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Full text of "Investigation of improper activities in the labor or management field. Hearings before the Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor or Management Field"



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Given By 
U. S. SUPT. OF DOCUMENTS 



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INVESTIGATION OF IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LABOR OR MANAGEMENT FIELD 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE 

ON IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE 

LABOR OR MANAGEMENT FIELD 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGKESS 

SECOND SESSION 
PURSUANT TO SENATE RESOLUTIONS 74 AND 221, 85TH CONGRESS 



JUNE 30, JULY 1, 2, AND 3, 1958 



PART 32 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee on Improper Activities in the 
Labor or Management Field 




INVESTIGATION OF IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LABOR OR MANAGEMENT FIELD 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE 

ON IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE 

LABOR OE MANAGEMENT FIELD 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGKESS 

SECOND SESSION 
PURSUANT TO SENATE RESOLUTIONS 74 AND 221, 85TH CONGRESS 



JUNE 30, JULY 1, 2, AND 3. 1958 



PART 32 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee on Improper Activities in the 
Labor or Management Field 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
21243 WASHINGTON : 1958 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

OCT 2 8 1958 



SELECT COMMITTEE ON IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR 
OR MANAGEMENT FIELD 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas, Chairman 
IRVING M. IVES, New York, Vice Chairman 
JOHN F. KENNEDY, Massachusetts KARL E. MUNDT, South Dakota 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina BARRY OOLDWATER, Arizona 

FRANK CHURCH, Idaho CARL T. CURTIS, Nebraska 

Robert F. Kennedy, Chief Counsel 
Ruth Young Watt, Chief Clerk 

n 



CONTENTS 



MAFIA 



Page 

Appendix 12491 

Grace Line letter with attachments 12491-12496 

Tesl iinonv of — 

Bufalino, Russell J 12465 

Chait, Abraham 12454 

Constandy, John P 12392 

Crosswell, Sgt. Edgar D 12201, 12319 

Dickey, Orange C 12374, 12399 

Genovese, Vito 12384, 12393, 12400, 12418 

Hamilton, Capt. James E 12326 

LaDuca, James V 12272 

Larasso, Louis Anthony 12287 

Laureridi, Xatale 12416 

Lucchese, Thomas 12473 

Magin, Sam 12450 

Maneuso, Rosario 12280 

Martin, George H 12251, 12258, 12453 

Miranda, Mike 12404, 12218 

Montana, John C 12293 

O'Brien, Thomas 12341 

Pera, Martin F 12219, 12231, 12256 

Plumeri, James 12421 

Prof aci, Joseph 12337 

Scalish, John 12359 

Sullivan, Daniel P 12429 

Willse, Sherman S 12259, 12265, 12364 

Wortman, Frank 12439 



EXHIBITS Introduced Appears 

on page on page 

1. Photograph of Frank Scalise with Lucky Luciano and 

girlfriend 12235 (*) 

1 A. Picture of seven people which includes Frank Scalise and 

Salvatore Luciano 12235 (*) 

2. Letter dated Palermo, February 10, 1956, "Dear Don 

Ciccio" signed Nino Torres, Piazza Principe, Palermo, 

Italy 12243 (*) 

2A. Letter dated September 10, 1956, "Dear Nino" signed 

by Frank Scalise 12243 (*) 

3. Letter dated September 13, 1952, addressed to District 

Engineer, Atlantic District, from Cyril A. Millson, 

officer in charge, Claremont Terminal 12243 (*) 

4. Chart showing intermarriage connections between mem- 

bers of the Mafia 122521 Face 

5. Chart indicating types of activities that the people pres- > 12496 ' 

ent at the Apalachin meeting have been involved in__ 12260 J 

6. Map, contacts and associates of John Ormento 1226!) (*) 

6A. Map, contacts and associates of Joseph Profaci and his 

Carmela Mia Packing Co 12270 (*) 

6B. Map, contacts and associates of Joseph Barbara, Sr 12271 

6C. Map, contacts and associates of Russell Bufalino 12271 (*) 

6D. Map, contacts and associates of James LaDuca 12271 (*) 

•May be found in the flies of the select committee. 

in 



IV 



CONTENTS 



EXHIBITS— Continued Introduced Appears 

on page on page 

7. Map showing individuals that attended the Apalachin 

meeting and where they came from 12271 (*) 

8. Picture of Joseph Barbara's home and roads leading 

to it 12310 (*) 

9. Picture of Joseph Barbara's farm and surrounding 

woods 12310 (*) 

10A. Letter dated November 1, 1957, addressed to John C. 
Montana, Van Dyke Taxi & Transfer, Inc., signed by 
"Horace" (H. I. Gwilym), on Cab Research Bureau, 

Inc., stationery 12318 12497 

10B. Letter dated November 11, 1957, addressed to John C. 
Montana, Van Dyke Taxi & Transfer, Inc., signed by 
"Horace" (H. I. Gwilym), on Cab Research Bureau, 

Inc., stationery 12318 12198 

11. Speech given by Mr. Virgil Peterson before the American 
Bar Association: Recent Trends of Decisions of the 
Supreme Court of the United States in the Field of 

Criminal Law 12337 (*) 

12A. Picture of Mike Miranda and Vito Genovese 12368 (*) 

12B. Picture of Peter DeFeo and Frank Tieri 12369 (*) 

12C. Picture of Mike Miranda and Pasquale Normando 12369 (*) 

12D. Picture of Joseph Stracci, Joe Tortoric, and Lorenzo 

Brescia 12370 (*) 

12E. Picture of Anthony Russo, DeBenedetto and Charles 

Tourine 12370 (*) 

12F. Picture of Gregory Ardito and Alfonso Criscuolo 12370 (*) 

12G. Picture of Barney Miranda and Louis Arminante 12371 (*) 

12H. Picture of John Bera 12371 (*) 

121. Picture of Frank Tieri and Joseph Gorgone 12371 (*) 

Proceedings of — 

June 30, 1958 12191 

July 1, 1958 12231 

July 2, 1958 12323 

July 3, 1958 12421 

*May be found in the files of the select committee. 



INVESTIGATION OF IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LABOR OR MANAGEMENT FIELD 



MONDAY, JUNE 30, 1958 

United States Senate, 
Select Committee on Improper Activities, 

in the Labor or Management Field, 

Washington, D. C. 

The select committee met at 2: 10 p. m., pursuant to Senate Reso- 
lution 74, agreed to January 30, 1957, in the caucus room, Senate 
Office Building, Senator John L. McClellan (chairman of the select 
committee) presiding. 

Present : Senator John L. McClellan, Democrat, Arkansas ; Senator 
Irving M. Ives, Republican, New York; Senator John F. Kennedy, 
Democrat, Massachusetts ; Senator Sam J. Ervin, Jr., Democrat, North 
Carolina; Senator Barry Goldwater, Republican, Arizona; Senator 
Karl E. Mundt, Republican, South Dakota. 

Also present : Robert F. Kennedy, chief counsel ; Paul J. Tierney, 
assistant counsel ; John P. Constandy, assistant counsel ; John J. Mc- 
Govern, assistant counsel: Pierre E. G. Salinger, investigator; Walter 
R. May, investigator; George H. Martin, investigator; Sherman 
Willse, investigator; Ruth Young Watt, chief clerk. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

(Members of the committee present at the convening of the session 
were: Senators McClellan, Ives, Ervin, Kennedy, Mundt, and Gold- 
water. ) 

The Chairman. This is a statement by the Chair at the opening 
of a series of hearings and the statement is for the record and will 
serve as a premise for the testimony as it may be developed. 

The Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor 
or Management Field embarks today on a new and important series 
of hearings to determine the extent of racketeer and gangster infil- 
tration into legitimate union and business enterprises. 

At the outset, I cannot too strongly emphasize the importance of 
the work we are undertaking. 

In previous hearings, we have touched on this critical problem. 
Our study into the New York phony local situation revealed an 
alarming picture of the extent to which gangsters led by John Dio- 
guardi and Anthony (Tony Ducks) Corallo infiltrated the labor 
movement in the Nation's largest city, using their union positions 
for purposes of extortion, bribery, and shakedowns. The fact that 
one of the Nation's most powerful labor leaders, James R. Hoffa, 
the international president of the Teamsters, used Dioguardi and 
Corallo in his efforts to capture control of the union in New York 
City only serves to underline the importance of gangster infiltration 
in the labor movement. 

12101 



12192 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Again, in our hearings on the garbage industry in New York, we 
heard testimony on how Vincent J. Squillante, the self-styled godson 
of Albert Anastasia, the late lord high executioner of Murder, Inc., 
seized control of that vital industry and used labor-union connections 
to ship recalcitrant operators into line. 

These hearings were important. Yet, the committee in its first 18 
months of existence, has become convinced that the relationship of 
1 ie national criminal syndicate with legitimate labor and business is 
fur more critical than has heretofore been revealed. 

The ramifications of this problem present the gravest implications 
for the destiny of our national economy. 

These are the ingredients of the problem. 

There exists in America today what appears to be a close-knit, 
clandestine, criminal syndicate. This group has made fortunes in 
the illegal liquor traffic during prohibition, and later in narcotics, 
vice, and gambling. These illicit profits present the syndicate with 
a financial problem, which they solve through investment in legitimate 
business. These legitimate businesses also provide convenient cover 
for their continued illegal activities. 

Dealing with such a group poses the most difficult of investigative 
problems. Even the Special Committee To Investigate Organized 
Crime in Interstate Commerce of the United States, which did such 
momentous work during the period of their hearings in 1950 and 1951, 
found this to be true. 

We propose to probe deep into the ramifications of this problem. 
We feel that the picture will not be complete, however, without fully 
relating this illegal activity of the national crime syndicate and its 
infiltration and influence in labor-management relations. 

We have scheduled for the coming week what amounts to an intro- 
ductory hearing of the problem. Through expert witnesses from 
throughout the country, we expect to lay on the record comprehensive 
background information on the full scope and implications of the 
crime-labor-management situation. 

In these hearings, and the ones to follow, we are going to call in 
some of the leading figures in the national criminal hierarchy. These 
people are all involved in legitimate enterprises, management and 
labor. 

From those on the management side, we will seek to find out why 
f\ey are in particular businesses. We will want to know whether 
I heir employees are organized by unions or not. If they are not, we 
will seek to discover whether pressure has been used to avoid union 
organization. If they are organized we will seek to discover if they 
have entered into collusive agreements with labor unions to the detri- 
ment of their employees. 

We expect that some of the witnesses we will call will cover every 
facet of these problems. For example, one of the leading syndicate 
mobsters has connections with both labor unions and management. 
He has coerced unions into placing his thugs on their payrolls. He 
has grabbed control of construction companies and entered into col- 
lusive agreements with labor unions. It is this type of activity and 
nature of problem that we seek to probe. 

We shall ask these leading hoodlums to turn over to the committee 
the books and records of their so-called legitimate enterprises so that 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12193 

we can make the kind of study that is necessary to develop the fullest 
possible picture. 

It is not sufficient to say that this particular hoodlum is in the 
jukebox business or that particular hoodlum is in the linen or laundry 
business. It is important to develop a pattern of the kind of busi- 
nesses that attract the criminal element, why they choose these par- 
ticular businesses, how they may be used as a front for illegitimate 
activity. 

As a starting point for our hearings, we intend to focus on the 
criminal group which held a meeting at the home of Joseph Mario 
Barbara, Sr., in Apalachin, N. Y., on November 14, 1957. The dis- 
covery of this meeting by the New York State Police had the effect 
of revealing the scope of the interrelationships of some of the leaders 
of the national crime syndicate. We will also begin to delve into the 
infiltration of gangsters and racketeers into the garment industry in 
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. 

It is important to understand from the outset that this criminal 
syndicate operation is not a localized one but national in scope. The 
fact that the gangland meeting took place in Apalachin, N. Y., does 
not in any way make this a localized New York problem. Similar 
gangland meetings, known to authorities, have been held in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, and on the Florida Keys. There is no telling how many 
other meetings, in other parts of the country, have been undetected 
by authorities. 

Throughout this investigation we have had the wholehearted co- 
operation of a number of public officials throughout the country. 
Gov. Averell Harriman of New York has been extremely helpful to 
the committee in its development of information on the Apalachin 
meeting. We have had splendid cooperation from District Attorney 
Frank Hogan of New York, whose office has done much work in trac- 
ing down the criminal activities of the syndicate, and Police Com- 
missioner Stephen Kennedy of New York City has been extremely 
helpful. In Chicago, we have had the excellent cooperation of Mayor 
Richard Daley, the Chicago Police Department, and Virgil Peterson 
of the Chicago Crime Commission. 

This criminal conspiracy has operated for many years in America, 
on rare occasions subjected to the light of publicity but, more often, 
operating at a level beneath the mainstream of American life. Be- 
cause we are dealing with a clandestine group, because they are 
highly organized and disciplined, they present a formidable problem. 
They have achieved a position of eminence throughout the economic, 
social, and political strata of America. The committee is well aware 
of the difficult nature of the problem it is now tackling. We feel and 
hope that a successful investigation by the committee, however, will 
be of immense value to the Congress and the people of the United 
States. 

As previous testimony of the committee has so vividly demon- 
strated, when hoodlums and racketeers get into labor and manage- 
ment they do it for the exploitation of the working people. Their 
participation inevitably leads to the corruption of the legitimate 
purposes of business. It is this exploitation and corruption of people 
and legitimate economic functions that presents such a grievous prob- 
lem. 



12194 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Are there any questions or any comments by other members of the 
committee ? 

Senator Ives. Mr. Chairman, I want to commend the chairman on 
what he has had to say about the situation into which we are about 
to probe. It so happens that Apalachin is only around 50 miles from 
where I live. I have always been curious, ever since the occurence of 
that get-together there, as to the reasons for it and as to the connec- 
tions which the people who were present have in this racketeering 
business. 

I notice with considerable interest the expression of appreciation 
which the chairman has for Governor Harriman, and the assistance 
he has given us. In that connection I would remark that I think the 
State of New York might have done more itself in this connection if 
the Governor had been willing to authorize the attorney general of 
New York, Hon. Louis Lefkowitz, to investigate into this Apalachin 
matter at the time. 

As I understand it, the Governor would not permit Mr. Lefkowitz 
to act. I am very glad, however, that we are going into this matter, 
and I hope that we can develop what we intend to develop — that this 
whole thing is a nationwide undertaking, something concerning every 
person in the United States, something very grave which all of us 
face, and which is particularly important where our children and 
their children are concerned. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Senator. Are there any other mem- 
bers of the committee that have any statements ? 

All right, if there is no one else who wishes to comment, Mr. Ken- 
nedy, call your first witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, as some of the names cause some 
difficulty, we have here a mimeographed memorandum on the individ- 
uals that we will be discussing over the period of the next week or so, 
and with a description of who they are, and where they come from. 
I would like to have permission to place that in the record if we may. 

The Chairman. Was this prepared by the staff ? 

Mr. Kennedy. That is correct. 

The Chairman. It may be placed in the record just for guidance 
and information only, and it will not be accepted as proof. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is fine, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. It is not evidence, and it is simply a memorandum 
prepared by the staff for information of the committee. 

(The list is as follows :) 

Individuals at Apalachin and Names of Some of Their Contacts and 

Associates 



Abate, Atonio (Detroit) : Arrests for larceny, gambling. Associate of Pete 
Licavoli. 

Alaimo, Dominick (Pittston, Pa.) : At Apalachin mooting. Coowner Jane Hogan 
Dress Co., Pittston. Committeeman for Local S00."i, Tinted Mine Workers of 
America. Arrests: Robbery, suspicion, violation internal revenue laws. 

B 

Baldassari, Joe (Scranton, Pa.) : Operates jukeboxes and pinball macbines 
through Baldassari Amusement Co. in Scranton. Arrested for possession of 
unregistered still, prohibition law, transportation, and possession of untaxed 
alcohol. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12195 

Individuals at Apalaohin and Names of Some of Their Contacts ami 
Associates — Continued 

Barbara, Joseph Marin, Sr. (Apalachin, N. Y.) : Host at Apalachin meeting. 
President of Canada Dry Bottling Co. of Endicott, N. Y. Arrests: Suspicion 
of murder (2), revolver, illegal acquisition of sugar. 

Biondo, Joe (New York City) : Close associate of "Lucky" Luciano and Tom 
Luchese. 

Bommarito, Long Joe (Detroit) : Arrests for armed robbery, kidnaping, gam- 
bling, suspicion of murder, prohibition law. 

Bommarito, Scarface Joe (Detroit) : Arrests for carrying concealed weapons, 
suspicion of murder, prohibition law violations, extortion by threat, assault, 
gambling. 

Bonanno, Joseph (Brooklyn) : At Apalachin meeting. Formerly in B. & D. Coat 
Co., manufacturers of women's coats. Arrests : grand larcency, revolver, con- 
spiracy, violation of wage and hour law in 1942. 

Bonanno, Joseph (New York City) : Arrests for grand larceny and transporting 
machineguns to Capone mob in Chicago. Violation of wage and hour law 
in 1942. 

Bouisera, Anthony (New York City) : "The Chief." Associate of Mike Clemente, 
waterfront boss now serving time for extortion ; Joe Magliocco, linen supply 
dealer, friend of Charles Luciano and owner of Sunland Beverage Co. (beer). 
Also arrested with Palmeri, John Oddo, Sam DiCarlo in connection with 
murder of John Bazzano. 

Bonventre, John (Brooklyn): At Apalachin meeting. Reputed occupations: 
Undertaker, cheese and oil business, Pinto Clothing Co., Levine & Bouventre, 
ladies' coat contractors, real estate salesman for Joseph A. Bivana, Brook- 
lyn, uncle of Joseph Bonanno. 

Bonventre, John (Brooklyn) : Coowner Brooklyn funeral parlor and close 
associate of Carmine Galenti and Frank Garafola, both of whom figured 
prominently in the Tresca murder investigation. 

Bufalino, William (Detroit) : Head of Local 985, Teamsters, Detroit, which 
handles jukeboxes. Tried and acquitted in 1953 in jukebox racket. 

Bufalino, Russell J. (Kingston, Pa.) : Owner of Penn Drape & Curtain Co., 
Pittston, Pa. Arrests : Criminally receiving stolen property (2) . 



Cammarata, Frank (Detroit) : Murder suspect, bank robber, deported in 1936, 
reentered United States in 1946. Released from Jackson, Mich., prison in 
May 1958. Last in Warren, Ohio, has evaded committee subpena. 

Cammarata, Vincent (Detroit) : Also known as Vito Camaiato, Vito Cammarata. 
Arrested for carrying concealed weapons, grand larceny, operating still. 

Cannone, Ignatius (Endwell, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Owns Nat's Place, 
Endicott, and Plaza Lounge, Endwell, N. Y. Two arrests for disorderly con- 
duct. One for righting in Endwell, the other for shooting dice in New York 
City. 

Cannone, Ignazio (Endicott, N. Y.) : Owner of two Endicott taverns — minor 
arrest record. 

Carlisi, Roy (Buffalo, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Arrests: Violation Inter- 
nal Revenue Act. Indicted for 15 counts of contempt by Tiogo County grand 
jury February 27, 1958. 

Castellano, Benjamin (New York City) : Associated with Paul Gambino in boot- 
legging. Reportedly active in black marketing and counterfeiting of ration 
stamps during World War II. 

Castellano, Paul (Brooklyn) : At Apalachin. Possession dangerous weapon, 
robbery with violence. Brother-in-law of Carlo Gambino at Apalachin. 

Cateno, Gerardo Vito (South Orange, N. J.) : At Apalachin meeting. Employee 
and stockholder Runyon Vending Sales Co., Newark. Arrests: 3 for gambling; 
robbery, 2 ; grand larceny, truck ; material witness in murder case, loiter- 
ing, bribery of Federal juror. Close associate of Longy Zwillman. 

Chait, Abe (New York City) : Major power in garment industry and associate 
of notorious gangsters. 

Chivi, Charles Salvatore (Palisade, N. J.) : At Apalachin meeting. Officer of 
Automotive Conveying Co., in which Joe Adonis was his partner. No known 
criminal record. 



12196 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Individuals at Apalachin and Names of Some of Theie Contacts and 
Associates — Continued 

Civello, Joseph Francis (Dallas, Tex.) : At Apalachin. Food and liquor im- 
porter. Arrests : murder, violation liquor law. Conspiracy of Harrison Act, 2. 
Associate: John Ormento. 

Colletti, James (Pueblo, Colo.) : At Apalachin. Owns Colorado Cheese Co., 
Pueblo. Arrests : Receiving stolen goods, disorderly person. 

Corrado, Dominick (Detroit) : Nephew of Peter (deceased). Arrests for con- 
spiracy to violate gambling laws, carrying concealed weapons, suspect in 
shooting. 

Corrado, James (Detroit) : Arrests for gambling, suspect in shooting, suspect in 
assault with intent to kill. 

Corrado, Peter (Detroit), deceased: In numbers racket with Pete Licavoli, et al. 
Arrests in Rochester, N. Y., Detroit, and Toledo, principally for gambling. 
Indicted for 1 murder, sought in 2 others. 

Cucchiara, Frank (Watertown, Mass.) : At Apalachin meeting. Treasurer of 
Purity Cheese Co. since 1938, Boston. Arrests : Assault and battery ; posses- 
sion morphine and dynamite; lottery; conspiracy to set up lottery: grand 
larceny ; sale of narcotics ; forgery ; possession of still, 3 ; conspiracy to erect 
still. 

D 

D'Agostino, Dominick (Niagara Falls, N. Y.) : At Apalachin. Arrests: Buffalo, 

Harrison Act. Indicted April 8, 1958, on 7 counts. Criminal contempt by 

Tioga County grand .iury. 
De Cavalconte, Sam (Trenton, N. J.) : Alias "Sam from Trenton." Arrested for 

forgery, loitering, policy. 
DeFeo, Peter (New York City) : Indicted with Vito Genovese, Mike Miranda, 

and others in connection with the murder of Ferdinand Boccia in 1934. 
DeMooco, John Anthony (Shaker Heights, Ohio) : At Apalachin meeting. Ar- 
rests : Robbery, extortion, blackmail, investigation in bombing. Associate of 

John Scolish, also at Apalachin. 
Desimone, Frank (Downey, Calif.) : At Apalachin. Former partner of Jack 

Dragna in Latin Importing Co. 
DiCarlo, Sam (Youngstown, Ohio, Buffalo, Cleveland) : Arrested with Paul 

Palmeri, et al., in murder of John Bazzano, Pittsburgh restaurant owner, ; n 

Brooklyn. 
DiCarlo, Joe (Youngstown, Ohio; Florida) : Alias "The Wolf" and "The Boss." 

He and brother Sam had coin and pinball machine operation in Buffalo, where 

he was labeled "Public Enemy No. 1" by the chief of police. Arrested for 

coercion, operating gambling house in Miami, extortion. 
Dio, Johnny, (New York City) : Notorious New York extortionist. Nephew of 

James Plumeri, with whom he served time for garment industry extortion. 

Presently in jail for extortion. 
Dioguardi, Tom (New York City) : Brother of Johnny Dio. Close associate 

of major New York labor racketeers. 

E 

Evola, Natale Joseph (Brooklyn) : At Apalachin meeting. President-treasurer 
of Belmont Garment Delivery Co., and president of Amity Garment Delivery 
Co. Arrests : dangerous weapon, coercion. Presently under indictment with 
John Ormento and others in Federal narcotic conspiracy. 

F 

Falcone, Joseph (Utica) : At Apalachin meeting. Manager of Utica Retail 
Liquor Co. Brother, Salvatore, also at Apalachin. Arrest: Violation, in- 
ternal revenue liquor tax. 

Falcone, Salvatore (Utica and Miami) : At Apalachin meeting. Operates groc- 
ery store in Miami. Arrests: Violation, internal revenue liquor tax. 

Frasca, Gus (New York City) : Indicted in connection with murder of Ferdinand 
Boccia in 1934. 

G 

Gainbino, Carlo (Brooklyn) : At Apalachin meeting: associated with S. G. S. 
Associates, labor consultants. Arrests: Grand larceny, violations Internal 
Revenue Act (still) ; several Federal alcohol tax arrests. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12197 

Individuals at Apalaohin and Names of Some of Their Contacts and 
Associates — Continued 

Gambino, Paul (New York) : Fled to Italy to avoid prosecution in a Federal 
alcohol tax case. While there held meetings with "Lucky" Luciano. 

Genovese, Michael James (Gibsonia, Pa.) : At Apalachin meeting. Owner of 
Archie's Car Wash. Partner in L & G Amusement Co., Pennsylvania, coin 
machines, with John LaRocca in 1956. Arrests : Robbery, concealed weapon. 

Genovese, Vito (Atlantic Highlands, N. J.) : At Apalachin meeting. Ranked 
among top gangsters in the country. 

Giglio, William J. (New York City) : Convicted with Frank Livorsi in black- 
market sugar operation. 

Guarnieri, Anthony Frank (Johnson City, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Vice 
president of Tri-Cities Dress Co., Inc., Binghampton, and president-treasurer of 
Owego Textile Co., Owego. Arrests : Possession firearms, lottery, felonious 
assault. 

Gussia, Bartolo (Endicott, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Fish peddler. Bar- 
bara is godfather to his children. Arrests: Possession weapon (2), bank 
robbery, breaking and entering, bootlegging, murder (first degree). 



Ida, Joseph (Highland Park, N. J.) : At Apalachin meeting. Automobile sales- 
man. Associate of Mike Clemente and Rocco Pellegrino. 

Impastato, Nicolo (Kansas City, Mo.) : Federal Bureau of Narcotics national 
list. 

L 

La Duca, James Vincent (Lewiston, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Was 
secretary-treasurer of Local 66, Hotel, Restaurant Employees, Buffalo. As- 
sociate of Steve and Anthony Maggadino, Roy Carlisi, and John Montana. 

Lagattuta, Samuel (Buffalo) : At Apalachin meeting. Arrests: Arson, murder 
investigation, dangerous weapon. 

LaPadura, Joseph (New York City) : Associate of Russell Bufalino in floating 
crap games. 

Larasso, Louis Anthony (Linden, N. J.) : At Apalachin meeting. Was trustee of 
Local 394, Common Laborers and Hod Carriers. 

Licavoli, Dominick (Detroit and St. Louis) : Uncle of Pete Licavoli, Detroit and 
Cleveland. Arrests : Holding girls for purposes of prostitution, breaking and 
entering. 

Licavoli, Jack (Youngstown and Trumbull County, Ohio; also Detroit) (alias 
Jack White) : Arrests : Gambling. 

Licavoli, James (Detroit and Lake County, Ohio): Arrests: Murder, armed 
robbery, carrying concealed weapons, customs law and narcotics violations, 
kidnaping, blackmail. 

Licavoli, Pete (Detroit and Cleveland) : In Cleveland and Detroit gambling syn- 
dicates, also Canadian gambling. Has ranch in Tucson, Ariz. Arrests : Rob- 
bery, rum-running, kidnaping, carrying concealed weapon, murder, extortion, 
gambling, assault. 

Licavoli, Thomas (Detroit, Toledo) : Now serving life sentence in Ohio State 
Penitentiary for murder plot. Also hijacker, rum-runner, guntoter. 

Livorsi, Frank "Cheech" (New York) : Served time for narcotics violation; later 
employed "Big John" Ormento when he was released from prison on similar 
charge. Arrests run from homicide to income tax violation. Associated with 
William Giglio in operation of Eatsum Food Products Co., and Tavern Fruit 
Juice Co. Convicted of black market sugar operation. 

Lombardozzi, Carmine (Brooklyn) : At Apalachin meeting. Arrests: Homicide, 
burglary, unlawful entry, disorderly conduct, abduction-rape, weapon, policy 
(3), common gambler. 

LoPronto, Sal va tore (New York City) : Close associate of John Ormento, major 
narcotics violator. Convicted of illegal possession of firearms. 

Lucchese, Thomas (New York City) : Twice arrested for homicide. Sentenced 
3 years, 8 months to 10 years for grand larceny. Influential underworld fig- 
ure with interests in construction and garment industries. ("3-Finger 
Brown".) 



12198 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Individuals at Apalachin and Names of Some of Their Contacts and 
Associates — Continued 

M 

Maggadino, Antonio (Niagara Falls) : At Apalachin meeting. Vice president 
of Maggadino Funeral Home. (Record (all in Italy) : falsifying name on 
passport, clandestine activities, homicide, denounced for robbery, rape, and 
extortion. 

Maggadino, Peter (Buffalo) : President, Maggadino Memorial Chapel, Inc. Re- 
cently had difficulty with Federal grand jury when he failed to produce records 
of business which he claimed were in possession of Vincent Sero, an account- 
ant who is missing. 

Maggadino, Steve (Lewiston, N. Y.) : His son, Peter, married to niece of John 
Montana. His daughter is married to Charles Montana, nephew of John. 
Another daughter married to LaDuca. A principal in Power City Distributing 
Co. Brother of Anthony, who attended Apalachin meeting. 

Magliocco, Joseph (East Islip, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Arrests: Trans- 
porting wine, possession of gun and alcohol. Sole stockholder of Sunland Bev- 
erage Co., wholesale beer distributor. 

Majuri, Frank Thomas (Elizabeth, N. J.) : At Apalachin meeting. Was vice 
president of Local 364, Hod Carriers and Common Laborers Union. Arrests : 
Conspiracy to commit robbery, possession of liquor, violation ABC Act and 
contempt, illicit manufacture of alcohol with intent to sell, disorderly conduct, 
bookmaking. 

Mancuso, Rosario (Utica, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. November 1053 elected 
prescident of Local 186, Hod Carriers and Common Laborers Union. Arrested 
March 25, 1951, for assault with intent to commit murder. 

Mangano, Philip (Brooklyn) : Found shot to death in Bergen Beach marsh, 
Brooklyn. He was treasurer of Modern Ship Painting & Scaling Corp., 
Brooklyn. 

Mangano, Vincent (Brooklyn) : Has been missing since shortly after brother 
Philip was found murdered in Bergen Beach marsh, Brooklyn, in early 1950's. 

Mannarino, Gabriel (New Kensington, Pa.) : At Apalachin meeting. Former 
owner, with brothers, of Sans Soucie, Habana, now owned by Louis Santos, 
also at Apalachin. Arrests : gambling, violation of liquor laws, robbery, fire- 
arms act, lottery, obstructing justice. Owner of Nu-Ken Novelty Co (slot 
and cigarette machines, jukeboxes). 

Matranga, Frank (San Diego, Calif.) : Son-in-law of John Priziola of Detroit. 
Arrested for being tipoff man for a gambling joint. 

Meli, Angelo (Detroit, Mich.) : Detroit prohibition hoodlum who has branched 
out in auto parts sales, jukeboxes, and real estate. 

Meli, Vincent A. (Detroit, Mich.) : Has no record. Partner with brother-in-law, 
William Bufalino, in Melody Enterprise Co., and owner of record of Mel-Tone 
Juke Box Co., and G. & M. Music Co., Detroit. 

Miranda, Michele A. (Forest Hills, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Close as- 
sociate of Vito Genovese. Arrests : Disorderly conduct, suspicious person 
(2), vagrancy (2), homicide (2). On Federal Bureau of Narcotics Inter- 
national List 229. 

Monacnino, Patsy (Auburn, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Partner with 
brother Sam in Super Beverage Co. 

Monachino, Sam (Auburn, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Partner with brother 
Patsy, in Super Beverage Co., beer wholesalers and distributors. Visited 
Joe "Socks" Lanza at Auburn Prison. 

Montana, John Charles (Buffalo) : At Apalachin meeting. President of several 
companies and director, chairman, etc., of various civic associations. Associate 
of Mangadinos, LaDuca. 

N 

Nani, Sebastian (California): Federal Bureau of Narcotics International List 
No. 241. 

O 

Oddo, John (Brooklyn. N. Y.) : Alias "Johnny Bathheach" and "Crazy John." 
Associate of Angelo Polizzi of Detroit. He was 1 of 14 arrested for murder 
of John Bazzano in Brooklyn. He was 1 of 9 rearrested for consorting with 
criminals. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12199 

Indiviihai.s at Apalachin and Names of Some of Their Contacts and 
Associates — Continued 

Olivetto, Dominick (Camden, N. J.) : At Apalachin meeting. Arrests: Criminal 
registration (2), illicit alcohol. Associated with Forest Products, Almonessen, 
N.J. 

Orlando, AugUStino W. (Detroit) : Arrests: Conspiracy to violate the State la- 
bor laws; in L952 for carrying gun and conspiracy following a pay-off to UAW 
Committeeman William l'oindexter. 

Ormetto. John, "Big John" (New York) : At Apalachin meeting. A prominent 
figure in 107th Street (New York City) narcotics circles. He was arrested to- 
gether with Salvatore La Proto for the possession of 2 guns, 1 with silencer, 
concealed in a trap in an automobile. Has three narcotics convictions and 
is currently subject of nationwide manhunt in connection with a large nar- 
cotics conspiracy. < Operates Long Island Trucking Co. 

Osticco, James Anthony (Pittston, Pa.) : At Apalachin meeting. Arrests: liquor 
law and conspiracy. Official of Medico Industries, Inc. 



Pahneri, Paul (deceased) (New Jersey) : Was questioned in Moretti murder. 
Once partner in Maggadino Funeral Home in Buffalo. Had been arrested with 
Bonisera, Sam D. Carlo, John Oddo, and others in connection with murder of 
John Bazzare. 

Papadio, Andino (New York) : Recently arrested as part of the narcotics con- 
spiracy in New Y 7 ork for which Big John Ormento is a fugitive. In garment 
industry with Farrell Modes, dresses. 

Pellegrino, Rocco (White Plains, N. Y. ) : Has narcotic record. Close associate 
of John Ormento, Saro Mogavara, Socks Lanza, Mike Clemente. 

Perrone. Anto Sam (Detroit) : Arrested on several occasions for carrying con- 
cealed weapons. In 1951 he was arrested for conspiracy to interfere with 
formation of a labor organization. 

Pieri, Sam (Buffalo) : Together with Sal Rizzo exercises some influence through 
IBEW in obtaining entertainment in the Buffalo area. 

Polizzi, Alfred (Coral Gables, Fla.) : A former leader of the notorious Mayfield 
Road gang (Cleveland) with long police record. Was partner in Buckeye 
Catering. Presently in construction firm in Coral Gables, Fla. 

Polizzi, Angelo (Detroit) (deceased) : Associated with Valley Platers, Inc. 
Arrests : Murder, suspicion of murder, carrying concealed weapons, counter- 
feiting. He was an associate of Johnny Dio and John Ormento of New T York. 

Polizzi, Charles "Chuck" : Operator of gambling casinos in northern Kentucky. 
He was a partner in Buckeye Catering. 

Polizzi, Mike (Detroit) : Son of Angelo Polizzi. Former jukebox operator with 
Pete Tocco and "Papa John" Priziola. Currently an investor in Torosian Oil 
Co., and president of Valley Platers, Inc. 

Plumeri, James (New York City), alias "Jimmy Doyle": Uncle of Johnny Dio, 
with whom he was convicted for garment industry extortion. Now connected 
with El Gee Carriers, garment trucking and garment firms. 

Priziola, "Papa John" (Detroit, Mich.) : Detroit Police Department No. 10171. 
Several aliases. His name was found in records seized from Jack Dragna, 
west coast mobster. Criminal record includes arrests for carrying concealed 
weapons, armed robbery, gambling, suspicion of murder, grand larceny. 
Closely associated with the Licavolis, Zerillis, and Toccos. 

Profaci, Joseph (Brooklyn) : At Apalachin meeting. Owner of Carmela Mia 
Packing Co. Number of arrests in Italy and United States. An oldtime, well 
established gangster. 

Q 

Quaserino, Rafael (Detroit, Mich.) : Closely associated with John Ormento in 
narcotic traffic. 

R 

Rao, Chas. (New York City): A partner in a metal lathing business, his 
name was found in address books of Jack Dragna and Nomo A. Sano of the 
west coast. Was an associate in the thirties of plasterers union delegates 
who went to Sing Sing for extortion. Brother. Vincent Rao. 

Rao. .Toe (New York): Held with Trigger Mike Coppola in connection with 
Scottoriggio murder; while serving prison term 1936 for assault on Black- 



12200 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Individuals at Apalachin and Names of Some of Their Contacts and 
Associates — Continued 

well's Island, created a sensation in the way he was able to maintain control 
while in prison. 

Rao, Vincent (Yonkers, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Real -estate operator 
and owner. Arrests: Grand larceny, possession of gun (2), violation Work- 
men's Compensation Act. 

Rava, Alfred (Brooklyn) : At Apalachin meeting. Manager of New Comers 
Restaurant, Brooklyn. Arrests : Extortion, policy, internal-revenue law, va- 
grancy. Close contact with Albert Anastasia. 

Renda, James (Detroit) : Canadian gambling-house operator, was 2 times tried 
for murder, 1 victim being a police sergeant. 

Renda, William (Detroit) : Killed in Detroit prison while attempting to free a 
prisoner. Father of Carl Renda. 

Riccobono, Joseph (Staten Island, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Owns Chris- 
tine Dresses and Toni Belle Dresses, Brooklyn. Arrests : Weapon, extortion, 
and conspiracy. 

Riala, Anthony (West Orange, N. J.) : At Apalachin meeting. Owns Airport 
Hotel, Newark. Arrests ; Maintaining a nuisance and permitting prostitution 
on premises. 

Rosa to, Joseph (New York) : At Apalachin meeting. Alias "Joe Palisades." 
Owner of two trucking companies in the garment industry. Arrested for 
homicide ; gun. 

Rubino, Mike (Detroit) : Associated with Angelo Neli, Scarface Joe Dommarito, 
Pete Licavola, in jukebox operation. Associate of Joe Di Carlo. 

S 

Santos, Louis (Habana, Cuba) : At Apalachin meeting. Real name Louis Traf- 
ficante, Jr., who now operates San Souci gambling casino in Habana. His 
father has been boss of Tampa rackets for years. 

Santora, Salvatore (Leonia, N. J.; New York City) : Past and present narcotic 
partner and fugitive with John Ormento in narcotic conspiracy. 

Scalise, Frank (City Island, N. Y.) : Murdered 1957, in Bronx. Associate of 
Rocco Pellegrino. 

Scalish, John (Cleveland, Ohio) : At Apalachin meeting. Operates Buckeye 
Cigarette Co., vending machines. Arrests: Burglary, robbery (2). 

Seiandra, Angelo Joseph (Pittston, Pa.) : At Apalachin meeting. Associated 
with Dixie Frocks Co., Wyoming, Pa., and Claudia Frocks, New York City. 
Arrests : Assault. 

Sciortino, Patsy (Auburn, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Associated with Diana 
Bleach Co., Auburn, N. Y. Arrest : Violation of Immigration Act. 

Scozzari Simone (San Gabriel, Calif.): At Apalachin meeting. Arrests: Sus- 
picion bookmaking (2). Had $10,000 in cash and checks when picked up. 
He operates cigar stand at Venetian Athletic Club, Los Angeles. 

Scro, Sam (Syracuse) : President Darling Ice Cream Co., Syracuse, N. Y. Has 
contact with Barbara, Rosario Mancuso, Sam Monachino, and Salvatore 
Falcone. 

Scro, Vincent (Buffalo) : Accountant for Buffalo activities who is missing since 
Federal grand jury has demanded records of Maggadino Memorial Chapel, Inc., 
which were in his possession. 

Smurra, George (New York City) : Indicted in connection with the murder of 
Ferdinand Boccia in 1934, as were Vito Genovese and Mike Miranda. 

Stracci, Joseph (New York) : Arrests run through murder, rape, burglary, as- 
sault, robbery, grand larcency, drugs. Served one term Sing Sing. Reported 
power behind Jewelry Workers Union Local 222, and associate of Raymond 
Patriarca, a Rhode Island figure. 

T 

Tocco, Anthony J. (Detroit) : Has record of arrests in Detroit. 

Tor-co, Pete (Detroit) : Arrested for bootlegging during prohibition. 

Tocco, Sam (Detroit) : Arrests for robbery, larceny, carrying concealed weapons, 

suspicion of murder. 
Tocco, William "Black Bill" (Detroit) : Detroit Police Department No. 13817. 

He has record of arrests since 1920, for armed robbery, suspicion of murder, 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES UST THE LABOR FIELD 12201 

Individuals at Apalachin and Names of Some of Their Contacts and 
Associates — Contiuued 

violation of the prohibition law, gambling. In Detroit, gambling activity 
with Pete Licavoli and Joe Zarilli. 

Tornabe, Salvator (New York City) (deceased, December 30, 1957) : At Apa- 
lachin meeting. Beer salesman for Sunland Beverage Corp., owned by Joe 
Magliocco. Admitted sale of whisky to Federal agent in 1921. 

Tortorki, Frank (New York City): Officer of Locals 222 and 422, Jewelry 
Workers, and welfare funds of same. 

Tortorici, Joe "Joe Stutz" (New York City) : Nine arrests, no convictions, for 
crimes ranging from homicide, felonious assault, and robbery to vagrancy 
and liquor-law violations. Associate of prominent New York City labor rack- 
eteers such as Tony Ducks Corallo and Joe Stracci "Joe Stretch"; also, asso- 
ciate of Lorenzo Brescia and Pete DeFeo. 

Tramunti, Carmine (New York City) : Associated in labor racketeering with 
Anthony Corallo alias "Tony Ducks," Mack Macaluso, Dick Kamanitzky. 

Turrigiano, Patsy (Endicott, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Arrests: Operating 
still. Associated with grocery store. 



Valente, Costenze Peter (Rochester) : At Apalachin meeting with brother 
Frank. They operate Valente Bros, produce business in Rochester. Has op- 
erated restaurants in Pittsburgh. 

Valente, Frank Joseph (Rochester) : At Apalachin meeting with brother Co- 
stenze Peter Valente, and with whom he operates produce business in Roches- 
ter. Arrests : Counterfeit money, forgery, blackmail, larceny, internal- 
revenue laws, assault and battery to commit rape, robbery, murder (2), con- 
spiracy to violate Selective Service Act. 

Volpe, Santo (Pittston, Pa.) : Arrested in 1932 with Albert Anastasia, Paul 
Palmeri, Anthony Bonisera, and others for murder of John Bazzano in Brook- 
lyn, where Bazzano had been lured after the murders of three Volpe brothers 
in Pittsburgh. 

Z 

Zerilli, Sam (Detroit) : Arrests for prohibition-law violations, conspiracy to 
violate State gambling laws. 

Zerilli, Joseph (Detroit) : Associate in various rackets of Pete Licavoli et al. 

Zicari, Emanuel (Endicott, N. Y.) : At Apalachin meeting. Arrests: Counter- 
feiting. Occupation : Shoe worker. 

Zito, Frank (Springfield, 111.) : At Apalachin meeting. Owner and operator of 
Modern Distributing Co., jukeboxes. Claims to be retired. Arrests : Con- 
spiracy to violate prohibition laws. 

Mr. Kennedy. As we are going into this meeting in Apalachin, 
Mr. Chairman, the first witness willl be Sgt. Edgar Crosswell. 

The Chairman. You do solemnly swear that the evidence given be- 
fore this Senate select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God \ 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF SGT. EDGAR D. CROSSWELL 

The Chairman. State your name, and your place of residence, and 
your business or occupation. 

Mr. Crosswell. My name is Edgar D. Crosswell, and I am a ser- 
geant at the Bureau of Criminal Investigation of the New York State 
Police. 

I reside and work from the Vestal substation in Vestal, X. Y. 

The Chairman. How long have you been in this work, Sergeant? 

Mr. Crosswell. Seventeen years. With this department. 

The Chairman. Of course, you waive counsel ? 



12202 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Cross well. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right, Mr. Kennedy, proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Sergeant, in what areas of New York have you 
been working? 

Mr. Crosswell. I have worked throughout the State, but the great- 
er part of my time has been spent in and about Broome and Tioga 
Counties. 

Mr. Kennedy. Does Mr. Joseph Barbara have a residence there? 

Mr. Crosswell. In Tioga County ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. When did you first become interested in Mr. Joseph 
Barbara? 

Mr. Crosswell. In 1944. 

Mr. Kennedy. Will you tell us the circumstances surrounding 
that? 

Mr. Crosswell. At that time, I picked up a man who had been 
stealing gasoline from one of Barbara's plants. 

Mr. Kennedy. This was during the war? 

Mr. Crosswell. During the gasoline shortage, during the war. I 
called Mr. Barbara to come down to the station and he seemed very 
reluctant to prosecute the man for stealing gas, which at that time 
was hard to get, and it sort of seemed funny that he didn't want to do 
anything about it. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was there anything suspicious about the man at the 
time that you picked him up? Did he have any firearms on him? 

Mr. Crosswell. Mr. Barbara had a revolver on him when he came 
in. 

Mr. Kennedy. He came down to the police department? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. He had a revolver on him ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. He did not want to prosecute this individual ; is that 
right? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is correct. 

(At this point, the following members were present: Senators Mc- 
Clellan, Ives, Ervin, Mundt, and Gold water.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Had you known anything about Mr. Barbara prior 
to that time ? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, not prior to that. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you become interested in him then? 

Mr. Crosswell. From that time on ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you find out anything about his background ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes. That came some time later. Every investi- 
gation of any importance that we conducted in that urea concerning 
vice or gambling seemed to center around Joseph Barbara and the 
people who associated with him. In 1948 I went down to Wyoming, 
Pa., trying to get some information on his background. 

Mr. Kennedy. Why did you go down there? What had you known 
about his contacts with Pennsylvania '. 

Mr. Crosswell. Well, he originally came to the Endicott, N. Y., 
area, from the Pittston, Pa., area. 

Mr. Kennedy. Had you known anything about the activities of any 
of these gangsters or hoodlums in the Pittston area \ 

Mr. Crosswell. 1 fp until that time ; no, sir. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12203 

Mr. Kennedy. But you knew thai he came out of thai area? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you make inquiry at a later time on his back- 
ground '. 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you relate what you found out '. 

M r. ( IrosSWELL. Do you want about his criminal record ( 

Mr. Kennedy. The information that you learned at that time. 

Mr. Crosswell. We found that in January of Y.^W he was arrested 
as a suspect in a murder charge, and later discharged. In connection 
with that arrest, the Pennsylvania State Police records disclose that 
Calomero Calogare arrived in Pittston, Pa., on December 31, 1930. 
On January 4, about 8 p. m., this man was walking along Railroad 
Street in Pittston, Pa. Two men were following him and when they 
overtook him, 1 of the men tired 5 or 6 shots. The victim made a 
deathbed statement and accused Tony Merreale of shooting him, over 
ill feeling between the victim and Santo Volpe, Sam Yolpe, and 
Charles Bufalino. 

Mr. Kexxedy. Santo Volpe and Sam Volpe; they are from Pitts- 
ton also ? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is right. And Charles Bufalino is from 
Pittston. Tony Merreale with brothers Carmel and Joseph, also 
known as Colorado Joe, were boarding at the same home. There it 
was established that subject was a frequent visitor at this home, sub- 
ject being Barbara, and a close friend of Carmel Merreale. Tony 
Merreale on apprehension claimed at the time of murder he was work- 
ing at Old Forge at a still for Barbara. Barbara was arrested on 
suspicion of being a second man. However, witnesses failing to iden- 
tify him, he was discharged. 

Senator Mtjndt. What was Barbara's obvious means of livelihood 
at that time ? 

Mr. Crosswell. In 1948 ? 

Senator Mundt. At the time you are talking about. 

Mr. Crosswell. At that time, in 1931, he was just a hoodlum down 
around Pennsylvania, in the coalfields. 

Senator Mundt. He didn't have any legitimate means of income, do 
you mean ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Not that I know of, sir. 

Senator Mundt. Before you go on, I would like to ask one question. 
You said when Barbara came to the police station he refused to testify 
against the man that stole the gasoline, and you found a revolver on 
him? 

Mr. ( /R( isswell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Mundt. Is that against the law to carry a revolver without 
a permit ? 

Mr. Crosswki.l. Not with a permit, and he had a permit. 

Senator Mundt. He had a permit ? 

Mr. ( '];< isswell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Mundt. Is that a State permit, a local permit or a permit 
from the FBI ? 

Mr. Crosswell. New York State. 

Senator Mundt. And he had one ? 

21 2 IS— 5S — pt. 32 2 



12204 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 
Senator Mundt. Thank you. 
The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Crosswell. On February 21, 1933, Barbara was arrested by 
the Police Department of Scranton, Pa., for suspicion and investiga- 
tion, and was discharged the next day in police court. 

In connection with that, Pennsylvania State Police records show 
that a Samuel Wichner, a Jewish-American racketeeer involved in 
bootlegging, hijacking, and blackmailing was murdered between the 
hours of 10 and 12 p. m. The crime was discovered at 7 p. m., 
February 16, 1933, when a Ford coupe belonging to the victim was 
found in the 400 block of Meriden Avenue, in Scranton, Pa. 

The body was in the rear compartment. Death was caused by 
strangulation. The crime took place indoors, after struggle with his 
murderers; victim was rendered at least partially unconscious when 
they applied a slip noose about his neck and drew it tight until he 
died. Two pieces of No. 9 sashcord, each 12 feet in length, one with 
noose about neck, and then a half hitch about arms, then taking it 
under the knees, knotted and brought down about the ankles, which 
W if S bro "S ht ll P- The second cord started about the feet and wrapped 
about the body. The victim, minus hat and coat, was then placed 
m the rear compartment of his own car, the same driven to Scranton 
and abandoned. Two men left the car and entered a black Ruick 
sedan occupied by two other men which had followed them to the spot 

Victim, minus his hat and coat, was badly beaten about the face 
possibly with knuckles. The victim was allegedly lured to the home 
of Barbara on the belief that he would have a conference with 
Barbara, Santo Volpe, and Angelo Valente, who were to be his silent 
partners m a new bootlegging venture. 

He had informed his wife he had been to Barbara's home the pre- 
vious night and was instructed by Barbara to return at 9:30 p. m. 
the following night and not let anyone know where he was o- ino-, 
not even his wife. to to 

His criminal record also shows that on August 1, 1931, he was 
arrested for violation of 1897 of the penal law of the State of New 
York, that arrest was made by New York City Police Department 
and he was discharged on August 7, 1931; 1897 of the penal law is 
unlawful possession of a firearm. 

His criminal record also shows that on June 13, 1940, in United 
States court at Utica, N. Y., Barbara was convicted of illegal acquisi- 
tion of sugar, which involved an illegal possession of some 300,000 
pounds of illegal sugar. 

The Chairman. How many pounds? 

Mr. Crosswell. 300,000. 

The Chairman. What was the date of thai ? 

Mr. Crosswell. In 194G. 

The Chairman. During the war? 

Mr Crosswell. Yes, sir. Right after the war. But the actual 
arrest, the conviction was after (he war, but the actual arrest was 
during the war. 

The Chairman. The offense was committed under (he war restric- 
tions? 
Mr. ( Jrosswell. Yes, sir. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12205 

Senator Mundt. Sergeant, I notice on the dope sheet that we have 
on this man, that he is president of the Canada Dry Mottling Co. Is 
that the whole parent organization that a character like this is 
president of ? 

Mr. Crosswell. No. They have franchisee! dealers, and he was a 
f ranchised dealer. The correct title of his business was "Canada Dry 
Company of Endicott, Inc." 

Senator Mundt. lie was president of the Endicott distributing 
agency as it were ? 

Mr. Crosswell. He was a f ranchised dealer of the parent company, 
but he has now disposed of that business. 

Senator Mundt. He disposed of that ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. In checking Barbara's criminal record, 
the Pennsylvania State Police files also reflect that he was arrested 
in Scranton, Pa., on February 10, 1932, on a charge of suspicion of 
murder. This does not appear on his regular sheet from the Depart- 
ment of Correction, and I don't know why. However, he was not 
booked, which would be the answer to it. And the arrest does not 
show in his criminal record. Harry Steinberg, alias Jack Lewis, a 
New York City parolee, in company with Edward Weiss, of Scranton, 
were walking down Muncy Avenue in Scranton, Pa., when a car 
going in the same direction overtook them. The car's occupants 
started shooting. Steinberg was killed, Weiss wounded and recov- 
ered. When taken to the hospital, Weiss identified Barbara and Nick 
Ross as the killers. 

When they were arrested and taken to the hospital, Weiss declared 
that they were not the men, and they were released. The story be- 
hind this murder is that subject and others, subject again being Bar- 
bara; the story behind this murder is that Barbara and others were 
operating a big still near Cresco, Monroe County, Pa. Weiss learned 
its location and tried to blackmail Barbara for $2,500, with a threat 
to tip Federal agents. Mendell Katz, acting as their spokesman, 
made the proposition to Barbara in a hotel in Stroudsburg. 

Subject stalled, asking for a couple of days to see his partner, and 
raise the money. In the meanwhile, he moved the still to another 
location, at an alleged cost of $1,500. 

It is noted that Joe Merreale, alias Colorado Joe, whose riddled 
body was found on the outskirts of Endicott about the latter part 
of 1933, left Scranton the day he was killed, with the announced 
intention of going to Endicott to obtain money, intending to return 
to Scranton the same day. 

When the subject left he was the one this victim would go to when 
he needed money or a can of alcohol. Again, when I spoke of sub- 
ject, I meant Barbara. 

Mr. Kennedy. So he came out of this area around Scranton, Pa., 
where there had been a number of gangland murders and a great 
deal of violence, is that right ? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. And he went to settle in upstate New York? 

Mr. Crosswell. Endicott, N. Y. 

Mr. Kennedy. And took on this business. 

You, yourself, became interested in him in 1915, and you checked 
on his criminal record and background, and his associates. Did 



12206 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

you find from your further investigation and watching him after 
that, that he was in contact with a lot of these underworld figures? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes. In watching his place and his residence we 
would see these hoodlums from Pennsylvania and from our local 
area appear at Joseph Barbara's home at various times, at frequent 
intervals. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were you ever able to determine what any of those 
meetings were about ? 

Mr. Crosswell. No ; we were not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was there a meeting in 1956 ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you relate that to the committee ? 

Senator Goldwater. Mr. Counsel, before you complete that period, 
I have a question. 

Was tliis man ever convicted of any of these crimes ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Only the Federal violation of the illegal acquisi- 
tion of sugar. 

Senator Goldwater. How much time did he serve on that ? 

Mr. Crosswell. He got a $5,000 fine ; no jail time. 

Senator Goldwater. But in all of the arrests in Pennsylvania he 
was never convicted ? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, sir. 

Senator Goldwater. Was the evidence in those cases strong ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Apparently not strong enough for a conviction. 

Senator Goldwater. Has he ever been convicted in New York State ? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, sir ; he was not. 

Senator Goldwater. Has the evidence in those cases been strong ? 

Mr. Crosswell. He has never been arrested in New York State. 

Senator Goldwater. He has never been arrested ? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, sir. 

We have never had sufficient evidence to arrest him. 

Senator Goldwater. Thank you. 

Senator Mundt. In that same vein, when all this background of 
criminal allegation was established against Mr. Barbara, was his 
revolver permit revoked by the State of New York? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, sir ; it was not revoked until after the Apalachin 
meeting. 

Senator Mundt. That was the one in 1957 ? 

Mr. Crosswell. 1957. 

Senator Mundt. Under what conditions can hoodlums get revolver 
permits ? 

I would think they would take them away from them after they 
found out they had given them to a fellow with a felonious record. 

Mr. Crosswell. T would think so, too, Senator. 

Senator Mundt. But it was not done \ 

Mr. Crosswell. It was not done. 

Senator Mindt. Thank you. 

Senator Eves. How did he acquire this permit, do you know? 
Whal process did he go through ? Where did he get it? 

Mi-. Crosswell. 1 le got it from the Broome County judge. 

Senator Eves. Broome County judge? 

.Mi'. ( Jrosswell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Eves. Is Apalachin in Broome County? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12207 

Mr. Crosswell. No, sir. It is not. But at that time he lived in 
Endicott, X. Y. 

Senator Ives. It is alleged that he has some kind of a heart con- 
dition. Do you know anything about that? 

Mr. Crosswell. He has a very severe heart condition, yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. When did he acquire that? 

Mr. Crosswell. In July of 1956. 

Senator Ives. That is when it first showed up '. 

Mr. ( Jrosswell. That is the first I knew about it. 

Senator Ives. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Kennedy. He has been subpenaed before the committee and 
has furnished a medical report as to the reasons that he cannot come, 
which includes the fact that he has a heart condition. 

Senator Ives. May I follow that up with a question to the sergeant ? 

Are you satisfied that he has a heart condition ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir, I am personally. 

Senator Ives. You are personally, yourself? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. Agencies that I have worked with have 
sent doctors in and examined him. He does have a serious heart con- 
dition. He spent over 6 months in the hospital when he had his initial 
attack, and he has been back subsequent to that. 

Senator Ives. That was before this meeting at his house in 
Apalachin? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

Senator Muxdt. How old is he now, Sergeant ? 

Mr. Crosswell. He is about 54, 53 or 54. 

Senator Goldwater. What do you have to do to get a revolver per- 
mit in New York State ? 

Mr. Crosswell. You have to apply for it to a court of record, a 
county judge, and your application has to have 4 or 5 character wit- 
nesses, you have to submit a set of fingerprints. You are supposed 
to be investigated, usually by a sheriff's department. Then the coun- 
ty judge either grants the permit or turns down the request. 

Senator Goldwater. Are they usually pretty thorough on that in- 
vestigation ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Usually ; yes. They are usually very much guided 
by the people who are listed as references. If they call them and the 
people say they are reliable people, they usually take their word for it. 

Senator Goldwater. Did you ever see his application? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir ; I have. 

Senator Goldwater. What kind of character witnesses did he 
give? 

Mr. Crosswell. He had the very best. 

Senator Goldwater. In New York State? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Goldwater. How long after he moved to New York State 
from Pennsylvania did he apply for his revolver permit? 

Mr. Crosswell. I would have to trust my memory on that now. 
I think it was about 1940 that he got his permit. lie had moved there 
in about 1931 or 1932. 

Senator Goldwater. In this case, are you satisfied that they checked 
his fingerprints? 



12208 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Crosswell. No, sir. If they checked his fingerprints, they cer- 
tainly would have found this, his criminal record. 

Senator Goldwater. How do the county judges in New York get 
their jobs ? Are they elected or appointed ? 

Mr. Crosswell. They are elected, sir. 

Senator Goldwater. How long are their terms ? 

Mr. Crosswell. I believe it is 6 years. 

Senator Ives. Six years is right. 

May I ask a question? For how long is a pistol permit good at 
the present time ? 

Mr. Crosswell. At the present time it is good until revoked. 

Senator Ives. Until revoked ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. When did that go into effect ? 

Mr. Crosswell. About 5 years ago, I believe. 

Senator Ives. And prior to that time how long had they been 
good? 

Mr. Crosswell. I am not sure whether it was every year or every 
3 years that they had to be renewed. 

Senator Ives. There was a time when I had one myself, but 1 let 
mine lapse after I gave my pistols away. There was a time when it 
was good indefinitely, and then they had one where every year you 
had to renew it. That was too much of a thing, so I let my weapons 
go. 

Mr. Crosswell. Now, they are good again until revoked. 

Senator Ives. I guess I will get some more weapons, then. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Kennedy. As far as his convictions are concerned, at least one 
instance it was the witness against him in the murder down in Penn- 
sylvania who refused to identify him after he had identified him 
originally; is that correct? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is right. It is my understanding that he 
identified him when he thought he was going to die, and by the time 
they brought Barbara in, he found out he was not going to die, and 
then he refused him. Then he didn't want to die. 

Mr. Kennedy. On the situation in New York, as I understood your 
recitation of the record, he had been arrested for carrying a gun with- 
out a license, had he not ? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. So he had been arrested ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Arrested, but not convicted. 

Mr. Kennedy. When was that ? 

Mr. Crosswell. That was on August 1, 1931. 

Mr. Kennedy. Had he been involved or closely associated with any 
other violence cases, other than the ones vou have recited, specificallv 
in 1952? 

Mr. Crosswell. These are the only ones that I know of that are a 
matter of record. Among police authorities in the Pennsylvania, 
Pittston, area where he lived for many years, he was known to be 
connected with a lot of things that could never be proven. 

But they have at least some proof of the things I have related here. 

Senator Mundt. At the present time does he have any legal and 
obvious means of earning a living, or is it solely the Canada Drv 
Bottling Co. ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12209 

Mr. Crosswell. He just sold that for a quarter of a million dollars. 
What part was his or what part was mortgaged, 1 have no way of 
knowing. 

Senator Mundt. He has no other business that you know of ? 

Mr. Crosswell. He has a business that they just started, J. B. In- 
dustries, but as far as we can find out, they are not doing anything 
and we don't know what it is. 

They filed a certificate of incorporation and that is all. 

Senator Mundt. When did he sell the Canada Bottling Co. ? 

Mr. Crosswell. About 3 months ago now. 

Senator Mundt. After the Apalachin meeting ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. During the period up until the meeting in 1957. you 
say that you found that there was a congregation of the local hoodlums 
as well as hoodlums from out of State at Barbara's home? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes. They were constantly going back and forth 
to Barbara's home. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who were some of his contacts ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Russell Buf alino was there an awful lot, from Pitts- 
ton, Pa. Anthony Guarnieri, from Endicott. 

Mr. Kennedy. Guarnieri ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Correct. And Emanuel Ziccari. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who are they ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Emanuel Ziccari is a man with a criminal record 
for, I believe it is, passing counterfeit money. He was a constant 
companion of Barbara's. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who is Guarnieri ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Guarnieri now operates a dress company in the city 
of Binghamton, known as the Triple Cities Dress Co. He formerly 
operated one in Owego, N. Y., Owego Textile Co. 

Mr. Kennedy. Has he a criminal record of any kind ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes. We have arrested him twice on lottery 
charges, once for unlawful possession of a firearm. He also has a 
conviction for unlawful possession of slot machines. 

Senator Goldwater. Did he lose his pistol permit ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Barbara, you mean? 

Senator Goldwater. No, the one you were just talking about. 

Mr. Crosswell. He never had one, Guarnieri had one, and we ar- 
rested him for unlawful possession of the gun because he never had 
a permit. He was convicted and did 4 months in jail and fined $300. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you just give us a couple of others ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Patsy Turrigiano. He is a man whom we have 
arrested for operating an illicit alcohol still which we felt Barbara 
was backing, and Turrigiano had absolutely no money when he set 
up this elaborate still and bought a new truck and a new car and 
went right into business, and he was constantly going back and forth 
to Barbara's house at that time. 

The Chairman. How long ago has that been ? 

Mr. Crosswell. That was about 1948, sir. I believe it was 1948. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you find that a group of these people congre- 
gated at Barbara's home in 1956 ? 
Mr. Crosswell. Not in his home, no. 
Mr. Kennedy. At his place. 



12210 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Crosswell. No. We found where Barbara had registered at 
the Arlington Hotel in Binghamton, N. Y., with a bunch of hoodlums. 

Mr. Kennedy. Some of the people you just mentioned were present? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, they were not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who were some of the people that were there ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Louis Volpe, of Long Island City, N. Y., and Frank 
Garofalo. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who is Louis Volpe ? 

Mr. Crosswell. I don't know him, and he has no criminal record 
that I know of. Frank Garofalo, of New York City — he has one 
arrest for vagrancy and suspicion, and he is mentioned quite promi- 
nently in Ed Reed's book on the Mafia as being a topflight member of 
Mafia in New York City. 

John Vonventre, of Brooklyn, N. Y., and I don't have his criminal 
record, but he has one. 

Joseph Barbara we have discussed, and Joe Bononno, also known as 
Joe Bananas. They were all registered at the Arlington Hotel on the 
16th and 17th of October 1956. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know anything about Joe Bananas ? 

Mr. Crosswell. I know he has a long criminal record, and I don't 
have a copy of it. 

Mr. Kennedy. He has been arrested for grand larceny and trans- 
porting machineguns to the Capone mob in Chicago ? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is right. 

Senator Ives. May I break in there '? 

Do you happen to know whether those were the only ones registered 
at that time, in the Arlington ? 

Mr. Crosswell. They were the only ones that we could trace, and 
those were the only ones charged to Barbara's company. 

Senator Ives. You don't know whether there were any others there 
that might be a part of them ? 

Mr. Crosswell. We believe a man named Carmine Galente was 
there. Galente was picked up after he left the city of Binghamton 
in company of Frank Garofalo and two other unknown men. 

Senator Ives. Do you happen to know whether anybody with any 
alias was there, or whether they registered in their own names or not ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Well, there could have been a lot of aliases that we 
wouldn't have recognized. 

Senator Ives. You don't know how many were there at that time ? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, sir, we do not. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you tell us who Galente is, just in summary ? 

Mr. Crossavell. He has a real long record. Do you want his record 
read ? 

Mr. Kennedy. If you can summarize it. Is that possible ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, it starts back in 1921, he was arrested as a 
juvenile for larcency and juvenile delinquency, and then for grand 
larceny, petty larceny, and sentenced to the penitentiary. Attempted 
robbery and assault, that was later changed to assault, and he served 
2l/> to 5 years in Sing Sing Prison. 

He was arrested for petty larceny. Then he was arrested for assault, 
second degree, 2^2 to 5 years. He was paroled in 1930, and returned 
as a parole violator, and served his time. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EST THE LABOR FIELD 12211 

In 1930 he was arrested for homicide with a gun, and later dis- 
charged. In 1930 lie was arrested for assault and robbery. In 1930 
he was arrested for attempted assault and robbery, that is the same 
case, and he was sentenced to serve 121/2 years in Sing Sing Prison. 
I believe I am correct in this, that was a result of shooting his parole 
officer. 

He was arrested again for violation of parole in 1943 and returned. 

Senator Mundt. Did he serve the 12Vo years ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Well, here is the rundown on that. He was sen- 
tenced to 12i/£ years, and he went to Great Meadows Prison in 1932, 
and then he was transferred to Clinton Prison in 1933, and he was 
paroled in 1939, so he served 6 years of the initial term. 

Senator Ives. Who paroled him, the parole board \ 

Mr. Cross well. Yes, sir. 

Senator Mundt. Did they find a volunteer to be a parole officer? 
Having shot the first one it would be pretty hard to get the second one ? 

Mr. Ckosswf.le. He was declared delinquent in 1943 and returned to 
Sing Sing, and transferred to Clinton, and discharged by court order 
in 1944. So he served a good share of that 121/2 years altogether, but 
he did it over a long span. 

Senator Mundt. Being discharged by court order, does that mean 
that they found a Haw in the case by which they sent him up ? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is I have to record, and I would presume that 
is being terminated, and that he had finished his sentence. 

Then he was arrested in 1947 for violation of section 8 of the United 
States Code. 

Senator Mundt. There is no habitual-criminal law in the State of 
New York? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir ; there is. 

Senator Mundt. How does he beat that ? 

Mr. Crosswell. The same way Barbara had his pistol permit. I am 
not trying to be smart, Senator. I do not know the answer to those 
things. 

Senator Mundt. It is a disturbing thing that the same people con- 
tinually commit crimes when a habitual-criminal law is to get the 
criminal who is a habitual and lock him up for safekeeping for life. 

Quite obviously, the law has been ignored as far as this man is con- 
cerned in the State of New York, so it is a rather serious situation. 

Mr. Crosswell. Carmen Caballente is now wanted in connection 
with pilfering, and they have arrested some members and Carmen 
Gallente is one of the members that they cannot find. 

The Chairman. Do I understand Barbara had these men there 
and paid their expenses and paid their hotel bills ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Obviously, in some kind of conference. 

Mr. Crossw^ell. That has been going on for several years, sir. 

The Chairman. But this man whose criminal record you have just 
given is one of those who was in that meeting ( 

Mr. Crosswtxl. We think he was, Senator. He was in a car with 
3 others that were at the meeting, and they all had baggage, and the 
other 3 had just checked out of the Arlington Hotel so we presume 
Gallente certainly must have been with them at the meeting. 

The Chairman. All right. 



12212 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. How did you happen to arrest them ? 

Mr. Crosswell. He was stopped for speeding. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he have his registration and license with him 
at that time? 

Mr. Crosswell. He was using a license of a man named Joseph D. 
Polero, who also has a criminal record similar to Gallente's, and he is 
known as a dope peddler and he is now wanted by Federal and I be- 
lieve, also, New York City authorities for bail jumping and dope 
violations. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he serve time for that, Gallente? Did he serve 
time for driving with someone else's permit and speeding ? 

Mr. Crosswell. I believe he got 30 days to the specific charge of 
driving while his license was revoked. We had 4 or 5 charges 
against him. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then, as you point out, there were a number of 
meetings up until 1957, and then came the meeting in November of 
1957. 

Mr. Crosswell. The big one ; yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you tell us about that one ? What happened 
in that ? 

Mr. Crosswell. You mean how we came to discover it ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Mr. Crosswell. It is rather embarrassing, it was so simple. My 
partner and myself were investigating a bad-check case in a motel in 
Vestal. 

Senator Ives. Just a minute. Your partner, did you say? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. Who is that ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Trooper Vasasko. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. Crosswell. And since the 1956 meeting in the Arlington Hotel, 
we had been very alert and watching the hotels and motels for any 
other people who registered and had their bills charged to Barbara. 

We saw young Joseph Barbara approaching the motel and so we 
stepped into the proprietor's living room, which is directly in back of 
the office, and young Joseph Barbara came in and he engaged three 
rooms for the night of November 13 and 14, and he said he wanted them 
charged to Canada Dry Bottling Co., and Avanted to pick up the keys 
then. 

The proprietor's wife asked him to register and he told her that he 
could not register then because they were having a convention of 
Canada Dry men and he did not know just who was going to occupy 
the rooms, and he would register for them the next day. 

So they gave him the keys and he went on out. We checked around 
that evening and up at Barbara's house we found Patsy Turrigiano's 
car, whom we knew was a still operator, and a car registered to a 
James V. LaDuca, of Lev/iston, N. Y. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who is he, first ? 

Mr. Crosswell. He was a union official, of hotel and restaurant 
union. 

Senator Ives. In Buffalo ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12213 

There was another car there with a New Jersey registration issued 
to an Alfred Angelicola, of Paterson, N. J. That was about 9 o'clock 
at night. 

We checked back to the motel at 9 : 30 and we saw an Ohio registered 
car and we checked that registration and it was issued to the Buckeye 
Cigarette Service, of Cleveland, Ohio, operated by a man named 
John Scalish. 

We asked the proprietor about that car and he said two men had 
driven in and went into one of the rooms that Barbara had reserved, 
and so we sent him out with a couple of registration cards to get the 
men to register. He came back and he said that they had refused to 
register and said that "Joe'' would take care of it the next day. 

He wanted to throw them out, and we told him no, to leave them 
there. We wanted to see what was going to happen. So with the fact 
that Patsy Turrigiano's car that was up at Barbara's house, we 
thought there might be something to do with another still getting 
under motion, and we got in touch with the Alcohol-Tobacco Tax Unit 
agents in that area, Kenneth Brown, and Arthur Rustin, and asked 
them to come down about midnight, I believe. 

They got down to our station. We checked around until 2 : 30 in 
the morning and nothing further happened except a car of LaDuca 
appeared before one of the other rooms that Barbara reserved at the 
Parkway Motel. 

The next morning the Ohio cars stayed at the motel and LaDuca's 
car left about 8 : 30 and we checked the rooms and the men had taken 
everything out of the rooms, and all of the beds had been occupied 
which indicated that 4 men had come with LaDuca in his car, because 
only 2 were there from the Ohio car. 

Then we started, and I notified the inspector, T nspector Sidney, 
there were some strange cars in the area and it k>oked as though 
Barbara might be having another meeting, and we were going to 
check it out, and we would get in touch with him later. So my part- 
ner and the two agents and I drove down to the plant and there was 
nothing around there, and we drove up to Barbara's residence and 
that is when the stuff hit the fan. 

We drove in, and everybody started running in all directions. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you point out on the chart? Could you go 
over there and point out what occurred or we can bring it over here, 
the chart. 

(A chart was brought before the witness.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you go over and point out where you came in, 
Sergeant, and where the cars were ? 

The Chairman. First, identify the picture, and what is it? 

Mr. Crosswell. This is a picture of the main buildings of Barbara's 
home, and his residence. There is a town road running right past 
here, which does not show on this picture. We came up this road and 
turned into this driveway and 4 or 5 cars were parked here. 

First of all, this is a two-car garage, with a dog kennel on this end, 
and there is a large barbecue pit and this is a picnic pavilion, and air 
conditioned. 

This is the main house, and this is one of his tenant houses. 

As we came in here, a lot of men ran from around the barbecue pit 
and around this corner and some ran for the house, and some came out 



12214 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

of the house and ran the other way, and everybody got all excited 
and all worked up. 

The Chairman. Could we have a microphone there ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, can you go to the bigger one, I think. 

The Chairman. Point out again what you have just said. I did 
not even hear you from up here. 

Mr. Crosswell. There is a town road leading along this side which 
does not show on this photograph. We came up that and turned into 
the driveway and there were 4 or 5 cars here and men ran from the 
barbecue pit around to this corner of the house, or this corner of the 
garage, and then into the house, and some of them came from the 
house and ran down this way, and we backed out and started on down 
the road here. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all for now. 

Now, would you come over to this chart, and we will put the lights 
back on. 

Would you explain what happened, where you went after you 
backed down the road ? 

Mr. Crosswell. This is a town road and we came back down, down 
between this row of houses and over to here where you can see a light 
spot on the photograph. There we parked our car and called for a 
uniformed car to meet us at that location. This ride from here down, 
we talked over what we were going to do, and we decided the only thing 
we could do was stop everbody and find out who were in the cars 
as they came out of the place. 

Senator Munot. Is that the only exit road to the house ? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is the only way to get out there, yes. The 
road past here ends at a washed-out bridge down below this farm- 
house, and this road ends here at a washed-out bridge, so the only 
way to get out was through this road. 

As we were setting up a roadblock here, we could not see the Barbara 
buildings themselves, but we could see this open field, and we saw 
10 or 12 men running from the direction of Barbara's house into this 
pine woods. So, the first cars that we got down here in this area we 
set up a road over here called the McFadden Road that circles these 
woods and meets another road that goes down through here known 
as the Creek Road. 

There was no place that these people could go, and they had to 
come out here either in open fields or on the McFadden Road or the 
Creek Road, and they rounded those up. Then everybody came 
down and we stopped them at the roadblock. 

After we saw that we were running into a real bunch of unsavory 
characters, we decided to take them all in to the substation and got as 
much information from them as we could. 

Senator Mundt. How many did you pick up altogether ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Sixty-two, but that included two characters of 
Barbara's, so there were 60. 

The Chairman. Did you set up a roadblock on the other road, where 
they could go around and gel back into town ? 

Mr. Crosswell. There is no way that they could ^et back into town, 
sir. They had to come down either the Creek Road or the McFadden 
Road, and we had those roads blocked off, plus roving patrols over 
ench of those roads. We were picking them up as they came out of the 
woods, 1 or 2 at a time. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12215 

The Chairman. They came out of the woods and they ran into the 
woods, and then were walking when you picked them up? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I see. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you describe what they looked like, some of 
these people ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Before they went in the woods or afterward ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Well, describe both. 

Mr. Crosswell. Well, they were all dressed for the most part in 
silk suits, and white on white shirts, and highly polished, pointed 
shoes, and broad brimmed hats, and typical George Raft style. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was that before they went in the woods? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did they look like? the ones you picked up, 
that came out of the woods? 

Mr. Crosswell. Some of them lost their hats and they were a little 
bedraggled, and three were full of cockle burrs and their shoes were 
kind of scuffy. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about Montana? Do you remember having 
any discussion with him ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes ; Montana was down in the road block and he 
had been picked up in a field over on the McFadden Road, caught in 
a barbed-wire fence. The troopers brought him down to me, and I 
had a spare car there, and I set him in the car waiting for transporta- 
tion. 

Mr. Kennedy. He is from Buffalo, N. Y. ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is John Charles Montana? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who is he ? 

Mr. Crosswell. He called me over to the house and he sent a man 
over and said he wanted to see me and I went over and he told me he 
was very embarrassed being there, and he had just stopped in to see 
Barbara, and did not know that there was going to be any such gang 
of characters as he found up there, and if I would let him go up and 
get his car and get out of there he could probably do something for 
me. 

He started mentioning a lot of prominent people that he knew in 
Buffalo and that area and one of the officials of our department that 
he knew very well. He mentioned no specific thing that he could do 
for me, but that he could do something for me if I would let him go 
and get his car. 

Senator Ives. How was he attired? Did he have the George Raft 
attire, too? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir ; top coat and all. 

Senator Ives. Pointed shoes and all ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. Large hat? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. He had all of that on to have a cup of tea ? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is his story. 

(At this point, the following members were present: Senators 
MeClellan, Ives, Ervin, and Mundfe.) 

Mr. Kennedy. What time did you set up the roadblock ? 



12216 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Crosswell. We pulled in the yard at 12 : 40. We had the road- 
block in operation at 12 : 15, but for all practical purposes 

Senator Mundt. Was that daytime or night? 

Mr. Crosswell. Daytime, ft was from 12 : 40 at the time we were 
in there, and no one went in or out of that road from 12 : 40 on. 

Mr. Kennedy. I understand Mr. Montana made some statements 
that he arrived after noon that day. 

Mr. Crosswell. I have heard him make that statement at hearings, 
and he said he arrived there at 2 : 30. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would it have been possible for him to get there at 
2:30? 

Mr. Crosswell. He could not have gotten in there after 12 : 40. He 
also has told the story that his car broke down. He said nothing to 
me that day about his car breaking down. 

The Chairman. That signals a rollcall vote in the Senate. The 
committee will have to stand in recess temporarily. 

We will return as soon as the Senators have voted. 

(Brief recess, with the following members present: Senators 
McClellan, Ives, Ervin, and Mundt.) 

(At the reconvening of the session, the following members were 
present : Senator McClellan and Ives. ) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. LaDuca from the Hotel and Kestaurant 
Workers' Union has denied, as I understand it, to our investigators, 
that he was even present at the meeting. Do you know if he was 
present ? 

Mr. Crosswell. On the night of November 13, LaDuca's ear was 
at the Barbara residence. Later that night it stayed up at one of 
the rooms reserved at the Parkway Motel by young Barbara, and 
stayed there all night. 

In the wastepaper basket of that room we found a hotel bill from 
2 different hotels, in the name of James LaDuca, and 1 in the name 
of Charles Montana. When LaDuca was picked up, we found matches 
from the Parway Motel in his pockets. 

On Sunday, following the raid on Thursday, we found LaDuca's 
car parked in the garage at Barbara's house; rather, the barn at 
Barbara's house. When we picked him up that night, he denied 
that he had ever been at the Parkway Motel, or that he had been at 
Barbara's place. 

We told him about seeing his car there the night before, about 
seeing it at the Parkwav Motel, and he said he was just on his way 
through from Buffalo, N. Y. If we had seen his car in that area, 
the car must have been stolen. 

Mr. Kennedy. You say that you got the possessions of these various 
people. Did they have money on them ? 

Mi-. Crosswell. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did they have wallets? 

Mr. Crosswell. Very few had wallets. Most of them just had their 
money loose in their pocket, and for identification they would have 
.-in operator's license or registration of a car in their shirt pocket. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did sums of money get large in any case? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes. Most of them ran between two and three 
thousand dollars that they would have in their pockets. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EST THE LAROR FIELD 12217 

Mr. Kennedy. That was in cash ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Cash. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did Mr. Scozzari have a greater amount? 

Mr. Crosswell. Scozzari had about $10,000, but $8,000 of that was 
in a certified check from a bank in California. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was his employment at the time? 

Mr. Crosswell. He had been unemployed for 20 years. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Mancuso, did he tell you where he was employed 
at the time ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes. He gave me a business card of a Nu-Form 
Concrete Co. in Utica, N. Y., listing him as president of that company. 
"We sent some of our men up there to check for him, to try to serve a 
subpena on him, and there was no such address as the address given on 
the card. It was a residential area with no concrete business there. 
They could find no trace of the concrete business. 

Mr. Kennedy. On the card it said he was president of the company ? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is there any way that you could tell or prove that 
the meeting was actually planned ahead and that these people all 
didn't just drop in to see their sick friend Joseph Barbara? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes. 

On the 5th day of November 1957 — that was 9 days prior to the 
actual meeting — Barbara called the Armour Co. in Binghamton, N. Y., 
and placed an order for prime steaks. The steaks that he ordered were 
their best cuts of meat and stuff that Armour in Binghamton, a city of 
80,000, does not even stock. They had to send to Chicago after them. 
That was picked up on the 13th by one of Barbara's trucks and signed 
for by one of his caretakers named Blossom. The bill for the steaks 
was $399.10. 

Mr. Kennedy. They had to send out of town for the steaks ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. To Chicago ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

(At this point, Senator Mundt entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all, Mr. Chairman. I wish to express the 
appreciation of the staff to Sergeant Crosswell for all the assistance he 
has given. 

The Chairman. Are there any other questions? 

Senator Ives. I have no questions outside of the fact that I would 
like to thank the sergeant for being here today and cooperating the 
way he has. 

Mr. Croswell. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Senator Mundt. 

Senator Mundt. Just before we were called over for the vote, ser- 
geant, we were talking about a fellow by the name of Montana. That 
being a western name kind of intrigued me a little. You said that he 
had sort of propositioned you out in your car about being able to pull 
some influence and be of assistance to }<ou up in Buffalo if you should 
just pretend you had not seen him there. Then, if I understood you 
correctly, and I am not sure I did, you mentioned that at some hearing:-; 
he had explained his presence. 

What was the nature of those hearings? 



12218 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Crosswell. That was before the — the place where I heard him 
testify was before the Legislative Watchdog Committee of the New 
York State Legislature in Albany. 

Senator Mundt. Were they interrogating him about this meeting 
of hoodlums that he attended ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes. 

