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Full text of "Investigation of Soviet Espionage : hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-fifth Congress, first[-second] session .."

( ^ 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGKESS 

FIRST SESSION 



OCTOBER 7, 8, AND 9, AND NOVEMBER 20, 1957 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



(INCLUDING INDEX) 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
2042(1 WASHTNGTOX : 1058 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIB.'^ARY 
DEPOSITED BY THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, JR., Tennessee i GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN B. WILLIS, Louisiana ROBERT J. McINTOSH, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Director 



1 Mr. Frazier resigned from the committee and was replaced by Hon. William M. Tuck, 
of Virginia, on January 16, 1958. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 1835 

October 7, 1957 : Testimony of— 

John B. Rackliffe 1837 

October 8, 1957 : Testimony of — 

Henry Hill Collins, Jr 1851 

Henry Beitscher 1857 

Afternoon session : 

Julia Sclineer 1864 

October 9. 19G7 : Testimony of— 

Wilfred Lumer 1867 

November 20, 1957 : Testimony of — 

William Rossmoore 1879 

Afternoon session : 

Mary Rackliffe 1888 

Index i 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121, STANDING COMMITTEES 

« ;js 4: « 4i * « 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attaclis 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the juris- 
diction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent re- 
ports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch 
of the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 85TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 3, 1957 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
gress, 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

* * * ii: * * ^ 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



SYNOPSIS 

Investigation of Soviet Espionage 

xVcting upon mformation deriving from the testimony of United 
States counterspy Boris Morros, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities in executive hearings on October 7, 8, and 9, and 
November 20, 1957, interrogated a number of persons formerly 
employed by the Government respecting the Soviet espionage 
apparatus in the United States. 

The status of the committee's investigation permits the release at 
this time of the testimony of seven of those interrogated in this series 
of hearings. The transcript which is hereby released covers only that 
much of the testimony of the witnesses as relates to them and their 
activities. 

The committee was particularly interested in information respect- 
ing Jane Foster Zlatovsky, now under indictment for having com- 
mitted espionage in behalf of the Soviet Union. 

Jolin B. Rackliffe, a former employee of the Board of Economic 
"Warfare, appeared before the conunittee on October 7, 1957, and ad- 
mitted that he had known Jane Foster Zlatovsky socially. He invoked 
the fifth amendment when asked if he knew her as a Communist and 
also when asked about his own previous membership in the Com- 
munist Party. 

Henry Hill Collins, Jr., who appeared before the committee on 
October 8, 1957, had been identified by Whittaker Chambers as a 
member of the Communist Party. Collins has had various positions 
in the Government. Jane Foster Zlatovsky had once resided in his 
home. He invoked the fifth amendment when questioned about past 
and current membership in the Communist Party. 

Henry Beitscher, a former employee of the Bureau of the Census, 
Board of Economic Warfare, and the Coordinator of Inter- American 
Affairs, and Julia Scluieer, former employee of the Office of Price 
Administration, also appeared on October 8. Both invoked the fifth 
amendment when questioned about Communist Party membership. 
Beitscher also refused, because of possible self-incrimination, to give 
information about the nature of his employment after leaving Govern- 
ment service. 

William Rossmoore, who had been employed in the Department of 
Agi-iculture and the Office of Price Administration, appeared before 
the committee on October 9, 1957. He refused to ansv^■er questions 
concerning membership in the Communist Party and whether he had 
any connection with members of the Communist Party who are known 
to have been in the Soviet espionage apparatus. 

Mary Racklifl'e, presently employed at Little Brown & Co., 
Boston, Mass., and formerly an employee of the Office of 
Price Administration, appeared before the committee on November 
20, 1957, and invoked the fifth amendment when questioned regarding 

1835 



1836 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Communist Party membership. Mrs, Rackliffe also declined to 
testify regarding certain of her past employment on the ground that 
to do so might tend to incriminate her. 

The essence of the testimony of Wilfred Lumer, who a Iso appeared 
before the committee on November 20, has already been released 
by the committee. Lumer, who had been idontitied under oath as a 
member of the Communist Party, has been employed by the Railroad 
Retirement Board and the Office of Price Administration. Durino- 
the period preceding his appearance before the connnittee. Lumer 
had been assigned by the Public Affairs Institute, for which he then 
worked, to assist Members of Congress on legislative reports dealing 
with important areas of Government finance. Lumer invoked the 
fifth amendment when asked whether he was a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the time of his appearance before the Committee, and 
whether he had discussed his work on legislative reports with any 
person known to him to be a Communist. 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 



MONDAY, OCTOBER 7, 1957 

United States House or Eepkesentatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committ^ee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. O. 

EXECUTIVE SESSION ^ 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
in executive session, pursuant to call, at 10 a. m. in room 226, Old 
House Office Building, Hon. Edwin E. Willis presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, staff' director, and Louis J. 
Russell, Frank Bonora, and Raymond T. Collins, investigators. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order, 

4: ^ 4: if if ■ i^ :(: 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. Rackliff'e. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN B. RACKLIFFE 

Mr. Arens. Would you please identify yourself by name, residence, 
and occupation ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. My name is Jolm Rackliff'e. I live in Boston. Do 
you want the street address ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; you might give us that. 

Mr. Rackliffe. 44A Joy Street, Boston. I am an editor, free- 
lance. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Rackliffe, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. That's correct. 

Mr. Arens. You do not have counsel ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. You know, of course, that you may have the privilege 
of counsel with you ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Yes ; 1 know that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Rackliffe, where wei-e you born and when ? 

' Released by the committee anri orderprl to bp printed. 

20420—58 2 

1837 



1838 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Rackliffe, Do you mind if I make notes? 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead ; that is all right. 

Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. In Prince Edward Island, Canada, 1911. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I think 1912. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, please, sir, just a word of your education. 

Mr. Rackliffe. Could you tell me the relevance of these questions? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. This Committee on Un-American Activities 
has pending before it a number of proposed changes in the law, a 
number of proposed amendments. The committee likewise is under 
a mandate of the Congress to maintain a continuing surveillance 
over the administration and operation of all of the security laws, in- 
cluding the Internal Security Act, the Communist Control Act, For- 
eign Agents Registration Act, numerous criminal statutes, and the 
like. 

Pursuant to that mandate of the Congress, this committee has taken 
vast amounts of testimony. Some of that testimony has involved 
yourself, Mr. Rackliffe, I say quite frankly; and we expect to explore 
with you in this session some of your own background and some of 
your own activities. 

Now, would you kindly tell us, if you please, sir, just a word about 
your own educational background ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Yes. Before doing that, I would like to state 
that I don't see the relevance of my educational background to pro- 
posed changes in legislation. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I see no relevance whatever between the two. 

I was educated in schools outside Boston, grammar school, a day 
school called Country Day School. I did my undergraduate work 
at Harvard. I also did graduate work there. 

Mr. Arens. When did you complete your education at Harvard? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I took a B. A. in 1934. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do for graduate work at Harvard? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I was in the English department. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you conclude that work ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. 1941. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a graduate degree ? 

Mr, Rackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, just a highlight sketch of 
your employment after you concluded your formal education. 

Mr. Rackliffe. Before doing that, I will also say that I see no 
relevance whatever of my employment to any proposed legislation. 
I fail to see any pertinence there. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly proceed. What was your first job after you 
concluded your formal education? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I'm trying to think. Oh, my first job may have 
been in Washington. I think it was. No. No. I was confusing 
1934 with 1941. No, my first job would have been teaching at 
Harvard. 



ENYESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1839 

Mr. Arens. What did you teach? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I taught English. 

Mr. Arens. And when was it that you instructed in English? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Between 1935 and 1941, I think. 

Mr. Arens. Then your next principal employment, please, sir? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Was in the Board of Economic Warfare. 

Mr. Arens, And what were the dates of your employment there, 
please, sir? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I think 1942 to 1944. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Oh, I began as an assistant economic analyst and, 
when I left the Board, I think I was classified as a foreign affairs 
economist. 

Mr. Willis. A what? 

Mr. Rackliffe. A foreign affairs economist. I'm sorry. 

Mr. Arens. What caused your disassociation from the Board? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I resigned. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Oh, was with the United Shoe Workers. 

Mr. Arens. The United Shoe Workers. In what capacity? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I was a legislative representative or editor. The 
job had 2 or 3 titles. 

Mr. Arens. And the period of your service, please, sir? 

Mr. Rackliffe. It was very short. I think that was in late 1944. 

Mr, Arens. And your next employment? 

Mr. Rackliffe . Oh, was with State, County, and Municipal 
Workers. 

Mr. Arens. Was that Flaxer's organization ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. He was the president at that time, a CIO union. 

Mr. Arens. Abram Flaxer? 

Mr. Rackliffe, Yes, I think that's right. 

Mr, Arens, What was the period of your service with that organ- 
ization ? 

Mr. Rackliffe, Early 1945. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? 

Mr. Rackliffe, I forget the exact title. 

Mr. Arens, What type of work did you do ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Oh, it was sort of a liaison job with the teachers' 
division. 

Mr. Arens. Was that in Washington ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No, that was in New York, which is their national 
office. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. It was with Reynal & Hitchcock. 

Mr. Arens. What is that organization ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. It's now defunct. It was a publishing house. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity were you employed ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I was first there in connection with the Labor Book 
Club, which was sort of run jointly by the United Automobile Work- 
ers and Reynal & Hitchcock. 

Mr, Arens, Wliat was the period of your employment there? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I was with Reynal & Hitchcock altogether from 
1945 to 1947, 1 believe. 

Mr. Arens. Was that in New York City ? 



1840 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Rackliffe. That's right, but I don't remember which parts 
were the Labor Book Chib and which parts were straight Reynal & 
Hitchcock. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment, please, sir ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. After that I was with Ginn & Company. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere? 

Mr. Racbxiffe. Boston. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Editor. 

Mr. Arens. What is Ginn & Company ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. It's a textbook house, textbook publisher. 

Mr. Arens. You edited textbooks ? 

Mr. Rackxiffe. That's right. 

Mr. Arens. What was your period of service there ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I was there for about a year, between 1947 and 1948. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. From then on I worked free lance. 

Mr. Arens. What is the nature of your employment now as a free 
lance ? I don't quite understand. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I do editorial work. 

Mr. Arens. For whom ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. For an author or for a publisher. 

Mr. Arens. Unfortunately, I don't understand. I don't mean to 
play ignorant here, but what type of editorials do you write? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I don't write editorials. I edit manuscripts. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat would be a typical illustration of the manuscript 
that you would edit ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. There wouldn't be a typical one. It could be any- 
thing. It could be a textbook. It could be a lawbook. 

Mr. Arens. Do you edit textbooks ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I would if one came along. 

Mr. Arens. When did you last edit a textbook ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Oh, again I fail to see the relevance of any of 
this. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question. Wlien did you last edit 
a textbook and for whom ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. My guess would be that the last textbook I edited 
was probably with Ginn & Co. 

Mr. Arens. What was the last job that you did? That might 
give us a better idea of what you do. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I don't think that any of these questions are perti- 
nent to the inquiry of this committee. I think they are my own 
business. 

Mr. Arens. We understand your protest. Now would you kindly 
answer the question ? What was the last job that you did ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. The last job I did and any jobs I have done free 
lance have had no connection whatever with any of the aims of this 
committee. I'll gladly answer any questions to the Internal Revenue 
Service. 

Mr. Arens. Now kindly answer this question : Wliat was the last 
job that you did? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I don't think I'll answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest this record re- 
flect an order and direction for this witness to answer the question. 



ESrVESTIGATTON OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1841 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Rackliffe. Oh, could you please again tell me the pertinence 
of the question to this inquiry ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. As I explained to you a little while ago, your 
name has been 

Mr. Rackliffe. We don't need to go over that. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I was going to suggest we don't even need to go 
over that. 

Mr. Arexs, That is the very jjurpose. We want to know what you 
did, what your activities are, because your name has been involved 
in activities specified by witnesses as pertaining to the Communist 
Party. Therefore, we would like to know what you do and we would 
like to know the nature of your 

Mr. Rackliffe. My professional work has no coiuiection whatever 
with that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you decline to answer the question as to what your 
last job is or was ? 

Mr. Willis. ]May I say to you that you are not represented by 
counsel, but you have the right to decline to answer the question, this 
question, or any other question. However, you have to base the decli- 
nation on constitutional grounds. 

Mr. Rackliffe. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. I mean your refusal to answer without assigning any 
ground is not proper and would subject you to contempt proceedings. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I see. 

Mr. Willis. I say that to you because you are not represented by 
counsel. You are not forced to answer the question, but in not an- 
swering it, you must assign constitutional grounds. 

Mr. Rackliffe. Well, I will answer tlie question. My constitu- 
tional grounds are the first amendment, that my professional work, my 
professional clients, have absolutely nothing, no connection whatever, 
with any actual or stated aims of this committee ; that they are a part 
of my rights under the first amendment to free speech, free assembly, 
or in more informal language, not having m}^ private affairs pried into 
by a committee of the Congress which has no mandate whatever to 
pry into my private affairs. 

I would like to ask the chairman, if I may, to reconsider his order 
directing me to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. No. I will not reconsider it, but it is not a question of 
prying into your affairs. It is whether your affairs come within the 
purview of the committee. They might, according to the evidence 
we have. 

Mr. Rackliffe. AVell, according to the evidence I have, they don't, 
and I am under oath. 

Mr. Willis. I know. I will have have to persist in the order. 

Mr. Rackliffe. You persist in the order ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Rackliffe. The last job I worked on, and which I am now 
working on, is an anthology of English verse, edited by Dame Edith 
Sitwell. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir 



Mr. Rackllffe. Let me continue. 
Mr. Arens. Go right ahead. 



1842 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Rackliffe. My assignment in this connection is, among other 
things, to compare some first folio readings in Shakespeare with read- 
ings in the first and second and third and fourth folios if those exist 
and with certain model editions, to see if the capitalization, the 
italics, the pmictuation, the spelling, and other matters may perhaps 
make a first folio reading incomprehensible to an average reader of 
modern verse. 

Mr. Arexs. Sir 

Mr. Rackliffe. May I continue ? 

Mr. Arens. I think you covered it enough. 

Mr. Scherer. Let him continue. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I want to continue only to this extent : Does that 
answer have any connection whatever with the aims of this committee? 

Mr. Arens. It might have ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Rackliffe, How? 

Mr. Arkvs. Would you kindly tell us if j^ou know a person by the 
name of Robert G. Davis ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. May I ask how that answer will have any con- 
nection ? 

Mr. Arens. I think it will develop in the course of our proceedings 
here and I think it will be very clear to you. 

Do you know a person by the name of Robert G. Davis ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I would prefer to have it developed now. Could 
we do that? 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question whether or not you know a 
person by the name of Robert G. Davis. 

Mr. Rackliffe. Before that I just want to make sure that I have 
people's names correct. May I take time out to be sure of that? 

Air. Arens. Robert G. Davis. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I meant yours. 

Mr. Arens. My name is Richard Arens, A-r-e-n-s. 

Mr. Rackliffe. And yours ? 

Mr. Willis. Willis. 

Mr. Arens. Robert G. Davis. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I will decline to answer, claiming the privilege of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Robert G. Davis? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I said I decline to answer, claiming the privilege 
of the fifth amendment. 

4: H: 4: * 4: * * 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Granville Hicks? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Oh, I will decline to answer again under the fifth 
amendment privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Daniel J. 
Boorstin ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I will decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Now, do you know a person by the name of Jane 
Foster Zlatovsky ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Before answering that question, I'd like to state 
that I have considerable reluctance to answer questions about other 
people here. I also have some doubts as to whether the committee 
is legally justified in asking such questions or in directing answers 
to them. 



EMVESTlGATrON OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1843 

Mr. Arens, Now kindly answer the question. Do you know a 
person by the name of either Jane Foster or Jane Foster Zlatovsky? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I have known a Jane Foster and, if I may inter- 
ject, I have followed that case in the New York Times, which spells 
the name S-1-a-t-o-v-s-k-i. My guess is that that is the correct 
spelling. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. When did you first meet, or become acquainted with, 
a person by the name of Jane Foster ? 

