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Full text of "Investigation of the unauthorized use of United States passports. Hearing"

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INVESTIGATION OF THE UNAUTHORIZED USE OF 
UNITED STATES PASSPORTS— PART 3 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIYES 

EIGHTY-FOUKTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JUNE 12 AND 13, 1956 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



(INDEX IN PART 4 OF THIS SERIES) 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
79932 WASHINGTON : 1956 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 

MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Ric'HAKD Arens, Director 

U 



CONTENTS 



PART 1 
May 23, 1956 : 

Testimony of — Page 

Miss Frances G. Knight 4305 

Ashley J. Nicholas 4305 

William Aloysius Wallace 4321 

Afternoon session : 

Willard Uphaus 4343 

PART 2 

May 24, 1956 : 

Testimony of — 

Louis W. Wheaton 4379 

John Adams Kingsbury 4398 

Afternoon session : 

John Adams Kingsbury (resumed) 4416 

May 25, 1956 : 

Testimony of — 

Mary Siegel Russak 4439 

Joseph Scislowicz 4452 

Afternoon session : 

Miriam Schwartz 4466 

Sylvia Atkins 4475 

Joan Ruth Gabriner Gainer (Mrs. Harold Gainer) 4483 

PART 3 
June 12, 1956 : 

Testimony of — 

Paul Robeson 4492 

Afternoon session : 

Clark Howell Foreman 4510 

Leonard K. Boudin 4534 

Otto Nathan 4545 

June 13, 1956: 

Testimony of — 

Henry Willcox 4561 

Afternoon session : 

Leopold Dende 4582 

PART 4 
June 14, 1956: 

Testimony of — 

Abraham Joshua Bick 4598 

Afternoon session : 

Leon Straus 4623 

Stephanie Horvath 4652 

June 21, 1956 : 

Testimony of — 

Arthur Miller 4655 

Index _ — ^- I 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWEBS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

( q ) ( 1 ) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a wliole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attaclis 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the pi-oduction of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the ct>mmittee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

T 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 
******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress : 
the following standing committees : 

******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWEES AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make, from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF THE UNAUTHORIZED USE OF 
UNITED STATES PASSPORTS— PART 3 



TUESDAY, JUNE 12, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

SuBCOMMriTEE OF THE 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. G. 

PUBLIC hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities con- 
vened, pursuant to notice, at 10 a. m., in the caucus room of the Old 
House Office Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (Chairman) presid- 
ing- 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter 

of Pennsylvania, Clyde. Doyle of California, Bernard W. Kearney of 
New York, and Gordon H. Scherer of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director, and Donald T. 
Appell, investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

This morning the committee resumes its series of hearings on the 
vital issue of the use of American passports as travel documents in 
furtherance of the objectives of the Communist conspiracy. 

During recent hearings on this subject, it was revealed that Com- 
munists, those under Communist discipline, and those used by Com- 
munists, had developed a pattern of procuring American passports 
by representing that they were going to travel for business or pleasure 
to certain of the countries of the free world and then, upon arriving at 
those countries, they used devious methods of circumventing the travel 
restrictions so that they could attend Communist-sponsored confer- 
ences and other propaganda efforts in the Iron Curtain countries. 

One of the important facts which the student of the Communist 
conspiracy recognizes is that Communists not only create front organi- 
zations to carry on their nefarious work, but also use people who, 
though not actually Communist Party members, are nevertheless wit- 
ting or unwitting servants of the Communist cause. Actual techni- 
cal membership in the Communist Party is not, therefore, the sole 
criterion to be used in undertaking to ascertain whether or not a par- 
ticular individual's activities are in fact contributing to the Com- 
munist menace. 

Should the Government of the United States in the exercise of its 
sovereign power refuse to issue passports to United States citizens who 
propose to use those passports as tickets of admission to conferences 
established as propaganda efforts of the Kremlin ? 



4492 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Should our Government require the revelation of the specific 
itinerary of each citizen who proposes to travel behind the Iron 
Curtain ? 

"Where should the balance be struck between the promotion of inter- 
national travel and the security risk of couriers, propagandists, and 
saboteurs ? 

These and other questions deserve our best efforts and must be re- 
solved in the light of the realisms of today. It is in this spirit of 
dead earnestness that the committee is pursuing this investigation 
and study. 

Call your first witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Paul Kobeson, will you please come forward? Will 
you remain standing, please, while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please. Do you 
swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole 
truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Robeson. I do. 

Mr, Arens. Have a seat, if you please. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL EOBESON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MILTON H. FRIEDMAN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Robeson. My name is Paul Robeson. I live at 16 Jumel Ter- 
race, New York City, and I am an actor and singer by occupation, 
and law on the side now and then. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activ- 
ities ? 

Mr. Robeson. Just a minute. Do I have the privilege of asking 
whom I am addressing and who is addressing me ? 

Mr, Arens. I am Richard Arens, 

Mr, Robeson. Wliat is your position ? 

Mr. Arens. I am director of the staff. 

Mr, Robeson, I see, 

Mr, Arens, Of the Commitee on Un-American Activities, Are you 
appearing today in response to a subpena served upon you by this 
committee ? 

Mr. Robeson, Oh, yes, 

Mr, Arens, And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr, Robeson. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you Idndly identify yourself ? 

Mr. Friedman. Milton H. Friedman, 342 Madison Avenue, New 
York. 

Mr. Arens. The subpena which requires your presence here today 
contains a provision commanding you to produce certain documents, 
including all the United States passports issued to you for travel 
outside the continental limits of the United States. Do you have those 
documents ? 

Mr. Robeson. No, There are several in existence, but I have moved 
several times in the last year, and I just moved recently to Jumel 
Terrace and I could not put my hands on them. They probably could 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4493 

be produced. And I also lived in Connecticut and we have got a lot 
of stuff still packed, and if they are unpacked I will be glad to send 
them to you. 

Mr. ScHEREK. When was the subpena served on you, Mr. Kobeson ? 

Mr. RoBESON". I have forgotten. It was about a couple of weeks 
ago, and it was served at my house not long ago. 

Mr. ScHERER. A couple of weeks ago ? 

Mr. Robeson. 10 days ago. 

The Chairman. What is the date of the return ? 

Mr.ARENS. May 22, 1956. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you look for the documents ? 

Mr. Robeson. I have looked a good deal and Mrs. Robeson who has 
charge of all of this has looked and we have not been able to put our 
hands upon them. There is no reason not to produce them, certainly, 
if I could find them. 

Mr. Arens. Did you file a passport application on July 2, 1954? 

Mr. Robeson. I have filed several, and I have filed so many 1 

have filed about 25 in the last few months. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of a passport appli- 
cation bearing a signature, Paul Robeson, and ask you if that is a true 
and correct reproduction of the passport application which you filed 
on July 2, 1954. 

Mr. Robeson. An application in 1954? Yes, it is. It is just one of 
them, where I was going to England, Israel, and France and Scan- 
dinavian countries. 

Mr. Arens. Is this your application ? 

Mr. Robeson. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, this document 
be incorporated by reference in this record marked as "Robeson Ex- 
hibit No. 1" and filed in the files of the committee. 

The Chairman. It will be so incorporated. 

Mr. Robeson. My counsel suggests it may not be completed. 

Mr. Friedman. May I make a statement, please, Mr. Arens, too 
and to the committee ? 

The Chairman. Counsel is permitted to accompany his client for 
the purpose of advising his client and not for the purpose of making 
statements. 

Mr. Friedman. I am familiar with the rules, that is why I asked 
your permission. 

May I make this statement to you, sir? I wish to make a protest 
against questioning Mr. Robeson .with respect to his passport applica- 
tion, in view of the fact that there is litigation now pending concern- 
ing his passport application and Mr. Robeson's right to a passport. 
The litigation was tried in district court and it was the subject of a 
decision in the court of appeals in the circuit last week. There may 
be further hearings in the State Department and there may be a fur- 
ther appeal. 

The Chairman. The litigation is pending at the moment? 

Mr. Friedman. It is still pending. 

The Chairman. Was an application made for certiorari ? 

Mr. Friedman. No, the time has not yet elapsed for an application 
for certiorari but there may possibly be. I am not his counsel in that 
case, and I am not speaking for counsel, but there may be a. hearing 
somewhere with respect to this matter. 



4494 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

The Chairman. That is too nebulous. 

Mr. Friedman. The procedure now calls for it and it is not 
nebulous. 

Mr. Arens. Now, during the course of the process in which you 
were applying for this passport, in July of 1054, were you requested 
to submit a non-Communist affidavit? 

Mr. EoBESON. We had a long discussion with my counsel who is in 
the room, Mr. Boudin, with the State Department, about just such 
an affidavit and I was very precise not only in the application but 
with the State Department headed by Mr. Henderson and Mr. Mc- 
Leod, that under no conditions would I think of signing any such 
affidavit, that it is a complete contradiction of the rights of American 
citizens. It is my own feeling that when this gets to the Supreme 
Court, that it is unthinkable that now this has been applied to any 
American who wants a passport. 

Mr. Arens. Did you comply with the requests? 

Mr. KoBESON. I certainly did not and I will not. That is perfectly 
clear. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Robeson. Oh please, please, please. 

Mr, Scherer. Please answer, will you, Mr. Robeson ? 

Mr. Robeson. What is the Communist Party ? What do you mean 
by that? 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Robeson. What do you mean by the Communist Party? As 
far as I know it is a legal party like the Republican Party and the 
Democratic Party. Do you mean — which, belonging to a party of 
Communists or belonging to a party of people who have sacrificed 
for my people and for all Americans and workers, that they can live 
in dignity ? Do you mean that party ? 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Robeson. Would you like to come to the ballot box when I 
vote and take out the ballot and see ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robeson. I stand upon the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. I did not hear the answer. 

Mr. Robeson. I stand upon the fifth amendment of the American 
Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Do you mean you invoke the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Robeson. I'invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend that if you told this com- 
mittee truthfully whether or not you are presently 

Mr. Robeson. I have no desire to consider anything. I invoke the 
fifth amendment and it is none of your business what I would like to 
do, and I invoke the fifth amendment. And forget it. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment and so I am not an- 
swering. I am answering it, am I not ? 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest the witness be ordered and di- 
rected to answer the question as to whether or not he honestly ap- 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4495 

prebends, that if he gave us a truthful answer to this last principal 
question, he would be supplying information which might be used 
against him in a criminal proceeding. 

( The witness consulted with his counsel. ) 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer that question, Mr. 
Robeson. 

Mr. Robeson. Gentlemen, in the first place, wherever I have been 
in the world, and I have been in many places, Scandinavia, England, 
and many places, the first to die in the struggle against fascism were 
the Communists and I laid many wreaths upon graves of Communists. 
It is not criminal and the fifth amendment has nothing to do with 
criminality. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Warren, has 
been very clear on that in many speeches that the fifth amendment 
does not have anything to do with the inference of criminality. I 
invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Aeens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer this last outstanding question. 

The Chairman. He has been directed to answer it and he has in- 
voked the fifth amendment and refused to answer. 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been known under the name of "John 
Thomas"? 

Mr. Robeson. Oh, please, does somebody here want — are you sug- 
gesting — do you want me to be put up for perjury some place, "John 
Thomas." My name is Paul Robeson, and anything I have to say 
or stand for I have said in public all over the world, and that is why 
I am here today. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. He is making a speech. 

Mr. Friedman. Excuse me, Mr. Arens, may we have the photog- 
raphers take their pictures, and then desist, because it is rather, nerve- 
racking for them to be there. 

The Chairman. They will take the pictures. 

Mr. Robeson. I will see you later, and I accept my counsel's atten- 
tion. I am used to it and I have been in moving pictures. Do you 
want me to pose for it good? Do you want me to smile? I cannot 
smile when I am talking to him. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that your Communist Party name was "John Thomas." 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. This is really ridicu- 
lous. , 

Mr. Arens. Now, tell this cpmmittee whether or not you know 

Nathan Gregory Silvermaster. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, this is not a laughing matter. 

Mr. Robeson. It is a laughing matter to me, this is really complete 
nonsense. 

The Chairman. It will be for a while. x. i, ij v. 

Mr. Robeson. It will be and it should be for you. It should be 
for you all. 

Mr. Arens. Will you please tell 

Mr. Robeson. This whole committee. xTofi.or, 

Mr. Arens. Will you please tell us whether or not you know Nathan 
Gregory Silvermaster. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 



4496 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Robeson. No ; I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever known Nathan Gregory Silvermaster ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, that if you told this com- 
mittee whether or not you know Nathan Gregory Silvermaster, you 
would be supplying information that could be used against you in a 
criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Robeson. I have not the slightest idea what you are talking 
about. I invoke the fifth 

Mr. Arens. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, this record show that the wit- 
ness be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question of whether 
or not you have ever known Nathan Gregory Silvermaster. 

Mr. Robeson. In answer to that question I invoke the fifth. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness talks very loud when he makes a speech, 
but when he invokes the fifth amendment I cannot hear him. 

Mr. Robeson. I invoked the fifth amendment very loudly. You 
know I am an actor, and I have medals for my voice, for diction. 

Mr. Scherer. Will you talk a little louder ? 

Mr. Robeson. I can talk plenty loud, yes, I am noted for my diction 
in the theater. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a woman by the name of Louise Bransten ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. You attended a meeting in the home of Louise Bransten, 
in 1945, in San Francisco, did you not ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a recollection of that little session? 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that on February 23, 1945, you attended a meeting in the 
home of Louise Bransten, at which were present Max Yergan, Fred- 
erick Thompson, David Jenkins, Nancy Pittman, Dr. Lena Halpern, 
and Larry Fanning ? 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know any of those individuals whose names I 
have just recited ? 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. A¥ho are Mr. and Mrs. Vladimir P. Mikheev ? Do you 
know them? 

Mr. Robeson. I have not the slightest idea but I invoke the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, the witness does not have the slightest 
idea who they are, and I respectfully suggest he be ordered and directed 
to answer that question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Robeson. I answer the question by invoking the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had contact with a man by the name of 
Gregory Kheifits ? 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

]Mr. Arens. Now, Gregory Kheifets is identified with the Soviet 
espionage operations, is he not ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4497 

Mr. RoBESON". Oh, gentlemen, I thought I was here about some pass- 
ports. 

Mr. Arens. We will get into that in just a few moments. 

Mr. Robeson. This is complete nonsense. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not you have had contact and opera- 
tions with Gregory Kheifets. 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Victor Murra — that is John Victor Murra ? 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. Your questioning- 
leaves me completely — I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Leon Josephson ? 

Mr. Friedman. I do not think that he heard that question. 

Mr. Arens. Leon Josephson. 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a Manning Johnson ? 

Mr. Robeson. Manning Johnson, I only have read in the papers 
that he said that Dr. Ralph Bunche was some kind of fellow, and he 
was dismissed from the FBI. He must be a pretty low character when 
he could be dismissed from that. 

Mr. Scherer. Whether he is a low character or not, do you know 
him? 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to read you now some testimony under oath 
before this committee, of Manning Johnson : 

Question. In your vast experience in the Communist Party, did you have 
occasion to meet Paul Robeson ? 

This is under date of July 14, 1949 : 

Mr. Johnson. Yes, I have met Paul Robeson a number of times in the head- 
quarters of the National Committee of the Communist Party, going to and coming 
from conferences with Earl Browder, Jack Stachel, and J. Peters. During the 
time I was a member of the Communist Party Paul Robeson was a member of the 
Communist Party. Paul Robeson, to my knowledge, has been a member of the 
Communist Party for many years. In the Negro Commission of the National 
Committee of the Communist Party, we were told under threat of expulsion 
never to reveal that Paul Robeson was a member of the Communist Party because 
Paul Robeson's assignment was highly confidential and secret. For that reason 
he was not permitted to attend meetings of the National Committee of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Robeson. Could I protest this meeting, this reading of this ? If 
you want Mr. Manning Johnson here for cross-examination, O. K. 

Mr. Arens. You tell us whether or not Manning Johnson was 
lying or whether he was telling the truth when he said that when he 
was a member of the Communist conspiracy he knew you as part and 
parcel of that conspiracy. 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been chairman of the Council on African 
Affairs? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a document marked "Robeson 
Exhibit No. 2" for identification purposes only in this record, entitled, 
"For Freedom and Peace, Address by Paul Robeson, at Welcome Home 
Rally, in New York, June 19, 1949," with a photograph on it. 

Mr. Robeson. I have a copy myself. 



4498 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Akens. If you would look on the back of that pamphlet you 
will see, Paul Eobeson, Chairman of the Council on African Af- 
fairs. Tell us whether or not you are the Paul Kobeson alluded to 
in this document, a copy of which you brought with you. 

Mr. lioBissoN. I would be the Paul Robeson. 

Mr. Arens. Then you are or have been chairman of the Council 
on African Affairs. 

Mr. RoBEsox. I would invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Max Yergan ? 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Max Yergan took an oath before this committee, and 
testified to tell the truth. 

Mr. Robeson. Why do you not have these people here to be cross- 
examined, and is this, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Arens. Under oath, this man 

Mr. Robeson. Could I ask whether this is legal. 

The Chairman. This is legal. This is not only legal, but usual. 
By a unanimous vote this committee has been instructed to perform 
this very distasteful task. 

Mr. Robeson. It is not distasteful. To whom am I talking to ? 

The Chairman. You are speaking to the chairman of this commit- 
tee. 

Mr. Robeson. Mr. Walter ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Robeson. The Pennsylvania Walter ? 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Robeson. Representative of the steelworkers ? 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Robeson. Of the coal mining workers and not United States 
Steel, by any chance ? A great patriot. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Robeson. You are the author of all of the bills that are going 
to keep all kinds of decent people out of the country. 

The Chairman. No, only your kind. 

Mr. Robeson. Colored people like myself, from the West Indies and 
all kinds, and just the Teutonic Anglo-Saxon stock that you would 
let come in. 

The Chairman. We are trying to make it easier to get rid of your 
kind, too. 

Mr. Robeson. You do not want any colored people to come in ? 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Under date of December 17, 1948, Dr. Max Yergan testi- 
fied before this committee under oath as follows : 

Was there a group in the Council on African Affairs of Communist officials, 
who operated as a sort of leading caucus inside the council? 

Dr. Yergan. Not as such. The relation of Communists to the council was 
informal, and so far as I know, not organized. Toward the end of my relation 
to the council it became clear to me that there was a Communist core within 
the council. This was very clear to me during the last months of my relations 
to the council. 

May I ask you now, was there, to your knowledge, a Communist 
core in the Council on African Affairs ? 

Mr. Robeson. I will take the fifth amendment and could I be allowed 
to read from my own statement here, while you read this statement 
j ust for a moment ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4499 

Mr. Arens. Will you just tell this committee while under oath, Mr. 
Kobeson, the Communists who participated in the preparation of that 
statement ? 

Mr. RoBESOisr. Oh, please. 

Mr. Arens. Now : 

The Chaibman. Could you identify that core clearly? Of whom did it consist? 

Mr. Robeson. Could I read my statement ? 

Mr. Arens. As soon as you tell the committee the Communists who 
participated in the preparation. 

Dr. Yergan. Dr. Doxey Wilkerson was a member of that core, and took the 
leading position. Paul Robeson was chairman of the council and certainly a 
part of that Communist-led core. 

Now tell this committee, while you are under oath, was Dr. Yergan 
lying or was he telling the truth ? 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. Could I say that for 
the reason that I am here today, you know, from the mouth of the 
State Department itself, is because I should not be allowed to travel 
because I have struggled for years for the independence of the colonial 
peoples of Africa, and for many years I have so labored and I can say 
modestly that my name is very much honored in South Africa and all 
over Africa in my struggles for their independence. That is the kind 
of independence like Sukarno got in Indonesia. Unless we are double- 
talking, then these efforts in the interest of Africa would be in the same 
context. The other reason that I am here today is again from the State 
Department and from tlie court record of the court of appeals, that 
when I am abroad I speak out against the injustices against the Negro 
people of this land. I sent a message to the Bandung Conference and 
so forth. That is why I am here. This is the basis and I am not being 
tried for wliether I am a Communist, I am being tried for fighting for 
the rights of my people w ho are still second-class citizens in this iTnited 
States of America. My mother was born in your State, Mr. Walter, 
and my mother was a Quaker, and my ancestors in the time of Wash- 
ington baked bread for George Washington's troops when they crossed 
the Delaware, and my own father was a slave. I stand here struggling 
for the rights of my people to be full citizens in this country and they 
are not. They are not in Mississippi and they are not in Montgomery, 
Ala., and they are not in Washington, and they are nowhere, and 
that is why I am here today. You want to shut up every Negro who 
has the courage to stand up and fight for the rights of his people, for 
the rights of workers and I have been on many a picket line for the 
steelworkers too. And that is why I am here today. 

The Chairman. Now just a minute. 

Mr. Robeson. All of this is nonsense. 

The Chairman. You ought to read Jackie Robinson's testimony. 

Mr. Robeson. I know Jackie Robinson, and I am sure that in his 
heart he would take back a lot of what he said about any reference to 
me. I was one of the last people, Mr. Walter, to speak to Judge 
Landis, to see that Jackie Robinson had a chance to play baseball. Get 
the pictures and get the record. I was taken by Landis by the hand, 
and I addressed the combined owners of the American and the National 
Leagues, pleading for Robinson to be able to play baseball like I played 
professional football. 



4500 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr, Aeens. Would you tell us whether or not you know Thomas 
W.Young? 

Mr. EoBESON. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Thomas W. Young is a Negro who is president of the 
Guide Publishing Co., Inc., publishers of the Journal and Guide in 
Virginia and North Carolina. He took an oath before this committee 
on this issue, which you have just been so eloquently discussing, and I 
would like to read you his testimony : 

What basis is there, if any, for believing Paul Robeson when he says that in 
the event of a vpar vpith Russia, the Negro would not fight for his country against 
the Soviets? 

No matter how strongly we may believe it is false, that statement coming 
from Robeson is not easily disposed of. His own life story is an inspiration to 
humble people of whom Mr. Robeson now presumes to speak. In the first place, 
Mr. Robeson is now so far out of touch with the Negro thinking in his everyday 
emotions, he can no longer speak authoritatively about or for the race. Mr. 
Robeson does not speak for the young men who served their country so well 
during the recent war. He does not speak for the common people who read and 
believe in the Negro newspapers. He does not speak for the masses of the Negro 
people whom he has so shamelessly deserted. I have heard Paul Robeson 
declare his own personal disloyalty to the United States. He has no moral right 
to place in jeopardy the welfare of the American Negro simply to advance a 
foreign cause in which we have no real interest. It is my firm conviction that 
in the eyes of the Negro people this false prophet is regarded as unfaithful to their 
country, and they repudiate him. 

Do you know the man who said that under oath before this 
committee ? 

Mr. Robeson. I invoke the fifth amendment. May I now read 
from other Negro periodicals, which says "Paul Robeson, Negro 
American," and may I read from where I am a doctor of humanity 
from Moorehouse, and may I read from a statement by Marshall Field, 
wlien I received the Spingarn medal from the NAACP? 

The Chairman. No. 

Mr. Robeson. Why not? You allowed the other statements. 

The Chairman. This was a question, Mr. Robeson. 

Mr. Robeson. I have answered the question, and I take the fifth 
amendment. 

The Chairman. You have invoked the fifth amendment, and you 
have answered the question. 

Mr. Robeson. Now, would you give me a chance to read my state- 
ment ? 

Mr. Kearney. I would like to ask you one question. Would you 
mind reading from some of the citations you have received from 
Stalin ? 

Mr. Robeson. I have not received any citations from Stalin. 

The Chairman. From the Russian Government ? 

Mr. Robeson. No, I received citations and medals from the Abra- 
ham Lincoln High School and medals from the NAACP and medals 
from many parts of the world, for my efforts for peace. It seems 
as though you gentlemen would be trying to contravene the waging 
of peace by your President here today. Are you for war, Mr. Walter, 
and would you be in the category of this former Representative who 
felt we should have fought on the side of Hitler? Are you in that 
category? Now can I read my statement? 

Mr. Kearney. Were you in the service ? 

Mr. Robeson. It is a sad and bitter commentary 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4501 

The Chairman. Just answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make a trip to Europe in 1949 and to the 
Soviet Union ? 

Mr. RoBESOisr. Yes; I made a trip to England and I sang. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go ? 

Mr. Robeson. I went first to England, where I was with the Phila- 
delphia Orchestra, one of two American concert acts or groups which 
was invited to England to sing. I did a long concert tour in England 
and Scandinavia, and in Denmark, and in Sweden and I also sang 
for the Soviet people, one of the finest musical audiences in the world. 
Will you read what the Porgy and Bess people said? They never 
heard such applause in their lives, and one of the most musical people 
in the world, and the great composers and great musicians, very cul- 
tured people, and Tolstoy, and 

The Chairman. We know all of that. 

Mr. Robeson. They have helped our culture and we can learn a lot. 

Mr. Arens. Did you go to Paris on that trip ? 

Mr. Robeson. I went to Paris. 

Mr. Arens. And while you were in Paris, did you tell an audience 
there that the American Negro would never go to war against the 
Soviet Government ? 

Mr. Robeson. May I say that is slightly out of context? May I 
explain to you what I did say ? I remember the speech very well, and 
the night before in London, and do not take the newspaper, take me, 
I made the speech, gentlemen, Mr. So and So. It happened that the 
night before in London before I went to Paris, and will you please 
listen? 

Mr. Arens. We are listening. 

Mr. Robeson. That 2,000 students from various parts of the colonial 
world, students who since then have become very important in their 
governments and in places like Indonesia and India, and in many parts 
of Africa; 2,000 students asked me and Dr. Dadoo, a leader of the 
Indian people in South Africa, when we addressed this specific con- 
ference, and remember I was speaking to a peace conference, a con- 
ference devoted to peace, they asked me and Dr. Doudo to say there 
that they were struggling for peace, that they did not want war against 
anybody. It was 2,000 students who came from populations that 
would range to six or seven hundred million people, and not just 15 
million. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know anybody who wants war? 

Mr. Robeson. They asked me to address this conference and say 
in their name that they did not want war. That is what I said. There 
is no part of my speech made in Paris which says that I said that 15 
million American Negroes would do anything. I said it was my feeling 
that the American people would struggle for peace and that has since 
been underscored by the President of these United States. Now, in 
passing, I said 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know of any people who want war? 

Mr. Robeson. Listen to me, I said it was unthinkable to me that 
any people would take up arms in the name of an Eastland to go 
against anybody, and gentlemen, I still say that. Wliat should happen 
would be that this United States Government should go down to 
Mississippi and protect my people. That is what should happen. 

79932— 56— pt. 3 2 



4502 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

The Chairman. Did you say what was attributed to you? 

Mr. KoBESON. I did not say it in that context. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a document, containing an article, I 
Am Looking for Full Freedom, by Paul RolDeson, in which is recited 
a quotation of Paul Robeson. 

JNIr. Robeson. That is fine. 

Mr. Arens. This article appears in a publication called the Worker 
dated July 3, 1949. 

Mr. Robeson. That is right. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

At the Paris Conference I said it was unthinkable that the Negro people of 
America or elsewhere in the world could be drawn into war with the Soviet 
Union. 

Mr. Robeson. Is that saying the Negro people would do anything ? 
I said it is unthinkable. I did not say it there ; I did not say that there. 
I said that in the Worker. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

I repeat it with hundredfold emphasis : They will not. 

Did you say that ? 

Mr. Robeson. I did not say that in Paris ; no. 

Mr. Arens. Did you say that in this article? 

Mr. Robeson. I said that in America. And, gentlemen, they have 
not yet done so, and it is quite clear that no Americans or no people 
in the world probably are going to war with the Soviet Union, so I 
was rather prophetic, was I not, and rather prophetic. We want 
peace today and not war. 

Mr. Arens. On that trip to Europe, did you go to Stockholm? 

Mr. Robeson. I certainly did and I understand that some people in 
the American Embassy tried to break up my concert, and they were 
not successful. 

Mr. Arens. MHiile you were in Stockholm, did you make a little 
si^eech ? 

Mr. Robeson. I made all kinds of speeches ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Let me read you a quotation of one of your speeches, 
and see if it comes to your mind. 

Mr. Robeson. Let me listen. 

Mr. Arens. Do so, please. 

Mr. Robeson. I am a lawyer. 

Mr. Kearney. It would he a revelation if you would listen to 
counsel. 

Mr. Robeson. In good company I usually listen, but you know 
people wander around in such fancy places, you know, and would you 
please let me read my statement at some point ? 

The Chairman. We will consider your statement. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

I do not hesitate 1 second to state clearly and unmistakably: I belong to 
the American resistance movement which fights against American imperialism, 
just as the resistance movement fought against Hitler. 

Mr. Robeson. Just like Frederick Douglas and Harry Tubman 
were underground railroaders, and fighting for our freedom ; you bet 
your life. 

The Chairman. I am going to have to insist that you listen to these 
questions. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4503 

Mr. EoBESON. I am listening. 
Mr. Arens (reading) : 

If the American warmongers fancy that they could win America's millions of 
Negroes for a war against those countries (i- ©., the Soviet Union and the peoples' 
democracies) then they ought to understand that this will never be the case. 
Why should the Negroes ever fight against the only nations of the world where 
racial discrimination is prohibited, and where the people can live freely? Never ! 
I can assure you, they will never fight against either the Soviet Union or the 
peoples' democracies. 

Did you make that statement ? 

Mr. Robeson. I do not remember that. But what is perfectly clear 
today is that 900 million other colored people have told you that they 
will not, is that not so ? 400 million in India and millions everywhere 
have told you precisely that the colored people are not going to die 
for anybody and they are going to die for their independence. We are 
dealing not with 15 million colored people. We are dealing with 
hundreds of millions. 

Mr. Kearney. The witness has answered the question and he does 
not have to make a speech. 

Mr. Arens. Did you go to Prague, Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Robeson. I sang in Prague. 

Mr. Arens. And did you make a speech there ? 

Mr. Robeson. I do not quite remember. Let me hear it. 

Mr. Arens. Let me read you this : This is a quotation from one of 
your addresses there, and see if it refreshes your recollection. You 
came as a representative of progressive America. 

Mr. Robeson. I did. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

Not only as a representative of progressive America, but as a representative for 
the 12 Communists on trial in New York. I expect to return to New York to 
testify on their behalf. 

Mr. Robeson. I did, and I did testify on their behalf. 

Mr. ScHERER. They were convicted. 

Mr. Robeson. I feel that, like the Supreme Court decision against 
segregation, the minority opinion of Justice Black will one day rule 
this country. 

Mr. ScHERER. They were convicted. 

Mr. Robeson. They were convicted certainly, and every decent 
American today knows that the Smith Act is a vicious document. 

Mr. ScHERER. That is your opinion. 

Mr. Robeson. It is a vicious document and it is not my opinion. 

The Chairman. If everyone knows that, why is it still on the 
statute books ? 

Mr. Arens. Then you did go to Moscow, on this trip ? 

Mr. Robeson. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Arens. And while you were there, did you make a speech there ? 

Mr. Robeson. I spoke many times and sang. 

Mr. Scherer. What year was it ? 

Mr. Arens. 1949, was it not ? 

Mr. Robeson. 1949, that is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write an article that was subsequently pub- 
lished in the U. S. S. R. Information Bulletin ? 

Mr. Robeson. Yes. 



4504 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. In that article, did you say : 

Moscow is very dear to me and very close to my heart. I want to emphasize 
that only here, in the Soviet Union, did I feel that I was a real man with a 
capital "M." And now after many years I am here again in Moscow, in the 
country I love more than any other. 

Did you say that ? 

Mr. KoBESON. I would say, what is your name ? 

Mr. Arens. Arens. 

Mr. KoBESON. We will take this in context, and I am quite willing 
to answer the question, and you are reading from a document and it 
is in context. When I was a singer years ago, and this you have to 
listen to 

Mr. Arens. I am listening. 

Mr. Robeson. I am a bass singer, and so for me it was Chaliapin, 
the great Russian bass, and not Russo the tenor, and so I learned the 
Russian language and the Russian songs to sing their songs. I wish 
you would listen now. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Robeson. Just be fair to me. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask regular order. 

Mr. Robeson. The great poet of Russia, like Shakespeare of Eng- 
land, is of African blood. 

The Chairman. Let us not go so far afield. 

Mr. Robeson. It is very important. It is very important to explain 
this. I know what he said. 

The Chairman. You can make an explanation. Did you make 
that statement ? 

Mr. Robeson. When I first went to Russia in 1934 

The Chairman. Did you make that statement ? 



Mr. Robeson. When I first went to Russia in 1934 

The Chairman. Did you make that statement ? 

Mr. Scherer. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

The Chairman. Did you make that statement ? 

Mr. Robeson. I would say in Russia I felt for the first time like a 
full human being, and no colored prejudice like in Mississippi and no 
colored prejudice like in Washington and it was the first time I felt 
like a human being, where I did not feel the pressure of colored as I 
feel in this committee today. 

Mr. Scherer. Why do you not stay in Russia ? 

Mr. Robeson. Because my father was a slave, and my people died 
to build this country, and I am going to stay here and have a part 
of it just like you. And no Fascist-minded people will drive me from 
it. Is that clear? I am for peace with the Soviet Union and I am 
for peace with China, and I am not for peace or friendship with the 
Fascist Franco, and I am not for peace with Fascist Nazi Germans, 
and I am for peace with decent people in the world. 

Mr. Scherer. The reason you are here is because you are promot- 
ing the Commimist cause in this country. 

Mr. Robeson. I am here because I am opposing the neo-Fascist 
cause which I see arising in these committees. You are like the Alien 
Sedition Act, and Jefferson could be sitting here, and Frederick 
Douglas could be sitting here and Eugene Debs could be here. 

The Chairman. Are you going to answer the questions ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4505 

Mr. Robeson. I am answering them. 

The Chairman. Wliat is your answer to this question ? 

Mr. Robeson. I have answered the question. 

Mr. Arens. Did you send your son to a Soviet school in New 
York City? 

Mr. Robeson. What is that ? 

Mr. Aeens. Did you send your son to a Soviet school in New 
York City? 

Mr. Robeson. I sent my son to a Soviet school in the Soviet Union 
and in England, and he was not able to go to a Soviet school in New 
York. 

Mr. Arens. Did you say that he went to a Soviet school in New 
York? 

Mr. Robeson. I would have liked him to, but he could not. He 
went to a Soviet school in London and one in Moscow. 

Mr. Arens. I again invite your attention to this article to which 
we have been referring, and speaking of your son and his studies, 
in a Soviet school in Soviet Russia: "Here he spent 3 years." 

Mr. Robeson. And he suffered no prejudice like he would here in 
Washington. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

Then studied in a Soviet Sctiool in London. 

Mr. Robeson. That is right. 
Mr. Arens (reading) : 

And in a Soviet setiool in New York. 

Mr. Robeson. He was not able to. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a mistake ? 

Mr. Robeson. That is a mistake. 

Mr. Arens. That is a printer's error ? . 

Mr. Robeson. And a wrong statement by me. 

The Chairman. Now, what prejudice are you talking about? You 
were graduated from Rutgers and you were graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania. I remember seeing you play football 
at Lehigh. 

Mr. Robeson. We beat Lehigh. 

The Chairman. And we had a lot of trouble with you. 

Mr. Robeson. That is right. deWysocki was playing in my team. 

The Chairman. There was no prejudice against you. Wliy did 
you not send your son to Rutgers ? 

Mr. Robeson. Just a moment. It all depends a great deal. This is 
something that I challenge very deeply, and very sincerely, the fact 
that the success of a few Negroes, including myself or Jackie Robin- 
son can make up — and here is a study from Columbia University 
— for $700 a year for thousands of Negro families in the South. 
My father was a slave, and I have cousins who are sharecroppers and 
I do not see my success in terms of myself. That is the reason, my 
own success has not meant what it should mean. I have sacrificed 
literally hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of dollars for what 
I believe in. 

Mr. Arens. While you were in Moscow, did you make a speech 
lauding Stalin ? 

Mr. Robeson. I do not know. 



4506 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Did you say in effect that Stalin was a great man and 
Stalin had done much for the Russian people, for all of the nations 
of the world, for all working people of the earth? Did you say 
something to that effect about Stalin when you were in Moscow ? 

Mr. RoBESOisr. I cannot remember. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a recollection of praising Stalin ? 

Mr. Robeson. I can certainly know tliat I said a lot about Soviet 
people, fighting for the peoples of the earth. 

Mr. Arens. Did you praise Stalin ? 

Mr. Robeson. I do not remember. 

Mr. Arens. Have you recently changed your mind about Stalin? 

Mr. Robeson. Whatever has happened to Stalin, gentlemen, is a 
question for the Soviet Union and I would not argue with a represent- 
ative of the people who, in building America wasted 60 to 100 
million lives of my people, black people drawn from Africa on the 
plantations. You are responsible and your forebears for 60 million 
to 100 million black people dying in the slave ships and on the 
plantations, and don't you ask me about anybody, please. 

Mr. Arens. I am glad you called our attention to that slave problem. 
While you were in Soviet Russia, did you ask them there to show you 
the slave labor camps ? 

The Chairman. You have been so greatly interested in slaves, I 
should think that ,you would want to see that. 

Mr. Robeson. The slaves I see are still as a kind of semiserfdom, 
and I am interested in the place I am and in the country that can do 
something about it. As far as I know about the slave camps, they 
were Fascist prisoners who had murdered millions of the Jewish 
people and who would have wiped out millions of the Negro people 
could they have gotten a hold of them. That is all I Imow about that. 

]\Ir. Arens. Tell us whether or not you have changed your opinion 
in the recent past about Stalin. 

Mr. Robeson. I have told you. Mister, that I would not discuss any- 
thing with the people who have murdered 60 million of my people, and 
I will not discuss Stalin with you. 

Mr. Arens. You would not, of course, discuss with us the slave labor 
camps in Soviet Russia. 

Mr. Robeson. I will discuss Stalin when T may be among the Rus- 
sian people some day singing for them, and I will discuss it there. 
It is their problem. 

Mr. Arens. I suppose you are still going to laud Stalin like you did 
in 1949, or have you changed your appraisal ? 

Mr. Robeson.' We will not discuss that here. It is very interesting, 
however, whether Stalin or the Soviet people, that from 1917 to 194T, 
in one generation there could be a nation which equals the power of 
this one in one generation. That is one generation and nothing could 
be built more on slavery than this society, I assure you. 

Mr. Arens. Let me read you another statement by you about the 
Soviet Union and see if it refreshes your recollection . 

Mr. Robeson. You can keep reading about the Soviet Union and I 
have great friendship and great affection for the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. How about your great affection now for the leader you 
were praising in 1949 ? 

Mr. Robeson. That is O. K. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4507 

Mr. Arens. Has that affection diminished recently ? 

Mr. Robeson. That is a question I will discuss among friends. 

Mr. Arens. You will hold that in reservation. 

Mr. Robeson. Yes. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

Now, the Soviet Union is the only country I have ever been in where I have 
felt completely at ease. I have lived in England and America, and I have almost 
circled the globe but for myself, wife, and son, the Soviet Union is our future 
home. 

Mr. Robeson. If it were so we would be there. My wife is here and 
my son is here, and we have come back here. 

Mr. Arens. Let me complete this paragraph and see if it helps ex- 
plain why it is not your future home. 

For a while, however, I would not feel right going there to live. By singing 
its praises wherever I go I think that I can be of the most value to it. It is too 
easy to go to the Soviet Union, breathe the free air, and live happily ever 
afterward. 

Were those your sentiments ? 

Mr. Robeson. I came back to America to fight for my people here, 
and they are still second- and third-class citizens, gentlemen, and I 
was born here of the Negro people and of working people and I am 
back here to help them struggle. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you say that ? 

Mr. Robeson. I have said that many times. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you say what he read to you ? 

Mr. Robeson. I do not even know what he is reading from, really, 
and I do not mind. It is like the statement that I was supposed to 
make in Paris. Now, this was not in context, but I thought it was 
healthy for Americans to consider whether or not Negroes should fight 
for people who kick them around, and when they took a vote up North 
they got very nervous because a lot of white Americans said, "I do 
not see why the hell they would." 

Mr. Arens. Did you, while you were in Moscow, make this state- 
ment: 

Yes, the Communists march at the front of the struggle for stable peace and 
popular democracy. But they are not alone. With them are all of the progres- 
sive people of America, Wallace's party, and the Negroes of the South, and 
workers of the North. 

Mr. Robeson. Now you are making it up, brother. I would have 
to get my own copy of the speech. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact and ask you, while you are under 
oath, to deny the fact that you made that statement. 

Mr. Robeson. I am not denying, but do not just read anything into 
something. How could I say what "Wallace's party would do, or what 
somebody else would do ? That is nonsense. 

Mr. Arens. Wliile you are under oath, why do you not deny it? 

Mr. Robeson. The Soviet Union and the People's Democracy in 
China are in the forefront of the struggle for peace, and so is our 
President, thank goodness, and let us hope we will have some peace, 
if committees like yours do not upset the applecart and destroy all 
of humanity. Now can I read my speech ? 

The Chairman. You have made it without reading it. Can you 
tell us what Communists participated in the preparation of that 
speech ? 



4508 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Robeson. Participated in what ? 

Mr. Arens. Wliile you were in Soviet Russia, did you make state- 
ments about your academic training in Marxism? Do you recall 
that? 

Mr. Robeson. I do not recall that, but I have read a lot of Marx. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a woman by the name of Sheila Lind ? 

Mr. Robeson. I do not recall. 

Mr. Arens. She wrote an article and I am going to lay it before 
you here so you can helf) me read it. This is the Daily Worker, 1949, 
in which she interviewed you and it tells all about your achievements. 
Let me read you this for the record and you can follow it here. She 
is quoting : 

"When I crossed the border from Poland into the Soviet Union," he told me, 
"It was like stepping into another planet." 

Mr. Robeson. Exactly true, no more prejudice, and no more colored 
feeling, that is right. 
Mr. Arens (reading) : 

"I felt the full dignity of being a human being for the first time." 

Mr. Robeson. That is right, and that is still not here. 
Mr. Arens (continuing) : 

"He loved vehat he found there so much that until the war, he returned to 
Russia for each new year." 

Mr. Robeson. Every new year, and we took a little vodka. 
Mr. Arens (continuing to read) : 

"And he sent his son to school there. In Moscow he began to study Marxism." 

Mr. Robeson. No, I started to study that in England, and all of my 
political education, strange to say, came in England where I lived and 
worked for many years and came back here. But my Marxist educa- 
tion, or education as you call it, is in English background of the Labor 
Party. I went to Republican Spain with Lord Atlee to visit the Atlee 
Battalion and I knew Sir Stafford Cripps and I knew all of the mem- 
bers of the T^abor Party, so you cannot blame that on the Russians, 
You will have to blame that on the English Labor Party. They have 
just invited me to come to London next week to sing to 140,000 miners 
up in Yorkshire. Do you think that you could let me go ? 

The Chairman. We have nothing to do with that. 

Mr. Robeson. Could you not make a suggestion to the State De- 
partment that I be allowed to go ? 

The Chairman. That would not do any good because the courts 
have ruled that it is not in the best interests of the United States to 
permit you to travel. 

Mr. Robeson. They have not done that. They have ruled on a 
very technical problem, Mr. Walter, as to whether I sign an affidavit. 
That is all. 

Mr. Arens. In the summer of 1949, you came back to the United 
States ; is that right ? 

Mr. Robeson. In the suimner of 1949, yes, that is right. 

Mr. Arens. And when you came back, did you make a speech in 
New York City, addressing a rally there ? Do you recall that ? 

Mr. Robeson. I do not. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4509 

Mr. Arens. Let me quote from an article appearing in a paper, 
and see if you recall this speech : 

I have the greatest contempt for the democratic press and there is something 
within me which keeps me from breaking your cameras over your heads. 

Did. 3^ou say that to the press people in New York City about the 
time you were addressing this rally in June of 1949 ? 

Mr. RoBESOx. It is sort of out of context. 

Mr. Arens. That was out of context ? 

Mr. Robeson. I am afraid it is. 

Mr. Arens. Would you want to refresh your recollection by look- 
ing at the article ? 

Mr. Robeson. Yes. That was not at a meeting. Why do you not 
say what it was? Wlien my son married the woman of his choice, 
some very wild press men were there to make a sensation out of it, and 
this thing was at his wedding, and I did not say "democratic press," 
I said "a certain kind of press," and I was reaching for a camera to 
break it, you are quite right. 

Mr. Arens. That was a misquotation ? 

Mr. Robeson. It was not at a meeting. It was when I came out of 
my son's wedding, and why do you not be honest about this ? There 
is nothing about a meeting, it was a wedding of my son. 

Mr. Arens. Does not this article say, "Paul Robeson Addressing a 
Welcome Home Rally" ? 

Mr. Robeson. I do not care what it says. 

Mr. Arens. That is wrong, too, is it ? 

Now I would invite your attention, if you please, to the Daily 
Worker of June 29, 1949, with reference to a get-together with you 
and Ben Davis. Do you know Ben Davis ? 

Mr. Robeson. One of my dearest friends, one of the finest Ameri- 
cans you can imagine, born of a fine family, who went to Amherst and 
was a great man. 

The Chairman. The answer is "Yes" ? 

Mr. Robeson. And a very great friend and nothing could make me 
prouder than to know him. 

The Chairman. That answers the question. 

Mr. Arens. Did I understand you to laud his patriotism ? 

Mr. Robeson. I say that he is as patriotic an American as there can 
be, and you gentlemen belong with the Alien and Sedition Acts, and 
you are the nonpatriots, and you are the un-Americans and you ought 
to be ashamed of yourselves. 

The Chairman. Just a minute, the hearing is now adjourned. 

Mr. Robeson. I should think it would be. 

The Chairman. I have endured all of this that I can. 

Mr. Robeson. Can I read my statement ? 

The Chairman. No, you cannot read it. The meeting is adjourned. 

Mr. Robeson. I think it should be and you should adjourn this 
forever, that is what I would say. 

The Chairman. We will convene at 2 o'clock this afternoon. 

Mr. Friedman. Will the statement be accepted for the record with- 
out being read ? 



4510 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

The Chairman. No, it will not. 

(Whereupon, at 11 a. m., a recess was taken until 2 p. m., of this 
same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, JUNE 12, 1956 

(The hearing- was resumed at 2 p. m.) 

Tlie Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Call your witness, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Clark Foreman, please come forward. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand. Do you swear the testi- 
mony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth so help you God ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP CLARK HOWELL FOREMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, LEONARD BOUDIN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Foreman. My name is Clark Foreman. I live in New York 
City, 250 Riverside Drive. I am a sociologist by profession and I am 
the director of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. Mr. Chair- 
man, I would like to make or raise a question about the jurisdiction of 
the committee. 

The Chairman. This is the wrong forum in which to raise that 
question. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties. 

Mr. Foreman. I would like to find out what is the proper forum. 

The Chairman. Ask your lawyer and do not ask me. 

Mr. Foreman. My lawyer advises me that since we wrote in ad- 
vance or telegraphed in advance to find out what the nature of the in- 
quiry was, and received no reply, that this is the only forum in w^hich 
we can find out the jurisdiction and whether this is the proper forum. 

The Chairjman. I think if you will remain quiet for a few minutes 
until questions are asked it will become abundantly clear what we 
would like to know from you. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena served 
upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Foreman. I received a subpena called command, mine was. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself for this 
record. 

Mr. BouDiN. Leonard Boudin, of New York City. 

Mr. Arens. That subpena requests you to produce certain documents, 
does it not, Mr. Foreman ? 

Mr. Foreman. It does. 

Mr. Arens. And do you have those documents in your custody or 
control ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4511 

Mr. Foreman. I have a batch of them. I do not have the passport 
that I used last. 

Mr. Arens. What documents do you have in response to this sub- 
pena duces tecum ? 

Mr. Foreman. I have some old passports. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly produce them at this time? 

Mr. Foreman. I have some old passports that have been canceled. 
As I said, I do not have the latest passport that I used because that was 
stolen from me. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know when that occurred ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes ; it occurred in October, I think it was October 
of 1951, and so that is not in my possession. 

Mr. Arens. Will you now transfer to the custody of the committee 
the documents called for in the subpena duces tecum which are in 
your possession ? 

Mr. Foreman. I am turning over to your committee, Mr. Chairman, 
the expired canceled passports that I have, I have another passport 
unused just as it was given to me by the State Department, and I can- 
not see that it would serve any legislative purpose to turn it over to 
the committee. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that this record show that this 
witness is ordered to comply with the subpena and cause to be trans- 
mitted forthwith to the committee the passport which is currently out- 
standing and which is in his custody and control. 

The Chairman. Yes ; we will take very good care of your passport 
and assure you it will not be stolen as was your other one. Just turn 
it over to counsel. 

Mr. Foreman. Does that mean it will be returned to me this after- 
noon? 

The Chairman. It will be returned. 

Mr. Foreman. This afternoon ? 

Mr. Chairman. Yes ; if we do not need it further. 

Mr. Foreman. I am sorry, Mr. Chairman, to seem obstinate, but I 
have had very bad experience with the committee. 

The Chairman. You are directed to comply with the provision of 
the subpena duces tecum under which you were requested to present 
to this committee your passport. 

Mr. Foreman. Well, this is the reason I wanted to raise — 

The Chairman. I do not care about your reason. I am directing 
you to comply with the subpena. 

Mr. Foreman. You mean I cannot explain to you why I am going 
to do it? 

The Chairman. You can comply with the subpena, and I make no 
deals with you. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Foreman. I believe that I am complying to the best of my 
ability. I cannot give you a passport that is my personal right to 
travel. This, I think, is an interference into the executive depart- 
ments. 

The Chairman. It does not make any difference what you think. 
You are directed to turn over to the 

Mr. Foreman. It makes a sfreat difference to me. 



The Chairman. All right. 



to" 



4512 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr, BouDiN. The witness has not finished his answer. 

The Chairman. Oh, yes, he has. Quit interrupting the proceed- 



ings. 



]VIr, BouDiN. I am consukinc; with the client 



to 



The Chairman. The witness did not ask you any question at all. 

Mr. BouDiN. I am giving him some advice. 

Mr. Arens. You are director of the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee ? 

Mr. Foreman. Would you mind my finishing consulting with my 
lawyer ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. BouDiN. May I finish consulting with the witness, please ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Foreman. I want to say about the passport, wdiat I really 
tried to say before, that I am ^^repared to show it to the committee, 
and to the counsel and to read into the record the entire contents of 
it, which is nothing except what the State Department gave to me, 
after a very long and expensive lawsuit, except that it now has my 
signature on it. Now, I am perfectly prepared to show that to the 
counsel, but it does seem to me that it is unreasonable to ask me to 
surrender it. 

The Chairman. Whether it seems unreasonable or not, we are the 
judges of that, and you are directed to turn it over to the committee. 

Mr. Foreman. I have to refer to the courts and the courts said I 
am entitled to a hearing. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been director of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Foreman. Could you tell me, Mr. Chairman ? Could you tell 
me why you want the passport ? 

Mr. Arens. I suggest the witness be ordered and directed to answer 
the questions outstanding on this record. How long have you been 
director of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Foreman. These questions, I must have some elucidation, and 
I cannot just 

Mr. Arens. Are you director of the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee ? 

Mr. Foreman. Mr. Arens, I identified myself as such. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been director of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Foreman. Since 1951, and I think in December. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a document, "Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee, Artist's Right to Travel, A Tribute to Paul 
Robeson," a program announcing a celebration in tribute to Paul 
Robeson, to be held at Town Hall, in New York City, June 13, 1956, 
Wednesday, tomorrow night, at 8 :30 p. m. I will ask you whether 
or not you are a part and parcel of preparation for that conference and 
that celebration ? 

Mr. Foreman. I am absolutely responsible. 

Mr. Ajrens. Is that the same individual who preceded you on the 
witness stand ? 

Mr. Foreman. The same Paul Robeson. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now some photographs and ask you if 
you see in that photograph the likeness or reproduction of the individ- 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4513 

ual who is going to be honored tomorrow night by the organization of 
which you are the director, at New York City. 

Mr. Foreman. It appears to be Paul Eobeson, yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Please look at that photograph, and see if you recognize 
anyone else in that photograph. 

Mr. Foreman. I am afraid I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recognize the man at Robeson's left, Eugene 
Dennis ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not know Mr. Dennis, but I think it does look 
like some of his pictures. 

Mr. Arens. Then I ask you to kindly look at that photograph, and 
see if you recognize Mr. Paul Robeson in that photograph. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Foreman. It looks like the same photograph. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recog-nize Mr. Robeson in that photograph ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recognize the leadership of the Communist 
Party in that photograph ? 

Mr. Foreman. I recognize the same man that you identified as being 
Mr. Dennis. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever know him ? 

Mr. Foreman. No. 

]\Ir. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest these two photo- 
graphs be marked "Foreman Exhibit No. 1" and incorporated by 
reference in this record. 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

Mr. Kearney. May I ask the witness a question ? Is this the same 
Eugene Dennis who was convicted with the 12 Communists in New 
York City and is now in a Federal prison ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, that is correct. 

Are you cognizant of the fact that this Paul Robeson who will be 
the celebrant at the affair tomorrow sponsored by the organization 
of which you are director, announced to the world in 1952, while the 
youth of this Nation were laying down their lives in Korea, that the 
United States was engaged in bacteriological warfare in Korea? 

Mr. Foreman. I am not. 

Mr. Arens. May I invite your attention to a quotation in the Shang- 
hai News, under date of October 4, 1952, from Paul Robeson : 

With profound shame and indignation, I join with you and with humane 
women and men everywhere in demanding that the Government of the United 
States stop immediately the unspeakable crime of bacteriological warfare and 
conform without further excuse to the international convention to outlaw such 
barbaric weapons. 

Are you cognizant of the fact that the man who will be the person to 
be honored by your organization in New York City tomorrow night 
so condemned this Nation while our boys were laying down their lives 
in Korea ? 

Mr. Foreman. I am not. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now indignant at the knowledge that he is the 
man who will be honored tomorrow night by your organization ? 

Mr. Foreman. My personal opinions, and my indignation, andiny 
pleasure is no business of this committee. Paul Robeson is a citizen 
of the United States and only as a citizen is he entitled to a passport 
and that is why we are helping him get it. 



4514 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Are you calso cognizant of the fact that Robeson after a 
trip to Moscow m 1949, and over a course of a considerable period of 
time was paying- tribute over tliis Nation in speeches to various groups, 
to the great Stalin in the struggle which he had to build a peace in the 
world ? Are you cognizant of that activity by Paul Robeson who will 
be honored by your organization at New York City tomorrow night? 

Mr. Foreman. No, I am not. But whatever damage he may have 
done abroad has not been on a par to what the State Department has 
done by refusing him a passport. That is the point. Paul Robeson 
as an individual could never do the damage to this country that the 
State Department has done. 

The Chairman. Would you honor a man if you knew that he falsely 
charged this great Republic, that did so much for him, with resorting 
to germ warfare ? 

Mr. Foreman. It is not a question 

The Chairman. Would you honor such a man ? 

Mr. Foreman. Mr. Chairman, it is not a question of honor. You 
are asking me a hypothetical question. It is not a question of honor. 
I would say he is entitled to travel. This morning one of you asked 
him why he did not go to Russia to live. I was amazed that he did not 
say, "Because you will not give me a passport." 

The Chairman. He can go to Russia any time he likes. 

Mr. Foreman. That is not what the State Department says. 

The Chairman. Perhaps he could arrange to go on the Batory, that 
traveled to Iron Curtain countries. 

Mr. Foreman. I think you are out of date and I do not think it does 
come to tlie I'^^nited States, but the State Department has assured me 
that no citizen of this country 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you a document. I have been directed 
by the chairman to proceed with tlie interrogation, sir. I lay before 
you now a document which is on a letterhead of the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee, dated February 14, 1956 bearing signature of 
Clark Foreman, director, to which is appended a petition addressed 
to the House of Representatives of the United States. I ask you if 
that is your signature to that document ? 

]VIr. Foreman. INIay I finish answering my previous reply ? 

The Chairman. No, I have heard all I care to hear. I directed Mr. 
Arens to ask a question and he has propounded a question. You can 
answer it. 

Mr. Foreman. May I read this, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Arens. I only asked you if that was your signature. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

]\Ii'. Foreman. Yes. INIay I read it into tlie recoi'd ? 

]Mr. Arens. I am going to read part of it into the record. 

Mr. Foreman. I would like for you to read it all. 

The Chairman. Has he admitted it was his signature ? 

Mr. Arens. Pie has identified his signature to the document. It is a 
petition, ]\Ir. Chairman, which I thought this record ought to reflect 
as part of the activities of the organization of which this witness is 
director, requesting among other things that the House itself, the 
House of Representatives, rescind the appropriation for the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities. 

The Chairman. That was the appropriation voted unanimously by 
the House ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4515 

Mr. Foreman. I think there was one vote against. I know it was 
not unanimous. 

The Chairman. There was one vote against it; I will accept the 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, this document be marked 
"Foreman Exhibit No. 2" and incorporated by reference in the record. 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

Mr. Foreman. I would like it to be reprinted, may I ask 

Mr. Arens. Will you tell us where you were employed 

Mr. Foreman. Smce it has been referred to, may I ask it be re- 
printed in full ? It may be treason to the counsel of this committee to 
oppose the appropriation to the Un-American Activities Committee, 
but it is not my idea of treason and I would like to have it in the record, 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell this committee where you were 
employed in 1943, or do you recall ? 

Mr. Foreman. I think I was in the Navy Department. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity were you employed ? 

Mr. Foreman. Civilian operational research. 

Mr. Arens. And what was the nature of the work in which you 
were engaged ? 

Mr. Foreman. I was giving advice, scientific advice to the Navy 
Department. 

Mr. Arens. "\^^iat type of scientific advice ? 

Mr. Foreman. Any type I was asked to do. 

Mr. Arens. What type of advice were you giving the Navy, and 
what were the specifics ? 

Mr. Foreman. I worked on a number of different projects. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about them specifically, what projects ? 

Mr. Foreman. One of the main ones was antisubmarine warfare. 

Mr. Arens. And did you in the course of that work have access to 
classified or security information ? 

Mr. Foreman. Of course. 

Mr. Arens. Was your work embraced in the research with magnetic 
mines and other related problems ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do in the course of your work for the 
Navy? 

Mr. Foreman. Well, I did a great many different things. 

Mr. Arens. On the mine operation. 

Mr. Foreman. I did a great many things. I wrote a little primer 
for other operational researchers, but the jobs were jobs having to 
do with national defense and assigned to operational research from 
time to time. I am sorry I cannot spell out the various different 
projects, but I do not remember them. 

Mr. Arens. Those were connected with mine operations, in con- 
junction with the principal work of mines, was it not, in connection 
with the vessels which were perhaps subjected to prospective mines; 
is that not correct ? 