Senator Mundt. And did he change his story during those hearings 
or did he tell them a different story from what he had told you? 

Mr. Crosswell. He told them a different story than he had told me. 

Senator Mundt. As I understand the story he had told you, he had 
just dropped in casually for tea and was quite surprised at the type 
of characters who were there. 

Mr. Crosswell. He said nothing about tea. He said he was an old 
friend of the Barbara family who was driving through and just 
stopped in to see him. 

Senator Mundt. What did he tell the watchdog committee ? 

Mr. Crosswell. He told the watchdog committee that some 50 miles 

Erior to reaching Apalachin, his car had developed trouble with the 
rakes and the windshield wipers. It was raining and he had looked 
all along the road for a gas station or garage and could not find any. 
He remembered that he knew Joe Barbara, he had trucks and would 
probably have mechanics around, so he drove up there to get his wind- 
shield wipers fixed. Then he was cold and chilled from the rain and 
the cold ride, and he had gone inside and asked Mrs. Barbara to pre- 
pare a cup of tea for him, to warm him up. 

Senator Mundt. I would think a good invigorating run through 
the woods would tend to warm him up a little bit, too. 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes. 

Senator Mundt. I suppose that story came so late that you had no 
chance to check his car to determine whether or not it really had 
trouble ? 

Mr. Crosswell. No. In fact, when he told that story, he had sent 
mechanics down from Buffalo to pick up his car, and he had receipted 
bills, or they had fixed the windshield wipers and they had fixed the 
brakes on the car. 

But it was apparently all ready to go at the time he was begging me 
to let him get out of there. All he wanted to do was to go up and 
get that car and get out of there. 

Senator Mundt. Quite obviously, a story of that kind, which is 
pretty inoffensive, would have been the logical thing to have told you 
at the roadblock, had it been based on fact. 

Mr. Crosswell. I would think so, yes. 

Senator Mundt. It would seem so to me. There is nothing repre- 
hensible about having car trouble, if that had been the thing that 
brought him in. It would have been the first thing, I would think, 
that would have sprung from his lips at the time he was trying to 
explain to you his presence there. Does this man Montana have a 
police record? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, not that I know of, sir. 

Senator Mundt. Does he have a pistol permit? 

Mr. Crosswell. He did have one. He surrendered it immediately 
a fter I lie Apalachin meeting. 

Senator Mtjndt. But he had the pistol permit at the time he at- 
tended the Apalachin meeting? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12219 

Mr. Ckosswell. Yes, and a pistol. 

Senator Mundt. Your pistol permits relate only to carrying a pis- 
tol, do they not? Not to having one in your possession in your home? 

Mr. Crosswell. You have to have a permit in New York State to 
even possess one, possess or carry. 

Senator Mundt. And the same permit is available which enables 
you to carry one as to possess one ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. Thank you very much. 

Senator Ives. Just a moment, Mr. Chairman. 

What was the make of the car Mr. Montana was driving? 

Mr. Crosswell. A 1957 Cadillac, 

Senator Ives. That was new, then, last year, the year he was driving 
it? 

Mr. Crosswell. It was practically brand new at that time. 

Senator Ives. And here he was having all of this trouble with it? 

Mr. Crosswell. So he says. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

The Chairman. All right. Thank you very much, Sergeant Cross- 
well. 

We appreciate the cooperation you have given us, and your willing- 
ness to be of all the assistance you could. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, the next witness is from the Bureau 
of Narcotics, and Mr. Anslinger, the Commissioner of the Bureau of 
Narcotics, has requested that no pictures be taken of his face. 

The Chairman. All photographers, television cameras and so forth, 
will be governed accordingly. 

Come around. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Pera. 

The Chairman. Be sworn, please, sir. 

You do solemnly swear the evidence you shall give before this Sen- 
ate select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Pera. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARTIN F. PEEA 

The Chairman. Be seated. State your name, your place of resi- 
dence, and your business or occupation. 

Mr. Pera. My name is Martin F. Pera. I am at 90 Church Street, 
New York, N. Y. I am an agent of the United States Bureau of 
Narcotics. 

The Chairman. How long have you been in Government service? 

Mr. Pera. 10 years. 

The Chairman. How long have you been in the service of the 
Bureau of Narcotics ? 

Mr. Pera. 10 years. 

The Chairman. You waive counsel ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, I do. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Mr. Kennedy, proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Pera, have you spent all your career with the 
Bureau of Narcotics in this country I 

21243—58 — pt. 32 3 



12220 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Pera. No. I have been on special assignments overseas, in 
the Near East and in Europe. 

Mr. Kennedy. Specifically what countries ? 

Mr. Pera. Turkey, Greece, Italy, France, Portugal. 

Mr. Kennedy. What have been your assignments in those areas? 

Mr. Pera. The obtaining of evidence against narcotic law violators 
who were responsible for smuggling large quantities of drugs into 
the United States, and the cooperation with the various foreign 
governmental agencies in that regard. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell the committee who are mainly respon- 
sible for bringing the drugs in, if there is any particular organization 
that is chiefly responsible for bringing narcotics and drugs into the 
United States ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, for the last practically 15 years, and prior to that 
time as well, the predominant traffic in narcotics, the importation and 
distribution within the United States, have gone through the hands 
of the organization that we term to be the Mafia. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you do any work on the Mafia while you were 
overseas ? 

Mr. Pera. That, among others. That was not my specific assign- 
ment, but I did work along that line as well. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell the committee what this organiza- 
tion consists of, as you have studied it in Europe, and as you have 
studied it here in the United States ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. The organization originated in the late 18th cen- 
tury in Sicily to combat the exploitation by the Bourbon overlords 
of Sicily at the time. There was a situation of absentee landlordism 
and the excesses of these landlords over the tenant farmers and other 
people in that area resulted in the banding together of the local tenant 
farmers and their forming an organization to combat, a secret organi- 
zation to combat, the excesses of the landlords. 

Much of it was similar to the action of, let's say, the plundering 
of the wealthy people, the extortions, kidnaping. 

The organization required very tight discipline. It was a secret 
organization, and it was organized along clan lines, along family 
lines. As a secret society it had no bylaws. The various communi- 
ties and various villages had their own particular leaders. They were 
responsible to a grand council which was composed of leaders on the 
upper echelon to those from the communities. It was expected of 
the members of this organization that they be absolutely obedient to 
the officers of the organization. 

Another tenet of the organization Avas reciprocal aid to the members 
in need of assistance. 

Another followed never to seek the aid of governmental authorities 
but to arbitrate differences amongst themselves ami hold their own 
court. Another was never to reveal the names of members. 

Another Mas to avoid the show of ostentation which might draw 
the attention of authorities. The last was to maintain a humble atti- 
tude toward governmental authority. I think that all these would be 
found logical rules by which any organized conspiracy to violate the 
law must abide in order to exist. This we know to be the unwritten 
code of the Malia. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12221 

Mr. Kennedy. You say this started back several hundreds of years 
ago. Can you trace it up to the present time and find it active in other 
places other than Sicily '. 

Mr. Pera. Yes. During the late 1800's and early 1900's many 
Sicilians immigrated to the United States to escape the dire poverty 
of their country. They settled, of course, where they first arrived, 
and among these immigrants were members of the Mafia and elements 
from their group. Their first criminal activity was to extort money 
from the more successful of their group, from members outside the 
Malia and from the more successful Italian merchants that had immi- 
grated to the United States. 

Their organization was not quite organized to a national degree 
at that time, and in various ports they were known as the Union 
Sicilione or the old Black Hand. 

The Union Sicilione or the old Black Hand comprised the local 
Mafia elements in the particular locality. 

Mr. Kennedy. It was aimed, at least initially, chiefly against their 
own countrymen \ 

Mr. Pera. Yes. At that time, it should be appreciated that many 
of these people did not know the language very well. They werent 
able to move around in circles that might have been exploited by them 
otherwise. To that extent, the}' were forced to exploit their own 
countrymen at the time. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did they become particularly active in the 1930's, 
during prohibition? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

The prohibition era found tremendous opportunity for them. This 
organization was a secret organization. It was dedicated to work in 
contrary to the laws of the United States, and local laws, and with the 
tremendous profits inherent in the production and distribution of 
bootleg liquor it offered an opportunity that these people took advan- 
tage of. We have some of the group that attended Apalachin that 
became wealthy during that time. 

There were men like Barbara, for instance, who was found with a 
tremendous load of sugar. Well, sugar, of course, is used in the 
fermentation process, with yeast, and is one of the raw materials with 
which bootleg alcohol is made. 

Of course, the Falcones. Among the many, of course, was Capone 
that made his mark in the prohibition days. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was the result? You say that this strict dis- 
cipline was set up in Sicily, and this organization became even more 
active during prohibition over here. What was the result, if any, 
of the people over here who broke down as far as discipline was 
concerned and refused to obey instructions or orders? 

Mr. Pera. Well, in the first place, their becoming active on a na- 
tional scale, as they did in the prohibition era, gave them the oppor- 
tunity to organize on a national scale, and to gain internal discipline 
on a national scale. 

It offered them the opportunity to compete with other mobs and 
the result was a great degree of violence that took place during the 
prohibition era. much of it directly traceable to the activities of the 
Mafia. During 1928 we have one of the first meetings in the United 



12222 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

States that was observed of the Mafia, the meeting at Cleveland, 
Ohio, and among those who attended were several that attended the 
Apalachin meeting. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who were some of those ? 

Mr. Pera. Joe Prof aci, Magliocco. 

Mr. Kennedy. Sam DiCarlo, was he there also ? 

Mr. Pera. I don't think he attended the Apalachin meeting. Well, 
those were the two that attended the Apalachin meeting that also 
attended the 1928 meeting. The violence inherent in their activities 
can be indicated by the fact that Frank Geillo, who attended the 1928 
meeting was found shot to death in Hot Springs on April 22, 1944. 
Joseph Vaglica of Tampa, Fla., was killed in Tampa on July 11, 1947. 

Vincent Mangano-, who, for a long time was a power in Brooklyn, 
along with his brother Phillip, in the Mafia, disappeared in 1952. 

His brother, Phillip, was found shot to death shortly before that 
time in Brooklyn. 

Mr. Kennedy. They instilled this discipline amongst their own 
members, did they, here ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. There are no bylaws within the organization. 
There are no obvious written codes within the organization. But the 
study that has been made over a period of many years by the Bureau 
of Narcotics indicates that these people are organized along family 
lines, that they grow into the Mafia. It isn't as though someone from 
the outside were appointed into this group. 

They have this tradition all their lives, and they must adhere to the 
discipline that is required by the organization. 

Senator Ives. Are these people that were murdered that you men- 
tioned persons who violated the code of the Mafia ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, the reasons for their murder are ambiguous. Un- 
doubtedly somewhere along the line they obviously violated the code 
of the Mafia. 

Exactly in what respect each one of these individuals violated the 
code I am not prepared to disclose. I don't have all the particular 
knowledge on each one of these individuals. But the manner in which 
they were murdered, and the fact that in some cases there we're indi 
cations that they had lost grace prior to their minder within the 
organization, would tell us that somehow or another they violated 
one of the tenets, or else at times there may be warring fart ions within 
the Mafia. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were you able to trace, while you were in Europe, 
the moving, for instance, of narcotics from Europe to this organiza- 
tion that exists here in the United States ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. The smuggling of heroin into the United States 
has taken place through different routes dining different years, but 
generally, predominantly, most of the heroin smuggled, let's say, 
within the last 10 years, has taken place in the following manner: 

The opium was produced lb the Balkan countries, such as Turkey, 
in the Near East, in Turkey and Iran, and perhaps in Yugoslavia, and 
is processed into morphine base. Let's say Turkish opium that is 
purchased by traders in Istanbul outside of I he government monopoly. 
There is a government monopoly in the I lading of opium in Turkey, 
and the controls are very strict. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12223 

On the other hand, there is what is called the black market in opium 
where individual businessmen will go and purchase, outside of the 
Government monopoly, quantities of opium from the farmers. 

This opium is processed into morphine base, after it is transported 
across Syria into Lebanon. From Beirut, Lebanon, or perhaps 
Aleppo, Syria, this morphine base is shipped to clandestine labora- 
tories in France for conversion into heroin. In the laboratories in 
France, and this is in the last, say, 7 to 10 years, they are operated 
by Corsican traffickers, and we might point out there that the Cor- 
sican underworld element are cousins to the Sicilians. They call each 
other cousins. They speak Italian. Many of them immigrated origi- 
nally to Corsica from the Italian islands. 

They understand one another thoroughly, and even though they 
might come from separate disciplines at the top level, they have an 
efficient interchange in criminal activity. 

The laboratories in France are operated by Corsican violators who, 
in turn, arrange for the smuggling of these drugs, of heroin, into 
the United States, via French seamen smugglers, couriers, as it were, 
or else in some instances the heroin is sent back to the traffickers in 
Sicily or in Italy, and it is brought over here by means of conceal- 
ment in trunks or the personal effects of immigrants. 

Senator Ives. May I ask a question there ? 

The Chairman. Senator Ives. 

Senator Ives. I am curious to know where the head of the Mafia 
is today. What country ? Sicily, still ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, a study of their organization, as it exists, would 
indicate to us that it is a loose organization, that there is no autoc- 
racy in it, that it is composed of a group of individuals who discuss 
with each other what is mutually beneficial to them and come to agree- 
ment on lines of action that is mutually acceptable to them. 

Senator Ives. Is that in each country ? 

Mr. Pera. No, there is a tremendous amount of interchange be- 
tween the Mafia elements in the United States and those in Italy. 
But to say that one is in control of the other, I think, would be stretch- 
ing it a bit. 

Senator Ives. Is any one person in control of the Mafia in this 
country ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, according to what we know, I would say "No." 

Senator Ives. In other words, that is a case of groups working 
together ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. It is purely a case of a junta or a group of indi- 
viduals within this organization that have lived and that have grown 
up under its discipline, and that have the respect, and the cooperation, 
and the subservience of all the members underneath them. 

Senator Ives. I believe there will be more interrogation by the 
counsel on this matter, is that correct ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy. Along those lines, would that be one of the reasons 
for the meeting such as took place at Apalaehin? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. Any group that exists in violation of the laws of 
the country has to exist secretly, and each one of the leaders of the 
Mafia within the particular locality under their control is autonomous 
to a certain degree. 



12224 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

He is responsible for his area. Many times if group meetings don't 
take place, if a meeting such as Apalachin does not take place, the 
man within his own particular area might be lax in his discipline or 
else he might get too big for his shoes. 

He may assume that suddenly he is the biggest group and go on a 
tangent by himself, or he may encroach on the territory of others. 

Or he may go into some particular activity that might be prohibited 
by the grand council. Again, in the organizational structure as we 
know it, we have what we call the ground council that is composed 
of the top leaders, the top group, within the Mafia. 

There are lesser leaders from various particular localities through- 
out, let's say, the United States, and perhaps within Sicily. 

These are group chiefs. These are group chiefs, and they have 
the authority within their own particular locality. Beneath them 
are certain individuals within the Mafia that have committed some 
act that is creditable to them. It may be the murder, the official 
murder, of someone designated to be gotten rid of. 

It may be carrying out — well, it is the carrying out of some task 
that was difficult. These men are called for some reason or another 
button men, as we know them in New York. 

The Chairman. What is it ? 

Mr. Pera. Button. In other words, they have a mark of identi- 
fication, identifying them to be experts or above the level of the ordi- 
nary member. 

Mr. Kennedy. How did they get that name? Do you know? 

Mr. Pera. I have no idea. The sources of information from with- 
in the group, and undercover agents that we have, they are the source 
of this information. 

Senator Mundt. Is there an oriental counterpart of Mafia? 

A good bit of the opium that comes into this country comes out of 
Eed China. I am wondering if the operators out of Mafia have a 
tie-in with these people in Red China, or whether there is a Chinese 
equivalent of the Mafia that negotiates the drug traffic from the Far 
East. 

Mr. Pera. Certainly a certain amount of the heroin that does come 
into this country does come from the Far East. When it gets to 
the shores of the United States through the illicit channels, which 
are, in many cases, individual seamen in the business, couriers, from 
that point on we can trace, after the arrival of that heroin, we can 
trace it in the hands of Mafia channels, or channels of this particular 
underworld element. 

Senator Mundt. I was wondering if they had sort of an under- 
ground railroad for the Chinese opium in narcotics such as you 
described in getting the opium from the poppy, in Yugoslavia and 
Turkey, and running it through the transfiguration that takes place 
at Lebanon and through these French Corsicans. 

All of that I understood to be sort of part of the ramifications of 
the Mafia operation in that area, in the Near East. But because 
statistics show such a large and growing percentage of the opium 
coming from Red China, I was wondering whether, in your studies, 
you had discovered that the Mafia or some other apparatus was in 
charge of the traffic of that area. 

Mr. Pera. To say that the Mafia is in charge of opium coining in 
from the Far East, I could not sav that from the information that 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12225 

I have had at my disposal. Certainly, a certain amount of opium 
years ago, let's say, when French [ndochina existed, there were quan- 
tities of opium that were shipped to the laboratories, again, around 
Marseilles, France, to the Corsican underworld there, and then trans- 
shipped to the I 'nited States. 

This, of course, went through the same channels into distribution 
here. But to say that the Mr Ha has joined a criminal conspiracy 
with Red Chinese sources, I would not he prepared to say that ; no. 

Senator Mttndt. Red Chinese traffic is so large that I think it has 
more than just an occasional shipment brought in by a salt sea sailor 
coming in from the Far East. 

Mr. Pera. There are quite a few sailors that come in that do indulge 
in that. 

If 1 sailor brings in 2 or 3 kilos at a crack, it is quite a bit of heroin. 

Senator Ives. Air. Chairman? 

The Chairman. Senator Ives. 

Senator Ives. Your description of these groups and their various 
ramifications and associations would almost lead one to believe that 
there may be some family connection among all of them. Is that 
true ( 

Mr. Pera. Yes. There is a tremendous family tie-in with these 
people. Again, they are organized along clan lines which would 
reflect the family tie-in. 

Senator Ives. That is what I understood you to say. That carries 
on today, does it ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes ; it still carries on today. 

Senator Ives. Would you say this, for example : Would you say 
that the Mafia, if they are operating, we will say, in central New 
York — south central is where Apalachin is — is related by family to the 
Mafia existing around Chicago and Detroit? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. Well, just one example — and there are many ex- 
amples we could go into, but without taking time just a little exam- 
ple — Prof aci's daughter is married to a fellow by the name of Anthony 
Tocco, in Chicago. He is prominent in the Maria there. 

There are many interrelationships reflecting the clan organization. 
These people all came originally from small villages in Sieity, where 
there wasn't very much travel or influx of foreign elements, so that 
their organization would be along family lines. 

Senator Ives. That, of course, makes it a far more effective organi- 
zation, subject to far greater discipline internally than another type 
of organization might be. 

Mr. Pera. Yes. We have found that, and we have found that the 
reason, let's say, that we get so little information from that group is 
simply because the man that violates their code may be condemned 
to death, and his own brother may have to carrj T out the execution. 

Senator Ives. That is the end of your search. 

Mr. Pera. That is right. 

Senator Ives. Thank you very much. 

Senator Muxdt. You used the phrase "grand council" several times. 
Is that a name which has been rigged up by the law-enforcement offi- 
cials to describe the high command, or is that a name that members 
of the Ma Ha themselves use in describing the central apparatus? 



12226 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Pera. That is a name that from undercover sources we have, 
sources of information we have, from amongst this group, when they 
relate their activity to us, they have mentioned the grand council. 

Furthermore, in the past we have had a number of Sicilian under- 
cover agents, agents of the Bureau of Narcotics of Sicilian extraction, 
who have, at great risk to their own lives, spent years studying this 
organization and working amongst them. 

Much of our information has been developed as a result of their 
work. 

Senator Mundt. Are your undercover agents and your counter- 
agents successful enough so that they can identify the members of 
the grand council in the United States ? 

Mr. Pera. Immediately, what is presiding at this particular time ? 

Senator Mundt. Precisely. 

Mr. Pera. We could guess at who. We could give a pretty good 
guess in that direction. But to say that thejr would know with cer- 
tainty I would not be prepared to go that far. 

Senator Mundt. About how many members are there in the grand 
council ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, again, we are coming to a point where we don't 
know too much about their activities. Again, it is a secret organiza- 
tion. They maintain any breach of discipline, any talking on the 
part of their members, with a threat of death. You can get so much, 
even by undercover work. 

Senator Mundt. Everything you have said about the Mafia is 
equally true of the Communist cells of this country. The FBI has 
been startlingly successful penetrating the cells of the Communist 
Party to the point of identifying people in charge. I would assume 
that the Bureau of Narcotics has also had a considerable amount of 
success in using Sicilians, Italians, or Corsicans as counteragents, who 
are able to penetrate this apparatus, so that you have a pretty good 
idea of how large a command it is, whether it is a council of 100, a 
council of 10, or a council of 3, something of that nature; wouldn't 
you? 

Mr. Pera. Again, we have found that repeatedly — and I think any 
enforcement agency with experience along those lines would reiterate 
this — that, if the penalty is death for any breach of discipline or any 
disclosure made on the part of these members, they think twice before 
they do talk about it. 

The penalty is also death if they make a mistake and allow some- 
one — that is, an undercover agent — to enter their midst. Perhaps in 
other cases a man might do 10 years, or, rather, a man might be re- 
luctant to do 10 years in prison or maybe 20 years in prison, he may 
feel that it is worth his while, perhaps, if he discloses the operation 
of the particular crime that he was involved with, and it might be 
worth his while to disclose that if he can get off with that sentence. 
But our experience has been a singular lack of information from that 
direction. 

Senator Munot. I don't expect you to get many members of the 
Mafia to turn state's evidence and become squealers, but, as far as 
the fear of death is concerned, the records ai-e replete with Communist 
agents who have made that one fatal mistake, and who have been' 
thrown out of a hotel window in Washington, D. C, or have fallen 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12227 

out of a building in New York City, or have gotten hit by a car, or 
mysteriously disappeared. 

These are dangerous rackets. But the law-enforcement agencies 
have been able to penetrate them by using counter agents to go into 
the precise purpose, after a period of 5, 10, or 20 years of service, and 
who have come out and disclosed to the law-enforcement agencies de- 
tails by which this racket operates. 

I would assume that in all these many years that the Mafia has been 
operating we must have had some success on occasion in developing 
counteragents who were able to find something out from the inside by 
having qualified as a Mafia member, while really working for Uncle 
Sam. Hasn't that ever happened ? 

Mr. Pera. We have had people very close to the Mafia. We have 
had people that have been trusted amongst the leaders of the Mafia. 
We have agents that have worked that close to the group under 
cover. 

Naturally, in a public hearing, it would be inopportune to discuss 
or disclose their findings. 

Senator Mundt. I don't want to know anything about who they are 
or their system, but I am wondering something about what they 
found. 

Mr. Pera. My testimony this afternoon is a result of what they 
have found out. 

Senator Mundt. And among the things that they have discovered, 
can you shed any light on the size of this grand council ? 

Mr. Pera. The grand council, as we know it — again, these things 
are very flexible — is composed of between, let's say, about eight to a 
dozen men. 

Senator Mundt. That is what I am trying to find out. I wanted 
to know whether you meant 100 or 500. I wanted to get some idea. 
This is a pretty tightly-knit organization. Ten, 12, 15, or 20 men 
are the ones who really exercise the discipline and decide ultimately 
who among the big shots is going to get bumped off. Is that right ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, again, that is a complex subject, because many of 
these difficulties between the groups are submitted to arbitration, and 
they might not go that high. They might not go to the grand coun- 
cil. Oftentimes the grand council might have other things on their 
mind other than to decide Avho within the field is deserving or who is 
undeserving. 

Senator Mundt. Was this rather sensational murder of some hood- 
lum, whose name I have forgotten, in a barber shop of the Waldorf- 
Astoria or some place 

Mr. Kennedy. Albert Anastasia. 

Senator Mundt. Was this a Mafia murder, do you think ? 

Mr. Pera. Albert Anastasia had a prominent position in that or- 
ganization. Certainly the manner in which he died, and there were 
some indications of his having slipped in power before that time which 
would lead us to believe that that was a Mafia killing. 

Senator Mundt. It occurs to me that the limitation of a rat of that 
size probably would be determined at a meeting of the grand council. 

Mr. Pera. It may be a subject for discussion. I think that that 
probably had been decided some time, perhaps quite a bit prior to 
that time. 



12228 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Senator Ives. In that connection, may I interrupt there? There 
was a report at the time of this Apalachin meeting that one of its pur- 
poses was to decide what to do with — well, I wouldn't say estate — but 
with the empire of Anastasia. Is there any truth in that \ 

Mr. Pera. The various subjects discussed at the Apalachin meeting 
we can only guess at, because we were not there. Unquestionably, 
there must have been some discussion along that line. 'Whatever 
happened to that would affect the group as a whole. 

Senator Ives. Just who were these 60 people that were at Apala- 
chin ? They apparently were not the grand council. 1 suppose mem- 
bers of the grand council were among them, but just what did they 
represent ( 

Mr. Pera. I think, again speaking of the grand council, I would 
reflect on the meeting that took place a year prior to the Apalachin 
meeting. 

Senator Ives. 1956? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. I think that meeting was significant in that rela- 
tively few people were mentioned at that meeting. 

Senator Ives. So far as anybody knows. 

Mr. Pera. Yes. I think it is safe to say that Carmen Galente, 
Joseph Barbara, John Bonventre, and Joe Bonanno were at that 
meeting. 

Senator Ives. They are part of the grand council ? 

Mr. Pera. I can't — I don't — I wouldn't be able to give a correct 
answer as to that. But I think that meeting was particularly sig- 
nificant because they were very powerful individuals within the 
organization, and the meeting having taken place a year prior to the 
Apalachin meeting certainly set the scene for the Apalachin meeting. 

Senator Ives. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Is there one difference between the Communists 
and the Mafia in this regard : The Communists, of course, seek to 
enlarge their membership, through devious ways, and they don't go 
out like some other organization, maybe, and solicit members, but 
as I understood about the Mafia you are largely born into it or marry 
into it, and so forth ? 

Mr. Pera. That is probably the most prominent difference between 
the two, and to the other extent, their criminal conspiracy and viola- 
tion of the laws of the United States. 

The Chairman. Yes. But from what I understand, from all the 
information we have which will be developed, this underworld syndi- 
cate as we speak of it, or Mafia, if it does have those connections, it 
seems that they are either born into it as a child of someone who is 
involved, or the children intermarry from different families that are 
in it, and in that way it is pretty well perpetuated. I am talking about 
the inner circle of t hat part icularly. 

_ Mr. Pera. Yes. The intermarriages are significant in that often- 
times you wonder whether these people want to marry each other. 
Yet the marriages take place. Let's say two people of a prominent 
status within the Mafia if they have children, you will find that their 
sons and daughters get married. They don't marry on unequal terms, 
too often. 

The Chairman. On equal terms ? 



E M PROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12229 

Mr. Pera. No, on unequal terms. In other words, a leader within 
the organization would not have his child marry to someone who is a 
nobody within (he organization. 

The Chairman. I see. I thought maybe that was significant in that 
there was thai distinction between the way maybe the Communists 
operated in building their organization and the way the Mafia 
operated. 

In other words, the Communists, of course, seek, I would as- 
sume, to get more members and more members all the time, whereas 
the Mafia would not seek to greatly enlarge its membership. 

Mr. Pera. There is no soliciting that I know of among the people 
within that organization. 

The Chairman. I see. 

All right. Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. We will not be able to finish with this witness today, 
Mr. Chairman, but I want to ask him just a couple of last questions. 

Have you found that this organization has attempted to penetrate 
into the broad field of labor-management relations ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. They have made a concerted effort in that direction. 

Mr. Kennedy. And are some of these same people who handle nar- 
cotics out of Sicily, out of the Middle East, are those same people also 
prominent in this field of labor-management? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. I don't think we have time at this time to go into 
the correlation between the groups and some of these people. He has 
some examples, Mr. Chairman. Maybe we can continue it tomorrow. 

The Chairman. You will return in the morning. 

The committee will convene at 10 o'clock in the morning. 

We will stand in recess until that time. 

( Whereupon, at 4 : 30 p. m. the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 10 a. m. Tuesday, July 1, 1958, with the following members pres- 
ent : Senators McClellan, Ives and Mundt.) 



INVESTIGATION OF IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LABOR OR MANAGEMENT FIELD 



TUESDAY, JULY 1, 1958 

United States Senate, 
Select Committee on Improper AcrrvrriES, 

in the Labor or Management Field, 

Washington, D. O. 

The select committee met at 10 a. m., pursuant to Senate Resolu- 
tion 74, agreed to January 30, 1957, in the caucus room, Senate Office 
Building, Senator John L. McClellan (chairman of the select com- 
mittee) presiding. 

Present: Senator John L. McClellan, Democrat, Arkansas; Sen- 
ator Irving M. Ives, Republican, New York; Senator Barry Gold- 
water, Republican, Arizona; and Senator Carl T. Curtis, Republican, 
Nebraska. 

Also present : Robert F. Kennedy, chief counsel ; Paul J. Tierney, 
assistant counsel ; John P. Constandy, assistant counsel ; John J. Mc- 
Govern, assistant counsel ; Pierre E. G. Salinger, investigator ; Walter 
R, May, investigator; George H. Martin, investigator; Sherman 
Willse, investigator ; and Ruth Young Watt, chief clerk. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

(Members of the committee present at the convening of the ses- 
sion were : Senators McClellan and Ives.) 

The Chairman. Will the witness resume the stand, please? 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, I might repeat what I said yester- 
day, that the Bureau of Narcotics, has asked that no pictures be taken 
of the witness face. 

The Chairman. The photographers and cameras, you who are in 
command of them, be governed accordingly, please. 

TESTIMONY OF MARTIN F. PERA— Resumed 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Pera, when we broke up yesterday, we were 
discussing or had begun to discuss whether some of these same in- 
dividuals who are active in the narcotics trade are also active in labor- 
management field. I believe you replied yesterday that some of these 
same individuals were active in the labor-management field. 

Mr. Pera. Yes, in labor, in both labor and in the business field, 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, could you give the committee, some examples 
of some of these individuals who have gone either into labor unions 
or gone into so-called fronts as businesses, and who are also active in 
the narcotics trade ? 

12231 



12232 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Pera. Yes, I could give general background of their moving 
into the management field. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you do that, please ? 

Mr. Pera. Incidentally, I would like to correct one statement I 
made yesterday, an inadvertent error. I mentioned this Anthony 
Tocco was from Chicago, and I had meant to say Detroit. 

Mr. Kennedy. I think the question had been prior to that whether 
anybody from Detroit or Chicago was connected with it, and you 
answered it in that way. 

Mr. Pera. All right. 

Well, with regard to their encroachment in the business field, we 
noted that the Capone income-tax case alerted people in the Mafia, 
and they learned that their old tenet of not showing apparent wealth 
was a good one to go by. They also learned that the crude techniques 
of force were no longer desirable. There was too much public at- 
tention. 

So having excellent advise, they learned to funnel their money into 
various businesses, and usually these businesses were services, busi- 
nesses that rendered a service as opposed to the production of a 
product. The service is much easier to control and gain a monopoly 
in. They learned to knock out their competition by pouring large 
funds into the business. 

Mr. Kennedy. Just on the service, would that be things such as the 
linen service ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Ordinarily. 

Mr. Pera. Linen, laundry, the vending, the garbage removing, all 
are examples of such services. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you found that these individuals about whom 
you talked yesterday have actively infiltrated into many of these busi- 
nesses in the communities around die country, the largest cities around 
the United States? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, sir. One of the outstanding examples that bore 
public scrutiny a short time ago was the Squillanti operation in the 
Greater Cartmen's Association of New York. That was composed of 
a group of businesses which removed garbage from the city of New 
York, and they tried to move that operation into Queens and West- 
chester Counties in New York. 

They were gaining a practical monopoly in the garbage removal 
field. We have the vending business, the linen-supply business, the 
ingredients with which to make pizza sauce, and Italian broad baking 
business, tomato paste business, the cheese and olive oil distribution, 
the distribution of imported fruits from Sicily. All of these are fields 
which these persons have gone into. 

(At this point, Senator Goldwater entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Pera. I think that they are going into these fields in some in- 
stances and it maintains a certain pattern, namely, by pouring the 
funds they get from illicit channels into these businesses, they can 
undersell their competitors and knock their competitors out of busi- 
ness, and then eventually gain control of a monopoly in a particular 
business, and this serves as well to hide their illicit income from the 
scrutiny of the income-tax people. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you find any tie-in with the same kind of situa- 
tions, for instance, in Sicily, as far as the fruit market was concerned ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12233 

Mr. Pera. Yes. Since 1955, there have been some 14 Mafia killings. 

The Chairman. Since 1955 ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes; since 1955 there have been 14 Mafia killings in Sicily, 
and these were with shotgun blasts with triangular pellets which were 
rubbed in garlic, most of these shotgun blasts. 

Mr. Kennedy. What would be the effect of that? 

Mr. Pera. Well, the effect of the garlic, it is an old trick devised by 
the people that were using guns during prohibition days, and the 
rubbing of garlic on the bullet caused blood poisoning and insured 
the deat li of whoever was shot. 

Mr. Kennedy. These are deaths that have occurred in Sicily; is 
that right ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes; and there the characteristic pattern was that these 
were people involved in the distribution of fruit, and the fruit-market 
business throughout Sicily and Italy. 

Since 1955 that has happened and because of that there has been a 
tremendous amount of work on the part of the Italian enforcement 
agencies against the people who perpetrated this, and they recognize 
that the Mafia is behind this. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have any examples of some of the individuals 
who were active in the United States in some of these businesses who 
were members of the Mafia ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, I think one of the outstanding examples of some 
who encroached into the business field was Frank Scalise, who was 
long known as the Mafia leader in the Bronx. He was murdered in 
the Bronx on June 17, 1958. 

Mr. Kennedy. I think it was 1957. 

Mr. Pera. Pardon me. It was 1957. He was on the Bureau of 
Narcotics international list long known as one of the most important 
recipients and distributors of heroin in the United States. Now, part 
of his operation in the Bronx was to take a percentage out of the many 
legitimate and illicit operations operated by the Mafia and other 
Italians in the Bronx. 

Our information in the case is that he declared himself to be a 
partner in the Maria DiBono Plastering Co., of 4030 National Street, 
Corona, Queens, N. Y. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is Maria & DiBono Plastering Co., of 4030 
National Street, Corona, Queens, N. Y. ? 

Mr. Pera. Y'es; that is correct. This developed when the par- 
ticular plastering company had a contract for the construction of a 
large TB hospital in the Bronx. This particular plaster company had 
many other low-cost-housing projects, contracts with low-cost-housing 
projects in New York City as well. After Scalise's murder it turned 
out he had been for some time the vice president and major stockholder 
in this company. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you ever learn how he was able to get into that 
company \ 

Mr. Pera. Well, according to a report we have going back to 1954, 
June of 1954, one of the sources we had stated that he suddenly 
appeared on the project, the construction project, and prior to that 
time the Maria & DiBono Plastering Co. had been known by that 
name. After he appeared, the checks were made out as a corpora* ion, 
Maria-DiBono, Inc., and he would appear from time to time at the 
project and would hand large amounts of money to one of the people 



12234 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

working in the project, and this also occurred coincidentally with the 
appearance of numerous hoodlums, obvious hoodlums, driving up in 
large Cadillacs at the project and having conferences with him there. 
Senator Goldwater. Who would he hand these large sums of money 
to? 

Mr. Pera. The particular individual? This you appreciate was 
obtained from a source of information on the particular project and 
he wasn't prepared to identify the individual for us. But he related 
this story to us, with the information that Scalise had suddenly de- 
clared himself to be a partner of this outfit. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, you found at this same time when he had 
some of these so-called businesses, and legitimate businesses, he was 
also active in narcotics ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he have any specific or particular contacts in 
Italy that he worked through ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. He was a very close associate of Salvatore Luciano, 
also known as Lucky Luciano. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you found that many of the individuals active 
in the Mafia in the United States have been in contact with Lucky 
Luciano in Italy? 

Mr. Pera. Well, we have secret reports from the Italian Govern- 
ment, and we have observations conducted over there, and on numer- 
ous occasions, when important Mafia characters from the United 
States travel to Italy, we have known them to meet Luciano. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you find this happens quite frequently, that 
there are contacts made between these people here in the United 
States with Lucky Luciano ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes; and in recent years because of the tremendous 
publicity attached to Luciano's activities, many of these meetings 
have occurred through intermediaries. In other words, Luciano might 
not meet these people personally, but information is passed along 
through very close associates of Luciano. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were there any meetings with Luciano, or with any 
of his "lieutenants," just prior to the meeting in Apalachin that you 
know of ? 

Mr. Pera. We know this, that immediately prior to the Apalachin 
meeting, that is in late October 1957, Carmine Galente and Joe 
Bonnano met with a very close associate of Salvatore Luciano in a 
hotel in Palermo. This close associate was a man by the name of 
Santos Sorge, and immediately following that meeting the Apalachin 
meeting occurred, and the sequence of events to us is very significant. 
The sole purpose of Galente and Bonnano travel from "what we know 
of their travel was simply to attend this meeting in Palermo, and then 
return to the United States for the purpose of the Apalachin meeting. 

Mr. Kennedy. And they both attended the Alapachin meeting? 

Mr. Pera. Out information is that Galente attended the meeting 
in L956, and initially the information indicated that Galente's name 
was not mentioned among (hose attending the Apalachin meeting, 
and since that time we learned from reliable sources that Galente 
was also present at the Apalachin meeting, even though he didn't 
appear on the list. 

Mi-. Kennedy. How about Joe Bonanno ? 

Mr. Pera. He attended the Apalachin meeting. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12235 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, we are talking about the contact of Scalise 
with Luciano. Do you have any evidence or proof that they actually 
got together ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, we noted that Scalise traveled to Italy in 1948, and 
in 1949. After his murder, the police, New York City police, dis- 
covered some documents in his house, and among those were several 
photographs. I have one here of Frank Scalise with Luciano, taken 
at the Hotel Excelsior in Naples, and we don't know whether it was 
taken in 1948 or 1949. The woman in the picture is the mistress of 
Luciano. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you show it to the chairman ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

(A document was handed to the chairman.) 

Mr. Pera. I might add that that picture is an enlargement of the 
original. 

The Chairman. Who are the two men in the picture ? 

Mr. Pera. Saltavore Luciano, known as Charles Luciano, and 
Frank Scalise. 

The Chairman. Is he the one on your right, as you face the picture ? 

Mr. Pera. As I face the picture, the man on the right is Luciano. 

The Chairman. Known as Lucky Luciano ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

The Chairman. Who is the other man ? 

Mr. Pera. The other man is Frank Scalise, the man on the left. 

The Chairman. And the name of the woman is unimportant, and 
the picture will be made exhibit 1 for reference. 

(Document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 1," for reference 
and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have another picture ? 

Mr. Pera. We have another picture, and actually it is composed 
of 8 individuals, 7 people and 3 of them women. It is a group pic- 
ture. In that appears Salvatore Luciano again, Frank Scalise, one 
man known as Vito Dubello, who had been exporting food to the 
United States. He was known to us then as an associate of Thomas 
Lucchese, known as Three-Finger Brown also. The other people 
in the picture are one Sorche, and we don't know anything more 
about him, and Salvatore Luciano, and again his mistress, and Mrs. 
Frank Scalise, and Frank Scalise, and Mrs. Dubello, and Vito Du- 
bello. 

I think it is significant that this individual was one of the people 
involved in the food importation business. 

The Chairman. Is that picture available for our files? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

The Chairman. The picture may be made exhibit No. 1 ( A) . 

(Document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 1 (A)," for ref- 
erence and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Would it be correct then to say, in order to under- 
stand the illegal activities of these individuals, you have to also under- 
stand and study their so-called front or legal activities; is that right? 

Mr. Pera. That is absolutely correct. These people do not neces- 
sarly separate their illegal activities from their legitimate fronts, or 
from their union activities. 

21243 — 58— pt. 32 4 



12236 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

You have to consider their operation as an entity — as a whole. If 
you don't, there is a tremendous amount of confusion and misunder- 
standing, and simply because they haven't been investigated from that 
point of view I think they have been able to exist. 

Mr. Kennedy. If they are just investigated from the fact that they 
are in the narcotics trade, a correct understanding of their operations 
and the apprehending them in their illegal activities is that much 
more difficult ; is that right. 

Mr. Pera. Well, you lose out on so many other possiblities if you 
look at these people solely from the point of view of their narcotics 
activities. The Bureau of Narcotics has maintained lengthy files for 
many years on various individuals and developed them, from an in- 
telligence point of view, not only with regard to their activities in the 
field of narcotics but from their activities as an organized entity. 
Since they have branched out into various other fields, many of them 
have violated the law, and the investigation of their other activities 
would prove beneficial in apprehending them. 

Mr. Kennedy. You talked about Frank Scalise being in the busi- 
ness, having fronts as businesses, while he was active in the narcotics 
trade. Can you give us examples of individuals who were active in 
labor, in unions, who were also involved in narcotics ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. Incidentally, there was also some correspond- 
ence^ 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. Can you give us some of the correspondence 
on Frank Scalise? 

Mr. Pera. Well, I have the translation of the hearings, and if I 
could simply read them into the 

(At this point, Senator Curtis entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Is there anything particularly we can listen for in 
these letters that you are going to read ? 

Mr. Pera. I think, in order to get the meaning of them, I will make 
a few comments in the course of reading them, if that is permissible. 

The Chairman. You read them and those points in the letters that 
have significance you may point out and elaborate upon. 

Mr. Pera. This is a letter signed by Frank Scalise. It is dated Sep- 
tember 10, 1956. It is to one Nino in Italy. The Nino we bel ieve to be 
Nino Torres. 

Mr. Kennedy. His first name? 

Mr. Pera. Nino, which is a diminutive of Antonino. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who is he ? 

Mr. Pera. He is a notorious hoodlum in Italy. 

I was very happy to receive your letter and I can assure you that I would like 
to know you. Perhaps in the near future I will have the pleasure of meeting you 
in person to express my fraternal respect which attracts nie to you. I did not 
write you sooner because I did not have your address, and I had to get it. I am 
enclosing a copy of the letter, the original of which was sent to the friend, 
Signor Nicoletti, of the factory, in Pallavicino. 

Interrupting here, I would draw attention to the reference to the 
fraternal respect, the fraternal respect within the organization. 

"Signor Nicoletti of the factory of Pallavicino," that refers to the 
Mafia leader in tin 1 part icnlar area. 

The factory in Pallavicino is a code for reference to the organization 
in Pallavicino. 

Mr. Kennedy. The Mafia organization in that city? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12237 

Mr. Pera. Yes. (Reading) : 

I don't know what the relationship is between you and the above mentioned, 
but I am obligated because of our friendship to inform you of anything that 
occurs here in order that you and my fraternal friend can form your opinions. 
Surely you know the differences thai have come up between Grito and his god- 
father, and in case you will be called to trial you will know what to do. 

Mr. Kennedy. What does (hat mean? 
Mr. Pera. Would you allow me to go on ? 
Mr. Kennedy. Excuse me. 
Mr. Pera (reading) : 

All told it is not a matter of honor or irreparable things but matters which 
could have been straightened out easily. I hope that you will excuse me for 
troubling you. Give my regards to Orlando Finazzo. Assuring you of my 
availability for anything that you may need ; regards and kisses from the friends 
and relatives here. 

Signed, Frank Scalise. 

The trial that he is talking about would not be a trial in the face of 
authorities. We feel that it is a trial within the organization, because 
he mentions that it is not a matter of honor or irreparable things but 
matters which could have easily been straightened out, a reference, we 
think, to an internal dispute within the organization. If it was a 
matter of honor, then someone would have to go. 

We have another letter. 

I mentioned that that letter was addressed to Nino. We do not know 
whether that is Nino Torres. I would like to correct that. We doivt 
know the Nino that that particular letter is addressed to. 

I have this one confused with another one. But this particular let- 
ter we do not knoAV the Nino. Here we have a letter, the second one, 
dated Palermo, February 10, 195G. It reads : 

Dear Don Ciccio — 

the diminutive of Frank, and the letter is intended for Frank Scalise. 

In replying to your kind letter, please excuse me for not having answered 
sooner. However, in regard to copy of letter which I received, I understand 
what it is all about, but since Signor Nicoletti for the present is being sought 
by Uncle Angelo — 

and here I will interrupt ; the Uncle Angelo they refer to as the police 
under the code of Uncle Angelo. 

We have been unable to talk him personally. 

I have now, however, sent him the letter so that he knows that I have been 
informed by you to take care of this matter. Since Nino Marsiglia — 

that is, the chief of the factory in Palermo — 

is at present in Ustica — 

and I interrupt here to mention thai Ustica is an island where many 
of the Matia people have been exiled to, serving prison terms or in 
exile. 

Mr. Kennedy. Once again, the reference to the chief of the fac- 
tory I 

Mr. Pera. It refers to the chief of the organization at Palermo. I 
will repeat : 

Since Nino Marsiglia, the chief of the factory at Palermo, is at present in 
Fstica, even I have been dispersed, as have been most of the rest of the chiefs 
of the factories. 



12238 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Incidentally, I mentioned before that because of the murders in- 
volved with the food exchange, the Italian Government had done a 
tremendous crackdown, since 1955. This letter is dated February 
1956, reflecting the activity of the Italian Government in dispersing 
this group. 

Even I have been dispersed, as have almost the rest of the chiefs of the fac- 
tories. Therefore, I beg you to wait a little while longer until we can get 
together to discuss what you have written me. For the present, Uncle Angelo 
is carrying on worse than in 1925. 

I will interrupt here again to say that in 1925 there was a concerted 
effort by the police to round up the hoodlums in Sicily. 

You can imagine how we have been disbanded. Hoping that this letter finds you 
in the best of health, as I assure you I am, I extend the affection and embraces 
to you, Nino, and all the other friends, and embraces to your brothers as well 
as from our friends. Your fraternal friend. 

That is Nino Torres of Palermo, Italy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you summarize what those letters mean to 
you? 

Mr. Pera. Well, to us they are particularly significant because for 
once these are letters seized from an individual we know to be of high 
stature within the organization, and for once we have documentary 
proof of their interrelationship and of the organizational structure. 
Much of the other information 

Mr. Kennedy. You say their organizational structure. 

Mr. Pera. The Mafia, specifically. Much of the other information 
we have to combine by word of mouth and by the activities of under- 
cover agents. But this is a letter that was seized from a person that 
was in there. 

Mr. Kennedy. And it would indicate, would it, that the leaders of 
the Mafia here in the United States are closely in contact with the 
leaders of the Mafia there ? 

Mr. Pera. There is a definite strong interrelationship and even an 
exchange of activity on either side ; yes, sir. 

Senator Goldwater. How do they communicate ? 

Mr. Pera. By mail. Many times they send the letters to mail drops. 
For instance, they might not send it to the man's address, but they 
might send a letter for him in care of some relatively unknown person, 
let's say an immigrant that has come here in the last few years, or 
someone that is relatively unknoAvn, or perhaps a business address. 

They are relatively safe in communicating by mail. 

Senator Goldwater. Do they use telephone at all ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. I think this committee later on is prepared to show 
intercommunication to a great extent by means of toll calls between 
the various individuals attending the operation. 

Senator Curtis. Mr. Chairman \ 

The Chairman. Senator Curtis. 

Senator Curtis. I would like to ask the witness: What is it that 
holds the Mafia together, and particularly to perpetuate itself? 

It is hard to understand — I will not say it is hard to believe, but it is 
hard to understand -how a conspiracy for wrongdoing can go on 
apparently indefinitely. What is your explanation of that? 

Mr. Pera. It is difficult to understand from the point of view of 
someone (hat has grown up outside of it and who lias grown up with 
a respect for law and order and lived his whole life that way. It isn't 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12239 

difficult to understand when you look into the fact that these people 
have grown up under a peculiar code of their own since infancy, that 
that is the only life that they know. Many of these hoodlums, were 
it not for the fact that they have a position in the Mafia, would have 
to work as laborers, or would have to start at menial jobs. 

As it is, through their particular activities in the Mafia, they have 
wealth and in many instances power. Many of them are competent, 
but they have opportunities open to them within that group. 

Senator Curtis. Maybe you have already done so, and if you have 
I will look up the record, but are you at liberty to state how large the 
Mafia is in numbers? If you are not supposed to give that informa- 
tion, I will withdraw the question. 

Mr. Pera. Well, I think that I would not at this point. However, 
I think that such information was prepared and given to the previous 
committees. 

The Chairman. That information may be given to us privately. 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

Senator Curtis. Very well. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. We were talking about the fact that they were in 
touch by mail, but also you brought out the fact that they made these 
personal contacts. 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Just going back briefly to that meeting that oc- 
curred prior to the Apalachin meeting, do you know anything further 
about what happened ? How do you connect the man, Sorge, who was 
there, with Lucky Luciano, for instance? 

Has that been definitely established, Sorge as a lieutenant of Lucky 
Luciano? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, sir. Investigation and surveillance by Italian 
authorities. We know him to be a very intimate associate of Luciano. 

Mr. Kennedy. And have you found him to be in touch, as a repre- 
sentative of Lucky Luciano, to be in touch with a number of other 
individuals in the United States ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. At one time he was in the United States and he 
operated various businesses here. He was very close, among others, 
with Carlo Gambino. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Carlo Gambino attended the meeting at 
Apalachin, did he not ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Carlo Gambino, Mr. Chairman, will be a very 
important figure in this inquiry. He runs a labor relations consult- 
ing service in New York City and has contacts with a number of the 
biggest gangsters throughout the United States. 

Is that correct ? 

Mr. Pera. That is correct. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were going to give us some examples also as to 
the infiltration into labor imions. 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

The two examples I will give are of individuals that were active in 
the narcotic traffic. I will start by one Pasquale Anthony Pagano. 

Mr. Kennedy. How do you spell Pasquale ? 

Mr. Pera. P-a-s-q-u-a-1-e. 

Mr. Kennedy. Pasquale Pagano ? 



12240 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Pera. Yes. During 1951 we had information that he was 
traveling to Italy to facilitate the importation of heroin. 

Pagano, through Tony Bender, who is known as Anthony Strollo, 
was Bender's name, and he was supplying this Scalise mob in the 
Bronx. 

Mr. Kennedy. Tomorrow, Mr. Chairman, we will have a good deal 
more information and evidence on Tony Bender, who is also known 
as Anthony Strollo, in the course of the material that we expect to 
bring out. 

So he is rather an important figure also in the course of this in- 
vestigation. 

Excuse me for interrupting. These names are difficult. Tony 
Bender was one of those supplying Scalise's mob in the Bronx \ 

Mr. Pera. Yes. Pagano was Tony Bender's man. He was work- 
ing for Tony Bender, in supplying the Scalise mob in the Bronx, and 
he worked with or under another man by the name of Pasquale Moccio. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who was he? 

Mr. Pera. Moccio is a very close associate of John Ormento and 
probably every other big narcotic violator in New York. 

Mr. Kennedy. Once we go into one name, we will have to identify 
him. Who is John Ormento ? 

Mr. Pera. Ormento is a twice-convicted narcotic violator. 

He attended the Apalachin meeting. We know him to be one of 
the prime distributors of heroin brought in by the Mafia elements, 
one of the prime distributors of that heroin throughout the United 
States. Ormento, as I recall, has been convicted three times. 

Mr. Kennedy. He is also a fugitive from justice at the present 
time ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. I might mention there is a case pending against 
him in the southern district of New York. 

Pagano, after traveling to Europe, we had the information that 
large quantities of heroin were being imported into the United States 
through the connivance of seamen couriers who Mould, in turn, give it 
to longshoremen to take off the East River piers. 

At that time, our information indicated that longshoremen were 
charging $400 to take a kilo of heroin off the ship. 

If the arrangements for the smuggling had been made prior 
through the Mafia groups, that is, as Pagano had done through his 
contacts in Europe, the individual seamen were not required to pay 
the $400. However, if the individual seamen were in business for 
themselves, then they would have to pay $400 to get the kilo off the 
ship by the longshoremen. This money would go to the longshore 
boss, the gang boss. 

Witli regard (o Pagano's activities in the union field, we received 
information that between 1951 and 1952 Pagano worked with one 
Joseph Gnrniey and a number of other New York hoodlums. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who is Joseph Gurney? 

Mr. Pera. Joseph Gurney is a close associate of Elmer "Trigger" 
Burke who died in (lie electric chair not too long ago. He has a long 
history of being a longshore hoodlum. He is a very violent and 
dangerous individual. 

Mr. Kennedy. So Pagano was a close associate of his? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. Both Gurney and Pagano were working for Tony 
Bender as enforcers of Bender, in Bender's attempt to gain control 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12241 

of the longshore activities of the ClaremoiH terminal al Hoboken, 

N.J. 

Mr. Kennedy. During this period of time, isn't it true that Tony 
Bender who was in charge of this operation had a real-estate office? 

That was his front, the business that he was operating? 

Mr. Pera. Yes ; as I understand it, thai iscorrect. 

Mr. Kennedy. These individuals. Gurney and Pagano, were oper- 
ating out of the Clareniont terminals in Hoboken, X. J.? 

.Mr. Pera. Yes. That was Bender's attempt to gain control of all 
longshore activities at Hoboken. In the course of this, Gurney was 
the prime suspect in the beating of a man in either Jersey City or 
Hoboken with a baseball bat and breaking almost every bone in his 
body. 

Pagano was a suspect in the bombing of a union hall, both Pagano 
and Gurney, of an opposing union hall in, as I recall it, Hoboken, N. J. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that at the same time thai Bender's 
1 >roi her was the hiring boss on the docks '. 

Mr. Pera. Yes, that iscorrect. 

Mr. Kennedy. So they were operating from the side of the union 
and also on the side of management to handle this matter? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. Pagano had employment, I believe, as assistant 
timekeeper at the Claremont terminal, and Gurney at the time was 
a Longshoreman. 

The New York State Crime Commission in their hearings during 
L952 caused public attention to be focused on Strollo's activities and 
because of this Strollo was forced to withdraw his men from the 
Claremont termina 1 . 

On September 18, 1956, Gurney was arrested for possession and sale 
of kilo quantities of pure heroin. I participated in his arrest. "When 
we arrested him in New York City, we found in his wallet a letter, 
what appeared to be a letter of recommendation, a photostatic copy 
of which I have here. It is a letter dated September 13, 1052. Shall I 
read it \ 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes, please. 

Mr. Pera. The subject is Promotion to ILA Superevisor, and it 
is addressed to District Engineer, Atlantic District, Corps of Engi- 
neers, 316 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

The paragraphs of that are numbered. 

1. This office has authorized Dade Bros, to reclassify Joseph Gurney to ILA 
field supervisor effective September 10. 1952. 

2. During the eloseout period at Claremont Terminal, a man with known 
intestinal fortitude and ability to direct longshore personnel to actually perform 
a day's work is a necessity. 

?>. The longshoremen are quick to obey the desires of Mr. Gurney. We believe 
this because he reports directly to Mr. Ryan himself. Observations for the 
past 3 months seem to indicate that even hiring boss takes orders from Mr. 
Gurney. 

4. Request your office approve the reclassification of this manual laborer. 

It is signed by Cyril A. Millicent, lieutenant colonel, T. C, which I 
would take to be Transportation Corps, officer in charge Claremont 
Terminal. 

Mr. Kennedy. This is Mr. Gurney who participated in the beating 
of this other individual with a baseball bat ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. I might add here that after the beating there were 
a number of witnesses. However, for various reasons nobody testi- 



12242 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

fied against Gurney. There was nobody to testify against Gurney 
or Pagano in either the bombing incident or the beating of the man 
with the baseball bat. 

Mr. Kennedy. But in the letter, they did point out that the long- 
shoremen seemed to do what Mr. Gurney wanted done? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. And also that he seems to report directly to Mr. 
Ryan, who was the head of the international longshoremen's union. 

Senator Goldwater. Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Senator Goldwater. 

Senator Goldwater. This Claremont Terminal at Hoboken, N. J., 
is that a privately run terminal ? 

Mr. Pera. No. Apparently this terminal — as a matter of fact, 
the New York State Crime Commission investigated Strollo's activ- 
ities, Gurney's and Pagano's, as did the Senate Preparedness Com- 
mittee, I think, during 1955. 

This terminal was run by Dade Bros., and it involved the military. 
The Dade Bros, were the people who actually had to do with the 
Claremon Terminal, a subsidiary of that particular organization 
being the Atlas Corp., which was a prime contractor in the construc- 
tion of an Air Force base in north Africa and bases in the Arctic. 

Dade also processes and packs for export. 

Senator Goldwater. Where did the Army get into this? I see 
this letter was signed by Lt. Col. Cyril A. Millson, officer in charge, 
Claremont Terminal. 

Mr. Pera. Yes. That would be the United States Army dock. 

Senator Goldwater. Claremont Terminal is an Army dock ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, sir. And I don't know about the facilities still 
being used now by the Army, but at that time it was a United States 
Army dock. 

Senator Goldwater. I am a little confused here. Was it exclu- 
sively an Army dock or were private companies allowed to use it? 

Mr. Pera. I don't know whether it was exclusively an Army dock 
at the time or not, but this much is true, that at the time the Army 
ships were unloaded and processed at the Claremont Terminal. 

Senator Goldwater. When you talk about longshoremen were 
charging $400 to take a kilo of heroin off the ship, was that off Army 
ships or Army transports ? 

Mr. Pera. No. This happened in this particular instance on the 
ships docking at the East River in New York. 

Senator Goldwater. Did you ever have any reason to suspect that 
Army or Navy transports docking at this facility were carrying 
opium or heroin? 

Mr. Pera. I don't personally recall any information we had along 
the line at the time. I don't have any particular knowledge. We do 
know that at the time, and afterward, they were in the narcotic traffic. 

Senator Goldwater. Were these gangsters 

Mr. Pera. Incidentally, I might add that they had an ideal oppor- 
tunity in their capacity as a longshoreman to remove narcotic drugs 
from ships coming in. 

Senator Goldwater. Is there any indication in your experience that 
these people we have been talking about, these members of the Mafia 
and other gangsters, put any undue pressure on the Army in connec- 
tion with the operation of Claremont Terminal '. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12243 

Mr. Pera. I do not know that. I know that the Dade Bros, was 
operated by two sons of General Dade. 

Senator Goldwater. What is that company ? 

Mr. Pera. That is the company that operated the Claremont Ter- 
minal. 

Senator Goldwater. Contractors ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, sir. 

Senator Goldwater. And they were the sons ? 

Mr. Pera. Sons of General Dade, who was a distinguished Air 
Force veteran. 

Senator Goldwater. That is all I have. 

Senator Kennedy. Now, yon also established, have you, that 
Gurney, who was working with Pagano, was a close associate of 
Trigger Burke ? Is that right ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, Gurney was a close associate of Trigger Burke, 
and I don't know that Pagano was. 

Senator Kennedy. But Gurney was ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, sir ; very definitely. 

The Chairman. While you have read the letters into the record, 
the Chair feels that if they can be made available, that the copies 
of the letters that you have read so far and referred to should be made 
an exhibit for reference. 

Mr. Pera. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. They are available, and they may be made exhibits. 

Mr. Pera. Excuse me. I only have one copy with me, and perhaps 
I could make them available later. 

The Chairman. You may make them available at your convenience, 
and they may be made exhibits. The first two you read may be made 
exhibits 2 and 2-A, and the letter that he has just concluded reading 
may be made exhibit No. 3. 

(The letters referred to were marked "Exhibits 2, 2-A, and 3," 
respectively and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Senator Kennedy. Did Pagano ever become an official or officer in 
any of these unions ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. Pagano after Strallo ordered his men away from 
the Claremont Terminal, or out of it. Pagano naturally had to seek 
another front or another enterprise, and he became the business agent 
of local 59 of the Hod Carriers Union in East Harlem, N. Y. We 
know that Rosario Mancuso, who attended the Apalachin meeting, 
was an officer of local 186 of the Hod Carriers Union in Pitts- 
burgh N. Y. 

Now we note also that when a narcotic defendant by the name of 
Anthony Caniglia was arrested in New York we found on his person 
a post card from Patsy Pagano, secretary and treasurer of local 59, 
Bricklayers Helpers Union, which is the same as Hod Carriers Union. 
This post card notified him that his union membership card was ready 
for him. 

Caniglia has a lengthy criminal record with convictions for nar- 
cotics and counterfeiting. 

Mr. Kennedy. What is Pagano doing now ? 

Mr. Pera. On April 23, 1956, Pagano was sentenced to 5 years after 
his conviction in the narcotic conspiracy trial at the southern district 



12244 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

of New York, and Gurney was sentenced to 10 years at the southern 
district of New York in a narcotics case that I mentioned previously. 

Mr. Kennedy. Both of these individuals were active in the union 
during this period, during a good deal of this period of time ? 

Mr. Pera. During the period around 1951 and 1952, and Pagano 
later in the Hod Carriers or Bricklayers Helpers Union. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, you spoke about Rosario Mancuso also being in 
the Hod Carriers Union. Do you have any other information regard- 
ing Mancuso ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. Rosario Mancuso attended the Apalachin meeting. 
During 1953 and prior to that time he was known to be more or less of 
an enforcer for the Joseph Falcone criminal empire in Utica. During 
1953 he with one Anthony Falange, also of Utica, N. Y., purchased 
Gio's restaurant in Plattsburgh, N. Y., and they renamed that restau- 
rant the Italian Village. This place afterward became a hangout for 
the more important Mafia hoodlums from New York City and Mon- 
treal, Canada, and Mancuso then became an officer in the Hod Carriers 
Local 186, and this particular local represented laborers working on 
the Strategic Air Command base at Plattsburgh, N. Y. 

Now I might mention that in moving to Plattsburgh I am sure that 
these people had some thought of the ultimate expansion that might be 
caused in this area with the St. Lawrence seaway and the development 
of that area. They were getting in on the ground floor up there. 

Now, during August of 1954 our bureau received information that 
James Foti, a fugitive on a narcotic charge emanating out of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, Federal narcotic charge, was hiding up at Platts- 
burgh, and up there he was an enforcer for Mancuso in the hitter's 
union activities. He was apprehended up there shortly afterward by 
our agents ; Foti was at Plattsburgh, N. Y. 

May I return for 1 second, and I was asked a question regarding the 
Dade Bros. 

I have the information here. George Clark is vice president and 
operating manager of the Dade Bros. firm. And Jim Garman, the 
general superintendent, was onetime president of the Staten Island 
Bus Drivers Union. John Fell, superintendent, was a former rodeo 
rider, and has two former rodeo hands as assistants. 

The Dade Bros., as I mentioned before, subcontracted with the Atlas 
Corp., prime contract for the Air Force construction of Air Force 
bases in both north Africa and the Arctic. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, during the course of your study and investiga- 
tion we have found that there are many contacts from these groups or 
among these groups in New York, upstate New York. Detroit, and out 
through the Midwest and the Far West, but that it would appear that, 
in some way, Chicago was separated and segregated from some of these 
other areas. 

Could you make any comment on the situation as far as ( Jhicago was 
concerned, as to who runs the operation and what the status of it is \ 

Mr. Pera. Certainly the important figures in Chicago would be Tony 
Accardo and Paul Ricca. 

In the past Racio Facetti was important, but since his death he has 
been eliminated. 

Also another figure in the Chicago area was James Emory, and 
I understand since that time he has died. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12245 

Senator Kennedy. Is the situation in Chicago different from the 
situation in some of these other large cil ies \ 

Mr. Pera. Well, I would say that the particular element as repre- 
sented l>y Accardo has a very tight control of the illicit activities and 
many of the Legitimate fronts operated there by him, and it is difficult 
to identify their operations as compared with other places. 

Senator Kennedy. But, from your own study and operation, they 
have a number of front organizations that operate in Chicago such 
as these other individuals have in these other areas? 

Mr. Pera. Precisely. 

Senator Kennedy. And it is a very tight internal control in Chi- 
cago \ 

Mr. Pera. Yes. I would also add that about a year and a half ago 
there was considerable publicity attached to Tony Accardo's activi- 
ties; perhaps it was 2 years ago. There was public attention focused 
on him, and he had to appear before various hearings, and, to that 
extent, there is a strong possibility that Frank Sigo from Spring- 
field, 111., might have represented Accardo's interests in Chicago be- 
cause of the notoriety surrounding him. 

Senator Ken nedy. That is what I wanted to ask you about. 

At least, of those apprehended, there was no one directly from Chi- 
cago ? That is, at the Apalachin meeting. 

Was it necessary for all of these individuals to come in person? 
Or what would be the procedure that they would follow ? 

Mr. Pera. The procedure would be that they would have a man who 
might represent their interests and act as their spokesman at the meet- 
ing. I think that you will find that in Chicago Sigo was the man 
representing the Chicago people. 

Senator Kennedy. What about the situation in Detroit, Mich.? 
Who are some of the important individuals there? 

Mr. Pera. Well, I can mention a couple. 

Senator Kennedy. Just a few. 

Mr. Pera. Well, Raphael Quasarano. 

Senator Kennedy. How t do you spell his name? He also will fea- 
ture very prominently at a later time in this investigation. He has 
a very close relationship with some union officials from Detroit in 
whom we have a considerable interest. 

Mr. Pera. Q-u-a-s-a-r-a-n-o, R-a-p-h-a-e-1. 

Senator Kennedy. Who is he? 

Mr. Pera. Raphael Quasarano we have known for quite a few years 
as an important figure in the distribution of narcotics. We note that, 
I believe, it was during 1052 both Quasarano and Catalnotte 

Mr. Kennedy. You will have to spell that one. 

Mr. Pera. Catalnotte, Joseph, of Windsor, Ontario, had a part with 
bringing of one Dominic Albertini into the United States via Detroit, 
via Canada and Detroit. This Dominic Albertini was a Corsican 
who operates laboratories for the conversion of morphine base into 
heroin in France, and he is a French Corsican and an extremely im- 
portant figure in the narcotics traffic. 

Quasarano was very closely associated with Joe Lamento from New 
York. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have any information that he is also promi- 
nent in boxing circles in the United States ? 



12246 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Pera. Yes. He has a number of other more legitimate fronts 
and semilegitimate activities. 

Mr. Kennedy. Specifically, he operates the Motor City Fight Arena 
in Detroit. 

Mr. Pera. Yes ; and he is active in boxing. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you find a number of these individuals, as well 
as being active in some of the industries that you mentioned, have 
interests in fighters and in boxing ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

I recall another is Andrew Alberti from New York City who has 
a hand in the fighter Johnny Busso. There are quite a few also active 
in boxing. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about in St. Louis? What is the situation 
there ? 

Mr. Pera. In St. Louis we have Anthony Giodardo and Anthony 
Lopiero. I don't know whether he is residing in St. Louis at this 
immediate time right now or not, but he is prominent in St. Louis' 
fraternity, and that is Ralph Caleca. 

Mr. Kennedy. How about John Battillo ? 

Mr. Pera. John Battillo was well known. 

Mr. Kennedy. And in Florida, in Miami ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, Miami is a point where many of the more impor- 
tant United States and Canadian and even the French traffickers con- 
gregate. We have had Galente traveling to Miami from time to time, 
and to Cuba. We have had Santo Travagani, who is now in Cuba, but 
is in Miami, also, and he is active in Miami also. We have Charles 
Forino active in the gambling in Cuba, and there are dozens active 
in Miami. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, the chairman stated in the opening statement 
about the fact that this would appear to be a national problem rather 
than just a local problem. Would you make any comment on that? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. I would say that you could never appreciate the 
total activity of this group if you dissect it from one area and focus 
your attention only on one particular area. I don't think that en- 
forcement agencies that observe their activities in one particular city 
can appreciate the network involved in this criminal conspiracy. I 
don't think that they could appreciate the extent or the ramifications 
or what it costs the public, the loss of money to the public and the 
extent of their criminal activity unless attention was focused on 
them from a national or interstate point of view. 

The Chairman. Would you say their activities, as you have observed 
and discovered them to be, actually become a burden upon interstate 
commerce? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, because let us say when they gain a stranglehold on 
a particular labor union, or when they get a stranglehold on a par- 
ticular business, naturally, once they have a monopoly created, they 
are going to benefit from it financially, and that results in a tremendous 
loss which may not be measured directly by the consumer and which 
may not be realized by the consumer immediately. But the loss still 
exists. 

When they gain a foothold in labor, that means that they have a 
control in the prices that are charged for the work involved. I think 
one of the outstanding examples in that regard would be the inquiry 
made into the garbage removal union of Squillante's. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12247 

The Chairman. At least the interstate facilities are used to per- 
petuate and to support a monopoly wherever they get the stranglehold. 

Mr. Pera. That is correct. 

Senator Goldwater. Mr. Pera, in your experience and to your 
knowledge, is their source of revenue greater from their infiltration 
into business and unions, or greater from the operation of gambling 
and dope and other illegal processes? 

Mr. Pera. Well, we have to separate the two, because let us say the 
income from illicit ventures might not be reported as such in income 
tax, and you have a (ax-free dollar and it is quite a bit more than 
when you have a tax dollar. 

It is difficult to estimate exactly which is the biggest revenue gath- 
erer. Certainly, if there was a tremendously overwhelming amount 
of money gathered from their legitimate enterprises, it would be 
foolish for them to continue in the illicit ventures. But, at the same 
time, the rewards are so great in the narcotic traffic and in control of 
gambling that they have kept very active in it. 

Senator Goldw t ater. In your judgment, what is this costing the 
United States annually? Is it 1 billion, 3, or 5, or 10 billion dollars, 
or what would you guess the cost to be ? 

Mr. Pera. I wouldn't be prepared to give an estimate to that extent 
because it would be a pure guess, and I would venture to say that 
unless you totaled up the total assets of the various firms, and their 
income, and made an investigation in that regard, it would be difficult. 

Senator Goldwater. I have read figures on this. One book I read 
said $20 billion. I have heard the figure of $20 billion. Do you think 
that that is exorbitant ? 

Mr. Pera. I cannot even conceive of figures that large. 

Senator Goldwater. If you sat on this side of the table it would be 
easy. 

Would that seem to you to be a high figure, as a cost to the country ? 

Mr. Pera. It is difficult to estimate, and I would simply say that 
the costs would be outside of my comprehension, and I must leave it 
at that. 

Senator Goldwater. It is a lot of money. 

Mr. Pera. Yes, sir. 

Senator Goldwater. I wanted to get back to this, and you did not 
get quite far enough west for me. 

Are these people active to the west coast ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

I think, in anticipation of what the committee will prepare later 
on, I am sure that they will cover those areas. 

Spnntor Goldwater. I would like a general statement as to the ac- 
tivities on the west coast. 

Mr. Pera. Many of these people are particularly active in Cali- 
fornia. The Lamandi family. 

Senator Goldwater. What are they doing out there ? 

Mr. Pera. I think one of them is active ; I believe Joseph Lamandi. 
I believe he is active in some union activity there. It is, I think, a 
restaurant-supply union, or it has something to do with catering or 
union activity, catering to restaurant work. 

There are quite a few, and they are strongly represented out there. 



12248 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EST THE LABOR FIELD 

I don't have detailed lists of them prepared at the moment. I am 
sure I didn't anticipate it in view of the fact that I am sure the com- 
mittee will go into that. 

Senator Kennedy. We have a witness from the west coast. 

Senator Goldwater. To get back into the central part of the Far 
West, in your work in narcotics or in your connection with the Bureau, 
have you been led to believe that a lot of heroin and opium and dope 
comes across the Mexican border? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, there is a quantity of smoking opium that does 
come across the Mexican border, and a few years back there were 
some laboratories that were converting this opium into a morphine 
base and then into heroin for transmittal up here. 

We found generally — and there are exceptions to this, too — that the 
quality of this heroin does not compare with the heroin that is avail- 
able from Europe, and, because of that, the greater influx is from the 
other source. However, there are instances of traffic across the 
Mexican border. 

We also have in the past instances where the European traffickers 
congregated at Mexico City and smuggled in substantial quantities of 
drugs. 

Senator Goldwater. Are these people members of the Mafia ? 

Mr. Pera. The particular people that I have reference to, yes, both 
in the cooperation between the Mafia and the Corsican element; they 
are sister organizations. 

Senator Goldwater. Does much of this opium come out of the State 
of Sonora ? In northern Mexico ? 

Mr. Pera. There is a certain quantity, as I say, of opium that is 
grown in Mexico. From the information at my disposal, most of that 
is converted into smoking opium and is used to smoke. However, a 
certain amount of it is put into heroin, but that traffic doesn't compare 
with the traffic from the eastern sources. 

(At this point, the following members were present : Senators Mc- 
Clellan, Ives, Goldwater and Curtis.) 

Senator Goldwater. Is there any connection to your knowledge with 
the fact that opium is grown in Sonora and the fact that I don't know 
how many but some members of the Mafia have moved, at least into 
temporary residences in Arizona and other Southwestern States? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

Senator Goldwater. Do you bolieve there is a connection with that? 

Mr. Pera. I think that there is more a connection with the activi- 
ties of Corsican and Mafia elements in Mexico City, which in the past 
has brought in heroin from European sources into Mexico City and 
via the Mexican border into the United States. 

While there is a certain amount of opium grown in Sonora as you 
point out, that opium is used mostly for smoking and a substantial 
quantity of it passes into the hands of Chinese traffickers. 

Senator Goldwater. Where on the Mexican border do you think 
most of this is coming across, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona or 
California ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, it can come across anywhere. I would be hard 
pressed to say that any particular location is favored over another 
There is a great deal of marihuana traffic across that border, too. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12249 

Senator Goldwatbr. Then you think there is some connection be- 
tween the fact that opium does come across the border and members 
of certain of these gangs have moved into some of the border states? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, particularly the heroin traffic, European heroin 
traffic, coming into Mexico and into the Tinted States, definitely. 

Senator duns. Mr. Chairman '. 

The ( 'iiairmax. Senator Curtis. 

Senator Crims. Do the members of the Mafia have any established 
pattern for the employment of attorneys that you can comment on, or 
is that pretty much an individual and local decision that is made? 

Mr. Pera. We know thai certain attorneys over and over again rep- 
resent these people. We know that certain attorneys over and over 
again represent people in the Mafia that get caught on narcotic 
violations. 

The significance of this I would not be prepared to go into at this 
moment, but we know that they seek repeatedly the advice of certain 
attorneys that they know represent their interests, and perhaps that 
know a certain amount or are specialized along that line, let me put it 
that way. 

Senator Curtis. Do they have these attorneys leave their own area 
to represent certain members of other areas ? 

Mr. Pera. On certain occasions. However, I don't know in certain 
instances whether there could be an exchange, whether an attorney 
from one State could represent in another State. 

Senator Curtis. Then, of course, there are many instances where 
they purposely hire the most capable and reputable attorney they can 
because they need to have the best possible ; is that correct, who may be 
totally unaware of the network that is back of the individual who is 
in trouble ? Is that correct ? 

Mr. Pera. Let's say with the group that attended the Apalachin 
meeting, I would say any person would be hard pressed not to be aware 
of the background of the people that attended the meeting at this 
point. 

Senator Curtis. Were there any attorneys there? 

Mr. Pera. At the Apalachin meeting? Frank DeSimone, from 
California, was. 

Senator Curtis. Whereabouts in California is he from? 

Mr. Pera. As I recall, Los Angeles, I believe. 

Incidentally, I might also add that the son of I believe it is either 
Joseph or Salvatore Falcone is an attorney up in Utica, if you are 
interested. 

Senator Curtis. What are the principal revenue-producing busi- 
nesses, in a general way, that are important to the Mafia? 

Mr. Pera. Well. I mentioned some of them previously. Well, the 
importation of olive oil and cheese, the tomato paste. At one time 
Ave heard a story that they had cornered all the tomato paste being; 
imported into this country and that certain food markets had to import 
Hungarian tomato paste even though they were aware of the fact that, 
you know, public opinion might be affected in importing an article 
from Hungary. 

But we have tomato paste, the ingredients to make pizza sauce, food 
imports. Other businesses that I described as services, such as the 
linen supply. 



12250 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EST THE LABOR FIELD 

Senator Curtis. Restaurants ? 

Mr. Pera. Restaurants. Bars in some areas, and restaurants. The 
garbage removal union. 

Senator Curtis. Any theaters or amusement concerns, or is that 
not so ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, I think it is mostly cafe, but I think you will find a 
strange variety of businesses that these people have gone into. 

While the ones I numbered are the most representative, there are 
certain others ; there are many others. 

Senator Curtis. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Is there anything further? 

Mr. Kennedy. Just two more questions. 

No. 1, do you have any suggestions as to how this operation can be 
combated ? 

Mr. Pera. Well, from the point of view of narcotic enforcement, in 
which many of these people have engaged, I can say this, that any 
organized conspiracy to violate the laws of this State cannot exist 
without frequent intercommunication. I think that subsequent testi- 
mony brought out into this committee will show toll calls, will show 
telephone communication, between various members of the Mafia fra- 
ternity, as represented by the Apalachin group. 

No such criminal conspiracy and no such organization could exist 
without the use of the telephone specifically. They have to maintain 
lines of intelligence with one another. 

The Senate Judiciary Subcommittee of the 84th Congress made 
certain recommendations after investigating for possible legislation 
along the lines that might aid narcotic enforcement. 

They also gave us a tremendous weapon with the increased penalty. 
However, one of their recommendations was a provision for allowing 
the Bureau of Narcotics specifically to monitor telephone conversa- 
tions, of course with the proper safeguards such as the obtaining of a 
court order, the same safeguards that would insure a citizen from 
illegal search of his house. 

This was recommended, but, unfortunately, the Senate in that 
instance saw fit not to give us that weapon. It would be a weapon 
that Ave could use. It would be a fantastic weapon in our hands to 
combat this conspiracy, particularly if we could use it in a narcotic 
conspiracy case. 

Mr. Kennedy. That would be the right of monitoring telephone 
conversations under a court order, is that right ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes ; precisely. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you think that would give you the greatest 
amount of assistance in combating the Mafia ? 

Mr. Pera. Unquestionably. We have come to realize that time and 
time again, where in the course of our investigations we pick up toll 
calls which these people have made, and we show that they, have 
communicated with one another in the course of a narcotic conspiracy 
or in the course of narcotic dealings. 

However, had Ave been able to show their conversations, we Avould 
have been able to draw many more important people into the con- 
spiracy (hat Ave were unable to touch because that Avas deficient. 

Mr. Kennedy. You staled yesterday about the fact that there is a 
certain line of intermarriage, a certain pattern of intermarriage. 
between many of these individuals. ' ithal righl ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12251 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you found that in many instances they are 
connected between various cities by intermarriage ? 

Air. Peka. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. And this is often arranged, would you say ? 

Mr. Pera. That is correct. It is thought out beforehand because 
you find that many of these marriages took place on equal terms, in 
other words, the daughter of a man on high standing in the organiza- 
tion would not likely — may, but would not be likely to — marry the 
son of a man that is in very low standing in the organization. 

(At this point, Senator Goldwater withdrew from the hearing 
room. ) 

Mr. Kennedy. And did you also find that they would set up some 
of these children after these marriages had been arranged in some 
of these legitimate front businesses? 

Mr. Peka. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. And often use their own gangster connections in 
order to bring business into these businesses, is that right ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is, to bring further profits ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that also has to be arranged often through 
labor-union connections? 

Mr. Pera. That is correct. In investigating the labor-union con- 
nections of these people, one must always take into mind the total 
aspect of the activities of the individuals involved here. For instance, 
in many instances where they might control a labor union, they also 
might have a labor-consultant firm go in and consult between the 
union and the management, and it is rigged on both ends against man- 
agement in such instances. 

Air. Kennedy. But this is often done, rather than necessarily 
through themselves although it can be done that way, through their 
children in this intermarriage ? 

Mr. Pera. Often, yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, we have a chart that perhaps Mr 
Martin can make a comment on. 

The Chairman. Mr. Martin, be sworn, please. You do solemnly 
swear the evidence you shall give before this Senate select committee 
shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Martin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE H. MARTIN 

The Chairman. Mr. Martin, you are a member of this committee 
staff? 

Mr. Martin. I am, sir. 

The Chairman. How long have you been in Government service? 

Mr. Martin. Since 1950. 

The Chairman. In what capacity? 

Mr. Martin. Investigator for several congressional committees, and 
also in the House as well as the Senate. 

21243— 58— pt. 32 5 



12252 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. Have you prepared a chart designed to show the 
intermarriage connections between members of the Mafia 2 

Mr. Martin. I have. 

The Chairman. Do you have that chart before you ? 

Mr. Martin. I have, sir. 

The Chairman. That chart may be made exhiibt No. 4. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 4" for refer- 
ence and will be found in the appendix facing page 12496.) 

Mr. Kennedy. On this chart, is this a complete study of all of the 
individuals in the United States who are alleged to have connections 
with the Mafia ? 

Mr. Martin. No, sir ; it is not. 

It does not purport to be a complete geneological review of the Mafia 
family interrelationship existing all over the United States. 

Mr. Kennedy. It actually is just a five-State area; is that right? 

Mr. Martin. It covers the five-State area, and primarily our atten- 
tion was centered upon the relationship of certain people, and as we 
progressed the situation developed other relationships to groups in 
other areas. 

We finally determined that the five-State area here would best por- 
tray the degree of relationship that exists. Undoubtedly, if this was 
projected over the United States, it would develop or reflect what is 
portrayed in this particular chart. 

We find, as we go along, isolated relationships extending to the west 
coast, and down into Kansas City, St. Louis, and New Orleans. It is 
a task that would require the expenditure of a great deal of time and 
money. 

Perhaps it should be undertaken by some agency. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did we find that a large number of the individuals 
who attended the meeting at Apalachin are related to each other either 
by blood or by marriage ? 