Mr. Eackliffe. 1942. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Rackliffe. In the Board of Economic Warfare. 

Mr. Arens. Was she employed there ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you employed there at the time ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity was she employed ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I'm not sure what her title was. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of the work ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. It was probably somewhat the same as mine. 

Mr. Arens. Well, give us just a word of description of it, please, 
sir. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I can't remember specifically, because so far as I 
remember, oh, I didn't work on anything with her, so I didn't know 
what her work was in detail. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you meet her in the Board of Economic 
Warfare ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. In the office. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only place you met her? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I don't understand, 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only place where you met her ? You say you 
met her and worked with her in the office. 

Mr. Rackliffe. You asked me wliere I met her, meaning the first 
meeting, and I answered "in the office." 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only place you have known her, in the office? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. I knew her socially. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have social engagements with her, in the nature 
of what we call in common parlance, dates? 

Mr. Rackliffe. The nature of this committee's questioning 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I just wanted to put on the record that the nature 
of this committee's questioning is sometimes irksome to the self-respect 
of an independent citizen. Miss Foster was a friend of my wife's and 
mine. I did not have what is called in the common parlance, dates. 
I frequently had social engagements. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of the social engagements which 
you had with Miss Foster? 

Mr. Rackliffe. It might be lunch and it might be dinner. 

Mr. Arens. Did you and Miss Foster belong to any organizations 
in concert together? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I'll claim the fifth amendment to that. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Did you say why? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I don't believe I need to explain why. 



1844 INVESTIGATIOX OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the chairman order and 
direct you to answer the question as to why you claim the fifth amend- 
ment, as you say, on the question outstanding. 

Mr. Willis. I again tell you since you are not represented by coun- 
sel that the simple invocation of the fifth amendment does not tell 
the whole story. 

In order to invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment, one must 
honestly feel that to speak might subject him or her to criminal pro- 
ceedings or might tend to incriminate him, and the question is an 
obvious test of honesty of your invocation. 

That's all there is to it. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I can more or less repeat, somewhat rephrased, 
Mr. Willis' words, that my claim of the fifth here and anywhere in 
answer to any other question is due to my determination not to be, 
in the words of the amendment, a witness against myself. Is that 
adequate ? I can continue it if you please. 

Mr. Willis. That's sufficient. 

Mr. Arens. We just wanted to be sure that the record is clear that 
you are invoking the fifth amendment because you feel if you told 
this committee the nature of this association you would be supplying 
information which, in your judgment, might be used against you 
in any criminal proceeding. 

That's all we have in mind. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I rephrase it differently from that; but if my 
answer is adequate, we will let my answer stand. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel if yoii told this committee the organiza- 
tion or organizations, if any, in which you and Jane Foster Zlatovsky 
were comembers, you would be supplying information which might 
be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I would merely repeat my original answer, that 
my claim of the privilege nnder the fifth in answer to this question 
or to any other question is due to my determination not to be, in 
the language of the amendment, a witness against myself. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information, Mr. Witness, respecting the 
acquisition or transmission by Jane Foster Zlatovsky, or Jane Foster, 
at that time, of any information in violation of the espionage statutes 
of this Government ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Please repeat just the first words of your question. 
Have you any information ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; do you have information or knowledge 

Mr. Rackliffe. Have I any information or knowledge? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Rackliffe. The answer is "No." 

Mr. Arens. Do you kliow whether or not Jane Foster Zlatovslr^ 
was a Communist? 

Mr. Rackliffe. The fifth amendment again. 

Mr. Arens. "V^Hiat transpired in these visits that you had with Jane 
Foster Zlatovsky, these social engagements that you had ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Nothing more than would transpire in any social 
engagement with any friend or acquaintance. 

Mr. Ajrens. Did you and Jane Foster ever attend any meetings 
together of any kind ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I will claim the fifth amendment. 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGBI 1845 

Mr. Aeens. How long did you know Jane Foster Zlatovsky ? 

Mr. Eacklitfe. Oh, probably about 4 years. 

Mr. Arens. Was that 4-year period all during the period of your 
employment at the Board of Economic Warfare ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. It would extend beyond that. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of your acquaintanceship with 
her after you disassociated yourself or disassociated from the Board 
of Economic Warfare ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Well, we remained on friendly terms. I can't 
remember the precise dates here. ■-f-'^ 

Mr. Ajrens. The date that you suggested to us, and I appreciate the 
fact that you might not have too vivid a recollection on the precise 
date, was that you were in the Board of Economic Warfare begmning 
in 1944; is that right? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. No. I believe I said 1942 to 1944. 

Mr. Arens. I made a mistake, then, in writing this down. About 
1942? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When did you leave the Board of Economic Warfare ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I think 1944. I am quite sure. 

Mr. Arens. Then you knew Jane Foster Zlatovsky 2 years after 
you left the Board of Economic Warfare ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I may have been careless in that answer. Did I 
say 4 years ? 

Mr. Arens. I was under the impression that you said 4 years. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, 4 years ; about 4 years. 

Mr. Rackliffe. It might be more accurate to say 3 or 4. At some 
point, and I don't remember what year, sometime I believe in 1944, 
she transferred to OSS and sometime, perhaps also in 1944, she left 
this country with OSS; and I would say that our acquaintance ex- 
tended beyond that a year or two in the form of 1 or 2 or 3 letters, 
but otherwise, so far as I remember, did not involve a subsequent 
meeting. On that my recollection is hazy. I was asked the same 
question by the grand jury. 

Mr. Arens. Did you Imow her husband, George Zlatovsky? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. 

******* 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know a person by the name of Wilfred 
Lumer ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. Again — this is merely for the record and 
nierely to express the reaction of what I think of as a normal American 
citizen — I would like to state that it somewhat disgusts me to have 
someone sit with a list of names and ask me one after the other if I 
knew them. That is not my notion of free speech, free association, 
or American citizenship. 

Please continue, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Now, do you know a person by the name of William Rossmoore? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I'll claim the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Henry Beitscher ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I'll claim the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Henry Hill Collins, Jr. ? Did you know him ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. 

20420 — 58 3 



1846 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. Excuse me, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Julia Schneer ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I'll claim the fifth amendment. 

* tt <¥ * * * * 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I'll divide that question into two. 

Mr. Arens. Please do. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I am not a member of the Communist Party. As 
to the other part of the question, I'll claim the fifth amendment. _ 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party any time 
in the course of the last 5 years ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. The answer to that is no. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party any time 
during the course of your employment by the United States Govern- 
ment? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I'll claim the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party any time 
in the course of the last 10 years ? _ 

Mr. Rackliffe. The answer to that again is no and I would like 
to make it clear on the record that I do not concede the right of this 
committee to ask this question. 

Mr. Arens. How far back in the chronology of time is it that 
you claim the fifth amendment with reference to the question as to 
your Communist Party membership ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. It can tie in conveniently with the 10-year question. 
I'll claim the fifth amendment for an;^ questions previous to 1947. 

Mr. Arens. Have you at any time since 1947 been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you at any time since 1947 been under Com- 
munist Party discipline? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of other agencies of the Federal Govern- 
ment in which Jane Foster Zlatovsky was employed ? 

Mr. Willis. You named two. 

Mr. Rackliffe. Those two are the two I know. The Board of 
Economic Warfare, when I was there, and the Office of Strategic 
Services to which she transferred. 

Mr. Arens. Was your disassociation from the Federal Govern- 
ment completely voluntary on your part ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Yes. There was a long civil service case and a 
complicated interagency case, both of which were decided in my 
favor, at the end of which I resigned. 

Mr. Arens. What is your present position with reference to the 
Communist Party ? Are you for it or against it ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. That is an opinion question and my political opin- 
ions are my own concern under the first amendment, aren't they ? 

Mr. Arens. I thought perhaps you might be able to help us de- 
velop some facts that would assist this Government in fighting the 
Communist Party, resisting the Communist movement in this coun- 
try. 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1847 



Mr. Kackliffe. If I- 



Mr. Akens. Excuse me. 

Mr. Racbxhte. Excuse me. Go ahead. I think I might as well 
finish, since I started. I just wanted to say that I don't equate this 
committee with this Government. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I do not equate this committee with this Govern- 
ment. The question implied that I would want to help this Govern- 
ment. My answer that I do not want to cooperate with this commit- 
tee does not mean that I do not want to support the Goverimient. 

Mr. Aeens. Have you been to the FBI with any information which 
you may have respecting the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I have not. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you feel the same way about the FBI as you do 
about this committee ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. In relation to that kind of questioning. 
^ If * 'if * * * 

Mr. ScHERER. You said you had some correspondence with Jane 
Foster after she left the Board of Economic Warfare, did you not? 

Mr. Rackliffe. That's right. 

Mr. ScHERER. Over how long a period did that correspondence con- 
tinue ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I remember only two details of it. I was asked 
something along these general lines by the grand jury. I do remem- 
ber vaguely that Miss Foster got in touch with me, I think after her 
return to this country, in relation to the possibility of my helping her 
with some manuscripts — I mean my helping her professionally — and I 
think that was by letter. I don't remember meeting her in that con- 
nection and I don't think it was a telephone call, so it it must be a 
letter which I've forgotten, except it was on that subject. 

Mr. ScHERER. That was the only type of correspondence you had 
with her ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. The only other one I remember was a letter shortly 
after she left this country — we had taken over her apartment^ — and 
she said, "If you paint that small middle room, paint it yellow; it 
needs light." 

Mr. ScHERER. You mean you and your wife had taken over her 
apartment ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. The apartment she previously had. 

Mr. ScHERER. And when she had this correspondence with you, 
she was abroad? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you know where she was ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No, I don't know. All I remember is her advice 

Mr. ScHERER. Do I understand, then, you haven't seen her at any 
time prior to the time she left the country ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. You meant subsequent? 

Mr. Scherer. You haven't seen her at any time since she left the 
country ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I said when you said "prior" you meant "subse- 
quent." 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 



1848 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Rackliffe. To the best of my recollection, no. There is a 
possibility that I may have seen her in relation to this manuscript of 
hers which did not materialize, but my memory is that it was in all 
likelihood done by letter. I would not swear to not having met her, 
but if I did meet her 

Mr. ScHERER. And that was about as late as 10 years ago that you 
received the last correspondence? 

Mr. Rackliffe. It would be slightly longer than that. It would 
be probably 1945 ; conceivably 1946. 

Mr. Scherer. You had no contact with her at all since that date? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I'm sure that I can state that I have had no con- 
tact since 1946, but this business about possible manuscript of hers 
could have been in 1945 or could have been in 1946. 

Mr. Scherer. She was with OSS at the time she wrote you ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No, I believe she left. I'm not sure. 

Mr. Scherer. Wliat was she doing then ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. I'm not sure. I can't remember where she was. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Rackllffe. Could I just ask your name, sir? 

Mr. Scherer. Scherer, S-c-h-e-r-e-r. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Alexander Ganz ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. Miriam Waybur ? Did you know her? 

Mr. Rackllffe. I'll claim the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know people now working in the Federal Gov- 
ernment who to your certain knowledge were one-time members of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Rackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest 

Mr. Rackllffe. I was going to say I may know of people. Usually 
committees like that hire former Communists, but I know of them 
only by reputation. I don't know them personally. 

Mr. Arens. I don't understand. Who is it you know 

Mr. Rackllffe. I don't know any such people. I merely know of 
their existence. I may have partly misinterpreted your question. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is it you know the existence of ? I don't under- 
stand. 

Mr. Rackliffe. I merely said that former Communists are em- 
ployed by this Government of whom I have heard, but whom I do 
not know. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the subpena 
under which this witness appears today be continued subject to noti- 
fication of the witness as to a time and place of appearance, and that 
the witness be permitted to return to his home subject to notification 
by this committee of time and place for his further appearance. 

Mr. Rackllffe. May I ask why there should be a further appear- 
ance? 

Mr. Arens. That is a matter for the determination of this com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Willis. That will be so ordered. 

Mr. Rackliffe. Is there any way I can be informed why the ques- 
tioning has not been completed now that I am down here ? 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1849 

Mr. Arens. That will be a matter for the determination of the 
committee, too, Mr. Rackliffe. I take it it is the order of the Chair 
that the witness is presently excused, but he is to remain under his 
subpena subject to notification of the time and place of his appear- 
ance. 

Mr. Willis. That course will be followed. 

Mr. Arens. I may suggest to you, Mr. Witness, that if prior to the 
time you receive notification of the time and place of appearance you 
have what we might call a change of heart and decide that you want to 
talk to us further, from the standpoint of information that you may 
have which would be helpful to this committee, just call us collect on 
the telephone and we will see that you are interviewed or that we have 
occasion to visit with you further. 

Do you understand what I am saying ? 

Mr. Rackliffe. Yes, I understand that. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. Thank you very much for your appear- 
ance, and Mr. Russell here will see that your voucher is taken care of. 

Mr. Rackliffe. Fine. I think I already did that. 

(Whereupon at 1:45 p. m. October 7, 1957, the hearing was ad- 
journed, to reconvene at 10 a. m. Tuesday, October 8, 1957.) 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 



TUESDAY, OCTOBER 8, 1957 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. G. 
executive session ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met in executive session, pursuant to call, at 10 a. m. in room 226, Old 
House Office Building, the Honorable Edwin E. Willis presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, staff director ; Louis J. Rus- 
sell and Raymond T. Collins, investigators. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Mr. Arens. Remain standing while the chairman administers the 
oath. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Collins. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HENRY HILL COLLINS, JR., ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Collins. My name is Henry H. Collins, Jr., Scarsdale, N. Y., 
writer and publisher. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Collins, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Collins. Yes. May I ask at this time what the purpose of this 
hearing is ? 

Mr. Arens. Will you excuse me until I make the identification 
clear ? 

You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Collins Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you identify yourself ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street, NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. You had a question, Mr. Collins ? 

Mr. Collins. Yes. What is the purpose of this hearing? 



^ Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 

1851 



1852 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arens. The purpose of this hearing is to develop facts which 
would be of use to this committee, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, in the discharge of its legislative duties, principally its 
duties under Public Law 601, which mandates this committee to 
maintain a continuing surveillance over the administration and opera- 
tion of the numerous security laws, espionage statutes, the Internal 
Security Act, the Communist Control Act, and other laws pertaining 
to the internal security. 

Now, Mr. Collins, kindly tell this committee where and when you 
were born. 

Mr. Collins. Just a minute, sir. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. I was born in Philadelphia, April 7, 1905. 

I would like to state at this time I am not clear at all how my 
presence here can usefully serve the purpose that you have just 
elaborated. 

Mr. Arens. We will get to that as we proceed. 

"Would you kindly give us a word of your educational background? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. You had this many times before in previous hear- 
ings. I don't know why you take the taxpayers' time and money 
to go over these things again, but if you want to know what my 
education was, I am a graduate of Princeton, 1926; Harvard, 1927. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give just a comparable sketch of your 
employment background, please, sir ? 

Mr. Collins. I really think it is a futile waste of time. I have 
been through this thing many times before down here. I am sure 
your records are full of it. If you want to keep on printing again 
and again the same old things, what legislative purpose does that 
accomplish? 

Mr. ScHERER. Let's have the answer. I haven't heard your testi- 
mony before. Let's hear it. 

Mr. Collins. I was in private industry from 1928 to 1933. I was 
in Government service from 1933 to 1943; was in the Army for 2 
years or 3 years, and was in Government service again for 1 year; 
then privately employed and then self-emj^loyed for the last period 
of time. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed in the United States 
Government ? 

Mr. Collins. With the NKA. 

Mr. Arens. Give us the approximate dates of the employment, 
please ? 

Mr. Collins. I was with the NKA from 1933 to 1935 ; the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture from 1935 to 1938. I am citing these dates 
from memory, now. 

Mr. Arens. In NRA from 1933 to 1935 ? 

Mr. Collins. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What is the other one ? 

Mr. Collins. These are approximate dates. 

Mr. Arens. That's right. We understand. 