Mr. Foreman. That was one part. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of this work, did you have access to confi- 
dential or restricted information ? 

Mr. Foreman. I feel sure that I did. To the best of my knowledge 
and belief I certainly did. 



4516 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall where you were engaged, please, sir, in 
1947? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Foreman. Well, I was the president of the Southern Confer- 
ence for Human Welfare. 

Mr. Arens. Were you instrumental in the formation of the South- 
ern Conference for Human Welfare? 

Mr. Foreman. I was. 

Mr. Arens. And how long did you occupy the position as president 
of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare? 

Mr. Foreman. I think from 1942 to 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Were you cognizant of the fact that Earl Browder, 
former general secretary of the Communist Party, publicly testified 
that the Southern Conference for Human Welfare was one of the 
transmission belts of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Foreman. I was and I want to say, Mr. Chairman, that when 
Mr. Earl Browder came to my office seeking help in his own civil-lib- 
erties problem, I asked him why in the world he made such a state- 
ment. He said that if I looked at the record that I w^ould find that he 
also said that the Congress of the United States was a Communist 
transmission belt. I have not had the time to look it up, but I think it 
is equally true. 

The Chairman. Before we go further, Mr. Foreman, what tech- 
nical training have you ever had ? 

Mr. Foreman. I have had only the training of a social scientist. 

The Chairman. As I look at this Bureau of Ordnance job specifi- 
cation, the work that was called for embraced research and design 
problems in connection with the protection of ships against magnetic 
mines and other related problems. You have never had any experi- 
ence in mines at all ; have you ? 

Mr. Foreman. Not that kind of mines, not before. 

I did not write the specification and I do not know how it was 
specified. 

The Chairman. That is the specification for the job that you, iin- 
qualified and untrained for, occupied. 

Mr. Foreman. I did. 

The Chairman. This committee will find out how he obtained the 
job. 

Mr. Foreman. I must add for the record that I also got notification 
at the end that my service was very satisfactory. 

The Chairman. Well, of course. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask this : Did I understand the witness to state 
that it was his belief that the Congress of the United States was a 
transmission belt for the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Foreman. I said it is equally true to say of the United States 
Congress as it was of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare. 

Also, equally false. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Foreman, in 1938 w-ere you a participant in the for- 
mation of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare ? 

Mr. Foreman. Also, you say. It is the same thing. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Foreman. I i'ust said that I was one of the founders of the 
Southern Conference for Human Welfare. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4517 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed at the time ? 

Mr. Foreman. I was employed in the Public Works Administration, 
I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Who was your immediate superior ? 

Mr. Foreman. Let me see. I think it was Secretary Harold Ickes. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio invited you to participate in the formation of the 
Southern Conference for Human Welfare ? 

Mr. Foreman. Well, at that time, I was in Atlanta on an assign- 
ment with the National Emergency Council, and a group from Birm- 
ingham came to Atlanta and visited my office and asked me if I would 
attend the first meeting with, I may say, a very distinguished group 
of Senators and Congressmen. 

Mr. Arens. Was Rob Hall there ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not know. I did not know him at that time. 
I know him now. 

Mr. Arens. When did you last meet him and when did you last 
have contact with him ? 

Mr. Foreman. I think it must have been 5 years ago, I do not re- 
member the date, but I have known him very casually. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as secretary of the Communist Party 
in Alabama ? 

Mr. Foreman. I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Who is William Weiner ? 

Mr. Foreman. It beats me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him in any connection with the work 
of the formation of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare ? 

Mr. Foreman. Not to the best of my knowledge and belief. He 
may have been going under some alias, but I do not remember hearing 
that name before. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio is J. Daniel Weitzman ? 

Mr. Foreman. Daniel Weitzman is a businessman here in Wash- 
ington. 

Mr, Arens. Do you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Foreman. No, I do not, and I do not believe he is. 

Mr. Arens. Now, what has been your operation or connection with 
the Metropolitan Broadcasting Co. in station WQQW ? 

Mr. Foreman. I helped to organize it. 

Mr. Arens. And who were the coorganizers with you ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not remember their names. 

Mr. Arens. Was Owen Lattimore connected with this radio station ? 

Mr. Foreman. Goodness, I do not think so, I never heard of it 
before. 

Mr. Arens. Was Bela Eodman connected with this radio station? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not know, not that I know of. 

Mr. Arens. Was Rose or John Anderson connected with this radio 
station ? 

Mr. Foreman. They may have had some stock. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall any connection they had with the station ? 

Mr. Foreman. I remember they may have given some money or 
bought some stock, but I do not remember that they had any such other 
connection. 

79932— 56— pt. 3 3 



4518 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Was Antilla Mino\Yitz connected ^Yith this radio 
station ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not know. 

Mr. Arens. And Samuel J. Rodman ? 

Mr. Foreman. Samuel Rodman I think was on the board. 

Mr. Arens. What was the relationship if any between the radio 
station, WQQW, and the Southern Conference for Human Welfare? 

Mr. Foreman. There was no relationship. 

Mr. Arens. Did radio station WQQW broadcast information of the 
activities of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare ? 

Mr. Foreman. It may have, I hope so. We tried to get it on as many 
radio stations as possible. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make a trip to Poland in 1945 ? 

Mr. Foreman. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever made a trip to Poland ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What year was that ? 

Mr. Foreman. 1949. 

Mr. Arens. Who sponsored this trip ? 

Mr. Foreman. I was invited to attend the meeting of the Demo- 
cratic Party of Poland in Warsaw witli the Plonorable Elmer Ben- 
son. 

Mr. Arens. Who paid j'our expenses ? 

Mr. Foreman. The Polish Government. 

Mr. Arens. Where were 3^ou employed at the time ? 

Mr. Foreman. I was the director of the National Council of the 
Arts, Sciences, and Professions. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us what month you went to Poland. 

Mr. Foreman. To the best of my knowledge and belief it was De- 
cember, and it may have been November or December. 

Mr. Arens. Am I clear from your previous comment a moment 
ago that you were at that time identified with the National Council 
of the Arts, Sciences and Professions ? 

Mr, Foreman. I was the acting director. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now or have you ever been identified with the 
Progressive Citizens of America ? 

]\Ir. Foreman. Was I identified with it ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Foreman. I was, yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Foreman. I think I was a member of the board and I may 
have been a vice president. 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge, was there an interlocking relation- 
ship in the directorate of the Progressive Citizens of America and 
the National Council of the Arts, Sciences and Professions? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not know what you mean by "interlocking." 
There may have been some overlapping. 

Mr. Arens. Was there considerable overlapping in the directorate? 

Mr. Foreman. I would have to check them, I am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly, for convenience, just glance at the 
letterhead of the Progressive Citizens of America, with your name 
there, and the letterhead of the National Council of the Arts, Sciences, 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4519 

and Professions witli your name there. Who is in a leadership posi- 
tion in one organization and also in a leadership position in the other 
organization ? 

Mr. Foreman. In the first place, Mr. Arens, one is dated 1947, 
and the other is 1950. 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. 

Mr. Foreman. So that that does not ci[uite make it necessary that 
they are overlapping at any time. 

Mr. Arens. Not simultaneously. 

Mr. Foreman. Well, Jo Davidsoji, the eminent sculptor, was the 
honorary chairman of the National Council of the Arts, Sciences and 
Professions and he was the cochairman with Frank Kingdon of the 
Progressive Citizens of America. Later on, I think that they merged. 

Mr. Arens. The PCA merged with the National Council of the 
Arts, Sciences and Professions ? 

Mr. Foreman. They merged, as I remember it, into the Progressive 
Citizens of America. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall when that merger took place ? 

Mr. Foreman. Not exactly, Mr. Arens, but I think it was 1947 or 
maybe 1946, 1 am not sure. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been identified with the American Slav 
Congress ? 

Mr. Foreman. The State Department asked me that question. I 
made a speech there for the election of President Roosevelt in 1944 in 
Pittsburgh, and I made another speech before them in New York, 
but to the best of my knowledge and belief that is my only connection 
with the Slav Congress. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a sponsor of any of their affairs ? 

Mr. FoREitAN. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Which have been conducted by the American . Slav 
Congress ? 

Mr. Foreman. Not to the best of my knowledge and belief. 

(The witness consulted with liis counsel.) 

Mr. Foreman. If you have anything that indicates it I will be glad 
to look at it. 

Mr. Arens. I hand you a photostatic copy of a docimient on which 
there appears the names of sponsors for a function of the American 
Slav Congress. Your name appears there as a sponsor and I ask you 
whether that was with your knowledge and acquiescence. 

Mr. Foreman. I am Very glad that you showed me this, because 
this is a testimonial dinner in honor of Senator Claude Pepper. I 
would sponsor a dinner for Claude Pepper no matter by what organi- 
zation, because if he accepts the honor, I think he is one of the most 
distinguished Senators the South has produced. 

Mr. Arens. Did I understand you to say you Avould sponsor a 
dinner irrespective of the nature of the organization sponsoring the 
dinner ? 

Mr. Foreman. If it was in honor of Senator Pepper or somebody 
whom I respected as much as I do him. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been identified with the initiating committee 
for a Conaress on Civil Rights ? 

Mr. FoREiNEAN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And what was the nature of your operation with that 
initiating committee ? 



4520 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Foreman. As I remember it, Mr. Chairman, I was invited to 
join a group of people to sponsor a conference on civil rights in De- 
troit. I am not sure, exactly, the date. I was, however, not able to 
attend that conference, and I did not attend, and later on the Civil 
Rights Congress was organized. 

Mr. Arens. You are cognizant, of course, of the fact that the Civil 
Rights Congress has been repeatedly cited as a Communist-front 
organization, are you not ? 

Mr. Foreman. The point is that I had no knowledge that this was 
indicated and I was no part of it; and so, whether or not or whatever 
the Civil Rights Congress is or is not, I had nothing to do with it. 

Mr. Arens. Are you cognizant of the fact that the Southern Con- 
ference for Human Welfare has been repeatedly cited as a Com- 
munist-controlled organization ? 

Mr. Foreman. Not by any responsible organization. 

Mr. Arens. I assume that you exclude from the phraseology "re- 
sponsible organization" the House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities ? 

Mr. Foreman. Absolutely. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been identified with the Provisional Wash- 
ington Committee To Win the Peace? 

Mr. Foreman. May I explain why, because I asked at that time re- 
peatedly to be heard, and I was the president of the Southern Con- 
ference. 

I want to explain my answer as to why I think it was not responsible. 
I asked and 1 was assured that I would be given a chance to talk 
about the Southern Conference for Human Welfare to the Un-Amer- 
ican Activities Committee before it issued its report. I was assured 
that I would be given that opportunity, and I told them I would be 
glad to give them all of the information they wanted and to go over 
the files and give them anytliing they wanted, but they chose to issue 
the report without calling me. 

Mr. Arens. Is that part of the reason you and your organization are 
petitioning the United States Congress now to revoke the appropria- 
tion for the House Committee on T"''n-American Activities!^ 

Mr. Foreman. It is one of the irresponsible acts. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about the Washington Committee To Win the 
Peace. 

Mr. Foreman. May I just add one more word. You know that re- 
]iort that you referred to, in which we were libeled and slandered and 
very falsely treated, was analyzed very carefully by Prof. Walter 
Gellhorn in the Harvard Law Review. Certainly I wish the members 
of the committee — if they have not read that article, I hope they will 
because it certainly shows the irresponsibility. 

Mr, Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of the letterhead of 
the Provisional Washington Committee to Win tlie Peace. On it ap- 
])ears the name of Clark Foreman as one of the national vice-chairmen, 
and ask you whether or not you are tliat individual identified as a vice 
chairman of that organization. 

Mr. Foreman. I think I am. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know tliat on the letterhead with you is one 
Julius Emspak, who has been identified under oath as a member of the 
Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. Well, let me see it again, please, 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4521 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Foreman. You see R. J. Thomas was the head of the United 
Automobile Workers, and Elmer Benson, the former 

Mr. Arens. Would you answer the question, and then give us your 
observations. Do you know that Julius Emspak has been identified 
under oath as a member of the Communist conspiracy, one of your co- 
workers in this Washington Committee to Win the Peace ? 

Mr. Foreman. I know that Julius Emspak just recently won a case 
before the Supreme Court. 

Mr. Arens. Are you afraid to tell us whether or not you know that 
Julius Emspak has been identified as a member of the Communist con- 
spiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not, I am not afraid to answer, because no, I do 
not know, and I do not know what you mean. Wait a minute, I do not 
know what he means. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Foreman. I do not know what he means by it. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Foreman. Identified, that some irresponsible person has said 
that, and I know people have said it, but that does not mean anything. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Millard Lampell has been identified under 
oath by a responsible person as a member of the Communist con- 
spiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that John Anderson has been identified 
under oath before a congressional committee by a responsible person 
as a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that Gertrude Evans, one of your col- 
leagues in this organization, has been identified by a responsible person 
under oath before a congressional committee as a member of the Com- 
munist conspiracy ? 

Mr, Foreman. Well, before I answer that question, I want to ask 
you what you mean by "one of my colleagues" ? 

Mr. Arens. One of the persons listed on this letterhead as a co- 
worker in this Provisional Washington Committee to Win the Peace. 

Mr. Foreman. Her name is there. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that she has been identified by a responsi- 
ble person under oath as a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. Is that Matusow that did it, or some responsible 
person ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether she has been identified ? 

Mr. Foreman. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that Russ Nixon, one of your colleagues 
on this organization has been identified by a responsible person under 
oath before a congressional committee as a member of the Communist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that Don Rothenberg has been identified 
by a responsible person under oath before a congressional committee 
as a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 
Mr. Foreman. I do not. 



4522 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that J. Daniel Weitzman, has likewise 
been identified as a member ? 

Mr. Foreman. Is he on that list ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Foreman. I would like to make some other observations about 
some of the people that you have not been able to identify, including 
myself. 

Mr. ScHERER. The witness has the names. 

Mr. BouDiN. Will you repeat the question so that he can answer it '? 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Are you connected with the Committee for Peaceful 
Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact ? 

(The witness consulted w^ith his covmsel.) 

Mr. Foreman. I am not. 

Mr. Arens. Well, have you been a signer of a statement : "Toward 
the Atomic Era of Peace," used by the Committee for Peaceful Al- 
ternatives to the Atlantic Pact ? 

Mr. Foreman. I certainly am in favor of an atomic era of peace. 

The Chairman. That is not responsive to the question. 

Mr. Foreman. I do not remember. 

Mr. Arens. Let me lay before you now a photostatic copy of a 
document issued by the Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the 
Atlantic Pact, on which apears the names of a number of persons. I 
ask you w^hether or not that is your name [indicating] . 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Foreman. I see the name right under mine is Archbishop 
William 

Mr. Arens. Are you afraid to tell us whether that is your name and 
whether or not you signed it? 

Mr. Foreman. How could I be afraid ? 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not you signed it. 

Mr. Foreman. I do not remember whether I signed it, but it is per- 
fectly sure it is Clark Foreman typed out there, and I am perfectly 
willing to say I am in favor of it, but I do not remember. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have knowledge of acquiescence given by you 
to the appending of your name to the statement issued by the Com- 
mittee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not remember. I am perfectly prepared to 
admit that I was at that time very much interested in peaceful alter- 
natives. 

The Chairman. That is not the question. 

Mr. Foreman. Mr. Chairman, I cannot 

Mr. Arens. Were you one of the sponsors of the National Com- 
mittee to Defeat the ]\Iundt Bill ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And that JNIundt bill as you know, is one of the anti- 
Communist legislative proposals. 

Mr. Foreman. But it was defeated. 

Mr. Arens. I believe you will find it was incorporated in the In- 
ternal Security Act of 1950. 

Mr. Foreman. At the time I was against it, it was defeated by the 
majority of Congress and I believe it was also vetoed. 

Mr. Kearney. Simply because you were against it, it was defeated ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4523 

Mr. Foreman. It means that I was not alone, and in the democratic 
process as it works there \\'as a majority of one House or both that 
was with me. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been identified with the American Conti- 
nental Congress for Peace ? 

Mr. Foreman. Not to the best of my knowledge and belief. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now, sir, a photostatic copy of a Call 
to the American Continental Congress for Peace, to be held in Mexico 
City, September 5-10, 1949. Among the United States sponsors, 
American Continental Congress for Peace, there appears the name 
"Clark Foreman," I will ask you if that refreshes your recollection. 

Mr. Foreman. It is my name, and I am not prepared to say it was 
not authorized, but I just do not remember it. 

Mr. Arens. Somebody has been using your name on these Commu- 
nist-inspired operations ? 

Mr. Foreman. I say I am not prepared to say it was not authorized, 
but I just do not recall it and I do not know it is Coimnunist inspired, 
and I do not know any of the things you are saying. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel any sense of indignation that your name 
should appear on this document ? 

Mr. Foreman. If it was not authorized. I would have to check to 
find out if it was or not. 

Mr. Arens. Now, what has been your connection, if you please, sir, 
with the Progressive Party operations ? 

Mr. Foreman. Well, INIr. Chairman, I think that this is highly im- 
proper, as a great many of the questions have been. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that prior to that 
(]uestion there is a foundation as evidenced by the fact there is an 
abundance of testimony by competent witnesses before this committee 
and the committee on the Senate side that the Progressive Party was 
controlled in many areas by the Communist conspiracy and it was 
heavily penetrated by the Communist Party. Therefore, I suggest 
that the witness be ordered and directed to answer the question as to his 
connection with the Communist Party, particularly in connection with 
Conmiunist fronts and organizations. 

Mr. BouDiN. The question does not refer to the Communist Party. 

Mr. Foreman. The counsel does not draw the distinction but there 
is an abundance of testimony given by other people as to the Demo- 
cratic Party being controlled by Communists. But I do not think that 
you have a right to investigate into political affiliations. 

Mr. Arens. Do you think we have a right to investigate into the 
operations of the Communist conspiracy irrespective as to what ends 
that conspiracy may go to penetrate political organizations? 

Mr. Forejian. I have very grave doubts about your rights in a num- 
ber of ways, but certainly I do not think that you have a right to go 
into political affiliations of a citizen that you command to appear here. 
Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us, if you please, sir, what has been your 
official overt connection with the Progressive Party, and with Henry 
A.Wallace? 

Mr. Foreman. Is it your ruling that I must tell about my connec- 
tion with the Progressive Party ? 

The Chairman. Yes, answer the question. 

Mr. Foreman. I was the treasurer of the Progressive Party. 



4524 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Now, did you know Pete Seeger ? 
Mr. Foreman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. He was the official troubador of the Wallace Progres- 
sive organization ; was he not ? 

Mr. Foreman. He is a very good banjo, but I do not know anything 
about "official." 

Mr. Arens. Do you know anything about his Communist Party 
affiliations or connections ? 
Mr. Foreman. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the launching committee for 
Wallace? 

Mr. Foreman. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the launching committee for 
Wallace, to launch his campaign ? 

Mr. Foreman. It was a Progressive Citizens for Wallace. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of it ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Was Arthur Faucett one of your colleagues in that 
enterprise ? 

Mr. Foreman. Possibly, I do not know him. 

Mr. Arens. And Anna Berenson ? 

Mr. Foreman. If you let me see it, I do not remember. 

Mr. Arens. If you do not remember, just say so, and we can go 
on to another question. 

Harry C. Lambertson ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know he has been identified as a member of the 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not, and I do not believe it. 

Mr. Arens. Dr. Joseph Johnson ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not know him, to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Mrs. Gertrude Evans ? 

Mr. Foreman. I did not know she was on there, but I know who 
she is. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know her as a Communist ? 

Mr. Foreman. No, I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that she has been identified under oath 
by responsible persons ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. As a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know DeWitt Eldridge ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. P. L. Albright ? 

Mr. Foreman. No, not to the best of my knowledge and belief. 

Mr. Arens. Don Rothenberg? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, I think I did know him, but I did not know 
the other one. 

Mr. Arens. Do you knoAv Muriel S. Paul ? 

Mr. Foreman. It does not mean anything to me. 

Mr. Arens. Was she not a paid employee operating under your 
supervision in the Washington Committee for Wallace ? 

Mr. Foreman. I did not have any supervision over the office so far 
as I can remember, Mr. Arens. I was the 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4525 

The Chairman. Did you know her ? 

Mr. Foreman. No, I do not think that I did. 

Mr. Arens. Now, did the Progressive Party of the District of 
Cohnnbia circularize the Stockhohn peace petitions ^ 

Mr. Foreman. I do not believe so. If they did, it was without any 
authorization. Wait a minute, it may have after I was no longer a 
member of the Progressive Party. 

Mr. Arens. When were you disassociated ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Mr. Chairman, or whoever is the acting chairman, 
may we have no pictures taken, Mr, Doyle, while the testimony is 
going on ? 

Mr. Doyle (presiding). That will be done, the photographers will 
please cooperate. 

Mr. BouDiN. Thank you. 

Mr. Foreman. You asked me when I resigned ? 

Mr. Arens. When you disassociated yourself from the Progressive 
Party? 

Mr. Foreman. I resigned as treasurer in 1949 and I resigned from 
the party in 1950. Now, I do not know when the Stockholm peace 
appeal was, but to the best of my knowledge and belief it was not 
while I had anything to do with the Progressive Party. 

Mr. Arens. You have no knowledge of the circularization by the 
Progressive Party of the Stockholm peace appeal; is that correct? 

Mr. Foreman. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been acquainted with Alger Hiss ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What is the nature of your acquaintainceship with 
Alger Hiss ? 

Mr. Foreman. Purely social or practically purely social. I knew 
him officially from time to time and I think we had very slight 
acquaintance in the Government but socially I knew him in Wash- 
ington. 

Mr. Arens. How about Charles Kramer ? 

Mr. Foreman. Less. I knew him not in Washington but I met him 
in New York, and I think at the time he was working for Sidney 
Hillman. 

Mr. Arens. During your acquaintanceship with Alger Hiss, did you 
ever come upon the knowledge that he was a member of the Commmiist 
Party? 

Mr. Foreman. I did not, and I do not believe he is. 

Mr. Arens. You do not believe he is now ? 

Mr. Foreman. I mean everything I ever saw of Alger Hiss made 
me feel exactly the opposite. 

Mr. Arens. He was a great patriot ? 

Mr. Foreman. As far as I could see he was not only a very great 
patriot but a very fine civil servant. 

Mr. Arens. It was all a mistake he was convicted ? 

Mr. Foreman. I did not say that. You speak for yourself. 

Mr. Arens. I just asked you whether or not that would follow in 
the trend of your thinking, sir. 

Mr. Foreman. As far as I know, any impression of the acquaint- 
ance I had with him, he was a fine citizen. 

Mr. Arens. How about Charles Kramer ? 

Mr. Foreman. The same thing. 



4526 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. a fine citizen ? 

Mr. Foreman. As far as I know. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever laiow him as Krevitsky ? 

Mr. Foreman. I never did. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien were you last in the Polisli Embassy or Polish 
consulate here in the United States? 

Mr. Foreman, I do not know. I do not remember, but certainly 
not within — I may have gone and talked to them. 

Mr. Kearney. May I suggest that I have watched counsel here 
and counsel knows the rules of the committee, and I do not think it 
is up to the counsel to propound questions to our own counsel here. 
Let the witness answer the questions. 

Mr. BouDiN. I did not answer any questions and I do not have the 
slightest idea as to the answers. I just think the question is irrele- 
vant. The witness has answered it. 

Mr. Foreman. I do not remember, I have been to the Polish Em- 
bassy, but as far as I can remember not within the last 5 years. 

Mr. Arens. Are there any other Iron Curtain embassies in which 
you have been in contact in the last few years, in Washington ? 

Mr. Foreman. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been to the Soviet Embassy ? 

Mr. Foreman. Not in the last few years. I have been to many re- 
ceptions at the Soviet Embassy in the 1930's. 

Mr. Arens. You were one of the guests, were you not, at least on 
the guest list of the Soviet Embassy in 1948 ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not remember, I do not think I was there, but 
I may have been. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I lay before you a photostatic copy of the Wash- 
ington Times-Herald for November 8, 1948, "Eed-Letter Festivities, 
Soviet Embassy Celebration Marks Date of Eevolution," listing a 
number of guests who were greeting the Soviets at their Embassy in 
celebration of the revolution including a Dr. Clark Foreman. I 
ask you whether that refreshes your recollection. 

Mr. Foreman. Well, it does not, but does this indicate something 
wrong, to go to the Soviet Embassy? It is my understanding that 
very distinguished Washingtonians from the Government have. 

Mr. Arens. You do not feel at all wrong about it, and can you 
tell us if you went there ? 

Mr. Foreman. I am not going to tell you something that I do not 
recall. 

Mr. Arens. If you do not recall, just say you do not recall and we 
will go to another subject. 

Mr. FoREMxVN. I do not recall, and I do not deny it. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of a document, the 
New York World-Telegram, Thursday, SeptemJDer 21, 1944, respecting 
a dinner held in New York City, in honor of Ferdinand Smith. Among 
those participating is a Clark Foreman, secretary of the National 
Citizens Political Action Committee, and I will ask you, first of all, 
whether or not you know Ferdinand Smith ? 

Mr. Foreman. I knew him at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a Communist ? 

Mr. Foreman. I did not. As a labor leader. 

Mr. Arens. Have you since learned he has been identified as a Com- 
munist agent ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4527 

Mr. Foreman. I have since learned that lie has been deported as a 
Communist, I think. 

Mr. Arens. Have you severed your relations with him ? 

Mr. Foreman. I never had any relationship. I just knew him as a 
labor leader. 

Mr. Arens. How did you know him as a labor leader ? Did you read 
about him in the paper ? 

Mr. Foreman. I was workino- with the Progressive or the National 
Citizens Political Action Committee, and that was working with the 
CIO Political Action Committee and he was a CIO labor leader. 

Mr. Arens. When did you last have an association or contact with 
him?  

Mr. Foreman. As far as I can remember that was the last time. 

Mr. Arens. Who invited you to this dinner honoring him ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not know. 

Mr. Arens. While you were at that dinner in New York City honor- 
ing this Communist, was Earl Browder there ? 

Mr. Foreman. Mr. Chairman, there were a thousaiid people at that 
dinner and Mr. Browder, I suppose, was there because I remember 
reading that article, and why the World-Telegram picked me and Earl 
Browder out to mention them of all of the thousand people, I have no 
way of knowing, but I luid not met Mr. Browder at that time. 

Mr. Arens. You, of course, did not know at that time that Ferdinand 
Smith was a Communist agent ? 

Mr. Foreman. I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Did I understand you to say you did not see Browder 
or meet Browder or visit with him at this dinner for Ferdinand Smith ? 

Mr. Foreman. That is what I said. 

Mr. Arens. You were an acquaintance of Browder ? 

Mr. Foreman. I was not. 

Mr. Arens. You had visited with Browder ? 

Mr. Foreman. I have not. 

Mr. Arens. You testified here earlier today that Browder came to 
see you at one time when you were head of the Southern Conference 
for Human Welfare, did you not ? 

Mr. Foreman. I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had a conversation in your life with 
Earl Browder? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Where did that take place and when ? 

Mr. Foreman. In New York, in 1953, 10 years or 9 years after that 
article. 

Mr. Arens. And who initiated that conversation ? 

Mr. Foreman. Mr. Browder, and he came to my office asking for 
help, and he said the Communists would not help him because he re- 
signed or was thrown out of the party and the anti-Communists would 
not help him because he would not become a stool pigeon and he had 
no one to help him, and would the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee help him. I said we would because we were not interested in 
people's political affiliations but only interested in their constitutional 
rights and we do not ask people what they believe or what they have 
done. We say if you are a citizen of the "United States the Constitu- 
tion gives you certain protection. 



4528 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that the only test ? If they are a traitor to this 
country, would you help them ? 

Mr. Foreman. If they are in jail, presumably they %Yould be in iail 
It they were traitors, and I do not undertake to try people. I think 
the courts are the proper tribunal, and not congressional committees 
and not civil liberties' organizations. 

Mr ScHERER. You said you would help them just if they were a citi- 
zen of the United States, no matter who they were. 

Mr. Foreman. I would not if they were in jail, and criminals, I 
would not help them get a passport. But If they were free American 
citizens not in wartime, I would help them get their full constitutional 
rights regardless of their political beliefs. 

Mr. ScHERER. Even if they were members of the Communist con- 
spiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not loiow what you mean by that, so I am not 
going to answer that. 

Mr. ScHERER. Even if they were agents of the Communists ? 

Mr. Foreman. If they were saboteurs, they would presumably be 
convicted by our Department of Justice. We have got the largest 
secret police that we have ever had and w^e have spent millions if not 
billions of dollars on it and if they cannot find the saboteurs, I cer- 
tainly cannot. 

Mr. Arens. The secret police is the FBI ? 

Mr. Foreman. Of course you are right. 

Mr. Arens. That is what you are saying, and I am asking you to 
interpret what you mean by "the secret police." 

Mr. Foreman. Of course, it is, and I would be glad to tell you that 
I agree with the New York Daily News on the fact that this needs to 
be handled. 

Mr. Scherer. You know Paul Robeson is a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not. 

Mr. Scherer. You do not know that ? 

Mr. Foreman. I certainly do not, but I will be glad to put in the 
record here an editorial from the New York Daily News, saying how 
Mr. Hoover needs a master and how the FBI is getting completely out 
of hand, and violating American rights. If you would be interested in 
that in your record I think it would be a very good thing. 

Mr. Arens. Is it your position tliat the defense of the civil liberties 
of the Communists is the first line in the defense of the liberty of all 
Americans ? Is that the essence of your position ? 

Mr. Foreman. No ; that is a distortion. I would say that the civil 
liberties of everybody is indivisible, and it is also tlie most unpopular 
group that have to be defended in order to protect the rest of the 
population. 

Mr. Arens. Did you not head a panel which adopted a resolution, 
a panel of the organization with which you were then chairman, that 
the defense of the civil liberties of Communists is the first line of de- 
fense of the libei'ties of all Americans ? 

Mr. Foreman. Let me see this before I answer it. 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4529 

Mr. Foreman. It says here, this is from the Washington Star, of 
February 13, February 13, 1949, and it says : 

However much any of us individually may disagree with the political phi- 
losophy of communism, the defense of the civil liberties of Communists — 

and that is quite different from saying the defense of communism — 

the defense of the civil liberties of Communists is the first line in the defense of 
liberties of all Americans because they are the group most oppressed. 

Mr. SciiERER. You listened to the testimony this morning of Paul 
Robeson ; did you not ? 

Mr. FoRE3iAK. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. You heard the statements that he made agamst the 
United States ; did you not ? 

Mr. Foreman. Well, I have heard what he said. 

Mr, ScHERER. Now, after listening to the testimony this morning, 
do you feel that your organization should assist him in obtaining a 
passport ? 

Mr. Foreman. I think it would be a patriotic duty, and further- 
more, I think that the country, the foreign policy of this comitry will 
suffer niuch more from what happened to Paul Robeson this morning 
than if you gave him a passport. 

The Chairman. May I ask a question at this point ? Did your or- 
ganization ever attempt to protect civil liberties of anyone other than 
Communists ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, we are protecting a Catholic priest right at 
the moment, socialized workers, and Trotskyites, and we do not ask 
the political affiliations. We ask if they are American citizens, and 
entitled to the constitutional rights, and if we think they have got 
something that we can help them on, we try to do it. 

Mr. Arens. The Congress of the United States after extensive 
study and investigation of this problem of communism, passed the 
Internal Security Act which, among other things, make a finding 
that the Communist Party is not a party and that it is a conspiracy. 
Do you concur in the finding? 

Mr. Foreman. Who did 'i 

Mr. Arens. The Congress of the United States. 

Mr. Foreman. I do not know anything about it, and I do not know 
that they have made such a finding and I do not concur, and I think 
that when they used the word "conspiracy" in a matter of self-defense, 
it is absolutely a travesty on the English language. 

Mr. Arens But you do not feel the Communist Party is a con- 
spiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. I do not know what you mean by it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in your group, the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee, have a celebration here a while back for Corliss Lamont ? 

Mr. Foreman. Oh, yes, for his book ; not a celebration for him but 
for his book, 

Mr. Arens. For his civil liberties fight ? 

Mr. Foreman. Wait a minute. Are you talking about the dinner ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes 

Mr. Foreman. In 1952? 



4530 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

]\[r. Arens. Yes. 
Mr. Foreman. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know at that time that he had been identified 
by responsible people under oath before congressional committees 
as a member of the Communist conspii-acy ? 

IVIr. FoREMAX. I didn't know it. I don't believe it. Anybody who 
did, in my opinion is a liar, a stool pigeon, and a stooge trying to cause 
trouble. I knew Corliss Lamont for 30 years. 
Mr. Arens. You are sure he is not a Communist ? 
Mr. Fore:max. I think he is as loyal and ])atriotic as anybody in this 
room. 

Mr. Scherer. I take exception to that. He might be as loyal and as 
patriotic as you are. 

Mr. Foreman. He is just as loyal and as patriotic as anybody in 
this room, to my belief. I don't believe there is anybody working 
harder for the preservation of the Constitution of the United States 
than Corliss Lamont. 

Mr. Scherer. Like Paul Eobeson ? 
INIr. Foreman. Are you trying to speak for me ? 
I said Corliss Lamont. 

]\Ir. Arens. Back about a year or so ago, this committee, the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities, held hearings in New York 
City during which quite a number of witnesses appeared. 

Did your organization, after the House Committee on Un-Anierican 
Activities held its hearings in New York City, have a celebration for 
those persons who had been identified as members of a conspiracy? 
Mr. Foreman. Well, that is a little bit of a distortion, Mr. Arens. 
We had what I would call a civil-liberties meeting to defend the Con- 
stitution of the United States and to prevent this committee from en- 
gaging in blacklisting people in New York. We are determined to 
continue to defend the civil liberties of all people and not to allow 
this committee to tell people who can and who cannot act, perform, on 
the radio, television and so forth. 

We consider it our loyal patriotic American duty to resist you as 
long as we are free to do so. 

The Chairman. What was the celebration? 

Mr. Arens. Did the celebration that your committee had in New 
York City following hearings of this committee have as the guests 
of honor those persons who had been identified under oath by respon- 
sible witnesses before this committee as members of the Communist 
conspiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. We had a number of 

Mr. Arens. Can you not just answer the question ? Were they or 
were they not guests of honor ? 

Mr. Foreman. I cannot because I don't believe I agree with your 
interpretation of "responsible." I don't think you mean by respon- 
sible what I mean. 

The Chairman. Were the principal g;uests at the celebration tliose 
persons who had been identified by witnesses under oath as being 
members of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Foreman. Not to my knowledge that they were identified. As 
far as I know, there were a number of actors called before your com- 
mittee and we felt that their resistance was a patriotic service regard- 
less of their political opinions. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4531 

The Chairman. Even though witnesses at the same hearing testi- 
fied that they attended Communist Party meetings with them? 

Mr. Foreman. Even though you paid 10 stool pigeons 

The Chairman. This committee has never paid a dollar to anyone. 

Mr. Foreman. But you call people that the Department of Justice 
pays. 

The Chairman. No, the Department of Justice has never paid any- 
one to commit perjury. 

Mr. Foreman. Manning said he does. 

Mr. Arens. Where does the Emergency Civil Liberties Commit- 
tee 

Mr. Foreman. ]Manning Johnson said he commits perjury for the 
Department of Justice. 

The Chairman. He never said anything of the kind. 

Mr. Arens. From where does the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee, of which you are a director, receive its instructions ? 

Mr. Foreman. Just these meetings such as you described, which you 
call a celebration, but I think that would be a little premature becaiise 
we think the fight is too hard to call it a celebration. We are having 
meetings trying to point out the abuses of individual rights of the citi- 
zens and are trying to get more people concerned about the Constitu- 
tion and the Bill of Rights and we ask them to support our committee 
in its fight with these test cases on passports, and so forth. 

Mr. Arens. ^Vlio, beside youself, is employed by the committee? 

Mr. Foreman. The number of people? 

Mr. xVrens. Yes. 

Mr. Foreman. Four or five. Do you want me to count them ? 

Mr. Arens. Give us their names. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Foreman. Bowen Smith, Mrs. McEvoy 

Mr. Arens. Let us have her full name. 

JNIr. Foreman. Muriel IMcEvoy and ]\Ir. Lou Becker and Mrs. Edith 
Tiger. We have a part-time worker, but I have forgotten the name. 

Mr. Arens. Does your committee have a branch or an affiliate or- 
ganization out on the coast ? 

Mr. Foreman. No; we don't have any affiliations except in New 
Jersey. 

Mr. Arens. What is the organization which is your affiliate in New 
Jersey ? 

Mr. Foreman. The New Jersey Division of the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee. 

]\Ir. Arens. Can you tell us who is head of that ? 

Mr. Foreman. Prof. Broadus Mitchell, Rutgers University. 

jNIr. Arens. You started to tell us a moment ago about the organi- 
zations with which you cooperate ? 

Mr. Foreman. We don't have any other affiliates. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the cooperative organizations. 

Mr. Foreman. We cooperate with any organization that we feel is 
supporting the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Do you cooperate, then, with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Foreman. No, we have not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know that tlie Communist Party is not support- 
ing the Constitution of the United States ? 



4532 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Foreman. Well, I have reason to believe that they do not share 
our views of civil liberties. 

Mr. Arens. a slight divergence there. 

That will conclude the staff interrogation, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Kearney. You said you cooperated with various organizations ; 
do you cooperate with any of the patriotic organizations in the 
country ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes, we have repeatedly written letters to all of them, 
urging exactly the same kind of defense of our constitutional rights. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you cooperate with the American Legion and the 
Veterans of Foreign Wars ? 

Mr. Foreman. Yes. 

Mr. Kearney. In actual cases ? 

Mr. Foreman. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Kearney. In actual cases ? 

Mr. Foreman. What do you mean ? I don't want to mislead you. 

Mr. Kearney. I do not want you to mislead me. 

Mr. Foreman. You said "actual cases." 

Mr. Kearney. What do you mean by "cooperation" ? You simply 
write letters to them ? 

Mr. Foreman. And urge them to take certain actions. 

Mr. Kearney. Do they cooperate with you ? 

Mr. Foreman. The American Legion, to my best knowledge, I be- 
lieve has not. 

Mr. Kearney. How about the Veterans of Foreign Wars ? 

Mr. Foreman. Well, there was something that they did — I don't 
know. 

Mr. Kearney. As a matter of fact, none of those veterans' organiza- 
tions cooperate with your organization, do they ? 

Mr. Foreman. I wouldn't say that. I wouldn't say that. I think 
that undoubtedly some of them would approve of a great deal of what 
we do. 

I would like to go back to this question, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. There is no question. 

Mr. Arens, do you have anything further ? 

Mr. Arens. No, sir. 

Mr. Foreman. May I ask the purpose again of the inquiry so that 
I can know about the use of the passport and whether or not my pass- 
port will be returned if I give it ? 

You seem to say that it would and then I felt that you were not quite 
sure. I would also like to know why the committee wants it and why 
it will not accept my offer to let it examine it and not impound it. 

It is the fact that I don't want it impounded because I don't want to 
be deprived of its use. Here is the thing : 

I had a passport 

The Chairman. You will never need this passport, Mr. Foreman. 

Mr. Foreman. I need it now, Mr. Chairman, but it does sound as if 
you are threatening. 

The Chairman. I am not threatening you ; I am merely expressing 
my opinion. I heard Professor Boudin prompt you to say it sounds 
like a threat. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4533 

Mr, BouDiN. Yes, it does sound like a threat. 

The Chairman. I heard you. 

Mr. Foreman. Mr. Chairman, the point is I would like to know 
whether you will return the passport so I can use it, whether or not you 
think I will need it. 

It's my understanding, Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. Kearney. No questions. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Mr. Frazier ? 

Mr. Frazier. No questions. 

Mr. Foreman. I am perfectly willing to tell the committee that I 
have not used the passport ; that it is exactly the way I got it from the 
State Department, but I don't know when I may need it. 

The Chairman. Just a minute. 

You have been instructed to produce this passport, served with a 
subpena duces tecum under which you were required to produce it. 
Now I tell you that if you do not comply with this subpena, you are 
going to be cited for contempt. We have no disposition to destroy 
your personal property. 

I do not know what the investigators or the counsel have in mind. 
I do not know why they want to see it but you were subpenaed to 
produce it. 

JNTr. Foreman. All I ask you, Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Under that subpena you are directed to produce 
the passport. 

Mr. Foreman. I have produced it, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Where is it? 

Mr. Foreman. I have it here with me. 

The Chairman. Give it to Mr. Arens and let him look at it. 

]Mr. F(>RE?,iAN. I want to be assured that it will be returned because 
I underetaiKl that last week you took a passport 

Mr. Arexs. We have no further questions of this witness, Mr. 
Chairman. 

The Chairjian. You are excused. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I move the witness be cited for 
contempt. 

The Chairman. Do I hear a second ? 

ISIr. Kearney. Second. 

The Chairman. It has been properly moved and seconded that the 
witness be cited for contempt. All in favor ? 

Contrary ? 

The ayes have it. 

The recommendation will be made to the House in proper order. 

Who is your next witness ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Leonard B. Boudin. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Botjdin. I do. 

79932 — 56— pt. 3 4 



4534 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

TESTIMONY OF LEONARD B. BOUDIN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

VICTOE RABINOWITZ 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

]\Ir. BouDiN. Leonard Boudin, attorney, 25 Broad Street, New York 
5,N.Y. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Boudin, in response to 
a subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Boudin. Yes, I am, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Boudin. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Will counsel kindly identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Victor Rabinowitz, New York. 

Mr. Arens, Now this subpena is a subpena duces tecum, requiring 
you to produce certain documents. Do you have custody and control 
of those documents ? 

Mr. Boudin. No. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere are they ? 

Mr. Boudin. They have been returned to the State Department with 
a request by me for an extension of my passport. The matter is now 
the subject of litigation in the courts of this circuit. 

Mr. Arens. Did I understand you to say that you are an attorney 
practicing law in the District of Columbia ? 

Mr. Boudin. I am an attorney practicing law in the State of New 
York, but I aui admitted to practice before the court of appeals of 
this circuit, before the United States Supreme Court and other courts. 

You may have misunderstood me because T said that I have at the 
present time a suit pending in the courts of this circuit. 

Mr. Arens. Are you admitted to practice law in the District of 
Columbia? 

Mr. Boudin. I am admitted to practice law before the court of 
appeals in the District of Columbia, not, of course, in the District 
courts, for which I think I'esidence is required. 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you 

Mr. Boudin. I have been, however, I may say, admitted on motion 
in several cases for the purpose of the cause alone to argue various 
cases in the District of Columbia in the district courts here, but before 
you ask your question, may I make a statement addressed to the chair- 
man or "the acting chairman of the committee with respect to the 
jurisdiction of the committee, Mr. Doyle ? 

( Representative Walter left the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Doyle (presiding) . This is not the proper forum to raise the 
question of jurisdiction ; you know that. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a document which has been certified 
to this committee. 

Mr. Boudin. May I continue for just a second, Mr. Doyle? 

I have a statement which I should like to hand to the committee, 
not to raise the point of jurisdiction. 

Mr. Doyle, You know we do not claim that we are a court, 

Mr, Boudin, I have a right to have the committee determine in 
the first instance its jurisdiction and I therefore want the opportunity 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4535 

to state for the record my objections to tlie jurisdiction of the com- 
mittee. 

Now, if I can't do so orally, then I Avant to hand the committee a 
written statement for this record here of my objections to its juris- 
diction. 

(Representative Walter returned to the hearing room.) 

The Chairman. You can leave your statement. 

Mr. BouDiN. I now hand it to counsel for the committee. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a certified copy of a document, certi- 
fied to this committee froni the clerk of the United States Court of 
Appeals for the District of Columbia, being a photostatic copy of 
an oath taken by a number of persons before their names appeared 
on the roll of attorneys of the court of appeals of the area. 

The oath reads as follows : 

I do solemnly swear ( or affirm) that I will demean myself as an attorney and 
counselor of this court, uprightly, and according to law, and that I will sup- 
port the Constitution of the United States. So help me God. 

There are a number of signatures appearing under date of June 
14, 1951, with the signature of Leonard Boudin. I ask you if that is 
your signature ? 

Mr. BouDiisr. Yes, that is my signature. 

Mr. Arens. Did you take that oath which I have just recited? 

Mr. Boudin. I did. I don't recognize the jurisdiction of the com- 
mittee to investigate this matter. This is a matter for the court. 

I have no hesitation in saying that I have taken the oath and have 
carried it out to the best of my ability. 

Mr. Arens. At that time when you took that oath to support the 
Constitution of the United States, June 14, 1951, were you then a 
member of an organization dedicated to the overthrow of the Con- 
stitution of the United States ? 

Mr. Boudin. The question of what a member is is a very complicated 
one, as you know from the decisions. If you want a categorical an- 
swer, since apparently you are not prepared to identify the organiza- 
tion, my answer is Xo. Of course I wasn't a member. 

Mr. Arens. Were you at that time a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Boudin. Now you come down to the question that I asked you 
before, or that I suggested before. The courts in at least half a dozen 
cases, including the Gold, Fisher, Remington and Bridges cases, have 
indicated the varying criteria for the determination of what consti- 
tutes membership in the organization which you have referred to as 
the Communist Party. 

Would you be good enough to indicate what it is that you regard 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question whether or 
not on that date you were a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Boudin. And while objecting to the ruling of the Chair and to 
the refusal of counsel and the Chair to clarify a question inherently 
ambiguous, my answer is "No," I was not a member. 

Mr. Arens. Were you at any time a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Boudin. With the same qualifications and reservations, I state 
that the committee has no jurisdiction and I say that I have never been 



4536 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

a member of the Communist Party. I am not a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the present time and I don't expect to be one. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you took that oath, were you under Com- 
munist Party discipline ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Now I think you are under an obligation to tell me 
what you think Communist Party discipline means. 

Mr. Arens. Were you receiving orders and directions from the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I have never taken orders or directions from anybody, 
including the Communist Party, and I don't expect to do so. 

Mr. Arens. Were you under Communist Party discipline? 

Mr. BouDiN. I don't know. I told you before I don't know what 
that meant and I asked you to clarify it. Do you know what that 
means ? 

(Representative Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. BouDiN. The Chair is telephoning. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be directed and ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle, (presiding). I direct you 

Mr. BouDiN. The chairman is the acting chairman. I pointed out 
that his conception of what constitutes "discipline" may be very dif- 
ferent from the average person and I asked that he clarify it. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to state that the acting chairman heard the 
question and your statement and you are directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. BouDiN. My answer is that I have never been under the dis- 
cipline of the Communist Party of the United States or of any 
political party, and so far as I can tell, since my majority, under the 
discipline of anyone. 

Mr. Arens. Ilave you ever been a member of the Young Communist 
League ? 

Mr. BouDiN. My answer with respect to the Young Communist 
League is the same as my answer with respect to the Communist 
Party. I assume that you are not prepared to describe what mem- 
bership is or to define the Young Communist League ; am I correct ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Young Communist 
League ? 

Mr. BouDiN. In the absence of a clarification by you and recogniz- 
ing that what you may consider membership may not be membership 
to the average person, in view of the number of people you have called 
Communists, I may say that I have never been a member of the 
Young Communist League or of the Communist Party, period. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever paid dues to the Young Comunist 
League ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I suppose that being a member requires the payment 
of dues and one could hardly pay dues if he is not a member. No, 
I haven't paid dues. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever made any financial contributions to the 
Young Communist League ? 

Mr. BoiTDiN. I have no recollection of having made financial con- 
tributions to the Young Communist League, and if you have anything 
that you think will refresh my recollection as to the making of such 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4537 

contributions, financial or otherwise, or as to what the Young Com- 
munist League is, please hand over whatever may refresh my re- 
collection and I will try to be a little clearer. 

Mr. Arexs. Have you ever made any financial contributions to the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. BouDiN. My answer is exactly the same and I resent your ask- 
ing the question in view of the fact that you don't have the slightest 
degree of proof, you are shooting in the dark and you are making the 
same scandalous statements that the State Department made about 
me. What is more, you are making it in regard to a matter presently 
in the courts and that this committee has no jurisdiction over, 

Mr. Akexs. Do you have information 

Mr. BouDiN. Excuse me. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Boudin, will you tell us whether or not you have 
ever been connected with Acros- American, Inc. ? 

Mr. BouDix. What? 

Mr. Arens. A-c-r-o-s- American. 

Mr. BouDiN. Do you mind explaining what that is ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any recollection of such an organization ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Do you mind spelling it again ? 

Mr. Arens. A-c-r-o-s- American. 

Mr. BouDiN. I hope you are not asking a question without having 
any basis for it, as you did before, Mr. Counsel. 

I have no recollection of not only of any connection with the or- 
ganization that you call Acros- American with one "s" but as to what 
that means or as to whether such an organization exists. 

Since I am nearly 44 years of age, it is conceivable that some such 
organization existed and that I had some connection with it, but I will 
have to have clarification from you on that point. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had any connection with Amtorg, 
A-m-t-o-r-g ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I do not think that I have had any connection with 
Amtorg. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever represented Amtorg ? 

Mr. Boudin. No, no. I should say that I was, of course, a clerk and 
then a lawyer in the law firm of Mr. Louis B. Boudin, my uncle, a 
celebrated constitutional lawyer, who died in 1952, and that it is con- 
ceivable that his firm may have represented Amtorg, but I have no 
recollection of it. I merely mention this because this was a question 
also put to me indirectly by the State Department. 

(Representative Walter returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, in June of 1954, you received a passport, did you 
not, sir ? 

Mr. Boudin. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere did you go on that passport ? 

Mr. Boudin. Mr. Chairman, may I ask for a ruling as to whether 
a matter that is presently the subject of litigation in the court of 
appeals of this circuit is a matter that counsel has a right to inquire 
into, because I object to it. 

The Chairman. The question of where you were in 1954 

Mr. Boudin. You happen to be in error, it is in litigation at the 
present time, everything to do with the attainment of the passport and 



4538 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

its use and the request to travel is now in litigation before the court 
of appeals of this circuit. 

The Chairman. On the question of a renewal ? 

Mr. BouDiN. On the question of a renewal of the passport, all of 
these matters are now sub judice and I ask for a ruling as to whether 
this committee is prepared to investigate into a matter now before the 
courts. 

The Chairman. You can answer the question. 
Mr. BouDiN. What you mean is I am required to answer ? 
The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. BouDiN. Will you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go on your passport that you procured in 
June of 1954? 

Mr. BouDiN. I went to Europe. 
Mr. Arens. Where in Europe ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I went to France, Netherlands, and England. 
Mr. Arens. What was the purpose of your trip ? 
Mr. BouDiN. The purpose of the trip was the purpose stated in the 
application for tlie passport, which I assume you have before you, 
namely, to carry out my responsibilities as a member of the bar to 
clients who were then engaged and who expected to be engaged in 
litigation with the Department of State and witli other agencies of the 
Federal Government — allow me to finish — such litigation being both 
civil and criminal. 

Mr. Arens. And wlio were 

Mr. BouDiN. Just a minute, I am not through. 
Mr. Arens. I am sorry ; I beg your pardon. 

Mr. BoTJDiN. Very well. The litigation was specifically stated to 
the Department of State as the reason for my going and I met with my 
clients and discussed the matters whicli were the subject of my trip as 
I have indicated to the United States District Court for tlie District 
of Columbia in tlie case now pending in the court of appeals, as I have 
indicated to the court of appeals. 

This merely confirms my statement that the matter is sub judice and 
beyond the jurisdiction of this committee. 

Mr. Arens. Have you finished your response to the question ? 
Mr. BouDiN. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Arens. Now, will you answer this question ? 
^Ylio are the people for whom you went to Europe ? 
Mr. BouDiN. Well, I will, if the chairman directs me to answer, 
state the people for whom, as counsel put it, I went to Europe, but it 
seems to me again that that moves into the area of the confidential 
relationship between attorney and client. 

The Chairman. You are not being asked anything about the rela- 
tionship whatsoever ; you are merely being asked who they are. 

Mr. BoTJDiN. Well, who they are certainly is the most important 
part of the relationship between a client and an attorney, and I there- 
fore object to the question. 

The Chairman. You can answer the question. You are directed 
to answer the question. 

Mr. BoiTDiN. Well, T met with the defendant in a criminal case 
now pending in the District Court for the Southern District of New 
York, which is entitled United States against Leff^ the defendant 
being Mr. David Leff . 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4539 

I also met with his counsel, that is, his local counsel, Mr. Jacques 
Mercier, a leading member of the French bar who represented Mr. 
Leff locally. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir, and who else ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I also met in an attempt to settle a pending litigation 
which was at a various stage before the International Organizations 
Employees Loyalty Board, the litigants being employees of UNESCO 
in Paris. In that connection, I met with Mr. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us a little better identification of the 
employees of UNESCO? Were they the employees discharged by 
UNESCO? 

Mr. BouDix. These are employees, if you would like the record 
to show who they were, who were discharged by UNESCO as a result 
of the unlawful interference of, I regret to say, an agency of the 
United States Government and their cases had been in certain stages 
before the International Organizations Employees Loyalty Board, and 
that board board ultimately held that the discharges had been unlaw- 
ful and in violation of the constitution of UNESCO. 

Mr. Arens. Were they discharged on loyalty grounds ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Excuse me. 

The precise reasons for the discharges, of course, I can't answer, 
but from your point of view I suppose it would be on loyalty grounds. 
Actually, they contested the jurisdiction of the International Organ- 
izations Employees Loyalty Board and in that contest I think for the 
most part they were upheld by a quasi- judicial tribunal, the adminis- 
trative tribunal of the International Labor Organization. 

Now, in that connection, in an attempt to settle that litigation and 
solve these very important problems, I met with Mr. Luther Evans, 
the Director-General of UNESCO, in Paris. 

Mr. Arens. Was there anyone else who was responsible for your 
trip to Europe ? 

Mr. BouDiN. You really want me to go through all the clients whom 
I met in Europe ? 

Mr. Arens. No ; you have used that as a group, UNESCO people. 
The man whom you represented in this criminal proceeding; was 
there another crime ? 

Mr. BouDiN. There were a number of UNESCO people. I think 
my client, in fact, was the UNESCO staff association, the organiza- 
tion that represented virtually all of the staff' members of UNESCO 
as well as a number of individuals who were involved in the liti- 
gation. 

Mr. Leff was involved in the same litigation. I think that Mr. Peter 
Duberg was also involved in the litigation and there are a number of 
other individuals whose names I don't recall at the moment. 

I met not only with Evans but witli tlie executive committee of the 
staff association of UNESCO and with the officers of the staff asso- 
ciation and with other counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, please, who among the members of the Com- 
munist Party did you confer with while you were in Europe? 

Mr. BouDiN. Well, the remark is of course improper unless you 
have some basis for asking the question, in which case the basis ought 
to be stated. 

I watched the committee make slanders against my clients repeatedly 
and not be able to answer. You know very well 



4540 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. We have been maligned here by experts. 

Tell us who in the Communist Party you conferred with in Europe ? 

Mr. BouDiN. You are maligning me. So far as I know, this ques- 
tion I assume excludes any particular clients since obviously my knowl- 
edge of a client's political views or affiliations would be the result of 
a confidential privilege ; is that not so ? 

Mr. Arens. On the assumption that membership in the Communist 
conspiracy is a political activity. 

Mr. BouDiN. Whether membership is a political activity, it is some- 
thing which can be the subject of a confidential relationship. 

Leaving clients aside, and with respect to his membership, I can 
neither deny nor attest, in view of the confidential privilege. I can't 
say that I met with anybody who was a member of the Communist 
Party or who falls within the category of what you call, without defin- 
ing it, the Communist conspiracy. 

I say again that I object to the question being put unless you are able 
to suggest that there is the slightest basis for a question of this kind. 

Mr. Arens. When you made your application for passport 

Mr. BouDiN. I haven't finished my answer. 

Mr. Arens. We have enough. 

Mr. Boudin. I have not finished my answer, Mr. Chairman, and 
I am not content to have counsel tell me what is enough. I am the 
witness, not he. 

May I finish my answer ? 

Mr. Arens. When you made your application for passport in June 
of 1954, did you have a conference with the State Department re- 
specting the issue as to whether or not you had ever been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Mr. Chairman, am I going to be permitted to finish 
my last answer? 

The Chairman. Yes, go ahead and finish. 

Mr. BouDiN. I said that it seemed to me that I have a right not to 
have counsel address hypothetical questions to me with respect to 
meetings with people in the Communist conspiracy unless counsel 
has some basis for trying out the shotgun operation. 

I think he should be directed to ask questions which he thinks in good 
faith have some basis in fact and which he is able to produce some 
evidence for. 

Mr. Arens. Then, tell us 

Mr. BoTJDiN. May I have the chairman act upon my request to him? 

The Chairman. You can answer the question. You merely ex- 
pressed your own belief about something. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, if you please, sir, when you had your consulta- 
tion with the State Department pursuant to your application for a 
passport, did you refuse to express to the State Department whether 
or not you hacl been a member of the Communist Party prior to June 
3,1954? 

Mr. BoTJDiN. Well, Mr. Chairman, since I don't want to object with 
respect Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. What is the question ? 

Mr. Arens. I just asked him, Mr. Chairman, if, when he had his 
consultation with the State Department in anticipation of the receipt 
of his passport in 1954, if he refused to tell the State Department 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4541 

whether or not he had been a member of the Communist Party prior 
to June 3, 1954. 

Mr. BouDiN. And my question to you, Mr. Chairman, was this: I 
don't want 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. BouDiN. May I indicate something that I think will facilitate 
the hearing? 

I don't want to object to each question. Do I understand that you 
are ruling on my objection that these are matters which are sub judice 
and are not pertinent to the investigation ? 

The Chairman. I am not making any ruling at all. 

Mr. BouDiN. I must have a ruling. 

The Chairman. You have been directed, let us put it that way. 

You are directed to answer this question. 

Mr. BouDiN. Very well. 

The question, I think — would you repeat it ? 

Mr. Aeens. For the third time. 

Mr. BouDiN. Don't describe the third time. 

Mr. Aeens. For the fourth time now, the question is : 

When you had your consultation with the Department of State 
when you were trying to get this passport to go to Europe, did you 
refuse to tell the Department of State whether or not you had been a 
member of the Commmiist Party prior to June 3, 1954 ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I told the Director of the Passport Office that it was 
none of her business. 

Does that answer your question ? 

Mr. Arens. I think it does ; yes, sir. 

Mr. BouDiN. Very good. 

Mr. Kearney. I think from the arrogant witness on the stand, that 
that is a very good answer. 

Mr. BouDiN. Nothing arrogant about the witness who is called here 
in violation of the principle of separate powers. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee, if you please, about your profes- 
sorial activities in the Jefferson School of Social Science in New York 
City. 

Mr. BouDiN. That is a comment of counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Would you read the question, please ? 

