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Full text of "Investigation of so-called "blacklisting" in entertainment industry; report of the Fund for the Republic, inc. Hearings"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

IN ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY— REPORT OF THE 

FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC.— PART 3 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JULY 17 AND 18, 1956 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
(INCLUDING INDEX) 




DEPI 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENt 

OCT 20. 2956 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
S2833 WASHINGTON : 1956 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House op Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Richard Arens, Director 

n 



CONTENTS 



PART 1 

Page 
July 10, 1956: Testimony of— 

John Cogley 5175 

Afternoon session: 

John Cogley (resumed) 5208 

July 11, 1956: Testimony of— 

Arnold Forster 5227 

Frederick E. Woltman 5240 

Afternoon session: 

James F. O'Neil 5256 

George E. Sokolsky (Statement) 5287 

PART 2 
July 12, 1956: Testimony of— 

Vincent W. Hartnett 5291 

Afternoon session: Testimony of — 

Roy M. Brewer 5312 

Paul R. Milton 5327 

July 13, 1956: Testimony of— 

Paul R, Milton (resumed) 5329 

Godfrey P. Schmidt 5353 

Afternoon session: 

Victor Riesel (Statement) 5367 

Francis J. McNamara 5368 

PART 3 
July 17, 1956: Testimony of— 
Afternoon session: 

Gale Sondergaard (Mrs. Herbert Biberman) , 5390 

July 18, 1956: Testimony of— 

Jack Gilford 5401 

Index . i 

zxx 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OP COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time, investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adiourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

******* 

RuleX 
standing committees 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress : 
******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make, from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session ) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by aqy such chairman or member. 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" IN 
ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY — REPORT OF THE 
FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC.— PART 3 



TUESDAY, JULY 17, 1956 

United States House or Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 2 p. m. in district court room No. 5, United States 
Courthouse, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter, of 
Pennsylvania ; Harold H. Velde, of Illinois ; and Gordon H. Scherer, 
of Ohio. 

Staff members present : Richard Arens, director ; W. Jackson Jones, 
K. Baarslag, Richard S. Weil, and Mrs. Dolores Scott i. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

This committee is interested in inquiring further into the recent re- 
port by the Fund for the Republic, Inc., on so-called "blacklisting" 
practices in the entertainment field. 

In Washington last week the committee received extensive testi- 
mony about the Fund for the Republic's "blacklisting" report, and 
about the actual conditions which prevail in the industry today in 
respect to the employment of Communists. 

The hearings last week left no doubt that the Fund for the Repub- 
lic's report is a partisan, biased attack on all persons and organiza- 
tions who are sincerely and patriotically concerned in ridding the 
movie industry and the radio and television industry of Communists 
and Communist sympathizers. We have learned that, contrary to the 
report of the Fund for the Republic, it is not so-called "blacklisting" 
which constitutes a grave menace in the entertainment industry ; the 
real menace is the use of Communist tactics designed to capture 
America's vast media of communication and information for the 
Communists. 

The Fund for the Republic in its report cited a number of examples 
of persons it wished to believe were deprived of employment be- 
cause of the sinister machinery of blacklisting. 

In order to determine the facts the committee has subpenaed several 
of the so-called victims of blacklisting by the report. I might add that 
for curious reasons some of the named unfortunates who have sup- 
posedly been blacklisted are at the moment very much employed. As 
a matter of fact, a couple of them might not be able to appear, because 
they are too busy professionally. 

5389 



5390 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

The committee is deeply concerned over the extent of the Commu- 
nist penetration of the entertainment industry. It hopes through 
the appearance of the witnesses we have subpenaed for today, to- 
gether with other information we have received on this subject, to be 
able to formulate legislative measures which would effectively deal with 
this problem. 

Call your witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Gale Sondergaard, please. 

Kindly remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I beg your pardon. I didn't realize you were 
speaking to me. I do, yes. 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I do. 

Mr. McBride. Shall I note my appearance on the record? 

Mr. Arens. We will see that that is done at the appropriate time. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF GALE SONDERGAARD BIBERMAN, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, THOMAS D. McBRIDE 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Miss Sondergaard. My name is Gale Sondergaard Biberman. I 
live at 3259 Deronda Drive, Hollywood, Calif. I am an actress. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities? 

Miss Sondergaard. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I am represented by counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. McBride. Thomas D. McBride, 2015 Land Title Building, 
Philadelphia. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly give the committee a brief sketch of 
your educational background ? 

Miss Sondergaard. Yes, very gladly. I went to elementary school 
in Litchfield, Minn., as a small child. I went to elementary school for 
3 years in the city of Philadelphia. I went to high school and college 
in Minneapolis, Minn. I graduated from the University of Minne- 
sota. I graduated from the Minneapolis Academy of Music and 
Dramatic Art. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give us the approximate period of time 
when you concluded your formal education ? 

Miss Sondergaard. The approximate period of time ? It was in the 
twenties. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give us a brief chronological account 
of your career in the dramatic work in which you have been engaged ? 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5391 

Miss Sondergaard. Yes. I might say that you have all of this in 
your record from the last time I appeared, but I would be very happy 
to repeat it if you so desire. 

Mr. Arens. Just a thumbnail sketch, if you please. 

Miss Sondergaard. I began playing in Chautauqua while I was 
going to college. I used to go out in the summers and tour on 1-night 
stands, as we called it. From there I went into a Shakespearean com- 
pany touring the entire country. Then I went to the Jesse Bonstell Co. 
in Detroit and played for 2 years as the leading woman. From there 
I went, with other things in between, since you want it brief — I went 
to the Theater Guild in New York City. I played Eugene O'Neill's 
Strange Interlude. I was with them for 3 years. I played many 
Broadway productions, leading roles. I went to Hollywood. I have 
been there for 20 years and have played in perhaps 40 motion pictures. 
I won an Academy Award for Anthony Adverse, which was my first 
picture, and a nomination for the role in Anna and the King of Siam. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you if you will give us just the highlights of 
your career from 1947 on as distinguished from your overall career. 

Miss Sondergaard. From 1947 on I played in one motion picture. 
This was in 1949. The picture was East Side- West Side, which Mer- 
vyn LeRoy produced and directed. That is all I have done in the 
motion-picture industry. I have played, however, in a few summer 
theaters throughout those years, a very few, and very recently I have 
done a one- woman show in Los Angeles and in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. Are you currently engaged in a theatrical performance ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I am currently engaged ; yes ; in Anastasia in the 
playhouse in the Park, which opened last night to an ovation. 

Mr. Arens. I invite your attention to a report which was published 
very recently on so-called "blacklisting" by the Fund for the Republic, 
in which are set forth a series of some few cases alleged by the author 
to be typical of people who have been denied employment or have been 
impeded in their employment. I should like to read you one particular 
paragraph which is applicable to yourself. 

Gale Sondergaard, wife of Herbert Biberman of the Hollywood Ten, found that 
she was suddenly "unemployable" after her husband refused to testify, though 
she had previously made about 45 pictures, had won an Oscar for her performance 
in "Anthony Adverse" and had been nominated for another after she appeared in 
"Anna and the King of Siam." Following the 1947 hearings Miss Sondergaard 
made only one film, produced by Mervyn LeRoy. LeRoy told her that he had 
been questioned by dozens of people who asked him wonderingly if he did not know 
who she was. 

On the basis of this report which is published by a great foundation 
with tremendous resources and being disseminated over the length 
and breadth of this land, I should like to ask you if it is a fact that 
following your husband's appearance your actual activity in the 
theatrical world was minimized. Is that correct? 

Miss Sondergaard. I would say it very definitely is correct in the 
motion picture industry. 

Mr. Arens. In your judgment was that attributed exclusively to 
the fact, as recounted here, that your husband had refused to testify 
in a proceeding? 

Miss Sondergaard. It would be my opinion that this was the reason 
I was not employed. 

82833— 56— pt 3 2 



5392 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

Mr. Scherer. What year was that, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. In 1947. 

Have you ever been discriminated against m employment in the 
theater because of your political beliefs ? 

Miss Sondergaard. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been discriminated against in the 
theater because you were a controversial figure ? 

Miss Sondergaard. Not to my mind. _ , 

Mr. Arens. In your judgment, following 1947 did any incident 
occur in your life which contributed to a lessening in your employ- 
ment in the theater? 

Miss Sondergaard. Yes, of course. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly recount it just in your own words. 

Miss Sondergaard. The fact that I was called before this committee 
and invoked the fifth amendment at that time. 

Mr. Arens. In your opinion is that the exclusive and sole reason 
why you have had a lessening in your employment since 1947 ? 

Miss Sondergaard. In my opinion, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a man, a person by the name of Martin 
Berkeley ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I decline to answer that question on two counts : 
Because I choose not to be a witness against myself in accordance with 
my right under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee the truth as to whether or not you know Martin Berkeley you 
would be supplying information which might be used against you in 
a criminal proceeding? 

Miss Sondergaard. The word "incriminate" means the giving of 
evidence which might be used against one in a criminal prosecution 
or which might lead to the discovery of other evidence which could 
be used against one in a criminal prosecution, whether or not he is 
guilty of any crime. 

Mr. Arens. In this period since 1947 Martin Berkeley testified un- 
der oath before the House Committee on Un-American Activities and 
identified you as a member of the Communist conspiracy, did he not ? 

Miss Sondergaard. What is my constitutional right on that, Mr. 
McBride? 

Mr. McBride. If you know, I think it is your duty to answer 
whether or not he did so testify. 

Miss Sondergaard. If I remember correctly, he did. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Berkeley lying or was he telling the truth 
when he took an oath and identified you in 1951 as a member of the 
Communist conspiracy ? 

Miss Sondergaard. May I ask counsel's advice on that? 

Mr. McBride. Yes. I advise you that you might quite properly 
claim the same constitutional grounds you have previously asserted. 

Miss Sondergaard. I would like to claim the same constitutional 
grounds I have previously asserted. 

Mr. Arens. One Elizabeth Wilson testified under oath before the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities in September 1951 to 
the effect that she knew you as a member of the Communist conspiracy. 
Was Elizabeth Wilson lying or was she telling the truth when she so 
testified ? 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5393 

Miss Sondergaard. I would claim the same privilege as I have just 
claimed. 

Mr. Scherer. Who was Elizabeth Wilson, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. She was a witness before the committee who was a 
former member of the Communist Party. She testified under oath 
that she knew the present witness as a member of the Communist con- 
spiracy. 

Mr. Scherer. For the record Martin Berkeley is engaged in what 
profession ? 

Mr. Arens. Martin Berkeley was a former member of the Com- 
munist Party, who testified under oath on September 19, 1951, and 
identified one Gale Sondergaard as a person known by him to have been 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. What is his occupation ? 

Mr. Arens. He is a writer. 

Do you know a person by the name of Bernard Schoenf eld ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to testify on the same basis. 

Mr. Arens. Bernard Schoenfeld testified under oath before the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities on August 19, 1952, and 
identified you as a person who was to his certain knowledge a member 
of the Communist Party. Was he lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to testify for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Larry Parks ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to testify for the same reason. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that under date of March 21, 1951, Larry 
Parks testified before the House Committee on Un-American Activities 
under oath and stated in effect that he knew you as a member of the 
Communist conspiracy ? Do you know that as a fact? 

Miss Sondergaard. I take the same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest you may want to consult with 
your counsel on that. I only am asking you whether or not you know 
Larry Parks did so testify. 

Mr. McBride. I think counsel is entirely correct. If you know that 
he did so testify it is your duty to answer "Yes." If you do not know, 
you should say that you do not know, but I do not believe that it is 
a matter for the assertion of the constitutional privilege. 

Miss Sondergaard. I am afraid I didn't listen to the question too 
well. They come so fast. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that Larry Parks testified under oath 
before the House Committee on Un-American Activities that he knew 
you as a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Miss Sondergaard. It is my impression that he did. I don't know 
how I got that impression. From the newspapers, probably. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Parks lying or was he telling the truth when 
he so testified before the House Committee on Un-American Activities 
under oath ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I would claim the same privilege which I have 
claimed before. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that a person by the name of Lee J. Cobb 
under date of June 2, 1953, testified under oath before the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities and identified you as a member of 
the Communist conspiracy ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I think this is the first time I have had this 
information, if you are giving it to me as information. 



5394 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Lee J. Cobb ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I ref use to testify on the same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Was Mr. Cobb lying or was he telling the truth when 
he identified you as a member of the Communist conspiracy on the 
date of June 2, 1953? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to testify on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Counsel, for the record, who is Lee J. Cobb ? 

