ashore a total of, in 8 or 9 years, more than 10 
months during the total time. 

Mr. Tavenner. I wish you would tell the committee, please, what 
the method of operation was of the group of the Communist Party that 
you were a member of; that is, what the membership consisted of, how 
they functioned as members, and any other information that you can 
give us regarding the activities of that group. 

Mr. Kendall. AYell, they recruit the various seamen ; each particu- 
lar union, of course, has the particular fraction within the union, and 
it is their method to recruit new members out of the membership of the 
individual unions, and in turn the various fractions of the individual 



3462 commuktist activities in the san francisco area 

unions belong to what is known as the waterfront section of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many persons composed this group at any one 
time, this group of the Communist Party, in your judgment? 

Mr. Kendall. In the section or in the particular fraction? 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, let us begin with the fraction. 

Mr. Kendall. Well, of course the fraction depended upon the activ- 
ity and the ability of the individual members of the fraction, in some 
cases — say the NMU — if they had a large membership, they had a 
larger membership of the fraction. In our particular fraction in the 
NMU at times I have seen, I would say, possibly maybe out of attend- 
ing one shoreside meeting, regular union meeting, there might be as 
many as 15 or 20 active members of the Communist Party scattered 
among the membership. I cannot speak for the other unions because 
I never belonged to the other unions involved, which I think you know 
about. I know you could go into them ; waterfront unions, that is. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, what about the membership of the section? 

Mr. Kendall. The membership of the section, of course, I would 
have to guess because I, of course, never had complete knowledge of 
the entire membership, but I have estimated and friends I have talked 
to have estimated it in the port of San Francisco, sailing out of this 
particular port I would say there would be possibly as high as 200. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean at any one time as many as 200 ? 

Mr. I^NDALL. No, it is possible that it might have gone up to 300 
total at any one time, but possibly maybe out of a total of all water- 
front unions, seafaring part of waterfront unions, probably 100 ashore 
would be a maximum except during a strike there might be more. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat about visiting members of the Communist 
Party ? That is, members of the Communist Party on incoming ships ? 
Did they have any place to meet or to engage in Communist Party 
activities of any character? 

Mr. Kendall. At the foot of Market Street, go down Market and 
turn to the left, there is a little bookstore there I believe is called the 
Embarcadero Book Store. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell that, please ? 

Mr. Kendall. Embarcadero. This particular bookstore was run 
by the waterfront section of the Communist Party, and the members 
of the various fractions within the union was always told that when 
the ship was ready to sail to go there, pick up the latest literature, 
take it aboard ship, to pick up the latest magazines. The seamen, 
when they came in, the first thing they always did was of course go 
to the bookstore and to pick up the latest literature and to receive 
the latest party line, so they could go forward and give the word. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Was that the practice and the rule ? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes, veiy definitely for ships that sail out of San 
Francisco; when we came in or left usually the last place we con- 
tacted or somebody in the group contacted was the bookstore. Seafar- 
ing ships from out of town where their home port was New York or 
Baltimore, something like that, when they wanted to contact the 
various party members in the local city, well, the bookstore was the 
meeting place; they w^ould go in there and by mutual acquaintances 
or by some previous word or token they would identify themselves, 
and the membership or caucus on board that particular ship would 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3463 

then be told where the meeting was on North Broadway, and they 
would show up at the meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the result of having this single phxce 
where members of the Conmimiist Party from all parts of the United 
States sailing on ships as members of the crew could meet? What 
was the eifect and the result of that? In what way did that aid, if 
any, the Communist Party to carry on any of its programs? 

Mr. Kendall. Well, actually it was just a clearinghouse, to give 
my idea of why they did it or something. I don't think it would be 
a factual statement. I have my own ideas, and I Avould be glad to tell 
you, but I really think we should stick to the actual facts. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; if you don't have actual knowledge, I think 
you are correct. 

It is a fact, however, that incoming sailors on the New York ships 
could impart any new information regarding the Communist Party 
activities in other parts of the country to persons on outgoing ships 
whom they would meet at this central point? 

Mr. IvENDALL. That is quite true, but it would be a very slow way, 
counselor, because a ship takes quite a while. They could airmail 
the same information here. But it is quite possible. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said that this bookvshop w^as operated by the 
Communist branch or section, the waterfront branch of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Kendall. That is correct. 

Mr. TA^TNNER. Do you know the personnel who operated that book- 
shop during any of the period of time when you had occasion to be 
there ? 

Mr. Kendall. Most of the time that I had occasion to go into the 
bookstore it was handled by a gentleman named Mr. Rogers. I don't 
know his first name. I understand he is since deceased, and at other 
times a gentleman known to me as Alex Treskin had taken charge of 
the bookstore. Mr. Rogers also had a son which I do not know liis 
name. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Kendall. At the bookstore also. 

Mr. Tamsnner. Wliat part did Mr, Alex Treskin play in the Com- 
munist Party setup? 

Mr. Kendall. ]VIost of the period that I knew Alex Treskin as a 
member of the Connnunist Party he was the waterfront organizer for 
the Communist Party in San Fra;icisco, the port of San Francisco, 
seamen's branch. 

Mr. Tavenner. Xow, you have told us that the branch of the Com- 
munst Party, of which you were a member — what was the next organi- 
zation on a higher level? 

Mr. Kendall. Well, of course the waterfront section composed of 
the various fractions within all the unions along the waterfront, the 
seafaring unions 

jMr. Tavenner. Let me ask you first, how many branches of the 
Conimuuist Party were there in the waterfront section? 

Mr. Kendall. Well, there was the National INIaritime Union, CIO; 
the MFOW, INIarine Firemen, Oilers, and Watertenders. 

Mr. Tavenner. Don't go quite so rapidly, please. What was the 
last thiit vou named? 



3464 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO ABEA 

Mr. Kendall. The MFOW; tliat is Marine Firemen, Oilei-s, and 
Watertenclers, I believe, and the MC and S, Marine Cooks and 
Stewards. 

Mr. Tavkxnf^r. Have you named three? 

]Mr. Kendall. Three ; National Maritime Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the section oriranizers, or rather, the sec- 
tion officers of this waterfront section or l)ranch of the party? 

Mr. Kendall. Well, of course they were elected officer at the sec- 
tion meeting; they would vote on the major officers and elect those 
officers, and they would also appoint or elect a waterfront section 
oro^anizer. and this is the position that Alex Treskin held. It is quite 
possible — I should state that it is possible that he was a direct appoin- 
tee instead of being elected. At this time I don't recall; I want to 
make it clear that that is not a definite statement. 

]Mr. Tavenner. Well, explain the organizational setup a little more 
fully, please, so that the committee will understand just how the water- 
front was organized in the Communist Party. 

Mr. Kendall. The various fractions were within the unions that 
I mentioned before, and in turn they were responsible to what we call 
the executive committee which was elected by the membership of the 
waterfront branches. 

The executive committee in turn was responsible to the county com- 
mittee, which I never got in on. 

]Mr. Tavenner. Do you know who composed the executive commit- 
tee or who were on the executive committee at any time during your 
connection with the Communist Party in the port of San Francisco? 

Mr. Kendall. In the year 1946 I can recall, I had occasion to visit 
the executive committee of the waterfront section of the Communist 
Party, and I can recall several of those members. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Will you give us the names of those that you can 
recall? 

Mr. Kendall. At this one particular meeting that I was asked to 
attend, Hugh Bryson of the Marine Cooks and Stewards was there ; 
Alex Treskin was there; Bill Bailey was there; there was a man from 
Marine Cooks and Stewards — I do not recall his name; Walter Stack. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat was the name of the Bailey ? 

Mr. Kendall. William Bailey. That is the witness that was here 
a fcAv minutes ago when he had lapse of memory about 1946, 

Mr. Tavenner. I interrupted you. Are there others that you can 
identify that were members of the executive committee? 

Mr. Kendall. I am quite sure there were several others. However, 
I am not positive about the others, so I would rather not say, give 
any names that I am not absolutely sure of. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were the circumstances undei- which you 
visited that executive meeting at that time? 

Mr. Kendall. Well, it is quite a long story. I was a member of the 
Master Mates and Pilots holding a chief officer's license. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you a question first. When was this, 
approximately ? 

Mr. Kendall. This was in the year 1946. 

Mr. Tavt.nner. Let us develop a little more of your record in the 
Communist Party before we come to that. 

Mr. Kendall. All right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3465 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee what ships, if you can 
recall, you had joined as a member of the crews ? 

JNIr. Kendall. Is this from the time that I became a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tavennek. From the time you became a member of the Com- 
munist Party, and while you were a member of the National Maritime 
Union. 

Mr. Kendall. Steamship Arthvr Middleton^ the Steamship Joseph 
Pnestley^ the Steamship Nira Lnckenhach, the Steamship Santa Ana, 
and there are a couple of short coastwise trips which I do not remem- 
bei". I can find out. I huxe my discharges here. 

I might point out, I would like to put it in the record, that these 
are not notes; they are discharges from various ships, and if I look 
at them from time to time they are just merely reference points and 
dates tliat I would be looking at. To a seaman a discharge is like a 
marriage license — you know where you have been and why. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you begin with your first sailings after be- 
coming a member of the Communist Party and tell the committee in 
a general way what Communist Party activities took place and the 
extent of the Communist Party infiltration among the crews of these 
ships ? 

Mr. Kendall. Tlie first ship that I sailed out on after becoming a 
member of the Communist Party was the Steamship Arthur Middle- 
ton. It had just come into port from the South Pacific, and I went on 
board. They took on a whole new crew, and I went on as an ordinaiy 
seaman. I was 18 or 19 at the time, I might mention. 

There was the entire crew that went aboard, and I would say 
there must have been 125, 135, maybe possibly 200, and out of this I 
guess there was approximately, I would say, 25 members of the Com- 
munist Party aboard this ship. 

This was a troop-carrying ship under charter to the United States 
Navy, and aboard this ship I was in the deck department ; the entire 
deck crew, I would say there was approximately 10 memJbers of the 
Communist Party in that crew. 

Each particular department, the deck, engine, and the stewards 
department held their own individual fraction meeting, and in turn 
we had joint meetings. The union, however, would have joint meet- 
ings; the individual fractions never would hold joint meetings aboard 
the ship. In that particular ship there was a little rivalry for leader- 
ship among the party, and thes,e particular 2 that were fighting 
among themselves was Dave Jenkins, who later became one of the 
heads of tlie California Labor School here in the port of San Fran- 
cisco, and David Saunders. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall at this time the names of any others 
who were active in Communist Party work on board the Steamship 
Arthur Middleto7i'i. 

Mr. Kendall. Ernest Fox was aboard the ship ; however, before it 
sailed he was taken off. However, he was a Communist. At this 
time that is all the names I can definitely remember. 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Ta^t:nner. Wliat about the strength of the Communist Party 
on the crews of the other ships you mentioned ? 



3466 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. IvENDALL. After the Steamship Arthur Middleton^ we made 
two voyages on that, I went on the Nira Luckenhach^ I believe. 
There was a couple of members of the Communist Party aboard that 
ship. It was not a well-organized ship. We made a trip to South 
America, and at such a late day I cannot remember any definite 
names except myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. What about the extent of infiltration on the other 
two shi])s that you mentioned, the Santa Ana being one of them? 

Mr. KenDxVLl, The Santa A7ia had a fairly large creAV. There were 
3 or 4 members aboard that ship. They were definitely Comnnmist 
Party members. I remember one very distinctly, Leo Kossman. He 
did not belong to the seamen's branch of the Connnunist Party, how- 
ever ; he belonged to some Hollywood group. 

Mr. ScHERER. What was that last name 'i 

Mr. Kendall. Rossman, Leo Rossman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the first name or the initials? 