(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. BouDiN. Despite the form of the question, in order to save time, 
let me say this : 

I was not, as the committee suggested before, a professor of the 
Jefferson School. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you teach in the Jefferson School ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I am not through, sir ; I am sorry. I said I was going 
to cut the answer short. I gave as a guest lecturer a series of lectures 
on the very unpolitical subject of labor law. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere ? 

Mr. BouDiN. At the Jefferson School. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien? 

Mr. BouDiN. Let me finish — including the wage and hour law. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. BouDiN. Including the National Labor Relations Act and, as 
I say, other nonpolitical subjects. I think that I gave this series of 



4542 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

lectures in 1946 or 1947, but I don't recall the precise date. If the 
committee can refresh me, I will accept its statement. 

3,Ir. Arens. Have you concluded your answer ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Yes. 

Mr. Arens, Kindly tell us who invited and made arrangements for 
you to teach at the Jetferson School of Social Science in 1947 ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I do not recall who it was. It was obviously some 
member of the staff of the school that asked me. 

Mr. Kearney. That Jefferson School is the Communist Party school 
in New York City ; is it not ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I didn't regard it as the Communist Party school in 
New York. 

IMr. Arens. Did you also invite other persons to lecture at the 
school ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Who? 

INIr. BouDiN. Well, now, let me see. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

I don't recall at the moment more than that I invited some of my 
friends who specialized in the field of labor law. I don't recall at the 
moment who they were ; this is 7 years ago, but if you can refresh my 
recollection ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall inviting any persons to participate in 
the school as lecturers who were known by you to be members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BouDiN. No. I do not — it's very difficult for me to give you 
a categorical answer since I don't recall specifically who they were but 
I should say now that it's my opinion that I did not invite people 
who are members of the Communist Party or who were known to 
be as such, and in any event, the only criterion for the selection of a 
coguest lecturer would have been the fact that they knew something 
about labor law. 

Mr. Arens. Have you likewise been a contributor to the New 
Masses ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Again I would be happy to have you refresh my rec- 
ollection if you are able to, and I gather you are not. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a contributor to New Masses ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I think I can answer that. 

This, of course, is a subject that is also sub judice. To cut it short, 
I will say that I have written a number of articles for the New 
Masses as well as a number of other periodicals and law reviews and 
otherwise, all on the subject, with practically no exception, certainly 
none that I can think of now, of law. 

The pieces for New Masses were on the subject of Mr. Justice 
Frankfurter's legal record, or the subject of the Fansteel decision 
in the United States Supreme Court, on the subject of Mr. Justice 
Cardozo, on the subject of judicial review of administrative agencies. 

I don't know whether you have read any of those articles, Mr. 
Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Are vou identified with the Downtown Community 
School in New York City ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I am nominally identified with it. I think I am 
probably a member, still a member, of the board of directors, although 
I have not been connected with it actively for many years. I was 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4543 

one of the persons who formed it. I was its first president. It is a 
private nursery school in the city of New York of very high reputa- 
tion. 

Ask your next question. 
Mr. Arens. Thank you. 
Do you know Harry Sacher ? 
Mr. BouDiN. Yes, I know Harry Sacher, 

Mr. Arens. What is the nature of your acquaintanceship with him ? 
Mr. BouDiN. He is a member of the bar for the State of New York. 
Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he is a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Allow me to finish. 
Mr. Arens. Let me help you. 

Do you know whether or not he is a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. BouDiN. Just a minute. 

Mr. Arens. We are interested in knowing about Communists. Tell 
me whether or not he is a member of the Communist Party. 
JNIr. BoiT)iN. I don't have the slightest idea, 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been identified with the National Coun- 
cil of Arts, Sciences, and Professions ? 
Mr. BouDiN, Have I been identified with it ? 
Mr. Arens. Yes. 
Mr. BouDiN. I don't think so, 
Mr, Arens, Have you ever addressed it ? 

Mr, BouDiN, I believe that I did address a small forum several 
years ago on a subject of law, a subject which interested me, and it 
may have been the subject of law and civil liberties, and it may have 
involved the subject of wiretapping at the time, I addressed stich a 
forum and this was one of the charges made against me by the State 
Department, both before and after I secured my passport, 

Mr, Arens, Have you ever been a member of the National Lawyers 
Guild? 

Mr, BouDiN, I am presently a member of the National Lawyers 
Guild, 

Mr, Arens, How long have you been a member ? 
Mr, BouDiN, I have been a member for many years, 
Mr, Arens, What posts have you held ? 

Mr, BouDTN, Well, I was chairman of its national committee on 
labor law, a position previously held by Mr, Louis B, Boudin and the 
Honorable Calvert Magruder, now chief judge of the first circiiit 
court of appeals, I was a member of its executive board, and I still 
am a member of this executive board, 

I may have held intermediate positions or been otherwise active in 
the committee, but I have no specific recollection, but I am perfectly 
willing to be refreshed on that, too, 

Mr,"ARENS, Are you identified with the organization of which Mr, 
Foreman is the director, this Emergency Civil Liberties Committee? 
Mr, BouDiN, Yes, it's a client of mine, 

Mr, Arens, You are counsel to the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee ? 
Mr. BouDiN. I said it's a client of mine. 
Mr. Arens, Have you been active in its affairs ? 



4544 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. BouDiN. Fairly active. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat has been your connection, if any, with the Fed- 
erated Press ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I don't think I have had any connection with the 
Federated Press. 

Mr. Aeens. Have you ever represented the Federated Press or the 
principal officers of the Federated Press ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I may have but I do not — I have a vague recollection, 
now that you mention it, going back possibly 15 years, of some news- 
paper owing it money, and in my writing a claim letter. I have no 
other recollection of having represented it in any legal matters but 
again, if you can refresh my recollection, I may correct any error 
that I am stating now. 

Mr. Arens. What has been your activity in behalf of the Emer- 
gency Civil Liberties Committee to obtain repeal of the Smith Act. 

Mr. BouDiN. Well, I don't think that I have. I don't think that I 
have done anything except possibly talk at a meeting which dealt 
with the Smith Act, anything very specifically dealing with the Smith 
Act. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know Manning Johnson ? 

Mr. BouDiN. I think Manning Johnson was a client of the office in 
which I was employed, the office that I indicated before of my uncle, 
Mr. Louis Boudin. I have a recollection of him, but it's a vague one. 
I think it may be mainly a recollection of hearsay but I may have 
met him as well. 

Mr. Arens. What has been your connection with the American 
Russian Institute ? 

Mr. Boudin. I don't believe that I have ever had any connection 
with the American Russian Institute. 

Mr. Arens. You have been a sponsor of 1 or 2 of its affairs, have 
you not ? 

Mr. Boudin. I would doubt it but since you asked, I think you should 
be given a categorical answer in the negative as to its affairs, if any. 

Will the chairman direct counsel to clarify what he is referring to ? 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of a document. It 
is a program of the American Russian Institute dedicated to the 
American-Soviet postwar relations, held in New York City, and among 
the sponsors is listed Leonard Boudin. 

I ask you if that refreshes your recollection of any connection you 
may have had with the organization. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Boudin. What year is this, by the way ? 

Mr. Arens. See if it refreshes your recollection. 

Mr. Boudin. I am going to answer that it doesn't, but 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Boudin. This seems to be a meeting held on October 19, 1944. 
My name appears just above that of my uncle, I see, on a list of spon- 
sors. The sponsors seem to include such people as Eric Johnston. 

Mr. Arens. Will you please answer the question as to whether or 
not you have had a connection. Sir, you asked me not to interrupt 
you until you finished your response. Now do not interrupt me. 

Mr. Boudin. I am sorry. You did interrupt me several times. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not you have been identified with 
the American Russian Institute. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4545 

Mr. BoupiN. You have obviously identified me by this list of spon- 
sors but aside from your identification of me I have no recollection 
of this program, no recollection of having been there and heard the 
distinguished governmental and other speakers from the United States 
Department of State and otherwise in the year 194:4. 

Does that answer you ? 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you a photostatic copy of the Daily 
Worker, Wednesday, March 5, 1941, listing the signers of a statement 
defending the Communist Party, according to the headline there, list- 
ing a Leonard Boudin, of New York, and I ask you if that refreshes 
your recollection on any activities in which you may have been engaged 
in defense of the Communist Party. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BouniN. I see that my name appears several names above that 
of Professor Chafee, of Harvard, and that there are hundreds of dis- 
tinguished names here. Nevertheless, I have no independent recollec- 
tion of having signed the statement in defense of the Communist Party 
but I daresay that anything that Professor Chafee would think good 
enough for him to sign, I would probably agree to. 

If you want to ask me further about tliis, whether I independently 
approve of what is said here, I would have to read it. Do you want 
me to? 

Mr. Arens. No, I just want to know whether or not you had an 
independent recollection of signing the statement in defense of the 
Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Boudin. I have not, except that I want to comment on the dis- 
tinguished names and professors and other people on that list. I 
think it represents a list to be proud of. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that would con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness at this time. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. Arens. May we have a 5-minute recess. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Arens. Otto Nathan, please. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Nathan. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF OTTO NATHAN, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y., ACCOM- 
PANIED BY COUNSEL, LEONARD BOUDIN, NEW YORK, N. Y., AND 
DAVID J. LEVY, OF MAASS, DAVIDSON, LEVY, FRIEDMAN & 
WESTON, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself, sir, by name, residence and 
occupation. 

Mr. Nathan. Otto Nathan, 55 East 10th Street, New York City, 
associate professor of economics. New York University. 



4546 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. You are cappearing today, Doctor, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, sir ; but Mr. Chairman, I would like to state here 
for the record that I have not been informed of the purpose of the 
present investigation and on the scope of my testimony. 

My counsel has requested, by letter of May 14, 1956, and repeatedly 
afterward, to be advised as to the nature and purpose of the inquiry 
and the bills under consideration, but we have had no reply up to 
date. There has been no reply up to date, 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel today ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Arens. Identify yourselves, Counsel, please. 

Mr. BouDiN. There are two counsels, Leonard B. Boudin, of 25 
Broad Street, one of Dr. Nathan's counsel. 

Mr. Levy. I am David J. Levy, a member of the law firm of Ma ass, 
Davidson, Levy, Friedman & Weston, 100 Park Avenue, New York 
City, counsel for the estate of Albert Einstein, of which Dr. Nathan 
is executor and cotrustee. 

Mr. Arens. Does your subpena require you to produce certain docu- 
ments. Doctor ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have those documents with you ? 

Mr. Nathan. I have the passport here, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have another document, the new passport? 

Mr. Nathan. I have the new passport here but I am not willing to 
hand it over to the committee. 

Mr. Arens. May I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this wit- 
ness be at this time ordered and directed to transmit physical custody 
of this document to the committee ? 

The Chairman. You were subpenaed to produce certain documents ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Documents you have with you and you are directed 
to deliver them over to the committee in accordance with the terms of 
the subpena duces tecum. 

(Representative Kearney left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Nathan. Mr. Chairman, I am willing to disclose everything in 
the passport, to read it into the record, everything the passport shows 
and says, and counsel can supervise me while I am doing that. 

The Chairman. You have been directed to deliver the subpena 

Mr. Nathan. I beg your pardon. 

The Chairman. You haA'e been directed to deliver the passport over 
to the committee. 

Mr. Nathan. I have been directed to produce a passport and I am 
producing it here and I am willing, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Give it to counsel. 

Mr. Nathan. Mr. Chairman, I don't feel that I am able to give the 
passport to the committee upon advice of counsel. I should like to 
state the reasons for my unwillingness to hand the passport over to 
the committee. 

First, the passport represents physical evidence of my right to travel, 
which is a natural right of every American citizen as established by 
the United States Court of Appeals in the District of Columbia. This 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4547 

passport was granted me after 2i/^ years of delaying tactics by the 
State Department and only after successful litigation by me. 

I do not want to run the risk of again being without a passport and 
thereby being again limited in my movements. 

Secondly, I feel 

The Chairman, You, of course, are not intimating that we are 
going to keep your passport, are you ? 

Mr. Nathan. I beg your pardon ? 

The Chairman. You are not intimating that we are going to keep 
your passport ? 

Mr. Nathan. I don't know, Mr. Chairman. I learned from the 
newspaper that last week two witnesses which appeared here have not 
had their passports returned. 

The Chairman. They will get their passports, there is no question 
about that. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere were you born ? 

Mr. BouDiN. The witness hasn't finished his statement, Mr. Arens. 

The Chairman. Why do you not file whatever your lawyer gave 
you? 

Mr. BoxiDiN. It may be the committee may find this satisfactory. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Nathan. The second point is that the committee cannot justify 
its demand, which is unauthorized and unlawful : 

The passport is not needed by the committee as evidence because 
I am willing to read everything it shows into the record. The counsel 
of the committee may verify it as I do so. 

The subpena merely requires me to produce the passport, but the 
passport remains my property and cannot be taken away from me 
as long as I am willing to establish whatever it shows. 

The retention of the passport by the committee, however tem- 
porary, is unauthorized and, in addition, would be an unlawful and 
unreasonable seizure under the fourth amendment of the Constitution. 

The retention of the passport would not only be tantamount to 
suspension of my rights which it evidences, but would infringe upon 
the authority of the executive branch of the Government which 
issued it and upon the judicial branch, which ordered its issuance. 

Mr. Chairman, I would like to say once more that I am ready and 
willing to read into the record everything this passport shows and 
says and that counsel can verify me while I do so. 

I would also like to say that I should have liked to submit a 
photostatic copy of the passort to the committee but I was advised 
by the photostaters in New York that they are not permitted to 
photograph passports of the United States. 

I have finished my statement. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Nathan. I was born in B-i-n-g-e-n, Germany. 

Mr. Arens. When did you enter the United States ? 

Mr. Nathan. I entered the United States the first time late in 
September 1930. I don't know the exact date. I think it was the 
30th of September 1930. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a naturalized citizen ? 

Mr. Nathan. I am a naturalized citizen. 

Mr. Arens. When were you naturalized ? 



4548 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Nathan. Exactly IT years ago today on June 12, 1939, in the 
southern district of New York, and I would like to say I am very 
proud to be an American citizen. I was proud of it the day I was 
naturalized. I became a citizen after I acquainted myself with the 
United States and after I had been a teacher here at several univer- 
sities and having become well acquainted with what it means to be 
an American citizen. 

I became an American citizen because I wanted to, I was not born 
an American citizen. I was always proud to be an American citizen, 
to fight for the values and the ideals which the United States and the 
American people have always been guided by. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever received a United States passport ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, sir ; I have received a United States passport. 

Mr. Arens. Let us take the chronology of the passports which you 
have received. When did you receive your first passport ? 

Mr. Nathan. In 1939. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go on that passport ? 

Mr. Nathan. I went to Europe. 

Mr. Arens. Where in Europe ? 

Mr. Nathan. Well, now, this is a long time ago and I am utterly 
unprepared for this question since you did not advise me what I was 
going to be investigated about today. 

Mr. Arens. Do you not recall what country you went to in Europe 
inl939? ^ ^ 

Mr. Nathan. I am going to tell you, Mr. Counsel. Just give me 
time. 

As far as I recall, I went to England, I went to France, I possibly 
also went to Switzerland, but I would have to check my records. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was the purpose of your trip ? 

Mr. Nathan. I went also to Holland that year, I am sorry. 

The purpose of my trip was professional. I went to Europe in 
order to collect material for my work in the United States. I w^ent to 
Europe in order to discuss problems of mutual interest with leading 
authorities in my field in Europe and I went to Europe to meet my 
parents, my old parents who at that time left Germany, and to bring 
them to the United States. 

Mr, Arens. All right, sir. 

Did you take another trip then ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, the next trip I took in 1945. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go then ? 

Mr. Nathan. I took that trip — I don't know whether I should say 
as an employee or as with the United States War Department. 

Mr. Arens. Were you an employee then of the War Department? 

Mr. Nathan. I was an employee of the War Department. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Nathan. I was an instructor at the Biarritz American Uni- 
versity. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat did you instruct ? 

Mr. Nathan. I instructed in the only field I know about, economics. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go on that trip ? 

Mr. Nathan. I was chosen out of many thousands of American 
teachers and professors to go overseas by the War Department to 
teach the boys, men and officers, of the United States Army. 

Mr.AjRENS. All right, sir. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4549 

Did you take another trip to Europe ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, I took another trip to Europe. As far as I know, 
the next time was in 1946. 

I would like to say, Mr. Counsel, that I am making those statements 
to the best of my belief at the moment. 

Mr. Arens. We understand. 

Mr. Nathan. I am utterly unprepared at the moment. 

Mr. Arens, We want your best recollection. 

Where did you go on your trip in 1946 ? 

Mr. Nathan. As far as I recall, I only went to England. 

Mr. Arens. What was the purpose of that trip ? 

Mr. Nathan. The purpose of that trip was to carry on discussions 
with a number of leading educators in England for a period of 10 
days in preparation of what is today known as Brandeis University 
I did that work in association with Professor Einstein. He and I were 
intimately connected with the original creation and development of 
Brandeis University. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir, did you then apply for another passport? 

Mr. Nathan. I think before 1 went in 1946 I applied for a pass- 
port. This is the passport that the gentleman on your left is just 

Mr. Arens. When was your next trip ? 

Mr. Nathan. As far as I recall in the summer of 1947. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the occasion for that trip to Europe. 

Mr. Nathan. I was engaged, I have been engaged, in the study of 
the development of the various economies in Europe. One is England, 
one is the east of Europe and one was supposed to be Israel, but I 
haven't been into Israel yet. I have been a student of changing eco- 
nomic systems for many^ many years, one of my special fields. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere were you 

Mr. Nathan. Let me finish. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. , • i . 

Mr. Nathan. I published a book here in the United States which is 
called The Nazi Economic System, which is the outcome of my work 
in that field. I was very much interested in the developments of the 
various economic systems in Europe after the war and I went to Europe 
in the summer of 1947 for the only purpose of collecting material on 
the changes in the British economy after the war. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed at that time ? 

Mr. Nathan. I was employed by New York University m New 
York and by Howard University in Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arens. And then, since you made that trip, have you made 
application for still another passport? „ , j. • 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, I made an application for another passport m 

December 1952. ,. • t 

Mr. Arens. Now, in the course of the proceedings m your applica- 
tion for a passport, did you have an interview with the officials o± 
the Department of State ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. During the course of that interview, were you inter- 
rogated as to whether or not you had ever been a member ot the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, I was. I was interrogated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you answer the questions ? 

79932 — 56 — ^pt, 3 5 



4550 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Nathan. Mr. Counsel 



Mr. Arens. Just a moment, please, sir. Did you answer the ques- 
tions propounded to you by the officials of the Department of State 
as to whether or not you had ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Nathan. Mr. Counsel, I think you know the answer. The 
answer is in the records which were deposited with the State De- 
partment and with the district court in the District of Columbia 
and with the court of appeals in the District of Columbia. 

Mr. Arens. Would you answer the question that is outstanding on 
this record now ? 

Mr. Nathan. There is no need for me to answer that question 
again. 

Mr. Arens. Answer it. 

Mr. Nathan. I don't see any need for answering it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. BouDiN. Repeat the question. 

Mr. Arens. The essence of the question is : 

During the conferences with the officials of the Department of 
State in the process of your trying to procure a passport, were you 
interrogated as to whether or not you are or have been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Nathan. Would you repeat the question, please, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, this is the third time right here in a 
row. 

When you were interrogated by the officials of the Department of 
State, did they ask you whether or not you had ever been a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Nathan. I think I said before that they did ask me. 

Mr. Arens. Did you refuse to answer the question as to whether 
or not you had ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Nathan. I did not refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. What did you say ? 

Mr. Nathan. I submitted an affidavit. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Nathan. Mr. Chairman, I would like to make a statement here 
concerning the questions about my political beliefs as well as about 
my political and private associations. 

First, I believe that under the first, fourth and ninth amendments 
to the Constitution this committee has not the right to inquire into the 
political beliefs or political and private associations of Americans. 

Secondly, I further believe that any question about my political 
beliefs or political and private associations is not within the jurisdic- 
tion of this committee or pertinent to the purpose of the present in- 
vestigation by the committee. 

Thirdly, although my political beliefs and associations have been 
widely known for many years and also I have always believed in stat- 
ing them publicly at any time and place of my own choosing, among 
others in the court of appeals in Washington, I am for the reasons 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4551 

stated above not able as a matter of conscience and principle to answer 
any questions by this committee as to my political beliefs or political 
and private associations. 

Mr. Arens. Now, forgetting any question respecting any beliefs or 
any associations, tell us now whether or not you have ever been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Nathan. With reference to the statement which I have just pre- 
sented to the committee, I refuse to answer that question. 

The Chairman. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Nathan. I refuse to answer in view of the statement which I 
have just read. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think we should say that we do not accept his 
answer. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Nathan. In view of the statement which I have just read, I am 
not able and not willing to make any statement about my political 
beliefs and associations. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct the witness. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Nathan. I have said a moment ago that I have had great pride 
in becoming an American citizen 17 years ago today. Before I became 
an American citizen 

The Chairman. You are so proud of being an American citizen, 
why do you not answer these simple questions ? 

Mr. Nathan. Because I feel it is an infringement of my first-amend- 
ment rights, Mr. Chairman. I have stated many times what my politi- 
cal beliefs are at times and places of my own choosing, and I do not 
feel your committee has the right to ask me those questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. Then I understand that in refusing to answer the 
question, you are not relying on the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Nathan. No, I am not relying on the fifth amendment. I am 
relying on the first, fourth and ninth amendments. 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you a photostatic copy of an aflfi- 
davit (reading) : 

State of New York, 

County of Neiv York, ss: 

Otto Nathan, being duly sworn, deposes and says : 
I am not now and never have been a member of the Communist Party. 
Sworn to before me the 20th day of April 1953. 

(The affidavit referred to was marked "Otto Nathan Exhibit No. 
1" for identification purposes and. filed for the information of the 
committee.) 

I ask you if that is your signature appended to that affidavit ? 

Mr. Nathan. Sir,*! am unable to verify here a photostat which you 
submit to me without showing me the original. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make an affidavit on April 20, 1953 ? 

Mr. Nathan. I answered that question before, Mr. Counsel, that I 
submitted an affidavit to the State Department. There is no need to 
ask me that question a second time. 

Mr. Arens. Wait just a second. 

Did you submit an affidavit to the Department of State under date 
of April 20, 1953, reading as follows : 

I am not now and never have been a member of the Communist Party. ? 



4552 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Nathan. I don't recall the date but I have made that state- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make it available to the Department of State ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Would you mind not pounding on the table? 

Mr. Arens. I do not mean to reflect any discourtesy, counsel. Coun- 
sel's comments are snide, and he is not reflecting credit upon the bar. 

Did you at any time in April of 1953 submit an affidavit to the De- 
partment of State that you were not and have never been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Nathan. First of all, Mr. Counsel, it's not necessary that you 
raise your voice when you speak to me. 

Secondly, I have not understood the question and I would like to 
have it repeated. 

Mr. Arens. I will repeat it the third time. 

Did you submit an affidavit to the Department of State in April of 
1953 that you were not and had never been a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Nathan. I do not know, Mr. Counsel, why you repeat asking 
me the question. I answered it twice before in the affirmative. 

Mr. Arens. Was that affidavit true or was it false ? 

Mr. Nathan. I resent that question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that you direct the witness to answer the 
question. 

The Chairman. Just a minute. 

Answer the question. 

Mr. Nathan. Mr. Chairman, I resent the implications that I have 
made a statement under oath which should not be correct. I refuse 
to answer. I think there is a limit beyond which counsel may not be 
permitted to go. 

I stand here on the record of 63 years. Nobody has ever suggested 
that a statement which I have made under oath was not correct. 

Mr. Scherer. Was it correct ? You can say now. 

Mr. Nathan. No, I am not going to answer that question now, Mr. 
Congressman. 

Mr. Arens. In 1948 

Mr. Nathan. I would very much like the chairman to ask the coun- 
sel not to ask such insulting questions. 

Mr. Arens. If the affidavit was truthful 

Mr. Nathan. I don't want to be insulted by you, Mr. Counsel. In 
any law court of the United States, a sworn affidavit is taken as truth- 
ful until proven to the contrary. 

Do you have the proof that it's not true ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend a conference in Warsaw, Poland, in 
August 1948? 

Mr. Nathan. I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Did you propose to attend a conference in Warsaw in 
August of 1948. 

Mr. Nathan. I did not. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of a page of the 
Communist Daily Worker of August 23, 1948, respecting a peace 
parley to be opened in Poland. Among other things, this article says, 
and I will let you see the entire article : 

The United States will be represented 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4553 

Mr. Nathan. Before you do that, Mr. Counsel, I would like to say 
that no article in the Daily Worker is official proof for me. 

Mr, Arens. I lay before you this document and I direct your at- 
tention to that part of the article which says : 

The United States will be represented at this peace parley in Warsaw, Poland, 
by a number of persons, including Otto Nathan, professor of economics. New 
York University. 

(The document referred to was marked "Otto Nathan Exhibit No. 
2," for identification purposes and filed for information of the com- 
mittee. ) 

Mr. Nathan. I have just told you that I have not attended a con- 
ference in Warsaw, Poland. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly wait until I finish ? 

Would you look at that article and tell us whether or not that re- 
freshes your memory as to any plans that you made to attend a con- 
ference in Poland ? 

Mr. Nathan. I do not need to refresh my recollection. 

I say again, under oath, that I have not attended a conference in 
Warsaw, Poland. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in Poland in 1948 ? 

Mr. Nathan. I was in Poland in 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in Warsaw, Poland, in 1948 ? 

Mr. Nathan. Warsaw, Poland, I was. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in Warsaw, Poland, in 1948 in the capacity 
of representing an organization for a World Congress of Peace or for 
peace ? 

Mr. Nathan. I don't think that that was the name of the organiza- 
tion. I didn't represent anybody but myself and Albert Einstein. I 
didn't represent any organization. 

Mr. Arens. When you say you do not think that is the name of the 
organization, do you have a recollection of a different name that is 
substantially the same ? 

Mr. Nathan. I just said, Mr. Counsel, that I did not represent any 
organization. 

Mr. Arens. Were you there when there was a Congress of Peace in 
Warsaw ? 

Mr. Nathan. I just said I did not attend a Congress of Peace in 
Warsaw. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a knowledge of a Congress of Peace in 
Warsaw in 1948 ? 

Mr. Nathan. I have not, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat conferences, if any, did you attend when you 
you were in Warsaw, Poland, in 1948 ? 

Mr. Nathan. I am sorry, I did not hear the question. 

Mr. Arens. What conferences did you attend in Warsaw, Poland, 
in 1948? 

Mr. Nathan. I did not attend any conferences in Warsaw, Poland, 
in 1948. 

Mr. Arens. What was your mission in Warsaw, Poland, in 1948? 

Mr. Nathan. I spent about a week in Warsaw, Poland, in 1948, to 
acquaint myself with the postwar economic developments of Poland. 

Mr. Arens. Was that after the Communists had taken over Poland ? 

Mr. Nathan. It was in 1948, Mr. Counsel. 



4554 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Akens. When was the coup d'etat there ? Was it not in 1947 ? 

Mr, Nathan. I don't know anything about a coup d'etat. 

Mr. Arens. Was the Government in Poland when you were there in 
1948 under the control of the Communists ? 

Mr. Nathan. I don't know when it was under control of the Com- 
munists. When I was there, as far as I recall, it was a coalition gov- 
ernment. 

Mr. Arens. Now, are you identified, or have you been identified, 
with the National Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions ? 

Mr. Nathan. I said before, Mr. Counsel, that I do not intend to 
make any kind of statements about my political and private associ- 
ations. I don't want to make any statements about that. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Answer that question. 

Mr. Nathan. Mr. Chairman, in view of the statement which I read 
before, I do not intend to make here today before this committee any 
statement about my political or private associations because I do not 
feel that the committee under the first, fourth, and ninth amendments 
has the right to inquire into those associations. 

The Chairman. In other words, you refuse to answer the question 
for the reasons given before ? 

Mr. Nathan. For reasons which I have stated before. 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you a photostatic copy of a program 
of the Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace of the 
National Council of Arts, Sciences, and Professions, bearing a list of a 
number of sponsors, including a person identified here as Dr. Otto 
Nathan, and ask you whether or not you are that person ? 

(Document referred to was marked "Otto Nathan Exhibit No. 3" 
for identification purposes and filed for information of the committee.) 

Mr. Nathan. I am 1 of the 500 or 600 sponsors of that conference ; 
yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Mary Price ? 

Mr. Nathan. Sir, I do not intend to make any statements about my 
private associations. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that he be directed to answer. 

The Chairman. Do you know a Mary Price ? 

Mr. Nathan. I just said, Mr. Chairman, that I do not feel that I 
should make any statements about my private acquaintances and asso- 
ciations. 

The Chairman. You are not being asked anything except whether or 
not you know this person. 

Mr. Nathan. I refuse to answer that question in view of the state- 
ment which I made before. 

Mr. Arens. Now, have you ever been identified with the Congress 
on American-Soviet Relations ? 

Mr. Nathan. First, Mr. Counsel, I don't recall the name. I would 
like you to tell me a little more what identification means. 

Mr. Arens. I will be very glad to do so. 

I lay before you now a photostatic copy of a program, Congress on 
American-Soviet Eelations To Promote Eft'ective Cooperation Be- 
tween the United States and the Soviet Union for a Peaceful World, 
sponsored by the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4555 

This program lists the speakers and leaders in the congress, including 
one Dr. Otto Nathan, identified here as economist and lecturer. 

I lay this now before you and ask you whether or not that refreshes 
your recollection ? 

(Document referred to was marked "Otto Nathan Exhibit No. 4" 
for identification purposes and filed for information of the committee.) 

Mr. Nathan. Well, yes; it does refresh my recollection It doesn't 
mean that I am identified with that organization. 

I attended that congress a few months after I returned from Europe 
and I gave a lecture on the economic developments in Eastern Europe 
in my capacity as economist. I gave those lectures in many other 
places, for instance, Columbia University, Vassar College, and Howard 
University. I have been considered an expert as far as the various 
economic systems in Europe are concerned, and I was frequently in- 
vited in those days after my return from Eastern Europe to give lec- 
tures on that subject, but I didn't identify myself with that congress 
by giving a lecture. 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever employed in the United States Treasury ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Who was your immediate superior? 

Mr. Nathan. I had a number of different superiors. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Harry Dexter White ? 

Mr. Nathan. As a matter of public record, Harry White was the 
Chief of the Division with wiiich I was employed. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Nathan. No, sir ; I have not the slightest notion of his political 
affiliations. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Frank Coe ? 

Mr. Nathan. Frank Coe was at one time the head, the chief, of the 
division with which I was employed, and of course it is a matter of 
public record that we knew each other. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him as a member 

Mr. Nathan. Of course 

Mr. Arens. Of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Nathan. Of course not. 

Mr. Arens. Now, did you know" Nathan Gregory Silvermaster ? 

Mr. Nathan. I knew Nathan Gregory Silvermaster as an economist. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know him also as a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Nathan. Of course not, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Harold Glasser ? 

Mr. Nathan. He was my chief in the Division of Monetary Research 
in the Treasury Department. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Harold Glasser as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Nathan. Of course not. 

You don't need to finish that question. I didn't know anybody 
as a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. ScHERER. You say you did not know anybody as a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Nathan. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was the occasion for your last trip to Europe? 



4556 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

I do not believe we really explored that to the degree whch we intended 
to do. 

Mr. Nathan. There were three purposes for which I went to Eu- 
rope the last time. One was a personal purpose. I wanted to see 
some of my old friends. 

The second was a professional purpose. I was trying to find some 
additional occupation for myself as the writer for Europe on economic 
problems. 

The third purpose was in my capacity as the executor of the 
estate of Albert Einstein. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do in connection with the estate of Dr. 
Einstein? 

Mr. Nathan. Well, I did several things. 

First of all, Albert Einstein had a son who lives in Switzerland 
and I had to negotiate with him and with his guardian about his 
legacy. I also had to see about the place, surroundings in which 
he works and lives. 

The second thing is that, under the will of Albert Einstein, I 
am also in charge of the huge literary and scientific material which 
he left and it was necessary for me to consult with many outstand- 
ing physicists, mathematicians, and scientists in Europe about the 
publication, collection and proper edition of those works. 

Mr. Arens. Did you confer there in Europe with any person who 
was known by you to be a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Nathan. I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member or are you identified with the Con- 
ference for Legislation in the National Interest ? 

Mr. Nathan. I don't know what that is. 

Mr. Arens. Have you in the recent past spoken before the Con- 
ference for Legislation in the National Interest at Manhattan Center 
in New York ? 

Mr. Nathan. I don't think that is an organization. It was a one- 
day affair at which I spoke and at which I spoke about something 
which is very close to my heart, namely, the fight for peace and the 
fight against war, something I have believed in all my life. 

Whenever I get an opportunity to talk about it, particularly in view 
of the developments in the last few years, the utter destructiveness of 
modern weapons, I feel compelled to do so, also out of respect to the 
memory of Albert Einstein, who did me the honor to appoint me as 
his only executor 

Mr. Arens. Have you been identified with the Teachers Union in 
New York City? 

Mr. Nathan, ^^^lat do you mean, "identified" ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you participated in any of their affairs? 

Mr. Nathan. I think I once accepted at one of their affairs an 
award for Albert Einstein, since he could not come to that meeting. 
I think I was the one who accepted it for him. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member of the Teachers Union ? 

Mr. Nathan. I am not. 

(Representative Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mr. iVRENS. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that that would 
conclude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle (presiding). Any questions ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4557 

Mr. Frazier. No questions. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I do not see this witness in any posi- 
tion different from the previous witness, whom we cited for contempt 
when he refused to deliver his passport. 

Of course, in this case, in this instance, the witness has refused to 
answer questions as to his membership in the Communist Party, as 
to whether the affidavit he signed for the State Department was ap- 
proved and, in view of those things, I move and recommend to the full 
committee that tlie witness be cited for contempt. 

Mr. Doyle. That will be taken up with the full committee. 

Doctor, I notice you mentioned that you were in Warsaw 1 week 
in 1948 ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. I notice your memory 

Mr. Nathan. About 1 week. 

Mr. Doyle. About 1 week. 

Mr. Nathan. It might be 9 days, I said before, since I was not 
informed of the purpose and the scope of my investigation, I was 
not able to refresh my memory, I don't want to be caught on a little 
thing like that. 

Mr. Doyle. I am under the impression from your testimony that 
you have a very fine memory and since it might have been 9 days in- 
stead of a week, what week was that or what 9 days in 1948 ? 

Mr. Nathan. It was sometime in August, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. It could have been the week of August 22 ? 

Mr. Nathan. That I don't know. I would have to check that. 

Mr. Doyle. Approximately what time in August ? 

Mr. Nathan. I am sorry, sir ; it was in August 1948. 

Mr. Doyle. Well, was it the first part of August or the last part 
of August ? You have some recollection on that ? 

Mr. Nathan. No, I don't. I think you are overestimating my 
memory. I would have verified those things if you told me what I 
was going to be investigated about. 

Mr. Doyle. The purpose of my question to you was that I noticed 
in this Daily Worker in New York, which our distinguished counsel 
asked you about, they report that you were going to attend this confer- 
ence in Warsaw which was dated August 22, 

Mr. Nathan. I can only repeat that I did not attend any conference 
in Warsaw. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you attend any conference individually without 
representing any group ? 

I noticed in your testimony you specified you did not represent any 
organization, 

Mr, Nathan, That is correct. I did not. 

Mr. Doyle. Did you represent yourself at a conference ? 

Mr, Nathan. Not in Warsaw. 

Mr. Doyle. Wliere was it that you attended a conference ? 

Mr. Nathan. In Wroclaw. 

Mr. Doyle. Was that a peace conference ? 

Mr. Nathan. This was a conference of intellectuals, I don't know 
whether the name of peace might have been included in the title. 

Mr. Doyle. Wlien was that ? 

Mr. Nathan. 1948. 

Mr. Doyle. What month? 



4558 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Nathan. August 1948. 

Mr. Doyle. What days in August ? 

Mr. Nathan. I am sorry, I do not recall the days. 

Mr. Doyle. Aj^proximately what day ? 

Mr. Nathan. I am sorry, 1 told you before I don't recall what part 
of August it was. 

Mr. Doyle. And in that conference did you represent an organ- 
ization ? 

Mr. Nathan. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. Doyle. Approximately how many people attended that con- 
ference ? 

Mr. Nathan. I should say maybe a thousand, maybe less, maybe 
more. 

Mr. Doyle. There were delegates there from Great Britain, were 
there not ? 

Mr. Nathan. I don't know whether there were delegates from Great 
Britain. There were people from Great Britain there. 

Mr. Doyle. There were distinguished Englishmen ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, very distinguished Englishmen. 

Mr. Doyle. And very distinguished men from Eussia, as well as 
you and other men from the United States ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. What was the name of the conference ? 

Mr. Nathan. I just mentioned before, Mr. Congressman, I know 
that there was — maybe Congressman Doyle has the name before him — 
it was an intellectual conference. I don't know the exact name. 

Mr. Doyle. To refresh your memory, this article says : 

World-renowned leaders in art, science. 

Mr. Nathan. May I say something, Mr. Congressman ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Mr. Nathan. It's not necessary for that purpose to take the Daily 
Worker. The New York Times and all American newspapers reported 
in great detail about that conference. 

Mr. Doyle. Why, of course; it was an important conference. 

Mr. Nathan. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. No doubt of it, but I do notice that the name of this con- 
ference, you said it was a conference of intellectuals ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Now, listen to this and I will read the first two lines of 
this report in the Daily Worker : 

World-renowned leaders in art, science, and literature from 44 nations will 
meet at the Intellectual World Conference for Peace — 

I stand corrected — 

will meet at the Intellectuals World Congress for Peace — 

instead of "conference." 

Mr. Nathan. Yes. 

Mr. Doyle. That specifies that the name of it was the Congress of 
Intellectuals. I notice you used the term "intellectuals"? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, sir. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4559 

Mr. Doyle, Could it possibly be the same congress ? 

Mr. Nathan. Yes, I think it is the same, I said before that I do 
not recall correctly the name of the conference or congress, as you say. 

It was, of course, one of the purposes of that conference to get people 
of the entire world together and to try to discuss how peace could be 
made more secure and war less likely to occur. 

Mr. Doyle. It was a very worthy purpose '? 

Mr. Nathan. It was a very worthy purpose, Mr. Congressman, and 
that is why I was so eager to go and this is why Dr. Einstein was eager 
to send me as his representative. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course. Dr. Nathan, and may I make it clear that I 
am sure that no Member of Congress has any higher purpose and ob- 
jective than a prayer for peace, but I did feel as I listened to your testi- 
mony that the possibility was that you were either in error or did not 
quite remember or were for some reason a little bit uncertain about 
having attended this Intellectuals Conference. 

Mr. Nathan, Not at all. The counsel kept asking me whether I 
attended a conference in Warsaw and I said no. "When you asked me 
whether I attended a conference in Wroclaw I said yes. 

Mr. Doyle. I thank you for answering my question, because appar- 
ently the same dates were involved, no matter where the conference 
was. 

Mr. Nathan. It's quite possible, if counsel had used the New York 
Times as a basis for the interrogation, not the Daily Worker, the mis- 
take would not have occurred, but since I am under oath I can only 
reply to the question he asked me. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course, you have to be very careful. 

Any questions, Mr. Scherer? 

Mr. Arens. Just one question, if you please, Mr. Chairman. 

Did you attend a conference in England on your last trip abroad? 

Mr. Nathan, I went to a conference in England. I don't know 
what you call "attending." 

Mr. Arens. What was the conference ? 

Mr. Nathan. I attended sessions of a conference, and again I am 
not quite sure about the title. This was a parliamentarian organiza- 
tion for world government. I think that is its approximate title. 

This conference was devoted to a discussion of the potential impli- 
cations of the use of atomic bombs and atomic weapons on mankind, 
and the overwhelming majority of all the men attending, outstanding 
scientists from all over the world, felt that in the case of atomic bombs 
being used in a future war, maybe t-liat would mean the annihilation 
of entire mankind, 

Mr, Arens, Who invited you to attend that conference ? 

Mr, Nathan, Bertrand Russell, one of the greatest living philoso- 
phers in the world, 

Mr, Arens. Did you represent any organization ? 

Mr. Nathan. I represented Otto Nathan. 

Mr. Arens. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. BouDiN, Before you adjourn, may I say something not with 
respect to this witness ? 



4560 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

A week ago we were scheduled to appear here with Mr. Henry 
Willcox, a client of mine in this audience. Mr. Willcox reached Wash- 
ington at 6 o'clock in the evening, after committee counsel had sent a 
telegram to him that morning which of course didn't reach him. 

Mr. Willcox came here last night and he has been here all day. I 
think the committee ought to, and I would appreciate it if they would, 
so that neither he nor I would have to come back to Washington again. 
I have to be in Washington again on Friday. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee stands in recess until tomorrow morning 
at 10 o'clock in this room. 

(Whereupon, at 4 : 40 p. m., Tuesday, June 12, the committee re- 
cessed, to reconvene at 10 a. m., Wednesday, June 13, 1956.) 



INVESTIGATION OF THE UNAUTHORIZED USE OF 
UNITED STATES PASSPORTS— PART 3 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 13, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D. C. 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met 
at 10 a. m., pursuant to recess in the caucus room of the House Office 
Building, Hon. Morgan M. Moulder (chairman of the subcommittee) 
presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Moulder (presiding), 
Walter (appearance as noted), Doyle, Willis, Kearney, and Scherer. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director, and Donald T. 
Appell, investigator. 

Mr. Moulder. The subcommittee will be in order. 

The record will show that the subcommittee, composed of Repre- 
sentatives Clyde Doyle of California, Gordon H. Scherer of Ohio, 
Bernard W. Kearney of New York, and myself, Morgan M. Moulder, 
of Missouri, has been duly appointed by the chairman of the full com- 
mittee to conduct proceedings in the hearings to be had at this time. 

Are you ready to proceed Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Henry Willcox. 

Will you please remain standing while the chairman administers an 
oath to you, Mr. Willcox. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you solemnly swear that the evidence you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Willcox. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HENRY WILLCOX, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LEONARD B. BOUDIN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and oc- 
cupation. 

Mr. Willcox. My name is Henry Willcox, 38 Dock Road, South 
Norwalk, Conn., and my present occupation is a taxpayer. 

Mr. BouDiN. Could we request no pictures while the testimony is 
being given ? 

Mr. Moulder. There will be no pictures taken while the testimony 
is being given by the witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Willcox, are you appearing today in response to a 
subpena served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

4561 



4562 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

_ Mr. WiLLcox. Yes, sir. May I make a statement in that connec- 
tion ? We wrote a letter, or my counsel wrote a letter on May 16 that 
I have a case against the State Department under adjudication in the 
District Court of the District of Columbia, Judge Letts, and it seems 
improper, perhaps, for the committee to hear anything that has to do 
with my eligibility for a passport while this case is pending. 

Mr. BouDiN. This matter is now sub judice, Judge Letts having be- 
fore him the very subject matter of this hearing. It is impossible for 
the committee to conduct the hearing on this subject without going into 
material which is before Judge Letts for decision. It seems to me 
both as a matter of jurisdiction and as a matter of propriety— -  

Mr. Moulder. Of course counsel is not permitted to make statements 
or make arguments. 

Mr. BouDiN. It is not for the purpose of argument but I want you 
to know what the problem is. It does not seem to me that when we 
have a case actually pending and awaiting decision, that the committee 
should hear testimony on the subject. 

Mr. Moulder. The committee will be in order. 

I am advised by counsel that the Department of Justice and the 
officials in the Department of Justice have conferred with counsel, 
Mr. Arens, and that there are no objections on the part of the Depart- 
ment of Justice for this witness to testify before the committee and 
to answer questions. 

Mr. BouDiN. May I make one observation and point out one thing for 
your information? The Department of Justice is on the other side 
in the litigation. They are not the ones to agree that the matter is not 
sub judice. So you have really been conferring with the other side in 
litigation. I think that the committee might want to consider whether 
it is really proper when a matter is before a court for the committee 
to go into the same subject. This is not to mean that you cannot 
eventually examine Mr. "Willcox, but certainly while Judge Letts is 
considering the very subject matter of this hearing, I do not see how 
the committee can go into it, 

Mr. Moulder. Let us proceed. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing in response to a subpena served upon 
you by the House Committee on Un-American Activities, is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Willcox. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Willcox. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr.BouDiN. Leonard B.Boudin, of New York City. 

Mr. Arens. The subpena pursuant to which you are appearing 
today requires you to produce certain docmnents. 

Mr. Willcox. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have those documents in your custody and 

control ? 

Mr. Willcox. I do not have any such documents, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us where they are ? 

Mr. Willcox. I can tell you where one of them is. My original pass- 
port, however, that I took out about 1918, 1 seem to have lost. I have 
searched everywhere that I can think of for it and I cannot find it. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4563 

Mr. Arens. I understood you to say a moment ago that you were not 
presently engaged in work or an occupation and I take it that you are 
retired. 

Mr. WiLLCox. Substantially so ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your last occupation ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. I was president of the Willcox Construction Co. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that located ? 

Mr. Willcox. Pardon me, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. Where was that located ? 

Mr. Willcox. Long Island City. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of the work ? 

Mr. Willcox. Building construction. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Willcox, were you issued a United States passport 
in 1952? 

Mr. Willcox. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And in the application which you filed for the pass- 
port 

Mr, Moulder. Will counsel suspend for just a moment. There seems 
to be some loud talk or noise in the rear of the room and it is impos- 
sible to hear the counsel or the witness. 

Mr. Arens. I will start the questioning again, if you please. 

I lay before you now, Mr, Willcox, a photostatic copy of a document 
entitled "Department of State Passport Application," bearing the 
signature of Henry Willcox, I ask you whether or not that is a true 
and correct representation of the passport application which you made 
in 1952. 

Mr. Willcox, Mr. Arens, would it be appropriate at this time for 
me to read the statement which I submitted to the committee? 

Mr, Arens. May I respectfully suggest the committee has a prac- 
tice of taking such matters under advisement. 

Mr, Moulder, You may file your statement, 

Mr. BouDiN. This was filed about a week ago. 

Mr, Moulder. Respond to the question propounded by counsel. He 
has asked you to examine a document which he has handed to you, 

(The witness consulted with his counsel,) 

Mr, Arens, May I invite your attention first of all, to the signature 
that might be helpful to you in identifying the document. 

Mr. Willcox, May I raise the objection that this is directly the sub- 
ject which is under adjudication in the district court, 

Mr. Moulder. That question has been thoroughly discussed and the 
committee, as I understand, witliout objection, has overruled your 
objection. 

Mr. BouDiN. Can it be understood just to save time that the witness 
need not repeat that objection and this objection would go to the 
whole of the testimony ? 

Mr, Moulder. That is correct. 

Mr. BouDiN. Thank you. 

Mr. Willcox, Yes, sir, this is my signature. This is my application, 
and this is my writing. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that this docu- 
ment be marked appropriately and incorporated by reference in the 
record. 



4564 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Moulder. The document referred to will be marked "Willcox 
Exhibit No. 1" and so admitted. 

Mr. Arens. In the application which you filed, you state the purpose 
of the trip was travel and business. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Willcox. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at the time you made this application intend 
to travel to Europe for business and travel ? 

Mr. Willcox. Well, we had a project pending, negotiations going 
on with the Turkish Government or a department thereof, and I cer- 
tainly would have been at a great advantage to be able to go to Turkey 
quickly if that project had matured. 

Mr. Arens. Did you designate here the countries which you intended 
to visit ? 

Mr. Willcox. I put down France, that was the country. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at the time you made the application intend to 
visit any country besides France ? 

Mr. Willcox. I thought that was wide open, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Would you just answer the question. Did you intend at 
the time you made this application to visit any country other than 
France ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Willcox. I indicated I might possibly go to Turkey. 

Mr. Arens. Was there any other country which you indicated that 
you might possibly visit ? 

Mr. Willcox. I think not. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have an intention at the time you filed this 
application for your trip to visit any other countries beside France or 
prospectively Turkey ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

( Mr. Walter assumed the Chair. ) 

Mr. Willcox. Well, I think the best answer I can make to that is 
that I had not limited myself in any way, and I cannot say that I had 
an intention, but I know we discussed possibly going to Italy. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, prior to the time that you made your applica- 
tion, discuss going to any other country ? 

( The witness consulted with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Willcox. If you are referring to the possibility of our getting 
a trip to China, I knew that there was such a possibility. It seemed 
very remote to me, but I would be very foolish to say that I would 
not accept it if it materialized, because when it did materialize I 
accepted it. 

Mr. Arens. What conversations did you have prior to the time you 
made this application which dealt with a prospective trip by yourself 
to Red China? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that counsel here be admonished 
to advise his client only on his constitutional grounds and not to 
suggest answers to him. 

Mr. BouDiN. May I respectfully suggest that counsel stand a little 
away so I can talk in confidence to my client? I asked him to do so 
off the record, because I did not want to seem discourteous, but I 
think I have a right to consult my client. 

The Chairman. That is right. We permit you to consult with the 
witness. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4565 

Mr. BouDiN. This is my client, here, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. With your client, but you are not here by any right 
at all. 

Mr. BouDiN. I am not going to argue that because we discussed 
that before, but what I say is that whatever rights I have or whatever 
discussions I have they are to be held in confidence. 

The Chairman. Then I want to suggest to you that you advise your 
client on constitutional questions and not put words in his mouth and 
not tell him how to answer questions. 

Mr. BouDiN. Your statement is out of order because he has not been 
told what to say. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Wliy did you not put on your passport application, 
Mr. Willcox, that you proposed to visit Turkey if you had that in 
mind? 

Mr. Willcox. I wrote an accompanying letter and I thought it was 
sufficient to put down the original point of arrival in Europe, and 
anything subsequent to that would be taken care of some other way, 
and apparently it was satisfactory to the Passport Bureau. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in this accompanying letter indicate that you 
proposed perhaps to go to Turkey in addition to going to France ? 

Mr. Willcox. I did so. 

Mr. Arens. And did you in that letter indicate that you proposed, 
or that there might be a possibility, we will put it that way, of your 
going to Red China ? 

Mr. Willcox. I am not quite as naive as that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I do not quite understand. 

Mr. Willcox. I am sure that if I put that down, the passport would 
have been refused. 

Mr. Arens. Is that why you did not put down in your letter or in 
your passport application the prospect of your trip ending in Red 
China? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willcox. I think it was much too nebulous to put down, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You said a moment ago that if you had put it down — 
you would not be so naive as to put it down because you thought your 
passport would have been refused. 

Mr. Willcox. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have discussions with anyone prior to the time 
that you made your application respecting the Peiping Conference in 
Red China? 

Mr. Willcox. Yes ; I had heard about it. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us with whom you have had discussions prior to 
the time that you made this passport application respecting the 
Peiping Conference in Red China. 

Mr. Willcox. I think Dr. Willard Uphaus told us about the con- 
ference. 

Mr. Arens. And who is Dr. Willard Uphaus ? 

Mr. Willcox. Dr. Willard Uphaus is not an ordained minister, but 
he is religiously trained, I believe, and he is very much concerned with 
the human brotherhood and peace, and he has a movement. 

Mr. Arens. Did he solicit you to go to Red China to the Peiping 
Conference prior to the time that you made this application ? 

79932— 56— pt. 3 6 



4566 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. WiLLcox. I would not say so. He told us about it. 

Mr. Arens. Where did he tell you about it ? 

Mr. WiLi.cox. At our house. 

Mr. Arens. Did he talk with your wife likewise, with respect to the 
Peipin^ Conference? 

Mr. WiLLcox. May I ask you, sir, according to the rules in your 
little book, am I supposed to discuss my wife's conversations ? 

Mr. Arens. I did not ask you to discuss your wife's conversation, I 
asked whether or not he solicited your wife likewise. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. WiLLCox. Counsel advises me that that is still testimony about 
my wife and I do not want to seem silly, but after all you made the 
rules. 

Mr. Arens. Did Dr. Uphaus, in your presence, solicit both you and 
your wife to go to the Peipmg Conference prior to the time you made 
this application m 1952, on which you designated the country you were 
going to visit, as France ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. He certainly did not designate any country. He did 
not instruct us how to make out our passport application, and I am 
absolutely sure of that. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us whether or not Dr. Uphaus solicited you to o-o 
to the Red Conference at Peiping, China. *' 

Mr. Wiixcox. I have already said I would hardlv call it solicitation. 
He thought it might be possible that we could be invited. 

Mr. Arens. What made you think your passport would be turned 
down if you had placed on your application that you proposed to go 
to Red China ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Well, Dr. Uphaus was unable to get a passport because 
he had been to another of these peace conferences. 

Mr. A.RENS. Did you know that prior to the time you made this 
application ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Surely. I figured the only way that we had a chance 
of going was because we did not know anything about China and we 
did not know anything about the peace movement. 

Mr. Arens. Did you figure that before you made this application 
to get your passport to go to France ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. WiLLCox. I figured that the best thing to do was to go to France 
and see what developed, if the Turkish business developed I would go 
to Turkey. 

Mr. Arens. Did you sort of figure that you had better not list Red 
China as one of the places of destination in your application ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Obviously. What would you expect ? 

Mr. Scherer. May I ask a question, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Witness, you swore to the statements you made in that applica- 
tion for a passport, did you not ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. I believe so, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Then you knew at the time you made this application 
that you were committing per j ury , di d you not ? 

Mr. WiLECox. I certainly did not. 

Mr. Scherer. You did not ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. No. 

Mr. Scherer. Your testimony clearly indicates that your sole ob- 
was going to China and you just said that you did not think that you 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4567 

would get a passport if you indicated that you were going to attend 
this conference in Red China, so you did obtain a passport by fraud 
and by making false statements under oath, and that constitutes 
perjury. 

Mr. WiLLCox. I think not, sir. 

Mr. ScHERER. I think the record is clear that it does. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, if you please, sir, when did you arrive in France ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. It seems to me about September. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you stay in France ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. Between 2 and 3 weeks, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. When did you leave France ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. It was late in September or early in October, I would 
not be sure. 

Mr. Arens. Did anything happen in France with reference to any 
proposed travel by yourself to Red China ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And what happened ? Tell the committee. 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Well, we were approached. 

Mr. Arens. Who is "we," first of all, please, sir ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. Perhaps I had better say "I," sir, in view of the re- 
strictions in the committee rulebook. 

The Chairman. Do not say "I" if it was "we." Tell the truth. Go 
ahead. 

Mr. WiLLCOx. We were given a visa on a separate sheet of paper 
permitting us exit from France, and we went down to the airport and 
bought our tickets. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Willcox, you are under oath to tell the truth. Will 
you tell this committee, if you please, sir, who approached you and 
what was said when the arrangements to go to Red China were made ? 

Mr. Willcox. As I recall it, we were sent to see the editor of a 
magazine, but I cannot remember the name of the magazine. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio sent you there ? 

Mr. Willcox. I think there was an office of the World Peace Coun- 
cil in Paris. 

Mr. Arens. How did you get to the office of the World Peace Coun- 
cil in Paris ? 

Mr. Willcox. Well, we went around there and inquired if they knew 
us and they did not know us. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Willcox, I wish that you would just tell this com- 
mittee how you happened to make arrangements in Paris to go to 
Red China. Just tell us about it.^ 

Mr. Willcox. Let me say Iwas very much interested in China, that 
I had read Edgar Snow's book, and Jack Sheldon's book and I wanted 
very much to go, and that I had heard that there was a possibility of 
going and that it would be through the World Peace Council, and I 
went to the offices of the World Peace Council to see what the pos- 
sibilities were. 

Mr. Arens. This burning desire to go to Red China did not just 
spontaneously develop after you arrived in France, did it? 

Mr. Willcox. Pardon me. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willcox. Would you repeat the question, sir ? 



4568 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. This burning desire to go to Red China that you just de- 
scribed, did not just spontaneously develop after you landed on the soil 
of France, did it? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. No ; but up to that time it had always been like a burn- 
ing desire to see the back side of the moon. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us how you happened to make arrangements there 
in Paris to go to Red China, and what processes you went through, and 
whom you saw, and what you did. 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Well, as I say, we went to the offices of, I think it was 
the World Peace Council, and I remember we were sent to the office of 
a magazine editor and I think it was his secretary tliat eventually 
handed us the visa on this separate piece of paper that gave us exit 
from France and told us to go down to the airport and take a plane. 

Mr. Arens. Did you display your American passport to these folks 
who made the arrangements for you ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. WiLLCox. As far as I can remember, sir, they did not even ask 
to see our passports. 

Mr. Arens. Did your passport contain a restriction on travel to Red 
China? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Well, I understand not, sir. It had a rubber stamp 
which said it was not valid in China and other countries, but it did not 
say that an American could not go to these places, only that his pass- 
port was not valid. 

Mr. Ajrens. And this visa you obtained in Paris to go to Red China 
was on a separate piece of paper, is that correct ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go from Paris ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. I think we stopped in Belgium, Czechoslovakia, I 
think we took gas in Poland, and we went through the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. Before you left Paris did you get yourself designated as 
a delegate to this peace conference at Peiping, Red China ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Not that I recall. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not you were designated as a 
delegate ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. I was designated as a delegate and accepted as such 
when I got there. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us your best recollection as to the actual 
time that you left France, and how late in September it was ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Let me see. We were in Peiping for National Day, 
which was October 1, and we must have spent anywhere from a week to 
10 days on the way. So it would have been around the 20th, I should 
think. 

Mr. Arens. Around the 20th of September that you left Paris. 

Mr. WiLLCox. I should think so. 

Mr. Arens. And when did you arrive in Peiping? 

Mr. WiLLcox. I think it was the 30th or the 31st there would 

not be any 31st but it would be the 29th or 30th. 

Mr. Arens. Of September ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of the Shanghai 
News of September 26, 1952, 4 days before you arrived in Red China, 
in which is set forth the list of the American delegation to that con- 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4569 

ference, including among others Henry Willcox, engineer, and Anita 
Willcox, artist. I invite your attention to that article on the 26th, 
some 4 days before you arrived in Peiping. 

Now, can you tell the committee how you happened to have been 
designated and publicly described as a delegate to the Peiping Con- 
ference 4 days before you arrived there ? 

Mr. Willcox. I do not believe I can tell you when the actual — 
what should I say — designation took place. 

The Chairman. Wlio designated you ? 

Mr. Willcox. Well, my impression would be, sir, that the Ameri- 
cans who gathered at Peiping sort of recognized each other and said, 
"This is it," and we did not have any Congressmen with us or any 
Secretaries of State. 

The Chairman. That is natural, they would not have been there. 

Mr. Willcox. All other countries did, that is of the Pacific group. 

The Chairman. Wlio was it that selected you as the spokesman for 
the United States representation ? 

Mr. Willcox. I can only say, sir, it was very catch-as-catch-can. 