Mr. Martin. Roughly half of the people who were in attendance 
at the Apalachin meeting appear on this chart. Their names are 
circled in red. 

The extent to which the relationship exists between various groups 
and between various members within these groups is indicated by 
lines. For instance, the green line, extending across the chart, re- 
flects the relationship between William Bufalino in Detroit, and his 
sister Emmanuela "Dolly" Bufalino, who is the wife of Salvatore 
Falcone, Jr. 

I cite that merely as an example. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you find as a second characteristic that many of 
the individuals who are related by blood or by marriage, many of 
the male individuals, have criminal records? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. Each one of the stars that appears on this 
chart reflects a record of arrest of the person involved. I want to make 
the distinction that these are arrest records, because in a great many 
instances a man may have been arrested a number of times but the 
record will not reflect convictions. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you find, for instance, in Detroit that many 
of the leading gangsters in Detroit are related by marriage or by blood ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Does that take in, probably, the leading hoodlums 
in the Detroit area, this chart ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12253 

Mr. Martin. I would say that it covers a pretty broad segment of 
the so-called rulers of the criminal syndicate that exists in the Detroit 
area. 

In consideration of this part of the chart, it might be well to keep 
in mind that prior to 1920, the early 1920's, the Purple Gang, a no- 
torious syndicate, pretty much ruled the Detroit underworld. With 
the coming of prohibition, and the movement of the Mafia element 
into bootlegging and rumrunning, their ascendency to power seems 
to have been concentrated in the early 1920's so that they supplanted 
the Purple Gang as the rulers of the underworld in Detroit. 

I refer, of course, to characters like Papa John Priziola, Pete Lica- 
voli, Sam and Joe Zerilli, Black Bill Tocco, and Angelo Meli, all of 
whom appear here, and, as can be seen by an examination of the chart, 
are interrelated through various marriages they have between families. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you give us two examples, possibly, in Detroit, 
where marriages in the families brought together a number of different 
leading hoodlum families ? 

Mr. Martin. Well, Papa John Priziola had five daughters. We find 
that one of the daughters is married to Michael Polizzi, who, in turn, 
is the son of Angelo Polizzi. 

Mr. Kennedy. The Polizzis have criminal records ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. Angelo Polizzi is the one particularly noted for 
criminal activities in the Detroit area. There was testimony here yes- 
terday that he was involved with Joseph Barbara down here as a 
suspect in murders in Scranton, Pa. 

Mr. Kennedy. Go ahead. 

Mr. Martin. Priziola had another daughter who married Vincent 
Cammarata. From the Cammaratas, the line extends from 

Mr. Kennedy. Trace that through, with your stick there. Trace it 
through. 

Mr. Martin. Vincent Cammarata and Frank Cammarata are 
brothers. Both have records in the Detroit area. Frank Cammarata 
is the husband of Grace Licavoli, who is the sister of Pete Licavoli. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are the Licavolis an important family in the hood- 
lums? 

Mr. Martin. The Licavolis had a wide range of influence extend- 
ing down from Detroit into Ohio, across Ohio into Cleveland and as 
far east as Youngstown. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was there a Licavoli who went down into St. Louis? 

Mr. Martin. One of the Licavolis, Dominick Licavoli, an uncle of 
Pete Licavoli, resided in St. Louis and had an arrest record both in 
Detroit and St. Louis. 

Mr. Kennedy. And there are 4 or 5 members of the Licavoli 's them- 
selves with police records, is that correct? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Including Detroit ? 

Mr. Martin. Including Detroit, Lake County, Ohio, Cleveland, 
Trumble County, Ohio, and Youngstown. 

Mr. Kennedy. And St. Louis ? 

Mr. Martin. And St. Louis. 

Mr. Kennedy. Going on down, what happens ? 

Mr. Martin. Going down the chart, we find that Licavoli's wife is 
Grace Bommarito, the sister of Scarface Joe Bommarito, and his 



12254 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

sister is married to Sam Zerilli who is in turn the brother of Joe 
Zerilli. 

Eosalee Zerilli is married to Dominick Licavoli. You will note, 
too, that the Priziola connection juts down into the Toccos, and the 
Toccos into the Zerillis and the Toccos into the Melis. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then you have the marriages that arose out of the 
Zerillis, a great or large number of those individuals had police 
records ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. There was a marriage connection with Pete 
Corrado. Corrado died in 1957, but he has two nephews. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then down into the Rendas and into the Perrones ? 

Mr. Martin. The Rendas are an offshoot of a connection with the 
Melis, and the connection runs from the Melis into the Perrones and 
the Perrones into the Rendas. 

Coming this way, of course, is the relationship between Angelo 
Meli and Bufalino, which extends into the Pittston area to Charles 
Buf alino, Sr., Russell Bufalino, and Charles Bufalino, Jr. 

I previously mentioned Dolly Bufalino, the daughter of Charles 
Bufalino, in the Pittston area. 

Senator Curtis, I believe, inquired earlier this morning about 
attorneys. 

It is interesting to point out that Charles Bufalino, Jr., is an at- 
torney. So is William Bufalino, and so is Dolly Bufalino. 

Ettore Agolino down here is married to the daughter of Samuel 
Volpe. Agolino has represented the Bufalinos in practically all of 
their litigation in recent years, and the Sciandras. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have a tieup with the Dios, Johnny and 
Tommy Dio, from the Detroit area ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. Salvatore Angelo Meli was married to Livorsi, 
whose father is Frank Livorsi. He has a record and served time, I 
believe, for narcotics. Frank Livorsi is married, or his daughter is 
married, Rose Marie, to Tom Dio, a brother of John Dio, who, of 
course, needs no introduction to this committee. 

(At this point, Senator Mundt entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Tom and John Dio both had criminal records and 
Johnny Dio's uncle, James Plumeri, had a criminal record? 

Mr. Martin. That is correct. Another daughter of Livorsi is mar- 
ried to Tom Ormento, the son of Big John Ormento, mentioned her3 
earlier as a fugitive on a narcotics case that originated in the past 
month. The wife of Big John Ormento and the wife of Andiuo 
Papadio, another of the defendants in the same narcotic case within 
the past month, are cousins. 

It is interesting to note, too, that some of the other defendants in 
the same case, along with Ormento and Papadio are Natale Joseph 
Evola, related to Barbara. 

Mr. Kennedy. He was at the meeting? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. And Joseph Vento. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the contacts go up into the Buffalo-Niagara 
Falls area ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. Bonisara in the New York area is a brother-in- 
law of Sam DiCarlo. He has a brother-in-law prominently identified 
with criminal activities in the Buffalo and Youngstown areas. There 
is a relationship of some kind which has not yet been established 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12255 

between Steve Maggadino and Sam Pieri, whose sister married a 
DiCarlo. Steve Maggadino's brother Antonio, of course, was one of 
those at Apalachin, as was LaDuca, who was a son-in-law. 

John Charles Montana was also at Apalachin. His niece is married 
to Peter Maggadino, the son of Steve. 

Senator Ives. I would like to ask the witness if he knows how many 
of those who appeared at the Apalachin conference, or whatever you 
want to call it — it begins to sound like a family reunion — how many 
of them were related to one another. 

Mr. Martin. Well, the Buffalo relationship I have already de- 
scribed. 

Senator Ives. But how many of the total. There were 00, as I 
understand it, at Apalachin. Plow many of the GO were related to 
anybody else there ? 

Mr. Martin. "Well, there are 28 names appearing on this chart. 

Senator Ives. About half of them were related to one another ? 

Mr. Martin. I would say, roughly, half of these that are shown on 
here are either related to other people who were at Apalachin 

Senator Ives. There was a family connection somewhere along the 
line among half of them ; is that right ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

Mr. Martin. I might say, Senator, that the Pittston area combina- 
tion illustrates that. 

Here are three people from the Pittston area — Bufalino, Sciandra, 
and Alaimo — all of whom were at Apalachin, and there is a cousin- 
ship relation among those three. 

Mr. Kennedy. That group that you just pointed out there, didn't 
they also come from the same place in Italy ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. There is an interesting story as to the grouping 
of them in Pittston. The police authorities up there know a par- 
ticular group of people associated with the Mafia as the men of 
Montedoro. They all originated in the town of Montedoro. One 
Joseph LaTore appears to have led the immigration from Italy to the 
United States back around 1900 and went to work in the coal mines 
in Pittston and soon sent for Santo Volpe, Sr., who is recognized in 
Pittston as the elder statesman of the Mafia group. 

In Montedoro, the Sciandras, the Volpes, and the LaTores lived 
across the street or next door to each other. The identical situation 
exists in what is known as the Brandy Patch section, which is a com- 
munity of, roughly, about 100 families, all of whom originated in 
Montedoro, and who came to the United States at various times. 

The Sciandras, Volpes, and LaTores all live next door or very close 
to each other. 

Air. Kennedy. Now, we have gone into these individuals who 
attended the meeting, and also the previous testimony of the Italian 
extraction of a lot of this organization and groups. Haven't we 
found in our own study and investigation that often the leaders of 
law enforcement throughout the United States are fighting this kind 
of an organization, and are also Italian extraction? 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; that is true. In fact, in New York particularly 
there were several New York detectives, and I believe one of them 
was slain in Italy trying to pursue the thing through to death what 



12256 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

further information lie might be able to develop relative to the Mafia 
in Italy. 

Mr. Kennedy. I just wanted to get this in its correct perspective 
and to make sure that as we talk along about the Mafia, we understood 
the other side of it. Many people who have devoted their whole lives 
to fighting this kind of an organization have been individuals who also 
have been of Italian extraction and have fought as hard against this 
organization as the members of the Mafia have fought to break down 
law enforcement. 

Senator Ives. We ought to point out here with some force that this 
Mafia is an extreme exception insofar as those of Italian extraction 
are concerned. The very vast majority of our citizens of Italian 
extraction are very loyal Americans and have no connection with any 
organization of this kind. 

This is an exception. 

Mr. Martin. I agree wholeheartedly with what the Senator has said. 

Senator Ives. And I think Mr. Pera would also agree. 

TESTIMONY OF MARTIN F. PERA— Resumed 

Mr. Pera. Yes, sir; and probably some of the most proficient and 
some of the most rewarding work done along the line of exposing the 
Mafia has been done by people of Sicilian extraction who are narcotic 
agents and one who is district supervisor of our bureau. 

Senator Curtis. Mr. Pera, why has an organization such as the 
Mafia moved into the union business? That is the primary assign- 
ment of this committee to investigate labor and management. Now, 
why have they moved into union activities? 

Mr. Pera. Well, I think the answer could be very concise and very 
simple, that their activities and their background and the activities 
that they engaged in years ago indicated they were experts in extor- 
tion, and they are using the union as a front simply as another means 
of extorting. It amounts to that. 

Senator Curtis. The fact that they are dealing oftentimes with :i 
group that has compulsory membership; is that a factor? 

Mr. Pera. Oh, yes. 

Senator Curtis. Is it a fact that some labor leaders, even though 
they are not part of a criminal underworld, are using the element of 
fear on their membership — is that something that fits in with the 
Mafia characteristics ? 

Mr. Pera. It is the pattern of extortion again. 

Senator Curtis. Now, the fact that unions enjoy certain immuni- 
ties that other groups in the country do not have gives a group an 
opportunity for a base of operations ; isn't that correct? 

Mr. Pera. Yes ; I am certain that that was one of their considera- 
tions when they entered that field. 

Senator Curtis. This committee has found several instances where 
courts just wouldn't grant anybody any protection who had suffered 
at the hands of the union. One Philadelphia judge referred to it as 
a union brawl, and they didn't go into those things. Well, that gives 
a criminal group a very good place to hide ; doesn't it? 

Mr. Pera. Yes; an excellent advantage for them. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12257 

Senator Curtis. And I think it is also true that our Internal Ilev- 
enue Service has very consistently and historically failed in checking 
up on the tax returns of unions where they have unrelated income. 

Mr. Pera. I can't give any answer to that statement ; I don't know. 

Senator Curtis. I think it is also true and it is a rather standing 
principle or policy of the Department of Justice not only in this ad- 
ministration but for some time that United States attorneys over the 
country cannot start prosecutions that involve unions or so-called 
labor problems with clear answers from their superiors in Washing- 
ton. All of that gives a cloak of protection for people who shouldn't 
have this power. 

Now, do groups like the Mafia go into union business because it is 
revenue producing, too ? 

Mr. Pera. Yes. Their primary consideration is the revenue-pro- 
ducing thing. 

Senator Curtis. The revenue from the workers, as well as the op- 
portunity for illicit things, such as extortion ? 

Mr. Pera. As well as the opportunity to control programs and 
entire industry. 

Senator Curtis. But also the revenue that actually comes in 
through the treasury of the union. 

Mr. Pera. I am sure that that must be part of the consideration. 

Senator Curtis. Perhaps I have been a little bit unfair with asking 
you these questions, because they are out of your field ? 

Mr. Pera. That is correct. 

Senator Curtis. But I do think that the Congress cannot expect a 
cleanup in labor-management relations until we do something that 
we haven't done to date at all, and that is to deal with these powers 
and immunities and compulsion in the field of unionism, that invites 
the wrong kind of people to go into union leadership. 

We have proceeded so far on the basis that those things are all right 
if the union has honest books. That has been the essence of the legis- 
lative efforts so far. 

I thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator Mundt. Mr. Chairman, the discussion by Senator Curtis 
brings to mind the question I was going to ask our counsel yesterday. 
We were discussing the fact yesterday that some of these thugs were 
kept at the Parkway Motel imder registrations paid for by Barbara 
and charged by Barbara to the Canada Dry Bottling Works, of which 
he was president. 

I was wondering, Bob, whether we had obtained the income tax 
returns of the Canada Dry Bottling Works, because it would seem 
to me that if they were charged there they were probably charged as 
a business expense. This is a clear-cut case of fraudulent tax de- 
duction, and maybe they can take care of Mr. Barbara as they took 
care of Al Capone, and get him on a tax-evasion charge if they can't 
catch him on any of these other illegal activities. 

Mr. Kennedy. We just know, Senator, that they were charged to 
the company itself. 

Senator Mundt. Now, can we find out from an examination of the 
income-tax returns whether or not they were deducted ? 

Mr. Kennedy. I do not know. 



12258 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Senator Mundt. If so, it seems to me that we have Mr. Barbara 
violating the law, and I think that we should explore that, because 
it doesn't do much good to expose these fellows if nothing is done. 
It seems quite obvious if he charged these to a business expense ac- 
count and deducted it from taxes, this obviously is such a clear-cut 
violation that there isn't any reason that the Internal Revenue Serv- 
ice cannot move against him through the Department of Justice pre- 
cisely as they moved a couple of decades ago against Al Capone of the 
same outfit, who was also a law violator. 

The Chairman. If the income-tax returns of the Canada Dry Bot- 
tling Co. have not been requested, they will be. We have a procedure 
to go through to obtain them. I do not recall whether I have signed 
a letter for this particular company. 

Senator Mundt. It just came into my mind when I heard them 
say they charged that motel charge to the company. I want to make 
sure we don't overlook any opportunity. 

The Chairman. We follow up on these things as we go along. 
Such a request will be made. 

All right, proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE H. MARTIN— Resumed 

Mr. Kennedy. I would like to ask, Mr. Martin, do you have a list 
of the offenses that have been charged to these individuals on this 
chart? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, we have made a complete list of the particular 
offenses charged against the individuals shown on the chart. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you just start to read some of those, please? 

Senator Mundt. I think it would be interesting to have the aggre- 
gate number if you have them added up. It is quite an astromonical 
figure. 

Mr. Martin. The aggregate number I can't give you offhand, but 
I would roughly say 50 to 60 different crimes. I will read them off 
and you can draw you own conclusions. 

Carrying concealed weapons would seem to be the principal offense 
charged all of the way along the line. Possession of dangerous 
weapon, violation of the National Firearms Act, armed robbery, sus- 
picion of murder, attempted murder, murder, gambling, grand larceny, 
larceny, operation of unregistered stills, sale and possession of nar- 
cotics, violation of the Customs Act, violation of the State labor law, 
violation of the internal revenue law, violation of the alcohol tax laws, 
violation of the wage and hour law, violation of the food and drug 
law, prostitution, rape, burglary, breaking and entering, rum running, 
kidnaping extortion, extortion by threat, assault and battery, assault 
with intent to kill, felonious wounding, illegal transportation of ma- 
chineguns and rifles, counter lighting, conspiracy to violate gambling 
laws, conspiracy to commit murder, conspiracy bo violate the internal 
revenue laws, conspiracy to violate the Selective Service Act, con- 
spiracy to violate the narcotics laws, receiving stolen goods, coercion, 
dynamiting, blackmailing, forgery, black marketing, smuggling, and 
indecency. 

The Chairman. Is there anything in the statutes that they have 
escaped or missed ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12259 

Mr. Martin. I would have to think a little hard on that one, Sena- 
tor. 

The Chairman. There are 45 different offenses. In oilier words, 
this group that you listed there on this chart, those where the stars 
are as I understand it, are the ones that you are speaking of, and they 
have been charged with 45 different felonies under the statutes? 

Mr. Martin. That is correct, sir. 

Senator Mundt. Will you add up and supply for the record the total 
number of offenses involved in this strange family relationship, be- 
cause I saw the chart and some of them have 8 or 10 or 12 offenses or 
more individually. 

It would be interesting to have the aggregate number of offenses. 
Now, you have given us the types of offenses and the aggregate num- 
ber committed by those people who appear on the chart. 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right, is there anything further ? 

Mr. Kennedy. We have another chart. 

The Chairman. Are you through with this witness ? 

Mr. Kennedy. I believe so. 

The Chairman. You may stand aside for the present. We will 
call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have any comment to make regarding this 
chart ? 

Mr. Pera. No, I think the chart speaks for itself, and it is an admi- 
rable piece of work. 

The Chairman. All right, thank you. 

Who is the next witness. 

Mr: Kennedy. Mr. Sherman Willse. 

The Chairman. Will you be sworn ? 

You do solemnly swear that the evidence, given before this Senate 
select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so held you God ? 

TESTIMONY OF SHERMAN WILLSE 

The Chairman. State your name and your place of residence and 
your business or occupation. 

Mr. Willse. Sherman Willse, and I live on Long Island and I am 
presently an investigator for this committee. 

The Chairman. Are you otherwise employed by the Federal Gov- 
ernment I 

Mr. Willse. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long have you been with us ? 

Mr. Willse. One year, since last June. 

Mr. Kennedy. What were you doing prior to that time ? 

Mr. Willse. I was a member of the New York City Police Depart- 
ment for 20 years. 

Mr. Kennedy. And what specifically were you working on with the 
New York Police Department? 

Mr. Willse. The last 18 years I was assigned as a narcotics detective. 

Mr. Kennedy. I might say that Mr. Willse has been the one pri- 
marily responsible for the investigation of these activities, and in 



12260 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

fact the complete investigation of those who attended the meeting at 
Apalachin and the work that has been done in this area has been done 
under his direction. 

Now, Mr. Willse, you made a study of the illegal and legal activi- 
ties that these individuals who attended the meeting in Apalachin 
were engaged in ? 

Mr. Willse. I have. 

Mr. Kennedy. And was there a chart made up under your direction 
indicating the types of activities that these people have been involved 
in? 

Mr. Willse. Yes ; this chart. 

The Chairman. This chart may be made exhibit No. 5. 

(Document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 5," for reference, 
and will be found in the appendix facing page 12496.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, over here to the left-hand side of the chart, 
Mr. Willse, with the red dots, that indicates the criminal or illegal 
activities, is that right? 

Mr. Willse. Yes; that first column represents the arrests of indi- 
viduals we are considering. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the blue dots indicate the legal activities? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, would you give us some summaries of the illegal 
activities ? 

Mr. Willse. Well, first of all we are concerned here with 58 names 
which are the names on the original list received by us. Since that 
time there have been five names added which we are not dealing with 
here. 

Mr. Kennedy. "Who are the five people that have been added so we 
can get that ? 

Mr. Willse. There is Charles A. Montana, of Buffalo ; Nick Civella, 
from Kansas City, Mo. ; Joe Filardo, also Kansas City ; Neil Migliore, 
from New York City, and John LaRocca, Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. LaRocca was one of those whom we subpenaed 
here before the committee, or attempted to subpena. 

Mr. Martin. We did. 

Mr. Kennedy. And he has taken off for parts unknown. 

Mr. Martin. There have been other attempts by other agencies, and 
they haven't been able to locate him either. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who is he in business with in Pittsburgh ? 

Mr. Martin. With Gabriel Mannarino, I believe. 

Mr. Kennedy. And also Mr. Genovese. 

Mr. Martin. Michael James Genovese. He is the man. 

Mr. Kennedy. Michael James Genovese? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And they have a jukebox business, or Mr. La Rocca 
has a jukebox business in Pittsburgh ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you give us an explanation of the left part 
of the chart? 

Mr. Martin. The first column of the red dots represents the indi- 
viduals who have arrest records, and that composes a total of 50 out 
of the 58 with which we are concerned with on this chart. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12261 

Out of those arrests and those individuals, we have 35 of them who 
have been convicted ; and, out of the total of 58 men, we have 23 who 
have served some time in prison as a result of those arrests. 

Following across with the red dots, we have picked out what we 
consider the more important violations of law, starting with homi- 
cide, and there we find that 18 of these men have either been arrested 
or questioned as suspects or main suspects in homicide. It isn't indi- 
cated here but 1 of the 18 was convicted, just 1. 

Mr. Kennedy. From a study of the record of these individuals, 
can you give us any explanation as to why the percentage of those 
convicted of homicide was so small ? 

Mr. Martin. I would say because of lack of evidence. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is there any trend or thread running through this 
as far as pinning these crimes on some of these individuals? 

Mr. Martin. I think particularly in homicide cases, witnesses are 
most necessary in order to establish the proper evidence. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you find any thread running through these cases 
involving these witnesses, as to what happens to some of the witnesses? 

Mr. Martin. Either the lack of witnesses, or where witnesses are 
found they are not able to talk or will not talk. 

Mr. Kennedy. Specifically, haven't we found a number of these 
cases where the witnesses have disappeared? 

Mr. Martin. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is what I wanted to find out, or where the wit- 
nesses have actually been killed. 

Mr. Martin. Yes, there have been instances. 

Mr. Kennedy. And some of these individuals up here, where there 
would appear, at least initially, to be enough evidence based on wit- 
nesses' testimony to convict an individual, the witnesses either have 
disappeared or have refused to talk ? 

Mr. Martin. That is true. 

Mr. Kennedy. And in at least one instance we know where the wit- 
ness was actually poisoned while in police custody, is that right? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Senator Mundt. Do you have any list of illegal activities on this 
fellow Montano, that strange man from Buffalo who said he just 
dropped in for a cup of tea and brought his revolver along to sort 
of sweeten the drink ? 

Mr. Martin. We do not. 

Senator Mundt. You have no illegal activities ? 

Mr. Martin. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. None that we know of ? 

Mr. Martin. No. Following along we have the narcotics violators, 
and totaling 15. In gambling which seems to be 1 of the major 
sources of their revenue and their activities there are 30. 

Firearms, which means not only firearms but concealed weapons, 
and in most cases it is firearms, and that may mean pistols, and revol- 
vers, and rifles, and shotguns, and machineguns, there are 23. 

Senator Mundt. What is wrong with having a shotgun? Is that 
against the law in New York ? 

Mr. Martin. Under the circumstances under which these men 
were arrested for possession of them. 



12262 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Senator Mundt. They were sa wed-off shotguns ? 

Mr. Martin. In some cases, yes. And the last is liquor. These 
represent mainly violations, and in 1 or 2 instances we have incor- 
porated in here the fact that the man is engaged in some legitimate 
liquor activity now, but I say those are the exceptions. Most of those 
represent violations and not just one, but there are several for quite 
a few of the individuals. 

This also is illegal, the black market, and in those cases it repre- 
sents mainly the acquisition of sugar probably during the war, which 
was then channeled into black-market paths or it was used for the 
distilling of spirits. In one case, I believe it is Vito Genovese, and his 
activities although he might have been in black market in this coun- 
try or had an interest in some way, his main activity in that field was 
in Italy where he was a fugitive from a murder case. 

Over there the story is that he was able to steal Army trucks, or 
at least his mob was, and they would then go to various depots and 
load up the trucks with supplies and drive them away and dispose 
of the supplies in some way, and in some cases destroy the trucks, 
usually. 

Mr. Kennedy. We will have some direct testimony on that activity. 

Senator Mundt. Have you made a check of those names to deter- 
mine how many of them are native born or how many would be sub- 
ject to deportation ? 

Mr. Martin. I have not made a check myself, but there are certain 
agencies which have produced records, which this committee has, 
which indicate that. 

Senator Mundt. Do you recall how many of them are subject to 
deportation ? 

Mr. Martin. No, sir ; I do not. 

Senator Mundt. Provided you really try to deport them? 

Mr. Martin. I know that there are several, but they have been sub- 
ject to deportation according to the records over a good number of 
years. What has happened with the other moves made, I don't know. 

Senator Mundt. I wish you would supply that for the record, be- 
cause one of the great weaknesses in this country in law enforcement 
is the complete lethargy demonstrated by Government in deporting 
people who come here and violate their immigration rights by com- 
mitting crime. 

They get tangled up in all kinds of legal technicalities and they hire 
a lot of smart, although unscrupulous, lawyers to protect them, and 
they continue to live the life of crime over here when they are subject 
to deportation. I am one of those who feel that public pressure 
should be exerted against the law-enforcement officials and the officials 
in Government whose job it is to clean out of this country people who 
should be deported. 

I would like to have a list, if you supply it, of those who are sub- 
ject to deportation. You haven't got the names yourself, but you 
said some one had made an examination of the list, and so will you 
supply for the record the names of those 58 who are subject to de- 
portation, provided somebody in Government gets on a white horse 
and digs his spurs in the steed? 

Mr. Martin. I might say. Senator, that that has been discussed 
several times since this meeting, and I have heard your views ex- 
pressed. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12263 

Senator Mundt. I know those views are shared by a lot of Amer- 
icans, but action is disgustingly slow, and 1 think perhaps (his com- 
mittee can call attention of the public to the fact that there are peo- 
ple in Government responsible for deporting people who violate the 
terms under which thev become naturalized citizens. . 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you go through some of the legal activities 
of some of these people? 

Mr. Wii.lsk. Well, the chart explains most of those, I believe. In 
automotive agencies the total is -A, in boxing, you will find 3. Some 
of t hese represent their interest in these activities through fronts, pos- 
sibly not directly. 

('ah companies are 3, and chemicals are 2. Of interest here is the 
fact that John Ormento, who I believe was one of the major narcotic 
violators in this country and one of those in this group, then shows 
up under the chemical category. 

This is based mainly on his close association with a man named 
Eocco Pellegrino. Pellegrino has been recognized for some period 
of time as a power in the traffic of narcotics, particularly smuggling, 
through his influence and association with men on the waterfront, par- 
ticularly what they call the horn, which extends from the lower West 
Side piers around the southern tip of Manhattan to the lower East Side 
piers. 

In addition to being connected with him, Pellegrino has other con- 
tacts on the waterfront, such as Mike Clementi, an official of one of 
the ILA locals on the east side piers, and "Socks" Lanza, who was 
convicted and served time for extortion of the Fulton Fish Market, 
and who is indicated as still having some power down there. Or- 
mento, through his close contact, showed by previous investigation 
over the years, close contact with Pellegrino, in the past has had con- 
tact with three different chemical companies. 

Those contacts have never been fully investigated, and I think they 
are worth looking into, because of the fact that acetic anhydride, and 
the most, used chemical in the textile field, is used by these companies 
with which Pellegrino had contact. 

Acetic anhydride is used in conversion of the raw opium into a 
morphine base after which it is made into heroin. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could the textile companies use that? 

Mr. Willse. They do. It is used mainly in the manufacture and 
treatment of rayon. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would that be an explanation why a number of 
these individuals, gangsters, are also in the textile field ? 

Mr. Willse. It could be. With this group that we are concerned 
with, we don't show any in textiles, but it is known that they have 
contacts and associates in that field. 

The coal companies consist of Alaimo, one of the "Brandy Patch" 
boys as described by George Martin. 

Most of those fellows from Pittston are the descendants of families 
going over there and settling there, going into the coal mines origi- 
nally. Some of their activities in the coal mines have been handed 
down from father to son as in the case of Alaimo. 

The coin-machine operation, of course, looms large, because this is 
a particularly good field for the investment of illicitly obtained 
revenue. 



12264 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

In construction we find quite a few, and there has been a conflict of 
interest where we find some of these men with a construction company 
and also either directly concerned or associated with somebody in a 
construction union. 

The construction field offers another good field for the activities of 
these men through extortion. In entertainment we have Jerry Ca- 
teno, who is a known associate of Zwillman in New Jersey, and his 
contacts here come mainly through his close association with Las 
Vegas and Habana gambling. 

It is known that in Habana the hotels giving a gambling casino 
concession to anyone allow them to also handle the entertainment. It 
seems to be the better way of handling it on the side of the hotels, and 
Cateno has a close contact with a man who is also a well-known gam- 
bler in both Las Vegas and Habana, and who also has a theatrical 
agency. 

Senator Mundt. Do you know the name of the hotel or casino in 
Las Vegas with which he has his contact ? 

Mr. Willse. I don't know, sir. But the man I am referring to is 
Jack Davis. 

Funeral homes show a total of four. There are certain conclusions 
that may be arrived at there as to how gangsters have funeral homes 
that may be used in their conspiracies. 

The garment industry shows 16, and this is something that the com- 
mittee will go into in greater detail in the future. 

Groceries and markets have 10. Groceries and markets may be 
combined with import and export activities due to the grocery and 
market receiving many products from overseas. 

Mr. Kennedy. Does that also include florists ? 

Mr. Willse. It does not. 

Mr. Kennedy. The groceries and markets ? 

Mr. Willse. Not that I know of. In connection with florists, I 
might say that an uncle of Joseph Bonnano, I believe the name is 
Pietro Bonventre has a florist shop. 

Mr. Kennedy. Haven't we found that a number of gangsters have 
been florists throughout the United States ? 

Mr. Willse. As far as this group goes, I can't say. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mickey Cohen on the west coast ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Johnny Dio on the east coast ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. So we have the funeral homes and the florists. 

Mr. Willse. Right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Go ahead. 

Mr. Willse. Horses and tracks total three. Import and export 
total 11. Of course, this has an especially important significance for 
the smuggling of narcotics, particularly when we consider the indi- 
viduals who come under this category. I would like to explain that 
later, if I might refer to certain records. 

The Chairman. Will the witness suspend? 

Senator Mundt has to be on the Senate floor for a little while, and 
we cannot conclude your explanation of the chart before recessing. 

We will recess now until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 17, a recess was taken until 2 p. m. of the same 
day.) 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12265 

(At this point, the following members were present : Senators Mc- 
Clellan and Mundt.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

(Members of the committee at the reconvening of the session were 
Senators McClellan and Ives.) 

The Chairman. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. I am trying to get some more copies of that chart, 
and we will know in a little while whether we can get them within 
the next hour or so. But in the meantime, if Mr. Willse could return 
to the stand, perhaps he could continue his discussion of the chart. 

TESTIMONY OF SHERMAN WILLSE— Resumed 

The Chairman. Will you proceed with your testimony? 

Mr. Kennedy. I think you were finished with the garment indus- 
try, and we had also done the grocery stores, and I think we are at 
the horse races. 

Mr. Willse. I think that I passed that. I am on jewelry and furs. 
The significance in that category is the fact that there has been strong 
information regarding the nandling of stolen property, mainly in 
that line. Labor-management relations, that goes into great detail, 
and in some cases a man is representing both a union and he is con- 
nected with management in conflict with his union position. Women's 
laundry, although it doesn't show up here. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is the biggest category that we have, the one 
we spent the most time on, obviously, in labor-management relations 
and we get 22 individuals. 

Mr. Whlse. Yes, sir. Linens and laundry, although only two show 
on the chart, it is rather an extensive operation, particularly in the 
large cities such as New York. I believe the committee has further 
details on that in other cities throughout the country. 

Olive oil and cheese is very important, and they are tied in with 
export-import, because this involves the importing of those commod- 
ities, olive oil and cheese, giving good opportunity to conceal any con- 
traband, particularly the narcotics. 

Paper and wastepaper show up four. Realty I suppose comes 
about through the illegally obtained money of these people. In 
addition to other legitimate enterprises in which the money is invested, 
there is a good deal of real estate in which there is a continual return 
from rents. Service stations and garages, and 1 car wash is involved ; 
that is a total of 4. Taverns, restaurants, hotels, and motels. 
Throughout the country it is demonstrated that Mafia generally 
invest in such enterprises. 

Trucking is another important business, as is the waterfront. Now, 
in dealing with those two categories, I would like to include import- 
export. The purpose of the chart in addition to showing the activi- 
ties of these men as individuals, it is also designed to show how these 
activities may be related, particularly to the illegitimate field. 
Since narcotics belongs with gambling as one of the main sources of 
revenue for the gangsters, narcotics should be considered in these 
three classifications. For years they have had their source of supply 
of narcotics from the other side and there has never been any difficulty 



12266 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

with that. After finding their source of supply, the next thing is to 
get the narcotics on a ship. On the other side there seems to be no 
difficulty there. Then the next object is to get aboard the ship when 
it docks in this country. Aside from employing Italian seamen which 
is the case of Carl Vanginio, we have these men allied with other 
businesses that accomplish that. 

First of all, we have 7 in trucking. It can be either general truck- 
ing or garment trucking, and in this category, it includes both, but 
main]y general. Some of them combine this operation. The way the 
trucking works on the docks is that a truck may have a job to go to 
1 pier and take a complete load in 1 day, or it may visit 5 or 10 piers 
in 1 day. In connection with that would be the hiring bosses or 
anyone else employed on the docks concerned in the unloading of a 
ship. Through union affiliations of the gangsters, they are able to 
obtain these men that help them get the stuff off the ship, and of 
course, the trucks carry it off the dock. 

The export-import naturally gives them the commodity which is 
the means of concealment of the contraband. As I say, we combine 
olive oil and cheese and just take that commodity alone, the size of 
the cheese that is imported, perhaps as tall as I am or in barrels of 
olive oil, over any means of concealment. When we realize that 
sometimes a ship docks and stays in port for 5 days, and for about 8 
hours of the day there is a continual line of trucks going on and off the 
pier, and in conjunction with the longshoremen a couple of hundred 
are working on the piers, all connected with some association of that 
sort, it is practically impossible to stop this stuff from coming in. 
To stop every seaman can't be done, and every longshoremen, that 
can't be done. 

To stop every truck and search it or open every crate or barrel of 
cheese or whatever the commodity may be, and a crate of machinery, 
and whatever they are bringing into the country, that is an impossible 
task and it can't be done. It is very easy to get the narcotics in the 
country. 

In relation to that, out of the men involved in narcotics as shown 
over here, 2 of them are also in the trucking industry, and 2 of 
them are also concerned with waterfront activities, and 7 of them 
are engaged in import-export of some type. 

Now, that is taking into consideration only these men on this 
chart. Tf we consider their associates, and their contacts, it becomes 
overwhelming. 

Mr. Kenneuy. Now, you were talking about the contacts that these 
individuals might have with the ships. We also find some of these 
people in the ship-cleaning business, for instance. 

Mr. Wtij.se. There is ship cleaning and scrapping. I think Carmine 
Lombardozzi with his marine corporation is able to operate that way, 
and he also has a mobile marine company which consists of a machine 
which is leased, I believe, to the Grace Line, and he seems to have a 
monopoly in that field, particularly with (hat one line. I might say 
that through that line which has roots to the east coast of South 
America, and then another route in which they use other ships to the 
■west coast of South America, that line in the past has been the main if 
not the only line bringing cocaine into the country. 

Cocaine at this point having been out of existence for perhaps 7 or 
8 years has started to come back in, but since it has only started the 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12267 

price is pretty high, and it amounts to $18,000 a kilo, so the profit 
involved there is tremendous. 

Senator Ives. May I interrupt there? You say the Grace Line is 
responsible for this, or the Grace Line shippers? 

Mr. Willse. Neither one is responsible. It is the people traveling 
on them. 

Senator Ives. I understand, but what is the Grace Line doing about 
it to help combat it ? 

Mr. Willse. I don't know, Senator. I would like to tell you an 
interesting story in connection with the Grace Line and the cocaine 
smuggling. "We didn't have any cocaine around the city, New York 
City, and that goes for the country, and I think the Federal Narcotics 
Bureau Avill bear me out, until shortly after the end of World War II. 
Then gradually, we started to pick it up in very small amounts. These 
increased from time to time until in about a year's time atfer its first 
appearance we were getting it in very large amounts, which means 
kilos. At that time, the price, of course, went continually down as 
the amount of stuff coming in rose, and I think it went to about $5,000 
a kilo. 

It was found that it was all coming in on the Grace Line, 1 but it 
was being brought in by the seamen. Investigation showed there was 
a concerted conspiracy to do this. 

This is rather lengthy but I think it is interesting. The man at 
the head of the conspiracy was known as Eduardo Balareyo, a native 
Peruvian, and his close associate was a man named De La Torre, a 
head of the Apristo Party in Peru. That was the headquarters, but 
it took in most of the Latin American countries around the Mediter- 
ranean and in South America. 

Now, as to De La Torre, some would class him as a rabble rouser, 
but he represented the poorer element in the South American coun- 
tries. His brother, Edmondo De La Torre was a member of the 
Peruvian Senate, and I assume that this conspiracy arose shortly after 
the end of World War II because that is when we started getting the 
cocaine. 

The Peruvian Government licensed people to grow, process, and 
export the cocaine. However, they had about 10 or 12 clandestine 
laboratories operating throughout the mountains down there. 

Now, the conspiracy actually got underway to a large extent, when 
De La Torre and his party arrived in New York on a Peruvian war- 
ship, and while it was in New York I think for perhaps 1 or 2 weeks 
the officers were entertained by this fellow Balareyo who was in New 
York, and a native Peruvian. It was during these sessions that it 
was planned to start a revolution in Peru through the Aprista Party. 

When the warship returned to Peru, it took De La Torre and 
Balareyo and some members of Balarevo's family. Balareyo was 
supposed to have contributed £f.0.000 to this proposed revolution. In 
addition to taking down certain material which would have been heav- 
ily taxed in customs in Peru such as washing machines and cars and 
so on, they felt that they could get this into Peru without any diffi- 



1 After these hearings had been completed. Senator McClellan received a letter from 
Lewis A. Lapham, president of Grace Line, Inc., regarding Mr. Willse's testimony. The 
text of this letter appears in the appendix on pp. 12491-12496, together with other docu- 
ments which Mr. Lapham submitted. 

21243— 5S— pt. 32 6 



12268 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

culty through De La Torre's brother, Edmondo, who was in the 
Peruvian Senate. 

However, they got down there and my understanding was that 
somebody passed along a tip and all of this stuff was seized. But 
after being there a few days, the revolution started, and it started with 
the navy in the port of Callo. Of course, that lends corroboration to 
the fact that the navy was up here conspiring with De La Torre and 
Balareyo. It went on for about 2 or 3 days, and many people were 
killed, and the revolt was put down but in the meantime, Balareyo, 
seeing that he was losing out, took a plane back to New York. De La 
Torre sought refuge in the Colombian Embassy, and some of the 
other people just disappeared from the country. 

The Government then rescinded all licenses, and all permits for the 
growing and processing or export of cocaine. The conspiracy tied 
m perhaps 50 people here in this country, and about 88 in Peru. 

Now, the cooperation of the Peruvian Government in rescinding 
those licenses and making those arrests knocked out the cocaine traffic 
until just recently. 

It has started to come back in, but all of that cocaine that came in 
during this time as far as we can find, came by the Grace Line. 

Senator Ives. May I ask you another question in that connection? 

Is the Mafia active in South America, Latin America? 

Mr. Willse. I don't know that. 

Senator Ives. Well, the reason I was raising that point is that I am 
just wondering what connection the Mafia may have had with the 
attack on the Vice President of the United States in Peru when he 
recently visited there. Can you connect that at all? 

Mr. Willse. I didn't think of the Mafia in that relation. I thought 
of the renaissance of the Aprista Party. De La Torre, who was head 
of it, had had sanctuary in the Colombian Embassy, I think for the 
3 years, and they dug a trench around it and they manned it with 
the army and the tanks, and the machineguns, and in the meantime 
there were a lot of maneuverings to try to get him safe transport out. 
Finally he was allowed to go out and he went to Mexico. 

Now, just in recent months I have read he has been allowed back 
into Peru. 

Now consistent with his rearrival in Peru, and what took place 
down there, we also have cocaine coming back into this country. I 
wonder if there is any relation. 

Senator Ives. You don't know that ? 

Mr. Willse. No. 

Senator Ives. It is very odd, and kind of a coincidence, isn't it? 

Mr. Willse. I think so. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

Mr. Willse. I might say that a kilo of narcotics, other than opium, 
in its crude form, the weight is about 33 ounces, or 2 pounds, and in 
the powder form in which it comes they generally have it wrapped in 
a soft plastic container, I would say 6 by 6, and 3 inches thick. That 
would be a kilo. 

Mr. Kennedy. You found from a review of these individual activi- 
ties that a number of them were officials of labor unions and a num- 
ber of them in labor-management relations. 

Mr. Willse. That is right. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12269 

Mr. Kennedy. And a number of them using these businesses as 
fronts for their other organizations, and other illegal activities? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And then as another operation to funnel their illegal 
funds into these businesses; is that right? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. I think that that is about all. 

Is there anything else on the chart that you wanted to cover? 

Mr. Willse. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, Mr. Willse, have you made a study in some of 
the instances of whether these individuals are in touch with one another 
and keep in close contact ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have some examples there ? 

The Chairman. Will you identify the chart that you now are ex- 
hibiting. 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. This represents the contacts and associates 
of John Ormento. This comes about from the examination of tele- 
phone company records, and through official investigations involving 
observations and tail work on John Ormento. 

Mr. Kennedy. He is a leading trafficker in narcotics; is that right? 

Mr. Willse. Y^es, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And a fugitive from justice at the present time? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And we see that he has these various connections 
throughout the United States with other leading important gangsters, 
is that right? 

Mr. Willse. That is correct. 

Mr. Kennedy. Out into Texas, and into Oklahoma, and up into 
Michigan ? 

Mr. Willse. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Kansas City ? 

Mr. Willse. That is right, Kansas City, Mo. 

Mr. Kennedy. And then also with a number of the leading gang- 
sters in New Y r ork City, is that right ? 

Mr. Willse. That is true. 

The Chairman. This map may be made exhibit No. 6. 

(Document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 6," for reference 
and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

(At this point, the following members are present: Senators Mc- 
Clellan and Ives.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Once again in order to understand his activities, 
looking into his operations, one has to understand those individuals 
with whom he is in contact. 

Mr. Willse. Yes. There is evidence of contact with Joe Salardino, 
from Canon City, Colo. 

Joe Salardino and his brother, Gus, have operated a night club out 
there for several years. During the Kefauver hearings, there was 
evidence that that club had been used for gambling for some time. 

Joe Civello in Dallas has a narcotic record. I believe it was con- 
cerned with the smuggling of narcotics across the Mexican border into 
Dallas for further distribution. I think last year Joe Civello was 
seen in contact with John Ormento at Idlewild International Airport 



12270 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

at the same time Carmine Pellegrino was there. Carmine is the son of 
Rocco Pellegrino who is regarded as a don, and who has great in- 
fluence on the New York waterfront, as I described before. In Kansas 
City is Joseph G. Gurera. He is known as Little Joe. He gets that 
name from the term given to the point of 4 on dice and he also is given 
that name because he has been suspected strongly in several gangland 
murders where the victims were dispatched with 1 shots in the head. 
Guerera went to Kansas City some years ago and took over about 
60 percent of the policy operation there. I know that Ormento has 
been in contact with him for at least 7 years. 

Michael Polizzi, in Detroit, son of Angelo, has been connected with 
Papa John Priziola, in the operation of the J. C. Music Co., a jukebox 
operation. Papa John has a bad record of armed robbery, murder, 
and several other things. 

Mr. Kennedy. We will not go through each name. The chart does 
speak for itself, Mr. Chairman. The names are there of some of the 
contacts. 

The Chairman. Have you made the same examination as to con- 
tacts of others ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you have other charts ? 
Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. You might put a couple more in. 
The Chairman. Just briefly identify it and state what the chart 
represents. 

Mr. Willse. This also represents the contacts and associates of 
Joseph Profaci and his company, the Carmela Mia Packing Co., en- 
gaged in the importing of olive oil and cheese, and distribution. These 
contacts also go into Detroit. They go to the Van Dyke Taxi Co. in 
Buffalo, which is the company of John Charles Montana, also into 
Utica, Joseph Falcone being the operator; to Boston, with Frank 
Cucchiara, who was at Apalachin. In New York, to several of the 
Apalachin men, to Philip Mangano, found murdered in a Brooklyn 
swamp about 1951, a brother of Vincent who disappeared shortly there- 
after. They had influence on the Brooklyn waterfront. 

Lucky Luciano, Frank Costello, John Oddo, known as Crazy John 
or Johnnie Bathbeach. That is a section of Brooklyn that he hangs 
out in. 

Vito Genovese from Apalachin ; Sebastiano Nani, Gus Frasca, and 
Joseph Smurra, and Pete DeFeo, all three indicted with Vito Genovese 
in a murder that happened in 1934. 

Nicholo Impastato, on the Federal narcotics national list. And 
Salvatore Falcone, the brother of Joe, from Utica. Sal operates a 
produce business. I think it is Italian foodstuffs in Miami. 
The Chairman. That chart may be made exhibit 6A. 
(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit 6A" for reference 
and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 
The Chairman. You have several other charts, do you? 
Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I don'1 think it is necessary to put any more into 
the record. The other's, if you Avill identify them, may be made 
exhibits. They aresimilar charts. 
They speak for themselves, do they ? 
Mr. Willse. Sir? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12271 

The Chairman. The charts speak for themselves ? 

Mr. Willse. They do, sir. 

The Chairman. Each chart may be added as exhibit GB, C, and D, 
the charts of the witness. 

(The documents referred to were marked ''Exhibits Nos. 6B, C, 
and D" for reference and may be found in the files of the select com- 
mittee.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, this is a chart of the individuals that 
attended the meeting at Apalachin and where they came from. 

The Chairman. All right. 

We will make this chart exhibit 7, since it has some special signif- 
icance. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 7" for refer- 
ence and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

The Chairman. You may testify regarding it. 

Mr. Willse. This shows the points of origin at the time of the visit 
to Apalachin by the men. Los Angeles, Frank DeSimone, and Simone 
Scozzari, Dallas; Joseph Civello, Pueblo; James Poletti, Kansas City; 
Springfield, 111.: Cleveland, Ohio; Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Rochester, 
Auburn, Utica, N. Y. 

From Pittston and Pittsburgh, Pa., Camden, Newark, and Jersey 
City in New Jersej 7 , and from Boston, Frank Cucchiara. 

The Chairman. And from Florida ? 

Mr. Willse. From Florida is Salvatore Falcone, who runs a com- 
pany down there. Also may be included Sam DeCavalconte, Jr., who 
comes from Habana, but he went to Apalachin under the alias of Louis 
Santos. His father, Sam DeCavalconte, Sr., for years has been the 
racketeering overlord of Miami. 

Mr. Kennedy. In Tampa. 

Mr. Willse. And it takes in the Miami area. 

Senator Ives. I would like to ask the witness if there was anybody 
from New England there. 

Mr. Willse. Boston? 

Senator Ives. That is New England, part of it. Was there any- 
body from New England there ? 

Somebody from Boston ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. Anybody else from New England ? 

Mr. Willse. Not that I know of. 

Senator Ives. In other words, New England is fairly free of the 
Mafia: is that right? 

Mr. Willse. Except for that one. 

Senator Ives. Except the Boston one. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Is there any further \ 

If not, thank you very much. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. James La Duca. 

The Chairman. Be sworn. You do solemnly swear the evidence 
you shall give before this select committee shall be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so. help you God? 

Mr. La Duca. I do. 



12272 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES V. LA DUCA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
VENEARD D. NERI AND JOSEPH P. RUNFOLA 

The Chairman. Be seated. State your name, your place of resi- 
dence, and your business or occupation. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. La Duca. James V. La Duca. 

The Chairman. Your residence, please? 

Mr. La Duca. Dana Drive, Lewiston, N. Y. 

The Chairmann. What is your business or occupation \ 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. It might. You may be correct. You have coun- 
sel present ? 

Mr. La Duca. Yes ; I do. 

The Chairman. Counsel, will you identify yourself for the record, 
please ? 

Mr. Neri. Yes, sir. 

Veneard D. Neri ; mailing address 1006 Morgan Building, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

The Chairman. Thank you, sir. 

Do you have other counsel ? 

Mr. Runfola. Joseph P. Runfola, offices at 1006 Morgan Building, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

The Chairman. All right, Mr. Kennedy, proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. La Duca, you have been connected with Local 
66 of the Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. La Duca. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Let the Chair ask him one question. 

Do you honestly believe that if you told the truth about what your 
occupation or business is that a truthful answer under oath might 
tend to incriminate you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. La Duca. I am sorry, but I certainly do. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have the information that you were an organ- 
izer for Local 66 of the Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union, and 
at the time of the meeting at Apalachin we have information that you 
were secretary-treasurer of that local. 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You did attend the meeting at Apalachin, N. Y., in 
November of 1957 ; did you not, Mr. La Duca ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer the question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell the committee why 

The Chairman. Was that such a meeting up there that those who 
attended might be incriminated if the truth was known about it? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline, to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. May I interrupt there? 

Isn't it a fact, isn't it a matter of record, that you were there ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12273 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, I would like to develop the informa- 
tion with this witness that we have and the records that we have 
obtained based on our investigation, and ask the witness to make any 
comment on it that he wishes to. 

The Chairman. Bring around the witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. No ; I j ust wanted to develop the basis. 

The Chairman. You state what information we have and we will 
ask the witness if he wants to comment on it. 

Mr. Kennedy. The first information is we understand you know Mr. 
John Charles Montana, of Buffalo, who also attended the meeting at 
Apalachin ; is that correct? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That you worked for Mr. John Charles Montana's 
taxicab company called the Van Dyke Taxi Co., during the 1940's? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That you worked in 1945 and 1948 as a dispatcher for 
that company ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Kennedy. That following working for Mr. John Charles Mon- 
tana, that you then 

Senator Ives. Just 1 minute. May I interrupt there ? Do you mean 
to tell me that your admission of any association with Mr. Montana 
would tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. I wonder what Mr. Montana would have to say about 
that. 

Mr. Kennedy. That following your employment as a dispatcher 
for Mr. John Charles Montana, the Van Dyke Taxi Co., that you then 
went to work for the Maggadino Funeral Home, is that correct? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the Maggadino Funeral Home is operated and 
run by Mr. Antonio Maggadino, who also attended the meeting at 
Apalachin ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell the committee why you happened to 
then go to work for the Maggadino Funeral Home ? 

Mr. La Duca. I didn't get that question. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you tell the committee why you happened to 
go to work for the Maggadino Funeral Home ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that in 1947 you, Mr. La Duca, 
Mr. Montana, John Charles Montana, Mr. Charles A. Montana, and 
Mr. Peter J. Maggadino, who was the brother of Antonio Maggadino, 
and who also attended the meeting in Apalachin, bought the Buffalo 
Beverage Corp. Is that correct ? 



12274 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on tlie ground 
that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That from our information we understand that you 
purchased 125 shares at that time, in 1947. 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. To make that purchase, you borrowed $5,000 from 
Douglas Bissell, and Douglas Bissell was the treasurer of Mr. Mon- 
tana's taxicab company, is that right? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That the 125 shares cost $12,500; you borrowed 
$5,000 from Douglas Bissell, and you had the balance of $7,500 in 
cash at home. Is that right ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that on the ground that it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Didn't you tell our investigator during an interview 
in Buffalo that you had this $7,500 at home? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That company was sold in 1949, is that right? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you went back to work for the Maggadino Fu- 
neral Home ? 

Is that right ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question. It may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. So you have been in business with Mr. Montana and 
Mr. Maggadino, who both went to the meeting in Apalachin. Some 
of the money that you invested in that company you procured from 
an employee of Mr. Montana. 

After you went back to work at the Maggadino Funeral Home, you 
then went to work, did you not, for local 66 of the hotel and restaurant 
employees ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You first went to work as an organizer and then later 
became secretary-treasurer ; is that right ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. During the period of the 1950's, there was a cleanup 
campaign, was there not, amongst the Teamsters Local 375 up in 
Buffalo, and the cleanup campaign was being run by Mr. Stanley 
Clayton, who was running against Mr. Ernest Belles? Were you 
aware of that campaign ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that a piece of dynamite was found 
in Mr. Clayton's automobile during the course of this campaign? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12275 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it a fact that your brother, Mr. Charles 
La Duca, circulated handbills for Mr. Belles, who was running against 
Mr. Clayton? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it a fact that all these handbills were pur- 
chased out of the union funds of local 66 of the Hotel and Restaurant 
Employees' Union ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. While you were working for the union as a secretary- 
treasurer, didn't you also receive money from a hotel chain in Buffalo, 
N.Y.? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know the Richford Hotel chain in Buffalo? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it a fact that you received money each 
month from the Richford Operating Corp., which runs the Rich- 
ford Hotels in Buffalo? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it a fact that you actually received 
$433.33 each month while you were secretary-treasurer of the Hotel 
and Restaurant Employees' Union ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it a fact that during this period of time 
the Richford Operating Corp. had a contract with local 66, of which 
you were secretary-treasurer? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, we have information along those 
lines. 

The Chairman. Senator Ives. 

Senator Ives. I would like to interrupt here and ask a question. 

Mr. La Duca, are you under indictment? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Then I take it you are. 

Counsel, have you anything to say about that? 

Mr. Neri. May I have permission to address the Chair, Senator? 

The Chairman. You may. 

Mr. Neri. He was subpenaed before the Federal grand jury in 
the southern district of New York. The subpena read investigation 
for conspiracy. He has appeared before that particular grand jury 
2 or 3 times. He has also appeared before the Federal grand jury 
for the western district of New York, Buffalo, N. Y., and the scope 
of the investigation at that particular place was general. 



12276 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

It was never narrowed down. He has also appeared before the 
watchdog committee in Albany, N. Y. 

Senator Ives. I was just curious to know the reason why he was 
taking the fifth amendment. I can't see for the life of me what his 
association with Mr. John Charles Montana would have to do with it. 
You can't explain that, Mr. Counsel ? 

Just why is his association with Mr. John Charles Montana pre- 
venting him from admitting it? 

Is Mr. John Charles Montana so evil that an association with him 
would cause one to be forced to take the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Neri. Senator, I am sorry I can't answer that. First, probably, 
I don't know. Secondly, I 

Senator Ives. You don't know anything about Mr. Montana? 

Mr. Neri. Yes, sir. But secondly it is also a privileged communica- 
tion between my client and myself. 

Senator Ives. I respect that, of course, but I can't understand it. 
All right. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. I would like to ask you about some of the individuals. 
Do you know Mr. William Buf alino, from Detroit ? We have infor- 
mation, Mr. Chairman, that he does know Mr. William Bufalino, 
head of local 985 of the Teamsters in Detroit. 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that you know well Mr. Bar- 
ney Baker, who was working in Buffalo for the Teamsters for a period 
of time. 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Mr. Barney Baker ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that you know Mr. Vito Dom- 
iano. 

Do you know Mr. Vito Domiano ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know him under his alias, Buck Jones ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know he was involved with Mr. Maggadino 
in the gambling in the Buffalo area during the 1950's ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information you know Mr. Fred Eandaccio. 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that he was closely connected with Mr. Domiano 
and Mr. Steve Maggadino in this gambling in the Buffalo area. 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that you know Mr. Sam Pieri, 
also known as Salvatore Pieri. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12277 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, we have information that this wit- 
ness knows Mr. Pieri, and Mr. Fieri appears on the Federal narcotics 
list, No. 24. 

Do you know Mr. Mike and Frank Ervolino ? 

Air. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Mike Ervolino is the business agent and Mr. 
Frank Ervolino is the president of the Cleaning and Dyehouse Work- 
ers, local 123? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The information we have is that Mike Ervolino is 
also the business agent and president of the combination Launderers 
and Cleaning and Service Store Employees, local 163-10, and got 7 
to 15 years for attempted extortion with a teamster local shortly 
before he went to that local. This judgment was subsequently re- 
versed. 

Is that right? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to the information we have, you also know 
Mr. Joseph Stracci, who is also known as Joe Stretch, from New York 
City? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to the information from the investigation 
we have conducted, we find that you registered at the Hotel Lexington 
in New York City from November 7 to November 12, 1957; is that 
right? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that you were at that hotel with Mr. Joe Fal- 
cone ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And while at that hotel, on the 9th of November, 
you called the residence of Mr. Joseph Bonanno, known as Joe Ba- 
nanas ; is that right ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us why you, a union official, was call- 
ing the notorious Joe Bananas? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that on the 11th of November 
you called Mr. Anthony Falange, of Utica, N. Y., who was formerly 
in the Hod Carriers and Common Laborers local, and associated in 
northern New York in a gambling operation using that local union 
as a front with Mancuso. Is that right ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 



12278 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. That you called on November 11 the grill that is 
owned by Andrew Sciandra, who is the uncle of Angelo Sciandra. 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that on November 11 you called, just prior to 
the meeting at Apalachin, you called the home of Mr. Joseph Barbara. 
Is that right? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you also called his Canada Dry Bottling Co. 
of Endicott, N. Y., Mr. Barbara's home? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you called on that day Mr. Joseph Padura, who 
has been arrested for operating a floating crap game, in Pennsylvania. 
Is that right? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you called the L. G. Carriers, the trucking firm 
of James Plumeri, while you were staying at the Hotel Lexington; 
is that right ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that you were called by Mr. 
Peter J. Calieri, who is well known in the narcotis field; is that 
right? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Why would you, a union official, be associating with 
these people, Mr. LaDuca ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that Mr. William Moretti, 
who was a notorious hoodlum slain in New Jersey in 1953 attended 
your wedding. Is that correct, Mr. La Duca? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Going back to Mr. Joe Bananas, when he was ap- 
prehended after the meeting in Apalachin, he had in his possession 
your business card. 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that in addition to the people 
that you called, that you were called by Joseph Barbara, Sr., you 
have been called by Roy Carlisi, a well-known gangster and hoodlum, 
Joe Falcone, and both the Galente brothers; is thai right? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That you were stopped after leaving the meeting at 
Apalachin, and that in vour car was Mr. John DeMarco and Mr. 
John Scalish, of Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EST THE LABOR FIELD 12279 

Mr. Kennedy. How did you know Mr. John DeMarco and Mr. 

John Scalish? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. John Scalish is in the jukebox business. Can 
you tell us what your association has been with him? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And in the cigarette-vending business. It is the 
cigarette-vending business rather than the jukebox. 

Can you tell us what your relationship has been with him, with 
John Scalish ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. All right, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. La Duca, isn't it true also that auditing the books and records 
of your local as well as of the pension and welfare funds of your local 
is Mr. Harold Mark? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't Mr. Harold Mark the individual who appeared 
before this committee last year — he is, Mr. Chairman, the individual 
who appeared before this committee last year — in connection with an 
attempted fix-up in New York City, and he is the individual that has 
received in loans some $150,000 from Mr. James Hoffa, of Detroit? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And after he received the loans from Mr. Hoffa's 
local, he turned around and loaned Mr. Hoffa $25,000; is that cor- 
rect? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. This is the man that handles the books and records 
of your local and the pension and welfare funds of your local ; is that 
right ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. How is it you happened to retain Mr. Harold Mark, 
Mr. La Duca ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all. 

The Chairman. Are you married ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. La Duca. Yes, sir, I am. 

The Chairman. What was your wife's maiden name ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. La Duca. Her maiden name was Angeline Maggadino. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

Mr. La Duca. You are welcome. 

The Chairman. Were you born in this country ? 

Mr. La Duca. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You are an American citizen ? 



12280 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. La Duca. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Are you a union official ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Have you ever been a union official ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you regard yourself as a common hoodlum ? 

Mr. La Duca. I 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Are you a member of the Mafia? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You know what the Mafia is, don't you ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You have heard of it before, haven't you? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Is there one single thing, one single activity, in 
which you are now engaged, or in which you have ever been engaged, 
about which you can tell the truth under oath without running the 
risk of possible self-incrimination ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. I wanted to give you an opportunity if there is 
one single thing in your activities now or in the past that you can talk 
about under oath without incriminating yourself or risking possible 
self-incrimination. 

I wanted to give you the opportunity to testify to it. Will you take 
advantage of the opportunity ? 

Mr. La Duca. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Well, it possibly would. 

Are there any further questions ? 

All right. You may stand aside for the present. Call the next 
witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Rosario Mancuso. 

The Chairman. Will you be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give before this 
Senate select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROSARIO MANCUSO, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 
COUNSEL, ANTHONY FERNICOLA 

The Chairman. Will you state your full name, and your place of 
residence, and your business or occupation ? 

Mr. Mancuso. Rosario Mancuso, 926 Archer Street, Utica, N. Y., 
unemployed. 

The Chairman. I did not understand your business or occupation. 

Mr. Mancuso. Unemployed. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12281 

The Chairman. How long have you been unemployed? 

Mr. Mancuso. About 4 months. 

The Chairman. What did you do previous to the period when you 
were unemployed ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Have you quit it since, whatever you were doing? 
You said now you are unemployed, and I assume that you were 
employed up until 4 months ago. 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the grounds it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Whatever you were doing then, that might have 
tended to incriminate you, I take it from your answer that you have 
quit it about 4 months ago; is that right? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to in- 
criminate me. 

The Chairman. "Well, we do not get very far in finding out what 
your business is. 

Do you have a lawyer ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I didn't hear the question. 

The Chairman. Do you have a lawyer to represent you ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I have. 

The Chairman. Could you tell us his name ? 

Mr. Mancuso. Anthony Fernicola. 

The Chairman. Will you please identify yourself for the record, 
Mr. Fernicola ? 

Mr. Fernicola. My name is Anthony Fernicola, and I am an at- 
torney, and my office is in the First Bank Building in Utica, N. Y. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Mancuso, are you also known as Joe Greco ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Al Greco ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You are not proud of your country, where you were 
born? 

Mr. Mancuso. I am proud of my country. 

The Chairman. Are you ashamed of it f How would it incrimi- 
nate you then to say where you were born ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I was born in the United States. 

The Chairman. In the United States ? 

Mr. Mancuso. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. That is fine. 

Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were born actually in Buffalo, N. Y., were you 
not? 

Mr. Mancuso. I was. 

Mr. Kennedy. On January 29, 1907 ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I was. 



12282 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, have you been president of the New Form Con- 
crete Co., of Utica, N. Y. ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you ever been arrested ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You spent 2 to 5 years in the penitentiary at Con- 
necticut for assault with intent to commit murder, in 1951 ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Actually you only spent 2 years there, didn't you, 
Mr. Mancuso ? 

Mr. Mancuso. What is the question ? 

Mr. Kennedy. You only spent 2 years? 

Mr. Mancuso. I never spent a minute in Connecticut in my life. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you ever been arrested ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I never was arrested in Connecticut. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were you arrested anywhere ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you spent any time in any penitentiary ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you spent any time in any penitentiary in 
New York ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. How many different penitentiaries have you been 
in, and maybe we can get at it that way? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the groimd it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, Mr. Mancuso, you became a union official in 
November of 1953 ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You became president of Local 186 of the Interna- 
tional Hod Carriers and Common Laborers' Union of America? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What union experience did you have to become the 
president of local 186 ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And secretary-treasurer of that local was Mr. An- 
thony Falange ; is that right ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Mr. Carl Dardino was elected the business 
agent ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where did that union operate? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12283 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground ii may lend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you operate up in Plattsburgh, X. YA 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, the information thai we have is that you oper- 
ated up in Plattsburgh, X. Y., and that you and these other two so- 
called union officials established a gambling operation in one of the 
local hotels; is that right ? 

.Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kknnedy. And you tried to set up a very active gambling ring 
in that area ; is that righ< '. 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And there were some attempted shakedowns and 
finally the union officials in that area themselves moved against you, 
and had you removed ; is that right? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That the gambling establishment was in the Cum- 
berland Hotel on the second floor; is that right? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. May I interrupt here ? 

Has the witness ever been in Plattsburgh? 

Mr. Fernicola. Are you asking me ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Have you ever been in Plattsburgh ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Is that what your visit up there was up to? 

Mr. Mancuso. I didn't get the question ? 

Senator Ives. I was just commenting on your answer. It does not 
make much sense. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that also while up there as sup- 
posedly a union official, you attempted to obtain a liquor license for a 
restaurant? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And then, Mr. Mancuso, isn't it a fact that you 
operate a number of the enterprises of the Falcone brothers in Utica, 
X. Y.? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And we have information that in Utica, N. Y., there 
was a wide-open gambling game, with very large stakes, operating 
in 1957, and that you acted as the doorman; is that right? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that this was in fact run by the Falcone 
brothers. 

21243— 58— pt. 32 7 



12284 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Mancttso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Wasn't it a fact that this gambling operation was 
broken into and the money all picked up by another group of gang- 
sters and hoodlums ? 

Mr. Mancttso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Would you mind saying you decline to answer? 

Mr. Mancttso. I decline to answer on those grounds. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the individual came in and robbed this 
gambling game that was going on; isn't that a fact, that he walked 
in and made everybody take their pants off and then took all of their 
money ? 

Mr. Mancttso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, wasn't one of the individuals that was sup- 
posed to be responsible for raiding that gambling game and crap 
game, a man by the name of Hap Longo ? 

Mr. Mancttso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Mr. Hap Longo ? 

Mr. Mancttso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know that Mr. Hap Longo has disappeared 
within the last few months ? 

Mr. Mancttso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know what happened to Air. Longo ? 

Mr. Mancttso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to the information we have, the last time 
Mr. Longo was seen was by Mrs. Longa when she saw him in your 
company ? 

Mr. Mancttso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know what happened to her husband? 

Mr. Mancttso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Did you kill him ? 

Mr. Mancttso. I decline to answer that on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. I do not blame you. 

The Chairman. It would. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, we understand, Mr. Mancnso, that the Falcone 
brothers who operate out of Utica, N. Y., are very close, or were very 
close to Albert Anastasia ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Mancttso. I decline to answer on the ground it may ten] to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it a fact that it was from Utica, N. Y., that 
Mr. Albert Anastasia registered and was inducted into the United 
States Army? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EST THE LABOR FIELD 12285 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Air. Kennedy. And it is a matter of record and isn't it a fact that 
he gave as his address at that time, a vacant lot in Utica, N. Y.? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer that on the ground it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And do you know how he was able to make that ar- 
rangement in Utica, N. Y., to be taken into the Army like he was? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it a fact that his son and daughter were 
married in Utica, N. Y.? That is, his son was married in Utica, 
N.Y.? 

Air. Mancuso. I decline to answer that on the ground it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were you at the wedding of young Anastasia? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer that on the ground it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And wasn't Anastasia's daughter-in-law buried up 
in Utica, N. Y. ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer that on the ground it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. May I ask a question there, Mr. Counsel? 

Knowing something about the Utica situation, I would like to ask 
this witness if he himself is in any way associated with the city 
administration in Utica '. 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer that on the grounds it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. It is that bad, is it? I was just curious ; that is all. 

You did not have to give that answer unless you wanted to. 

Mr. Kennedy. Xow, just a little background. 

You came to Utica from Buffalo, N. Y., in the 1930's, did you not? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer that on the ground it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And in 1944 you were supposedly backing fights, box- 
ing matches, in that area. 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer that on the ground it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that the money used in that operation 
came from the Falcone brothers ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may tend to in- 
criminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell the committee why it is that just 1 or 
2 companies in Utica, N. Y., are able to get all of the contracts in that 
area, building contracts ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do 3 t ou know Darling Ice Cream Co. of Syracuse, 
N. Y.« 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to our information you have been calling 
it Darling Ice Cream Co. of Syracuse, N. Y. 



12286 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IX THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. What is incriminating about ice cream? Can you 
tell us? 

Mr. Mancttso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't this ice cream company operated by Vincent 
Scro ? 

Air. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. I am sorry, it is Air. Sam Ccro. Do you know Air. 
Sam Scro? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer that on the ground it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And do you know why other people with criminal 
records such as Manuel Sicari, Salvatore Falcone, and Barbara, and 
Monachino would all be calling this ice cream company ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you have had telephone calls to Carl Giodino, 
and Dominick D'Agostino ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information based on some testimony this 
morning that you used Joe Foti in union business while he was a 
narcotics fugitive ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer that on the ground it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Joe Foti ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us why, or how, you were able to 
become a union official in the Hod Carriers Union ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all for now. 

The Chairman. How long have you been a member of the Mafia ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were you born into membership, or did you marry 
into membership ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You are married, are you not ? 

Mr. Mancuso. Yes. 

Mi*. Kennedy. What was your wife's maiden name ? 

Mr. Mancuso. Cora Mantemaro. 

Mr. Kennedy. Thank you. 

Did you go to the meeting at Apalachin ? 

Mr. Mancfso. I decline to answer it on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The information that we have is you attended the 
meeting at Apalachin ; is that correct? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12287 

Mr. Mam i so. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You went up with Joe and Salvatore Falcone ; isn't 
that right? 

Mr. Man (i bo. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you were apprehended while leaving the meet- 
ing at Apalachin with Joe and Salvatore Falcone, Dominick D ? Agos- 
t ino. and Samuel Lagattuta : is that right? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground that it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, you told our investigators when they first 
talked to you that all you did when you went to Apalachin was sit in 
the car and read a book; is that right \ 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What were you discussing at the meeting at Apala- 
chin ? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Would it be proper to say that that was a hood- 
lum convention up at Apalachin? 

Mr. Mancuso. I decline to answer the question on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. I would not want to, myself, describe it if you 
could help me get it in proper perspective. 

Senator Ives. I think it is a little different from that. I think 
it was a glorified family reunion. 

The Chairman. It may have been. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. He is on his way over, and perhaps we could put 
another witness on. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for 2 or 3 
minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. Let us come to order. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is Mr. Montana here? 

If not, I will call Mr. Larasso. 

The Chairman. Will you be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give before this 
Select Senate Committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Larasso. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS ANTHONY LARASSO 

The Chairman. State your name, and your place of residence, and 
your business or occupation. 

Mr. Larasso. Louis Anthony Larasso, 2711 Bradbury Avenue, Lin- 
den, N. J. 

The Chairman. Your occupation or business ? 

Mr. Larasso. I refuse to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 



12288 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EST THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. I believe if I were you, I would say "I decline to 
answer," and show a little more respect for your Government. 

You decline to answer ? 

Mr. Larasso. On the ground it may incriminate me. 

The Chairman. All right. You do not have an attorney? 

Mr. Larasso. No, sir. 

The Chairman. All right, Mr. Kennedy, you may proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Larasso, you are also known as Lucky Luciano 
Larasso. 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might incrimi- 
nate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Even on your other name you don't want to answer 
that, either? 

Mr. Larasso. My name is Louis Anthony Larasso. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have any other name that you go by, do you 
use any other name ? 

Mr. Larasso. You mean an alias ? 

I decline to answer on the ground it might incriminate me. 

The Chairman. What information do we have as to the name ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Luciano Larasso, and Larasso, isn't that correct? 
You also use the name Luciano ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Weren't you a trustee of Local 394 of the Hod Car- 
riers and Common Laborers Union ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might incriminate 
me. 

The Chairman. Did you do something as trustee that you think 
might incriminate you if you told the truth about it ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might incriminate 
me. 

The Chairman. If you said "yes," it might incriminate you ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might incriminate 
me. 

The Chairman. And if you said "no," it might incriminate you? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might incriminate 
me. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that you were a member of 
the Hod Carriers Local for about 2 years, and that you resigned as 
the trustee of Local 394 of the Hod Carriers on December 15, 1957. 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. As far as your background is concerned, we have 
the information that you were born November 13, 1926, in Elizabeth, 
N.J. 

The Chairman. Is that information correct? 

Mr. Larasso. Would you repeat that, please. 

Mr. Kennedy. November 13, 1926 ? 

Mr. Larasso. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. In Elizabeth, N. J. ? 

Mr. Larasso. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. That, according to the information that we have, 
you attended the meeting at Apalachin, in November 1957? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EN THE LABOR FIELD 12289 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That you registered at Carleton Hotel in Bing- 
hamton,N. Y., with Frank Majuri. 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Why do you think it might tend to incriminate 
you, registering in the hotel, or being there with him? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. There is nothing about the hotel that would in- 
criminate you ; is there ? 

Air. Larasso. I decline to answer. 

The Chairman. I mean in fairness to the hotel. The hotel has 
some rights here that ought to be respected, and it is a nice hotel, is it 
not ? Did you say it was not ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

Senator Ives. Were you ever in Binghamton ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Are you an attorney ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You ought not to reflect upon the profession. 

Senator Ives. What is wrong with the legal profession ? 

The Chairman. Are you a lawyer ? 

Mr. Larasso. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy. That you went to meetings with Frank Majuri, who 
also was an official of the union, the same one, and he was vice presi- 
dent of local 394 ; is that right ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might incrimi- 
nate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, Frank Majuri has been convicted some five 
times ; isn't that right, on different offenses ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. He was arrested in 1933 and convicted in 1935 for 
possession of liquor, and fined $150, and in 1936 Alcoholic Beverage 
Act. I guess, and he was convicted then and received a 3 years' proba- 
tion, and then in 1937 illicit manufacture of alcohol, 8 months in jail, 
and in 1950 disorderly conduct, and $50, and 1954, bookmaking, 1 to 2 
years' probation. 

What was in the background that made him available or made him 
be the one to be selected to be vice president of this local union ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might incrimi- 
nate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that while a union official he was 
active in setting up and operating gambling games on the various 
projects ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 



12290 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. And wasn't that set np for the men wlio were em- 
ployed on those various projects, who were members of his local 
union? 

Mr. Larasso. Would yon repeat that question? 

Mr. Kennedy. Wasn't there gambling games set up for the men who 
were employed on these various jobs and who were men who were 
members of the local union. 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

(At this point, the following members were present : Senators Me- 
ridian and Ives.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you take some action in November of 1952 to set 
up a social club in Linden, X. J. ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground that it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And wasn't that set up by you with a Mr. Emanuel 
Riggi? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. This is according to the information we have, and 
that Emanuel Riggi was with you in setting np this social club, and he 
was a business agent of local 394. 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that the purpose of the club was to establish 
gambling, the information that we have. 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground that it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that in November of 1957, Mr. Eman- 
uel Riggi was sentenced to 2 years by the Federal court in Newark for 
attempted extortion and conspiracy involving building contractors? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. These are some of the contacts, Mr. Larasso, that we 
find that you have. We understand that you are an associate of 
Anthony Riela. 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. He attended the meeting in Apalachin. And that 
you were also an associate of Vito Genovese, is that correct ? 

Mr. Larasso. Repeat that, please. 

Mr. Kennedy. You are an associate of Vito Genovese? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Dominick Olivetto, who is from New Jersey ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Joseph Ida ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it may (end to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Albert Doyle? 

Mr. Larasso. T decline to answer on the grounds that it may tend to 
incriminate me. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12291 

Mr, Kennedy. You were associated with about five of tin' individ- 
uals that attended the meeting at Apalachin, prior to the meeting. 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us why you have been calling the 
Anchor Bar on Second Avenue in New York City so frequently I 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground that it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have seven telephone calls to the Anchor Bar 
at Second Avenue. Can you tell us a little bit about the Anchor 
Vkxi( 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you tell the committee why it has been a hang- 
out for those who peddle narcotics ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you use narcotics ? 

You can answer "no." 

Mr. Larasso. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you. I just wanted to get one answer about 
something. All right, proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you ever been involved in jukeboxes at all, had 
anything to do with them ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the ground that it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have you also telephoned by Sam DeCavalconte. 

Mr. Larasso. I didn't hear the question. 

Mr. Kennedy. I would like to have you pronounce the name of Sam 
DeCavalconte D-e-C-a-v-a-1-c-o-n-t-e. 

Mr. Larasso. You have more of an education than I have. Do you 
want me to spell it for you? 

Mr. Kennedy. Pronounce it. 

Mr. Larasso. I refuse to answer on the grounds that it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know him ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The information we have is that he telephoned you, 
and I thought perhaps you could help us with the correct pronunciation 
of his name. 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Would you kindly give that to us privately? 

We may come across that name again. You would be kind enough 
to do that, wouldn't you \ 

Mr. Kennedy. DeCavalconte, is that right I 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell me what you did when you worked 
as a labor foreman for the United Engineer & Construction Co. in 
Linden, N. J. ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds that it may tend 
to incriminate me. 



12292 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us why you telephoned the All State 
Registered Cars, Inc. ? What is the All State Registered Cars, Inc. ? 

Do you know anybody there ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Joe Prof aci ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know who Joe Profaci would be calling in 
that company ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Why would you as a union official have this close 
association with all these individuals of long police and criminal 
records ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Why did you go to the meeting at Apalachin? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you discuss labor matters at the meeting at 
Apalachin ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Wliat other matters did you discuss while you 
were there ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mi*. Kennedy. Did you discuss the death of Albert An astasia? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long have you known Vito Genovese ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Senator Ives. 

Senator Ives. I would like to inquire of the witness : Are you under 
indictment ? 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. That is a simple matter of record, whether you are 
or are not. Can you say that you are ? I am trying to find out why 
you arc taking the fifth amendment all the time. 

Mr. Larasso. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. I don't believe he is. 

The Chairman. Are you married? 

Mr. Larasso. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What is your wife's maiden name ? 

Mr. Larasso. Idee. 

The Chairman. I thought she had another name. 

Mr. Larasso. Pardon me? 

The Chairman. What was her maiden name? 

Mr. Larasso. Stephanie Idee, I-d-e-c. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12293 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all. 

The Chairman. All right. You may stand aside for the present. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Montana. 

The Chairman. Be sworn, please. 

You do solemnly swear the evidence you shall give before this Sen- 
ate select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Montana. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN C. MONTANA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

FRANK G. RAICHLE 

The Chairman. Be seated. State your name, your place of resi- 
dence and your business or occupation. 

Mr. Montana. My name is John C. Montana. I reside at 340 
Starin Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 

The Chairman. Yes, sir. Your business or occupation, please? 

Mr. Montana. I am president of the Van Dyke Taxicab Co., Buf- 
falo, N. Y. 

The Chairman. You have counsel present. 

Mr. Montana. Mr. Frank Raichle. 

The Chairman. Will vou identify yourself for the record? 

Mr. Eaichle. Frank G. Raichle, Buffalo, N. Y. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Montana, could you tell us the date and place of 
your birth \ 

Mr. Montana. I was born on June 30, 1893, in Montedoro, Italy. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you came to this country in what year? 

Mr. Montana. In 1907. 

Mr. Kennedy. And where did you go then, what part of the United 
States? 

Mr. Montana. Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you always lived in Buffalo ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Kennedy. No other section of the United States ? 

Mr. Montana. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have any other interests other than the taxi- 
cab company at the present time ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell the committee what they are ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, the Van Dyke Cab Co. is the parent company 
for Van Dyke properties, and it is the wholly owned subsidiary, and 
also there is the Van Dyke Transportation Corp., owned by Van Dyke 
Taxi & Transfer Co., wholly owned by that company. 

Mr. Kennedy. And then 

Mr. Montana. And then Van Dyke Properties, Van Dyke Trans- 
portation Corp. I am also president of Van Dyke Baggage Corp., 
which is a separate corporation than the others. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were president of the Frontier Liquor Corp. ? 

Mr. Montana. I was for about 6 months. 

Mr. Kennedy. When was that ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, Mr. Fred Weiss was the president. He passed 
away in February, and then the directors 



12294 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. February of what year ? 

Mr. Montana. February of 1957. He was president for 7 years, 
and I was asked by the directors after he passed away if I would take 
over, and I did, at no pay. 

I was president until about in January or February of this year. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have a financial interest in that company 
also? 

Mr. Montana. I have about 6V2 percent of the corporation. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about the Buffalo Beverage Corp. ? That was 
a corporation that existed some time ago. 

Mr. Montana. Well, that company has been out of business for 
10 years. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you have an interest in that company ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I did ; about 5 percent. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did Mr. La Duca have an interest in that company 
also? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, he did. 

Mr. Kennedy. What percentage did he have ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, I couldn't really tell you right now. I do 
not recall. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about the Maggadinos, then, did they have 
an interest in that company ? 

Mr. Montana. Peter Maggadino had an interest also. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did they do? What did the Buffalo Beverage 
Corp. do ? 

Mr. Montana. They were distributors for Budweiser beer. 

Mr. Kennedy. In that connection, did they have any relationship 
with Mr. Barbara ? 

Mr. Montana. No; they did not. 

Mr. Kennedy. You also had an interest in the Empire State Brew- 
ery Corp. ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Kennedy. That was closed up in 1910, is that right ? 

Mr. Montana. That was closed up in 1940. 

Mr. Kennedy. What were you, a director of that ? 

Mr. Montana. I was a director ; yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did they have any business dealings with Mr. Joseph 
Barbara ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes ; we did. 

Mr. Kennedy. What relationship did you have \ 

M r. Montana. He was a distributor. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was he made a distributor by the Empire State 
Brewery Corp.? 

Mr. Montana. Well, it came about that he got a license from the 
State, and he approached the company to get supplies from the 
Empire State Brewery Corp., and we supplied him beer, but the 
business was his. 

Mr. Kennedy. What kind? 

Mr. Montana. That was Kmpire State Brewery beer. 

Mr. Kennedy. Had you known Mr. Barbara? 

When did he receive this distributorship from you? 

Mr. Montana. I would say maybe 1931. 