Mr. Arens. He is an actor, a former member of the Communist 
Party. 

Do you know a person by the name of Morris L. Appelman ? 

Miss Sondergaard. The name is not familiar to me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that under date of January 10, 1952, 
Morris L. Appelman identified you in testimony under oath before 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities as a person known 
by him to have been a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to answer on the same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been interviewed by a representative of 
the Fund for the Republic Inc. ? 

Miss Sondergaard. May I say that I answered a questionnaire. 

Mr. Arens. When was that questionnaire submitted to you ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I don't have much remembrance of it. 

Mr. Arens. What is your best recollection ? Was it in the course of 
the last couple of years ? 

Miss Sondergaard. Yes. 

Miss Arens. What was the questionnaire about ? 

Miss Sondergaard. The questionnaire — you would know what it 
was about from this little piece that you read to me. It was how 
much I had worked, what I have done in the past years in my profes- 
sion, in the motion-picture industry. 

Mr. Arens. Did the questionnaire have any questions undertaking, 
if you recall, to elicit from you any basis or reason for the lessening in 
your employment activities ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I don't remember exactly. I would have to see 
the questionnaire to know just how it was worded. 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, did you keep a copy of the questionnaire? 

Miss Sondergaard. No ; I did not. 

Mr. Scherer. Did the questionnaire ask you about your former 
membership in the Communist Party ? Was there any question along 
that line ? 

Miss Sondergaard. Again I would have to see the questionnaire to 
remember. I don't remember the exact details of the questionnaire. 

Mr. Scherer. But if the questionnaire had asked about member- 
ship in the Communist Party what would you have said ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
basis. 

Mr. Scherer. In answering the questionnaire, of course you were 
not under oath. Do you remember ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I beg your pardon. I don't hear what you are 
saying, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I said when you answered the questionnaire of the 
Fund for the Republic, of course you were not under oath. That is 
correct ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I was not under oath when I answered the ques- 
tionnaire. 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5395 

Mr. Scherer. You have no recollection, then, of the questionnaire 
containing any questions as to membership in the Communist Party? 

Miss Sondergaard. I have no recollection of it ; no. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you have a recollection of any mention in the ques- 
tionnaire about the testimony of witnesses before this committee con- 
cerning your membership in the Communist Party ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I really have very little remembrance of the 
actual questionnaire except that it asked me what I had done in my 
profession in the motion-picture industry in the past years. This was 
my impression. 

Mr. Arens. In 1951, did you have occasion to address the executive 
board of the Screen Actors Guild ? 

Miss Sondergaard. The Screen Actors Guild, that is right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the subject matter of your address ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I did not address them. I wrote a letter to them 
before I came for my hearing before this committee. 

Mr. Arens. What was the subject matter of your statement or writ- 
ten matter which you addressed to the Screen Actors Guild? 

Miss Sondergaard. I wonder if you could perhaps read that also 
from the book, the Fund for the Republic. 

Mr. Arens. I will be very happy to. 

At the time of the 1951 hearings, Gale Sondergaard addressed the executive 
board of the Actors Guild through an ad in Variety. Miss Sondergaard asked 
the union to support her right to plead the Fifth Amendment and to make a public 
declaration that it would not tolerate any industry blacklist against any of its 
members. 

Is that a correct interpretation of what you did at the time ? 

Miss Sondergaard. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you regard it at that time as blacklisting of yourself 
to preclude you from employment in the entertainment industry? 

Miss Sondergaard. I am sorry. I don't follow that question. I am 
not very good on legal terms. 

Mr. Arens. Were you by your interpretation of the word "black- 
list" being blacklisted in 1951 ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I think I anticipated that I would be when I 
came before this committee because I saw what happened to other 
people before that. 

Mr. Arens. The other people ? — were those the Hollywood Ten ? 

The Chairman. The Hollywood Ten. 

Miss Sondergaard. I was very close to the situation because my 
husband was one of the Hollywood Ten. 

The Chairman. When you mentioned "other people" you meant the 
Hollywood Ten, didn't you? 

Miss Sondergaard. That was my immediate knowledge of it, yes. 

Mr. Arens. All of those persons whom we have indicated in the last 
few moments were the Hollywood Ten — each had been identified un- 
der oath by a witness before the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities as a person who was a member of the Communist conspiracy, 
isn't that correct ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
basis. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question or perhaps consult 
with her counsel. It is a matter of public record. 



5396 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED " BLACKLISTING" 

The Chairman. The record is the best evidence. It is a fact. Ask 
another question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Screen Actors Guild ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. McBride. You may, if you choose, claim your same constitu- 
tional privileges a* you have already done. 

Miss Sondergaard. Is there anything incriminating in being a mem- 
ber of the Screen Actors Guild ? 

Mr. McBride. I honestly know nothing about it so I can't advise 
you on that point. 

Miss Sondergaard. I am a member of the Screen Actors Guild. 

Mr. Arens. Do you hold an office in the Screen Actors Guild ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I do not hold an office in the Screen Actors 
Guild. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held an office in the Screen Actors Guild ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I have never held an office in the Screen Actors 
Guild. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been on the executive board of the Screen 
Actors Guild ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I have not been on the executive board of the 
Screen Actors Guild. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member or have you been a member of the 
Motion Picture Artists Committee? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to answer that question on the same 
basis which I refused before. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not you have ever been a member of the Motion 
Picture Artists Committee you would be supplying information which 
might be used against you in a criminal proceeding? 

Miss Sondergaard. Mr. Counsel, I would like to say here that I at 
one time saw a book which had a long list of organizations which 
have been called subversive by the Attorney General. Any of these 
organizations if they are brought up, I believe one must protect oneself 
from your questions and assume the privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the League of Women 
Shoppers ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to answer that on the basis I refused 
before. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell the committee where you were living in 
1944. What was your address ? 

Miss Sondergaard. In 1944 I was living at 3259 Deronda Drive, 
Hollywood, Calif. 

Mr. Arens. Was your occupation at that time an actress? 

Miss Sondergaard. 1944, yes; of course my occupation has always 
been an actress. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of a card and 
ask you if you have ever seen the original of which that is a photo- 
static copy. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Sondergaard. What was your question? 

Mr. Arens. I ask you if you have ever seen the original card, of 
which that is a photostat. 

Miss Sondergaard. No; I have never seen the original of which that 
is a photostat. 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5397 

Mr. Arens. I put to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the 
fact, that that is a photostatic copy of a Communist Party member- 
ship card No. 4C943, which was issued to you in December 1944. 
Miss Sondergaard. I have never seen that card. 
Mr. McRride. Just a moment. Do you want me to call this to your 
attention ? 

(Mr. Arens and Mr. McBride conferring.) 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1944? 
Miss Sondergaard. ,1 refuse to answer that question, claiming the 
same privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Communist Party at the pres- 
ent time ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to answer that question on both amend- 
ments, claiming them. 

Mr. Arens. What have been your financial contributions to the 
Communist Party in the course of the last 10 years? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to answer that question, claiming the 
same privileges. 

Mr. Arens. Have you contributed as much as $20,000 to the Com- 
munist Party since 1930 ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to answer that question, claiming the 
same priveleges. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Sondergaard. Mr. Counsel, may I point out that all of these 
questions, all of this information you have on your records and I 
don't quite understand being called here at this time when I am in the 
middle of a creative work, one of the first that I have had in 5 years. 
You have all of this information. You don't need to go over it again 
and get the same answers. I have stated publicly before that my 
position is unchanged, and I think I could save you a great deal of 
time if you would just note that. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly answer this question. Since 
1947 have you at any time, in view of this array of witnesses who 
have identified ^you as a member of the Communist conspiracy, ever 
denied to any employer, any interviewer, any person, that you are or 
have been a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I refuse to answer that question, claiming the 
same privileges. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question whether or not she 
has ever denied membership ? 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 
(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. McBride. Will the counsel repeat it so that in giving my advice 
I will be at least sure that I mean to give the right advice. 
Mr. Arens. Will you kindly read the question. 
(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 
Mr. McBride. Miss Sondergaard, since the question of denial may 
be implied as an admission, I advise you that you are fully within 
your rights in claiming your constitutional privileges despite the 
direction to answer. 

Miss Sondergaard. I would claim my constitutional privileges as 
my counsel suggests, advises. 



5398 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

The Chairman. Miss Sondergaard, when you were asked to sign 
this questionnaire by a representative of the Fund for the Republic, 
did you indicate to him that all the things that he might be interested 
in were a matter of record of this committee ? 

Miss Sondergaard. On the questionnaire % 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Miss Sondergaard. I don't remember whether that was on — You 
mean why would I indicate this ? 

The Chairman. Yes. You have stated that you are wondering 
why you are testifying when you say all of the things you have been 
asked are a matter of record. The reason why you have been called 
to testify is perfectly obvious. It is because of this very question- 
naire that you filled out. 

Miss Sondergaard. Yes, I see. All of the information is in the 
book that I gave them. 

Mr. Arens. Do you regard it as blacklisting for the entertainment 
industry to preclude employment opportunity to people who have 
been identified under oath by responsible witnesses before a congres- 
sional committee as members of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Miss Sondergaard. May I take that straight ? 

Mr. McBride. I think that you are being asked your opinion, Miss 
Sondergaard, and I think you should answer 

Mr. Arens. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness has opened 
the door because she previously expressed her opinion. 

Mr. McBride. The witness' opinion is protected by the first amend- 
ment and is not subject to inquiry in any court in all the world. 

The Chairman. You advise your client, Mr. McBride. The pro- 
cedure here is quite different from that in court. 

Mr. McBride. Very good, Mr. Chairman. 

I advise you, Miss Sondergaard, that the question of what opinions 
you hold are beyond the right of this committee or any committee or 
any court, or anybody, to pry into and that you are protected in your 
opinions by the first amendment. However, if you choose to answer 
that, you may. 

Miss Sondergaard. I, of course, would like to answer that question, 
but I would like to be protected by law also because there are many 
traps, I know, in this kind of hearing. 

The Chairman. I assure you that nobody is attempting to set any 
traps for you or anyone else. 

Miss Sondergaard. Thank you very much, Mr. Walter. 

Mr. Arens. Did you not volunteer the opinion to this committee 
that you as a person had been blacklisted ? 

Miss Sondergaard. You mean today I volunteered that ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Miss Sondergaard. I may have done so. This is very much in my 
mind and I may have said it. I would like to say 

Mr. Arens. If you will pardon me for a question, do you know of 
anyone else in comparable status, who has been identified before a 
congressional committee as a member of the Communist conspiracy, 
and who is likewise in your judgment, blacklisted? 

Miss Sondergaard. I would like just to answer for myself on that 
question. If you ask me specifically I would claim my privileges. 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5399 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Questions? 

Mr. Velde. Yes, just one. 

Apparently you haven't had a change of heart since your testimony 
before this committee in 1949. 

Miss Sondergaard. So I have said many times. 

Mr. Velde. You have not ? 

Miss Sondergaard. I have not had a change in my feelings about 
this kind of an investigation. 

Mr. Velde. Don't you think that if you had had a change of heart 
and had come before this committee and given us the benefit of your 
experiences in the Communist Party so that we might more ably 

Miss Sondergaard. I am sorry, sir. I don't follow. Perhaps it is 
legal terms or something I don't quite follow what you are trying 
to ask. Can you simplify it for me ? 

Mr. Velde. Suppose you had given us the benefit of your expe- 
riences in the Communist Party, do you think that you would have 
been backlisted, as you put it ? 

Miss Sondergaard. Let's see. If I had given you — would you repeat 
it once more, please ? 

Mr. Velde. If you had given us the benefit of your experiences in 
the Communist Party, don't you think you would have had an easier 
time in obtaining employment than you have had by not giving us the 
benefit of your experiences ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Sondergaard. What is my constitutional privilege? 

Mr. McBride. Miss Sondergaard, all that I can say is that the ques- 
tion is speculative. I don't know whether you can answer it or notf 
It requires you to speculate as to whether, had you testified fully and 
freely against other people, your path would have been easier. That 
is asking for an opinion which I think you might justly claim the 
constitutional right to refuse because it assumes that you did have 
experiences in the Communist Party. 

Miss Sondergaard. May I say also it assumes 

Mr. McBride. You had better state your position. 

Miss Sondergaard. I will follow my counsel's advice and refuse to 
answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Velde. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. No questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused from further service under 
the subpena. 