The Chairman. This was done before you arrived ? 

Mr. Willcox. Probably. 

The Chairman. Who were the people over there who would have 
passed on the question of the spokesman for the United States dele- 
gation ? 

Mr. Willcox. I think that I can say honestly that I do not know. 
I believe a telegram came from New York, probably to Paris, to 
accredit us, and I have no idea who sent it or to whom it was sent. 

The Chairman. To accredit you ? 

Mr. Willcox. To accredit us as delegates. 

The Chairman. And by "us," you mean who ? 

Mr. Willcox. All right, sir, I mean myself and my wife. 

The Chairman. From whom did the telegram come in the United 
States? 

Mr. Willcox. What is that? 

The Chairman. Who sent the telegram from the United States 
accrediting you and your wife as delegates ? 

Mr. Willcox. I would not know, sir, I do not know. 

The Chairman. You want us to believe that you received a telegram 
from someone you did not know, accrediting you and, as a result of 
that, you went to Eed China as a United States delegate to this Com- 
munist conference, is that right ? 

Mr. Willcox. Pardon me, I did not say we received the telegraph, 
I think the telegram went to the World Peace Council, probably in 
Paris, vouching for us as delegates. I never saw the telegram. 

The Chairman. Who notified you that you had been selected as a 
delegate ? 

Mr. Willcox. What is that ? 

The Chairman. Who notified you that you had been selected as the 
United States delegate ? 

Mr. Willcox. That I honestly cannot remember. 

Mr. Moulder. Prior to interrogation by the chairman, you said, 
"we gathered there and sort of recognized each other." That makes 
a very strong impression upon me. Was there any acquaintance of 
those who gathered there, or any prior arrangement to gather there, 
which caused you to recognize one another ? 



4570 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. WiLLCox. Well, you know, Americans that far from home 
would be glad to meet each other. 

Mr. Moulder. I know, but the way I perceived the statement, you 
said, "We recognized each other." 

Mr. WiLLCOx. I meant by that, we recognized each other as dele- 
gates, and we told the Chinese delegation that this is us. 

Mr. Moulder. How many of you were there ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. About 15. May I submit the report of the delegation 
which was printed up ? 

The Chairman. Did you submit that to the United States Depart- 
ment of State ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. I am not sure if we submitted it hitherto. I am quite 
sure that they have a copy. 

The Chairman. I know the Department of Justice has, but I am 
wondering whether the State Department has one. 

Mr. WiLLcox. I believe this is a complete list of the delegates, each 
one reporting what he was interested in. 

(Documents were handed to the committee.) 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest this document, to which we have 
just been alluding, be designated as "Willcox Exhibit No. 2" and in- 
corporated by reference in the record. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Edwin H. Cerney before you left the 
United States ? 

Mr. Willcox. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Of the delegates at the Peiping Peace Conference whom 
did you know prior to the time you left the United States ? 

Mr. Willcox. Can I see a copy of that book ? 

Mr. Arens. Which book ? 

Mr. Willcox. The report I just handed you, there was a last copy. 
There was one person and I am not sure she was a delegate, or not. 
There was one person that we had met before. 

Mr. Arens. Who paid your expenses from Paris to Peiping? 

Mr. Willcox. The World Peace Council, to the best of my belief. 

Mr. Arens. Did you display to the World Peace Council there your 
credentials identifying yourself so that they would pay your expenses? 

Mr. Willcox. No, sir ; there was no such formality. 

Mr. Arens. How did you get your expenses paid from Paris to 
Peking? 

Mr. Willcox. Well, I really do not know. We were put on a plane 
and we would go and we would not pay any fare. I will say that I 
made contributions to the peace movement in the United States which 
I think are substantially equivalent to perhaps what my expenses 
might have cost, but there was no recognition of the obligation. 

Mr. Kearney. I would like to ask the witness this question : Wliat 
was the peace conference in the United States to which you made con- 
tributions ? 

Mr. Willcox. The peace movement. 

Mr. Kearney. What peace movement ? 

Mr. Willcox. There was a Committee for Peaceful Alternatives, 
and I had been looking for a long time for some relatively respectable 
group who might sponsor peace in the United States because I felt 
that the United States was drifting as far as getting along with the 
rest of the world was concerned. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4571 

Mr. Kearney. Are you a signer of the Stockholm Peace Petition ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. I probably am, sir, but I do not recall. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you know that that was sponsored by the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. I would sign. 

Mr. Kearney. You would sign anything ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. I would go along with anything that was going the 
way I wanted to go, sir. 

The Chatrman. I have just been looking over your passport, Mr. 
Willcox — arc you through with your conference ? I have been look- 
ing over your passport and I find that on the very last page, with 38 
pages intervening from the last legal visa to the 'last page, what ob- 
viously was an attempt to remove a visa. How did this page happen 
to be erased ? 

Mr. Willcox. That was erroneously stamped by a Polish customs 
official when he should have stamped the separate visa, and he tried to 
take it off. 

The Chairman. A separate visa? Just a moment, let me pursue 
this. This visa was inserted by the Polish Government? Or a rep- 
resentative of the Polish Government ? 

Mr. Willcox. The visa would be permission from a country to 
come into it. 

The Chairman. I understand that. So that a country gave you per- 
mission to come into it, and what country was it ? 

Mr. Willcox. Well, in this case it must have been Poland. 

The Chairman. Was it Poland ? 

Mr. Willcox. I presume so. 

The Chairman. Where was this United States passport stamped 
by a representative of the Polish Government ? 

Mr. Willcox. In Poland. 

The Chairman. In Poland ? 

Mr. Willcox. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. So that you went into Poland without permission 
from the United States and when you were in Poland, you obtained 
a visa from an official of the Communist Polish government ? 

Mr. Willcox. No, I think the visa was gotten before I entered. 

The Chairman. So that you entered with a visa ? 

Mr. Willcox. Yes. 

The Chairman. Why did you attempt to remove it from your 
passport? 

Mr. Willcox, Well, because it did^not belong there. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

The Chairman. What is your answer, Mr. Boudin ? 

Mr. Boudin. What the witness has said under oath in litigation, and 
it is a matter under litigation, that he did not remove it. 

The Chairman. I want you to tell me why you attempted to remove 
a visa that appears on the last page and not where it should have ap- 
peared with the other visas. 

Mr. Willcox. I wish to say, sir, that that is not what is known as a 
visa, that customs stamp. 

The Chairman. That is not a customs stamp at all. 

Mr. Willcox. I believe it is, and I believe that is what the State 
Department experts, the FBI experts found it to be. 



4572 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, as the testimony will reveal, that stamp 
was inserted in his passport on his way back from Red China, and 
the passport itself has been sent to the FBI laboratory, and the FBI 
processes have developed by technicians that they know what was in 
the original stamp, which appears in this photostat which I will leave. 

The Chairman. So that permission to enter Poland was given to 
this man while he was in China. 

Mr. Arens. On his way back from Red China. 

The permission to enter Poland on your way to Red China was 
given to you in Paris, is that correct ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. I am not sure, sir. The World Peace Council took 
care of all of these things. 

Mr. Arens. But the World Peace Council did not have your pass- 
port in Paris, did it ? 

Mr. Wilcox. No. 

Mr. Kearney. You did not contact the American Embassy in Paris 
when going to Poland or Red China, did you? 

Mr. WiLLcox. No, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. You knew better than that. 

Mr. WiLLCox. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I want at this point to call your attention to some- 
thing I just discovered this morning, because I have been interested in 
the attempts made by so-called tourist agencies to have Polish citizens, 
or former Polish citizens visit their relatives in Poland. This is the 
warning contained in the pamphlet issued by the State Department 
and I trust that every person born in Poland who contemplates a visit 
to his former native land will bear in mind, this, that there is no treaty 
between the United States and Poland defining the status while in 
Poland of former Polish citizens who have become American citizens, 
nor of persons born in the United States, native-born citizens. So 
under the Polish law, the Polish Government regards those returnees 
as Polish citizens and will not permit them to leave Poland. I trust 
that anybody who contemplates a visit to Poland will bear that in 
mind, or that fact in mind, because they may have the same fate that a 
number of French people had several years ago, or 2 years' ago, I think, 
who went to Poland on a visit and they are still behind the Iron Cur- 
tain. They are enjoying the freedom of Red Poland. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Willcox, what position did you occupy in the 
American delegation at the Peij>iHg Conference? 

Mr. Willcox. Vice chairman, I believe. 

Mr. Arens. Who was chairman of the delegation ? 

Mr. Willcox. Louis Wheaton. 

Mr. Arens. Were you present when Louis Wheaton, chairman of 
the American delegation, gave a report including the following: 

To end the disastrous tension, it is necessary, first of all, to end the wars now 
being conducted with such horror and savagery. Here we say solemnly that 
what has been done in the name of our country, without suflScient opposition from 
our people against the people of Korea and China is an unspeakable shame be- 
fore history and humanity. 

Were you present when the chairman of your delegation made that 
report ? 

Mr. Willcox. If that was the report made in the full session of the 
conference, I was present. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4573 

Mr. Arens. Did you concur in this report of the chairman of the 
delegation expressing the great shame at the unspeakable offenses 
by your country ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Do we not all regret it ? 

The Chairman. Regret what? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. The unspeakable offenses. 

The Chairman. What offenses are you talking about ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. The use of the napalm bomb on the civilian popu- 
lation. 

Mr. Arens. What is that? 

Mr.WiLLcox. The use of 

Mr. Arens. What is the napalm bomb? 

Mr. WiLLOx. It is a bomb, an incendiary bomb of the latest type, I 
guess. 

Mr. Arens. Were you present when Isobel Cerney of the American 
delegation made her report and apologized for the alleged brutality 
of the American soldiers toward prisoners of war ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. I presumably was, if it was made on the floor of the 
convention. 

Mr. Arens. And did you concur in her report as a representative of 
the American delegation, in apologizing to the Communists for the 
alleged JDrutality of the American boys in their alleged activities to- 
ward prisoners of war ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Was this conference held while our boys were fighting 
in Korea ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Could you answer the question ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. I certainly do not remember that detail very well. 

Mr Kearney. Was there any mention made at the conference of 
atrocities committed by the North Koreans or the Chinese troops where 
they tied American soldiers' hands behind their backs and shot them, 
tortured first and then shot ? Or was it a one-way street ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. No, I cannot remember that either, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Willcox, did you join when the American delega- 
tion issued its demand that the United States Government cease its 
bacteriological warfare and the bombing of Korean villages ? Did you 
join in that protest made in Red China while our boys were fighting in 
Korea ? 

Mr. Willcox. I do not recall it in those terms, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What are the terms in which you do recall it ? 

Mr. Willcox. I do not recall. Is this a motion or resolution of the 
conference or what is it ? 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you, Mr. Willcox, a photostatic copy of the 
Shanghai News, of April 8, 1952, in which this appears : 

Likewise, the American delegation joins in the demand that bacteriological 
warfare and the bombing of Korean villages must cease. 

I will ask you whether or not that is a true and correct representa- 
tion of the position taken by the American delegation at the Peiping 
Conference including yourself. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willcox. This is a report of Isobel Cerney's speech, and I can- 
not say of my own recollection whether she said these things or not. 



4574 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Akens. Did you join in the report of the American delegation 
on this bacteriological warfare? 

Mr. WiLLCox. This, you mean? 

Mr. Arens. Any report of the American delegation. 

Mr. ScHERER. He was vice chairman of the delegation. 

Mr. WiLLCox. Is it going to interfere with my right to a passport 
if I examined evidence and came to a conclusion ? 

Mr. Arens. On an issue as serious and deadly as this, can you not 
tell this committee of the United States Congress, whether or not while 
our boys were dying in Korea, you joined in a report of the American 
delegation in Red China condemning this country for the alleged use 
of bacteriological warfare ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Well, let me see. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. I suggest that counsel let his client answer one ques- 
tion. 

Mr. BouDiN. I do not understand your remark. The witness is just 
conferring with me and has asked for my advice. 

The Chairman. Just a moment, Professor. 

Mr. BouDiN. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. Arens. There is a question pending, as to whether or not wnile 
he was in Red China as vice chairman of the American delegation he 
joined in the declaration of the American delegation there condemn- 
ing the United States for the alleged use of bacteriological warfare. 

The Chairman. Do not ask him that question, because the fact is 
that he was, and now ask another question. 

Mr. Scherer. May I interrupt, Mr. Chairman, and ask a question ? 
Witness, do you Imow the definition of treason ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Yes, giving aid and comfort to the enemy. 

Mr. Scherer. In time of war. 

Mr. WiLLcox. In time of war. 

Mr. Scherer. That is what you were doing while the boys were 
dying in Korea, you were giving aid and comfort to the enemy of the 
United States. 

Mr. WiLLCox. We always felt we were receiving aid and comfort 
from them, 

Mr. Arens. Did you take the greetings of Willard Uphaus to the 
delegation while you were in Red China ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. We did. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you get greetings you took to the American 
delegation from Willard Uphaus ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. I think they were brought over by one of the other 
delegates. 

Mr. Arens. Were they brought over after you got there ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Either that or they were telegraphed, sir, and I am 
not perfectly sure. 

Mr. Arens. What is your best recollection as to how you obtained the 
greetings from Willard Uphaus to the American delegation while you 
were in Red China ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Well, perhaps you have some information, but my 
impression is that a telegraph was read or a cablegram. 

Mr. Arens. If someone else brought these greetings from Willard 
Uphaus to the delegation, to Red China, can you explain to the com- 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4575 

mittee why that particuhir person who brought the message did not 
present the message ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. Well, I think it was presented by the delegation, as 
such, as a group. 

Mv. Arens. Did you not present the message from Willard Uphaus? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Not that I recall. Does it say so ? 

Mr. Arens. Did not the message from Willard Uphaus to the dele- 
gation read as follows : 

I am delighted to be able to send greetings and best wishes to your great con- 
ference through my good American friends, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Willcox"? 

Is that not what the message read from Willard Uphaus? 

Mr. Willcox. It is new to me. 

Mr. Arens. I will lay before you a photostatic copy of the Shanghai 
News of Thursday, October 9, 1952, in which is set forth the message of 
Willard Uphaus, alleged to be a leader of the American Peace Crusade, 
and 1 ask you whether or not that refreshes your recollection. 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness consulted with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Willcox. To the best of my recollection that was the telegram 
that Willard Uphaus sent to the conference. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest this document be marked "Will- 
cox Exhibit No. 3" and incorporated by reference in the record. 

The Chairman. It will be so incorporated. 

Mr. Arens. I have in my hand a report of the Shanghai News of 
October 11, 1C52, indicating the attacks made against the United 
States Government by delegates from all over the world ; that is, the 
barbarous atrocities which were being alleged to be committed and the 
war blocs headed by the United States and that sort of thing, and all 
conglomeration of speeches attacking the United States Government. 
Did any single individual on the American delegation, including 
yourself, to your knowledge, during the conference, stand up and de- 
fend the United States Government in that conference at Peiping, Rod 
China? 

Mr. Willcox. I would say, "No," sir. It is pretty hard to do. I 
wish that we had had responsible citizens of the United States and re- 
sponsible officers of the United States Government at that conference 
to stand up and do just that. 

The Chairman. Responsible people at that conference, you mean? 
Are you deploring the fact that the United States was not represented 
by responsible people at that conference ? 

Mr. Willcox. That is right, sir^ 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, it is almost mibelievable that boys 
who were in the Army of the United States at that time Vt'ho were 
brainwashed and tortured were prosecuted because they went over to 
to the other side. Now, here we have a group of American citizens 
who gave aid and comfort to the enemy during the very time that 
our boys were fightin^^ and they are walking the streets. This man, 
and Wheaton, participated at that very moment in attacking the 
United States and in attacking the Armed Forces of this country, 
and certainly were giving aid and comfort to our enemies all over 
the world. 

The Chairman. Before you go further, I ask you who the 15 
people were in the United States delegation. I do not find the names 



4576 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

of any ximericans listed. Who were the 15 people who wrote this? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. I think they are all there, sir, the authors of all of 
those reports. 

The Chairman. This is the United States delegation to the Peace 
Conference of the Asian and Pacific region, and nowhere in here are 
the names of the 15 people that you say were there. 

Mr. WiLLcox. I think that you will find that there are 15 reports 
there, each one accredited to a writer, to the maker of the report, and 
that those are the 15 delegates. 

The Chairman. These are not Americans, and I want to know who 
the Americans are. Are these the only Americans there, whose names 
appear as contributors to various items or various articles? 

Mr. WiLLcox. It is a completed list of delegates ; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How was that complete list of delegates selected? 

Mr.WiLLCOx. Well 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. WiLLcox. I think we were brought together at the Peace Hotel, 
in Peiping, and we sat down together and had an organization meeting 
and reported to the Chinese that this is the American delegation. 

The Chairman. The fact of the matter is that each and every one 
of these people were selected before they left the United States, is it 
not? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. They did not all leave the United States, some were 
already in China. 

The Chairman. It was determined who they would be before they 
arrived there, was it not ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. In some cases, it certainly was. I am not sure 
whether all or not. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in Red China when the turncoat soldiers were 
brought into Peiping from the Korean war ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. No, sir ; not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Arens. Were you at the Peiping conference when the Chinese 
delegation, or rather delegate got up, Dr. Chen Wen-kuei, and he called 
on peace partisans of all countries to take action to disseminate widely 
the commission's report to denounce and stop United States germ 
warfare ? Were you there when he gave his report and urged every- 
one to disseminate a commission's report to get your Government to 
stop germ warfare ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. I cannot recollect the circumstances, sir, and I cannot 
possibly remember the Chinese names. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the report, or a report, respecting alleged 
activities of the United States in the use of germ warfare ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. The International Scientific Commission made a 
very full report, and a copy of which I have seen. 

Mr. Arens. And did you stand up like a red-blooded American and 
protest it and say, "No; my country is not engaged in this sort of 
thing"? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. WiLLCOx. I can hear very well, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. You said a moment ago that responsible people from 
America were not represented there. What do you mean by that? 

The Chairman. I think it speaks for itself. 



"UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4577 

Mr. Willis. He has not answered that last question, which was a 
very important one. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. WiLLCox. Do you want what I mean by "responsible people" ? 
I would have liked to have seen a few people who were more promi- 
nent in American life than the delegates that we were able to get. 
There should have been a few State governors, and a few Members of 
Congress, and a few industrialists of some stature and the 

Mr. Moulder. By that answer then, you did not mean that if there 
had been more responsible people there, they would have protested 
vigorously against the statements that Mr. Arens was questioning you 
about ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. No; I do not suggest that, and I would not know 
that. 

Mr. Moulder. In other words, you would consider your delegation 
fully responsible in that respect ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. Sure ; able to weigh evidence, sir. 

Mr. Ejearnet. Do you honestly believe in your own heart that you 
could get responsible men like industrialists and Members of Congress 
and governors of the States to associate with such a group of charac- 
ters as were over there ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. Well, I would like to believe it, sir, and most of the 
other countries seemed to. 

Mr. Kearney. That is wishful thinking on your part, is it not ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Apparently so. 

Mr. Arens. Under date of January 18, 1955, did you and your coun- 
sel here have a consultation with the officials of the Department of 
State with reference to jour pending application for a passport ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. What is the date ? 

Mr. Arens. January 18, 1955. 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. WiLLCOx. We cannot verify the date. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a consultation with them approximately 
at that time ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Probably ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And did you in that consultation to the State Depart- 
ment, when you were trying to get a new passport last year, tell the 
officials of the State Department that while you were in the Peiping 
Conference, germ warfare was never discussed ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. I do not think so, sir. I think we made a statement 
that communism as such was never discussed, to the best of our belief. 

Counsel suggests that I remind you that this stuff is before the 
courts. 

Mr. Arens. It is now before the committee. Answer the question 
as to whether or not when you made application recently for a new 
passport you told the officials of the Department of State when you 
w^ere in the Peiping Conference, germ warfare was never discussed. 

Mr. BouDiN. That question was just answered. 

Mr. WiLLCox. I remember no such statement. 

Mr. Arens. Were you present at the Peiping Conference when a 
delegate, your wife, Anita Willcox. made a speech ? 

Mr.WiLLcox. I was. 



4578 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. In which she said among other things : 

We come as representatives of 70 percent of the people of the United States. 
We of a majority of our people have come here to demand an end to the killing 
of prisoners of war at Koje and Cheju. On October 1, while we peace delegates 
watched the color and glory of a free people celebrating their National Day, 
45 more men were killed at Cheju for the crime of daring to mark with joy 
the same occasion. Uplifted by the joyous singing of 10,000 children and 
strengthened in our anger by their strength, we denounce the criminal attempt 
to exterminate a people, their industry, and their culture. Our Armed Forces 
destroy things the people live by, granaries and crops. They call homes sam- 
pans, schools and horses "military targets." Our Air Force blows up oxcarts. 
Our Navy sinks fishing boats. For this heroism the parents of our soldiers 
have refused medals awarded by our Government to their dead sons. To most 
of our people, the horrible facts of our use of Napalm are only now becoming 
known. Of the facts of the germ warfare they are still unaware. 

Were you present when Anita Willcox, your wife, addressed the 
conference in that vein ? 

Mr. Willcox. On page 7 

Mr. Arens. I think it is clear, that this reference to Anita Willcox 
is to a public statement made and not to a confidential communica- 
tion between spouses. 

Mr. BouDiN. The rule does not refer to confidential communica- 
tions, and if you will look at rule 12, it refers to anything dealing with 

a wife. 

Mr. Moulder. He merely asked the question if he was present. 

Mr. BouDiN. The witness can refuse to answer under the privilege. 

The Chairman. Do you refuse to answer the question ? 

(The witness consulted Avith his counsel.) 

Mr. Willcox. Well, I think under rule No. 12 on page 7, it is my 
duty to refuse, is it not ? 

The Chairman. I do not think so, the courts have frequently ruled 
and it is a well settled principle of law that a public statement never 
enjoys the status of a privilege. Now you are being asked about a 
public statement. Were you present when the statement was made 
in public by this lady, whatever her name is ? 

Mr. Willcox. May I consult counsel, please ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Willcox. I was present when my wife made her statement but 
I cannot recall any particular paragraph of it. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall her condemnation of the United States 
for alleged brutalities, and alleged use of bacteriological warfare ? 

The Chairman. He has answered the question. 

Mr. Willcox. It was a very minor part of the story and I cannot 

recall. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of the Shanghai 
News of October 14, 1952, in which is set forth the appeal to the 
peoples of the world adopted by the Peiping Conference, allegedly 
adopted unanimously. I invite your attention specifically to this part 
of the resolution adopted at the peace conference : 

The acts of war and preparation for war now being carried out in these 
regions as well as in other parts of the world by the Government of the United 
States are disastrous to the peoples of the Asian and Pacific regions, and it is 
disastrous to the peoples of the world. 

There is other language in that vein. Did you concur in that resolu- 
tion which was adopted by this conference at Peiping, Red China ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4579 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Well, I think that you are giving it very undue em- 
phasis. This is quite a large document, and one particular paragraph 
is that way, and the appeal as a whole, I think, was a very carefully 
studied statement. 

Mr. Moulder. He asked you a question, if you concurred in that one 
paragraph ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. In the context of the rest of the speech, I think that it 
was a balanced criticism ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is there one thing in that resolution, one thing in that 
statement which is favorable to the Government of the United States 
or to the boys who were laying down their lives in Korea on behalf of 
this Government ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. Well, I would take this paragraph : 

We reaflSrm our firm conviction that countries with different social systems 
and ways of life can coexist in peace and mutually beneficial cooperation. 

That does not exclude the United States. It was the idea of this 
conference to secure more peaceful relations between all countries of 
the world. 

Mr. Moulder. Would that mean peaceful coexistence insofar as and 
as long as we permit the Soviet Union to take the aggression of domi- 
nating and controlling under their totalitarian iron heel, the rest of 
the world ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. I would not think so, sir. It does not occur to me 
that the Soviet Union is in a position to come over to our half of the 
world at all. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the photostatic copies of the 
identified editions of the Shanghai News which we have here on display 
pertaining to the Peiping Peace Conference be marked "Willcox Ex- 
hibit No, 4" and incorporated by reference in this record. 

The Chairman. They will be so incorporated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Willcox, after you returned from this Peiping Con- 
ference in Red China, did you do some public speaking over the 
country ? 

Mr. Willcox. As much as I could ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you express to the American people and the various 
groups to whom you spoke the same general sentiments which were 
expressed in the Peiping Conference ? 

Mr. Willcox. Not so much, sir; it was mostly a report on the 
magiiificient social and educational, industrial and health progress 
that the new government was making. 

Mr. Arens. Was that pursuant to the trip that you made around 
in Red China? 

Mr. Willcox. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Was that at the expense of the Commmiists there in 
Red China? 

Mr. Willcox. I think the Chinese or China Peace Committee 
financed it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you bring back from the Peiping Conference a 
speech or broadcast from Dr. Hardyman ? 

Mr. Willcox. There was a little pamphlet that Hugh Hardyman 
wrote. 

Mr. Arens. And did you bring it back ? 
Mr. Willcox. Yes. 



4580 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Did you see that it was disseminated in the United 
States? 

Mr. WiLLCox. I think that we gave it to the reporter for the New 
York Times. 

Mr. Akens. Did that thing say among other things. 

No one can say for how long the peoples of the Pacific regions will continue 
to hold us guiltless of action of our Armed Forces. 

It speaks about the disease and mass destruction of people there 
and it speaks about germ warfare and mass destruction of civilian 
populations, and that type of propaganda, is that contained in the 
Hardyman message that you brought back and disseminated ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. It is a very small part of it. He was very much im- 
pressed by the way that the Chinese people received us in view of the 
state of tension that exists when their boys were fighting our boys. 

Mr. Arens. Does it contain allegations that the United States is 
engaged or was engaged in bacteriological warfare and mass exter- 
mination of civilian populations? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. I think that there is a short part of it to that effect. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you seen Hugh Hardyman since you returned ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. How many times ? 

Mr. WiLLCOX. Two or three. 

Mr. Moulder. Were you ever at his youth summer camp in Cali- 
fornia, which he conducted and where Communist philosophy and 
propaganda was taught ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. No, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. You never were ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What financial contributions have you made, Mr. Will- 
cox, to the peace groups, we will say ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. Well, I have no list of it. I would put it between 
one and two thousand dollars. 

Mr. Arens. In the aggregate ? 

Mr. WiLLCOX. Probably. 

Mr. Arens. What contributions have you made to the Progressive 

Party? , ^ , 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Somewhat more than that. I suppose that I have 
made more contributions to the Democratic Party than any other po- 
litical party. 

Mr. Arens. What contributions have you made to organizations 
which to your knowledge were Communist fronts ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Well, you will probably say I should, but I do not 
know what organizations are Communist fronts. 

Mr. Arens. How much have you contributed to the Civil Rights 

Congress ? 

Mr.WiLLCOx. Something over $1,000. 

Mr. Arens. Did you contribute to the bail bond fund of the 12 Com- 
munists who were on trial in Foley Square ? 

Mr.WiLLCOx. I do not think so. 

Mr. Arens. Have you addressed the California Labor bchool with 
respect to your trip to Red China ? 

Mr. WiLLCOX. That was one of our meetings. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4581 

Mr. Aeens. And did you express to them at that meeting your great 
alarm and concern that the United States would do all of the things 
that were alleged to have been done at the Peiping, Red China, Con- 
ference ? 

Mr. Wilcox. The burden of our speeches was always our admiration 
for the things that the Chinese were doing, and we did not spend much 
time on criticizing our own country. 

Mr. Moulder. Was Hugh Hardyman present when you spoke in 
California? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Yes, but not at the Labor School, if I recall correctly. 
We spoke several times in California. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you speak there at that youth summer camp 
which he sponsored ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. No, sir, I never was at the youth camp. 

Mr. Arens. Have you made contributions to the Committee for 
Peaceful Alternative? 

Mr. WiLLcox. I have. 

Mr. Arens. And could you give us an estimate of the amount of 
money you have contributed to that organization ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. Well, I think that is probably between $1,000 and 
$2,000. 

Mr. Arens. Have you contributed money for the defense of people 
prosecuted under the Smith Act ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. I think so, minor amounts. 

Mr. Arens. What would you regard as a minor amount ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Well, anything in the vicinity of $100 or down. 

Mr. Arens. How much have you contributed in the aggregate to the 
defense of people being prosecuted under the Smith Act ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Well, as I say, I do not recall very much. It is prob- 
ably in the low hundreds or less. I have contributed over the past 
10 years $14,000 to tax-exempt causes and I generally feel it is my 
responsibility to make some contributions to social efforts along the 
lines that I approve of. 

Mr. Arens. Are you identified with the American Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born, which is one of the oldest Commmiist 
fronts in the Nation ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Very slightly. 

Mr. Arens, Wliat is your identification with the American Com- 
mittee for Protection of Foreign Born ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. I see you have me down as a sponsor. 

Mr. Arens. I do not have you down for anj'thing. Look at this 
letterhead and see if someone else lias you down as a sponsor of the 
American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. 

Mr. WiLLCOx. Yes. I probably agreed to do that, and I felt it was 
the least I could do. Their very persuasive literature has been coming 
over my desk for years and I have always felt I did not do enough for 
them. I think that I have made some small contributions since that 
time. 

Mr. Arens. To the American committee ? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And you are, of course, listed as a sponsor there. 

79932 — 56— pt. 3 7 



4582 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. WiLLcox. I think that I decided that was the least I could do. 
Mr. Arens. Have you contributed to the support of the Trenton 

Six? 

Mr. WiLLCox. Very much. 

Mr. Arens. How much have you contributed to the support of the 
Trenton Six ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. I do not know, maybe $500. I would doubt that. 

Mr. Arens. You have pending a passport application in the Depart- 
ment of State at the present time, is that correct ? 

Mr. WiLLcox. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And where do you propose to go if that passport should 
be issued to you ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. I do not know. Possibly fighting for that passport 
is a public service because I hate to see our country tied up with bureau- 
cratic restrictions. 

Mr. Arens. I have no further questions of this witness at this time, 
Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The rules under which 3'our passport is being held 
up were promulgated and devised by the former Solicitor for the State 
Department under Mr. Acheson, were they not ? 

Mr. WiLLCOx. May I speak to counsel ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. BouDiN. They were promulgated on August 28, 1952, when Mr. 
Acheson was Secretary of State. I do not remember who was the 
Solicitor at the time. 

The Chairman. I think the Solicitor occupies a rather prominent 
position in the city of Washington at this moment. 

Mr. BouDiN. I do not recall. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Chairman, I have, I think, a rather pertinent 
observation to make. After listening to the testimony of this witness, 
I am firmly convinced that if there was ever a flagrant case of treason, 
this one here is and I would suggest that the committee send the pro- 
ceedings to the Department of Justice. 

Mr. WiLLCox. Mr. Kearney, will you let me reply to that? 

The Chairman. We know exactly what you would say. 

The witness is dismissed, and the committee will stand in recess, 
after which we will hear several Government witnesses concerning 
the entry and dissemination of foreign propaganda in the United 
States. (See Investigation of Communist Propaganda in the United 
States— Part 1.) 

(Recess.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Proceed JNIr. Arens with the interrogation of witnesses subpenaed 
in connection with the unauthorized use of passports. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dende, will you please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Do you swear the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but tlie truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Dende. I do. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4583 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, JUNE 13, 1956 

TESTIMONY OF LEOPOLD DENDE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JULIAN KANAREK 

Mr. Aeens. Please identify yourself by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Dende. Leopold Dende, Cosmic, N. J., secretary-treasurer of 
Polonia International, Inc. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself for the 
record ? 

Mr. Kanarek. ]My name is Julian Kanarek and my address is 60 
East 42d Street, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dende, please tell us what is the corporation with 
which you are connected. 

Mr. Dende. Polonia International was organized about a year ago 
for the purpose of importing and exporting various products of Polish 
origin or of origin that the Poles make abroad in England, France, 
and so forth. That is why it was called "International." Among other 
things, we wanted to promote travel between Poles in different 
countries. 

Mr. Arens. What is your capacity with Polonia International ? 

Mr. Dende. Secretary-treasurer. 

Mr. Arens. That is a full-time operation ? 

Mr. Dende. Ninety percent of the time. 

Mr. Arens. Do you also have an interest in a newspaper ? 

Mr. Dende. I contribute material to a newspaper ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What newspaper is that, please ? 

Mr. Dende. Polish iVmerican Journal. 

Mr. Arens. 'Where is that located ? 

Mr. Dende. Scranton, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. In wliat language is it published ? 

Mr. Dende. English. 

]Mr. Arens. Give us a word about the circulation of that paper. 

Mr. Dende. I am not familiar with the circulation figure because 
that is up to my nephew, who is the publisher and editor. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of tlie last year or so, have you had 
occasion to go to Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you apply for your passport? 

IMr. Dende. I renewed my old passport here in Washington. 

Mr. Arens. When was that ? 

Mr. Dende. I think it was, to the best of my recollection, either 
January or February of this year. I do not know exactly the month 
because I do not have the passport with me. 

Mr. xVrens. Did you indicate on your application for a passport 
that you wanted to go to Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. I do not remember that. I probably did — I do not 
know. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive your Polish visa before you left the 
United States? 

Mr. Dende. No. 



4584 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go when you left the United States? 

Mr. Dende. To Paris. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in Paris ? 

Mr. Dende. Several days. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you receive your visa to go into Poland? 

Mr. Dende. In Berlin. 

Mr. Arens. Did you go to Berlin after you left Paris ? 

Mr. Dende. ^rom Paris I proceeded to Berlin, that is right. 

Mr. Arens. And then from Berlin where did you go '^ 

Mr. Dende. To Warsaw, Poland. 

Mr. Arens. Did the State Department in the United States know 
or were they advised b}^ you that your ultimate destination was Po- 
land on this journey which you took in 

Mr. Dende. I went to Poland in March. 

Mr. Arens. In March of this year ? 

Mr. Dende. I did not advise the State Department. However, 
upon arrival in Poland I reported to tlie American Embassy. 

Mr. Arens. But you did not give any information to the State 
Department prior to the time that you left the United States that 
you intended to go to Poland, is that correct ? 

Mr. Dende. So far as I remember, tliat is correct. 

Mr. Arens. What was the purpose of your mission in Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. First of all, I wanted to establish commercial contacts 
with several concerns so I could import various Polish goods and then 
also, to explore the possibilities of travel to Poland, since the State 
Department lifted the ban on such travel last October, 

The Chairman. If the State Department lifted the ban, w^hy did you 
not get permission from the State Department before you left the 
United States ? 

Mr. Dende, I did not think it was necessary, it was not required. 

The Chairman. You had to have a visa. 

Mr. Dende. No, there is no requirement to require permission from 
the State Department to go to Poland. 

Mr. Arens, You have to have an American passport to travel 
abroad, do you not ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. And that has to be pursuant to an application in which 
you tell the State Department where you intend to go, does it not? 

Mr. Dende. I do not remember whether it is exactly information 
required. 

Mr. iVRENS. Did you on your passport application tell the State 
Department you were going to go to Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. I do not think so, I do not remember. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, at the time you left this country, intend that 
your ultimate destination on this trip would be Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. It was not exactly determined, but it was an eilort to 
go there. 

The Chairman. He has just testified that he went to Poland for the 
purpose of arranging some sort of commercial activities, so that your 
purpose in going abroad was to go to Poland on business. 

Mr. Dende. Not only to Poland, but to France and Germany and 
England and tlien it was a question of determining whether I will be 
able to go to Poland. 

Mr. Arens. When you arrived in Poland, did you confer with the 
Polish Government officials ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4585 

Mr. Dende. Well, first of all, may I ask you, whom do you consider 
Polish Government officials ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you confer there with people in the Polish Govern- 
ment respecting this international travel agency of which you are sec- 
retary-treasurer ? 

Mr, Dende. If you consider that the Polish Travel Agency, because 
it is Government-owned, are Government officials, then my answer is 

"yes." 

Mr. Arens. Wliat were the arrangements which you consummated 

with the Polish Government Travel Agency ? 

Mr. Dende. I have a copy of the agreement. 

Mr. Arens. Give us the essence of it, please, Mr. Dende. 

Mr. Dende. All right. I made arrangements with them for six ex- 
cursions of Americans of Polish descent to Poland for this year only, 
on a trial basis. 

Mr. Arens. And how many people were to be involved in the ex- 
cursions ? 

Mr. Dende. A maximum of 500. 

Mr. Arens. On each of the six or in the aggregate? 

Mr. Dende. The total. 

Mr. Arens. That is on a trial basis; is that correct? 

Mr. Dende. That is on a trial basis. 

Mr. Arens. Give us the essence of tlie financial arrangements be- 
tween you and the Polish Travel Agency. 

Mr. Dende. They were to receive the sum which they asked for a tour 
of Poland that would last 8 days. 

Mr. Arens. What money are you to supply to the agency there in 
Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. Well, the agreed price. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat is the agreed price ? 

Mr. Dende. You want the exact amount? 

Mr. Arens. The approximate amount, your best recollection ? 

Mr. Dende. I can give you exactly, because it is an exact stipulation, 
$160 per passenger. 

Mr. Arens. While you were in Poland, did you have a session with 
Gebert? 

Mr. Dende. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Identify Gebert for us. 

Mr. Dende. Would you like me first to tell you on whose request I 
had this session with Gebert ? 

Mr. Arens. Tell us first of all, if you had a session with Gebert, and 
who Gebert is. 

Mr. Dende. Gebert is the former — to my knowledge, to my best 
knowledge — former editor of the People's Voice of Detroit. 

Mr. Arens. How does he happen to be in Poland now, instead of in 
the United States ? 

Mr. Dende. Again, to the best of my knowledge, Mr. Gebert left 
Poland about 8 or 9 years ago, under what circumstances 

Mr. Arens. You mean left the United States ; do you not ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Bronislaw Gebert was deported, was he not, and he left 
under deportation proceedings to Poland. 

Mr. Dende. To my knowledge ; no. 

Mr. Arens. Is he a Communist ? 

Mr. Dende. I do not know, I never asked, but I suppose he is. 



4586 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Did you return from Poland shortly after the arrange- 
ments were consummated in the early part of this year? 

Mr. Dende. I returned from Poland at the end of March. 

Mr. Arens. Have you since then circularized people of Polish na- 
tionality in the United States to enlist them to go to Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. Not I personally, but the firm that I am a part of. 

Mr. Arens. Have you placed ads in newspapers trying to enlist 
people to sign up for these excursions to Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. Only in one paper. 

Mr. Arens. Have you gotten out circulars ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is this one of your circulars of the Polonia Interna- 
tional, Inc. ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest this document be identified as 
"Dende Exhibit No. 1" and incorporated by reference in the record 
for retention in the committee files. 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

Mr. Arens. In what paper did you run the ad ? 

Mr. Dende. The Polish American Journal. 

Mr. Arens. In response to its request have you supplied this com- 
mittee with the names of people who have thus far been committed by 
your agency to take this trip to Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. On these excursions ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have any names on that list been submitted to you by 
a man by the name of Dombrowski, from Detroit ? 

Mr. Dende. Not by the man himself, but by the group they formed, 
Excursions to Poland Committee. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Dombrowski ? 

Mr. Dende. The late Dombrowski was 

Mr. Arens. What is his full name ? 

Mr. Dende. I think it is Thomas X. Dombrowski. 

Mr. Arens. And he was, until he was recently killed in New York 
City, a notorious Communist ; was he not ? 

Mr. Dende. He was considered as a Communist, but he never per- 
sonally told me about it. 

Mr. Arens. How many of the people on this list who have thus far 
been lined up to go to Poland were submitted to you or to your 
agency by Dombrowski, the late Communist ? 

Mr. Dende. Not by Dombrowski, but by the committee. 

Mr. Arens. By the committee of which he was a moving light in 
Detroit? 

Mr. Dende. He was a part of it. These names which I listed here, 
six of them. 

Mr. Arens. There are six names on the list of people who have 
thus far committed themselves to go to Poland on one of your excur- 
sions, who were lined up for you by Dombrowski's organization; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Dende. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Have you taken to the State Department the passport 
applications of some of these people who are to go to Poland? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4587 

Mr. Dende. I did not take any passport applications to the State 
Department, because everybody was requested to get their passport 
for themselves. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had custody of the passports which were is- 
sued to these people? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had those passports validated at the Polish 
Embassy ? 

Mr. Dende. Not yet. I submitted them for Polish visas ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. How many passports have you submitted 

The Chairman. Just a moment. You say you submitted them for 
visas. A moment ago you said a visa wasn't necessary. 

Mr. Dende. A visa is necessary from Poland, from Polish authori- 
ties, present Polish authorities, for them to enter Poland. 

The Chairman. Why didn't you obtain that permission when you 
went to Poland just a few months ago? 

Mr. Dende. I did, in Berlin. 

The Chairman. In Berlin? 

Mr. Dende. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. But not here? 

Mr. Dende. Not in Washington at the Polish Embassy ; no. 

Mr. Arens. How many passports have you taken or caused to be 
directed to the Polish Embassy in Washington for the purpose of 
procuring entry permits into Poland? 

Mr. Dende. We counted in your office, Mr. Arens. I think it was 
20 passports. I don't remember the exact number. 

Mr. Arens. Thus far? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How many people in the aggregate have thus far com- 
mitted themselves to take one of these trips under the auspices of 
your organization to Poland? 

Mr. Dende. So far as the June 18 excursion is concerned, to the best 
of my knowledge as of today it is 34. 

The Chairman. How many of those people were born in the United 
States? 

Mr. Dende. I didn't check on that, sir. 

The Chairman. What arrangements did you make with the Polish 
Government to insure their leaving Poland after they got there ? 

Mr. Dende. First of all, sir, they get a visa both ways, entry and 
exit visa. Then today my associate informed me that in addition the 
Polish Embassy here requested that every participant in this excursion 
sign a pledge that he will leave Poland. Why this was requested I 
don't know because I was just informed today. 

The Chairman. Perhaps the Embassy was afraid there might be 
some non-Communists in the group. 

Mr. Dende. I don't know why they requested it. It is a very un- 
usual request in my opinion that they themselves wanted partici- 
pants 

The Chairman. I asked the question because Poland doesn't even 
recognize the citizenship of persons of Polish parents born in the 
United States. 

Mr. Dende. I understand that. 

The Chairman. There have been many cases where they have been 
drafted and refused permission to leave Poland. 



4588 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Dende. Maybe that is the reason, sir, that they requested the 
participants that they pledge themselves to leave Poland. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dende, in the course of the last 4 or 5 years, have 
you received solicitation from an official of the Polish Embassy in the 
United States for you to perform a service for him ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us when that was. 

Mr. Dende. I think it was about 4 years ago. 

Mr. Arens. Was that in May of 1952 ? 

Mr. Dende. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. First of all tell us the name of this official. 

Mr. Dende. At that time his title was vice consul in New York, 
Albrycht. 

Mr. Arens. Was he vice consul of the Polish consulate in New 
York? 

Mr. Dende. In New York. 

Mr. Arens. Where did he visit you ? 

Mr. Dende. At my hotel. 

Mr. Arens. What was his request of you ? 

Mr. Dende. I will have to refresh my memory. 

That time was only — the thing he discussed in general, I don't want 
to read the whole tiling and take the committee's time — to sort of be 
fair to Poland, to stress nonpolitical items like cultural progress and 
things like that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have an extensive conversation with Mr. 
Wojciech Albrycht? 

Mr. Dende. It was quite a long conversation. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you employed at the time Mr. Albrycht 
visited you at your hotel in New York City ? 

Mr. Dende. I was employed in Polish-American Journal. 

Mr. Arens. Did you learn that Mr. Albrycht was traveling exten- 
sively visiting more or less secretly hundreds of Americans of Polish 
descent in the United States ? 

Mr. Dende. That was my impression from the conversation with 
him that he was traveling extensively, yes; and talking to a lot of 
people about different things. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have the impression that Mr. Albrycht was 
doing so secretly — was that the impression you had at that time ? 

Mr. Dende. Some would have been secretly for the reasons that 
maybe many people didn't want to meet him openly under the cii'cum- 
stances, or something like that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have the impression at the time of your conver- 
sation with Mr. Albrycht that he was undertaking to spread in the 
United States Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Dende. My impression was that his approach was on the cultural 
level. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have the impression that Mr. Albrycht was 
attempting to spread and was quite effectively spreading Communist 
propaganda in the United States ? 

Mr. Dende. My impression, as I say, it was open to interpretation, 
whether cultural contacts or contacts based on cultural subjects can 
be considered as Communist propaganda, I only knew about the 
cultural approach. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4589 

Mr. Arens. Did you also have the impression from your conversation 
v,-ith him that he was in a position to gain valuable information ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have the impression that he was in the process 
of gaining valuable information respecting operations in the United 
States which would be of military interest to the Soviets ? 

Mr. Dende. I don't know whether I could get that kind of impression 
because we didn't discuss subjects of that nature. 

Mr. Arens. Specifically what did he ask you to do ? 

Mr. Dende. Not during the first contact he didn't ask anything. 

Mr. Arens. During any contact what did he ask you to do ? 

Mr. Dende. He suggested that I supply the Polish-American papers 
from time to time with nonpolitical pictures' from Poland or something 
of the cultural character. 

Mr. Arens. What was your answer ? 

Mr. Dende. My answer was that I would give the matter some 
thought. 

Mr. Arens. Did he offer to pay you any money for that service ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How much did he offer to pay you ? 

Mr. Dende. So far as I can recall it was 1 think $25 per week. That 
is supposed to cover expenses. 

Mr. Arens. Did he propose also to give you expenses ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did he make any suggestion to you that you approach 
newspapers with an offer of supplying nonpolitical pictures from 
Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. He suggested, not openly suggested but implied, but 
anyway to that effect he made something like that, some suggestion of 
that sort. 

Mr. Arens. Did he discuss with you any ruse by which you would be 
paid in the guise of bills for books to the Polish consulate ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that. 

Mr. Dende. He said if I don't want to bill him directly or something 
like that, I could charge him for books and charge accordingly. 

Mr. Arens. Did Mr. Albrycht also ask you to recommend to him the 
narnes of other persons whom he could contact in various areas in the 
United States to perform similar services ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr, Arens. Have you ever received any money 

Mr. Dende. No. Excuse me. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever received any money which has come to 
jou via the consulate. Embassy, or Legation of the Polish Government 
in the United States ? 

Mr. Dende. I never received any money from the Polish Embassy 
■or anything like that. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever received any money that came to you as a 
conduit through the Polish Embassy ? 

Mr. Dende. What do you mean by that ? 

Mr. Arens. Was any money transmitted to you through the Polish 
Embassy in Washington ? 

Mr. Dende. Through the Polish Embassy ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 



4590 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Dende. Or rather from the Polisli Embassy. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Dende. Not from the Polish Embassy. 

Mr. Arens. What Embassy or agency is it you have in mind from, 
which you may have received money ? 

Mr. Dende. Will you kindly make this question more specific? 

Mr. Arens. Have you received approximately $200 in one incident 
of money which was transmitted from behind the Iron Curtain to you 
via an Iron Curtain establishment in the United States ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about that. 

Mr. Dende. I made the statement in executive session. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us now in public session. 

Mr. Dende. Yes. A friend of mine in Poland was able to use that 
kind of means to transmit some money so I could obtain certain things 
for him. 

Mr. Arens. First of all, tell us what agency in the United States 
was the conduit through which you procured this $200. 

Mr. Dende. It was somebody attached to the Polish Embassy. I 
don't know his official title. 

Mr. Arens. How did you happen to have any contact with him ? 

Mr. Dende. He contacted me. 

Mr. Arens. By what means ? 

Mr. Dende. I don't remember exactly, but he arranged a meeting 
with me I think in New York or something like that. 

Mr. Arens. When was that? 

Mr. Dende. It was so many years ago I don't recall. I tried to 
find out the subject, but 

Mr. Arens. How long ago would you say ? Would it be within the 
last 5 years? 

Mr. Dende. It must have been longer, I think. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you when this person contacted you? 

Mr. Dende. "Wliat do you mean, where was I ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you in New York, Chicago, Detroit ? 

Mr. Dende. I think I was in Scranton, Pa. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in your office in Scranton, Pa., the news- 
paper ? 

Mr. Dende. I was working then on the newspaper. 

Mr. Arens. Did this person from the Embassy identify himself as 
an official or employee of the Embassy? 

Mr. Dende. He identified himself in some sort of capacity which 
I can't exactly remember. I think I told you in executive session 
that he was either doing something for the Ministry of Education or 
something like that. 

Mr. Arens. But he identified himself to you as a person with the 
Polish Embassy; is that correct? 

Mr. Dende. That he was attached ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have correspondence with him prior to the 
time that you had this personal session with him? 

Mr. Dende. I don't remember that I corresponded with, whether it 
was a telephone call. I don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write his name down ? 

Mr. Dende. I think so. 

Mr. Arens. What was his name? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4591 

Mr. Dende. I think he said his name — I don't know that that was 
his real name or anything like that, but I think he said his name was 
Zyblski, or something to that effect. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us now what transpired in the conversation be- 
tween you and this person who identified himself as an official or em- 
ployee of the Polish Embassy. 

Mr. Dende. I think he just said he was going to have something for 
me from a mutual friend and he only was talking about his mission 
that he was studying — I mean that is the best of my recollection, that 
he was studying educational system in America and that he was travel- 
ing, something to that effect. 

Mr. Aeens. I am at a loss here as to what you are saying, Mr. Dende. 
The man now is talking to you and is he telling you about a person 
who is in Poland or is he telling you about himself ? 

Mr. Dende. He was telling me that he may have something for me 
from a person in Poland. 

Mr. Arens. He was telling you that he may prospectively have 
something for you from a person in Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did he tell you what that certain thing was? 

Mr. Dende. That is the thing that you referred to, this money for 
that purpose. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us first of all what the purpose of the money 
was. 

Mr. Dende. To buy certain items like medicine, like clothing — I 
mean coupons for clothing, clothing material, watch, and a variety 
of other items for that person. 

Mr. Arens. Did he explain to you why he came to you to procure 
that material rather than just procure it himself and send it on back 
behind the Iron Curtain ? 

Mr. Dende. No, he didn't. 

Mr. Arens. Did you interrogate him on that subject? 

Mr. Dende. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did he tell you the name of this person behind the Iron 
Curtain who wanted you to buy certain things for him ? 

Mr. Dende. Later I knew who it was. 

Mr. Arens. I will have to ask you to exercise your own judgment. 
If you were to reveal that person's name in public session now do you 
fear that person might be subjected to physical persecution behind the 
Iron Curtain ? 

Mr. Dende. I cannot reveal the name of the person in public ses- 
sion. However, I did reveal it in executive session. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel if you did reveal the name of that person 
he himself might be subjected to physical persecution behind the Iron 
Curtain ? 

Mr. Dende. He might be. 

Mr. Arens. By the Communists? 

Mr. Dende. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What did you do after this conversation with this man 
from the Polish Embassy ? 

Mr. Dende. I don't remember because I didn't pay much attention 
at the time of this meeting. 

Mr. Arens. I mean what did you do toward buying anything. 



4592 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Dende. I did send him a lot of items to that person in Poland, 
yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did the man from the Embassy give you the $200? 

Mr. Dende. He sent it to me. 

Mr. xVrens. After the conversation he sent it to you ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. He sent it to you from where ? 

Mr. Denue. I think it was from Washington. I didn't pay no at- 
tention to details at that time. 

Mr. Arens. Did he give you the address of the individual behind 
the Iron Curtain in Poland who wanted you to buy certain things for 
him ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you save that address ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You have his name ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You procured the items ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you cause those items to be transmitted behind the 
Iron Curtain? 

Mr. Dende. Yes ; because at that time it was the general practice, 
sir, that we were helping people in Poland in every way possible, 
through every way possible. There were various ways used as long 
as it was possible to reach the recipient, no matter through what chan- 
nel. This was soon after the great destruction of the country. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us about any other agency besides your 
own agency which is engaged in promoting trips of people in the 
United States behind the Iron Curtain ? 

Mr, Dende. First of all I would like to give you this as an exhibit 
[handing document to Mr. Arens] . 

Mr. Arens. This is entitled "Eleven Tours to the Soviet Union, 
Union Tours, in Cooperation With KLM." This document will be 
marked, "Dende Exhibit No. 2." and be incorporated by reference in 
this record for retention in the committee files. 

The Chairman. So incorporated. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us about this agency that is promoting tours 
to the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Dende. So far as I know, I don't know anybody in person in 
that agency, but that is the agency that is official repi-esentative of the 
Intourist and they are promoting trips behind the Iron Curtain, in 
general, to all the countries behind the Iron Curtain. 

Another agency that to my knowledge was the same thing is Cosmos. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any contractual arrangements with any 
other agency besides the agency you talked about in Poland for the 
promotion of trips behind the Iron Curtain ? 

Mr. Dende. No. I was only interested in organizing excursions to 
Poland so that Americans of Polish descent would have an oj^portu- 
nity to see their relatives. 

Mr. Arens. What is the name of the agency promoting trips behind 
the Iron Curtain which issues that bulletin General Kearney now has 
in his hand ? 

Mr. Dende. Union Tours. I think it is specified. Union Tours. 

Mr. Arens. Do you happen to know who is head of it ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4593 

Mr. Dende. I don't know who is the head of that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know any of the officers in it ? 

Mr. Dende. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know any of the people connected with it ? 

Mr. Dende. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know where it is located ? 

Mr. Dende. I suppose the address is in that book. I didn't have 
any dealings with them whatsoever. 

Mr. Arens. It is just your information that this agency, Union 
Tours, is in existence and does have sole contractual arrangements 
with people in the Soviet Union to promote travel to that country, is 
that correct ? 

Mr, Dende. To my knowledge there are two agencies that have 
representation of the Intourist. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting the process 
which is used by the people who make these tours to the Soviet Union, 
via this agency, whose bulletin you have just supplied to the commit- 
tee? 

Mr. Dende. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have another agency ? 

Mr. Dende. This is ours. Because you had some of our literature, 
1 want you to have a complete set. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have in mind some other agency which to your 
knowledge is promoting tours comparable to your tours to some other 
country behind the Iron Curtain ? 

Mr. Dende. I have read an advertisement in one of the Polish- 
American newspapers recently, I think it was a week ago or something, 
and I think I showed you the clipping, that somebody in Detroit by the 
name of Vicek advertises tours to Poland. I don't know on what 
basis. I don't know with whom he is in contact. I don't know whom 
he represents. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dende, is it your understanding that there are no 
restrictions now for tours to Soviet Russia and behind the Iron Cur- 
tain? 

Mr. Dende. I can only talk about Poland because I didn't deal with 
any other Iron Curtain country. I understand insofar as excursions 
are concerned there are almost no restrictions. I understand also 
that individual travel is permitted as well. 

INIr. Kearney. This bulletin also mentions tours through Kiev, 
Leningrad, and Moscow. 

Mr. Dende. I had nothing to do with that, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. I understand that.^ 

Mr. Dende. The general tour of the Soviet Union and all the other 
countries behind the Iron Curtain. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting a travel agency 
called Cosmos Travel Bureau, Inc. ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is that another agency engaged in this type of travel ? 

Mr. Dende. Exactly. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in a word about the Cosmos Travel Bureau. 

Mr. Dende. The only information I have about Cosmos is that 
the owner of that, I think his name is Reiner; he was accompany- 
ing some kind of American group, whether it was chess players 
or something like that, to Moscow last year I think it waSy 



4594 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

and then while there he met Mr. Biilganin and ]Mr. Khrnshchev and 
took pictures with tliem and Avas on tlie spot. Wlien thev asked him in 
what business he is, he said "travel business," and he asked them to be 
given agency of Intourist and they gave him this agency. On the 
return way from Moscow he stopped in every so-called satellite capital 
and he got representation of every country behind the Iron Curtain. 
He was the first to advertise that you can now visit Poland, Rumania, 
Czechoslovakia, and so forth. 

Mr. x\rens. Then Gabriel Reiner of the Cosmos Travel Bureau is 
one of your competitors, promoting the business of travel to Poland? 

Mr. Dende. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Is there some other agency to your knowledge which 
is engaged, as your agency is, in promoting travel behind the Iron 
Curtain of American citizens? 

Mr. Dende. Not to my knowledge, but many Polish- American travel 
bureaus are very much interested in the subject. 

Mr. Arens. Have you received information from any of the people 
who thus far liave signed up with your travel bureau that they have 
i-eceived solicitations from behind the Iron Curtain to return and to 
defect to Poland? 

Mr. Dende. On this June 18 tour? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Dende. No. 

Mr. Arens. How did these people propose to go? By what mode 
of travel ? 

Mr. Dende. By air. 

Mr. Arens. Do you propose to accompany them ? 

Mr. Dende. If necessary. I don't know. It depends on the circum- 
stances. On the advice of my counsel, any agency in the United 
States 

Mr. Arens. Did any of these folks to your knowledge purchase only 
one-way tickets? 

Mr. Dende. None; because we wouldn't sell them one-way tickets. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting solicitation 
being promoted by people identified with the consulates or embassies 
in the United States? 

Mr. Dende. What do you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. With particular reference to the Poles in the United 
States, do you have information respecting solicitation of Poles in 
the United States by anyone in the consulate or Embassy? 

Mr. Dende. To go to Poland on repatriation business ? 

Mr. Arens. That is right. 

Mr. Dende. No; I don't have that kind of information. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting solicitation by 
anyone in the Polish Embassy to people of Polish descent in the United 
States to return to Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. I suppose they do that, but I don't have firsthand in- 
formation. I also suppose, again only on the basis of my secondhand 
knowledge, that a lot of literature is beina' distributed in the TTnited 
States suggesting or advocating return to Poland ; yes. That is being 
done by many agencies. 

Mr. Arens. I understood you had something you wanted to say. 

Mr. Dende. I wanted to suggest or rather state that anv travel 
agency in the United States can now promote tours to Poland, behind 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4595 

the Iron Curtain, because there is no restriction. That is my under- 
standing. 

Mr. Arens. Are there restrictions to Eed Cliina ? 

Mr. Dende. I don't know anything about Red China. 

Mr. Arens. You are only conversant with the situation in Europe? 

Mr. Dende. I am only conversant with the situation in Poland. 

Mr. Arens. Are you also conversant — we could find this out, of 
course, from the State Department — are you conversant w4th the gen- 
eral restrictions placed upon our American citizens who may go or may 
be permitted to go behind the Iron Curtain ? 

Mr. Dende. I don't know; but on the basis of passports there are 
restrictions to China and I think there are restrictions to Albania 
and Hungary or, in other words, any country, to any place that the 
United States does not have diplomatic relations. 

Mr. Arens. How much business does this Excursions to Poland 
Committee in Detroit have, the committee which was formerly run 
by Dombrowski, the Communist ? 

Mr. Dende. You mean insofar as our excursions ? 

Mr. Arens. So far as any excursions are concerned. 

Mr. Dende. They were the first to organize. They organized the 
first excursion. 