Mr. Collins. 1935 to 1938 I was with the Department of Agri- 
culture, the Department of Labor from 1938 to 1940, and from 1940 
to 1943 I served witli various congressional committees. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat congressional committees were you with? 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1853 

Mr. Collins. The House Committee on the Interstate Migration 
of Destitute Citizens, the Senate Small Business Committee, and the 
Subcommittee on Technological Mobilization of the Senate Military 
Affairs Committee. 

Mr. Arens. Did that conclude your Government service? Is that 
all of your Government service. 

Mr. Collins. I served in the Army of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. When was that ? 

Mr. Collins. 1943 to 1946. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Collins, we would like to ask you to help this com- 
mittee. We are trying to develop facts on matters that you have 
never been interrogated on, at least by this committee, we are sure. 

Do you know, or have you ever known, a person by the name of Jane 
Foster Zlatovsky ? 

Mr. Collins. I knew a person by the name of Jane Foster. I did 
not know her under the name of whatever that last name is. 

Mr. Arens. When did you know Jane Foster ? 

Mr. Collins. Well, she rented a room from us in 1940 or 1941 for a 
short time here in Washington. 

Mr. Arens. When you say "rented a room from us," to whom are 
you referring — your wife and yourself ? 

Mr. Collins. Yes. We had a house on Rodman Street, and she 
rented a room there. 

jNIr. Arens. How did you happen to first make her acquaintance ? 

Mr. Collins. I haven't any idea. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only acquaintanceship you had with 
her, the acquaintanceship of a landlord and tenant ? 

Mr. Collins. After she left there, she was in Washington for some 
time, and I saw her around the Hill. I think she had an office in the 
annex of the Library of Congress, and I was working on the Hill at 
that time and I saw her occasionally then, but 

Mr. Arens. May I back up just a moment, please, sir? 

How did you first meet her ? Do you recall ? 

Mr. Collins. I don't have any idea at all. 

Mr. Arens. Was it in response to an ad in the paper, a room for 
rent, or something of that kind ? 

Mr. Collins. No. We had the room for rent, and I tried to search 
my memory on this because the FBI has asked me these same ques- 
tions, and I have answered them in the same way, some months a^o ; 
and I have given it a great deal of thought and I do not remember 
at all how she happened to come to us. 

I assume that it was because she was working on the Hill here and 
had just come to town and somebody said a young lady was looking 
for a place to stay, and they may have known that we had a room for 
rent and told us about it. 

Mr. Arens. Where was she working on the Hill ? 

Mr. Collins. I don't know. I don't know that she was working 
when she first came to Washington. She may have come down to look 
for a job. 

Mr. Arens. How long did she rent the room from you? 

Mr. Collins. I don't know, exactly. It might have been 2 weeks; it 
misfht have been 6 weeks. 



20420 — 58- 



1854 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arens. Then you saw her afterward when she moved some- 
place else? 

Mr. Collins. I casually passed her in the Library of Congress 
Annex. 

Mr. Arens. Did you and she ever join together or act in concert in 
any meetings of any kind ? 

Mr. Collins. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any correspondence 

Mr. Forer. Excuse me a minute. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Forer. I thought you cut him off. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't mean to. 

Mr. Forer. I know you didn't ; when he was explaining what later 
times he had seen her. 

Mr. Arens. Amplify that. 

Mr. Collins. I remember seeing her one other time subsequent to 
the time here in Washington, and that was in the spring of 1946 after 
I came back from service abroad and I met her in Greenwich Village. 
I saw her in Greenwich Village and we had dinner together. 

Mr. Arens. You saw her in New York City ? 

Mr. Collins. Yes, and that's the last time I have seen her. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, during the course of your acquaintanceship 
with Jane Foster, now Jane Foster Zlatovsky, learn whether or not 
she had ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Collins. No. I never learned anything of that kind from her 
at all. I have no knowledge of what her politics are. 

Mr. Arens. In passing, may I ask you did you ever know George 
Zlatovsky, the man who married Jane Foster ? 

Mr. Collins. That's a good question. I don't know. The FBI 
showed me a picture of this Jane Foster Zlatovsky — is it — and also 
this man named Zlatovsky, and when I first saw the pictures I wasn't 
sure that I knew him at all. 

The picture of Jane Foster was quite different from what she ap- 
peared in my memory to be. I hadn't seen her for 10 or 12 years. 
On the man Zlatovsky, I may have seen him and I may not have. My 
memory of him — she may have had him as a caller when she was stay- 
ing at our house. That's the only possible thing I coidd think of it. 

Mr. Arens. You knew Joan Anthony Otte? 

Mr. Collins. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. T^Hiat was the natui-e of your acqiiaintnncpship with 
her? 

Mr. Collins. She was my former sister-in-law. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever recommend her for pm]iloyniPiit any place 
or assist her in procuring employment ? 

Mr. Collins. I don't know. I might have. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know where she was employed in the Govern- 
ment? 

Mr. Collins. Well, I don't offhand. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall whether or not she ever worked in the 
Lend Lease Administration ? 

Mr. Collins. Well, she might have. I really don't know. 



ESrVESTIGATTON OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1855 

Mr. Akens. Do you know whether or not she was ever a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Collins. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Are you acquainted, or have you ever been acquainted, 
with a man by the name of Ben T. Moore ? 

Mr. Collins. Well, I decline to answer that question. I don't see 
that it has anything to do with this inquiry. I don't see how it can 
serve any useful, legislative purpose. Under my constitutional rights, 
I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Akens. Which constitutional rights are you invoking here, 
please ? 

Mr. Collins. Well, the first amendment and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Akens. Wliich part of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Collins. Can't I invoke the whole fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Akens. Do you feel, to be quite precise, that if you told us 
whether or not you know, or have ever known, Ben T. Moore you 
would be supplying information that might be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. It's possible. 

Mr. Akens. Do you know a Herbert Fierst, F-i-e-r-s-t ? 

Mr. Collins. I would like to consult counsel a minute. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. Yes ; I do. 

* Hf 4: * :(: ' 4c 4c 

Mr. Akens. What was the nature of your acquaintanceship with 
him? 

Mr. Collins. He was my employer. 

Mr. Akens. Wliere? 

Mr. Collins. State Department. 

Mr. Akens. For some reason or other, I didn't put down on my 
notes here that you had ever been employed in the State Depart- 
ment. 

Mr. Collins. Yes ; I said 1946 1 was in the Government. 

Mr. Akens. I just didn't understand that. 

Mr. Willis. I didn't understand it either. 

Mr. Collins. After I came back from service abroad, I was in the 
State Department for 6 months. 

Mr. Akens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Collins. Well, I was — I forget my exact title — I was in the 
Division of Occupied Territories, and Fierst was my superior there. 

Mr. Akens. What was Fierst's job ? 

Mr. Collins. Well, functionally — I can't give you the title, but, 
functionally, he was assistant to General Hildring. 

Mr. Akens. Who obtained your job for you in the State 
Department ? 

Mr. Collins. I applied for it. I got it through Fierst. 

******* 

Mr. Akens. What caused your disassociation from the State De- 
partment ? 
Mr. Collins. I had a temporary contract for 6 months. 



1856 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arens. Wliat did you do as an employee of the State 
Department ? 

Mr. Collins. Well, I was in charge of the repatriation and resettle- 
ment work under Fierst and in association with Fierst. 

Mr. Arens. Repatriation of whom ? 

Mr. Collins. And resettlement of displaced persons. 

Mr. Arens. Was that resettlement of displaced persons in the 
United States? 

Mr. Collins. No; abroad. 

Mr. Arens. Resettlement within displaced-persons camps, or 
repatriation to the country from which they came ? 

Mr. Collins. Both. Our jurisdiction included what to do with 
the DP's. I had been a displaced-persons officer in Germany and 
when I came back I talked to the people at that time in the War 
Department who were in charge of this particular area of operations 
and described some of the problems that we had; and they were 
very grateful to get my view, having come freshly from the other 
side; and shortly thereafter this entire bloc of personnel from the 
War Department was shifted to the State Department; and Fierst, 
at that time, asked me to come and work with him on this subject or 
displaced persons. 

Mr. Arens. For whom did you work in Europe when you dealt 
with displaced persons? 

Mr. Collins. Well, I was in military command. I was military- 
govenmient officer in Wurzburg, Germany. 

Mr. Arens. Were you detailed as a displaced-persons officer under 
the Army, or were you detailed to UNRRA, or what was the struc- 
tural setup of the organization under which you functioned when 
you were dealing with displaced persons? 

Mr. Collins. I was associated with the military government of 
Mainfranken in Bavaria. We had what was called a Regierungs- 
bezirke or a regional team in which we had a number of different 
officers with different assignments. 

Perhaps you were over there at the time and know about this. 
My job was to act as displaced-persons officer. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Collins. Just a minute. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. I don't see what that has to do with the legislative 
purpose of this inquiry and I decline to answer for the reasons pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee while you are under oath whether or not you are now a member 
of the Communist Party, you would be supplying information which 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. It's possible. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you were employed by the United States Government? 

Mr. Collins. I decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Can you give us now the names of persons whom you 
recommended for employment in the United States Government at 
any time when you were employed by the United States Government? 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1857 

Mr. Collins. I can't do it just out of my own mind. 

Mr. Arens. Are there some whom you did recommend? 

Mr. Collins. It's entirely possible, but I don't really remember. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any recollection of any person whom 
you recommended for employment ? 

Mr. Collins. If you want to refresh my memory, I will be glad 
to have you do that, but I can't just sitting here think of them. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at any time recommend Joan Anthony Otte 
for employment in the Government of the United States? 

Mr. Collins. I may well have. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of I. F. Stone? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Collins. Sure. 

Mr. Arens. What's the nature of your acquaintanceship with him ? 

Mr. Collins. Just friendship. 

Mr. Arens. How did you make his acquaintance ? 

Mr. Collins. He was a newspaperman and used to cover some of 
our hearings. 

Mr. Arens. What hearings ? 

Mr. Collins. Hearings before the Senate Small Business Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only association you had with him? 

Mr. Collins. No. I've seen him subsequently. I haven't seen him 
for some years now. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he has ever been a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Collins. No ; I do not. 

:): :): 4s H« 4c 4c 4! 

Mr. Arens. Do you have presently any information respecting any 
alleged Communist Party activities of Jane Foster Zlatovsky? 

Mr. Collins. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. At any time? 

Mr. Collins. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that we conclude the staff 
interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Beitscher, please. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers the oath. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HENRY BEITSCHER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Beitscher. My name is Henry Beitscher. I live at 6620 North 
18th Street in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Beitscher, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un- American Activities? 



1858 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Beitscher. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel? 

Mr. Beitscher. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Beitscher, would you give us your full name? I 
want to be sure this record reflects your full name. We have Henry 
Beitscher. Do you have a middle name? 

Mr. Beitscher. No, I don't. It's Henry Beitscher. 

Mr. Arens. You have used that name always throughout your life? 

Mr. Beitscher. To the best of my knowledge, that's my only name. 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I was born on the 5th of January 1916. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Beitscher. In New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Give us just a thumbnail sketch of the highlights of 
your educational background. 

Mr. Beitscher. I attended public school in New York City and 
went to college in New York. I spent the year in college during the 
day and went to work, and spent somewhere between 6 and 7 years 
in college at night. 

Mr. Arens. When did you finally receive your degree ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I didn't 

Mr. Arens. What college did you attend ? 

Mr. Beitscher. City College of New York. 

Mr. Arens. When did you conclude your work at City College? 

Mr. Beitscher. It was somewhere between 1937 and 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Give us just the highlights, if you please, of your em- 
ployment background since you reached adulthood — the principal 
employments. 

Mr. Beitscher. Would you mind statmg to me the purpose of the 
inquiry before I do that ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. This Committee on Un-American Activities 
is under a mandate by the Congress of the United States to develop 
facts respecting the operation of Communists and communism in the 
United States for the purpose of appraising existing legislation or 
for the purpose of considering amendments to existing legislation or 
new laws on the subject. 

It is the information of this committee that you, in all probability, 
have certam information in your possession respecting the operation 
of the Comnimiist Party in the United States. Pursuant to that man- 
date of the committee, we want to know about your own personal ac- 
tivities in view of the fact that we feel you have that information. 

Now kindly tell us what are the principal employments which you 
have had since you have reached adulthood. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beitscher. It still isn't fully clear to me exactly what 

Mr. Arens. I think it will be clear, Mr. Beitscher, much clearer, as 
we proceed. If you will just kindly help us and give us a resume 

Mr. Beitscher. I would be glad to give it to you. The purpose may 
be legitimate enough, but surely you can't be interested in my whole 
occupational background. You must have some particular period in 
mind that you are interested in. 



mVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ElSQPIONAGE 1859 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest to the chairman that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to the principal 
employments he has had since he concluded his education. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beitscher. I am compelled to decline to answer that question 
on the grounds that this committee is illegal under the Watkins de- 
cision, that there is no legislative purpose served by asking this ques- 
tion, on the grounds of the first amendment, and on the grounds of 
not being compelled to be a witness against myself under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. May I just ask you this: If you gave us a resume of 
your employment, do you honestly apprehend that those facts which 
you would give us could be used against you in a criminal proceed- 
ing? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beitscher. It's possible. 

Mr. Arens. What is your present employment ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I am employed by a mill supply house, U. S. 
Equipment Co. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I am an expediter. 

Mr. Arens. For how long have you been employed by this firm? 

Mr. Beitscher. For approximately a year and three-quarters. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the name of the firm ? 

Mr. Beitscher. U. S. Equipment Co. 

Mr. Arens. "Where is it located? 

Mr. Beitscher. It's located in Neshaminy. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed there? 

Mr. Beitscher. Around a year and three-quarters. 

Mr. Arens. What was your emploj^ment immediately prior to your 
present employment? 

Mr. Beitscher. I was employed by a trailer leasing company, 

Mr. Arens. And the name of that company ? 

Mr. Beitscher. It was called Trailer Center. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere was it located ? 

Mr. Beitscher. Off Whitaker and Godfrey Avenues in Philadephia. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you employed there ? 

Mr. Beitscher. Around 4 months. 

Mr. Arens. What was your job there? 

Mr. Beitscher. I participated in the leasing of trailers. 

Mr. Arens. "V\niat was your job immediately prior to your job with 
the trailer company ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
I have already stated. 

Mr. Arens. How long did your job last that you had prior to 
your job with the trailer company ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I cannot answer that for the reasons I have already 
stated. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever worked for the United States Govern- 
ment? 

Mr. Beitscher. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere did you work for the United States Government ? 

Mr. Beitscher. Well, I worked in a number of Government agencies, 

Mr. Arens. List them all, please. 



1860 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr, Beitscher. The Census Bureau. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you this, if you will kindly accommodate us — 
give it to us in chronological order and the approximate dates, please 
sir? 

Mr. Beitscher. I will try to do that. It is a little confusing in my 
mind, but I will try to give you a chronology. I started with the 
Census Bureau in 1939, and I went from the 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt ? I don't want to break up your trend 
of thought. Tell us the job you had in each of the agencies, ^^^lat 
did you do in Census, the period of your service, and then the next one. 

Mr. Beitscher. I was a clerk in the Census Bureau. 

Mr, Arens. In Washington ? 

Mr. Beitscher. In Washington. 

Mr. Arens. 1939? 

Mr. Beitscher. In 1939. I went to the Coordinator of Inter- 
American Affairs in 1941, and I was employed there as a clerk. From 
there I went to the Board of Economic Warfare, where I was also 
employed in a clerical capacity. 

Mr. Arens. That is BEW, and when was that ? 

Mr. Beitscher. This was somewhere in the same period of 1941 to 

1942. These are very approximate dates, because I didn't review my 
job history on this. Then I went from there to the OPA in around 

1943, and I was in the OPA until my division was abolished and I 
went from there to the Department of Commerce in around 1945 or 
1946, and I was in the Department of Commerce until I left at the 
end of 1947. 

Mr. Arens. Is that all the Government employment that you 
have had ? 

Mr. Beitscher. That's all the Government employment I have had. 