Mr. Kendall. Leo. So far as the steward department, engine 
room, I don't remember anybody in those 2 departments that were 
definitely Communist Party members. There was, I believe, another 
one in the deck department, but I don't remember his name, another 
Communist, but I am not sure of his name, so therefore I don't care 
to give it. 

Mr. Velde. What was the year of that sailing that you are referring 
to at the present time ? 

Mr. Kendall. If I may have a second. I am sure it was 1943. 
However, I would like to just make sure. I signed on the Santa Ana 
December 22 of 1942, and I signed off after 2 trips on June 28, 1943. 

Mr. Velde. Did they hold regular meetings while you were 
traveling ? 

Mr. Kend.vll. You mean Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Velde. Yes. 

Mr. Kendall. No. That particular ship there was not enough 
aboard to have a meeting on. 

Mr. Velde. Will you tell the committee how you happened to know 
that there were Communists on board this ship ? 

Mr. Kendall. Mr. Leo Rossman — I was an able bodied seaman ; he 
was an ordinary seaman, and he slept under the bunk directly below 
me. After living with the man for 6 months reading each other's 
literature and books and so forth and I can't remember definitely but 
I am quite sure that we never discussed the party like I remember 
any particular time but I know he knew that I was a Communist and 
I knew that he was a Communist. 

Mr. Velde. Thank you. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Were you elected a delegate to any convention of 
the union while you were a member of the crew of the Santa Ana or 
one of these other ships on which you had sailed ? 

Mr. Kendalij. In the year 1943 when we came back from the south 
Pacific on the second voyage of the Santa Ana., I was the ship's dele- 
gate representing all three departments, in case there were any dis- 
agreements about wages or overtime or anything like that particular 
nature; I had been elected by the crew. The National Maritime 
Union had called their biennial convention in the port of New York, 
wartime convention, governmental approval on its traveling, and each 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3467 

ship, each port, was to send representatives if they could afford it. 
In onr particular ship we had a fairly large crew, average, good size. 
Through various means they had gathered quite a bit of money. This 
was strictly on a union activity and the crew nominated me and gave 
me a fund to go back and represent the steamship Santa Ana, to the 
1943 convention of the National Maritime Union in the port of New 
York. 

]\Ir. Tavenner. You say that was a strictly union activity ? 

Mr. KIendall. The actual election of the delegate at the meeting, 
joint meeting, of the crew was strictly a union activity. However, I 
should clarify that, that I was told at our regular party meeting that 
in all cases that the part}^ members should be nominated and elected, 
if possible, to attend this particular convention, which was always the 
policy, and because I was ship's delegate, I was the logical one, and 
the crew felt, to go back and represent them, and of course the water- 
front organizer at that time was Mr. Treskin, which I previously 
mentioned, and they were very happy that I was elected. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive any instructions from Mr. Treskin 
before you attended the convention ? 

]Mr. Kendall. Most of the delegates from the various ships went 
back together on a train. Our crew had pretty good fun, so I went 
home and spent a few days and then I flew back to New York. 

I was told that when I reached New York of course I was to present 
my credentials to — I believe the official title was the national secretary 
of the National Maritime Union, Ferdinand Smith, at which time I 
was told that Mr. Smith would tell me who to contact as far as the 
party was concerned. 

Mr. Ta\t5Nner. You mean the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kendall. That is correct. 

]\f r. Ta\*enner. From what source did you get that direction ? 

Mr. Kendall. Mr. Treskin himself gave me that information. 

Mr. Ta"\t.nner. Do you have any personal knowledge that the repre- 
sentatives or delegates from other ships received similar instructions? 

Mr. Kendall. I have no definite information. Mine was an indi- 
vidual case. 

Mr. TA^T.NNER. Did you report to Ferdinand Smith ? 

Mr. Kendall. I did. 

]\Ir. Ta^-ennek. AVhat activities took place in New York at that 
union in which the Communist Party played a part, if any ? 

!Mr. Kendall. You mean at the convention, counselor? 

jNIr. Ta^-enner. Yes, or preliminary to the convention. 

Mr. Kendall. Well, I presented my regular union credentials to 
Ferdinand Smith, and I was told to contact some particular individ- 
ual which, because of the time element, I cannot remember who it was. 
However, on the floor of the actual convention 

Mr. Tavenner. flust a moment. How did Ferdinand Smith know 
that you were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kendall. I assumed — well, it is an assumption, naturally, 
but 

]\Ir. TA^^ENNER. Let me ask you this : Did you tell him that you were 
a member of the party ? 

Mr. Kendall. No, sir, I did not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have that information at the time that you 
presented your credentials to him ? 



3468 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Kendall. Very definitely. I presented my credentials, we got 
the union business over with in short order, and then he told me who 
to contact insofar as the party activities were concerned. 

Mr. Tavenner. What party activities were there at that conven- 
tion? 

Mr. Kendall. If my recollection is correct, I believe we had one 
joint meeting before the actual convention ; it w^as a regular New York 
waterfront section meeting of the Communist Party in which Mr. 
Smith was at the door checking individuals; Blackie Meyers was 
there, who also was an official in the maritime union, and of course all 
the delegates from the west coast were there. It was strictly a party 
meeting of the waterfront section. 

I might make it clear that I know tliat this meeting was held — now 
whether it was held during the convention or just before, I don't 
remember, but I do know this, that I made my contact as directed by 
Mr. Smith, or better yet, on the floor I was contacted by somebodv 
that I trusted. I don't remember who it was at this time, and he 
told me to follow the lead on resolutions and so forth, several key 
members of the National Maritime Union, and very definitely Bhickie 
Meyers at that time was heading up the Communist group within the 
convention, and he took the leads and saw to it that the Communist 
Party members were placed on the key committees, in fact, to see that 
they were placed on all important committees. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is there anything else that you can tell us about the 
Communist Party manipulations or activities at that convention? 

Mr. Kendall. At that particular time we were having a very rough 
time; we had been driven out of Europe, we had no navy. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mean the United States ? 

Mr. Kendall. The United States. So it was at the time that the 
glorious cry for the second front was heard around the world, and 
we saw to it, of course, that the appropriate resolution Avas passed 
at tliat convention tliat called for a second front, and also the reso- 
lution was passed that praised the Soviet Union for their stand at 
Stalingrad and for their stand on the eastern front. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are tliere any other activities that you can recall 
at that convention ? 

Mr. Kendall. No, I believe tliat sums it up entirely except that I 
might add that 90 percent of your resolutions and on every com- 
mittee there were active Communists, if not in complete control, 
dominating that way by having men with lower I. Q.'s and so forth 
among them, they could definitely dominate the committee, if not in 
number, in brains. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let us go back to your ex})erience on the crews of 
these various ships. Do you know whether there were any Com- 
munist Party members who were radio operators on these ships ? 

Mr. Kendall. Going to sea you find that the men are very clannish. 

Mr. Tavenner. I did not understand you. 

Mr. Kendall. Going to sea you will find the men are very clannish. 
The deck department sticks to itself; the engine department sticks 
to itself; the stewards stick to themselves. The radio oi)erators are 
a crossbreed, not accepted by the crew and not accei)ted by the officers. 
So I Avould not know too much about them. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3469 

Mr. Tavenner. Did any instance come to your attention where you 
acquired information that a radio man was a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Kendall. In the back of my mind I have one recollection, but 
I don't have names; I don't even remember the ship, but I remember 
that there was one particular ship that I know that there was a party 
man actively on duty in the radio room. Beyond that I cannot give 
any further information. 

Mr. Tavennek. When the ships landed in foreign ports, what was 
done by the Communist Party members with reference to getting 
new information relating to the Communist Party line, if any ^ 

Mr. Kendall. In foreign ports? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, or did they go to foreign ports ? 

Mr. Kendall. You mean when the crews — 1 would like to ask a 
few questions. When the crews went to these foreign ports you 
Avant to know where w^ould they go to get the information? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; would they go ashore and obtain information 
in the same general manner as the crews for the incoming ships in 
San Francisco ? 

Mr. Kendali.. The party lines were never picked up in a foreign 
port for the American seamen. We always received our party line 
here in the United States. However, they a lot of times did make 
contacts with the Comnuinist Party and make an ai)pearance at some 
dance or meeting which showed solidarity in the world and so forth, 
the party line. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any occasions on which you were re- 
quested to deliver material of any character from a port of the 
United States to a foreign port ? 

Mr. Kendall. I w^as requested to deliver some literature to New 
Caledonia when I was ship's delegate of the ss Santa Ana. It was 
not out-and-out Communist literature. 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson returned to the hearing room 
at this point.) 

Mr. Kendall. However, it was literature that was being passed out 
at the time. However, San Francisco, as far as I know, all over the 
United States, it was a win-the-war pamphlet, and I delivered these 
to New Caledonia, and on the Nira Luekenhach I was asked to take 
some literature down to Buena Ventura, Colombia, which I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. This was just the ordinary type of Communist 
Party literature and information -which you had in your bookstore 
here in San Francisco ? 

Mr, Kendall. That is correct; however, it did not have the seal 
of the Communist Party on it any place, nor did it say Connnunist 
Party on it. It was strictly literature, front organization literature. 
I did not take the material ashore. When I got here they knew that 
I was coming, and they came aboard and got it themselves. 

Mr. Ta\ennek. AVere there any security provisions, protection, af- 
forded in getting that nuiterial otf the ship? 

Mr. Kendall. It was not my responsibility to get it oil' the ship. 
When I got to the particular places involved, they knew I was coming, 
and they came aboard and contacted me, and they came and told 
me they came to get the papers or leaflets or so forth, and thev were 



3470 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

given the leaflets, and at this late date, I don't remember exactly how 
they got them off. They threw them on a sling or something and threw 
them over the side with a load of cargo, numerous other ways. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did you receive the information that you were 
to deliver to those foreign ports ? 

Mr. Kendall. As long as the material did not carry anything ad- 
verse to what I believed in, well, I carried it down there — and did 
not carry the official seal of the Communist Party ; it was literature you 
could have picked up any place on the streets ; they were passing out 
on the streets and everything. 

Mr. Tavenner. I mean, who gave it to you in the first instance for 
delivery ? 

Mr. Kendall. I am quite sure that Alex Treskin — I picked it u]) 
at the bookstore. How I was notified to pick it up at the bookstore at 
this time I don't remember, but that is where I got the information and 
the leaflets. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were doing it under directions, were you ? 

Mr. Kendall. I wouldn't say directions. I was asked to do it, and 
I did it. 

Mr. Tavenner. I mean, you were not doing it solely on your own 
initiative? 

Mr. Kendall. No, sir; no, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. It has been well established before this and other com- 
mittees that San Francisco was an important stop on the courier 
service of the party from eastern parts of the United States to the Far 
East. At any time did you come into possession of any information, 
or did you have any knowledge of the operation of such a courier 
service ? 

Mr. Kendali.. No, sir, I liave never taken part — never heard of — 
I have heard of it, not at the time I was in the party. I wish I had — 
of any courier service or any information leaving these United States 
about anything that would have endangered our country, never have 
heard of it. 

Mr. Jackson. You have no personal knoAvledge of it? 

Mr. Kendall. No personal knowledge, no sir. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Can you give us the names of any other members 
of the Communist Party who were members of the crews of these 
ships who have not already been named by you ? 

Mr. Kendall. At the time I was a sailor ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, at the time you were a sailor. 

Mr. Kendall. Aboard the steam sliip Santa Ana. I have given tlie 
names there. 

Will you excuse me a minute ? I would like to look at my discharges 
to refresh my memory on the various ships. 

I believe that I have given all the names that I can remember at 
this time. 

Mr. Tavenner. You asked me if I wanted that information as to 
while you were seaman. Was your status changed in the marine 
service? 

Mr. Kendall. United States Merchant Marine, counsel. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3471 

Yes, in the year 1943 I made application to the United States Mari- 
time Service officers' training school at Alameda, Calif., and I was 
accepted in September of 1943 and became an officer candidate in 
that school. 