Mr. Kennedy. Had you known Mr. Barbara prior to thai '. 

Mr. Montana. I didn't know him until then. 






IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12295 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you know at that time that when he received 
the distributorship thai he had been 

Mr. Montana. Xo; I did not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Wait until I finish the question. 

Mr. Montana. All right. 

Mr. Kennedy. That he had been arrested some 2 or 3 times in 
conned ion with murders \ 

Mr. Montana. No; 1 did not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you make inquiry into that at all? 

Mr. Montana. No. I felt that if he had a license from the State 
of New York, and he went through that, I felt everything was all 
right. 

Mr. Kennedy. How did you happen to select him, Mr. Montana? 

Mf. Montana. Well, in 1934 you didn't select, they were after you 
if you could supply them. 

Mr. Kennedy. If there were a number of people after you, why did 
you happen to pick him? 

Mr. Montana. He came over, he qualified, and he had the money 
to pay for it, and we could sell to him as well as we could anybody 
else. 

Mr. Kennedy. You didn't look into his background at all ? 

Mr. Montana. I did not, because if he received a license I felt that 
the State of New York had done it. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Senator Ives. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Montana, I would like to get a few things straight. 

Mr. Montana. Yes, Senator. 

Senator Ives. I want to ask you this: Did you have anybody else 
who acted in the capacity that Mr. Barbara acted in who was affiliated 
with you at that time and living as far away as Endicott ? 

Mr. Montana. We sold even up in the Adirondacks. 

Senator Ives. Where \ 

Mr. Montana. AYe sold up to the Adirondacks. 

Senator Ives. You had a large area for distribution ; is that it ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes ; we did. 

Senator Ives. That is what I wanted to get established — how large 
your area of distribution was. 

Mr. Montana. AA T e went as far as Old Forge, Utica, Auburn, and 
Lake Placid. 

Senator Ives. How far east of Endicott in the southern tier? Any- 
thing '. Did you get down into the ( 'atskills at all? 

Mr. Montana. I don't believe so. 

Senator Ives. Then Barbara was about as far east as you went in 
the southern tier: is that about right? 

Mr. Montana. That is about right. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

Mr. Montana. Yon are welcome, sir. 

Senator Ives. How long had you run this company, the Empire 
State Brewery ( Jorp. \ AVhen did you start it? 

Mr. Montana. Well, I didn't run it. I was one of them. Mr. 
Heisman, Fred Pleisman, was the president. Mr. Bill Schwartz was 
the treasurer, AA T illiam Schwartz. 

Senator Ives. AA T hen did you start it ? 

Mr. Montana. Just after prohibition was repealed. 



12296 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES ENT THE LABOR FIELD 

Senator Ives. You say Mr. Barbara was one of the distributors. 
Was Mr. Falcone ? 

Mr. Montana. He was a distributor also. 

Senator Ives. What area was he in ? 

Mr. Montana. Utica. 

Senator Ives. Joseph Falcone distributed in Utica ? 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Senator Ives. And Mr. Maggadino ? 

Mr. Montana. He was a distributor also in Niagara Falls. 

Senator Ives. Was anybody distributing for you in Norwich ? 

Mr. Montana. No. 

Mr. Kennedy. You have been a member of the Buffalo City Council, 
have you ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were a member of the Buffalo City Council in 
1927? 

Mr. Montana. 1927 to 1931. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you were a delegate to the New York State 
Constitutional Convention ? 

Mr. Montana. I was, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that was in 1937 ? 

Mr. Montana. 1937. 

Mr. Kennedy. In Albany, N. Y., is that right? 

Mr. Montana. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Kennedy. There you were chairman of the house and slum 
clearance ? 

Mr. Montana. I was chairman of house and slum clearance. I was 
also chairman on labor relations and compensation, and I was a mem- 
ber of several of the committees. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were chairman of the labor relations committees. 

Mr. Montana. And compensation ; yes, both. 

Mr. Kennedy. How many employees do you have in your various 
companies? 

Mr. Montana. Well, I say at Van Dyke we have about 300 or a 
little more. Some of them are part-timers and some are regulars. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are any of those employees members of labor 



unions 



Mr. Montana. Well, we had a union in 1937, and then they had an 
unlawful strike, not sanctioned by the international, and after that 
strike the boys don't seem to have been inclined to have another one. 

Mr. Ken \ i.nv. You haven't had a union then since 1937 amongst any 
of your employees ? 

Mr. Montana. No. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was your experience particularly that j'ou were 
made head of the labor relations committee in 1937? 

Mr. Montana. Good experience, very good. 

Mr. Kennedy. Had you had experience with unions, labor unions? 

Mr. Montana. No. 

Mr. Kennedy. No experience with labor unions? 

Mr. Montana. I don't know how even a union is run. 

Mr. Kennedy. And in L956 you received the award from the city 
of Buffalo as man of the year? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who was that award given by ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12297 

Mr. Montana. Well, it is sponsored by the Buffalo Courier, and 
is the Fun-arama, which is the Erie Club of the city of Buffalo, 
which is the police department. 

Mr. Kennedy. The police department? 

Mr. Montana. Yes. 

Senator Ives. Who actually makes that selection there? You say 
it is sponsored by the Courier, but who makes the selection? You 
said the police department, but who individually makes it? 

Mi-. Montana. There was a committee. 

Senator Ives. Who was on the committee at the particular time? 

Mr. Montana. The committee was Jim Kennedy with the Courier 
is one, and Wade Stevenson, who is the chairman of the committee. 

Senator Ives. What is his profession ? 

Mr. Montana. Mr. Wade Stevenson has been president of the 
Chamber of Commerce of Buffalo for 5 years at least. 

Senator Ives. He has nothing else to do except be president of the 
chamber of commerce ? 

Mr. Montana. No ; he runs a very large business. 

Senator Ives. I am trying to find out who the ones are who made 
the award. They are the ones who must have known you. 

Mr. Montana. Senator, there are quite a few prominent people that 
does it. 

Senator Ives. Y"ou gave two names. Who are the others ? I know 
a few folks in Buffalo, you know. 

Mr. Montana. Yes; I know you do. On that committee there 
is Ray Wild. On that committee there is even the district attorney 
on that committee. 

Senator Ives. Of Erie County ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, he is one of them. 

Senator Ives. What was his name at the time? 

Mr. Montana. Dwyer. 

Senator Ives. That is four you have named. 

Mr. Montana. And there is Anthony J. Naples on that committee, 
Joe Basil is on that committee. 

Senator Ives. How large a committee was it ? Y r ou have named six. 

Mr. Montana. About 20, 1 guess. 

Senator Ives. Don't try to name them all. The ones you have 
named are rather outstanding citizens of Buffalo, I would say. 

Mr. Montana. Yes: they are, very prominent people. 

Senator Ives. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Montana. You are welcome, Senator. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Montana, there was a large congregation of in- 
dividuals at Apalachin, N. Y r ., in November of 1957, and I believe 
that you were one of those who were present at the time the police ap- 
prehended a group of these people. How did you happen to go to 
Apalachin in November of ll).")? '. 

Mr. Montana. Well, Mr. Kennedy. I was going to New York. I 
had a meeting with Frank Sawyer from Boston in New York at 11 
o'clock on Friday morning, and a fellow by the name of DaiUM niann 
and a fellow by the name of Horace Gwilym. This appointment was 
at 11 o'clock on Friday to discuss a meeting of cab research bureau. 
I also had an appointment in Pittston, Pa. I had shipped a com- 
pressor in 1956, the first part of December, on consignment, after 
liquidation of Montana Motors, which was a distributor for DeSoto 



12298 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

and Plymouth for a few years. I didn't get the money for this com- 
pressor, and I thought I would go to Pittston on Thursday and see 
Medico Industries, to whom I had shipped this compressor, and when 
I got through with them I was going to New York to this meeting the 
following morning at 12 o'clock in Mr. Dennemann's office. 

Mr. Kennedy. What is the Medico Industries ? 

Mr. Montana. They are in the heavy equipment business. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is that Bill Medico ? 

Mr. Montana. That is right, 

Mr. Kennedy. Wasn't Mr. Russell Bufalino connected at one time 
with that? 

Mr. Montana. I do not know, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. So you decided you would take a trip down to Pitts- 
ton to see what had happened to your generator ? What was it ? 

Mr. Montana. A compressor. It was a working ton compressor. 

Mr. Kennedy. You decided to go down to Pittston ? 

Mr. Montana. About a year had gone by and the compressor was 
not disposed of. Therefore, I was going there to find out whether I 
would get paid for it or ship it back. But I never got to Pittston. 

Mr. Kennedy. Weren't the phones working at that time? 

Couldn't you just telephone down to Pittston ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, telephones didn't do any good. As long as I 
was going to New York, I thought I may as well get it over with, stop 
there and find out and ship it back if I couldn't get the money. 

Mr. Kennedy. Just go down there and find out about the com- 
pressor yourself ? 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. You left on what day ? 

Mr. Montana. I left Buffalo on Thursday morning, I would say 
about a quarter to 9. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is November 14 ? 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. On your way to Pittston ? 

Mr. Montana. That is correct. 

Mr. Kennedy. About 8 : 45 in the morning? 

Mr. Montana. That is correct. I left Buffalo, went down the 
through way to Waterloo, Route 98, from 98-B, I think the other route 
was IT, and I was going to 11 after that, 

Senator Ives. Why were you on 17 in New York instead of 6 in 
Pennsylvania ? 

Mr. Montana. 17 to 11 is bettor. Senator. 

Senator Ives. 6 is pretty good. 1 know them both. 

Mr. Montana. 1 have never been through on f>, so I don't know. 

Senator Ives. You have missed something. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us about the t rip \ 

Mr. Montana. Well, (lie first tiling that happened to me that morn- 
ing was the left front windshield wiper (!ew oil' of the car to start 
with. It started off with bad luck from the morning. And, of 
course, it was pouring, and I couldn't drive without it, 

Mr. Kennedy. What kind of a car were you driving? 

Mr. Montana. A Cadillac. 

M. Kennedy. How long had you had this car? 

Mr. Montana. Threeor four months. 

Mi-. Kennedy. Were you all by yourself in the car? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12299 

Mr. Montana. No: I had another man with me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was his name? 

Mr. Montana. Anthony Maggadino was his name. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know anything about his back*: round \ 

Mr. Montana. No, I don't. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know of his criminal record \ 

Mr: Montana. I don't think he has any criminal record. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know 

Mr. Montana. If he has. it is unbeknown to me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You didn't know of his career in Italy? 

Mr. Montana. I wouldn't. 1 came here in 1907. 

Mr. Kennedy. Well, he was 

Mr. Montana. I understand he came here in 1923 or 1924. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you like to hear it? 

Mr. Montana. He doesn't come from the same town, either. 

Mr. Kennedy. Falsifying passports in Italy, in 1916; clandestine 
activities in 1916; arrested for homicide in 1917; extortion, robbery, 
and rape in 1!»l!4. it has here. 

Did you know about -that ( 

Mr. Montana. I do not, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was he a friend of yours I 

Mr. Montana. Well, he is an uncle through marriage to my nephew. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you know he was questioned in connection with 
gambling in Buffalo, N. Y., by a Federal grand jury in 1952? 

Mr. Montana. I do not know, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that he was arrested in 1935 for violation of 
the United States immigration laws \ 

Did you know that ( 

Mr. Montana. I do not know, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Anyway, the two of you were on the way. He was 
going to Pittston, too \ 

Mr. Montana. No. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where was he going ? 

Mr. Montana. He was going to New York. 

Mr. Kennedy. To New York City \ 

Mr. Montana. I can tell you how that happened, too, if you would 
like to know it. I may just as well tell you how it happened. 

(At this point, Senator Goldwater entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Montana. On Wednesday 1 was down to Niagara Falls. He 
lives in Niagara Falls. He does not live in Buffalo. I was there to 
see one of my older brothers. He is about 81 years old. He is the 
father of a girl that married Maggadino's nephew. He happened 
to be there. 1 told him I was going to New York. That is, I didn't 
tell it to him, 1 told it to my brother, that 1 was leaving for New 
York the next morning, and he asked me if he could ride with me. I 
told him I had no objection, that he could. 

That is the way it happened. He was going down to see his sister 
in New York, in Brooklyn. I don't know where she lives. And some 
nieces or nephews. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you expect to get to New York City that night? 

Mr. Montana. Well, if 1 got through 1 would have gone on to 
New York, because it is only about 130 miles from Wilkes-Barre, or 

21243— 58— pt. 32 8 



12300 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

1 M?Tr haVe sta ^ d \ n Wilkes-Barre and left early the next mornm* 
Mr. Kennedy. So the two of you were driving down b 

Senator Ives. May I raise a question there 8 ' 
How were you attired at that time ? 
Mr. Montana. Pardon « 

didyouhlvZ'? 1 "^ h ° W W6re y ° U attlred? What kind of clothin ^ 
repeat Jff^^^ * dkln,t ^ et the W™^ Senator. Will you please 

Senator Ives. I say how were you attired 8 
. Mr. Montana. I had one of these coats with fur on top of it and it 
is a canvas coat. That is what I had. P ' 

Senator Ives. What kind of a hat did you have 8 

Mr. Montana Well, I generally wear a Dobbs hat. 

Senator Ives. You wear a what % 

Mr. Montana. A Dobbs hat. 

W^f/T ^l!', 1 k ?° W > but there are Dobb s hats and Dobbs 
hats and they have all kinds of shapes. What kind of a shape did you 

Mr. Montana. Well, Senator, I wouldn't know how to explain it to 
you. It was just a regular hat. t^piam it ro 

Senator Ives. How big a brim ? 
Mr. Montana. It is a small brim. 
Senator Ives. A small brim? 
Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Senator Ives. What kind of shoes did you have on 8 
Mr. Montana. The same kind of shoes I have on now 
Senator Ives. Where are they ? Let me see them. 
Mr. Montana. Certainly. 
Senator Ives. The sergeant is here. I would like to ask if that 

aesci lption which the sergeant gave us. 
Mr. Montana. I wish you would. 
Senator Ives. He is right behind you. 
Mr. Montana. Ask him. 
Senator Ives I am. 
Mr. Crosswell I don't recall his shoes, Senator. 

atrial nl™' U Sai i th r y Z™ P0intM - l ;, ^ d ^u how he was 
attired. Do you remember? You started telling me how they were 
all attired in peculiar garb. - v H 

Mr. Crosswell Ye Sl I don't think I singled one out. 
ratelyf ° r ° Ut his hat ' Did lie describe his h *<= ^ecu- 

Mr. Crosswell. I don't recall his hat either 
Senator Ives. I thought you said he had a large brim hat 

Mr (rnnr SSWELL ' * don V eCa11 **** illto ^specifically^ far as 
Mr. Montana was concerned. J >■ 

Senator Ives. I asked you about Mr. Montana in pari icular 

Mr. Crosswell. I don't recall that, sir. I recall saving most of 

sha S pTormirer Then * *" "* *— * ^P~l y in any way. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12301 

Mr. Crosswell. I don't recall specifically. 

Senator Ives. What did the rest of them wear ? 

Mr. Crosswell. For the most part they all wore broad-brimmed 
hats, dark suits, and pointed shoes. As far as singling out an indi- 
vidual in the 62 as to what he had on way last November, I can't 
tell you. 

Senator Ives. Apparently Mr. Montana is clear on that, then ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Possibly. 

Mr. Montana. May I tell you something? 

Senator Ives. I am trying to help }'ou out. I don't understand how 
you got into this gang. I have known nothing but good of you until 
now. But now I find that you are tied in with a gang that is very 
dubious, very doubtful ; did you know you were ? 

Mr. Montana. I didn't know I was, sir. 

Senator Ives. You had better check into it, if you didn't know. I 
think Mr. Kennedy may have something to enlighten you. 

I would like to help you if I can. There is now no way of getting 
around the truth about this business. 

Mr. Montana. I am telling the truth. 

Senator Ives. You have a very good lawyer with you. I will tell 
you that. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were in the car with Mr. Maggadino, and you 
started having trouble with your — what was it — windshield wiper? 

Mr. Montana. To begin with, I had trouble with the windshield 
wiper. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where did you have trouble with the windshield 
wiper? 

Mr. Montana. This was on the Thruway. 

Mr. Kennedy. How far out ? 

Mr. Montana. Probably 15 or 20 miles after I got out of Buffalo. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did yon do then ? 

Mr. Montana. The only thing I could do ; it was raining and pour- 
ing so much, I had to get out of the car and fix it the best way I could, 
and I did fix it. I did fix it. I am not a mechanic, but mechanically 
inclined, so I fixed it in the rain. Then I proceeded. 

Mr. Kennedy. AH right. 

Mr. Montana. When I got about 10 miles this side of — you people 
call it Apalachin ; I call it Endicott. 

The first time I knew that was Apalachin was when I read it in the 
paper. Senator. 

Senator Ives. I will tell you how that name got there as I under- 
stand, so you won't forget how to pronounce it. Years ago in the 
early days, when the area was just being settled, there was some kind 
of a little store there, and somebody was traveling through, and he 
saw an Indian sitting on something in front of the store rubbing his 
belly, and he asked him what the trouble was, and the Indian said, 
"Apple achin'." That is what thev tell me the name came from. 

Mr. Kennedy. You had your windshiled wiper fixed '. 

Mr. Montana. When I got 10 miles this side of Apalachin 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you have to go through Apalachin ? 

Mr. Montana. I would have to go through that fo — first I would 
leave 98-B and then get into 17. That is Apalachin, the road. 
That is where that is. That goes to Endicott. 



12302 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Mr. Montana. I had trouble with my brakes, because the brakes 
got wet, and they just wouldn't stop. On that road there is no 
service stations of any kind, and I could not drive the car more 
than 15 or 20 miles an hour. 

Of course, to my own sorrow, I know that Joe Barbara lived there. 

Mr. Kennedy. Lived where? 

Mr. Montana. At this Apalachin, which is only about maybe a 
half or three-quarters of a mile from this road, from 17. So, then, 
knowing that he has about BO trucks and mechanics, I thought I 
would drive up, in spite of a steep hill, and ask for help, if he could 
get a mechanic to help me out. 

Senator Ives. May I raise a question? How did vou know all of 
that? 

Mr. Montana. Of course, I have known the man, as I told you. 
He was a distributor, and he was a Canada Dry distributor. I sold 
him some station wagons from Montana Motors. I know his wife. 
And I know his children. I know the whole family. 

Mr. Kennedy. How did you know he lived at Apalachin ? 

Mr. Montana. I had been there once before. 

Mr. Kennedy. You had been there ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I did, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. All alone at the time you went there? 

Mr. Montana. I will explain that at the time I am asked by the 
counsel, or if he does not ask me, I will tell him. 

Mr. Kennedy. I am sure he will. 

Mr. Montana. So when I got up to this home 

Mr. Kennedy. Wait a minute. Why didn't you stop at the garage 
with the bad brakes ? 

Mr. Montana. There weren't any garages. 

Mr. Kennedy. No garages of any sort ? 

Mr. Montana. No. 

Mr. Kennedy. No garages in Apalachin ? 

Mr. Montana. No. That is my bad luck. 

Mr. Kennedy. You didn't pass a Cadillac distributorship? 

Mr. Montana. There isn't any. 

Mr. Kennedy. Or a Cadillac garage? 

Mr. Montana. There isn't any. 

Senator Ives. When did your windshield start bothering you ? 

Mr. Montana. That isn't the reason I stopped. I did fix that. This 
is my brakes. 

Senator Ives. When did the brakes start bothering you ? 

Mr. Montana. About 10 miles on Route 98-B. 

Senator Ives. Just about Owego ? 

Mr. Montana. Just about Owego. 

Senator Ives. Why didn't you stop there? 

Mr. Montana. There is nothing in Owego but a gasoline station. 

Senator Tvks. I have been in Owego time and time again. That is 
a fairly good sized place, about 5,000. There are several garages 
there. 

Mr. Montana. I have been over there twice since, and I don't see 
very much over there, Senator. 

Senator Ives. You must have gone the wrong way. I live near 
there now, you know. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12303 

Mr. Montana. You maybe do. Of course, I don't. 

Senator Ivks. Go ahead. 

Mr. Kennedy. You didn't stop at the gasoline station in Owego? 

Mr. Montana. No. 

Mr. Kknxkdy. Why didn't you do that? 

Mr. Montana. Because they don't know how to take care of a set 
•of brakes. 

Mr. Kennedy. How do you know ? 

Mr. Montana. You know, I have been in the automobile business 
for years. 

Mr. Kennedy. What makes you think that Joseph Barbara, who 
is in the 

Mr. Montana. He has about 10 or 15 mechanics to take care of his 
trucks. I thought he would get a mechanic and help me out. 

Mr. Kknxkdy. You were going to his home, were you not? 

Mr. Montana. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. He would not have the 10 or 15 mechanics there. 

Mr. Montana. No, but he would get one. It is only a little ways 
from there. 

Mr. Kennedy. Don't you think the gasoline station would have 
mechanics? 

Mr. Montana. IS t o, they don't. 

Mr. Kennedy. No gasoline stations have mechanics? 

Mr. Montana. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. May I ask another thing? How come you got such 
a lemon in a 1957 Cadillac? 

Mr. Montana. I couldn't answer that, Senator, but it is a lemon. 

Mr. Kennedy. I have heard a lot of complaint about the 1957 Cadil- 
lacs, but your experience beats anything I have ever heard of yet. 
Here you have had a car 3 or 4 months, you say, and you are having 
all of this trouble with the brakes, the windshield wiper, and — is there 
anything else? 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. I never heard of anything like that yet. 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. So you went up to his home ? 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. You decided not to go to his place of business, where 
he had all the 15 mechanics? 

Mr. Montana. This was closer. It is about 10 miles from there to 
his place of business. 

Mr. Kennedy. "Why didn't you go there and then you could get the 
mechanics to fix it there \ 

Mr. Montana. Well, that wasn't my thought. 

I though I would ask Joe if he would get a mechanic and take care 
of the car. 

Mr. Kennedy. Why didn't you go to the place of business where 
the 15 mechanics are ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, it is 10 miles farther anyway Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. I think they would have to bring the mechanics. 

Mr. Montana. This is just what I did. I can't tell you what I didn't 
do. I am telling you what you want to know. 

Senator Ives. In Binghamton there is a Cadillac service station. 

Mr. Montana. Well, there may be. 



12304 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Senator Ives. Well, there is. Binghamton is a city of 80,000 popu- 
lation, and I know. You know in that Cadillac of yours, creeping 
along at 15 miles an hour, you would have gotten to Binghamton all 
right. 

Mr. Montana. Maybe that is what I should have done, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. All right. So you went on to his home ? 

Mr. Montana. That is correct. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did you do ? 

Mr. Montana. I went right in the house. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have a map here. Could we have the chart up, 
please, again ? 

You drove right up. Were there automobiles there at the time? 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where did you park your car then ? 

Mr. Montana. Just in front of the garage. 

The Chairman. Can you see this ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Kennedy. You parked your car in front — will you come up 
and show where you parked the car ? 

The Chairman. Do you recognize this as the picture of the place 
where you visited ? It may not be polished up, but do you recognize 
it as the Barbara home and area that you were visiting at that time? 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you remember coming up there at all? This 
would be the road [indicating]. 

Sergeant, would you point out the various things, as far as the 
road? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is the road [indicating]. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is that the road you were coming down ? 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. What road did you follow in ? 

Mr. Montana. I wouldn't know which one it would be. Is this 
the road 

Mr. Crosswell. This is 17 [indicating]. 

Mr. Kennedy. What I would like to find out is would you show 
the sergeant where your car was ? 

Mr. Montana. Is this his home here [indicating] ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Where would you park ordinarily ? 

Mr. Montana. Where is the entrance ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Eight here [indicating]. 

Mr. Montana. This is where I parked, here [indicating]. 

Mr. Kennedy. Right at the entrance ? 

Mr. Montana. Right at the entrance. 

Mr. Kennedy. You parked right there ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you say that so that the reporter can hear it? 

Here is a better one, a better picture. Where did you park? 

Mr. Montana. Right here [indicating]. 

Mr. Kennedy. You parked right there ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes. 

The Chairman. Put an X right where you parked. 

Mr. Montana. Yes. 

Senator Ives. I would like to ask Mr. Montana if he recognizes the 
sergeant. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12305 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I do. 

Senator Ives. And you recognize Mr. Montana? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. You parked right here in front, is that right? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did you do ? 

Mr. Montana. I went right in the house. 

Mr. Kennedy. Looking for whom? 

Mr. Montana. Well, of course, looking for Joe. 

Mr. Kennedy. "What about Mr. 

Mr. Montana. When 1 got in there, his missus was there. 

Mr. Kennedy. Excuse me? 

Mr. Montana. Mrs. Barbara was there. 

Mr. Kennedy. What happened to Mr. Maggadino? 

Mr. Montana. lie sat right in the car. 

Mr. Kennedy. J Ie never even got out of the car ? 

Mr. Montana. No, he did not. 

Mr. Kennedy. You went in and what did you do there? 

Mr. Montana. Well, by that time, as 1 said, by fixing this wind- 
shield wiper and everything, I got wet, and I had a little chill, and 
I asked Mrs. Barbara if she would not be kind enough to give me a 
cup of tea. 

Air. Kennedy. What time did you start drinking your tea? 

Mr. Montana. Well, I couldn't give you the exact time. This is a 
few minutes, maybe 10 minutes, after I got there. 

Mr. Kennedy. What time did you get there ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, it is a question that has been debatable right 
along. I would say that in my best judgment, I didn't look at a 
watch, it could have been around 2 o'clock. 

Mr. Kennedy. About 2 o'clock you got there ? 

Mr. Montana. About 2 o'clock. That is my best judgment. I 
would not say for sure it was 2 but it could have been 2 o'clock. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could it have been 12 o'clock or 11 o'clock? 

Mr. Montana. No, it could not have been 12 because I left Buffalo 
at a quarter to 9 and I could not have gotten there in that time. 

Air. Kennedy. Could it have been 1 o'clock? 

Mr. Montana. Well, I don't see how it could have been. 

Mr. Kennedy. You say it was after 1 o'clock, then ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, I would say yes, it must have been after 1. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was it definitely after 1 o'clock ? 

Mr. Montana. I would not say definitely, because, as I say to you, 
I did not look at my watch. 

Mr. Kennedy. It is rather important, as you know, what time you 
arrived there. 

Mr. Montana. It is important now, but it was not important then. 

Mr. Kennedy. You can't tell, you can't give us any better idea 
of the time you arrived there ? 

Mr. Montana. That is my best judgment and my best recollection. 

Mr. Kennedy. Had you had lunch by that time ? 

Mr. Montana. I did not, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. You didn't have lunch? 

Mr. Montana. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. You must have been hungry, then. 



12306 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Montana. I don't usually have lunch. I have a little break- 
fast and I have dinner at night. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were all wet, so you went in and talked to Mrs. 
Barbara? 

Mr. Montana. I asked Mrs. Barbara if she would not be kind 
enough to give me a cup of tea. I don't drink coffee, never did. 

She was kind enough to put the tea kettle on the stove and I sat 
there in a little kitchen waiting for that, and then her husband walked 
in from the rear of the house, and I told him I was not feeling good, 
and I told him I was having car trouble. He said "Don't worry 
about it, I will get a mechanic and get this fixed up for you." 

Mr. Kennedy. In the meantime, Mr. Maggadino was still sitting 
in the car? 

Mr. Montana. Still sitting in the car. 

Mr. Kennedy. Wasn't he hungry? 

Mr. Montana. I didn't ask him if he was hungry. I just went in 
to get this car business taken care of, and I told him to wait. 

Mr. Kennedy. But you were in there having tea. 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were eating. 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. It was after the lunch period. Wasn't he also 
anxious to eat? 

Mr. Montana. Well, he didn't discuss anything about eating. 

Mr. Kennedy. So you had your tea, and then what happened? 

Mr. Montana. Then, of course, somebody said that there was a 
roadblock. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who were you having tea with, by that time? 

Mr. Montana. Mrs. Barbara was sitting on one side and Mr. Bar- 
bara on my left. 

Mr. Kennedy. You, and Mr. and Mrs. Barbara ? 

Mr. Montana. But they were not having any tea. I was the only 
one having the tea. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then somebody said they put up a roadblock. 

Mr. Montana. Then Joe said there was a roadblock. 

Senator Ives. He said that after you had your tea? 

Mr. Montana. This is just about as I am drinking my tea, Senator. 

Senator Ives. You say he didn't know anything about it before 
you had your tea? 

Mr. Montana. No, he did not. He did not. 

Senator Ives. Go ahead. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who said there was a roadblock? 

Mr. Montana. Well, I don't know. Maybe Joe and somebody else, 
that came in the house. 

Mr. Kennedy. Joe who? 

Mr. Montana. Joe Barbara. 

Mr. Kennedy. 1 thought he was already in the house. 

Mr. Montana. Well, somebody come in the house and told him, 
and, of course, he told me. 

Mr. Kennedy. O. K. 

Mr. Montana. Then, of course, I didn't have any alternative. I 
could not drive my car, Mr. Kennedy, so the next thing I could do 
was to walk. 

Mr. Kennedy. Why couldn't you drive your car? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12307 

Mr. Montana. Because there is a steep hill. The State trooper 
will tt-li you il is a very steep hill and with no brakes — going up it was 
all right hut coining down I wouldn't have been safe. 

Senator Ives. What did you want to get out of there for? What 
did you want to drive anything for at that stage of the game? 

Mr. Montana. I didn't drive. 

Senator Ives. I said why did you want to drive? I know you 
didn't drive, You walked. You took a peculiar trip when you 
walked. Why didn't you stay there '. 

Mr. Montana. Maybe I should have stayed there, Senator, but 
that was my best judgment. 

Senator Ives. "What caused you to have that judgment ? 

Mr. Montana. When I saw the commotion, I was no part of it, and 
I thought I would walk away from it, 

Senator Ives. What sort of commotion did you see \ 

Mr. Montana. I saw these people get on the car and leave and so 
on. 

Senator Ives. Saw- them get on their car ? 

Mr. Montana. Saw them get on their car and leave, and some- 
body said there was a roadblock, and I thought I would leave, too. 

Senator Ives. You did not know why they were there or anything 
but you decided to leave ? 

Mr. Montana. Senator, those people were at the fireplace. They 
were eating. 

Senator Ives. You didn't know there was anybody at the fireplace ? 

Mr. Montana. I saw them. I saw r them from the house. You can 
see them from the house. 

Senator Ives. And nothing was said in your conversation with Mr. 
Barbara or with Mrs. Barbara to the effect that these people were out 
at the fireplace, having a picnic, as it were, in front of you, and 
nothing was said of it ? 

Mr. Montana. Not at all. 

Senator Ives. And suddenly somebody said there was a roadblock, 
and you could not drive anything, there was nothing for you to drive, 
and you started running ? 

That doesn't make any sense at all. 

Mr. Montana. Senator, I didn't run. I just walked. 

Senator Ives. It amounts to the same thing. 

Mr. Montana. I walked. 

Senator Ives. Where did you go when you started walking? 

Mr. Montana. I started walking to the road when I was stopped, 
and I was asked what my name was, and I gave my name. 

Senator Ives. Who asked you what your name was ? 

Mr. Montana. Two officers with Mr. Crosswell asked me, and 
finally I got to Mr. Crosswell. 

Senator Ives. Where did they run into you, or where did you run 
into them ? 

Mr. Montana. Right at the road. 

Senator Ives. That was where the roadblock was? 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Senator Ives. As you entered the house, was that where the road- 
block was? 

Mr. Montana. No ; down below. 



12308 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Senator Ives. You walked down below, and kept to the road all 
the way ; is that it ? 

Mr. Montana. That is right. I went to the road, I was stopped, 
and they asked me what was my name, and I gave it to them. 

Then they took me to Sergeant Crosswell. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can I ask a question before you get to that? 

Senator Ives. Go ahead. 

Mr. Kennedy. In the roadblock, did you understand it was law 
enforcement officials or a bunch of gangsters who had established 
a roadblock ? 

Mr. Montana. I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Kennedy. Somebody yelled roadblock ? 

Mr. Montana. I wouldn't know, Senator — I mean Mr. Kennedy — 
just what it could have been. I thought I would go. 

Mr. Kennedy. When somebody says there is a roadblock? I don't 
know why you would feel it would be necessary then to take to the 
woods. 

Mr. Montana. Maybe you would have, too. I don't know. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you explain to the committee why you 
thought it was necessary to go to the woods ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, I was no part of it. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you feel it was gangsters who were establishing 
a roadblock and you would have to run from them, or what? 

Mr. Montana. I wouldn't know, Mr. Kennedy. It could have been 
gangsters. I didn't think they were. Those people were eating when 
I was there. My best judgment was to leave, and I did. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you walk down the road ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes," I did. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you describe to the committee where you 
went? 

Mr. Montana. Well, it is awfully hard. It was hard for me to 
describe the home as it is. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you go into the woods ? 

Mr. Montana. I walked through the woods into the road. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then you walked through all of these woods ; did 
you not [indicating] ? 

Mr. Montana. No. 

That is the wrong direction. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you explain to the committee where you 
walked, please? 

Mr. Montana. Do you want me to walk over there? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Mr. Montana. Well — 

The Chairman. First I will ask you to compare the large picture 
and the small one which you identified and showed where your car 
was parked. Do you now recognize the two pictures to be of the 
same scene ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, just about the same; yes. They don't look 
the same, but they must be 

Mr. Kennedy. Talk into the microphone, please. 

Mr. Montana. They don't look the same, but they must be. This 
is the parking space here [indicating]. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12309 

The Chairman. Well, the larger picture shows the whole area. I 
am talking about the house and garages. Can you identify those as 
being t lie same structures? 

Mr. Montana. They look a little different, but I think they are 
the same. 

The Chairman. I see. You think they are the same. All right, 
where was the road? Is this the road out to the side of the house 
[indicating] ? 

Mr. Montana. That is right, 

The Chairman. Where did you walk from? You were in the 
house. When you left the house, where did you go to when you 
left the house? 

Mr. Montana. I went down that way [indicating]. 

The Chairman. There are no woods there. Did you ever get into 
the woods ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, this [indicating] would be the first time I 
was. Maybe it was this way. I don't know. I can't tell exactly 
where it is. 

The Chairman. Did you get down into these heavy woods? 

Mr. Montana. No ; I don't think so. 

The Chairman. Are you sure ? 

Mr. Montana. I am not positive. 

The Chairman. Did you get over into these other woods [indi- 
cating] ? 

Mr. Montana. Is this the road here [indicating] ? I don't know. 

The Chatrman. Here's the road right here, coming along here 
[indicating]. 

Mr. Montana. Which road is it, right here, or right here? [Indi- 
cating.] 

The Chairman". Show him the road. 

Mr. Crosswell. You went through these woods [indicating] and 
on to a road that does not show. 

The Chairman. Where would we have walked to the road block? 

Mr. Crosswell. He would have walked this way, to the road block 
over here [indicating]. 

The Chairman. And here is a road leading from the side of the 
house where he had come in, a road leading right down here [indi- 
cating]. 

Mr. Montana. This is the way I went down [indicating]. 

Mr. Crosswell. You were picked up over here on McFadden Koad, 
after going through these woods [indicating]. 

The Chairman. Did you go through these woods? You know 
whether you went out this way or went out the road, you haven't 
forgotten that. 

Mr. Montana. Well, I thought I went this way [indicating] . That 
is my best judgment. 

The Chairman. Well, you went out through the woods, then, didn't 
you? 

Mr. Montana. I said that. 

The Chairman. I thought you walked right down the road. 

Mr. Montana. Yes, sir, there is a road here, too. 

The Chairman. Where ? 

Mr. Montana. Down here some place [indicating]. 



12310 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. You came through the woods to the road over 
here, didn t you [indicating]. 

Air. Montana. Righthere [indicating]. 

The Chairman. If you were going through the woods, how could 
you go up the road? You knew that was not the way you came If 
you wanted to get out, why didn't you go back the way you came« 
W ell, is there anything further ? 
Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

The Chairman. Has that large picture been made an exhibit ? 
Neither one has been made an exhibit. Let the smaller one be 
made exhibit No. 8, and the large one be made exhibit No 9 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits Nos. 8 and 9" for 
reference and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Montana, did you see any of your friends or 
associates around at that time ? 
Mr. Montana. I did not. 
Mr. Kennedy. You didn't see anybody ? 
Mr. Montana. No. 

Mr. Kennedy. When Mr. Barbara came in and had this conversa- 
tion with you, did he explain what all of these other people were do- 
ing there? 

Mr. Montana. He did not say. 
Mr. Kennedy. Did you see Mr. Falcone ? 
Mr. Montana. I did not. 
Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Mr. Falcone ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I do. I didn't know who was there until the 
next morning when I picked up the paper. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Mr. Salvatore Falcone ? 
Mr. Montana. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Kennedy. He was present at that time. You did not see him ? 
Mr. Montana. I did not see him. 
Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Joseph Falcone, do you know him « 
Mr. Montana. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. He was present at the Apalachin meeting. 
Mr. Montana. According to the paper he must have been. 
Mr. Kennedy. You did not see him ? 
Mr. Montana. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Russell Bufalino, do you know him ? 
Mr. Montana. Yes, he worked for me in 1920. 
Mr. Kennedy. He worked for you ? 
Mr. Montana. Yes, as a mechanic. 
Mr. Kennedy. You did not see him ? 
Mr. Montana. I did not see him. 
Mr. Kennedy. James La Duca, do you know him ? 
Mr. Montana. Yes. 

M r. Kennedy. You were in business together, were you not? 

Mr. Montana. He worked for me also as a dispatcher years back. 

Senator Ives. Do you know that earlier this afternoon when Mr. 

La Duca appeared before us he would not admit knowing you in any 

way shape, or manner because he said it would incriminate him if 

he did? 

Mr. Montana. Senator, I am not responsible for what Mr. La Duca 
says. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12311 

Senator Inks. Why would he make thai statement regarding you? 
You are no) taking the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Montana. I never will, either. 

Senator Ives. I know that. 

Mr. Montana. That is one thing I would never do. I would as 
soon die than take the fifth amendment, because I have not done any- 
thing in my life that I am ashamed of. 

Senator Ives. You certainly got into had company. I will put it 
that way. 

Mr. Montana. Senator, what happened to me, I think, could hap- 
pen to anybody. 

Senator Ives. Well, that is a little hard to believe. The story 
doesn't make too much sense, Mr. Montana, I am sorry to tell you. 

Mr. Montana. I am sorry you feel that way about it, Senator. 

Senator Ives. You are a highly intelligent person, a person who 
has been highly respected in Buffalo. 

Mr. Montana. Thank you. 

Senator Ives. You have had a very high position to occupy in that 
city, and probably righteously so. But here you have gotten tied 
up in Apalachin, on top of a hill in this house, and suddenly somebody 
says there is a roadblock and you go jumping through the woods for 
no apparent reason. 

It just doesn't make any sense. You are a highly intelligent per- 
son. You will have to admit it doesn't make any sense. 

Maybe you can tell that to some people and get away with it, but, 
after all, I think this committee has more sense than to believe that 
kind of a yarn. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Senator Ives. Are you trying to have him take the fifth? 

Mr. Montana. I beg your pardon ? 

Senator Ives. I was asking your counsel if he was trying to have 
you take the fifth. 

Mr. Raichle. I was trying to persuade him to stop debating with 
you and wait until the question was asked and then answer it. 

Mr. Montana. He didn't ask me to take the fifth and I never would. 

Senator Ives. Just see if you can't make more sense out of your 
story. 

Mr. Montana. I am telling the story as it happened. 

Mr. Kennedy. James La Duca, you did see him there ? 

Mr. Montana. I did not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Anthony Maggadino ? 

Mr. Montana. Of course. He was driving with me, so I would 
know him. 

Mr. Kennedy. What happened to him ? 

Mr. Montana. He sat in the car until I got back and he walked 
down with me. 

Mr. Kennedy. He walked into the woods with you ? 

Mr. Montana. He walked down with me ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. You went to the front and told him you both better 
run to the woods? 

Mr. Montana. We didn't run, Mr. Kennedy. I wish you would 
stop saying that we ran, because we didn't. We were just walking. 



12312 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. You walked into the woods ? 

Mr. Montana. We walked into the road. 

Mr. Kennedy. You had to walk through the woods before you got 
to the road ? 

Mr. Montana. We walked from the woods into the road. 

Mr. Kennedy. If he was sitting in the car, why didn't you let him 
sit there? 

Mr. Montana. If you were with me, I wouldn't leave you any more 
than I would him. I thought it was my duty to tell him I was leav- 
ing. So he followed me. 

Senator Ives. Through the woods ? 

Mr. Montana. The way I went, he went. 

Senator Ives. Did you get a little damp doing that? 

Mr. Montana. Well, we did a little bit. 

Senator Ives. I thought so. 

Mr. Montana. Yes, we did. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about Steve Maggadino ? 

Mr. Montana. His name was not in the paper, so he couldn't have 
been there. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is he related to Anthony Maggadino ? 

Mr. Montana. Brothers. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did Anthony know his brother was there ? 

Mr. Montana. I don't know. Don't ask me. His name was not in 
the paper, so he couldn't have been there. 

Mr. Kennedy. Just a question again on your brakes, just exactly 
where did your brakes go bad ? 

Mr. Montana. Front and rear both. 

Mr. Kennedy. Front and rear both ? 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. You had trouble with the windshield wiper, the 
front end and the rear end ? 

Mr. Montana. Just a second. The windshield wiper has nothing 
to do with the brakes, Mr. Kennedy. That flew right off of the car. 
That is something different than the other. 

Senator Ives. What was the trouble with your brakes? 

Mr. Montana. Well, brakes, when they get wet 

Senator Ives. They got wet ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, they got wet. It was raining all morning. 

Senator Ives. Where did you go to get them wet? 

Mr. Montana. It rained. 

Senator Ives. I understand. I have driven in the rain, too. But 
I never had trouble with brakes getting wet like that, except when I 
happen to go through water. If I run through water with my car, 
my brakes get wet. You say you know something about cars. 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I do. 

Senator Ives. Do you know how to stop a car when the brakes get 
wet? 

Mr. Montana. Not if they get wet. 

Senator Ives. Do you know how to dry them off in a hurry when they 
(Xot wet? 

Mr. Montana. No. 

Senator Ives. Then you don't know much about a car. All you 
have to do is put on your brakes, put the car in gear, give the motor 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12313 

full power and that dries them off in a hurry. You know that, if you 
know any thing about driving a car. 

You must know that. 

Mr. Montana. You can't get brakes dry that way, Senator. 

Senator Ives. I know you can, because I drive a Cadillac myself 
and have been through water 2 feet deep and have gotten my brakes 
dried that way when I had to. 

Mr. Montana. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Is that all that was wrong with your brakes, that 
they were wet? 

Mr. Montana. No, there was a little more wrong with that, because 
I had to send two mechanics later from Buffalo to pick up the car on 
Sunday. They worked on them, repaired them, and brought the car 
back. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where is it, briefly, that your brakes got bad ? 

Mr. Montana. About 8 or 10 miles from this place. 

Mr. Kennedy. From Apalachin? 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. That was before Owego, then ? 

Mr. Montana. That is right, 

Mr. Kennedy. So you drove all the way through Owego and then 
on the road to Apalachin ? 

Mr. Montana. Which is not too far. 

Mr. Kennedy. There is a Cadillac agency in Owego, and there are 
two gasoline filling stations on the road from Owego to Apalachin, 
did you know that ? 

Did you think of stopping there ? 

Mr! Montana. I don't know of gasoline stations that can work on 
brakes. Believe me, I don't know of one that can do a good job or 
fairly good job. 

Senator Ives. How about a Cadillac agency? 

Mr. Montana. That is in Binghamton. 

Senator Ives. There is one in Owego ? 

Mr. Montana. I didn't know there was one. 

Senator Ives. You didn't stop to inquire about it ? 

Mr. Montana. No, I did not. 

Mr. Kennedy. After you came out of the woods onto the road, you 
were picked up ? 

Mr. Montana. I wasn't picked up. I stopped and there was two 
men there. They asked me who I was, and I told them, very politely, 
and then they said to me I have to see Sergeant Crosswell, we drove 
over and I sat right in the car, and I called Sergeant Crosswell. I 
didn't even get out of the car. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you tell the sergeant that if he let you go, you 
thought you could do something for him ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, he is over here now, and I will say right in 
front of him that I didn't tell him anything of the kind, and he didn't 
see my shoes either, because I never got off of the car, and he didn't 
see my clothes because I never got off of the car. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long were you held then ? 

Mr. Montana. Maybe 10 or 15 minutes. Then I said to him all 
right, I haven't done anything, and I said "If you want to know who 



12314 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

I am, I say call Captain Roan in Batavia and he will tell you the 
kind of gentleman that I am." 

He said "Well, you will have to go to Vestal, then" which would 
be the station. 

I didn't know there was a station there. So one of the boys drove 
me up. I went inside, and there was two gentlemen in there. They 
asked me for my credentials. I showed them to them. I was never 
searched. They told me to go. I took a cab. I went down to the 
railroad station. I took a train and went home. 

Senator Ives. May I raise a question there ? 

You said the sergeant never saw you outside the car ? 

Mr. Montana. No, he didn't. 

Senator Ives. Whom did you run into after you walked through 
the woods ? 

Mr. Montana. Some of his men, 1 or 2, 1 guess, 2 men of his. 

Senator Ives. They took you where ? 

Mr. Montana. Right to him, a little ways from where he was. 

Senator Ives. In their car ? 

Mr. Montana. In their car. 

Senator Ives. You didn't get out of the car at all ? 

Mr. Montana. I did not. He did not question me. He is here, you 
can ask him. 

Senator Ives. I am not doubting you. I am just trying to find out. 

Mr. Montana. Thank you, Senator. 

Senator Ives. I am trying to find out the truth here. 

Mr. Montana. Thank you. 

Senator Ives. The story you are telling does not make any sense, 
is all. I am trying to get 2 and 2 together and have 4 out of it. All 
you are getting is about 10 or 12. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Montana, you did not realize until the follow- 
ing day that you had five other friends that were present at the meet- 
ing? 

Mr. Montana. I did not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Mr. Joe DiCarlo from Buffalo ? 

Mr. Montana. Everybody in Buffalo knows him. 

Mr. Kennedy. He was labeled as public enemy No. 1 in Buffalo some 
time ago. 

Mr. Montana. According to the papers he was. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long have you known him ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, he went to No. 2 school and so did I, only T 
had to leave school. I had to go to work at the age of 14^, and he 
stayed in school. Then I went to night school so I did not see him 
after that. 

Mr. Kennedy. You haven't seen him at all lately ? 

Mr. Montana. I haven't seen him in 15 years. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about Paul Palmeri, of Buffalo ? 

Mr. Montana. I know who he is, because he had a brother in Buf- 
falo, but I haven't seen him in 20 years. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know of his criminal record ? 

Mr. Montana. I do not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Here is a picture. Have vou seen this picture of 
you and Mr. Palmeri, in 1939? 

Mr. Montana. A picture of me? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12315 

Mr. Kennedy. Is this you ? 

The Chairman. I hand you a picture and ask you to examine it 
•and state if you identify the persons on it. 
(Photograph handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Montana. I think this picture was taken at the Rex Club in 
Niagara Falls and I was the speaker of the evening. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who are the people? 

Mr. Montana. Well, this is Palmeri here. The other man I don't 
remember. I don't know who he is. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is that you and Paul Palmeri ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, that is one of them. There was other people 
at the speaker's table besides him. But he was the president of the 
Rex Club, which is the Republican Club in Niagara Falls. I think 
that is when that picture was taken. I was the speaker of the evening. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know of his criminal record '. 

Mr. Montana. I do not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know he has been arrested some dozen times ? 

Mr. Montana. I do not, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that some 15 years prior to this time he had 
been arrested about a dozen times ? 

Mr. Montana. I did not know about that. 

Mr. Kennedy. From assault in the second degree to kidnaping? 
You did not know that at all ? 

Mr. Montana. I did not know it. 

Mr. Kennedy. I don't believe this was the Republican Club. I 
believe it was a society meeting. 

Mr. Montana. Well, I attend so many dinners, Mr. Kennedy, I 
would not be able to tell you. 

Mr. Kennedy. I believe it was a club meeting that had nothing to 
do with any political party. I have the name here. 

Mr. Montana. Is it the Rex Club ? 

Mr. Kennedy. It is the Del Golf o Society. 

Mr. Montana. That is their hometown society. 

Mr. Kennedy. He had been arrested in Niagara Falls, Brooklyn, 
Chicago, New York, Springfield, Mass., Buffalo, and Lockport, N. Y. 

Mr. Montana. I don't know anything about it. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you know that ? 

Mr. Montana. I do not, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you know that he was held as a material witness 
in the Willie Moretti slaying ? 

Mr. Montana. I wouldn't know, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Mr. Charles Buf alino from Pittston ? 

Mr. Montana. Do you mean the uncle of Russell ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long have you known Charles Buf alino ? 

Mr. Montana. He was born in the same town I was born in, and I 
knew him since then. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know the Sciaridras ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, I don't know the son. but I knew the fat tier. 

His father was born in the same town I was born. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long have you known him \ 

21243— 58— pt. 32 9 



12316 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 



Well, he is dead now, but I knew him since we were 

Did you know the children ? 
No, I don't. 
You never met them ? 
I have met the wife, but I don't believe I met the 



Mr. Montana. 
kids. 

Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Montana. 

Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Montana. 
boys. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell the committee why the Van Dyke 
Taxicab Co. would be calling the Carmela Mia Packing Co., owned by 
Joe Prof aci ? 

Mr. Montana. I have explained that to the legislative committee 
and I will be glad to explain it here. I have a brother, 75 years old. 
His daughter is my secretary, Rose Montana, and he sells olive oil on 
commission for them. He went in and used the telephone. I wish that 
telephone was tapped. If it was, that would prove to this committee 
and any other committee that I never had a contact with that man 
or any other man. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who would be calling them ? 

Mr. Montana. My brother did. 

Mr. Kennedy. You didn't use it yourself ? 

Mr. Montana. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about Rosario Mancuso ? 

Mr. Montana. I don't know anything about him. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he do any work for your cab company in 1952 ? 

Mr. Montana. He did not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you deny the fact that he was engaged to drive 
surplus cabs of your cab company in 1952 ? 

Mr. Montana. He didn't drive them for me. 
to a man in Utica. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who did you sell them to ? 

Mr. Montana. I am sorry, I have not got the name here, but some 
second-hand dealer, and he drove some cars for them, maybe, but not 
for me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know that he in fact drove them for that 
company ? 

Mr. Montana. I couldn't tell you that. 

Mr. Kennedy. You say that you visited Barbara in 1956 ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Kennedy. For what reason did you visit him in 1956 ? 

Mr. Montana. 1956 ? I drove back from New York and I stopped 
in there and had lunch in his home. 

His wife was there, his daughter was there, and he was there. 

Mr. Kennedy. You have been friends with him for a long time? 

Mr. Montana. Well, friends, a business acquaintance. Pie has a 
boy that goes to Buffalo University. He is on the dean's list, and he 
comes over to see the boy from time to time, at least he did. 

Mr. Kennedy. See what boy ? 

Montana. His boy. And his boy comes into my office and sees 



I sold a lot of cabs 



Mr 

me. 

Mr. Kennedy. 
Mr. Montana 



So does Barbara visit you in your office? 
Every time he comes or to see his boy, he would come 
over to my office and say hello. 

Mi-. Kennedy. When you came up from New York you stopped in ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12317 

Mr. Montana. lie stopped in and asked me if I would stop in and 
see him at his home, and I was coming back from New York, and I 
stopped in. 

Mr. Kennedy. You have been friends for a number of years ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, a business acquaintance, that is the way it 
started. 

I know the man very well. I didn't know his background. His 
background has been published :, i the paper lately. It was never 
pub! ished before, there it is. 

Mr. Kennedy. It is just a coincidence that all of these individuals 
that you know were attending this meeting in Apalaehin ? 

Mr. Montana. Well, Mr. Kennedy, you know as much about it as 
I do, believe me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Maybe I do. 

Mr. Montana. Well, I would say yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. I would say yes. 

Mr. Montana. Thank you for saying yes. 

Senator Ives. Wait a minute on that. 

Mr. Kennedy. Just as far as your attendance at the meeting is 
concerned. 

Mr. Montana. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Your attendance. 

Mr. Montana. That is right, it is. 

Senator Ives. One tiling that I don't think has been reconciled here 
at all is Mr. Montana's dash through the woods. I just don't under- 
stand it. 

Mr. Kennedy. All I am saying, Senator, is that I feel as much about 
his dash through the woods as he knows. I think it is obvious. 

Mr. Montana. Senator, if I had to do it over again, I probably 
would not. I will put it that way. It was just a moment, that is the 
way my mind went, and I did it, and that is what I did. 

Senator Ives. But you are a well-balanced individual. After all 
is said and done, just because somebody yells "roadblock," every time 
that happens you don't go dashing through the woods, do you? 

After all, you are a rational person, rather than any other type. 

Mr. Montana. Well, there is always the first time, Senator. That 
is what happened. 

Senator Ives. Do you mean to tell me you are losing your equili- 
brium as you are getting older ? 

Mr. Montana. I hope not. 

Senator Ives. Well, all right. That is the only way to explain such 
an irrational thing as you did. 

Mr. Raichle. Could I ask for something ? 

Here are two letters or documents we would like to offer as part of 
the record. They pertain to the setup of this meeting in New York. 

Senator Ives. May I ask a question on that, Mr. Counsel? 

Have you the envelopes that these were sent in, with the dates on 
them as well as the typewritten dates on the letters? 

Mr. Raichle. They were given to me by Mr. Montana. I cannot 
Vouch for them any more than that. But I think that the legislative 
committee of the State, which had them in its possession, made some 
investigation. That is my belief. I procured their return from them. 



12318 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Those are reputable people who sponsored that organization from 
which the letters come. The fact can be very readily ascertained 
as to whether or not the dates are true and accurate. 

Mr. Montana. I think Mr. Kennedy can prove that with Mr. 
Sawyer. 

You probably know Mr. Frank Sawyer, don't you, Mr. Kennedy; 
don't you? 

Mr. Kennedy. I don't believe I do. 

Mr. Montana. The Checker Cab Co., of Boston ? 

Mr. Kennedy. I don't think I do. 

Mr. Montana. I thought you would. 

Mr. Eaichle. I would be very glad to undertake to procure an 
affidavit or satisfactory proof of the authenticity of the dates or signa- 
tures of the letter. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Raichle, are you satisfied that those are accurate 
in what they seem to be, yourself? You have not taken any oath 
here, but I have known you a good many years. 

If you are satisfied, so far as I go personally, I am. That is just 
a question of whether you are or are not. 

Mr. Raichle. I am. I will state for the committee the source of my 
information is Mr. Montana, and I have confidence in Mr. Montana. 

The Chairman. Mr. Montana, you have presented to the Chair 
2 letters, 1 dated November 1, 1957, written on Cab Research Bureau, 
Inc. stationery, addressed to you and signed Horace. 

Mr. Montana. Horace Gwilym, sir. 

The Chairman. The other is dated November 11, 1957, addressed 
to you and signed Horace over the typewritten name of H. I. Gwilym. 

Mr. Montana. Gwilym. 

The Chairman. Did you receive these letters ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes, I did, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you receive both of them through the mail 
prior to November 14, 1957 ? 

Mr. Montana. Yes; 1 did. 

The Chairman. You didn't receive them some time after ? 

Mr. Montana. I did not. I received them just before that date. 

The Chairman. You testify that they were received in due course 
through the United States mails shortly after written and both of 
them on or before 

Mr. Montana. Within a day or two. 

The Chairman. Both of them before November 14, 1957 1 

Mr. Montana. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. The letters may be attached as exhibits 10 A and B. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits Nos. 10-A and 
B" for reference, and will be found in the appendix on pp. 12497- 
12498.) 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all for this witness. 

The Chairman. All right, thank you, Mr. Montana. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, I might say that we have these pic- 
tures through the cooperation and assistance of the New York Daily 
News. 

The Chairman. All right. We are grateful to the New York 
Daily News for their assistance. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12319 

TESTIMONY OF EDGAR D. CROSSWELL— Resumed 

Mr. Kennedy. Sergeant, you testified yesterday that you came to 
this Barbara home some time around noon or shortly after noon on 
November 14; is that right? 

Mr. Crosswell. At 12 : 40 p. m. 

Mr. Kennedy. You drove into the driveway ; did you ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Montana has marked with an X where he parked 
his car. Would you look at this photograph and tell the committee 
if Mr. Montana's automobile 

Mr. Crosswell. I looked at it at the time he marked it. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was his automobile there ? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. How do you know his automobile was not there? 

Mr. Crosswell. Because that is right where we drove this car, 
alongside this fence, and we could look clear down to the end of the 
garage where all of these men were coming from the direction of the 
barbecue pit. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were there in fact automobiles behind the house? 

Mr. Crosswell. Y r es, sir. Where these 3 cars are parked now 
there were 4 or 5 cars parked there. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where were the rest of the automobiles ? 

Mr. Crosswell. It doesn't show on this photograph. They were 
up belli nd the farthest barn, way up in the field. 

Mr. Kennedy. Hidden back there during the meeting? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Only 4 or 5 automobiles in front of that? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. And where Mr. Montana placed the X where he 
parked his automobile with Mr. Maggadino sitting there, that auto- 
mobile was not there ? 

Mr. Crosswell. It was not there at 12 : 40 ; no, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Montana states he arrived some time after 1 
o'clock and probably around 2 o'clock. Could he have come into 
Barbara's home at 2 o'clock? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. How can you tell he could not have come in? 

Mr. Crosswell. At 12 : 40 when we visited this place, we met no 
cars en route back down to the roadblock. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you established the roadblock immediately? 

Mr. Crosswell. We established a roadblock at 12 : 50. During the 
interval 10 minutes we were traveling that road, we saAv no cars and 
no cars passed us from that time on that we don't know about or 
don't have a record of. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have your original notes, Sergeant, as to 
the time you established the roadblock below? 

Mr. Crosswell. I have them in the hotel. I don't have them 
with me. 

Mr. Kennedy. It would have been impossible to come in after that 
period of time ? 

Mr. Crosswell. After 12 : 40 p. m. ; yes, sir. 



12320 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. You state after the roadblock was established, that 
Mr. Montana, from where you picked him up afterward, or the po- 
lice officials picked him up afterward, came out through the woods? 
He went over the open field and through the woods ? 

Mr. Crosswell. In through the woods and out on to McFadden 
Road. 

The Chairman. How far is McFadden Road from this house? 

Mr. Crosswell. It is at least a mile, Senator, possibly between a 
mile and 2 miles. 

The Chairman. It is almost in the opposite direction from where 
you had the roadblock ? 

Mr. Crosswell. It is in the opposite direction from where we had 
the roadblock. 

The Chairman. How long was it after you were discovered and 
they began to try to get away before Mr. Montana came around to 
contact you ? 

Mr. (Jrosswell. He was brought around by one of our uniformed 
patrols that picked him up. 

The Chairman. I understand the patrols picked him up and 
brought him to you. How long was that after they had been flushed ? 

Mr. Crosswell. I have no record of the times that each individual 
was picked up. Things were happening pretty fast that day. It was 
some time after the roadblock had been set up. But as to what time 
it was, I could not testify to that. 

The Chairman. Assuming one wanted to leave the Barbara home 
and go down to the road, or get onto the highway, Highway 17, I 
believe you said, would there be any occasion to go through the 
woods, the back of the house? 

Mr. Crosswell. It is a very roundabout way to go. 

The Chairman. Was there a road leading directly from where 
you went in and parked your car there, on this same apron, was 
there a dirt road or a road upon which cars traveled leading from 
there to the highway where you had the roadblock? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, it starts out from the Barbara residence as 
as a dirt road and leads into a macadam. 

The Chairman. If he had come in that way a few minutes before 
or an hour before, there would be no reason for him not knowing 
the way to get back down to the village? 

Mr. Crosswell. I would rather come down that way than start out 
through the woods. 

The Chairman. So there is just no sense in going through the 
woods ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Not to me ; no, sir. 

Senator Goldwater. Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. Senator Goldwater. 

Senator Goldwater. After Mr. Montana came back to where you 
were, did you go down to the house to look for cars? 

Mr. Crosswell. I did not, but Ave had patrols down there. 

Senator Goldwater. Did you ever find Mr. Montana's car? 

Mr. Crosswell. Late at night one of the patrols radioed in and 
gave me the license number of Mr. Montana's car and said it was 
parked in the Barbara garage. 

Senator Goldwater. Did you go down and look for it? 

Mr. Crosswell. No; I did not. 

Senator Goldwater. Was it in the garage? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12321 

Mr. Crosswell. I presume so. Our uniformed patrol had seen it 
in there. 

Senator Goldwater. They radioed from the house? 

Mr. Crossavell. They radioed from the house and said the car -was 
there and wanted to know what they were to do about it. 

Senator Goldwater. After you established the block, did you go 
up to the house? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, sir. 

Senator Goldwater. Did any of your men go up? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. Periodically they went up to see how 
many cars were left. 

Senator Goldwater. Did they ever find Mr. Montana's car? 

Mr. Crosswell. They never furnished me the license number of it. 
Every time they would see a car up there, they would radio the li- 
cense number down, and I never got Mr. Montana's until late that 
night. 

Senator Goldwater. All right. 

The Chairman. When you first drove up there, where you say 
you drove your car where Mr. Montana said his car was parked, and 
you said there were some 4 or 5 cars parked over at another place, 
were they in sight of you? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, they were right where those three cars are 
shown now. 

The Chairman. They were on the same parking apron? 

Mr. Crosswell. That is right. 

The Chairman. In daylight? 

Mr. Crossavell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Could you see anyone in a car if someone had been 
sitting there in a car? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Was anyone sitting in those cars that were parked 
there ? 

Mr. Crossavell. No, sir. 

The Chairman. If you were looking for people 

Mr. Crossavell. We were looking for people, and Ave took the li- 
cense numbers of the four cars that were there. 

The Chairman. You took the license number of the cars that were 
there. 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. So had there been someone in there, you aa t ouM 
have observed them? 

Mr. Crossavell. Unless they were laying doAvn in the seat. 

The Chairman. And none of them were in Mr. Montana's auto- 
mobile ? 

Mr. Crosswell. No, sir. 

The Chairman. What time did they start running toward the 
woods ? 

Mr. Crosswell. About 12 : 50 to 12 : 55. 

The Chairman. We will have to suspend, and as late as it is, it 
would be too late to resume. 

Therefore, the committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock to- 
morrow. 

(Whereupon, at 5 p. m. the hearing was recessed, to reconvene at 
10 a. m. Wednesday, July 2, 1958, with the following members pres- 
ent: Senators McClellan, Ives, and Goldwater.) 



INVESTIGATION OF IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LAROR OR MANAGEMENT FIELD 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 2, 1958 

United States Senate, 
Select Committee on Improper Activities 

in the Labor and Management Field, 

Washington, D. C. 

The select committee met at 10 a. m., pursuant to Senate Resolu- 
tion 74, agreed to January 30, 1957, in the caucus room, Senate Office 
Building, Senator John L. McClellan (chairman of the select com- 
mittee) presiding. 

Present : Senator John L. McClellan, Democrat, Arkansas ; Senator 
Irving M. Ives, Republican, New York; Senator Sam J. Ervin, Jr., 
Democrat, North Carolina; Senator Barry Goldwater, Republican, 
Arizona ; Senator Karl E. Mundt, Republican, South Dakota ; Senator 
Carl T. Curtis, Republican, Nebraska. 

Also present : Robert F. Kennedy, chief counsel ; Paul J. Tierney, 
assistant counsel; John P. Constandy, assistant counsel; John J. Mc- 
Govern, assistant counsel ; Pierre E. G. Salinger, investigator ; Walter 
R. May, investigator; George H. Martin, investigator; Sherman 
Willse, investigator ; Ruth Young Watt, chief clerk. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

(Members of the committee present at the convening of the session 
were : Senators McClellan and Ives.) 

The Chairman. Senator Curtis had a brief statement he wished 
to make this morning, before we proceed with testimony. 

Senator Curtis. 

Senator Curtis. Mr. Chairman, I thank you. 

Yesterday I made a statement concerning the immunities of labor 
unions, and certain practices of Government that in my opinion 
ought to be changed because it gave a refuge for the wrong type of 
labor leaders. 

When this appeared in the newspapers, Mr. William Rogers, the 
Attorney General, felt that what I had said had caused a chain of 
reaction that the Department of Justice was unfairly criticized. 

I want to say, Mr. Chairman, it was not my intention. I did not 
speak from notes. I certainly did not want to indict the present 
Attorney General, Mr. William Rogers, or any of his predecessors, 
and I intended to speak of general practices and immunities some 
of which are definitely the responsibility of the Congress. 

12323 



12324 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Now, on page 163 of the transcript for yesterday, I said to Mr. 
Pera : 

Now, the fact that unions enjoy certain immunities that other groups in the 
country do not have gives a group an opportunity for a base of operations ; isn't 
that correct? 

Those immunities are admitted to exist, with you again I say that 
the Congress has a responsibility in that regard. 

I later referred to the case of a Mr. Ed McCarthy, a witness who 
appeared before this committee who had been the victim of a severe 
beating, and the magistrate before whom he was taken brushed it 
aside and said, "That is a union brawl, we do not have anything to 
do with it." 

I should have pointed out that that was not a Federal court. 

Now, the particular remarks that I made about the Department of 
Justice are as follows — and this is bottom of page 163 : 

I think it is also true that it is a rather standing principle or policy of the 
Department of Justice not only in this administration but for some time that 
United States attorneys over the country cannot start prosecutions that involve 
unions or so-called labor problems with clear answer from their superiors in 
Washington. All of that gives a cloak of protection for people who shouldn't 
have this power. 

Mr. Chairman, I want to make it clear that I was not referring to 
prosecutions of individuals who happened to be labor leaders or labor 
members. I do not know of any laxness or favoritism to them. I 
did have in mind that in my opinion there was a question in such 
problems as prosecuting an entire union for violating the Corrupt 
Practices Act in reference to contributing to a candidate or something 
of that sort., and having it initiated in the field. I may be wrong 
about that. I have made no extensive investigation, and so I do not 
want my remarks to stand critical of any individual in or out of Gov- 
ernment, and do him an injustice. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, I am about through. Mr. William Rogers has 
written me a letter that sets up the facts and figures about the prose- 
cutions carried on, and it is a brief, and I will insert that and then 
I will yield the floor. 

I was surprised to read your statements before the McClellan committee today 
regarding the prosecution of extortion by labor officials. 

From the time the Hobbs Act (which is the act under which labor extortion 
is prosecuted) was enacted in July 1946, until January 1953, only three indict- 
ments were returned. From January 1953 to date the departmental records 
show that 114 defendants were convicted for violation of the Hobbs Act. 

These cases against labor racketeers are difficult to investigate and prosecute. 
All too often the public is not aware of our progress. Leaving cold statistics, 
let me recite three examples. Evan Raymond Dale, the best known and most 
powerful labor official in southern Illinois, attempted to extort the sum of 
$1,030,000 for "labor peace" in the construction of the plant to furnish power 
to the Atomic Energy Commission. Upon a verdict of guilty, Dale was sen- 
tenced to 15 years' imprisonment. 

Nicholas A. Stirone, the czar of common laborers in the Pittsburgh area, was 
tried and convicted of extorting $32,000 for "labor peace." He was sentenced 
to 3 years' imprisonment. 

Another high labor official we encountered was Orville B. Soucie, "the Duke 
of Indiana," who attempted to extort $400,000 on one contract and $600,000 
on another. He was sentenced to 5 years' imprisonment upon his plea of 
guilty. Just within the past week Soucie was sentenced for an additional 18 
months for income-tax evasion. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12325 

As for restraint upon United States attorneys, the reverse has been true. 
We have constantly urged United States attorneys to be vigorous in their in- 
vestigation and prosecution in this area. Prior to indictment the matter is 
reviewed in the Criminal Division. This is true in all important and difficult 
cases. The reason is to obtain uniformity of application of the statute and 
to aid the United States attorney in any way possible. 

If you believe it is appropriate, I would appreciate your making the record 
of accomplishment of the Department of Justice in this area a part of the rec- 
ord of your hearings. 

With best regards. 

(Signed) William P. Rogers. 

Mr. Chairman, I am sorry to have taken the time of the committee 
and I appreciate the opportunity to insert the Attorney General's 
statement, and also to make clear my statement and prevent any 
wrong impression being made concerning what the real facts are. 

I thank you. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Senator Curtis. The Chair would 
make this brief observation : I think the work of this committee, the 
disclosures it has made, clearly indicate the urgent necessity for dili- 
gence on the part of law-enforcement officers, not only those of the 
Federal Government but also of States and political subdivisions 
thereof. 

I think we should all bear in mind that the work of law-enforce- 
ment officers is not always easy and it is sometimes most difficult if 
not impossible, and if anyone has followed these hearings and has 
observed the lack of cooperation this committee receives from those 
who are in position to know what facts are and who are in position 
to give information that would enable the law-enforcement officers 
to perform their duties effectively and to punish those who are guilty 
of wrongdoing, they would readily see the problem that confronts us. 

Certainly these hearings and the conditions that have been re- 
vealed to exist in some areas should alert and stimulate and compel 
law-enforcement officers to be as vigilant and as diligent and as per- 
sistent in the performance of their duties as it is possible to be. There 
are conditions in some areas that really strike at the liberty of our 
people. They should be dealt with, and I am not critical of any law- 
enforcement agencies or officers anywhere but I am hopeful and I am 
sure the American people desire that in some areas their vigilance be 
redoubled and that they pursue these matters and follow up on them 
to the end that justice may ultimately be administered and prevail. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, this morning we expect to have 
probably four witnesses and we expect to have Capt. James Hamil- 
ton from the Los Angeles Police Department. Mr. Sullivan who will 
testify later in the morning, and Mr. Daniel Sullivan from the Miami 
Crime Commission, and we also expect to have in between those two 
witnesses two individuals who attended the meeting at Apalachin. 
I would like to call as the first witness Capt. James Plamilton, from 
the Los Angeles Police Department. 

The Chairman. Captain Hamilton, will you come around, please? 

You do solemnly swear that the evidence, given before this Senate 
select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I do. 



12326 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

TESTIMONY OF CAPT. JAMES E. HAMILTON 

The Chairman. Captain, will you state your name, and your place 
of residence, and your profession and occupation, please, sir? 

Mr. Hamilton. James E. Hamilton, 1314 Roseway Street, West 
Venna, captain of police, Los Angeles Police Department, command- 
ing the intelligence division. 

The Chairman. The committee is very happy to welcome you back 
again, and you have been before our committee before, I believe, and 
from the very inception of this committee you have given excellent 
cooperation and assistance to the committee, and we are very glad 
that you can be present this morning and testify in this particular 
hearing. 

How long have you been in the police department? 

Mr. Hamilton. Twenty-two years. 

The Chairman. Just briefly, what has been the nature of your 
work in the position you hold, Captain? What are your responsi- 
bilities and the type of criminal work that you perform? 

Mr. Hamilton. Well, for over 8 years now, as commander of the 
intelligence division — it is the responsibility of the division to investi- 
gate organized crime. We are a nonenforcement unit and that is 
our sole responsibility in the field of police service. It is the investi- 
gation of organized crime. 

The Chairman. All right, thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy, you may proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, in the course of those investigations, Captain 
Hamilton, have you found that there is an effort on the part of known 
hoodlums and criminals and gangsters, to infiltrate into the labor- 
management field? 

Mr. Hamilton. Well, there is a continuing effort among not only 
the Sicilian group but others to move into both labor unions in po- 
sitions of responsibility, and of course we also have the same infiltra- 
tion into legitimate business. 

Mr. Kennedy. From your experience and the work you have done, 
do you find that this is an organized effort on the part of these hood- 
lums and gangsters ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Well, it appears on the surface as an individual 
effort, but we find the same individuals trying in first one instance, 
and if they are not successful, they will try again, and again. We 
feel that it has a definitely established pattern, yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would that be a pattern? Based on the work 
that you have done and the contacts that you have had on the west 
coast as well as with other police departments throughout the United 
States, this is not just a situatiion that exists in Los Angeles or 1 or 
2 other cities but it is a nationwide problem. Would you discuss 
that? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes, it is. We are on the receiving end, of course, 
in this problem quite often. It is almost an axiom that whenever a 
hoodlum or criminal is displaced in his own locality by some hap- 
pening that involves him, publicity or perhaps jail, lie looks for new 
fields, either to get away from publicity or when he gets out of jail. 

Now, whether he looks for new fields, or he is assigned a new field 
is something we don't know. But Los Angeles, with its growth and 
the whole southern California area in the last few years, is often on 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12327 

the receiving end. I could give as an example in the garment racket 
investigation in New York here about a year and a half or two ago, 
one individual that was mentioned quite prominently in the press 
was Louis "Scarface" Lieberman. About a year or over a year now, 
Louis "Scarface" Lieberman and another individual by the name of 
Fiano showed up in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Kennedy. Does he also have a long criminal record? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes, he is presently under indictment on a nar- 
cotics conspiracy and he was arrested in Los Angeles, and a sizable 
buy was made from him by Federal narcotic agents, and as a matter 
of fact there are two cases against him at this time. 

But about 18 months ago we first received the story that Louis 
Lieberman and Fiano, who was known to us at that time, the first 
name we had on him was "Friedman" were in Los Angeles and had 
come out there with 2 kilos of heroin and had sold the heroin and 
were going to use that money to start a trucking company in the 
garment industry. 

"Well, after some investigation we identified Friedman as Louis 
Fiano, and they did start the Luck Trucking Co. with two trucks. 
Now that was the pickup and delivery of garments in the garment 
district and also the buying or acquiring of scrap which is quite 
an item in that business. 

(At this point, the following members were present: Senators Mc- 
Clellan and Ives.) 

As an example of their intentions, Louis Lieberman stated on 
numerous occasions to a police officer that was at that time working 
under cover in this matter, he stated in effect that "You stick with 
me and in the next year we will both be living in $100,000 houses." 

So he had no intention of just having a small trucking company. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you ever find out or learn where their backing 
came from ? 

Mr. Hamilton. "Well, we can't prove it, but in New York they 
were very closely connected, particularly Lieberman, with Sam Ber- 
ger and Johnnie Dio. 

Mr. Kennedy. Sam Berger, with local 102 of the ILGWU? 

Mr. Hamilton. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. And who was the other individual ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Johnny Dioguardia. 

I might also mention, Mr. Kennedy, in that investigation last fall 
we worked with a State assembly committee that was investigating 
a similar field to the field this committee is interested in. Of course, 
they were interested only in activities within the State. All of these 
people were called before that State assembly committee. 

The Immigration Service shortly after proceeded against Scarface 
Lieberman, and he is presently under order of deportation. So the 
Lucky Trucking, and, of course, with Fiano being well taken care of 
by Federal narcotics 

Mr. Kennedy. The name of the company was Lucky Trucking? 

Mr. Hamilton. Lucky Trucking, yes. In connection with that, 
one of the first customers that Lucky Trucking picked up was one 
of our old friends — that was Louie Dragna, who has a dress shop 
in the town of Covina. 

Mr. Kennedy. D-r-a-g-n-a? 

Mr. Hamilton. That is right. 



12328 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. He had a dress shop himself. 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. Well, he is one of the owners of the dress 
shop of record. I think there are three of them. He is a nephew of 
the deceased Jack Dragna, who is often referred to as the Mafia 
chieftain of the west coast, he and Momo Adamo, who is also now 
deceased, were considered the two top boys. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was the name of their dress shop ? 

Mr. Hamilton. I believe it is Save-On. 

Mr. Kennedy. You talked about Jack Dragna as the former head 
of the Mafia in that area. Did he have any front organizations and 
companies ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. Well, let's see, at one time he had the Trans- 
America Wire Service out there. After that it was — of course, John 
Usala and some others were in on that. 

After that, he had the Latin Import & Export, and then he had 
Rosemarie, of California. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was Rosemarie? 

Mr. Hamilton. That was a dress manufacturing. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who were the partners with him in that company ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Sam Scozzari, and Frank DeSimone was in that. 

He is a local attorney. Scozzari and DeSimone were the two, shall 
I say, representatives from southern California at Apalachin. 

Mr. Kennedy. Both of those individuals went to Apalachin, did 
they not ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes, they did. 

Mr. Kennedy. Scozzari and DeSimone? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. They were partners of Jack Dragna in this dress 
shop ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. You see, Mr. Chairman, the same kind of problem 
that exists on the east coast, in Pennsylvania, New York, and New 
Jersey, and some of these other States, also exists in California as 
far as the infiltration of some of these gangsters into trucking and 
into the dress business. 

DeSimone was also a partner of Jack Dragna, as I understand it, 
in this import-export business? 

Mr. Hamilton. Latin Import & Export, That was a banana 
importation. It was a banana house in the produce market. 

DeSimone and Momo Adamo were also down at the Latin Import. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you give us another example of the infiltra- 
tion into some of these businesses? 

For instance, we have had some information that there is some 
infiltration of gangsters and hoodlums into the shoulder pad indus- 
try in New York City. Is there any kind of a similar problem out 
there? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. I hadn't realized (hat the shoulder pad in- 
dustry was such an industry until we got info it. We have a char- 
acter out there who prefers to be known as Danny Wilson, llis true 
name is James Iannone. 
Mr. Kennedy. La-n-n-0-n-e? 
Mr. 1 [amilton. ( Jorrect. 

Mi\ Kennedy. lie is also known as Danny Wilson? 
Mr. Hamilton. Yes. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12329 

Mr. Kennedy. Would yon give a little bit of his background? 

Mr. Hamilton. Danny, we will cull him Danny, be came orig- 
inally out of New York. He has a reputation of being one of the 
younger men, in the old days one of the younger men, in the Murder, 
Inc., mob and the Hug and Meyer mob. He has been in Los Angeles 
for at least 15 years now. He has served time on bookmaking. He 
generally has a. bookmaking operation of some sort going. Here 
about, I would say, 5 years ago, when we would have reason to ques- 
tion Danny ami search him, he always had check stubs for the Cus- 
tom Made Shoulder Pads. 

Mr. Kennedy. Custom Made Shoulder Pads '. 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. That is one of the manufacturing outfits in 
Los Angeles. He would maintain that he was regularly employed 
there, that he had a desk there. These checks, as I recall, were $50 
a week. Some time later he switched his affiliation to a second 
shoulder pad company. The investigators, in talking to a Mr. Henry 
Bosen, at Colony Casuals, another manufacturer — and this was in 
1953, they talked to Mr. Bosen on Xovember 16 — he said that he had 
hired Jimmie Wilson, or Jimmie Iannone, rather, Danny Wilson; 
that Jake Orloff Custom Made Shoulder Pad Co. had recommended 
Mr. Wilson to him; that he had noticed that as long as Wilson was 
with Custom Made Shoulder Pads, that Custom Made had no labor 
trouble. 

So that is why he had hired Danny on pretty much the same basis ; 
that he was on the payroll and he made sure that Iannone was paid 
by check so there would be a record of it. His statement was that 
he knew that the Bureau of Internal Revenue would more than likely 
come around to question about the hiring of Jimmie Iannone. At 
that time, the date that we talked to him, he stated that Iannone 
was no longer on his payroll and had not been for about 2 weeks. 

Mr. Iannone was on his payroll as a labor — it is an odd term. 

Mr. Kennedy. Adjuster? 

Mr. Hamilton. Labor adjuster, yes. We had had stories, and it 
is my understanding that this is rumor that we could never substan- 
tiate, that Iannone has always been very close to the Sica brothers, 
who are notorious in California because of their involvement in a 
Federal narcotics case in which the principal witness who was the 
informant for the Federal Government was slain before the case went 
to trial, and as a result of which both Joe and Fred Sica were free; 
since there was no principal witness, there was no trial. 

We got the story on the street that Danny Wilson was valuable to 
his employers because at the outset there was a picket line on one 
of the shoulder pad companies. Danny Wilson went to the man- 
agement and told them that if he was their labor consultant there 
would not be any picket line. 

The following day, Joe Sica walked into the office of the union 
and told them to get that blank-blank picket line off and get it off 
now. I say this is the story we picked up on the sheet, however, 
and we could not verify the story. 

Mr. Kennedy. But these companies with whom he was associated 
had no labor difficulties while he was with them? 

Mr. Hamilton. That is right. The picket line was withdrawn. 
Danny Wilson went on the payroll and that was his position in that 
industry. 



12330 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. I might say on that question, Mr. Chairman, as far 
as the east coast is concerned, we have information that Natale Joseph 
Evola, who attended the meeting at Apalachin, controls a good deal 
of the shoulder-pad industry in New York City, through an asso- 
ciation of manufacturers with whom he is associated. He is also an 
officer in two garment companies or dress shops. 

Mr. Hamilton. As an example of this same individual moving 
from labor into management, with pretty much the same tactics, 
Danny Wilson presently has the Buy-Rite Disposal Co., which is 
manufacturer or at least distributor, and I believe manufacturing as 
well — perhaps the manufacturing is let out to a contract — of a com- 
mercial garbage-disposal unit. 

Two or three years ago Danny Wilson and Joe Sica first started 
hanging around the office of the Buy-Rite Disposal ; which was out in 
county territory. There was a man by the name of Sam Eglit, who 
was the principal of Buy-Rite at that time. It was a small concern. 
Today Mr. Eglit is gone. Danny Wilson is the man at Buy-Rite Dis- 
posal. This isn't the first time we have seen this happen. We have 
seen it tried in other places. When this type of individual moves into 
a legitimate business, the legitimate people get pushed out. 

And I understand that the Buy-Rite Disposal is a rather success- 
ful business at this time. 