Miss Sondergaard. Thank you. 



82833— 56— pt. 3- 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" IN 
ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY — REPORT OF THE 
FUND FOR THE REPUBLIC, INC.— PART 3 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 18, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 
Subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

PUBLIC HEARING 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 a. m., in district court room No. 5, United 
State Courthouse, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Francis E. Walter of 
Pennsylvania and Gordon H. Scherer of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director; W. Jackson Jones, 
K. Baarslag, Richard S. Weil, and Mrs. Dolores Scotti. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your first witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Will Jack Gilford kindly come forward. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers the oath 
to you. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand, please. 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Gilford. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JACK GILFORD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
MARTIN POPPER 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Gilford. May I put my notes out, please ? 

My name is Jack Gilford. I am an actor. I live at 75 Bank Street, 
in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly spell your name for the record ? 

Mr. Gilford. G-i-1-f-o-r-d. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Gilford, are you appearing today in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities? 

Mr. Gilford. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Gilford. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself? 

Mr. Popper. My name is Martin Popper, P-o-p-p-e-r, member of the 
bar of New York. 

5401 



5402 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

Would you, Mr. Arens, be good enough to let the witness know what 
the subject matter of the inquiry is? _ ,,,_,,. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. On page 214 of a report issued by the Fund for 
the Republic after a recitation of a situation pertaining to so-called 
blacklisting we find this language: 

Jack Gilford, a comedian, had been hired by the Metropolitan to appear in 
a n'onsinsing part. Gilford received considerable publicity since he was the 
first comedian to be hired by the tradition-bound opera company. Gilford per- 
formed without incident in New York City but when the opera went on the 
road a protest was unleashed in Syracuse. The source of this action was the 
Onondaga County Post No. 41 of the American Legion which works in close 
cooperation with Laurence Johnson. Gilford had been "listed" in Red Channels 
and the Legionnaires demanded that the Metropolitan fire him. The opera 
company stood firm, however, and Gilford was allowed to continue in the part. 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that counsel be advised at this 
time that your sole and exclusive function in this proceeding is to 
advise your client with reference to your client's rights. 

Mr. Popper. That is right 

The Chairman. Mr. Popper knows that. He has appeared with 
many people. He knows the rules of the committee. 

Mr. Popper. All I would like to know is the subject matter of the 
inquiry. What is the subject matter? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Gilford, would you kindly answer this question? 

Were you ever deprived of employment since your so-called listing 
in Red Channels ? 

Mr. Gilford. I would like to know the subject matter, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. The subject matter is this question: Were you ever 
deprived of employment — were you ever discharged from any em- 
ployment — because of the so-called, quote, "listing" in Red Channels? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel) . 

Mr. Gilford. I think the subject matter of this inquiry 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I suggest the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Gilford. I will answer it. I would just like to preface it by 
saying the subject matter is not within the scope of this committee. 

The Chairman. You can raise that question in the proper forum. 

Mr. Gilford. I am raising it now, Mr. Walter. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Gilford. The question certainly is a very important one to me 
and I am here because I have many facts relating to this. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Gilford. I am answering it, Mr. Walter. I would just like 
briefly to state in very short terms a very brief biography before the 
Met 

The Chairman. We do not care about your biography. We want 
you to answer the question. 

Mr. Gilford. I was hired by the Met, by the Metropolitan Opera 
Co. in New York in 1950. I appeared in the New York run and 
the spring tour in a very successful engagement, with very good 
notices. I appeared on the radio show of Die Fledermaus which was 
broadcast by the Texaco Co. on a national network. There was abso- 
lutely no incident. Nothing was done 

The Chairman. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. Gilford. From 1950 — the end of 1950 to just before the sum- 
mer, into the spring of 1951. In 1951, fall, we went on a tour. We 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5403 

opened here in Philadelphia at the Academy of Music, and Mr. Bing 
received a letter from Syracuse from a Mr. Latimer that said : 

Dear Mk. Bing: I am Secretary of the Un-American Activities Committee of 
this Post — 

That is the Onondaga Post, Syracuse Post, No. 41, American Legion— 

and would like a clarification from you and the Metropolitan Opera Association 
as to why you are including in the cast of Die Fledermaus, Jack Gilford to play 
in Loews State Theater, Syracuse, N. Y. November 24 and December 1. 

It certainly seems to me as though, with all the actors we have in this country 
who have never been associated with subversives, that Jack Gilford could easily 
be replaced. We know that there is nothing illegal in what Mr. Gilford has 
done and we are not accusing him of being a Communist, but unless the situation 
is clarified and to our satisfaction, I believe the best thing to do would be to 
submit the entire record of Gilford before the people of Syracuse through various 
civic organizations. 

Signed "Robert Latimer." 

Mr. Bing answered on October 17 

The Chairman. May we have that letter? 

Mr. Popper. We will send a photostatic copy to you. This is the 
only copy he has. 

Mr. Gilford. I would like to keep this letter in my possession. I 
will be happy 

The Chairman. I would like to see the letter you are reading. 

Air. Gilford. I will send you a photostat of the exact copy. 

The Chairman. May I see it now ? 

Mr. Gilford. This is the only letter I have. 

The Chairman. Are you sure you read it correctly ? 

Mr. Gilford. Yes, I am sure I read it correctly, and I would like 
what I read entered into the record with your permission. 

The Chairman. We will just suspend for a second. Mr. Arens. : 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Gilford. Excuse me. I read the letter and I would like to read 
the answer, which is very pertinent, which is my answer. 

The Chairman. Just a minute. 

Mr. Gilford. "Dear Mr. Latimer," he says. 

This letter was sent from Mr. Bing to Mr. Latimer. 

Your letter of October 10 addressed to Mr. Bing — 

pardon me. This was signed by Mr. Allen, Mr. Bing's assistant — 

addressed to Mr. Bing, reached our office when he was in Richmond, Va. In 
order that there may be no delay in acknowledging your letter, I am writing 
you herewith on behalf of the management. 

I should state at the outset that although you assume that it does not seem 
possible that the Metropolitan should have been unaware of Mr. Gilford's al- 
leged affiliations, we are not aware of any of his alleged activities for several 
obvious reasons. 

In the first place, the Metropolitan Opera Co. employs some 300 artists in 
addition to the eighty-some members engaged for the Die Fledermaus tour. It 
must be obvious that we cannot embark upon a course of investigating the past 
political affiliation or sympathies of all of these artists prior to engaging them. 
We can, of course, assure you that the Metropolitan would not knowingly em- 
ploy one who, after a fair hearing in the manner of American justice before 
an impartial tribunal, was found to be engaged in activities hostile to our coun- 
try or destructive to our form of government. But the Metropolitan cannot 
sit as such a tribunal nor could it make such a decision on the basis of publica- 
tions which are mere compilations from frequently dubious sources, compilations 
which in nowise represent the judgment of such a tribunal as we have mentioned 
under the conditions required by American justice. 



5404 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

Suffice it in the case of Mr. Gilford that none of the information, whatever 
its evidential value may be, with which you have furnished us, had in any way 
come to our attention until a few days previous to the performance of our Die 
Fledermaus company in Newark, October 1. Yet Mr. Gilford's association with 
the Metropolitan lias been of nationwide public record for well over a year. 
He was employed by us during tbe summer of 1950 and appeared at the Metro- 
politan for the first time in New York in December 1950, and subsequently in 19 
performances in the Metropolitan Opera House and in addition performed in 
12 cities throughout the United States during the spring tour of 1951. During 
this period he appeared on January 20, 1951, as a featured member of the cast 
of Die Fledermaus in a broadcast over the entire network of the American 
Broadcasting Co. His reengagement for our touring company was publicly 
announced in the spring of this year and he has since appeared in a number 
of cities. 

Despite this national publicity and despite the fact that the material upon 
which Mr. Gilford's alleged affiliations are based was all published before the 
summer of 1950, not a word of complaint was ever raised concerning our en- 
gagement of Mr. Gilford until shortly before the Newark performance referred 
to above. I might note in passing that this fact of silence for well over a year, 
now suddenly broken by the demands of the Catholic War Veterans in Newark 
and yourself, is in itself a fact far more strange than our ignorance of the al- 
leged affiliations of Mr. Gilford. 

I think that in determining any course of action your Legion post should con- 
sider in the light of the facts stated above the consequences of what you are pro- 
posing in your letter of October 10. You suggest that if Mr. Gilford cannot clarify 
this "situation" to your satisfaction the Metropolitan should discharge him or, if 
it does not, you intend to submit "the entire record" to the people of Syracuse. 

Although since Mr. Gilford is presently out of New York we have been unable 
to discuss this matter with him, we suggest that in any event your proposal is in 
fact unfair. In the first place, although I would not in any way purport to speak 
for Mr. Gilford, you are proposing that his loyalty to the United States and his 
right to hold a job anywhere be tried and determined by the Syracuse Post No. 41 
of the American Legion. That, of course, is a matter of indirect concern to the 
Metropolitan, which believes as strongly as you do in the American concepts and 
a fair trial. Of more direct interest to the Met is the fact that, although an- 
other actor might have been found and rehearsed at one time to fill Mr. Gilford's 
role, it would have been quite impossible to replace him at this time without 
seriously jeopardizing the quality of performance, even if the Metropolitan were 
in a legal position to terminate his services, which it is not. 

I think you will agree that any position which you take must consider, not 
the single figure of Mr. Gilford but the employment and opportunities of an entire 
company of 80 Americans whose futures will be jeopardized if any action of yours 
should so prejudice our box office as to require cancellation of the balance of the 
tour, a right which we can exercise with respect to the entire company although 
not with respect to one individual. 

Die Fledermaus company was intended as the first step in the development of 
a Metropolitan touring company which would tour the United States on an annual 
basis, giving opportunity to young American artists to develop their operatic 
careers in the United States at Metropolitan opera standards instead of having 
to look to Europe for such opportunity. If any action of yours should result in 
the destruction of this experiment, do you believe that these American artists 
who have looked forward to a 30 weeks' tour and an assured future with the 
Metropolitan will appreciate the ruin of their hopes resulting from your objec- 
tions to one member of the troupe? I rather think they would not. I rather 
think that they would feel that they have been sacrificed in order that one man, 
who you admit has done nothing illegal and whom you do not claim to be a Com- 
munist, should be denied employment, and I think that any such move on your 
part would play into the hands of those who are busily attempting to sow con- 
fusion among the people of this country. 

We appreciate the serious concern which has prompted your letter to us and 
the patriotic motives which underlie it and which we share. We would hope that 
in the light of the information we have given you, you will feel, with us, that our 
mutual interests in combating the enemies of this country would be best served 
in this instance by keeping in being this new and important development of 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5405 

American cultural institutions and that this perhaps outweighs whatever feelings 
you have concerning this individual case. 
Very truly yours, 

Reginau) Axlen. 
Mr. Bing's associate. 

Mr. Arens. Now kindly tell this committee, after you were listed in 
Red Channels, whether or not you were deprived employment op- 
portunities? 

Mr. Gilford. Yes, I was, definitely. 

Mr. Arens. Do you attribute the lessening in your employment op- 
portunities exclusively to your listing in Red Channels? 

Mr. Gilford. Yes, exclusively. 

Mr. Arens. Did any other element play on the fact that you had a 
lessening in your employment opportunities ? 

Mr. Gilford. Yes, it did 

Let me comment on that, Mr. Arens. You are asking me several 
tilings and you don't let me comment at all. 

Mr. Arens. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Gilford. You asked me whether I lost any jobs. I submitted 
a sworn affidavit on November 16, 1951, that says to the American 
Legion Post: 

Deak Sirs : This is to certify that I am not a member of the Communist Party 
or of any subversive or Communist organizations. As I wrote in my letter of 
October 30 to Mr. Bing, of which was sent to your organization, a sworn state- 
ment to that effect is already on file with the American Guild of Variety Artists — 

of which I am a national officer — 

I have always tried to base my actions both as an artist and as a citizen on those 
fundamental principles upon which our Nation is founded. It will always be 
my effort both as a performer and in my personal conduct to maintain my stand- 
ing as a hard-working, fervent, and loyal American. 

Mr. Arens. What is the date of that, please? Will you pause just 
a moment ? 

Mr. Gilford. Mr. Arens, this is the closing of this item. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly answer. Add the date. 

Mr. Gilford. I received this letter from the American Legion 
Post 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly restrain yourself long enough to an- 
swer the question as to the date ? 