Mr. Velde. At this point, Mr. Counsel, we will have a recess for 
10 minutes. 

(Whereupon, at 3: 05 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 3 : 15 p. m.) 

(The hearing reconvened at 3 : 25 p. m.) 

Mr. Velde. The committee will please be in order. 

Before proceeding further, Mr. Counsel, I would like to make this 
announcement, that with the conclusion of this witness' testimony the 
committee will adjourn until a time announced by the chairman of 
the committee. Therefore, all other witnesses who have sul)penaed to 
appear before the committee here in San Francisco are continued until 
further notice by the committee. 

You may proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Will you tell the committee, please, whether there 
were any persons known to you to be members of the Communist 
Party in attendance at the officers' training school which you men- 
tioned a moment ago? 

Mr. Kendall. There were two members that I knew definitely that 
were Communist Party members. One's name was James Drake, who 
was a former San Pedro port agent for the National Maritime Union 
who M'as attending that school to become an engineer. 

Mr. TA^^3NNER. Do you know anything about Communist Party 
activities on his part at a later date? 

Mr. Kendall. No; after I graduated from the school I lost all 
further contact with him, never heard of him again to the best of 
my knowledge. 

Mr. Taatenner. Proceed, please. 

Mr. Kendall. The second man was named Duncan Keir, K-e-i-r, 
I believe that is how you spell it. He fought in the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade in Spain. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a moment. Are you certain of the spelling of 
the name ? 

Mr. Kendall. I am not certain of the last name, no, but it is 

Mr. Tavenner. The information that the committee has indicates 
that the name is K-e-i-r. 

Mr. Kendall. I can tell you in a minute. I have the graduation 
list here, and he was a roommate of mine. K-e-i-r, Duncan Keir, Jr., 
excuse me. 

He was a member of the Abraham Lincoln Brigate which fought 
in Spain. At a later date, I might add, he was expelled from the 
Communist Party. At the time that I knew him in my class in school 
he was quite disillusioned at that time. Later on he was expelled 
for — I think the terminology used to expel him was Trotskyite. 

Mr. Tavenner. Proceed, please. 

INfr. Kendall. That is the only man that I knew attending the 
officers training school at Alameda that were members of the party 
besides myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did 3'ou again go to sea after the completion of 
vour training course? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes. 



3472 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive a commission ? 

Mr. KJENDALLi, I received an ensign commission in the United States 
Maritime Service, yes, sir, and I was requested to go on the steamship 
Alice H. Rice, which I did. I went aboard as third officer. It was a 
new vessel being built over in Richmond, and I went aboard that 
particular vessel, the first trip as an officer. 

Mr. Tavenner. What Communist Party activities occurred on board 
that ship ? 

Mr. Kendall. That ship was loaded — let us put it that way. The 
chief officer was David Saundei-s, and the third officer, myself, and the 
deck department especially. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you identifying those pereons as members of the 
Communist Party that you are naming? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes, sir; very definitely. The purser was Dave 
Teitelbaum. 

Mr. Velde. Will you spell that name, please? 

Mr. Kendall. I might have a crew list here ; I will look and see — 
T-e-i-t-e-1-b-a-u-m. 

Mr. Velde. Will you tell the committee how you knew tliat these 
persons were members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kendall. I attended meetings with Mr. Teitelbaum and we 
discussed quite frequently aboard ship among the other party members 
various phases and problems within the party, outside the party line, 
and so forth. There is no doubt that Mr. Teitelbaum was a 
Communist. 

We had a bosun whose name was Sam Telford. 

Mr. Ta%t:nner. Spell it, please. 

Mr. Kendall. To the best of my knowledge it is T-e-l-f-o-r-d. We 
had two McDonald brothers aboard the vessel ; one was named Hughie, 
and the other one I don't know his first name. They were not mem- 
bers of the Communist Party. However, they attended Communist 
Party meetings, and they were definitely what you might classify as 
fellow travelei-s, but to the best of my faiowdedge they were not actual 
members of the party. I am afraid that I would have to look at a 
crew list of that particular vessel, which I did not keep to identify the 
rest. How^ever, there were 

Mr. Tavenner. How many on that vessel were members of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kendall. Offliand I would say 10 to 15, maybe not — closer to 
10 probably would be correct. 

Mr. Doyle. Out of a total crew of how many ? 

Mr. I&NDALi^. Let me see, ships of that size usually carried about 
45 or something like that ; one-fourth of the crew or maybe a little less. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you remain a member of the same union after 
you were commissioned and shipped on the veasel that you mentioned ? 

Mr. KJENDALL. At the time of my graduation I retired my book from 
the National Maritime Union as a seaman, and I applied for and was 
admitted to the Masters, Mates and Pilots Union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there a Communist Party cell or branch within 
that union when you joined it? 

Mr. Kendall. No, sir. However, there were party members within 
the union, but they did not hold fraction meeting and 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, there was no organization, Commu- 
nist organization, within that union ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3473 

Mr. Kendall. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. Although there were some members of the Com- 
munist. Party ? 

Mr. Bjendall. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you assigned any particular job to do in that 
union; that is, assigned any job by the Communist Party? 

Mr. Kendali.. In the year 1946 I was getting ready to sign on a 
vessel, the steamship Robert T. Hill, a liberty ship bound for Genoa, 
and I was asked by Alex Treskin  

Mr. Tavenner. Who is Alex Treskin ? 

Mr. KJENDALL. Alex Treskin most of the time was the waterfront 
organizer for the seamen's branch of the Communist Party of the 
port of San Francisco, and for a long time they had been trying to 
get all the members of the Communist Party within the Masters, Mates 
and Pilots into a particular working fraction. They had not suc- 
ceeded for various reasons, I don't know why, and they had asked 
me, or Alex had asked me to please get off this ship, stay ashore and 
see if I couldn't get something going in that particular union. He 
asked me to appear before the executive board of the waterfront 
section of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. So you were taken off of the ship at the instance of 
the Communist Party to engage in Communist Party work? 

Mr. Kendall. I was not taken off the ship. I don't believe I could 
phrase it that way. I was requested to come ashore, and after talking 
to the executive board, I agreed to come off the ship. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of the work that you were 
called upon to do ? 

Mr. Kj:ndall. I was to try to organize the active or the Communist 
Party members within the Masters, Mates and Pilots. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there a shortage of mates at that period of the 
war ? 

Mr. Kendall. No ; not at that particular time. The war was over 
at that particular time. Tlie war ended in August of 1945, and this 
was 1946, counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, tell the committee, please, the nature of the 
work that you engaged in at the instance of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Kendall. The purpose of my work within the Masters, Mates 
and Pilots was, number one, if possible, to see if we couldn't elect 
somebody who was either sympathetic to the Communist Party or 
that would be more lenient towards the party; number two, second 
resort, and the most feasible, was to elect somebody that would at 
least be fair within the union as the head of the union and not use 
dictatorial methods, because unfortunately in this particular case, in 
my opinion, and many of the non-Communist opinions, the union was 
ruled with an iron hand in a dictatorial method, even though it was 
non-Communist. I was called or asked to come before the executive 
board. We sort of outlined the program what we would do, and in 
turn 

Mr. Tavenner. Is this the meeting which you had started to de- 
scribe at an earlier point in your testimony when I stopped you and 
you went back to correct your history to that point? 

Mr. Kendall. That is correct. This is the executive board of the 
waterfront section of the Communist Party in the port of San Fran- 
cisco. At this particular time, which I mentioned before, I was told 



3474 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

where to come. It was on North Broadway and was upstairs, I 
went up in this particular room and the 

Mr. Tavenner. Who tohl you to appear there ; do you recall '. 

Mr. Kendall,. I believe at that particular time Alex Treskin was 
the waterfront organizer, and I was dealing mainly through him, so 
I don't remember the actual incident where he told me to come, but 
I am quite sure that he would be the only one that I would accept 
it from, but I don't remember the actual incident where he told me 
to come. 

But I did attend this meeting, that he was carrying on some other 
business, and I was sitting down there for awhile, and they finally 
got to me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this a Communist Party meeting? 

Mr. Kendall. This was the executive board of the waterfront 
section. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Kendall. Communist Party in the port of San Francisco. 

Mr. Tavenner, Tell the connnittee what occurred. 

Mr. Kendall. W^e went over very brieily wliat we had to accom- 
plish within the Masters, Mates and Pilots which I had previously 
stated, and they agreed to give a little financial lielp, if necessary, and 
they also arranged a place for me to stay while I was ashore to keep 
my own expenses down, and Alex Treskin made arrangements through 
other party personnel to give me the necessary technical help to print 
a 2^articular paper, specifically about the Masters, Mates and Pilots. 
The men pi'esent at that meeting — Hugh Bryson of the Marine Cooks 
and Stewards Union, David Jenkins of the Marine Cooks and Stewards 
Union, also working at the California Labor School; Alex Treskin; 
there were several other members present, but I cannot definitely 
recall. I believe I can, but unless I am certain, I don't care to give 
you any more names. 

Mr. Taa^enner. Well, what did you do as a result of the instructions 
you received at that meeting ? 

Mr. Kendall. We got our fraction together in this location that 
they had located me to stay, and from the county committee of the 
Conmiunist Party they sent technical aid to us in the form of one Leon 
Kaplan, K-a-p-1-a-n, and a young lady from the Young Communist 
League to do our typing for us. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall her name ? 

Mr. Kendall. No, sir. He came out to our fraction meeting and 
gave us a little technical advice, and I believe he attended 1 or 2 
fraction meetings, and that was all. 

How^ever, he came to us directly from the county committee spe- 
cificially for this particular project. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Did you know at that time the names of other mem- 
bers of the county committee of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. KJENDALL. I knew at that time, yes sir. There was a lady named 
Yates, but I had no personal contact with the committee myself. I 
mean, I only knew them through some mass meeting we attended or 
something. 

Mr. Ta\t5:nner. What occurred as a result of the technical advice 
and assistance that was given you by the county committee of the 
Communist Party ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3475 

Mr. Kendall. Well, quite frankly, really the only help we got was 
the young girl. She typed our stencils for us or Avhat they call cut 
them on the typewriter. She did our typing. The greatest help 
from — Mr. Alex Treskin made arrangements for me to secure paper — 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Just a minute. What was it that you were attempt- 
ing to do, to put out a leaflet or pamphlet of some kind ? 

Mr. Kendall. A mimeographed sheet that would reach the members 
of the Masters, Mates and Pilots, pointing attention to the overhanded 
methods of its president, which by any standards, as I said before, was 
a dictatorial 

Mr. Tavenner. And the Connnunist Party was attem])ting to use 
those shortcomings or faults in the management of the union in order 
to advance its own Communist Party purposes? 

Mr. Kendall. They figured that anytliing was better than the presi- 
dent that they had of the Masters, Mates and Pilots. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right ; now, will you proceed, please? You were 
saying that arrangements were being made to give you additional help. 

Mr. Kendall. Mr. Treskin arranged to have some pa])er given to us 
through the book store previously mentioned on Embarcadero, and 
then in turn he made arrangements for me to go u]) and contact Bob 
Robertson of the ILWU to secure some more paper or technical help, 
if necessary, and I did go u[) ;ind see Mr. Bob Robertson of the ILWU, 
who in turn  

Mr. Tavenner. Just a minute. At that time do you know whether 
or not he was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kendall. Bob Robertson ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Kendall. I Avas directed to go to him by Alex Treskin, about 
wliom I have already stated his position. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Kendall. I never asked ; I just assumed, and that is all I could 
do because I did not ask him whether he was a party member. The 
fact that I had been directed to him by a party functionary was 
enough to mo tliat lie was a party person, or he wouldn't have sent him 
to me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you go to his office ? 

Mr. Kendall. I went to the office, west-coast office, of the ILWU, 
contacted Mr. Robertson. He was expecting me or he knew I would 
be in. He in turn introduced me to Mr. Bjorne Hailing. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell that last name ? 