Mr. Kennedy. So it was a question of a gangster moving into one 
of these companies and eventually ovniing it, is that right? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. I would like to point out in connection with 
that, that the reason that I have to testify as to what we hear and what 
we understand is the same old thing, that the police do not have the 
power of subpena, and as this committee well knows we get just about 
as much cooperation from this type of individual as the committee has 
been getting from that type of witness up here. 

They either give us silly answers or maintain that they are 
thoroughly abused that we should even think that they might be doing 
something wrong, when at the same time through the years you see 
them with no visible legal means of support. Yet the police are pretty 
much powerless to investigate. 

Victims of this type of operation do not come to law enforcement 
complaining. For instance, the proprietor of a manufacturing con- 
cern that is the victim of a shakedown by this type of individual does 
not come to law enforcement complaining that he has been shaken 
down. He is a voluntary victim of extortion. 

So in the job of investigating the tools that we have to work with 
are so inadequate that the job is extremely frustrating, I think, in the 
whole field of law enforcement. 

Of course, in the last number of years, particularly, the courts have 
further restricted us, and we have fewer tools to work with than we 
had even 5 years ago. 

Mr. Kennedy. Just to straighten the record out, the witness who 
was murdered in that case is Abraham Dayidian. 

Mr. 1 1 am 11, ton. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. You spoke about Sam Berger coming in from the 
east coast, a former union official. Did yon find thai be came in in 
any other instance other than the one that you mentioned? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12331 

For instance, did yon learn any information of their efforts, Sam 
Berger and another individual's efforts, to take over a local union out 
there? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. We have another character out there that, 
again, conies from New York. 

Happy Meltzer, Harold Meltzer, who lias a rather extensive record 
of accomplishments. He has a three-page FBI kickback. 

Mr. Kennedy. M-e-1-t-z-e-r? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. His last time served was in about 1951-52. 
1951, I believe. He came back to Philadelphia and plead guilty on a 
narcotics conspiracy and did 5 years. He presently has Dabill, Inc., 
which was formerly known as the A. F. of L. Buyers League, a dis- 
count house catering particularly to some local unions. 

Happy Meltzer, we believe through the efforts of Sam Berger and 
Duke Kaminetsky, approached a union official in Los Angeles that he 
had never met before, and requested this union official to support a 
certain candidate for an international office in that union. 

And he requested him in rather obvious terms to this official. How- 
ever, the official did not follow Mr. Meltzer's request, but went to other 
people. What Mr. Berger and Kaminetsky were after did not come 
about. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is Duke K-a-m-i-n-e-t-s-k-y. 

Mr. Hamilton. Well, I don't spell it quite that way. 

Mr. Kennedy. Duke Kaminetsky is one of the lieutenants of "Tony 
Ducks" Corallo, and was a witness here himself during the paper 
local hearings. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question along that line? 

The Chairman. Senator Ives. 

Senator Ives. Captain Hamilton, can you tell us how many of these 
persons to whom you are referring are members of the Mafia ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Well, all of those that I have mentioned that are of 
Sicilian origin. I would not say all of them. The Sicas we do not 
classify as members of the Mafia. If they are, they are in a family 
that very seldom shows activity. They are of no stature in the or- 
ganization. That is our evaluation of them. Willie Dragila, yes, 
he is of a considerable stature. Frank DeSimone, definitely. Sam 
Scozzari is one of the dons. 

We have some others, Joe Giammona, who associates on that same 
level. We evaluate them by their level of contact. 

Senator Ives. Then you know rather definitely who the members of 
the Mafia are out there, don't you? 

Mr. Hamilton. We know some of them, yes. Certainly we don't 
know all of them. We are stumbling into them from time. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you believe there is such an organization through- 
out the United States? 

Mr. Hamilton. I think Commissioner Anslinger for years has 
maintained without wavering in position that there is such an organ- 
ization, and I think the Federal Bureau of Narcotics has spent more 
time and effort in establishing that. 

It is very difficult to establish, but we have been thoroughly con- 
vinced for a number of years likewise, that there is such an organiza- 

21243— 58— pt. 32 10 



12332 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

tion. We have concentrated, spent a lot of the city's money, on 
investigating these individuals. And as a result of our investigation, 
we have been convinced for some time that there is a very tight organ- 
ization. Call it what you may, the Mafia or the Bird Watchers So- 
ciety, it is still the same thing. 

They operate by a very definite code and it is restricted to Sicilians 
or ones of Sicilian origin. 

They use other people very much. Happy Meltzer is very closely 
associated, but he is certainly not of Sicilian origin and not a mem- 
ber of the Mafia. 

But he is very closely associated. He is a contact for undesirables 
of stature that come to Los Angeles. As an example of that, there 
is a Morris Sedikaner, who has a long record in New York. He 
arrived in Los Angeles using the alias of Sam Miller, and about his 
first contact seemed to be Dabill, Inc., or Happy Meltzer. He was 
wanted on a youth rap. He was picked up at DabilPs at Meltzer's 
place of business, and returned to New York. 

Mr. Kennedy. Captain, what about Frank DeSimone, who at- 
tended the meeting in Apalachin ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Frank has long been of interest to us because of 
his association. He is a member of the Bar of the State of California. 
We have never seen him in court in front of the railing. Any time 
one of the top Sicilians is in court on a criminal charge or on a civil 
matter, you are quite likely to see DeSimone on the spectator's side of 
the railing. 

We are convinced that he is the one that makes the arrangements 
for adequate counsel for only the top members, when they get into 
trouble. As an example of how the man circulates, about 3 years 
ago, March 14, 1956, some of the investigators saw DeSimone's ear 
parked outside of Tony Penelli's place up in Sierra Madre. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is P-a-n-e-1-l-i ? 

Mr. Hamilton. P-e-n-e-1-l-i, I think. 

Mr. Kennedy. All right. 

Mr. Hamilton. He first came to our attention in Momo Adamo's 
address book in 1950. It has generally been referred to as Memo's 
green address book. Tony Penelli's name, address, and telephone 
number were in there. At that time he lived on School Street in 
Chicago. Tony has little if any criminal record. I believe he has 
an old alcohol case of many years ago, and that is all. He lives in 
Sierra Madre in a very elaborate establishment along with at least 
two of his children, who also have houses on the same piece of 
property. 

Frank DeSimone's ear was out front on this one evening, so we fol- 
lowed it back into Los Angeles, stopped it, and the two passengers 
in the car with him were, one, John S. LaEocca. of Pittsburgh, Pa., 
and, the second, Salvatore Marino. Salvatore Marino was known to 
us as the operator of the California Cheese Co. in San Jose, and they 
did have a branch store in Los Angeles. 

Salvatore Marino came out from Pennsylvania several years ago, 
and has been considered in the racket class. As a side line on Sal- 
vatore, about 4 or 5 years ago we picked up an individual (hat was 
going under the name of Drake, and he had one other alias, on finger- 
printing. It turned out to be Leo Moceri. Leo Mooeri was a part- 
ner of Leo Licavoli, the cousin of Pete Licavoli, and the l* of them. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12333 

along with a third individual, were responsible for at least 12 murder- 
in southern Michigan and Ohio. 

Leo Licavoli has been in prison many years. Moceri was never 
apprehended and was wanted for 17 years for these murders. 

There, was a youth rap on him. The Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion was actively looking for him. We picked him up. lie had a 
Cadillac, a new Cadillac, and si ,m 10 in his pocket, but no visible means 
of support. We were never able to ascertain how he had been living 
during the past 17 years. He was returned to Ohio for prosecution. 
The mail drop for Leo Moceri at the time we apprehended him was 
the Cali fornia Cheese Co. office in Los Angeles. 

It just indicates how these people all tie together, and the business 
fronts that they may have at times are more a matter of convenience 
than anything else. 

"Well, by the same token, John LaRocca, who was with DeSimone 
that night, was classified by Senator Williams probably 5 years ago 
now in an investigation, at least the press quoted Senator Williams 
as classifying John LaRocca as the top racketeer of the Pittsburgh 
area. 

And that is how we knew who we had when we stopped John 
LaRocca. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you find Penelli's connection with any of these 
other people from the Midwest ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Well, yes. Tony Accardo paid us a visit about 
5 years ago. Our men at the airport spotted him coming in there. 
He said he was on his way to Las Vegas and had not intended to 
stop in Los Angeles. 

But with Tony Accardo, was Monny Giancanna, traveling under 
a fictitious name. There were two people there to meet him at the 
airport. One was Tony Penelli. So Tony Penelli moves in pretty 
high circles. 

Mr. Kennedy. On Scozzari, did you come across Carlo Licata \ 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. Carlo Licata is quite a well-known boy. 
He is the son of Nick Licata. Nick Licata, again, is one of the older 
dons of the organization in our area. 

He is of the same general level as DeSimone, Scozzari, and Tom 
Dragna, and a few others. Carlo Licata was formerly a bartender 
at the Five O'Clock in Burbank. That was 1951. * Incidentally, 
Nick Licata at that time was the alibi witness for "Jimmy the Weasel" 
Fratiano, who was the prime suspect in the double murder of Ton v 
Trumbino and Tony Broncato, on June (>, 1951, in Los Angeles, which, 
by the way, was the last gang slaying. Carlo at that time was the 
bartender at the Five O'Clock. Approximately 6 months later he 
-disappeared from the local scene. The next I heard of him was 
receiving a letter from a law enforcement official from the State of 
Michigan inquiring about Carlo Licata who had just married a 
daughter of Black Bill Tocco, who has sometimes been called the 
racket boss of southeastern Michigan. There had been a \vvy large 
wedding and reception there to this unknown, as far as Michigan 
was concerned. We thereby located Carlo Licata. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you know he is now secretary-treasurer of the 
Melrose Linen Company of Detroit \ 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. He is quite a businessman now. I understand. 



12334 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. Just in summary, Captain Hamilton, could you tell 
the committee what you feel the situation is now as far as the operation 
of some of these gangsters and hoodlums, and just briefly what you feel 
should be done to combat them ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Well, No. 1, 1 think these hearings are an excellent 
thing, because if there is one thing that these boys do not like, it is 
publicity. 

It frustrates them very much. But I would like to take just a minute 
on the problems that I know you have seen that law enforcement has 
in trying to cope with the whole field of organized crime. 

No. 1 is the lack of information. In September of 1952, at the 
International Conference of the International Association of Chiefs of 
Police, there was a resolution adopted calling upon Congress, calling 
upon the President and Congress, to either give to an existing Federal 
agency or to create a Federal agency, to assemble information on 
the members of organized crime, and make that information available 
to local law enforcement. There was a bill introduced in the Senate as 
a result or at least parallel to that resolution, and the bill died in 
committee. 

I would like to file a copy of the original resolution with the com- 
mittee, and ask that consideration be given, because of the obvious 
inadequacy in this field. 

Using John LaRocca as an example, we knew who John LaRocca 
was, not because anybody had ever given us any information on John 
LaRocca, but we got it out of the newspapers. We subscribe to 14 
national newspapers. The city of Los Angeles is paying for this. We 
subscribe to the newspapers. We have our own clipping service, and 
we index anything that looks like a hoodlum. It was out of five news 
clips on John LaRocca's card that we knew very well who he was. 
We were then able to deal with him accordingly. 

But it is an impossible task to, on a local level, be expected to deal 
in the field of organized crime without having a central agency to 
call upon for information, and we have no such central agency. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are these individuals getting stronger? 

Mr. Hamilton. Well, they are certainly not getting weaker. They 
multiply as time goes along. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you think it is a major problem ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Certainly I do; yes. It is a very dangerous one. 
They are so closely knit. You cannot penetrate that organization with 
an operator, such as you will in other things. They have to be born 
into it or marry into it. They don't take outsiders. We can't get an 
operator in. 

Then I would also like to file with the committee 

The Chairman. Will you submit the resolution ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. The resolution of the International Associa- 
tion of Chiefs of Police of September 1952 is the title of the paper. 

The second problem that is not exactly restricted to the field of 
organized crime but which is of great concern to police service has 
been the recent trend of decisions of the Supreme Court in the field 
of criminal law. We now have the Federal evidence rule in California 
in the State courts. It started with the Irvine decision of the United 
States Supreme Court and was followed by the Cahan decision of the 
State supreme court. The State supreme court is still taking cases and 
trying to come up with refinements of the Federal evidence rule. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12335 

Mr. Virgil Peterson, the operating director of the Chicago Crime 
Commission, at a regional meeting of the American Bar Association in 
St. Louis, on June 13, read a paper entitled "Recent Trends of De- 
cisions of the Supreme Court of the United States in the Field of 
Criminal Law." 

I have a copy of that paper with me. In my opinion it is one of the 
finest dissertations on the effect of recent court decisions on the police. 
We are working under handicaps now that did not exist even 5 years 
ago. Crime, statistically, is increasing. Nationally, Mr. Hoover said 
that crime is increasing four times the rate of the population. 

In California it is increasing at six times the rate of the population. 
Yet the police service, which is the first line of defense against crime, 
is expected to cope with the problem with handicaps that didn't exist 
hefore. We actually needed more help, more legislative support, than 
we had 5 years ago. 

Instead, today we have much less. It certainly is in the field of 
legislation that we are going to get help. When the police service is 
helped, it is only the people that are being helped and not the criminal. 
So far, in the last 5 years, the criminals have been the only ones getting 
helped. It is not a police problem. Our salaries go on whether we 
make an arrest or not. It is a problem for the police through their 
representatives in the legislatures to give serious consideration. 

The Chairman. The Chair has read the resolution of the Inter- 
national Association of Chiefs of Police. I think it is excellent. With- 
out objection, I shall insert it in the record. I am intrigued by your 
suggestion that there should be a continuous and meticulous study of 
organized crime. 

What do you have in mind with respect to that? Do you mean a 
standing committee of the Congress, or select committees of the Con- 
gress, charged with a continuing duty of investigating? Or do you 
mean possibly there should be a commission on crime created and vested 
with powers of subpena and hearing, and so forth ? 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes; Senator, I think the latter, a commission, be- 
cause of the permanency, set up as a permanent body with the very 
powers you mentioned. That is highly desirable. 

The information is available, but it needs to be correlated, evalu- 
ated, and made available to local law enforcement. An organization 
that you mentioned, which has the power of subpena and which has 
a permanent staff, in the field to send the information in and to be 
evaluated at a central location, would be desirable. 

The Chairman. As you say, it is not a police problem. It is a 
citizenship problem, it is for the good of all. 

Mr. Hamilton. That is correct. 

The Chairman. In other words, you think crime, organized crime, 
is making continuous strides toward achieving its goals. 

Mr. Hamilton. Yes. They are able to take advantage of all of 
these refinements that we have seen in the last 5 years. I don't be- 
lieve that 15 years ago men that sat here yesterday and refused or, 
as you choose, the word is not refused, it is decline to answer 

The Chairman. Well, they choose the word "refused," and we 
were able to pursuade them to be a little more respectful. 

Mr. Hamilton. You were very generous to them. But 15 years 
ago they would not have shown this effrontery to their Government. 



12336 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Today they are taking advantage of the recent trends in Court deci- 
sions. As they sit here and conduct themselves in such a manner, they 
also go out and take advantage of that in their business on the outside. 

The Chairman. You feel, then, that there is some responsibility 
on the part of the courts. 

Mr. Hamilton. Definitely. 

The Chairman. Without being critical of any court decision, as- 
suming that the court decisions based upon present law are correct, 
and that the court had no alternative except to find as it did, then 
there is need for the strengthening of our laws and the enforcement 
procedures; is that correct? 

Mr. Hamilton. That is correct, sir; yes. In the first place, the 
court's interpretation is only a judicial interpretation of the law. 
The court has said many years ago that these interpretations may 
be negated by legislative action. It is a well-established doctrine. 

The Chairman. You think a permanent commission, crime com- 
mission, that would make a continuous investigation with the power 
of subpena, and hearings such as these, and discover where these 
loopholes are in the law and where, within the Constitution, they can 
be tightened up to give better protection to the public and society, 
would serve a valuable and most useful purpose? 

Mr. Hamilton. Correct, because the refinements of recent years 
are not helping society. They are helping the law violator. They 
are in nowise helping the innocent man. They are helping the guilty 
man. There is no refinement of the courts in the last 5 years that 
would free an innocent man. The refinements are all freeing guilty 
men. I defy anyone to point out one example of where an innocent 
man was freed by any of the court decisions in the last 5 years in the 
field of criminal law. 

The Chairman. And there can hardly be anything more danger- 
ous to a free society than for that trend to continue. 

Mr. Hamilton. That is right. It is undermining society. The in- 
crease in crime is proof of that. We don't have to be concerned about 
the invasion from without. It is this deterioration that is pointed 
up by the terrific increase in crime that is dangerous. 

The Chairman. And you regard these trends as a mark of deterio- 
ration from within. 

Mr. Hamilton. Absolutely. 

The Chairman. This resolution may be printed in the record at this 
point. 

(The document referred to follows:) 

Resolution of IACP of September 19.">2 

Whereas the freedom of the people of America is undergoing an attack of 
three dimensions — the armed might of Russia, the Communist fifth column, and 
organized crime ; and 

Whereas it is the primary responsibility of local law enforcement agencies 
to thwart the efforts of criminal syndicates to establish an invisible govern- 
ment, under which public officials will be mere puppets doing the bidding of their 
criminal overlords; and 

Whereas the fluidity of travel and communication which has established 
solid links among the underworld from coast to coast has rendered it extremely 
difficult for local law enforcement officers to know and combat the enemies of 
society ; and 

Whereas the Constitution of the United States guarantees free ingress and 
egress among the several States to all people, including the criminals of the 
Nation ; and 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12337 

Whereas there is a definite and compelling need or an agency on the na- 
tional level to eonducl a continuing study of organized crime in pinpoint its 
members, to chart their modus operandi, to determine their associations, and 

to supply to local Law enforcement tins information, without which they cannot 
adequately combat the criminal cartels : Therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the International Association of Chiefs of Police, duly as- 
sembled in annual conference in the city of Los Angeles this 25th day of Sep- 
tember, 1952, does hereby importune the President of the United States and the 
Congress of the United States to take the necessary action to establish an 
agency on the Federal level charged with the responsibility of a continuous 
and a meticulous study of organized crime, its members and its methods, and 
further charged with the responsibility of supplying to local law enforcement 
the information that will enable the local police officer to know and combat the 
criminal enemies of society. 

The Chairman. You had some other document \ 

Air. Hamilton. Yes. It is the paper given by Mr. Virgil Peterson 
before the bar association on June 13. 

The Chairman. If it is just a speech, we will accept it and make 
it exhibit 11, for reference. I will not print it in the record at this 
point. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit Xo. 11" for ref- 
erence, and may be found in the iiles of the select committee.) 

The Chairman. Is there anything further? 

Mr. Kennedy. I wish to thank Captain Hamilton for his assistance. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Captain. I am sure the 
committee and the Congress will give considerable weight to your 
testimony and to your recommendations. I especially welcome your 
resolution and the views of your group because we need suggestions in 
that field. Those of you who come in personal contact with it, who 
live it day by day and experience it, are the most competent, I think, 
to suggest remedies that the Congress might apply. Thank you very 
much. 

Have you anything to say, Senator ? 

Senator Ives. I think he has been a great help to us. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Mr. Hamilton. Thank you. I appreciate the opportunity of being 
heard. 

The Chairman. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Joseph Profaci. 

The Chairman. Be sw r orn, please. You do solemnly swear the evi- 
dence you shall give before this Senate select committee shall be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

A Ir. Profaci. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH PROFACI, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL. 

SAMUEL PAIGE 

The Chairman. State your name, your place of residence, and your 
business or occupation. 

Mr. Profaci. Joseph Profaci, 8863 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The Chairman. What is your business or occupation, please? 

Mr. Profaci. I refuse to answer on the ground it might be in- 
criminating me. 

The Chairman. You what ? 

Mr. Profaci. I refuse to answer on the ground 



12338 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. I don't think you better use the word "refuse." I 
think that shows disrespect for your Government. Do you want to 
place yourself in that attitude? 

Mr. Profaci. I am sorry. 

The Chairman. I would use the word "decline." 

Senator Ives. Mr. Chairman, may I interpose a question ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Senator Ives. Who instructed you to use that word "refuse" ? 

Mr. Profaci. Well, I couldn't say, I misread. 

Senator Ives. You have it written out there ? 

Mr. Profaci. I have it written out. 

Senator Ives. Who wrote it out for you ? 

Mr. Profaci. You see, I misread. 

Senator Ives. You do what ? 

Mr. Profaci. I misread. I have "respectfully refuse to answer on 
the ground that might be — — " 

Senator Ives. Who gave you that word "refuse"? Where did you 
get that word "refuse" ? Did your'counsel give you that ? 

Where did you get that piece of paper there, that writing? Who 
gave it to you? 

Mr. Profaci. My counsel. 

Senator Ives. Your counsel gave it to you ? 

Mr. Profaci. Yes. 

Senator Ives. He had the word "refuse" there ? 

Mr. Profaci. Respectful. 

Senator Ives. You should use "decline" always instead of "refuse" 
when you are speaking before the Government. Your counsel should 
know that. I am not criticizing you. 

The Chairman. Counsel, will you identify yourself for the record, 
please ? 

Mr. Paige. Samuel Paige, 261 Broadway, New York City. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Do I understand that you are stating to this committee that if you 
answered the question as to what is your business or occupation, that 
a truthful answer to that question might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Profaci. I refuse to answer 

Senator Ives. I wish you would stop using that word "refuse." 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer, I am sorry. 

Senator Ives. All right. 

The Chairman. The Chair is going to order you to answer that 
question. I asked you if you honestly believed that if you answered 
the question truthfully as to what is your business or occupation, if 
you believed that a truthful answer to that question might tend to 
incriminate you. 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground that it might be 
incriminating me. 

The Chairman. This would not incriminate you, to state whether 
you honestly believe that it might. Do you or don't you ? 

Mr. Profaci. Yes ; I believe. 

The Chairman. You honestly believe that if you gave a truthful 
answer and told this committee what your business or occupation is, 
that the truth in that answer might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Profaci. I believe. 

The Chairm a n\ You honestly believe that. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12339 

Mr. Profaci. I believe that. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Senator Ives. Is he under indictment, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Kennedy. No ; I don't believe he is. 

The Chairman. I will ask him. 

Are you under indictment now for anything ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be incrimi- 
nating me. 

The Chairman. Ask him any questions you want to, then. 

If we knew you were under indictment, we would undertake to 
avoid asking you questions in that area, in the area of the crime for 
which you may be indicted. But without your willingness to state 
whether you are or not, we will proceed as if you are not. 

Mr. Kennedy, you may ask him any questions you desire. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Profaci, we had a talk yesterday, a nice con- 
versation ; did we not ? Didn't we have a little talk in the office? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Profaci, j^our English was so much better yester- 
day. What has happened in the last 24 hours ? 

Mr. Profaci. I don't catch your words right. 

Mr. Kennedy. You don't ? 

Mr. Profaci. I don't catch you. 

Mr. Kennedy. You caught it awfully well yesterday, Mr. Profaci. 
You spoke very good and you understood everything I said. 

Mr. Profaci. If you will be patient, I will catch it. 

Mr. Kennedy. I don't have to be. Yesterday you spoke very freely 
and easilj 7 . Your accent has gotten so bad today. What happened 
overnight, Mr. Profaci ? You understood and answered all the ques- 
tions I asked you yesterday, and you spoke very easily, with very 
little accent. What has happened since? 

Mr. Profaci. I don't catch the words right when you use big words. 

Senator Ives. Are you an American citizen ? 

Mr. Profaci. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. Were you born here in the United States? 

Mr. Profaci. No, sir. 

Senator Ives. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Profaci. In Italy. 

Senator Ives What part of Italy ? 

Mr. Profaci. Sicily, Palermo. 

Senator Ives. When did you come here to this country ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it might be in- 
criminating to me. 

The Chairman. You ought to be deported if you think it would 
incriminate you to tell when you came to this country. You are 
not worthy of being an American citizen, anyone who takes that 
position, that he can't tell when he came to this country. 

Senator Ives. How did you get your citizenship, if you can't tell 
that? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be incrimi- 
nating me. 

The Chaerman. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Well, from what we understand, you were born 
in Italy on October 1, 1897 ; isn't that right, Mr. Profaci ? 



12340 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EST THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Kennedy. You answered before that you were born in Italy. 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it might be in- 
criminating me. 

Senator Ives. Being born in Italy would incriminate you? 

Mr. Profaci. I was born in Italy. 

Senator Ives. But the date you were bom, would that incriminate 
you? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Profaci. First of October 1897. 

Senator Ives. When did you arrive here in the United States? 
How old were you when you arrived here in the United States? 
What is there about that that is going to incriminate you? There 
is nothing there that can incriminate you, and you ought to be proud 
that you got here. 

Mr. Profaci. Well, I was 21 years old. 

Senator Ives. Well, you have been here approximately 36 years, 
haven't you ? 

Mr. Profaci. I don't catch you. 

Senator Ives. It is 40 years you have been here. 

Mr. Profaci. About ; yes. 

Senator Ives. You mean to tell me that you still have to speak in 
that broken English. 

Mr. Profaci. I don't speak too good, I guess. 

Senator Ives. Well, I judge from what the counsel says, your 
English yesterday was a good deal better than it is today, and I can't 
understand that. 

However, I know cases where that does exist. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. We understand that you came to the United States 
about 1922 ; is that right ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be in- 
criminating me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you went to Chicago where you opened up a 
grocery store ; isn't that right ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Yesterday when we were talking you were telling 
me about going up to Apalachin. Could you tell the committee about 
it ? They are very much interested in that. 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be in- 
criminating. 

Senator Ives. What did he say ? 

Mr. Kennedy. As I understood it, your partner had died, and 
you didn't know Mr. Joseph Barbara, but your partner had died 
in early November of 1957 ; isn't that right? 

Mr. Profaci. Counsel, I decline to answer on the ground it may be 
incriminating to me. 

The Chairman. You mean the death of your partner might in- 
criminate you? Does that carry with it some implication? Are 
you saying that the death of your partner might incriminate you, if 
you admitted he died? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12341 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Air. Kennedy. Your partner died in early November of 1957, 
and he knew Joseph Barbara. You were not personally acquainted 
with Joseph Barbara, but your partner told you before he died that 
Joseph Barbara was sick, and wasn't feeling very well; isn't that 
right ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be in- 
criminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. Because he was sick, you thought that you would 
go up and see him, and see if he was feeling better? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

The Chairman. Did he make these statements to you yesterday? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. What you really went up to Mr. Barbara's home 
for was just to visit this sick man whom you didn't know. That 
is what you told me yesterday; isn't that right? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Counsel, are you going to ask him questions about 
his sojourn at Apalachin ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Senator Ives. I want to find out whether he landed in the bushes 
or not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, we have a detective here, Thomas 
O'Brien of the New York Police Department. The New York Police 
Department has been very cooperative in this investigation, and De- 
tective Thomas O'Brien and a number of others have been working 
with the committee over the last few weeks. The detective interviewed 
Mr. Profaci when the subpena was served on him and also interviewed 
him at an earlier time after he came back from Apalachin. 

I would like to call Detective O'Brien just to summarize what Mr. 
Profaci told him at that time. 

The Chairman. Detective O'Brien, will you come around, please? 

Do you solemnly swear that the evidence given before this Senate 
select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. O'Brien. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS O'BRIEN 

The Chairman. State your name and your place of residence and 
your business or occupation. 

Mr. O'Brien. My name is Thomas O'Brien, and I am a detective as- 
signed to the New York City Police Department, and I reside in 
Staten Island, N. Y. 

The Chairman. How long have you been on the police force of 
New York. 

Mr. O'Brien. Fifteen years. 

The Chairman. Were you at the notorious Apalachin meeting? 

Mr. O'Brien. No, sir; I wasn't. 

The Chairman. I didn't know but what you were there on duty 
servino- with the other officers. 



12342 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

All right, proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. You have interviewed Mr. Profaci, have you not r 
detective ? 

Mr. O'Brien. I have. 

Mr. Kennedy. On how many different occasions? 

Mr. O'Brien. On June 6, 1958, on that occasion and a previous oc- 
casion before that. 

Mr. Kennedy. That was at the time that a subpena was served on 
him? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir ; it was. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, could you tell us in brief what Mr. Profaci 
told you at that time when you interviewed him ? 

Mr. O'Brien. As regards the Apalachin meeting? 

Mr. Kennedy. First on his marriage in his family, and we would 
like to get that in the record. 

Mr. O'Brien. At the time he was interviewed which was on No- 
vember 21, 1957 

Mr. Kennedy. That was an interview that was conducted by one 
of your colleagues; is that right? 

Mr. O'Brien. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you are reading from his report ? 

Mr. O'Brien. That is right. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Counsel, may I interrupt here to ask a question of 
Mr. Profaci ? 

Can you hear what is being said ? 

Mr. Profaci. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. Do you understand it ? 

Mr. Profaci. I don't understand. 

Senator Ives. You don't understand it ? 

Mr. Profaci. If I don't understand, I will ask. 

The Chaerman. If you don't understand you can ask and we will 
make it clear to you. 

Proceed. 

Mr. O'Brien. Mr. Profaci stated he was born in Palermo, Sicily, on 
October 2, 1897, and he said that he had 6 children, 4 sons and 2 
daughters, and that his wife's maiden name was Ninfa Magliocco, and 
his daughter, Carmela, who was 23 years old, is married to one An- 
thony Tocco and she resides in Michigan. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is Anthony Tocco. The names appear on the 
chart. 

Senator Ives. Is that right, Mr. Profaci ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground that it might be 
incriminating me. 

Senator Ives. You mean this relationship is going to incriminate 
you ? Are you ashamed of it ? 

Mr. Profaci. Excuse me. 

Senator Ives. Goodness sakes, I can't imagine being ashamed of my 
wife. 

Mr. Profaci. I don't get you, Senator. I am proud of my wife. 

Senator Ives. Why don't you admit what he is saying to be the 
truth, because there is nothing there that can possibly hurt you. 

Mr. Profaci. I don't get you. 

Senator Ives. All right. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12343 

Mr. O'Brien. lie also stated that he had another daughter, Rosalie, 
27 years of age, who is married to Anthony Zerilli, and she resides in 
Michigan. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is that correct, Mr. Prof aci ? 

Mr. Peopaci. I refuse to answer or I decline to answer on the ground 
it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The Toccos and Zerillis are two of the leading gang- 
ster families in Detroit, Mich., and in the Michigan area. 

Could you tell us how it came that your 2 daughters were married 
to those 2 families? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be incrimi- 
nating me. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Counsel, I can see how that might incriminate 
him, but on anything before that I can't understand his reasoning. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, according to the reports that we have, Mr. 
Profaci, you are connected with the Mama-Mia Olive Oil Co., of 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it might incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the Carmela Mia Packing Co., of Brooklyn, 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

The Chairman. Is that some kind of an illegitimate business or is 
it a legal business? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

The Chairman. Do you honestly believe it might incriminate you 
if you told the truth in answer to that question ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground 

The Chairman. I order and direct you to answer that question. 
Do you honestly believe that if you told the truth as to this business, 
whether you have an interest in it or not, that such truth might tend 
to incriminate you \ Do you honestly believe that? 

Mr. Profaci. Yes, sir, I decline to answer on the ground it may 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. I don't believe you are quite as dumb as you are 
acting. You are not fooling me very much. I asked you the question, 
whether you honestly believe, and I expect an answer to this question. 
Do you honestly believe that if you told the truth about whether you 
have an interest in this company, this business or not, that a truthful 
answer might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Profaci. Yes, sir. I decline to answer on the ground that it 
might mcrimmate nie. 

The Chairman. Did you say "yes," you honestly believe that it 
would tend to incriminate you ? 

Air. Profaci. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. A little louder. 

Mr. Profaci. Yes, sir, Senator. 

The Chairman. You honestty believe that ? 

Mr. Profaci. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Xow, these two companies are import companies, 
in the import-export business, are they not, Mr. Profaci '. 



12344 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We also understand that through your brother you 
have an interest in the United Uniform Corp., a clothing company, and 
that you also have an interest in the T. L. S. Suit & Coat Factory, of 
Newburgh. N. Y., in Jerry James Frocks, Inc., of Newburgh, and in 
Christine Dresses, of Brooklyn, is that correct? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And when you were arrested, Mr. Profaci, on No- 
vember 21, 1957, or when you were questioned, you had a number of 
cards of various union officials throughout the eastern part of the 
United States on your person. Isn't that correct? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground that it may be in- 
criminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. For instance, you had the card, and Detective 
O'Brien, will you confirm this, that he had the card of Frank B. 
Tortorici on his person. 

Mr. O'Brien. That is right, 

Mr. Kennedy. That is from Local 222 of the International Jewelry 
Workers Union ? 

Mr. O'Brien. That is correct. 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that Joe Stracci, also known as 
Stretch, is the one that really controls and operates that union? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground that it may incrimi- 
nate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And another card that you had is Philip Wachtell, 
secretary-treasurer of Local 138 of the Teamsters ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Teddy Land, of the Restaurant and Cafe Em- 
ployees Union, Local 26 ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Edward Wisotsky, a delegate from the Blue- 
print and Photostat Union? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Joseph Pecora, secretarv-treasurer of Local 
883 of the Teamsters, in Newark, N. J. ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Frank Eulo, of Local 180 of the Teamsters 
Union, in Oak Park, 111. 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And also S. L. Zaeb, Local 275 of the Teamsters 
Union \ 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is a local union, is it not, Local 275 of the 
Teamsters, that is controlled by "Tony Ducks" Corallo? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12345 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Senator Ives. I would like to get something on the record, and I 
would like to ask the detective if those cards were found on him? 

Mr. O'Brien. They were. 

Senator Ives. All of theni '. 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir; all of them. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy. And do you have the criminal record of Mr. Pro- 
faci ? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir; I do. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you been arrested? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, I would like to say Mr. Profaci is 
one of the most powerful underworld figures in the United States, 
according to the information that we have, and we expect to be able 
to develop that information. We would be able to do it much more 
successfully if Mr. Profaci would answer the questions. 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

The Chairman. Obviously this witness is not going to cooperate, 
and so make the record and the Chair will have a little comment at 
the conclusion. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you just summarize his criminal record? 

Mr. O'Brien. On April 18, 1916, he was arrested in Sicily, Italy, 
for theft, violation of the domicile, and attempted rape, and the charge 
was dismissed. 

The Chairman. Is that correct, I see you are nodding your head; 
is that correct? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to in- 
criminate me. 

The Chairman. Let the record show that the witness was nodding 
his head in affirmative as the sergeant was testifying. 

Mr. O'Brien. On November 23, 1920, he was arrested in Palermo, 
Italy, for theft and false witness of a public document, for which he 
received a year in prison. 

The Chairman. Is that correct? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

The Chairman. If you said "No," it wouldn't incriminate you, I 
can assure you. Do you want to say "No" ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer. Senator. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

Mr. O'Brien. On August 19, 1934, he was picked up for an investi- 
gation in connection with the murder of Ferdinand Boccia, in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., with Yito Genovese, Nick Miranda, Sebastiano Nani, 
Gus Frasca, and Joseph Smurra and Pete DeFeo. 

The Chairman. Do you recall anything about that ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incrimi- 
nate me. 

The Chairman. Do you want to deny it ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to in- 
criminate me. 



12346 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. Do you honestly believe that if you denied it as 
being the truth, that a denial might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Profaci. Yes ; I decline to answer, Senator. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

Mr. O'Brien. On December 5, 1928, he was arrested in Cleveland, 
Ohio, for investigation. 

The Chairman. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incrimi- 
nate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, wasn't that arrest in connection with another 
meeting of the Mafia in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1928 ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer, Mr. Kennedy, on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Didn't the meeting in Cleveland, Ohio, of the Mafia 
in 1928, as well as the meeting at Apalachin of the Mafia in 1957 ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incrimi- 
nate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Didn't you go to the meeting in 1928 in Cleveland, 
Ohio, with the same individual you went to the meeting with in 1957 ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it ma} 7 tend to in- 
criminate me. 

Senator Ives. May I interrupt? I would like to ask him, Are you 
a member of the Mafia ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it might be in- 
criminating. 

Senator Ives. That is quite sufficient. 

Mr. Profaci. No ; I decline to answer. 

Senator Ives. Are you a member or aren't you ? 

Mr. Profaci. No ; I decline to answer. No, sir. 

Senator Ives. You are not? 

Mr. Profaci. No, sir. 

Senator Ives. You are under oath, you know ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to in- 
criminate me. 

Mr. O'Brien. On May 9, 1946, in Brooklyn, N. Y., he was arrested 
for forgery of an auto registration. 

The Chairman. Do you remember that incident ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer, sir. 

The Chairman. I believe you do, and I think that I can see that 
deep. 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. O'Brien. On April 7, 1949, he was arrested in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
for violation of the Food and Drug Act, and he pleaded guilty and 
received a suspended sentence and was put on probation for 1 year. 

The Citairman. Are you still on probation \ 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me, Senator. 

The Chairman. Did you serve any time on that conviction? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer. 

The Chairman. What is that? 

Mr. Profaci. No, sir ; I never served any I ime. 

The Chairman. You didn't ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12347 

Mr. Pkofaci. No. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Mr. O'Brien. On October 27, 1952, he was arrested in Brooklyn, 

N. Y., for violation of the Food and Drug Act, and fined $4,000. 

The Chairman. Did you pay your fine? 

Mr. Pkofaci. I decline to answer, Senator. 

The Chairman. Do you still owe it? 

Mr. Pkofaci. It might incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you still owe it ? 

Mr. Pkofaci. I decline to answer, Senator, on the ground it may 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. If you haven't paid it, I hope this will alert some- 
body up there to try to do a little collecting business. 

Proceed. 

Mr. O'Brien. On September 21, 1953, he was arrested in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., for evasion of income taxes. 

The Chairman. You are surely not guilty of that, are you? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it might incrimi- 
nate me. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, what did Mr. Profaci state at the time after 
being questioned regarding his visit to Apalachin and his visit to 
Cleveland in 1928, according to the official records of the police 
department ? 

Mr. O'Brien. When he was questioned on November 21, 1957, in 
regard to the Cleveland, Ohio, affair, he said that he was arrested 
in either 1928 or 1929, and he doesn't remember, and it was for play- 
ing cards with a group of men in Cleveland, Ohio. When I inter- 
viewed him on June 6, 1958, he said that he was driven to Cleveland 
by his brother-in-law, Joe Magliocco, and he was in the lobby of a 
hotel when these men came up to him and told him that there were 
guns up in the room, and he was being charged with it, and he was 
arrested at the time for possession of guns. 

A Ir. Kennedy. Were there guns up in the room ? 

Mr. O'Brien. There were. 

Mr. Kennedy. How man} ; do you know ? 

Mr. O'Brien. Thirteen guns. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was this at the famous meeting of the Mafia in 
Cleveland, Ohio, in 1928 ? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What kind of guns ; do you know ? 

Mr. O'Brien. I really don't know. 

The Chairman. Was that at this Mafia meeting in Cleveland? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And when he was arrested they found 13 guns in 
1 room? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir. 

Air. Kennedy. What did he say about that \ 

Mr. O'Brien. Relative to Apalachin, in November he seated that 
since the death of Adriano Liberator, he decided he would have to 
make a business trip to Scranton, Easton, and Wilkes-Barre, and on 
Wednesday, November 13, 1957, at about 3 p. m., he and his brother- 
in-law, Joseph Magliocco, a beer distributor of Islip, N. Y., drove 
off in Maglioceo's Cadillac. 

21243— 5S— pt. 32 11 



12348 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. This is the same one he had been arrested with in 
Cleveland, Ohio, and he had gone to the meeting of the Mafia in 
Cleveland with? 

Mr. O'Brien. The same person, yes. 

Senator Ives. Just a moment. What model was that Cadillac? 

Mr. Profaci. I refuse to answer ; I decline to answer on the ground 
it may incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Don't you know the year it was ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer, Senator. 

Mr. O'Brien. He said they arrived that night at Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa., and he stayed overnight at the Hilton Hotel, in a room on the 
12th floor. He said the next morning he remembered his friend, Joe 
Barbara, who was sick, was nearby, Endicott, and they decided to 
go visit him and wish him luck. 

He said they arrived at Barbara's house November 14, about 2: 30 
p. m., and they talked to Barbara for about 15 minutes and then left. 

Senator Ives. Just a minute there. Are you going to trace this up, 
Mr. Counsel, to find out how he got up there through that roadblock ? 
The road was supposed to be blocked at 12 : 40. How is he going to 
get up there? I want to check him on this business. 

Mr. O'Brien. He states that he did not see anyone he knew there, 
or any other automobiles, and he said while driving away from the 
house they were stopped by two State troopers who checked the auto 
registration and asked for their identification, and then let them go, 
and they drove on to Wilkes-Barre. They stayed overnight, and on 
Friday morning he called his wife, and she advised him of the big 
story in the newspapers, and he came right home. 

Mr. Kennedy. That was in November of 1957 that he told that. 
What did he tell you when you served a subpena on him ? 

Mr. O'Brien. On June 6 he told me that his left leg hurt from a 
boat accident, and so he didn't like to drive, and he knew that this 
would be a fantastic story, and he didn't think I would believe it, 
but he said because of his bad leg he got an innocent man in trouble 
and his brother-in-law, Magliocco. He said he had a corporation 
partner in Philadelphia who had died and he wanted to go to Wilkes- 
Barre and other places to inform the jobbers that the man had died, 
and he also wanted to collect some debts. 

This was the day before Apalachin. So he asked his brother-in- 
law, Magliocco, to drive him. He said they went first to Binghamton 
and stayed overnight, and they talked that night, and the subject 
said that Barbara had been giving Magliocco a lot of business and 
Barbara was a good friend of Profaci and it would be nice if they 
stopped in and made a personal touch, and to that he said the next 
day they didn't even know where Barbara's house was and they had 
to call and ask directions. 

He said when they drove there, Profaci said he got out of the car 
and he saw some cars there, but he went right into the house and he 
went right into Barbara's bedroom and lie paid his respects, and 
Magliocco stayed in the car all of the time, and he said he came 
out and he got in the car and started down the hill. At the bottom 
of the hill a car piled up and blocked the road and Magliocco said, 
"Do you think this is a stickup, Joe?" and Profaci said, "No; they 
are State cops." 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12349 

They were asked by the State troopers to identify themselves, and 
Profaci said to show he was a right guy he gave his own identifica- 
tion, because he had his dead partner's registration, and his dead 
partner's operators' license in his pocket and if he wasn't legitimate 
he would have offered those instead and no one would have known 
him but he was legitimate, and they told him to go on. Then he 
went to Wilkes-Barre, where he had his own barbecue and he paid 
$11 for it, and he called home the next day, and his wife was all 
excited and she said, "There was headlines in the paper about a Mafia 
meeting," and he said, "Well, gee, I hope no one got shot there." 
And she said, "No, it is just a meeting." And he said, "It is all right, 
the same old business, invisible government, the same old thing. 
All of this is the responsibility of the Communist newspapers in the 
United States." 

Mr. Kennedy. He said the Communist newspapers in the United 
States? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. Is the Mafia combating Communism, am I to under- 
stand that? 

Mr. Profaci. Excuse me, sir. 

Senator Ives. Is the Mafia fighting Communism, is that it? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer, Senator, on the ground it might 
be incriminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he explain his criminal record to you at that 
time ? 

Mr. O'Brien. He explained his own version of it, yes, sir, he did. 

The Chairman. What was his version of it? 

Mr. O'Brien. He said as far as the first violation was concerned, 
he was coming out of the army in Italy in World War I, and the 
custom of the time was if you received an honorable discharge they 
gave you a horse, which he wanted to have for a business, and you 
pay 750 lire for the horse if you had a good discharge. They gave 
him a bad horse, and he brought the horse home and the horse died. 
So he went back to the original market place, and he met a soldier 
and he gave this soldier 100 lire for another application to get a horse. 
And he brought the horse home, and he paid 750 lire for it but when 
he was home, someone came and knocked on the door, a policeman, 
and he arrested him. 

At that time, Italy was Fascist and Mussolini didn't care for him 
anyhow, and there were no bail bondsmen like here in America, and 
he was put in jail for a year while his family tried to find that soldier, 
and they couldn't find him, and he stayed in jail for a year. 

On his record it says a year but actually it was just because of his 
bail bond. 

(At this point Senator Mundt entered the hearing room.) 

Senator Ives. When was that? 

Mr. O'Brien. This would be before World War I. 

Senator Ives. Before World War I ? 

Mr. O'Brien. No, right after World War I. the end of World War 

Senator Ives. I take it Mussolini had then taken over Italy at that 
time? 

Mr. O'Brien. No, sir, I don't think so. 



12350 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Senator Ives. I thought you were talking about that. Isn't that 
right, you are nodding your head, I see. 

The witness is nodding and that is all I can tell. He is a pretty 
good noclder, but that is all you can get out of him. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then he came to the United States and did he say 
he had difficulty then ? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, about his income tax, you mean ? 

Mr. Kennedy. About coming into the United States and answering 
the questions of the immigration authorities. 

Mr. O'Brien. He said he was coming into the United States, that 
he had difficulty with the language, and they brought him to a place 
and he was asked certain questions, and he signed a certain document, 
and he said he was under the impression that they asked him, did lie 
have a record in the United States, and he said "No," and he said 
that now the immigration authorities are bringing back this piece 
of paper and saying that he was asked if he had a record, and that 
he gave a false answer, answer of "No." 

Mr. Kennedy. Does he say that is the basis of some proceedings 
against him ? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, did we also get some information regarding 
the $3,000 he sent to Italy in 1947 ? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. That $3,000 was sent by cable ? 

Mr. O'Brien. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. To a John Valsamo ? 

Mr. O'Brien. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, Mr. Profaci stated, did he not, that he sent 
that money over for some nuns in Italy ? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir, and he said prior to the war he had made 
an arrangement with the church to build a new convent and to bring 
some nuns over from Italy. When the war came about it was im- 
possible, but after the war he received information that this Valsamo 
who came from a nearby area in Brooklyn was an intelligent fellow 
who could accomplish this mission for him. 

So Profaci deposited the $3,000 check in a bank in Brooklyn which 
was to be sent to Valsamo, and he said evidently over in Italy, 
Valsamo mixed up something, and Valsamo got in trouble over the 
money. He said that in the newspapers, the Federal Narcotics Bu- 
reau put in all of this money was for cocaine, and he said, "I sent 
over for nuns, and they make cocaine out of it." 

Mr. Kennedy. Wasn't it an established fact that John Valsamo to 
whom this money went was an intimate friend of "Lucky" Luciano? 

Mr. O'Brien. I have read files of the Federal Narcotics Bureau, 
where he was questioned, and he said or his version of it was that 
"Lucky" Luciano was a very nice man, and ho palled around with 
him and he thought he was a nice fellow, and as a result Valsamo was 
fired, and he came back to this country, and he happened (o get a job 
with Profaci's brother-in-law, Magliocco, in the beverage company. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that it lias been established thai .Mr. 
Profaci knows and is an associate of such individuals as "Lucky" 
Luciano? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12351 

Mr. K i : n n edy. Is that true ? 

Mr. Pbgfagl You are asking me ? 

M v. Kennedy. I will ask both of you. 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it might be in- 
criminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know "Lucky" Luciano? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be in- 
criminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Frank Costello? 

M i\ Profaci. I decline to answer on the same ground. 

Mr. Kennedy. It has been established that he is an associate of 
Frank Cost olio. 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And John Oddo? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Has that been established? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Joe Bananas? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Paul "The Waiter" Kicca ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground that it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Vito Genovese? 

M r. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. O'Brien. According to our records, that is true. 

Mr. Kennedy. Sebastiano Nani ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Gus Frasca? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Peter De Feo ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Joseph Smurra? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Joe Rinaldi ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Nicolo Impastato? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now these are men with long criminal records, are 
they not '. 

Mr. O'Brien. That is right, 

Mr. Kennedy. And it has been established that he is an associate 
of these people ? 

Mr. O'Brien. That is true. 



12352 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. And Carlo Gambino? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Jack Dragna ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. It has been established that he was an associate of 
Jack Dragna until the time of his death ? 

Mr. O'Brien. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Natale Evola, Frank Livorsi ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground that it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Big John Ormento? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground that it may be 
incriminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. Thomas Lucchese, known as "Three-Finger 
Brown?" 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be in- 
criminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have a long list here. I don't want to go 
through them all. John Dioguardi, Tom Dioguardi ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be in- 
criminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. "Tough Tony" Anastasia ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be in- 
criminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. Jerry Catena? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be in- 
criminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. Longy Zwillman ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be in- 
criminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. Anthony Tocco ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be in- 
criminating. 

Mr. Kennedy. Dominick Corrado ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the grounds it may be incrimi- 
nating. 

Mr. Kennedy. At the wedding of your daughter to Anthony Joseph 
Tocco — that wedding took place, did it not ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it might be incrimi- 
nating. 

Mr. Kennedy. You invited some of your best friends to that wed- 
ding? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the grounds it may be incrimi- 
nating. 

Mr. Kennedy. Let me list some of the individuals who were there. 
Frank Livorsi, Thomas Dioguardi, Johnny Dio, John Oddo, known 
as 

Mr. Profaci. I decline 



Mr. Kennedy. Wait a minute. I will read th& list. John Oddo, 
known as "Bathbeach Johnnie"; Anthony Bonisera, alias "The 
Chief"; Anthony Anastasia, "Tough Toney"; Vito Genovese; Mike 
Miranda; John Ormento, Salvatore Masacchio, alias "The Sheik"; 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12353 

Alex DiBrezzi; Angelo Folizzi; Angelo Meli; Pete Licavoli, and 
Anthony Tocco — of course, he was the bridegroom — and Dominick 
Corrado, the best man. Were they all at the wedding of your 
daughter? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be incrimi- 
nating. 

Mr. Kennedy. These are the top gangsters and hoodlums in the 
United States. 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be incrimi- 
nating. 

Senator Ives. May I observe, Mr. Chairman, this was some wedding 
party. 

Mr. Kennedy. This was the wedding he had for his daughter and 
the top hoodlums and gangsters were in attendance? 

The Chairman. Wouldn't you like to deny that ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer, Mr. McClellan, on the ground it 
may be incriminating. 

The Chairman. Well, some of this testimony here would be a little 
bit incriminating, I think, but if it is not true, we want to give you 
the opportunity to deny it. Do you wish to deny it ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may be incrimi- 
nating to me, Mr. McClellan. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are any of your employees organized members of 
unions? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer, Mr. Kennedy, on the ground it 
may incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions, Senators ? 

Senator Mundt. 

Senator Mundt. Mr. Chairman, on a related matter, I stated some- 
thing yesterday about this group of people who attended the Apala- 
chin meeting, and that I thought activities should be pursued to deport 
those who were deportable. I am happy to report that I had a letter 
delivered to my office about an hour ago from the Attorney General. 

I would like to read part of that letter which sheds some light on 
what is being done, and ask that the entire letter be inserted into the 
record. 

The Chairman. The letter may be inserted as a matter of informa- 
tion. 

Senttor Mundt. This is the letter from the Attorney General that 
just came in. 

When the identities of those in attendance at Apalachin, N. Y., on November 
14, 1957, were disclosed, many of them had already been under Service scrutiny 
for denaturalization and deportation. Of the principals attending the conven- 
tion, Vita Genovese had already been denaturalized on September 1, 1955, at 
Newark, N. J., and similar proceedings had been pending against Joseph Profaci 
in the United States district court at Brooklyn, N. Y., since March 15, 1957. 
Eight naturalized citizens and one alien in attendance at the meeting had already 
been thoroughly investigated and determined not amenable to Service action. 
Of the 29 native-born American citizens, the Service could exercise no jurisdic- 
tion. Russel Bufalino, of Pittston, Pa., Carlo Gambino, of New York, and 
Simone Scozzari, of Los Angeles, three of the aliens present at that meeting, 
were immediately placed under investigation and deportation proceedings insti- 
tuted against them. Scozzari has been ordered deported after hearing before 
a special inquiry officer on February 12, 195S, and Bufalino similarly on April 2, 
1958. As to Gambino, deportation proceedings have been deferred because of 
illness. As of June 30, 1958, nine of those attending the Apalachin meeting 
were still under active investigation by the Service. 



12354 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Service has also vigorously acted against other members of the criminal 
element, who although not present at the Apalachin meeting are nonetheless 
reputed as leaders within organized and syndicated crime. The citizenship of 
Bartolo Failla was revoked at Newark, N. J., on December 5, 1957. Louis 
Lieberman, reputed bodyguard of Johnny Dio, of New York, was placed under 
deportation proceedings on January 2, 195S, at Los Angeles, and is now under an 
order of deportation. 

His activities on the west coast in connection with the California garment 
industry were exposed in the course of hearings by a California legislative 
committee during January 1958. 

In the Midwest, Mauro John Montana, long a subject of inquiry and interest 
by law-enforcement agencies for alleged abuses of union welfare funds of the 
Chicago Motion Picture Operators Union in 1956, was ordered deported by a 
special inquiry officer on May 28, 1958. At Chicago, Tony Zito, well known 
to police agencies for his activities, was placed under deportation procedings 
on September 22, 1957, and is now under an order of deportation. 

At New York, Irving Sherman, described by J. Edgar Hoover, Director of 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation in hearings before the Senate in 1951 as 
"one of the most prominent criminals of the underworld and, also, a very 
powerful politician in New York City," was also ordered deported from the 
United States on February 10, 1958. 

The continuing efforts and results of this campaign in enforcing the immigra- 
tion and nationality laws against racketeers and criminals is attested to by 
the physical deportations effected since July 7, 1954, in the cases of Giuseppe 
Agostino, a Pennsylvania racketeer and gambler: Joseph Accardi and Joe 
Adonis, New Jersey racketeers ; Guiseppe Gagliano, reputed as the largest 
dope peddler in the South, Niccolo Impastato, engaged in narcotics traffic in 
the Kansas City area ; Sebastiano Nani, also engaged in illicit narcotics traffic 
between New York and San Francisco; Frank Orlando, Sebastiano Vermiglio, 
Joseph Catalanotte, Nicholas Circella, and Bruno Corasaniti. 

This roster of deported racketeers comprises a substantial number of aliens 
who have engaged in large-scale criminal operations. It is of course only an 
example of success of the Department in effecting many thousands of deporta- 
tions every year. 

I am confident that the foregoing record of achievement by the Department 
of Justice Immigration and Naturalization Service is one of forceful and vigorous 
enforcement. 

While the Department has succeeded in expediting deportation proceedings, 
deportation is frequently delayed by protracted court actions instituted by 
the alien racketeer which are available to him under existing law. 

It was against that, Mr. Chairman, that I spoke yesterday, because 
it is an exasperating experience to find these crooks being able to beat 
the law, to stay in this country, even after deportation proceedings 
have been enacted against them. 

We have had considerable discussion by members of the committee 
about the ethics of lawyers in representing certain unscrupulous people 
in this country, and in trying to represent two sides of the same case 
in union practices. I would suggest that the bar association give some 
thought to their responsibility as American citizens when they try 
in every conceivable way to frustrate the laAv from the standpoint 
of keeping in this country narcotics agents, vicious criminals, and 
members of the Mafia, who have been ordered deported, to keep them 
here to mess up our community for decent Americans as long as they 
possibly can. 

Continuing the letter from the Attorney General : 

By resorting to innumerable declaratory judgment actions, petitions, and 
other dilatory tactics, aliens are able to avoid deportation for years. In de- 
naturalization cases the congested court calendars serve to further delay 
deportation. 

In that connection, Mr. Chairman, T think the American public 
should look well to the actions of the judges of this country, who, them- 
selves, cannot be immune from some criticism if they fail to clear 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IX THE LABOR FIELD 12355 

dockets, hear cases, and make decisions dealing with this very serious 
internal difficulty eating like a cancel- at this great country of ours. 

Senator hi.s. Will the Senator yield at that point \ 

Senator Mundt. I will yield. 

Senator Eves. I believe there is legislation before the Congress to 
increase the number of judges in Federal courts, in district courts. 
As far as New York is concerned that would help very materially in 
reducing this number of cases to which the Senator refers. I think 
we have to take part of the responsibility for this situation ourselves. 

Senator Mr not. I think the Senator is right. In the next para- 
graph of the Attorney General's letter, he points out. That is why 
1 started to suggest that you defer the interruption. 

For over 4 years the administration has sought legislation which would 
strengthen our immigration laws by limiting judicial review from deportation 
orders within reasonable bounds so as to avoid its repeated abuse solely as a 
delaying tactic. 

There is now pending before the Senate S. 345. introduced by Senator Watkins, 
to carry out this administration proposal. In view of your interest in expediting 
the deportation of undesirable alien racketeers, I urge you to make every effort 
to secure passage of this bill by the Congress this year. 
With best regards, 
Sincerely, 

William I'. Rogers, 

Attorney General. 

Senator Mundt. May I say, Mr. Chairman, that today I have 
addressed a letter to the chairman of the Judiciary Committee, Sena- 
tor Eastland, of Mississippi, and to Senator Watkins, assuring them 
that within my capacity, I will do everything I can do to expedite 
action on S. 345; and urging them to take action on this important 
bill this year. Obviously, unless they take such action, it will be diffi- 
cult, probably, for us to pass sufficient laws, recruit judges enough, 
and appoint them fast enough, to take care of such dilatory tactics. 
"We wouldn't need as many judges once we can clarify the law and 
streamline the procedures. I think that these important disclosures 
by our committee can much better serve the public interest if out of 
them we can find the stimulus and aroused public opinion essential 
to stop these delaying tactics which have frustrated law enforcement 
officers in this country for too long a time. 

I am happy to put the entire letter in, Mr. Chairman. I have just 
read portions of it. 

The Chairman. The entire letter may be printed in the record 
at this point. 

(The document, referred to follows:) 

Office of the Attorney General, 

Wash hit/ton, D. C, July 1, 1958. 
Hon. Karl E. Mundt, 

/ nited state* Senate, Washington, B.C. 

Dear Senator Mundt : I am completely unable to understand the statements 
attributed to you by the Associated Press, in hearings before the Senate Rackets 
Committee today, that law enforcement officials have been lethargic in launching 
deportation proceedings against alien crime barons. If the press report is ac- 
curate, you are obviously .badly informed concerning the concentrated drive by 
the Department of Justice in this held. 

Shortly after the appointment of Joseph M. Swing as Commissioner of Immi- 
gration and Naturalization, the Service, under his direction, on July 7. 1954, 
launched a top priority program of intensive investigations of racketeers and 
criminals for denaturalization and deportation. 

No efforts have been spared to make this program successful. 



12356 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

When the identities of those in attendance at Apalachin, N. Y., on November 
14, 1957, were disclosed, many of them had already been under Service scrutiny 
for denaturalization and deportation. 

Of the principals attending the convention, Vito Genovese had already been 
denaturalized on September 1, 1955, at Newark, N. J., and similar proceedings 
had been pending against Joseph Profaci in the United States district court at 
Brooklyn, N. Y., since March 15, 1957. Eight naturalized citizens and one alien 
in attendance at the meeting had already been thoroughly investigated and de- 
termined not amenable to Service action. Of the 29 native-born American citi- 
zens, the Service could exercise no jurisdiction. Russel Bufalino, of Pittston, 
Pa., Carlo Gambino, of New York, and Simone Scozzari, of Los Angeles, three 
of the aliens present at that meeting, were immediately placed under investiga- 
tion and deportation proceedings instituted against them. 

Scozzari has been ordered deported after hearing before a special inquiry officer 
on February 12, 1958, and Bufalino similarly on April 2, 1958. As to Gambino 
deportation proceedings have been deferred because of illness. As of June 30, 
1958, 9 of those attending the Apalachian meeting were still under active inves- 
tigation by the Service. 

The Service has also vigorously acted against other members of the criminal 
element, who although not present at the Apalachian meeting are nonetheless 
reputed as leaders within organized and syndicated crime. 

The citizenship of Bartolo Failla was revoked at Newark, N. J., on December 
5, 1957. Louis Lieberman, reputed bodyguard for Johnny Dio, of New York, 
was placed under deportation proceedings on January 2, 1958, at Los Angeles 
and is now under an order of deportation. His activities on the west coast in 
connection with the California garment industry were exposed in the course of 
hearings by a California legislative committee during January 1958. 

In the Midwest, Mauro John Montana, long a subject of inquiry and interest 
by law enforcement agencies for alleged abuses of union welfare funds of the 
Chicago Motion Picture Operators Union in 1956, was ordered deported by a 
special inquiry officer on May 28, 1958. 

At Chicago, Tony Zito well known to police agencies for his activities, was 
placed under deportation proceedings on September 22, 1957, and is now under 
an order of deportation. 

At New York, Irving Sherman, described by J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, in hearings before the Senate in 1951 as "one 
of the most prominent criminals of the underworld and, also, a very powerful 
politician in New York City," was also ordered deported from the United States 
on February 10, 1958. 

The continuing efforts and results of this campaign in enforcing the immi- 
gration and nationality laws against racketeers and criminals is attested to by 
the physical deportation effected since July 7, 1954, in the case of Giuseppe 
Agostino, a Pennsylvania racketeer and gambler ; Joseph Accardi and Joe 
Adonis, New Jersey racketeers ; Guiseppe Gagliano, reputed as the largest dope 
peddler in the South ; Niccolo Impastato, engaged in narcotics traffic in the 
Kansas City area ; Sebastiano Nani, also engaged in illicit narcotics traffic be- 
tween New York and San Franciso ; Frank Orlando, Sebastiano Yermiglio, 
Joseph Catalanotte, Nicholas Circella, and Bruno Corasaniti. 

This roster of deported racketeers comprises a substantial number of aliens 
who have engaged in large scale criminal operations. It is of course only an 
example of success of the Department in effecting many thousands of deporta- 
tions every year. 

I am confident that the foregoing record of achievement by the Department 
of Justice Immigration and Naturalization Service is one of forceful and vig- 
orous enforcement. 

While the Department has succeeded in expediting deportation proceedings, 
deportation is frequently delayed by protracted court actions instituted by the 
alien racketeer which are available to him under existing law. By resorting 
to innumerable declaratory judgment actions, petitions, and other dilatory tac- 
tics, aliens are able to avoid deportation for years. In denaturalization cases 
the congested court calendars serve to further delay deportation. 

For over 4 years the administration has sought legislation which would 
strengtben our Immigration laws by limiting judicial review from deportation 
orders within reasonable bounds so as to avoid its repeated abuse solely as a 
delaying tactic. There is now pending before the Senate S. 315. introduced by 
Senator Watkins, to carry out this administration's proposal. In view of your 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12357 

interest in expediting the deportation of undesirable alien racketeers. I urge 
you to make every effort to secure passage of this bill by the Congress this year. 
With best regards. 
Sincerely, 

William P. Rogers, 

Attorney General. 

The Chairman. Are there any further questions ? 

The Chair had intended to make this observation. 

I think your letter, Senator Mundt, mentions the witness as one of 
those against whom deportation proceedings are now pending? 

Senator Mundt. I so interpreted it, although I camt be sure oecause 
of the names. But I think one of the names is the man presently on 
the stand. 

That is why I took this opportunity to read the letter. Even the 
fifth amendment dodge will not protect people who are subject to 
deportation in America for violating the terms of immigration and 
naturalization. 

The Chairman. Would you like to advise us whether deportation 
proceedings are now pending against you or not ? 

Are they I 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Profaci. I don't get you, Senator, excuse me. I am sorry. 

The Chairman. Let me see if I can get it to you so you will get it. 
Has any action been started to deport you? You know what deport 
means, don't you? 

Mr. Profaci. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You know what that means? 

Mr. Profaci. Yes. 

The Chairman. Is the Government now attempting to deport you 
from this country ? 

Mr. Profaci. I decline to answer on the ground it may incriminate 
me. 

The Chairman. All right. The Chair wishes to make this ob- 
servation : I was going to suggest that the transcript of this witness' 
testimony be immediately forwarded to the Department of Justice 
with the request from the committee that if deportation proceedings 
have not already been started against this witness, that the Justice 
Department consider taking such steps promptly. Then I was going 
to express the hope, and I believe I certainly am supported by every 
member of this committee, and I believe by every loyal American 
citizen, that the courts decline, respectfully, to continue your citizen- 
ship, revoke your naturalization, and deport you back to the land 
from which you came, and in that course, in your case, and in many 
others, I am very hopeful that the courts will give credence to the 
term which was applied in the decision of a case not too many years 
ago that the courts will move in these cases, and all law-enforcement 
officers who are involved with all deliberate speed. We should rid 
the country of characters who come here from other lands and take 
advantage of the great freedom and opportunity our country affords, 
who come here to exploit these advantages with criminal activities. 

They do not belong to our land, and they ought to be sent some- 
where else. 

In my book, they are human parasites on society, and they violate 
every law of decency and humanity. For my part, they are not 
welcome in this country. I hope we can find the processes and the 



12358 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

means by which we can get rid of them, promptly, and prevent here- 
after others from coming in. 

Senator Mundt. Mr. Chairman, I would like to associate myself 
emphatically with that fine statement that you have just made. In 
answer to what you have said, I quote the sentence which is pertinent 
to this witness from the Attorney General's letter of this morning. 

He refers to the Apalachin, N. Y., meeting on November 14, 1957, 
and says : 

Of the principals attending the convention, Vito Genovese had already been 
denaturalized on September 1, 1955, at Newark, N. J., and similar proceedings 
had been pending against Joseph Profaci, 

the man on the stand — 

in the United States district court at Brooklyn, N. Y., since March 15, 1957. 

So we know where the responsibility is. It is in the court at Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and it has been there for well over a year. 

It seems to me that the country would do well to recognize that 
after these men have been moved against by the Department of Jus- 
tice, after denaturalization and deportation proceedings had been 
instigated, they were still up there in the home of Mr. Barbara, con- 
niving, organizing crime in complete defiance, of the United States. 
It is necessary for the United States Senate to pass the Watkins bill, 
S. 345. I hope we do it before adjournment so that we can stream- 
line these tactics, so that we can take some of the filthy loot out of 
the hands of those attorneys who are practicing the business of keep- 
ing these deportation dodgers in the country. 

And so that we can provide a court procedure which will operate 
and function to protect America and not to protect the crooks and 
the thugs. After all, that is what Congress had in mind, what the 
constitutional forefathers had in mind, in creating the judiciary. 

It is a pretty sickening thing to realize after the evidence is in, 
after the deportation actions have been started, and a year has gone 
by, to find up here in this plush home in New York these same in- 
dividuals conniving to peddle dope, to violate every conceivable law 
on the Federal statute books, thumbing their nose at America and 
at the judges and at the courts and at the Constitution and the Con- 
gress. 

Senator Ives is correct. Legislation is needed and we cannot 
dodge our responsibilities. I submit, Mr. Chairman, neither can the 
courts and neither can the attorneys involved. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Senator Ives. 

Senator Ives. In the first place, I want to commend you and asso- 
ciate myself with your very fine remarks, in connection with this 
situation. 

This is a great challenge to America, as I see it, a challenge to all 
of us. We can't ignore it. It is a challenge to the rank and file of 
people, whether they are in Government or out of Government, the 
rank and file of American citizens, to local authorities as well as 
Federal authorities. We are doing what we can as a committee, but 
there isn't too much we can do in the final analysis, outside of dis- 
closing these things. 

The fact remains, as I pointed out earlier, that the Congress itself 
is somewhat to blame for this situation, because we have been so re- 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12359 

miss when it comes to this matter of legislation, such as to supply 
additional judges. The courts also are oehind. But I don't think 
we can place this blame on anyone. The whole country is to blame 
for allowing this terrible thing to get started here. 

And when the people finally get aroused, we will wipe it out, and 
we will wipe it out for good. 1 serve warning now on this criminal 
element that their days in this country are numbered; they are 
doomed. I don't want them to forget that. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Stand aside. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. John Scalish. 

The Chairman. Come forward, please. Be sworn. 

You do solemnly swear the evidence you shall give before this Sen- 
ate select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Scalish. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN SCALISH, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
FEED H. MANDEL 

The Chairman. State your name, your place of residence, and your 
business or occupation. 

Mr. Scalish. John Scalish, 11706 Farrington Avenue. 

The Chairman. What is your address ? 

Mr. Scalish. 11706 Farrington Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Chairman. Would you tell us your business or occupation, Mr. 
Scalish, please % 

Mr. Scalish. With all due respect to this committee, I have to de- 
cline to answer that question on the ground it might tend to incrimi- 
nate me. 

The Chairman. Do you honestly believe that if you truthfully an- 
swered that question as to what is your business or occupation, a 
truthful answer to that question might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that on the ground it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Listen to the question. I have asked you to state 
your business or occupation. You declined to answer on the ground 
that if you answered, the answer might tend to incriminate you. 

Xow I ask you the question, and I repeat it : 

Do you honestly believe that if you gave a truthful answer to the 
question "What is 3 T our business or occupation," that a truthful an- 
swer thereto might tend to incriminate you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scalish. Yes. 

The Chairman. You have counsel '. 

Air. Scalish. Yes. 

The Chairman. Air. Counsel, identify yourself for the record. 

Mr. Mandel. May name is Fred H. Mandel. My offices are at 210 
Leader Building. Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Chairman. All right. Mr. Kennedy, proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Scalish, according to the information we have, 
you attended a meeting at the home of Mr. Barbara in November of 
1957, is that correct \ 



12360 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Scalisii. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell the committee what you were doing 
there at that meeting ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us how you happened to be invited 
to attend ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that on the ground it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We understand that according to the reports of the 
State police, you drove an automobile which was identified as an auto- 
mobile belonging to the Buckeye Cigarette Service Co., of Cleveland, 
Ohio. Is that right? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that on the ground it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that you drove that automobile to the meeting 
at Barbara's home, and that with you in the automobile was Mr. 
John DeMooco. Is that right ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that question on the ground it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you know Mr. DeMooco a long period of time ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that question on the ground it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to the information we have, he has con- 
victions for extortion and for blackmail. Did you know that? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Ives. Let me ask the witness a question. Was it raining 
that day ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy. When you arrived there, you refused to register at 
the hotel or motel, the Parkway Motel, is that right ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that question on the ground it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Later on, after the meeting, after the roadblock was 
put up, you were arrested in the company of James La Duca, a union 
official from Buffalo, and John DeMooco; would you tell us about 
that? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. How many times have you been arrested, Mr. 
Scalish? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that on the ground it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Are you an American citizen ? 

Mr. Scalish. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Scalish. Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. You have been arrested approximately 10 times, 
have you, Mr. Scalish ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that on the grounds it might tend 
to incriminate me. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12361 

Mr. Kennedy. A number of different times for burglary and rob- 
bery, and you had a conviction in 1930 for attempted burglary, re- 
ceiving a sentence of probation of 1 year, is that right ? 

Mr. Scalisii. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then 1931, violation of parole, and you went to the 
Ohio State Reformatory, is that right? 

Mr. Scalisii. I decline to answer that on the ground it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then in 1933, in Mansfield, Ohio, robbery, sentenced 
to 10 to 25 years, and you were pardoned in 1935, is that right ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You run this cigarette service company, the Buck- 
eye Cigarette Co. of Cleveland, Ohio? Do you know Mr. William 
Presser, of the Teamsters Union ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. It is Mr. Presser, is it not, who has the control over 
the employees of your company ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to our information, Mr. Scalish, you are 
head of a group that has been known as the Mayfield Road Gang, is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you are an associate of Don Angersola, and 
Mickey Cohen. Do you know Mr. Mickey Cohen ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Al Polizzi ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And as has been pointed out already, a close associate 
of John DeMooco, isn't that right ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you tell us what your relationship has been 
with Mr. William Finnegan, who is the secretary of the Cleveland 
Federation of Labor, or who has been secretary of the Cleveland Fed- 
eration of Labor? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that you have a very close working 
relationship with that gentleman ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are you aware that Mr. Finnegan also has a criminal 
record for burglary ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Senator Mundt. Are you the president of the Buckeye Cigarette 



12362 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IX THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that on the ground it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Senator Mundt. Are you a partial owner or a functionary of any 
kind in the Buckeye Cigarette Co. ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that on the ground it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Senator Mundt. Is it true that the Buckeye Cigarette Co. of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, is simply a false front for another operation? For a 
counterfeiting organization ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that on the ground it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Senator Mundt. Have you been engaged in counterfeiting ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that on the ground it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Senator Mundt. Is the Buckeye Cigarette Co. simply the name 
that you use to deceive the general public and the law-enforcement 
officers about these counterfeiting operations ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Senator Mundt. Mr. Chairman, I would like to make one comment 
in connection with something Senator Ives said when he said that 
responsibility for these criminals is the responsibility of the entire 
country. I think in a sense that is correct, but in a sense it is more 
specifically the responsibility of whatever element is in the country 
that has provided means or methods whereby these criminals, once 
apprehended by diligent law-enforcement officers, State and county, 
local and FBI, virtually no sooner get into the penitentiary than 
somebody gets them out. 

In the case of the instant witness, for example, we find a record going 
back to 1930 — probation, released, paroled. After all that, in 1933, in 
Mansfield, Ohio, he was arrested, convicted, sentenced to 10 to 25 years. 
Two years later he was paroled. I think the public ought to do a 
little exploration about who does all of this pardoning, and why. 
There must be some reason for it. Why let a man out who, for 30 
years involved, has been burglarizing and doing all kinds of repre- 
hensible criminal activities in Ohio ? 

Finally they catch him the eighth time or ninth time and lock him up 
for 25 years. But 2 years later somebody pardons him. 

Why? Was there a payoff? Was it political, financial? What 
gives? How are you ever going to correct the situation ? I can't un- 
derstand, when you have some place high up in Government or in the 
judiciary, an attitude of once you catch them they turn them loose 
again. Practically everyone of these fellows have been repeaters, re- 
peaters, repeaters, ad infinitum, ad nauseam. That has nothing to 
do with the American public. That is the responsibility of the Ameri- 
can Bar Association, for a council of the judiciary, if there is such a 
thing, for the governors, the Presidents, whoever make these pardons. 
I don't know, but I don't think yon are ever going to make much 
headway in eliminating crime in this country if after von spend the 
taxpayer's dollars in getting good law enforcement officers and good 
prosecuting attorneys, and find that (he men are guilty, if after all 
of thai, yon I urn them loose again. 

This is nonsense. This is circumvention of justice on the part of 
somebody. I would think the society interested in eliminating crime 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12363 

and juvenile delinquents, and whatever else happens in this country, 
would pay some attention to who it is that is opening up the doors 
of the penitentiaries all the time so that the rats can gel out. 

That is not the responsibility of the whole country. Something is 
wrong somewhere. Editors, people in positions of religious leadership, 
sociological organizations, people interested in improving America, 
should spend a little time spotlighting these escape hatches, and who 
opens them up, to turn loose the ilood of criminals for the 5th, 6th, 
Till. 8th, loth time. Then we can begin making a little headway. I 
toss that out for consideration to those in this country who make it a 
part of their business to improve America. 

Senator Ives. Air. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Senator Ives. 

Senator Ives. I would like to add one statement to Senator Mundt's 
comments. I think it bears out exactly what I said earlier. I think 
I should add the word ''parole" to what he said. I think that should be 
looked into. I think probably that causes more difficulty and more 
trouble than the question of pardons. 

Mr. Kennedy. I might say that one of the centers of all of this, of 
course, has been "Lucky" Luciano, and the committee has a good deal 
of information in the file that Senator Mundt would be interested in, on 
his getting out of prison in New York and then being deported to 

Ital y- 

Senator Mundt. It is an astonishing thing. 

Mr. Kennedy. I am finished. 

The Chairman. Are there any further questions I 

Air. Scalish, you have repeatedly, in response to every question asked 
you, I think, except your name and address, stated that you declined on 
the grounds that if you answered the answer might tend to incriminate 
you. It cannot help but cause people to draw inferences that might 
possibly, in some instances, be incorrect, though I think the committee 
should give you an opportunity to correct an}^ wrong inferences that 
would naturally be drawn from your testimony. So I ask you the 
question: Are you now engaged in, or have you been engaged in, at 
any time during the past dozen years, any business or other enterprise 
about which you could tell us that would not incriminate you \ 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend to 
incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Then I have to accept your word for it that if 
you answered the question, the answer might tend to incriminate you. 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer 

The Chairman. I didn't ask you a question. I am just pointing 
out that no other inference can be drawn. If you can't state that you 
have been in some legitimate busines, some enterprise that wouldn't 
tend to incriminate you, there is no way, and I don't care what law 
you have or constitution or anything else, there is no way to keep the 
human mind from drawing inferences. 

You are leaving yourself before this committee and before the whole 
country to such inferences. It is a bad record to leave. If you want 
to leave it, that is your privilege. But I am asking if you have done 
anything that is decent and honest that you can talk about without 
incriminating yourself. That is all. Have you? 

21243 — 58--pt. 32 12 



12364 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer, sir, on the grounds it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. I am convinced it would. 

Is there anything further ? 

Senator Ives. I want to ask the witness if he is married ? 

Mr. Scalish. Yes. 

Senator Ives. What was your wife's maiden name ? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer that on the grounds it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. My Lord, is it that bad ? Are you ashamed of your 
wife? That is pretty serious, to make that kind of a statement. I 
asked you, are you ashamed of your wife? 

Mr. Scalish. I decline to answer the question on the grounds it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. All right. 

The Chairman. Is there anything further ? 

If not, the committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Recessed at 12: 30 p. m., with the following members of the com- 
mittee present: Senators McClellan, Ives, and Mundt, to reconvene 
at 2 p. m., the same day. ) 

AFTER RECESS 

(The select committee reconvened at 2 p. m., Senator John L. Mc- 
Clellan (chairman) presiding.) 

(Members of the select committee present at time of reconvening: 
Senators McClellan and Curtis.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

We will proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have been inquiring into the meeting at Apal- 
achin, and the associates of some of the individuals who participated 
in this meeting in November of 1957, and we, of course, are interested 
in their backgrounds and their connections. 

Mr. Willse was a detective with the New York Police Depart- 
ment and we have some pictures here showing that the individuals 
who participated at the meeting at Apalachin have a meeting place 
in New York City, at least some of them, and that Mr. Willse himself 
personally took some pictures of some of these people who met there 
in front of this Alto Knights Club. 

Now, what Mr. Willse will develop is some of the background on 
some of the individuals, particularly Vito Genovese, who is expected 
to be a witness this afternoon, and Mr. Mike Miranda, whose pictures 
will be shown on the screen, and he will give some background informa- 
tion on these individuals which we expect to develop further as the 
testimony proceeds. 

The Chairman. Mr. Willse has been previously sworn, and he will 
remain under the same oath. 

Are you prepared to proceed with t he picture ? 

TESTIMONY OF SHERMAN WILLSE— Resumed 

Mr. Kennedy. Perhaps just on the background before we turn oil' 
the lights, it is correct, is it not, Mr. Willse, that from September 
of 1955 to February of 1956 you conducted an investigation as a 
detective of the narcotics squad ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12365 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And particularly this investigation was concentrated 
around a cafe in lower Manhattan? 

Mr. Willse. That is correct . 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us a little bit about this place, and 
what it is called? 

Mr. Willse. It is called the Alto Knights now and it has had 
several names over the years. For some years prior to that it was 
called the Cafe Royale, and before that it had other names which I 
don't recall. It has been in existence for well over 40 years, and 
recognized as a headquarters for the alcohol traffic in particular, but 
as a meeting place for some of the top mobsters in New York and 
other parts of the country. 

Usually when a gangster hits New York, that is one of his first 
stops, to make his contacts there. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, we will put the lights out and put on the first 
picture. 

Senator Curtis. I have one question. Is it a place frequented by 
the general public, unsuspecting or otherwise? 

Mr. Willse. No, sir ; it is not. 

Senator Curtis. It is not ? 

Mr. Willse. No, sir. 

( Picture shown. ) 

Mr. Willse. In this first picture, the man on the left is Vito Geno- 
vese, and on the right is Mike Miranda, and both of these men were 
at Apalachin. This picture was taken during the period of the inves- 
tigation, which was intermittently, and not every day, from September 
of 1955 to February of 1956. 

In 1931 a man by the name of Ferdinand Boccia, who was known 
as The Shadow, was murdered in his uncle's cafe in Brooklyn. 

Mr. Kennedy. We are going to go into this a little later. Pie was 
murdered in 1934 ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. All right. 

Air. Willse. Now, the murder was supposed to occur for two rea- 
sons. One was that Genovese and Miranda with several others had 
set up a rigged card game and a money machine swindle in which 
they obtained around $150,000. Boccia had been promised $65,000 
and he didn't get the full amount, and he started to complain about 
it. 

In addition to that, some time prior Boccia had held up the liquor 
headquarters of Anthony Strollo, alias Tony Bender. This was 
located just a block from the location of the Alto Knights, where these 
men are seen now. $5,000 was taken in that stickup. Bender was a 
very good friend of Vito Genovese, and, in fact, Bender and his wife 
stood up for Vito when he was married, and the reverse happened, 
Vito and his wife stood up for Bender. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, Bender operates and runs a number of the 
union rackets in lower New York, does he not ? 

Mr. Willse. That is true, particularly around Greenwich Village. 

Mr. Kennedy. And according to the information that we have, 
Vito Genovese runs a number of the rackets and has run a number 
of the rackets along the waterfront in New York City. 

Air. Willse. That is true. 



12366 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, this man Boccia was murdered in 1934. Vito 
Genovese wanted to knock him off because the money had not been 
paid after this rigged game. 

Mr. Willse. That is right, because Boccia was complaining too 
much about not having received his share, and the other reason was 
that Boccia had stuck up Tony Bender's place. 

Mr. Kennedy. So what happened ? 

Mr. Willse. The story of the killing didn't come to light until 10 
years later, in 1944, when a man by the name of Ernest Rupolo, known 
as The Hawk 

Mr. Kennedy. How do you spell his name ? 

