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Full text of "Iowa colonels and regiments: being a history of Iowa regiments in the war of the rebellion; and containing a description of the battles in which they have fought"

973.74 

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17 5517 S 



REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



3 1833 01083 8404 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/iowacolonelsregi01stua 



%L Jb 



IOWA COLONELS AND EEGIMENTS: 

BEING A 



HISTORY OF IOWA REGIMENTS 



WAR OP THE REBELLION; 

AND CONTAINING A 

y 

DESCRIPTION OF THE BATTLES 

IN WHICH THEY HAVE rOUCHT. 



BY 

CA P TA IN A. A .JLTJJA U T t 

SEVENTEENTH IOWA INFANTBY, 



£L3U£ 



MA 



^JiLEli 



DES MOINES, IOWA: 

MILLS & COMPANY, 46 COURT AVENUE, 
18G5. 



:., 



1755178 



| G 03?; 



J 

j F Stuart, Addison A. 

1 8349 Iowa colonels and regiments : being a history of Iowa rcgi- 

1.301 ments in the war of the rebellion; and containing a descrip- 

tion of the battles in which they have fought. By Captain. 
A. A. Stuart ... Des Moines, Mills & co., 1S65. 

j " G.V, p. 23 cm . 



4' 

A 1. Iowa— Hist— Civil war. 2. U. S. — Hist.— Civil war— Itcgimenta' 

histories— la. 3. Iowa— Bio-. 4. Iowa— Militia. i. Title. 



Library of Congress I J 



Ej07.S>92 



I DEDICATE THIS BOOK 

TOTHE COMMON SOLDIERS OF IOWA, 

WHO BY THEIR CONSTANCY AND BRAVERY, 

AND 

WITHOUT DUE HONOR AND JUST COMPENSATION, 

HAVE MADE THE MILITARY RECORD OP THE STATE WHAT IT IS. 

THEY HAVE MADE AND SUSTAINED THE WORTHY MEN, 

WHOSE SKETCHES ARE HEREIN GIVEN; 

AND HUNDREDS OF THEM, 

HAVE DESERVED TnE HIGHEST MILITARY POSITIONS 

WITHIN THE GIFT OF OUR STATE EXECUTIVE. 

THEY HAVE BORNE THE BURDEN OF THE WAR, 

• AND ARE TENANTS-IN-COMMON 

OF THE STATE'S MILITARY RENOWN ; 

AND LET IT BE THEIE PROUD RECOLLECTION THAT, THOUGH THEIR 

NAMES MAT NEVER APPEAR IN PRINT, 

THBT DID TnEIR FULL SHARE IN SAVING THE COUNTRY 

FROM RUIN AND SHAME. 

THE AUTHOR. 



P R E F A C E 



In preparing this book for the press, my object has been, first to learn the 
truth, and second, to present it honestly and impartially ; but, in justice to my- 
self I should state that, in my efforts to obtain needed information, I have been 
in some instances, unsuccessful. Some have felt, or manifested, so little inter- 
est in the work, as to withhold from me the information, which would have 
enabled me to make it biographically complete. The obscurity which the great 
majority of such enjoyed in civil life, together with my insufficient means 
placed the needed information beyond my reach. 

In connection with the biographical notices of Iowa officer;, I have given his- 
tories of the Iowa regiments and other Iowa troops, and a brief statement of 
military operations in the departments wherein they served. Nor have I con- 
fined myself, strictly, to the mention of Iowa troops, but have, in many instan- 
ces, given the names of those of other States, whose names, to see associated with 
their own, will give to the Iowa soldiers great pleasure; for though a soldier be 
jealous of his own achievements and fame, he will ever cherish a recollection ot 
those brave men who have been his comrades in peril and glory. Throughout 
this bloody struggle, the troops of the great North-West have fought side by side . 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Iowa, and I may 
all Missouri and Kansas, arc bound togethor by indissoluble ties for all time to 
come. All, in the War of the Rebollion, are entitled to equal credit. 

That which was necessary to avoid to preserve the interest of the book was rep- 
etition. This has cost me much labor; and to show it is a difficult task to 
give a history of each Iowa regiment, and have it distinct and complete in it- 
self, it need only be stated that, almost from the beginning of the war till now, 
several of these regiments have served in the same division, and taken part in 
the same military operations. If, therefore, in some instances I have indulged 
in repetition, it is no moro than should be expected. 

One of the chief featuros of interest connected with this book is the life-like 
j-ortraitsof many of Iowa's distinguished officers— those through whom the mi!- 
i srv rruwess of the State is known abroad. In tho futare they will stand, in 



6 PREFACE. 

connection with tho War of tlie Rebellion, where to-day, Green, Gates, Ham- 
ilton, Schuyler, and many others stand, in connection with the War of tho 
Revolution. 

In giving a description of tho persons of Iowa officers, and in statiDg their 
merits, their habits, and their leading traits of character, I have endeavored to 
tell the truth in plain and simple language, and to avoid that foolish flattery 
so commonly bestowed on all who. by merit or chance, have mounted an eagle 
or a star. All have not won enviable distinction, and to give all ft great 
name would be doing a gross injustice to the deserving. 

That to which I have paid more particular attention is the description of the 
engagements in which the Iowa troops have taken part. It is the conduct of 
her troops in the face of the enemy, that has given the State her brilliant mili- 
tary reputation, and made her, in the judgment of that able paper, the Chica- 
go "Journal," '-the banner State of the Union." In speaking of the conduct of 
our troops in battle, I have endeavored to avoid strained and unnatural lan- 
guage, stating simply what was done, and what results followed. I have given, 
as far as I could with good authority, lists of casualties; and also the names of 
those, who. by their gallantry, won special distinction. 

I do not claim for the book literary merit. I have tried to write it with clear- 
ness and energy, and to present the greatest possible amount of matter in the 
fewest possible words. 

A. A. STUART 

Ottcmwa, Iowa, May 2d, 1865. 



WILLIAM MILO STONE. 

GOVERNOR OF IOWA. 

W j lli am M. Stone was born in Jefferson county, New 
York, on the 14th day of October, 1827. At the age of six years, 
he accompanied his parents to Coshocton county, Ohio. In 
that State he grew up and gained a meager education. He began 
life at the age of thirteen, as a hired hand upon a farm. Two 
years later, he was hired as a team-driver on the Ohio canal, 
and at the age of eighteen was apprenticed to a chair-maker, 
which business he followed till he reached his twenty-fourth 
year. That same year he was admitted to the Coshocton bar. 
Since 1S54, he has been lawyer, editor, judge, captain, major, 
colonel, and governor. Commencing lower down than thou- 
sands of his competitors, he has left them all gaping and star- 
ing after him, and wondering how he did it, and — there I shall 
leave them. All declare he is the luckiest man they ever knew. 

The extent of Governor Stone's early education, was two 
terms, or "Winters, at a common country school. His knowl- 
edge of law was gained through the assistance and encourage- 
ment of James Matthews, Esq., of Coshocton county, Ohio — 
later, his father-in-law. While following his trade, he had 
access to this gentleman's law library, and prosecuted the study 
of his chosen profession with such zeal and energy as to be able, 
in 1851, to exchange the chair-shop for the court-room. He 
began practice as a partner of his former preceptor, and con- 
tinued with him till 1S54, when he removed to Iowa, and estab- 
li-hed himself at Knoxville, Marion county. During his first 
year in Knoxville, he practiced his profession ; but in 1855, pur- 
chased and began the publication of the Knoxville "Journal." 