Mr. Gilford. I said November 16, 1951. I read that. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

Mr. Scherer. Pardon me just a minute. 

Mr. Gilford. I would just like to finish this. This is a very im- 
portant part of my testimony. 

Mr. Scherer. I have a question to ask you, sir, with reference to the 
letter. 

Mr. Gilford. I haven't finished answering the last question, sir. I 
respectfully ask you 

The Chairman. You will have all the opportunity that you want. 
Just answer the question. 

Mr. Gilford. I would like to answer this question first. Excuse me, 
sir. I must ask you a favor. I respect this body. I have all the re- 
spect for this body and I am easily rattled. I am not a lawyer. I am 
an actor. I am much more at home in a nightclub or a theater. I 
would like to answer. 



5406 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

The Chairman. Just answer the question. 

Mr. Gilford. I can't be asked by three different people, sir. I just 
can't. I am sorry. 

The Chairman. Remain quiet 1 minute and then you can hear a 
question and then you can answer it. 

Mr. Gilford. I would like to answer the last question, sir, before 
we go on to another, and that is because I have received this from the 
American Legion Post 

The Chairman. You are not asked anything about that. 

Mr. Gilford. With information from this committee which is de- 
rogatory, which is unverified. This committee and the post kept me 
from the Metropolitan Opera Co. in New York by which subsequently 
I was denied employment. 

The Chairman. Now what is the question ? 

Mr. Scherer. You mentioned that you submitted an affidavit to 
this American Legion Post. What was the date of that affidavit? 

Mr. Gilford. I will mention it again. I have just read it. This is 
the third time. November 16, 1951. 

Mr. Scherer. Who is the notary public on that affidavit ? 

Mr. Gilford. I don't know him personally. He signed this. His 
name is Melville, Melville in Toronto, Canada. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you appear before him ? 

Mr. Gilford. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you swear to the affidavit ? 

Mr. Gilford. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Scherer. In Toronto, Canada ? 

Mr. Gilford. In Toronto, Canada. 

The Chairman. Were you performing in Toronto at that time? 

Mr. Gilford. I was on the Met. We were on tour. It was prior to 
the Syracuse engagement. 

Mr. Scherer. That is all at this moment. 

Mr. Arens. May I interpose a question or two with reference to 
this particular document before we proceed further. I observe this 
in your statement of November 16, 1951 : 

This is to certify that I am not a member of the Communist Party or of any 
subversive or Communist organizations. 

On the date you submitted that had you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gilford. I think that question is a diversion to what you 
brought me here for. I object to it. I think it is an invasion of my 
privacy, of the privacy of a citizen, and absolutely I came here to help 
you to help this terrible blacklisting. I have facts about being fired 
from shows. I have on file with the AGVA, my union, a sworn 
affidavit 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer counsel's question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Gilford. Before I answer that question I would like to answer 
and give you all the information. I have just said that this com- 
mittee, without my permission, was in touch with the post in Syracuse 
and blacklisted me from employment. 

Based on this information, I was also thrown off jobs before any 
kind of statement was made. 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5407 

The Chairman. Answer the question that Mr. Arens asked you a 
moment ago. 

Mr. Gilford. Because I feel that this is an invasion, I must say 
that I will use my constitutional privilege of not being a witness against 
myself. 

The Chairman. And you refuse to answer the question ? 

Mr. Gilford. I beg your pardon. 

The Chairman. And you refuse to answer the question ? 

Mr. Gilford. I refuse, under those grounds ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, if you told this com- 
mittee truthfully whether or not you have ever been a Communist, 
you would be supplying information which could be used against you 
in a criminal prosecution ? 

Mr. Gilford. I have answered that question that 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest the witness be ordered and di- 
rected to answer. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Gilford. I answer it the same. I refuse to answer it under the 
previous grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I ask you why you did not in this affidavit which you 
submitted under date of November 16, 1951, to the American Legion 
post, include in it that you had never been a Communist? 

Mr. Gilford. I have answered that question previously. 

Mr. Sch?:rer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Gilford. I refuse to answer that question on the previous 
grounds, and I would like to add more blacklist information. Is this 
committee interested in blacklist information ? 

Mr. Scherer. We w T ill get to that. 

Mr. Gilford. Because I would love to supply it. 

Mr. Scherer. We will get to that. 

Mr. Gilford. Everyone hates the blacklist. The whole TV industry 
hates the blacklist. They would like to get rid of it. I would like to 
supply important information to break down this thing if you are 
interested in this, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You didn't object to the question asked you by Mr. 
Arens on the subject of this affidavit. That is what I am interested in 
now. Were you ever a member of the Communist Party prior to the 
day that you submitted this affidavit to the American Legion post? 

Mr. Gilford. The same answer as before, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you a member after that date? 

Mr. Gilford. The same answer as before. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you resign from the Communist Party in order 
that you might sign this particular affidavit? 

Mr. Gilford. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a minute. You have a perfect right to refuse to 
answer, but let me complete the question. Did you resign from the 
Communist Party in order that you might sign this affidavit and the 
affidavit that you had on file? 

Mr. Gilford. I must say that the answer to that is the same as before. 

Mr. Arens. You said you were happy to talk about blacklisting. In 
your judgment, is it blacklisting to deprive employment to members of 
the Communist conspiracy who seek employment in the mass communi- 
cation media of this Nation ? 

82833—56 pt. 3 4 



5408 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

Mr. Gilford. I do not wish to indulge in political polemics, Mr. 
Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of xllvin Hammer ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilford. Yes; I think he is an actor. As a matter of fact, I 
think so. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever belong to any organization of which 
Alvin Hammer was also a member? 

Mr. Gilford. Which organization? 

Mr. Arens. Any organization. 

Mr. Gilford. I might have been in the same union with him if he 
is an actor. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only organization in which you and Alvin 
Hammer were comembers ? 

Mr. Gilford. What organizations, sir? 

Mr. Arens. Just rack your brain now and tell us is there any 
organization you can recall in which both you and Alvin Hammer 
were members ? 

Mr. Gilford. I wish you would be specific, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not you can remember being in an 
organization with Alvin Hammer in Los Angeles, Calif. 

Mr. Gilford. I have racked my brain. I wish you would rack 
yours, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have presently any recollection of an organi- 
zation in which you and Alvin Hammer were members? 

Mr. Gilford. I am asking you, sir. You know, I would like to get 
on with this, too. 

Mr. Arens. Were you and Alvin Hammer members of Branch F 
of the Communist Party of Los Angeles, Calif. ? 

Mr. Gilford. I must refuse to answer that question 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir 

Mr. Gilford. On the previous grounds. 

Mr. Arens. That on August 15, 1944, you and Alvin Hammer were 
members of Branch F of the Communist Party of Los Angeles. Calif., 
and if that is not a fact, deny it while you are under oath before 
this committee. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilford. I won't comment on that, but I would like to get on 
with the blacklist. 

Mr. Arens. Let us get on with the blacklist. Tell this committee 
whether or not in your judgment, it is blacklisting for the industry 
to deprive employment to people who are members of the Communist 
conspiracy. 

Mr. Popper. I suggest that counsel stay in one place so I can ad- 
vise my client. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that Mr. Popper be admonished 
that his sole duty and responsibility is to advise his client. 

Mr. Popper. Your sole duty is to ask questions from back there, 
not to intimidate the witness. 

Mr. Arens. There is no intimidation of this witness suggested, 
and you know it. 

The Chairman. I cannot imagine the witness being intimidated. 

Mr. Gilford. I intimidate pretty easily, sir. 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED " BLACKLISTING " 5409 

Mr. Arens. You want to talk about blacklisting : So tell this com- 
mittee whether or not it is blacklisting to deprive employment oppor- 
tunities in the mass communications media of this country to people 
who are part and parcel of the international Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Gilford. Mr. Arens, I am an actor. I am not a judge. I will 
not judge people. I will not interpret what political affiliations are. 
There are too many loose interpretations of political things. 

Mr. Arens. You are not suggesting here, sir, are you, that member- 
ship and activity in the Communist conspiracy is a political activity ? 

Mr. Gilford. I am not suggesting anything. The chairman issued 
a statement a few weeks ago that people should not be disemployed 
for any political affiliations. 

The Chairman. I was directing my remarks — and, of course, they 
were not carried in full — against those situations in New York where 
people have been deprived of employment because they patriotically 
came forward and testified on behalf of the work being done by this 
committee. 

Mr. Gilford. Are they deprived of employment, sir ? 

The Chairman. Yes ; they are. 

Mr. Gilford. They must be pretty bad actors, too. 

Mr. Arens. Without in any sense undertaking to intimidate you 
and approaching you in what I would presume to be as gracious a 
manner as I am able to do, I lay before you a photostatic copy of a 
program of the Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace, 
on which appear the names of a number of sponsors, including the name 
of a person identified here as Jack Gilford, G-i-1-f-o-r-d. I ask you, 
sir, whether or not that is you referred to as a sponsor of that con- 
ference. 

Mr. Gilford. I maintain, Mr. Arens, with as much graciousness as 
I can, that it is my duty here as a citizen, as an actor in the community 
of actors, to talk about a pernicious thing called blacklisting. 

Mr. Arens. All right, tell us whether or not you think it is black- 
listing for the entertainment industry to deprive employment to 
people who are part and parcel of the Communist conspiracy ? Let's 
start there on your explanation. 

Mr. Gilford. On the basis of political affiliation ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you think that a person who 

Mr. Gilford. Do you think it is American to deprive anybody of a 
livelihood for what they think, sir? I think not. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us whether or not you are the person indi- 
cated here in the Communist Daily Worker of April 23, 1947, who was 
entertaining on behalf of Gerhart Eisler and I lay before you now a 
photostatic copy of this Communist Daily Worker, page 4, April 23, 
1947, and invite your attention to that article. Will you kindly tell 
us now whether or not you are that individual? Kindly tell us 
whether or not you are the Jack Gilford indicated in the article. 

(The witness examined the document.) 

Mr. Gilford. I think this has nothing to do with what we are here 
for, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully 

Mr. Gilford. I will answer the question right now. To the best of 
my knowledge I was not present at this. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had your attention directed 



5410 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

Mr. Gilford. This has nothing to do with what we really want to 
get after, and that is the blacklist, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee whether or not in your judgment 
it is blacklisting for the entertainment industry to deprive employ- 
ment in mass communications media to people who are in the Commu- 
nist conspiracy. Let's start with that when we discuss blacklisting. 
Have you ever had this article in the New York Communist Daily 
Worker directed to your attention before? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilford. I have answered the question. Really I don't remem- 
ber whether I saw it or not. 

Mr. Arens. I believe we have not quite cleared the record. 

Mr. Scherer. Let's ask him another question. Do you know Ger- 
hart Eisler? 

Mr. Gilford. I refuse to answer that question, sir, on the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. On the ground that to answer the question might 
tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Gilford. That I will not be a witness against myself according 
to constitutional privileges. 

Mr. Scherer. I agree you are properly invoking the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Gilford. If you feel that way, sir. I would like to talk about 
how I was thrown off by a Syracuse grocer without any verification 
at all. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not this Syracuse grocer knew 
you were a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Gilford. I don't know this Syracuse grocer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist conspiracy when 
you were thrown off ? 

Mr. Gilford. I have answered that before, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Let us get the record clear on this document if you 
please. I do not believe we have made the record clear. Again, I lay 
before you the program of the Cultural and Scientific Conference for 
World Peace in which there appear the names of a number of sponsors 
including one Jack Gilford, and I ask you whether or not you are that 
Jack Gilford. 

Mr. Gilford. I think you started off, sir — just one moment. I think 
you started off, sir, by talking about the Fund for the Republic report 
and my appearance in this report. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. PorPER. I respectfully suggest you allow him to finish his an- 
swer, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Gilford. This report takes in my career. It doesn't quite take 
it in, sir. I would just like to add to it. I have 

Mr. Arens. Are you ready to talk about your career ? 

Mr. Gilford. No, sir. I am ready to talk about the reason you 
called me, and that is the blacklist and my appearance in the Cogley 
report. 

Mr. Arens. Are there some phases of your career that you just do 
not feel you would like to talk about ? 

Mr. Gilford. Professional career, no. I would be glad to. 






INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5411 

Mr. Arens. Let us see if there is any phase of your career in the 
Communist Party you wouldn't talk about today. Would you kindly 
tell us whether or not you are the Jack Gilford indicated in the docu- 
ment which I have just laid before you, the program of the Cultural 
and Scientific Conference for World Peace ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilford. I refuse to answer about any of my alleged affiliations 
for the same reasons I previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this commit- 
tee^ 

Mr. Gilford. Now will you let me say something, sir? I have 
answered your question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend if you told this committee 
truthfully whether or not you are the Jack Gilford alluded to in the 
program of the Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace 
you would be supplying information which could be used against you 
in a criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Gilford. The same answer as before, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Whenever you want to start talking about blacklisting 
we will start with the question as to whether or not members of the 
Communist conspiracy ought to be employed in mass communications 
media. 

Mr. Popper. Is that a question? I don't know whether that is a 
question or a statement. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that counsel 
again be admonished that his sole function before this committee is 
to advise his client with respect to his constitutional rights. 

Now I lay before you a photostatic copy of the Communist Daily 
Worker of Friday, May 2, 1947. 

Mr. Gilford. Mr. Arens, I cannot cosult my notes. You are stand- 
ing too close to me. It makes me a little nervous. 

Mr. Arens. I will certainly be glad to move back for the moment. 

I lay before you now a photostatic copy of the Communist Daily 
Worker of Friday, May 2, 1947, in which an advertisement appears 
by the National Council of American- Soviet Friendship, of a Car- 
nival-Bazaar. Indicated in that advertisement are a nunibsr of enter- 
tainers scheduled to entertain on that occasion on May 4-7, 1947, in- 
cluding one Jack Gilford, spelled Guilford in this advertisement. 
I ask you whether or not you are the Jack Gilford alluded to in that 
public document as a person who was to entertain for the American- 
Soviet Friendship Council on that occasion ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilford. I must say, sir, that has nothing to do with black- 
listing the TV industry. You know what the blacklist is in the TV 
industry. It covers 

The Chairman. Just answer the question. 

Mr. Gilford. It covers hundreds of people, sir. It is a terrible 
thing. 

The Chairman. Mr. Gilford, you are directed to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Gilford. I have been in show business 21 years. My living, my 
livelihood has been sharply curtailed by this. It is not an American 
thing. I would like to help correct it. I am sorry that I am very 
excited about this. 



5412 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

Mr. Arens. Do you think it is un-American for those who control 
the mass communications media of this Nation to deprive members of 
the Communist conspiracy from access to mass communications media ? 

Mr. Gilford. I think, sir, I will answer it this way : I think it is 
un-American to deprive anybody of their livelihood because of a politi- 
cal affiliation. 

Mr. Arens. Do you think that it is un-American 

Mr. Gilford. And this committee has helped blacklist people. 

Mr. Arens. Has this committee then, in your judgment, helped to 
deprive Communist conspirators of access to the mass communications 
media of this Nation ? 

Mr. Gilford. I think the people who are not Communists have been 
deprived. I know that people who are not and people who may have 
been are deprived. I think it is a terrible thing, sir. It doesn't confine 
itself to any one group. It is something that is out of control, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you at any time been unjustly accused of being a 
member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilford. I have been blacklisted — period. That is all. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of the Communist 
Daily Worker of September 4, 1947, in which appears an article 
respecting the Committee to Aid the Fighting South and one of those 
listed as a participant in that entertainment is one Jack Gilford. I 
ask you whether or not you are the Jack Gilford alluded to. 

Mr. Gilford. This is a little tiresome to me, sir. I would like to say 
that an investigator for this committee, Dolores Scotti, and Vincent 
Hartnett, publisher of Red Channels, are in collusion to blacklist 
people without giving them a chance even to say anything. 

Mr. Arens. We are giving you a chance right this minute. Are you 
or have you ever been a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

The Chairman. You now have the greatest opportunity that you 
have ever had or ever will have 

Mr. Gilford. Am I yelling too loud, Mr. Walter ? 

The Chairman. To eliminate whatever shadow you say has been 
cast over you by what some people have said about you. Are you a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gilford. I have answered that question before. 

The Chairman. What is your answer ? 

Mr. Gilford. My answer is the same as before, sir. 

The Chairman. What is that ? 

Mr. Gilford. I answered that question before, sir. 

The Chairman. What is the answer ? 

Mr. Gilford. That I am not. 

The Chairman. What? 

Mr. Gilford. I am not. 

The Chairman. You are not a member ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party last year % 

Mr. Gilford. I have answered that question before, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Answer it again. 

Mr. Gilford. I refuse — I have an affidavit that I would like to read. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Popper. He is going to answer your question, Mr. Arens. He 
will answer if you will give him a chance. 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5413 

The Chairman. Were you a Communist last year ? 

Mr. Gilford. This affidavit was signed in 1950. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Gilford. This is my answer. It is a direct answer. I would 
like it phrased in this way, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Gilford. This is from AGVA, the American Guild of Variety 
Artists, a sworn affidavit. "I, the undersigned" — I have the date 
somewhere. "I, the undersigned" 

The Chairman. What are you reading ? 

Mr. Gilford. It is an affidavit that I have not read yet. 

The Chairman. What is the date of the affidavit ? 

Mr. Gilford. I have it on a piece of paper. 

The Chairman. I thought you were reading from an affidavit. 

Mr. Gilford. Yes. [Reading:] 

I, the undersigned, being duly sworn, do solemnly swear that I am not a 
member of the Communist Party, or of any Fascist party or of any political 
subdivision thereof. I do not believe in and I am not a member of nor do I 
support any organization that believes in or teaches the overthrow of the United 
States Government by force or by illegal or unconstitutional methods or means. 
I further pledge allegiance to the United States of America and agree to oppose 
any attempt made by any subversive groups or organizations to overthrow the 
Government of the United States by force, violence, or any other unlawful 
means whatsoever. 

I signed that. 

The Chairman. May I see that affidavit, please ? 

Mr. Popper. This affidavit is on file with the union, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. What is the date ? 

Mr. Gilford. I will get that. 

The Chairman. Where are you working now, Mr. Gilford ? 

Mr. Gilford. I am working in New York in a show called The Diary 
of Anne Frank. 

The Chairman. How long has that been running ? 

Mr. Gilford. About 10 months. 

The Chairman. Before that where were you working ? 

Mr. Gilford. Before that a few summer jobs, scattered summer 
jobs. No television. My principal livelihood before this was tele- 
vision. In a year, a little more than a year, I had more than 40 tele- 
vision appearances, all major appearances, TV interviews and plays. 
I have a long list which probably would bore you. 

The Chairman. Do you remember the dates ? 

Mr. Gilford. From the end of 1950 to the end of 1951. 

The Chairman. I thought you were described as blacklisted in 1947. 

Mr. Gilford. I did not, sir. 

The Chairman. You said you were listed in Red Channels in 1947. 

Mr. Gilford. I didn't say — I said I was listed. As a matter of fact, 
I didn't say I was listed in Red Channels. 

Mr. Popper. Mr. Arens said that. 

Mr. Arens. I was quoting from the Fund for the Republic. 

Mr. Gilford. But you are there, and I am here. I didn't say it. 

Mr. Arens. The next question is 

Mr. Gilford. Do you want the date, sir? You don't want the date? 

Mr. Scherer. Just a moment. 

Mr. Gilford. Let me continue. The Fred Allen show, called the 
Chesterfield show — I would like you to know, sir 



5414 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED " BLACKLISTING " 

Mr. Scherer. There is no question. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer this question? Are you 
presently under Communist discipline? 

Mr. Gilford. I answered that question, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Answer it again. 

Mr. Gilford. By this affidavit. 

Mr. Arens. Are you presently under Communist Party discipline ? 

Mr. Gilford. I object very strongly to the question, because I have 
answered in my affidavit that I am not a member of the Communist 
Party nor any subdivision of it. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell the committee whether or not you are presently 
under Communist Party discipline. 

Mr. Gilford. I don't know what that means, sir. It is a tricky 
question. I really don't know — after answering it as fully as I can, 
I don't know 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever resign technical membership in the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Gilford. I have answered this question. I refuse to answer 
that question under the previously stated grounds. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of George Tyne, 
T-y-n-e? 

Mr. Gilford. I know him, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of an organization of 
which he was a member ? 

Mr. Gilford. Which organization ? 

Mr. Arens. Any organization. 

Mr. Gilford. Well, he is an actor, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the same Communist 
Party cell with George Tyne ? 

Mr. Gilford. I refuse to answer that question, like I refused to 
answer the previous similar questions. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you were a member of the same Communist Party con- 
spiratorial cell with George Tyne. 

Mr. Gilford. That question has nothing to do with my being thrown 
off TV, and I would like to talk about, for instance, the Chesterfield- 
Fred Allen show that I started rehearsing, and Mr. Johnson, from 
Syracuse, this grocer, came into New York and went to the Chester- 
field people, and had me fired. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not you were under Communist 
Party discipline at that time? 

Mr. Gilford. And the information he received came directly from 
this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell the committee today, now, 
whether or not when Mr. Johnson came and had you fired off the Fred 
Allen show you were under Communist Party discipline ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilford. I would like to be clear about this. Is it your opinion, 
Mr. Walter, that people should be fired from their jobs because of 
their political opinions or affiliations? 

The Chairman. Answer Mr. Arens' question. 

Mr. Gilford. You refuse to clarify that for me, sir ? 
• The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Arens. 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5415 

Mr. xVrens. The question is outstanding on the record, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Gilford. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you were discharged from your job on the 
Fred Allen show, were you under Communist Party discipline ? 

Mr. Gilford. What date was that? October 1951. I answered 
that question. That was October 1951. 

The Chairman. What is the answer? 

Mr. Gilford. I filed an affidavit in 1950. 

The Chairman. What is the answer? 

Mr. Gilford. The answer is "No," like I answered before. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1949 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilford. I would like to state again, a little more calmly this 
time, that this question is a diversion of the purpose you told me about 
at the beginning of this hearing or the purpose that Mr. Walter stated, 
and that is to see whether there is a blacklist and whether people are 
fired, you know, for political affiliations. I think it is just a diversion. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, sir. Now kindly answer the question. 
Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1949 ? 

Mr. Gilford. The same answer as before, sir. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party imme- 
diately prior to the time that you made this non-Communist affidavit 
which you say you submitted to someone ? 

Mr. Gn/FORD. I must refuse to answer that question under my con- 
stitutional privilege. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, sir, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that immediately prior to the time that you filed the non- 
Communist affidavit you were a member of the Communist Party and 
that you had a technical resignation solely and exclusively to comply 
with the terms of the affidavit. If that isn't true you deny it under 
oath. 

Mr. Popper. They have no right to ask that question. The same 
answer. 

Mr. Gilford. I must refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will conclude 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. Popper. In other words, you don't want to hear anything about 
the blacklist? 

Mr. Arens. Any time he wants to talk about blacklisting we will 
ask him whether or not it is blacklisting to deprive members of the 
Communist conspiracy of employment in the mass media of commu- 
nications. 

Mr. Popper. I beg the indulgence of the chairman, who knows I 
have respected him over these years. You have called this man all 
the way to Philadelphia. He has the greatest amount of personal 
experience regarding the actual operation of the blacklist. You have 
told the whole country that the purpose of this investigation is to 
determine that 

The Chairman. Mr. Scherer has a question he would like to ask. 

Mr. Popper. The result will only be that the country won't believe 
this is an investigation about the blacklist, and I know you don't want 
that to be a fact. 



5416 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED " BLACKLISTING " 

Mr. Scherer. Witness, have you read the reference to you in the 
report of the Fund for the Republic on the subject of blacklisting? 

Mr. Gilford. You mean with reference to myself ? 

Mr. Scherer. Yes. 

Mr. Gilford. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Scherer. Have you read the whole report ? 

Mr. Gilford. Not the whole report. 

Mr. Scherer. You read only that part which refers to yourself ? 

Mr. Gilford. No ; I read good chunks of it and what refers to me. 
I didn't get it until — I have had no time to read it, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you interviewed by a representative of the Fund 
for the Republic before this report was issued? I didn't hear your 
answer. 

Mr. Gilford. I am trying, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You go ahead and think. 

Mr. Gilford. Thank you. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilford. If I answer that, sir, would I be placing some news- 
paper reporter in jeopardy ? 

Mr. Scherer. I am not talking about newspaper reporters. I am 
talking about a representative of the Fund for the Republic. 

Mr. Gilford. Very well, would I be placing a reporter in jeopardy ? 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I ask that you direct the witness to 
answer. He has been talking all this while about wanting to say some- 
thing about blacklisting. I am asking him about the report dealing 
with blacklisting, in which he is also involved, and he is beginning to 
hedge already. 