Mr. Willse. R-u-p-o-l-o. 

Mr. Kennedy. He is known as The Hawk ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, and he appeared in court on a charge of shooting 
another man and he saw he was facing a jail sentence and he had just 
completed serving a term that had been from 9 to 20 years. He had 
only served a portion of it and he was just out of jail, and he felt that 
he hadn't been treated right by the boys in connection with the Boccia 
killing and so he started to talk and he gave his story. 

He said that just prior to Boccia , s killing, Mike Miranda had come 
to him and said, "Boccia has to go and we want the boy cowboyed,'' 
which means he was to be knocked off whenever they ran into him 
without any talking whatever. 

Mike Miranda set it up in this way : He wanted Rupolo to take a 
fellow named Willy Gallo with him. 

Mr. Kennedy. Rupolo is the one telling the story ? 

Mr. Willse. That is right, and Rupolo testified to this. 

Mr. Kennedy. So Rupolo is telling the story and Willy Gallo is 
another individual that they wanted to have knocked off; is that 
right? 

Mr. Willse. But first they wanted Rupolo and Gallo to knock off 
Boccia and then Rupolo was to knock off Gallo. The succeeding night 
Rupolo was called to this same neighborhood where this picture was 
taken, and there was Miranda and Genovese and Pete DeFeo. 

Mr. Kennedy. DeFeo? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Pete DeFeo's son now operates the Cardinal 
Insurance Agency, or one of those who operates the Cardinal Insur- 
ance Agency which handles a large number of union pension and wel- 
fare funds ; isn't that right ? 

Mr. Willse. That is true. 

Mr. Kennedy. All right. 

Mr. Willse. Then they repeated their instructions to them as to 
how the job was to be done. Pete DeFeo gave him two pistols and 
$175. The following night, September 9. L934, Rupolo and Gallo and 
another man known as Sal Palmira wont to a movie in Brooklyn, and 
their plans were rather sketchy at that time, bn( they did intend to 
knock- off Boccia. 

However, Palmira left the movie and when he came back he said 
thai Boccia had already been killed, and then the three of them left the 
movies. 

Mr. Kennedy. The only person then to be killed was Gallo? 

Mr. Wi! LSE. Thai is right ; and the three of them Left and walked 
a short distance when Rupolo pulled his gun and aimed it at Gallo 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12367 

and pulled the trigger several limes and it misfired. lie made a joke 
out of the thing and pacified Gallo, and they walked a few more 
minutes. 

Mr. Kennedy. lie had put the pistol to Gallo's head and pulled the 
trigger and it hadn't gone off and then he made a joke about it \ 

Mr. Willse. That is right. They walked for a few more minutes, 
and visited the house of a mutual friend. There Gallo, I assume, oiled 
the ixwn and fixed it and they left the house and they walked a few 
more blocks, and then Rupolo shot Gallo. However, Gallo didn't die. 

Mr. Kennedy. This time the gun did go off, and he shot him three 
times ? 

Mr. Willse. I don't recall the number. The next day Rupolo went 
back to this neighborhood where he saw Mike Miranda and as Rupolo 
testified, he said, ''Mike was hollering, and he yelled at me because I 
didn't kill Gallo and pour gasoline on him as he had told me to and 
he wanted me to dump him in Bath Beach." 

So Gallo having survived, he put the finger on Rupolo and he went 
to jail for 9 to 20 years sentence and he came out and after shooting 
this other man, he appeared in court and that is when he started to 
tell his story. 

Mr. Kennedy. Xow, both of these individuals, Mike Miranda and 
Vito Genovese, were at the meeting at Apalachin ? 

Mr. Willse. That is true. 

Mr. Kennedy. And in 1944 or 1945, based on the testimony and 
admissions of Rupolo, is was arranged to bring Vito Genovese to trial ; 
it that right? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Xow can you tell what happened regarding the 
trial? 

Mr. Willse. Following Rupolo's testimony, these two men and a 
Gus Frasca and George Smurra, and the other fellow were all indicted 
for the murder of Boccia. But even before the indictment, the word 
got around that somebody was talking, and I suppose the finger 
naturally went to Rupolo, and all of them disappeared. It was some 
time later that Genovese was located in Italy. 

Now, pending Vito's return to this country there was another man 
by the name of Pete LaTempa, known as Petey Spats. He would 
have been the corroborating witness to this, necessary for the con- 
viction of these men in the murder, and he Avas picked up as a material 
witness and locked in Raymond Street jail in Brooklyn. 

Mr. Kennedy. He was taken to jail for his own protection, was he 
not? 

Mr. Willse. Actually, he asked to be taken there. 

Mr. Kennedy. What is his name ? 

Mr. Willse. LaTempa, known as Petey Spatz. 

Mr. Kennedy. So he went to jail at his own request so he could be 
protected. 

Mr. Willse. He suffered from a stomach ailment so that he had to 
take regular medication, and while he was in jail he started to suffer 
and asked that the medicine he was accustomed to using be supplied to 
him. 

Some way he got into the jail and the following day at the inquest; 
he said he was suffering great pain and asked that he be given a mix- 
ture. He was handed a glass with a liquid and later on they found 



12368 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

him dead. That removed the corroborating witness, which meant 
there could not be a conviction in the case. 

Mr. Kennedy. Didn't the doctor say afterward, after an autopsy 
of this witness, that he had taken enough poison to kill 8 horses ? 

Mr. Willse. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it true also that one of the other witnesses who 
would have supported evidence against Genovese and Miranda was 
killed? 

Mr. Willse. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. And a number of witnesses who had some corrobora- 
tion refused to testify or changed their testimony ? 

Mr. Willse. That is true. 

Mr. Kennedy. With the result that these two individuals were 
acquitted, is that right ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. In that as far as Mr. Genovese is concerned, he is now 
separated from his second wife ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long had he been married to her ? 

Mr. Willse. About 12 or 13 years at the time of this murder. Dur- 
ing the investigation of the murder, particularly in seeking to locate 
Genovese and the other defendants under indictment, the police visited 
Ann Genovese, his wife, and she said she didn't know where Vito was, 
she hadn't seen him in 4 months, but she had received a letter post- 
marked some place in Italy. She said she had been married to him for 
about 12 years. 

Mr. Kennedy. Had she been married prior to that time ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, she had. 

Mr. Kennedy. What happened to her husband ? 

Mr. Willse. Well, when the police questioned her, they asked her 
who her first husband was, and she said she didn't remember his name. 
However, her first husband's name was Vernotico. I just don't recall 
the date now, but he and another man had been found strangled with 
nooses about their necks and shotgun shells and pistol shells found 
nearby on a roof in lower Manhattan. 

Mr. Kennedy. Had they been knifed, shot, and strangled? 

Mr. Willse. They had also been knifed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Wasn't it true that 15 days after her husband was 
shot, knifed, and strangled, she married Vito Genovese ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes. It was actually 14 days — 2 weeks. 

Mr. Kennedy. All right. We will have some more on Mr. Genovese 
in a little while. Will you show a few more of the pictures that you 
have ? 

The Chairman. Let these pictures be made exhibits. They will be 
made exhibit 12-A, B, C, and D, and all of those that are shown may 
be in this series. They will be made exhibits without further order 
of the Chair. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibit Nos. 12-A for 
reference and may be found in the files of the Select Committee.) 

Mr. Willse. This is the same location. This is Pete DeFeo, the 
other man indicted in Boccia murder, the one who supplied the two 
guns to Ivupolo. With him is Frank Tieri. During the investiga- 
tion he was seen regularly driving a car listed to another man other 
than his, but with the same address as Tieri's residence in Coney 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12369 

Island. There was a business address registered for the car for, I 
believe, 813 Sterling Place, in Brooklyn, which is the business address 
of Peerless Importers, importers of wines and liquors. 

I believe it is the treasurer or one of the officials of that company, 
Antonio Magliocco, who is the brother of Joseph, who was also 
at Apalachin. 

Mr. Kennedy. Both of these individuals have police records? 

Mr. Willse. They have. 

Mr. Kennedy. Go ahead. This is out in front of the same cafe. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 12-B" for 
reference and may be found in the files of the selected committee.) 

Mr. Willse. The man on the right is Mike Miranda, again without 
the hat. Next to him is Pasquale Normando, who is known as Patsy 
Murray. 

Back in 1935 he was 1 of the 11 defendants indicted in connection 
with a taxicab racket. In 1933 there was a taxi union set up, and in 
1935 a charter received from the A. F. of L. with a change in the 
union's name. That charter was subsequently revoked. However, 
in 1934 there was a strike of the cabs. There was a wave of burnings 
of cabs, assaults, beatings, and so on. 

The head of that racket was supposed to be a Matthew Polizzoto, 
alias Matty Brown, and Abe Reles, the one who did most of the 
talking in the Murder, Inc., case, said that '"Pittsburgh Phil" Strauss, 
also connected with Murder, Inc., had told him that Anastasia said 
Joe Adonis had two people connected with that racket that he wanted 
taken care of. 

He said that Polizzoto and his wife disappeared that day and to 
this day have not been located. 

Mr. Kennedy. This individual was involved in a union taxicab 
racket ? 

Mr. Willse. That is right. The racket consisted of collecting from 
the cabs. They went to 4 different fleet operators which composed the 
5,000 cabs. The fleet signed up. The tribute was 30 cents a cab per 
week. The union then raised it to 50 cents a week because they were 
going to institute an inspection service, which meant watching the 
drivers and checking the meters. But then the union went into usury 
where they loaned money under shylocking terms to the drivers. 

The drivers then complained to the district attorney, and the 11 in- 
dictments came out. In addition to the 5,000 cabs that were actually 
paying this money, there were 15,000 others who were affected by it. 

The indictment called for 50 counts of extortion. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibit No. 12-C" for 
reference and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

Mr. Willse. This is Joseph Stracci. He has been in the garment 
industry for years. He was planned to be a protege of Lepke 
Buchalter and Joseph Shapiro, who were actually the starters or fore- 
runners of the mob getting into the garment area. 

He has a record of 12 arrests, including murder, armed robbery, the 
usual. In the middle of that is Joe Tortorici, known as Joe Stutz. 

He also has several arrests. Here is Lorenzo Brescia, known as 
Chapin. He also was connected with that taxicab racket which I 
described. He did a year in the penitentiary for that. 



12370 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. He also was the bodyguard for a while of 

Mr. Willse. He was the bodyguard for Lucky Luciano when Lucky 
was in this country, as was Pasquale Normando, in the previous 
picture. 

Mr. Kennedy. And he was a close associate of Max Block of the 
Meat Cutters Union ? 

Mr. Willse. That is true. 

Mr. Kennedy. His brother works for the Meat Cutters Union as 
organizer, does he not ? 

Mr. Willse. That is right. In 1947, this brother Brescia and Pete 
DeFeo, whom you saw before, left this location and drove in a car 
up to Pleasant Avenue, where they parked between 115th and 116th 
Streets in New York. As they got out of the car, Brescia was shot 
in the neck and Pete in the back under his left shoulder. The man 
picked up for the shooting was the man in the middle, Joe Stutz. 
Brescia and DeFeo would not go through with the identification, so 
Stutz was released. 

The Chairman. May I ask you, were these pictures all made at the 
same location, in front of this Alto Knights ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Kennedy. They were all made actually within a couple of days 
of one another, were they not ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes. They were made on 3 days, September 8, Sep- 
tember 19, and September 21, 1955. 

Senator Curtis. Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Senator Curtis. 

Senator Curtis. By whom were they made ? 

Mr. Willse. By me. I wanted to say that the shooting in this case 
was attributed by the police to labor trouble, as Pete DeFeo who 
was in the other picture was connected with a wastepaper loading 
union. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 12-D" for 
reference and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

Mr. Willse. This is Anthony Russo, who, from observations, ap- 
peared to be the chauffeur for Vito Genovese, who appears here again. 
Anthony Russo was picked up around 1950 or 1951 in Miami Beach 
as a known criminal and gangster, with two other men. One of them 
was a fellow named De Benedetto, an alias of "Coca Cola", and the 
other one Charles Tourine. He is known as the "Blade" and as 
Charlie White. Tourine is now connected with Santo Trafficante, Jr., 
in the Habana gambling operations. 

Trafficante, Sr., has been in charge of rackets for years in Tampa, 
Fla. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 12-E" for 
reference and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

Mr. Willse. This is Gregory Ardito, known as "Buster", Alfonso 
•Criscuolo, known as "Good-looking Al". They are both on the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Narcotics international list, and they both have ex- 
tensive records, something like 7 to 9 arrests each. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 12-F" for 
reference and may be found in the files of the Select Committee.) 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12371 

Mr. Willse. This is Barney Miranda, who disclaims any relation- 
ship about Mike. lie has a record for carrying a concealed weapon 
and was a regular visitor to that location. 

This is Louis Arminante, alias "Gee Gee". He has several arrests, 
loitering, policy, and others. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 12-G" for 
reference and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

Mr. Willse. John Berra who was there every day that we were. 
He has convictions for alcohol violations and the Federal Narcotic 
Act. He also was convicted of desertion from the Army and sen- 
tenced to 5 years. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 12-H" for 
reference and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

Mr. Willse. The man furthest left is Frank Tiera, again, he was 
there practically every day. He also has the alcohol tax violations. 
This man is Joseph Gorgone, known as "Joe Black". He has a 
number of arrests, particularly burglary. He is recognized as a 
pretty good burglar. He is known to have direct contact with 
Carmine DiBiasic, who is now a fugitive from a murder charge. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 12-1" for 
reference and may be found in the files of the select committee.) 

Mr. Willse. These are merely enlargements of some of the other 
pictures that were taken, but they show the type of person frequent- 
ing that neighborhood from day to day. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is that all of the pictures ? 

Mr. Willse. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. I just have a couple of questions. Can we put the 
lights back on ? 

Can we put the light out for one more moment ? 

There is one other picture. 

Mr. Willse. I would like to say that this location, although one of 
the most important in the city, is merely one of, I suppose, about 200 
scattered about the city. We have given all of them attention from 
time to time, but they all operate practically the same way. As I 
say, this is most important because of the type of individual who 
appears here. Vito Genovese and Mike Miranda alone show that. 

One thing is that there is very little activity that takes place in a 
location of this sort that warrants police action. Actually, they don't 
do anything but meet, plan and scheme, to keep their own enterprises 
and to plan new ones, legitimate and illegitimate. However, they 
are very watchful. The location is their own. I mean that with the 
Alto Knights they have been there for 40 years, and they know every 
businessman and everybody that lives around there. 

Even if there was anything that would require police attention 
and cooperation from the people in the vicinity, it is hardly ever 
obtained because of the reputation of the men hanging out there. 

People just wouldn't go along with any cooperation. We have 
also felt that the main part of the watchfulness of these men which 
was quite obvious is mainly not because they fear the police, because 
they are not doing anything to be picked up for, but they fear 
assassination. 



12372 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

I think as an example of that would be the story going with this 
picture. Big John Ormento was under investigation which had 
been going on for some time. It was a coordinated activity of the 
New York Police detectives and agents of the Federal Narcotics 
Bureau. On one day, just, I think, a couple of years ago, the au- 
thorities had reason to believe that contraband of some sort was going 
to be transported in a car. They kept Big John under observation 
and saw him meet with one Sol LoPronto. They tailed the car with 
both of the men in it, LoPronto driving. It was a bad day, with 
clean snow. It obstructed the rear vision of LoPronto and Ormento, 
so that when their car stopped at a red light, the agents and detectives 
took that opportunity to rush up on the car before it could get started 
again. 

Two men went up on each side. One of the detectives who went up 
on the right side described what happened. He said that Big John 
was sitting in this seat next to the driver. His window was down a 
few inches. All of the men that ran up on the car had drawn guns. 

As this detective looked in at John, John saw him and the gun, and 
he gasped and threw back his hands. Detective said "Come on out 
of the car, John." 

He got him out and started to talk to him. But he said Ormento 
had to take 6 or 8 deep breaths before he could find his voice. Then 
it was obvious relief when he found out they were police and not 
somebody out to kill him. I think that is typical or at least it demon- 
strates the watchfulness of the attitude of these people as they stand 
around the corner planning. 

They know they are target for somebody. In this car, after the car 
was stopped and these men taken out, the agents and detectives con- 
ducted a search which took about 3 hours and went to every likely 
place that would be searched in the car, which means false gas tanks, 
taking off the hubcaps, looking into the motor and so forth. 

Finally in pulling this seat forward in order to enter the rear of 
the car, they heard a noise in here. To get in, they forced it. After 
forcing it, then they found out how it was supposed to operate. By 
turning on the heater and the blower and the ignition, and then press- 
ing a concealed button beneath the upholstery there in front part of 
this seat, these locks, which were electrically operated, would release, 
and this would pull forward. 

Then there was this compartment built in there. At this time when 
they stopped it, this car, there were two guns, one with a silencer on 
it. Of course, they have found out since that this sort of thing has 
been built in other places. 

Generally it is used to conceal narcotics. 

Mr. Kennedy. As I understand it, in order to get into that, you 
would have to turn on the ignition first, then put on the fan, then the 
blower, and then push the button, is that right? 

Mr. Willse. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. This isn't the only instance where traps of this kind 
have been used, is that right ? 

Mr. Willse. No. They have been found in other cars, and in one 
instance it was found in a hassock, and within the hassock was a con- 
siderable amount of drugs. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12373 

Mr. Willse, briefly, what kind of a neighborhood is (his Alto Knights 
located in, and what does the Alto Knights itself look like? 

Mr. Willse. Well, the neighborhood itself is typical of that sec- 
tion of New York on the Lower East Side. 

Mr. Kennedy. What is the address ? 

Mr. Willse. 10th and Mulberry Street, on the corner. As I say, 
it is typical of the Lower East Side. However, if you go to the Upper 
East Side, there is also a meeting place of the same type of individual, 
and you will find the same type of neighborhood, usually 6 story 
walk-ups, and with stores on the ground floors. 

Mr. Kennedy. It is a very unpretentious place, is it not? 

Mr. Willse. That is true. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you describe what protections the people in 
that neighborhood take to be sure that nobody comes into the Alto 
Knights that they don't know about? 

Air. Willse. Well, in addition to the difficulty of getting any co- 
operation from the regular inhabitants of the neighborhood, these 
men, naturally, in a place like that being there for 40 years, and these 
men being born and brought up in the neighborhood, in the atmos- 
phere, they have developed their own system. They continually patrol 
the streets, sometimes by car and sometimes by foot. I recall one oc- 
casion in making a case in the vicinity of Hester and Mulberry. That 
is about 3 or 4 blocks out south of this one. That was Luciano's old 
headquarters when he was first rising to any prominence in the under- 
world. 

One-Twenty-One Mulberry Street was a cafe somewhat similar to 
the one we have seen here. Actually, it was the main spot for nar- 
cotics in that section of New York. 

Well, there were other rackets that went on. It was finally dis- 
covered that they called the stash, the place where they kept their 
working plans, that is, the supply of drugs needed for 1 or 2 days' 
operation, by lifting the window sill in a bathroom. Underneath that, 
the bricks had been removed so that there was a hollow space for quite 
an amount of drugs. 

In there were the papers containing the license plate numbers of 
narcotic squad detectives and narcotic agents. We can only assume 
that these were picked up by patrols who had found the license num- 
bers and, of course, who had some connection whereby they were able 
to check the listing and found out who they belonged to. 

In addition to that they hung around the headquarters wherever the 
narcotics squads located and found out if those cars were in the vi- 
cinity at that time. 

If they were, then they were extra guarded in their activities. 

Mr. Kennedy. It amounts almost to a fortress type operation. 

Mr. Willse. That is what we call it. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, we are going into the case of Mr. Vito Geno- 
vese, whose picture has appeared here, and who attended the meeting at 
Apalachin. We have information that he has been prominent in the 
dock rackets in the city of New York. 

Regarding his background I would like to call another witness, 
Mr. Dickey. 



12374 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. Come forward, please. Do you solemnly swear 
the evidence you shall give before this Senate select committee shall 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Dickey. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ORANGE C. DICKEY 

The Chairman. State your name, your place of residence, and your 
business or occupation. 

Mr. Dickey. Orange C. Dickey, 623 Jackson Avenue, Altoona, Pa., 
presently the owner and operator of Lueckert's Bakery. 

The Chairman. Do you waive counsel, Mr. Dickey ? 

Mr. Dickey. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

(At this point, Senator Ives entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Kennedy. How long have you been living in Pennsylvania. 
Mr. Dickey ? 

Mr. Dickey. I am a native of that State. 

Mr. Kennedy. You went to Pennsylvania State University, did 
you? 

Mr. Dickey. I attended Pennsylvania State College. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you went into the Army in 1942 ? 

Mr. Dickey. November 27, 1942. 

Mr. Kennedy. Subsequently you went into the Intelligence Divi- 
sion of the Army, CID ? 

Mr. Dickey. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. And ultimately made an agent for CID ? 

Mr. Dickey. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were sent overseas, where you not? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, I was. I was sent to the Mediterranean theater 
of operations. 

Mr. Kennedy. When was that ? 

Mr. Dickey. 1943. 

(At this point, Senator McClellan withdrew from the hearing 
room. ) 

Mr. Kennedy. What area were you sent to in Europe? 

Mr. Dickey. I was originally sent to England, later transferred 
to North Africa, and later to Italy. 

Mr. Kennedy. When did you arrive in Italy ? 

Mr. Dickey. In December of 1943. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were assigned as an intelligence sergeant in 
a service squadron, CID intelligence. 

Mr. Dickey. I had originally been intelligence sergeant with a 
service squadron. I was appointed Criminal Investigation Division 
agent in February 1944. 

Mr. Kennedy. What were you working on when you got to Italy 
in 1944? 

_ Mr. Dickey. I was principally concerned with black-market ac- 
tivities, those oilViisos involving Army personnel or United State- 
Government equipment or supplies. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was the situation specifically that you were 
working on, and what is the thing that you found? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12375 

Mr. Dickey. Specifically there was a large amount of black-market 
activity between the Provinces of Naples and Nola. 1 at that time 
was stationed at Nola, which is essentially on the eastern side of 
Italy. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is Foggia ? 

Mr. Dickey. Foggia. A large part of the black-market activities 
that were carried on there were not centered within that area. It 
was a transient type of crime. It originated somewhere else, and it 
was completed somewhere else, but it passed through that district. 
In that connection, I had spoken with my commanding officers and 
received their permission and authorization to proceed to the Naples 
district to continue the investigations. I had arranged to have re- 
leased from jail certain a.w.o.l. soldiers awaiting trial whom I had 
taken with me for the purpose of identifying many of the individuals 
concerned. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was this a big operation, the black-market opera- 
tion in that area ? 

Mr. Dickey. This was a very extensive operation. 

Mr. Kennedy. What were they dealing in, particularly? 

Mr. Dickey. From the western side of Italy to the eastern side, 
they were dealing largely in Army supplies — sugar, blankets, cloth- 
ing, foods — -and the movement in the opposite direction, from the 
eastern side to the western side was largely in civilian products, such 
as wheat, olive oil, beans, and so forth. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were they stealing these Army supplies? 

Mr. Dickey. To a large extent. All the Army supplies were either 
stolen or purchased illegally by Italian civilians. They were trans- 
ported in various ways, but principally by stolen United States 
Army vehicles, to the areas where they were sold on the black market. 

(At this point, Senator McClellan entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Then what would they do with the Army vehicles ? 

Mr. Dickey. In some cases the Army vehicles were loaded with 
wheat, olive oil, or other products and returned to the Naples area, 
or in other cases the vehicles were run out in the hills, abandoned, 
and set on fire and destroyed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did this appear to be an organized operation? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, it did. This appeared to be a very highly 
organized operation. 

Mr. Kennedy. So you were assigned to investigate into it; is that 
right? 

Mr. Dickey. That is correct. 

Mr. Kennedy. You, with some of these a.w.o.l. soldiers, soldiers 
waiting to be sentenced, went into the area where this was supposed 
to originate ? 

Mr. Dickey. That is correct. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you relate to the committee what you 
found ? 

Mr. Dickey. As a result of this investigation, we eventually were 
able to arrest between 35 and 40 of these soldiers who had banded 
themselves together in one group, and together with those we ar- 
rested some 8 or 9 Italian civilians, among whom was one of the 
top leaders of the black-market activities in the Naples and Nola 
areas. That individual during the time of questioning had admitted 
that many officers previously had talked to him, but that he was 



12376 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

not disturbed about being prosecuted because he had friends in the 
Italian courts and in the allied military government that would 
give him protection and in this connection he first brought up the 
name of Vito Genovese, whom he claimed was an interpreter in the 
allied military government at Nola, who had assured him that even 
in the event of his arrest, nothing would come of the case. 

Senator Ives. May I interrupt there, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. Senator Ives. 

Senator Ives. Who was in charge then of the allied military 
government ? 

Mr. Dickey. The allied military governor at that time was Colonel 
Poletti. 

Senator Ives. Charles Poletti ? 

Mr. Dickey. That is correct. 

Senator Ives. In that connection, I know Poletti pretty well; was 
anything ever revealed that would indicate that he, himself, in any 
way was involved in any of this business that you are talking about ? 

Mr. Dickey. Not to my knowledge. 

Senator Ives. I can't imagine it, but you indicated the allied 
military government, and I didn't know who might be the person. 

Mr. Dickey. I have never met or spoken to him. 

Senator Ives. Charlie Poletti was the very top of it, as I recall. 

Mr. Dickey. That is correct. 

Senator Ives. Thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy. This individual that you picked up, and who was 
in charge of this one area for the black market, said that he was 
assured protection by Vito Genovese? 

Mr. Dickey. That is correct. 

Mr. Kennedy. And he said at that time that Vito Genovese worked 
for the courts ? 

Mr. Dickey. That is correct. 

Mr. Kennedy. And for the military government, the American 
military government? 

Mr. Dickey. He had said that Genovese was employed at that time 
as an interpreter in the Allied military courts at Nola. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he speak to you or tell you at that time any- 
thing about Genovese's operations in Italy ? 

Mr. Dickey. Other than his connection and standing with the 
courts in Nola, the fact that Genovese was considered to be an im- 
portant man over there, he described him as Don Vito which 

Mr. Kennedy. Described him as what ? 

Mr. Dickey. As Don Vito, which seems to have some significance in 
relation to the Mafia organizations. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he or any other informant tell you what Geno- 
vese's role was toward the Italian Government? 

Mr. Dickey. During this investigation, I had talked with a large 
number of informers, who were rather widely scattered over the cen- 
tral section of Italy. Many of them were persons having Important 
positions with the Italian Government at that time; others holding 
titles that had been conferred on them earlier by Mussolini or some of 
the other authorities. In general these people described Genovese as 
being very influential and powerful, as the former member of Squad- 
rista organizations, as being personally acquainted with Mussolini, as 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12377 

having contributed very heavily to the Fascist Party, as having do- 
nated heavily to the construction of the municipal building at Nola. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were these people individuals who were in posi- 
tions to know '. 

Mr. Dickey. Yes ; they were. 

Mr. Kennedy. And they said that Vito Genovese had been con- 
tributing heavily to the Fascist Party in Italy ? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes ; they did. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that he was personally acquainted with Mus- 
solini? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Had he personally donated any money for the con- 
struction of any of the buildings in Italy under Mussolini? 

Mr. Dickey. It was alleged by several of the informants that he 
had contributed very heavily, financially, to the construction of the 
city building at Nola. 

Mr. Kennedy. Specifically, had he received a commendation from 
Mussolini and the Government for that? 

Mr. Dickey. For his activities with the Government and his dona- 
tions, he was alleged to have been elevated to the title of Commenda- 
tore Del Rei, which is supposedly the highest Italian honor you can 
receive. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you in fact find out that he had received that 
honor and award? 

Mr. Dickey. I did, and at a later time when I personally inter- 
viewed Vito, he confirmed that personally. 

Mr. Kennedy. That he had received the highest award that the 
Italian Government could bestow ? 

Mr. Dickey. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. For the donations he had made ? 

Mr. Dickey. And for his activities with the Fascist movement and 
the Squadrista and so on. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you, in the course of your investigation, learn 
of what relationship Vito Genovese had with the Mafia here in the 
United States or in Italy ? 

Were you told and informed about that? 

Mr. Dickey. Among the informers were a number of individuals 
who had at one time been in the United States. Some were deported. 
Others had gone there voluntarily. Some of those informers told me 
that when the}^ knew Genovese in this country and associated with 
him here, that he was at that time considered as a member of the 
Mafia. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you tell us the name of one of the individuals? 

Mr. Chairman, he has told the staff the names of some of these in- 
dividuals who gave him this information on Vito Genovese. Some 
of them are still living, and I felt that it would be better to give that 
information confidentially, which he is prepared to do, to the com- 
mittee. But there is the name of one individual that I think he can 
name, who gave him this information, and could put it on the record 
publicly. 

Can you tell us who that was ? 

Mr. Dickey. One of these names was mentioned publicly once pre- 
viously, Julius Simonelli, who had turned over to me at one time a 
book which was 



12378 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. Written about 15 years ago? 

Mr. Dickey. Roughly 15 years ago. It was entitled "The Story 
of a Lawless Era," written by Craig Thompson and Allen White. 

That book contained certain material regarding Genovese. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did Simonelli know Vito Genovese himself ? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, he did. He knew him personally both in this 
country prior to the time that they had both gone to Italy, and also 
he knew of him after returning to Italy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he describe Vito Genovese as a member of the 
Mafia or secret organization ? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, he did. 

Mr. Kennedy. Here in the United States ? 

Mr. Dickey. And back in Italy. 

Mr. Kennedy. You first heard about Vito Genovese, in this dis- 
cussion that you had with the man in the black marketing activities. 
Did you make a further investigation of Genovese in connection with 
that? 

And, if so, would you relate what you found ? 

Mr. Dickey. This investigation actually extended over many 
months, during which time I had gone to the extent of photographing 
large areas where these trucks had been abandoned and burned and 
so on. During the course of the entire investigation I had arrested 
two Canadian a. w. o. 1. soldiers, who had driven into this area United 
States Army trucks and turned them over to Italian civilians. These 
Canadian soldiers had made statements to me, and it was later con- 
firmed by some of the Italian civilians, that they had been instructed 
to say when they arrived in this area and turned the vehicles over 
that they had been sent there by Genovese. 

Of course, after delivering the trucks they were paid and they then 
returned to rooming houses in Naples, as was common for the 
a. w. o. 1. soldiers. 

They all had a rooming house somewhere, and they would wait 
there until they were contacted again by someone else to send them 
out on another trip. 

Mr. Kennedy. You found, therefore, that it was Genovese who 
was behind a good deal of this black marketing ? 

Mr. Dickey. This was simply another indication of his connection 
with it, although in talking with many of the Italian civilians who 
were concerned, Genovese's name came up quite frequently as being 
a person they could go and see and he would tell them where there 
was a large quantity of wheat that could be moved in the black market 
or a large quantity of olive oil, or who it could be sold to, once it 
was transported from one district to another. 

Also in the middle of this there was an investigation into a mica 
rock transportation deal. This mica rock was used in Italy in the 
preparation of plaster, in building construction. 

It was used from one section to another and sold at very high prices. 
There was an indication at one time that Genovese had some connec- 
tion with the firm to whom this mica rock was delivered. 

Mi-. Kennedy. You found out, did you not, that they would take 
these trucks and load them as they came off the ships, and then they 
would drive them to this area where the goods would be unloaded and 
then often I he I rucks were burned, is that right? 
Mi-. Dickey. That is correct. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IX THE LABOR EI ELD 12379 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you ever go to any of these areas yourself? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you find these trucks? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, [did. On one occasion I photographed in one 

section, 1 would say in less than 5 square miles in area, in a grove of 
hazelnuts, in the vicinity of Mount Vesuvius, less than 5 miles in 
area, and there were between 35 and lo of these trucks in that area at 
that time, all of which had been set on fire. 

.Mr. Kennedy. Did you then move against Vito Genovese to try to 
arrest him? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, I did. I had spoken to my commanding officers 
early in the month of August and explained the entire situation to 
them, and they concurred in attempting to arrest Genovese. How- 
ever, right at that time the allied military courts in the Xola district 
had been discontinued. The front lines had moved farther north. 
There was not such a prevalent need for them, so they had been dis- 
continued. Right at the time being we were unable to locate Vito. 
So over the period of the next few weeks, much of the time was con- 
sumed in actually locating and arresting him. 

Mr. Kennedy. How did you finally locate him? 

Mr. Dickey. I eventually located him through the assistance of 
another underworld figure. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was his name ? 

Mr. Dickey. Mario Umberto Costello. He supposedly — according 
to one story he had been deported from the United States, and ac- 
cording to another story he had fled from justice. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where was Mr. Costello from ? 

Mr. Dickey. He was from the St. Louis area. I do not know which 
story is true, or if in fact, either story is true. But in any event, he 
cooperated to the extent that he resided in an apartment adjacent to 
the one in which Genovese had just moved, and he gave us informa- 
tion which led to his actual arrest. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you find later on, after Costello told you where 
Genovese was located, that he himself disappeared \ 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, he did. 

Mr. Kennedy. And when you were looking for him, you could no 
longer find him ? 

Mr. Dickey. We could no longer find even he. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you go and arrest Genovese then ? 

Mr. Dickey. Genovese was arrested in the town of Xola, if I recall 
correctly August 27, 19-44, at a time when he stopped at the municipal 
building to request a travel permit. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you find after you arrested him that he had 
received these travel permits quite freely ? 

Mr. Dickey. He had, over a period of many months, received these 
permissions quite freely. In fact, he had in his possession at the time 
of his arrest some blanket permissions. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you find on investigation that he had a close 
association with a number of the American officials in Italy ? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, we did. 

He carried on his person at the time of his arrest letters from quite 
a large number of army officers, some American, some British, letters 

21243— 58— pt. 32 13 



12380 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

of commendation, other letters saying that he had given his services 
to the allied military government without fee or charge. 

Mr. Kennedy. He had not charged for this ? 

Mr. Dickey. Pardon? 

Mr. Kennedy. He had not charged any money for the work he was 
doing? 

Mr. Dickey. Apparently not, although he was entitled to pay. 

Mr. Kennedy. At the time you arrested him, did he have an armed 
guard ? 

Mr. Dickey. He had a chauffeur in the car, and in searching the car 
there were guns in the car. 

Mr. Kennedy. Subsequently was any action taken against him in 
Italy for these offenses? 

Mr. Dickey. At the time of original arrest, he was confined only 
temporarily in a jail at Nola, and was moved almost directly to a 
military government jail in the town of Naples. 

He remained there for several months. Meanwhile he had been 
questioned to some extent. He was then transferred to a civilian 
prison at Avellino, where he was again held for a number of months, 
and was again transferred to a civilian prison at Bari, where he re- 
mained until the time of his return to the United States. 

Mr. Kennedy. Why was he transferred to those so frequently ? 

Mr. Dickey. During that time we had attempted to get some dispo- 
sition of charges against Genovese, so far as the allied military gov- 
ernment was concerned. 

Meanwhile we had heard that he was wanted in the United States 
on homicide charges, and we sent word back here to try to do something 
about those. For some reason there was a general delay in the things 
that were going on. We had contacted certain officers in the allied 
military government regarding prosecution of the charges over there, 
but they always seemed to be of the opinion that the charges in the 
United States were much more serious than those. 

They eventually declined the prosecution in order that he might be 
returned to the United States for the charges here. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long was he in Italy in your custody prior to 
his return to the United States ? 

Mr. Dickey. He was arrested August 27, 1944. He remained in 
custody until May 14, 1945. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was the date in 1945 ? 

Mr. Dickey. May 14, 1945, when I took custody to return him to 
the United States. 

Mr. Kennedy. And no legal action had been taken against him 
during that period of time? 

Mr. Dickey. No legal action had been taken toward prosecution. 

Mr. Kennedy. You returned with him to the United States by 
yourself? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Just you and Mr. Genovese ? 

Mr. Dickey. Myself and Vito Genovese; yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. How did you come back ; by boat ? 

Mr. Dickey. We came back by steamship, the steamship James 
Lykes. 

Mr. Kennedy. How did you arrange your sleeping quarters, for 
instance? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12381 

Mr. Dickey. En route Genovese and I occupied the same room, and 
we were constant companions and there were no other guards on the 
boat, and I and I alone was responsible for custody coining back. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did you do at night, for instance? 

Mr. Dickey. At night we shared the same room. As a rule I 
gave my weapons to the ship's captain, and we would simply occupy 
a room together, and that is all. Of course, he offered no resistance 
at any time. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he talk freely to you ? 

Mr. Dickey. He would speak freely about many things, such as 
horseracing or policy or things of that nature. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he describe to you how horses could be fixed? 

Mr. Dickey. He told me how they could be fixed and how they 
would run a "ringer" and so on, and he told me how policy operated 
and how it could be fixed, and he talked about his family, and he 
talked about many things, visits to Hot Springs, and Little Rock, 
and his travels, and so on, and we talked about everything except 
he would not talk about murder or the charges he was wanted for 
in the United States, or anything that seemed to get him involved. 

In general, he talked, and he sort of gave me an education coming 
back. 

The Chairman. Did he tell you he had been to Little Rock? 

Mr. Dickey. In his conversations, he mentioned Little Rock a num- 
ber of times. 

The Chairman. And Hot Springs ; you assume Hot Springs, Ark. ? 

Mr. Dickey. He mentioned those a number of times. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy^. Did he indicate to you or could you tell that he 
lived quite lavishly? 

Mr. Dickey. The manner in which he lived, I think, was most evi- 
dent when I searched the apartment where he resided in Naples. I 
don't recall ever in my life having seen a man with so many pairs 
of shoes, or so many suits of clothing, as he had. He had an apart- 
ment which was very lavishly furnished, and very expensive clothing, 
and apparently custom-made clothing, and a large number of shoes, 
and I have never seen anything like that in my life. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he have a radio ? 

Mr. Dickey. At the time we searched the apartment there was a 
radio in there, and I think it was connected at the time, and it is 
one of those radios that, while only the reserve was there, the power- 
cable attachments that would ordinarily fit a transmitter were also 
there, and the transmitter we did not find. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was this a very powerful radio? 

Mr. Dickey. It apparently was. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you understand also that he had some deposit 
boxes? 

Mr. Dickey". Mention was made of the safe-deposit box on a num- 
ber of occasions and that arose principally over informers having 
mentioned that Genovese was supposedly collecting United States 
currency other than the invasion type of money. The invasion type 
of money had a yellow seal on it, but we had understood from the 
informers that he was attempting to collect the other types of cur- 
rency ; that is, red and black and green and blue-seal money. 



12382 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

In attempting to follow this through, we had learned of him having 
a safe-deposit box in a bank at Dorn. As near as we could find out, 
that box, however, was under the name of Salvatore Profetti, who 
was alleged to have been married to the sister of Genovese, and I 
learned later that he had been deported from the United States. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you learn how much money he was supposed 
to have given for this building in Italy ? 

Mr. Dickey. I had heard a number of figures at various times, and 
the largest amount I heard was $250,000. 

Mr. Kennedy. When you had him in your custody prior to going 
back to the United States with him, were you ever ottered any money 
or inducement to allow him to escape ? 

Mr. Dickey. At various times I was offered many things, and I 
never discussed it with the people offering, but the officials of some 
of the jails where he was held, some of the guards, and I was also 
approached on the outside by a number of individuals. In fact, at 
one point I was offered a quarter of a million dollars to let this fellow 
out of jail, and on one occasion when I was offered another sum of 
money I had with me an officer by the name of Lieutenant Dillon, 
and we had thought it was for the purpose of transferring Genovese 
from the civilian prison to the civilian prison at Mario, and we were 
offered a sum of money on that occasion to even leave him there if 
not let him free. 

Mr. Kennedy. Just to keep him there ? 

Mr. Dickey. That is right, rather than transferred to the jail. 

Mr. Kennedy. These were all civilian prisons ; is that right ? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, they were. 

Senator Ives. May I ask a question there: What was your remark 
at that particular time ? 

Mr. Dickey. I was with the Army Intelligence Division. 

Senator Ives. How old were you ? 

Mr. Dickey. At that time ? 

Senator Ives. You weren't very old, I imagine? 

Mr. Dickey. Certainly at that time in 1944 I was 24 years old. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, you say you were offered this quarter of a 
million dollars. That was a quarter of a million dollars, was it? 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, it was. 

Mr. Kennedy. How much were you making at that time? 

Mr. Dickey. That is almost impossible for me to remember that. 
I think at that time I was making around $210 a month, plus quar- 
ters and rations, if I recall correctly. 

Mr. Kennedy. Other than Costello, from St. Louis, did you meet 
any others besides this Simonelli ? Did you meet any other of the un- 
derworld figures from the United States over there in Italy ? 

Mr. Dickey. There were some I met at various times. On one oc- 
casion I had been talking with certain ranking officials of the local 
Italian police agency, who had described a man to me whom he said 
was Miranda, and he talked about Miranda having been an associate 
of Genovese over the years, and so on, and so forth, and he described 
him as an arch-criminal from the United States, and so on. 

In fact he pointed that man out to me. Whether in fact it was 
Miranda or not, I don't know. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you meet this man ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12383 

Mr. Dickey. He was introduced to me at that time; yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. By what name was he introduced to you? 

Mr. Dickey. As Mike Miranda, and he said, "Just call me Mike." 

Mr. Kennedy. Did yon know that he was one of the bio; criminals 
here in the United States '. 

Mr. Dickey. I do not know it for a fact, and as I say 1 saw the 
man on that occasion, and at that time only. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was Genovese's attitude toward coming back 
to the United States? Did he make any statement as to his feelings 
about it? 

Mr. Dickey. Well, on the night I took custody to bring him back- 
to the United States, he at first objected rather violently, and lie did 
not wish to come back here, and he was demanding counsel and all 
of that sort of thing. He insisted on not coming back to the United 
States. However, after were were on the water his attitude changed 
considerably, and he repeatedly told me, "Kid, you are doing me the 
biggest favor anyone has ever done to me. You are taking me home. 
You are taking me back to the United States." As I say once we 
were on the water he had a completely different attitude. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were you aware of the fact that at that time, that 
his chief witness against him in the murder trial had died of poison? 

Mr. Dickey. Xo, I was not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Without getting into any specific names, did he dis- 
cuss with you on the trip back his union activities and what he knew 
about the handling of strikes and those with whom he was asso- 
ciated? 

Mr. Dickey. Only in a general sense. As far as relating inci- 
dents or facts or anything of that nature, he never discussed it from 
that angle but he very frequently would say to me, "Xow, look, you 
are young, and there are things you don't understand, and this is the 
way it works," and then he would go ahead and talk a little bit about 
some of those activities. 

As I say, it was only in a general sense. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he discuss bringing in scabs, for instance, and 
who was responsible for some of that ? 

Mr. Dickey. He told me something about those activities at one 
point coming back, yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. And how he could work this for both labor and 
for management ? 

Mr. Dickey. That is correct. 

Mr. Kennedy. And provide muscle men for both sides? 

Mr. Dickey. For either side; yes. 

Mr. Kennedy. Xow, when you came back in the United States you 
then turned him over to the authorities here? 

Mr. Dickey. That is correct. On arrival here he was released 
to the district attorney in Kings County, X. Y. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions \ 

All right, thank you. ( 'all the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Yito Genovese. 

The Chairman. Will you be sworn? 

You do solemnly swear that the evidence, given before this Senate 
select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Genovese. I do. 



12384 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

TESTIMONY OF VITO GENOVESE, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

WILFORD L. DAVIS 

The Chairman. State your name and your place of residence, and 
your business or occupation. 

Mr. Genovese. My name is Vito Genovese. I live at 68 West Island 
Avenue, Atlantic Highlands, N. J. 

The Chairman. Proceed. You didn't answer all of the question. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. What part of the question are you refusing to 
answer on that ground ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Genovese. The latter part. 

The Chairman. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Genovese. The latter part. 

The Chairman. What does that refer to, as you understand it ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. I believe I asked you what was your present business 
or occupation. Did you understand the question ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer. 

The Chairman. I am asking you whether you understood the 
question. 

Mr. Genovese. My answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You. can surely say whether you understand the 
question. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Genovese. I do, sir. 

The Chairman. You understand, and you decline most respectfully 
to tell the committee what your business or occupation is, is that right? 

Mr. Genovese. I do, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you have a lawyer ? 

Mr. Genovese. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Mr. Counsel, identify yourself for the record, 
please, sir. 

Mr. Davis. My name is Wilford L. Davis. I am counsel to Vito 
Genovese ; my office is at 149 Broadway, New York City. 

The Chairman. All right, Mr. Kennedy, proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you tell the committee where you were born ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. From the information we have, and would you tell 
me if it is correct you were born November 21, 1897? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And we have from various statements that you have 
made at various times, that you were born in either Eisigliano, how 
do you pronounce that ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Risigliano, Italy, or Naples, Italy, or Dardia, Italy, 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12385 

and according to your marriage record you were born in Casetta, 
Italy. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were born in Italy, were you not? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Is there any real mystery about where you were 
born ? 

Mr. Davis. At this time, I would like to state that he is the subject 
of other investigations. 

The Chairman. The witness heard me, I believe. There is no mys- 
tery about the fact that you were born, and you were born somewhere, 
and is there anything about where you were born you think would be 
self-incriminating ? 

Mr. Genovese. It may. 

The Chairman. It might incriminate you ? 

Mr. Genovese. It may do so. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Senator Curtis. Mr. Genovese, did you ever perform any services 
or were you in the employ with or without pay for the United States 
Government ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Curtis. Who recommended you for such employment? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Are you a naturalized citizen ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Did you ever do anything in your life that you 
could tell about that wouldn't incriminate you ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. I would like to carry this thing out and find out why 
the witness declines to say whether he is an American citizen or not. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline 

Senator Ives. Are you ashamed of being an American citizen? 

Mr. Genovese. It might tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Do you mean being an American citizen would in- 
criminate you? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline, that the answer may tend to 
incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. I don't know how that would work. Maybe your 
counsel can explain it, but I can't see anything incriminating about 
being an American citizen. If anything, being an American citizen 
might do you some good. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer. 

Senator Ives. I didn't ask you a question. I am telling you some- 
thing. 



12386 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Genovese. It may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. All right. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to our information, you were naturalized 
on November 25, 1936, is that right % 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Are deportation proceedings pending against you 
now? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do we have any information? 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that he was naturalized on 
November 25, 1936, and he was denaturalized in November of 1953, 
on the basis that he concealed his criminal record in application for 
citizenship. However, in May of 1957, Mr. Genovese put in an ap- 
plication and instituted proceedings at the Newark Federal court for 
citizenship in the United States. 

Now, I will have to check and see if we have any information that 
there is any action to deport Mr. Genovese at this time. 

The Chairman. At this stage of the proceedings, I will direct the 
staff- 
Mr. Kennedy. I understand that there are proceedings. We don't 
know the status. 

The Chairman. At the conclusion of these hearings, the Chair di- 
rects the staff to make certain that the tribunal before whom the pro- 
ceedings are pending, either to deport him or denaturalize him or to 
again gain citizenship in this country, whatever the proceedings are 
pertaining to his presence in this country, that they be furnished a 
transcript of this testimony. 

I would rather say this performance, because I don't think that we 
are going to get any performance, and I again express the hope that 
I did this morning when another witness testified, that the court and 
the authorities having jurisdiction of the subject matter will proceed 
with all deliberate speed to adjudicate the matter. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, we have some information that we 
would like to put in the record regarding Mr. Genovese's activities, 
from various sources. 

The Chairman. You may announce or state the information that 
you have, and ask the witness if it is true. That will give him an 
opportunity to clear the record, and clarify anything or refute any 
information we have as to what it is. 

Mr. Kennedy. I will ask him about some of his associates that we 
have information about, that he is connected with. We will start out 
with Mr. Mike Miranda. I think that you were here in the room 
when a picture of you and Mike Miranda was shown on the screen. 

Do you know Mike Miranda ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were associated, were you not, with Mike Mi- 
randa in the Boccia murder in 1!>."> I '. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mi-. Kennedy. Did you know Boccia \ 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IX THE LABOR FIELD 12387 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, Mr. Sherman Willse of the committee stall' 
has given a recitation of the facts regarding the Boccia murder in 

which you arc quite clearly involved. Would you make a statement 
about that '. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is it true that you made arrangements to have Mr. 
Boccia killed? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now we also have information that you were asso- 
ciated with Albert Anastasia; is that correct, Mr. Genovese? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us anything about Mr. Albert Anas- 
tasia being killed, in Xew York City, on October 25, 1957? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Mr. Joseph Profaci who testified this morning; 
he is also a close associate of yours ; is he not ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And how about Anthony Strollo, known as Tony 
Bender? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You stood up did you not in Mr. Strollo's wedding, 
and you were the best man \ 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And he was best man for you, wasn't he, Mr. Geno- 
vese ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What is it about Mr. Strollo that makes you such 
good friends? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about the Alto Knights; have you ever heard 
of the Alto Knights in Xew York ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Mr. Genovese, we also understand that one of 
your close friends is Frank Costello; is that right ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And when Mr. Costello had that dinner in 1949, 
to raise money for the Salvation Army, you were present ; isn't that 
right ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 



12388 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. We also understand that you were a friend and have 
been a friend of Mr. Vincent "Chin" Gigante? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. He has worked for Tony Bender ; has he not ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know anything about his being arrested and 
tried in the case of trying to shoot Frank Costello ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. He ultimately was acquitted for that; was he not? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, you were seen getting out of an automobile in 
front of the Alto Knights with Mr. Gigante in 1956 ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And we have information that you are an associate 
of Russell Buf alino, a garment figure from Pittston, Pa ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Salvatore Chiri who took over after Joe 
Adonis passed on? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And then we have another one of your close friends 
is Vincent Rao, who was very close to "Three-Finger Brown" ; is that 
right? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know "Three-Finger Brown" ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know him under the name of Thomas 
Lucchese ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And another friend of yours, as we understand it, is 
Tom Papadio, now under indictment on Federal narcotics; is that 
right? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Jerry Catena, who operates the jukeboxes, and 
I understand you are a friend of his ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that Jerry Catena works for "Longy" 
Zwillman? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you were a friend of Willie Moretti before he 
was shot ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12389 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Joe Stassi; are you a friend of his, too? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Peter DeFeo ; could you tell us what you know 
about him ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. I thought you might know him quite well because 
you were indicted with DeFeo and Miranda in connection with the 
murder of Baccia? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Frank Livorsi ; we understand you are a friend 
of Frank Livorsi ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And then we had another witness here before the 
committee, Professor Modica. Do you know Professor Modica? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. He has stated that he tutored your children ; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. How about George Smurra? We understand you 
are a friend of George Smurra? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And he was also indicted with you and DeFeo and 
Miranda, in the Boccia murder; isn't that right? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And we understand one of your real close friends 
is Charley "Lucky" Luciano; is that right? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Joe Adonis; wasn't he one of your close 
friends ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

(At this point, the following members were present: Senators Mc- 
Clellan and Ives.) 

Mr. Kennedy. And we understand you were present at the wed- 
ding of Joe Tocco with Carmela Prof aci, the daughter of Joe Prof aci ; 
is that right ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you attend the wedding ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you see many of your friends there ? 



12390 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You attended the meeting at Apalachin, did you 
not, Mr. Genovese ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer that on the ground 
that my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. At the time of the meeting, at Apalachin, and this 
might refresh your recollection, State police checked Russell Bufa- 
lino's Chrysler Imperial, and they found that when they stopped the 
car, that in the car with Bufalino was Vito Genovese. Do you remem- 
ber that? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Jerry Catena ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Dominick Olivetto? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And we understand that you attended a meeting of 
the Mafia in May of 1952 in the Florida Keys; is that right, Mr. 
Genovese ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And we understand that Vincent Railla was pres- 
ent also? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Governor Dewey described you as the King of the 
Rackets in 1940, and that you had supplanted Costello as the head 
of the New York underworld. Is that correct, Mr. Genovese? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline. 

Mr. Kennedy. On what ground ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We understand, and we have some information on 
the fact, that you ran the rackets on the docks, on the waterfront of 
East River, in New York City, over the period of the last 8 or 10 years. 

Is that right? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You took this over after you came back from Italy 
in 1945? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer might tend to incriminate inc. 

Mi-. Kkn nedy. I )o you remember your trip back from Italy ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. I wonder if you would turn around and see if you 
recognize Mr. Dickey, with whom you shared your stateroom. 
(The witness complied.) 

The Chairman. Stand up, Mr. Dickey, so he can see you well. 
M r. Kkn nedy. Do you recognize him ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12391 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground thai my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you conic back together, the two of you? 

Mr. Genovese. 1 respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. How did you happen to go to Italy in the first place, 
Mr. Genovese \ We find that of some interest. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy, Was it because of the investigation that was going 
on at that time of the rackets in New York \ 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And did you and Mr. Mike Miranda, go over to Italy 
together after Mr. Boccia was murdered? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And once you got over there, did you then support 
Mussolini by funds and in other ways \ 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what you did while we were at war 
with Italy, during 1942 and 1943 i 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is it true that you contributed the $250,000 to this 
building in Italy ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Anna Genovese ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. She was your wife, was she not ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. She did some talking at your separation hearing, did 
she not, your divorce proceeding ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. I wonder if we refresh your recollection with some 
excerpts from that testimony, that you might help us and give us an 
explanation. She testified to the sources of some of your money and 
how much money you were making. Would you help us on that if we 
refreshed your recollection with some excerpts from that testimony? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Just a minute, Mr. Chairman. 

What is this witness under at the present time, what tyj>e of in- 
dictment ? 

Mr. Kennedy. I don't know. 

Senator Ives. What is the matter that you can't testify? 

Mr. Genovese. I beg your pardon ? 

Senator Ives. Why is it you can't testify I 



12392 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Genovese. I decline to answer that on the ground that my an- 
swer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Well, it might. I don't know. I am just curious. 
Usually people have a reason for not being able to testify. We had 
a gentleman here this morning who was supposed to testify and he 
couldn't even speak English straight this morning. 

He talked perfectly last night, according to our counsel. You 
aren't having that trouble at all. You talk beautifully, but you don't 
seem to be able to say anything to some of these questions. 

Sergeant Crosswell, do you remember this witness up at Apalachin, 
or did you see him up there ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. You saw him up there ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. Stand up and look at Sergeant Crosswell, will you? 

Do you remember him ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer might tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. You know, the more you talk the more I think you 
must be guilty of a great deal. What is his police record? 

How many convictions has he had, and for what ? 

Do you know Thomas E. Dewey ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Did you ever hear of him ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Have you that record here? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Senator Ives. Let's get it into the record at one point and then 
it will be altogether. 

I respect him for saying "I respectfully decline" but that is as far 
as I do go. 

What is he so fearful of ? 

The Chairman. Mr. Constandy, you may state what information 
we have regarding his criminal record, and I will ask him the ques- 
tions. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you want to swear him ? 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear the evidence you shall give 
before this Senate select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth] 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Constandy. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN P. CONSTANDY 

The Chairman. State your name, your place of residence, and 
your business or occupation. 

Mr. Constandy. My name is John P. Constandy. I reside in New 
York City. I am employed as assistant counsel to this committee. 

The Chairman. All right. Proceed with your testimony. 

Mr. Constandy. The prisoner's criminal record at the police de- 
partment at the citjr of New York which carries B. No. 5993, begins 
on April 15, 1917, as Vito Genovese, Manhattan, revolver. On June 
4, 1917, 60 days in the workhouse. That is a conviction. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12393 

TESTIMONY OF VITO GENOVESE— Resumed 

The Chairman. Is that correct? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. All right. Read his record and let's ask him. 

Mr. Constandy. On April 22, 1918, the charge of felonious assault, 
discharged April 30, 1918. 

The Chairman. Is that correct? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Constandy. On April 25, 1921, the charge of revolver, the 
charge was discharged because there was a permit from the justice in 
Albany, N. Y. 

The Chairman. Is that correct ? 

Air. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Constandy. On May 13, 1924, homicide, auto; discharged June 
23, 1924. 

The Chairman. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Constandy. On January 17, 1925, disorderly person; dis- 
charged January 20, 1925. 

The Chairman. Is that true or false ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. How old were you at that time ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. You mean that if you tell your age, that is harmful, 
too ? I think you were born in 1897, is that right ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. If you were born in 1897, and this was 1929, that 
would make you about 32, wouldn't it ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline on the ground that my answer 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Constandy. The last one was 1925. 

Senator Ives. That would make you 28 years old at that time, if you 
were born in 1897, 1925 being the year we are talking about. 

What can possibly incriminate you if you admit you were 28 years 
old at that time? 

I can't see anything incriminating about it if you do that. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline on the ground that the answer 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. It's the first time that I ever knew that age incrimi- 
nated everybody. I am beginning to feel age myself, but I don't feel 
incriminated by it. 

Mr. Constandy. On July 25, 1925, burglary; discharged July 25, 
1925. 

The Chairman. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 



12394 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Constandy. On October 10, 1925, homicide, gun ; discharged 
October 13, 1925. 

The Chairman. Do you want to comment on that ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Constandy. On January 29, 1927, 1897 of the penal law which 
is the weapons law of New York State, a conviction ; $250 and 30 days 
in the city prison. 

The Chairman. Do you recall that ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Constandy. On January 13, 1931, concealed weapon; no bill 
of indictment. It was at Jersey City, N. J. Dismissed on February 
3. 1931. 

The Chairman. Did you get out of that one, too ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Constandy. On December 4, 1934, homicide, gun; dismissed 
December 7, 1934. 

The Chairman. Any comment ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Constandy. The next entry is on June 2, 1945, for murder in 
the first degree, relating back to the same case in 1934, which was the 
Boccia killing. That was discharged on June 10, 1946. 

Senator Ives. Who was the district attorney in that case ? 

The Chairman. May I ask is that where the principal witness was 
poisoned ? 

Mr. Kennedy. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Do you remember who the principal witness was 
against you? 

What was his name ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You wouldn't know anything about him drinking 
poison, would you ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Senator Ives. How many arrests has he had, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. I have not counted them. 

Senator Ives. Is that the end of it ? 

That is only 1945 where you were. My goodness, he must have 
done something between that time and now. 

Mr. Kennedy. Ten altogether. 

Senator Ives. How many times have you been arrested since 1945 ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Do you some time want to write an autobiography? 

Mr. Genovese. 1 respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Eves. By golly, I think it probably would, if you wrote an 
autobiography. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12395 

Mr. Kennedy. I might just read the statement here in connect ion 
with this man, the statement of Assistant District Attorney Julius 
Helfand, in the case of People v. Gt noaese. 

The Chairman. 1 would admonish the witness to pay very close 
attention to this. There may be something in here yon would like to 
deny. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy (reading) : 

This defendant, Vito Genovese, was indicted with 5 others on August 17, 
1!»44, for the killing of Ferdinand Boccia, alias "The Shadow," on September 19, 
1934. 

Tlie testimony in this case, principally as given by the witness, Ernest Rupolo, 
"Thi' Hawk," proves beyond any question of a doubt that this defendant, together 
with Mike Miranda, were the bosses of an underworld gang with great power. 

The testimony of Willie Gallo clearly demonstrates the motive for the killing 
of "The Shadow," and the attempted killing of Gallo, himself. Genovese and 
Miranda were the ones who ordered and planned the murder of Boccia and 
Gallo 

The Chairman. At that point, let's see if the witness wants to make 
a comment. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground the 
answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy (reading) : 

and Gallo is alive today only because "The Hawk" bungled the job of killing 
him. 

Unfortunately, this vicious killer and kingpin of the underworld will escape 
a conviction of murder in the first degree and death in the electric chair because 
the district attorney does not have available the necessary corroboration re- 
quired by law to convict him of this brutal killing. 

Witnesses who would have been able to testify in corroboration of Rupolo's 
story are not now available, either because they were killed or have disappeared 
since the murder of Boccia. 

The Chairman. Is that a part of your mode of operations, if any- 
body is about to testify against you, to have him killed or go out and 
kill him? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you mean you can't answer that question with- 
out the risk of possible self-incrimination? Is that what you are 
saying ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You are fully cognizant of the inferences drawn 
from your statement that you can't answer that without the risk of 
self-incrimination, aren't you ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Well, I think you are, and the record will so 
reflect. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy (reading) : 

Julie Falvine, who was present at the original conference between Miranda 
and Rupolo, was shot and killed shortly after the death of Boccia. Peter La- 
Tempa, who testified before the grand jury in this case, and who gave sub- 
stantial testimony identifying the actual killers of Boccia and also the par- 
ticipation of this defendant in the crime, was found dead from an overdose of 

21243— 5S — pt. 32 14 



12396 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

sleeping tablets, in 1945, and in the Raymond Street jail where he had been 
committed as a material witness at a time when this defendant was not within 
the jurisdiction of this county. 

Other witnesses who could have supplied the necessary corroboration were 
likewise not available to the district attorney either because they were missing 
or refused to talk and tell what they knew of this crime because of their fear 
of Genovese and the other bosses of the underworld, knowing full well that to 
talk would mean their death. 

The Chairman. Do you operate on that ruthless, brutal basis of 
killing anything that gets in your way ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Can you give an answer to any question at all 
without incriminating yourself? 

Mr. Genovese. I will have to hear the question first. 

The Chairman. All right, I will ask you. 

Did you ever do any decent thing in your life ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then he talks about those who are in fear of their 
death. 

I have reference to Patsy Bevona and Rosario Palmieri, both of whom refused 
to make any statement to the district attorney or to disclose any knowledge that 
they had concerning this murder. 

During the trial, a number of the people's witnesses showed by their action 
on the witness stand, their fear of Genovese and his henchmen and either 
changed their testimony previously given before the grand jury or refused to 
admit statements previously made to the district attorney. One look at the 
defendant was enough to put fear into their heart with the result that their 
testimony at the best was unsatisfactory and unreliable. 

The Chairman. What defendant were they talking about? 

Mr. Kennedy. Vito Genovese. 

The Chairman. One look at him put such fear in them that they 
changed their statements or would not testify ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

The Chairman. Do you want to make any comment on that? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Sir? 

The Chairman. Do you want to make any comment on that? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy (reading) : 

Every effort was made by the district attorney and the detectives assigned to 
this case by the police department and those assigned to this office to unearth 
evidence of any kind which in any wise might further connect the defendant 
with the commission of the crime and insure his conviction. 

It was nearly 10 years after the commission of the crime that the district 
attorney of this county, for the first time, had available to him the information 
supplied by Ernest Rupolo, the Hawk, and because of this great lapse of time 
it was extremely difficult for the present district attorney and his predecessors 
to get the true facts and to find the necessary evidence required under the 
statute to corroborate the testimony of the accomplices. 

Since January 1, 1946, the district attorney of this county has made every 
possible effort to bring into this jurisdiction the other defendants in this case. 
In fact, we have made numerous requests for adjournments but we were finally 
obliged to proceed with the trial of this defendant realizing that even a vicious 
killer has constitutional rights under our laws. 

We are, therefore, constrained to advise this court that we do not have the 
necessary evidence supporting the accomplice, Rupolo, as required within the 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12397 

meaning of section 399 of the Code of Criminal Procedure and we, therefore, 
reluctantly consent to a dismissal of this indictment against the defendant. 

Senator Ives. What did you say Governor Dewey called him? 

Mr. Kennedy. The kino; of the rackets who had supplanted Costello 
as head of the New York underworld. 

Senator Ives. Do you accept that title ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. You know Governor Dewey is usually pretty accu- 
rate in the way he describes people and things. lie could not have 
been very far off. lie must have known what he was talking about. 
He has not missed yet on anybody I have ever heard of. 

He called you the king of the rackets. You must be the king of the 
rackets, or, I mean, you were at that time. I assume you have not 
lost any of your prestige since, have you? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Genovese, are you married ? 

Mr. Genovese. I beg your pardon ? 

Senator Ives. Are you married ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. What is wrong with your wife, if you are married ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline. 

Senator Ives. Why would you decline to answer, to say whether or 
not you are married ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Is he married ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. He is separated from his wife. 

Senator Ives. Well, he has some reasons, then. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us, Mr. Genovese, and maybe you 
could answer this, what your sources of income are? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us how much money you have at the 
present time ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Let me just see if I could refresh your recollection 
by what your wife, Anna Genovese, stated at the separation proceed- 
ings in Trenton, N. J., on December 19, 1952. On page 67 she talked 
first about the places where you keep your money, and your safe- 
deposit boxes. 

Could you tell us where you have safe-deposit boxes? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then she told about the fact that you had several 
safe-deposit boxes in New York and New Jersey, but that you had a 
number in vaults in Europe. She said, "We had 1 in Naples, 1 in 
Switzerland, 1 in Paris, and 1 in Monte Carlo." 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
mv answer mav tend to incriminate me. 



12398 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. What did you keep in those safe-deposit boxes, just 
currency ? 

Mr. Genovese. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you keep just currency in those safe-deposit 
boxes? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. She said that you and she traveled a number of 
times to Europe, that "I always had the best style, the best hotels, 
traveled luxuriously, the best of cars, limousines." 

Is that correct ? Did you have always the best of services ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The reason I ask that is because, for instance, in 
1952, you declared on your income tax $6,881.72. That is the total 
amount of money you stated you made in 1952. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. I must say in 1953 you did make more, you went 
up $10, you made $6,891.67. 

Would you tell us about that ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. In 1954, up to $9,071.25; 1955, to $12,750; in 1956, 
$14,300. That is all the money you earned during that period of 
time? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That must have been quite a comedown. She was 
talking about your trips to Italy, and she talked about the fact you 
made numerous trips there. She was asked, "What sum did you 
carry in cash with you on those trips?" And she said, "I had $100,000 
with me." 

Would you tell us about that ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then : 

Question. On your next trip to Italy, tell us what it was and what sum of cash 
you had on you personally V 

Answer. I came back in September. I went back in November. I don't 
remember ; $.10,000 — $60,000 on me personally. I mean, I didn't sit down and 
count. I am trying to bring it as close as possible. 

Mr. Davis. Is that a question, Mr. Kennedy ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. I would like to have the comments on that. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. I am curious about your carrying so much cash and 
currency with you. What do you do when you are on the ship, put 
it in the vaults of the ship, the safe-deposit box? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12399 

Mr. Genovese. I decline, respect fully, to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. AVell, I don't donbt but what it would. 
Mr. Kennedy. Then she was asked: 

How many times did you have $100,000 in cash on your person when you made 
these (rips — 

and she answered : 

Numerous times. 

Question. And how many times did you have fifty, sixty, or seventy thousand 
dollars in cash when you made these trips — 

and she answered : 

I always carried big sums of money. 

Question. Can you tell us what interest, husiness, gambling, or otherwise 
your husband has in Europe outside of what you have described here in America — ■ 

and she answered : 

I believe he still owns a very large electric plant, which at that time I knew 
because it was discussed in front of me. In fact, there had even been some 
trouble about it. I believe he still owns it. 

Do you own a large electric plant in Europe ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. I would just like to ask Mr. Dickey, if I could in- 
terrupt Mr. Genovese's testimony, did you ever hear while you were 
over there that Mr. Genovese owned an electric plant? 

TESTIMONY OF ORANGE C. DICKEY— Resumed 

Mr. Dickey. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you stand up and answer ? 

Mr. Dickey. There was considerable comment about that electrical 
plant, and particularly about the distribution of the power from 
that plant. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where was the electric plant located? 

Mr. Dickey. I don't recall at the present time. I am here without 
benefit of reports, notes, or anything else, as you know. I don't 
recall the location of that plant. 

Mr. Kennedy. But it was in Italy ? 

Mr. Dickey. It was in Italy, and there was considerable comment, 
as I say, particularly about the distribution of the power from that 
plant. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was the situation as far as the distribution of 
the power ? 

Mr. Dickey. It was with respect to industry getting the power to 
us; they needed priorities and all that sort of thing. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was it a question of shaking down some of these 
industries? 

Mr. Dickey. There was a suggestion of that, and no proof. 



12400 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

TESTIMONY OF VITO GENOVESE— Resumed 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, Mrs. Genovese also stated that you had over 
half a million dollars in Switzerland alone; is that correct? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. What banks did you keep it in ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground my 
answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do we have any information as to whether the 
Treasury Department is conducting any proceedings ? 

Mr. Kennedy. I know of no investigation that they are conducting 
at the present time, although it is possible. 

Senator Ives. Did they conduct any ? 

Mr. Kennedy. I don't know of any. 

Senator Ives. Is a copy of this going to them ? It a copy going to 
be furnished the Treasury Department? 

The Chairman. Well, the Chair was not advised as to whether 
they were in the process of investigating the witness' income. I do 
not know. I assumed they were, with all of this information, but 
they may not have it and if they do not have it, a transcript of this 
testimony will be provided to the Treasury Department, and also 
to the Justice Department. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, another source of income that Mrs. Genovese 
talked about was the Italian lottery. Did you ever operate the Italian 
lottery ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground 
that my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And she stated she personally handled the books 
for the Italian lottery for you. 

Mr. Genovese. Is that a question ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that this Italian lottery which was being oper- 
ated, she stated up until 1950 that the receipts were approximately 
$20,000 a week. Is that correct, Mr. Genovese ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. If you were taking in $20,000 a week just from the 
Italian lottery, why were you only declaring $6,000 in your income-tax 
returns for the whole year ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground my 
answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. May I ask the counsel a question on this income ? This 
$6,000 business, which I think showed up twice, was made up of what? 
Was it interest or dividends or salary or what? 

Mr. Kennedy. It was from the Colonial Trading Co. that he re- 
ceived $6,625, and then a third rental, $266.67 for their home, making 
a total of $6,891.67. In 1954 he received from the Colonial Trading 
$6,500 and that was supplemented by miscellaneous game income of 
$2,571.25. 

Senator Ives. What is that ? 

Mr. Kennedy. I suppose that is the lottery, or game of chance. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12401 

Senator Ives. That is all he reported out of this s-jn.onii ;l week he 
was making over in Italy? 

Mr. Kennedy. That is correct. 

She also testified on page 4 ( .) that in addition to the Italian lottery, 
he has racetracks, gambling interests, dog interests, piers, and he is 
in almost all of the rackets. 

I know specifically about the Italian lottery because I myself ran the Italian 
lottery. 

Would you tell us about that? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground my 
answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Let me ask you a question there. Is your wife still 
living, even though you are divorced ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer, sir, on the ground 
that the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Do you think she is safe ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. I would like to follow that up, if I could get something 
out of you. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then she made some interesting statements also 
about the operation of some nightclubs in New York. She differen- 
tiated between nightclubs that you owned or she owned personally, 
and those nightclubs that were owned by you and the syndicate. 

Could you tell us what the syndicate is, Mr. Genovese ? What is the 
syndicate ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground my 
answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. I will read you some of those. This is just a list. 
Here, for instance, was a question : 

"Do you have a piece or a part of the Club Caravan?" 

And the answer : 

"I did not ; that was part of the syndicate. That belonged to his brother Mike, 
and all of those nightclubs." 

What is the syndicate she was referring to ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. There was another similar reference in connection 
with another nightclub, being owned by the syndicate. Do you and a 
group of other of your friends own nightclubs and call yourself a 
syndicate? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. For instance, on page 134 : 

You have no interest whatsoever in the 82 Club, have you? 

And the answer is : 

No, that belongs to Vito Genovese and the syndicate. 

Then it refers to the Moroccan Club and the Caravan Club. Now, 
according to this, you were receiving moneys from the unions through 
Tommy Calandriello. Is that correct '. 



12402 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IX THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That you ran on the docks shylocking operations, 
and also received kickbacks in salaries from the various employees on 
the docks. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And she stated that your home in New Jersey cost 
$38,000, with another $32,000 for improvements. Is that correct? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what you do for the Colonial Trad- 
ing Co. for which you receive $125 a week? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what your connection with the 
Erb Strapping Co., Inc., is? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is 180 Thompson Street, New- York City. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answ T er may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. What does a strapping company do, and what kind 
of business is it engaged in ? It is a novel thing to me, the use of the 
term. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. It is just a matter of curiosity, and I did not expect 
that that would have any significance. I just wondered, and would 
you tell me privately what it is ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Kennedy. I thought, Mr. Chairman, that Mr. Genovese, ac- 
cording to our information, is a close associate of Mike Miranda, and 
we have also called him as a witness, and if we could call him around 
now, maybe he would help us on this information. 

We would like to have him sit there. 

The Chairman. Before we go into that, and while he is coming 
around, are you a member of the Mafia ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. What is there about its operations that is 
unsavory ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman". Does it have a code of ethics or of practices, or 
unwritten code, that you just have to sort of memorize it and under- 
stand what it is in order not to get in trouble? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground 
my answer may lend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Who is the head of it in Xew York >. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may lend to incriminate me. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12403 

The Chairman*. Do you know ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman - . How may different areas does it operate in here 
in the United States? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you know \ 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. If you divulge what you know about it, would 
you be subjecting yourself to death at the hands of the Mafia? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. These people and murders you are connected with, 
according to the record, about which you say you cannot testify 
without incriminating yourself, were they killed as a result of the 
orders of the Mafia ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. How many deaths and murders do you suppose 
you are directly responsible for up to now '. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you feel that you couldn't make any state- 
ment about that without incriminating yourself? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you have any moral scruples at all against 
killing your fellow man? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you place any value at all on human life, 
above that of your own selfish interests \ 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Is there anything you can testify to without in- 
criminating yourself? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. "Would you give me just some lead on some sub- 
ject or on some matter where you could give an answer to a ques- 
tion without incriminating yourself? 

Mr. ( tkxovese. I would have to hear the question first. 

The Chairman. Could you give me a lead \ 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. I just asked for a little cooperation, and you said 
you would have to hear the question first, and I did not want to 
ask a great deal, and I just simply wanted you to give me a sugges- 
tion of the area or the subject matter so we would not waste a lot. 
of time. 



12404 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

You decline, I believe you say, to give me any idea of something 
we might interrogate you about which you could answer without 
incriminating yourself. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. I want to ask him a question. 

Mr. Genovese, did you ever kill anybody yourself ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Ives. Well, that is quite sufficient. It answers my 
suspicions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Miranda, would you come forward? 

Mr. Davis. Could we have a short recess ? 

The Chairman. The Chair will be more considerate than he has 
been of us, and grant him a 2-minute recess. 

Mr. Davis. Thank you. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for 2 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

Will you stand and be sworn ? 

You do solemnly swear that the evidence you shall give before 
this Senate select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Miranda. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MIKE MIRANDA, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 
ABRAHAM H. BRODSKY 

The Chairman. State your name and your place of residence and 
your business or occupation. 

Mr. Miranda. My name is Mike Miranda, 176 Greenway, North, 
Forest Hills, Long Island. 

The Chairman. Your name is Mike Miranda ? 

Mr. Miranda. That is right. 

The Chairman. Where did you say you lived now, a little louder, 
and will you get that microphone up there ? 

Mr. Miranda. 176 Greenway, North, Forest Hills, Long Island. 

The Chairman. What business or occupation are you engaged in ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground that I will in- 
criminate myself. 

The Chairman. Do you honestly believe that if you answered the 
question truthfully, the question as to what business or occupation 
you are engaged in now, that a truthful answer to the question might 
tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

The Chairman. I am going to give you the opportunity now to 
show your good faith. The question is, Do you honestly believe that 
if you gave a truthful answer to the question of what is your present 
business or occupation that a truthful answer might tend to incrimi- 
nate you ? 

Mr. Miranda. Yes. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12405 

The Chairman. All right. Now, counsel, I am sure you are familiar 
with the rules of the committee, but I will let you be identified first. 
Do you have counsel ? 

Mr. Brodsky. I am. 

The Chairman. Do you have counsel ? 

Mr. Miranda. He is my counsel. 

The Chairman. You do? 

Mr. Miranda. Yes. 

The Chairman. Counsel, now identify yourself for the record. 

Mr. Brodsky. Abraham H. Brodsky, 111 Broadway, New York 6, 
N.Y. 

The Chairman. The Chair tries to be very lenient with respect to 
counsel, and I realize sometimes the difficulty of their situation in 
trying to represent these fifth amendment characters, but there is a 
rule of this committee that says the counsel not put words into the 
witness' mouth. So I will ask you to observe that rule and your client 
may counsel with you and seek your counsel at any time that he de- 
sires, but I think that I noticed something that was possibly unin- 
tentional or without knowing about the rules of the committee and 
let us refrain from making that mistake any more. 

Mr. Brodsky. May I advise with my client for just one second ? 

The Chairman. You may. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. Thank you. 

Senator Ives. I would like to ask Mr. Miranda if he is under indict- 
ment or if there is any particular reason why he has to take the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Miranda. I refuse to answer on the ground 

Senator Ives. I am just curious; after all is said and done, if you 
have a particular reason for taking the fifth amendment we would like 
to know it. We can understand and we do not press people so hard 
when they have a real reason for it. 

But the previous witness has not been able to give any reason at all. 
Do you have a reason ? 

I asked a question. 

Mr. Miranda. I refuse to answer. 

Senator Ives. You don't refuse at all ; you decline. 

Mr. Miranda. I decline. 

Senator Ives. Why do you decline ? 

Mr. Miranda. On the ground I incriminate myself. 

Senator Ives. All right. 

The Chairman. The Chair would suggest unless you want to 
flagrantly challenge or to show your arrogance for your Government 
and for this committee that if you are going to decline, you use the 
word "decline" instead of using the word "refuse." 

After all, this committee represents your Government, and the 
Government that gives you protection. You may in your heart have 
utmost contempt for it, but it isn't good taste or good manners to dis- 
play it when you are here on official business and we are trying to get 
your cooperation. 

Senator Ives. I would like to follow that up with a question. I 
would like to ask the witness if he has any respect for the Government. 
That is a question. 



12406 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miranda. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. You do? 

Mr. Miranda. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. I am glad to know that, and then why don't you 
answer some of these questions? Are you a member of the Mafia '. 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself on the ground I incriminate myself. 

Senator Ives. As I understand the Mafia, it is a secret organization 
in which the members are somewhat related, or at least a large number 
of them are related through marriage, and for other reasons. They 
have a law of their own, which supersedes the law of our country, and 
the law of any country in which they operate. 

That is why we want to know, and we are going to find out some of 
these things before we are through. When this Apalachin thing oc- 
curred, it occurred too near home to suit me. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, Mr. Miranda, you attended the meeting at 
Apalachin, as I understand it, in November of 1957. 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground it will incriminate 
me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that you flew up from Newark, N. J., 
to Binghamton, N. Y., to attend the meeting? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I might incrim- 
inate myself. 

Mr.KENNEDY. Would you tell the committee why you went to the 
meeting at Apalachin ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself on the ground that it may incrim- 
inate myself. 

The Chairman. Let us get this straight, now. We are making a 
record. I want to be a little helpful to you. You say, "I decline 
myself." What you mean is you decline to answer the question; 
is that correct? 

Mr. Miranda. I might incriminate myself. 

The Chairman. What is that? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miranda. Yes, sir ; I decline. 

The Chairman. Speak a little louder, and I want to be fair to 
you, and I don't want to misunderstand you. But you have counsel, 
I am sure, who has told you how to answer questions respectfully. 

All right. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Senator Ives. Before you go any further, I would like to ask the 
sergeant, Sergeant Crosswell, a question. 

Did you see this witness up here at Apalachin ? 

Mr. Crosswell. Yes, sir; I did. 

Senator Ives. You saw them both. And were they together? 

M r. ( Jrosswell. No, sir. 

Senator Ives. Not when you saw them ? 

Mr. Crosswell. No. 

Senator Eves. One in one car and another in another car; is that 
right? 

Mr. Crosswell. I believe so. I would have to check my original 
notes. 

Senator Ives. In any case, yon saw them separately and they 
weren't together. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12407 

Mr. ( 'rosswell. Xot when I saw them. 

Senator Eves. Thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you arrive there with Carlo Gambino, Mr. 
Miranda? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer 

Mr. Kennedy. Why don't you write it out? 

Mr. Brodsky. I have written it out, but 

(The witness conferred witli his counsel.) 

Mr. Brodsky. May I tell him what to say, without incurring the 
displeasure of the chairman \ 

The Chairman. Sure. You may advise him. If he wishes to 
take t he fifth amendment, you may advise him how to do it. 

You may use your own conscience about whether you advise him 
to do it or not. I can't determine that. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer the question on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. "Would you pass this on? 

Mr. Brodsky. I have it all typed out. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Miranda, you know you can speak English bet- 
ter than that, and you know you can understand the questions. It 
is like Mr. Profaci this morning. Someone who has been as success- 
ful as you can say "I decline to answer the question." Don't put 
that act on. 

Mr. Miranda. I was not sure. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kennedy. You went to the meeting in Apalachin, did you 
not? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline 



Mr. Kennedy. Speak up, Mr. Miranda. 

Mr. Miranda. I decline 

Mr. Kennedy. Why can't you just let him look at that, if he is 
going to put this on ? 

Mr. Brodsky. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Why can't you let him look at that if he is going 
to put on that act. 

Mr. Miranda. I got no glass. 

Mr. Brodsky. This is not an act. That is the way he speaks. As 
far as his memory, I cannot vouch for his memory. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Genovese, you know he can speak English bet- 
ter than that, don't you? 

Mr. Genovese. Is that a question ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer the question. 

The Chairman. Let's have order. Proceed. 

Mr. Brodsky. Mr. Chairman, with the Chair's permission when the 
witness indicates that he wants to decline to answer, may I whisper 
the appropriate phrase to him so that he can repeat it? 

The Chairman. Well, that is going to take up as much time as 
having an interpreter, is it not? 

How long have you been in this country? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline 

Mr. Genovese. Are you talking to me ? 

The Chairman. I am talking to the other one. 



12408 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

How long have you been in the United States? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline 

The Chairman. "To answer." 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground that the answer 
would tend, I would be incriminated myself. 