Mr. Kendall. You will have to get it some place else. It is a Nor- 
wegian name of some sort. I don't have it. 

Mr. Tavenner. B-j-o-r-n-e is the first name, and H-a-H-i-n-g. 

Mr. Kendall. That is correct. 

Mr. Tam:nner. Is that correct? 

Mr. Kendall. He was about G foot, blond hair, in stature. I could 
probably find it if I took time and went through the records here, 
but I don't think I have his name in this particular group of papers 
that I brought with me. 

Mr. Velde. Did you talk over Communist Party matters with these 
tAvo gentlemen, Mr. Robertson, is it, and Mr. Hailing? 

Mr. Kendall. The Communist Party as such was never mentioned 
in my meeting Avith them. If I may continue, Congi'essman, I think 
it Avill clear it up a little bit. 



3476 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Velde. All right, please do. Proceed. 

Mr. Kendall. In turn I was introduced to Mr. Smith who was also 
an official of the ILWU. 

Mr. Tav-enner. Do you recall his first name ? 

Mr. I^NDALL. I believe it was Harry, but I am not sure. I am very 
definitely not sure of that because that was too long ago. 

Bob Robertson then took me over to a young lady who was doing 
the — compiling — handling the publicity or public relations work for 
the ILWU, newspaper layouts and so forth and she told me she 
would help me in any way possible to get out this newspaper, this 
little printed leaflet. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did it have a name ? 

Mr. Kendall. The Horizon, yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. 

Mr. Kendall. And in turn they also gave me some paper to have 
this printed on, some more paper which we would need. Tlien Mr. 
Robertson took me into the office of Harry Bridges. Mr. Bridges — he 
talked to him for a few minutes previously before I went in. Mr. 
Bridges told me that he was glad to see us getting something going. 
He asked us JHst what we had planned on, and I told him roughly 
in a general way. 

He told me that if we could get something going in there that we 
could count on — I could count, rather, on our group, on getting all 
the necessary help from our people to help us. 

Mr. Ta\t3Nner. Did Mr. Bridges say who he meant by "our people" ? 

Mr. KJENDALL. He did not. There was only one assumption that 
I made. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not asking you to make assumptions. 

Mr. Kendali.. All right, sir. His longshoremen were not my 
people, I just want to make that clear. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wliat did you do ? Was that the 

Mr. Kendall. That was the extent of that meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. The extent of your conversation with Mr. Bridges? 

Mr. Kendall. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. That what occurred? 

Mr. Kendall. We started printing the paper, and we mailed it 
out to the various ships, what addresses we could find in the tele- 
phone books, and it caused quite a fracas within the Masters, Mates 
and Pilots. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you continue in the work of editing 
and publishing the Horizon? 

Mr. Kendall. I don't know exactly how many editions we put 
out. However, I came ashore on May 21, 1946, and I quit tlie work 
prior to September 4, 1946. During that time I made a brief coast- 
wise visit or coastwise trip back as an able-bodied seaman down to 
San Pedro — no significance to the trip; it was just to get away for a 
few days. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who assisted you in the editing and publication of 
the Horizon other than the person sent to you from the Young Com- 
munist League to do typing? 

Mr. Kendall. There was a Captain Barry — ^I don't know how to 
spell his name. There were 2 or 3 others, and although I can remember 
a lot of names, unfortunately there were 2 or 3 men in there that I 



COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3477 

just cannot remember their names. There was one that helped me 
that was not a Conmiunist, and in fact, he had no real use for the 
Communists, but he disliked the particular leadership of the union 
very much, so he helped us, and his name was Carlos Toredo. I 
couldn't spell that, either. 

Mr. Tavenner. During 1946 was there any particular difficulty on 
the San Francisco waterfront which eventually involved you? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes, the SUP, Sailors Union of the Pacific, were— 
I mentioned they went on strike of that year, and also the National 
Unity Committee I believe it was called. In other words, the NMU 
and the ILITO were coming up in that year for wage negotiations 
and contract negotiations. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what year was that ? 

Mr. Kendall. 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you continuing up to this time to edit your 
publication, the Horizon ? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes. Like I say, I don't remember exactly how many 
editions we had put out, but we put out several editions, and I was 
ashore that entire time previously mentioned. However, along toward 
the end there, they brought some resolutions to me and asked me to 
submit them to the membersliip of the Masters, Mates and Pilots, 
which dumbfoimded me. They were resolutions which praised the 
Soviet Union for some move thev had made, and all of a sudden the 
liglit started to glow that instead of worrying about cleaning up the 
union, what we originally started out for, they seemed to be more 
interested in getting some resolutions passed which obviously couldn't 
be passed in that union because the resolutions were out and out 
Communist resolutions praising the Soviet Union, so that, along with 
the meeting that I was called to attend on North Broadway — I decided 
to give up the work and go back to sea. 

Mr. Tavenner. Before you attended the meeting that you have 
spoken of, what had become your position in the Communist Party 
within vour union ? You had a position of leadership. 

Mr. fvENDAix. Within the fraction itself I was appointed by the — 
I don't know who exactly appointed me, I will be very frank with you 
at this time ; there were two cochairmen of the fractions. One was 
Captain Barry and one was myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give the full name of Captain Barry at 
this time ? 

Mr. Kendall. I can't do it at tliis time; Captain Barry was chief 
officer, B-a-r-r-y, but beyond that I couldn't 

Mr. Tavenner. The two of you were cochairmen of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. KJENDALL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Within the unit? 

Mr. Kendall. The Communist fraction. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Communist fraction ? 

Mr. KJENDALL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. So you were one of two top-ranking members of 
the Communist Party in your fraction ? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes; it was a very small fraction, I might add. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. But it was the only fraction in that union, was it 
not? 



3478 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Kendall. That is correct; as far as I know, that was the only 
fraction on the east coast. 

JMr. Tavenner. The only representation that the Communist Party 
had in that union was the representation which your small group had ? 

Mr. Kendall. On the Pacific coast, that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. You state you were asked to attend another 
meeting ? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes. 

Mr. TiVVENNER. Will yon tell the committee about that? 

Mr. Kendall. In this particular meeting I was approached by 
Alex Treskin and told to take a streetcar out Stockton to come out to 
North Broadway and to get off there, and he would meet me; there 
was a very important meeting, and I was to be there at a certain time 
on a particular Saturday morning, and I did, and he met me, and 
he took me down the street there into a JVfasonic lodge, and there were 
a cou})le of men standing in front — I don't remember who they were. 
I knew them, I remember that. 

We went back into the rear of one of the rooms, and there were a 
couple of men at the door, and they let us 

Mr. Ta^-enner. Just a moment. Had he told you what the nature 
of this meeting was to be before you got into the building ? 

Mr. Kendall. When I met him, after I had got off the streetcar, 
on the way down, he told me that it was a meeting of various Com- 
munist Partv leaders in the waterfront unions alono; the Pacific coast. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where was this meeting held? 

Mr. Kendall. It was held on North Broadway in a Masonic hall, 
lasted 2 days. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall the place well enough to give some 
description of the hall as to how you were able to get in ? 

Mr. Kendall. We went to the front door, and it was divided into 
two or three halls, meeting halls. I wouldn't say— I guess it Avas 
the first; it was the first door to the right, it was on an angle, away 
back in there, set up for a regular Masonic meeting, and we went in. 
I mean, they had the American flag there, and that was it. As far as 
the description of the building, I could take you there in a minute, but 
as far as the address or anything, I don't know. 

Mr. Jackson. You say there were two men at the door in the hall? 

Mr. Kendall. There were 2 men in front, and there were '2 men in 
the hall on the actual door leading into the hall itself. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you know them, or did they request any identifi- 
cation from you? 

Mr. Kendall. I don't remember who they were at the time. I 
mean, we had to be identified; the fact that I was with Treskin, and 
they knew me, they just let us in. 

Mr. Jackson. But would you say they were obviously there for the 
purpose of determining who was entering the hall? Was that the 
impression you gathered? 

Mr. Kendall. Well, I figured they were definitely there for security 
measures. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. What time of the day did your meeting begin ? 

Mr. Kendall. It was early in the morning, 9 or 10 o'clock, some- 
thing like that. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3479 

Mr. Ta\^nner. How long did the meeting last? 

Mr. Kendall. It lasted maybe not real late in the evening, but it 
lasted fairly late, 5 or 6 o'clock, if I remember, something like that. 
The first day was very tiresome, as I remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did it last more than 1 day? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes, it lasted 2 days. It broke np early Sunday. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee, please, what occurred at that 
meeting as near as you can fi-om the very beginning of your entrance 
to the room. 

yiv. Kendall. Well, as I went in, of course I noticed the various 
people that were there, fi-om as far away as Seattle, Wash., Portland, 
and as far south as San Pedro, the union officials for various unions. 
Most of them were known to me ;'S Communist Party members. We 
were told in the very beginning when the meeting was called to order 
that while the back door was o])en we were never to mention the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Ta^t^nner. That while what? 

Mr. Kendall. While the back door or the main door was open 
that we were never to mention the Communist Party because they 
had went to a great deal of trouble to lease the hall or rent the hall 
for that pai'ticular 2 days, and they had rented it under a different 
name, of course, and we were not to cause any embarrassment to 
anybody by mentioning the Connnunist Party as such when the door 
was open in case somebody would be out there that was not a member. 

Mr. TA\TiNNER. Then it was a Communist Party meeting without 
any doubt? 

Mr. Kendall. There was never a doubt in my mind. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were any persons present at that meeting from 
the east coast? 

Mr. Kendali.. Yes, Mr. Al Lannon — at least that is the name I 
knew him under. 

Mr. Tavenner. Al Lannon? 

Mr. Jackson. How do you spell that, please? 

Mr. Kendall. Al L-a-n-n-o-n, I believe. 

Mr. Jackson. L-a-n-n-o-n? 

Mr. Kendall. I believe so. I might state that since, I found that 
is an alias also. 

Mr. Taat<:nner. What is that? 

Mr. Kendall. That is an alias, I have been notified of that. I 
have identified a picture other than that name. I don't remember 
the name, but that is not his correct name. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did he hold in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Kendall. He was a national coordinator of the waterfront 
section of the Communist Party. He had flown out from the east 
coast especially for this meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were there any Communist Party representatives 
from the east coast that you can now recall? 

Mr. Kendall. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Continue with your description of what occurred 
after you were told that the Communist Party name should not be 
mentioned at any time while the door was open? 

]\Ir. Kendaix. We Avere told that we were going to liear a report 
from Al Lannon from the east coast. At that time the NMU was 



3480 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

going through its struggle with the forces of Joseph Hearns trying 
to rid the union of the Communists and Blackie Meyers was the 
individual who the Communists had around, and it was a struggle 
of power within the NMU, and he was going to give a report on that 
particular struggle. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was on the east coast ? 

Mr. Kendall. That was on the east coast, that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. That involved Ferdinand Smith, did it not ? 

Mr. Kendall. Ferdinand Smith was also allied with Blackie Meyers 
as a Communist. 

Mr. Tavenner. That fight resulted in Ferdinand Smith being ex- 
pelled from the union, did it not, and his deportation at a later date ? 

Mr. Kendall. Sir, I don't know. I mean, I know he was deported, 
but whether that particular battle was decisive to that thing, I don't 
know. 

Then we were to have a report from the various unions up and down 
the coast from our party functionaries within that union who held 
offices in that union on the problems and different problems that had 
arisen on the coast; in other words, a complete report on how the 
Communists were doing within the unions and whether they had 
complete control and whether there were factions fighting them and 
just a general report. 

We also were to receive a report — now, I don't think we were told 
we were going to see the report, but I better start naming off the people 
that were there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, and the unions which these Communist Party 
members represented. 