8 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

As editor of that paper, if I am rightly informed, he was the 
first man in Iowa to suggest the call of a convention to organize 
the Republican Party, then only in embryo. He was not only 
the first to suggest the call of a Republican Convention in the 
State, but was a delegate to that convention, when called; and 
was nominated one of the Presidential Electors. Indeed, the 
beginning of Governor Stone's career as a public man, in Iowa, 
bears date at Iowa City, the 22d of February, 1850. 

During the Presidential canvass of 1S5G, he visited the princi- 
pal part of Southern Iowa, in company with our first Republi- 
can representative — Major-General Samuel R. Curtis. In that 
exciting canvass, he gained considerable note as a public speaker, 
which, with his genial, off-hand address, put him fairly before 
the people. In February, 1857, one year later, a judicial con- 
vention was called at Des Moines, to put in nomination a can- 
didate for district judge of Stone's district. Stone was present 
in the convention, and through the influence of his friends, 
secured the nomination. From that time he became a rising 
man in the State. He was elected to the judgeship with a flat- 
tering majority; and, having served that term with credit, was, 
in 1S58, re-nominated and re-elected with increased majorities. 
He was the incumbent of this office, and holding a session of 
his court in Washington county, at the time the news reached 
him of the firing on Fort Sumter. He immediately adjourned 
his court, declaring at the time, that the country demanded of 
him and the people other and more important services. 

Returning to Knoxville, Judge Stone raised a company, of 
which he was elected captain; was assigned to the 3d Iowa 
Infantry in May, and, on the 25th day of June following, was 
promoted to the majority of his regiment. He accompanied 
las regiment into Northern Missouri as captain, and in com- 
mand of his company, (B)— fur he did not receive his commis- 
sion as major till after his arrival at Chillicothe. While con- 



WILLIAM 31. STOXE. 9 

nectod with the 3rd Iowa Infantry, Major Stone fought at the 
battles of Blue Mills, (where he was wounded) and Shiloh. In 
the last named engagement he commanded his regiment, and 
was made prisoner. Something of his sojourn in Dixie, as a 
prisoner of war, may be seen in the sketch of Brevet Brigadier- 
General J. M. Hedrick, then a captain of the loth Iowa. In 
nearly all cases, Stone was the spokesman of the party; and his 
cheerfulness and wit contributed not a little in keeping his fel- 
low prisoners in spirits. What, I believe, afforded the most 
amusement were the arguments between himself and the bel- 
ligerous Colonel Shaw, of the 14th. Stone could advocate any 
thing, and Shaw would always take the opposite. They would 
often drag their discussions into the small hours of morning, 
while the other prisoners, congregated about them," would 
watch and listen attentively, except when giving occasional 
attention to a straggling gray-back. I imagine that I can see 
them now congregated together. I can see them, attired in their 
cleanest linen, and seated in old rickety chairs, and on benches 
and boxes, exhausting the whole calendar of attitudes. 

But Major Stone was even lucky as a prisoner of war. In 
Juno, 1SG2, after some three months' captivity, lie was selected 
as one of three Federal officers, who, being paroled by the rebel 
War Department, were dispatched to Washington to aid in 
arranging a cartel of exchange between the belligerent parties. 
The first mission was unsuccessful, and one of the parties, at 
least, (Stone) returned to Richmond and surrendered himself to 
the rebel authorities. Jefferson Davis, pleased with his conduct 
and with what he had done, sent him back to "Washington to 
renew his efforts. His mission this time was successful, or at 
least was so represented ; but, however that may be, it is certain 
that a general exchange came off in the following Fall. 

His experience as a prisoner of war, gave Major Stone much 
notoriety, and put within his reach any position that ordinary 



10 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

desires might covet. Accordingly, after securing his liberty 
and returning to his home in Knoxville, he was tendered the 
colonelcy of the 22d Iowa Infantry, which he accepted. He 
was made colonel of that regiment in August, 1862, and served 
with it till August 14th, of the following year, when he resigned 
his commission with the almost certain promise of succeeding 
to the highest honors within the gift of his State. 

Though Stone made a good record as colonel of the 22d Iowa, 
there is nothing strikingly brilliant about it. He first served 
with his regiment in Missouri, and was for several weeks com- 
mander of the post at Holla. His regiment served as the pro- 
vost-gun rd. In the early part of 1SG3, he was ordered South to 
take part in the experiments against Yieksburg; and immedi- 
ately moved down the Mississippi, to Milliken's Bend, Louisi- 
ana. Attached to Carr's Division of McClernand's Corps, (the 
13th) Colonel Stone joined in the brilliant march of Grant's army 
across the country to opposite Bruinsburg on the Mississippi, 
and thence to the rear of Yieksburg. A full account of this 
march, and of its incidents, will be found elsewhere. On this 
march the 22d Iowa first met the enemy. 

In the battle of Port Gibson, the first of the campaign, Colo- 
nel Stone commanded the brigade to which his regiment was 
attached; or rather, ho commanded it during the forenoon of 
the engagement. Early in the forenoon, he had become so 
completely exhausted as to be compelled to turn his command 
over to Colonel Merrill of the 21st Iowa. During the time he 
acted on the field, he conducted himself with much credit. In 
this engagement, too, the 22d Iowa reflected on itself much 
honor. Colonel Stone's Brigade led the advance from Bru- 
insburg, and was, of course, the first to encounter the enemy 
among the rugged hills south of Port Gibson. This was not 
for from the hour of mid-night. 

So soon as the enemy were encountered in force at Thomp- 



WILLIAM M. STOXE. 11 

son's Hill, Major Atherton, the unfortunate, who was in com- 
mand uf the 2_d Iowa, hurried the regiment to the front, and 
deployed it in line to the left of Captain Griffith's Battery. 
There the regiment rested on their arms that night. Until 
about ten o'clock of the following morning, the regiment acted 
as an artillery support, and was then led forward to charge the 
rebel line, which it did with gallantry, quickly routing the en- 
emy, and promptly occupying the ground just before held by 
them. In the severe fighting of the afternoon, the 22d Iowa 
was in the front, and joined in three distinct charges against 
the enemy's line, each of which was successful. The following 
b from the official report of the regiment's conduct in the 
action: 

" Throughout this series of engagements, the officers and men 
of the regiment behaved with great coolness and gallantry. I 
found them always ready and eager to obey the order to move 
on the enemy. So well did the entire command acquit them- 
Belves, J can not, without seeming invidiousness, enter into par- 
ticulars. It is sufficient to say, they acted nobly, and well sus- 
tained the honors already earned by Iowa soldiers. Great care 
was taken to shelter the men from the enemy's fire, which the 
unevenness of the ground enabled us to do, with comparative 
sucees •,. And yet, the loss of the regiment, being greater with 
but one exception than that of any other in the brigade, shows 
plainly where they were during the long and hotly contested 
engagement. Too much praise^cannot bo awarded to our sur- 
geons, White and Peabody." 