The Chairman. Were you born in this country ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline 

The Chairman. "To answer." 

Mr. Miranda. To answer on the ground my answer may tend to in- 
criminate myself. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Chairman, it appears to me that is one statement 
he is going to learn before he gets out of here this afternoon. 

Yes, he will. Are you an American citizen? 

Mr. Miranda. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ives. Were you naturalized or were you born here ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground that the answer 
may tend to incriminate myself. 

Senator Ives. To do what to yourself ? I lost you around the last 
curve. 

Mr. Miranda. Incriminate. 

Senator Ives. All right. 

The Chairman. Let's try to expedite this. 
You growl out something, and if it means anything, besides this 
answer that "I decline to answer on the ground that it may tend to 
incriminate me," say so. 

Proceed now. Growl it out. 

Mr. Eeporter, get the best you can out of the growl and put it down. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. What is of particular interest to us, Mr. Miranda, 
is your connection with Mr. Carlo Gambino, when you arrived at the 
Apalachin meeting, Carlo Gambino has a firm or a company in New 
York which does labor consulting. Could you tell us whether you 
consulted his business with him at the meeting in Apalachin ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I might incrimi- 
nate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is his ability to get clients based on his friendship 
with you, Mr. Miranda? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline on the ground my answer may incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what you discussed at the meeting 
at Apalachin? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I might incrimi- 
nate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you turn to your left and look at the man 
sitting next to you, please? 

Mr. Genovese, would you turn to the right and see that man? 

The Chairman. Look at each other. Turn around and see if you 
can identify yourself. 

Mr. Genovese. This is for the picture? Sure. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Mr. Genovese, Mr. Miranda? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I might incrimi- 
nate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you see him at Apalachin? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12409 

Mr. Miranda. I decline on the ground I may incriminate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Genovese, did you see Mr. Miranda at 
Apalachin \ 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Also attending the meeting at Apalachin with you, 
Mr. Miranda, was Mr. Paul Castellano. Do you know Mr. Paul 
Castellano? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I will incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. The information we have is Mr. Castellano heads 
a butchers' association, and this association deals with the labor union. 
Could you tell us what you know about that? 

Mr. Miranda. Decline to answer on the ground I might incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you and Mr. Genovese been in business 
together ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I might incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you remember a man by the name of Mr. Boccia, 
who was killed in 1934? 

Air. Miranda. I decline myself on the ground I might incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to the information available to the com- 
mittee, you ordered or participated in ordering and instructing that 
Mr. Boccia be killed. Is that correct? 

Mr. Miranda. 1 decline to answer on the ground I might incrimi- 
nate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And also that according to the statement of Mr. 
Rupolo, you also ordered the murder of Mr. Gallo ; is that right ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself on the ground I might incriminate 
myself. 

Senator Ives. I would like to ask the witness this question. 

Mr. Miranda, have you ever killed anybody yourself? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Senator Ives. "What am I supposed to get out of that; that you 
have killed somebody? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself on the ground I might incriminate 
myself. 

Senator Ives. Don't you think this, if you have not killed anybody 
why don't you say "No" ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself on the ground I incriminate myself. 

Senator Ives. Apparently you would. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to the information, Mr. Miranda, that 
we have, you are now associated with the Tobacco Service, Inc., at 
324 East 39th Street, New York. Is that correct? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself to answer on the ground I incrimi- 
nate myself. 

The Chairman. Will you suspend just for a moment? 

I would like to show these two witnesses a little exhibit, exhibit 
No. 12, a series of pictures. This particular picture, according to the 
evidence, was taken on September 8, 1955. Mr. Miranda, do you 
recognize yourself in that picture? 



12410 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

(The photograph was shown to the witness.) 

Mr. Miranda. I got no glass. I don't see. 

The Chairman. You can't see ? 

Mr. Miranda. Yes. 

The Chairman. Do you recall — where are your glasses? You don't 
go around blind all the time. Where are your glasses? 

Mr. Miranda. But I can't read without my glasses. 

The Chairman. Where are your reading glasses? 

Mr. Miranda. I got none. They are at home. 

The Chairman. You got them at home. You have yours. 

Mr. Genovese. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. Can you help us out with respect to this picture ? 

Do you recognize anybody in it, in the top picture, No. 1 ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate myself. 

The Chairman. But that is a pretty good picture. 

Mr. Genovese, I respectfully decline to answer. 

The Chairman. Don't you see yourself in the picture? 

Mr. Genovese. The answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Isn't this you right here [indicating] ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline because my answer may tend 
to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You were just about as close then as you are now, 
you and Mr. Miranda, were you not? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. If you don't recognize yourself, would you kindly 
recognize Mr. Miranda ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline on the ground that my answer 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. These are kind of familiar scenes to you, aren't 
they ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline on the grounds that my an- 
swer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. There is nothing about this that haunts you, is 
there ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you want to make any further comment 
about it? 

According to testimony, it shows you two together right out in 
front of the Alto Knights establishment. Do you want to make any 
comment about it, Mr. Miranda ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself on the ground I incriminate my- 
self. I ain't go no glass. I can't see. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. We also have information that you were closely 
associated with Lucky Luciano, Mr. Miranda. 

Mr. Miranda. I decline 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Kennedy. I will make a statement and then I would like to 
have you make a comment on it, as to it being true, false, or what- 
ever you would like to say. We understand you were closely asso- 
ciated with Lucky Luciano; is that right? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12411 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I might incrimi- 
nate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. On December 29, 1942, you went to visit Lucky 
Luciano when he was in prison? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself on the ground I incriminate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. You and Frank Costello visited Lucky Luciano. 
Meyer Lansky, Mike Lascar i, Willie Moretti, all of you went to see 
Mr. Luciano when he was in prison ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself to incriminate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Why were you all around to go visit Lucky Luciano 
at that time, Mr. Miranda? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the grounds I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Miranda, you are an automobile salesman as 
well, are you not ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. You are an automobile salesman for Hunton & 
Eaffo, at 239 West 55th Street, New York, which deals in Cadillacs, 
hearses, ambulances, and service automobiles, is that right? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer myself I might incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you had a successful career selling the Cadil- 
lacs, the hearses and the ambulances ? 

Air. Miranda. I decline myself to incriminate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what the Albert Levy special 
account was? 

Air. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Wasn't the money in that account actually yours, 
Mr. Miranda ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And didn't you in fact withdraw money to invest 
down in Cuba during the 1940s in the Havana racing association 
from that account? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself — I decline to answer on the ground 
I incriminate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Miranda, Mr. Dickey, who was a witness earlier, 
states that he met somebody who identified himself as Mike Miranda, 
from New York. Would you turn around and see if you have ever 
seen Mr. Dickey before ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were you over in Italy during the war? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself and answer. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were you over there where your friend Vito Geno- 
vese was? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could vou tell us anvthing about the murder of 
Mr. Tresca, in the 1930's? 

21243— 58— pt. 32 15 



12412 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was Mr. Tresca murdered for? Could you 
tell us that ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. 1943, actually, Mr. Tresca was murdered, was he 
not? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Didn't he run a very anti-Mussolini newspaper in 
New York? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And according to the information we have, you 
made a statement at the time, just prior to his murder, that what he 
was writing about Mussolini was proving very embarrassing to your 
friend Vito Genovese in Italy, is that correct ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us who was responsible for Mr. 
Tresca being murdered ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to Mr. Rupolo, on the Boccia murder, 
you were very mad because Gallo had not been killed and he came 
back and reported it to you, and you were furious because he had not 
poured gasoline on him and set him afire. 

Could you tell us about that ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you are also a good friend of Frank Costello, 
are you not ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself, to answer myself, on the grounds 
I incriminate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know anything about the murder of Peter 
LaTempa, who was the important witness against you and Vito 
Genovese, who was murdered in prison ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself, to answer myself, on the grounds 
I incriminate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us how it was arranged to get the 
poison into the drink of this important witness before he testified 
against you and Vito Genovese? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer myself on the ground I incrim- 
inate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are you associated at all, through your children, 
with the Cardinal Insurance Agency, which handles the insurance for 
a number of unions in New York ? 

Mr. Miranda. I declare — I decline to answer on the ground I might 
incriminate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know John DeFeo ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
mysel f . 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12413 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what you were doing when you 
were arrested with five other gangsters at the Ocean Palm Hotel in 
Santa Monica, Calif., in 1952? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground that it may tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, these two individuals could be a 
great help to the committee if they would answer some of these 
questions and give us the information. 

I am sure you could help law enforcement in New York City a great 
deal, and throughout the United States. You don't want to do that? 

It might be one of }*our last chances before the committee. Do you 
want to help us, Mr. Genovese ? 

Mr. Genovese. Is that a question ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. "Would you help us ? 

Mr. Genovese. I decline respectfully to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about you, Mr. Miranda, would you be willing 
to help and assist the committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground that the answer 
may tend to incriminate myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Genovese, do you know the infiltration of any 
of the Mafia into any labor unions or into legitimate businesses? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Miranda, do you know about that? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Genovese. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. How do you sell these automobiles, Mr. Miranda? 

Mr. ]\1iranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate my- 
self. 

The Chairman. Mr. Miranda, is there anything you can answer 
that might not tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate my- 
self. 

The Chairman. Could you give me just one lead, one clue to some- 
thing I might ask you that you could answer without incriminating 
yourself ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate my- 
self. 

The Chairman. Do you place any value upon human life above your 
own selfish interest? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate my- 
self. 

The Chairman. In other words, would you kill somebody just to 
make a dollar ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I might incrim- 
inate myself. 

The Chairman. Are you a murderer? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate my- 
self. 



12414 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. I would like to find out a little more, if we can, 
about his citizenship. Do we have any information as to whether — 
Counsel, he is a naturalized citizen ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Which one is that ? 

The Chairman. Mr. Miranda. 

Mr. Kennedy. I believe he is. 

The Chairman. Would you tell us whether you are a native-born 
American or if you are a naturalized citizen ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground I incriminate 
myself. 

The Chairman. I will make the same statement about you I have 
about the others. I don't know just what your status is, but if you 
are a naturalized citizen, and proceedings have not begun, have not 
been started, to denaturalize you and to deport you, I am asking the 
Justice Department and the other authorities to take an immediate 
look at your record and proceed with appropriate action to send you 
back to the land from which you came. Again I hope the court and 
the officials will proceed in the matter with all deliberate speed. 

I will conclude at the moment with this one statement. Well, I 
will withhold it until Senator Ives has spoken. Senator Ives. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Miranda, I understand you are the agent for the 
Cadillac car; is that correct ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline myself to answer on the ground I incrim- 
inate myself. 

Senator Ives. Wait just a minute. Do you mean you are going to 
decline on account of the fact that it might incriminate you to state 
you are the agent for the Cadillac car ? 

How long do you think you will hold that agency under those con- 
ditions, if you are the agent for the Cadillac car ? 

I happen to know something about General Motors and their stand- 
ards when it comes to that. They aren't going to have criminals and 
people like you being agents for them, by any stretch of the imagina- 
tion. 

This may get you into real trouble if you don't answer this ques- 
tion. Are you the agent for the Cadillac car, in any way, shape, or 
form ? 

You better answer that. 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer on the ground that the answer 
might tend to incriminate myself. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Chairman, I understand that Mr. Miranda 
handles the Cadillac funeral cars and flower cars. Is that correct? 

He is the salesman for them. Does he have the agency ? 

Mr. Kennedy. He is a salesman. It is not a Cadillac agency. 

Senator Ives. What is the agency's name ? 

Mr. Kennedy. It is a custom body organization. 

Senator Ives. What custom body ? Fisher ? 

Mr. Kennedy. It is Custom Hearse Body, as I understand. 

Senator Ives. A special body for hearses ? 

Mr. Miranda. I decline to answer. 

Senator Ives. Mr. Counsel, I would like to find out further about 
the agency. Is this something that Cadillac puts out? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12415 

Mr. Kennedy. I put the name of the company into the record. They 
make hearse bodies, ambulance bodies, and, I believe, some kind of 
automobile bodies. 

Senator Ives. They are manufacturers; is that it; and he is a sales- 
man for them ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Senator Ives. Is this a Cadillac motor that is put into the car? 

Is this the Cadillac motor that is put into the car, or whatever it is? 

Mr. Kennedy. Not necessarily. 

Senator Ives. Then it is not strictly a Cadillac proposition ; is that 
it? 

Mr. Kennedy. No. 

Senator Ives. He manufactures for all. 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Senator Ives. I am wondering what the people that are handling 
it will think about it. I thank you very much. 

I didn't think the Cadillac people would want anything to do with 
this. 

The Chairman. Mr. Kennedy ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Anastasia — I mean Mr. Genovese — I domt know 
whether to say excuse me or not — you were naturalized on November 
25, 1936. According to the testimony before the committee bj Mr. 
Dickey, you then spent the period during the war in Italy. That is 
correct, is it not ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And during the period of time that the United 
States was at war with Italy, you were helping and assisting the Ital- 
ian Government; is that right? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
the answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have any steps been taken by the United States 
Government to try you for treason, Mr. Genovese? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. There is no statute of limitations on treason. Have 
any steps been taken by anybody in the United States Government to 
take any steps against you along those lines ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were helping and assisting an enemy during a 
period and time of war, Mr. Genove^. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were you guilty of treason during the war, treason 
against the United States ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, I would just like to put a witness on, 
on the Tresca murder, to set the facts on that. 

The Chairman. Call him forward. 

I will ask this question : Did you have any sons in the war ? 



12416 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Genovese. I beg your pardon ? 

The Chairman. Did any of your sons serve in the war? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Did any of your daughters serve ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you have both sons and daughters? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you have either a son or daughter ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you think it might incriminate you to admit 
you are a father ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You know that statement is not an honest state- 
ment, that you are afraid it will incriminate you, don't you? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. I will ask you the question : Do you honestly be- 
lieve that if you have a daughter or son, that a truthful answer might 
tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Genovese. I decline to answer respectfully on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. I am not going to let you decline it without plac- 
ing an order against you to answer it. You can consult with your 
counsel. Do you honestly believe that if you stated here truthfully 
that you have a son or daughter, that a truthful answer to that ques- 
tion would tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Genovese. It may. 

The Chairman. Well, it might. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, this is the next witness. 

Mr. Laurendi. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear the evidence you shall give 
before this Senate select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Laurendi. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF NATALE LAURENDI 

The Chairman. State your name, your place of residence, and busi- 
ness or occupation. 

Mr. Laurendi. Detective Natale Laurendi, Shield No. 2021, New 
York City Police Department, assigned to the district attorney's office 
squad of New York County. The district attorney of New York 
County is Frank S. Hogan. 

The Chairman. How long have you been a member of the police 
force of New York ? 

Mr. Laurendi. Seven years, sir. 

The Chairman. How long have you been assigned to the district 
attorney's office? 

Mr. Laurendi. Six years. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12417 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Detective Laurendi, do you have the facts on the 
murder of Tresca ? 

Mr. Laurendi. I have a summary of highly confidential informa- 
tion which was given to an assistant district attorney of Mr. Hogan's 
office in 1946, by a close associate of Vito Genovese, concerning the 
Carlo Tresca murder. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could 3'ou make that information available to the 
committee at this time? 

Mr. Laurendi. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Can you make it public ? 

Mr. Laurendi. Without revealing the source, I have here a sum- 
mary. I can give you the source in chambers. 

The Chairman. Give us the summary, then, and we will receive 
the source of it in executive session. 

Mr. Laurendi. This source was known to Vito Genovese in Italy 
back in 1933. In 1935, Vito Genovese was back in New York City, 
and was seen in frequent contact with Charles "Lucky" Luciano, Tony 
Bender, Joe Biondo, and others, including Santino Pandolfi, who was 
described as a henchman of Tony Bender. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you spell his name? 

Mr. Laurendi. P-a-n-d-o-l-f-i. Pandolfi's brother Carlo, in 1935, 
wanted to start a club for Italian seamen ; Carlo was a Fascist. Geno- 
vese gave his approval for such a club. Before it got started, Carlo 
Tresca, an outspoken anti-Fascist newsman, sent word that he was 
going to fight the Fascist club and would do so by attacking Vito Geno- 
veve. Genovese sent word to Carlo Pandolfi to abandon the idea as he 
did not want any trouble with Carlo Tresca. Mike Miranda, at 180 
Broome Street, New York City, operated distribution of mineral 
water owned by a certain Achille Pisani. 

The Chairman. Is that the same Mike Miranda that sits here in 
the witness chair? 

Mr. Laurendi. According to the statement, it is. 

The Chairman. Is it also the same Genovese? 

Mr. Laurendi. Yes, sir. Miranda expressed concern over the 
trouble being caused Genovese in Italy as a result of letters and articles 
during the period of 1940. Tresca was writing to and about Geno- 
vese's Fascist friends. Carlo Tresca was murdered on January 11, 
1943. Strong suspicions for this murder centered on Carmine Galente, 
a hoodlum underling of Genovese and an associate of Frank Garaf alo. 

Galente, an Apalachin guest, is currently being sought by author- 
ities in connection with a narcotic conspiracy involving some 40 per- 
sons, including Big John Ormento, who is also missing. 

The Chairman. Are there any further questions ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Did this source, who, as I understand from your 
testimony, was very close to Vito Genovese, and was in a position to 
know, did he give you or give the district attorney's office any ideas 
to the amount of money that Mr. Vito Genovese had ? 

Mr. Laurendi. It was not this source, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you have another source? 

Mr. Laurendi. Yes sir. There was another highly confidential 
source. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who was very close to Vito Genovese? 

Mr. Laurendi. Who was very 



12418 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. Extremely close. 

Mr. Laurendi. This source, I cannot even divulge the nature of it. 

Mr. Kennedy. But he was extremely close, is that right? 

Mr. Laurendi. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I am a little apprehensive about this. I don't want 
anything divulged that will cause somebody to get murdered. 

You don't say that you would not murder somebody if they gave 
some information against you, then, do you, Mr. Genovese ? 

Mr. Genovese. Is that a question? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
might tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. That is the answer I expected, in view of your 
previous performance but I am very reluctant to get some man killed 
because he tells the truth. 

Be careful, Mr. Laurendi, and not divulge a source at all. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you give to the committee what this source 
gave you as to the net worth of Vito Genovese during this period of 
time? 

Mr. Laurendi. The net worth, 1954, was — all I can say, sir, is 
that there is confidential information in the office of District Attorney 
Frank Hogan to the effect that in 1954 Vito Genovese had amassed 
a f ortune of $30 million. 

Senator Ives. And he declared $6,000 on his income tax. 

Is that right, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF VITO GENOVESE AND MIKE MIRANDA— Resumed 

The Chairman. Is that slightly exaggerated ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Would it be fair to say that is an understatement? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
that my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. How many hoodlums do you have in your employ 
now or at your command ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. How many members of the Mafia operate under 
your direction and supervision ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground 
that my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Are there any other questions? 

Mr. Kennedy. I think that that information which is from a 
different source, obviously from Mrs. Genovese, would appear to 
support the testimony that Mr. Genovese gave under oath at their 
separation hearing in New Jersey in 1952 or 1953, Mr. Chairman. 
She stated also at that time that Mr. Genovese had many sources of 
income, many companies (hat he owned, and none of them were 
in his own name ; that he always used fronts. 

Is that right, Mr. Genovese, that you do have many businesses, 
many interests, which are in names other than your own? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12419 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman". Do you have one single legitimate business ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You don't have any interest in any business that 
you can give the name of without the risk of incriminating yourself ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground 
that my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Are there any further questions I 

Mr. Kennedy. No; but be would like for you to keep them under 
subpena. Maybe they will come back again. 

The Chairman. Are there any further questions from the com- 
mittee ? 

Senator Ives. No, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Will you accept recognizance to reappear before 
the committee at any time we may need to further interrogate you 
without being subpenaed % 

Mr. Genovese. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Upon reasonable notice to yourself or to your 
attorneys of record here, you will agree to reappear without further 
subpenas ? 

Mr. Genovese. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What do you say ? 

Mr. Miranda. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are you also known as Don Vitone? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds 
that my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What does that mean, Don Vitone? That is our 
information. 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. It means the great one in English, does it not, Mr. 
Genovese? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you give yourself that name ? 

Mr. Genovese. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
my answer may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all. 

The Chairman. Before we recess, the Chair makes this observa- 
tion: I wish that every American citizen could have witnessed this 
performance here this afternoon. 

It certainly emphasizes the danger to America, to our freedoms, to 
our way of life, to our free economy, free society, and every institu- 
tion that we have today that was bought and paid for by the blood 
of patriots. Men who come before this committee with records such 
as you two have, defy your Government, refuse to cooperate, basking 
under the protection, the benefits, and blessings of this great Govern- 
ment of ours, come here from foreign lands, and they prey upon 
the people of this country with your illicit and criminal activities, 
are unworthy of the protection of the American flag. 



12420 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

We have a great job to do in this country to clean you out. I hope 
that this committee and others, and the law-enforcement agencies 
of this land, may pursue to the utmost the challenging task that 
confronts us, and that the day will come in America where it will 
be safe for people to operate their businesses, to have labor unions, 
and to have a society that does not live under the shadow of characters 
like those who find themselves in a position where they have to take 
that attitude that they can't be cooperative and help their country 
drive out a menace that threatens its very existence. 

The committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock in the morning. 

(Present at the time of the recess: Senators McClellan and Ives.) 

(Whereupon, at 5 : 20 p. m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
at 10 a. m. Thursday, July 3, 1958.) 



INVESTIGATION OF IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE 
LABOR OR MANAGEMENT FIELD 



THURSDAY, JULY 3, 1958 

United States Senate, 
Select Committee on Improper Activities 

in the Labor or Management Field, 

Washington, D. C. 

The select committee met at 10 a. m., pursuant to Senate Resolu- 
tion 74, agreed to January 30, 1957, in the caucus room, Senate Office 
Building, Senator John L. McClellan (chairman of the select com- 
mittee) presiding. 

Members of the select committee present : Senator John L. McClel- 
lan, Democrat, Arkansas; Senator Frank Church, Democrat, Idaho; 
Senator Karl E. Mundt, Republican, South Dakota; and Senator 
Carl T. Curtis, Republican, Nebraska. 

Also present : Robert F. Kennedy, chief counsel ; Jerome S. Adler- 
man, chief assistant counsel ; Paul J. Tierney, assistant counsel ; Paul 
E. Kamerick, assistant counsel ; John J. McGovern, assistant counsel ; 
Walter R. May, assistant counsel; Pierre E. G. Salinger, investigator; 
George H. Martin, investigator; Sherman Willse, investigator; and 
Ruth Young Watt, chief clerk. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

(Members of the committee present at the convening of the ses- 
sion were: Senators McClellan and Church.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. James Plumeri. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the evidence given 
before this Senate select committee, shall be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Plumeri. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES PLUMERI. ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 
MAUEICE EDELBAUM 

The Chairman. State your name and your place of residence and 
your business or occupation. 

Mr. Plumeri. James Plumeri, 400 East 59th Street, New York City. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. You mean about your business or occupation? 

Mr. Plumeri. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you honestly believe that if you told the truth 
about it that the truth might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Plumeri. Y r es, sir. 

12421 



12422 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. Is it an illegal business? 

Mr. Pltjmert. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. If it is a legitimate business, it wouldn't tend to 
incriminate you, would it? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Edelbaum. May I make a statement? 

The Chairman. Just a moment. Do you have counsel with you? 

Mr. Plumeri. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. Mr. Counsel, you may identify yourself 
for the record. 

Mr. Edelbaum. My name is Maurice Edelbaum. My office address 
is 1440 Broadway, New York City, and I represent the witness, James 
Plumeri. May I have the permission of the Chair to make a short 
statement ? 

The Chairman. You may make a very brief statement. 

Mr. Edelbaum. The witness at the present time is a defendant in 
an action brought in the United States District Court for the South- 
ern District of New York, which action seeks to revoke his citizen- 
ship. In addition to that, Mr. Chairman, some time ago Mr. Paul 
Williams, the United States attorney for the southern district of New 
York, impaneled a grand jury with the avowed purpose of investi- 
gating the garment area of the city of New York, and during the 
interrogation of the prospective grand jurors they were asked whether 
or not they knew the witness, James Plumeri. In addition to that, 
Mr. Chairman, the district attorney's office of New York County 
represented by Mr. Frank S. Hogan, has subpenaed certain books 
in which the defendant has certain interests — in which the witness 
has certain interests in various corporations, and so has Mr. Williams. 

For those reasons, Mr. Chairman, the witness desires to avail him- 
self of his constitutional privilege against self-incrimination. In do- 
ing so, it is not done with any avowed purpose to flout the purposes 
of this committee. 

The Chairman. The committee will take that statement into ac- 
count as we proceed. I believe the witness is not presently under 
indictment ? 

Mr. Edelbaum. That is correct. 

The Chairman. There may be investigations in process that may 
ultimately lead to an indictment, if I understand you correctly. 

Mr. Edelbaum. That is possible. 

The Chairman. I said "may," and no one knows, of course. What 
is the proceeding now pending against the witness ? 

Mr. Edelbaum. An action brought by the United States Govern- 
ment to revoke his citizenship on the ground of fraud, and that is 
pending at the present time. 

The Chairman. lie is a naturalized citizen? 

Mr. Edelbaum. Yes, he is. 

The Chairman. Does this involve deportation? 

Mr. Edelbaum. Well, it could possibly involve that if the citizen- 
ship is revoked. 

The Ch airman. But for the present the only action is to revoke his 
citizenship for fraud? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12423 

Mr. Edelbaum. That is correct. 
The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where were you born, Mr. Plumeri ? 
Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were born in Italy, were you not ? 
Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to the information that we have, you 
were born in Italy, in 1903, either April 11, 1903; June 3, 1903; or 
April 11, 1903. Can you tell us which of those is correct, Mr. 
Plumeri ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, are you known by any other name, Mr. 
Plumeri ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 
Mr. Kennedy. You are also known as "Jimmy Doyle," aren't you? 
Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did you give as your present address? 
Mr. Plumeri. 400 East 59th Street. 
Mr. Kennedy. Do you have any other home ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You also have a place in Miami, Fla., do you not? 
Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is 9224 Dickens Avenue, Miami, Fla., isn't that 
right? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 
Mr. Kennedy. And is Mr. Johnny Dioguardi your nephew? 
Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 
Mr. Kennedy. Would you name your nephews for the committee ? 
Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. How about Tommy Dioguardi, isn't he a nephew 
of yours, also ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Air. Kennedy. What are the names of your other nephews ? What 
about Frank Dioguardi? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And they all have criminal records, do they not, 
Mr. Plumeri ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you teach them when they were young as they 
were coming along ? 



12424 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now according to the information we have, between 
1913 and 1925, you had had eight criminal arrests, with no convic- 
tions ; is that right ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then in 1933 you were indicted for felonious as- 
sault, coercion and conspiracy, which was finally dismissed ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And then in 1933, assault, first degree? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And then homicide also in 1933 ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then extortion in 1937 ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then conspiracy and extortion and assault in 1937 
for which you served 5 to 10 years, or were sentenced to 5 to 10 years 
in Sing Sing, is that right ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you and your nephew, Johnny Dio, went to- 
gether, did you not ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now your business interests at the present time, 
according to our records, are the Ell-Gee Carriers, which is now 
known as the Randy's Trucking Co., is that right ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. This is a garment trucking firm located 218 West 
35th Street, New York City ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the Barton Trucking Corp., 218 West 35th 
Street, New York City? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And in addition to these trucking companies, Mr. 
Plumeri, you also have some dress shops, do you not? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to our information, you own the Ad- 
vance Junior Dress Corp. at 1400 Broadway ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you have an interest in shoulder pads also in 
New York City? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12425 

Mr. Kennedy. And the Reed Shoulder Pad Co., which is also 
known as the Three Brothers Co., in Allentown, Pa ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the Richter Dress Co., also known as the I. 
Richter, Inc., Trucking Co., of 261 West 36th Street, New York City, 
is also owned and operated by you, Mr. Plumeri, isn't that right? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is the Richter Dress Co., and the I. Richter, 
Inc., Trucking Co. Now, you own not only trucking companies, and 
dress shops, but you also own a restaurant, do you not, the Villa-Mar 
Restaurant ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is in Jackson Heights, N. Y., is that right ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you used to own the Bonnie Stewart Dress 
Co., isn't that right? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And didn't Mr. Russell Bufalino also have an in- 
terest in this dress shop ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Mr. Dominick Alaimo, also had an interest in 
that dress shop, didn't he, Mr. Plumeri ? 

Air. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

(At this point, the following members were present: Senators 
McClellan and Church.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Both of those individuals attended the meeting at 
Apalachin, did they not? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you also had an interest in the Seam Binding 
Co., is that right ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you usually stay at the Hotel Forrest in New 
York City? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you know Gertrude Krieger, who lived at the 
Hotel Forrest ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We also understand you are a close friend of Joe 
Stretch, is that right, Mr. Plumeri ? 

Mr. Plumeri. 1 respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And another associate of yours is Mr. Sam Berger, 
who used to be with local 102 of the ILGWU, is that right? 



12426 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Harry Stromberg, who is known as Nig Roser, 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Joe Evola, who was recently arrested on the 
narcotics charge ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Louis Stromberg ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Angelo Sciandra? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Samuel Sobel? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Frank Carbo? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were one of the bright young lieutenants of 
Lepke during the 1930's, and you were interested in the trucking and 
garments during that period of time. You were using muscle against 
some of the legitimate companies when you were sent to Sing Sing. 
Are you still active in that operation, Mr. Plumeri ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to police records, you were one of the 
five leading underworld figures in New York City, Mr. Plumeri. 
Here is a chance to really tell the facts on this whole matter to the 
public. Don't you want to say something to us? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You also have an interest in promoting fighters, do 
you not, Mr. Plumeri ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The Barton Truck Co. also. You have an interest 
in the Barton Truck Co., do you not? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you take part, Mr. Plumeri, in keeping c erta in 
dress companies from signing a contract recently with the ILGWI ' ( 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that you flew up especially from 
Miami on the 3d of March 1958 to give advice and counsel in those 
negotiations? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12427 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that you arrived in New York from 
Miami on the 3d of March 1958 at 12:50 p. m., and then you re- 
turned to Miami the following day at 1 p. m. ? 

Mr. Plumeki. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Wasn't that during the period of a very important 
meeting, in connection with the negotiations that were going on re- 
garding the contract with the ILGWU? 

Mr. Plumekl I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Will you tell us what your participation in all of 
that was, Mr. Plumeri? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact also that not only do you have an 
interest in certain boxers, trucking and dress companies, but also you 
have had an interest in some of the singers in the United States ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Are you a member of the Mafia ? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Are you married? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

The Chairman. Do you have any children? 

Mr. Plumeri. No. 

The Chairman. What was your wife's maiden name? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Plumeri. Mary Arapollo. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Do you have any con- 
nections with organized labor \ 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you participate in bargaining negotiations 
either on behalf of management or on behalf of labor? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Are any of your businesses unionized or your em- 
ployees in any of your plants or businesses members of a union? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you honestly believe that if you answered 
these questions, a truthful answer might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. I am going to ask you another question now, and 
I am going to order you to answer it if you take that position. 

I will ask you if you participate in the negotiations of collective 
bargaining, either on behalf of unions or on behalf of management. 

21243 — 5S— pt. 32 16 



12428 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you honestly believe that if you answered that 
question truthfully, a truthful answer to that question might tend 
to incriminate you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Plumeri. Yes. 

The Chairman. Is there anything further ? 

Senator Church. I have no questions. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact, Mr. Plumeri, that approximately 5 
or 6 years ago you attempted to push a well-known singer out a win- 
dow in a New York hotel because he would not marry a young lady 
that you wanted him to marry? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that you had a financial interest in 
that singer at the time that he was in New York, singing in night 
clubs? 

Mr. Plumeri. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Is there anything further? 

It is quite probable before the conclusion of these hearings, or at 
some future time the committee may desire to recall you for further 
interrogation. With your acceptance, the Chair places you under 
recognizance to return and give testimony at such time as the com- 
mittee may desire to interrogate you further. Do you accept that 
arrangement, without having to resubpena you ? 

Mr. Plumeri. Yes, sir, upon reasonable notice. 

The Chairman. Yes, upon reasonable notice to you or your 
counsel. 

Mr. Edelbaum. Counsel will be sufficient, Mr. Chairman. Notice 
to me will be sufficient. I believe we are excused for the day ; is that 
correct, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. As far as I know, you will be, in a moment. 

Before the witness leaves the stand, the Chair will make this obser- 
vation : As we proceed with these witnesses who are in a position to 
give this committee a great deal of information that it needs and 
which the Congress needs, upon which to determine and predicate 
legislation that is needed to deal with labor-management problems 
and to eliminate improper practices, sometimes illegal activities 
that have developed in this area of our business or society, we inter- 
rogate these witnesses and they resort to the fifth amendment and 
take the position they can't talk about their business, or state what 
business they are in, what profession they follow, or give any account 
whatsoever of the activities, it is becoming clearer all the time that 
there is a challenge from organized crime m this country to the free- 
enterprise system and then to legitimate businesses and also legitimate 
labor organizations. 

I am hopeful that as we proceed and this record is made, that the 
country will become sufficiently alerted and alarmed to this condition, 
and that the Congress, responding to public sentiment and popular 
will, will proceed and be able to enact legislation that will go a long 
ways toward cleaning up this situation, and also to preventing its 
recurring:. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EST THE LABOR FIELD 12429 

This is not a pleasant task this committee has, but we are going t<> 
pursue it and let the record be made. It seems at times we should be 
discouraged in this effort, but the fight has got to be made, and the 
committee will continue, even though we may have a continuation 
of the privilege claimed, the claimed privilege, I think there are im- 
plications from it that cannot escape the attention of the American 
people and of the Congress. 

All right. You may stand aside. 

The Chair would suggest that the witness remain here for the 
present. He will be excused later. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, we have had a witness from Cali- 
fornia regarding the situation from the west coast. I would like to 
now call Mr. Dan Sullivan, from Miami, Florida. 

The Chairman. You do solemnly swear the evidence you shall give 
before the Senate select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Sullivan. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DANIEL P. SULLIVAN 

The Chairman. Mr. Sullivan, state your name, your place of resi- 
dence and your business or occupation, please, sir. 

Mr. Sullivan. My name is Daniel P. Sullivan. I am the operat- 
ing director of the Crime Commission of Greater Miami, and I reside 
in the Miami area. 

The Chairman. Do you waive counsel, Mr. Sullivan ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I do. 

The Chairman. The committee appreciates your willingness to 
come here and give your testimony. Since I have not interviewed 
you, I will ask Mr. Kennedy to proceed with the interrogation. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Sullivan, you are director of the Greater Miami 
Crime Commission ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long have 3^011 held that position ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Since practically its organization in 1948. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did you do prior to that time? 

Mr. Sullivan. I was an agent of the FBI from 1932 until late 
1942. I was in charge of protection for Consolidated Vultee Aircraft 
Corp. in Miami from 1942 to 1945. 1 was chief investigator for the 
Florida State Racing Commission in 1945 and 1946. 1 was em- 
ployed by a group of outstanding citizens in Miami in 1947 to make 
an investigation of the infiltration of gangsters into the Miami area. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Sullivan, have you found through the work 
that you have done, tiiat this is a major problem in your section of the 
country ? 

Mr. Sullivan. We found in the Miami area the concentration of 
nationally known gangsters from practically all parts of the country, 
particularly east of the Mississippi River, from St. Paul down through 
Chicago, across the Lakes to Cleveland, Detroit, Buffalo, Youngstown, 
Warren, into Xew 7 England, and down through the Central States, 
practically all the eastern part of the United States east of the Mis- 
sissippi River. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are there frequent meetings of these individuals in 
the Miami area? 



12430 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Sullivan. Well, I think it goes beyond, meetings. In 1948, 
when we were organized as a citizens effort, an organized citizens 
effort to stop this gangster infiltrattion, they controlled three hotels 
in Miami Beach, and they not only met together but they lived to- 
gether. They were in daily contact with one another. 

The Wofford Hotel was leased by the gangsters. The managing 
director was Anthony Carfono. In the crime hearings in 1950 there 
were some 40 major criminals who were identified as guests of that 
hotel, including starting with Frank Costello and running down the 
line through Joe Adonis and Longy Zwillman and many of the names 
mentioned here today, Jerry Catena, Joe Adonis, the DeCarlos from 
Buffalo and Youngstown, Joe Massei, from Detroit, and various other 
so-called topnotch gangsters. They associated intimately. I mean 
it was not just a casual association. It indicated that they had a com- 
mon interest, and that it was more than a business acquaintance or 
casual personal acquaintance. 

Mr. Kennedy. You mentioned there were three hotels. Hotel 
Wofford was one of them ? 

Mr. Sullivan. The Wofford was one of them. The second hotel 
was called the Grand Hotel. It was a piece of property located diag- 
onally across the street from the Roney Plaza Hotel in the central part 
of Miami Beach, and included the hotel itself, proper, which has con- 
nected with it a barbershop called the Grand Barbershop, then a 
restaurant called the Maxwell Restaurant, on the corner, Tahiti Bar, 
and around the corner a restaurant which has had different names 
through the years, such as the New Italian Restaurant and the Chez 
Paree. These were all controlled through a lease in the name of 
a man by the name of Angersola, a man from Cleveland, Ohio. Later 
the family bought the property. It is now in the name of John Anger- 
sola. It is still the major headquarters for the gangsters that come to 
the Miami area, particularly Joe Massei, who practically lives there all 
the time, and that is more or less their meeting place, and place where 
they receive messages, telephone calls, and join and meet one another. 
Mr. Kennedy. Is there any specific place in the hotel where they 
go to meet ? 

Mr. Sullivan. They meet in the hotel, on 23d Street in front of the 
hotel and in the barbershop, immediately next to the hotel. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, I might say in the course of our in- 
vestigation in some of these other cities, in ( Cleveland and Detroit par- 
ticularly, we have found, from many of the individuals that we are 
investigating, telephone calls to the barbershop at this hotel, and that 
they are telephone calls sometimes person to person, but often tele- 
phone calls just station to station to this barbershop, which, after 
investigation and study down there and conferences with Mr. Sulli- 
van, there is sonic explanation for it. 

They just receive telephone calls in the barbershop, is that correct '. 

Mr. Sullivan. That is where they more or less hang out, and thai 

is right outside ! his hotel, which has been more or less a meeting place 

for them since they took it over in the early 1940's. They have since 

changed I he nameof the hotel to theCarib Hotel. 

Mr. Kennedy. What is the name now? 

Mr. Sullivan. Carib, C-a-r-i-b. The bar on the corner, which is 
the Tahiti Bar, has successively been controlled by gangsters, rack- 
eteers, and criminals, practically for the last 15 years. Among the 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12431 

various persons that operated it were a couple named Pete and Ollie 
Ornstein out of Chicago. She was the prime vice suspect on the near 
northside of Chicago. 

Dave Yaris, who is a former pinball, slot machine operator from 
the West Side of Chicago, who is very close to Joe Massei and very 
close to the Cleveland and Detroit crowd, close to the old Capone mob, 
and, himself, a prime jewel thief. 

Mr. Kennedy. Wasn't he a suspect in a murder also? 
Mr. Sullivan. He was indicted, he and Lonnie Patrick and Willie 
Block, were indicted for the murder of James Kagan, avIio was then 
the president of the Continental Press Service, which was the national 
bookie wire service. There were three witnesses to that murder. 

One was wiped out and one disappeared, and, as I remember it, the 
third one refused to testify, as a result of which the charges against 
the three men were dismissed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Had Mr. Ragan gone to the authorities before and 
said he expected to be killed ? 

Mr. Sullivan. He had made a lengthy statement to the State 
attorney in Chicago some time before his death in anticipation of 
trouble. 

Mr. Kennedy. We also have many telephone calls to this Tahiti 
Bar, Mr. Chairman, from various cities and various individuals. 
Was there a third hotel ? 

Mr. Sullivan. The third hotel was the Santos Hotel, which was 
leased by two men, Bennie Street and Dave Glass, who are more or 
less minor racket figures from Philadelphia. They were employed 
by Angersola and the Cleveland and Detroit crowd to run the Grand 
Hotel at the time they leased it. Subsequently in 1946 they took the 
lease on the Sands Hotel, and they put up $90,000 in advance rental 
on the hotel, of which $50,000 was supposed to have been put up by 
Joe Massei, who is probably the major criminal figure in Detroit, but 
who has resided permanently in Miami for the past 10 or 15 years. 
Street and Glass have run the hotel since that time. 
Mr. Kennedy. Speaking of Joe Massei what is his business interest 
in Miami, now that he lives there? 

Mr. Sullivan. For some years he has been a partner in the Miami 
Provision Co., which is a provision company providing very high- 
quality meats and provisions for restaurants and hotels. 

Air. Kennedy. Does that give him a very important position as far 
as the economy of the hotels of Miami is concerned ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Well, it gives him a front, a legitimate front of 
respectability. As a matter of fact, I do not know that Air. Massei 
does anything illegal in the Miami area. As a matter of fact, at this 
time and for the last 6 or 7 years since we in the crime commission 
and the citizens in conjunction with the paper were finally able to 
close down major gambling in the town, there is little opportunity for 
any large sources of income to these gangsters, who come there more 
or less as vacationers. 

Massei, however, still, at least up to about a year or 2 ago, had large 
interests, and probably is the most powerful man in the lottery busi- 
ness in Detroit, although he probably never leaves the Miami area, 
excepting when they have trouble, when they have a raid on a num- 
bers house that upsets the status quo in Detroit, Massei and others 
will go there. 



12432 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. Is there much contact between these individuals in 
Miami and the group down in Habana, Cuba ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Several of the individuals that used the headquar- 
ters in Miami have moved into Habana. A number of them moved 
originally from Miami into Las Vegas, when the county closed down. 

Santo Trafficante, who is the key figure in the Mafia circles of 
Tampa, is the operator of the Sans Souci Casino in Habana. Tampa 
has a fairly large Sicilian population, and there has been a series of 
gangland slayings in Tampa, I guess in the last 25 years. 

Up until 1953 there were 21 gang killings in the 20-year period, 
none of which I believe were ever solved. Trafficante succeeded his 
father of the same name, Santo Trafficante, Sr., as a major underworld 
racket figure in Tampa. 

The narcotics unit has found in the past that Tampa was intimately 
associated in the smuggling of narcotics with individuals in Kansas 
City. There was a large investigation made in 1943 which resulted 
in the conviction of a man named Paul Antonori, a Tampa figure. 
In the early months of 1953, Antonori was shot at with shotgun blasts 
from a moving car and was wounded, in about August of 1953. In 
November of 1953 he was killed. A few months before the first 
attack upon him, Trafficante was himself the victim of a shotgun 
attemtped murder, and escaped from it. These killings that have 
taken place have been typical gangland type of killings, generally 
with shotgun blasts from moving automobiles, and from ambush. 
Trafficante moved into Habana about 3 or 4 years ago and took over 
the operation of this casino. He visits the Miami area from time to 
time, apparently on his trips between Tampa and Habana. When 
he took over this casino, he took it over from some people who have 
been mentioned in testimony here, one of whom is one of the Man- 
narino brothers, Sammy Mannarino, of New Kensington, Pa. This 
is a family of racketeers who are considered to be the bosses in gam- 
bling, horse books, slot machines, in the New Kensington area. They 
came down to Miami in about 1949, moved in on a night club called 
Mother Kelly's nightclub, and from Mother Kelly's they moved to San 
Souci, and Sans Souci, in turn, was handed over to Trafficante. 

Mr. Kennedy. Both Trafficante and one of the Mannarinos attended 
the meeting in Apalachin ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I think Gabriel, known as Kelly, attended. 

Mr. Kennedy. You say in the Tampa area there have been 21 gang- 
land murders over the period of the past 20 years ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes. But there have been several since that time. 
That was 1953. 

Mr. Kennedy. I understand from a telephone call I got last night 
there was another one yesterday, so that raises the total. Did many of 
these individuals become active in the labor field or try to move in as 
labor-management consultants ? 

Mr. Sullivan. We have had several attempts to move in on labor 
in our area. We had one attempt made 2 years ago, 3 years ago now, 
by a fellow named Charles Karpf . He came out of jail, came to Miami, 
and started to organize the jukebox business, and went through the 
usual routine of setting up, first of all, an association representing 
employers and then going along with setting up a union representing 
the employees or the maintenance men, the electrical maintenance men, 
that maintain these music boxes. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12433 

In a matter of about 5 or G mouths lie just about organized 60 percent 
of the industry and I think in a matter of 2 or 3 more months would 
have organized the entire coin machine industry. 

He put on the payroll a racket figure from Cleveland named Anthony 
Ivandazzo, as a public relations man. 

Mr. Kennedy. He also brought in an individual named Joseph 
Indelicato, who is a major racket figure in this Sicilian group. 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, he is known as Joe Scootch. 

Mr. Kennedy. S-c-o-o-t-c-h ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes. It was only by virtue of the help and coopera- 
tion of the labor representative of the International Brotherhood of 
Electrical "Workers who already were representing these maintenance- 
men, that we were able to get the information and finally expose him 
in the press, with the help of the press, and knock this fellow out of the 
box. 

Mr. Kennedy. And he himself came right out of jail and he had 
the help and assistance of other racketeers ; is that right ? 

Mr. Sullivan. That is right. 

With this collusive agreement between the operators themselves to 
use him as their representative in the employers association, at the same 
time setting up a phony union. 

He just took over one local there without any permission or author- 
ity of any kind. He took over the Bedding Workers Local of the 
Upholsterers International Union. When Mr. Sol Hoffman from 
Philadelphia found out about it, he ordered that local to cease and 
desist from any efforts to organize the coin-machine industry, because 
they had no jurisdiction. Then he turned around and used the mis- 
cellaneous Textile Local of the Textile Workers Union to represent 
these electrical maintenancemen. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where did they carry on their negotiations, the 
employers, with this union ? 

Mr. Sullivan. They carried on a lot of their negotiations in a place 
called the Painted Doll, a night club, which was then controlled and 
was supposed to be owned by Joe Scootch. 

Mr. Kennedy. WTiere did Joe Scootch come from originally, do 
you know ? 

Mr. Sulld7an. I think he came from New York. He is very close 
to the New York crowd. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is he related to Salvatore Falcone, do you know ? 

Mr. Sullivan. We have received information from a reliable source 
that he is a cousin of Falcone, and he is married to a woman named 
Gussie Siller, who was employed by Falcone. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Falcone originally came out of Utica down to 
Miami? 

Mr. Sullivan. Falcone came to Miami and opened up a wholesale 
Italian grocery store. 

Mr. Kennedy. He was at Apalachin, was he not ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, he was. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, we had a witness on the stand just prior to 
your testimony, James Plumeri. Do you know anything of him in 
Miami? 

Mr. Sullivan. He has a home in Miami area, and he lives on 
Harding Avenue, 8819 Hardin Avenue, and he is supposed to have an 
interest in a restaurant called Angelo Palange's, with the Dioguardis 



12434 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

and Joe Spasodo. Joe Spasodo who also, I believe, was at the Apala- 
chin meeting was also supposed to be a part owner of it, and he goes 
by the name of Joe Palisades. 

Mr. Kennedy. Palisades ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. I don't believe he was at Apalachin but he has a 
long criminal record, does he not ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. I understand he was at the meeting at Apalachin. 

Mr. Sullivan. I might mention that Trafficante was at that meeting 
at Apalachin, and on the day that Anastasia died suddenly, Anastasia 
had a room reserved at the Warwick Hotel in New York City, and had 
had that room reserved. It was occupied by Trafficante who moved 
out of the hotel an hour or two after Anastasia was murdered. 

At that time apparently there were negotiations going on between 
representatives of the Habana Hilton Hotel and certain people in 
New York, Hilton Hotel representatives of the Gastronomic Union of 
Cuba for leasing the gambling concession at that hotel. 

It is not at all unbelievable to think that Trafficante probably was 
up there with the idea in mind of taking over the gambling concession 
at the Hilton Hotel. Anastasia apparently also had some interest 
in this particular concession or trying to obtain it. At any rate, 
Trafficante from Tampa was at Apalachin on the day of this meeting 
and he was also in New York City just 15 days difference on the day 
Anastasia was murdered. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about "Trigger Mike" Capolo? Has he been 
active down there ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Mike Capolo has been in the Miami area for 15 years, 
I suppose. He is probably a major racket figure in the East. He as- 
sociates with practically all of the known racketeers that come into 
the Miami area and he is looked up to as an important, prominent 
underworld figure by the lesser lights. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Joe Rivers ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Joe Rivers has been in and out of there for some 
years, and he books horses on the racetracks, and he has taken part in 
floating crap games and he is believed to have an interest in some of 
the casinos in Habana. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is he also known as Joe Selisi ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you say, based on your experience, Mr. Sulli- 
van, that this is a national problem, or a local problem ? 

Mr. Sullivan. There is no question about it. It is a national 
problem. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you say that these people were organized? 

Mr. Sullivan. Highly organized. 

Mr. Kennedy. In their operations? 

Mr. Sullivan. Yes, sir. Nobody, for instance, like Massei, could 
control the apparently tremendous lottery operations that lie has in 
Detroit and be able to sit outside a barbershop in Miami Beach day 
after day, week in and week out, and month in and month out, and not 
have a tremendous organization to carry on his work for him. No 
businessman could do it unless he had a tremendous organization 
behind him. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12435 

Certainly, we find this: When these people come there, they are 
very close. For instance, Massei arranged to have a boat slip back 
about 7 or 8 years ago for Tony Accardo, who is a topman of the 
Capone mob in Chicago. lie "was intimately acquainted with Charley 
Vicetti, who is now dead, of the Capone mob. lie is very close to the 
Cleveland crowd, and very close to the Buffalo crowd, and the New 
York and New Jersey crowd. All of these people are very intimately 
associated with one another, and there is no question in my mind that 
they are operating on a national level, and that they are highly 
organized. 

Mr. Kennedy. What part would the control of the teamsters, by 
this group, have in your area? 

Mr. Sullivan. Well, I couldn't say. 

Mr. Kennedy. What would be the effect of the control of the truck- 
ing in Miami in the wrong hands? 

Mr. Sullivan. Miami is a long way from the general sources of 
supply for practically all products, and all of that stuff has to be 
shipped in there, and most of it is shipped in by bus and van. 

It would probably paralyze the hotel industry there, if there was a 
strike of truckers. We have about 450 or 500 hotels in Miami Beach. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would the control of the union by the underworld 
have a great effect on the economy of Miami ? 

Mr. Sullivan. There is no question about it. That is very much 
so. 

Air. Kennedy. It could paralyze the whole city ? 

Mr. Sullivan. It certainly could. 

Mr. Kennedy. And in the hands of the wrong people, it could cause 
great havoc ? 

Mr. Sullivan. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you have any suggestions as to how to deal 
with these problems, Mr. Sullivan ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Well first of all, there is a very obvious defect, 
noted I guess by all investigators who have run into this mob. That 
is that there is no agency on a city, county, State, or Federal level whose 
job it is primarily to dig in and dig out these characters and find out 
who they are and where they are and what they are doing. It is 
unfortunate in this regard that even in our Federal setup, each of 
your investigative agencies has a distinct but limited jurisdiction. 

Therefore, there is no one agency that is interested and has the 
jurisdiction to find out everything there is about these people. I 
think we need on a Federal level what the Los Angeles Police Depart- 
ment has on the local level. We need a general racket intelligence 
squad. In other words, it is not particularly interested or concerned 
or responsible for prosecution of a specific offense, and not necessarily 
concerned with or responsible for any court actions to be taken, but 
just a general Federal intelligence agency to do nothing but collect 
information on these gangsters from a national level. 

We need it badly. It has to be on a Federal level because no one 
small agency can, on a local level, dig these fellows out. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you say to understand and deal with these 
people that you have to know all about their front organizations, and 
their businesses, as well as their illegitimate operations? 

Mr. Sullivan. You have to know everything about them. I think 
probably the chart that Mr. Martin got together will wind up to be 



12436 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

one of the most valuable things that has ever been done in connection 
with this group, the Mafia. I take my hat off to the committee in that 
regard. This is a step in the right direction, but it should be ex- 
tended out to cover the whole United States, showing the relationship 
of these people, one to another. And then the same thing ought to 
be done on a business level and on the social level. It should be done 
by an outfit that has no responsibility to investigate and no respon- 
sibility to prosecute. It should be done as a research organization, 
and possibly in Justice. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you say there was a major effort on the part 
of these people to infiltrate into the businesses and into labor unions ? 

Mr. Sullivan. There is no question about it. They infiltrated into 
the Miami area in large numbers, particularly during the time when 
the gambling was open and they were able to get into the gambling 
setup. We had the whole New York mob — Jake Lansky, and Meyer 
Lansky, Joe Adonis, and Jimmy Blue Eyes, and Frank Erickson — 
and they control all of the gambling in the county next to us where 
there is wide-open gambling. 

They had the Club Green Acres, and the Colonial Inn, and they had 
the Club Bohemia. 

Then we had the Chicago mob that muscled in on the S. and G. 
Bookmaking Syndicate, which is the largest bookmaking syndicate, 
I guess, in the history of the United States, and the Cap'one mob 
moved in and took over that syndicate. 

When we were successful in closing down the county, it cut off that 
source. A lot of these fellows moved out, and for instance, Anthony 
Carfano, he hasn't been down there to any extent in the last 5 or 6 
years, and fellows like Poggi Torello, a well-known hoodlum out of 
New York, he is no longer down there. And a lot of them moved into 
Las Vegas and took jobs in these gambling casinos, and some moved 
to Habana. But certainly in order to get to the root of this situation, 
you cannot do it on a local level. It has to be done on a nationwide 
basis. 

The Chairman. We heard some testimony yesterday from Captain 
Hamilton of the Los Angeles Police. As I understood from his testi- 
mony, it is somewhat the same as yours with respect to how this prob- 
lem may be handled and solved. Would you say that there should be 
established what might be termed a "national crime commission" 
vested with powers to investigate, subpena, and compel testimony, and 
to investigate something comparable to what this committee has as a 
legislative committee, and then make available, to expose and collect 
and disseminate factual information regarding organized crime in 
this country, and make that information available to all law enforce- 
ment agencies throughout the country ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I think it should be something along that line, Sen- 
ator. The question of whether or not they should have subpena 
powers is a question that has a lot of problems thrown around them. 
But I think the idea of having some central agency, whatever you 
want to call it, possibly it should come under Justice, with the re- 
sponsibility for prosecuting all Federal law, and they have a much 
broader jurisdiction than any other department. 

There should be some kind of a commission or an intelligence unit 
in Justice that has nothing to do with prosecutions but merely a col- 
lection of evidence and transmission of that evidence to the respective 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12437 

Federal agencies and where it might be advisable to pass on down to 
local agencies. 

The Chairman. My thinking about it at the moment is that I think 
it deserves the best thought and judgment of the Congress as this 
information comes to us, if we are able to develop it, and point up the 
need for some action to be taken. I am thinking that a committee such 
as this, a permanent congressional committee is not necessarily the 
right answer to it, because those of us in the Congress have other re- 
sponsibilities and this job if it is to be done properly, those who direct 
it and have the responsibility for it will not have, in my opinion, time 
to do anything else. 

There should be full time given to it. I was thinking in terms of 
some kind of a national commission empowered and invested with au- 
thority to do something comparable to what this committee is doing in 
the way of exposing and in the way of getting the factual information. 
Then the proper dissemination of it would be reporting to the Justice 
Department and to any law enforcement agency in the United States 
having jurisdiction of any information or any crime or any activity 
that it may expose. 

In other words, if it is on a national scope, and if it is organized 
crime on a national scope, you can only compete with it by an or- 
ganization to combat it on a national scope. That is my thinking about 
it at the moment. Do you agree ? 

Mr. Sullivan. I certainly agree with you very heartily, Senator. 

The Chairman". And maybe if nothing else constructive comes out 
of these hearings, and I hope much more will, we will find that this 
is a problem of such national scope and of such magnitude as a threat 
and a challenge to our society that the Congress will act in this field 
and take some steps, the best we can determine, to combat this grow- 
ing organized crime in this country. 

I would appreciate it and I know the committee will, as long as 
we continue, those of you who have this broad experience and who 
have followed this development in this country of this criminal under- 
world element and its activities, we will appreciate your recommen- 
dations along these lines. I think it is becoming evident that we are 
now approaching the time when we have to consider how to act and 
what to do about it. 

I think we are establishing beyond any doubt that the condition pre- 
vails, and the evil is there and it is a challenge to this country of ours, 
and we have to take some action. 

Suggestions and recommendations from people who are in positions 
such as yours and who have had this tremendous experience can be 
very helpful to us. I personally wish to thank you for the cooperation 
you have given the committee. I think that you are rendering not 
only the committee and the Congress but your country a great service 
in your cooperation with us in helping us to try to find the answers. 

Senator Church, do you have any comment ? 

Senator Church. I would just concur in what you have said, and 
also I would like to convey to the witness my appreciation for his 
helpfulness and for his testimony this morning. 

Senator Curtis. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. Is there anything else ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Sullivan's Bureau has been of great help to 
us in the Florida area during this period of time. 



12438 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Sullivan. We are grateful to this committee and we think you 
are doing a fine public service in the work you have done so far, and 
I think if anything you are getting into the most serious phase of it 
right now when you get into this gangster problem. We are behind 
you 100 percent, and I can assure you on behalf of the Commission 
that we will continue to give your committee every possible coopera- 
tion. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Senator Curtis. Mr. Chairman, I do have one question. Why does 
this gangster element move into the field of unions ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Well, we had a representative of one of the Senate 
committees attend one of our annual conventions, and he spoke about 
a man who moved into the union welfare business. They asked this 
man who had been in some other type of business why he had moved 
into this type of business, and he said : 

"Well first of all, when you have a checkoff system, you have a foolproof system 
of collections. It doesn't cost you any money to operate. Secondly, if you run into 
one of these insurance companies or welfare outfits, you don't pay any money out 
and you take it all in. And thirdly, you have no inspection on the local, county, 
State, or Federal level. So your funds are not audited. 

What it amounts to here is that you have a kind of a vacuum in our 
political economy whereby a great mass of money can flow into the 
hands of individuals where no accounting and no inspection of any 
kind. 

Senator Curtis. And there is a situation created under existing 
laws and circumstances that gives an opportunity for blackmail and 
extortion too, isn't there ? 

Mr. Sullivan. That is right. 

Senator Curtis. And there is also an area where fear can be an im- 
portant factor both in dealing with employers, both large and small, 
as well as with the membership, isn't that right? 

Mr. Sullivan. That is right, and not only that, you also have this 
situation, which you have seen develop here in this committee, where 
you have these same individuals on both sides of the fence. They 
can control the workers and they control a phase of management. 

Senator Curtis. Well, I think in your last remarks here you have 
made a very definite and specific contribution to the work of this 
committee, because while we are very much interested in the crime 
element, it is a labor-management inquiry that we are conducting, and 
I am so thoroughly convinced that unless Ave have some basic changes 
in laws in regard to union membership and the control of members 
over their officers and the freedom of members to get out that we are 
going to have these things go on. I thank you very much. 

Mr. Sullivan. Thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, we have had the situation now in 
California and Florida. We have had some representatives from 
unions, from trucking in New York, Mr. Plumeri, and also from some 
textile interests in New York and in Pennsylvania. 

Now I would like to call as a witness a major truckowner, an in- 
dividual who has some interests with certain union officials in the 
Midwest, and I would like to call Mr. Busier Wortman, of St. Louis. 
mitt.ee, shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 

Mr. Frank "Buster" Wortman. 

Senator Church. Will the witness please come forward? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12439 

Do you swear that the evidence, given before this Senate select com- 
mittee, shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Wortman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK WORTMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 
MORRIS A. SHENKER 

Senator Church. Are you represented by counsel this morning ? 

Mr. Wortman. Yes, sir. 

Senator Church. Will counsel identify himself ? 

Mr. Shenker. My name is Morris A. Shenker. I am a lawyer 
from St. Louis, and my office address is at 408 Olive Street. 

Senator Church. All right. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you identify yourself? 

Mr. Wortman. Frank Wortman. 

Mr. Kennedy. And your address ? 

Mr. Wortman. 421 Broadway, East St. Louis, HI. 

Mr. Kennedy. And your business ? 

Mr. Wortman. I claim my privilege on that. 

Mr. Kennedy. What privilege? 

Mr. Wortman. Under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. You refuse to answer what your business is? 

Mr. Wortman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. On what grounds ? 

Mr. Wortman. It may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Shenker. Mr. Chairman, at this time I should like to make a 
short statement pertaining to the situation that exists insofar as Mr. 
Wortman is concerned, which I think this committee might be in- 
terested in. 

I think it might cast some reflections and reasons why his fear is 
well substantiated insofar as declining to answer any questions per- 
taining to certain matters. 

The Chairman. Counsel may make a very brief statement. 

Mr. Shenker. If it please, Mr. Chairman, Mr. Wortman has been 
the subject of a grand- jury investigation beginning with the early 
part of 1954, which began originally in the eastern district of Mis- 
souri and then w 7 as picked up by the grand-jury investigations in East 
St. Louis, which is in Illinois where Mr. Wortman resides. 

Continuously since 1954 he has been the subject of investigation 
by various Government agencies, the FBI, and the Bureau of Internal 
Revenue, as well as continuous grand jury investigations. 

No later than this morning there is an article which appeared in 
the usually reliable Globe-Democrat, a daily newspaper in the city of 
St. Louis, wherein it is stated that a new grand jury in the city of 
St. Louis is to be impaneled on July 15 wherein the activities of Mr. 
Frank Wortman are under investigation by a Federal grand jury 
in Illinois, but that the new grand jury that is to be impaneled will 
also be interested in investigating and to continue to investigate his 
activities in Missouri. 

The article states they will watch carefully the scrutinizing testi- 
mony of this honorable committee for the purposes of determining as 
to whether they can connect Mr. Wortman with any possible criminal 
conspiracy or any possible criminal action. 



12440 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. Is he under indictment at the present time ? 

Mr. Shenker. He is not. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. He has a constitutional 
right in the fifth amendment, if he honestly believes that a truthful 
answer to the questions might tend to incriminate him. 

Senator Curtis. I have listened attentatively to the counsel's state- 
ment that the witness has been under investigation since 1954 by local, 
State, and Federal authorities. I gathered from his statement that 
this has been in reference to a number of matters. We are charged 
with securing information for legislative purposes in the field of 
labor and management. I have a question that couldn't possibly in- 
criminate him, and I hope that counsel will advise him to answer. 

My question is, Is the witness an officer or employee or agent of 
any labor union at this time and has he been during the time since 
1954? 

(The witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Shenker. Prior to the answer of this question. Senator Cur- 
tis, may I enlighten you on the type of investigation that has been 
going on pertaining to this witness ? 

Senator Curtis. I have no objection, if it is brief. 

Mr. Shenker. One of the facets of the investigation of Mr. Wort- 
man deals as to his possible connections with labor unions or as to his 
possible connection with employers insofar as influencing labor unions. 
This committee as a matter of fact knows there were numerous indict- 
ments and convictions in the St. Louis area of labor leaders and labor 
representatives, and labor agents, or agents of various unions, and 
in that connection one of the matters that official bodies were con- 
cerned with was to see if Mr. Wortman had any influence or any con- 
nection with any of those labor agents or labor representatives, I 
thought that the Senator should be aware of that prior to the answer- 
ing of that question. 

In fact, as recently as April 22, 1958, and I have the newspaper here 
with the headlines of the East St. Louis Journal reading "Bricklay- 
ers Wortman's Aids 1 ', and then it says "Judge Wants Jury To See 
Rackets." 

I am familiar with that personally because I represented one of the 
persons that was subpenaed. One of the things that they were at- 
tempting to do was to find out if there was any connection between 
Mr. Wortman, and whether he had exerted any influence in connection 
with the businesses being investigated in connection with labor. So 
that is actively under investigation by the grand jury now. 

Senator Curtis. Well, I am not going to premise that all unions are 
corrupt or all union member's are corrupt. For very valid legislation 
purposes I would like to know if this man who has been under all sorts 
of investigations as you say, is an officer in a labor union. 

Mr. Shenker. Are you limiting it to an officer? 

Senator Curtis. An officer or employee or an agent. 

Mr. Shenker. Those are broad terms. 

Senator Curtis. I know they are. 

Mr. Shenker. If you are limiting it to an officer, I will advise this 
witness to answer, frankly. But when you take in such a catchall 
phrase — 

Senator Curtis. That is not a catchall phrase. I want to know if he 
is running a labor union. These people that come before us here, a 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12441 

lot of them have never been duly elected officers I think this commit- 
tee is entitled to know that and it can't possibly incriminate him, and 
there is nothing incriminat ing, per se, about a labor union. 

Mr. Siikxker. Of course, when you pose the question in this man- 
ner, there being such a broad question, in view of the investigations, I 
would say that a witness should and would have some fears that any 
answer he may give may tend to incriminate him, in view of the extent 
and scope of the grand- jury investigations that are in process. 

I would have no objection in all frankness, and I certainly want to 
be fair with this committee, I would have no objections, if he were to 
answer the strictly legal question or strict question, if he is an officer of 
a labor union and I would have no objection to him answering that 
question. 

Senator Curtis. Is he refusing to answer? 

Mr. Wortman. Yes ; I decline to answer. 

(At this point, the following members were present: Senators 
McClellan, Church, and Curtis.) 

The Chairman. The Chair is going to require you, now. You 
have counsel present. If you are going to decline to answer, you are 
going to decline in the proper way. Bear that in mind. Your 
counsel can give you such advice as he thinks proper. 

All right, proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are you an officer of any labor union ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wortman. No, I am not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you run any labor unions? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel) 

Mr. Wortman. I decline to answer on the ground it might tend 
to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you receive money from certain labor unions 
in St. Louis ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel) 

Mr. Wortman. I decline to answer on the ground it may incrimi- 
nate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You are a member, are you not, of local 562 of the 
steamfitters union? 

Mr. Wortman. I didn't hear that. 

Mr. Kennedy. You are a member, are you not, of local 562 of the 
steamfitters ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long have you been in that union? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did you give as your residence, Mr. Wort- 
man ? 

Mr. Wortman. 421 Broadway, East St. Louis. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is that a hotel ? 

Mr. Wortman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. You have a suite in the hotel, do you ? 

Mr. Wortman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who pays for that ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may incriminate me. 



12442 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. You don't pay for that out of your own money, do 
you, Mr. Wortman ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't that suite paid for by a man by the name of 
Sam Magin ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer. It might tend to 
incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us who Sam Magin is? 

Mr. Wortman. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that you also have another residence 
at Morris Hills, which is a suburb of East St. Louis ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Aren't some of your assistants and aids also with 
residences there: Dutch Dowling, Sam Magin, your brother Ted 
Wortman, and a nephew, Gordon Foster ? Is that correct ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground 
that it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't that area called Hoodlum Hill, in East St. 
Louis ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. How many times have you been arrested, Mr. 
Wortman ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. I don't know if we have a complete record here, 
but we have you down here as arrested 38 times. Is that right? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That includes 20 times as a robbery suspect, 2 
times carrying concealed weapons, and you were questioned in 3 
different killings. 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground 
it might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you tell us anything about that at all ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were sentenced in 1933 to 10 years at Leaven- 
worth and Alcatraz. Is that right ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were sentenced along with Blackie Amies to 
the Federal penitentiary for assault on a prohibition agent, is that 
right? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You served part time in Alcatraz and you were 
released in 1941, according to our information, is that right? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then after release you were brought into the south- 
ern Illinois part of the old Capone mob. You were brought into 
that group by Amies himself , is that right? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12443 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 

may (end to incriminate me. 

Air. Kennedy. Amies passed away in 1945, did he not ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
mighl tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. He was killed in a gun fight in southern Illinois? 

Mr. Wortman. 1 respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Trior to joining the Capone group, yon were a 
member of the Shelton gang, is thai correct? 

Mr. Wortman. 1 respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
might tend to incriminate me. 

All-. Kennedy. And yon had, during the period of time after 1915, 
some financial dealings with Orville Hodge, did you not, up in 
Illinois I 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what your financial arrangements 
have been with Orville Hodge? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to the information that we have, you 
were active in gambling, you own some gambling casinos around St. 
Lonis, is that right? 

Mr. AVortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you ran the racetrack wire service for a period 
of time? 

Mr. AA t ortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You ran the Reliable News Service of Fairmount 
City, 111., and the Pioneer News Agency of St. Louis, Mo., is that 
right ? 

Mr. AAtortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the Pioneer controlled the handbooks in 
Illinios? 

Mr. AA r 0RTMAN. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Or part of Illinois, you might say. And then also 
controlled a good number of the handbooks in the greater St. Louis 
area, is that right? 

Mr. AA t ortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And from that you received at least $25,000 a week, 
did you not, Mr. AAtortman ? 

Mr. AAtortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the gambling establishments that yon have or 
have had, are the Terrace Lounge, the Red Rooster, the Club Preview, 
the Paddock, the Empire Club, 7800 Club, the RR Club, and the Junc- 
tion T Club, is that right I 

21243— 58— pt. 32 17 



12444 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. These clubs were operated in the names of other 
individuals, were they not? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You state, do you not, that you have no bank ac- 
counts of your own ? Is that right, Mr. Wortman ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that you used Ted Wortman and Sam Magin 
and George Frank as some of the fronts for these organizations ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You also have an interest in trucking with one of 
the big truckers in that area, it that right ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The trucking company that you control was the 
Chicago and St. Louis Express Co., is that right? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what your relationship is with 
Stephen Gorman, of the Stephen Gorman Bricklaying Co.? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The Stephen Gorman Bricklaying Co. owns the 
terminals in both St. Louis and Chicago, out of which your express 
company operates, does it not ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to an affidavit we have here, or it is a 
statement rather than an affidavit, from the accountant, you owe the 
Stephen Gorman Bricklaying Co., which owns these terminals, 
$67,300, as of June 30, 1958. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell the committee why they have not at- 
tempted to collect over the period of the last 3 or 4 years from you ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that this Stephen Gorman Bricklay- 
ing Co. did some work on your home? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to the statement of the accountant, rec- 
ords of the Gorman Bricklaying Co., show that in 1952 work was 
performed on the homes of Frank "Buster" Wortman and Elmer 
Bowling. These jobs were known as the Morris Hills job and the 
Hilltop job. Work on Wortman's house amounted to $8,057 and 
work on Dowlirig's house amounted to $9,7G1, for a total of $17,818 
for the 2 jobs. 

As of June 30, 1958, no payment has been received for this work*. 
Could you explain that to us? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12445 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds that 
it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is is correct that the reason that they have not 
billed you in any of these matters is that you bring labor peace to 
them in their work? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what your relationship has been 
with the Bricklayers' Union in the St. Louis area? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Leo Havey, of local 1? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Hasn't it been because of the assistance you have 
given to the Stephen Gorman Bricklaying Co., that they have pro- 
cured or secured practically a monopoly on all the public housing 
projects in the St. Louis area ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Hasn't it been arranged for the Gorman Brick- 
laying Co., to take on a public relations man and a labor relations 
man, who are close associates of yours ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The payroll records and the cash receipts records 
of that company have disappeared. Do you know what happened to 
them? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. But it has been established, Mr. Wortman, that 
they had placed on their payroll 12 of your associates with criminal 
records. Could you tell us how that happened to come about? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And they received a total of $35,000 on 4 jobs, is 
that right? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Sam Magin, who went on as a public relations 
man, and Jimmy Michaels, who went on as a labor relations man, 
received, out of that amount, $22,000 for their labor relations serv- 
ices. Is that right? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Michaels also has a record consisting of about 25 
arrests. He served 13 years in Joliet, in 1938, is that right? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. He was arrested in connection with several killings 
and involved in a number of gang fights, rival mobs in St. Louis? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 



12446 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you tell us why Mr. Gorman would place all 
those people on the payroll ? 

Mr. Wortman. 1 respectfully refuse to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Another one was Joe Yanco, with a long police rec- 
ord, who served 10 years for robbery, 2 years for burglary and as- 
sault to kill. 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Horace Love, also known as Frank Brown, 
sentenced to 15 years in 1931 for the possession of burglary tools? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And then about 6 or 8 handbook operators and 
gamblers who were also placed on the payroll. 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Out of all of those individuals, there was only one 
individual, Robert Phelps, who held a union card. Can you ex- 
plain that to us ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground that it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You also operate a good number of the juke boxes, 
in that area, don't you ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that is done through the Plaza Amusement 
Co.? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know John Scalish, of Ohio, also in the 
jukebox business ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Joey Glimco, of Chicago ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The stockholders in your Plaza Amusement Co. 
were Louie "Red" Smith, convicted of mail robbery and tax violation; 
"Dutch" Dowling, your enforcer, with a long criminal record; and 
Barney Barts, who is a well-known hoodlum. Can you tell us how 
you got all of those people on your payroll, why you put all of those 
people on your payroll ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about the C. & W. Loan Co. of St. Louis. Is 
thai also operated by you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Ken n edy. And ( he Madison Investment Co. ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds 
it may tend to incriminate me. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12447 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what your relationship lias been 
with the Mullen Trucking Service? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the assets of that company were taken over ulti- 
mately by the Acme Motor Co. Could you tell us your relationship 
with that company '. 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The records of the Mullen Co. are missing, so there 
was no evidence of any payment for the assets of Mullen, when Acme 
took it over. Can you explain thatto us? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Mullen is related to you, is he not? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The present president of Acme is John Saica, who 
was a Teamster official. 

Can you explain to us how he was set up in business? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Mr. Mullen was related to yOu, and Saica also 
took over the Daisy Express Co. and F. M. Freight Lines. Can you 
tell us about that? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The construction company whom we understand 
you are associated with, is the GB Realty Co., where Sam Magin is 
a front for you. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Cascade Hills Construction Co., for which Magin 
again is a front for you ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us your relationship with the Gormco 
Construction Co. ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. There was a castle with a moat built around it out 
in East St. Louis, on which work was done by the Gorman Construc- 
tion Co. Could you tell us what you had to do with that ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was the purpose of building the castle with 
the moat around it? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that free labor was supplied in con- 
nection with that building? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 



12448 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. What were you going to do in that building, Mr. 
Wortman ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. When it was being put up, you said it was going to 
be used as a boys' club ; is that right ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Wasn't it in fact going to be used as a gambling 
place by you, Mr. Wortman ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, we have a telegram here from Mr. 
Gorman. I don't think we will probably have time to hear every one 
of the witnesses in connection with Mr. Wortman, but he has sent a 
telegram. We have Mr. Magin here, who perhaps will throw some 
light on this situation. 

The Chairman. The Chair will read this telegram just for in- 
formation; it is not evidence. It is dated St. Louis, June 30, 1958, 
addressed to Mr. Kennedy as counsel of the committee. 

It says : 

Matters pertaining to financial transactions of Gorman Bricklaying Co. and 
Stephen Gorman are presently under Federal grand jury and Internal Revenue 
Service investigation. In view of this, I have advised Gorman to invoke con- 
stitutional privilege against self-incrimination when appearing before your com- 
mittee. Under these circumstances, may his appearance be excused. 

It is signed Daniel B. Reardon. 

Do you know anything about Mr. Gorman's connection and his ac- 
tivities with this Gorman Bricklaying Co., Stephen Gorman ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. May I ask you are you now engaged in, or have you 
been engaged in, any legitimate business at all during the past dozen 
years, about which you can testify without the risk of self-incrimina- 
tion ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Can't you tell us one single thing you have done 
that you would defend as being decent and honorable, one single 
thing? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Have you any questions, Senator Church? 

Senator Chttrch. No questions. 

The Chairman. Senator Curtis? 

Senator Curtis. I have no questions. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Wortman, can you tell us what your relation- 
ship was with Laurence Callanan, who was the former business agent 
of local 562? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
would tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. He was convicted and is presently serving time for 
violation of the Hobbs Antiracketeering Act. Can you tell us what 
you know about that? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12449 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is it correct that Mr. Callanan is presently on, or 
was as of a year ago, still on the payroll while he was in prison, still 
on the payroll of local 5G2 ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to our information, you also have a close 
relationship with Paul Hoolihan, who was former head of local 42 of 
the Construction Laborers Union; is that correct? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And he is also serving time for violation of the 
Hobbs Act. 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Curtis. Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Senator Curtis. 

Senator Curtis. Do you know Mr. Harold Gibbons of the Team- 
sters Union ? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Curtis. Do you know Mr. Barney Baker of the Teamsters 
Union? 

Mr. Wortman. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Curtis. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Obviously, this witness is not in a position to an- 
swer any questions without possible self-incrimination, according to 
his own judgment of his own activities and his own conduct. So in 
view of that, we will let the record stand as it is. 

Do you want him any more ? 

Mr. Kennedy. We will need him back some other time, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

The Chairman. The Chair will place you under recognizance to 
return to the committee and give testimony at such time as it may 
further desire to interrogate you without the necessity of another 
subpena. Do you accept such recognizance ? 

Mr. Shenker. That is correct, Mr. Chairman, providing only one 
thing, that the appearance shall not be considered voluntary, that it 
will be considered as though he is appearing under subpena. 

The Chairman. It will be under subpena. He will remain under 
the present subpena subject to being recalled. 

Mr. Shenker. The witness will so conduct himself. 

The Chairman. And, of course, subject to reasonable notice of time 
and place either to you as his counsel or to himself. 

Mr. Shenker. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. Stand aside. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Sam George Magin is the next witness. 

The Chairman. Come forward, Mr. Magin. 

Do you solemnly swear the evidence you shall give before this Senate 
Select Committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help }'ou God ? 

Mr. JMagin. I do. 



12450 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

TESTIMONY OF SAM MAGIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, MORRIS A. 

SHENKER 

The Chairman. State your name, your place of residence, and your 
business or occupation. 

Mr. Magin. My name is Sam Magin, 140 Hillcrest Drive, Collins- 
ville, 111. 

The Chairman. Collinsville, 111. ? 

Mr. Magin. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you finish your answer ? 

Mr. Magin. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Are you going to answer as to your present busi- 
ness or occupation ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it might 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Siienker. Mr. Chairman, may I make a statement insofar as 
this witness is concerned, a short statement? 

The Chairman. Do you have counsel present, Mr. Magin ? 

Mr. Magin. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Let the record show the same counsel appears for 
this witness as for the preceding witness. 

Counsel, we will hear a brief statement. 

Mr. Shenker. The record may show that I am appearing for Mr. 
Sam Magin in a special capacity, that I am not his counsel in the case 
which is pending but that his counsel could not appear today, and 
asked me since I was here that I participate in these hearings. 

The Chairman. Will you identify his counsel ? 

Mr. Shenker. Ray M. Foreman and he is from Illinois. 

The Chairman. His address, if you can give it. 

Mr. Shenker. 41 North Vermilion, Danville, 111. I conferred with 
him Wednesday evening pertaining to this matter. The statement, 
Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, that I wish to make 
pertaining to Mr. Magin 

The Chairman. Have you submitted that statement to the com- 
mittee? 

Mr. Shenker. It is not a written statement. It is just a document 
to refresh my memory. 

The Chairman. I thought you were going to read a long statement. 

Mr. Shenker. No, Mr. Chairman, I wouldn't do that. Mr. Magin 
is presently under indictment in the District Court of the United 
States for the Eastern District of Illinois, and that is on criminal 
information charging the violation of section 1621 and section 10001 
of title 18 of the United States Code, 

This indictment was returned some time ago. Motions on the mat- 
ter were heard yesterday, and the matter, as of yesterday, was set 
for trial for July 15, this year. 

Furthermore, Mr. Magin has been and is the subject of an extensive 
investigation that has been carried on and is being carried on in the 
eastern district of Illinois insofar as his activities as allegedly being 
connected with persons of bad reputation and persons who are gen- 
erally, according to the press at least, considered as being engaged in 
unlawful occupations. 

The Chairman. What is the charge in the indictment? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12451 

Mr. Shenker. The indictment specifically charges on four counts, 
and charges perjury before the grand jury iu L956. The perjury 
stems, apparently, according to the indictment, from allegations that 

in answering; his questions pertaining to his associations and business 
affairs, that is, as to his associations in business and business affairs, 
that he did not truthfully, according to the charge, state or reveal to 
the grand jury his associations; (hat Mr. Magin has also been (he sub- 
ject of the investigation since about 11)55 in connection with many 
of the matters about which this committee sought information just a 
few minutes ago from Mr. Frank Wortman, and his income-tax mat- 
ters are also being- under investigation. 

The Chairman. We are not excusing people from testifying just 
because there may be some investigation pending against them. Where 
there is an indictment that is specific with regard to some offense we 
have generally not interrogated them about the subject matter of the 
indictment. 1 think, maybe, that if you have a copy of the indictment, 
you might pass it up to us and let us see it. 

Mr. Shenker. I shall be glad to. I have only one copy. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have one. 

The Chairman. We have a copy. Thank you. 

If the witness will not tell his business or occupation, I conceive he 
is going to talk less about any other things, or certainly not any more. 

Mr. Counsel, you can proceed the best you can. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Magin, have you got some interests in certain 
of the gambling clubs around St. Louis ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr, Kennedy. According to the information we have, you have at 
least a front interest in the R. R. Club, the Junction T Club, the Cash 
Sales Co., the Empire Club, and the 7800 Club. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that you are holding Mr. Wortman's 
interests in those various gambling and other kinds of clubs ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what your relationship has been 
with Mr. Wortman ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then would you tell us what your relationship has 
been with Mr. Gorman ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully refuse to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about the GB Realty Co., one of Gorman's 
companies? Can you tell us what your relationship has been with 
that ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the Cascade Hills Development Co., another 
company ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 



12452 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. Gormco Construction Co.; can you tell us about 
that? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We understand that Mr. Gorman has placed you on 
the payroll as a labor-relations expert. Can you tell us what your ex- 
perience has been in that field ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you ever had any labor-relations experience? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that you were just placed on the pay- 
roll as a means of making payoffs to Mr. Wortman ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And wasn't that part of the agreement between Mr. 
Gorman and Mr. Wortman, whereby Mr. Wortman would not charge 
Mr. Gorman for these various expenses ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you ever been a member of any labor union ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you tell us about this castle around which the 
moat was built ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

(At this point, Senator McClellan left the room.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Supposedly that was built by you and for you. 