Mr. Arens. What precipitated your disassociation from the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, particularly from the Department of 
Commerce ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I resigned voluntarily. 

Mr, Arens. Were you at the time the subject of a loyalty investi- 
gation ? 

Mr, Beitscher, To my knowledge, I wasn't. I had been cleared by 
the Civil Service Commission and received my civil-service status, and 
I don't remember any other loyalty investigation following that. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment then, immediately fol- 
lowing your Government employment ? 

Mr. Beitscher. For the reasons I have already stated, I refuse to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Has there been any employment since the Govern- 
ment employment and until the time that you were employed by the 
trailer company concerning which you can tell us without giving facts 
which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beitscher. Can you state it again to me, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Is there any employment in which you have been en- 
gaged since 1947, when you left the Government, up until the time 
you had this trailer-company employment you told us about, any 
employment in that period which you can now tell us about without 
giving facts which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



MYESTIGATIOOSr OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1861 

Mr. Beitscher. There is no such employment that I am willing to 
tell you about, for the reasons I have already stated, 

Mr. Akens. Do those reasons encompass and include an assertion by 
you that if you told us about the employment you would be giving 
facts which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beitscher. I believe I have already answered that question. 

Mr. Arens. Answer it again, then, please, sir. 

Mr. Beitscher. Yes ; it's possible. 

Mr. Arens. When you were an employee of the United States Gov- 
ernment, were you at any time concurrently, simultaneously, with that 
employment a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his coimsel.) 

Mr. Beitscher. I have already given my grounds for refusing to 
answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. No ; you haven't had that question before. 

Mr. Beitscher. Well, for the same reasons that I have declined to 
answer before, I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. When you were in BEW, Board of Economic Warfare, 
did you know Jane Foster, a woman by the name of Jane Foster, who 
is now Jane Foster Zlatovsky ? 

Mr. Beitscher. The name doesn't ring any kind of bell with me; 
and, to the best of my knowledge, I did not know anyone by the name 
of Jane Foster. 

Do you have any identification of her or any way — I am very poor 
on names. 

Mr. Arens. It is our information she was employed in BEW at or 
about this period of time, and her name is now changed, having been 
married to Mr. Zlatovsky, to Jane Foster Zlatovsky. 

Mr. Beitscher. Of course, there are hundreds and hundreds of 
people 

Mr. Arens. You have no recollection of her ? 

Mr. Beitscher. To the best of my knowledge, I don't know her. 

Mr. Arens. At any time during the course of your employment with 
the Government of the United States, did you know a person by the 
name of Eleanor Nelson ? 

Mr. Beitscher. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was the nature of your acquaintance ? 

Mr. Beitscher. She was the secretary-treasurer of the union of 
which I was a member. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat union was that ? 

Mr. Beitscher. United Federal Workers. 

Mr. Arens. Was that Abram Flaxer's organization ? 

Mr. Beitscher. That then became the United Public Workers. 

Mr. Arens. That's the one that Flaxer did have ? 

Mr. Beitscher. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed at the time ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I was a member of that union from the tune of my 
first employment in the Census Bureau. 

Mr. Arens. And on through your Government employment? 

Mr. Beitscher. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have an officer post in the union ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I held several posts in the union. 

20420—58 5 



1862 INVESTIGATIOX OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Aren^. Just give us a few of the principal ones. 

Mr. Beitsciier. Well, I was on the executive board of my local 
union. I was on the grievance committee and chairman of the griev- 
ance committee. I was at one point a member of the district com- 
mittee, the Washington committee of the union, and I was a delegate 
to the CIO council in Washington, and I was a member of the 
national committee of the union. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know where Eleanor Nelson is now ? 

Mr. Beitscher. Eleanor Nelson has died. 

******* 

Mr. Arens. Alexander Ganz. Did you know him ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I may have known him. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere would that be — do you recall ? 

Mr. Beitscher. No, frankly, I don't. His name sounds familiar to 
me. 

Mr. Arens. Wilfred Lumer ? 

Mr. Beitscher. Again, his name sounds familiar. Would you or 
could you jog my memory somehow on how you think I may have 
known this person? 

Mr. Arens. You would have known him, if you knew him, in the 
OPA days in all probability. 

Mr. Beitscher. Well, that's possible. His name sounds familiar 
to me. I believe I knew a Will Lumer. 

Mr. Arens. How did you know Will Lumer ? Did you know him 
as a Communist? 

Mr. Beitscher. For the same reasons, I decline to answer that 

question. If I knew him, I would know him as somebody who worked 

in the same agency that I did and in some connection with my union 

activity. 

* ****** 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a Communist, a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Beitscher. I decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a John B. Eackliffe ? 

Mr. Beitscher. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of your acquaintanceship with 
him? 

Mr. Beitscher. Well, I can't give you anything more than a gen- 
eral type of answer to that. 

Mr. Arens. Was that during your OPA days? 

Mr. Beitscher. Probably during m}' OPA days, although I don't 
believe he worked for OPA. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he is a Communist or was 
a Communist ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I must decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Esther Auerbach, now Esther Stavis? 

Mr. Betischer. Esther Auerbach. 

Mr. Arens. If that name doesn't register, just tell us. 

Mr. Beitscher. It doesn't register with me at all. 

Mr. Arens. William Rossmoore, R-o-s-s-m-o-o-r-e ? 

Mr. Beitscher. His name sounds familiar. I believe I knew him 
in OPA. 

Mr. Arens. Do vou know wliether or not he was a Communist? 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1863 

Mr. Beitscher. I must decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

JVIr. Arexs. The Communists controlled this Government union, 
did thay not, Flaxer's union, United Public Workers? 

Mr. Beitscher. This union was controlled by its members as far 
as I know. 

Mr. Arens. Didn't Communists occupy key posts of leadership in 
the organization ? 

Mr. Beitscher. The people who I know who occupied key posts 
were very fine people. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't ask you that. You know that. Did Com- 
munists occupy key posts of leadership? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beitscher. I refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know Miriam Waybur? 

Mr. Beitscher. Yes, I knew Miriam Waybur. 

Mr. Arexs, Where ; that is, in what agency were you working at the 
time, if you recall ? 

Mr. Beitscher. The only way I could put it together is we lived 
in the same apartment house during one period of time and I don't 
recall what time that was. It was somewhere in town. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you know her solely and exclusively as a co-tenant 
of an apartment house, or did you know her in some other capacity? 

Mr. Beitscher. I don't understand what you mean. 

Mr. Arexs. Did you know her as a Communist? 

Mr. Beitscher. I decline to answer that on the same giounds. 

]Mr. Arexs. Arthur Stein ? 

Mr. Beitscher. Yes, I knew Arthur Stein. 

Mr. Arexs. Where and when, please, sir? 

Mr. Beitscher. Arthur Stein was an officer of the Federal Workers 
Union. 

Mr. Arexs. Wliere was he employed ? 

Mr. Beitscher. At the time I knew him he was employed by the 
union. 

Mr. Arexs. Was he a Communist? 

Mr. Beitscher, I must decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Mary Rackliffe? 

Mr. Beitscher. Mary Rackliffe I knew in OPA. 

Mr. Aeexs. Do you know whether or not she was a Commimist? 

Mr. Beitscher. I must decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arexs. Philip Eden, E-d-e-n ? 

Mr. Beitscher. I believe I knew Philip Eden. 

Mr. Arexs. Wliere and when? 

Mr. Beitscher. In the course of my union work. 

Mr. Arexs. Was he identified with the union ? 

Mr. Beitscher. Yes. He sat on some union committees. 

Mr. Arexs. Was he a Communist to your knowledge? 

Mr. Beitscher. I must decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

iji :^ H: ^ H^ 4: 4: 

Mr. Arexs. William Shonick, S-h-o-n-i-c-k? 

Mr. Beitscher. I knew William Shonick. 

Mr. Arexs. Under what circumstances? 

Mr. Beitscher. They were union circumstances. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you know whether or not he was a Communist? 



1864 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Beitscher. I must decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Olivia Israeli? 

Mr. Beitscher. Olivia Israeli?. That name doesn't sound familiar 
to me. 

Mr. Arens. Joseph Phillips? 

Mr. Beitscher. I knew Joseph Phillips. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Beitscher. Where did I know him ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Under what circumstances and where, please, 
sir? 

Mr. Beitscher. I knew him in the union. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist? 

Mr. Beitscher. t must decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Julia Schneer, S-c-h-n-e-e-r? 

Mr. Beitscher, That's the woman that was outside. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know her ? 

Mr. Beitscher. Her face looks familiar to me, but I can't recollect 
any circumstances other than just knowing her face. 

Mr. Arens. That concludes the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

(Wliereupon, at 11 :50 a. m.. October 8, 1957, the subcommittee re- 
cessed, to reconvene at 2 p. m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, OCTOBER 8, 1957 

(The hearing was resumed at 2 p. m., pursuant to the recess.) 

Mr. Willis Let us proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Will you please remain standing wliile the chairman 
administers an oath? 

Mr. Wnxis. Do you soleimily swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Schneer. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF JULIA SCHNEER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MILDRED ROTH 

Mr. Arens. Please have a seat and kindly identify yourself by 
name, residence, and occupation. 

Mrs. Schneer. My name is Julia Schneer. I live at 20 Commerce 
Street, New York City, and I am a secretary. 

Mr. Arens. Is it Miss or Mrs. ? 

Mrs. Schneer. Mrs. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mrs. Schneer, in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee 
on Un-Ajnerican Activities? 

Mrs. Schneer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Schneer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Miss Eoth. Mildred Roth, 401 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Where are you employed, Mrs. Schneer ? 



ENTESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1865 

Mrs, ScHNEER. At the Dryden Press. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity are you employed? 

Mrs. ScHNEER. As a secretary. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed there? 

Mrs. ScHNEER. About a year. 

Mr. Arens. And what was your employment immediately prior to 
your present employment? 

Mrs. ScHNEER. Oh, I was doing free-lance work for a while, quite 
a while. 

Mr. Arens. Was that free-lance writing? 

Mrs. ScHNEER. No; just manuscript work. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean by manuscript work ? 

Mrs. Schneer. Typing out manuscripts. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever worked in the United States Govern- 
ment? 

Mrs. Schneer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did you work in the United States Government? 

Mrs. Schneer. It's about 1942. 

Mr. Arens. And where ? What agency ? 

Mrs. Schneer. OPA. 

Mr. Arens. And for how long? 

Mrs. Schneer. It must have been about 2 years, I guess. 

Mr. Arens. I wonder if you can help us, Mrs. Schneer, on some 
identifications here. During the course of your employment in the 
United States Government, did you know a person by the name of 
Jane Foster, who is now Jane Foster Zlatovsky ? 

Mrs. Schneer. I never knew her. Don't know the name. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Jack Stachel ? 

Mrs. Schneer. I decline to answer on the basis of my rights mider 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Is he your brother-in-law? Do you have a brother- 
in-law ? 

Mrs. Schneer. I decline to answer on the basis of my rights under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a Communist, a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Schneer. I decline to answer on the basis 

Mr. Arens. Was your employment in OPA your only employment 
in the Federal Government? 

Miss EoTH, Answer completely. 

Mrs. Schneer. I am having very bad palpitations. I am subject 
to palpitations. 

Mr. Arens. Just relax. We do not mean to excite you at all. Was 
your employment in the OPA the only employment you had in the 
Federal Govermnent? 

]Mrs. Schneer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And that concluded in 1944, did it not ? 

Mrs. Schneer. It must have been about that time, I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us just the principal employments you have had 
since you left OPA in 1944. 

Mrs. Schneer. You mean since then? 



1866 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arexs. Yes, just the principal ones, not the incidental ones, 
like this manuscript typing you have been talking about. 

Mrs. ScHNEER. Excuse me. 

(Witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. SciiNEER. Well, I have been doing, as I said, a great deal of 
free lancing and working at various places and I did have some jobs 
that were of longer duration. 

Mr. Arexs. What were tlie principal employments you had other 
than this free-lance work ? 

Mrs. Schneer. I was with the ASPCA. 

Mr. Arens. What is ASPCA, what does it mean ? 

Mrs. Schneer. American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals. 

Mr. Arens. What post did you have in that organization? 

Mrs. Schneer. Secretarial. 

Mr. Arens. Who was head of that organization ? 

Mrs. Schneer. At that time? Well there were two men, one a 
Mr. Coleman, who died, and Mr. McSpadden. 

Mr. Arens. Is he the one who employed you ? 

Mrs. Schneer. Mr. McSpadden. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work there ? 

Mrs. Schneer. I worked there for about, I think, a little over 2 
years. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat caused you to leave there ? 

Mrs. Schneer. They were very much out of the way and I was 
very much run down at the time. I had a bad back. 

Mr. Arens. And have you had another principal employment since 
then? 

Mrs. Schneer. Just a moment. Let me think. 

(Witness confers with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Schneer. I worked for Playbill for a few months. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting a Communist 
ceil in the Board of Economic Warfare ? 

Mrs. Schneer. I decline to answer on the basis of my rights under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you left the Communist Party, disassociated 
yourself from the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Schneer. I decline to answer on the basis of the 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a Communist ? 

Mrs. Schneer. I decline to answer on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

******* 

(TVhereupon at 3 : 12 p. m., Tuesday, October 8, 1957, the hearing 
was concluded.) 



1 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 



WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 9, 1957 

United States House op Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Acti\t:ties, 

Washington^ D. G. 
executive session ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met in executive session, at 2: 25 p. m., pursuant to call, in the caucus 
room. Old House Office Building, Hon. Edvs^in E. Willis presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana, and Gordon H. Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, staff director, and Louis J. 
Russell, investigator. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Call your first witness, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Rossmoore. 

Mr. Willis. Kindly raise your right hand. Do you solemnly swear 
that the testimony you are about to give before this committee will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing. but the truth? 

Mr. Rossmoore. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM ROSSMOORE, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, MORRIS M. SCHNITZER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Rossmoore. William Rossmoore, 4 Tuers Place, Montclair, 
N". J, I am an attorney. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Rossmoore, you are appearing today in response 
to a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. ScHNiTZER. Morris M. Schnitzer, a member of the New Jersey 
bar. I have my business office at 1180 Raymond Boulevard, Newark, 
N.J. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been licensed to practice law, Mr. 
Rossmoore ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Going on 10 years. 



^ Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 

1867 



1868 . INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arens. Where and when were you born ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. New York, in 1918. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, just a brief sketch of your 
education. 

Mr. RossMooRE. I went to grammar school and high school in New 
York, and went to college. 

Mr. Arens. What college did you attend ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. I was graduated from Harvard. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. RossMOORE. 1940. 

Mr. Arens. Then did you go to law school ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. No. I entered the employ of the United States 
Government. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that employment, please, sir. 

Mr. Rossmoore. Well, I worked for a little over a year for the De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. RossMOORE. That would be from shortly after I got out of col- 
lege, in June of 1940. I don't remember when I started work. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. In what capacity did you work for the 
Department of Agriculture ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Well, in varying capacities. I started my official 
title as a junior clerk, and when I left I was some kind of an admin- 
istrative assistant. I don't remember the exact title. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment, please ? 

Mr. RossMooRE. With the Office of Price Administration, a war 
agency in Washington. 

Mr. Arens. WTien? 

Mr. Rossmoore. I began work there some time in the summer of 
1941, I believe. I remained with them until probably about January 
or February of 1943, when I enlisted in the United States Army, spe- 
cifically in the Air Force. I went through Air Force training, avia- 
tion cadets, and became a bomber pilot and flew combat missions in 
the European theater. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment, please, sir ? 

Mr. RossMooRE. It was after I got out of the Army in 1945 that 
I went to law school. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Columbia Law School in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. And did you graduate there ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Rossmoore. In the fall of 1947. 