Mr. Arens. Which first excursion? 

Mr. Dende. They organized themselves an excursion to Poland last 
April, I think. 

Mr. Arens. How many did they send, and when ? 

Mr. Dende. I think 48 was the actual count, or 47, something like 
that. 

Mr. Arens. When did this Dombrowski committee send its 48 or 
47 people to Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. April. 

Mr. Arens. April of this year ? 

Mr. Dende. April of this year. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of any proposals that the Excursions to 
Poland Committee in Detroit has for future trips to Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. The Excursions to Poland Committee when we an- 
nounced we were going to have excursions to Poland asked us if we 
would accept the passengers that they may have to go to Poland, to 
which we replied, yes, as from any other travel agency or any other 
source, on a business basis. 

Mr. Arens. What arrangements did you make when you were in 
Poland a few months ago for reception facilities for the people who 
were going to Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. Reception facilities in what way ? Hotels ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Dende. They were supposed to have rooms in first-class hotels. 
They were supposed to have 3 to 4 meals a day in first-class restaurants. 
They were supposed to travel in second-class railroad coaches all 
•during the night and second-class sleeping cars, and on some short 
runs on special buses. 

Mr. Arens. What restrictions as to places of travel are imposed or 
will be imposed upon the people who go on your excursions? 

Mr. Dende. To my knowledge or at least as it was told to me there 
would be no restrictions whatsoever. 



4596 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Would they be permitted so far as you know to visit 
the slave labor camps in Poland? 

Mr. Dende. That I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any discussion with the Polish Communist 
officials respecting whether or not people who go on your excursions 
could travel to any place they wanted to go ? 

Mr. Dende. That is what they told me, that they can go, because I 
stressed the point that in order to be of some benefit to the excursions, 
their primary interest is to see their relatives and friends and to have 
freedom to travel. 

Mr. Arens. Did they work out any arrangements with you to trans- 
port or cause to be transported people to Poland who would want to 
reestablish themselves there permanently? 

Mr. Dende. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the volume of peo- 
ple who are returning to Poland to be reestablished permanently ? 

Mr. Dende. You mean from the United States ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir; principally from the United States. 

Mr. Dende. To my best knowledge on the basis of information from 
different sources, I think that there was not more so far than 15 or 
20 people that did return from America to Poland for good. 

(Off the record discussion.) 

The Chairman. The witness is excused from further attendance 
under the subpena. 

The committee is adjourned to meet at 10 tomorrow morning. 

(AYliereupon, at 3 : 40 p. m., Wednesday, June 13, the committee 
was recessed, to reconvene at 10 a. m. Thursday, Jmie 14, 1956.) 

X 



4.^/^^:§j — 



INVESTIGATION OF THE UNAUTHORIZED USE OF 
UNITED STATES PASSPORTS— PART 4 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JUNE 14 AND 21, 1956 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



(INCLUDING INDEX) 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1956 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

CLYDE DOYLE, California BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New York 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, Jr., Tennessee DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

Richard Arkns, Director 

n 



CONTENTS 



PART 1 
May 23, 1956 : 

Testimony of — ^*se 

Miss Frances G. Knight 4305 

Ashley J. Nicholas 4305 

William Aloysius Wallace 4321 

Afternoon session : 

Willard Uphaus 4343 

PART 2 

May 24, 1956 : 

Testimony of — 

Louis W. Wheaton 4379 

John Adams Kingsbury 4398 

Afternoon session : 

John Adams Kingsbury (resumed) 4416 

May 25, 1956 : 

Testimony of — 

Mary Siegel Russak 4439 

Joseph Scislowicz 4452 

Afternoon session : 

Miriam Schwartz 4466 

Sylvia Atkins 4475 

Joan Ruth Gabriner Gainer (Mrs. Harold Gainer) 4483 

PARTS 
June 12, 1956 : 

Testimony of — 

Paul Robeson 4492 

Afternoon session : 

Clark Howell Foreman 4510 

Leonard B. Boudin 4534 

Otto Nathan 4545 

June 13, 1956 : 

Testimony of — 

Henry Willcox 4561 

Afternoon session : 

Leopold Dende 4582 

PART 4 
June 14, 1956 : 

Testimony of — 

Abraham Joshua Bick 4598 

Afternoon session : 

Leon Straus J 4623 

Stephanie Horvath 4652 

June 21, 1956 : 

Testimony of — 

Arthur Miller 4655 

Index I 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress (1946), chapter 
753, 2d. session, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
*****•♦ 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American Activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is autliorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and at- 
tacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, 
and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any sucli investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require tlie attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

V . 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress : 
******* 

(q) Committee on "Un-American Activities, to consist of nine members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make, from time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and to 
take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chaii-man of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

VI 



INVESTIGATION OF THE UNAUTHORIZED USE OF 
UNITED STATES PASSPORTS— PART 4 



THUBSDAY, JUNE 14, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. G. 

PUBLIC hearing 

The Committee of Un-American Activities met at 10 a. m., pursuant 
to recess, in the caucus room of the House Office Building, Hon. Francis 
E. Walter (chairman of the committee) presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives Francis E. Walter of 
Pennsylvania (chairman) ; Edwin E. Willis, of Louisiana; Harold H. 
Velde, of Illinois ; Bernard W. Kearney, of New York, and Gordon H. 
Scherer, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, director, and Donald T. 
Appell, investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Leon Straus, kindly come forward . 

(No response.) 

Mr. Leon Straus 'I 

(No response.) 

The Chairman. Has he been here ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Owens said he was here. 

(Brief recess.) 

( Committee members present : Representatives Walter, Willis, and 
Kearney. ) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, several minutes having elapsed and Mr. 
Straus not having appeared, I respectfully suggest that we call another 
witness. There may be some misunderstanding. His counsel assured 
me about a week ago he Avould be here today. 

We have another witness, however. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Abraham Joshua Bick, please. 

Please remain standing while the chairman administers an oath 
to you. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand, please. Do you swear the 
testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the w^hole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Bick. I do. 

4597 



4598 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

TESTIMONY OF ABRAHAM JOSHUA BICK, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ISADORE G. NEEDLEMAN 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself for the recard by name, resi- 
dence, and occupation. 

Mr. BiCK. My name is Abraham Joshua Bick, B-i-c-k, residing at 
274 West 19th, New York City ; occupation, rabbi. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing here today in response to a subpena 
which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Bick. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Bick. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself, please, sir. 

Mr. Needleman. Isadore G. Needleman, 165 Broadway, New York, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. The subpena under which you are appearing today re- 
quests you to produce before the committee all United States passports 
in your possession. Do you have the United States passports in your 
possession and in your control and custody ? 

Mr. Bick. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any passports ? 

Mr. Bick. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about them annd where they are, please, sir. 

Mr. Bick. I think one of the passports is in the State Department 
custody. 

Mr. Arens. Have you received only one passport ? 

Mr. Bick. May I consult my counsel? 

Mr. Arens. Surely, at an;^ time you wish. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. I had one I think, if I remember correctly, in 1932. I 
haven't got it any more. It was destroyed. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only passport you have ever had? Have 
you ever had another passport ? 

Mr. Bick. I had two passports. 

Mr. Arens. What about the other passport ? You said you had one 
in 1932 which has been destroyed, AVhere is the other one ? 

Mr. Bick. I mentioned before, the State Department. 

Mr. Arens. To your best recollection, when was that issued ? 

Mr. Bick. It was issued in 19 

Mr. Arens. Was it issued in 1947 ? Do you recall whether or not it 
was issued in 1947, Mr. Bick ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of a passport ap- 
plication issued December 26, 1947, which we have marked for iden- 
tification as "Bick Exhibit No. 1" bearing the signature of Abraham 
J. Bick, and a photogi-aph. I ask you whether or not that is a true 
and correct reproduction of the application which you made for a 
United States passport. 

(Witness and counsel examining document.) 

Mr. Bick. Yes, it is. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4599 

Mr. Arens. I suggest "Bick Exhibit No. 1" be incorporated by refer- 
ence into the record. 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a passport pursuant to this applica- 
tion ? 

Mr. Bick. May I look at that again if you don't mind? 

(Witness examining document.) 

Mr. Arens. Perhaps you don't understand. It is a very simple 
question. Did you receive a passport pursuant to this application 
which I have just talked to you about and shown to you? 

Mr. Bick. I probably did, but I haven't got it. 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; but I mean, did you receive one. 

Mr. Bick. I probably did. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you intend to go on this journey when you 
told the State Department you wanted a passport ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment not to lead to possible self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. Let me direct your attention to this passport applica- 
tion, Mr. Bick. The purpose of the trip : "Visit relatives and study 
religious life in Poland and Palestine." 

You wrote that down, or caused it to be written, didn't you ? 

Mr. Bick. I respectfully decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. You have just identified this document a while ago as 
the application that you made. 

Mr. Needleman. That doesn't mean he wrote it down. You asked 
him if he wrote it down. 

Mr. Arens. And I asked him or if he caused it to be written. 

Did you cause that language to be placed there as the purpose of 
the trip ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Bick. The document speaks for itself, and I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Do you mean to tell this committee that if you answered 
truthfully whether or not you gave the purpose of the trip 
as recited in "Bick Exhibit No. 1," you would be supplying informa- 
tion which could be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Bick. I still invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that last question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Bick. I still invoke the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you intend to go when you made the appli- 
cation for a passport in 1947 ? 

Mr. Bick. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Bick. I respectfully decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. Did you intend to visit relatives and to study religious 
life in Poland and in Palestine ? Was that the purpose of your trip ? 



4600 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. BiCK. On tlie grounds of the fifth amendment I am not going 
to discuss anything about these documents. They speak for them- 

selves. 

The Chairman. By that do you mean if you were to answer honestly 
you would be committing perjury? Is that it? Is that what you 
mean ? 

Mr. BiCK. May I consult counsel ? 

( The witness conferred wath his counsel. ) 

Mr, BiCK. I believe it would possibly lead to self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go after you received your passport 

in 1947? 

Mr. Needleman. If I may say so, Mr. Chairman, that question pre- 
supposes that he received a passport. 

The Chairman. He has already said that he did. 

Mr. Needleman. He said he supposed it was. He wasn't sure. 

The Chairman. Then to the best of your recollection. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bick, I lay before you an original passport which 
I say for the record w^as loaned to the committee by the State Depart- 
ment for the purpose of this hearing. We expect to return it to 
the State Department after the hearing. It is marked for identifica- 
tion purposes only, as "Bick Exhibit No. 2." 

The Chairman. Did you seize it from the State Department ? 

Mr. Arens. No, Mr. Chairman. Pursuant to the request of this 
committee, in order to examine the witness on this very vital matter, 
the State Department, which has custody of this document, permitted 
us to use it for this hearing. 

I lay this document before you and ask you if that is the passport 
that you received in 1947. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. This is the one which was picked up from the State 
Department. 

Mr. Arens. Tell me whether or not that is the one that you received 
in 1947. 

( Mr. Scherer entered the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Bick. No ; it wasn't. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive another passport, then, in 1947 ? 

Mr. Bick. I answered that already. 

Mr. Arens. Answer it again, please, so this record is clear. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. This one w^as issued by the State Department. This I 
remember. 

Mr. Arens. You remember that one. All right, where did you go 
after you received your passport in 1947 ? 

Mr. Bick. This is not 1947. 

Mr. Arens. In 1947 did you leave the United States of America? 

Mr. Bick. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to whether or not 
he left the United States of America in 1947. 

The Chairman, You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Bick. I will plead the fifth amendment and not answer ques- 
tions pertaining to the 1947 passport. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Bick, I lay before you a photostatic copy of 
a document entitled "Passport Renewal Application," and ask you if 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4601 

that is a true and correct reproduction of an application which you 
made for renewal of your passport in 1950. 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BicK. I understand this is an application for renewal of the 
same passport you showed me. 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. 

Mr. BicK. This is my application. 

Mr. Arens. You will observe here on this passport application the 
following: "Since my present passport was issued I have been outside 
of the United States at the following places for the periods stated : 
'Israel, France' " — what is that next word ? I can't quite recognize 
the spelling there. Is that Italy, Mr. Bick ? Is that next place Italy ? 

Mr. Bick. I think so. 

Mr. Arens. Is that in your handwriting ? 

Mr. Bick. No. 

Mr. Arens. The next place is Poland. Did you tell the State De- 
partment when you made application for renewal of your passport in 
November of 1950 that you had been in Israel, France, Italy, and 
Poland? 

Mr. Bick. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Bick. I still invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest that the passport renewal application dated 
November 1950, be marked "Bick Exhibit No. 3" for incorporation by 
reference in the record. 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a renewal of your passport in 1950 
pursuant to the application w^hich you have just identified? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. The passport shows I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ? 

Mr. Bick. You have it here. 

Mr. Arens. And you received the renewal. Where did you go pur- 
suant to the renewal of your passport which you received in 1950 2 

Mr. Needleman. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Arens keeps saying he received 
a renewal and the witness says he received this passport. I don't think 
there should be any confusion. He identifies this passport. He is not 
saying whether it was a renewal. ' I don't want the witness to be con- 
fused by that. He has declined to identify any other document. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't mean to confuse the witness. He just said he 
received a renewal of the passport. 

Mr. Needleman. He said twice, "I received that passport." You 
kept saying, "Now when you received the renewal." 

Mr. Arens. Let's get the record straight now. 

You filed this application for renewal of your passport in 1950 ; is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Scherer. He just said that he did file that application for re- 
newal. He did not take the fifth amendment to that question. ';i-'i 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. -^.-^....V . ..• • 

Mr. Scherer. So that is in the record. ■• '^"' .!:• • ■-"-'-'.■ •"' • ^. 

Mr. Arens. That is in the record. • '-^f- '' ' ■■'■ C'S'-j ■■.-A-f'- •'«^^^ 



4602 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Now, pursuant to this application which you have just identified, 
what did you receive in the line of credentials from the State Depart- 
ment ? Did you receive a new passport or did you receive a stamp on 
the old passport renewing it ? 

Mr. BiCK. I don't recollect unless I look at the passport. 

Mr. Arens. Do you want to see this passport that we have here ? 

Mr. BiCK. That is the only one which I remember. 

(Document placed before the witness.) 

Mr. Arens. May I invite your attention, Mr. Bick, to the fact that 
the document which you have now was issued in 1952, so you could not 
have received that in 1950. 

Mr. ScHERER. What is the date of the application ? 

Mr. Arens. The application is November of 1950. 

Irrespective of the document, did you receive authority from the De- 
partment of State either by a renewal or by the issuance of a new 
passport pursuant to your application in November of 1950 ? That is 
clear, is it not ? 

Mr. BiCK. I don't remember. If I had the other one I could iden- 
tify it. 

Mr. Arens. Let's get on to the next question. After you filed this 
passport application which you have already identified, did you then 
leave the United States ? 

Mr. Bick. I respectfully decline to answer that question under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I think you should direct the witness, 
because if he did have the right to invoke the fifth amendment he has 
waived it by identifying the application for the passport. 

The Chairman. Yes; I think so. You are directed to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Needleman. May I make this point: That the witness has 
identified the passport, and the question is did he pursuant to that 
passport leave the country? That is a separate question. He can 
have a passport and yet not waive the privilege. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel's sole function under the rules of the commit- 
tee is to advise his client as to his constitutional rights. 

Mr. Needleman. I would like to advise him intelligently. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bick, I lay before you a photostatic copy of an 
article appearing in Jewish Life, a progressive monthly for January 
1951 entitled "Second World Peace Conference." This article is 
under the byline of Rabbi Abraham Bick. The dateline is Prague, 
November 13. I will read 1 or 2 paragraphs, then lay the article 
before you and ask if you will identify it for us. 

Prague, November 13. — I write these lines about an hour after getting off 
the plane from Paris. I am on my way to the Second World Congress for 
Peace, which was to have taken place in Sheffield, England, and which, on 
the proposal of the Polish Delegation, has been transferred to Warsaw. 

Look at that document that I have just laid before you and tell this 
committee whether or not you wrote that article. 

Mr. Bick. I plead the fifth amendment and will not answer any- 
thing which can lead to self-incrimination, testifying against my- 
self. 

Mr. Kearney. That is without even looking at the document? 

Mr. Bick. I havfe seen it. 

Mr, Arens. When did you see it, Mr. Bick ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4603 

Mr. BiCK. Just now when you gave it to me. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever seen it before ? 

Mr. BicK. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you the Abraham Bick who wrote this article? 

Mr. Bick. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Were you in Prague on November 13, 1950 ? 

Mr. Bick. The same answer under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, that you were the person 
who wrote this article and that you were the person who was in 
Prague on November 13, 1950, to attend the Second World Congress 
for Peace. 

Mr. Bick. I stick to my right not to self-incriminate myself and I 
invoke the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bick, do you honestly truly fear that if you told 
this committee whether or not you were at Prague on November 13, 
1950, you would be supplying information which might be used against 
you in a criminal proceeding ? 

I say that the reason for the question, Mr. Chairman, is to assure 
this committee that this witness is not facetiously or capriciously 
or arbitrarily invoking a very important provision of the Constitution 
of the United States. 

Mr. Bick. I know what the fifth amendment is and I invoke it in 
good faith and honesty. 

Mr, Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness 
be directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. There is a direction of the Chair outstanding. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer that question, 

Mr. Bick. On the grounds of the fifth amendment I decline to 
answer. 

Mr. Scherer. He can't answer that question by invoking the fifth 
amendment. He has to say "Yes" or "No," 

Mr. Bick. I am not clear on the question. 

Mr. Arens. We want you to be clear : Do you honestly fear if you 
told this committee whether you were in Prague, Czechoslovakia, on 
November 13, 1950, you would be supplying information which could 
or might be used against you in some manner in a criminal proceeding? 

I suggest Mr. Chairman, that the photostatic copy of the article, 
"Second World Peace Conference," authored by a Kabbi Abraham 
Bick and appearing in the January 1951 issue of the Jewish Life be 
marked "Bick Exhibit No. 4" and incorporated by reference into the 
record. 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

Mr. Bick. Yes, 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bick, I lay before you a document which is in 
Yiddish and I do not translate Yiddish, but we have had this trans- 
lated. It is from the Morning Freiheit, of December 28, 1950, and 
contains an article by an Abraham Bick. I ask you first of all do you 
read Yiddish? 

Mr. Bick. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Do you write Yiddish ? 

Mr. Bick. I do. 



4604 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly look at that article, which is in 
Yiddish, and tell this committee whether or not you wrote that article? 

Mr. BiCK. I respectfully decline to answer invoking the iBftli 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. That article in effect says that in Poland, Rumania, 
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, which you have visited, the Jews 
there are treated with great respect, that there is a new social and 
cultural formation there, that there actually is no anti-Semitism at 
all behind the Iron Curtain in those countries. Is that the essence 
of that article which is now before you in Yiddish ? 

Mr. Needleman. Do you want him to read it, Mr, Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. If he could glance at it and give the committee the 
benefit of his interpretation of the article. 

(Witness conferring with his counsel.) 

Mr. Scherer. What was the date of that article, Counsel? 

Mr. Arens. The article is December 28, 1950, and I hold in my hand 
a translation which we have had translated for the committee. 

(Witness examining document.) 

Mr. BiCK. Would you repeat that phrase ? 

Mr. Arens. Tell us in your own phraseology, the essence of that 
article. 

Mr. BicK. I can state it in Yiddish. 

Mr. Arens. You can translate it for us, too, can you not ? 

Mr. BiCK. It is too big. 

Mr. Arens. Did you w^rite that article ? 

Mr. BiCK. I have already answered that. I declined to answer 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Does that article say in Yiddish, as I am now reciting 
in English : 

And what about Polish Jewry? For almost 2 years now the American Yiddish 
press, with the exception of the Morning Freiheit, has taken pains to obliterate 
every trace of Jewish life in Poland. 

Mr. BiCK. You mean that is a correct translation ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; is that a correct translation ? 

Mr. BiCK. Yes ; it is. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write it ? 

Mr. BiCK. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that the language which I just read in English was penned 
by yourself in Yiddish and appeared in the Morning Freiheit under 
date of December 28, 1950, in Avhich you were attacking the American 
Yiddish Press ? 

Mr. BiCK. With all due respect, sir, I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a paid employee of the Morning 
Freiheit ? 

Mr. BiCK. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. I suggest that the article referred to, appearing in 
the Morning Freiheit under date of December 28, 1950, be marked, 
"Bick Exhibit No. 5," for incorporation by reference in the record. 

I also respectfully suggest that the citations of the Morning Freiheit 
of its Communist control and activities be identified as "Bick Exhibit 
No. 6," and incorporated in the record. 

The Chairman. They may be so admitted. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4605 

BicK Exhibit No. 6 
MORNING FREIHEIT 

1. A "Communist Yiddish daily." 

{Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, September 24, 
191,2, p. 7686.) 

2. "The Freiheit has been one of the rankest organs of Communist propaganda 

in this country for almost a quarter of a century." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, March 29, 1944, 
p. 75.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you, Mr. Bick, a photostatic copy of 
an article appearing in the Daily Worker, of New York, of Friday, 
February 2, 1951, entitled "Rabbi Bick To Talk Against Rearming 
Nazis." There is a photograph there and under that photograph is a 
designation. Rabbi Bick. I ask you to take a glance at that and see 
if that refreshes your recollection of any incident that may have 
occurred about that time in your life. 

(The witness examined the document.) 

Mr. Bick. I shall stand on my constitutional rights and refuse to 
identify any document which might incriminate myself. 

Mr. Arens. I wonder if you could help the committee with this: 
Did you ever hear of a Rabbi Bick who returned from Poland in 1950 
other than yourself ? 

Mr. Bick. I have already answered. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the docu- 
ment referred to be marked "Bick Exhibit No. 7" and incorporated 
by reference in the record. 

The Chairman. So incorporated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bick, I lay before you a photostatic copy of a docu- 
ment entitled "A Call for Peace and Freedom, American People's Con- 
gress and Exposition for Peace," which lists a number of sponsors, 
including a "Rabbi Abraham J. Bick, New York, N. Y." I ask you 
whether or not you are the Rabbi Abraham Bick of New York, N.Y., 
identified in that document as a sponsor. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. Under the protection of the fifth amendment, I will not 
identify any document. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask, in order to save 
time, that all further exhibits be incorporated by reference in this 
record. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Before we proceed, I would like to ask a question about your pass- 
ports. 

Mr. Bick. Which one ? 

The Chairman. The one you looked at. Wlien you submitted your 
application, you obtained permission to travel in various countries, 
did you not? There were visas stamped in the passport. Did you 
obtain any of those visas or were they obtained by the Department of 
State ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

The Chairman. In other words, you sent your application for a 
passport for permission to travel in the stated countries. When the 
passport was returned to you, it contained permission to travel in those 
countries, did it not ? 

Mr. Bick. I don't recall. 

The Chairman. Did you call at the embassies of any of the coun- 
tries that you intended to visit ? 



4606 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. BiCK. I don't recall that, sir. 

The Chairman. You sent an application to the State Department 
for a passport ; isn't that true ? 

Mr. BiCK. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Is that the only step you took to obtain this passport 
in which there are visas from other countries ? 

Mr. BicK. The application was sent to obtain a passport. The 
application would establish it. 

The Chairman. That is all ; that is the only thing you did. Some 
time later this passport was mailed to you in which there are visas 
from the countries that you intended to visit? 

Mr. BicK. I don't understand this question. 

The Chairman. Did you go to the embassies of any of the countries 
you intended to visit to obtain permission to enter those countries? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BicK. To my best recollection I didn't go to any embassies. 

The Chairman. Did you come to Washington after you submitted 
your application ? 

Mr. BicK. To my best recollection I didn't. 

The Chairman. You did not. You would remember if you did, 
wouldn't you? It was just 2 or 3 years ago. You would remember 
that you did not come to Washington, and that is the procedure. That 
is why we are subpenaing these passports. Because many of them 
have been forged. Yesterday we had a case in which there was asserted 
permission to travel in a prohibited area, and the permission erased, 
or at least the attempt made to erase it. That is why we want to see 
these passports, because we believe the law ought to be amended so 
that if there is any alteration to the passport it immediately becomes 
void. That is what we are trying to study. 

Mr. Needleman. So the record will be clear, there is no intimation 
that there is any forgery on this one, is there ? 

The Chairman. No, no. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bick, I lay before you the document that the chair- 
man was alluding to a moment ago, a photostatic copy of the passport 
application which you filed in 1952 for still another passport, and ask 
you if you will kindly identify it. 

Mr. Willis. This was not for renewal. It was for a new passport ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; this was for a new passport, Mr. Willis. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Bick. I understand this is an application for a new passport, sir ? 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. 

Mr. Bick. Yes ; it is. 

Mr. Arens. In this application for passport you state you are going 
to visit relatives. That is, in 1952 the application states that you were 
going to go visit some relatives. 

Mr. Bick. That is true. 

Mr. Arens. Is that what you intended to do ? 

Mr. Bick. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was that all you intended to do if you could have gotten 
a passport again in 1952 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. I have a father in Israel I wanted to visit. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4607 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only place you wanted to go, just to visit 
your father, or did you have something else in mind that you might 
do on that trip ? 

Mr. BicK. I decline to discuss this under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to 
answer the question. 

You showed him the application for passport, and he admitted he 
signed it. He admitted he stated at the time he made the application 
that he wanted to visit, relatives. Tlien you asked him another ques- 
tion, if he had any other place that he wanted to go, any other purpose, 
and then he invokes the fifth amendment. He certainly doesn't have 
the right to invoke the fifth amendment. He certainly has opened 
the door in that case. We have a right to examine him on his state- 
ment. I ask you to direct the witness to answer the question as to 
what other purpose he had in mind, where else he intended to go. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. BiCK. As I stated, I had a mind to visit my father. That is 
true. The other I decline to answer. 

Mr. Arens. You also state on it that you wanted to visit Brazil. 

Mr. BiCK. As far as other intentions, I decline to answer on the 
ground of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Wait just a minute, please, sir. You said you wanted 
to visit Brazil. That is on the application as a country that you 
wanted to visit, isn't it ? 

Is Brazil on there as one of the countries you wanted to visit? 

Did you write on the application that you wanted to go to Brazil ? 

Mr. BiCK. I did ; yes. That is my handwriting. 

Mr. Arens. Did you go to Brazil ? 

Mr. Needleman. The passport. 

Mr. BiCK. May I see the passport ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend a peace conference in Brazil ? 

Mr. BiCK. I decline to answer that on the gromids of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you go besides Brazil on this trip ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BiCK. I plead the fifth amendment to the question, 

Mr. Arens. I want to show you in this passport a stamp indicat- 
ing your arrival in Vienna, Austria. On page 14 of your passport 
we see a stamp. It was visaed to give you admission into Austria. 
Would you please look at it, Mr. Bick, and tell us, did you solicit 
that stamp to be placed in your passport ? 

Mr. Bick. I invoke the fifth amendment on this question. 

Mr. ScHERER. I ask that you direct tlie witness to answer the ques- 
tion because I think by the questions he has already answered he has 
certainly waived any right to invoke the fifth amendment as to this 
question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. AVhat 
was the date of that ? 

Mr. Arens. The stamp is December of 1952, Austria. 

Mr. Willis. What is the Brazil stamp ? 

79932 — 56 — ^pt. 4 2 



4608 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. It is about the same date, Congressman. We will find 
it in just a second. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. Arens. I am a little uncertain as to the state of the record. 
Is there a question pending ? 

Mr. ScHERER. There is a direction to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Will you please answer the question? 

Mr. Willis. The specific question was whether he was instrumental 
in having that stamp placed in there allowing him to go to Austria. 

Mr. Arens. Would you just answer that question for the com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. BicK. I stand on my constitutional rights and refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. You didn't say anything on this passport application 
in 1952 about going to Austria ; did you ? 

Mr. Willis. I think the next question logically is, Did he go to 
Austria ? 

Mr. Arens. I thought I asked him that, Congressman. 

Did you go to Austria ? 

Mr. BiCK. I respectfully decline to answer, invoking the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you state in this passport application anything 
about going to Austria ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. That is a very simple question. Did you ? 

Mr. BiCK. I invoke my rights against self-incrimination. 

The Chairman. May I ask a question at this point ? Where did you 
obtain this visa to go to Austria ? 

Mr. BicK. I am sorry. I respectfully decline to answer. 

The Chairman. Then I was hasty when I said there was no intima- 
tion that there were any alterations in this passport, because this 
permission to enter Austria was not obtained in the United States, in 
December 1952. It was obtained somewhere and probably through 
the Communist apparatus in Paris. 

Mr. Needleman. Mr. Chairman, as I understand it, just in fairness 
to the witness, when a person travels on a passport if he should change 
his mind and decide to go to another country that hasn't been listed, 
he has a right to do so and he has a right to have a stamp put in it and 
that doesn't mean there is a forgery or alteration. 

The Chairman. All right ; where did he get this stamp ? 

Mr. Scherer. Why should he invoke the fifth amendment and indi- 
cate that the answer to that question might incriminate him? The 
inference the chairman drew is proper. 

Mr. Needleman. It might be a link in a chain of associations that 
might prompt him to answer in that manner on the advice of counsel. 

The Chairman. Where did you get this permission to enter Austria ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Needleman. He looks at me. I don't know if he wants advice 
or not. 

Mr. BiCK. I stated that anything that might lead to self-incrimina- 
tion I invoke the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. The fact of the matter is that you obtained this 
permission in Paris to enter Austria, did you not ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4609 

Mr. BicK. My answer is the same, invoking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a copy of the Commmiist Daily Worker 
of December 10, 1952, in which there is an article entitled : "Austrians 
Form Committee of 312 To Welcome Peace Delegates." 

It states "'The Vienna Congress is due to convene on December 12." 
It tells about a number of people who are going to be welcomed there 
by the Austrian committee. Among these people who are going to be 
welcomed by the Austrian committee at Vienna is a Rabbi Abraham 
Bick. I lay that document before you and ask if that refreshes your 
recollection as to whether or not you were one of those welcomed at 
Vienna, Austria, on the date indicated in the article. 

(The witness examined a document.) 

Mr. Bick. I shall not discuss, under the protection of the fifth 
amendment, any documents of this kind. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that on the date mentioned in the article you were in Vienna, 
Austria, on credentials which were issued to you originally by the 
United States Government. 

Mr. Bick. I invoke the fifth amendment as to this. 

Mr. Arens. If you will kindly help us again, Mr. Bick, on your 
translations. I lay before you in Yiddish a document which we have 
had translated into the English from the Morning Freiheit. Follow 
me with that, would you please, and see if I am misquoting anything. 
I want to read just the first paragraph. That is all that I will burden 
you with at the moment. 

Mr. Needleman. Which part are you going to read from ? 

Mr. Arens. He sees and understands it. The Morning Freiheit 
of Saturday, December 27, 1952. A letter from Prague by Abraham 
Bick: 

I am writing this letter at the Prague airport, where I and other delegates to 
the People's Congress for Peace in Vienna, which ended Friday evening are 
waiting for a plane to take us to Berlin. 

Did I give a true and correct translation of what appears in this 
original Morning Freiheit that you have before you ? 

Mr. Bick, More or less, substantially. You translated O. K. 

Mr. Arens. I translated that right. Will you tell us if you are the 
one who wrote that article. 

Mr. Bick. I invoke the fifth amendment on that article. 

Mr. Arens. I would like you to skip a paragraph here, and let me 
read again one more paragraph and see if you follow me correctly. 
This article tells about what happened at this peace conference and 
continues in this vein, and I will quote now : 

They scornfully rejected the absurd libels of the foreign bourgeois and war- 
mongering press concerning a so-called wave of anti-Semitism in Czechoslovakia 
and [the report] that the Slansky trials are in any way connected with anti- 
Semitism. 

Is that a substantially accurate translation of what appears in this 
document that you are now reading ? 

Mr. Bick. I wouldn't argue on the translation, if it is correct or not. 

Mr. Arens. Is that substantially correct ? 

Mr. Bick. Substantially. 

Mr. Arens. That is substantially correct. Did you write that ? 



4610 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. BiCK. With your permission I will have to help myself to drj) 
my throat in invoking the hfth amendment and standing on my con- 
stitutional rights, with all due respect to you. 

Mr. Arens. This statement which I have just read is a very serious 
indictment of the patriotic papers of the Hebrew language in the 
United States ; is it not ? 

Mr. BiCK. I don't get clear your question. 

Mr. Arens. This language which I have just read to you from the 
Morning Freiheit is a very serious indictment of those who were pro- 
testing in the United States against the wave of anti-Semitism behind 
the Iron Curtain ? Isn't that correct ? 

Mr. BiCK. It may be. 

Mr. Arens. Isn't that correct ? 

Mr. BiCK. It may be interpreted that way. 

Mr. Arens. Isn't that a fair and honest interpretation ? 

Mr. BiCK. You mean your interpretation ? 

Mr. Arens. The interpretation that I just gave of this language, 
that it is a serious indictment against people in the United States who 
were protesting against the wave of anti-Semitism then in existence 
behind the Iron Curtain. Isn't that correct ? 

Mr. BicK. Yes. 

The Chairman. That is what you intended ; is it not ? 

Mr. Needleman. I didn't get the question. 

The Chairman. I say, that is what you intended ? 

Mr. BiCK. That is how I interpret this article when I read it, but 
I didn't say anything pertaining to who wrote the article. 

Mr. Arens. We understand you decline to identify yourself as the 
author of the article, but I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm 
or deny the fact, that you were the author of that article and that you 
were the person who was undertaking to defend the wave of anti- 
Semitism then in vogue behind the Iron Curtain. 

Mr. BicK. On this matter I invoked the hfth amendment before and 
I do it now. 

Mr. Arens. You have presented yourself here as a rabbi. Are you 
ordained ? 

Mr. BicK. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you admitted to the New York rabbinical body? 

Mr. BicK. I was ordained. There are many rabbinical bodies. 
There is no one rabbinical body. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a synagogue ? 

Mr. BicK. No ; not yet, not now. 

Mr. Kearney. Did you have one? 

Mr. BicK. I did. 

Mr. Kearney, How long ago ? 

Mr. BicK. Oh, until 1949 when I resigned. 

Mr. Arens. Did you resign under a little persuasion ? 

Mr. BicK. No ; not at all. I wanted to write books. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you still another passport application. 
This is a photostatic copy of a document which I understand is your 
present passport application currently pending in the Department 
of State for another trip. I ask you to look at that photostatic copy 
and tell this committee whether or not it is a true and correct re- 
production of the application for a passport which you currently have 
pending in the State Department. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4611 

Mr. BiCK. I invoke the fifth amendment on this document and 
decline to discuss it. 

Mr. Kearney. "What date is that ? 

Mr. BiCK, I will not incriminate myself. 

Mr. Arens. It was sworn to in October 1955. 

The Chairman. "Wliose photograph is that? Is that your photo- 
graph on the application ? 

Mr, Arens. Is that your photograph on this document I have just 
laid before you? 

Mr. BiCK. I plead the fifth amendment not to discuss this document 
before. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee why it is that you will identify 
all these other applications you made for passports and for renewals 
and other documents of that character, but you won't identify the 
document which is currently pending ? Can you tell us why that is ? 

Mr. BiCK. Against possible self-incrimination I invoke the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. The true answer, is that after you made that applica- 
tion the State Department refused to issue you a passport, is it not? 

Mr. BiCK. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. On this document the applicant, whose signature 
appears Abraham Bick, and to my eye appears to he the same signa- 
ture as the signature you identified on the other document, states 
he wants to visit his parents. Do you propose to visit your parents 
again soon? 

(The witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. I have stated before that I have an old father in Israel 
and I would like to visit him. He wants me to visit him. 

Mr. Arens. Did you propose on this trip to do anything beside 
visit your aged parents ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. I said I would like to visit my parents. 

Mr. Arens. Yes; but tell us what else you intended to do on this 
journey. 

Mr. Bick. Excuse me, sir. Are you issuing the passport ? 

Mr. Arens. No ; I don't issue passports. Just answer the question, 
please sir. 

Mr. Bick. I am sorry. 

Mr. Arens. In connection with this passport application did you re- 
ceive a letter from the State Department asking you whether or not 
you are a Communist ? 

Mr. Bick. I respectfully decline to discuss this on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to read a letter to you. Then tell us if this 
is the letter you wrote to the State Department dated January 17, 1956 : 

Dear Miss Knight : In reply to your last letter, I should like to repeat my rea- 
son for requesting a passport, 

Then in the last paragraph you say this : 

As to your question of associations, I affirm that I am not now nor have I ever 
been a member of the Communist Party, nor have I supported their doctrines as 
such. 

Look at a photostatic copy of that letter I just read, and tell this com- 
mittee whether or not you sent this letter to the State Department in 
January of this year. 



4612 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Needleman. The witness asked whether he is permitted to 
smoke, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. BicK. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. Can't you tell us whether or not that document is a 
true and correct reproduction of a letter you sent to the State De- 
partment in which you said you had never been a Communist and had 
never supported their doctrines as such ? 

Mr. BiCK. I respectfully decline to answer this on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. ScHERER. He wasn't under oath, Mr. Counsel, when he signed 
that letter. 

Mr. Arens. It doesn't so appear. Congressman. 

Mr. ScHERER, There is no affidavit appended to that. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the 
fact, that you did send a letter to the Department of State under date 
of January 17, 1956, in which you stated that you were not and had 
never been a member of the Communist Party nor have you ever sup- 
ported their doctrines as such. 

Mr. BiCK. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I see just between the two paragraphs of the letter I 
have just read to you, in handwriting, the word "affidavit," a-f-f-i- 
d-a-v-i-t. Did you cause that to be inserted there? 

Mr. BiCK. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Tell the committee, in view of the fact that you have 
this passport application pending and, in view of the fact that you 
sent this letter to the State Department, are you now or have you ever 
been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BiCK. I respectfully decline to answer and invoke the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BicK. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Kearney. If you were not a member of the Communist Party, 
would you so state? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Needleman. Will you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Ivearney. I asked him if he were not a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the present time, would he so state. 

Mr. BiCK. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used any name beside the name of Abra- 
ham Joshua Bick ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. I wrote a few books and articles in Hebrew and used a 
pseudonym — pen name. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the only time you ever used a name other than 
the name Abraham Joshua Bick? 

Mr. Bick. A few times I did. 

Mr. Arens. I asked, have you ever used any other name in connec- 
tion with any other activity of yours ? 

Mr. Bick. Writing papers. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever use the name of N. Koenig, K-o-e-n-i-g? 

Mr. Bick. Never. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4613 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever had a name in the Communist Party 
other than your own name ? 

Mr. Kearney. The witness understands the question very welL 

Mr. Needleman. Somebody might think he does. 

Mr. Arens. Have you given an answer to that question? 

Mr. Willis. He gives the impression of being dumb as a fox. 

Mr. BiCK. I don't understand that. 

Mr. Arens. Let's try another name. Have you ever used the name 
of Alan McGill, M-c-G-i-1-1 ? 

Mr. BiCK. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Scherer. Just a moment. I ask that you direct the witness 
to answer the question. He certainly has waived any right he has 
to invoke the fifth amendment with respect to that question. He 
already has told counsel he never used any other name. We have 
certainly a right to cross-examine and ask him further with reference 
to the name. 

The Chairman. Yes. You are directed to answer the question. 

(Representative Velde entered the hearing room.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BiCK. I could mention some names which I used in Hebrew. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us not the Hebrew names you used on your writ- 
ings, but what names you may have used in any connection other 
than the name of Abraham Joshua Bick. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Can't you just answer the question, please, sir? Have 
you ever used the name of Alan McGill, M-c-G-i-1-1, A-l-a-n is the 
first name ? 

Mr. BiCK. I respectfully decline to answer this on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. Have you ever used the nickname "Mac" ? 

Mr. BicK. I have no nickname. Joshua is my middle name. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that in 1947 you were in the Yorkville section of the Com- 
munist Party in New York under the name of Alan McGill, 
M-c-G-i-1-1. 

Mr. Bick. I decline to answer on the ground of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, also, in addition to your rabbinical activi- 
ties, been a professor? Could you just tell us that, please, sir? 

Mr. Bick. I don't recall being called a professor. 

Mr. Arens. Let us see if this might refresh your recollection. I 
lay before you now the Daily Worker of New York, Thursday, Janu- 
ary 19, 1956, just this year. 

"Jewish studies at Jefferson School of Social Science, a program of 
10-session evening courses," and so forth. Among the instructors who 
are going to teach on Mondays at 6 : 45 at these 10 sessions of evening 
courses, is a person by the name of Abraham Bick. Are you that 
person ? 

Mr. Bick. I plead the fifth amendment to that question. 

Mr. Arens. If they do not call you professor, did they call you 
instructor ? 

I lay before you a photostatic copy of a document which is on the 
letterhead of the School of Jewish Studies in New York City. The 



4614 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

board of directors lists a number of persons including Rabbi Abraham 
Bick. I ask if that helps refresh your recollection as to any of your 
professorial activities in the past. 

Mr. Bick. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Kearney. What is the Jefferson School ? 

Mr. Bick. The fifth amendment? 

Mr. Kj:arney. What is the Jefferson School ? 

Mr. Bick. It is a school, probably. 

Mr. Kearney. What kind of a school ? 

Mr. Bick. Doesn't it say on the letterhead there ? 

Mr. Kearney, I don't know. You tell me. 

The Chairman. You said it is a school. If you know it is a school, 
what kind of a school is it ? 

Mr. Bick. Look at the letterhead and see. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you know who runs the school ? 

Mr. Bick. I don't know. 

Mr. Kearney. Where is the school located ? 

Mr. Bick. I think it is located somewhere on Sixth Avenue. 

Mr. Kearney. Where on Sixth Avenue ? 

Mr. Bick. 16th Street. 

Mr. Kearney. Again to go back, who runs this Jefferson School ? 

Mr. Bick. I don't know who runs it. 

Mr. Kearney. When did you instruct there ? 

Mr. Bick. I decline to answer. I invoke the fifth amendment on 
that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you ever have your passport picked up on the 
Canadian border ? 

Mr. Bick. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact that a year or so ago you were 
trying to get into Canada and your passport was picked up there by 
the Canadian authorities; isn't that correct? 

Mr. Bick. It was picked up. I don't know by what authority. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien was it picked up ? 

Mr. Bick. In 1953, if I recollect. It was in December. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about it. How did it happen to be picked up ? 

Mr. Bick. I used it as identification. I showed this as identification. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you going in Canada ? 

Mr. Bick. I invoke the fifth amendment on that. 

Mr. Arens. How did it happen to get picked up ? Tell us about 
that. 

Mr. Bick. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ajrens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you were en route to a Communist caucus in Canada 
when your passport was picked up by the Canadian authorities on the 
Canadian border. 

Mr. Bick. The same answer. 

Mr. Arens. If that isn't true, deny it under oath. 

Mr. Bick. I invoke the fifth amendment to that. 

Mr. Ajiens. After your passport was picked up, as you told us, you 
filed an affidavit with the State Department in 1955 ; an affidavit of 
inability to present previously issued passport, stating "Lost on my 
way back home to New York." Is this a photostatic copy of the docu- 
ment that you filed with the State Department after your passport was 
picked up by the Canadian authorities ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4615 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. Is that under oath ? 

Mr. Arexs. Excuse me. Letmeseeif it is under oath. 

Mr. Needleman". Yes ; it is. 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; it is sworn to. 

Mr. Scherer. "What was the date of that ? 

Mr. Arens. October of 1955. 

Mr. Scherer. The statute of limitations has not run. It would be a 
false representation under oath as to existing or past fact knowingly 
made with the intention of obtaining advantage. 

Mr. Arexs. First of all, identify that document. 

Mr. BicK. Yes ; I identify it. 

Mr. Arens. You stated in this document you lost your passport ; did 
you not ? 

Mr. BiCK. There was another one attached to it, another document 
to it, an affidavit. I assume it was either lost or taken away. It was 
not returned. It was attached to this. 

Mr. Arens. You told us a moment ago that it was picked up. 

Mr. BiCK. Yes, it was picked up. They said "We don't know you." 
So I made the affidavit. "It was either lost or you have it. Please 
send it back to me." I wrote to them and they never sent it back to me. 

Mr. Arens. You didn't say anything about that. 

Mr. BiCK. Yes, I did. "I assume it is lost." 

Mr. Aeens. Now you assume it is lost, but a little while ago you 
didn't have any assumptions at all. You told us as a fact that it was 
picked up by people on the Canadian border. 

Mr. BiCK. But I stated in my affidavit that it was picked up and still 
I assumed it was lost. 

Mr. Ivearney. Do you mean to say after the Canadian authorities 
picked it up you assumed it was lost ? 

Mr. BiCK. I didn't assume the Canadian authorities picked it up. 

Mr. Needleman. I think you misunderstood. I believe he said that 
it was picked up at the border. He didn't identify whether it was the 
Canadian authorities. 

Mr. Kearney. As I understood, he said it was picked up by the 
Canadian authorities. 

Mr. BiCK. It was an inspector. There is another affidavit in which 
I said it may have been lost or may have been sent to the State De- 
partment. 

Mr. Kearney. As a matter of fact, you know your passport was 
picked up, whether on this side of the border or on the other side, 
do you not ? 

Mr. BiCK. I have stated in my affidavit which is attached to it, which 
I have sent to the State Department, that either it was lost — I am not 
sure it was lost or picked up. Maybe it was lost there. 

Mr. Kearney. I would like to get it cleared up because a minute ago 
he testified it was picked up. 

Mr. Arens. I think we might refresh the witness' recollection by an 
article from the Daily Worker of February 26, 1953, datelined Toronto, 
Ontario, February 25, with reference to a rally : 

A message was read from Rabbi Abraham Bick, of New York, who had been 
scheduled as a speaks but who had been stopped at the border by Canadian 



4616 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

officials. The message declared that the hysteria being spread in the United 
States by Senator Joseph ]\IcCarthy was responsible for the action of the 
Canadian immigration authorities. 

Look at that, Mr, Bick, and tell us whether or not that helps refresh 
your recollection as to what might have transpired on this matter of 
your passport which a few moments ago you said was picked up and 
now you feel it was lost. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. May I clear it up ? 

Mr. Arens. Look at that article and see if it helps to refresh your 
recollection. It has been a couple of years ago. 

Mr. Bick. They picked it up at Malton Airport, Ontario. 

Mr. Kearney. In Canada ? 

Mr. Bick. In Canada. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, the Canadian authorities did pick 
up your passport ? 

Mr. Bick. Because I used it as identification. 

Mr. Kearney. Then it was not lost ? 

Mr. Bick. When I went back I asked them where it was, they said 
"We don't know, ask the Americans." I did not ask any Americans. 
I went home. Then I wrote that I assumed either it was lost or the 
State Department has it. The fact is that I wrote three letters to the 
State Department to send it back and they didn't. So I assume it was 
lost. This I stated in my affidavit which is attached to it. I hope you 
have it. 

Mr. Arens. This article gives a little bit different version. It says 
that Eabbi Abraham Bick, who had been scheduled as a speaker up 
there, had been stopped at the border by Canadian officials and that 
you sent a message protesting all this as part of the hysteria sweeping 
the country. Is that the fact that occurred ? 

Mr. Bick. I don't know who wrote it. 

Mr. Arens. You don't know who wrote what ? 

Mr. Bick, The article. 

Mr. Arens. Just tell us, were you stopped at the Canadian border 
by the Canadian officials ? 

Mr. Bick. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Arens. Did they take your passport away from you ? 

Mr. Bick. I don't know who took it, the Americans or Canadians. 

Mr. Arens. Was your passport taken away from you by some offi- 
cial of the Government ? 

Mr. Bick. Yes, but I don't know what Government. 

Mr. Arens. Were you permitted to enter Canada to go to this 
rally? 

Mr. Bick. I was not. 

( Representative Walter left the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Arens. Did you send a message ? 

Mr. Bick. I don't remember sending a message. 

Mr. Kearney. How long ago was this, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Bick. 1953, December or January. 

Mr. Scherer. ^Vliy did you say, then, in this affidavit that it was 
"lost on my way back home to New York" ? It was taken from you 
on your way to Canada, according to your testimony. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4617 

Mr. BiCK, I explained that it was taken as a means of identification, 
that I am an American citizen. In fact, when I didn't have it I used 
other means. I didn't have it any more. 

Mr. ScHERER. When you were in Canada you used otlier means ? 

Mr. BiCK. Showing that I am a citizen. Means of identification. 
I gave it as identification. When I had to go back they didn't let me 
in. For the record, I want for the record that they never deported 
me from Canada. 

Mr. SciiERER. When the Government officials picked up your pass- 
port as you attempted to enter Canada they did not return it to you, 
did they ? 

Mr. BiCK. That is right. 

Mr. ScHERER. You haven't seen that passport since that time ? 

Mr. BiCK. I haven't seen that passport. I asked them, "Where is 
it ?" They said, "We don't know." 

Mr. ScHERER. I understand that. How can you say then in your 
affidavit that you lost the passport ? 

Mr. BiCK. I assume it. I didn't say I was sure it was lost. I said 
either the State Department has it or I lost it. I definitely said that. 

Mr. Kearney. I can't understand how you can assume that it was 
lost after the Canadians picked it up. 

Mr. BiCK. I have an affidavit stating that, 

Mr. Needleman. He says when he asked for it they said, "We don't 
know. Ask the State Department." From that he assumed it was lost. 

Mr. ScHERER. If the Canadian officials lost it or our State Depart- 
ment lost it, then it wasn't lost by you on your way back to New York. 

Mr. BiCK. No. I said it was lost somewhere there on the Malton Air- 
port. If I could see that affidavit, it would refresh my recollection. 

Mr. Needleman. Do you have that other statement ? 

Mr. Arens. All we have is the document which has been exhibited. 

Mr. Kearney. This is what I want to clear up : This is your own 
affidavit. You state here, not in substance, but in words, "And was 
lost on my way back home to New York." 

Mr. Needleman. The last sentence says "assumed." 

Mr. BiCK. I have another affidavit appended to that. I think 
possibly the Passport Division of the State Department has it. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you knoAv wliat perjury is ? 

Mr. BiCK. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Tell this committee whether or not you are connected 
with the Civil Rights Congress. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BicK. I invoke the fifth amendment on this. 

Mr. Arens. Didn't you on behalf of the Civil Eights Congress sign 
a protest branding Judge Medina and the decision of the jury in send- 
ing the 12 Communist traitors to jail, as an outrage against the hmnan 
rights of all Americans ? Did you do that ? 

Mr. BiCK. I will plead the fifth amendment to this. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you did join with a number of other persons in con- 
demning the conviction of the 12 Communist traitors in New York 
City 

Mr. BiCK. The same answer. 



4618 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. As an outrage against civil human rights of all 
Americans. 

Now I lay before you a document which I would like to have you 
help us with. It is about Camp Lakeland, "A different kind of va- 
cation camp, incomparable programs, tops in food, and all facilities." 

Where is Camp Lakeland '^ 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. According to this ad, it is on "Beautiful Sylvan Lake." 
Do you know anything about it ? 

Mr. BiCK. I think so. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what you know about this Camp Lakeland. 

Mr. BiCK. It is a Jewish camp. 

Mr. Arens. Is that all it is ? 

Mr. BiCK. That is what I think. 

Mr. Arens. Is it controlled by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BiCK. I don't know that. 

Mr. Arens. You don't know about that ? 

Mr. BiCK. No. 

Mr. Arens. Look at this ad, please, and see if that refreshes your 
recollection. It states a number of people are going to be running 
this camp, including a Mr. Bick. Tell us whether or not you are the 
Bick who is connected with that camp. 

Mr. Bick. I will invoke the fifth amendment on any document, sir, 
pertaining to self-incrimination. 

Mr. Arens. Forget about the document at the moment and tell us 
what you do at Camp Lakeland. 

Mr. Bick. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a Communist training center? If it is not, why 
don't you deny it under oath ? 

Mr. Bick. Against possible self-incrimination, I invoke the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you connected with the American Peace Crusade ? 

Mr. Bick. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of a letter on the 
letterhead of the American Peace Crusade, dated April 10, 1953. 
This lists its initial sponsors, including the name of Rabbi Abraham 
J. Bick. I ask you if you are that individual. 

Mr. Bick. I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are that individual and that you are one of the 
moving lights in the American Peace Crusade. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bick. The same answer. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. "VVliat is the status of your present application in the 
Department of State for permission to journey abroad ? 

Mr. Bick. I invoke the fifth amendment on this question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know the status of your case ? Has it been ap- 
proved? Has it been turned down? Is it pending? Wliat is the 
situation on that ? 

Mr. Bick. Under the protection of the fifth amendment I will not 
discuss it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. I cannot conceive of 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4619 

a situation in which he would be incriminating himself by just telling 
us whether he knows the status of his application. 

Mr. Willis (presiding). Yes; you are ordered to answer the ques- 
tion. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BicK. I have applied for a passport. 

Mr. Arens. What is the status of it ? Have they denied, approved, 
or are they considering your application ? 

Mr. BiCK. They want me to sign an affidavit. 

Mr. Aeens. The Department of State wants you to sign an affidavit 
as to whether or not you are a Communist ; isn't that true '? 

Mr. BicK. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. The passport is pending until you do sign that affidavit ; 
is that correct ? 

Mr. BicK. Probably. 

Mr. Arens. You sent a letter to the Department saying that you 
weren't a Communist ; didn't you ? 

Mr. Kearnet.' Mr. Counsel, just to interrupt a minute before he 
answers that question. The State Department has offered you a hear- 
ing and you have refused ; haven't you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BiCK. I did not refuse any hearings. In fact, I wrote them a 
letter. 

Mr. I^arney. They offered a hearing ? 

Mr. BicK. Yes. 

Mr. Kearney. How long ago was that ? 

Mr. BicK. Months ago. 

Mr. Kearney. Months ago ? 

Mr. BicK. Yes. Last winter, maybe. 

Mr. Kearney. How many months ago ? 

Mr. BiCK. Maybe March or February. I can't recollect. 

Mr. Kearney. Why haven't you accepted the hearing ? 

Mr. BiCK. Because they scheduled the hearing for a certain date 
that I couldn't appear. 

Mr, Kearney. Is that the only reason? 

Mr. BiCK. Yes. Then I didn't bother any more. When they re- 
quested an affidavit, I didn't bother. 

Mr. Kearney. After the State Department sent you the request 
that you would have to sign an affidavit as to whether or not you were 
a Communist, you didn't bother any more? 

Mr. BiCK. Yes, but I still may go down to have a hearing. 

Mr. Kearney. You may still go ? 

Mr. Scherer. You are willing to say, as you did in the letter, when 
you are not under oath that you are not a member of the Communist 
Party, but when you are under oath, as you are here, you will not so 
state, is that right ? 

Mr. BiCK. I don't know what I will say there, but I will be down 
there. 

Mr. Scherer. You haven't furnished the affidavit that the State 
Department requested, have you ? 

Mr. Willis. He has not so stated that here. 

Mr. BiCK. I stated I wanted to see my father in Israel. 



4620 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Kearney. 1 think that is the most tnithful statement you 
have made here — that you don't know what you will say when you get 
there. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that concludes 
the staff interrogation of this witness. 

We have two other witnesses who have been subpenaed to appear 
today. 

Mr. Velde. I would like to ask a couple of questions. 

Mr. Willis (presiding). Proceed, Mr. Velde. 

Mr. Velde. I can't quite get clear in my mind this trip to Canada, 
when your passport was removed by the Canadian authorities. Did 
you ever get into Canada subsequent to that time? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Velde. After that time ? 

Mr. BiCK. May I hear the question again, please ? 

Mr. Velde. Did you ever get into Canada after the time that your 
passport was removed in 1953? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. BicK. I did go. 

Mr. Velde. How did you get in that time? 

Mr. BiCK. I simply was let in. 

Mr. Velde. Did the inspectoi-s ask you any questions ? 

Mr. BiCK. Nothing at all. I just showed him identification that 
I was a citizen. 

Mr. Velde. What was the date of this trip ? 

Mr. BiCK. If I recollect, it was somewhere in April. 

Mr. Velde. Of this last year? 

Mr. BiCK. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. What was the purpose of the trip ? 

Mr BiCK. I plead the fifth amendment to this question. 

Mr. Velde. Wliere did you go in Canada ? 

Mr. BiCK. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Velde. I am inclined to agree with my colleague, Mr. Scherer, 
that it certainly looks like there is a good case of perjury in this 
affidavit which has been filed with the State Department. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, Mr. Chairman, and I think we should refer the 
testimony in this case, including that affidavit, to the Department of 
Justice for consideration of possible perjury prosecution by it. 

I want to ask this one question : I wasn't here when you began your 
testimony. Are you a naturalized citizen ? 

Mr. BiCK. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. By derivation ? Does your father live in Israel now ? 

Mr. BicK. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Is he an American citizen ? 

Mr. BiCK. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. When did he become a citizen ? 

Mr. BicK. In 1953. Then he returned. 

Mr. Scherer. Is he still a citizen of this country? 

Mr. BiCK. I think so. 

Mr. Scherer. Is he living permanently in Israel now ? 

Mr. BicK. Not permanently. He has his family here. He is affilia- 
ted with the rabbinical there, but he returns from time to time. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4621 

Mr. ScHERER. I don't know whether the law provides for denatu- 
ralization. 

Mr. Arens. It doesn't. 

Mr. ScHERER. If it did I certainly would ask the Department to 
consider possible denaturalization proceedings. 

Mr. Willis. The witness will be excused. 

(Committee members present: Representatives Willis (presiding), 
Kearney, Scherer, and Velde.) 

Mr. Arens. Is Mr. Leon Straus here? 

(No response.) 

Miss Stephanie Horvath? 

(No response.) 

Mr, Willis. Are they under subpena ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 35 a. m., the committee was recessed, to recon- 
vene at 2 p. m. the same day. ) 

(Subsequent to the hearings, there was received by the committee 
the following letter.) 

Jewish Statistical Bureau, 
Neto York, N. Y., July 27, 1956. 
Congressman Francis E. Walter, 

Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities, 
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Congressman : Abraham J. Bick appeared before your committee as a 
witness on June 14, 1956, and the press described him as a rabbi. Now, our 
office maintains a Registry of American Ral)bis under the auspices of all branches 
of American Judaism — Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform. The name of 
Abraham J. Bick is not included, and we promptly informed the press. We now 
respectfully request that you include our statement in your report of the hearing, 
as follows : 

"Abraham J. Bick is not included in the Registry of American Rabbis main- 
tained by the Jewish Statistical Bureau under the auspices of all wings of Amer- 
ican Judaism — Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform. He is not a graduate of 
any of the Jewish theological seminaries that the Jewish Bureau records, and 
he is not a member of any association of rabbis. Nor is he connected with any 
Jewish congregation or engaged in other rabbinical work, according to the records 
of the Jewish Statistical Bureau." 