The loss of the 22d at Port Gibson was two men killed, and 
fourteen wounded. Lieutenants D. J. Davis, W. M. DeCamp, 
J. T. Whittington, D. N. Henderson, and John Francisco were 
among the Litter. Lieutenant Davis was adjutant of the regi- 
ment. 

In the official report of the Division Commander (Can-) is 
paid the following compliment to Colonel Stone: 

"Colonel William M. Stone, 22d Iowa, who succeeded to the 
Command of the 2d Brigade, took his place with the extreme 



12 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

advance guard at ni^ht, during the advance upon the enemy, 
exposed himself freely, and exerted himself so much that he 
became completely exhausted in the afternoon, and was com- 
pelled to relinquish his command to Colonel Samuel Merrill, 
21st Iowa, for above an hour. By his bravery and the admi- 
rable management of his brigade, he reflects new honor on his 
noble State." 

In speaking of his division general, Colonel Stone, in his 
official report, is equally complimentary. 

Soon after the action at Port Gibson, General Lawler was 
assigned to the command of the 2d Brigade, when Colonel 
Stone again assumed command of his regiment. There is little 
of special interest in the Colonel's military record, or in that of 
his regiment, from the date of the Port Gibson battle to the 22d 
of May following. The 2d Brigade of the 1 4th Division did the 
magnificent fighting at Black Piver Bridge; but both the 22d 
Iowa and 11th Wisconsin regiments were in reserve, and suf- 
fered little. The 21st and 23d Iowa regiments are entitled to 
the credit of that brilliant affair, and none will be found to dis- 
pute it with them. 

That which most distinguished Colonel Stone in the service, 
was the part he sustained with Ids regiment in the memorable 
charge at Vicksburg, on the 22d of May. In that charge he 
was for the second time wounded. 

The nature of the country in the immediate vicinity of Vicks- 
burg, and the character of the enemy's works were such as to 
insure almost certain defeat to the assaulting army, provided 
the rebel garrison were not reduced to a state of total demorali- 
zation. It was precisely this that General Grant counted on, as 
appears in his official report ; and, when we reflect that he had 
been a witness to the enemy's shameful defeat and flight at Big 
Black Piver Bridge, were his inferences unreasonable? 

In the march from Big Black Piver to the rear of Vicksburg, 
Sherman followed the Bridgeport road, McPhersou the Jack. 



WILLIAM M STONE. 13 

son road, and McClernand the same road as MePherson, till he 
reached Mount Albans; then, turning to the left, he gained the 
Baldwin Ferry road. This threw Sherman on the right of the 
investing line, MePherson in the centre, and McClernand on 
the left. The 22d Iowa, being attached to the command of 
McClernand, was therefore on the south side of Vicksburg. 
The general character of the ground over which the charge was 
made, and the kind of obstructions to be overcome, I have given 
elsewhere. I give below an extract from Major Atherton's 
official report, showing the particular part the 22d took in the 
murderous assault. 

"At four o'clock A. M., the regiment took position opposite 
the enemy's works, preparatory to the charge, where we were 
sheltered by the crest of a hill, and companies A a*nd B 
deployed as skirmishers. We lay upon our arms until ten 
o'clock A. M., the appointed hour for the charge, when we 
formed in line of battle on the summit of the hill, and imme- 
diately pressed forward. From our first appearance upon the 
hill, we were exposed to a terrible fire from the enemy, con- 
cealed within their forts and rifle-pits. The men maintained 
their line and advanced like veterans to the ravine in front of 
the enemy's works, and made a charge upon the fort situated 
to "Mr right. While here we were exposed to a murderous lire 
from the front, and an enfilading fire from the right and left, 
the enemy's works being so constructed as to effect this result. 
The column pressed forward, stormed the fort, took possession 
of the same and its inmates, and held it till dark. We main- 
tained our position during the day, receiving and returning the 
enemy's fire — they concealed in their forts and other defences, 
and we, in a great measure, without any shelter. A continuance 
of the contest w;ls deemed unadvisable, and we retired under 
cover of the night." 

lu this action, the 22d Iowa lost heavily. Colonel Stone was 
Wounded, and Lieutenant-Colonel Graham taken prisoner. 
Captain James Robertson and Lieutenant M. A. Ptobb were 
among the killed. They were both good men, and their loss 
was deeply mourned in the regiment. One of the severely 



14 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

wounded was Sergeant Leonidas M. Godley. When near the 
enemy's works, he was shot above the knee, and his leg badly 
fractured. He lay under the enemy's guns till after midnight, 
when he was rescued by the enemy and taken into Vicksburg. 
He still lives to tell the story of his prison-life in the beleaguered 
city. The chief hero of Grant's army, that day, was a member 
of the 22d Iowa — Sergeant Joseph E. Griffiths. " No troops," 
says General Grant in his official report, "succeeded in entering 
any of the enemy's works, with the exception of Sergeant 
Griffiths, of the 22d Regiment Iowa Volunteers, and some 
eleven privates of the same regiment. Of these, none returned 
except the Sergeant, and possibly one man." 

The charge of the 22d of May, at Vicksburg, was Colonel 
Stone's last engagement. Having received early in the fight a 
gun-shot wound through his left fore-arm, he retired from the 
field, and a few days later left for his home on leave of absence. 
Fortune was again favoring him. 

Soon after arriving at his home in Knoxvillc, the Republican 
Gubernatorial Convention assembled at Des Moines. He atten- 
ded it, and in a contest between himself, Honorable Elijah Sells, 
and General Fitz Henry Warren, received the nomination ; 
then, returning to Vicksburg, he resigned his commission, and 
at once entered upon the vigorous canvass, which resulted in 
his election. Such rapid and uninterrupted success has never 
before fallen to the lot of any man in Iowa. 

His administration of the Executive Department of the State, 
has been characterized by that shrewdness and energy which 
has marked his whole political course. Thus far, it has been 
a popular one; and, in this respect, contrasts favorably witn 
that of his predecessor. Though not so able a man as Ex-Gov- 
ernor Kirkwood, Ins prospects for the future are now much the 
brightest. His conduct as governor has been criticised, to my 
knowledge, only in one particular. His visits to the armv 



WILLIAM M. STONE. 15 

were pronounced by some buncombe expeditions, but the sol- 
diers ilid not, 1 am informed, so regard them. 

Governor Stone is about six feet in bight, and slender and 
i-rect. He has a Grecian face, a large, straight nose, large, full, 
gray eyes, and spare features. His appearance is intelligent 
and J -repossessing. The chief elements of his success are, I 
lielieve, an easy, entertaining address, untiring industry, and 
unlimited self-confidence. These, sustained by a vigorous con- 
stitution, and driven by an iron-will, have enabled him to 
accomplish whatever he undertook. He rarely loses his temper, 
and seldom discovers an immodest desire for distinction. 

Asa public speaker, Governor Stone is fluent and forcible, 
hut not polished— just what one would expect, when he remem- 
bers that all his early oratorical efforts were made at the bar. 
He has the happy faculty of forgetting himself in his theme. 
Many were witnesses of this fact at Des Moines, when himself 
and General Warren addressed the delegates the evening before 
the convention. Colonel Stone's wound was still troubling 
him, making it necessary for him to carry his hand in a sling; 
but, after entering upon his speech, he forgot that he had but 
one well arm, and, drawing it from the sling, began twirling it 
in violent gesticulations. 