Mr. Arens. I am not too certain about the chronology of events 
now. Did you assume the practice of law immediately ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Yes. Then I went into private practice in New 
Jersey and I have been there ever since. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Rossmoore, during the course of your experience 
in OPA, did you know a lady by the name of ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Mr. Counsel, I think I am going to object to 
answering this question and similar questions. With the permission 
of the committee, I would like to state my reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Please do. 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET EISOPIONAGE 1869 

Mr. RossMOORE. Well, this situation, my being here, involves an 
issue of principle for me. I am a practicing lawyer, as I have told 
you. I have taken an oath to defend the Constitution, not only for 
myself but also for others, including people whom I have repre- 
sented on occasion. 

Mr. Willis. Do you mind talking a little louder ? I cannot follow 
you. 

Mr. RossMOORE. I am sorry. I have had many opportunities over 
the years to reflect on the importance of protecting individual liber- 
ties and decency, particularly when I was piloting combat missions 
over Europe. It is my opinion that the heritage of the American 
citizen is invaded when he is compelled bj^ anyone to make a com- 
pulsory disclosure of either his speech, his beliefs, his opinions, or 
his associations. 

In my opinion, the recent decision of the Supreme Court of the 
United States in the Watkins case says that the first amendment to 
our Constitution prohibits any such inquiries as an invasion of the 
constitutional right of privacy, at least with respect to this area of 
speech and beliefs and opinions and associations. 

It is my opinion that the only way that these rights can remain 
vigorous and be meaningful is to exercise them wlien the occasion 
presents itself. This is a deep matter of conscience for me to do so. 

I want to make it clear, in saying this, that I am not claiming the 
fifth amendment privilege against self-incrimination, I don't want 
to leave this committee with the impression that I am opposed to 
legislative investigations, per se, of all kinds. 

For example, I don't think that the first amendment requires me 
to be silent about acts, as divorced from associations, beliefs, opinions, 
and speech. I am prepared to answer questions about such acts. 

Mr. Arexs. Could I interject this question ? 

Have you ever been active in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Sir, I think you are back into the question of asso- 
ciation. I said acts divorced from associations. I want to say some- 
thing else about this. 

In my opinion the decision of the Watkins case holds that the 
inquiries which you are making of me are not legally authorized — — 

Mr. Willis. I really can't follow you. 

Mr. RossMOORE. I am sorry. I am not used to talking in a micro- 
phone. I am used to addressing smaller courts where we don't use 
a microphone. 

The Watkins case holds that this inquiry, and the particular ques- 
tions that have been addressed to me, aren't legally authorized and are 
not allowed by the due process clause. I base my objections on these 
grounds as well. Really the issue here is one of compulsion. If I 
weren't under subpena, compelled to give answers, the situation might 
be different. If the committee were asking my cooperation on a vol- 
untary basis to give information or opinions on matters which are 
properly the concern of the Congress, I would be glad to do so. 

But when I am here under compulsory process, compelled to give 
sworn testimony, I think that 

Mr. ScHERER. Do you mean you would be willing to cooperate with 
the committee if you were not under oath ? 



1870 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. RossMOORE. It isn't a question of oath, sir. It is a question of 
compulsion. It is a question of conscience. I don't think that I, hav- 
ing taken an oath to support and defend the Constitution, can ac- 
quiesce in a compulsory process, which I understand, and which I 
believe the Supreme Court has held, to be in violation of the Consti- 
tution. 

JSIr. Akens. Now, please tell the committee — does that conclude your 
statement ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, please tell this committee : Are you now, or have 
you ever been, a Communist, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Sir, I think what I have just said applies to that 
sort of question, too. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Willis. You are not invoking the JEif th amendment ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Not that part of it. The due process clause which 
I mentioned is part of the fifth amendment. To that extent, I am 
relying on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You are not invoking that part of the fifth amendment 
which provides, in effect, that a witness may not be comjielled to give 
testimony which in his judgment may incriminate him in a crimmal 
proceeding ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. That is right. I am not invoking that. 

Mr. SoHERER. I ask that the witness be directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Willis. Wliat is the question ? 

Mr. Arens. The pending question is : Are you now, or have you ever 
been, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. ScHERER. He has not invoked the fifth amendment. 

Mr, Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. RossMOORE. Sir, I must respectfully repeat the reasons which I 
stated before. 

Mr. Arens. Who was your commanding officer in the Air Force? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Oh, boy. I don't remember, sir. I probably had 
many of them. 

Mr. Arens. Who was your first commanding officer in the Air 
Force? 

Mr. RossMOORE. I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio was your last commanding officer in the Air 
Force ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your OPA days, did you know 
a lady by the name of Jane Foster ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Sir, I am going to repeat the same answer. This 
is another association question. 

Mr. ScHERER. Association? She is an indicted espionage agent. 
Let's not talk about association. That is what we are asking you 
now. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a Communist, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Sir, I think I will repeat the same reasons to that 
same type of question. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your OPA days, were you con- 
nected with a Federal employees' organization? 



INYESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1871 

Mr. EossMOORE. Well, I think again, sir — I think you are in the 
same area that I said that I would respectfully decline to answer on. 

Mr. Aeens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question as to whether he was 
a member of a Federal workers organization or union during his 
OPA days. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. RossMOORE. Sir, I must respectfully again repeat the reasons 
which I stated earlier. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party while you 
were in the Air Force ? 

Mr. EossMOOKE. Well, the way the question is, it is a little bit 
ridiculous. I was pretty busy flying missions. But, as a matter of 
principle, I am going to refuse to answer that, too. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever, since your adult life, been out of the 
Connnunist Party ? 

Mr. EossMOORE. I think you are asking me the same question in a 
different form. Tlie same statement applies. 

Mr. Aeens. Have you ever belonged to any lawyers associations or 
lawyers clubs ? 

Mr. EossMOORE. xlgain, sir, I think that you are in the same field, 
which I think is beyond the scope of this committee. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, that you were a member of 
the Lawyers Club, Essex County, New Jersey branch, of the Com- 
munist Party. If that isn't so, deny it while you are under oath. 

Mr. EossMOORE. Sir, I think it is the same question. I will decline to 
answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been connected with the Eed Army 
Day dinner ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. ^^Hiat was the name ? 

Mr. Arens. Eed Army Day dinner. 

Mr. EossiiooRE. I think this is 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question. 

Mr. EossMOORE. I tliink it is the same type of a question that I 
previously stated my position on. 

Mr. Aeens. Do you have information presently regarding the 
underground finances of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. EossMOORE. I think that that question comes in the same ter- 
ritory on which I have already stated my position. 

^ ^ :{: H: H: H: ^ 

Mr. xIrens. Are you in practice by yourself, or do you have an 
associate ? 

Mr. Eoss^rooRE. Well, again you are asking me about associations. 
I don't think it is the proper business 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask you to direct the witness to answer with whom 
he is associated, if anybody, in the practice of law, for the purpose 
of identification. 

Mr. Willis. Do you want to reconsider that answer? 

Mr. EossMOORE. I really think that it covers the same ground of 
associations. I might well except it. It is certainly a matter of 



1872 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

public knowledge, but I think it is a matter of principle that really 
falls outside the scope of any proper inquiry. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossMOORE. Wliat was the question? 

Mr. Arens. With whom are you associated in the practice of law, 
or do you have an associate? 

Mr. RossMOORE. I have a partnership. 

Mr. Arens. With whom? 

Mr. RossMOORE. With a gentleman by the name of Samuel M. 
Koenigsberg. 

Mr. Arens. Is he the only one with whom you are associated in the 
practice of law? 

Mr. Rossmoore. He is the only one that I am associated with now. 
In the practice of law, you get involved with many other lawyers in 
the handling of cases. 

Mr. ScHERER. You know we don't mean that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know, or have you known, a person by the name 
of JackRackliffe? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Again you are getting into 

Mr. Arens. Do you decline to answer the question ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you presently have knowledge concerning the op- 
eration, in the course of the last few years, of the Communist con- 
spiracy which you have gained from firsthand participation in that 
conspiracy in the United States ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Well, sir, I think that you are really asking the 
same question which I have declined to answer before. 

Mr. Arens. Do you decline to answer this question ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully request that he be directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Rossmoore. I repeat my answ^er. 

Mr. Scherer. In refusing to answer that question, I understand 
you are not invoking the self-incrimination provision of the fifth 
amendment ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. That is right. I am invoking my conscience as a 
citizen and my duty as an attorney to support the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. You are not impelled by patriotism in any way to in- 
voke the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Well, conscience and patriotism. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your patriotic impulses, do you pres- 
ently have information respecting the operation of the Communist 
Party in the United States, which you have gained from firsthand 
participation in that operation? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Sir, I think you are just repeating the previous 
question, which I must give the same answer to. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know, or have you known, a person by the name 
of Wilfred Lumer ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Again I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. On the same basis ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. The same basis. 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1873 

Mr. Arens. Eleanor Nelson ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. The same basis. 

JSIr. Arens. AVere you a Communist while you were at Harvard? 

Mr. EossMooRE. Well, I will give the same answer. 

Mr. Arens. You were with the American Youth Congress at Har- 
vard, were you not ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Sir, I must respectfully decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, in the course of the last year, been in any 
way connected with the transmission of funds or receipt of funds 
pursuant to the underground operation of the Communist Party? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Well, sir, I think that you are asking me in a little 
bit different terminology, but essentially you are asking me the same 
question which j^ou have asked on a number of occasions. I must — I 
am going to decline for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. To what professional groups do you belong ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. I must decline to answer that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of bar groups of any kind ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Sir, I think that that falls within the same prin- 
ciple. 

Mr. Arens. I will put this question : Are you now a member of any 
nonsensitive, non-Communist gToup or organization ? 

]Mr. Rossmoore. Sir, I respectfully decline to answer that, too. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be directed and ordered to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. RossMooRE. I must respectfully decline on the basis which. I 
have stated before, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. You said you were admitted to the bar. To what 
bar are you admitted ? What State ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. I am admitted to the bar in New York and New 
Jersey. 

Mr. ScHERER. Where? 

Mr. RossMOORE. New Jersey and New York. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have to take an oath to support and defend 
tlie Constitution as of the time you were admitted to the bars of 
New Jersey and New York ? Do you recall that ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. I believe I did. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you took that oath, did you have any men- 
tal reservations because of membership in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Well, if you are asking me about membership in the 
Communist Party, I told you that I am not going to answer it. If 
you are asking me if I took the oath with mental reservations, I did 
not. 

Mr. Arens. You have been identified under oath by a witness be- 
fore this committee, who laid her liberty on the line and said while 
she was a member of the Communist Party, she knew you as a Com- 
munist, knew you not as an associate but as a Communist, a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Do you care to avail yourself now of the opportunity which you are 
afforded by this committee to deny that allegation while you are under 
oath? 

Mr. Rossmoore. I think, sir, that you are really asking me the same 
question again. I will respectfully decline. 



1874 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the National Lawyers Guild ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Again, sir, I want to assert the reasons which I 
gave you a while ago. I don't think it is a proper question. 

Mr. Arens. Aside from your military service, have you ever been 
Outside the United States? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. RossMOORE. I don't quite see what concern it is of the commit- 
tee. I have had occasion to go outside of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go and when ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Well, again I object to these questions. I don't 
tliink they are any concern of the committee. They are my private 
affairs. But, on the other hand, they are acts, not associations or be- 
liefs. I will answer them. WHien I was a very young child, I went 
to the West Indies, I think, on a cruise with my parents. 

Mr. Arens. Have you taken any trips since you have been an adult, 
other than your military service ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Before I got out of college, I took a trip to Europe. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Let's see. To France, Austria, Switzerland, and 
Italy, I think. 

Mr. Arens. Any other trips ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. I spent a honeymoon in Bermuda once. 

Mr. Arens. Did you take any trips to any of the Iron Curtain 
countries ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. I presume you mean countries of Eastern Europe ? 

Mr. Arens. Countries under the domination of the international 
Communist operation ; yes. 

Mr. Rossmoore. Well, no; I haven't been to any countries — any 
European countries, outside of the war, other than those I mentioned 
to you. 

Mr. Arens. Any Asian countries ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. No. 

Mr. Scherer. You say you served in the Air Force of the United 
States? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Yes, sir ; I did. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Arens asked you about your commanding officers. 
You, I believe, said you didn't remember the names of any of them. 
What particular job was assigned to you in the Air Force ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. I was a combat pilot, a bomber pilot on B-l7's. I 
flew somewhat over 50 missions over enemy territory, over Germany, 
Austria, Italy, Yugoslavia. I don't think I — I might have gone to 
Rumania. I am not sure. 

Mr. Scherer. That was during the Second World War, when we 
^^•ere a cobelligerent with Russia ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Yes ; I guess we were. 

Mr. Scherer. And where were you trained for your Army service ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Various stations, most of which were in the South. 
I had primary flight training in Florida, some small base, tlie name 
of which escapes me. I had basic training and also preflight train- 
ing in Montgomery, Ala., advance flight training in Columbus, Miss., 
and B-16 training in Tampa, Fla. 

Mr. Scherer. \\niere were you based during the war ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Overseas in Italy, outside of Foggia, the 15th Ajr 
Force, 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1875 

Mr. ScHERER. Are you a member of the Federal bar, admitted to 
practice in the Federal courts ? 

Mr. EossMooRE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
excused from present appearance under this subpena, but be con- 
tinued under the subpena subject to notification by the committee 
as to time and place of further appearance. 

Mr. Willis. It is so ordered by the chairman. 

JSIr. KossMOORE. If there is to be a further appearance, Mr. Arens, 
I would appreciate your consultation Avith my attorney. I know the 
committee has its own problems. But as a practicing lawyer, and 
Mr. Schnitzer, we both 

Mr. Arens. I believe you will agree on this record that your ap- 
pearance today was set over. 

Mr. EossMOORE. No ; I am not complaining. 

(Whereupon at 3 : 05 p. m., Wednesday, October 9, 1957, the com- 
mittee was recessed subject to call.) 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 



WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 1957 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. C. 
executive session ^ 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
in executive session, pursuant to call, in room 226, Old House Office 
Building, Washington, D. C, Hon. Francis E. Walter, chairman, 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
of Pennsylvania, and Clyde Doyle, of California. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director, and Louis 
J. Russell, investigator. 

The Chairman. The hearing will come to order. 

I have an opening statement, as subcommittee chairman, which 
1 wish to read for the record. 

The committee has long been interested in the situation which 
existed, and may still exist, in the various branches and establishments 
of the United States Government which had or have been infiltrated 
by members of the Communist conspiracy. 

In years past, this committee has held many hearings on this general 
subject. The hearings held during the past years have demonstrated 
that Communist cells did exist in practically all agencies and branches 
of the United States Government. 

Recently witnesses before the committee have identified a number 
of persons formerly employed by the United States Government who 
were members of a Communist cell existing in their own agency and 
in a number of other establishments of the United States Government 
and Communist-controlled unions and front organizations. 

Continuing its hearings on this general subject, the committee today 
hopes to obtain information regarding recent or past employment in 
the Federal Government of members of the Communist Party and 
their relation to the international Communist conspiracy. 

At this point, I should like to insert into the record a copy of the 
order for the appointment of this subcommittee, signed by myself as 
chairman on the 29th day of October 1957. In it, there is appointed 
a subcommittee consisting of Messrs. Kearney and Doyle, with 
myself as chairman, to conduct these hearings in Washington, D. C, 
beginning on November 20, 1957. Those of the subcommittee present 
are Mr. Doyle of California and myself, Walter, of Pennsylvania, Mr. 
Kearney being necessarily absent. 



* Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 1877 



1878 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

(The order follows: ) 

October 29, 1957. 
To : Mr. Richard Arens, Director, House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Pursuant to the provisions of law and the rules of this committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consist- 
ing of Representatives Clyde Doyle and Bernard W. Kearney, associate mem- 
bers, and myself, Francis E. Walter, as chairman, to conduct an executive hear- 
ing in Washington, D. C, on November 20, 1957, at 10 a. m., on subjects under 
investigation by the committee and take such testimony on said day or suc- 
ceeding days, as it may deem necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 29th day of October, 1957. 

Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

The Chairman. Congress, by Public Law 601 in the 79th Congress, 
placed upon this committee the duty of investigating the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the 
United States, the diffusion within the United States of subversive 
and un-American propaganda that is instigated from foreign coun- 
tries or of a domestic origin and attacks the principle of the form 
of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and all other ques- 
tions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. Congress has also placed upon this committee 
the duty of exercising continuous watchfulness of the execution by 
the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter 
of which is within the jurisdiction of the committee. 

In the event that testimony given during these hearings reflects a 
situation correctable by legislation, tlie committee will recommend 
the appropriate measures at the proper time. It is the purpose of 
the subcommittee, in the conduct of these hearings, to discharge the 
duties placed upon us by the Congress by calling witnesses wlio, we 
have reason to believe, possess information which will be of value 
to us and to the Congress in the consideration of such legislation. It 
is a standing rule of this committee that any person named in the 
course of the committee hearings will be given an early opportunity 
to appear before this committee, if he so desires, for the purpose of 
denying or explaining any testimony given adversely affecting him. 
In the event there are such persons, they should immediately com- 
municate with any member of the staff and make their request known. 

In every hearing, the committee has encouraged witnesses to have 
legal counsel with them if they so desire and has always welcomed 
the presence of counsel. In fact, the rules of the committee expressly 
provide that at every hearing, public or executive, every witness shall 
be accorded the privilege of having counsel of his own choosing. 

The participation of counsel during the course of any hearing and 
while the witness is testifying shall be limited to advising said witness 
as to his legal rights. Counsel shall not be permitted to engage in 
oral argument with the committee, but shall confine his activity to the 
area of legal advice to his client. 

»***♦*« 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Lumer, would you please remain standing while 
the chairman administers an oath to you? 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1879 

The Chairman. You do swear that the testimony you are about 
to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. LuMEE. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WILFRED LUMER, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ABE SPERO 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself on this record, Mr. Lumer, 
by name, residence, and occupation. 

Mr. Lumer, My name is Wilfred Lumer. I live at 909 Laredo 
Road, Silver Spring, Md. I am an economist. I am employed by 
the Public Affairs Institute, a nonprofit research institution in Wash- 
ington, D. C. The address is 312 Pennsylvania Avenue SE. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Lumer, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Lumer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Lumer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Counsel, kindly identify yourself on this record. 

Mr. Spero. My name is Abe Spero. I am a member of the bar of 
the District of Columbia, with offices in the Wyatt Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, Mr. Lumer, a thumbnail sketch 
of your education. 

• Mr. LuiMER. Yes, sir. I am a graduate of the American University, 
in a bachelor's degree in business administration, and I have done 
postgraduate work in economics. I have completed the required 
courses for the master's in economics. 

Mr. Arens. When did you conclude your formal education? 

Mr. Lumer. Well, it really isn't. 

Mr. Arens. When did you graduate from American University ? 

Mr. Lumer. I believe it was in June of 1953. 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you kindly give us the highlights of 
your employment since you concluded your formal education at Amer- 
ican University? 

Mr. Lumer. I have been employed by the Public Affairs Institute. 

Mr. Arens. Has that been the only place in which you have been 
employed since you reached adulthood? 

Mr. Lumer. No. You asked me where I had been employed since 
I completed my formal education. 

Mr. Arens. I understood you to say that you went to American 
University and graduated there. 

Mr. Lujmer. In June of 1953. 

Mr. Arens. Then let's proceed in reverse order, if you please. 

Mr. Lumer, You want my whole occupational background? 

Mr. Arens, I would like to have the principal employments you 
have had since you reached adulthood, and the approximate dates. 

Mr. Lumer. My first employment was with the firm of Schwartz & 
Mack, Inc. It was an importing house that dealt in ladies' neckwear. 

Mr. Arens. When was that? 

Mr, LuiviER, Tliat was approximately 1934, 



1880 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. LuMER. New York City. 

Mr. Arexs. And your next primary employment, please, sir ? 

Mr. LuinER. From there I went to the United States Railroad Re- 
tirement Board, and I worked there from July 1936 until May 1942, 
I think. 

Mr. Arens. And your next employment? 

Mr. Lumer. From there I went to the Office of Price Administra- 
tion, and I worked there until the agency was liquidated. 

Mr. Arens. That was about when? That will help us on this 
record. 

Mr. LuMER. That was about May of 1947. May or June of 1947. 
I don't recall which. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment, please. 

Mr. Lumer. I then had a short period of employment with a re- 
search news letter. 

Mr. Arens. Give us the name of it, please. 

Mr. LujMer. It no longer is in existence. 

Mr. Arens. '\^^iat was the name? 

Mr. Lumer. It was called the National Research Newsletter. 

Mr. Arens. Was that here in Washington? 

Mr. Lumer. Yes ; here in Washington. 

Mr Arens. How long was your employment with this organization, 
approximately ? 

Mr. Lumer. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Was it a matter of a few months ? 

Mr. Lumer. Yes ; it was a few months. 

Mr. Arens. Your next employment. 

Mr. Lumer. My next employment was with the Public Affairs 
Institute, and I have been there ever since. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had any employment with any commit- 
tee of the United States Congress, or any connection with any 
committee of the United States Congress in an advisory capacity ? 

Mr. Lumer. Have I been employed by a committee ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; in any capacity. 

Mr. Luivier. No, I haven't. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever on the staff of any Congressman in any 
capacity ? 

Mr. Lumer. I have not been formally employed as an employee of 
a Congressman. I have acted on an assignment from my office oc- 
casionally to some Membei's of Congress. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lumer. I am going to respectfully ask to be excused from 
answering that question on the ground that I feel it is violative of 
my rights under the first amendment to the Constitution, and I also 
reserve the right to invoke my privilege against self-incrimination 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

The Chairman. By reserving your right, what do you mean by 
that? Do you invoke the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Lumer. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. LuaiER. Mr. Chairman, I am invoking both the first and the 
fifth. 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1881 

Mr. Arens. Are you noAv a member of the Commvmist Party ? 

Mr. LuMEK. I must again invoke both the first and the fifth amend- 
ments, and respectfully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Conununist Party discipline ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. I must again refuse to answer, or decline, respectfully 
decline, to answer the question on the grounds that I previously stated. 

namely 

* ****** 

The CHAiRsrAN. When you say "I must," of course that means you 
are under compulsion. You are not under compulsion. 

Mr. LuMER. I am electing. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. AVhat is this organization with which you say you 
are presently connected, the Public Affairs Institute? Give us just a 
word of description about the organization, please. 

Mr. LuMER. Yes. The Public Affairs Institute is a nonprofit re- 
search organization, which engages in research and educational activi- 
ties in the field of public affairs. 

Mr. Arens. What type of public affairs ? That is a rather general 
description. 

Mr. LuMER. Well, I might mention that it disseminates publica- 
tions dealing with various economic problems in such fields as cur- 
rent business analysis, labor relations, agriculture, international 
affairs. 

Mr. Arens. It is a tax-exempt organization ? 

The Chairman. Just a minute. International affairs ? How is that 
an economic question ? 

Mr. LuMER. In this sense, Mr. Chairman, it deals with the economic 
aspects of international affairs. For example, questions like economic 
assistance to underdeveloped countries or economic aid to our allies. 

The Chairman. In other words, the activities are not political in 
any sense, but purely economic ? 

Mr. LuMER. They are educational, objective, nonpartisan. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a tax-exempt organization ? 

Mr. LuMER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And how is it sustained? Could you tell us that in a 
word ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. I think this question might better be directed toward 
the director of the Institute. I have an idea. 

Mr. Arens. Give us your best idea. Does it have several contribu- 
tors to it, or is it a foundation ? Just what is it ? 

Mr. LuMER. I have no reservations. I just want to indicate that 
my knowledge is not complete. To the best of my knowledge, the 
main source of support for the Institute derives from an organization 
known as the Brotherhood of Eailroad Trainmen. They provide the 
core budget. 

Mr. Arens. Are you, or is anyone in the organization, to your 
knowledge, registered as a lobbyist under the Lobbying Act? 

Mr. LuMER. No. I am not registered as a lobbyist. I don't know 
if anybody else is. That is, not to my knowledge. 



1882 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Aeens. Does the organization develop information designed to 
influence legislation one way or the other? 

Mr. LuMER. No. The organization develops information designed 
to educate. It disseminates information without necessarily advo- 
cating any particular piece of legislation. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been designated by the organization in the 
past to work on the Hill in any capacity ; in any office on the Hill ? 

Mr. LuMER. May I consult counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. Yes, sir. From time to time in the past several years, 
I have been assigned by the executive director to provide research 
assistance to Members or their staffs who may request it. 

Mr. Arens. Members of what ? 

Mr. Lumer. Members of Congress. 

Mr. Arens. Have you so supplied such information ? 

Mr. Lumer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you worked in comparable status with any con- 
gressional committees ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. From time to time when I have been assigned by the 
executive director to provide research assistance to Members of Con- 
gress, the Members have asked me, as part of my research assistance, 
to assist them in connection with the staff work of their committees. 

Mr. Arens. What committees ? 

Mr. Lumer. The particular committees that they were 

Mr. Arens. What committees have you assisted in the course of 
the past in this capacity ? 

Mr. Lumer. The Joint 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. I will answer it this way : I assisted a member of the 
Joint Economic Committee in connection with editing work, and I 
assisted a member of the — let's see. I assisted a member of the House 
Small Business Committee. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time have you been doing this 
type of assisting ? 

Mr. Lumer. I believe, to the best of my recollection, this started in 
the early part of 1954, or 1953. I am not sure which. 

Mr. Arens. Could you keep your voice up a little? I am afraid 
the gentlemen at the other end of the table cannot hear you. 

Mr. Lumer. I think that it started either in late 1953 or early 1954. 

Mr. Arens. And it continues up to the present ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Lumer. Yes. I haven't — well, as of the last 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. From the receipt of my subpena to appear before the 
committee, I have not directly engaged in any committee assignments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you likewise assisted any persons in the executive 
departments since your identification or connection with Public Af- 
fairs Institute? 

Mr. Lumer. I would like to ask you to explain that question. In 
what way ? 

Mr. Arens. You said you were on assignment from the Public Af- 
fairs Institute^ from time to time, to assist Members of the Congress, 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1883 

and I believe you said also certain committees. And I wondered if 
you were likewise, at any time, on assignment to assist any of the 
executive departments in a comparable status. 

Mr. LuMER. No. To the best of my recollection, I don't see, I can't 
recall, that I ever was assigned to — I can't recall any instance. I can't 
say that I did. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently in full active status at the Public 
Affairs Institute? 

Mr. LuMER. I am presently on a leave-with-pay status. 

Mr. Arens. And that has been occasioned by the fact that you have 
been under subpena to appear before this committee, is that correct ? 

Mr. Lumer. When I notified my employer, yes. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of this assistance which you have 
rendered on the Hill to the Congress, have you, at any time in the 
course of the rendition of that assistance, been under the discipline of 
the Communist Party in the process of rendering that assistance ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. I again must respectfully decline to answer on the 
grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

The Chairman. You say that you were assigned to do this work. 
Who assigned you, Mr. Lumer ? The director ? 

Mr. LuaiER. The director. 

The Chairman. Wlio is he? 

Mr. Lumer. Dr. Dewey Anderson. 

Mr. Arens. Since you received your subpena to appear before this 
committee, have you been in communication with any person known 
by you to be a Communist ? 

(The witness conferred with his coimsel) . 

Mr. Lumer. I must decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know, or have you ever known, a person by the 
name of Jane Foster Zlatovsky ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel) 

Mr. Lumer. No. 

^ :!: :(: 4: ^N 4: 4: 

Mr. Arens. Do you know, or have you ever known, a person by the 
name of Arthur Stein ? 

Mr. Lumer. I again decline to answer on the grounds of the first 
and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever transmitted to a person known by you 
to be a Communist, information which you have procured on Capitol 
Hill as a result of this assisting work which you have characterized 
or described for us ? 

Mr. Lumer. I have never transmitted any mformation procured by 
me to any unauthorized persons. 

Mr. Arens. Have you reported your activities on the Hill, on Cap- 
itol Hill, over the course of the last several years, to a person known 
by you to be a Communist ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. Let me ask you this: What do you mean by report? 
Well, for example, what do you mean by report ? 

Mr. Arens. Discussed it, we will say. 

Mr. Lumer. Discussed what ? 



1884 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arens. Your activities on the Hill with a person known bv 
you to be a Communist. You have discussed them here today with 
us. You have told us about them. Have you done that with any per- 
son known by you to be a Communist ? 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. LuMER. I must decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. What legislation have you worked on that has gone 
through the Congress in the course of the last several years? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Ltjmer. Would you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. What legislation have you worked on, assisted on, in 
this assisting process ? 

Mr. LuMER. Do you mean what legislation have I provided re- 
search assistance on ? 

Mr. Arens. That is right ; yes. 

Mr. LuMER. Well, does this mean bills that have actually been 
enacted ? 

Mr. Arens. Not necessarily. Let me ask you about a few fields. 
Have you provided information on Capitol Hill, worked as a re- 
search assistant, on immigration matters ? 

Mr. Lumer. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you provided information, or worked in this 
assistance process, on appropriations matters? 

Mr. Ltjmer. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Then just tell us the areas in which you have done this. 
That is what I am trying to elicit from you now, sir. 

Mr. Lumer. Well, my general area of providing research assistance 
has been primarily related to credit-policy problems. 

Mr, Arens. Fiscal policies; is that correct? 

Mr. Lumer. Monetary policies. Since fiscal would take in tax legis- 
lation — monetary and fiscal policies. 

Mr. Arens. I think this record at this time ought to reflect this 
qiiestion : You have not, have you, made known or discussed with the 
Congressmen with whom you have been working, the issue as to 
whether or not you are a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lumer. I again must respectfully decline to answer that ques- 
tion, quoting my reference 

Mr.DoTLE. May I have the record read, please ? 

Mr. Arens. I am afraid he doesn't understand the question. 

Have you had any discussion with any of the Congressmen with 
whom you have worked, or any of the committees which you have been 
assisting, as to whether or not you are a member of the Communist 
Party? 

The Chairman. He declines to answer. 

Mr. Lumer. My answer is that I must invoke my privilege under the 
first and fifth amendments and respectfully decline to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any persons presently engaged at the Public 
Affairs Institute who are known by you to a certainty to be, or to 
have been, members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Lumer. I must again decline to answer on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1885 

Mr. Arens. How much of a staff is there at the Public Affairs 
Institute? How many people are engaged there? Just approxi- 
mately. 

Mr. LuMER. There are about a dozen at the most. 

Mr. Arens. Are there others at this Institute besides yourself who 
work on the Hill ? 

Mr. LuMER. I don't believe so. I am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. Are there others besides yourself who work on informa- 
tion that is supplied to the Hill ? 

Mr. LuMER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do after you received your subpena to 
appear before this committee? From the standpoint of preparing 
yourself for the appearance, or to try to preclude an appearance. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. I will again decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Whittaker 
Chambers ? 

Mr. LuMER. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you worked in an advisory capacity or an 
assistance capacity on the other side, on the Senate side, as well as 
on the House side ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. With what committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. I assisted a member of the Senate Finance Committee. 

The Chairman. In other words, the assignments given you by the 
director of your institute have been varied ? 

]\Ir. LuMER. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Both the House, Senate, Members, and committees ? 

Mr. Lumer. Not committees, Mr. Chairman. Members. 

Mr. Arens. But you have assisted the Members in committee work ; 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Lumer. In their committee assignments; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Sam Abbott? 

Mr. Lumer. I must decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. We have information — and I want to be absolutely 
frank with you, Mr. Lumer — we have information that in the recent 
past, you have been in contact with, and under discipline of, Sam 
Abbott, a ranking Communist in the District of Columbia. We want 
to give you an opportunity now, while you are under oath, to deny it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. I must decline to answer that on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man by the name of Arnold Johnson ? 

Mr. Lumer. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you laiow a man by the name of Alexander Ganz ? 

]Mr. Lu^iER. I will again respectfully ask to be excused from answer- 
ing on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a lady by the name of Esther Barkman ? 