Mr. Gilford. Fine. I am not hedging, sir. 

Mr. Bethuel M. Webster (counsel, Fund for the Republic). Sir, 
as counsel for the Fund for the Republic, I would appreciate it if he 
would answer that question. 

The Chairman. We will conduct this hearing. We will conduct 
this congressional inquiry according to the rules of the Congress. We 
are not going to permit you again to do what you did in Washington 
last week. I know what you are trying to do. 

Mr. Webster. I have a right to say the Fund does not assert any 
privilege of this character. 

The Chairman. Just take your seat. 

Mr. Gilford. I am very happy to answer that. I was interviewed 
by several people. I am not sure of all their names. Do you want me 
to name them ? 

Mr. Scherer. I asked you one question, sir. Were you interviewed 
by a representative of the Fund for the Republic prior to the issuance 
of this report ? 

Mr. Gilford. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Who interviewed you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Gilford. Do you really want me to answer that, sir ? 

The Chairman. Why, of course. It is very material. Answer the 
question. 

Mr. Gilford. Mike Harrington. 

Mr. Scherer. By anyone else? 

Mr. Gilford. I answer this question with great objection, sir. 

The Chairman. Why ? What is the great objection ? 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5417 

Mr. Gilford. Because I think it impinges on the freedom of the 
press and I think it makes people fearful of interviewing people. I 
can't remember the full names of the other people. I am sorry. 

Mr. Scherer. There were others from the Fund ? 

Mr. Gilford. Yes, there were others. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you fill out 

Mr. Gilford. I really can't remember their names. 

Mr. Scherer. How many persons interviewed you, other than Mike 
Harrington, from the Fund for the Republic? 

Mr. Gilford. There were two others. 

Mr. Scherer. You have no idea who they were at this moment ? 

Mr. Gilford. I could verify it. I am sorry I don't recall their 
names, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you fill out a questionnaire for the Fund for the 
Republic ? Did they submit a questionnaire to you ? 

Mr. Gilford. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. When was this interview with Mr. Harrington, ap- 
proximately ? 

Mr. Gilford. Approximately. I can't be sure. This is 1956. I 
guess it was last year or 1954. 

Mr. Scherer. Were you employed at the time you talked to Mr. 
Harrington ? 

Mr. Gilford. I think I was not employed. 

Mr. Scherer. You are not sure? 

Mr. Gilford. I am not sure, but the chances are that I was not 
employed. 

Mr. Scherer. You told Mr. Harrington, did you not, of your expe- 
rience in the Metropolitan Opera House as a result of the Legion post 
in Syracuse? 

Mr. Gilford. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You told him about that. Did you also tell him that 
you were blacklisted as the result of your name being listed in Red 
Channels ? Did you tell him that ? 

Mr. Gilford. I don't remember whether I told him that, sir. I told 
him I was blacklisted. I am pretty sure of that. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you know that the report of the Fund for the 
Republic says that your blacklisting resulted from your name appear- 
ing in this book Red Channels ? 

Mr. Gilford. I don't know whether it says that, sir. 

Mr. Popper. It doesn't say that. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you mention anything about it to Mr. Harring- 
ton ? Will you listen to my question ? 

Mr. Gilford. I am listening, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you tell Mr. Harrington or any of the other in- 
vestigators for the Fund for the Republic about your having been 
listed in Red Channels? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
Mr. Gilford. May I have the question again? I am sorry. 
Mr. Scherer. Did you tell any of the persons who interviewed 
you for the Fund of the Republic about your having been listed in 
Red Channels? 
Mr. Gilford. I must have. 



5418 INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 

Mr. Scheeer. Did I understand you correctly to say in response 
to a question asked by counsel for the committee that you were not 
blacklisted as the result of your being listed in Ked Channels? 

Mr. Gilford. I didn't say that. 

Mr. Scherer. You did not say that? 

Mr. Gilford. I didn't say it, but I would like to give you a very 
choice case. 

Mr. Scherer. We will get to that. 

Mr. Gilford. I am afraid we are not getting to it, sir. I keep trying 
and you keep interrupting me. 

The Chairman. You answer the questions, Mr. Gilford. We will 
get around to this. 

Mr. Gilford. But this isn't really getting 

The Chairman. We have plenty of time. 

Mr. Gilford. I don't think I have plenty of time. I have a matinee 
to play, to get back to New York. I have to be at the theater at 
2 o'clock. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you try to answer my questions ? 

Mr. Gilford. I would like to supply you with this material. 

Mr. Scherer. I am doing, witness, what you want to do, to confine 
the questions to the Fund for the Republic report on blacklisting. 

Mr. Popper. Sure. 

Mr. Scherer. Red Channels was published in 1947, was it not ? 

Mr. Gilford. No; it wasn't published in 1947. I don't know the 
exact date. It was published years later. 

Mr. Scherer. Years later? 

Mr. Gilford. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Arens, what was the date of the publication of 
Red Channels? 

Mr. Gilford. I think it was June 1950. I am not sure of the date. 
I would like to be more sure. 

Mr. Scherer. When you talked to the investigator for the Fund 
for the Republic, did you discuss with him your Communist af- 
filiations ? 

Mr. Gilford. No, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You are shaking your head "No." Let us get that 
in the record. 

Mr. Gilford. Oh. 

Mr. Popper. You object to the question? 

Mr. Gilford. I certainly object to the question, sir. I am quite 
sure I didn't discuss anything of that nature with him. 

Mr. Scherer. Are you quite sure you did not? Did he ask you 
when he was preparing this report whether or not you had ever been 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gilford. I don't think we discussed anything of that nature. 

Mr. Scherer. You didn't even discuss that ? 

Mr. Gilford. I don't think so. 

Mr. Scherer. Did he call to your attention your membership in the 
Communist- front organizations about which Mr. Arens asked you? 

Mr. Gilford. I don't think so, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. I am sure he did. 

Mr. Popper. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Gilford. I am sure he did not, if I may say that. 



INVESTIGATION OF SO-CALLED "BLACKLISTING" 5419 

Mr. Popper. I am sorry. Was the last a question or a statement? 

Mr. Scherer. It was just a comment. 

Mr. Popper. What was it? 

The Chairman. He was commenting to me. I concur in it. 

Mr. Popper. We couldn't hear it. 

The Chairman. It wasn't intended for you. It was intended for me. 

Mr. Popper. Oh. 

Mr. Scherer. When did your lack of employment start, Witness? 
When did that start, what year? 

Mr. Gilford. When was it ? 

Mr. Scherer. In what year? You said you were employed fairly 
regularly until 1951 or 1952. 

Air. Gilford. Yes, sir; quite regularly until early 1952. 

Mr. Scherer. 1952. 

Mr. Gilford. That is right. Actually, very regularly from the time 
of the Met, which was December 1950, to the beginning of 1952, and 
then no TV since then. 

Mr. Scherer. It was at that time, was it not, that the TV industry 
found that you were a member of the Communist conspiracy? 

Mr. Gilford. Are you asking me, sir, or just commenting? 

Mr. Scherer. No; I am asking you if that wasn't the time. 

Mr. Gilford. I don't know, but I would like to show you a letter 
that CBS wrote to Johnson apologizing for employing me. CBS, the 
television network. 

Mr. Scherer. Your answer to my question is that you do not know ? 

Mr. Gilford. That is another case, another instance. 

Mr. Scherer. Your answer to my question is, then, that you do 
not know whether or not the industry learned in 1952 that you were 
a member of the Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Gilford. Are you asking me what the industry learned ? 

Mr. Scherer. You do not know. That is your answer. 

It was after 1952, then, that you noticed this dropoff of your 
employment ? 

Mr. Gilford. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. If I tell you that Red Channels was published in 
1948 

Mr. Gilford. Was it? I don't know. 

Mr. Scherer. Then it wasn't because of your listing in Red 
Channels. 

Mr. Gilford. Is that a matter of record that it was published in 
1948? 

Mr. Scherer. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. We will take a 5-minute 
recess. 

Mr. Gilford. My blacklisting is the result of cooperation with the 
work of this committee and agencies along Madison Avenue and the 
American Legion and various similar other organizations. 

Mr. Scherer. Wasn't it because of your own membership in the 
Communist Party, then, that you were blacklisted ? 

Mr. Gilford. You mean because of political affiliations people 
should be blacklisted? 

Mr. Scherer. That is all. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. The committee will stand 
in recess. 



INDEX 



Individuals 

Page 

Abrams, Carl 5351 

A<llei\ Larry (Luther) 5202, 5212, 5262, 5263 

Adler, Stella 5260 

Aisenstein, Michael 5274 

Aldrich, Henry 5246 

Alexander, Harmon 5351 

Allen, Fred 5413, 5415 

Allen, Reginald 5404, 5405 

Anderson, Maxwell 5248 

Appelman, Morris L 5394 

Arthur, Bob 5266 

Balaban, Barney 5266 

Bandas, R. G. (Very Rev.) 5177 

Barrett, Leslie 5306, 5307 

Benedek, Laslo 5262 

Bennett, Connie Lee 5265 

Bentley, Elizabeth 5357, 5383 

Berg, Gertrude 5248 

Berg, Louis 5350 

Berkeley, Martin 5199, 5238, 5255, 5318, 5392, 5393 

Berlin, Irving 5381 

Bernstein, Leonard 5374 

Bernstein, Walter 5346 

Berry, John 5264 

Biberraan, Herbert 5193, 5194, 5262, 5391 

Bing, Rudolph 5403, 5405 

Bioff, Willie 5314, 5321 

Black, Theodore 5267 

Blackman, Saul 5351 

Blair, Betsy 5264 

Blankfort, Michael 5261 

Blaustein, Julian 5262 

Bond, Ward 5211, 5266, 5275, 5288, 5318, 5319 

Brackett, Charles 5266 

Brando, Marlon 5265 

Brecher, Irving 5265 

Brewer, Roy 5211, 5312-5327 (testimony) ; 5266, 5275, 5300, 5331 

Bridges, Lloyd 5300 

Bright, John 5263 

Brodsky, Joe 5373 

Bromberg, J. Edward 5262, 5311 

Brown, Irving 5322 

Browne, George E 5314, 5317, 5321 

Brynner, Yul 5293 

Buchman, Sidney 5263 

Budenz, Louis 5357, 5373 

Buffington, Adele 5275 

Burdett, Winston 5386 

Burrows, Abe 5308, 5351 

Butler, Hugo 5264 

Calhern, Louis 5261 

Caniff, Milton 5381 

Cantor, Eddie 524S 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Carnovsky, Morris 5202, 5203, 5216, 5262, 5264, 5332, 5345 

Carroll, Madeleine 5381 

Caspary, Vera J261, 526o 

Chafee, Zechariah 53b0, j>»w> 

Chamberlin, Howland 5-64 

Chaplin, Charles 5261, 5279 

Chase, Borden -- 5318 

Chevigny, Hector 5350, 5351 

Chodorov, Edward 5264 

Clair, Ralph 5320 

Clark, William H 5267 

Cobb, Lee J 5262, 5263, 5393 

Coburn, Charles 5266 

Cogley, John 5175- 

5225 (testimony), 5228-5230, 5234, 5238, 5242-5244, 5250-5252, 
5269, 5270, 5287-5289, 5292, 5295, 5296, 5298-5300, 5302, 5301-5307, 
5310, 5311, 5335, 5341-5344, 5349, 5358, 5368, 5371-5374, 5378-5381, 
5385, 5386. 