Governor Stone's past successes have not only disappointed 
his enemies, but surprised his friends. He is the most remark- 
able public man in Iowa, and his future, as promising as that of 
any man in the State. 



NATHANIEL BRADLEY BAKER. 

ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF IOWA. 

Nathaniel Bradley Baker, Iowa's able and eccentric 
Adjutant-General, was born on the 29th of September, 1818, in 
Hennika, Merrimack county, (then Hillsborough) New Hamp- 
shire. His education is liberal. He pursued his preparatory 
course at the Phillip's Exeter Academy, New Hampshire, and 
graduated at Harvard College — the Oxford ot American univer- 
sities, and the alma mater of a large per cent, of tbe distinguished 
jurists, statesmen, clergy and literary savans of the country. 

I am unacquainted with the history of General Baker's col- 
lege days, but I venture the assertion that he was not a hard 
worker, and that, if in passing a difiicult ascent in Horace or 
the Iliad a pony would help him, he would not hesitate to 
mount one. A half-hour would suffice him in preparing for a 
recitation; and, during that time, I imagine I can see him 
lounging on his bed and smoking a cigar. His active mind 
would enable him to grasp principles without eternally plod- 
ding, and his text-books would lack sufficient charms to engross 
his entire attention. He could never have been a book-worm. 
He graduated in tbe year 1S0!», with fair standing in his class, 
and had the credit of possessing much general information. 

After leaving Harvard, he studied law in the office of Ex- 
President Franklin Pierce, and later in that of Asa Fowler ami 
Charles H. Peaslee. In 1812, he was admitted to the Merrimack 
county Bar, but did not enter the practice. He became editor 
of the New Hampshire "Patriot," a half-interest in which he 
had purchased prior to 1842. In 1S45, he disposed of his inter- 
est in that paper, and received the appointment of Clerk of the 

1G 



NATHANIEL B. BAKER. 17 

Court of Common Picas for Merrimack county. Five years later 
lie was elected to the New Hampshire Legislature, as represen- 
tative from the city of Concord, and the following year was re- 
elected. During both sessions, he served as Speaker of the 
House. In 1851, he was only thirty-three years of age, and 
there was not a more popular man in the State of New Hamp- 
shire. 

Having received the Democratic nomination for Governor of 
New Hampshire, he was, in 1854, triumphantly elected. This 
result was hardly looked for by his party, and demonstrated 
his unbounded popularity in the State. It was unlooked for, 
since the change of its national policy had weakened his party 
in the State; and, in addition to that, there were three aspir- 
ants in the field, and it required a majority — not a plurality 
to elect. 

As Governor of New Hampshire, General Baker's administra- 
tion was characterized with his usual promptness and energy; 
but his name in some way got mixed up with the Know-Noth- 
ing Party, which ruined his popularity in the State. His term 
expired in 1855, and in the following year he came to Iowa, and 
settled in Clinton, which lias since been the residence of his 
family. In Clinton, lie practiced his profession till the fall of 
1800, when, not yet cured of his political aspirations, he con- 
sented to become a candidate for the State Legislature from 
Clinton county. He was elected and served the following ses- 
sion in that body. 

On the 25th of July, 1861, he was appointed by Governor 
Kirk wood Adjutant-General of Iowa, and, in 1 804, was re-ap- 
pointed by Governor Stone ; and, in his fitness for the position, 
I believe he has no equal in the State. The skill and ability 
which he has shown, in the discharge of his duties, would do 
cnxht to one of extensive military experience and education. 
His promptness and energy, and the systematic manner in 



18 IOWA COLONELS AVi) EF.GIMEXTS. 

which he has conducted the business of his office have elicited 
flattering compliments from the public press in nearly every 
loyal State. Indeed, his services as Adjutant-General of 
Iowa, tone well with those of the Iowa troops in the field. 
Iowa may well be proud of him. That I am impartial in my 
judgment, the following, from one of the leading papers of 
Chicago, Illinois, is evidence: 

" Almost simultaneously with the close of 1SG4, the State of 
Iowa gives to the public its Adjutant-General's Report for the 
year. The fact that Iowa is the only State which has an excess 
over all calls for men, attaches a peculiar interest to its military 
operations, and the same circumstance will warrant more than 
a mere passing allusion to the prominent share this gallant 
young State has taken in the contest. 

"In looking over the full and handsomely printed report of 
Iowa, a citizen of Illinois will be mortified at the contrast, as 
he compares it with those of his own State. The Iowa Report 
is most creditable to the State. Iowa has a voting population 
of from one hundred and twelve, to one hundred and fifteen 
thousand, and, of this sparse number, nearly or quite sixtv 
thousand have been put into the field. To-day a number equal 
to one-half the voters of the Hawk-Eye State are under arms. 
Nor are the men who have been sent to the field canaille— 
bought in the social kennels of Europe, or refuse negroes 
picked up among the camps. 

"To the general reader, the most interesting portion of Gen- 
eral Baker's Report is that which contains a record of the opera- 
tions of every Iowa regiment. Fully one-half of the volume is 
devoted to the history of the regiments in the field; and it 
gives, either in an official or narrative form, the performances 
of each regiment, during the year. By the employment of 
this plan, a record of the troops is kept. The regiments are en- 
couraged, by knowing that their labors all reach the public ; 
and furthermore, a condensed account is preserved, which 
only needs the amplification of the author to become history. " 

The following, which needs no explanation, shows how Gen- 
eral Baker's services are appreciated by the War Department 
at Washington; 



nathaniel b. baker. 19 

" General Orders, No. 6. 

" heap-qfaeters slxth division', cavalry corps, ai. d. m.j 
Edgefield, Tennessee, Dec. 28, 1804. 

" It has come to the knowledge of the General commanding, 
that in the Iowa regiments serving in this division, and per- 
haps in those from other States, it has been customary, under 
the supposed authority of some regulation or order from Head- 
quarters of the so-called ' Army of Iowa,' or other authority of 
like character, to furnish to the Adjutant-General of the State 
of Iowa, and other States, copies of the monthly returns, lists 
of casualties, reports of operations and other reports. 

" Not only military propriety, but. the danger of such papers 
falling into the hands of improper persons, forbids this prac- 
tice. 

" It is therefore ordered, that in future no such reports, re- 
turns, or others of like character, or copies thereof be furnished 
to the Adjutant-General of the State of Iowa, or any other 
State, or any person, persons, or authority except, as now re- 
quired, or as may be hereafter required by orders from the War 
Department, or Department Head-quarters. 

" The time of the officers of this command is too precious 
to be devoted to the preparation of official documents for the 
satisfaction or curiosity of civilians at home. Tins must be 
left to the newspaper correspondents. 

"Officers will understand that they and their troops are in 
the service of the United States, and in their military capacity 
have no relations whatever to the States from which they come, 
or the Executive thereof. 

" By command of Brigadier-General Johnson. 

" E. T. Wells, Assistant Adjutant-General. 

"Official copy for the information of the Adjutant-General of 
Iowa. 

1 E. T. Wells, Assistant Adjutant- General. " 

General Baker forwarded the letter to the Secretary of War, 
with the following endorsement : 
"General Johnson:. 