Mr. Lumer. The name doesn't strike any chord. 

Mr. Arens. What organizations have you belonged to in the course 
of the last few years ? 



1886 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. Wliat do you mean by organizations ? 

Mr. Arens. Clubs, social groups, organizations of any kind. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuMER. I will again respectfully ask to be excused from answer- 
ing on the grounds of the first and fifth. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been active in the Progressive Party? 

Mr. LuMER. I will again ask to be excused from answering on the 
grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, as an employee of the Public Affairs Insti- 
tute, done any work for any of the consulates and embassies, or sub- 
mitted information, been on assignment to assist any of the consulates 
or embassies ? 

Mr. LuMER. Unequivocally no. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other organizations, groups, to which 
you have been assigned? 

Mr. Lumer. By the Institute ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Lumer. Absolutely no. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other groups or organizations, agencies, 
for which you have done work while you have been employed by the 
Public Affairs Institute ? 

Mr. Lumer. No. I am fairly certain that I have not been em- 
ployed by any other organization to do work while employed in the 
Institute. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been abroad ? 

Mr. Lumer. No, sir ; I have never been abroad. 

^ :{: ^ He ^ Nc 4s 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Mary Rackliffe ? 
Mr. Lumer. I again respectfully ask to be excused from answering 
that question on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

* H: * H< N: 4= 4: 

Mr. Arens. Who hired you at the Public Affairs Institute ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Let's take the last question: Who hired you in the 
Public Affairs Institute ? 

IVIr. Lumer. The director. Dr. Anderson, liired me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him prior to the time you solicited 
employment there? 

Mr. LuTviER. I knew of him. 

Mr. Arens. Was your employment at the Public Affairs Institute 
facilitated in any way by a person known by you to be a Communist ? 

Mr. Lumer. The answer is unequivocally "No." 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the area in which we wanted to interrogate this gentleman. I 
would respectfully suggest likewise, if it meets with the approval of 
the chairman, that the subpena under which this witness is today ap- 
pearing, be continued, subject to notification for further appearance. 

The witness lives in the vicinity here. 

Mr. Lumer. I live in the area ; yes. 

The Chairman. AU right. 

Mr. Doyle? 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1887 

Mr. Doyle. I notice, Mr. Lumer, that when our staff director asked 
you "Are you now under Communist Party disci ijline?" that you de- 
clined on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Lumer. I declined. 

Mr. Doyle. What did you understand that question to mean — under 
Communist Party discipline ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Lumer. I must respectfully decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you decline to answer your understand- 
ing of that question ? 

Mr. Lumer. I must rely on my constitutional privilege against self- 
incrimination, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. I notice, too, when he asked you, "Have you at any 
time in rendering assistance to Members, been under discipline of the 
Commvmist Party?" that you specified your declination to answer 
on the grounds of your constitutional privilege. 

What did you understand that question to mean as to whether or 
not you were under discipline of the Communist Party when you 
were rendering assistance to congressional Members ? 

Mr. Lumer. I must again respectfully ask to be excused on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. I notice when counsel asked you the question of 
whether or not you had ever transmitted any information obtained 
by you to any unauthorized person, you said this: "I have never 
transmitted any information procured by me to any unauthorized 
person." 

May I ask you whether or not you have ever transmitted to any 
unauthorized person information procured by someone else? 

Mr. Lumer. The answer to that is "No, sir." 

Mr. Doyle. I just wish to say this : Of course I have laiown Dewey 
Anderson many years, and I regularly read the publication by that 
organization, the Public Affairs Institute. It is another source of in- 
formation. I can't understand, Mr. Lumer, how you, knowing the 
emphasis which Congress places upon the subversive activities of the 
Communist Party — I cannot understand how you, over a term of 
years, knowing those things because of your intimacy with the problem 
here on the Hill, vvould continue yourself in a position such as to make 
it necessary in your judgment at this time, today, to decline to answer 
on your constitutional grounds whether or not you are now a member 
of the Communist Party. 

If I may explain that just briefly ; we frequently have the experience 
of men who have been members of the Communist Party who come in 
and say they have been, but they are not now. 

As you know, Mr. Chairman, I often make the remark that I am 
keenly disappointed when responsible citizens who know the hazard 
of the Communist Party, come before us, and are still in a position 
where they feel they cannot cooperate with Congress by at least 
having gotten so far away from the Communist Party that they can 
answer that they are not now members. 

In making that statement, Mr. Lumer, I am not assuming anything 
from your testimony. I want you to realize that. I am not assuming 
that you ever were. 



1888 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

The Chairman. Have you any more questions, Mr. Doyle? 
Mr. Doyle. No. But I am disappointed on that point. 

H< 4: :!< 4^ ^ 4s 4^ 

Mr. DoTLE. May I add one brief statement for the record, so that 
you, Mr. Lumer, will get perhaps more of the import of my ob- 
servation. 

First, I wish to say again, as a matter of law, I did not assume from 
your answers that you had ever been a member of the Communist 
Party. But I do think that in dealing as closely as you have been 
with Members of Congress, both on the Senate side and on the House 
side, you have not been fair to those Members in the matter in at least 
not revealing to them that there might have been, shall I say, some con- 
nection of yours of some sort in the past or the present about which 
you might be questioned sometime, as to whether or not you were ever 
a member of the Communist Party. 

It seems to me that you should have played cricket honestly and 
fully with those Members and should have revealed to them that there 
might come a time when you might be questioned, and if you were, 
you would feel constrained to plead the first and the fifth amend- 
ments. 

I am not saying this to embarrass you, but I think you haven't been 
fair at all with Members of Congress in accepting employment with 
Dewey Anderson and assignments from Members of Congress, without 
revealing whatever you should have revealed, which makes it necessary 
this morning for you to plead your constitutional privilege. 

The Chairman. Is that all, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. The witness will be excused. 

Do you want to call another witness this morning? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, we have two more witnesses. 

Mr. Lumer. Am I excused, Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. We have two more witnesses. Can you come back this 
afternoon conveniently ? 

The Chairman. Yes. We will recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 10 p. m. Wednesday, November 20, 1957, the 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 2 p. m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 1957 

The Chairman. The committee will please be in order. 

Mr. Arens. The first witness, Mr. Chairman, will be Mrs. Rackliffe. 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes, I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARY RACKLIITE 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence and 
occupation. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. My name is Mrs. Mary Rackliffe. Could I be 
introduced to the rest of you ? 



INYESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIOISIiAGE 1889 

The Chairman. This is Coiigi-essman Doyle. I am Congressman 
Walter. This is the official stenographer. Next is Louis Russell, one 
of our investigators. 

Mr. Arens. And your residence and occupation ? 

Mrs. llACKLirrE. I live at 49 Bowdin Street, Newton Highlands, 
Mass. 

The Chairman. Where is that ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. That is a suburb of Boston. It is in Massachu- 
setts. 

xVs to the rest of the question, my occupation, you know it already. 
'I'lie subpena was served on nie at my place of business. 

Tlie Chairman. What? 

]Mrs. Rackliffe. Sir, the subpena was served on me at my place of 
business. 

The Chairman. I do not know. "Wliat is your occupation ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I work for a publishing house. 

Mr. Arens. And please tell us what publishing house. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Well, this really is an item tliat you ah-eady know, 
that you have in your tiles. 

The Chairman. I know absolutely nothing about it, and neither 
does Mr. Doyle. If you will answer the questions, then we will find 
out something. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. But, Mr. Walter, a United States marshal came 
to call on me at my place of business. You issued the subpena. You 
signed it. 

The Chairman. Yes. Now, by whom are you employed? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I just don't think by whom I am employed is 
relevant to this investigation. Is it ? 

The Chairman. Please answer the question. By whom are you 
employed ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. But, sir, wh}' is this relevant? 

The Chairman. You will learn that as we go along. This is merely 
a matter of identification. Go ahead and answer the question, please. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Well, I certainly don't want to spend any more 
time here than is necessary, but you signed tlie subpena whicli you 
gave to a United States marshal, who brought it to me at my place 
of business. I am here in response to the subpena. It seems to me 
that this must be in the framework of information already known 
to you, sir. 

The Chairman. Where are you employed ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. But what diilerence does it make to you where I 
am employed ? You know it already. 

The Chairman. No, I do not know anything about it. Where are 
you employed ? 

Mrs. Racklifit:. Could you ask INIr. Arens where I am employed? 
He knows. 

The Chairman. You are under oath. 

Mrs. Rackllffe. Mr. Russell just told him where I was employed. 

The Chairman. Where are you employed ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Your investigator knows. I am 

The Chairman. I am asking you the question. Let us not waste time 
over trivia. Wliere are you employed ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I don't want to waste the time. 



1890 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

The Chairman. I will withdraw the question. 

Proceed. 

Mr, Arens. You are appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you, as indicated, and you do not have coun- 
sel, is that correct ? 

Mrs. RACKLirrE. Yes, 

Mr. Arens. You know that you have the privilege of having coun- 
sel? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed at your present 
employment ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. About 7 years. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment prior to your present em- 
ployment ? 

]\Irs, Rackliffe. I was unemployed for a time. 

Mr. Arens. For how long were you unemployed ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Before we go on, might I ask the relevance of these 
questions ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, this Committee on Un-American Activities is 
under a mandate from the United States Congress to develop facts 
and recommend legislation pertaining to the operation of the Com- 
munist Party. You have been reported to this committee as a person 
who has been a member of the Communist Party. 

Therefore, we want to interrogate you with reference to ac- 
tivities, particularly activities in which you may have been engaged 
as an employee of the Government of the United States, activities 
you may have been engaged in with reference to propaganda, so that 
this committee, which is presently considering and working on legis- 
lation, might have that factual information to appraise against sug- 
gested legislation. 

Now, Avould you kindly answer the question? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Could I just have repeated the first part of your 
statement as to what your mandate from Congress is ? 

Mr. Arens. INIr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Well, this is really purely for my own clarifica- 
tion, of course, sir, not to get in your way any more than I feel my 
own interests demand. But I understood i\Ir. Arens to say that you 
had a mandate from Congress to investigate the Communist Party. 

That is not the way I understood the resolution to read which au- 
thorizes you. 

The Chairman. Now, will you answer the question? 

Mr. Doyle. May I add this for the witness ? 

You are familiar with Public Law 601, the resolution under which 
this committee operates ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes, I read it before I came in here. 

Mr. Doyle. Sure you did. So you are perfectly familiar with the 
mandate we have. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. That is why I was interested in this version of it, 
of course. 

Mr. Doyle. That is the basis of Mr. Arens' short preliminary state- 
ment. You are familiar with the resolution and, therefore, I think it 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1891 

is perfectly plain that you are familiar with the relevance of the 
question. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Well, I might as well just state here before we go 
on to some specific further questions that I realize you have a mandate 
from Congress to investigate un-American propaganda, and that I 
personally do not consider anything in my life relevant to un-Ameri- 
can activities or propaganda. I think there could be a great deal of 
discussion as to what is un-American and what isn't. 

As far as I know, this committee has not attempted to define what 
is un-American for the purpose of assisting any witness in knowing 
what is relevant and what is not relevant. I would like to make that 
point very strongly because I do believe that it is impossible to tell on 
the basis of the mandate itself what is relevant to your investigations 
and what is not relevant to your investigations. 

With that statement, I shall do my best to continue. 

Mr. Arens. What do you do at your present place of employment ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Granted that I don't think it is relevant, that I 
think it is an invasion of all my rights of privacy, that I don't think 
you have the right to ask me the question, I will tell you that I am a 
copy editor. 

]\Ir. Aeens. How long have you maintained that particular type of 
work ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. About 7 years. 

Mr. Arens. And what is the name of the firm in which you are 
employed? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Are we back at that again ? 

Mr. Arens. We just liaA'e the address of 32 Beacon Street. Is that 
where you are employed ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Well, again, I don't think it is relevant and I don't 
think it is your business. I think it is an invasion of my rights. But 
I am employed at 34 Beacon Street, which is, the marshal should 
have told you, the right address. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere were you employed immediately prior to the 
assumption of j^our present employment? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I was unemployed. 

Mr. Arens. For what period of time were you unemployed? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I don't remember. Probably 2 or 3 months. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your employment after your unemployment 
status terminated ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. You realize what you are asking a witness to do ? 
My whole life is involved here. You have assumed my whole life is 
relevant to un-American activities. I assume it isn't. I don't think 
it is relevant. I think this kind of questioning is invading all my 
rights of association under the first amendment of the Constitution. 

The Chairman. We are not going into association at all. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Association is employment. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us, now, please, where you worked prior 
to the time that you worked at your present place of employment? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. On the grounds that I do not believe the question 
is relevant, and that I do not believe the committee has the authority 
to ask me, that I believe this question invades my rights and privileges 
under the first amendment, and also, on the basis of the constitutional 
protection afforded by the fifth amendment, I don't want to say where 
I worked and I will not say where I worked. 



1892 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arens. How long did you work at the employment you had 
immediately prior to your present employment? 

Mrs. EACKLrFFE. I just don't want to answer the questions, sir. I 
felt that I had sealed it off. I thought that any question about this 
employment was sealed off by my not answering what the employ- 
ment was. 

Mr. Arens. "VVliat employment did you have immediately prior 
to this employment that you will not tell us about ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I will make the same answer to that. 

The Chairman. By that do you mean that you decline to answer ))e- 
cause of the privileges granted you under the Constitution? 

Mrs. Racklifte. Yes. Not only the privileges granted me under 
the Constitution, at least insofar as the Constitution grants or in- 
sures all privileges of a citizen, but I do not, as I said, believe that 
any of my life is relevant to your investigations, and I do not be- 
lieve that in any way you have narrowed this inquiry down to a 
point where I am capable of telling what might be relevant or irrele- 
vant. So I am doing my level best under the circumstances to 
protect myself. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. This is an outright invasion of a citizen's rights 
under the first amendment, sir. It guarantees the right of associa- 
tion. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness now 
be directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mrs. Racklifte. Well, I repeat that I believe this question is an 
invasion of rights under the first amendment. I believe you have 
no right to ask it. I believe I have no true responsibility to answer 
it. But I will answer it by saying only that for all of those reasons, 
and because of the rights guaranteed under the fifth amendment, I 
Avill not ansAver it. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I thought that is what I was answering. 

Mr. Arens. No, the first question, if you please, was, are you now 
or liave you ever been. The question is a little more narrow. Are 
you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Why did you ask the question like that if it 
Mas a 2-part question which I had no way of answering 1 part of it ? 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr, Chairman, that the wit- 
ness be ordered to answer the question. 

The Chairman. Let me ask this question : Do you assume, then, that 
you felt you were answering this question as a part of the last ques- 
tion? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Mr. Arens, said, are you now or ever have you 
been, and I answered this question. 

The Chairman. So you feel that you liave answered this last ques- 
tion ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I feel that I answered the tiuestion, sir. 

Mr. Arens. She said she felt that she answered the question asked. 

Do you feel that you covered the question with reference to present 
party membership? 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1893 

IVIrs. Rackliffe. Well, far be it from me to struggle with you over 
words, but you said, "Are you now or have you ever been?" didn't 



you 



Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. This is what I responded to. 

Mr. Arens. You invoked the fifth amendment, which means that 
your answer could be consistent with the fact that you were a member 
of the Communist Party, but not a member now. So I should like to 
ask you, are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. The same answer for tliat, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been employed by the United States 
Government ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. To the best of my memory from somewhere early- 
ish in 1942 to earlyish in 1947. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed in the United States 
Government ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. In the Office of Price Administration. 

Mr. Arens. In Washington, D. C. ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the period of your employment in the United States Government ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Just for the sake of clarity, are you, when you 
asked me if I was employed in Washington, D., C, did you mean 
throughout the whole period ? 

Mr. Arens. I was questioning you on it. I was under the impres- 
sion that you said, yes, you had been employed in Washington. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes; I was employed in Washington. 

Mr. Arens. During the period of your employment in the OPA 
from 1942, approximately, to 1947, approximately, were you at any 
time a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I make the same answer that I made previously, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been employed in any agency of the United 
States Government, other than in the OPA ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Not that I can remember. 