We also desire to add the following on the basis of the data in our files, and 
you may include in your report also these statements, if you so desii'e : 

(1) Abraham J. Bick claims that he was ordained in 1935 abroad, but we 
have nothing in our records to support this claim which he made in a written 
statement to us sometime ago. 

(2) He further claims that beginning in 1936 and for about 7 years he served 
as rabbi, first in a congregation in Brooklyn, then one in the Bronx, and finally 
one in Manhattan. We have no data bearing on his service as a rabbi during 
those years. Our record shows only that during 1943-50, he was connected with 
a congregation or chapel maintained by a Jewish home for aged in Manhattan, 
employed by the home. In any event, it should be noted that service performed 
at a Jewish congregation or chaijel does not signify that the person who per- 
forms the service is an ordained minister in the .Tewish faith duly trained for 
the vocation of the rabbi. 

(3) For a number of years Abraham J. Bick was a member of one of the 
associations of rabbis, according to the records for 1945 to 1952. Early in 1953 
that association, our records further show, asked Abraham J. Bick to appear 
before its board of inquiry to answer charges. He promptly submitted his resig- 
nation, and since then he has not been a member of any rabbinical association. 

(4) At the present time, and indeed since he left the employ of the Jewish 
home for aged, Abraham J. Bick, according to our records, has not been in reli- 
gious employment whatsoever. 



4622 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

The Registry of American Rabbis is at all times available to the press and to 
public institutions for checking. 

Constituent organizations of the Jewish Statistical Bureau include the national 
federations of Jewish congregations and the national associations of rabbis, as 
follows : 

Reform : 

Union of American Hebrew Congregations 

Central Conference of American Rabbis 
Conservative : 

United Synagogue of America 

Rabbinical Assembly of America 
Orthodox : 

Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America 

Rabbinical Alliance of America 

Rabbinical Council of America 

Union of Orthodox Rabbis of United States and Canada 

Very sincerely yours, 

H. S. LiNFiELD, Executive Secretary. 



AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, JUNE 14, 1956 

(The subcommittee was reconvened at 2: 10 p. m. at the expiration 
of the recess, there being present at the time of reconvening Kepre- 
sentatives Willis and Kearney.) 

Mr. Willis (presiding). The sutjcommittee, composed of Mr. 
Kearney from New York, Mr. Doyle, of California; and myself, 
Mr. Willis, of Louisiana, will now come to order. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Leon Straus. 

Kindly come forward, please, sir. 

Remain standing while the chairman administers the oath to you, 
please, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Do you solemnly swear that the evidence j^ou are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God? 

Mr. Straus. I do. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF LEON STRAUS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

HAEOLD CAMMER 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Straus. Leon Straus, 109 West 26th Street, New York; fur- 
rier. 

Mr. Arens. What is your occupation in furrier work, please ? 

Mr. StRcVus. I am an organizer. 

Mr. Arens. And for what organization ? 

Mr. Straus. Furriers joint board. 

Mr. Arens. Are you appearing today in response to a subpena 
which was sei'ved upon you by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You are represented by counsel? 

Mr. Straus. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you kindly identify yourself? 

Mr. Cammer. Harold Cammer, C-a-m-m-e-r, 9 East 40th Street, 
New York 16, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. This subpena pursuant to which you are appearing 
today, Mr. Straus, requests you to produce before the committee all 
United States passports in your possession. 

Do you have United States passports in your possession? 

Mr. Straus. No. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have custody and control of any passports? 

Mr. Straus. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. When did you last have a passport? 

Mr. Straus. Oh, 5 or 6 years ago. 

Mr. Arens. And what happened to that passport ? 

4623 

79932— 56— pt. 4 3 



4624 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

If I am interrupting something, maybe you want to make a note and 
then continue ? 

Mr. Straus. No, sir. I am just refreshing my memory as we go 
along. 

Mr. Arens. I mean I don't quite understand what you are doing. 
You are at liberty to do anything you want to. I don't want to inter- 
rogate you if you are busy making a notation. 

Mr. Straus. I appreciate that. Thank you. I am just making 
notes as we go along. 

Mr. Arens. Of what we are saying here ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I didn't want to be discourteous to you. 

Mr. Straus. Thank you. I don't want to be either. 

Mr. Arens. How many passports have you had ? 

Mr. Straus. I have had one passport. 

And, in answer to your last question, it must have been mislaid, 
I last used it some 5 years ago. And when I was informed with 
the subpena of the request for the passport I took occasion to look 
for it, and was not able to find it among my papers. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us specifically your present occupation. I don't 
believe we developed that in your initial questions. 

Mr. Straus. I am an organizer for the fur workers union. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you occupied that position ? 

Mr. Straus. With an interruption of Army service — 20 years. 

Mr. Arens. Have you always been an organizer, or have you dur- 
ing the course of tliat employment had different titles or designa- 
tions ? 

Mr. Straus. My function since I have become affiliated with this 
union has been that of organizing workers. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Have you held any office in the fur workers union? 

Mr. Straus. Excuse me, if I may go back to the question. 

I have had different titles in the course of my work. I tried to 
answer the question generally about my function, but I have been 
reminded by counsel that I ought to be specific about it. There have 
been different titles for me. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever held an office in the fur workers union ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us the offices you have held. 

Mr. Straus. I have been manager of local 125. I have been a 
member of the national executive board of the national union. I have 
been executive secretary of one of our unions, and am presently an 
organizer. 

Mr. Arens. May the record reflect the accurate name of the union ? 

Mr. Straus. It is now the fur and leather department of the 
Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of the United 
States and Canada, AFL-CIO. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did it actually assume this title you have just 
recited ? 

Mr. Straus, li^ years ago. 

Mr. Arens. What was the title of the organization immediately 
prior to II/2 years ago? 

Mr. Straus. International Fur and Leather Workers Union. 

Mr. Arens. Off the record a second, please. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4625 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Arens. The outstanding question is : Who was president of the 
union at that time? 

Mr, Straus. Ben Gold. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Straus. United States of America. 

Mr. Arens. When ? 

Mr. Straus. In 1916. 

Mr. Arens. Have you virtually been identified with the Fur and 
Leather Workers Union all of your adult life, that is, all of your active 
working life ? 

Mr. Straus. No. 

Mr. Arens. What other activities or employments have you had? 

(Kepresentative Clyde Doyle entered the hearing room at this point, 
and assumed the chair. ) 

Mr. Straus. I have gone to school ; I have gone to college. 

Mr. Arens. I mean your employment. What other employment 
have you had ? 

Mr. Straus. I have worked in the garment industry. I have worked 
in the fur industry, and I have worked in the fur inclusti'y prior to my 
employment with the organization I now have. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make application in 1949 for a passport to go 
abroad ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of a passport 
application marked for identification purposes as "Straus Exhibit 
No. 1." Can you identify that as a true and correct reproduction of 
the original passport application which you filed with the Department 
of State? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Straus. It appears to be. 

Mr. Willis. ^Vliat is the date of it ? 

Mr. Arens. It was in March of 1949. 

Now in this passport application, Mr. Straus, you say that you want 
to go to France and England. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you say that the purpose of the trip is attendance 
as fraternal delegate to Fur, Shoe and Leather Workers Union, France 
convention, and combined with vacation. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Pursuant to this application did you receive a passport ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you go ? 

Mr. Straus. I went to France, to England, as I stated on the pass- 
port, and to Italy. 

Mr. Arens. And what did you do there ? 

Mr. Straus. I attended a convention of the French Fur and Leather 
Workers Union. 

Mr. Arens. Did you attend any other convention or meeting on 
that trip ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes. I was on a mission to Italy once I was on my 
way to Europe, to bring a gift of money from the workers of my 
union to the workers of Italy who had been suffering the ravages of the 
war, and we established a shoe factory which we turned over to the 



4626 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Avorkers and the unions in Italy in Cerignola, C-e-r-i-g-n-o-l-a, I think. 

I turned the gift over and inspected the factory. This was to pro- 
vide slices at a low cost to the people of Italy. 

Mr. Arexs. Who paid your expenses on this trip ? 

Mr. Straus. My union paid the expenses. 

Mr. Arens. Who directed you to go ? 

Mr. Straus. My union directed nie to go. 

Mr. Arens. Who was your immediate supei-ior in the union at that 
time? 

Mr. Straus. The general executive board. 

Mr. Arens. Who was ]:)resident of the union at that time ? 

Mr. Straus. Ben Gold. 

Mr. Arens. Did von intend to go to Italy when you left the TTnited 
States ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Why didn't you tell the State Dei:)artment that you 
intended to go to Italy as one of the countries to be visited when you 
filed application for your passport '. 

Mr. Straus. At the time I tiled my application for the passport, in 
March of 1949, I did not intend to go to Italy. I filed it with the 
express purpose of going to a convention of a union in France. 

Shortly before I was to leave my visit was canceled. I did not leave 
in 1949 as a result of some union work that I had in this country. 

One year later, to the next annual convention of the French workers 
union, my organization received another invitation to go as a delegate, 
and elected me to go. At that time I had already had a passport 
which I had not used for over 1 year. There was no reason for me to 
resubmit an application. And I continued on the same itinerary, 
England and France, and for the same purpose, except that it was 
extended solely for the purpose of this other union mission to Italy to 
deliver money and inspect the factory for the workers in Italy. 

Mr. Arens. Did you notify the State Department that you had a 
change in your itinerary ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Straus. I had no reason to notify the State Department. 

Mr. Arens. What did you notify that Department ? 

Mr. Straus. I didn't have to notify them. 

Mr. Arens. Did you notify the State Department ? 

Mr. Straus. Excuse me. 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Straus. Was there any requirement that I should notify them ? 

Mr. Arens. I just asked you if you did notify them. 

Mr. Straus. Was I supposed to notify them ? 

Mr. Arens. Would you just tell us whether or not you have a recol- 
lection of notifying the State Department that you had changed your 
plans to include Italy in your itinerary ? 

Mr. Straus. Are you asking me for the purpose of 

Mr. Arens. I am only asking you whether or not 

Mr. Straus. Checking my application? You asked me first 
whether or not I applied to go to Italy in view of the fact that I went 
and didn't inform. Now I have explained to you in good conscience 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4627 

how I did not apply to go to Italy, because I didn't intend to go, and 
how 1 year later, as a result of auotlier development, I went to Italy. 
Now isn't that a reasonable 

Mr. Arens. Are you afraid to tell us whether or not you told the 
State Department that you had changed your plans and that you 
wanted to include Italy in your itinerary ? 

Mr. Straits. I am not afraid of anything, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Then tell us. Did you tell the State Department that 
you waiLted to go to Italy? If you did, tell us "Yes"; if you didn't, 
tell us "No". And if you don't remember, say "I don't remember." 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. I don't know the purpose of the question, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle (presiding). It is a plain, direct question. Counsel has 
made it clear to you. If you remember that you did, say so as requested 
of you ; if you don't remember, say that. 

He is not trying to trap you, sir. That is not our business. We 
just want to know whatever the fact is. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I don't want to haggle with him. I just 
want him to answer "Yes" or "No." 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer. 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask you, so I can clear 
up my understanding of this matter : Counsel has asked me a ques- 
tion which would tend to imply that I have done something wrong. 

Mr. Doyle. No ; no. 

Mr. Straus. Well, his original question was directed in that vein. 

I have explained what I have done. If I have done something 
wrong, I wish I would be educated about it, and I would kno^y the 
purpose for which the question is asked. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that he be directed 
to answer ; and if he refuses to answer, let the record so show. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. I had no reason to notify the State Department, and 
did not do so. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you receive your visa to go to Italy ? 

Mr. Straus. I am not quite sure, Mr. Counsel, but I think the Amer- 
ican Embassy office in Paris. 

Mr. Arens. When you left the United States, did you at that time 
intend to go to Italy ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Why did you not attempt to procure your visa here to 
go to Italy before you left the United States ? 

Mr. Cammer. Mr. Chairman, I am not sure you needed a visa to go 
to Italy or France at that time. An American passport 

Mr. Arens. Then why did he get one in Paris ? 

Mr. Cammer. I don't know that he did. 

Mr. Straus. I said I wasn't sure. I know that I visited 

Mr. Arens. If you don't know, just say "I don't know." If you do 
know, give us the information. 

Mr. Straus. Please let me finish, Mr. Arens. 



4628 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

I answered you that I seem to recall — because I do know that I 
visited the American Embassy when I was in Paris; my hotel was 
right next door to the American Embassy. I visited, I met some of 
the American officials, and was shown around the Embassy. And 
I don't quite recall w^hether or not I asked for a visa. It's been a long 
time ago. It's just beyond my recollection now. 

Why should you say that I know when I said I don't know ? 
Mr. Arens. That is all I asked you. If you do not recall just say so. 
Mr. Straus. I said that in the first instance. 

Mr. Arens. I was under the decided impression — and I believe 
the record will reflect — that you said you thought you got a visa in 
Paris. 
Mr. Straus. I said if I remember. 
Mr. Arens. The record wdll reflect what you did say. 
Mr. Straus. That I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. How much money did you take to this organization in 
Italy from the International Fur and Leather Workers Union ? 
Mr. Straus. Well, lam not exactly sure. 

Mr. Arens. Give us your best recollection, your best estimate. I 
recognize it's been some few years ago. 

Mr. Straus. There is an additional complication, Mr. Arens. I 
had two missions with regard to this. 

I had been elected to make a contribution on behalf of my union 
to a children's orphan home in Paris for the same purposes as I ex- 
plained — war-ravaged Europe and our desire to assist workers in 
Europe. 

And the workers of our union had been making collections after 
the war for these causes. And on behalf of the organization I made 
a contribution to the children's orphan home in Paris, inspected the 
home, spent time with the children, and went to dinner, and so on. 
Mr. Willis. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that all this is painting a 
story for the record. It is not a part of the event in his life. The 
primary purpose of his mission was to take that money. Now let 
us not have the record contain a long story about charity and things 
that he was doing. 

The question is how much money did he take over there. Does he 
know or does he not know ? 
Mr. Straus. Mr. Willis, I am trying to explain. 
Mr. Willis. That is not responsive to the question. 
Mr. Doyle. Be as brief as you can, please, because I know you want 
to finish, and so do we. 

Counsel has asked approximately how^ much, about how much? 
Mr. Straus. I am trying to explain that I had been instructed 
to make a contribution to this children's home in France. 
Mr. Willis. To the best of your recollection ; how much ? 
Mr. Straus. And in Italy. 

I am not quite sure at this point. It's been a long time. 
Mr. Willis. What is the total that you contributed to both organi- 
zations? Would that help you to come to the point? 

Mr. Doyle. You took a total sum and you divided it someway. 
How did you divide it? 
Mr. Straus, No. 

This money, Mr. Chairman, had been advanced to me in Paris by a 
firm, an American firm that had a Paris office of furriers. I didn't 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4629 

take any money along with me in cash. And then delivered it to the 
organization. 

Now it must be in the neighborhood of some $5,000 or thereabouts, 
but I wouldn't want to be exact. 

Mr. Arens. Was the $5,000 for both purposes or for one purpose? 
How was the $5,000 designated ? 

Mr. Straus. For both purposes. 

Mr. Arens. Now of the $5,000 what percentage went to the orphan- 
age, and what percentage went to the organization in Italy ? 

Mr. Straus. I am not quite sure. 

Mr. Arens. Did as much as half of it go to the orphanage? ' 

Mr. Straus. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Did as much as a fourth of it go to the orphanage? 

Mr. Straus. I have the same answer, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. When you left the United States in 1949 on this mission, 
what organizations were you to contact in Italy ? 

Mr. Straus. The Italian unions. 

Mr. Arens. What Italian unions? 

Mr. Straus. Confederation of Labor. 

Mr. Arens. And what unions were you to contact in France? 

Mr. Straus. The French unions. 

Mr. Arens. In anticipation of your journey did you have corre- 
spondence with these two unions abroad prior to the time you left this 
country ? 

Mr. Straus. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you just walk in cold and lay $5,000 on the table 
and walk out? Or did you have some introduction or some previous 
arrangements made for it ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes; my organization had correspondence, and ar- 
rangements were made. But you asked me if I had any, and I had 
none. 

Mr. Arens. What arrangements were made by your organization 
with these two unions? 

Mr. Straus. We received correspondence inviting our organization 
to send a representative. Our organization designated a representa- 
tive and communicated with them that I was coming. 

Mr. Arens. Did the organization extending the invitation solicit 
the funds ? Or that was just a little extra gift ? 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer entered the hearing room at 
this point.) 

Mr. Straus. The organizations did not solicit funds of us. This was 
a voluntary gesture from our union, as existed in all of labor that I 
know of during that period to make contributions to the people in 
Europe. 

(Representative Bernard W. Kearney left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you return from Italy in the course of a few weeks' 
time and resume your work in the United States ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you go to any other place ? 

Mr. Straus. I went no other place except to return home after 2 
weeks. 

Mr. Arens. Did you file an application in 1951 for a renewal of 
your passport ? 



4630 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Straus. I think I did. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of a document, 
marked for identification purposes as "Straus Exhibit No, 2." I ask 
you if that is a true and correct reproduction of the application for 
renewal of your passport filed by you in 1951. 

Mr. Straus. It appears to be. 

Mr. ArejSts. And in this renewal application you state : 

Countries to be visited : France. Purpose of trip : Vacation and 
rest for health. 

Is that correct ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was this passport renewal application granted ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. Yes ; it was. 

Mr. Arens. Then did you take a trip pursuant to the renewal author- 
ity granted you by the State Department to go to France for a vaca- 
tion and rest for health ? Did you do that ? 

Mr. Straus. As I understand it, the authority granted in the re- 
newal of the passport was merely renewing my passport. 

Mr. xIrens. Don't evade the question, sir. Answer the question. 

You said you wanted to go to France and you wanted to go there 
for a vacation and rest for your health, didn't you? I am asking you 
if you went to France for your vacation and for rest for your health 
in 1951. 

If you did, say "Yes, I did" ; and, if you did not, say "No, I did not." 

( The witness confers w^th his counsel. ) 

Mr. Straus. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. You went to France for your health and for vacation. 
Is that correct ? 

Mr. Straus. I just answered that. 

Mr. Arens. At the time you left the United States did you intend 
to go any place other than to France ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. Would you please 

Mr. Arens. I will rephrase the question : As of the time you left 
the United States in 1951, after you had filed your application saying 
you were going to France for your vacation and for your health, did 
you intend to go any other place for any other purpose ? 

Mr. Straus. May I know the purpose of this question, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. That is a simple, direct question that can be answered 
"Yes" or "No." 

Mr, Cammer. The witness has said that he would like the ])ur])ose 
of it. He didn't complain about its simplicity. 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel is under no obligation to state the purpose of it. 
The witness is directed to answer. 

Mr. Straus. Don't you think that 

Mr. Arens. The purpose is to find out, for the information of this 
committee and the Congress, what your intention was when you left 
the United States after having advised your Government you wanted 
to go to France for vacation and rest for your health. 

That is the purpose of the question. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4631 

Mr. Straus. Well, Mr. Arens, I think my intentions are my own. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer the question. 

The courts have stated repeatedly that the state of a man's mind is 
as much a fact as the state of his digestion. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer. It is a simple question ; it is a 
proper question. 

Mr. Straus. The facts of a man's mind are the property of what, 
Mr. Doyle? 

Mr. Doyle. I will not take time to argue with you. 

You are directed to answer. 

It is a fair question and it is a direct question. 

Mr. Straus. I have no intention of arguing with you, Mr. Chair- 
man, but 



Mr. Willis. Then answer the question "Yes" or "No," or "I don't 
know" or "I don't remember." 

Mr. Straus. I happen to disagree that the thoughts of a man's 
mind are the purposes of this committee. 

Mr. Willis. You are refusing to answer? 

Mr. Straus. No. I would like to get that question clarified. 

I am ordered to answer because my thoughts are his property? 

Mr. Doyle. We do not accept your statement as an answer. We 
are in no position to accept it. 

I direct you to answer. And, then, whatever your answer is, we 
are going to proceed. 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully submit — and I don't 
intend to make any speech before you here — that my thoughts are my 
own property as guaranteed to me under the Bill of Rights and the 
Constitution, and I don't accept what Mr. Arens has just said to me. 

Mr. Willis. And you refuse to answer. Is that right ? 

Mr. Straus. That is 

Mr. Willis. Are those the grounds on which you refuse to answer? 

Mr. Straus. That is one of the grounds. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Had you conferred witli anybody 

Mr. Scherer. Wait a minute. 

He said that is one of the grounds. 

I think we should say that, in our opinion, if he doesn't answer the 
question he is in contempt of the committee. 

But since he said that was one of the grounds, that appears in the 
record. 

Do you have other grounds? 

Mr. Straus. Yes, I have other grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. Le^al grounds ? 

Mr. Straus. I think they are moral, political, and legal grounds. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that he may want to consult 
with his counsel before he leaves this question. 

Mr. Scherer. There is only one otlier ground we will recognize, 
and that is if you claim that to answer might tend to incriminate 
you. 

I am not saying that 

Mr. Straus. I think I am the best judge of my own grounds and 
what I will recognize to be as gi-ounds, for what I believe to be 
right. 



4632 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. We will get on to another question then. 

Wliere did you go when you left the United States in 1951 ? 

Mr. Straus. For what purpose are you asking this question ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Straus. Because my thoughts belong to Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Scherer. Wliere you went certainly has nothing to do with 
your thoughts or your intentions. 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Arens has already informed me that the purpose 
of the question is because my thoughts belong to him. 

And I respectfully submit they do not. 

Mr. Arens. I think the record ought to be correct on that. 

I made no such statement, nor did I say anything that could, by any 
tortured stretch of the imagination, be construed as that. 

Mr. Straus. Will you please enlighten me and correct that ? 

Mr. Arens. Tell us where you went in 1951, Mr. Straus. Where 
did you go in 1951 after you secured travel documents from the De- 
partment of State of this Government to go some place ? Where did 
you go? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Arens, am I being charged with violating any law ? 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest that this man is repre- 
sented by competent counsel, and, by his very appearance, he is pretty 
able and very smart himself. He knows that he doesn't have to an- 
swer the question if he wants to invoke the protection of the fifth 
amendment. 

If he has no answers or he doesn't claim any privileges he must an- 
swer. That is the end of it. 

But if you invoke your privilege you are thoroughly protected. 
You know that. 

Mr. Arens. If he does so in good faith. 

Mr. Willis. In good faith. 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Congressman Willis, I thank you for the compli- 
ment, but I am a novice in this room. 

And I appreciate the fact that I am dealing with very skilled, ex- 
perienced, and tried gentlemen — with reference to this question. 

Mr. Arens. Tell the committee where you went in 1951 when you 
received your passport. 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Arens, will you permit me to answer the Con- 
gressman ? 

Mr. Doyle. The chairman is not going to permit you, sir, to engage 
in a dissertation with the committee. A fair question has been asked 
you, and I am directing you to answer. 

Please save your own time and ours by being direct. 

If you can conscientiously plead the amendinent that is your privi- 
lege. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Chairman, I am quite willing to tell you that 
among the grounds for which I am refusing to answer this question 
is the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

But I also, since I was asked by two of the Congressmen sitting 
beside you, wanted to explain the other grounds upon which I am 
refusing to answer. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4633 

In my mind there are several with regard to freedom of conscience 
and my own thinking, and the first amendment of the Bill of Rights, as 
well as the fact that I don't like the idea of being called here and 
implied with the charge that I am violating the laws of this comitry 
without having the cliarge before me, without being informed of 
anything, having a procedure of this nature without having witnesses 
or tlie right of cross-examination, and the protections that are guaran- 
teed to me in a court of law that I am entitled to have. 

Mr. Doyle. We have given you time to make that speech. 

Do you refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment? 
Is that correct ? 

Mr. Straus. I do so. 

Mr. Doyle. Plus the others that you have given ? 

Mr. Straus. I do so refuse on that ground as well as the others 
which I have stated. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Straus, if you told this committee where you went 
in 1951, pursuant to the renewal of your passport application, is it 
your honest judgment that you would be supplying information which 
might be used against you, directly or indirectly, in some type of 
criminal proceeding? 

Mr. Straus. I don't know who you are going to set up as some 
witness against me, someone who will tell lies about me. I have done 
nothing wrong. I have answered your questions. I have told you 
what I have done. 

Mr. Arens. When you say you have done nothing wrong you mean 
you have done nothing wrong today in this interrogation. Is that 
what you mean ? 

Mr. Straus. I have done nothing wrong in my entire life. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been a member of the Communist conspiracy 
at any time during your entire life ? 

]Mr. Straus. That is is exactly what I was talking about a few 
moments ago to you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Then, if you have done nothing wrong in your life, 
while you are under oath do you deny you have been identified with 
the Communist conspiracy — deny you have been active in the Commu- 
nist conspiracy — deny you have been a part and parcel of a Communist 
conspiracy to overthrow the Government of the United States by 
force and violence? 
I challenge you to do so now under oath. 
Mr. Cammer. I think that is out of order. 

Mr. Doyle. It is the witness who is under oath, and we want his 
testimony. 

That is a question, a direct question, and counsel is manifestly trying 
to shorten the procedure by asking you one of the very important 
questions and one of the jurisdictional questions of this committee 
under Public Law 601. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Chairman, I have made my position clear, and I 
refuse to answer on the grounds as stated, the fifth amendment and 
the others. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you, first, a photostatic copy of an article 
in the Communist Daily Worker, July 3, 1951, entitled "Eleven 
Unionists From United States Start Tour of U. S. S. R." Dateline : 
Moscow, July 2, in which there appears the list of persons who are 



4634 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

described as trade unionists, a trade-union delegation visiting in Mos- 
cow. A picture also appears of a man by the name of Straus. In 
this article appears among the list of delegates "Leon Straus, vice 
president. Fur and Leather Workers, New York." 

Straus is identified in this article as chairman of the delegation who 
made a speech at that time in Moscow. 

Look at this please, and see if it refreshes your recollection. 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Straus. Very poor picture. 

Mr. Arens. Poor picture of whom ? 

Mr. Straus. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other coinments to make about that ? 

Mr. Straus. I have given you a general answer to your first question, 
and I give you the same answer for this question. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are the Leon Straus identified 

Mr. Doyle. I am wondering how you would be qualified to say it 
was a poor picture if you don't know who it is. 

Mr. Straus. I was just kidding, Mr. Chairman. Let's break it up. 

Mr. Arens. Would you get serious with us now? I put it to you 
as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that you are the Leon 
Straus identified in this picture as head of the delegation of 11 persons 
who were in Moscow on July 2, 1951. 

If it is not true, deny it while you are under oath. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Doyle. On what grounds? 

]\Ir. Straus. On the grounds I have already stated, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Scherer. Does that include the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. StrtVus. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive any income in 1951 other than the 
income which you received from your union ? 

Mr. Straus. I received no income in 1951 other than that which I 
received from payment for my job in the union. 

Mr. Arens. You received pay for a speech you made in Moscow, 
while in the Soviet Union, did you not ? If you didn't, deny it while 
you are under oath. 

Mr. Straus. That is just nonsense. And I have already given you 
my general denial of these questions. 

Mr. Wn.Lis. You mean it is nonsense to deny that you received 
money for that purpose ? Is that wliat you meant ? 

Mr. Straus. I am telling you that I received money in payment of 
my work in the union. The only money I ever received in 1951 or in 
any other time of m}- life has been in payment for my job. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make a speech in Moscow on July 11, 1951, 
which was recorded ? 

Mr. Straus. I have already answered that question, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Answer it again. 

Mr. Willis. It has never been asked of you. 

Mr. Doyle. I direct you to answer the question, sir. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. I am sorry; I have a difference of opinion about what 
the question exactly was. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4635 

Mr. Arens. I think perhaps you might want to restate your answer 
there. 

Mr. Straus. Did you say, did I get paid for a speech in Moscow? 

Mr. Arens. That is the question that is outstanding. 

Mr. Straus. I received no pay for a speech in Moscow. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make a speech in Moscow ? 

Mr. Str.\us. I have ah^eady answered tliat question previously. 

Mr. Arens. Let's get the record clear and answer it again. 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Scherer. I ask that the witness be directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer the question. We can't 
accept that answer as sufficient. 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Chairman, would you like me to state all the 
grounds again upon which I refuse to answer this question ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

Unless we can do this : If counsel for the committee has no objec- 
tion, we will stipulate that wherever you refuse to answer the question 
you will do so under the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Str.\us. Including the other grounds that I have already stated, 
Mr. Chairman ; yes. 

Mr. Willis. On the grounds previously stated by you. 

Mr. Straus. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Cammer. I will so stipulate. 

Mr. Doyle. Have you any objection to that? 

Mr. Arens. I would be ill disposed to recommend that stipulation 
to this committee for this reason : There are a number of questions 
we may want to ask him on which he does not have the right to invoke 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Doyle. Then the committee will not enter that stipulation 
which I suggested, and I withdraw my suggestion. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, that on July 11, 1951, you 
made a speech, a recorded speech, in Moscow, which was broadcast 
insofar as it was able to be beamed all over the then English-speaking 
world, in which you lauded the Soviet Union and the activities of the 
Connnunist-controlled Government and in which you deprecated your 
own Nation, your own workers in the United States of America. 

If that is not true deny it now while you are under oath. 

Mr. Straus. No; it is not the truth that I ever in any time of my 
life deprecated my own Nation, the American people, the country 
that I love. 

Mr. Arens. Why not give us a full answer to the question ? 

Mr. Straus. I thought I answered the question. If there is any 
part of your lengthy question that I have omitted I would appreciate 
if you would refresh my memory. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Straus. I said I thought I answered the question that you 
asked. But if there is any part of your lengthy question that I have 
omitted I will endeavor to answer it. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

I want to call your attention to the fact that the utmost respect for our people 
in our Nation is felt here in the Soviet Union. 



4636 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Did you say that in Moscow on July 11, 1951 ? 
(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer that on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Arens, Did you state in that speech on July 11, 1951 : 

People of the Soviet Union express the wish that our land and their land 
continue to be free and at peace with one another. 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Arens, my job requires me to make speeches, and 
I must have made thousands of them. If you are going to ask me 

Mr. Arens. I asked you about 

Mr. Straus. About a phrase, if you are going to ask me about a 
phrase in one of a thousand speeches it is just going to be impossible 
for anyone in his right mind to remember it. 

Mr. Arens. We will not ask about a phrase. We will ask about the 
whole speech. 

Did you make a speech in a foreign land having the tenor of what 
I just recited to you ? 

Mr. Straus. I have already stated that I refused to answer the 
question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a document entitled "We Pledge Peace, 
a Friendship Book. We Greet the People of the Soviet Union." 
It contains an article describing how wonderful things are in the 
Soviet Union and the peace and friendship of the Soviet Union toward 
everybody, including the United States, signed by Leon Straus, vice 
president, International Fur and Leather Workers Union, New York 
City. 

Was that document released with your knowledge and approval, 
acquiescence and cooperation? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you are the Leon Straus who authorized this statement 
which was published. 

Mr. Doyle. Is there a date to that, counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. It was in 1951 or 1952. 

Mr. Dotx,e. Wlio issued that ? I mean does the address of the fur 
and leather union appear on it ? 

Mr. Arens. No, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. For purposes of identification. 

Mr. Arens. No, sir. 

I lay before you a photograph in connection with that publica- 
tion entitled, American Workers See for Themselves. A number of 
persons appear in the photograph taken at that time in Moscow. 

Can you recognize your picture in that photograph? There is a 
caption under it : "Leon Straus." 

See if that is a good likeness. The previous picture you seemed to 
criticize. 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4637 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or 
deny the fact, that you appear right in the middle of that photo- 
graph. 

Mr. Straus. I ah^eady answered that. 

Mr. Arens. Taken in Moscow. 

Mr. Straus. I already answered the question. 

Mr. Arens. In view of your pronouncement that you have never 
said anything disparaging or to hurt the United States, I would like 
to invite your attention to a series of articles which apj)eared in the 
Daily Worker entitled, "Unionist Found France Pauperized by Mar- 
shall Plan" — telling of this delegation : 

The delegation spent 5 weeks in Europe and visited the countries of France, 
Italy, Poland, and the Soviet Union. In addition, the delegates were able to 
spend a limited time in Berlin, Vienna, and Prague. 

Did you when you were on this trip, in addition to being in France 
for your health and for rest, go to Italy, Poland, and the Soviet 
Union ? 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. The head of this delegation, as recited in the Daily 
Worker of August 13, 1951, is Leon Straus, and again his picture 
appears. 

Would you look at this and see if that refreshes your recollection 
as to what you might have said ? 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Arens, we are just going ring-around-the-rosey 
here. I have already given you an answer on this whole general area, 
and I am going to give you the same answer for each specific 

Mr. Amins. We are going to persist until we are satisfied that we 
have done our duty by the American people in developing what facts 
we can elicit from you and other witnesses on this subject matter. 

Mr. Straus. I don't think you 

Mr. Arens. Let us look at still another article so that the committee 
can properly appraise your self-laudation that you have never said 
anything against the interests of the United States of America while 
you are abroad. 

Mr. Straus. That is not self-laudation. That is something every 
American citizen should be proud of. 

Mr. Arens. Were you proud of this statement you issued and which 
was published in the Daily Worker under date of August 14, 1951. 
Listen to this and let me ask you whether or not you are proud of this 
statement : 

Under the Marshall plan the United States gave a great deal of grain to Italy. 
Since there is no longer an exchange of machinery for this grain, many machine 
factories have had to close down and workers have been thrown out of work. 

To make matters worse, Italian industrialists were loaned $200 million under 
the Marshall plan to buy machinery from the United States. Thus, while they 
made a tremendous profit out of the transaction, it hurts the Italian workers 
by causing greater unemployment. 

Not only that, but the workers, through their taxes, are forced to pay the 
interest on this gift, thereby taking an additional cut in their living standards. 



4638 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Did you issue that statement in Italy ? 

Mr. StrxVus. I have ah^eady given an answer to this whole general 
area of questioning, and the same answer goes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Do you thinlv that this statement of yours which I just 
read is commendatory of the Government of the United States? 

Mr. Straus. I don't intend to, as the chairman suggested, have a 
dissertation on philosophy and economics at this session. 

Mr. Arens. Did you also issue a statement while you were in Poland 
with this delegation in which you were commending the People's 
Republic of Poland ? 

Mr. Straus. Now, Mr. Arens, you are going to every country on the 
face of Europe, and you are getting the same answer. 

Mr. Arens. I did not go to any of those countries ; you went to them. 
But you won't tell us about them. 

We have still another one I want to ask you about, the slave-labor 
camps in Soviet Russia. 

Did you issue a statement when you were there pooh-poohing the 
idea of any slave-labor camps in Soviet Russia? 

Ml'. Straus. Same answer, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Willis. You mean by that you refuse to answer on the grounds 
previously stated ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes. I was trying to shorten it to save the time. 

Do you want me to go into it at length? Or is what I said suffi- 
ciently acceptable ? 

Mr. Doyle. I think it is acceptable. 

Mr. Straus. Thank j^ou. 

Mr. Scherer. I think the witness has to say he refuses to answer 
for the same reasons because it is not an answer; it is a refusal to 
answer. 

Mr. Willis. "Wlien you say "Same answer," you have had a lot of an- 
swers in the record. Just pinpoint it : Do you refuse to answer on the 
grounds previously stated? 

Because we might accept some of your answers, but might not ac- 
cept some of your others. You might be subjecting yourself to pro- 
ceedings after consideration of the record. 

Mr. Straus. Thank you. 

Mr, Arens. Let me read another part of this article : 

This is the fifth installment of an eyewitness report by an 11-member American 
trade union delegation which made a trip through both West and East Europe. 

Also let me read you some of this and see if you concur in it. 

Unionists' Report On Trip to Europe: During our tour we did not see one 
worlier who could be cliaracterized as a "slave laborer" — 

That is in quotes. 

Workers spontaneously stopped at their machines when they heard that our 
delegation was visiting their plant, and freely answered our questions. Like- 
wise, they asked us questions about our life in the States * * * This question of 
slave labor became as much a joke to the American delegates as it is to the Soviet 
people. So much so, that on several occasions when we saw workers relaxing 
or sleeping in the sun, we shouted "Wake up, slave laborer — you're not allowed 
to do that !" Or we kiddingly i-emarked, "That poor fellow must have been 
worked to death." 

Did you, Mr. Straus, authorize the issuance of that statement? 
Mr. Straus. May I see it ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4639 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Willis. Where was that issued ? In New York City ? 

Mr. Arens. According to the article, it was after they had just 
returned to the United States. 

Mr. Doyle. What date ? 

Mr. Arens. August of 1951. 

Mr. Willis. Was it propaganda which they spread here in our 
country after their return ? 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. 

While you are under oath just deny it. 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Arens, I refuse to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated, or any question about this trip that you 
are referring to, no matter how many times you ask the question in 
varied form. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Counsel, what paper did that appear in ? 

Mr. Arens. This appeared in the Daily Worker. 

Mr. Doyle. When? 

Mr. Arens. August 17, 1951, New York City. 

Mr. Doyle. What is the Daily Worker according to your infor- 
mation ? 

Mr. Arens. That is the Communist publication which reported 
what happened on the trip of the delegation of which Mr. Straus was 
chairman. 

Here is still another item on the series of statements describing 
that trip. 

Everybody Has a Job and Union Protection in the U. S. S. R. 

This headline is put out by a man who is with a union here, Leon 
Straus, vice president. International Fur & Leather Workers Union, 
telling about how everyone has a job in the Soviet Union and how 
their unions are amply protected by the Government. 

Did you, while an official in an American labor union, authorize that 
statement commending the unions in Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Arens, you are just wasting time. I already 
told you. 

Mr. Arens. That is a matter for the committee to determine. 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated concerning this entire area. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask counsel in what paper that appeared. 

Mr. Arens. The Communist Daily Worker, New York. 

After you returned from Europe did you do some speechmaking 
respecting the trip ? 

Mr. Straus. I have been making speeches for 20 years. 

Mr. Arens. Look at this and tell us whether or not you made the 
speech referred to in the advertisement which I now lay before you. 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. You are asking a question about the trip that I just 
referred to, and I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Arens. The trip is over now. We are talking about a speech 
you made in the United States. 

Mr. Straus. You have reference to the trip in your question, Mr. 
Arens, and I already informed you that I refuse to answer any ques- 

79932—56 i 



4640 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

tions about the trip no matter how they are phrased, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. This advertisement lists the chairman of the evening 
session of this public meeting to be held at Manhattan Center, No- 
vember 28, as Leon Straus, executive secretary. Joint Board, Fur 
Dressers' and Dyers' Union. 

Is that you? 

Mr. Straus. Are you asking me if Leon Straus is me or if that is me ? 

Mr. Arens. I am asking you if you are the same person mentioned 
in the advertisement as chairman of that evening session on Novem- 
ber 28, 1951. 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. What was your job on November 28, 1951 ? 

Mr. Straus. Representative of the union. 

Mr. Arens. Were you executive secretary of the Joint Board, Fur 
Dressers' and Dyers' Union, on November 28, 1951 ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes, sir ; I was. 

( The witness confers with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the American Committee To 
Survey Labor Conditions in Europe in 1952 ? 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. In 1952 did you make another trip to Europe under 
the auspices of your union ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. I refuse 

Mr. Cammer. Do you want to withdraw that question ? 

Mr. Arens. No. 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Were you chairman of the meeting of the American 
Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe, held in the Mid- 
land Hotel in Chicago on May 4, 1952 ? 

Mr. Straus. You are dealing with the same general area, Mr. Arens, 
and I refuse to answer the question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that you were chairman of the meeting of the American Com- 
mittee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe held at the Midland 
Hotel in Chicago on May 4, 1952. 

Mr. Straus. I have already answered that question, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask, Counsel, what is the name of the person 
who is indicated as chairman ? 

Mr. Arens. Leon Straus. 

Do you know Charles Velson ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes ; I know Charles Velson. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of your acquaintanceship with him ? 

Mr. Straus. He was an officer of a union and a delegate to the New 
York City CIO Council when I was similarly such a delegate. I met 
liim at meetings of the CIO. 

Mr. Arens. Have you met with him in other meetings ? 

Mr. Straus. I don't recall. I haven't seen the gentleman in years. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he is a member of the 
Communist Party ? 



ttMAtJTitORtZED USE 0^ tJNtTEt) STATES PASSPORTS 4641 

Mr. Straus. How would I know ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever met in a closed Communist Party meeting 
with Charles Velson ? 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. In 1951 were you part of a campaign to pressure the 
State Department to get a passport for Paul Robeson ? 

Mr. Straus. Would you repeat that question, please ? 

Mr. Arens. In 1951 did you organize, and were you the leader of a 
campaign to pressure the State Department to issue a passport for 
Paul Robeson ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to read you a letter. I lay before you a 
photostatic copy of a letter on the letterhead of the Fur Dressers', and 
Dyers' Unions, signed by Leon Straus, executive secretary, addressed 
to the Secretary of State, with reference to the revoking of the passport 
of Paul Robeson, in which it is stated by the person who signed this 
letter : 

Your arbitrary action not only violates Mr. Robeson's constitutional liberties 
and his right to continue his artistic career but it also deprives millions of people 
all over the world of the right to hear both his peerless singing voice and his 
words of peace and freedom. 

And other observations of that kind. 

I lay it before you and ask if you sent a copy of that letter of pro- 
test, the photostatic copy of which I lay before you at this time. 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Arens, I refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds previously stated, and on the additional grounds that Mr. 
Counsel is now attacking my right to petition the State Department 
concerning my views of freedom of travel. 

Mr. Arens. I am not attacking your right. You can petition every 
(day. 

I am asking you whether or not you signed the protest, whether or 
not you signed that letter. 

Mr. Straus. Is there anything wrong in petitioning the State 
Department ? 

Mr. Arens. If there is not, and if you do not feel you have done any- 
thing wrong on this, just tell us whether you did sign it. 

Mr. Straus. Are you charging- me with anything wrong ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness be or- 
dered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Straus. I have already answered the question, Mr. Chairman, 
and repeat that I refuse to answer the question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Arens. As of November 20, 1951, were you in a little difficulty 
with the Passport Office of the Department of State ? 

Mr. Straus. I never was in any difficulty with the State Depart- 
ment concerning passports. 

Mr. Arens. Didn't you travel to Europe in violation of the oath that 
you took when you had your passport renewed ? 



4642 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Straus. I never traveled anywhere in violation of any oath that 
I took. 

Mr. Arens. Did the 1951 passport application for renewal make a 
truthful representation of where you were going ? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Cammer. I don't think he ought to be allowed to argue with 
the witness, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. It is a question. 

Mr. Arens. It is not argument. 

Mr. Doyle. It is a question of fact, whether or not 

Mr. Cammer. He uses a word "oath" which is a promissory word. 

When you take an oath to support the Constitution 

Mr. Doyle. Counsel, I am sorry our rules don't permit counsel to 
argue questions. You are certainly always free to advise your client 
as to his constitutional position. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. I differ with IVIr. Arens as to what the meaning of an 
oath is. 

This application was completely truthful when I signed this appli- 
cation. 

Mr. ScHERER. You say it was completely truthful, that you had no 
intention of going to these other countries. 

Mr. Straus. I have already explained, Mr. Scherer 

Mr. Arens. He will not answer that. 

Mr. Straus. • that my intentions I believe to be a high privileged 

right with priority to myself alone as guaranteed by the Constitution. 

Mr. Scherer. They certainly are not, sir. 

You said that at the time you went this was a truthful statement. I 
am asking you, if it is not a fact that at the time you signed that you 
had no intention of only going to France for a vacation and your 
health, and that your sole intention was to so to these Communist 
Party caucuses and meetings behind the Iron Curtain. I don't 
think anybody with any grain of common sense could draw any other 
conclusion. You obtained a passport by committing fraud and per- 
jury. There is no question about it. 

You said you have done nothing wrong in your whole life. You 
obtained a passport by fraud. That is what you did. 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. And if I did anything wrong, Mr. Scherer, I want to 
be confronted by it in a court as our American tradition in law says, 
be confronted with witnesses to that effect, charged, tried, where I have 
an opportunity to defend myself, and I am ready to answer for any- 
thing you or anyone else thinks I committed as a crime. 

Mr. Scherer. Maybe we will give you that opportunity. 

Mr. Arens. AVe are going to give you that opportunity now. 

I have here the Young Conununist League Yearbook for 1937 pub- 
lished by the Young Communist League of America, listing the names 
of persons sending greetings. One of the names is Leon Straus. 

While you are under oath deny that document is valid. 

Mr. Straus. I have already answered, Mr. Arens, that I refuse to 
answer this general area of questioning on the grounds previously 
stated. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4643 

Mr. Doyle. Do you refuse to answer that specific question on the 
grounds previously stated? 

Mr. Straus. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you the Young Communist Review of 
March 1937, containing an article entitled "The Fur Floor Boys" by 
Leon Straus : 

"The League in a Youth Union — " published in the Young Com- 
munist Review, March 1937. 

Deny, if you will, please, under oath, that you wrote that article. 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. In this article I just laid before you by Leon Straus we 
find the following : 

With the progression of actual deeds, we will convince the party of the need 
of working with us and helping us. It is also true that there would never be a 
Fur Floor Boys' Union were it not for the aid, the leadership, the guidance of 
the Communist Party and its leader in the fur industry, Comrade Gold. They 
were able, on the basis of our carrying out our tasks, to give us this aid and 
make our union shine out as an example of organization of youth. We received 
their help because we did not in the ordinary everyday way, that the league does, 
ask for help, because we did not beg and plead, because we did not appeal, rather 
because we went out and convinced our Communist Party members with deeds. 
We have in our industry the finest of relations to be desired between the Com- 
munist Party and the Young Communist League. And we would like to point 
to the Communist Party of the fur industry and to Ben Gold, as one of the best 
examples of C. P. work among the youth. 

Did you write that in the Young Communist Review in March of 
1937? 

Wliile you are under oath deny it if it is not true. 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Arens, are you asking me to remember 

Mr. Arens. I am asking you to give us a truthful answer. 

Mr. Straus. To remember 20 years ago, about something that I 
said or wrote ? 

Mr. Willis. We tried you as late as 1951 and 1952 and 1953. So 
don't use the time element as being important. Admit it or deny it, 
or say that you don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. If you remember it tell us; if you don't remember it 
tell us. 

Do you remember writing this article ? 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge was Ben Gold a member of the 
Communist Party in 1937 ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. The same grounds. 

Mr. Arens. You, back in 1955, signed the affidavit of a non-Com- 
munist union officer, didn't you ? 

Mr. Willis. That is not long ago. Answer that one. That is last 
year. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. Yes ; I signed a non-Communist affidavit. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now or have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Straus. I am not now a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Straus. The same grounds as I previously stated. 



4644 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party yester- 
day? 

Mr. Straus. No ; I was not a member. 

But if you are going to go back, you are going to have to use a 
lot of days. 

Mr. Arens. "We are going to stay right with you until we find out 
when you did absolve the technical relationship with the Communist 
Party. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party yesterday ? 

Mr. Straus. Can I save a little time, Mr. Arens and gentlemen ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; you can save time, and we would appreciate it. 

Mr. Straus. If you will give me 2 minutes to answer this general 
area, we won't have to go back each day and year for each year. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Straus. I have stated just a moment ago — and restate the 
fact — that I am not now a member of the Communist Party. 

I may not have answered that question a while ago, but I prefer 
to answer it now, because a year and a half ago, by my own voluntary 
consent, as a result of my own voluntary desire, in conjunction with 
my union, we merged our organization with another organization — 
American trade union. At that time we voluntarily decided in that 
merger that no member of the Communist Party would be an officer 
of the organization or an employee of the organization. 

And in voluntarily carrying out that desire I signed a non- Commu- 
nist affidavit. 

I am, therefore, quite willing to make this — which is part of the 
public record already — make this statement to the committee in clari- 
fying this question. But I refuse to deal with the other aspect of the 
question on the same grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Did you resign technical membership in the Commu- 
nist Party solely and exclusively for the purpose of complying with 
the arrangements which were made by the higher echelon of your 
organization so that the merger could be effected ? 

Mr. Straus. I never told you I was a member. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party a year and 
a half ago? 

Mr. Straus. When I signed the affidavit I was not a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party 1 day 
prior to the time that you signed the affidavit ? 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. Were you under Communist discipline the day you 
signed the affidavit? 

Mr. Straus. Now, Mr. Arens, I asked the committee for a few 
minutes and I kept it to a few minutes in order not to waste its time, 
and you are just going to be wasting time if you are going to ask the 
same question in a million different ways because you are going to get 
the same answer. 

Mr. Arens. We regard it as time well spent. 

Mr. Straus. And you are going to waste all of our time. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, on the day that you signed the non-Communist 
affidavit were you under Communist Party discipline? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4645 

Mr. Straus. I was not. 

Mr. Arens. Were you under Communist Party discipline the day 
before you signed the non-Communist affidavit ? 

Mr. Straus. I have already answered the question. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of the Communist 
Daily Worker of April 9, 1946, entitled "Attention : 300 Communist 
Party Clubs in Special Meetings This Week." 

Among the speakers for New York County, headed by John Wil- 
liamson, and listing others, is included one, Leon Straus. 

Does that refresh your recollection as to any event that may have 
occurred at that time in your life ? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Straus. The same answer, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever served in the United States Army ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a commission in the United States Army ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. What commission did you have in the United States 
Army ? 

Mr. Straus. As a lieutenant. 

Mr. Arens. Were you relieved of that commission by the United 
States Army ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Arens. Why were you relieved of your commission in the 
United States Army? 

Mr. Straus. I truthfully don't know. I was given no opportunity 
of having any charges ; I was given no hearing. I applied to the War 
Department for a hearing and received no answer. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you were in the United States Army ? 

Mr. Straus. My attorney applied to the Army for an answer con- 
cerning any charges or any trial, and I do not know why I was relieved. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask the approximate date of that. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Was it in January of 1950 ? 

Mr. Straus. Approximately at that time. I am not sure exactly. 

Mr. Arens. Were you relieved of your commission in the United 
States Army under honorable conditions, or under other than honor- 
able conditions ? 

Mr. Straus. Now, Mr. Arens, I served in the United States 
Army 

Mr. Arens. Could you just answer that question ? 

Were you relieved of your commission in the United States Army 
under honorable conditions, or under other than honorable conditions ? 

Answer that question and then tell us about it. Were you relieved 
of your commission in the United States Army under honorable con- 
ditions, or under other than honorable conditions? 

Mr. Straus. Now, I tried to start to answer that question three 
times, Mr. Arens. Will you permit me ? 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Straus. I served my country in the United States Army for 
3 years. I volunteered to go into the Army. I volunteered to go 
overseas. I volunteered for combat. I received a discharge from 



4646 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

the Army in 1946, an honorable discharge, discharging me as a private 
in order to receive a commission on the battlefields of France during 
the course of the war. 

After the war in France and Germany was over, I volunteered to 
continue fighting and was sent to Japan. On the way to Japan that 
war was over. I was discharged from the United States Army as an 
officer with an honorable discharge, and with, as a matter of fact, some 
10 letters of connnendation from some of the most distinguished gen- 
erals in our Army for my service to my country. 

Mr. Arens. To your knowledge, did the generals who gave you 
letters of commendation have information regarding your connection 
with the Communist conspiracy '^ 

Mr. Straus. They knew what I did to fight for my country when 
we were under attack and at war with enemies. 

Mr. Arens. While you were in a United States Army uniform, were 
you a member of the Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Straus. When I was in the United States uniform during the 
war, my unit commander, Captain Benjamin- 

Mr. Arens. Will you answer the question? 

I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, the witness be ordered and 
directed to answer that question. 

Mr. Straus. That my loyalty to the United States of America 

Mr. Doyle. You are directed to answer his last question, which was 
whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party during 
your Army sei-vice. 

Mr. Arens. He is telling all about his patriotism. I am asking him 
whether or not, while he was wearing the uniform of his country, he 
was a member of the Communist conspiracy. 

Mr. Straus. You promised me an opportunity to continue. 

Mr. Arens. Just answer the question. 

Mr. Straus. Are you refusing to permit me to answer that question ? 

Mr. Arens. I suggest the witness be ordered and directed to answer 
that question or dodge behind the fifth amendment. 

Mr. DoYiiE. Answer that question. It is a direct question. 

Mr. Straus. I think that the counsel is attempting to dodge my war 
record and my Army service with scurrilous attacks on my patriotism, 
and I won't put up with it. 

Mr. Arens. Then stand up like a red-blooded American and deny 
you have ever been a member of the Communist conspiracy. 

I lay before you a photograph of the speakers' platform of a Com- 
munist May Day parade held in New York City. I ask you if that is 
you in your United States Army uniform addressing the Communist 
May Day parade in 1950 ? Would you just tell this committee if that 
is you in the United States Army uniform addressing the Communist 
May Day parade in New York City in 1950 ? 

Tell the committee if that is you behind the microphone. 

Mr. Doyle. AVhat is your answer to that, Mr. Straus ? 

Mr. Arens. Is that you in this photograph in the Army uniform of 
which you are so proud ? 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Arens, I would appreciate it if you wouldn't shout 
at me. 

Mr. Arens. I will ask it softly. 

Is that you in the Army uniform addressing the Communist May 
Day parade in 1950 ? Is that you behind the microphone ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4647 

Mr. Straus. Your drama is unwarranted, too. 

I refuse to answer the question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Doyle. "What, Mr. Arens, is the significance of the May Day 
parade ? 

Mr. Arens. The May Day parade in 1950, as it is in every year, is 
the annual princi]3al Communist open celebration, and this photograph 
shows Leon Straus in the United States Army uniform standing with 
a number of other Communists, addressing the May Day parade. 

Mr. Doyle. In New York City ? 

Mr. Arens. In New York City ; yes, sir. 

Now, I would like to read you some other observations and see if you 
can concur with these in view of your great patriotism. 

Mr. Straus. Are you attempting 

Mr. Arens. Here is the Daily Worker of March 11, 1953, and this is 
entitled "Stalin's Peace Role Cited by Leon Straus." 

Stalin's Peace Role Cited by Leon Straus 

The death of the Premier of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, is a sad blow to 
Americans who want understanding, friendship, and peace with the peoples of the 
Soviet Union. 

I speak personally from my experience because I recently visited the Soviet 
Union. I met thousands of Russians in Moscow, Leningrad, Stalingrad, and 
other cities. Therefore peace-loving Americans who know that there must be 
understanding between our people and the Russian people in order to bridge the 
differences that have set us apart and divided the world, will be saddened by 
the death of this world-famous man, whom Trygve Lie, Secretary General of the 
United Nations, called one of the outstanding statesman of our times. 

In the Soviet Union, there is a city called Yalta that I visited. All the people 
there proudly pointed out the house where the conference between Josef Stalin 
and our great President Franklin D. Roosevelt took place. 

On the occasion of Stalin's death, I am reminded of that conference in Yalta, 
and the fact that these two great men were joined in friendship in fighting a war 
in behalf of both of our peoples. In common with all Jewish people throughout 
the world, I can never forget that it was the Soviet army under Stalin's leader- 
ship that saved the lives of 2 million Jews." 

Did you write that? Did you issue that statement on the death of 
Joseph Stalin? 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Arens, I have already told you that I refuse to an- 
swer that general area of questioning on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Doyle. Just a minute. 

Do you answer that specific question on the grounds previously 
stated? 

Mr. Straus. Yes, sir ; I do. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of a document. It is 
an invitation to appear at a world "J^eace memorial meeting to Premier 
Joseph V. Stalin in dedication to world peace, held under the auspices 
of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship on March 26, 
1953. 

A speaker here, in addition to Paul Robeson and Albert Kahn, Rock- 
well Kent, is listed as Mr. Leon Straus. Tell this committee whether 
you were one of the speakers memorializing Joseph Stalin in 1953? 

Mr. Straus. I wish you would stop shouting at me, ]Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. I think the record should reflect that I have not been 
shouting. 

Mr. Doyle. I was going to say I wish to contradict the witness' 
statement because the counsel is not shouting. 



4648 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Straus. Mr. Chairman, you are at the top of the podium 4 or 5 
yards away and he is standing right at my ear shouting in my ear. 

Mr. Arens. I will say it softly. Perhaps that may help you on 
your recollection or your composure. 

Are you the Leon Straus referred to who was speaking at that 
memorial meeting for Joseph Stalin in New York City a few years ago ? 

Mr. Straus. I wish you would be as composed as I am, Mr. Arens. 
I have already answered the question. 

Mr. Arens. Then answer it again. 

Are you the Leon Straus who was one of the leaders in that meeting 
just a few years ago in New York City, the memorial meeting to the 
late Premier Joseph V. Stalin ? 

Mr. Doyle. Does it show the date of that meeting ? 

Mr. Arens. March 26, 1953. 

Mr. ScHERER. This becomes a little ironical, does it not, in view of 
the recent attacks ? 

Mr. Arens. I was going to ask him if he has changed his mind since 
March 26, 1953. 

Mr. Straus. I thought, Mr. Scherer, you asked me not to give 
dissertations earlier. 

Mr. Scherer. I think I have a right to make a comment. 

Mr. Straus. Oh, sure ; the same riglit goes for me. 

Mr. Scherer. We would let you talk all afternoon if you would 
answer any of the questions, but you have invoked the fifth amend- 
ment and refused to answer any of the significant questions asked you 
today. If you had answered those questions, w^e would let you talk 
all afternoon, but you have not answered questions. 

Mr. Arens. Have you attended any memorial meetings for Stalin 
since the new line came down from the Kremlin ? 

Mr. Straus. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been active in a nationwide campaign pro- 
testing the McCarran Act edict requiring the International Workers 
Order to register as a Communist front ? 

Mr. Straus. I am against the McCarran Act, if that is what you 
are asking. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what you have done to further your ])osition 
in opposition to the Internal Security Act, which is designed to put 
a crimp in the Communists. 

What have you done in furtherance of your position of being 
against this act ? 

Mr. Straus. Some very distinguished members of 

Mr. Arens. Just tell us what you have done. Don't hide behind 
somebody else. Tell the committee what you have done. 

Mr. Straus. I have joined in company with some very distinguished 
Americans, including Senators 

Mr. Arens. According to this article, you joined with William L. 
Patterson. 

Mr. Straus. Who said that the McCarran Act was designed to harm 
the possibility of freedom of movement and was unconstitutional, and 
I petitioned Congress, as I think I have a right to do, for its repeal. 
I spoke at meetings, similarly, for its repeal. 

Mr. Arens. Is William L. Patterson one of these distinguished 
Americans you spoke of who worked Avith you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4649 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer the question on the gromids pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. According to the Daily Worker of Monday, February 
15, 1954, in New York City, prominent speakers, including William 
L. Patterson, executive secretary of the Civil Rights Congress, Leon 
Straus, fur workers' leader, and other prominent figures participated 
in a rally against the enforcement of the McCarran Act. 

I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny the fact, that 
you were chairman of the New York section of the American Youth 
for Democracy ? 