"The Adjutant-General of the State of Iowa, acknowledges 
the receipt of the extraordinary < General Orders. ' 

"The State Officials have asked nothing improper, and the 
Adjutant-General cannot comprehend the motives of Brigadier- 



20 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

General Johnson in issuing the ' General Orders, ' of which the 
within is a copy. 

" The State wishes to keep up the records of the volunteers 
sent from this State. 

" No other General, that this department is aware of, has 
heretofore attempted to prevent the completion of said records. 
" These records are absolutely essential for the protection of 
soldiers and their families here at home. 

" (Signed) N. B. Baker, 

" Adjutant-General of loica. " 
" Special Orders No. 53. 
""War Department, Adjutant-General's Office, 
Washington, February 2, 1865. 
{Extract). 
***** 
40. So much of General Orders No. 6, December 28, 1864, 
from Head-quarters 6th Division, Cavalry Corps, Military Di- 
vision of the Mississippi, as forbids the rendition of certain 
returns and reports called for by the Adjutant-General of 
Iowa, is hereby revoked, it being improper in its tone, and dis- 5 

respectful to the State authorities. 

* # * * * 

" By order of the Secretary of War. 

" E. D. Town-send. » 
General Baker has not only secured merited distinction for 
the accurate, systematic and elaborate manner with which he 
has conducted every thing properly connected with his office, 
but he has manifested an interest in the Iowa soldier, beyond 
the limits of the State and outside of his legitimate duties, 
which has won him the lasting gratitude of many. One of the 
many instances that might be cited is the ease of the railroad 
disaster in Indiana; where, by a public order, he gave notice 
to the friends of all Iowa soldiers, murdered or maimed by the 
criminal negligence of the railroad, not to settle with the cor- 
porators, or their agents, pledging his official word that justice 
should bo obtained for the injured parties. 

General Baker is a large man. being six feet and one inch in 
hight, and weighing about one hundred and ninety pounds. 



NATHANIEL B. BAKER. 21 

Ho has a fine, well formed person, intelligent, gray eyes, and a 
large prominent forehead. In person, he is prepossessing, and 
he would be in manners and conversation, were he less rough 
and unguarded in his language. Ho has Puritanic blood in his 
veins, and, like the old Puritans, is plain-spoken and earnest ; 
but, if he inherited all their virtues, one of the cardinal ones he 
has squandered. Iowa would give him anything he could ask 
if he would only become a teetotaler. He has no secretiveness, 
and never talks in a whisper; and in his walk, which is 
another index of his character, he has none of that creeping, 
cat-like gait that stamps all sinister two-sided men. 

General Baker is a man of much ability. He has large con- 
centrativeness, a masterly memory, and, for the amount of 
business he is able to accomplish in a given time, he has few 
equals. 



COLONEL JOHN FRANCIS BATES. 

FIRST INFANTRY. 

John Francis Bates was the first colonel of the first regi- 
ment furuished by the State for the War of the Rebellion. He 
was born the 3d day of January, 1831 ; and is a native of Utica, 
Oneida County, New York. His parents were poor, and, 
thrown upon his own resources in acquiring his education, he 
defrayed his expenses for six years at the Utica schools, by 
sweeping the school-room and by building fires. Two years, he 
subsequently passed in the office of the Utica Daily "Gazette," 
and then became a book-keeper and salesman in a mercantile 
establishment of that city. From 1852 to 1855, he was engaged 
in the insurance business in New York City, since which time 
he has been a resident of Dubuque, Iowa. In Dubuque, he has 
been an insurance agent, a land-broker and a county politician. 
He was elected in 1858 to the clerkship of the District Court 
for Dubuque County, and was holding that office at the time of 
entering the volunteer service. After the expiration of his 
term of service, he was again elected to that office. 

The 1st Iowa Infantry was the only Iowa regiment furnished 
by the State for the first call of the President. It was the only 
three-months Iowa regiment in the war. But, though its term 
of service was short, it made a brilliant record, and what 
sacred memories cluster about its name ! 

During the long four-year's bitter struggle that is now about 
to close, Iowa, in practical patriotism, in the promptness with 
which she has filled her quotas, and in the general efficiency of 
her troops, stands second to none of the loyal States. I will 
not say first> where all have dune so well ; but a press of the 
metropolis of our sister Empire State gives "All honor to the 



JOHN F. BATES. 23 

enterprise and gallantry of Iowa. She has, uncomplainingly 
and unselfishly, borne more than her share of the onerous bur- 
dens of the war ; and in the field her sons have carried the Stars 
and Stripes well in the front, and made the name of Iowa 
soldiers synonymous with heroism and invincibility." 

The 1st Iowa Infantry was the oldest of her sister regiments, 
and how much her example at Wilson's Creek had to do in 
making her junior sisters " heroic and invincible," it is impos- 
sible to say ; but we believe that no State, whose military sun 
rose in such splendor as did Iowa's, would allow it to set in 
disgrace. All honor to the 1st Iowa Infantry ! 

To know the counties from which this" regiment was made 
up will be matter of interest, as it also will to know the, names 
and subsequent history of many of its officers and enlisted 
men. The members of the regiment had their homes in the 
counties of Dubuque, Muscatine, Scott, Johnson, Des Moines, 
Henry and Linn. Muscatine gave companies A andC; Des 
Moines, D and E ; Dubuque, H and I ; Johnson, B ; Henry, F ; 
Scott, G; and Linn, K. 

Of Company A, Captain Markoe Cummings was subse- 
quently lieutenant-colonel of the Gth Iowa Infantry ; Lieuten- 
ant Benjamin Beach, a captain of the 11th ; First Sergeant H. 
J. Campbell, major of the 18th ; and private Bobert B. Baird, 
quarter-master of the 35th. 

Of Company B, Lieutenant Harvey Graham was subse- 
quently lieutenant-colonel of the 2'2d Iowa Infantry ; and 
Sergeants Charles N. Lee and J. H. Gurkee, captains in the 
same regiment. 

Of Company C, Lieutenant W. Tursell was subsequently 
major of the 16th Iowa Infantry ; First Sergeant W. Grant, a 
captain of the 11th, and Corporal A. N. Snyder, a captain of 
the Suth. 

Of Company D, the facetious, jolly captain, Charles L. 



»4 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

h 

Matt hies, was subsequently lieutenant-colonel of the 5th Iowa 
Iniantrv, then colonel, and then brigadier-general. 

Of Company E, Lieutenant J. C. Abercrombie was subse- 
quently lieutenant-colonel of the 11th Iowa Infantry ; private 
W. J. Campbell, a captain of the 14th; private C. A. Cameron, 
a captain of the 39th ; -and private A. Roberts, lieutenant- 
colonel of the 30th. 

Of Company F, Captain Samuel M. Wise was subsequently 
major of the 17th Iowa Infantry ; Lieutenant George A. Stone, 
colonel of the 25th ; private J. S. Clark, a lieutenant of the 
34th ; private C. W. Woodrow, a lieutenant of the 17th ; and 
private T. J. Zollars, captain of Company P, 4th Iowa Cavalry. 