Can you tell us what the situation was? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was the reason for putting the moat around 
the building? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you tell the committee how you were able to 
obtain free labor on that operation ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you tell us about the Madison Investments Co? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you tell us why you pay the expenses for Mr. 
Wortman's hotel suite at the Broadview Hotel ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you tell us what the relationship is between you, 
Wortman, and Gorham, Mr. Magin ? 

Mr. Magin. I respectfully decline to answer on the ground it may 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12453 

Senator Church. The witness may stand aside. 

Are there any other questions ? 

Mr. Kennedy. I would like for him to remain under the same 
subpena. 

Mr. Siienker. The situation is that he will be available at the call 
of the committee upon reasonable notice, providing, however, that it 
is understood that any answer will be considered as replying to a 
subpena. 

Senator Church. The present subpena will continue under those 
arrangements, then. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, we have had a compilation made of 
the number of arrests charged to persons who appeared on the re- 
lations chart. Can we put that into the record through Mr. Martin? 

Senator Church. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE H. MARTIN— Resumed 

Senator Church. Mr. Martin, I understand you have been sworn 
in connection with the testimony given on the relations matter. 

Mr. Martin. That is correct. 

Senator Church. Would you identify yourself for the record, 
please ? 

Mr. Martin. George Martin, investigator for the committee. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us, Mr. Martin, if you have made a 
compilation of the number of arrests charged to persons who appear 
on the relationship chart? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. There was a total of 741 arrests. In the category 
involving crimes where firearms or the use of firearms appears, such 
as carrying concealed weapons, armed robbery, assault with intent to 
kill, felonious wounding, et cetera, the total was 212. In the category 
of suspicion of murder, attempted murder, conspiracy to commit 
murder, murder, the total was 97. Violations of the prohibition law 
and since repeal, the alcohol tax laws, such as possession of untaxed 
liquor, operation of unregistered stills, the total was 86. 

Violations of various Federal statutes, such as the wage and hour 
laws, OPA regulations, internal revenue, tariff, pure food and drug, 
tax laws, the total is 52. 

(At this point, Senator McClellan entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Martin. There were 21 arrests for kidnaping and attempted 
kidnaping. There were 112 arrests on gambling charges. In the cate- 
gory of extortion, blackmail, and coercion there were 39 arrests. In 
the category which includes burglary, grand larceny, larceny, break- 
ing and entering, and forgery there were 78 arrests. There were 32 
arrests for violations on narcotics charges, 11 arrests on charges of 
counterfeiting, and there was 1 charge of impersonating an officer. 

Mr. Kennedy. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. The next witness will be Mr. Chait. 

The Chairman. You do solemnly swear the evidence you shall give 
before this Senate select committee shall be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Chait. I do. 



12454 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IX THE LABOR FIELD 

TESTIMONY OF ABRAHAM CHAIT, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
SEYMOUR WALDMAN 

The Chairman. State your name, your place of residence, and 
your business or occupation. 

Mr. Chait. My name is Abraham Chait. I live at 720 Fort Wash- 
ington Avenue, New York City. 

The Chairman. What is your business or occupation? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend 
to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Waldman. May I make a brief statement in that connec- 
tion? 

The Chairman. Do you have counsel with you ? 

Mr. Chait. I do. 

The Chairman. Counsel, identify yourself for the record. 

Mr. Waldman. Seymour Waldman, 305 Broadway, New York, 
N. Y. 

May I make a brief statement, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. You may make a brief statement. 

Mr. Waldman. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Chait is presently under in- 
vestigation by the Intelligence Unit of the Treasury Department, by 
the United States grand jury for the southern district of New York, 
and by the New York State grand jury impaneled in the comity 
of New York. 

In connection with the impaneling of the Federal grand jury for 
the southern district of New York, Mr. Chait was one of the per- 
sons singled out for special mention by the United States attorney. 

In the light of these investigations, we have advised Mr. Chait to 
avail himself of his privileges under the fifth amendment to the 
United States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. He is not under indict- 
ment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chait, do you have a trucking interest ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend 
to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that you are the major trucker in 
the garment area in New York City? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend 
to make me a witness against myself. 

(At this point Senator Curtis left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us when you were born I 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend 
to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Even the time of your birth would make you a wit- 
ness against yourself if you gave that information to the committee? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
I stated. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chait, we have information you were born in 
either 1902 or 1899. Could you straighten that out for us? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did you give as your residence? 

Mr. Chait. 702 Fort Washington Avenue, New York City. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is apartment 6-K? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12455 

Mr. Chait. That is correct. 

Mr. Kennedy. And do you have any other residences? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Your residence, according to our information, is 
K. F. D. 1, Peekskill Hollow Road, Putnam Valley, N. Y.; is that 
right? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Your wife's name is what, Mr. Chait? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Your wife's name is Sarah, and you have a son by 
the name of Burton, do you not \ 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it correct that these individuals act as 
fronts for you in many of your organizations? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what your police record is, Mr. 
Chait? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. You were arrested on January 25, 1917, in Man- 
hattan for grand larceny and received a suspended sentence; is that 
right? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. In 1918, concealed weapons, grand larceny second 
degree, and you received a sentence of 6 to 11 years in Sing Sing? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And in 1933 you were arrested in connection with 
the fact that you assisted in securing license plates for the car which 
a Vera Miller, a South Dakota killer, used to evade arrest in fleeing 
from the law ( 

Mr. Chait. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that it 
might tend to make me testify against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. The trucking company that you operate is the 
Champion Trucking Co. of 217 West 36th Street', is it not? 

Mr. Chait. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds it might 
tend to make me a witness against myself. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mi-. Kennedy. And the owner of those companies is your wife 
Sarah Chait, and Edwin Alexander, who is related to you by marri- 
age: is that right '. 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

(At this point Senator Curtis returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Kennedy. In our investigation of Johnny Dio and the paper 
locals in Xew York, we found that Mr. Tony Ducks, the associate of 
Johnny Dio, used that Champion Trucking Co. as his headquarters 
on many occasions. Could you tell us about that \ 



12456 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Ciiait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And also that individuals who were there almost 
every day were Dick Kaminetsky and Carmine Tramunti, who was 
the chief lieutenant of "Tony Ducks" Corallo. Could you tell us about 
that? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it might 
tend to make me a wutness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what your relationship has been 
with these underworld figures? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. You also have an interest in the Burton Transporta- 
tion Co. of 217 West 36th Street ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it might 
tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. This company is located, on the same premises as 
Champion Trucking Co., is it not ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And then the J. B. Express Co., is that another com- 
pany of yours ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it might 
tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Does Joseph Berger, the associate of Johnny Dio, 
have anything to do with that company ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you tell me what relationships you have had 
with the Friedman's Express, of Wilkes-Barre, Pa. ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the Faultless Trucking Co. of 31st Street? 

Mr. Chatt. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Air. Kennedy. You still have a financial interest in that company, 
do you not? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is 29 East 31st Street. Was there ever a firm 
called the Abraham Chait Co. of West 36th Street? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And for a Avhile you had an interest in the Algam 
Corp. ; did you not ? 

Mr. Ciiait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. That was a holding company for the Yonkers Race- 
way ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And could you tell us about the horses and stables 
that you own, Mr. Chait ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12457 

Mr. Chait. I decline' to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that the Putnam Stables was 
operated by your wife and your son; is that correct '. 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might, tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the Good News Stables, of Wilkes-Barre, Pa.? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And also you have an interest in Smart Sue, Inc., 
of 1375 Broadway? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't this the real key shop in the New York area, 
Mr. Chait? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is this the jobbers shop for all your enterprises and 
operations ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer the question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And don't you have an interest in Citation Frocks, 
Inc., of 225 West 35th Street, New York City ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer the question on the grounds it might 
tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Prestige Frocks, Inc., at 240 West 35th Street ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer the question on the grounds it might 
tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that Sarah Chait appears as the treas- 
surer of that company ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer the question on the grounds that it 
might make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. How about Madison Wearing Apparel, of Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa.? Can you tell us if you have a financial interest in that? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer the question on the grounds that it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. The Miracle Dress Co., of Pennsylvania? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it might 
tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Jackie Kay, Inc., of 237 West 35th Street, New 
York City? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Anita Dress Co., of Kingston, Pa. ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Sandra Joyce, Inc. ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Standard Dress Co., of 260 West 39th Street, New 
York City? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 



12458 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it correct that you are a partner in the Tri- 
Lex Pawn Shop, Inc., and the Tri-Lex Check Cashing Service, Inc., 
New York City, 104 East 125th Street ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. As far as your associates, isn't Joey Palisades, known 
also as Joseph Rosato, an associate of yours ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it may 
tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And we spoke about Dick Kaminetsky. Also Sam 
Kaminetsky. Isn't he a strongarm man for you, Mr. Chait? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Anthony Strollo, who is also known as Tony 
Bender, one of the most important narcotic traffickers in the United 
States ? Isn't he a close associate of yours ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And "Tony Ducks'' we spoke of. And Benjamin 
Levine, also a narcotics violator in New York City, and an associate 
of Frank Costello. Isn't he a close associate of yours ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
may tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Sydney Ellis, of Connecticut, a garment manu- 
facturer ; isn't he a close associate of yours ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Edwin Alexander, isn't he used by you as a 
front ? 

Mr. Chait. I didn't hear the question. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't Edwin Alexander used by you as a front for 
your various operations ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it may tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Sam Berger, formerly head of Local 102 of the 
ILGWU ; isn't he a close associate of yours ? 

Mr. Chait. 1 refuse to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Air. Kennedy. Can you tell us what the relationship has been that 
has existed between you and Harry Toff el, who owns the Balmoral 
Hotel in Miami '. 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds that 
it might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mi - . Kennedy. He owns and operates two dress companies, does he 
no) ( 

Mr. Chait. 1 refuse to answer that question on the grounds that it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself . 

Mi-. Kennedy. Aren't you in business with Mi-. Totl'el in Florida? 

Mr. Chait. 1 refuse to answer thai question on the grounds it 
mighl tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that you are in the Charlotte County 
Land & Title Co., Punta Gorda>Fla.« ' 

Mr. Chait. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that it 
might tend to make me a wit ness against myself. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12459 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it a fact that you and Mr. Toffel and cer- 
tain others were the ones that were responsible for keeping the em- 
ployees in Pennsylvania nonunion? 

Mr. Ciiait. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is, the various employees of these dress shops, 
and wasn't it you, through your efforts, that kept the manufacturers 
from signing a contract with the ILGWU this year '. 

Mr. Ciiait. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And hasn't it been a fact that you have done that 
because of the key position that you hold in controlling the trucking 
in the garment area? 

Mr. Ciiait. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, this witness is an extremely import- 
ant figure in New York, and an extremely important figure in the 
underworld, because of his key position in the garment industry. He 
controls this trucking. And as "Buster" Wortman operates in the 
Midwest. Mr. Chait operates in the East. 

He has control over the lives of many, many individuals. He is a 
close associate and has a close relationship with many underworld 
figures who are in unions, such as "Tony Ducks" Corallo, and Sam 
Berger, formerly with Local 102 of the ILGWU, and a number of 
others. 

Mr. Chairman. Do you want to comment on that statement? 

Mr. Chait. Xo, sir. 

The Chairman. Sir? 

Mr. Chait. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Have you got any legitimate business whatsoever 
about which you could talk, give testimony, without the risk of self- 
incrimination? 

Mr. Ciiait. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the grounds that 
it might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

The Chairman. I wouldn't be reckless at all in assuming that if 
you did answer truthfully, it would possibly be self -incriminating; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Ciiait. Well, you can assume what you please. 

The Chairman. I know I can. I just asked you if I would be 
correct. 

Mr. Ciiait. I wouldn't know. 

The Chairman. You wouldn't know ? Don't you know what kind of 
businesses you are in? 

Mr. Chait. Well, I don't know what you want to assume. 
The Chairman. I will do the assuming. I ask you, do you know 
what kinds of businesses you are in? 

Mr. Chait. I refuse to answer on the grounds that if I do, it might 
tend to make me a witness against mysel f. 

The Chairman: T think it would, to that extent. The question is. 
are they legitimate businesses or are they something you can talk 
about ? Which do you say they a re \ 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer on the grounds that it might tend 
to make me a witness against myself. 

21243^58— pt. 32 18 



12460 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. I believe you said you are married ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
make me a witness against myself. 

The Chairman. Do you have children ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer that question on the grounds it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

The Chairman. You think it might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Chait. I gave the answer to the question, sir. 

The Chairman. I asked you another one. Do you think it might 
tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Chait. I said it might tend to make me a witness against 
myself. 

The Chairman. And making you a witness against yourself might 
tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Chait. It might make me a witness against myself. 

The Chairman. Will you answer or are you refusing to answer 
whether it might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Chait. I am answering the question in my own way and saying 
what I mean to say. What I mean to say is that it might make me a 
witness against myself. 

The Chairman. And if it did make you a witness against yourself, 
you think it might incriminate you % 

Mr. Chait. We are going a little further now than I want to go. 

The Chairman. I am going further than you want to go ? 

Mr. Chait. You are making me go further than I want to go. 

The Chairman. I am making you go further than you want to go ? 

Mr. Chait. I went as far as I want to go. 

The Chairman. You don't want to say that it might incriminate 
you? 

Mr. Chait. I don't think it is necessary. 

The Chairman. You think you are just staying right up to the 
borderline of whatever is necessary to keep you from testifying; is 
that it ? 

Mr. Chait. I don't know about the borderline. 

The Chairman. I am asking you these questions just to show the 
character of people we are dealing with, and we are showing it. 

Mr. Chait. I know what you are trying to show. 

The Chairman. If you want to take that position, and let the record 
stand, I am going to help you do it. 

Mr. Chait. You are an experienced and highly educated man, and 
you are no fair match for me. I only went to public school. I am not 
here matching wits with you. I went as far as I intend to go, Senator. 

The Chairman. I am not talking about matching wits. I am just 
trying to 

Mr. Chait. I am not going to attempt it. 

The Chairman. Just a moment. When I am talking, you listen. I 
am not trying to match wits with you. I am simply trying to ascer- 
tain of this group of you and who have been up here before us, and 
you are one of them, whether there is anything in your activities, in 
your business or profession, about which you can talk without running 
the risk of self-incrimination. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12461 

Mr. Chait. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that I 
have previously stated. 

The Chairman. Is there anything further? 

Senator Curtis. Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Senator Curtis? 

Senator Curtis. What connection, if any, have you had with 
unions? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
make me a witness against myself. 

Senator Curtis. Have you received any income from union 
sources? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
make me a witness against myself. 

Senator Curtis. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Kennedy. Just to indicate or show the effect some of these in- 
dividuals can have through their union connections, we have some 
definite information, on which I will base a question, as well as some 
questions which preceded this. 

You interceded with Dick Kaminetsky in late 1955 to have him use 
his influence to delay a strike at the Balmoral Hotel in Miami ; isn't 
that correct ? 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer on the grounds it might tend to 
make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. You had been contacted by Mr. Harry Toifel, of 
that hotel, and he explained to you that he wanted to get the strike 
delayed until the first of the year, after the holidays, after the New 
Year holidays, and that you then interceded with Dick Kaminetsky 
to get that strike delayed. Isn't that correct ? 

Mr. Chait. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you wanted the strike delayed from Decem- 
ber to early 1956 ? 

Mr. Chait. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that it 
might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, we have presented a subpena to this 
witness to bring all of his personal books and records. I would like 
to have him turn those over to the committee at the present time. 

The Chairman. The Chair has before him a subpena issued on 
the 16th day of May 1958 which appears to have been served, accord- 
ing to the return thereon, on June 17, 1958, on the witness Abraham 
Chait. 

The subpena calls for you to produce, bring with you, any and all 
personal records for the period of January 1, 1950, to the present 
date, but not limited to Federal and State income-tax returns, bank 
statements, check stubs and check stub books, canceled (hecks, records 
of stocks and corporations, partnership agreements, loan agreements, 
realty mortgages, chattel mortgages, records of rentals of bank vaults 
and safe-deposit boxes, bank-deposit records, business correspondence, 
and memorandums and other related documents. 

Did you receive this subpena ? 

Mr. Chait. Yes, I have. 



12462 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. A copy of it ? 

Mr. Chait. What is that, sir? 

The Chairman. This subpena was served on you ? 

Mr. Chait. Yes, it was. 

The Chairman. On the date indicated. Have you complied with 
the subpena ? 

Mr. Chait. No, I have not. I decline to comply with the subpena, 
sir, on my rights under the fifth amendment. I refuse to produce 
any of the records sought under that subpena. 

The Chairman. On the basis of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Chait. On the basis of it being my personal records and my 
personal property, and, as such, that I feel that I have the right to 
keep them and not to produce them. 

Mr. Waldman. Under the fifth amendment, sir. I think we have 
written to the chairman. 

The Chairman. I thought he said the fifth amendment. I asked 
him that. He can answer. 

Mr. Chait. Well, I don't know the number of the amendments. 

The Chairman. You don't know the number of the amendments? 

Mr. Chait. No, sir. 

The Chairman. The question is whether you have brought them 
here and produced them. 

Mr. Chait. No. 

The Chairman. You failed and refuse to bring the records as or- 
dered by the subpena ? 

Mr. Chait. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You do not have them here now ? 

Mr. Chait. No, I do not. 

The Chairman. You have had plenty of time to bring them since 
the subpena was served on you, have you ? 

Mr. Chait. Yes, I have. 

The Chairman. Do you still intend to refuse to comply with the 
subpena ? 

Mr. Chait. Yes, I do. 

The Chairman. You have no intention of complying with the di- 
rections in the subpena to produce the books, the records, the docu- 
ments, and so forth, that it calls for? 

Mr. Chait. I intend to stand on my rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

The Chairman. You have no intention now of presenting them ? 

Mr. Chait. No, sir. 

The Chairman. I am trying to settle it insofar as the committee 
is concerned, and your attitude toward the committee and your atti- 
tude toward the order and directive of the committee by way of sub- 
pena to you. 

You have not complied with the subpena up to now ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Chait. That is right, sir. 

The Chairman. You have no intention of complying with the sub- 



pena 



Mr. Chait. That is right, sir. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IX THE LABOR FIELD 12463 

The Chairman: You are refusing to bring the books and records 
to the committee as required by the subpena, and as you are ordered 
to do by the subpena ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ciiait. I am refusing, sir, to produce them by advice of counsel 
and under the protection of the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. The question is whether you have brought them 
or whether you intend to bring them. The question of producing is 
whether you have brought them with you or whether you intend to 
bring them in response to the subpena. 1 wanted to settle that. I 
wanted the record very clear. 

Mr. Ciiait. I decline to answer the question, sir, under the protec- 
tion of the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. Did you bring these records to Washington with 
you when you came here in response to the subpena? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Chait. I decline to answer on the grounds that it may tend to 
make me a witness against myself. 

The Chairman. You will not state whether you brought them, 
although you have stated already that you do not have them with 
you now, and that you do not intend to present them or to carry 
out the orders and directions to you in the subpena \ 

Mr. Chait. On the advice of counsel, sir, I decline to answer on the 
grounds that it might tend to make me a witness against myself. 

The Chairman. Counsel, of course, is your source of advice, and 
he may advise you as he may desire. There is a question arising in 
my mind, and I think I am correct about it, whether, when you fail 
to bring the records as ordered by the subpena, you may be in con- 
tempt of the committee. 

Counsel, of course, can advise you regarding that, if he wants to. 

With the record as it is, I am willing to let it stand that way. 

Do you have any further questions ? 

Mr. Kennedy. No, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Senator Church \ 

Senator Church. Xo questions. 

The Chairman. Do you want this witness to remain under subpena \ 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

The Chairman. You will remain under your present subpena and 
be under recognizance to reappear before this committee at such time 
as the committee may wish to interrogate you further, subjed to your 
being given reasonable notice of the time and place when the committee 
desires to hear you. You understand it will not be necessary for an- 
other subpena to be served on you? 

Mr. Chait. Yes, I understand. 

The Chairman. And you accept that arrangement? 

Mr. Chait. Yes sir. 

The Chairman. You understand that you are under continuing 
orders to produce the books and records called for in this subperial 
You understand that, do you? 

Mr. Chait. Yes, sir: I understand. 



12464 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. All right. You may stand aside. 
Is there anything further this morning? 
Let this subpena be printed in the record at this point. 
(The document referred to is as follows:) 

United States of America 

congress of the united states 

To: Abraham Chait 

Peekskill Holloiv Road 
Putnam Valley, New York, 

GREETING : 

Pursuant to lawful authority, you are hereby commanded to appear before 
the Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor or Manage- 
ment Field of the Senate of the United States, on Forthwith , 195 , at 
o'clock m., at their committee room, 101, Senate Office Buliding, Washington, 
D. C, then and there to testify what you may know relative to the suhj 'ct 
matters under consideration by said committee, and bring with you any and all 
personal records for the period from January 1, 1950 to the present date, includ- 
ing but not limited to Federal and State income tax returns, bank statements, 
check stubs and check stub books, cancelled checks, records of stocks in corpo- 
rations, partnership agreements, loan agreements, realty mortgages, chattel 
mortgages, records of rentals of bank vaults and safe deposit boxes, bank deposit 
records, business correspondence and memoranda and any other related docu- 
ments. 

Hereof fail not, as you will answer your default under the pains and penalties 
in such cases made and provided. 

To United States Marshal to serve and return. 
Given under my hand, by order of the committee, this 16th day of May, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and fifty-eight. 

John L. McClellan, 
Chairman, Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor or 
Management Field. 
Received this writ at New York, N. Y., on May 21, 195S, and on June 17, 1958, 
at 305 Broadway, New York, N. Y., I served it on the within-named Abraham 
Chait by leaving a copy thereof or a subpoena ticket with Paul Waldman, 
attorney, authorized to accept. 

Thomas J. Lunney, 

U. S. Marshal, SDNY, 
By: Joseph E. Torrens, 
Deputy U. S. Marshal, SDNY. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Members of the select committee present at time of recess: Sena- 
tors McClellan and Church.) 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 30 p. m. the select committee recessed to recon- 
vene at 2 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(At the reconvening of the session, the following members were 
present : Senators McClellan and Curtis.) 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. Call the next 
witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, this morning there was some discus- 
sion about Mr. Gorman and the telegram that he sent requesting post- 
ponement. I want to make sure that the record is understood, that 
he was not released from the subpena ; but he was informed that, al- 
though his testimony would be postponed at this time, it would be 
expected that he would appear at a later time. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EN THE LABOR FIELD 12465 

His attorney lias agreed to produce him on 48 hours' notice. 
The Chairman. All right. 

The Chair would make this observal ion : We subpena witnesses and 
sometimes we have good reason to believe that they will not cooperate 
and that they will resort to the fifth-amendmenl privilege. But the 
fact that a witness may intend to do that, or his counsel ad\ r ises the 
committee that the witness, when interrogated, will fail to cooperate, 
and will invoke the privilege, does not mean that we will excuse him 
from attendance. If wo happen to do so in one instance or another, 
it does not set a precedent by which the committee is bound. 

Each such case and instance of that nature will stand upon its own 
circumstances. We are trying to operate this committee as economi- 
cally as possible. If we find that it is not worth the expense that 
the Government would be put to to bring a witness here, we do not 
bring them. 

If we think that the witness, even though he does not testify, his 
appearance here reflects some information or the refusal to give infor- 
mation the committee may need, and we can justify the expense of 
bringing him, we will do so. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. The first witness this afternoon, Mr. Chairman, is 
Russell J. Bufalino. 

The Chairman. Come forward, Mr. Bufalino. 

You do solemnly swear the evidence you shall give before this Sen- 
ate select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RUSSELL J. BUFALINO, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

ETTOEE AGOLINO 

The Chairman. State your name, your place of residence, and your 
business or occupation. 

Mr. Bufalino. My name is Russell Bufalino. I reside at 304 East 
Dorrance Street, Kingston, Pa. 

Mr. Agolino. Mr. Chairman, at this time I would like permission 
to address the chair. 

The Chairman. Just one moment. I was trying to get the witness 
identified. I asked him about his business, profession, or occupation. 

Did you answer that part of the question? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Do you have counsel ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I do. 

The Chairman. Counsel, identify yourself for the record, please. 

Mr. Agolino. My name is Ettore S. Agolino, with offices in the 
Kehoe Building, Pittson, Pa. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. You say you have a brief 
statement you wish to make, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Agolino. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Agolino. Mr. Chairman. Russell Bufalino is at present a 
respondent in an action brought by the United States Immigration 
and Naturalization Service under deportation proceedings, and his 



12466 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

case has not yet been disposed of. For this reason, he desire to avail 
himself of the privilege afforded him by the fifth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

The Chairman. All right. We understand that he will do that. 
You may proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you tell me where you were born? 

Mr. Bufalixo. I respectively decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Bufalino, our interest in you centers around 
your attending the meeting at Apalachin and also your union contacts. 

I think that we have some information that would indicate that 
you played a very prominate role in setting up the meeting at Apala- 
chin ; that you did it with the assistance of Mr. Barbara. 

I wonder if you would make any comments on that before we start 
to develop the facts that we have. 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to our information, you were born on 
October 29, 1903, in Montedoro, Italy. That is in Sicily. Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
ground that the question many tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And yet despite that fact, the records at Luzerne 
County in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., show that you were born October 29, 
1903, in Pittston Township, Pa. 

Mr. Bufalino. Is that a question ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you explain to the committee how it is that 
these records show that you were born in Pittston, Pa., when, in fact, 
you were born in Italy ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is Mary Bufalino any relation to you ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that Mary Bufalino worked in the 
records office in Wilkes-Barre, Pa ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are you related to Mr. William Bufalino? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that William Bufalino, who is sec- 
retary-treasurer of Local 985 of the Teamsters, is a cousin of yours? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Khnnedy. Isn't it correct also that Mr. William Bufalino is 
an attorney? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did Mr. William Bufalino play any part in alter- 
ing the records at the Wilkes-Barre Records Office ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12467 

Mr. Bufallno. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

.Mr. Kennedy. Wasn't it the purpose of getting the records altered 
so that it would appear that you were born here in the United States, 
and, therefore, could not be deported to Italy \ 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you tell us what companies you own or operate 
in the Pittston-Wilkes-Barre-Scranton area? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you own and operate the Penn Drape & Curtain 
Co., of South Main Street, Pittston, Pa. ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are the Sciandras of Pittston, Pa., in business with 
you? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to degrade or incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was your wife's maiden name ? 

Mr. Bufalino. Carolina Sciandra. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that Angelo Sciandra attended the 
meeting at Apalachin? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us if you have ever been arrested, Mr. 
Bufalino? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectful^ decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that you have been arrested some 
7 or 8 times ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that you have not been convicted on any of 
those charges? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have a number of companies with whom we 
believe you are connected, starting with the ABS Contracting Co., of 
Pittston, Pa. Is it correct that you are associated with them? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The Penn Drape & Curtain Co., in Pittston, Pa.? 

Mr. Bufalino. The same answer. 

Mr. Kennedy. Would you answer the question? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you were associated with Bonnie Stewart, Inc., 
of New York City, N. Y. 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that Dominic Alaimo and James 
Plumeri both had financial interests in that company also? 



12468 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Claudia Frocks of 224 West 35th Street, New 
York? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds that the question may tend to degrade or incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that Angelo Sciandra also has an 
interest in that company ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it correct also that he pays you a certain 
amount of money each week for the work that you do for that 
company ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You are on the payroll as an expediter. 

Could you tell us what an expediter does ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you in fact do any work for this company, or are 
you on the payroll because of your connections, Mr. Bufalino ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You receive from that company $105 a week gross, is 
that right? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you were put on the payroll back in 1953, were 
you not? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Then also you are on the payroll of the Fair Frox as 
an expediter. 

You are on their payroll also ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is F-a-i-r F-r-o-x, and you are on their pay- 
roll as expediter at $125 a week, are you not? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us what you do to earn that money ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that part of the money you receive is 
to handle labor relations for those companies, and to prevent any 
trouble difficulties with the union ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Aren't you able to do that because of the contacts 
and associates that you have, Mr. Bufalino? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And they include such people, do they not, as Johnny 
Dioguardi ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES LN THE LABOR FIELD 124G9 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. John Ormento ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Nig Rosen ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Dominick Alaimo? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. John Charles Montana? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Vito Genovese ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. James A. Osticco ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Frank Carbo ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. James Plumeri ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds i! may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Thomas Lucchese ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
groimds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have telephone calls from you, Mr. Bufalino, to 
L. G. Carriers, which is James Plumeri 's company. 

Could you tell us what you discussed with them ? 

Air. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
groimds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What do you discuss with Charles Bufalino? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The Tri-City Dress Co., owned by Anthony Guar- 
nieri, can you tell us about that ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. The Vic Vera Sportswear Co., New York City, 
which is owned and operated by a close friend of James Plumeri? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that James Plumeri set this lady up 
in the Vic Vera Sportswear Co. ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Harvic Sportswear, of Scranton, Pa. Can 
you tell us what you called them about? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 



12470 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. That is a shop, is it not, that is owned by Thomas 
Lncchese ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you also had other sources of income from 
gambling, Mr. Bufalino? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. You have taken a great interest in basketball games, 
have you not? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And when you go to New York, you stay at the 
Hotel Forrest in New York City, is that correct, Mr. Bufalino? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Why is it that you and the individuals with police 
records very often stay at the Hotel Forrest in New York City ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that the question may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that you arranged with Mr. Barbara 
to set up the meeting at Apalachin in November 1957 ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it correct that you were talking by telephone 
with Mr. Barbara frequently just prior to the meeting at Apalachin ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. According to the information that we have, you 
made long distance telephone calls to Barbara on June 8, 11, 23, two 
on the 28th, July 23, July 27, September 4, September 11, September 
12, October 6, October 13, and October 26, is that correct ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds that the question may"tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And he called you on June 5, 10, 24, July 20, August 
9, and October 23? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't it correct that you in fact made hotel 
reservations for some of these individuals attending the meeting at 
Apalachin? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Isn't it a fact that you made a hotel reservation at 
the Casey Hotel in Scranton, Pa. for November 13, 1957? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you made hotel reservations for an individual 
by the name of J. Cerrito, of Los Gatos, Calif. ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that another reservation for the same night was 
made for J. Civello of Dallas, Tex.? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12471 

Mr. Bufalino. I resped fully decline to answer the question on the 

grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And this individual did, in fact, attend the meeting 
at Apalachin, is that correct \ 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Scozzari, from San Gabriel, Calif. ? 

Mr. Bufaltno. 1 respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. While he was there, Mr. Scozzari put in two tele- 
phone calls to you, isn't that correct ? 

.Mr. Bufaltno. 1 respectfully decline to answer the question on t he 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And isn't is a fact that Mr. Scozzari attended the 
meeting at Apalachin? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Frank DeSimone, you also made a reservation 
for him '. 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Scozzari, when he was arrested, or stopped by 
the police, had $10,000 on him, but listed himself as unemployed. 

Can you give us any explanation for that? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. All these hotel reservations that were made for 
these 5 individuals, of which we can show that 3 actually attended the 
meeting in Apalachin, were all charged to you personally, isn't that 
correct, Mr. Bufalino? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did these other two individuals, Lanza and Scoz- 
zari, attend the meeting but were not caught? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. When you came to the meeting, you came, did you 
not, with DeSimone, Civello and Scozzari? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. That automobile that you drove was owned by Wil- 
liam Medico, was it not? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on th& 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And he owns the Medico Electric Motor Co. in 
Pittsburgh, Pa J. 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Excuse me. That should be in Pittston, Pa. He 
owns the Medico Electric Motor Co. in Pittston. does he not? 

Mr. Bufaltno. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

( At this point. Senator Mundt entered the hearing room.) 



12472 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. This is the same individual that Mr. Montana 
stated that he was driving down to see, to find out how his com- 
pressor was coming? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

(At this point, Senator Curtis withdrew from the hearing room.) 

Mr. Kennedy. And you in fact were driving an automobile be- 
longing to one of his companies up to the meeting at Apalachin, were 
you not? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. At the time that the New York State troopers 
checked your car, you had Vito Genovese with you, did you not ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Gerardo Cateno? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Dominick Olivetto? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Joseph Ida? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you stayed, when you were in Binghamton 
in March— you made another visit to Joseph Barbara in March 
1957, did you not, Mr. Bufalino? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds it 
may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And at that time, you were with Vincenzo Osticco ? 

Isn't that right? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And also with you was Angelo Sciandra, and you 
stayed at the Arlington Hotel, in Binghamton, N. Y. ? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. And the bill was charged to the Canada Dry Bev- 
erage Co., of Endicott, N. Y., was it not? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. What were you there for? 

What business were you there on? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know how your cousin, William Bufalino, 
was made head of Local 985 of the Teamsters? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Mr. James HofTa? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know Mr. Santo Volpe, from Pennsyl- 
vania? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12473 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Chairman, we consider that this individual is a 
very important figure. He has a number of the dress companies that 
operate in Pennsylvania. He also played an important role in the 
labor negotiations that took place at the beginning of this year. 
He is a close associate of Mr. Chait and it would appear that he 
was the one, together with Barbara, who set up and made the ap- 
pointments and arrangements for setting up the meeting at Apa- 
lachin. 

He is a man of considerable importance and a man of great con- 
tacts throughout the United States and the underworld. 

The Chairman. Do you want to comment upon those statements? 

Mr. Bufalino. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds it may tend to incriminate me. 

The Chairman. Is there anything further? 

Have you any questions, Senator? 

Senator Mundt. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. Stand aside. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Kennedy. Thomas Lucchese. 

The Chairman. Just one moment, please. The witness will con- 
tinue under the same subpena, subject to being recalled, if and when- 
ever the committee desires to further interrogate him. 

If you will acknowledge the recognizance so to appear 

Mr. Bufalino. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Reasonable notice, of course, will be given to you. 

Mr. Bufalino. O. K. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Lucchese. 

The Chairman. You do solemnly swear the evidence you shall give 
before this Senate select committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Lucchese. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS LUCCHESE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

EICHARD J. BURKE 

The Chairman. State your name, your place of residence and your 
business, or occupation. 

Mr. Lucchese. My name is Thomas Lucchese. I am a dress con- 
tractor. 

The Chairman. You're what ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I am a dress contractor. My residence is 74 Royale 
Street, Lido Beach, Long Island. 

The Chairman. And your business or occupation? 

Mr. Lucchese. A dress contractor. 

The Chairman. A dress contractor? 

M r. Lucchese. Yes,sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. You have counsel with you. 

Mr. Counsel, will you identify yourself? 

Mr. Burke. My name is Richard J. Burke, 60 "Wall Street, New 
York. 

The Ch airman. Thank you. 



12474 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Burke. Mr. Chairman, may I make a request of the committee '. 

The Chairman. You may. 

Mr. Burke. May I ask that no cameras or lights be directed at the 
witness while he is testifying, on the ground that they will distract 
and confuse him. 

Senator Mundt. Mr. Chairman, before granting that request, I 
think we should find out whether the witness is going to answer ques- 
tions or not. 

The Chairman. The Chair always does that. We are not about 
to give any favors to people who take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Burke. Senator, the witness will decline to answer certain 
questions, and will answer others. I can say that. 

Senator Mundt. Let's give him a trial and see what happens. 

The Chairman. The Chair has previously ruled, and I think we 
have been forced to rule, that if a witness makes this request, under 
the rules of the committee, the request will be granted, provided he is 
going to cooperate. 

If the witness' purpose is simply to take the fifth amendment, we 
do not think that lights, cameras, or much else detracts from his ability 
to do that, even consistently. For the moment, the lights will be 
turned off of the witness. 

You can show up the committee all you want to. If and when the 
witness elects to exercise a privilege, then the committee will elect 
also to exercise its prerogative. 

Proceed, Mr. Kennedy. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Lucchese, could tell us where you were born ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I was born in Italy, in Palermo, Italy. 

Mr. Kennedy. What was the date ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I don't recall. Some time around about 1912. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. Did you say when I was born ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Mr. Lucchese. I am sorry. 

Mr. Kennedy. When were you born ? 

Mr. Lucchese. 1899. 

Mr. Kennedy. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Lucchese. About 1912. 

Mr. Kennedy. And you got your American citizenship when I 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. 1943, 1 believe. 

Mr. Kennedy. January 25, 1943 ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did you say your present address was '. 

Mr. Lucchese. 74 Royale Street. 

Mr. Kennedy. Long Island, N. Y. ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us names of the dress companies that 
you have an interest in ? 

Mr. Lucchese. On advice of my counsel, I respectfully decline to 
answer, exercising my right not to be a witness against myself under 
the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. Well, there is no reason to assume that the lights 
or cameras will further detract from the witness" testimony. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12475 

Mr. Kennedy. Could I ask on another line? 

The Chairman. All right. If counsel wants to ask one more ques- 
tion, he may, if he thinks he will answer it, 

Mr. Kennedy. The dress business that you are in, your employees 
are unionized, are they ? 

Mr. Luochese. On advice of counsel, I decline and exercise my 
right 

The Chairman. All right. We will not tolerate that any further. 
Proceed with the usual procedure. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us whether any of the employees that 
you have in your various dress shops are members of unions, Mr. 
Lucchese ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. They are ? 

Mr. Lucchese. They are. 

M r. K i:n n edy. What union are they members of ? 

Mr. Lucchese. The ILGWU. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are they all unionized ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer and exercise my right to not be 
a witness against myself . 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you explain to the committee how it is that 
some of your employees are unionized and some of your employees 
are not '. 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer the question on the right not to 
be a witness against myself in the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy.. Could you tell the committee how you have been able 
to keep some of your employees from being organized by labor unions ? 

Mr. Lucchese. On advice of counsel I would respectfully decline 
to answer and exercise my right not to be a witness against myself 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Lucchese, we understand that you were con- 
nected with Braunnell, Ltd., of 225 West 37th Street, New York, is 
that correct? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long did you have a financial interest with 
them? 

Mr. Lucchese. From 1947 to 1951. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who else was interested in that company other than 
yourself? 

Mr. Lucchese. On advice of counsel I would respectfully decline to 
answer and exercise my right not to be a witness against myself under 
the fifth amendment, 

Mr. Kennedy. How did you happen to get into that company, Mr. 
Lucchese ? 

Mr. Lucchese. On advice of counsel I would respectfully decline 
to answer and exercise my right not to be a witness against myself 
under the fifth amendment, 

Mr. Kennedy. How did you happen to give up your interest in 
that company? 

Mr. Lucchese. On advice of counsel I would respectfully decline 
to answer and exercise my right not to be a witness against myself 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you have an interest in the Budget Dress Corp \ 

21243— 58— pt. 32 19 



12476 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Lucchese. On advice of counsel I would respectfully decline 
to answer and exercise my right not to be a witness against myself 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now as to this Budget Dress Corp., of 462 Seventh 
Avenue, we have information that you have a financial interest in that 
company ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Lucchese. On advice of counsel I would respectfully decline 
to answer and exercise my right not to be a witness against myself 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. And most of the work is sent out from that com- 
pany into some of these dress shops in Pennsylvania, is that not right, 
Mr. Lucchese ? 

Mr. Lucchese. On advice of counsel I would respectfully decline 
to answer and exercise my right not to be a witness against myself 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. By the way, are you known by any other name ? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have any other aliases? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you ever been known as "Three-finger 
Brown"? 

Mr. Lucchese. In 1915 I lost my finger in an ammunition plant. 
The newspapers referred to me by that name, and I don't know any- 
one else that ever called me that. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know how you got the name "Brown" ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I believe it was from the newspapers or the police 
department, and I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. But you never used the name yourself ? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did they start calling you "Brown" back in 1917? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. When did they start calling you "Brown" ? I can 
see calling you "Three-Finger Lucchese," but why did they take the 
"Brown"? 

Mr. Lucchese. I don't know. 

Mr. Kennedy. You have no explanation? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. It started back in 1917? 

(The witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. Sometime in 1920, the first time I was arrested, and 
I don't know whether it was 1920 or 1921, when I was first arrested 
by the police department, two detectives were talking to one another, 
and one said "What do you have," and he said, "this Three-Finger 
Brown," and it was just a pitcher around that time, or a discussion 
they were having. 

Mr. Kennedy. That was used by the police after someone else who 
happened to be in the news at the time? 

Mr. Lucchese. That was in the news 35 years ago. 

Mr. Kennedy. There was a baseball player, was there? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is how the name grew up but you never used 
the name yourself? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12477 

Mr. Kennedy. How many times have you been arrested, Mr. Luc- 

chese ? 

Mr. Lucchese. About 5 or 6 times, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you ever been convicted \ 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. For what was that \ 

(The witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. As a boy I was arrested for stealing automobiles, 
and I was tried and convicted and sentenced to 3 years 8 months to 
10 years, when I was 20 years old. 

Mr. Kennedy. That was in 1921 ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir, I don't recall. 

Mr. Kennedy. And then you were arrested in 1927 for receiving? 

Mr. Lucchese. If you have it there, sir, it is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. It said the name at that time was Thomas Arra; is 
that correct ? Did you use that name ? 

(The witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. I didn't give the name, sir, but a cop put the name 
down. 

Mr. Kennedy. What is that? 

Mr. Lucchese. The police officer put the name down, and it was 
just a plain pickup. 

Mr. Kennedy. He put your name down as "Arra," although that 
wasn't your name ? 

Mr. Lucchese. That is right. 

Mr. Kennedy. You didn't give him your name as "Arra" \ 

Mr. Lucchese. He never asked me for the name, but it was sup- 
posed to be a pickup at the time. 

Mr. Kennedy. And he just gave you the name ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. And in 1928, for homicide; is that right? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who was the man that was murdered at that time? 

Mr. Lucchese. I don't recall, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Louis Cerasulo. Do you remember that name '. 

Mr. Lucchese. I don't remember. 

Mr. Kennedy. You don't remember the name ? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you know or did you remember that they iden- 
tified you and Joseph Rosato who was your brother-in-law, as the 
ones who had committed the murder? 

Mr. Burke. Mr. Chairman, may I ask that counsel state for the 
witness' benefit, what the pertinency of this question concerning this 
arrest in 1928 is to the authorized subject matter of this inquiry. 

The Chairman. Well, the Chair will make the statement that in 
laying the foundation for the investigation we are now conducting, to 
determine if and to what extent criminal elements have infiltrated 
labor-management relations, it is quite proper to ask the question be- 
cause there will be further testimony and wt> are giving this witness 
a chance to answer it. 

Mr. Kennedy. I might say that we have had some testimony before 
the committee that witnesses in cases such as this have been intimidated 
to such an extent that they refuse to testify and cooperate with law- 
enforcement agencies. According to the information that we have, 



12478 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

and Mr. Lucchese can straighten it out, the wife and daughter of the 
murdered man identified Mr. Lucchese and his brother-in-law as the 
ones who had committed the murder, and when they were finally 
brought into trial or brought into court they refused to affirm the 
identification. 

Now, that is the situation that existed, and I want to find out what 
Mr. Lucchese knows about it. 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. I 
decline to answer on the ground it is not pertinent. 

Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Lucchese, if you couldn't even remember the 
name of the individual, Louis Cerasulo — do you know how to pro- 
nounce his name? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. I decline to answer under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Kennedy. You won't give us any information about that? 

Mr. Lucchese. What is that? 

Mr. Kennedy. You won't give us any information about what hap- 
pened back in 1928 regarding the murder of this man? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, and 
I decline to answer on the ground it is not pertinent. 

Mr. Kennedy. In 1930 again you were charged with homicide, 
were you not, Mr. Lucchese? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. What happened to that? 

Mr. Lucchese. I don't recall. I will have to look at the record. It 
was dismissed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, when did you start going into the dress busi- 
nes, Mr. Lucchese? 

Mr. Lucchese. In 1945. 

Mr. Kennedy. What had you been in prior to that time? 

Mr. Lucchese. I didn't hear you, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. What had you been in prior to that time. 

(The witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. Prior to that time, Grand View Construction Co. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long had you been in the construction business ? 

(The witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. Two years, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. What kind of construction work were you doing? 

Mr. Lucchese. Construction work on building. 

Mr. Kennedy. Whereabouts ? 

Mr. Lucchese. In New York. 

Mr. Kennedy. Just in New York? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was it heavy construction work? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Just small jobs, was it? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who was in business with you ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. How many employees did you have working for you 
at that time? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were any of the employees organized ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12479 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the first amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us why you went from the construc- 
tion business to the dress business, Mr. Lucchese \ 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. What were you in prior to 1!" !•_! or L943 \ 

Mi-. Lucchese. The Fordham Hoisting Co. 

Mr. Kennedy. How long were you in that business? 

Mr. Lucchese. About 3 or 4 years. 

Mr. Kennedy. What kind of work did they do? 

Mi\ Lucchese. They lift or hoist things such as bricks and mortar 
and cement. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where did that company operate? 

Mr. Lucchese. In the Bronx. 

Mr. Kennedy. Was that just in New York City? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who were you in business with in that company ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment and 
I decline to answer on the ground it is not pertinent. 

The Chairman. The reference to pertinency of the question is over- 
ruled. 

Mr. Kennedy. How many employees did you have? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment and 
I decline to answer on the ground it is not pertinent. 

The Chairman. The Chair will make this observation : For 4 or 5 
questions he has answered on the ground of the fifth amendment and 
on the ground it is not pertinent. The failure to answer on the ground 
that these questions are not pertinent is overruled, but of course the 
fifth amendment is a privilege that he can exercise. I didn't want the 
record left bare on the question of the pertinency. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were the employees you had at that time organized 
or unorganized? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, and 
decline to ansAver on the ground it is not pertinent. 

The Chairman. The reference to pertinency of the question is 
overruled. 

Mr. Kennedy. What business were you in prior to the hoisting 
company ? 

(The witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, and 
I decline to answer on the ground it is not pertinent. 

The Chairman. The reference to pertinency of the question is over- 
ruled. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell me at least what year we are at now? 
When did you go into the hoisting business? 

Mr. Lucchese. In 1938. 

The Chairman. Mr. Reporter, let your record show in each instance 
where he answers on the ground that it is not pertinent, that the ob- 
jection is overruled, unless the Chair indicates otherwise. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you tell us what business you were in prior to 
1938, Mr. Lucchese? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, and 
I decline to answer on the ground that it is not pertinent. 



12480 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

The Chairman. The reference to pertinency of the question is over- 
ruled. 

Mr. Kennedy. Will you tell us any business you were in prior to 
1938, if not the one at 1938, any of the businesses you were in prior to 
1938? 

Mr. Lucchese. In 1934 and 1935. 

Mr. Kennedy. What were you in '. 

Mr. Lucchese. The Interborough Window Cleaning Co. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us how many employees you had with 
them ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, and 
I decline to answer on the ground it is not pertinent. 

The Chairman. The reference to pertinency of the question is over- 
ruled. 

(The witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. I was just employed there. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were you a member of a union while you were 
employed ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Not I, sir, I was not. 

Mr. Kennedy. Were the other employees ( 

Mr. Lucchese. I believe they belonged to the union. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who owned that company ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Hyman Stern, and he is dead now. 

Mr. Kennedy. How did you get that job ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Through Mr. Stern. 

Mr. Kennedy. Had you known him for a long time? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did anybody recommend you ? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. What did you do prior to that time % 

Mr. Lucchese. It is going too far back, and I don't remember. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all of the record you have? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is a lot more information than we have gotten 
from many witnesses. 

Mr. Lucchese. Thank you. 

Mr. Kennedy. It is almost a pleasure. Now, according to the in- 
formation that we have, Mr. Lucchese, coming up to the present time, 
you also have an interest in the Sano Textiles, Inc., of 204 East 107th 
Street. Do you have any interest in that company ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. And we understand that you have an interest in a 
ball-bearing factory in New Jersey ; do you ? 

Mr. Luce ' 1 1 ese. What is that ? 

Mr. Kennedy. A ball-bearing factory. 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are you in business at all with "Longy" Zwillman \ 

( Wit ness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

M r. K en n edt. I )o you know Mr. Zwillman ? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. You never met him ? 

Mr. Lucchese. 1 don't recall if I did or not. 

Mr. K en \ edt. 1 )o you know Mr. Michael Coppola ? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12481 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 
M r. Kennedy. Do you know Joseph Rao \ 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the lit'th amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that yon know Joseph Rao 
and Michael Coppola. Do you know Andino Papadino \ 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

M r. Kennedy. I guess it is Papadio. 

Mr. Lucchese. 1 decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Tony Bender, do you know him? 

Mr. Lucchese. 1 decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. We have information that you know Tony Bender. 
How about Frank Carbo ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. James Plumeri ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Johnny Dioguardi ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Tommy Dioguardi ( 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Vito Genovese? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did yon know that Vito Genovese was helping Mus- 
solini during the war? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. "We have information that you know 7 "Tony Ducks." 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. And that is "Tony Ducks" Corallo, is it not ( 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. And Abe Chait I 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. JohnOrmento? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Profaci? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Kennedy. Joe Stretch? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Kennedy. How about "Lucky" Luciano \ 
Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Kennedy. We have information that you do know "Lucky" 
Luciano ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 
The Chairman. Are you a member of the Mafia \ 
Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you operate any of the illegal enterprises in New 
York City, such as illegal gambling, or narcotics, or anything like 
that? 
Mr. Lucchese. Definitely not, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have any illegal activities in New York City 
at all? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 
Mr. Kennedy. None at all ? 
Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Can you explain at all to the committee why some 
of these dress shops that are operating in New York City and Penn- 



12482 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

sylvania, why some of them are organized and some of them aren't 
organized? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, 

Mr. Kennedy. Is it necessary to make any kind of a payoff in order 
to keep a shop unorganized ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, 

Mr. Kennedy. Or is it just a question of contacts and knowing 
somebody ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you meet very often with these individuals, such 
as Ormento, Abe Chait, and Vito Genovese ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, sir. 

The Chairman. It would be very helpful if you could cooperate 
with us with respect to any payoffs or any practices regarding the 
unionization of these dress factories. We have information, and I 
think we probably already have established by some proof, at least, 
that in some instances they are able, either by knowing the right people 
or by payoff, to prevent a shop from being organized, and thus the 
workers in that shop are paid less and the cost of producing is there- 
fore less, and that particular shop or that management or ownership 
then can very successfully compete with competitors and sometimes 
even drive them out of business by reason of their being able to prevent 
organization through the method I have suggested. 

Now, can you be helpful to us and tell us anything about it? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, sir. 

The Chairman. In other words, you maybe could be helpful, but if 
you gave the information it might be self-incriminating, is that what 
you mean to say ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know of any criminal acts or conspiracies on 
the part of any of these other individuals in New York City, such as 
Ormento or Abe Chait ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know of any of these individuals who are 
engaged in importing narcotics from Europe? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. You do not know of any of them ? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you know of any of them that are engaged in 
any illegal gambling in New York City ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about the Harvic Sportswear Co.? Do you 
have any interest in the Harvic Sportswear Co. ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you own that yourself ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I am not the sole owner. 

Mr. Kennedy. Who else is in it with you \ 

Mr. Lucchese. Me and my son. 

Mr. Kennedy. Is there just one company or a number of them \ 

Mr. Lucchese. There are '2 factories, under 1 name. 

Mr. Kennedy. Where are they located '. 

Mr. Lucchese. Both of them are in Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Kennedy. They are both in Scranton, are they? 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EST THE LABOR FIELD 12483 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir; 1 is in Scranton, and 1 is in Sweet Valley, 
Pa. 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, how much do you own and how much does 
your son own ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Half and half. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did he put up half of the money and you put up hal f 
of the money? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you lend him the money ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I gave my son a half interest. 

Mr. Kennedy. How many employees do you have in those two 
shops ? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. In both shops, you mean ? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Mr. Lucchese. I would say about 100. 

Mr. Kennedy. In both of them ? 

Mr. Lucchese. About 110. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are they organized ? 

Mr. Lucchese. They are organized ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. They are members of the union \ 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Those two shops are operating at the present time? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. They are shut down, are they ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. By whom were they shut down ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Ever since the strike came on. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did you have any discussions with Mr. Abe Chait 
regarding the strike ? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us with whom you discussed the fact 
of what your policy would be toward the ILGTV I \ 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about the Bob-France Coat Co. ? Do you have 
an interest in that? 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you had an interest in that ? 

Mr. Lucchese. To my recollection, it is very vague, and I don't 
remember. I remember something about it and I might have had 
some interest there, but it is only a small place, and I think it was 
only about 6 months. 

Mr. Kennedy. That was back in 1951, was it? 

Mr. Lucchese. Maybe, you might be right. 

Mr. Kennedy. How about Monica Modes, Inc., of 225 West 37th 
Street, New York City? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, 
sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. We understood that in 1953. you were vice presi- 
dent of that corporation, do you know that? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. Could you tell us whether the emploj'ees of that 
company are organized or unorganized \ 

21243— 58— pt. 32 20 



12484 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, 
sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. How about the Grand View Construction Corp.? 
Do you have a financial interest in it? 

Mr. Lucchese. What is the question? 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have a financial interest in the Grand View 
Construction Corp. ? 

Mr. Lucchese. Did I have a financial interest? 

Mr. Kennedy. Yes. 

Mr. Lucchese. I must have. 

Mr. Kennedy. What do you mean, you must have? 

(The witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. I was interested in it. 

Mr. Kennedy. When were you interested in that, and when did 
you have a financial interest? 

Mr. Lucchese. While I was there. 

Mr. Keenedy. When you were where ? 

Mr. Lucchese. In the Grand view Construction Co. 

Mr. Kennedy. We discussed that, did we? When was that ac- 
tive? 

Mr. Lucchese. In 1942 or 1943. 

Mr. Kennedy. You haven't had an interest since 1943? 

Mr. Lucchese. That is all. 

Mr. Kennedy. What is the answer? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, that is all. It was 1943 and it went out. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you had any interest in any construction com- 
pany since 1943? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. What about the World Warehouse & Service 
Corp.? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, 
sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do they have any employees? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, 
sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Are they organized or unorganized? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. How about the Malba Park Development Co. ? Did 
you ever have an interest in that? 

(The witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Have you had any interest in the Hoisting & Equip- 
ment Co. since 1930's? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. V & L Hat Co., 22-24 West 39th Street? You 
wouldn't furnish us that list would you, and expedite this? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir, that is all right, it is 1936. 

Mr. Kennedy. What is the answer? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, 1936. 

Mr. Kennedy. In 1936? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Did it go out of business then? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12485 

Mr. Kennedy. How about Yennie Stern Commercial Attractions? 

Mr. Lucchese. No: it went out of business. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is an old company, also? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. In the 1930's? 

Mr. Lxjcchese. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. What other sources of income do you have now, 
Mr. Lucchese \ 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. It would be a big help to us to understand how this 
operates, if you could tell us what your sources of income are, Mr. 
Lucchese. 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, 
sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. Will you tell us anything about the operation of 
Vito Genovese, or James Plumeri, or ''Tony Ducks"? 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. You don't want to help or assist the committee \ 

Mr. Lucchese. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. You answered more questions than any of your 
associates, Mr. Lucchese, and you won't go on and answer a few more 
questions about their operations \ 

Mr. Lucchese. 1 decline to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all. 

The Chairman. .Vie there any further questions ? 

Mr. Kennedy. That is all of this witness. 

Mr. Luc< ' 1 1 ese. May 1 correct something, Your Honor ? 

The Chairman. You may. 

Mr. Lucchese. When I said about the "Arra," I used the name 
"Arra" in the station house. I asked the police what he wanted to 
arrest me for, and I said, "You are going to spoil my name", and he 
said, "Use Arra or any name, or anything." 

The Chairman. Yon think now that you did use the name "Arra" 
yourself ( 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir: I mean as far as the policeman told me it 
-was all right for me to use that. 

The ( 'iiairman. Are there any other questions ? 

Mr. Kennedy. I would like to have Mr. Lucchese remain under the 
subpena, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. You will remain under your present subpena, sub- 
ject to returning and testifying whenever the committee and if the 
committee should want to interrogate you further. You will be placed 
under recognizance to appear at such time as the committee may de- 
sire you upon reasonable notice to you or your attorney of the time and 
place where the committee will desire to hear you. Do you agree to 
that? 

Mr. Lucchese. Yes, sir ; I will. 

Mr. Kennedy. Do you have any relatives by the name of "Arra" ? 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

Mr. Kennedy. You do not \ 

Mr. Lucchese. No, sir. 

The Chairman. All right ; thank you very much. 



12486 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

Mr. Kennedy. Now, Mr. Chairman, we had expected Mr. Anslinger 
from the Bureau of Narcotics to be a witness. He became ill and so 
was unable to testify, but he submitted a statement to the committee. 
Can that be inserted in the record ? 

The Chairman. I will insert it in the record, and I would want it 
to be verified by affidavit. Upon this statement being verified, it may 
be placed in the record at this point. 

(The statement is as follows : ) 

Statement op Commissioner Hakry J. Anslinger, Bureau of Narcotics, 
Treasury Department 

On June 4, 1958, agents of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics of the Treasury 
Department arrested 28 members of an international and national combine 
in New York City which smuggled and distributed throughout the United 
States millions of doses of heroin for resale by associated groups of hoodlums 
to adults and teen-agers. Three members of this gang had attended the no- 
torious Mafia gathering at Apalachin, N. Y., in November 1957. Several are 
top gangsters on the Attorney General's list. 

Only a few short weeks ago, 18 members of a similar gang apprehended by 
narcotic agents were tried and convicted by Hon. Paul Williams, United States 
attorney in New York City. Among those convicted was a man who has been 
fairly prominent in the garment industry. Also convicted in this same gang 
was John Buccelli, who was shot to death 2 weeks ago in Boston, Buccelli was 
known as a waterfront labor racketeer, who arranged to smuggle heroin ship- 
ments through the port. 

It is of particular interest to note that some members of these mobs were 
engaged in labor racketeering, along with the business of slow murder of their 
fellow citizens by selling them a potent poison, physically and morally destruc- 
tive, which made them abject slaves to these hoodlums. Top members of these 
groups are firmly entrenched in the profitable garment industry, exacting 
their tribute from management and labor alike. 

The infiltration of the Mafia into legitimate business provides them with a 
cloak of respectability behind which they pursue their illicit activities. They 
have been found in almost every conceivable type of business. This underworld 
group has deep roots in certain waterfront labor organizations, since control of 
that area is essential to their smuggling operation, and at the same time is a 
source of financial tribute. 

Several years ago we furnished the Senate Rackets Committee, headed by 
Senator Kefauver, a list of 800 members of this underworld association who 
were engaged in all kinds of criminal operations. If we brought the list up to 
date, several hundred names could be added. They have a monopoly of the 
illicit narcotic traffic. We have arrested and convicted some 300 of these 
gangsters, none of whom was addicted, for narcotic violations. Of these, about 
150 have been deported. 

The pattern of activity by this group of hoodlums can be seen in every city 
where there is a narcotic problem. They arrange for supplies of opium to be 
converted into heroin in clandestine laboratories of the Middle East ; smuggle 
the narcotics to the United States and Canada, using France and Italy for 
in-transit operations ; and also obtain large quantities of heroin from the Far 
East, from Communist China. Through close associates in the larger cities, they 
distribute their deadly wares to smaller groups for retail on the street level to 
drug addicts. 

In 1950 Congress passed a Narcotic Control Act with teeth so sharp that, 
at long last, these hoodlums began to look elsewhere for rackets; it was not 
entirely unexpected that they would enter the orbit of rackets like those your 
distinguished committee is now investigating. 

These gangsters are not welded into a single unit. They operate all over the 
United States in separate groups, but are so interwoven personally that any 1 of 
the 800 men can telephone any other member of the group — wherever located — 
and arrange for the accomplishment of unlawful activities. 

I wish to point out quite emphatically that their business is all done by tele- 
phone, and they are so well insulated through this medium of communication that 
they are virtually immune from investigation by law-enforcement officers. For- 
tunately we manage to infiltrate by means of undercover operations, but these 
are long, tedious, and dangerous. 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12487 

We are encouraged that Congress has provided a 5-year minimum penalty, 
With no probation or parole, for the unlawful sale of narcotics and very heavy 
penalties for subsequent offenses. This has given us a weapon with such power- 
ful impact that in many sections of the country the narcotic traffic bias been 
brought under control through cooperation with local authorities, prosecutors, 
and the courts. 

There still remains much to be done to crush this hoodlum empire. We do 
believe, however, that the Attorney General's coordinated drive on racketeers in 
which all Federal enforcement agencies are participating will produce bene- 
ficial results. This has already been demonstrated, as I mentioned above, by 
the recent New York arrests of members of a vast narcotic combine. 

The Chairman. There is no objection to the statement of Mr. 
Anslinger being made public, but for evidence we will have it veri- 
fied and then insert it in the record. I am sure he will have no objec- 
tion to doing that, but just as a matter of keeping the integrity of the 
record where we accept something as proof, I think that should be 
done. 

(Shortly after these hearings were completed, the committee ob- 
tained the following affidavit of verification from Mr. Anslinger, to 
which was attached a copy of his statement as printed above in the 
record:) 

District of Columbia, 

Washington, D. C, ss: 
I, H. J. Anslinger, Commissioner, Bureau of Narcotics, Treasury Department, 
do hereby certify that the statement attached hereto is a copy of the statement 
which I gave before the Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the 
Labor or Management Field on July 3, 1958, at Washington, D. C. 

H. J. Anslinger, 
Commissioner of Narcotics. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 31st day of July 1958. 

I'seal] Edward S. Shankle, 

Notary Public in and for the District of Columbia. 

My commission expires September 30, 1962. 

The Chairman. Are there any further witnesses ? 

Mr. Kennedy. No. 

The Chairman. The Chair makes this closing statement : 

With this witness we close this week introductory hearings into 
racketeer and hoodlum infiltration into legitimate labor and manage- 
ment. 

The testimony we have heard can leave no doubt that there has been 
a concerted effort by members of the American criminal syndicate to 
achieve legitimacy through association and control of labor unions 
and business firms. The extent of this infiltration poses a serious 
threat to the very economy of our country. 

The criminal syndicate which we have identified here as the Mafia 
has revealed an arrogant challenge to the Government and to the 
decent people of this country. The contempt with which the leaders 
of the underworld, as they have displayed it here on the witness stand, 
regard both their Government and the citizens of this country 
has been demonstrated repeatedly during the past week by their re- 
fusal to cooperate, even in the slightest degree, with this committee, 
which has a mandate to carry out an important function of this 
Government. 

The lack of regard which these racketeers and gangsters have for 
their country can be amply demonstrated by their extensive police 
records since arriving in the United States. In addition, it has been 



12488 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

demonstrated in the case of Vito Genovese that he actively collabo- 
rated with the Italian Government after receiving his American citi- 
zenship and while the United States was actively at war with Italy. 

The committee proposes to continue its study into this important 
topic by taking- a direct look as a number of industries and unions 
throughout the country where underworld elements have been par- 
ticularly successful. 

In this connection, we will open hearings next week into the success- 
ful infiltration of these elements into the Chicago restaurant industry 
and show how — through control of labor unions and business associa- 
tions — they have fastened an almost unbreakable grip on this lucra- 
tive Chicago industry. During this hearing we intend to call some 
of the top underworld figures in the Midwest, including Anthony 
J. Accardo, who has long been reputed as one of the racket overlords 
of Chicago. 

For some 2 months we have been privileged to have had the as- 
sistance of the criminal intelligence squad of the New York Police 
Department and 1 lieutenant and 3 detectives assigned to that section. 
This special squad of the New York Police Department has done 
excellent work in documenting and investigating the activities of 
some of the Nation's most important criminals. Their assistance to 
this committee, arranged through the cooperation of New York 
Police Commissioner Stephen P. Kennedy, has been invaluable. I 
would like to thank these men: Lt. James Mooney and Detectives 
Joseph Corrigan, Thomas O'Brien, and Cy Jordan for their whole- 
hearted cooperation and help to this committee. We also wish to 
thank District Attorney Frank S. Hogan and his chief assistant 
Alfred Scotti for their help as well as for the continuing cooperation 
of Detective Natale Laurendi, assigned to the New York County dis- 
trict attorney's office. District Attorney Hogan has been of im- 
mense value to this committee during the entire time of its operations. 

We also wish to thank the United States Bureau of Narcotics, its 
Commissioner Harry J. Anslinger and Agent Martin Pera for their 
assistance to the committee, not only during this hearing but in the 
past. Sgt. Edgar Crosswell of the New York State Police has also 
been most helpful . 

The United States General Accounting Office, through Comptroller 
General Joseph Campbell, continues to be of great assistance to this 
committee. I may say that his Office has granted, I believe, every 
request for assistance that this committee has made of him. By 
reason of the help he has given, the work of the committee lias been 
tremendously expedited. GAO personnel assigned to this investiga- 
tion included Milton Morvitz and Stephen Conley, and also Mr. 
Marvin Gettle and Mr. Tom Hegmire, of the St. Louis office. 

We also wish to thank the Wage and Hour Division of the United 
States Department of Labor for the untiring efforts of Miss Lee 
Weisner. 

No hearing of this committee could be successful without the work 
of our staff. Participating in this hearing have been — under the 
supervision of Mr. Kennedy, the chief counsel — the Assistant Chief 
Counsel Jerome S. Adlerman, Assistant Counsels Walter May, John 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES TN THE LABOR FIELD 12489 

Constandy and Paul Kamerick; and Investigators Sherman Willse, 
George Martin, and Pierre Salinger. 

Is there any further statement, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Kennedy. No. 

Senator Mundt. Mr. Chairman, I would like to add that it seems 
to me that the two most significant points which this particulai 
series of hearings has demonstrated and to which the general public 
and the Congress and our State legislatures might well devote their 
attention are the following: First, that the complete laxity which 
has been demonstrated by the parole and pardon procedures affecting 
habitual criminals has made it possible for the type of characters 
that we have called before this committee in the past few days to 
continue lives of crime in this country over generations of years and 
that it profits little to simply disclose this fact unless everybody 
in the country having a responsibility in this area learns something 
from these disclosures. 

I would hope that all of those having anything to do with the busi- 
ness of pardoning and paroling criminals and the various legislative 
acts that deal with these problems and the judicial decisions which in- 
volve them would tighten up this procedure somewhat in the interests 
of law enforcement and the maintenance of decency in this country. 

The second most important aspect of the hearing, as far as this 
Senator sees it, is the fact that so many of these criminals and char- 
acters we have had before us are immigrants who have come to this 
country and have been either naturalized or remained here as resident 
aliens, and violated every term and consideration by which they 
entered the country by engaging in lives of crime, and in some manner 
or other have been able to escape deportation. It seems to me that 
the whole process of deporting undesirable aliens and people who 
violate the terms by which they become naturalized citizens should 
be tightened up. 

This is just another disclosure of what happens when people are 
faithless to the obligation they undertake when they come here as 
naturalized citizens. I would hope that the various nationality or- 
ganizations in this country would make this a matter of imagination or 
concern. I would hope that all of those fine laudable groups pressing 
for a relaxation of immigration laws would make this a matter of 
imagination or concern. There surely is little inducement to encour- 
age greater immigration into this country until and unless we find 
an effective procedure for deporting those who come here and violate 
the terms under which they come. 

By cleaning up this type of situation we can provide a much more 
wholesome climate for a relaxation of immigration laws so we can 
encourage people of right disposition and proper character to come 
here as they always have, to develop in this great melting pot a fine 
high class citizenry. 

But while we hear much from nationality groups urging that the 
immigration laws be changed to permit more people to come we hear 
discouragingly little from the same groups about what should be done 
to expedite the deportation of those coming here and violating the 
terms of citizenship which they undertake. 



12490 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

I would hope that the country as a result of these hearings learns 
something about what laxity there is in this business of deportation 
means, and what laxity and undue generosity in the field of pardons 
and paroles means. It is a terrible situation to realize that one witness 
testifies that after he had been out of jail for the third or fourth time 
he was returned to the penitentiary for shooting his parole officer and 
subsequently paroled again. 

It seems to me that that demonstrates pretty clearly somebody, 
somewhere, has fallen down on the job. There isn't much use parad- 
ing these characters before us and discussing their well-known back- 
grounds and have nothing happen to make a recurrence seem less likely 
m the future than the instances have developed in the past. 

The Chairman. We will resume hearings next week beginning at 
10 o'clock Tuesday morning. I am not sure yet what room the com- 
mittee will occupy. Quite likely we will be able to return to this 
chamber. 

The committee stands adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 3 :25 p. m., the committee adjourned, to reconvene at 
10 a. m., Tuesday, July 8, 1958.) 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12491 

Appendix 

SELECT COMMITTEE 
ON LABOI? • MANAGEMENT 

GRACE LINE INC. 

THHEE HANOVER SQUARE .--iin JUL 3 1 V358 



NEW YORK 4. N Y. 



ROUIED- 
IJiiTiAL 



-FILE MO— 



July 22, 195 



Dear Senator: 

I have learned of the testimony recently given by 
Mr. Sherman Willse before your Committee with respect to cocaine 
being brought into this Country on Grace Line ships. 

This testimony might create the inference that the 
Grace Line has been remiss in taking precautions with respect to 
the smuggling of cocaine. Any such inference would be directly 
contrary to the facts. 

Grace Line is acutely aware of its responsibilities 
in this matter and over its long years of operation has adopted 
strict control procedures which are faithfully carried out. 

Grace Line's record is one of complete cooperation 
with Federal and local authorities. Those with whom we deal in 
the United States for the most part are the Federal Bureau of 
Narcotics, the United States Customs Service and the Narcotic 
Squad of the New York Police Department. We also cooperate with 
the appropriate authorities in foreign countries. 

In short, in the face of a problem that is admitted- 
ly difficult for all transportation companies, we are convinced 
that we have exercised every reasonable precaution and all possi- 
ble diligence to eliminate the smuggling of this contraband. 

I note that Mr. Willse also testified that it is his 
belief that a Carmine Lombardozzi operated a mobile marine com- 
pany whose equipment was leased to the Grace Line and that 
Mr. Lombardozzi seemed to have a monopoly in that field particu- 
larly with one Line, i.e. Grace. This is simply not so. The 
Grace Line has never had any dealings with Mr. Lombardozzi nor 
has it used his equipment. 

I enclose a copy of my letter to the Waterfront Commis- 
sion of New York Harbor dated May 1, 1958 and attachment referred to 
therein with the thought that it might be of interest to you. A 
copy of this letter and attachment was also submitted to the Maritime 
Administration. 

I respectfully request that this letter and enclosure 
be incorporated at the proper point in the Committee's record with the 
appropriate cross reference. 



Lewi^A. 



Yours most faithfully, 

A. Lapham' 
President 

LAL-nm 



The Honorable John L. McClellan 
The United States Senate 
Washington 25, D. C. 



12492 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

May 1, 196* 



Waterfront Conmission of New York Harbor 

15 Park Row 

New York 3S, New York 



Dear Sirs » 



It has caste to our attention that the Monti 
Marine Corporation, which performs certain maintenance and 
repair works on our ships, is under investigation by you. This 
was confirmed in a discussion had with Ccssnissioner Rabino 
last Thursday by a Grace Line representative. 

We, of course, will be interested in learning 
of any facts which would bear upon the desirability of Monti 
Marino as a contractor. If your investigation has coma upon 
any fact that sight lead to the conclusion that Monti Marine 
is undesirable, it would be most appreciated if you would so 
adviso us. 



With the thought that it might be of 
sistanoe to your investigation, we are enclosing a meaorandun 
setting forth the facts of our relations with Monti Marine. If 
there is any further information that you desire of us, we shall 
be glad to furnish it to you. If you prefer, wo shall be happy 
to discuss the aatter with you. 



Yours aoet faithfully. 



L« A. Laphan 

PRESIDENT 



LAL-tsa 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12493 

In 1953 Grace Line began a thorough analysis 
of Its operating costs with a view to economizing wherever 
possible. The analysis covered , In addition to other aspects, 
the maintenance work which employees of Its subsidiary per- 
formed on Grace Line ships. 

As a reault of the analysis, It was determined 
that substantial savings might well be effected If this main- 
tenance work was contracted out. Accordingly, In August 1953, 
Grace Line Invited various firms to bid on this work. Ten 
bids were received. The two lowest bids (substantially below 
the other bids) were submitted by Monti Marine Corporation and 
Kelmar Contracting Corporation, with Indications that Monti 
Marine's bid was slightly lower. After an investigation of 
both these companies, which included a check with the Maritime 
Commission*, Grace Line awarded the contract to Monti Marine, 
effective October 1, 1953. 

Some time later Monti Marine advised Grace Line 
that it was in financial difficulties and unless it obtained 
some financing would be obliged to cease operations. Grace 
Line advanoed Monti Marine $5,000. Grace Line then examined 
the financial situation of Monti Marine and, after considering 
alternative means of having its maintenance work done, decided 
to assist Monti Marine in obtaining the necessary financing. 
This assistance took the form of a guarantee by Grace Line of 
s bank loan by the C&ra Exchange Bank and Trust Company to 

•Captain F Taylor of the Maritime Commission, in answer to Grace 
Line's inquiry, advised that Itanti had always given good service, 
got their vessels out on time, and appeared to be reputable. 



12494 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 

- 2 - 

Monti Marine, originally In the amount of $250,000. The loan 
was secured by a chattel mortgage on Monti Marina's assets. 
The loan was subsequently Increased to $400,000. 

Monti Marine, by timely payments, has reduced 
this loan and at the present time it amounts to $123,000. 
Grace Line, at the tine it agreed to guarantee the loan, in- 
sisted that Monti Marine take various steps looking toward a 
more efficient operation. These steps included the following! 

1. A Price tfaterhouse accountant was employed 
by Monti Marine to supervise all accounting 
and financial details and to countersign all 
checks of the Corporation . 

2. The services of one Sorrentino were termina- 
ted, since he had certain undesirable associ- 
ations. 

3. Monti Marine was required to submit to Grace 
Line periodic certified statements of the 
results of its operations. 

At no time has Grace Line or any of its affiliated 
companies or any of its officers or directors had any interest 
In Monti Marine and to the best of its knowledge and belief none 
of its employees has or had any such interest. The only relation- 
ship between Monti Marine and Grace Line is that Grace Line en- 
gages the services of Monti Marine to do specified maintenance 
and repair work on its ships under a written contract and as the 
guarantor of the bank loan above referred to. 

Monti Marine has performed its contractual relations 
under the contract to the entire satisfaction of Grace Line and 
Grace Line has effected substantial savings in maintenance through 
the employment of Monti Marine. 

In 1955 a Brooklyn Grand Jury subpoenaed the books 



IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12495 

- 3 - 

and records of Monti Marine and those records of Oraoe Line 
relating to Its contract with Monti Marine. No action was 
taken by the Grand Jury against Monti Marine or any of its 
officers, directors or employees. 

Grace Line has no knowledge of any undesirable 
person associated with Monti Marine. It came to Grace Line's 
attention that Carmine Lombardoasi had been employed by Monti 
Marine and that he had a criminal record. Monti Marine terminated 
his services. Upon learning of this fact* Grace Line inquired 
of Monti Marine as to whether it had any other employees who 
had a criminal record, and was assured that there were none. 



12496 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 



STATE OF NEW YORK 
COUNTY OF NEW YORK 



ss:: 



LEWIS A LAPHAM, being duly sworn, deposes 
and says : 

That he is the President of Grace Line 
Inc . ; that he signed the foregoing letter and that he 
knows the contents thereof, and that he believes each and 
every statement therein contained to be true. 

Deponent further says that the grounds 
of his belief are as follows: Interviews with other 
officers and employees of Grace Line Inc.; the results 
of an examination of the records of Grace Line Inc . which 
deponent caused to be made; and interviews with officers 
of Monti Marine Corporation who have represented to 
deponent that (l) Carmine Lombardozzi while in its employ 
at no time was concerned with that corporation's work 
for Grace Line Inc.; and (2) that machinery leased by 
Monti Marine Corporation from Marine Mobile Company was 
at no time used in connection with work done on vessels 
of Grace Line Inc . 



p 

'Lewis A Lapham 



9- /%&■ 



o^a (/■ fJSM-JU^ 



Sworn to before me -this 



KIM* 



22nd day of July, 1953. EDW r0 i te rf He* l0 * " 



,&**?/*•& 



Exhibit No. 4 




AftA'SYNPIC 




VONSHfP STUDY 



DETROIT CLEVELAND AREA 



BUFFALO NIAGARA FALLS 
YOUNGSTOWN AREA 



ROCHESTER AUBURN - 
SYRACUSE AREA 



UTICA AREA 



NEW YORK 
NEW JERSEY KHl 




12 



FROM PANCS BANP5 TO MMDet-THE APALACHIN 58 



POLICE 
RECORD 












?♦*» 



Domimck Aloimo 
Joseph Mono Borboro 
Joseph Bonnono 
John Bonventro 
Russell Bufolino 
Ignotius Connone 
Roy Corlisi 
Poul Costellono 
Gerordo Vito Coleno 
Chorles Solvotore Chin 
Joseph Froncis Civello 
James Collet ti 
Frank Cucchioro 
Dommeck DAgostino 
John Anthony Oe Marco 
Frank Desimone 
Notale Joseph Evolo 
Joseph Falcone 
Solvotore Falcone 
Carlo Gombino 
Michael James Genovese 
Vito Genovese 
Anthony Frank Guarnien 
Bortolo Guccio 
Joseph Ida 
James Lo Duca 
Sam Lagattuta 
Louis Anthony Larosso 
Carmine Lombardoui 
Anthony Mogooddino 
Joseph Mogliocco 
Frank Thomos Mojun 
Rosorio Moncuso 
Gabriel Mannanno 
Michael Miranda 
Patsy Monochino 
Sam Monochino 
John Charles Montona 
Oommick Oliveto 
John Ormento 
James Anthony Osticco 
Joseph Profoci 
Vincent Roo 
Armand Thomas Rovo 
Joseph Riccobono 
Anthony Peter Riela 
Joseph Rosoto 
Louis Santos 
John Scolish 
Angelo Joseph Sciondro 
Potsy Sciortino 
Simone Scozion 
Solvotore Tornabe 
Patsy Turngiano 
Costenie Peter Volenti 
Frank Volenti 
Emonuel Zicon 
Fronk Zito 
















: . 



• • • 









Machine Shop 

Soft Drink Bottling a Dist 

Insurance 

Mochine Shop 6 Gorage 



- • 






• 



Metol Awnings - Oil 8 Gas Leoses - 

Mineral Rights 



Bakery 



Steel Tanks 
Cor Wash 
• Cooperage - Neon Signs 



Retail Clothing 




::.••:• 






• • • 



: 

• o • 



• * 



• • TV Testing - Stonds 



Varied Interests 



Voned Interests 



• • • • • 

50 35 23 18 15 30 23 34 5 4 



• ■ • • 



2 4 9 9 4 4 16 10 3 II 3 22 2 II 4 12 4 17 7 3 






T V Service - Catering 
Mochine Co - Orchestra 
Cleaning Fluid 
Cigar Stand 




IMPROPER ACTIVITIES IN THE LABOR FIELD 12497 

Exiiihit No. 10-A 

Cab Research Bureau, Inc. 

ArriLIATKO WITH 

National Association of Taxicab Owners 

8 3 LEADER BUILOINO 
CLEVELAND 14, OHIO 



© 



November 1, 1957 



Kr. John C. Montana, 
Van Dyke Taxi & Transfer, Inc., 
New York Central Terminal, 
Buffalo 12, New York 

Dear John: 

At the Bureau Trustees' Meeting in Washington, a 
Committee was appointed to complete an agenda for the Spring 
Meeting of the members of the Bureau which will be held at the 
Ambassador Hotel in New York on May 22nd and 23rd. 

Mr. Viering has called a meeting of this Committee 
for November 15th in New York City. It will be a one day meet- 
ing to set up the agenda. 

The reason for the early date — many of our members 
go to Florida after the first of the year and also there is a 
desire on the part of the Committee for surveys to be made in 
sufficient time so that they can be discussed at the May meeting. 

On the Committee are yourself, Mr. Sawyer, Mr. Viering,. 
Mr. Darmemann and myself. You will be advised at a later date of 
the place of meeting and the exact time. If you want hotel 
accommodations and wish us to make them, we will be more than 
happy to do it. However, I think one day will be sufficient 
and if we all arrive early in the morning of the 15th, we could 
leave that evening (Friday). 

I do hope that it will be possible for you to be in 
attendance as we are more than anxious to make the May meeting 
an outstanding success. 

Kindest personal regards. 




12498 IMPROPER ACTIVITIES EST THE LABOR FIELD 

Exhibit No. 10-B 




Cab Research Bureau, Inc. 

ArriUATED WITH 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF TAXICAB OWNERS ^^ ' . 

S03 LEADER BUILDING 
CLEVELAND 14, OHIO 




November 11, 1957 



Mr. John C. Montana, 
Van Dyke Taxi & Transfer, Inc., 
New York Central Terminal, 
Buffalo 12, N. Y. 

Dear John: 

Just a note to confirm our telephone 
conversation about the meeting in N»w York on Friday, 
November 15th. We will meet in Mr. Darmemann's 
office at 1790 Broadway. Would appreciate having you 
arrive around twelve o'clock Noon or a little earlier, 
if possible. 

This meeting is for the purpose of 
preparing an agenda for the Spring Bureau Meeting in 
New York on May 22nd and 23rd. 

With kindest regards. 




H. I. Gwilym 
X 



BOSTOMPUBtKUWffl 



SK' 06352 025 6