Mr. Straus. Same answer, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you to affirm or deny 
the fact, that as early as 1946 you were a delegate to the New York 
State convention of the Communist Party in New York City? 

Mr. Straus. Same answer, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arens. I put it to you as a fact, and ask you while you are under 
oath to deny it, if it is not true, that in 1954 you were a member of the 
fur section of the Communist Party and of the trade union com- 
mission of the Communist Party itself ? 

Mr. Straus. Same answer, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting a concerted action 
by members of the Communist Party whereby they would resign tech- 
nical membership in the Communist Party and then penetrate the 
non-Communist labor organizations ? 

I only ask you if you have information on that, and if you have not, 
deny it under oath. 

Mr. Straus. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that we conclude the staff interro- 
gation of this witness. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Willis? 

Mr. Cramer. He wants to make an answer, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Straus. I would like to hear that last question again, I think 
I misunderstood it so I would like to correct my answer. 

Mr. Doyle. Would you read the last question please ? 

(The record was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Straus. My answer to that question that has now been clarified 
for me is that I have no such information. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting discussions by 
Communists respecting the proposed merger between the meat cutters 
and the fur workers ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Arens. That will conclude the staff interrogation, if you please, 
Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. Mr. Willis? 

Mr. Willis. I have no questions. 

Mr. Scherer. I have no questions. 

Mr. Doyle. I just want to ask a couple of questions. 

I think I noted your exact language as you testified. You said at 
the time of the merger of your fur union with the American trade 
union : 

We voluntarily decided that no officer would be a member of the Communist 
Party. 



4650 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Do you remember stating that ? 

Mr. Straus. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. Under Public Law 601, one of our very heavy responsi- 
bilities, and very often unpleasant responsibility, is to try to find out 
the steps taken by the Communist Party or by Comminiist Party mem- 
bers to subversively infiltrate any group in the United States, whether 
it emanates from Moscow or within our country. Because we are 
mindful of our responsibility, this conunittee is seeking information 
as to how the Communist Party has operated in some labor unions 
in this country. 

At the time that merger was made, you, as a labor union leader and 
officer, participated in reasoning out w^hy you should not have a Com- 
munist as an officer in your merged union. Can you help this con- 
gressional committee to understand why your two labor unions de- 
cided they would not allow any Communist to be an officer in the 
merged union ? 

I ask you that question in all frankness and sincerity. We are 
trying to find out for legislative purposes how the Communists oper- 
ate in any segment of American labor, industry, or elsewhere. 

Why did you adopt the rule or bylaw, if 3'ou did, prohibiting any 
officer from being a member of the Communist Party in the United 
States ? Why did you make that prohibition ? 

Mr. Straus. Congressman Doyle 

Mr. Doyle. You stated it was a matter of public record in your 
testimony. We do not have that public record at this time, but tell 
us why did you do that ? 

Mr. Straus. Congressman Doyle, I was not an executive officer 
of my union at the time of the merger. I was not a member of the 
negotiating committee that negotiated the merger, and I am not in a 
position to discuss that question. 

Mr. Doyle. You stated it was a matter of public record. I re- 
member you said that. 

Mr. Straus. I stated it was a matter of public record that I am not 
a member of tlie Communist Party. 

Mr. Doyle. Were you a member of the union at that time? 

Mr. Straus. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Doyle. You participated in the deliberations ? 

Mr. Straus. No, sir, 

Mr. Doyle. Not even as a union member ? 

Mr. Straus. I was not a member of the negotiating committee 
and I didn't participate in the negotiations, and I don't know the 
answer to the question that you are asking. 

Mr. Doyle. But you were a member of one of the unions, even 
though you were not on the negotiating committee. The union had 
to ratify the report; did it not? 

Mr. Straus. Certainly, Congressman Doyle, but you know there 
are unions. The}^ have thousands and tens of thousands of mem- 
bers and you get a report and you don't get the full context of all 
the discussion. This thing went on for weeks and months and, well, 
almost a year or so, and you get a brief report, and I got one on the 
general characteristics of what the settlement was, and I approved 
of it ; that's all. 

Mr. Doyle. One further question in that area. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4651 

You are now under oath when you state you are not now a member 
of the Communist Party. I take it that you were not a member at 
the time that you signed the Taft-Hartley affidavit, signing in good 
faith. I mean that you signed in good faith. I take tliat for granted. 

Mr. Straus. Thank you. 

Mr. DoTLE. As one American to another. 

Mr, Straus. Thank you. 

Mr. Doyle. You know tlie facts better than I do. I am asking 
you to help this committee of your Congress to understand from your 
knowledge why the Communist Party, when those two labor unions 
merged, would not permit a member of the party to be an officer of 
the union. 

That is not asking you to tell me any secret of the labor proceed- 
ings. It is asking you only for your opinion. I am asking you to be 
frank with us and tell us in your judgment as an individual, not as an 
officer of the union, what made it unwise, so far as the Communist 
Party was concerned, to have a Communist as an officer in the merged 
union. 

Mr. Straus. Congressman Doyle, you asked me to be frank with 
this committee, and I am being completely frank and truthful with 
you, and you have asked me about not revealing secret confidences. 

There were no secret confidences. These were open, public nego- 
tiations, but I merely said that committees participated in it. I 
was not a member and I have no knowledge of it. 

Mr. Doyle. But I am asking you as an individual, as a member of 
one of those unions at the time, what in your judgment, entered into 
your decision, as an individual, to approve or go along with the negoti- 
ating committee's report that no Communist should be an officer of the 
union ? 

I am not asking you to tell about the secret conferences. You were a 
union member at the time. What was there at that time about the 
Communist Party in the United States that you could not stomach as 
an officer of your union ? Can't you help your Congress ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Straus. Well, if you are asking me for an opinion about that, 
I would like to give it, but I want to state again that I have no direct 
knowledge. Othei*wise, I would be glad to give it to you. 

Mr. Doyle. I am only asking you for your opinion. 

Mr. Straus. There were. Congressman Doyle, some things that are 
just accomplishments of the way of life that exist at this time. There 
is the Taft-Hartley law in our country that has reference to this mat- 
ter. There is a clause in the constitution of the American Federation 
of Labor that has reference to this matter, and I assume that these and 
other considerations went into the reasoning for that decision. 

jVIr. Doyle. Were those the only reasons, in your judgment as an 
individual member of the union ? 

Mr. Straus. I have tried to give you my thinking on it. 

I say again I wasn't present at the negotiating session. I merely 
got a report of the terms of the merger. I thought it was in the interest 
of the members of my union, and I was for it. 

Mr. Doyle. One more question. Counsel, please. 

You frankly stated when you went to Europe on your first passport 
you went at the expense of the union. "Wlien you went back with your 
renewed passport, did you go at the expense of the union, 1952-53? 



4652 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Straus. I have already stated that I refuse to answer the ques- 
tion of this general area, the so-called trip, and I refuse to answer 
that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you did not plead the fifth amendment 
on your first passport but on your second passport ; when I asked you 
if your union paid your expenses, you plead the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Straus. Congressman, the record speaks for itself. 

Mr. Doyle. Certainly it does. You are not frank with me and I am 
disappointed. That is my conclusion. Witness. 

I am sorry, but you are entitled to know what my conclusion is. 
You are not frank with us. You are not willing to help us in a field 
where you could do so to protect our Government. 

Mr. Arens. We have another witness, Mr. Chairman. 

Miss Stephanie Horvath, please come forward. Kemain standing 
while the chairman administers the oath to you, please. 

Mr. Doyle. Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Miss Horvath. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself by name, residence and occupa- 
tion. 

TESTIMONY OF STEPHANIE HOEVATH 

Miss Horvath. Stephanie Horvath. 

Mr. Arens. Would you spell your name so that the reporter has 
it accurately, please ? 

Miss Horvath. H-o-r-v-a-t-h, Stephanie. 

Mr. Arens. And your residence, please? 

Miss Horvath. New York City. 

Mr. Arens. And your occupation ? 

Miss Horvath. Detective with the New York City Police Depart- 
ment. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Horvath, how long have you occupied that posi- 
tion ? 

Miss Horvath. Since 1942. 

Mr, Arens. During the course of your career, have you had occa- 
sion to become a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Horvath. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Arens. Was your membership in the Communist Party solely 
at the instigation of your Government for the purpose of procuring 
information ? 

Miss Horvath. I was directed by the New York City Police Depart- 
ment to join the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. You were never ideologically identified with the party ? 

Miss Horvath. Never. 

Mr. Arens. Your service in the Communist Party was solely and 
exclusively for the purpose of procuring information so that you 
could serve your Government; is that correct? 

Miss Horvath. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Miss Horvath, in the course of your membership in 
the Communist Party, did you have access to the records of certain 
of the sections of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Horvath. Yes ; I did. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4653 

Mr. Arens. Did you in the course of your membership have access 
to records respecting transfers to the Yorkville section of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Miss HoRVATH. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in the course of your access to those records 
of transfers of Communists to the Yorkville section of the Com- 
munist Party run onto the name of Eabbi Abraham Bick? 

Miss HoRVATH. Yes ; Rabbi Abraham J. Bick. 

Mr. Arens. Please tell us what you saw. 

Miss HoRVATH. It was in 1947. I was assisting the membership 
and financial director of the Yorkville section of the Communist Party 
in membership work, and I effected the transfer of Rabbi Bick into 
the Yorkville section of the Communist Party at that time. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further questions of this witness, Mr. Chair- 
man, except to thank her for her consideration to the committee in 
coming from New York City to add this important information to 
our records. 

Could you give us your best recollection as to the spelling of the 
name? 

Miss HoRVATH. B-i-c-k ; yes. 

I also have his Communist Part}^ name if you are interested in it. 

Mr. Arens. Let us have his Communist Party name. 

Miss HoRVATH. Alan McGill, A-l-a-n M-c-G-i-l-l. 

Mr. Arens. For your information I will tell you for this record that 
the Rabbi Bick was here toda3^ We interrogated him and also asked 
him about his Communist Party name. Somehow or other, we didn't 
get quite a satisfactory answer. 

Does the committee have any questions ? 

Mr. Doyle. No. 

(Representative Gordon H. Scherer left the hearing room at this 
point.) 

Mr. Arens. We thank you for your testimony and we compliment 
you on your service to your country. 

Miss HoRVATH. Thank you. 

Mr. Arens. We have no further witnesses today, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Doyle. The committee will stand adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 4 p. m., June 14, 1956, the subcommittee recessed, 
subject to the call of the Chair, there being present Representatives 
Doyle and Willis.) 



INVESTIGATION OF THE UNAUTHORIZED USE OF 
UNITED STATES PASSPORTS— PART 4 



THURSDAY, JUNE 21, 1956 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

public session 

The committee met at 10 a. m., pursuant to recess, in the caucus room 
of the House Office Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman of 
the committee) presiding. 

Present : Representatives Walter, Willis, Kearney, and Scherer. 

Present also : Richard Arens, staff director. 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Let the record show that the chairman has appointed a subcom- 
mittee consisting of Representatives Willis, Scherer, Kearney, and 
myself. 

I might say that the acoustics in this room are very bad and for that 
reason we will have to insist that there be no audible conversation. 

Call your witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Arthur Miller ? 

Will you kindly remain standing while the chairman administers 
the oath? 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand, please. 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Miller. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ARTHUR MILLER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH L. RAUH, JR. 

Mr. Arens. Please identify yourself, sir, by name, residence, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Miller. My name is Arthur Miller. I live at Roxbury, Conn. 
I am a playwright. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today, Mr. Miller, in response to a 
subpena which was served upon you by the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. JMiLLER. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Miller. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, will you identify yourself? 

Mr. Rauh. My name is Joseph L. Rauh, R-a-u-h, Jr. 

4655 

79932—56 5 



4656 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens, Mr. Miller, please tell the committee where and when 
you were born? 

Mr. Miller. I was born on October 17, 1915, in New York City. 

Mr. Arens. And give us a word, please, sir, about your formal edu- 
cation. 

Mr. Miller. I went to public schools in New York City, to James 
Madison High School, Abraham Lincoln High School, the tjniversity 
of Michigan. I have a bachelor of arts degree from the University 
of Michigan, and an honorary doctor of humane letters. 

Mr. Arens. When did you receive those degrees ? 

Mr. Miller. I received my bachelor's degree in June of 1938, and 
the other degree last Saturday. 

Mr. Arens. Was the degree last Saturday an honorary degree? 

Mr. Miller. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell the committee, Mr. Miller, the dates on 
which you at any time have made application for a United States 
passport. 

Mr. Miller. I couldn't be exact about the first application because 
I don't have the information with me, but to the best of my recollec- 
tion it would be in 1946, 1 believe. That is when I received the pass- 
port. I am reasonably certain of that. 

Mr. Arens. Your application was in 1946, and did you then, pur- 
suant to the application, receive a passport ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us about any renewal of that particular pass- 
port. 

Mr. Miller. That passport was renewed in Kome. I am sorry, I 
have given the passport to the State Department in my recent applica- 
tions so I don't have all this information at my fingertips. 

The Chairman. Can you give him those dates, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. I just want him to show the approximate dates. We will 
interrogate him at length with reference to each one. I wanted the 
record to reflect tlie approximate time. 

Mr. Miller. These are all in the records. 

Mr. Arens. You applied in 1946 for a passport which was issued 
to you in 1947? 

Mr. Miller. I believe that is the case. 

Mr. Arens. Then it was renewed pursuant to an application filed 
in Rome shortly thereafter, a couple of years thereafter. 

Mr. Miller. Yes, a couple of years thereafter. 

Mr. Arens. When was your next passport application, do you 
recall ? 

Mr. Miller. The next one was in March of 1954. 

Mr. Arens. Was a passport issued to you pursuant to that appli- 
cation ? 

Mr. Miller. No, it was not. 

Mr. Arens. Then did you take any action respecting the application 
after there was a declination to issue the passport in 1954? 

Mr. Miller. I did not take any action afterward but I did take 
action ; I made an ap])roach to the State Department via my attorney. 
I think I could explain the circumstances which would make this 

Mr. Arens. You withdrew your passport application; did you not? 

Mr. Miller. I had no further use for a passport. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4657 

Mr. Miller. I am sorry. I was just going to say that the passport 
was required because I was invited to go to EngLand, rather to Brus- 
sels, Belgium, by the American-Belgian Society, which is a society 
in Belgium for the enhancement of relations between the United 
States and Belgium, and they offered to pay my transportation and my 
expenses from New York to Belgium for the opening of a stage theater 
production of one of my plays called Crucible. 

I got the cable on Monday evening. I returned the cable, saying 
tliat I would love to be there. I applied for renewal of my passport 
on the following day, which was Tuesday. I had to be in Brussels 
on the following Tuesday, that .was the opening of the play, so, con- 
sequently, and the Belgian Airlines do not run on Monday, so I would 
have had to have had a passport no later than Friday. Consequently, 
it was a big rush, it is an abnormally short time to ask for a passport 
and the week passed and I heard nothing from the State Department, 
so I instructed Mr. Garrison, my attorney, to call and find out whether 
I would have it that afternoon or not. 

This was sometime Friday afternoon and Mrs. Shipley, of the State 
Department, told Mr. Garrison that she could not issue one without 
further investigation. He then explained that the passport would be 
useless to me, I had no plans to go to Europe whatsoever except for 
this free trip which I wanted to take any time after that. That was 
the end of the conversation with the State Department. 

Mr. Arens. Then do you have pending at the present time a pass- 
port application with the Department of State? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, I do. I ai)plied, I guess this is the fifth week now. 
I applied 41^ weeks ago. I wanted to go to England. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in 1955, have an employment arrangement 
contemplated with the Youth Board down in New York City? 

Mr. Miller. I had no employment arrangement with the Youth 
Board. I had an employment arrangement with an independent 
motion-picture producing company called Combined Artists, Inc. My 
contract with Combined Artists, Inc., was to the effect that I engage 
myself to write the outline and the finished screeen play of a motion 
picture on the subject of juvenile delinquency. 

Mr. Arens. That was to be in connection with tlie activities or work 
of the Youth Board, was it not? 

Mr. Miller. The Youth Board was to cooperate with me in the 
research which would be required for me to write this script. 

I ought to say that the city of New York, this was a kind of odd 
contract which t must confess to this day baffles me slightly. But the 
nature of the contract was, as I understand it, that the city of New 
York, in return for the cooperation which it would give me in just 
permitting me to go along with the Youth Board workers into the 
streets at night and the slum areas and learn what I could from the 
children, would get 5 percent of the moneys of this picture, which 
could be a sizable amount of money if successful, and would not spend 
5 cents on the city's part and had no other obligation. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in the course of your negotiations or relation- 
ships with the Youth Board in New York City have occasion to appear 
before the board to express to the board certain actions which you 
allegedly took in connection with a previous passport application? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 



4658 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Did you make that appearance before the Youth Board 
in November of 1955? Do you recall the approximate time? 

Mr. Miller. It was about that time. I am not very good about 
dates but it was in that time ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Was there a controversy that arose with respect to 
whether or not you should be permitted to continue with your labors 
in connection with this script? 

Mr. Miliar. There was an attack launched upon my political fitness 
to write a screenplay by one newspaper ; it began with one newspaper 
and remained with one newspaper for quite a time. 

Mr. Arens. Now, did you appear before the board and, among other 
things, say to the board in the course of the discussion substantially 
what I am now quoting from the minutes of the board? [Heading :] 

Finally, some 2 years ago, I issued a statement which was printed in the press 
in reply to a State Department statement, and in this I categorically denied that 
I am supporting the Communist cause or contributing to it or was under its 
disclipine or domination. 

Furthermore, in my application at about the same time for renewal of my 
passport, I had signed under the penalities of perjury that statement that I 
was not a member of any subversive organization. I cite these statements, 
which of course are still true because they are part of the public record and 
have been for a long time. 

I ask you now, Mr. Miller, if you made the statement before the 
Youth Board which I have just read to you from the minutes of that 
board of November 29, 1955 ? 

Mr. Miller. I believe you read it correctly ; yes, sir. 

Mr, Arens. Did you in your passport application deny under oath 
that you had supported the Communist cause or contributed to it or 
were under its discipline or domination ? 

Mr. Miller. The oath that I referred to was the standard oath that 
I had taken some years before in my first application for a passport. 
My understanding of the oath was that I wouldn't have been foolish 
enough to have tried to mislead the New York City Youth Board by 
referring to an oath which everybody signs who gets a passport if I 
had not in this case mistakenly understood the oath years later. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Miller — I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Miller. Just one thing.' I was asked — I am not yet clear 
whether there were minutes of that meeting at which I was present — 
I was asked by the chairman of the Youth Board whether this was the 
standard oath that I was referring to or whether it was some special 
oath. I said "No," it was the standard oath. 

Now, I would have had to be a singularly obtuse individual to have 
referred the gentleman to an oath wliich he could have found by going 
across the street to the passport bureau if I had any impulse there to 
mislead him. 

I understood at that time — it was my recollection at the time, and T 
certainly would have signed such an oath had it been there — that that 
was the common oath taken. Oaths are in newspapers very often now, 
and that was my understanding at the time. 

I am sorry 1 mads an error. It was by no means any attempt to 
mislead anybody. It was just my faulty memory of Avhat I had 
signed some years before. 

Mr. Arens. I am a little puzzled. You say you are sorry you made 
an error. What error ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4659 

Mr. Miller. I mistook that kind of oath for the oath that anyone 
takes who signs a passport application. I was referring to the oath 
that I had signed when I had taken out my passport application some 
years earlier. 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you the photostatic copy of a pass- 
port application signed by one Arthur Miller in 1947 — April 1947 — 
and ask you if that is a true and correct reproduction of the passport 
application which you signed in 1947 and submitted to the Department 
of State in an attempt to procure a passport ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes ; it is. 

Mr. Arens. Is this the document to which you were alluding in your 
conversation with the Youth Board when you told the Youth Board 
that you categorically denied to the State Department under oath that 
you had been supporting the Communist cause or contributing to it 
or were under its discipline or domination ? Is that the document to 
which you were alluding in your statement before the Youth Board ? 

Mr. Miller. I beg your pardon. There seems to be a slight mis- 
understanding. When my passport — if I might I could clear this 
up in a moment. 

When my passport was denied by the State Department, I issued a 
statement in reply to a public statement by the State Department in 
which I denied such affiliations. That was what I was referring to in 
that particular wording that you are speaking of. 

Mr. Arens. Well, did you sign a statement under oath to the De- 
partment of State in the course of your attempt to procure a passport 
in 1947 in which you denied that you had ever been supporting the 
Communist cause or contributing to it or were under its discipline or 
domination ? 

Mr. Miller. The only statement I have ever signed in relation to the 
State Department is the oath here in this passport application. 

Mr. Arens. Now, do you see in that passport application there any 
oath which in essence is a denial of support of the Communist cause 
or contribution to it or being under its discipline or domination ? 

Mr. Miller. No, I do not. I have just tried to explain, sir, that 
that was an error on my part in referring to the oath as I did. I would 
in any case have signed such an oath had it been in the passport appli- 
cation, and I have just stated that I made an error and I made the 
error in all good faith because I would have been a very stupid man 
to have referred to a passport application, thinking that no one would 
have the sense to look at it. I thought that is what I had said. 

The Chairman. Answer the questions, Mr. Miller. 

Mr. Miller. I am sorry. 

Mr. Arens. Am I clear that your present statement is that as of 
1947, when you made this passport application to the Department of 
State, you would have taken an oath that you had never supported the 
Communist cause or contributed to it or been under its discipline or 
domination ? 

Mr. Miller. I was referring here to 19 — the second attempt to 
get a passport in that document. 

Mr. Arens. Let us get this record clear now. 

Would you in 1947 have taken an oath, even though you are now 
mistaken as to whether or not you did take one — would you have taken 
an oath in 1947 that you had not contributed to the Communist cause, 
supported it, or been under its discipline ? 



4660 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Miller. I would have taken an oath that I was never under the 
discipline of the Communist Party, the Communist cause; yes. I 
would have made a statement that I had been affiliated from time to 
time with organizations that were cited as Communist-dominated 
organizations but I would have certainly taken an oath at any time 
in my life that I w^as never under the discipline of the Communist Party 
or the Communist cause. 

Mr. Arens. And would you have then taken an oath that you had 
never contributed to the Communist cause ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, that question would involve the later citation of 
certain organizations which I may have contributed a dollar or two 
to in the past which would now be called contributing to the Com- 
munist cause. 

The Chairman. What organizations are you referring to? 

Mr. Miller. I have none in particular in mind. 

The Chairman. You had organizations in mind when you made that 
statement. 

Mr. Miller. Well, let me think. 

I understand the Joint Anti-Fascist Committee has been cited. I 
believe that from time to time I would contribute to some drive of 
theirs during and after the Spanish Civil War; that would be one. 

The Chairman. But that was not cited after this ? 

Mr. Miller. I say, he is asking me whether I could take such an 
oath and I don't know the date of these citations. 

The Chairman. You said these organizations were cited after the 
date of your application for passport ? 

Mr. Miller. It is possible, sir, that some of them were cited before. 
I don't want to make that, I don't want to lay up against this defini- 
tion any such line. I am trying to tell you as frankly as I can what 
the truth is. 

(Representative Doyle entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Miller, is it a fair summary, and if it is not you 
take issue with me, because we do not want to misinterpret your 
situation, is it a fair summary to say that in 1955, when you appeared 
before the Youth Board and this controversy arose respecting what 
you have described as your political beliefs, that you told the Youth 
Board in essence that you had never contributed to the Communist 
cause, that you had never been under Communist discipline, and that 
you had made an oath to your Government to that effect when you 
made application for your passport ? 

Mr. Miller. No, I would contest that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. You straighten us out as to what the position was that 
you took before the Youth Board when the controversy arose respect- 
ing yourself in 1955. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miller. I would like to refresh my memory with just a glance 
at my statement there so I could 

Mr. Arens. The part which I read to you is here. It has been under- 
lined so that I would be able to refer to it here in this session today, 

Mr. Miller. I would just like to clear one thing up and this, per- 
haps — no, I guess it isn't technical. 

There are two statements referred to here, I think reasonably clearly, 
although it may seem to be a little meshed together. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4661 

It says here that — 

Finally, some 2 years ago, I issued a statement which was printed in the press 
in reply to a State Department statement. 

That is a press statement. I believe I have a copy here which you 
can look at if you don't have a copy of it, and in this I categorically 
denied that I was supporting the Communist cause or was contributing 
to it or was under its discipline or domination. That was in reply, 
that press statement, to a State Department statement which said, in 
effect, that the State Department was exercising its right to deny a 
passport to anyone who it was believed was then under the domination 
of the Communist Party, et cetera. 

In my statement to the press I said I was not, and that I was not 
supporting any Communist cause, and that is what that statement 
refers to. 

Now, in addition, following that, there is a reference to this oath 
which I would like to separate. One is in error, the other is not. 
The oath I mistook in my memory for being the kind of oath that you 
refer to. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, in essence, say to the Youth Board that you 
were not and had not been under Communist Party discipline and 
that you had not contributed to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. I dispute that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you admit to the Youth Board that you had been 
under Communist Party discipline and that you had been contributing 
to Communist causes ? 

Mr. Miller. I was never under Communist Party discipline so, 
therefore, I would not be called upon to admit. 

As for contributing to causes, front groups and so forth, I won't 
deny that. I am here to tell you the truth and I wouldn't deny it 
there. 

The issue there, quite clearly, was whether I was trustworthy enough 
to write a screenplay on juvenile delinquency without warping the 
truth about this very grave problem. Now, I understood perfectly 
why they M'ould be concerned about this; I would be, too. 

I tried to indicate with what I said to them that this would not be 
the case and they already had an outline of this picture which was not 
written under duress, was not written while I was under attack at 
all, I was perfectly calm and quiet. It had been written some weeks 
or months before and they had all their experts and they themselves 
had been very enthusiastic about this outline, so there was no ques- 
tion about warping the material. All I was trying to get across was 
that I was not then supporting any group that might indicate that I 
would warp this material or that would make me untrustworthy. 

Mr. Arens. That was the essence of your position before the Youth 
Board; was it not? 

Mr. Miller. Substantially. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Miller, in 1947, the very year in which you 
made this passport application in wliich you stated to the Youth Board 
the fact that you had sworn to the Department of State you had never 
been enmeshed in Communist activities, were you a sponsor of the 
World Youth Festival to be held in Prague ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



4662 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Miller. I beg your pardon, sir. You are not correctly sum- 
marizing. 

Mr. Arens. Well, I will read it to you again. You said on this 
record under oath that I gave a correct recitation of what you said. 
I will read it to you again. 

Mr. Miller. Excuse me. 

Mr. Arens. The statement made by you before the Youth Board 
was: 

Finally, some 2 years ago, I issued a statement which was printed in the press 
in reply to a State Department statement and in this I categorically denied that 
I am supporting the Communist cause or contributing to it or was under its 
discipline or domination. 

You signed that under oath. 

Did you make the statement which I have just read to you before 
the Youth Board in New York City in 1955 ? 

Mr. Miller. I made the statement but I question your interpretation 
of it. 

Mr. Arens. Aside from my interpretation, did you make that state- 
ment ? 

Mr. Miller. Without request. 

Mr. Arens. All right. 

Now, in 1947, the year in which you made the application for your 
passport, and a passport was issued to you, were you a sponsor of 
the World Youth Festival held in Prague, Czechoslovakia? 

Mr. Miller. Excuse me, sir. It is perhaps a misunderstanding on 
your part. The moot application in this controversy was the one that 
was denied. I was not, either literally or in my mind, referring to 
any other because this was the one that was being brought up in the 
press and this was the one that was at issue. There was no issue about 
the previous passports because they had been gi'anted. This was the 
one that had not been granted and this was the one I w^as referring to. 

Mr. Arexs. Now, in 1947, were you a sponsor of the World Youth 
Festival to be held at Prague, Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Miller. I could not recall that, but if there is any evidence 

Mr. Arens. I should like to refresh your recollection. 

I lay before you now a photostatic copy of the New York Times 

(The w^itness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Of May 25, 1947, entitled "The Dance: Prague 
Festival." 

A movement, rather late in getting under way but vigorous, nevertheless, has 
been started to see that the American dance is represented at the World Youth 
Festival, to be held in Prague from July 20 to August 17, under the auspices of 
the World Federation of Democratic Youth. 

Among the sponsors listed here is a person described as Arthur 
Miller. I lay that before you and ask you if that helps refresh your 
recollection ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I would add, of course, that there were a good 
many other 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Walter, as far as I know, I have no memory of it 
but I would not deny that I had done this. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4663 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that this exhibit be marked and 
appropriately identified and incorporated by reference in the record. 

(The document was marked "Exhibit No. 1" and filed for the 
record.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, in 1947, did you have difficulty with the Depart- 
ment of State over an incident in which the Department of State re- 
fused to sponsor transportation for students and participants attend- 
ing this World Youth Festival ? Do you recall any incident of that 
character ? 

Mr. Miller. I don't ; but I would like to say now that in those times 
I did support a number of things which I would not do now. 

The Chairman. \'\niat things did you support that you would not 
support now ? 

Mr. Miller. I would not support now a cause or movement which 
was dominated by Communists. 

The Chairman. But you did at that time ? 

Mr. Miller. I did ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you this photostatic copv of the New 
York Times, Wednesday, June 11, 1947, entitled "Miller Fails in Plea." 

Efforts to obtain financial assistance for the project to send Arthur Miller's 
play, All My Sons, to the Prague Youth Festival this summer proved disappoint- 
ing at a meeting yesterday of theatrical business people and representatives of 
the company. 

There is also in this article reference to an incident which I shall 
now describe by reading another excerpt from the article concerning 
a gathering. 

The gathering adopted the following resolution, recommended by Mr. Miller, 
to be vpired to the Department of State : 

"Urge you seriously to reconsider refusal to sponsor availability of transporta- 
tion for students and participants attending World Youth Festival in Prague 
this summer. To my knowledge the participants have no special political 
afl51iations." 

I lay that now before you and ask you whether that refreshes your 
recollection and ask you as to your participation in the incident? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miller. This is of a slightly special nature and I would like 
to make one comment about it. 

Mr. Arens. Please do. 

Mr. Miller. It does refresh my recollection. 

Somebody wanted to do my play. I didn't know who they were 
but I was always in favor of having my plays done. As I recall, 
there was no money to send them over and I wanted to do what I 
could to have that play sent over. 

This particular thing, I believe, was just in the normal course of an 
author's life. I would have done it if they had wanted it to go to 
Australia. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this docu- 
ment be marked and appropriately identified and incorporated by 
reference in the record. 

The Chairman. It will be incorporated. 

(The document was marked "Exhibit No. 2" and filed for the rec- 
ord.) 



4664 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Did you in this year 1947 sign a statement released by 
the Civil Rights Congress which, among other things, reads as 
follows : 

The Communist Party is a legal American political party. We see noth- 
ing in their program, record, or activities either in war or peace to justify the 
enactment of the repressive legislation now being urged upon the Congress in an 
atmosphere of an organized hysteria. 

Do you have a recollection in April of 1947, under the auspices of 
the Civil Eights Congress, in participating in the release of that state- 
ment? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I wouldn't say that I participated in the release. 

Mr. Arens. Did yon sign the statement ? 

Mr. Miller. Sir, I don't — these things were coming across my 
desk. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you the document now and see if it re- 
freshes your recollection. It is the Communist Daily Worker of 
Wednesday, April 16, 1947, indicating that 100 prominent Americans 
had issued this statement, including a person described here as Arthur 
Miller. I lay that before you and ask you if that refreshes your 
recollection. 

Mr. Miller. I see my name here. I will not deny I signed it. I 
just don't have any recollection of it. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest, Mr. Chairman, that this docu- 
ment be marked and appropriately identified and incorporated in the 
record by reference. 

The Chairman. So ordered. 

(The document was marked "Exhibt No. 3" and filed for the rec- 
ord.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you the AVashington Post of Tuesday, 
May 20, 1947, the A^ery year we are considering here. 

Mr. Miller. I beg your pardon, sir. I wish to establish one fact. 
You say the year that we are now considering? 

Mr. Arens. We are considering the year 1947. 

Mr. Miller. I realize that you are doing that but I have stated twice 
now and I want to make myself clear that the Youth Board statement 
was referring to that issue which was the last application of mine, 
which was denied, and the oath there. 

Mr. Arens. Since you took issue with me on that, let me read to you 
a statement which you made before the Youth Board pinpointing it 
specifically : 

My only point here is that these things have been a public record, I mentioned, 
a year and a half, but actually I received my first passport in 1946 and the same 
holds true on that passport. 

Do you recall making that statement before the Youth Board when 
there was a declination respecting your alleged fitness or unfitness to 
participate in that work? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miller. I would have to see the context of that statement. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly look at it? 

Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the record show that the 
transcript which he is now examining was supplied to this committee 
as a verbatim transcript by the Youth Board pursuant to a subpena 
which was issued on the board by the committee. 

The Chairman. All right. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4665 

Mr. JMiLLER. What I was referring to here was the question of being 
under the discipline of an}^ Communist movement. I think that was 
the issue in this whole debate here. 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. 

Mr. Miller. I said I was not under the discipline of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. You had not been in 1946 and 1947 and the years prior 
to the time you had the controversy with the Youth Board ? 

Mr. Miller. That I was not under anyone's discipline. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Miller. I was not implying there that I had never signed any 
petition or been involved, as you are indicating here; that was not 
what I was saying. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly look at an advertisement appearing 
in the Washington Post of May 1947, "Kob Communists of Their 
Eights?— Then Yours Go Out the Window, Too." 

It is an advertisement protesting the flagrant violation, punitive 
measures directed against the Communist Party, and signed by a num- 
ber of persons, including one Arthur Miller, identified as a playwright. 

I ask you if you have a recollection of lending your name to that 
cause or movement ? 

Mr. Miller. I see my name here. I would not deny I might have 
signed it. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that this document be marked 
and appropriately identified and incorporated by reference in the 
record. 

The Chairman. Let it be marked. 

(The document was marked "Exhibit No. 4" and filed for the rec- 
ord.) 

Mr. Arens. In 1947, were you cognizant of the proceedings then 
pending in this country against a Communist agent known as Gerhart 
Eisler? 

Mr. Miller. I remember reading about him. 

Mr. Arens. Did you sign a statement in protest of the prosecution 
of Gerhart Eisler? 

Mr. Miller. I don't recall that, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a press release of 1947 of the Civil 
Rights Congress protesting the shameful persecution of the German 
anti-Fascist refugee, Gerhart Eisler, signed by a number of persons, 
including a person identified as Arthur Miller, playwright. 

I ask you if that refreshes your recollection. 

Mr. Miller. I recall this. I would like to say, though, that I did 
sign a lot of things in those days. 

The Chairman. Wait a minute. 

Did you sign that or is that a press release ? 

Mr. Miller. Oh, no 

Mr. Arens. That is a press release, Mr. Chairman, indicating the 
names of people who signed it. He has now identified it, or at least 
admitted his signature to the press release. 

Mr. Miller. I am not denying being the sponsor of many of these 
things. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a passport application 

Mr. Miller. At the present time I would not be doing it ; that is all. 
This is the only point I want to make. 



4666 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. We will go on up into the years in chronological order. 
We want to stick with 1947 now and then we will move up a little 
later. 

Now I lay before you the passport application of a person where 
the signature appears, Samuel Lipzen,^ but the photograph is that of 
Gerhart Eisler. 

Did you know at the time you signed that statement protesting the 
persecution of Gerhart Eisler that he was a top-ranking agent of the 
Kremlin in this country, and that, among other things for which he 
was being pursued by our Government, was passport fraud ? 

Mr. Miller. Sir, I would have had no knowledge of that, and in 
those days I would not have had the mood of investigating these things 
at all. I tell you quite frankly this suited the mood that I was in, 
and I would never have gone to any trouble about investigating that 
kind of thing in relation to a cause. 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in a statement issued by the Civil 
Eights Congress with reference to Eisler ? 

The hysterical atmosphere contrived around the case indicates that this inci- 
dent involving a German Communist kept here against his will is intended as 
the initial phase of a sweeping attack upon the entire labor and progressive 
movement in the United States. 

Do you recall issuing a statement in conjunction with others under 
the auspices of the Civil Rights Congress in 1947 bearing on this case ? 

Mr. Miller. I would like to make another point, and that is 

Mr. Arens. Answer, first of all, whether or not you have a recol- 
lection. 

Mr. Miller. I don't recall it. 

Mr. Arens. Look at this exhibit here and see whether or not it 
helps refresh your recollection. 

Mr. Miller. My point is simple. 

Mr. Arens. First tell us whether or not this refreshes your recollec- 
tion, whether or not you recall participating in the issuance of that 
statement, and then go on with your statement. 

Mr. Miller. I do not recall pa'rticipating in it. I do not deny I 
may have done it. I do not have a memory of these things. It is 
10 years ago. 

I would just make this simple point, and that is that I would have 
had no knowledge of the details here, and they would not have been 
of great interest to me at the time. I was acting not as an investigator 
or as a lawyer, as someone who would be careful to any great degree 
about what he was supporting providing that it met the mood of the 
time that I was living in. 

Mr. Arens. We will get into that proposition a little later. I want 
to know whether or not you can tell us whether you have a recollection. 

Mr. Miller. I do not. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that this be marked as an exhibit 
and appropriately identitied and incorporated by reference in the 
record. 

The Chairman. Mark it a part of the i;ecord. 

(The document was marked "Exhibit No. 5" and filed for the rec- 
ord. ) 

Mr. Arens. Did you, during this period which we have been dis- 
cussing, we are beginning in 1947 and coming on right up, did you 
during this period know a man by the name of Millard Lampell ? 

^ (Spelling should read, Llptzen.) 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4667 

Mr. Miller. I did; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did Millard Lampell, to your knowledge, recollection, 
solicit you to participate in a movement called Veterans Against Dis- 
crimination of the Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. Miller. I would not recall that, sir. I don't remember that. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall Millard Lampell enlisting you to join 
in the movement to attack the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities ? 

Mr. Miller. No. sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall an attack on the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities in which you were a participant ? 

Mr. Miller. I would say that in all probability I had supported 
criticism of the Un-American Activities Committee. 

Mr. Arens. Would you want to give us a little bit clearer charac- 
terization of what you mean by the word "criticism" of the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Miller. I probably would have signed statements opposing the 
committee. 

Mr. Arens. Did you sign statements or lend your name, prestige, 
and influence toward a movement to abolish the Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Miller. I have no memory of that. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of a letter on 
the letterhead of the Veterans Against Discrimination of Civil Rights 
Congress, Millard Lampell, chairman, who, as the record reflects, has 
been identified as a hard-core Communist, which says: 

The Un-American Committee can and must be abolished. 

Among others, the sponsors include the name of one Arthur Miller. 
I ask you whether or not that refreshes your recollection as to any of 
your activities? 

Mr. Miller. My connection with this organization was, well, I 
might as well answer your question. 

I would say, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that this be marked and 
appropriately identified and incorporated by reference in the record. 

The Chairman. It will be marked. 

(The document was marked "Exhibit No. 6" and filed for the rec- 
ord.) 

Mr. Arens. Now I lay before you a copy of an announcement of a 
mobilization, a rally, mobilized ^ against the House Un-American 
Activities Committee, held under the auspices of the Civil Rights 
Congress, in which 1, 2, 3, 6 people are to speak at Manhattan Center 
in New York City, 3 of whom have been publicly identified as Com- 
munist agents, including on this list of people who are to speak at tliis 
rally to destroy the House Committee on Un-American Activities, 
one Arthur Miller. 

I ask you whether or not you are the Arthur Miller and whether or 
not you have a recollection of participating in that rally ? 

Mr. Miller. I am not clear whether I was a speaker or not. 

Mr. Arens. The advertisement would so indicate ; would it not? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I have found that more than once there was a 
slight use of license, so to speak, and I found myself listed as a speaker 
many times, or several times at least. I recall people saying to me that 



4668 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

I had made a speech somewhere some weeks ago and I would say, 
"Where?" I had been a sponsor of something but I had not made a 
speecli. 

I don't recall making that speech. It is quite probable that I sup- 
ported it. 

Mr. Arens. I respectfully suggest that the document be marked, 
appropriately identified, and incorporated by reference. 

The Chairman. It may be marked. 

(The document was marked "Exhibit No. 7" and filed for the rec- 
ord.) 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask what year that is, Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. 1947. 

Mr. Kearney. Mr. Miller, on the use of your name on these various 
organizations that held rallies where your name is listed as a speaker, 
did you ever make any protest against the use of your name? 

Mr. Miller. I would occasionally; yes. I would try to find who- 
ever was responsible, which was not always easy. It was always after 
the fact, of course, and there was no way for me to redress the tiling. 
I did make remonstrances. 

Mr. Arens. Did you remonstrate the use of your name appearing 
in the public print in connection with a public caravan to come to 
Washington to protest the hearings by the House Un-American Ac- 
tivities Committee in which they were exposing Communists in 
Hollywood? 

Mr. Miller. No ; I would not have protested that, I was supporting 
that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in the caravan ? 

Mr. Miller. No ; I did not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall participating in a movement to defend 
Howard Fast ? 

Mr. Miller. If I can see the material ? 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of a dodger 
of a protest meeting for Howard Fast "and other victims" of the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities, signed by approximately a 
dozen people that are called to action here, including a person listed 
as Arthur Miller, and ask you whether or not you are the Arthur 
Miller? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, and I would like to be permitted to make one 
comment. 

Mr. Arens. We would be very glad to have you do so. 

Mr. Miller. That was my opinion at the time. It did reflect my 
opinion that in my experience I know really very little about anything 
except my work and my field, and it seemed to me that the then prev- 
alent, rather ceaseless, investigating of artists was creating a pall of 
apprehension and fear among all kinds of people. 

The Chairman. But did you know that those very artists were the 
chief source of supply for the funds that were used by the Communists 
in the United States ? Did you know that when you were defending 
these people that they were the people who contributed thousands of 
dollars monthly in order to assist in the organization of labor unions 
that were Communist-dominated ? 

Did you know that ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Walter, I will tell you  

The Chairman. Or did you not care ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4669 

Mr. Miller. Quite fraiilvly, that was not the consideration in my 
mind. The consideration in my mind was that, as far as I could see, 
there was a distinct pall of apprehension and fear. People were being 
put into a state of great apprehension and they were 

The Chairman. Apprehension of what, Mr. Miller ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, in some cases just punishment and in some cases 
unjust punishment. 

The Chairman. Do you know of any artist who was prosecuted as 
a result of any information obtained from these hearings who was not 
a member of the Communist apparatus ? 

Mr. Miller. Quite frankly, sir, that wouldn't have been the issue 
in my mind, if you are asking me to tell you the truth. 

The Chairman. You are talking about the issue in your mind and, 
in view of the fact that you have raised this question repeatedly about 
your mood, your mind, may I ask you if you changed j^our mind since 
the revelations concerning Mr. Stalin have been made? 

Mr. jVIiller. My mind was, I have been in — let me put it this way : 

I suppose that a year has not gone by that I have not altered my 
opinions or beliefs or approach to life, and long before that I had 
shifted my views as to my relations or my attitude toward Marxism 
and toward communism. 

The Chairman. When did you change your views about ]\Iarxism ? 

Mr. Miller. This is not — I was not a Saul of Tarsus walking down 
a road and struck by a bright light. It was a slow process that occurred 
over years of really through my own work and through my own efforts 
to understand myself and what I was trying to do in the world. 

The Chairman. This is very interesting to me, because within the 
last few hours there came to my office a very prominent lawyer, who 
told me of a number of performers who had invoked the fifth amend- 
ment, and they did it largely because they did not want to be placed 
in the position of being informer, but he said that there now has come 
to them an appreciation that the greatest informer in the world is the 
man who now speaks for the Communists, namely, ]Mr. Khrushchev. 
It was a very interesting thing, and he said that six of these performers 
now want to come before our committee and testify, people who invoked 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Miller, this mood that you are talking about to 
defend people in the arts did not strike you apparently in 1945 with 
reference to Ezra Pound, did it ? 

Mr. INIiLLER. I was very troubled by Ezra Pound's condition and 
to this day I think it is a tragic f ac't, and I could not tell you right now 
in any cogent way Avhat I think should have been done with Ezra 
Pound. My instinctive feeling is that he should have been let alone. 

Mr. Arens. You must have changed your mind then since 1945, 
did you not ? 

Mr. Miller. I probably did ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Let us clear the record. "\^nio was Ezra Pound? 

Mr. Miller. Who is Ezra Pound ? 

Mr. Arens. Wlio was he ? 

Mr. Miller. Ezra Pound is one of the great poets of this century. 
l:',Mr. Arens. And you, in effect, said in that statement which 
appeared in New Masses that he ought to be shot, did you not ? 

Mr. Miller. I don't recall such a statement. 



4670 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Aeens. Well, let me read it to you. 

Mr. Miller. By the way, you didn't permit me to finish my 
statement. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ; go right ahead. 

Mr, Miller. It happened one night I had bought a new radio dur- 
ing the war and I had a shortwave set and I turned on the shortwave 
and there was a voice which I had never heard but which spoke per- 
fectly good American advocating the destruction of the Jewish people 
and justifying the cremation of Jews, and I was quite astonished be- 
cause it was such a common American accent and I waited to the end, 
and it was being broadcast from Italy, and it was Ezra Pound. 

I think I can be forgiven for feeling slightly perturbed about this 
man but I will say now, despite that, it is a difficult and hard issue to 
settle, and I think it's a tragic one and sometimes there are no easy 
answers. 

Mr. Arens. Ezra Pound was a poet who, during the war, was issu- 
ing statements and was writing plays and issuing poems wliich were 
anti-Communist and which were against the interests at that time of 
the United States of America. 

Is that not the essence of what he did? He was a propagandist, a 
writer; was he not? 

Mr. Miller. Excuse me, sir. I had never had any knowledge of 
Ezra Pound's views at all, quite frankly, until I heard that broadcast 
and I realized that tliis man was a Mussolini propagandist who was 
broadcasting from the Rome radio. 

Mr. Arens. That was in 1945 ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Before your sympathies were aroused to defend the 
artists, poets, and playwrights who were being brought before this 
committee ? Now, is that not correct as a matter of chronology ? 

Mr. Miller. Whether that was before; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you not write in New Masses, in effect, criticizing 
those who would defend Ezra Pound on the same basis that you de- 
fended the Hollywood Ten ? 

Mr. Miller. I would like to see the statement, if I may. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to show it to you and I would like to read 
for the record some of the statements : "Arthur Miller, writing for the 
New Masses," which of course has been identified as the Communist 
publication repeatedly. Perhaps I had better i-ead a good deal of it 
nere so there will be no indication of taking anything out of context. 

Mr. Miller. I trust you. 

Mr. Arens. Now, with that backgTOund, and you correct me if I 
maive a misrepresentation, Ezra Pound in 1945 was writing poems, 
plays, radio addresses which were anti-Communist and which were 
against the interest of this country, the United States of America, 
was he not ? 

Mr. Miller. There was also a war going on. 

Mr. Arens. That is correct. 

Here is Arthur Miller's statement in 1945 : 

In the belief that Ezra Pound's trial for treason is of high importance to the 
future direction of American letters, and poetry in particular, I should like to 
offer my commentary on the reaction of live poets and a critic to the Pound 
case in the newspaper PM of Sunday, November 25. The majority of the reac- 
tions are alarming. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4671 

All six agree that Pound's contribution to literature was of the highest order. 
With this no man can argue. 

If I may be pardoned some nonpoetical language, the boys are cutting the 
baloney pretty thick. Shapiro ought to know that Pound is not accused of not 
"reversing his beliefs" but of aiding and abetting the enemy by broadcasting 
propaganda calculated to undermine the American will to light fascism. And 
Mr. Aiken ought to know by now that Pound did not betray himself to "man in 
the abstract" but to Mussolini whose victims are, to be sure, now buried and 
abstract, but who was a most real, most unpoetical type of fellow. 

The article winds up : 

In conclusion, may I say that without much effort one could find a thousand 
poets and writers who understand not only why Pound was dangerous and 
treasonous, but why he will be even more so if released. In a world where 
humanism must conquer lest humanity be destroyed, literature must nurture the 
conscience of man. A greater calamity cannot befall the art than that Ezra 
Pound, the Mussolini mouthpiece, should be welcomed back as an arbitei- of 
American letters, an eventuality not to be dismissed if the court adopts the sen- 
timents of these four poets. 

I lay that article now before yon appearing in the New Masses, and 
ask yon whether or not you are the person who wrote that article in 
1945 protesting the position of those who would excuse Ezra Pound 
because he was a poet and an artist ? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Arens, I would like to make several points here 
which I think are of great importance. 

Ezra Pound was a — in the first place, this was a time of war. 
He was literally and in every conceivable way a traitor and there 
was no question about it, I don't think, in anybody's mind. I would 
not now say that I share all these sentiments by any means. This is a 
long time ago. I don't think I would be quite as virulent about it 
now. 

I, however, can understand quite easily how I could have felt this 
way. I felt this man threatened me personally. I am a Jew. He was 
for burning Jews and you will have to pardon my excitement at the 
time if that was the situation. 

Mr. Arens. I want this record to show that I am not undertaking 
by this question to defend Ezra Pound ; I am only pointing out by 
this exhibit what would appear to be, absent any explanation, an 
inconsistency at least. 

(Representative Jackson entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Kearney. Pound was convicted as a traitor and served time ? 

Mr. Arens. As were the 12 Communists. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask him a question ? 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Jackson. I would like, in view of the witness's strong words 
of denunciation of Mr. Pound for his expressions of anti-Semitism 
and his understandable resentment of them, did you ever subsequently, 
and particularly since the denunciation in the Soviet Union of Stalin, 
ever make a public statement denouncing the shocking evidence of anti- 
Semitism in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Miller. I am sorry to say that there was none. I am sorry to 
say something worse, that I was not shocked. This last stuil has been 
no great shock to me. I have had intimate evidence from a man I 
know who had a brother in the Soviet Union and who was, as I re- 
member it, the editor or writer for some literary magazine there and 
who this man told me, I can't remember now because it's possibly 3 

79932 — 56 6 



4672 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

years ago, 4 years ago, he had completely dropped out of sight and 
Avas no longer responding to any mail. They were two brothers. 

This fellow told me that he thought that he had been the victim 
of purely anti-Semitic things. 

Now I have ceased these kinds of statements, as I said, which were 
befitting the frame of mind I was in. I ceased issuing statements 
right and left except when I am personally involved because I found 
I was being tangled in stuff that I was really not prepared to defend 
100 percent, and I am ashamed to say that I should have and I did 
feel I was not completely ignorant of this. It isn't a matter of Khru- 
shchev. I knew this before Khrushchev. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know it in 1952 when you signed a statement 
in defense of the 12 Communist traitors who were convicted in Foley 
Square in New York City ? 

Mr. Miller. That I would make a differentiation about, quite 
frankly. This is a question which verges on, I don't know under what 
law this prosecution took place. 

Mr. Arens. Under the Smith law, conspiring to overthrow the Gov- 
ernment of the United States by force and violence. That is part of 
the International Cominf orm apparatus. 

Mr. Miller. I am opposed to the Smith Act and I am still opposed 
to anyone being penalized for advocating anything, I say that be- 
cause of a very simple reason. 

I don't believe that in the history of letters there are many great 
books or great plays that don't advocate. That doesn't mean that a 
man is a propagandist. It is in the nature of life and it is in the nature 
of literature that the passions of an author congeal around issues. 

You can go from war and peace through all the great novels of 
time and they are all advocating something. Therefore, when I heard 
that the United States Government wanted to pass a law against the 
advocacy without any overt action, I was alarmed because I am not 
here defending Communists, I am here defending the right of an 
author to advocate, to write. 

Mr. Scherer. Even to advocate the overthrow of this Government 
by force and violence? 

Mr. Miller. I am now speaking, sir, of creative literature. These 
are risks and balances of risks. 

The Chairman. We will have a recess of about 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken with the following committee members 
present: Representatives Walter, Doyle, Willis, Kearney, Jackson, 
and Scherer.) (Representative Velde entered the hearing room.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. Proceed. 

Mr, Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I was asking the witness a question 
which I would like to pursue. 

Witness, counsel asked you about your protesting the prosecution 
of the 12 Connnunists in Foley Square, and you said that you had 
protested that prosecution and, in explanation of that action on your 
part, you said, "I am opposed to the prosecution of any one for advo- 
cating anything." Do you recall that you made that statement? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. You understood, did you not, that the 12 Commu- 
nists were prosecuted for advocating, teaching, and urging the over- 
throw of this Government by force and violence through unlawful 
means ? Now, my question is, do you mean that you would be opposed 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4673 

to the prosecution of anyone toda^p; for advocating the overthrowing 
of this Government by force and violence? I cannot draw any other 
conclusion. 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Scherer, there is another conclusion which I would 
like to speak on for just one moment. The Smith Act, as I understood 
it and as I understand it now, does lay penalties upon advocacy. 

Mr. Scherer. Upon what? 

Mr. Miller. Upon advocacy of beliefs or opinions, and so forth. 
What I felt strongly about then 

Mr. Scherer. Not opinions. It does not lay any upon opinions. 

Mr. Miller. I am not that close to the text of it, but my under- 
standing of it is that advocacy is penalized or can be under this law. 
Now, my interest, as I tell you, is possibly too selfish, but without it 
I can't operate and neither can literature in this country, and I don't 
think anybody can question that. 

Mr. Scherer. I am not asking you about advocacy generally. 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir ; but, sir, I understand your point. 

Mr. Scherer. I do not understand yours. 

Mr. Miller. I was trying to make it clear, sir. My point is simply 
that, if there is a penalty upon advocacy, what my protest was about 
was that idea taking hold so that people could say depending upon 
the ideas ruling the society at any particular time would depend the 
liberty of advocacy of any particular idea at any time. 

In other words, if advocacy of itself becomes a crime, in my 
opinion, or can be penalized without overt action, we are smack in the 
middle of literature and I don't see how it can be avoided. That is 
my opinion. That is, where I can understand yours, I ask you to 
understand mine. 

Mr. Scherer. We are not talking about literature. These 12 Com- 
munists were on trial for advocating the violent overthrow of this 
Government by force and violence. 

Does your theory or your belief carry so far as for you to sit here 
today and say that you are opposed to prosecution of anyone who 
today would advocate, teach, and urge the overthrow of this Govern- 
ment by force and violence, limiting it to that? Let us leave liter- 
ature out of that. 

Mr. Miller. You see, you are limiting it to that. 

Let me put it quite simply. If a man were outside this building 
and telling people to come in and storm this building and blow it up or 
something of that sort, I would say "Call out the troops." There is 
no question in my mind about that. That is advocacy, but in the Smith 
Act, as I understand it, it is applicable and can be applied, given a 
sufficient public backing, to literature. 

Now, in my opinion, that cannot be equated with the freedom of liter- 
ature without which we will be back in a situation where people as 
in the Soviet Union and as in Nazi Germany have not got the right to 
advocate. 

Mr. Scherer. Let us go into literature. Let me ask you, do you 
believe that today a Communist who is a poet should have the right 
to advocate the overthrow of this Government by force and violence 
in his literature, in poetry or in newspapers or anything else? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 



4674 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Miller. I tell you frankly, sir, I think if you are talking 
about a poem I would say that a man should have the right to write 
a poem just about anything:. 

Mr. ScHERER. All right. 

Mr. Jackson. Let me ask one question. Then I understand your 
position is that freedom in literature is absolute ? 

Mr. JViiLLER. Well, I recognize that these things, sir, are not; the 
absolutes are not absolute. 

Mr. Jackson. My interpretation of your position is that it is abso- 
lute that a writer must have, in order to express his heart, absolute 
freedom of action ? 

Mr. Miller. That would be the most desirable state of affairs, I say ; 
yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. Even to the extent of advocating the violent over- 
throw of the Government of the United States at this time ? 

Mr. Miller. Frankly, sir, I have never read such a book. 

Mr. Scherer. I did not say you have read it. I am asking you what 
your opinion is with reference to it. 

Mr. Miller. I think a work of art — my point is very simple. I 
think that, once you start to cut away, there is a certain commonsense 
in mankind which makes these limits automatic. There are risks which 
are balanced. The Constitution is full of those risks. We have rights, 
which, if they are violated, are rather used in an irresponsible way, 
can do damage. Yet they are there and the commonsense of the people 
of the United States has kept this in sort of a balance. I would prefer 
any day to say, "Yes, there should be no limit upon the literary free- 
dom," than to say "You can go up this far and no further," because then 
you are getting into an area where people are going to say, "I think that 
this goes over the line," and then you are in an area where there is no 
limit to the censorship that can take place. 

Mr. Scherer. Do you consider those things that you have written in 
the New Masses as an exercise of your literary rights ? 

Mr. Miller. Sir, I never advocated the overthrow of the United 
States Government. I want that perfectly clear. 

Mr, Scherer. I did not say you did. I want to get what you con- 
sider literature. 

Mr. JSiiLLER. I didn't advocate that. I wouldn't call it especially 
an exercise in freedom. It was simply an effusion of mind. It didn't 
require a mandate to do it. The Masses was widely circulated. 
Writers were writing for it. Some of the greatest writers today have 
written for the New Masses. 

Mr. Scherer. Then you believe that we should allow the Commu- 
nists in this country to start actually physical violence in the over- 
throw of this Government before they are prosecuted ? 

Mr. Miller. No, sir. You are importing. 

Mr. Scherer. I cannot draw any other conclusion from what you 
said. 

Mr. Miller. You fail to draw a line between advocacy and essence. 
Our law is based upon acts, not thought. How do we know ? Anybody 
in this room might have thoughts of various kinds that could be prose- 
cuted if they were carried into action, but that is an entirely different 
story. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4675 

Mr. Velde. May I say something here ? As you sit in this room in 
your present mood, are you opposed to the Smith Act ? Would you 
advocate its repeal ? 

Mr. MiLLEE. Sir, I have not got the Smith Act in front of me. I 
could tell you my sentiment as it relates to the Smith Act. I take 
responsibility for that opinion. In other words, I am opposed to the 
laying down of any limits upon the freedom of literature, and I am 
opposed to it because I think that that way lies a kind of repression 
of literature which is disastrous. 

In the Soviet Union there has been nothing written of any value in 
25 years. You cannot lay down those limits and expect that they 
will just go that far. 

Mr. Velde. I understand. In my opinion, you have a perfect right 
to advocate the repeal of the Smith Act if you want to. 

Mr. Miller. I am just making one mitigation. I don't know the 
Smith Act well enough for me to sit here under oath and say that I 
am opposed to every single word in it. I couldn't do that because I 
don't believe I have ever read the thing. All I know is that that 
provision, according to the widest publication of the press, is in it, 
and I would be opposed to that provision. 

Mr. Velde. In any event, ]\Ir. Miller, you have not had a change 
of heart since 1947, during the trial of the 12 Communists ? 