Mr. Kendall. All right. Walter Stack was there, and he was from 
the MFOW, here for the port of San Francisco. 

Mr. Tavenner. The name? 

Mr. Kendall. Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders. 

Mr. Velde. How is the name spelled, please ? 

Mr. KJENDALL. Marine Fire 

Mr. Velde. The name of the person. 

Mr. Kendall. S-t-a-c-k, to the be^t of my knowledge. He was 
here from the port of San Francisco. Neil Crowe, San Pedro, 
C-r-o-w-e agent of the National Maritime Union, CIO. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell that, please ? 

Mr. Kendall. N-e-i-1. He was from San Pedro. Neil Crowe did 
not come alone. There was somebody from the San Pedro branch of 
the ILWU for that particular local. There were 2 or 3 men with him. 
I didn't know those men. I knew Crowe because I had shipped down 
there, as I mentioned previously, for about a week on another ship, 
just for the ride, and to take it easy a little bit as an able-bodied 
seaman. I held a license, and I knew that Crowe was in that position, 
and I believe he was an agent; if not, he was what he called a patrol- 
man, and if not the actual agent, he was a patrolman, but I am quite 
sure he was an agent there at the time. 

We had representatives of Portland with which I was not too famil- 
iar because I didn't know anybody in Portland. The NMU had an 
office up there, but it wasn't much of an office, and the ILWU was 
helping out as much as they could. In the port of Seattle the NMU 
agent was there, and they had a representative, a couple of representa- 
tives of the ILWU which was there. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3481 

Now, when I give unions, they were all represented to me as Com- 
munist Party members in those individual unions. Harold Oakerly — 
I mentioned Walter Stack — Alex Treskin was there; Harry Bridges 
was there; Bjorne Hailing was there; and Bob Robertson was there. 

Mr. Velde. Is there any question in your mind about any being 
there whom you have named so far ? 

Mr. Kendall. No. 

Mr. Velde. Are you certain that Harry Bridges was there at that 
meeting? 

Mr. Kendall. Very definitely, yes. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, a point of information. Captain 
Barry I believe you had previously identified as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Kendall. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavbnner. Will you tell the committee, please, what happened 
during the course of that meeting? What was done? 

Mr. Kendall. First of all we had a report from Al Lannon from 
the ea^t coast who told about the internal struggle with the NMU 
which was the major interest at that time as far as the east coast was 
concerned. After he spoke we had various reports on party activities 
of the various ports up and down the coast from the various union 
representatives, Communist Party representatives, that held positions 
in the union. Then we had a report on the negotiations at that time 
that were going on between the shipowners and the ILWU, where it 
might have been the committee on maritime unity at that time. I 
forget just what the official title was of the negotiating group. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who made that report ? 

Mr. KJENDALL. Harry Bridges. The reason that I remember it so 
well, this particular report, was two things. First of all, Mr. Bridges 
constantly during the meeting, on hearing the other reports, was 
drinking milk and eating crackers. The reason given for it to me 
was that he had a very bad case of ulcers, and he was quite ill. How- 
ever, he gave the report. The latter part of the second day he did not 
attend the meeting, the final meetings, I mean, part of the meetings, as 
he was too ill. But he gave the report, 

Mr. Jackson. He was there during the first day of the meetings and 
for the morning session of the second day ? 

Mr. KJENDALL. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Do you know how these individuals were notified of the 
meetings ? 

Mr. Kendall. I only have knowledge of my own notific^ition. 

Mr. Velde. Maybe you have alreadv stated, but how were vou noti- 
fied? 

Mr. Kendall. Alex Treskin notified me to come to the corner of 
north Broadway and Stockton where he would meet me and take me to 
the meeting place. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of the report that was made by 
Mr. Bridges, can vou recall that? 

Mr. Kj^ndall. Well, at the particular time, as far as I could read in 
the papers, they were still negotiating with the city shipowners, I be- 
lieve was the title, and it was quite awhile, 80 days or so, where they 
had to go in the contract or negotiate in as far as I knew. However, 
Mr. Bridges told the group that the shipowners were going to stall, 



3482 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

and they were stalling, and that there woidd be a strike and for party 
members within the union to go back and prepare the membership 
for a strike, wliich came to me — I was a little dnmfounded on it 
because there was still, I thought, a lot of negotiation to go on. 

Mr. Jackson. Do I understand that this directive vo go back and 
prepare for the strike was a directive to all of the unions concerned, 
ji.ot onlv the union of which Mr. Bridges was an official? 

Mr. Kendall. Anytime on the waterfront. Congressman Jackson, 
where you have a strike of one pai'ticulai' union, automatically no- 
body would cross anotlier union's picket line, in those cases at least, 
at that time, and therefore if one striked, they were all out of work, 
so they had to set up certain facilities so they could be giving help to 
the union members of their respective unions, even though one par- 
ticular union might be the one doing the striking. Say, for example, 
if it was the longshoremen's union that went out on strike, auto- 
matically the seamen would be out and all the rest of the unions would 
be out on the waterfront because they would not cross the picket lines, 
so they prepared for the strike, and that was the reason the instructions 
were given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make a report also at this meeting of the 
Communist Party activities in your union ? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes, I did. I told of our activity and so forth, up 
to that particular time. However, at that particular meeting was 
the beginning of the end as far as I was concerned, I might add. 
That was one of the turning points, when INIr. Bridges instructed the 
party people to go back and prepai-e their membership for a strike 
before negotiations had even got into full swing, as far as I was 
concerned, and that was at the very time that Chiang Kai-shek was 
fighting for existence in China, and it was after the Duclos letter, 
and I began to realize the international complications involved. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Can you recall any other decision or action that 
was taken at that meeting? 

Mr. Kendall. I don't remember whether or not it was before that 
particular meeting or at that meeting it was announced that Bill 
Bailey was the west coast coordinator, or that he had been given the 
job of the west coast coordinator for the waterfront sections of the 
Communist Party. 

I remember at that particular meeting he was, he lield that posi- 
tion. Whether or not he was elected at that — I don't think he was 
elected at that particular meeting, but at that particular meeting was 
the first time that I had ever heard of it, that he held that position. 
So they either appointed him just prior to that meeting or they an- 
nounced it, but anyway, that was the first time that I knew of that 
particular position. It was a new position, I might add, in the party. 
It was something nobody else had had. 

Mr. Jackson. Who presided as chairman at the sessions? 

Mr. Kendall. I have thought many times over that, looking back 
on it. It is very peculiar; I am sure it was 1 of 2 people, but as I have 
stated previously, uidess I am absolutely sure who the presiding 
chairman was, I will not state. 

Mr. Jackson. It was 1 of 2 people ? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. If you have identified them as being present in the 
meeting hall, I see no firm connnitments. As long as you say you are 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3483 

not certain, but it was 1 of 2, if you will name the 2 persons, I think 
it would be all right for the record in this instance. 

Mr. IvENDALL. At this time you mean you want me to name them 
again ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, the 2 people who may — or 1 of whom did pre- 
side as chairman. 

Mr. Kendall. It was Alex Treskin or Bill Bailey who was chaimian 
of the particular meeting involved. The most significant fact, outside 
of what I have given about the international complications of the 
meeting all of a sudden coming up, Avas that in addressing this meet- 
ing Harry Bridges was not introduced as a Communist. I didn't ex- 
pect him to be because we know from the years we have had, there 
have been a lot of problems and trials and so forth on his citizenship — 
however, his first words to address this meeting could be taken many 
ways — but the words were "comrades." 

Mr. Velde. Are you positive that this was a meeting closed only to 
actual Communist Party members? 

Mr. Kendall. Throughout the entire discussion of this meeting, I 
liave tried to make it clear, there was no doubt in anybody's mind, 
there was nobody there that was not a Communist. For a fact I will 
be — well, I am not certain, so I won't say more. But I am positive 
that the meeting was a closed Communist meeting. There were some 
people that were there that I did not know. They might not have been 
Communists, it is quite true, but everybody that I did know that was 
there, they were Comnumists. I mean that I actively worked with 
and knew' was a Communist. I knew Bridges, Hailing, Robertson, 
and Smith, and I couldn't say they were Communists because I never 
got close to them. However, everybody I did know and had close con- 
tact with that was there were Communists except those mentioned. 

Mr. Tavennek. Did any other person make a report for the ILWU 
besides Harry Bridges ? 

Mr. Kendall. There was a report made from San Pedro and also 
a report, from Portland and also a very, very 

iVIr. Taa-enner. I couldn't understand your last statement. 

Mr. Kendall. There was a report made from Portland. I remem- 
ber they were having some particular problem up there, union trouble, 
and the anti-Communist forces within the union of the ILWU were 
liaving a terrifRc fight with the Communist fraction up there, and they 
reported on that. All the reports basically were in regards to Com- 
munist Party problems within the various unions. They mentioned 
several times minor fracases that they had with other miions — I mean 
the unions they were in might have had with other unions that were 
not Connnunist Party business; however, the basic reports were defi- 
nitely (^onnnunist reports on activities in unions of the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any report made to your recollection from the 
San Francisco area by a representative of the ILWU other than Mr. 
Harry Bridges? 

Mr. Kendall. I can't definitely say at this time. 

Mr. ScHERER. The extreme security measures for this meeting which 
you have described were taken, were they not, because this was a 
(""ommunist meeting? 

Mr. Kendall. At the last part the microphones Huctuated. I wish 
3'ou Avould repeat. 

Mr. Scherer. Would you read that, please ? 



3484 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

(The question was read by the reporter as follows : 

The extreme security measures for this meeting which you hare descril)ed were 
taken, were they not, because this was a Communist meeting?) 

Mr. Ej:ndall. That is a conclusion, but very definitely ; I mean, that 
is the only reason it could have been. If it had been a union meeting, 
there would have been no other reason. There wouldn't have been 
any necessity for double guard, and not mentioning the Communist 
Party if the door is open. 

Mr. ScHERER. Merely the matter of notification was evidence of an 
extreme security measure ; your manner of notification of this meeting 
and your going to the meeting indicated that it was highly secretive 1 

Mr. Kendall. That is correct, and that was the first time they had 
ever called upon me to attend a meeting of such a high echelon cali- 
ber — especially a Communist Party meeting, and that is probably 
why they had me come the way I did. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jaokson. Is it customary among the waterfront unions to have 
a strike vote before a strike is called, or is this determination gen- 
erally made by a board or a f e-sv men or an individual ? 

Mr. Kendall. Very definitely among the more democratic unions 
on the waterfront section — and I believe the majority of the water- 
front agents are probably more democratic than any other unions in 
the United States — they always have a strike vote. 

Mr. Jackson. Had that strike vote been taken to the best of your 
knowledge, let us say, in your own group? Had any mention been 
made of a possible pending strike before the directions were given to 
go back to your unions and tell them to get ready to strike ? Do you 
know of any 

Mr. Kendall. Remember, I was a member of the Masters, Mates 
and Pilots. I was not a member of one of the unions that were going 
on a strike. 

Mr. Jackson. Was a strike vote mentioned, to the best of your 
recollection, in any of the unions which were represented in this 
meeting ? 

Mr. Kendall. No, I am sure the strike vote wasn't mentioned, be- 
cause the strike vote is a formality that you always give to your 
negotiators if nothing more as a bargaining agent. 

%ir. Jackson. It really does not constitute balloting by the member- 
ship of the union ? 

Mr. Kendall. It does, but after all, your negotiating committee, 
if they do not have the power to call the men out on strike if they 
can't reach an agreement, they are handicapped, and the shipowners 
and so forth, they know that. So for a negotiating committee to go 
in to a group of shipowners without the power to strike would cer- 
tainly not be intelligent negotiating at all, and the union would 
always give power to strike. 

Mr. Jackson. Thank you. 

Mr. DoTLE. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a couple of questions at that 
point? You have said that when Mr. Bridges first began to speak 
he said — I am quoting you — "we are comrades." 