Mr. Arens. During the period of your employment in the United 
States Government, did you know a lady by the name of Jane Foster 
Zlatovsky ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I believe, sir, that your asking me about any names 
of people I knew invades my right of association. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question as to M^hether or not you 
knew Jane Foster Zlatovsky. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I did not know anybody named, to my knowledge, 
Jane Foster Zlatovsky. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know a Jane Foster ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Just to make sure we all understand this, I don't 
think you have the right to ask it. I think it invades my rights under 
the first amendment. I will answer this question. Yes, I knew her. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you know her ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. In Washington. 



1894 INVESTIGATION OF SOVrET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Akens. Wliat was the nature of jour ncquaintance with her, 
could you tell us please ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. It was a social acquaintance. 

Mr. Arens. Was she a fellow employee at the OPA during the 
period of your service there ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any acquaintanceship with her other than 
a purely social acquaintanceship? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. No, sir ; I did not. 

]Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not she was a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens, Did you know her husband ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. AVliere was she employed when you knew her? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. She was employed at the Board of Economic 
Warfare, and she transferred to another agency ; of my own knowl- 
edge, I doubt if I would have remembered, but I have since read 
the papers where she was supposed to have been employed. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't understand you. 

JNIrs. Rackliffe. I said she transferred to another agency which I 
doubt of my own knowledge I would have remembered, but I have 
since read it in the papers at what agency she was employed. 

Mr. Arens. When did your acquaintanceship with Jane Foster 
Zlatovsky begin ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I don't remember. I will do my best to give a 
rough date. I would guess — I would sort of guess late in 1942 or 
early in 1943. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you first strike up the acquaintanceship 
with Mrs. Zlatovsky ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I don't remember at all. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall who introduced you to her? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you meet her at a party, or at someone's home, 
or do you recall where you first met her ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. This is the sort of question that I have no fact 
on whatsoever. We can make a string of assumptions. My husband 
of that time worked in the same agency. 

Mr. Arens. Was that John Rackliffe? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes. Beyond that, I can't go. I have absolutely 
no knowledge who introduced me to her. 

Mr. Arens. How long was your acquaintanceship with Mrs. 
Zlatovsky ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Again, just to be clear, I have, to my knowledge, 
no acquaintance with Mrs. Zlatovsky. I was acquainted with Jane 
Foster. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. How long were you acquainted 
with Jane Foster, who is now Jane Foster Zlatovsky ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. As far as I know, it lasted until she was no longer 
in Washington, but I don't remember when that was. 

Mr. Arens. Was that during the period of time in which you 
were employed at OPA? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes. 



INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 1895 

Mr. Aeens. Do you kiiow where she went when she left Wash- 
ington ? 

Mrs. Kackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you corresponded with her since she left Wash- 
ington ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. No, sir, I have not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any contact with her whatsoever since 
she left Washington ? 

Mrs. Kackliffe. Not to my knowledge. 

******* 

Mr. Arens. Did you know, during your OPA days, a man by the 
name of Wilfred Lumer? 

Mrs. Kackliffe. I make the same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know him now ? 

Mrs. Kackliffe. What is "know" ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you had contact with him in the recent past, the 
last year or so ? 

Mrs. Kackliffe. I make the same answer. 

******* 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go, and what employment did you 
assume after you left the OPA in 1947? 

Mrs. Kackliffe. I do not answer on the same basis that I outlined 
before. 

Mr. Arens. How long was your next employment ? 

Mrs. Kackliffe. I make the same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Is there any employment which you have had since 
you left the United States Government in 1947 until the employment 
which you presently hold, concerning which you could tell us with- 
out revealing facts which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding? 

Mrs. Kackliffe. That is a proper question, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, it is. 

Mrs. Kackliffe. Aren't you supposed to have a topic about which 
you are going to ask me and 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the Chair 
order and direct the witness to answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Kackliffe. Do you think that kind of overall question is 
proper ? 

The Chairman. I would not have directed you to answer the ques- 
tion if I had not thought it was entirely proper. 

Mrs. Kackliffe. There is no employment in the period mentioned 
about which I will tell you. 

Mr. Arens. I want to be sure the record is clear. 

The OPA was the only place in Government where you worked; 
is that correct ? 

Mrs. Kackliffe. Yes, sir. I think I said as far as I know. I can't 
remember working any place else. 

Mr. Arens. Was your disassociation fT-om the Government in OPA, 
voluntary or was it involuntary? 

Mrs. Kackliffe. Well, the OPA, as best T can romember, went out 
of existence in the spring of 1947. 

Mr. Arens. Was that the sole and exclusiA^e reason ? 



1896 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes. Tlie only reason I left was because of reduc- 
tion in force; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Arthur Stein ^ 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I would make the same answer on the question of 
Arthur Stein that I have made to these other names. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of your employment in the United 
States Government, did you transmit any information which you pro- 
cured in the course of your employment, whether confidential or other- 
wise, to a person known by you to be a Communist ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. "We included in that ({uestion at least three parts. 
Did I transmit confidential information ; did I transmit nonconfiden- 
tial information; did I know whether or not anyone was a Communist. 
Is that right? Are those the three parts to that question? 

Mr. Arens. The question is: Did you transmit any information 
which you procured in the course of your employment, whether 
confidential information or otherwise, to a person loiown by you to 
be a Commimist ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I do not believe that the question is literally pos- 
sible to answer without a certain breakdown. In answering it, I will 
break it down. 

I transmitted no confidential information. Let me say, first, that 
I can't frankly remember having confidential information of any sort. 

If I had it, I would not have transmitted it to anyone, except 
authorized personnel. 

Mr. Arens. Have you concluded your answer ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. No. I am just trying to get down what I said, 
since I was not sure I would be able to get the transcript. That covers 
the question of confidential information. 

As far as any other information, of course, everybody talked about 
price control. As far as whether I knew whether any associate of 
mine was a Communist, I would use all my previous reasons for not 
answering it. 

Mr. Arens. Does that conclude your answer ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Henry Beitscher? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I would use all my previous reasons for not an- 
swering that. 

Mr. Arens. "WHiile you were in the OPA did you transmit informa- 
tion which you had procured at OPA to a person by the name of 
Henry Beitscher. 

Mrs. RxVckliffe. I have no memory of any such thing, no. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Henry Beitscher ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I have already answered that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. "V\^iere were you employed prior to the time that you 
were employed at the OPA ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. This is totally irrelevant. 

The Chairman. Answer the question, Mrs. Rackliffe. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Did I understand your opening statement to in- 
clude f)eriods outside of Government service ? 

Mr. Arens. So that the record is clear, the question pending is this : 

You haA^e declined to answer respecting any employment you had 
from 1947 until 10.50 when you assumed your ]irespnt position. Yon 



ESrVESTlGATION OF SOVIET EISPlONiAGE 1897 

have told us that you were in the Government from 1942 until 1947. 
Now, I want to know what your employment was prior to 1942. Is 
that clear? Would, you kindly answer the question, ma'am? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. To the best of m^ recollection, I was working for 
the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education. 

Mr. Arens. And over what period of time were you employed there ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Was it a matter 

Mrs. Rackliffe. A few months ; half a year, perhaps. 

]Mr. Arens. Where was that ; that was here in Washington ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. No. It was in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment which preceded your em- 
ployment with the engineering society ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I worked for a brass and copper company, as I 
remember it. 

Mr. Arens. In New York City ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time did you work there ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I don't remember, sir. I was a stenographer. 
Possibly only a few weeks and possibly longer. 

Mr. Arens. So that the record is clear, were you a member of the 
Communist Party at any time prior to 1942 ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I would use the same answer to that question, Mr. 
Arens. I mean by the same answer, I mean the answer used to the 
previous questions about the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment prior to the employment 
as stenographer which you have just mentioned ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I would like to say once again that I think that 
my employment 15, 20, or more years back is so far out of the range 
of this committee's operations that there is something a little ludi- 
crous about this. How would it serve a legislative purpose, what I 
did in 1940, 1939, 1938, whatever it was? 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer the question, please. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I worked at Harvard University. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I was the house secretary at the Dunster House. 
Before that I worked in the Harvard Service Bureau. 

Mr. Arens. In what period of time was this, about 1938? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. 1938, 1 suppose, to 1941. 

Mr. Arens. And were you a member of the Communist Party dur- 
ing any time of your employment at Harvard University ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I would use the same answer to this question as to 
previous questions about the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. If you recall, what was your employment prior to your 
employment with Harvard University? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I worked in just a personal capacity for a family 
in Boston. 

Mr. Arens. Was that family Mr. and Mrs. William Dexter? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes, it was. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you work for that family ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Mr. Arens, how does this relate to anything ? This 
is now 20 years ago. These are ridiculous questions. It is ridiculous. 



1898 INVESTIGATION OF SOVIET ESPIONAGE 

Mr. Arens. What was your employment prior to going with the 
Dexters ? 

Mrs. Eackliffe. I was in college. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere did you go to college ? 

Mrs. Racklifte. Mr. Chairman, how does where I went to college 
relate to legislation, which is to be recommended by this committee? 

The Chairman. I am sure Mr. Arens has a reason for asking the 
question. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I am sure Mr. Arens has a reason for asking the 
question, but what is the reason ? 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us, please, where you went to college. 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Mr. Arens, I think this is utterly irrelevant in- 
formation to you, utterly irrelevant. By saying that this is utterly 
irrelevant, I don't mean to imply that the rest of it is relevant, but 
where I went to college — if you could give me one good reason why 
your legislative purposes require to know where I went to college, 
I would be astonished. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question, please? 

Mr. Doyle. I think I might make this observation at this point, 
in view of tlie witness' statement just now, and her answer some 
time ago that she had read Public Law 601 and was familiar with 
the resolution. 

That resolution puts a mandate on us, on this committee, to go 
into the question of subversive activities, as well as un-American 
activities. You objected to the term "un-American" but you did not 
object to the term "subvei-sive." 

Of course, the meaning of subversive is well known. It is well 
known by you and any other person who has had a college education. 
I would suggest that we have a perfect right to go into your conduct 
and associations, looking to the possibility of any subversive activity 
by you back in your college days, if it appears that any such activity 
lias continued down to the present date. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question as to where 
you went to college? 

]Mrs. Rackliffe. Could I look at your resolution, Mr. Doyle? 

jNIr. Doyle. Yes. I have underlined the word "subversive," so that 
you could see it quickly. 

(A document was handed to tlie witness.) 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Well, the question as to the definition of "sub- 
versive" and "un-American" in this connection is vague, sir. I don't 
intend to spend our time arguing about it, but I do believe that _my 
original point holds : that there is no ground within the authorizing 
resolution by which 

The Chairman. Will you answer the question, please ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. By which I can determine what is relevant and 
is irrelevant here. But it does seem to me that material from my 
college days of 20 years ago, or more, whatever it is, is so far re- 
moved from a legislative purpose that it would be pretty hard for 
anybody to figure out a reason for it. 

The Chairman. The question is: Wliere did you go to college? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I went to Radcliffe. 

Mr. Arens. Did you graduate ? 

]Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes. 



INVESnGATIOiN OF SOVIET ESPIONiAGE 1899 

Mr. Arens. When did you graduate? 

Mrs. Kackliffe. 1935. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a Communist at any time during the period 
of your attendance at Radcliffe College ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I would use the same answer to that as to other 
questions. 

Mr. Arens. When you were employed by Mr. and Mrs. William 
Dexter, did you live in their home ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. Yes. 

Mi\ Arens. Were you a Communist when you were working in the 
Dexter household ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. I will use the same answer to this question as on 
any questions about communism, sir. 

* ^ ^ ^ if If it: 

Mr. Arens. Was your employment which you presently enjoy with 
the Little Brown & Co., procured or facilitated by any person known 
by you to be a Communist ? 

Mrs. Rackliffe. No. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that will con- 
clude the interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Do you have any questions, Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

(Members of the subcommittee present at the conclusion of the 
executive testimony of the above witness were Representatives Fran- 
cis E. Walter and Clyde Doyle.) 

(Wliereupon at 3:35 p. m., Wednesday, November 20, 1957, the 
hearing in the above-entitled matter was recessed to reconvene at 10 
a. m. on the following day.) 

(Members of the subcommittee present at the taking of the recess 
were Representatives Francis E. Walter and Clyde Doyle.) 



INDEX 



Individuals Page 

Abbott, Sam 1885 

Anderson, Dewey 1883, 1886-1888 

Auerbach, Esther. (See Stavis, Esther.) 

Barkman, Esther 1885 

Beitscher, Henry 1835, 1845, 1857-1864 (testimony), 1896 

Boorstin, Daniel J 1842 

Chambers, Whittalier 1835, 1885 

Coleman 1866 

Collins, Henry Hill, Jr 1835, 1845, 1851-18.57 (testimony) 

Davis, Robert G 1842 

Dexter, William 1897-1899 

Dexter, Mrs. William 1897-1899 

Eden, Philip 1863 

Fierst, Herbert 1855, 1856 

Flaxer, Abram 1839, 1861 

Porer, Joseph 1851, 1857 

Foster, Jane. (See Zlatovsky, Jane.) 

Ganz, Alexander 1848, 1862, 1885 

Hicks, Granville 1842 

Hildring (John) 1855 

Israeli, Olivia 1864 

.lohnson, Arnold 1885 

Koenigsberg, Samuel M 1872 

Lumer, Wilfred 1836, 1845, 1862, 1872, 1879-1888 (testimony), 1895 

McSpadden 1866 

Moore, Ben T 18.55 

Morros, Boris 18.35 

Nelson, Eleanor 1861, 1862, 1873 

Otte, Joan Anthony 18.54, 1857 

Phillips, Joseph 1864 

Rackliffe, John B 1835, 1837-1849 (testimony), 1862, 1872, 1894 

Rackliffe, Mary (Mrs. John B. Rackliffe; nee Douglass) 18.35, 

1836, 1863, 1886, 1888-1899 (testimony) 

Rossmoore, William 1835,1845,1862,1867-1875 (testimonv) 

Roth, Mildred 18"6i 

Schneer, Julia 1835,1846,1864-1866 (testimony) 

Schnitzer, Morris M 1867 

Shonick, William 1863 

Spero, Abe 1879 

Stachel, .Tack 18a5 

Stavis, Esther Auerbach 1S62 

Stein, Arthur 186.3, 1883, 1896 

Stone, I. F 18.57 

Waybiir, Miriam 1848, 1863 

Zlatovsky, George 184.5, 18.54, 1861 

Zlatovsky, Jane (Mrs. George Zlatovsky; nee Foster) 1835. 

1842, 1844-1847, 1853, 1854, 1857, 1861, 1865, 1870, 1883, 1893, 1894 

i 



li INDEX 

Organizations 

Communist Party, New Jersey ; 

Essex County: Page 

Lawyers Club 1871 

Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs 1835,1860 

Federal Workers of America, United 1861, 1863 

Harvard University 1838, 1868, 1873 

Public Affairs Institute 1836, 1879-1886 

Public Workers of America, United 1863 

Railroad Trainmen, Brotherhood of 1881 

United States Government : 

Agriculture, Department of 1835,1852,1868 

Board of Economic Warfare 1835, 

1830, 1843, 1845, 1846, 1860, 1861, 1866, 1894 

Civil Service Commission 1860 

Commerce, Department of 1860 

Census, Bureau of the 1835, 1860, 1861 

House of Representatives, United States : 

Tolan committee ( Select Committee To Investigate the Interstate 

Migration of Destitute Citizens) 1853 

Labor Department 1852 

Lend Lease Administration 1854 

National Recovery Administration 1852 

Office of Price Administration 1835, 

1836, 1860, 1862, 1863, 1865, 1868, 1880, 1893 

Office of Strategic Services 1845, 1846, 1848 

Railroad Retirement Board 1836, 1880 

Senate, United States : 

Committee on Small Business 1853 

Kilgore Committee (Subcommittee on War Mobilization of the Mili- 
tary Affairs Committee) 1853 

State Department 1855, 1856 

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