Cohn, Art 5277 

Cohn, Harry 5263, 5264 

Cole, Lester 5265 

Collins, Richard 5255, 5259 

Conte, Richard 5262 

Cooper, Gary 5264 

Corey, Jeff 5265 

Corwin, Norman 5261, 5299 

Costigan, Howard 5300 

Coulouris, George 5262 

Gronyn, Hume 5245 

Crosby, Ring 5375 

Crosby, John 5293 

Crouse, Russell 5381 

Crurn, Bartley C 5374 

Cushman, Robert 5336 

Cvetic, Matt 5265 

Da Silva, Howard 5197, 5261, 5262, 5263, 5265 

Dassin, (Jules) — 5322 

Davis, Benjamin J 5201, 5239, 5304, 5305 

Deets, Roy L 5351 

Dekker, Albert 5262, 5347 

Disney, Walt 5266 

Dixon, Ann 5351 

Dmytryk Edward 5238, 5255, 5259, 5260, 5326 

Draper, Paul 5202, 5261, 5262 

Du Bois, W. E. B 5262 

Duff, Howard 5265 

Durr, Clifford 5346 

d'Usseau, Arnaud 5262 

Edelsber?, Herman 5235 

Eisler, Gerhart 5409 

Eliscu, Edward 5265 

Endore, Guy 5264, 5265 

Engberg, Edward 5228, 5229, 5269, 5368, 5369 

Entrikin, Knowles 5351 

Esterman (William B.) 5321 

Farinet, Gene L 5351 

Farmer, Mary Virginia 5264 

Fast, Howard 5262 

Faulk, John Henry 5340 

Fay, Frank 5353 

Ferrer, Jose 5260, 5261, 5265, 5309, 5319 

Ferry, (W. H.) 5177,5178,5181 

Fonda, Henry 5261 

Ford, John 5266, 5288 

Foreman, Clark 5306 

1 Incorrectly spelled Chamberlain in this reference. 



INDEX ill 

Page 

Forster, Arnold 5206-5208, 

5227-5240 (testimony) , 5243, 5250-5253, 5270, 5281, 5289, 5302 

Frank, Melvin 5264 

Frank, Nelson 5309 

Freeman, Y. Frank 5190, 5195, 5267 

Fuchs, Herbert 5254, 5295 

Gable, Clark 5266 

Gabor, Zsa Zsa 5322 

Gaeth, Arthur 5204, 5346 

Gailmor, William S 5204, 5346 

Gallagher (Leo) 5321 

Gang, Martin 5210 

Gardner, Ava 5261 

Garfield, John 5261, 5262, 5264, 5289 

Garrett, Betty 5262 

Goer, Will 5216 

Gilford, Jack 5213, 5214, 5216, 5332, 5401-5419 (testimony) 

Goddard, Paulette 5261 

Goff, Ivan 5265 

Goldberg, Rube 5381 

Gordon, Michael 5262, 5265 

Gornev, Jay 5262 

Gough, Lewis K 5273, 5279 

Grant, Lee 5345 

Greene, James 5181 

Griswold, E. N 5363, 5387 

H, Miss. (See Hagen, Uta.) 

Haccen, Uta (also referred to as Miss H) 5215, 5309 

Hall, George 5303 

Halman, Doris 5351 

Hammer, Alvin 540S 

Hammer, Armand 5305 

Hammer, Victor 5304, 5205 

Hunmett, Dashiell 5262 

Harbnrg, E. Y 5260, 5261 

Harrington, Michael 5178, 5179, 5222, 5241, 5243, 5253, 5378, 5416, :~417 

Hart, Moss 5261 

Hartnett, Vincent 5211, 5213, 5248, 5291-5311 (testimony), 5386, 5412 

Hays, Will 5272 

Hay worth, Vinton 5344 

Heflin, Van 5261, 5264 

Heller, A. A 5373 

Hellman, Lillian 5261 

Henreid, Paul 5261, 5262 

Hepburn, Katharine 5261, 5262 

Hewitt, Alan 5309 

Higley, Philo 5351 

Hnlliday, Judy 5260, 5261, 5263, 5289 

Holmgren, Roderick B 5204, 5346 

Holt, Stella 5384 

Hoover, J. Edgar 5335, 5337, 5352, 5372, 5373, 53S4 

Hopkins, Pauline 5351 

Home, Lena 5262 

Houseman, John 5261 

Howe, James Wong 5264 

Hudson, Roy 5320 

Hunt, Marsha 5261 

Hunter, Kim 5300-5302 

Huston, John 5261, 5264, 5280 

Hutchins, Robert Maynard 5176-5178, 

5234, 5236, 5237, 5243, 5244, 5251, 5252, 5254, 5271-5273, 5368 

Jacobs, Arthur P 5300-5302 

Jacobs, Paul 5178-5180, 5222, 5243, 5244, 5315 

Jacoby, Lois 5344 

Jaffe, Samuel 5262, 5304 



iV INDEX 

Pags 
Jahoda, Dr. Maria__ 5180, 5190, 5191, 5219, 5222, 5335, 5336, 5344, 5352, 5361, 5377 

Jameson, House 5351 

Jarrico, Paul 5198, 5279 

Jerome, V. J 5259, 5274, 5373, 5383, 5384 

Johnson, Laurence 5211, 5247, 5386, 5402, 5419 

Johnston, Eric 5258, 5263, 5266, 5276, 5284 

Joseph, J. Julius 5383 

Julian, Joe 5338 

Kahn, Gordon 5194 

Kanin, Garson 5261 

Kaplan, Sol 5197, 5198 

Katz 5321 

Kaufman, George S 5261 

Kazan, Elia 5261, 5265 

Kave, Danny -'- 5262, 5264 

Kellev, Welbourn 5350, 5351 

Kelly, Gene 5261, 5262, 5264 

Keyes, Evelyn 5261, 5265 

Kibbee, Roland 5264, 5265 

Kibre, Jeff 5259, 5274, 5320 

Killian, Michael 5200 

Kirkpatrick (Theodore) 5202 

Knight, Ruth Adams 5351 

Knox, Alexander 5263 

Kober, Arthur 5261 

Koch, Howard 5261 

Koestler, Arthur 5301 

Kopp (Violet G.) 5210 

Koverman, Ida R 5266 

Kramer, Stanley 5262 

La Cour, Joan 5345 

Lampell, Millard 5262, 5263, 5351 

Lancaster, Burt 5261, 5265 

Laslry, Victor 5293 

Latimer, Robert 5403 

Lavery, Emmet 5266 

Lawson, John Howard 5259, 5261, 5262, 5274 

Lees, Robert 5265 

Le Roy, Mervvn 5193, 5391 

Lewis, Fulton Jr 5260 

Lightfoot, Claude 5382 

Lindsay, Howard 5381 

Loeb, Philip 5261 

Losey, Joseph 5264 

Lovejoy, A. O 5381 

Lov, Mvrna , 5261 

Lumet, Sidney 5212, 5213. 5300 

Lyford, Joe 5241, 5:242 

Lyon, Peter 5345, 5351 

MacMahon, Aline 5261 

Maddow, Ben 5199 

Maltz, Albert 5259. fi262 

Manson, Alan 5202, 5203, 5345 

Margolis (Ben) 5321 

Martinez, Bennie 5320 

Massev, Raymond 5255, 5381 

Matthews, J. B 5258, 525<>, 5275 

Matusow, Harvey 5347 

Mauldin, Bill 5381 

McBride, Thomas D 5390 

McCarey, Leo 52(56 

McCullough, Hester 5202 

McGuinness, James K 5266, 5275, 52.88 

McMenemy, Jim 5351 

McNamara. Francis J 5368-5388 (testimony) 

Menjou, Adolphe 5266, 5275 

Menuhin, Yehudi 5374 



INDEX ▼ 

Page 

Meredith, Burgess 5261 

Miller, Arthur 5261-5263, 52!)3, 5341) 

Miller, Merle 5209, 5350 

Milton, Paul II 5327-5343 (testimony), 5344-5353 (statement), 5354 

Mindel, House 5351 

Monteux, Pierre 5374 

Montgomery, Robert , §266 

Moore, Sam 5345,5351 

Morgan, Henry 5241-5243 

Morris, William, Jr 5261 

Mostel, Zero 5260, 5263 

Muir, Jean 5208, 5246, 5303, 5304 

Murphy, George 5266, 5375 

Murrow, Edward R 53&3 

Niblo, Fred, Jr 5266 

Niss, Stanley 5341 

Nolan, William A 5335 

O'Brien, Pat 5266 

O'Connor, John 5266, 5284 

Odets, Clifford 5261 

Oldham, Vera 5351 

O'Neil, James F 5211-5213, 5232, 5233, 5256-5287 (testimony), 5309 

Osato, Sono 5216, 5261 

O'Shea, Daniel T 5210,5211 

Panama, Norman 5264 

Parker, Dorothy 5260 

Parks, Larry 5196, 5238, 5262, 5264, 5393 

Patterson, Robert P 5381 

Pecora, Ferdinand (Judge) 5360, 5361 

Pestana (Frank S.) 5321 

Peters, J 5346 

Pichel, Irving 5263 

Pirosh, Robert 5264 

Pitkin, Robert B 5273 

Pitzele, Merlyn 5349, 5350 

Piatt, David 5375 

Poe, Elizabeth 5218, 5219, 5222, 5243, 5244, 5321 

Polan, Lou 5202, 5203, 5332, 5333, 5345 

Polonsky, Abraham 5199, 5262 

Popper, Martin 5328, 5401 

Posony, Stefan 5335 

Powell, Adam Clayton 5374 

Powell, Richard 5345 

Prager, Stanley 5332 

Pressman, David 5310, 5311 

Pryor, J. Redmond (Mrs. Lester Cole) 5265 

Randolph, John 5202, 5203, 5332, 5345 

Redmond, Walter 5320 

Reis, Irving 5263 

Revere, Anne 0195, 5259, 5262. 5265 

Riefenstahl, Leni 5270 

Riesel, Victor 5204, 5230-5233, 5236, 5251, 5254, 

5289, 5302, 5309, 5316, 5345, 5367 (statement) , 5381 

Rinaldo, Frederic I 5265 

Roberts, Ben 5265 

Roberts, Bob 5264 

Robeson, Paul 5188, 5189, 5264, 5309, 5375 

Robinson, Earl 5216, 5261, 5262 

Robinson, Edward G 5260-5262 

Robinson, Jack 5351 

Robinson, Mary 5351 

Robinson, William N 5211 

Rogers, Ginger 5266 

Rogers, Lela 5266 

Roosevelt, Archibald B 5348 

Rossen, Robert 5263, 5299 



vi INDEX 

Page 

Rushmore, Howard 5242 

Ryskind, Morrie 5266 

St. John, Robert 5386 

Salt, Waldo 5216, 5265 

Saypol, Irving 5338 

Schary, Dore 5195 

Schenck, Nicholas M 5266, 5284 

Schmidt, Godfrey P 5248, 5333, 5347, 5353-5367 (testimony) 

Schneider, Samuel 5266, 5284 

Schoenfeld, Bernard 5393 

Schultz, Henry Edward 5227, 5231, 5232 

Scofield. Louis 5351 

Scott, Hazel 5374 

Seeger, Pete 5347 

Sergio, Lisa 5346 

Ship, Reuben 5351 

Shirer, William L 5386 

Shumlin, Herman 5261 

Sidney, Louis K 5277 

Skouras, Spyros 5266, 5268, 5276, 5283 

Sloane, Allan 5295 

Smith, Howard K 5386 

Sobell, Martin 5346 

Sokolsky, George 5188, 5204, 5208, 

5211, 5213, 5230-5233, 5236-5238, 5251-5254, 5270, 5275, 5276, 5281, 
5287-5289 (statement), 5295, 5301, 5302, 5309, 5316, 5347, 5381 

Sondergaard, Gale (Mrs. Herbert Biberman) 5193, 

5194, 5244, 5261, 5262, 5281, 5332, 5390-5399 (testimony) 

Sorrell, Herbert 5319-5321 

Spingold, Nate 5267, 5276, 5288 

Stander, Lionel 5261, 5304, 5332 

Steel, Johannes 5204, 5346 

Sterling, Philip 5297 

Stewart, Donald Ogden 5261 

Stirling, Nora 5351 

Stone, Gene 5351 

Sullivan, Elliott 5202, 5203, 5332, 5345 

Sweets, William 5201, 5202, 5309 

Tandy, Jessica (Mrs. Hume Cronyn) 5245 

Taylor, Deems 5261 

Taylor, Robert 5266 

Terkel, Studs 5351 

Touhy, Joe 5320 

Trachtenberg, Alexander 5373 

Tree, Dorothy (Mrs. Michael Uris) 5264 

Trivers, Paul 5264 

Trumbo, Dalton 5261-5263 

Tunick, Irve 5345 

Twining, Nathan F 5296 

Tyne, George 5332, 5414 

Tyre (Milton) 5210 

Uris, Michael 5264 

Vorhaus, Bernard — 5264 

Wagner, J. Addington 5270-5273 

Wallace, Henry A 5261 

Walsh, J. Raymond 5306, 5346 

Walsh, Richard 5317 

Wanamaker, Sam 5260, 5261, 5311 

Wayne, John 5266, 5275 

Webster, Bethuel 5236, 5416 

White, Harry Dexter 5335 

Wicker, Ireene 5303-5305 

Wilde, Cornel 5261 

Williams, Albert Rhys 5274 

Willner, George 5265 

Wilson, Donald R 5266, 5273, 5276, 5277, 5279 






INDEX Vii 

Page 

Wilson, Elizabeth 5392 

Wilson, Michael 5198 

Winter, Ella 5274 

Winters, Shelley 5264, 52G5 

Wishengrad, Morton 5349, 5350 

Woltinan, Fred 5204, 

5208, 5211, 5230-5234, 5236-5238, 5240-5256 (testimony), 5281, 

5289, 5309, 5316, 5346, 5371, 5381. 