Mr. Kendall. No, I said, "comrades" — period, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3485 

Mr. Doyle. I stand corrected. Then how did you Communists who 
were there salute each other? Did you use the term "comrades" as 
between yourselves ? 

Mr. Kjendall. Normally anybody that would be speaking on the 
floor, if he spoke of some other comrade, you would say Comrade 
Jones or Comrade Smith. That is normal at any party meeting. 
However, as far as the particular meeting outside of the actual speaker 
or the chairman involved, I couldn't remember how they addressed 
each other. It was the normal procedure off the ffoor to call eacli 
other comrade. 

Mr. Jackson. That is not the usual procedure, I assume, in any 
other activity of the union or any open meeting of any sort? 

Mr. Kendall. You mean the term "comrade" ? 

Mr. Jackson. The term "comrade." 

Mr. Kendall. That is one of the large questions always. The 
term "comrade" can be used in many ways. 

Mr. Jackson. Is it used in union meetings? 

Mr. Kendall. Not lately. 

Mr. Jackson. Was it a frequently used term at that time? 

Mr. Kendall. No, no; I don't thiiik at any normal meeting that 
you would get up and call a man comrade. 

Mr. Jackson. In other words, you call people comrades in Com- 
munist Party meetings? 

Mr. Kendall. Period, yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well. 

Mr. Doyle. I have a further question. During these 2 days of 
meetings did any men who were not there the first day come into the 
meeting the second day ? I mean did people go and come during the 
meetings? Was the number larger or smaller? Did they come in 
and out of the meeting room freely or what? 

Mr. KJENDALL. No, no; everybody was there the second day that 
was there the first day. 

Mr. DoYLE. No new persons? 

Mr. Kendall. To the best of my knowledge I can't remember any 
new persons. Like I say, Mr, Bridges left early on the second day 
because of illness. 

Mr. DoYi^. You mentioned the two guards were at the door when 
you went in. What is the fact with reference to whether or not the 
door was closed during the meeting? 

Mr. Kendall. Oh, yes, very definitely. 

Mr. DoYi^. Was it locked, or do you know ? 

Mr. Kendall. I wouldn't know. I never 

Mr. Doyle. Were the guards that were there when you went in — 
did they come inside the room and guard the room inside so that no 
one came from outside, or did they stand outside? 

Mr. Kendall. No, they did not stand outside. Tliey were actively 
part of the meeting. At the meeting they might have been appointed 
sergeant-at-arms or something like that to take care of the door, but 
that is all. I mean, they weren't definitely guards — I mean, they 
wouldn't be just to guard the door is what I am trying to put over. 
They were actually a part of the meeting, however, they had been 
asked previously to be security guards, I assume, or afterwards very 
likely in addition to the chairman we also nominated sergeant-at-arms 
or some sort of security guards. 



3486 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Doyle. Were you men in attendance introduced to one another 
by your regular legal names or by assumed names, or were you intro- 
duced to one another at all ? 

Mr. Kendall. I can only speak for myself as to that. But at no 
time ever when I was a member of the Connnunist Party had I ever 
used an assumed name, never. 

Mr. Doyle. At this meeting where these men from Portland came 
that you said you did not know, were they introduced to you? 

Mr. Kendall. We were all introduced to each other. 

Mr. Doyle. When you were introduced, were they introduced by the 
term "comrade'' as a prefix? 

Mr. Kendall. It was nor the habit in the party meetings to call each 
other comrade on the floor of the meeting, no, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. All right, thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. You had described the place of meeting. Will 
you fix the time? 

Mr. Kendall. In relation to days and so forth ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, the day and the month, if you can, and the 

Mr. Kendall. At a previous investigation that w^as held at whicii 
I was asked to hel]), we tra<*ed 

Mr. Tavenner. I suggest that you not comment upon what some- 
body else did. If you can fix the time yourself of your own recol- 
lection, do it, and if you can't, say you can't. 

Mr. Kendall. It was in the month of August of 1946, and the 
meeting lasted 2 days, and it was on a Saturday and a Sunday. 

Mr. Scherer. You don't know who paid the rental for the hall, do 
you ? 

Mr. Kendall. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You wouldn't know w^hether that was paid by check 
or cash ? 

Mr. Kendall. I was pretty low down the line; I didn't handle 
anything as far as the 

Mr. Scherer. You wouldn't know under what name the hall was 
rented then? 

Mr. Kendali^. No, sir. 

Mr. ScHisRER. You knew it was rented under some assumed name ? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes, sir, that is correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Or assumed organization? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask you whether or not at the time you were 
invited to this meeting you held any official position in j^our union? 

Mr. Kendall. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. So the only purpose under whicli you could have 
been invited to this meeting was because of your superior position in 
the Communist Party; isn't that correct? 

Mr. Kendall. Yes, sir ; that is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long was it after that before you got out of the 
Connnunist Party? 

Mr. Kendall. At that particular meeting it became clear to me 
that here were men being told to go back and prepare their unions 
for a strike, and that we had not tried every means of negotiation. 
And I began to wonder — I had wondered before because of the famous 



COMMUNTIST ACTIVITIES EST THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3487 

Diiclos letter, but this was one of the things that made me stop and 
wonder. I was getting a little older, too, at the time, and then also 

Mr. Velde. What did yon wonder, whether or not the order to 
prepare for a strike was in some way or other handed down by the 
Communist Party or by the Soviet Union through tlie Communist 
Party — if you can tell the committee just how you felt about that 
jjarticular order. 

Mr. Kendall. For the first time, you see — going to sea I had not 
been ashore very much, until this time, and all of a sudden the true 
implication of the international conspiracy, as I saw it then, started 
to just blossom out. In other words, here we were preparing, instead 
of trying to work out something on a peaceful settlement with the 
shipowners — wliich of course I mean I had no love for it at that 
particular time anyway, but Chiange Kai-sliek was fighting for his 
life over in China, and we were trying — in other words, all of a sudden 
it became clear to me that actually the wages and conditions which — 
the Communist Party had built themselves up to be supposed to be 
the working party or class — all of a sudden it seemed secondary, and 
there was international implications that came above working condi- 
tions for these various unions which they had control of. 

That is one of the reasons — I mean, later on maybe if I have time 
I will go into the full reason, but on that particular issue is one of the 
things that I decided then and there that I was going to get a ship out, 
along with these resolutions that they had handed me, asking me to go 
before a group of intelligent men, which I assume they are intelligent — 
Masters, Mates and Pilots— praising the Soviet Union for some deed 
that they had accomplished. The war was over and everything else; 
I mean, all of a sudden I just began fitting together, and I was ashore 
for the first time since the Jacques Duclos letter, and it just didn't 
strike right to me. 

Mr. Ta\tcnner. As a result did you get out of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Kendall. No, sir; not at that time. I told them that I wanted 
to go to sea again, and I got on a. shi|) — the CJaymont Victory^ which 
was an Army transport going to Alaska for Operation AVillowaugh, 
and we were all ready to sail, and I was on this ship — I took a job I 
believe on there as second mate, navigating officer — we were all ready 
to sail when the SUP went out on a strike, the Sailors Union of the 
Pacific, A. F. of L. They were on a strike, and the ship held Army 
cargo, and we had Army troops aboard, and Mr. Harry Lundeberg, 
president of that union, had o. k.'d the clearance of that particular 
ship because it was Government c"argo, so everybody got clearance 
but me, and the Sailors Union of the l*acific would not give me clear- 
ance because of the fact that Charlie May, the president of the Masters, 
Mates and Pilots, had a very strong suspicion that I was putting 
out this Horizon, this paper that wtis causing them no end of 
embarrassment. 

So I went over to see Harry Lundeberg, and Harry told me, he 
says, well, he told me that he had heard that I was putting out this 
paper, and I swore up and down that I wasn't, of course, so then I went 
over to see Alex Treskin, and the executive board of the Masters, 
Mates and Pilots told me that if I came before them, they would like to 
ask me a few questions; they would give me clearance, and in turn 
Harry Lundeberg would give me clearance, and in turn I would be 



3488 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

permitted to pass through the picket line to sign on the ship.^ So I 
appeared before this portion of the executive board, and Alex Treskin 
told me to go over there and tell them anything I wanted to, that it 
didn't make much difference — in other words, lie to them, tell them 
that I didn't have anything to do with it, because after all, the ulti- 
mate goal, I believe, as the terminology always used, the ultimate goal 
is what we are after, not individual trust at some particular time. I 
mean, that was always the party line. 

Mr. Jackson. Phrased a little differently, any means to the end. 

Mr. Kendall. Correct, sir. So I appeared before this committee, 
and this is the statement which I signed. It is brief, and I would like 
to submit it in the record, if I may. 

Mr. Doyle. When is it dated '^ 

Mr. Kendall. September 4, 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. I ask it be introduced in evidence and marked 
"Kendall Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Velde. Without objection, it will be so admitted. 

(National Organization of Masters, Mates and Pilots of America, 
executive committee minutes, September 4, 1946, San Francisco, Calif., 
West Coast Local 90, containing a statement signed by James Kendall, 
dated September 4, 1946, was received in evidence as Kendall Exhibit 
No. 1.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I suggest you read it. 

Mr. Velde. The statement is short; will you read it, Mr. Witness? 

Mr. Kendall. All right. 

Executive committee minutes, September 4, 1946, 11:30 a. m., San 
Francisco, Calif., International Organization Masters, Mates and 
Pilots, West Coast Local 90. 

Present: Capt. C. F. May, Capt. H. Miehelson, Capt. K. Hjorth, Capt. A. W. 
Lawberg, Capt. J. J. Sawaska, Mr. M. A. Viera 

Meeting called to order 11 : 30 a. m. to hear the case of James S. Kendall, 
No. 4089. 

James S. Kendall No. 4089 stated he is not in any way connected with the 
Horizon. And an information that he was the editor of the Horizon is er- 
roneous. He came before the executive committee of his own free will to 
obtain a clearance from the organization and the SUP for the steamship 
Claymont Victory, which is a troopship and not affected by the strike of the 
SUP 

and I signed my name. 

Motion made by Captain Lawberg, seconded by Captain Miehelson, tbat the 
above statement made by James S. Kendall. Xo. 4089, is accepted as a true state- 
ment, and this statement be retained on file, and the above-named man to be 
given clearance. Motion carried unanimously and so recommended. Meeting 
adjourned at 12 noon. 

I submitted this to Mr. Lundeberg, and he wrote on here "Okay for 
clearance through SUP picket line, Harry Lundeberg, secretary 
treasurer." So I sailed away on the steamship Claymont Victory 
and went to Alaska, and when I came back the SUP strike had been 
settled, and in the meantime tlie committee for maritime unity, the 
longshoremen were a part of, had gone out on strike, and I came back 
to the port of Seattle, so I thought I would try again, so there was no 
group up there within the Masters, Mates and Pilots. However, 
Jack Smith, wlio was the agent of the National Maritime Union and 
a Communist Party member, was there, and so I attended several 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3489 



KENDALL EXHIBIT NO. 1 
NATIONAL ORGANIZATION of MASTERS, MATES & PILOTS of AMERICA 



SCATTLK I. WAaMlNtTTOM 

nOOM 31* MUTUAL LI^C BLOO- 

«OS 1ST AVCNUC 

Tfkl'HOHl KLiOTT OS«« 

TIklTtri BC 4*4 

»0«T|_anO 4, ORCOON 
aO> HKNHV •lDO. 

4TM AHO OAK STRCCTS 

Tlfc«»"0«.« AT-*If» 3»3I 

T«HTT»f ^o a»7 



i AFFIUATCD WITH A, F- of L 

WEST COAST LOCAL No. 90 

Headquartffs 
SAN FRANCISCO. II 

C. F. MAY. PnCS'OCMT 




•AN rMAMOaCO II. CALir. 