Of Company G, Captain Augustus Wentz was subsequently 
lieutenant-colonel of the 7th Iowa Infantry, and was killed 
at Belmont ; and private Ernest Arp, a lieutenant of the 12th 
Missouri Infantry. 

Of Company II, Sergeant Charles Sehaeffer was subsequently 
a major of the 5th Iowa Cavalry, and a staff officer of General 
Curtis; private T. Groetzinger, a lieutenant in the 27th In- 
fantry. 

Of Company 1, Captain F. J. llerron was subsequently lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 9th Iowa Infantry, then brigadier-gen- 
eral, and then major-general ; Sergeant Samuel F. Osborn, a 
lieutenant in the 21st; private X. E. Duncan, adjutant of the 
12th ; private David Greaves, a captain in the 21st ; private D. 

B. Green, a captain in the 3d Missouri Infantry; and private 

C. A. Reed, an assistant-surgeon of the 9th Infantry. 
Of Company K, First Sergeant John II. Stibbs was subse- 
quently a captain, then lieutenant-colonel of the 12th Iowa 
Infantry ; Sergeant' Edward Coulter, a captain in the 20th ; 
private G. C. Burmeister, a captain in the 35th ; and private- 
Jackson D. Furguson, a lieutenant in the 12th. lie was killed 
at the battle of Shiloh. 



JOHN F. BATES. 25 

In its line officers and enlisted men, this noble old regiment 
has been represented in a majority of the Iowa regiments, 
since formed; and, from these officers and men, it has fur- 
nished officers of every grade in the army, from a second lieu- 
tenant to a major-general. Its example at Wilson's Creek Mas 
not the only influence it had on the military history of the 
State. 

The 1st Iowa rendezvoused at the city of Keokuk, and its 
camp was Camp Ellsworth. War, at that day, was a novelty, 
and there was no end to the curiosity that a boy, dressed in 
uniform, excited. And an officer — my ! One who visited the 
camp of this regiment at Keokuk discourses thus: 

"Their mode of life was a great novelty to us; those ^senti- 
nels marching to and fro, so stern, so mute! All within ten 
feet of their beat was forbidden ground. What did all this 
signify? Their officers were putting on style, we said, and the 
men were learning to be soldiers pretty easily. Then there 
was a gate, where stood sentinel No. 1. Through this, all who 
went in or out were compelled to pass. And there stood the 
officer of the guard — how magnificently attired! If men's 
merits were to be judged by their appearance, we would have 
supposed him a hero of twenty battles. But we forgot to 
salute him. What daggers he looked at us! We asked him 
to let us pass in. 

'Where do you belong?' 

1 To the Third Regiment ! ' 

' What do you want here ? ' % 

1 To see some friends. ' 

'Sentinel, pass them in, sir. '" 

Farther along the author says : 

"We plied them with all manner of questions, in reply to 
Which they told us prodigious stories of what they had already 
seen and suffered for their country's sake. If we were to 
believe them, they were suffering greatly now. They had been 
in the service six weeks and a half, and the government had 
furnished them no clothing, and not a cent of pay! Besides, 
they were half-starved ; and the rations furnished them were not 
tit Ibr a dog ! And their officers treated them shamefully too." 






26 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Thousands will recognize this as a true picture of their early 
soldiering. 

If in the spring of 1861, a soldier in rendezvous was a nov- 
elty, he was on the eve of his departure for the field, still more 
so. He became an object of veneration; and, as he moved 
through the streets, he stirred in the hearts of the citizens the 
deepest emotions. " Brave, noble boy ! Tie is going to defend 
our rights and the glory of the flag ; and will probably never 
return." Big tears started in many a manly eye that had 
never known weeping before. 

The 1st Iowa Infantry received orders from General Lyon to 
report at Hannibal, Missouri, on the 12th of June, and the 
next day the regiment left on transports. The 2d Iowa 
Infantry under Colonel, now Major-General Curtis, left only 
the day before for the same destination. The good people of 
Keokuk were wild with excitement, and lavish of their hospi- 
talities; and when all was in readiness and the boats were 
about to drop out into the stream, a vast assemblage stood on 
the wharf, waving and weeping their adieus. But how all was 
changed in one year's time ! The same people wished the loth 
and 17th Iowa on their departure for the field, " good rid- 
dance ; " they still admired the soldier's intrepid spirit; but 
they had become impatient of his mischievous conduct. 

Colonel Bates was at first assigned to duty with his regiment 
on the line of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad. His sec- 
tion extended from Hannibal to Macon City. The character of 
these services appears in the sketch of Colonel "Wilson G. Wil- 
liams, and need not bo repeated- The duties, which were 
arduous, and which required the greatest vigilance, were dis- 
charged with much credit, and the regiment became popular 
with the loyal citizens of Mi.ssoun. 
Early in July, Colonel Bates was relieved from guard duty 



JOHN F. BATES. 27 

on the railroad, and ordered to report to General Lyon at 
Brownsville. Soon after, the long and tedious march over the * 
Missouri prairies in the direction of Springfield began. 
At that day, the people of the entire State of Missouri were 

iln a state of anarchy. The great dividing lines were hcing 
drawn, and both the Federal and Confederate authorities were, 
in the same district, and often in the same county, recruiting 
their forces. Everything seemed to threaten civil order in 

I Missouri. We know little of the terrors of civil war in Iowa. 

Citizens upon our southern border only have had a foretaste. 
All business pursuits were not only suspended, but no one at 
night could rest soundly, for fear of the knife, bullet or torch of 
the assassin. 

Harris, Green and others, had large rebel forces even north of 
the Missouri river. Near Springfield, the enemy were concen- 
trating. They boasted that they would capture St. Louis, 
which was Fremont's excuse for his elaborate fortifications 
around that city. General Lyon resolved to march on and 
disjKTse the enemy, though his force consisted of not more 
than six thousand men, and the enemy claimed more than 
treble that number. He marched from Springfield on the First 
of August, in the direction of Dug Springs, and at that place 
encountered the enemy in force; but after slight skirmish- 
ing they retired. He followed them into Northern Arkansas; 
hut not bringing them to a stand, and fearing for his own safety 
on account of beiug so far removed from his base, he fell back 
to Springfield. On this march, the 1st Iowa Infantry had sev- 
eral skirmishes with the enemy. So soon as Lyon began 
retracing his steps the enemy followed, and on his arrival at 
Bpringfield, or soon after, they had reached Wilson's Creek. 
Why did General Lyon fight the battle of Wilson's Creek? 
Why, ifpecessary, did he not fall back in the direction of Holla, 
and await reinforcements ? General Lyon fought this battle, I 



28 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

believe, for the same reasons that would have controlled any 
other brave, resolute general at that stage of the war. He 
believed that the enemy, though strong in numbers, were 
weak in that strength which arises from a sense of being in the 
right, and on the side of law and order. As a bailiff with his 
posse disperses a crazy, lawless mob, so he believed he could 
triumph over the combined rebel forces ; and, had he not fallen, 
he might have done so, though probably not. 

The battle of Wilson's Creek was not great in its propor- 
tions — only great in results. In the South West, it demon- 
strated the falsity of Southern boasting, that one of the chivalry 
"could whip six northern mud-sills;" indeed it well nigh 
demonstrated the converse of the proposition. It resulted in 
establishing military prestige in the South West in favor of 
the federal arms — a prestige which was never after lost. 