Wood, Sam 5266 

Wren, Jack 5204, 

5208, 5212, 5228, 5230-5232, 5237, 5241, 5251, 5253, 5254, 5281, 5386 

Wyler, William 5261, 5265 

Zinnemann, Fred 5264 

Organizations 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade 5212 

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences 5260 

Actors' Equity Association 5294, 5332, 5353, 5367 

Actors' Equity Council 5248, 5354 

Advance Printing Co 5346 

Alcoa Aluminum Corp 5246 

Alliance, The 5348 

Allied Artists Pictures Corp 5312 

American Association of University Professors 5381 

American Broadcasting Co 5346, 5404 

American Civil Liberties Union 5350 

American Coalition of Patriotic, Civic, and Fraternal Societies 5348 

American Committee for Cultural Freedom 5372 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 5346 

American Federation of Labor (AFL) 5349 

American Labor Party 5384 

American Legion 5211-5213, 

5247, 5256-5258, 5266-5273, 5275-5279, 5281, 5282, 5284-5286, 5347, 
5372. 

Auxiliary 5257 

District of Columbia 5212 

National Americanism Commission 5256, 5257 

Onondaga County Post, No. 41 (Syracuse, N. Y.)__ 5214, 5247, 5402-5404, 5417 

American Peace Crusade 5371 

American Peace Mobilization 5263 

American University 5254 

American Veterans for Peace 5371 

American Youth for Democracy 5262, 5263 

Amtorg Corp 5274 

Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 5227-5233, 

5236-5239, 5250, 5252, 5347, 5366 
Arts, Sciences, and Professions Council (Hollywood) (See Hollywood 
Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions). 

Association of Motion Picture Producers 5385 

Aware Inc 5188, 

5248, 5329-5336, 5339, 5340, 5344-5353 (statement), 5354, 5356, 
5358, 5362, 5366, 5381. 

Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborn (B. B. D. & O.) 5204, 5212, 5246, 5251 

Borden Co 5246 

Camp Unity 5310 

Catholic Press Association 5176,5177 

Catholic War Veterans 5247, 5404 

Chorus Equitv Council 5248 

Civil Rights Congress 5263, 5346 

Columbia Broadcasting Co 5210, 5211, 5347, 5419 

Columbia Pictures, Inc 5267, 5276, 5288 

Committee for the Reelection of Benjamin J. Davis 5304 

Committee to Aid the Fighting South 5412 

Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell in the Rosenberg Case. ( See 
National Committee To Secure Justice for Morton Sobell in the Rosenberg 
• Case.) 



viii INDEX 

Page 

Communist Party, U. S. A * 5346 

Los Angeles, Calif. Branch F 5408 

New York City, Midtown Club 5303 

Conference of Studio Unions 5320, 5322 

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) 5246, 5349 

Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace 5202, 5260 

Cultural Workers in Motion Pictures and Other Arts 5261 

Du Pont Corp 5246 

Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America, United 5346 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 5306, 5346, 1 5372 

Ford Foundation (see also Fund for the Republic, Inc.) 5178, 5249 

Fund for the Republic, Inc. (see also Ford Foundation) 5175-5419 

General Foods Corp 5246 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co 5347 

Group Theater (New York) 5298 

Hollywood AFL Film Council 5314, 5385 

Hollywood Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions 5245, 5260, 5262, 5385 

Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and 

Professions . 5262 

Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions 5261 

Independent Motion Picture Producers Association 5385 

International Juridical Association 5328 

International Labor Defense 5263 

International Rescue Committee 5245 

Jefferson School of Social Science 5263 

Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee 5263, 5304, 5346, 5374 

Kraft Foods Co 5246 

Labor Youth League 5221, 5222, 5371 

League of American Writers 5263, 5265 

Loew's, Inc 5266 

Lord. Phillips H., Inc 5201, 5292 

Los Angeles Central Labor Council 5321 

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 5195, 5264, 5276, 5277 

Metropolitan Opera Co 5402-5404, 5406, 5417 

Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, International Union of 5346 

Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals (MPA) 5211, 

5318, 5320 

Motion Picture Association of America 5258, 5263, 5266 

Motion Picture Industry Council 5385 

National Citizens Political Action Committee 5261 

National Committee To Secure Justice for Morton Sobell in the Rosen- 
berg Case 5364 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship 5255, 5411 

National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions 5262, 5383, 5384 

National Institute of Arts and Letters 5373 

National Lawyers Guild 5328, 5346, 5360 

National Negro Congress 5264 

New Century Publishers 5383 

New Theatre League 5265 

New York Citv Water Front Commission 5331 

New York City Youth Board 5349 

New York State Labor Department 5353 

Office Workers, Independent 5385 

Paramount Pictures Corp 5195, 5267, 5276 

Peace Information Center 5371 

Proctor & Gamble 5246 

Progressive Citizens of America 5260, 5261 

RKO 5276 

Radio Writers Guild 5328, 5329, 5332, 5337, 5345, 5350, 5351 

Republic Pictures 5267, 5276 

Research Center for Human Relations, New York University 5180, 5352 

Save Our Sons Committee 5371 

Screen Actors Guild 5193, 5349, 5385, 5395,5396 

Screen Directors Guild 5385 



1 Incorrectly appears as Emergency Civil Rights Committee. 



INDEX ix 

Page 

Screen Producers Guild « 5385 

Screen Writers Guild 5266, 5274, 5385 

Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers 5385 

Society of Motion Picture Art Directors 5385 

Sta.ee Employees and Motion Picture Machine Operators of the United 

States and Canada, International Alliance of Theatrical (IATSE) 5312, 

5314, 5321, 5349 

Television and Radio Artists, American Federation of 5248-5250, 

5296, 5332, 5345, 5349, 5356, 5366, 5367 

New York local 5294, 5296, 5340 

Television Authority 5344 

Television Writers of America 5345 

Texaco Co 5402 

Theater Rally to Secure Clemency for the Rosenbergs 5346 

Theatrical Stage Employees Union. (See Stage Employees and Motion 
Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, Inter- 
national Alliance of Theatrical (IATSE).) 

Thompson, J. Walter, Co 5246 

Twentieth Century-Fox 5267, 5276 

Union of New York Veterans 5371 

United States Government: 

Federal Housing Administration 5331 

Justice Department: Federal Bureau of Investigation 5181, 

5320, 5352, 5368 

Senate, United States : Internal Security Subcommittee 5181, 5329, 5372 

United States Steel Corp 5246 

Universal Pictures 5267, 5276 

Variety Artists, American Guild of 5294, 5380, 5405, 5413 

Veterans of Foreign Wars 5247, 536S, 5380 

Voice of Freedom Committee 5201, 5260, 5346, 5370, 5384 

Waldorf declaration 5185, 5186, 5258, 5267, 5273, 5274, 5278, 5312 

War Resisters' League 5179 

Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc 5195, 5265, 5267, 5276 

We The Undersigned 5330, 5350, 5351 

Weavers, The 5347 

Workers Defense League 5179 

Young & Rubicam 5246 

Young Communist League 5180, 5262 

Young Socialist League 5179 

Publications 

AGVA News 5380 

Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man (film) 5265 

American in Paris, An (film) 5264 

American Legion magazine 5257, 5258, 5273, 5302, 5373 

American Mercury (magazine) 5302 

Anna and the King of Siam (film) 5193, 5391 

Anthony Adverse (film) 5193, 5391 

As Young as You Feel (film) 5262 

Blessings of Liberty, The (book) 5360 

Body and Soul (film) 5199 

Boy Friend, The (play) 5303 

Brave Bulls (film) 5263 

Century of Conflict (book) 5335 

Challenge 5179 

Come Fill the Cup (film) 5265 

Comin' Round the Mountain (film) 5265 

Commentary (magazine) 5350 

Commonweal, The 5176, 5177 

Communism Versus the Negro (book) 5335 

Confidential Notebook No. 13 5248 

Counterattack 5347. 5368-5374, 5376, 5377, 5380, 5381, 5383, 5384, 5386-5388 

Crimson Pirate, The (film) 5265 

Cyrano de Bergerac (film) 5265 



x INDEX 

Page 

Daily Worker 5305, 5374, 5375 

Darkness at Noon (play) 5301 

Day the Earth Stood Still, The (film) 5262 

Death of a Salesman (film) 5263 

Desert Fox, The (film) 5262 

Detective Story (film) 5265 

Diary of Anne Frank, The (play) 5413 

Die Fledermaus (radio program) 5402 

Emergency Wedding (film) 5263,5264 

Facts About Blacklist (newsletter) 5345,5346 

Fifth Amendment Today, The (book) 5363 

Firing Line 5247, 5257, 5285, 5286 

Flame and the Arrow, The (film) 5265 

Fortune (magazine) 5221 

Fourposter (film) 5263 

Frontier 5243,5321 

Gangbusters (radio program) 5292 

Gentlemen's Agreement (film) 5195 

Go for Broke (film) 5264 

Half Angel (film) 5262 

He Ran All the Way ( film ) 5264 

Hero, The (book) 5263 

High Noon (film) 5264 

Huckleberry Finn (film) 5264 

I Can Get It for You Wholesale (film) 5262 

I Was a Communist for the FBI (film) 5265 

Inquisitor, The (radio program) 5351 

Judges and the Judged, The (book) 5209, 5350 

Kind Lady (film) 5264 

Labor Action 5179 

Lady From Texas, The (film) 5265 

Limelight (film) 5279 

Magic Face, The (film) 5263 

Marrying Kind, The (film) 5263 

Masses and Mainstream 5216 

Men, The (film) 5264 

Mission to Moscow (film) 5266 

Nation, The (magazine) 5278 

National Velvet (film) 5195 

Navy Log (radio program) 5295 

New Masses 5265 

New Theater 5262 

New York World-Telegram and Sun (articles) 5240,5244-5250 

North Star (film) 5266 

One World Flight (radio program) 5299 

On the Riviera (film) 5262 

Ox Bow Incident, The (film) 5299 

Painting the Clouds With Sunshine (film) 5265 

Pardon My French (film) 5264 

Place in the Sun, A (film) 5198,5265 

Prince Who Was a Thief (film) 5265 

Prowler, The (film) 5264 

Red Badge of Courage, The (film) 5264 

Red Channels (book) 5189, 

5195, 5201, 5202. 5204, 5211, 5214, 5215, 5223, 5241, 5302, 5310, 5338, 
5346, 5348, 5370, 5372, 5376, 5377, 5381, 5383, 5386-5388, 5402, 5405, 
5413 5417—5419. 

Road Back, The (pamphlet)- 5347,5357,5381 

Salt of the Earth (film) 5314 

Sandhos (plav) 5216 

Sante Fe (film) 5263 

Saturday's Hero (film) 5263 

Second Woman, The (film) 5264 

Secret of Convict Lake (film) 5262 

Show Boat (film) 5264 



INDEX xi 

Page 

Sign (magazine) 5302, 5305 

Silk Stockings (play) 5297 

Singing in the Rain (film) 5264 

Sirocco (film) 5263 

So Young, So Bad (film) 5264 

Somebody Loves Me (film) 5205 

Song of Bernadette (film) 5195 

Song of Russia (film) 5266 

Strange Interlude (play) * 5391 

Streetcar Named Desire (film) 5265 

Strictly Dishonorable (film) 5264 

Tablet, The 5177, 5296 

Take Care of My Little Girl (film) 5262 

Television Playhouse 5347 

These Many Years (film) 5265 

Three Husbands (film) 5265 

Tomorrow Is Another Day (film) 5265 

Tragedy in a Temporary Town (TV play) 529y 

Treasury Men in Action (TV program) 5311 

Two of a Kind (film) 5263 

Variety 5193, 5260, 5395 

Wait Till the Sun Shines, Nellie (film) 5262 

Wyoming Mail (film) 5265 

You Belong to Me (film) 5263 

O 



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