209 CALiraRNIA BTRCCT 

TfLI^HOHl OAa'ilLO BITT 

Tti.tfv»« sr ttT 

■AN ^Koao. BALir. 
617 S. PALOS VtROC 



EXECUTIVE COUKITTEE IGKUTES 
SEPXatBER Ij, 19i+6, 111 30 A.M. 
SAN FKAKCISCO, CALIFCRNIA OF 
THE NATIONAL ORGAMIZAnCH OF 
MASTERS, MATES 4 PILOTS OF 
AtO-JRICA, '.VEST CQftST LOCAL ff90 



PRESENT 1 




C&pt. C. F. May 
Cupt. H, Mlcholson 
Cupt. K. Hjorth 
Capt. A. W. Lnwberg 
C»pt. J. J. Sawaslcn 
Ur. U. A. Viorm 

Meeting e»ll«d to order at lit JO a.m. to hear the oaae of James S< 
Kendall #i089, 

James S. Kendall ffi;089, stated that he is not in any way connooted with 
the Horlron, and any infomation that he «»B the editor of the Rorieon is erronoous. 
He csjue up before the Exocutive Committee- of his own free will to obtain a oloaranoe 
from this Orpianliation and the S.U.P. on the SS CLAYMONT VICTORY, Vfhioh is a troop 
slilp and not af footed by the ctrike action of the S.U.P. 

^Jaavs 3. Kendall f|li089 

Motion made by Capt. Lawberg, seconded by Capt. Miohelsen, that the abore 
statement made by Jaaos S. Kendall A089, 1» accepted as a true staternent, and this 
statement to be retained on file and abovt-nanied mBin to be giv^n clearance. Motion 
c«rried unanlmouely and so reooinraend»d« 

Meeting adjourned at 12 noau 





h.<i<^iA. 



wXt 



4rfT / 



• UY VICTOKV aONDB 



meetings with liim at the local waterfront section of the Communist 
Party in the port of Seattle, Wash. 

I never took any active part in the Masters, Mates and Pilots or- 
ganization as a Communist in the port of Seattle. Ilowever, I did 
come back to the Communist Party fraction meetings and tell them 
of each — I used to come back to the fraction meetings of the section 
meetings that we had within the party up there of the various mem- 
bers of the waterfront section and tell them what the stand of the 
Masters. Mates and Pilots was. 

But it was nothing contrary to anything; I mean they could find 
out by papere the same things I told them, only they got it a little 



3490 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

faster, that is all. At this particular time, because of the elements 
that I met in the port of Seattle that belonged to the party, I made 
up my mind clearly and definitely it was time for me to get out, 
because I realized that this was not for me, that for the first time 
since I joined the party I had been ashore for a period of time and 
worked with these people, and I realized that I had made a terrible 
mistake. Tliis was in the year 19-1:6, and in 194G in the month of 
December I signed on a vessel as second mate known as the Cape 
Diamond. The strike was over in December, I believe, if I remember 
right, and in January of 1947 I actually signed on the Cape Diamond^ 
and I went to the east coast where I remained on the Cape Diamond 
for a couple of trips, and then I went to several other ships for various 
companies. 

I did not contact at any time on the east coast, after leaving the 
west — at no time did I attend a party meeting or any regular party 
group on the east coast, but I began reading the papere and began real- 
izing the full significance of the party, its international tie up, its inter- 
national complications. I look back and realize how they have been 
able to dupe me for quite a long time. For awhile I thought, "Well, 
I will just let it go," and then something I read in the paper one day — 
1 will be very frank, I can't remember what it was; it was something 
on the international scale that they had done. Communists in the 
Soviet Union, that I realized that I had only one choice, and so I 
notified the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and in the meantime, 
the very same day, for a fact, I sent a letter to the Communist Party, 
the New York official office, in which I told them after a period of time 
I realized there was basic ideological differences that the party had 
and that I as an American could not stand, and so I was officially 
severing all relationship with them. 

The FBI got there after I had mailed it tinfortunately. because 
they were rather disturbed that I had sent the letter off. They had 
hoped that I hadn't sent it off. They tried to stop it, but they didn't 
get to it in time. 

Since that time I have worked wherever I could in my way to help 
any organization of the Government expose, try to help people tliat 
have belonged to the party, and there is one thing for sure : If enough 
people will come forward and not be afraid and bring up the fifth 
amendment to provide the missing links, I am sure that we are going 
to be able to tie this into the international organization as it is. 

I traveled all over this world as an officer in the merchant marine, 
and there is no doubt in my mind that the Communists directly take 
their orders from Moscow, and there hasn't been a major strike on this 
coast, unfortunately, that did not have international complications, 
and even though that the unions that are dominated by the Com- 
munist Party members in most cases have better working conditions 
than the unions that are not dominated by the Communists Party, the 
ultimate goal is world domination by the Communist Party, and if 
they ever attain that goal, the immediate gains that are gained by that 
union dominated by Communist Party members will be lost forever, 
and if we can get the word to enough young people, especially the 
young college group wliich I think right now is the most susceptible 
group, and actually expose these people for what they are — that it 
is an intermediate conspiracy with world domination as their ultimate 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3491 

and only goal — that the working man is not their friend ; he is a means 
to the end— the helping and the understanding of the minority prob- 
lems in this country is a means to the end for them only. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hnve no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. No, I have no questions. 

Mr. Velde. ]\Ir. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, I think any question I might ask would seem so 
insignificant compared with the magnificent contribution this gentle- 
men has made that I will not ask any questions. 

Mr. Velde. I certainly join with my colleague from California, and 
I am sure it is in the hearts and minds of my other two colleagues 
here, in expressing the deep gratitude of this committee for the fine 
information which you have given to it, declared in such a concise 
manner. I am sure that my colleagues will agi'ee that we think you 
have redeemed yourself from any past mistake which you might have 
made and are now a very fine American citizen. 

We thank you, and with that you are discharged. 

So that you might be under the jurisdiction of the Congress of 
the United States, you will be retained under subpena until further 
notice. 

At this time you are dismissed. 

At this time the Chair desires to yield to the gentleman from Cali- 
fornia, ]\Ir. Doyle, so that he might make some observations relative 
to these hearings. 

Mr. Doyle. I will be very brief, Mr. Chairman, because of the late- 
ness of the hour. I made a memorandum here a minute ago as Mr. 
Kendall was testifying, just 5 or 6 things I wanted to suggest, and 
1 make these suggestions with all the vigor there is in me. 

First, I want to urge every person who is now a member of the 
Communist Party who claims to be a patriotic American citizen to 
withdraw from tliat party forthwith and begin actively to oppose 
the Communist Party program. 

Second, I want to urge that every such person and that every per- 
son in the United States cooperate actively with all United States 
Government agencies to help to discover and dissolve any or all sub- 
versive organizations or programs. 

Next, I urge that every patriotic American citizen be alert in all 
or any groups in which they are members at anv level of American 
experience in which tliey live and earn their living, in industries, in 
education and labor, or any other group; and lastly, I want to urge 
all patriotic American adults and all parents of American children 
and American youth to consistently teach and to consistently ex- 
emplify before American youth the value of the American wav of 
life. 

Mr. Velde. Thank you, Mr. Doyle. And now the Chair yields to 
the other gentleman from California, Mr. Jackson, for a statement 
of his summation of the proceedings here in San Francisco, Calif. 

I want to say that Mr. Scherer and I have both read the summation 
which Mr. Jackson is about to read and clearly concur heartily in 
the statement which he is about to make. 



3492 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Doyle has also had an opportunity to read this. 

Upon conclusion of the present hearings in the San Francisco Bay 
area the committee wishes to place in the record a few observations 
relating to the disclosures made during the week by witnesses, cooper- 
ative and otherwise, who have appeared here under oath to give their 
testimony or to refuse their cooperation. 

The committee is, first of all, indebted to all of the security agen- 
cies in the area for their splendid cooperation; the police departments 
of San Francisco, Berkeley, and Oakland, the Alameda County sher- 
iff's office, the United States marshal and his deputies, the agents 
and employees of the Federal security agencies, the employees of the 
city of San Francisco, all of whom have lent every possible measure of 
cooperation and assistance to the committee and to its staff. For this 
aid and for the helpful spirit displayed the Congress of the United 
States tenders its appreciation through the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities. 

Thanks to the splendid coverage of the hearings by the bay area 
press and radio, full coverage of the hearings and of the testimony of 
witnesses has been made available to all listeners and readers. Each 
reporter has been able freely to record his individual story without 
interference, threat, intimidation, or coercion of any form or type. 
This essential function of a free press in a free land is one of the monu- 
ments of a nation's greatness, and the preservation of that freedom 
is one of the greatest charges laid upon a free people. 

The committee appreciates the full coverage given the hearings in 
this area by the press and radio. 

The use of this beautiful room in which the committee has held its 
sessions has facilitated the conduct of those hearings and has made it 
possible for a considerable number of citizens to view the proceedings. 
The Congress and the committee are appreciative of the courtesy ex- 
tended by the San Francisco County Board of Supervisors in this 
regard. 

The nature of the testimony adduced during the week of hearings 
can lead the committee to one inescapable conclusion, and that is, the 
existence of a widespread Communist infiltration into almost eveiy 
activity in the bay area. The actual extent of that infiltration cannot 
accurately be determined by the facts presently in the record of the 
proceedings, but on the basis of similar hearings previously conducted 
by the connnittee in other great cities of the Nation it can be stated 
on considerable authority that the total membership of the Commu- 
nist Party in this area probably numbered several thousands of 
persons. 

However — and the committee wishes to stress this point — the actual 
numerical strength of the Communist conspiracy is not the yardstick 
by which its power to inflict irreparable damage on our institutions 
and our defenses can or should be measured. A handful of deter-' 
mined Communists in a local labor union can and will destroy democ- 
racy in that union if unretarded by the vigilance of the majority of 
union members. 

One Communist faculty member in a school can and will poison the 
minds and wither the souls of young students if his activities both on 
and off the campus are not made the subject of constant scrutiny. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3493 

The myth that the Communist conspiracy constitutes nothing more 
than the activities of individuals gathered together for the pursuit 
of legal political activities has long since been exploded. Those who 
meet in secret under assumed names for the purpose of fomenting 
disorder, turmoil, and revolution deserve the name "conspirators." 

Arrogance, contempt for and vilification of constituted authority 
are the unmistakable hallmarks of the conspiracy and of its agents. 
Under the guise of protecting human rights this conspiracy in fact 
seeks to destroy them. Against this organized effort to destroy consti- 
tutional government by unconstitutional means must be arrayed all 
of the forces and weapons available to a free people. 

This committee is established by the Congi'ess of the United States 
and has been cloaked by that body with wide power under Public Law 
601. It is one of the weapons in the hands of the American people. 
Who dulls the edge of that weapon brings joy to the hearts of those 
whose dedicated task it is to destroy the Constitution of the United 
States and place human freedom behind barbed wire. 

The fifth amendment to the Constitution of the United States is a 
sacred privilege, oft abused as it has been during the course of these 
and other hearings. In answer to the many citizens of the bay area 
who have written to the committee relative to the use of the amend- 
ment by uncooperative witnesses, the committee can only state again 
that there is presently no legislative device to meet that misuse; the 
need for clarifying legislation is clearly apparent. Communist direc- 
tives lay a charge upon Communists and Communist sympathizers to 
carry the class struggle into courts and hearing rooms, to remain al- 
ways on the offensive, and to use whatever devices are necessary to 
prevent disclosures which might be harmful to the Communist 
conspiracy. 

The evidences of this technique were abundantly made clear during 
the Medina trial and in subsequent court action stemming from vio- 
lations of the Smith Act and other antisubversion legislation. Tur- 
moil in courts and hearings replaces decorum in the Communist 
scheme, and dignity becomes an early casualty to the premeditated 
tactics of the Communist conspiracy. 