Mr. Miller. In relation to censorship, I have always had the same 
opinion. 

Mr. Scherer. This is not censorship. 

Mr. Miller. Perhaps I used the word closely, but in relation to the 
limitation of the artist's right in society, I am opposed to it. 

Mr. Scherer. All of us believe in freedom. 

Mr. Kearney. You are putting the artist and literature in a pre- 
ferred class. 

Mr. Miller. I thought we were going to get to this and it places me 
in a slightly impossible position, and I would be lying to you if I 
said that I didn't think the artist was, to a certain degree, in a special 
class. The reason is quite simple and maybe absurd but, if you are 
asking me what I think, I will tell you. 

Mr. Jackson. One brief question. 

The Chairman. Let him finish that question. 

Mr. Miller. I would like to answer Mr. Kearney. 

Mr. Jackson. Very well, sir. 

INIr. Miller. Most of us are occupied most of the day in earning a 
living in one way or another. The artist is a peculiar man in one 
respect. Therefore, he has got a peculiar mandate in the history of 
civilization from people, and that is he has a mandate not only in 
his literature but in the way he behaves and the way he lives. 

Mr. Scherer. He has special rights? 

Mr. Kearney. Please. 

Mr. Miller. I am not speaking of rights. 

Mr. Kearney. I would like to have the question I asked answered. 

The Chairman. He is trying to answer. 

Mr. Kearney. There are interruptions. 

Mr. Miller. The artist is inclined to use certain rights more than 
other people because of the nature of his work. 



4676 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Most of US may have an opinion. We sit once or twice a week or we 
may have a view of life which on a rare occasion we have time to 
speak of. That is the artist's line of work. That is what he does all 
day long and, consequently, he is particularly sensitive to its limita- 
tions. 

Mr. Kearney. In other words, your thought as I get it is that the 
artist lives in a different world from anyone else. 

Mr. Miller. No, he doesn't, but there is a conflict I admit. I think 
there is an old conflict that goes back to Socrates between the man 
who is involved with ideal things and the man who has the terrible 
responsibility of keeping things going as they are and protecting the 
state and keeping an army and getting people fed, 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr, Miller, in June of 1947, did you participate 
in a call of cultural leaders for a bill of rights conference to be held 
in the Henry Hudson Hotel in New York City ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall participating in that call for the con- 
ference ? 

Mr. Miller. I beg your pardon, sir. I was just talking. 

Mr. Arens, Did you in 1949 in June participate in a call for a con- 
ference on civil liberties, civil rights, to be held in the Henry Hud- 
son Hotel in New York City ? 

Mr. Miller. Wliat year was this ? 

Mr. Arens. 1949. 

Mr. Miller. Could I see that ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, I lay before you this call to conference which, 
among other things, charges the FBI with being peeping Toms 
and using paid informers and going into every lodge, home, church, 
political meeting, and labor organization ; something has to be done 
about it so you have a call to conference in New York City in 1949. 
Do you recall that [handed] ? The name Arthur Miller appears 
there as one of those who is attacking the FBI. 

Mr. MiLER. I wouldn't deny having done this. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall attending the conference ? 

Mr. Miller. I don't believe I did, sir, 

Mr. Arens. At the conference, according to the New York Times, 
there was a resolution introduced for the purpose of defending all the 
victims of the Smith Act about which we have been talking, but the 
conference decided it would not defend all the victims of the Smith 
Act ; it would not defend the Trotskyites, 

According to this article, Paul Robeson, who was there, said : 

In speaking for denial of civil liberties to the Socialist Workers Party, Mr. 
Robeson asked the conference, "Would you give civil rights to the Ku Klux 
Klan?" 

"No," chorused the delegates. 

"These men are the allies of fascism who want to destroy the new democracies 
of the world," the singer shouted. "Let's not get confused. They are the 
enemies of the working class." 

According to this article in the New York Times, July 18, 1949, this 
civil rights conference in which you participated in setting up, or to 
which you lent your name, would deny civil liberties to the Trotskyites 
although they would give them to Communists. 

Do you recall the position of the Civil Eights Congress as reported 
by the New York Times in 1949 ? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4677 

Mr. Miller. I recall. I would say that I would have signed this 
but I would add now that, first of all, it was not my speech you just 
quoted. It was someone else's. 

Mr. Arens. I understand. I just asked you whether or not you 
were there. 

Mr. Miller. I would have to say as well that this did not represent 
my view then. 

Mr. Arens. Did you protest this position ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I didn't protest here, but I was very put out that 
anyone who had been prosecuted in that sort of way should not be 
defended. 

Mr. Arens. Were you present at the session ? 

Mr. JSIiller. I don't believe so, sir. I don't believe I was there. 

Mr. Arens. Did you remonstrate with the leadership of this Civil 
Rights Congress? 

Mr. Miller. I did not know about this position at the time because 
it was a general lapse of interest in what was going on, but I would say 
the degree of responsibility that is implied in ray signing that thing, 
and I think it was wrong. I think that the Trotskyites or anybody 
else who suffered the penalties of a law should be defended regardless 
of opinion if he is brought up for prosecution under that law. 

Mr. Arens. Did you learn of the position of this Civil Rights Con- 
gi'ess that civil rights are for everybody, including the Communists, 
but not for Trotskyites? Did you learn of it at any time before I just 
read it to you ? 

Mr. Miller. I couldn't recall that. I think I have set forth my 
position on that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you learn of the attacks by the Civil Rights Con- 
gress on the Federal Bureau of Investigation as fascism, American 
style? 

Mr. Miller. I don't recall anything of that kind. 

Mr. Arens. Now, did you know a man by the name of Kazan ? 

Mr. Miller. I did. 

Mr. Arens. What was your relationship with Mr. Kazan? 

Mr. Miller. He was the director of two of my plays. 

Mr. Arens. And was he subsequently exposed as a Communist? 

Mr. IMiLLER. I believe so ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. And did he subsequently testify and admit that he had 
been a Communist and identified before an agency of his Government 
people whom he had known as members of the conspiracy ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And did you then in 1953 criticize Mr. Kazan as a 
renegade intellectual ? 

Mr. Miller. No. 

Mr. Arens. As an informer? 

Mr. Miller. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you protest the position of Kazan when he testified 
before his Government and said, in effect, he had been a Communist, 
and identified people as Communists ? 

Mr. Miller. I have never made the statement about Elia Kazan's 
testimony in my life. 

Mr. Arens. Did you at any time to any person level a criticism at 
Kazan because of his testimony before a committee of his Government 
in wliich he identified people as Communists ? 



4678 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Miller. I discussed Kazan's testimony, or not his testimony. 
I didn't know what his testimony was exactly, but I have discussed 
him with 1 or 2 people in my life. 

Mr. Arens. Just answer the question. After Kazan had been your 
producer, worked with you in your plays and came down to Washing- 
ton and testified before a congressional committee, "Yes, I have been 
a Communist. Yes, I identify so and so and so and so as people who 
were in the conspiracy with me," did you criticize him for that posi- 
tion ? Did you break with him ? 

Mr, Miller. Are you asking me whether I broke with him? Is 
that the question ? 

Mr. Arens. The question is pretty clear, I believe. What was your 
position with reference to Kazan after he testified before a congres- 
sional committee ? 

Mr. Miller. You are putting two things together. 

Mr. Arens. Take them one by one, any way you want to. 

Mr. Miller, The fact is I broke with him, although that word is 
not descriptive of my act. 

Mr. Arens. We will use the word "disassociate," then. 

Mr. Miller, I am not at all certain that Mr. Kazan would have 
directed my next play in any case. I am not one to go about in the 
streets proclaiming my private business, and the public or whoever is 
interested would not know that perhaps other elements had come into 
this situation which have absolutely no political interest, and I would 
venture to say have no interest for this committee. The fact is that 
he did not direct any more of my plays. It may be in the future he 
will. I have said that in the New York Post, I believe. I believe I 
said that. I hesitate to take the brunt of this kind of characteriza- 
tion, so to speak, not really for political reasons but because there 
are private reasons involved here which I don't believe are of interest 
here. 

Mr, Doyle. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt? I do not think we 
should take the time of this committee to have this witness put in a 
position where he tells about his private business. 

The Chairman. Well, of course not. He is volunteering this state- 
ment. 

Mr. Doyle. I do not think we should let him volunteer these con- 
fidential matters of his business and profession. They are not a con- 
cern of this committee. 

The CnAiRiNf AN, That is right, 

Mr, Doyle, I object to that procedure. I do not think we have any 
business leaving this witness in that position. 

The Chairman. There is no disposition to do that, 

Mr. Doyle. Let us stop it then and go to the issue. 

The Chairjvian. All right. 

Answer the question. 

]Mr. Arexs. The question is, Did you attack Kazan because he 
broke with the Communist Party and testified before a congressional 
committee ? 

Mr. ]Mtllek. I stated earlier, sir^ that I have never attacked Kazan. 
I will stand on that. That is it. 

Mr. Arens. That is the answer, then. Did you join with others in 
protesting the enactment of the Internal Security Act in 1950? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4679 

Mr. Miller. I don't even remember what the act was, to tell you 
the truth, and I am not prepared to deny or affirm it. You will have 
to show it to me. If it seems familiar, I will identify it. 

Mr. Arens. Were you an initiating sponsor of an emergency defense 
conference held in New York City in 1952 for the purpose of protest- 
ing the enforcement of the Internal Security Act? 

Mr. Miller. I have no recollection of it whatever. 

Mr. Arens. Now, do you recall in 1948 the proposed visit of the 
Ked Dean of Canterbury to the United States and any participation 
you may liave had as a part of the welcoming committee ? 

Mr. Miller. Are you asking me whether I did that ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Do you recall it? Do you have a recollec- 
tion of it ? 

Mr. Miller. I don't, but I probably did it. That is my answer. 

Mr. Arens. Were you a member of the National Council of Arts, 
Sciences, and Professions ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know at the time that you were a member of 
this of its Communist control and leadership ? 

Mr. Miller. Well, I suspected that the Communists were in control 
of it. I couldn't say that I knew it. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me. Did you protest at any time the control 
of the organization by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. j\liLLER. In itself as such, no, but I did have actually no con- 
tact with these people excepting as I was being circulated for my 
name and various things and my participation in the Waldorf Peace 
Conference. Beyond that I don't recall having any business with 
them. I would have from time to time perhaps taken issue on some 
particular thing with some person or other, but I wouldn't have 
lodged a formal protest. I didn't lodge a formal protest. 

Mr. Arens. Did you lend your name as a sponsor of the peace 
parleys of the World Congress for Peace held in Paris ? 

Mr. Miller. I don't believe that that is accurate. It is the only 
one that I actually believe I had nothing to do with. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of that or- 
ganization World Congress for Peace to be held in Paris. Among 
the sponsors listed there is a person by the name of Arthur Miller. 
I ask you whether or not you have a recollection of that [handing] ? 

Mr. Miller. The reason that I doubt this — I am not willing to swear 
that this is not so, but the reason that makes me doubt it is that while I 
have supported such causes without question, whenever the issues got — 
and there were several times which I can't pinpoint now, but I just 
vaguely remember where something was going to be carried into the 
international sphere, I would like to make the point that there I was 
loath and I think here is no case that I would say I was ready to sup- 
port criticism of this country abroad. I want to just amplify that for 
1 second. It is very important to me because it does make a difference 
to me. This is involved in this because it is an international thing and 
it is usable in Europe. 

After the denial of my passport by the State Department, I was lit- 
erally besieged by foreign newspapermen. Many of them, as far as I 
know they were all from non-Communist and most of them in the 
country I know little about, France. They were from the rightest 



4680 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

press and from the center press. They were after me to the point 
where I had to go to my home in Roxbury and hide out there because 
they wanted me to curry on a fight about this in the European press 
against the United States, and I refused to do it and I refused to do it 
for a good reason, and that is that, whatever I may have supported 
and however it looks, I do draw a line between criticism of the United 
States in the United States and before foreigners. 

The Chairman. Do I understand that representatives of the for- 
eign press 

Mr. Miller. In New York. 

The Chairman. In New York tried to prevail upon you to attack 
your Government for publicity purposes in the nations they came 
from ? 

Mr. Miller. Sir? 

The Chairman. Are those people still employed in this country? 

Mr. Miller. I wouldn't know. I would have no way of knowing. 
The statement is slightly extreme, sir, as compared to the facts. I 
don't think it needs me to say that the passport denial business is wide- 
ly publicized in Europe, and many of these people feel disabled in the 
face of the Communist mockery of democratic institutions when they 
try to defend this, and many of them feel, I am sure, that it is an unwise 
policy in many cases, especially someone — not only in my case, but I 
think there was a question of a visa for Graham Greene once. 

The Chairman. I am talking about a particular thing because I 
think that those people ought not to be permitted to work in this coun- 
try. 

Mr. Miller. I am just telling you what I know. That is that they 
were eager, as a matter of fact the brunt of their tone and of their 
method of talking to me on the telephone was to aggravate this thing 
into an international issue of sorts, and I refused to do it because I 
don't believe, in other words, that anybody in Europe has got anything 
to teach us much in that regard, and it was a dishonest thing, it would 
have been a dishonest thing for me to have done. I felt very deeply 
about it. I felt very hurt about it because I believe I am a good repre- 
sentative of this country abroad and my plays are shown everywhere 
where there is a theater abroad. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have that position with respect to Red China? 

Mr. Miller. What position ? 

Mr. Arens. The position that you did not want to participate in 
anything aifecting international relations. 

Mr. Miller. No. In the last few years I would not participate in 
anything that was a Communist front of any kind. 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in a movement to embrace Red 
China by this country ? 

Mr. Miller. I recall nothing of the kind. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a photostatic copy of a document called 
Far East Spotlight for Friendship with New China, calling for 
friendship cargoes to New China, a launching dinner; and the spon- 
sors of the dinner or those who sent personal messages of support in- 
cluded one Arthur Miller. I ask you if that refreshes your recollec- 
tion [handed]. 

Mr. Miller. This was, as it says here, "The China Welfare Appeal, 
a new relief drive to aid the Chinese people." 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4681 

It was headed up by Madame Sun Yat-sen, widow of the founder 
of the Chinese Republic. My recollection of this would be that, on the 
basis of its relief which is not what I was talking about a moment ago 
at all, I would have supported it. 

Mr. Velde. What was the date of that ? 

Mr. Arens. May 1949. 

Did you support the China Welfare Appeal in the propaganda 
statement which they issued over the country : 

Not only has the export of medical supplies from the United States been made 
subject to burdensome restrictions and procedures, but a virtual embargo has 
been placed on all shipments to China. The history of such restrictions shows 
that they did not begin with recent events in Korea. 

I lay before you a photostatic copy of a letter on the letterhead of 
the China Welfare Appeal, and ask you whether or not, although your 
name appears here on the letterhead, you lent yourself knowingly to 
that cause and movement ? 

Mr. Miller. You say my name does appear on the letter ? 

Mr. Arens. This is the reverse page. It had to be photostated on 
botli sides. The name of Arthur Miller appears there [handed] . 

Mr. Miller. It is the China Welfare Appeal. As I recall, there was 
a need for medicines and penicillin, et cetera, w^hich they weren't per- 
mitted to buy or something of that sort. I did support this. 

Mr. Arens. Did you also support the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee in the Spanish Refugee Appeal for which funds were so- 
licited and transmitted to the Communists in Spain in 1949, and again 
in 1951? 

Mr. Miller. This is not in mitigation of these other things. I 
think the Spanish case is quite different, however. I have always 
been, since my student days, in the thirties, a partisan of Republican 
Spain. I am quite proud of it. I am not at all ashamed. I think 
a democracy was destroyed there. I would have carried through 
pretty generally my feelings of the thirties into the forties, as regards 
the Spanish Civil War refugees. 

Mr. Arens. Now, do you recall, in view of your observations respect- 
ing your plavs being played abroad, coauthoring a play Listen My 
Children ? 

Mr. Miller. Coauthoring a play? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Miller. No, I don't. 

Mr. Arens. Or do you recall authoring a play Listen My Children? 

Mr. Miller. What year would this have been ? 

Mr. Arens. 1939. 

Mr. Miller. 1939 ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir; with Norman Rosten? 

Mr. Miller. Oh, yes. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now an original document in hand- 
writing which we procured from the Library of Congress as the docu- 
ment there for the purpose of copyright. Could you tell us whether 
or not that is your handwriting, or Rosten's handwriting of this play 
which was there for copyrighting ? 

Mr. Miller. It isn't mine. 

Mr. Arens. Did you coauthor with Rosten this play ? 

Mr. Miller. I did. 



4682 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Aeexs. I would like to read you part of this play. 

Mr. Miller, I beg your pardon, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Yes? 

Mr. Miller. My recollection is clear now. I wrote a sketch about 
when I had been on relief in — well, when I got out of college. It was 
not long after. 

Mr. Doyle. What year was that that you got out of college? 

Mr. Miller. I graduated in June of 1938. 

Mr. Doyle. 1938 ? 

Mr. Miller. And I subsequently got on to the Federal writers, Fed- 
eral theater project, and I wrote a farcical sort of a play about stand- 
ing and waiting in a relief office, and that was, I think, what you are 
referring to. It was a one-act sketch which was later amplified. Noth- 
ing ever came of it, I am glad to say. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that Norman Rosten was a Communist 
when you collaborated with him in the play Listen My Children? 

Mr. Miller. I wouldn't know anything about that. 

Mr. Arens. In 1936 he was publicly identified in the Daily Worker 
as a member of the Young Communist League. 

Mr. Miller. I wouldn't make a comment about that. I wouldn't 
know anything about it. I would be inclined strongly to say that it 
wasn't true. 

Mr. Arens. Let me lay before you a photostatic copy of the Com- 
munist Daily Worker of December 10, 1936, a public proclamation. 

Mr. Miller. I can't prove as to whether he was a Communist or not. 
It is impossible. 

Mr. Arens. I asked if you knew. If you do not know, that is the 
answer. 

Mr. Miller. By the way, I would add that that doesn't mean he was 
a Communist, does it? 

Mr. Arens. If he was a member of the Young Communist League ? 

Mr. Miller. I am just asking a question. 

Mr. Arens. Did Listen My Children pertain to congressional in- 
vestigating committees ? 

Mr. Miller. If it did, then it is not what I am talking about. Wliat 
I am talking about is another thing. This is a long time ago. 

Mr. Arens. Let me read: 

Curtain slowly opens. The committee members are engaged in activity of an 
extraordinary variety, amid an equally extraordinary environment. Profuse flag 
bunting over the walls. There are several huge clocks ticking ominously. Also 
a metronome which is continually being adjusted for tempo change. 

Secretary, at desk, pounds typewriter and, as alarm clock rings, she feeds the 
committeemen spoonsful of castor oil. * * * 

In center of room, in rocker, sits a man. He is securely tied to chair, with a 
gag in his mouth and a bandage tied over his mouth. Water, coming from a 
pipe near ceiling, trickles on his head. Nearby is a charcoal stove holding 
branding irons. Two bloodhounds are tied in the corner of room. 

Was that the play that you coauthored with Norman Rosten? Is 
that an accurate description of the play Listen My Children ? 

Mr. Miller. I would say that I find it amusing. I don't see what 
is so horrific about that. I think it is a farce. I don't think anybody 
would take it seriously that way. 

The Chairman. It is a little corny. 

Mr. Miller. I was not, by the way, the author of that scene. I am 
saying this out of a kind of professional jealousy of my own writing. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4683 

Mr. Arens. Was it likewise just a little farce, your play, You're 
Next, by Arthur Miller, attacking the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities ? 

Mr. Miller. No, that would have been quite serious. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that the play, You're Next, by Arthur 
Miller, attacking congressional investigating committees, was repro- 
duced by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. No, I have no knowledge of it. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic copy of the Com- 
munist Daily Worker of New York, Wednesday, June 18, 1947: 

New York State Communist Party Building Congress — program — including 
lou're Next, by Arthur Miller. 

Mr. Miller. Sir, you can't tax me with that. 

Mr. Arens. I ask you only whether or not you knew it, sir. 

Mr. Miller. I did not know it, and I say that you can't tax me 
with that. My plays have gone all over the world by all kinds of peo- 
ple, including the Spanish Government theater, where Death of a 
Salesman has run longer than any modern play in history. I take no 
more responsibility for who plays my plays than General Motors can 
take for who rides in their Chevrolets. It is impossible. You can't 
do that. I am not a policeman to say you can do this or not. Plays are 
produced and people produce them. 

Mr. Scherer. Before the Communist Party would use such a play 
it had to follow the Communist line ? 

Mr. Miller. Nothing in my life was ever written to follow a line. 
I will go into that if you will. 

Mr. Arens. In view of your observations respecting your plays 
abroad, did you donate the rights of your play All My Sons to the 
Polish League in Poland ? 

Mr. Miller. Polish League of what ? 

Mr. Arens. League of Women in Poland, in 1947, September. 

Mr. Miller. I don't remember it, but I will tell you this : you can't 
get any money out of Poland and you can't get any money out of 
Russia and you can't get any money out of any place on the other 
side of the Iron Curtain. It is quite possible — I have no recollection 
of it at all — that they simply took the royalties that were probably 
not even there and applied them to this fund. I have no communica- 
tion, to my knowledge, from anybody. 

Mr. Doyle. May I ask whether there is an identification of that, 
that the Polish League of Women is a Communist organization ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir ; a branch of ^the Congress of American Women.^ 
I should like, if you please, sir, if it would refresh your recollection, 
to read you an article appearing in the Daily Worker, September 29, 
1947. 

Mr. Miller. You say the Congress of American Women. Yes, they 
asked me to do this on the basis of a relief drive that they were having 
for the Polish children. 

Mr. Arens. Then you have a recollection of donating the royalties 
of your play? 

Mr. Miller. I just said so, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Now, I believe you alluded a few^ moments ago to your 
play the Crucible, is that correct ? 

Mr. Miller. Crucible. 

^ (The Polish League of Women and the Congress of American Women are in a fraternal 
relationship with the same international Communist organization, the Women's Inter- 
national Democratic Federation. The Polish League of Women is not a branch of the 
Congress of American Women.) 



4684 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are you cognizant of tlie fact that your play the Cruci- 
ble with respect to witch hunts in 1692 was the case history of a series 
of articles in the Communist press drawing parallels to the investi- 
gations of Communists and other subversives by congressional com- 
mittees ? 

Mr. Miller. I think that was true in more than the Communist 
press. I think it was true in the non-Communist press, too. The 
comparison is inevitable, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What have been your activities or associations with 
Howard Fast ? 

Mr. Miller. In what respect ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you know him ? 

Mr. Miller. I have met him. 

Mr. Arens. How long do you know him ? 

Mr. Miller. I don't know how to describe that. 

Mr. Arens. Well, have you collaborated with him ? 

Mr. Miller. Collaborated with him ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Miller. No, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you cognizant of the promotion of yourself by 
Howard Fast ? 

Mr. Miller. No. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you a copy of the Communist Daily Worker 
of November 8, 1955, "I Propose Arthur Miller as the American 
Dramatist of the Day, by Howard Fast." Were you cognizant of his 
promotion of yourself as the dramatist of the day ? 

Mr. Miller. Let me say one thing about that sort of thing. The 
appreciation of dramatic values by people who have behind them an 
attachment, a remorseless attachment to the political line, is of no 
import to me. I don't believe it when they are against me and I 
don't believe it when they are for me. In this case I take no com- 
pliment out of this for one simple reason. That is, it happens that 
the Crucible, which, by the way, I began thinking about in 1938 and 
which they now say was written about the Kosenbergs about whom 
I had not heard when I started to write this play, it happened that 
the line in that play coincided at that moment. I have another ex- 
ample of that to which I will go into. This is not literary or dramatic 
criticism. This is a political article. You are taxing me with what 
he says. Now, the next play, as with Death of a Salesman which 
they called "A decadent piece of trash," in the Daily Worker, they 
were against it. I am not going to guide myself by what they think 
or donx think. From time to time I am sure Howard Fast or simi- 
lar critics of plays have praised or blamed one or another of a hun- 
dred writers, all of whom you can't tax with that criticism. It isn't 
fair. 

Mr. Arens. Now, your present application for a passport pending 
in the Department of State is for the purpose of traveling to England, 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Miller. To England, j^es. 

Mr. Arens. What is the objective? 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4685 

Mr. Miller. The objective is double. I have a production which 
is in the talking stage in England of A View From the Bridge, and 
I will be there to be with the woman who will then be my wife. That 
is my aim. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had difficulty in connection with your play 
A View From the Bridge in its presentation in England ? 

Mr. Miller. It has not got that far. I have had the censor in 
England giving us a little trouble, yes, but that is general. A lot 
of American plays have that difficulty. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know a person by the name of Sue Warren? 

Mr. Miller. I couldn't recall at this moment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know or have you known a person by the 
name of Arnaud D'Usseau, D-'-U-s-s-e-a-u ? 

Mr. Miller. I have met him. 

Mr. Arens. What has been the nature of your activity in con- 
nection with Arnaud D'Usseau ? 

Mr. Miller. Just what is the point? 

Mr. Arens. Have you been in any Communist Party sesssions 
with Arnaud D'Usseau ? 

Mr. Miller. I was present at meetings of Communist Party writers 
in 1947, about 5 or 6 meetings. 

Mr. Arens. Where were those meeting held ? 

Mr. Miller. They were held in someone's apartment. I don't know 
whose it was. 

Mr. Arens. Were those closed party meetings ? 

Mr. Miller. I wouldn't be able to tell you that. 

Mr. Arens. Was anyone there who, to your knowledge, was not a 
Communist? 

Mr. Miller. I wouldn't know that. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever made application for membership in 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Miller. In 1939 I believe it was or iii 1940 I went to attend 
a Marxist study course in the vacant store open to the street in my 
neighborhood in Brooklyn. I there signed some form or another. 

Mr. Arens. That was an application for membership in the Com- 
munist Party, was it not ? 

Mr. Miller. I would not say that. I am here to tell you what I 
know. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us what you know. 

Mr. Miller. This is now 16 years ago. That is half a lifetime 
away. I don't recall and I haveii't been able to recall and, if I 
could, I would tell you the exact nature of that application. I under- 
stood then that this was to be, as I have said, a study course. I was 
there for about 3 or 4 times perhaps. It was of no interest to me 
and I didn't return. 

Mr. Arens. Who invited you to attend ? 

Mr. Miller. I wouldn't remember. It was a long time ago. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us, if you please, sir, about these meetings with 
the Communist Party writers which you said you attended in New 
York City. 

Mr. ISIiLLER. I was by then a well-known writer. I had written 
All My Sons, and a novel Focus, and a book of Reportage about Ernie 



4686 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

Pyle and my work with him on attempting to make the picture The 
Story of GI Joe. I did the research for that, so that by that time I 
was quite well known, and I attended these meetings in order to 
locate my ideas in relation to Marxism because I had been assailed 
for years by all kinds of interpretations of what communism was, 
what Marxism was, and I went there to discover where I stood finally 
and completely, and I listened nnd said very little, I think, the 4 or 5 
times. 

Mr. Areists. Could I just interject this question so that we have it 
in the proper chronology? What occasioned your presence? Who 
invited you there? 

Mr. Miller. I couldn't tell you. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us who was there when you walked into 
the room? 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Chairman, I understand the philosophy behind 
this question and I want you to understand mine. 

When I say this I want you to understand that I am not protecting 
the Communists or the Communist Party. I am trying to and I will 
protect my sense of myself. I could not use the name of another 
person and bring trouble on him. These were writers, poets, as 
far as I could see, and the life of a writer, despite what it sometimes 
seems, is pretty tough. I wouldn't make it any tougher for anybody. 
I ask you not to ask me that question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

I will tell you anything about myself, as I have. 

Mr. Arens. These were Communist Party meetings; were they 
not? 

Mr. Miller. I will be perfectly frank with you in anything relating 
to my activities. I take the responsibility for everything I have ever 
done, but I cannot take responsibility for another human being. 

Mr. Arens. This record shows, does it not, Mr. Miller, that these 
were Communist Party meetings? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Arens. Is that correct? 

Mr. Miller. I understood them to be Communist writers who were 
meeting regularly. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to who it was that 
he saw at these meetings. 

Mr. Jackson. May I say that moral scruples, however laudable, 
do not constitute legal reason for refusing to answer the question. 
I certainly endorse the request for direction. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question, Mr. Miller. 

Mr. Miller. May I confer with my attorney for a moment ? 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miller. Mr. Walter, could I ask you to postpone this question 
until the testimony is completed and you can gage for yourself? 

The Chairman. Of course, you can do that, but I understand this 
is about the end of the hearing. 

Mr. Arens. This is about the end of the hearing. We have only 
a few more questions. The record reflects that this witness has iden- 
tified these meetings as the meetings of the Communist writers. 

in the jurisdiction of this committee he has been requested to tell 
this committee who were in attendance at these meetings. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4687 

Mr. Doyle. If I understand the record, the record shows that he 
answered that he did not know whether there were any non-Commu- 
nists there, or not. I think the record so shows. 

Mr. Miller. I would like to add, sir, to complete this picture, that 
I decided in the course of these meetings that I had finally to find 
out what my views really were in relation to theirs, and I decided that 
I would write a paper in which, for the first time in my life, I would 
set forth my views on art, on the relation of art to politics, on the 
relation of the artist to politics, which are subjects that are very im- 
portant to me, and I did so and I read this paper to the group and I 
discovered, as I read it and certainly by the time I had finished with 
it, that I had no real basis in common either philosophically or, most 
im.portant to me, as a dramatist. I can't make it too weighty a thing 
to tell you that the most important thing to me in the world is my work, 
and I was resolved that, if I found that I was in fact a Marxist, I would 
declare it; and that, if I did not, I would not declare it and I would 
say that I was not ; and I wrote a paper and I would like to give you 
the brunt of it so that you may know me. 
The Chairman. Have you got the paper ? 

Mr. Miller. I am sorry, sir. I think it is the best essay I ever wrote, 
and I have never been able to find it in the last 2 or 3 years. I wish I 
could. I would publish it, as I recall it, because it meant so much to 
me. It was this : That great a rt like science attempts to see the pres- 
ent remorselessly and truthfully; that, if Marxism is what it claims 
to be, a science of society, that it must be devoted to the objective 
facts more than all the philosophies that it attacks as being untruthful ; 
therefore, the first job of a Marxist writer is to tell the truth, and, if 
the truth is opposed to what he thinks it ought to be, he must still 
tell it because that is the stretching and the straining that every sci- 
ence and every art that is worth its salt must go through. 

I found that there was a dumb silence because it seemed not only 
that it was non-Marxist, which it was, but that it was a perfectly 
idealistic position, namely, that first of all the artist is capable of see- 
ing the facts and, secondly, what are you going to do when you see 
the facts and they are really opposed to the line? The real Marxist 
writer has to turn those facts around to fit that line. I could never 
do that. I have not done it. 

I want to raise another point here. I wrote a play called All My 
Sons which was attacked as a Communist play. This is an example 
of something you raised just a little while earlier about the use 
of my play in the Communist meeting, of a different sketch that I had 
written. I started that play when the war was on. The Communist 
line during the war was that capitalists were the salt of the earth just 
like workers, that there would never be a strike again, that we were 
going to go hand in hand down the road in the future. I wrote my 
play called All My Sons in the midst of this period, and you probably 
aren't familiar with it — maybe you are — that the story is the story of 
an airplane manufacturer, an airplane parts manufacturer who sends 
out faulty parts to the Air Force. 

Therefore, what happened was that the war ended before I could 
get the play produced. The play was produced. The Com.nnmist line 
changed back to an attack on capitalists and here I am being praised 
by the Communist press as having written a perfectly fine Com- 
munist play. Had the play opened when it was supposed to have 

79932— 5,6— pt. 4 7 



4688 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

opened ; that is, if I could haA^e sold it that fast, it would have been 
attacked as an anti-Communist play. 

Tlie same thing has happened with Salesman. Death of a Salesman 
in New York was condemned by the Communist press. 

The Chairman. Mr. Miller, what has this to do-^ — 

Mr. Miller. I am trying to elucidate my position on the relation 
of art. 

Mr. Arens. "Was Arnaud D'Usseau chairman? 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt? 

Tlie CiiAiRMAX. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. There is a question before the witness; namely, to 
give the names of those individuals who were present at this Com- 
munist Party meeting of Communist writers. There is a direction on 
the part of fhe chairman to answer that question. 

Now, so that the record may be clear, I think we should say to the 
witness — Witness, would you listen ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Sciierer. We do not accept the reasons j'ou gave for refusing 
to answer the question and that it is the opinion of the committee 
that, if you do not answer the question, that you are placing yourself 
in contempt. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. ScHERER. That is an admonition tliat this committee must give 
you in compliance with the decisions of the Supreme Court. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, I ask that you again direct the witness to 
ansAver the question. 

The CiiAiRMAx. He has been directed to answer the question and 
he gave us an ansAver that we just do not accept. 

Mr. Arexs. Was Arnaud D'Usseau chairman of this meeting of 
Communist Party writers which took place in 1947 at which you were 
in attendance? 

Mr. Miller. All I can say, sir, is that my conscience will not permit 
me to use the name of another person. 

(The Avitness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miller. And that mj^ comisel advises me that there is no rele- 
vance between this question and the question of whether I should have 
a passport or there should be passport legislation in 1956. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness be 
ordered and directed to answer the question as to whether or not 
Arnaud D'Usseau — A-r-n-a-u-d. The last name is D-'-U-s-s-e-a-u — 
was chairman of the meeting of the Comnumist Party writers in New 
York City in 1947 at which you were in attendance. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Miller. I have given you my answer, sir. 

Mr. Arens. I ask you now, sir, whether or not Sue Warren was in 
attendance at this meeting of the Communist Party writers held in 
New York City in 1947? 

Mv. Miller. I have given you my answer. 

Mr. Velde. Do you know Sue Warren ? 

Mr. Jackson. Did you decline to answer the question ? 

(The Avitness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. Miller. I tell you, sir, that I have given my answer. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4689 

Mr. Jackson. I am not satisfied with that. That is entirely too 
TagTie. What I want is a positive statement as to whether or not you 
will answer that question. 

(The witness confers with his counsel.) 

Mr. I^IiixER. Sir, I believe I have given you the answer that I must 

give. 

The Chairman. Let us get that straight. As I understand, you 
decline to answer the question for the reason that you gave when 
you declined to answer the first question, or at least when you gave 
an answer that was not deemed acceptable ; is that it ? 

yiv. jMiller. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Were you proposed for membership in the Stuyvesant 
Branch, 12th Assembly District, of the Communist Party by Sue 
Warren ? 

Mr. MiuLER. To my knowledge 

Mr. Arens. In 1943? 

Mr. Miller. To my knowledge, I would not know that. I would 
have no knowledge of it. 

Mr. Arens. Have you made application for membership in the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Miller. I answered that question. 

Mr. AiiENS. I put it to you as a tact and ask you to affirm or deny the 
fact that you did make application for membership in the Communist 
Party and that the number of your application is 23345. 

Mr. Miller. I would not affirm that. I have no memory of such 
a thing. 

Mr. Arens. Do you deny it? 

Mr. Miller. I would deny it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, that will conclude the staff interrogation 
of this witness. 

The Chairman, xlre there any questions ? 

Mr. Velde. I would just like one question. We mentioned Norman 
Rosten a while ago, wdth whom you collaborated in a play in 1938, 
I believe it was. Do you know where he is today ? 

Mr. Miller. Tie is in New York City. 

Mr. Velde. Do you have any contacts with him at the present time ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Mr. Velde. Are you engaged in any business with him ? 

Mr. Miller. No ; he is a writer. I know him. 

Mr. Velde. That is all. 

(Representative Donald L, Jackson withdrew from the hearing 
room at this point. ) 

Mr. Doyle. I have one question. 

The Chairman. Mr. Doyle. 

Mr. DoTLE. I have no questions but I want to make this brief ob- 
servation. With your recognized ability in your specialized field, 
based on ^our testimony here that I have heard, let me ask you one 
question. Why do you not dii'ect some of that magnificent ability 
you have to fighting against well-known Corannmist subversive con- 
spiracies in our country and in the world? Whj^ do you not direct 
3-our magnificent talents to that, in part? I mean more positively? 

Mr. Miller. Yes; I understand what you mean. I think it would 



4690 UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 

be a disaster and a calamity if the Communist Party ever took over 
this country. That is an opinion that has come to me not out of the 
bkie sky but out of long thought. I tell you further that I have been 
trying for years now. I am not a fictionalist. I reflect what my 
heart tells me from the society around me. We are living in a time 
when there is great uncertainty in this country. It is not a Com- 
munist idea. You just pick up a book review section and you will 
see everybody selling books on peace of mind because there isn't any. 

I am trying to delve to the bottom of this and come up with a posi- 
tive answer, and I have had to go to hell to meet the devil. You can't 
know what the worst is until you have seen the worst, and it is not for 
me to make easy answers and to come forth before the American people 
and tell them everything is all right when I look in their eyes and I 
see them troubled. 

I believe in democracy. 1 believe it is the only way for myself and 
for anybody that I care about ; it is the only way to live ; but my criti- 
cism, such as it has been, is not to be confused with a hatred. I love this 
country, I think, as much as any man, and it is because I see things that 
I think traduce certainly the values that have been in this country 
that I speak. I would like more than anything else in the world to 
make positive my plays, and I intend to do so before I finish. It has 
to be on the basis of reality. 

The Chairman. Mr. Miller, I trust that you will raise your im- 
portant voice in what must be apparent to you now as a conspiracy. 
I am frank to admit that I participated in ^ome myself. 1 remember 
making a rather sizable contribution to this Anti-Fascist Committee 
because they were moving Jews away from Germany, and I know that 
a great many other people did but, it is indeed significant that, in all 
of these causes in which you participated because of the persecution 
of the Jewish people you never moved toward the assistance of people 
who were being persecuted by the Communists. That, I think, is very 
unfortunate. 

Mr. Miller. I think it is not onlj^ unfortunate. It was a great 
error. 

Mr. Kearney. Do you think 

Mr. Miller. Let me finish this. 

Mr. Kearney. Pardon me. 

Mr. Miller. In the face of an overwhelming ideal it has been the 
common experience of mankind, both good people and bad people, that 
detail goes by the board and fades into the walls. I believe now in 
facts. I look at life as to see what is happening, and I have no line. 
I have no preconception. I am devoted to what is going on. The 
hardest think to do is to tell what is going on. It is easy to talk about 
the past and future, but nobody knows what is happening now. 

Mr. Kearney. Do I get from your answer now that you consider 
yourself more or less of a dupe in joining these Communist organ- 
izations ? 

Mr, Miller. I wouldn't say so because I was an adult. I wasn't 
a child. I was looking for the world that would be perfect. I think 
it necessary that I do that if I were to develop myself as a writer. 
I am not ashamed of this. I accept my life. That is what I have 
done. I learned a great deal. 



UNAUTHORIZED USE OF UNITED STATES PASSPORTS 4691 

The Chairman. You have learned a great deal and made a greater 
contribution to what we think you now stand for than you realize, 
because, by the errors that you committed, you are serving a very loud 
note of warning to a lot of other people who might fall into what you 
did, quite obviously. 

The committee is now adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 30 p. m., June 21, 1956, the hearing was ad- 
journed, subject to the call of the Chair, tliere being present at time 
of recess Kepresentatives Walter, Doyle, Willis, Velde, Kearney, and 
Scherer.) 



INDEX 



Individuaxs 

Page 

Achmar, Sheik Mohamad Al 4385 

Albright, P. L 4524 

Albrycht, Wojciech 4588, 4589 

Anderson, John 4517, 4521 

Anderson, Rose 4517 

Atkins, Sylvia 4474,4475-4483 (testimony) 

Barsky, Edward K 4352 

Becker, Lou 4531 

Benson, Elmer 4518, 4521 

Berenson, Anna 4524 

Beverly, Leon 4327, 4339, 4340 

Bick, Abraham Joshua (also known as Alan McGill) 459S-4622, 

(testimony), 4653 

Billet, Leonard 4455 

Borenstein, Matthew 4456, 4474 

Boudin, Leonard B 4398, 4494, 4510, 4534-4545 (testimony), 4545, 4561 

Boiidin, Louis B 4537,4543,4544 

Bransten, Louise 449& 

Brock, Paul. {See Wallace, William Aloysius.) 

Browder, Earl 4497, 4516, 4527 

Brysou, Hush, Jr 4450 

Bunche, Ralph ^__ 4497 

Cammer, Harold 4623 

Carter, Minnie R 4369 

Cerney, Edwin H 4570 

Cerney, Isobel 4363, 4369, 4434, 4573 

Chafee (Zechariah, Jr.) 4545 

Chambers, Whittaker 4304 

Chen, Wen-kuei 4576 

Coe, Frank 4555 

€ohen, Sylvia 4322 

Cole, Archer 4322 

Cuellar, Diego Montana 4385 

Dadoo, (Y. M.) 4501 

Davidson, Jo 4519 

Davis, Ben 4509 

Davis, Jerome White 4360 

Dean, Hugh 4431 

Debs, Eugene 4.504 

De Francis, Anselmo 4328 

Dende, Leopold 4582-4596 (testimony) 

Denisov, Professor 4408 

Dennis, Eugene 4408 

Dennis, Laura Myrtle 4327, 4328 

deRosa, Joseph 4328 

Dolgow, Clara 4321 

Dombrowski, James 4457, 4474 

Dombrowski, Thomas X 4457, 4586, 4595 

Douglas, Frederick 4502, 4504 

Duberg, Peter 4539 

Du Bois, W. E. B 4364, 4450 

D'Usseau, Arnaud 4685, 4688 

Einstein, AUtert 4546, 4549, 4553, 4556 

Eisler, Gerhart [see also Liptzen, Samuel) 4303, 4304, 4665, 4666 



11 INDEX 

Page 

Eldridge, C. De Witt 4524 

Ellis, Carrie Mae 4328 

Emspak, Julius 4521 

Eudicott, James G 4371 

Epstein, Israel 4393 

Evans, Gertrude 4521, 4524 

Evans, Luther Harris 453J) 

Fadayev (Alexander) 4408 

Fairchild, Henry Pratt 4433 

Fanning, Larry 4490 

Fast, Howard 4450, 4668, 4684 

Faueett, Arthur 4524 

Felious, Odetta 4434 

Fletcher, Harold A 4384 

Forbes, Kenneth Ripley 4450 

Foreman, Clark Howell 4510-4533 (testimony), 4543 

Forer, Joseph 4338, 4340, 4439 

France, Royal W 4375-4377 

Friedman, Milton H 4492 

Gainer, Harold 4462, 4484, 4488 

Gainer, Joan Ruth Gabriner (Mrs. Harold Gainer) 4459, 

4462, 4474, 4483-4489 (testimony) 

Garrison (Lloyd) 4657 

Gebert, Bronislaw 4585 

Gellhorn, Walter 4520 

Gerlach, Talitha 4433 

Gilmore, Arthur 4324 

Glasser, Harold 4555 

Glenn, William 4328 

Gold, Ben 4625, 4626, 4643 

Goldberg, Esther 4328, 4329, 4332, 4333, 4336 

Goldstein, Michael 4457 

Goodfriend, Whitey 4324 

Goodman, Stanley 4481 

Gordon, Gene 4481 

Green, Abner 4324, 4349 

Greene, Graham 4680 

Greenfield, Alan 4328 

Grimm, Thomas 4327 

HaU, Rob 4517 

Halloran, John Francis 4328 

Halpern, Lena 4496 

Hardyman, Hugh 4433, 4579-4581 

Haufrecht, Betty 4376, 4377 

Hillman, Sidney 4525 

Hiss, Alger 4525 

Horvath, Stephanie 4652^653 (testimony) 

Howard, Charles P 4402 

Hunton, William 4378 

Hyun, Peter 4447, 4450 

Ingersoll, Bob 4321 

Jenkins, David 4496 

Jenkins, Oran 4328 

Jerome, Fred 4473, 4474 

Johnson, Allen 4328 

Johnson, Mrs. Francis 4.328 

Johnson, Joseph 4-524 

Johnson, Manning 4497, 4531, 4544 

Johnston, Eric 4544 

Joliot-Curie, Frederic 4411, 4414, 4415 

Josephson, Leon 4497 

Kahn, Albert 4450, 4647 

Kanarek, Julian 4582 

Kazan, Elia 4677, 4678 

Kent, Rockwell 44.50, 4647 



INDEX iii 

Page 

Kerner, William 4447, 4449 

Kheifets, Gregory 4496, 4497 

Kingdon, Frank 4519 

Kingsbury, John Adams 4364, 439S-4438 (testimony), 4450 

Kirk, Alan 4353 

Knight, Francis G 4305-4320 (testimony), 4611 

Koenig, N 4612 

Koppelman, Doris 4464 

Kramer, Charles (also known as Charles Krevitsky) 4525 

Krevitsky, Charles. {See Kramer, Charles.) 

Kuo Mo-jo 4414, 4415, 4418, 4426 

Lambertson, Harry C 4524 

Lamont, Corliss 4529, 4530 

Lampell, Millard 4521, 4666, 4667 

Lattimore, Owen 4517 

LeFavour, Philip Westley 4328 

Leff, David 4538, 4539 

Levy, David J 4545 

Lewis, Robert Z 4466,4475,4483 

Lind, Sheila 4508 

Liniield, H. S 4622 

Liptzen, Samuel {see also Eisler, Gerhart) 4304, 46titi 

Logan, Larry 4324 

Lovett, Robert Morss 4433 

Ludens, Tina 4376 

Magruder, Calvert 4543 

Majus, Jacob 4385 

Maltz, Albert 4352 

Masso, John B 4327 

Matusow, Harvey 4521 

McEvoy, Muriel 4531 

McGill, Alan. {See Bick, Abraham Joshua.) 

McLeish, James 4323,4325, 4327, 4338 

Melish, William Howard 4433 

Mercier, Jacques 4539 

Mikheev, Vladimir P 4496 

Miller, Arthur 4655-4691 (testimony) 

Minowitz, Antilla (Tilla) 4518 

Mitchell, Broadus 4531 

Moore, Dave 4327 

Moore, George 4457 

Morley, Karen 4376, 4377 

Morrison, Philip 4433 

Moulton, Arthur W 4433 

Muir, Robert 4402 

Murra, Victor 4497 

Nathan, Otto 4545-4559 (testimony) 

Needleman, Isadore G 4598 

Nicholas, Ashley J 4305-4320 (testimony) 

Nikolai, Metropolitan 4355 

Nixon, Russ 4521 

Nowell, William 4304 

Patterson, William L 4374, 4648, 4649 

Paul, Muriel S 4524 

Peters, J 4497 

Pine, Elanore 4465 

Pittman, John 4445 

Pittman, Nancy 4496 

Pound, Ezra 4669-4671 

Price, Mary 4554 

Proctor, Charles 4402 

Pruitt, Ida 4450 

Rabinowitz, Victor 4343, 4534 

Rauh, Joseph L., .Tr 4655 

Reiner, Gabriel 4593, 4594 



3V INDEX 

Page 

Richardson, Thomas 4342, 4376, 4450 

Roberts, Holland D 4447, 4450 

Robeson, Eslanda (Mrs. Paul Robeson) 4376 

Robeson, Paul 4363, 4367, 4376, 4450, 

44U2-4509 (testimony) ; 4512-1514, 4528-4530, 4641, 4647, 467(5 

Rot)insou, Jackie 4491) 

Robinson, Theresa 4402 

Rodman, Bela 4517 

Rodman, Samuel J 4518 

Rosten, Norman 4681, 4682, 4689 

Rothenberg, Don 4521, 4524 

Rubin, Ken 4463 

Russak, Mary Siegel 4341,4367,4376,4377,4431,4439-4451 (testimony) 

Russell, Bertrand 4559 

Russell, Maud 4447, 4450 

Sacher, Harry -.^ 4543 

Schneider, Anita Bell 4435 

Schuman, Louis 4325 

Schwartz, Miriam (also known as Miriam Stein) 4459, 

4463,4466-4475 (testimony) 

Scislowicz, Joseph 4452-4465 (testimony), 4472, 4482, 4486, 4488 

Seeger, Peter 4524 

Seegers, Henry E 4414 

Shavelson, Clara 4328 

Shipley, Ruth B 4329,4444,4657 

Silvermaster, Nathan Gregory 4495, 4496, 4555 

Sirota, Alex 4325, 4328, 4329 

Smedley, Agnes 4392, 4393 

Smith, Bill 4322 

Smith, Bowen 4531 

Smith, Ferdinand 4526, 4527 

Smith, Jessica 4376, 4377 

Smorodin, Ted 4322 

Stachel, Jack 4497 

Stalin, Joseph 4647 

Stavis, Morton 4337, 4338 

Stein, Miriam. {See Schwartz, Miriam.) 

Stone, Martha 4326, 4336 

Straus, Leon 4327,4339,4623-4652 (testimony) 

Sun Yat-sen (Mme.) 4433,4434,4681 

Tangner, Mark 4463 

Tarail, Mark 4376 

Thomas, John. {See Paul Robeson.) 

Thomas, R. J 4521 

Thompson, Frederick 4496 

Tiger, Edith 4531 

Tikhonov, Nicolai 4404 

Tubman, Harry 4502 

Uphaus, Ola (Mrs. Willard Uphaus) 4361, 43(>4 

Uphaus, Willard 4342, 

4343-4378 (testimony), 4402, 4404, 4431, 4450, 4565, 4466, 4.574, 4575 

Valladares, Leon Augustiii 4385 

Velson, Irving Charles 4325, 4327, 4328, 4338-4340, 4640, 4641 

Wallace, Henry A 4523 

Wallace, William Aloysius (also known as Brock, Paul) 4321-4343 

(testimony) 4370, 4396, 4451 

Ward, Harry F 4404,4405 

Warren, Sue 4685, 4688, 4689 

Wechsler, Moses 4328 

Wedl, Frank 4327, 4328 

Weiner. William 4517 

Weir, Ernest T 4352 

Weitzman, J. Daniel 4517, 4522 

Wheaton, Louis W 4341,4365,4379-4398 (testimony), 4572,4575 

Wheeler, CJeorge 4331 



INDEX V 

Page 

White. llaiTy Dexter 4555 

Wilkerson, Doxey 4499 

Willoox. Anita (Mrs. Henry Willcox) 4357,4358,4376,4575,4578 

Willcox, Henry 4357,4358,4376,4560,4561-4582 (testimony) 

Williamson, John 4645 

Williamson, Robert 4456, 4474 

Wright, Alex 4328 

Tergan, Max 4496, 4498, 4499 

Young. Thomas W 4500 

Zyblski. (Kazimicz) 459X 

Organizations 

Acros-Americau, Inc 4537 

All Union Central Council of Trade Unions 4332 

All Union Soviet Peace Society 4352, 4354, 4404, 440(5 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born__ 4323, 4349, 4373, 4436, 4581 

American Committee to Surve.Y Labor Conditions in Europe 4327, 4339, 4640 

American Continental Congi-ess for Peace 4523 

American Inter-Continental Peace Conference (Uruguay, 1952) 4356, 

4445, 4446. 
American Peace Crusade 4328, 4341, 4342, 4368, 4375, 4377 

San Diego Peace Forum 4435 

American-Russian Institute 4406, 4544 

California 4434 

American Slav Congress 4519 

Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee 4681 

x^Lutomobile Worlrers, United, CIO 4521 

Brandeis University 4549 

Biarritz American University 4548 

California Labor School 4580, 4581 

Camp Lakeland 4618 

China Peace Committee . .4579 

China AVelfare Appeal 4680, 4681 

Civil Rights Congress 4323, 4520, 4580, 4649 

Combined Artists, Inc 4657 

Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy 4437 

Committee for Peaceful Alternatives 4360, 4570, 4581 

Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact 4522 

Committee to Repeal the Smith Act 4323 

Committee to Repeal the Walter-McCarran Act 4323 

Communist Party, U. S. A. : 

Negro Commission 4497 

New Jersey, Elizabeth : 

Singer Club 4321, 4322, 4325 

UE District 4 Club 4322, 4341 

Union County Club ^ 4321 

New York City, Manhattan, Yorkville Section 4613, 4653 

Conference for Legislation in the National Interest 4556 

Congress of American Women ^^ 4683 

Congress of Industrial Organizations, Political Action Committee 4527 

Congress of the Peoples for Peace, Vienna, Austria, December 1952. {See 

World Peace Congress.) 
Congress on American-Soviet Relations. {See National Council of Amer- 
ican-Soviet Friendship. ) 

Cosmos Travel Bureau, Inc 4592-4594 

Council on African .UTairs 4497, 4498 

Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace. {See National Coun- 
cil of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions.) 

Democratic League of Polish Women 4(583 

Downtown Community School, New York City 4542 

Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, United : 

District 4 (New York-New Jersey) 4321, 4323 

Local 401 4325 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 4512, 4514, 4527, 4531, 4543, 4544 

New Jersey Division 4531 



Vi INDEX 

Page 

Excursions to Poland Committee (Detroit) 458G, 4595 

Frederick Douj^lass Educational Center, New York City 4396, 4397 

French General Confederation of Labor, CGT 4330 

Fur and Leather Workers Union of the United States and Canada, Inter- 
national 4624, 4625, 4628, 4634 

Fur Dressers' and Dyers' Joint Board 4640 

Local 125 4624 

Furniture Workers of America, United CIO, Local 180 4326 

Guide Publishing Co 4500 

Intellectuals' World Congress for Peace, Wroclaw, Poland, August 1948 4558 

Inter-Continental Peace Conference. i8ee American Inter-Continental 
Peace Conference.) 

International Organizations Employees Loyalty Board 4539 

International Scientific Commission for Investigation of Facts Concerning 

Bacterial Warfare in Korea and China 4389,4576 

International Union of Students 4463, 4464 

International Workers Order 4648 

Intourist 4.592-4594 

Jefferson School of Social Science New York City 4.541, 4542, 4613 

Jewish Statistical Bureau 4621, 4022 

Joint Anti-Fascist Kefugee Committee 4660, 4681 

Labor Youth League, New York State 4481 

Cleveland, Ohio 4473 

Lenin Institute 4304 

Longshoremen's Association, International 4324 

Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of the United States and Canada, 

Amalgamated, AFL-CIO, Fur and Leather Department 4624 

Metropolitan Broadcasting Co 4.517 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 4500 

National Citizens Political Action Committee 4527 

National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill 4522 

National Conference To Repeal the Walter-McCarran Law and Defend 

Its Victims 4349, 44-36 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship 4355, 4436, 4481, 4647 

Congress on American-Soviet Relations 4554 

National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions 4518, 4519, 4543, 4679 

Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace 4.554 

National Negro Labor Council 4323, 4386 

National Lawyers Guild 4543 

National Religion and Labor Foundation 4369 

Negro Labor Council. (See National Negro Labor Council.) 

New York Peace Committee 4341 

Packinghouse Workers of America, United (CIO) 4340- 

Peace Conference of the Asian and Pacific Regions (Peiping, China, 

1952) 4357, 

4359, 4368, 4369, 4384, 4385, 4414, 4418-4420, 4428, 4433, 4447, 4449, 
4450, 4565, 4566, 4568-4570, 4572, 4573, 4575-4578, 4581. 
United States Sponsoring Committee for Participation in the Peace Con- 
ference of the Asian and Pacific Regions 4430 

Peace Crusade, San Diego Section. (See American Peace Crusade, San 
Diego Peace Forum. ) 

Peace Liaison Committee of the Asian and Pacific Regions 4391 

Peiping Peace Conference. (See Peace Conference of the Asian and 
Pacific Regions.) 

Polish Embassy 45S7-4590' 

Polish League of W^omen. (See Democratic League of Polish Women.) 

Polish Peace Committee 4351 

Polish Travel Agency (Orbis) 4585 

Polonia International, Inc 4582, 4583, 4586 

Progressive Citizens of America 4518, 4519 

Progressive Party 4523, 4525, 4580 

Progressive Party, District of Columbia 4525 

Provisional Washington Committee To Win the Peace 4.520 

School of Jewish Studies 4613 

Society for Cultural Relations With Foreign Countries (VOKS) 4404. 

4408, 4409, 4427 
Southern Conference for Human Welfare 4516, 4517, 4.520 



INDEX vii 

Soviet >Peace Society. (See All-Union Soviet Peace Society.) Page 

Tass News Agency 4336 

Teachers Union, New York City 4556 

UNESCO, Paris 4539 

Union Tours 4592, 4593 

United States Government : 

Justice Department 4562 

Navy Department 4.515 

Public Works Administration 4517 

State Department 4663 

Passport Division 4306-4313, 4319, 4320, 4449, 44.53 

Treasury Department 4.555 

War Department 4548 

United States Sponsoring Committee for Participation in tlie Peace Con- 
ference of the Asian and Pacific Regions. (See Peace Conference of the 
Asian and Pacific Regions. ) 
United States Sponsoring Committee for Representation at the Congress 
of the Peoples for Peace. (See World Peace Congress, Congress of the 
Peoples for Peace. ) 

WQQW (radio station, Washington, D. C.) 4517,4518 

Warsaw Peace Conference. (Sec World Peace Congress, Second Congress.) 

Washington (D. C.) Committee for Wallace 4524 

Women's International Democratic Federation 4683 

World Federation of Democratic Youth 4463, 4464, 4662 

World Fellowship, Inc 4343, 4377 

World Peace Congress : 

American Sponsoring Committee, World Congress for Peace (Paris) 4679 

Congress of the Peoples for Peace, Vienna, Austria, December 1952 4360, 

4362, 4364, 4365, 4368, 4369, 4411, 4609 
United States Sponsoring Committee for Representation at the 

Congress of the Peoples for Peace 4.376, 4432 

Second Congress, Warsaw, 1950 434.5, 

4348, 4351, 4352, 4400, 4402, 4403, 4442, 4602 

World Peace Council 4370, 4421, 4434, 4567-4570, 4572 

World Youth Festival : 

First Youth Festival, Prague, 1947 4662, 4663 

Fifth Youth Festival, Warsaw, Poland, 1955 4452, 4454-4462, 4478 

Youth Board, New York City 4657-4661,4464 

Publications 

All My Sons (play) 4683, 4687 

Death of a Salesman (play) 4688 

Harvard Law Review 4520 

Information Bulletin of the Polish Press Agency, PAP 4464 

Listen My Children (play) 4681, 4682 

Morning Freiheit 4604, 4605 

Nazi Economic System, The 4549 

People's Voice (Detroit) 4585 

Polish American Journal 4583, 4586 

Report of the Central Committee of the United Democratic Fatherland 
Front of Korea on the Atrocities of the American Aggressors Against the 

Prisoners of War of Korean People's Army 4460 

Rude Pravo 4394 

Soviet Russia Today -. 4437 

Thirty Years Under Communism 4334 

Young Communist League Yearbook, 1937 4642 

Young Communist Review, March 1937 4643 

You're Next (play) 4683 

O 



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