Wilson's Creek is a tributary of White River, and, at the 
point where was fought the celebrated battle which bears its 
name, is about twelve miles west-south-west of Springfield. 
In the vicinity of the battle-ground, the country through 
which it runs is hilly and barren, and, to a considerable extent, 
covered with dense scrub-oak. To the west and south-west of 
Springfield, the efcream is crossed by two roads, the one west 
leading to Little York and Mount Vernon, and the one south- 
west to Fayetteville, Arkansas. The distance between these 
two roads at the points where they cross the creek is between 
three and four miles. Nearly mid-way between these the bat- 
tle was fought. 

On the afternoon of the 5th Of August, 1861, Lyon, with all 
his forces, was at Springfield, and the enemy in their camp on 
Wilson's Creek. That afternoon, in council with his officers, 
he determined to move oul against them, and his plan of 
attack was as follows:— Sigel, with a small force, going down 



JOHN F. BATES. 29 

the FayetteviUe road, was to move on the enemy and attack 
them in rear, while Lyon, with the chief part of the troops, 
was to move west over the Little York and Mount Vernon 
road, and attack them in front. The attack was to be made at 
day-light of the 10th instant. Sigel, though successful in sur- 
prising the enemy, was afterwards defeated and narrowly 
eseaped capture. This was early in the day. Lyon's command, 
therefore, did the chief fighting at Wilson's Creek. The First 
Iowa Infantry was under Lyon, and the movements of this 
officer I will therefore trace. 

About six o'clock in the evening of the ninth instant, Lyon 
ordered his troops under arms, and without music, marched 
quietly out from Springfield. His course for nearly two miles 
was the same as that followed by Sigel. Continuing his course 
westward till arriving in the neighborhood of Wilson's Creek, 
lie then took a blind or by-road to his right; for a portion of 
the enemy were encamped near the junction of the main road 
witli the creek, on the bluffs south-west of the stream ; and 
thi se, to make his surprise the more complete in the morning, 
he wished to avoid. Before midnight, and without disturbing 
the enemy, he gained the bluffs south-west of the creek, and at 
r point some three miles distant from their main camp. 10s 
position was on their left flank, and their vedettes and pickets 
were not far distant. There he bivouacked till tbreeVeloek in 
the morning. Sigel, on the other hand, halting in the low- 
ground on the north-east side of the creek, rested till about the 
same hour, with only the high bluffs of the creek separating 
him from the enemy. 

At ihrue o'clock, Lyon pat his troops under anus, and with 
his skirmishers thrown out, moved down the bank of the creek 
in the direction of the enemy. The enemy's pickets and their 
reserves were encountered and driven in, about rive o'clock, 
and very soon after quite a strong force was met on a high 



30 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

point, some quarter of a mile north of where they were form- 
ing their main line of battle. These were engaged and par- 
tially driven back by the First Kansas Volunteer Infantry and 
a battalion of Regular Infantry under Captain, afterwards, 
General Plummer ; and near this spot, let me say, was done 
the principal fighting of that day. The Reverend John S. C. 
Abbott represents the fighting as having taken place on the 
north-east bank of the creek, but Mr. Abbott was misinformed. 
He was also misinformed as to the spot where General Lyon 
fell. That General was shot some four rods in rear of the First 
Iowa, and was not at the time leading a charge. 

The First Iowa Infantry first formed line of battle on the 
ground in question, and on the left of Dubois' Battery, which 
it was ordered to support. After taking position, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Merritt, commanding the regiment, and who it is but 
just to add distinguished himself by his coolness and courage, 
at once sent out as skirmishers companies D and E, com- 
manded respectively by Lieutenants Keller and AbercroTnbie. 

The topography of the Wilson Creek battle-ground is nearly 
as follows: Between the Federal and Confederate forces was 
a ravine, penetrating the bluffs of the creek in a send-circular 
course from the west. Its bed and its sides were partially 
wooded as before stated — enough so, to afford cover to an 
attacking party. On the mirth bank of this ravine was Lyon, 
and on its south bank, MeCulloch. Price had in the bed of 
the ravine, artillery supported by infantry. Between these 
guns and those of Dubois, an artillery duel opened. For a 
time the infantry engaged each other at long range; but pres- 
ently the First Kansas, stationed down the hill, were assaulted 
and repulsed, when instantly the First Iowa was ordered for- 
ward to relieve them. Advancing, the regiment met the First 
Kansas retreating in confusion. Thev dashed through Colonel 



JOHN P. BATES. 31 

>!.rritt 1 s line, and threw it into disorder, and at the very 
Instant he received a galling fire from the enemy. Orders 
v. ore given to re-form, but the din of fire-arms and loud talking 
drowned Colonel Merritt's voice, and he was left with only 
two companies. With these he continued to advance. At this 
juncture, the Black Horse Cavalry made their appearance on 
our right and rear. They had gained their position by 
moving through ravines, under cover of timber. They were 
commanded by one Captain George S. Laswell, a former resi- 
dent of Ottumwa. Led on by this man, they were about 
charging To tt en's Battery, when the two companies under 
Colonel Merritt, about-facing, delivered a fire that emptied 
several saddles, and placed the rebel captain out of battle; and 
thus the fight went on. 

In the meantime, rebel infantry had been pushed up the 
ravine, and appeared on our extreme right. They advanced 
rapidly up the hill, delivering a continuous fire, but were re- 
pulsed. They re-formed and advanced again, and were a 
second time repulsed. During the second advance, Lyon fell. 
I should state that before this happened, Major A. B. Porter, 
with companies A, F, D, and E, of the First Iowa, had been 
sent to the rear to watch the Black Horse Cavalry. 

Sigel had, a long time ere tins, been defeated, and a portion 
of the rebel troops that had repulsed him were now advancing 
up the north-east bank of the creek. To check these, the Reg- 
ulars were sent across the creek ; but in that quarter there was 
little lighting. The battle was of more than five hour's dura- 
tion. The First Iowa was at the front five hours. Of the 
ri treat Colonel Merritt says: 

"About twelve o'clock, M., the order was given to retire 
from the held, which was done in good order. As we retired 
ovi :• the hill, v-e passed a section of Totten's Battery occupying 
a commanding point to the right, and supported on t lie right 



32 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

by companies A, F, D, and E, of the Iowa troops, under com- 
mand of Major Porter, and on the left by one company of 
Regular Infantry under command of Colonel Lothrop. This 
command sustained our retreat with great coolness and deter- 
mination, under a most terrific lire from the enemy's infantry. 
After the wounded were gathered up, our column formed in 
order of march, and, the enemy repulsed, the battery and 
infantry retired in good order. Thus closed one of the most 
hotly-contested engagements known to the country." 