Those familiar with the techniques of the Communist Party have 
had a firsthand opportunity to witness communism in action here in 
this room for the past 5 days. Committee members and the staff 
have been maligned and vilified in this very room and in paid adver- 
tisements inserted in the press. The motives and the purposes of the 
investigation have been misrepresented and sorely distorted. 
Charges involving the integi-ity of the Congi'ess of the United States 
and the elected representatives of the American people have been 
hurled indiscriminately and venomously by witnesses using every 
tactic and evasion to cover their alleged activities within the Com- 
munist conspiracy. 

The committee is confident that these efforts to undermine public 
confidence in the committee and its work will be as unavailing in the 
bay area as they have proven to be in other cities throughout this 
country. 

To those witnesses who have given the American people the story of 
their own experiences in the Communist conspiracy the committee ex- 
tends its thanks. Those who have lived through the lie of communism 



3494 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 

and have come forward to do an American duty as they see that duty 
should have not only the thanks of the Nation, but the sympathetic 
understanding of business associates, employers, and former friends 
and associates outside of the Communist Party. Scorned and vilified 
as they are by former associates within the party, these witnesses 
should find understanding among the vast body of loyal American 
citizens. They should receive every assistance toward economic, so- 
cial, and political rehabilitation consistent with the quality of trust- 
worthiness which marked their testimony. 

It should be remembered that without the testimony of the hundreds 
of former Communists who have severed their ties with the con- 
spiracy and who have testified fully as to the extent and nature of 
the activities of the party there would not today be an ever expanding 
volume of knowledge and information in the hands of the American 
Congress and available to the American people. 

Eternal vigilance is indeed the price of liberty. Vigilante action 
is neither needed nor desirable. The work of tracking down sub- 
version of every type and of insuring the passage of Federal remedial 
legislation designed to meet the threat against human freedom is a 
charge which must rest upon duly constituted authority at all levels 
of Government. 

Intelligent and loyal citizens armed with facts of subversion and 
disloyalty can render a signal service to the American people by con- 
tacting the Federal Bureau of Investigation or other agencies the 
duties of which include investigation and proper evaluation of 
information. 

The question has been asked as to what purpose is served by the 
disclosure of the names of individuals who may long ago have left 
the conspiracy and since devoted themselves to home and work in the 
manner of loyal American citizens. This is a reasonable question 
and one deserving of a reasonable answer. The testimony of a co- 
operative witness is not tampered with in any way by this committee 
or by its staff. That testimony must stand the cruel test imposed by 
the subsequent appearance before the committee of those who are 
named. It would be an act of intellectual dishonesty for this com- 
mittee to add or detract one name from the list of those whom the 
witness is prepared to identify under oath as having been within his 
own knowledge a member of the conspiracy during the period of the 
witness' own membership. The identity of an individual having been 
made in public or executive session, the committee has no alternative 
but to place that individual in the witness chair at the earliest possible 
moment. 

The decision on the part of a witness as to the nature of his testi- 
mony, whether he will cooperate or not is not within the authority of 
the committee to rule upon. Every member of the Communist Party, 
past or present is or was a small section of a jigsaw puzzle, and each 
had his role to play. The fact of having left the conspiracy in no way 
eradicates or erases his knowledge of events that transpired during his 
membership nor of the role he played. The committee has no way of 
knowing the status of his membership at present until he is placed 
under oath and the information is sought to be elicited. 

Upon the front of a great public building in Washington, D. C, 
there are graven on stone the words "The past is prologue." If this 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 3495 

is true, and if individuals insure the future by reference to the past 
then it is equally true that nations under unremitting attack must look 
to the past in the preparation of its future defenses. One missing 
piece of the vast and forbidding puzzle may well be in the possession 
of a former and disillusioned member of the conspiracy. The risk 
attendant on failure to make adequate and comprehensive inquiiy at 
every available source is too great to justify the theory that former 
Communists should be immune to interrogation. The bank robber, 
the embezzler, or the murderer who leaves the pursuit of crime to take 
up a quiet existence in a rural community enjoys no immunity for his 
past activity and the stake of society involved in the transgressions 
of those who steal physical properties or money is, while important, as 
nothing when compared to the activities of those who would enslave 
the world. 

In conclusion, the committee wishes to extend its thanks to the 
hundreds of citizens of the bay area who have communicated to the 
committee their expressions of support and of encouragement. The 
work of the committee is made easier by the knowledge that the vast 
majority of loyal Americans stand behind their Congress and behind 
their elected officials in the vital work so necessary to the defense of 
the American Republic. So long as that support and encouragement 
are evidenced by those who freely elect their representatives to the 
legislative halls of this Nation it is inconceivable that there should 
ever come into being the Union of Soviet United States. [Applause.] 

Mr. Velde. I thank you for that very fine statement, Mr. Jackson, 
and before adjourning I would like to mention that I forgot to mention 
the fact that the gentleman from California, Mr. Doyle, also read the 
statement that Mr. Jackson just read before he gave it and concurs 
heartilv therein. Is that true, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. I do, very heartily. 

Mr. Velde. Now the committee will stand in adjournment until 
further call of the chair. 

(Whereupon, at 5 :05 p. m., the hearing was recessed subject to call.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Ames, Donakl 3456 

Andersen, George 3432-3444 

Anderson, Bruce 3447 

Bailev, William (Bill) 3464,3482,3483 

Bailey, William J 3456-3460 (testimony) 

Baker, Rude 3428 

Barry, Captain 3476, 8477, 3481 

Blodgett, Charles David 3433,3434,3452 

Bradsher. Mary Elizabeth Parrott 3446,3447 

Bridges, Harrv 3443, 3444, 3476, 3481-3485 

Browder, Earl 3422, 3426, 3450 

Brown, Archie 3441 

Brown, Bimbo 3447 

Bryson, Hugh 3464, 3474 

Cameron, Don 3440 

Chown, Paul 3432-3440 (testimony) 

Crowe, Neil 3440, 3480 

Darcy, Sam 3423 

Dennis, Eugene 3426 

Dolsen, James H 3426 

Drake, James 3471 

Duclos, Jacques 3450,3482, 3487 

Frederick, Jean 3447 

Frederick, Van 3447 

Fox, Ernest 3465 

George, Harrison 3421-3432 (testimony) 

Gonzoles, Ella 3447 

Gonzoles, Jack 3447 

Hailing, Bjorne 3440-3442 (testimony), 3475, 3481, 3483 

Hammond, Gene 3447 

Hammond, Marian 3447 

Harrison, Katherine 3426 

Hathaway, Clarence 3422 

Hearns, Joseph 3480 

Hedlev. Dave 3443 

Hernlev, Willie 3461 

Hjorth, K 3488, 3489 

Hudson, Roy -_ 3422 

Jacobson, Nathan 3440,3441 

Jenkins, David (Dave) 8441,3465,3474 

Kai-shek, Chiang 3482, 3487 

Kalman. Herb ^^^ 

Kaplan, Leon 3474 

Keir, Duncan, Jr 3471 

Kendall, James 3459, 3460-3491 (testimony) 

Kimiev, Anne 3429,3430 

Koide. Joe 3422, 3427, 3429 

Lannon, Al 3479, 3481 

Lawherg, A. W 3488, 8489 

Lehman, Lloyd 3133 

Lozovsky 3425 

Lundeberg, Harry 3487, 8488 

Lynch, Joe 3441 

3497 



3498 INDEX 

Page 

Lynden, Richard 3442-3444 (testimony) 

MacArthur, Gen 34''>6 

May, C. F H !_:__: sisS, 348» 

May, Charlie 3487 

McDonald, Huffhie 3472 

Meyers, Blackie 1 3468, 3480 

Michelson, H 3488^ 3489 

Naboisek, Herbert (Herb) 3445, 3446-3456 (testimony), 3447 

Naboisek, June 3447 

Noulens 3426 

Oakerly, Harold 34Si 

Posey, Max 3443 

Ragland, Bob 3447 

Ragland, Clara 3447 

Redner, Bill 3447 

Redner, Marian 344T 

Robertson. Bob 3475, 3476, 3481, 34;Sa 

Rogers, Mr 346a 

Rosser, Lou 3443, 3445 

Rossman, Leo 3466' 

Saunders, David 3461, 3405, 3472 

Sawaska, J. J 3488, 3489 

Saxton. Al 3440 

Seymour, Ernest Leroy 3440,3441 

Sherman, Robert (Bob) 3440 

Smith, Ferdinand 3467, 3468, 3480 

Smith, Jack 3488 

Speiser, Lawrence 3421-3432, 3446-3456 

Stack, Walter 3464, 3480, 3481 

Stewart, Albert Edward 3426 

Tanaka 342S 

Teitelbaura. Dave 3472 

Telford, Sam 3472 

Tobin, Pat 3440 

Toredo, Carlos 3477 

Treskiu, Alex 3463, 3464, 3467, 3470, 3473-3475, 3478, 3481, 3483, 3487, 3488 

Undjus, Margaret 3426 

Viera, M. A 3488,3489 

Walker, Doris Brin 3456-3460 

Walsh (see also Eugene Dennis) 3426 

Weidemeyer, Irene 3426 

Williams, Carl 3441 

Williams, Eugene 3460, 3461 

Willoughby, Charles 3425, 3426 

Yates 3474 

Obganizations 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade 3471 

Alameda Council of the CIO 3434 

Alameda County CIO Council 3433 

American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California 3422, 3446 

American Communications Association 3440 

American Federation of Labor 3460 

Army 3487 

Berkelev Bookstore 3456 

California CIO Council 3433, 3434 

California Labor School 3441, 3465, 3474 

Comintern 3425, 3426, 3428 

Communist International 3428 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 3433-3435, 3441, 3460, 3463, 3480 

Department of Justice 3454 

Embarcadero Book Store 3462 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 3452, 3456, 3459, 3490, 3494 

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union 3445, 

3475-3477, 3480, 3481, 3483 



i^^DEx 3499 

Page 

Marine Cooks and Stewards Union . 3441, 3464, 3474 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, and Watertenders 3463, 3464, 3480 

Masters, Mates and Pilots of America, West Coast Local No. 90 3489 

Masters, Mates and Pilots Union 3460, 3464, 3472-3477, 3484, 3487, 3488 

National Maritime Union, CIO 3441, 

34G0-3468, 3471, 3472, 3477, 3479-3481, 3488 

Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat 3425, 3426, 3428 

Political Affairs Committee of tlie Communist Party 3433 

Political Affairs Committee of tlie Conmumist Party of Alameda County— 3439 

I'rofliitern 342."., 3427, 3428, 3430 

Red International of Labor Unions 3425 

Sailors Union of the Pacific 3477, 3489 

Sailors Union of the Pacific, A. F. of L 3487, 3488 

SS. Alice n. Rice 3472 

SS. Arthur Middleton 3465,3466 

SS. Cape Diamond 3490 

SS. Claiiwont Victory 3487-3489 

SS. Joseph Priestley 3465 

SS. -V/ra Luckenhach 3465,3466,3469 

SS. Rohcrt T. Hill 3473 

SS. ^anta Ana 3465-3467,3469,3470 

San Diefio State College 3460 

Seventh World Conirress of the Communist International 3428 

Supreme Court 34.53 

I'nited Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America 3432 

United Electrical Workers 3435 

United States Army 3447 

United States Maritime Service 3471, 3472 

United States Merchant Marine 3470 

United States Navy 3465 

University of California at Berkeley 3446, 3448, 3449 

University of Denver 3422 

Warehouse Union Local 6 3443 

Younff Communist League 3443, 3444, 3474, 3476 

Publications 

E-aily People's World 3427, 3433 

Daily AVorker 3427 

The Horizon 3476, 3477, 3487-3489 

International Correspondence 3428 

Pacific Worker 3425 

o 



-\, 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

, llllllilllfliilllilil 

3 9999 05442 2009 



FIB 6 m7