Such, briefly, was the battle of Wilson's Creek. Though 
imperfect in detail, I believe that, so far as it goes, it is cor- 
rect. Compared, however, with the brilliant accounts of our 
modern war-historians, it would not be recognized as the 
same engagement. It was the first battle of importance fought 
in the South West, and, becoming the theme of exciting com- 
ment in almost every paper in the loyal and disloyal States, 
gradually increased in proportions, till it was in print one 
of the most sanguinary battles of modern times. And it was 
in fact a severely contested and bloody fight ; for the loss of the 
1st Iowa Infantry alone was more than one hundred and fifty. 
This regiment however suffered more severely than any other 
of the troops, and was admitted by all to have borne itself 
with conspicuous gallantry. Captain Alexander L. Mason, a 
native of Indiana, and a resident of Muscatine, was the only 
commissioned officer killed. He fell in a charge at the head of 
his company. Captain Frederick Gottschalk and Lieutenants 
II. Graham and William Pursell were wounded. The loss of 
the regiment in killed was only eleven, though several died 
afterwards of their wounds. Colonel Bates was not present in 
the engagement, though I am advised he made an effort to be. 
He was left sick af Springfield. 

The following is the roll of honor, as given by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Morritt : 

"It is with great pleasure that I acknowledge valuable aid 
and assistance from Major A. B. Porter, Adjutant George W. 



JOnN F. BATES. 33 

Waldron, who was wounded in the leg, and Sergeant-Major 
Charles Compton; and to express my unbounded admiration of 
the heroic conduct displayed by both officers and men. No 
troops, regular or volunteer, ever sustained their country's flag 
with more determined valor and fortitude. They have cov- 
ered themselves vsith imperishable honor, and must occupy a 
conspicuous place in the history of their country. " 

In this connection, it is proper to state that the term of ser- 
vice of every line officer of the regiment expired on the 
afternoon of that evening in which they marched out to Wil- 
son's Creek ; but not one of them claimed exemption from the 
coining battle. The same can not be said of officers of some 
other tioops. The term of service of the enlisted men of the 
1st Iowa Infantry expired four clays after the battle. 

Wilson's Creek was a drawn battle; for, though the Confed- 
erates, kept the field, they did not make pursuit. They had 
been severely punished; but I doubt if that alone deterred them, 
for, in numbers, their strength exceeded that of the Federals 
more than four to one. They had not yet nursed their treason 
to that fanatical point which made it synonymous with patri- 
otism, and they were cowards. 

After the fall of General Lyon, Major, now General Sturgis, 
assumed command of the Federal forces and fell back to 
Springfield, and soon after to Rolla. In the meantime Gcn- 
rul Sterling Price, who had succeeded McCulloch in command of 
the rebel forces, occupied the country, and in the latter part 
of the month, moved north and laid siege to, and captured 
Lexington. 

The term of service of the 1st Iowa Infantry had now 
expired, and, returning to their homes, they were welcomed 
as the first heroes of the State in the war. Wherever they 
appeared, they were looked on with wonder. They had 
pained more distinction in that solitary battle than is now 
accorded our veterans of twenty battles; but they are the sires 

3 



34 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

of our military prowess, and who would detract from their 
hard-earned glory? 

Colonel Bates is a fine looking man. He is five feet nine 
inches in hight, and has a well developed and pre-possessing 
person. He has a social disposition, and makes a warm friend 
and a sleepless enemy. I do not admire his political course, 
and may be prejudiced against him ; but this certainly must be 
conceded — he is entitled to much credit for surmounting the 
obstacles of poverty and a deficient education, and for making 
himself what he is. 

The Colonel, I think, was not popular with his regiment. 
He would allow no foraging. In restoring the seceded States 
to their proper functions in the Union, and in establishing I 
within their limits a respect for the laws of the Govermnent, 
he believed more in moral suasion than in corporal castigation. 
His officers and men charged him with being too kind to the 
rebels, though they gave him credit of being sincere in his 
convictions. After leaving the service, he continued to act 
and vote with the so-called Peace Tarty. 



MAJOR-GENERAL SAMUEL R. CURTIS. 

FIKST COLONEL, SECOND IXFAXTEY. 

Samuel Hyax Curtis, Iowa's distinguished statesman and 
Boldier, was the second colonel, and the first general officer 
appointed from the State. He is Iowa's first and oldest major- 
general, and, at the time of entering the service, was more 
widely known than any other officer sent out from the State; 
for, almost from the State's infancy, he has stood prominent 
among her public men. "1 T^^^Vt ^R 

General Curtis was born on the 3d day of February,' 1S07, 
and calls himself a native of Newark, Licking county, Ohio. 
In point of fact, he was born while his parents were on their 
way from Connecticut to the West, and somewhere in the State 
of New York. He was educated at the West Point Military 
Academy, where he held the highest military office in his class. 
Graduating in 1831, with a brevet second-lieutanancy in the 7th 
Infantry, he was soon after assigned to duty at Fort Gibson in 
the Indian Territory. In the following year, he resigned his 
commission, and returning to Ohio, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar. From 1837 to 1839, he was chief engineer 
of the Muskingum River Improvement. Later he practiced 
law in Wooster, Ohio, and was actively and successfully en- 
gaged in the practice, when war was declared with Mexico. 
He was now summoned to Columbus by the Governor of Ohio, 
a ad made adjutant-general of that State; and not long after was 
commissioned colonel of the Sd Ohio Volunteer Infantry, which 
he led to the field. 

Hi- served on the Northern Jane in Mexico under General 
Taylor, and was for a time on the staff of General Wool; and, 

35 



36 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

as governor, commanded the cities of Matamoras, Camargo 
and Saltillo. 

At the close of the war, he returned to Ohio; but finding his 
law business had wasted away during his absence, and being 
urged to take the position of chief engineer of the Des Moines 
Improvement, he left that State, and coining West, settled in 
Keokuk, Iowa. He was for a time engaged in the practice of 
the law in the city of Keokuk, and had for partners Colonel 
J. W. Rankin and the Honorable Charles Mason. From 1850 
to 1353, he was engineer-in-charge of the harbor and other 
works of the city of St. Louis, where the dike that he construc- 
ted, which connects Bloody Island to the Illinois shore, will, 
for many years hence, stand a monument to his, credit. It 
secures to the city of St. Louis great commercial advantages. 
During the two following years, he was chief engineer of the 
American Central Hail Load, running through Illinois, Iowa, 
and other States. 

In 1856, General Curtis was elected to Congress from the First 
Congressional District of Iowa, and in 185S, and again in 1SC0. 
was re-elected from the same district. In the canvass of I860, 
his opponent was the Honorable C. C. Cole, now Judge of the 
Supreme Court of Iowa, and one of the ablest debaters and 
most popular men in the State. No better proof could be had 
of the general's ability as a state-man, and of the integrity 
of his record, than this thud endorsement of him by the 
people: indeed, nearly every section of his District gave him 
increased majorities. 

From the organization of the party, be has been an earnest 
and consistent Republican; hut that fur which be became most 
distinguished in Congress was the part he acted in securing the 
passage of the Pacific Rail Road Act. Others have claimed the 
honor, but he is the father of thisenterpri.se, as is evidenced by 
his elaborate speeches and demonstrations of record in the 



SAMUEL R. CURTIS. 37 

annuls of Congress. I should also add that he was a leading 
member of the Committee on Military Affairs. He had, I am 
credibly informed, much to do with the efforts of the House, 
in countervailing the schemes of Jeff Davis, in his manip- 
ulations of our military forces to his base purposes. 

General Curtis' patriotism was always fervent, and, though 
others have made a more brilliant reputation in the war, none 
responded more promptly to the first call of national alarm; 
and, I may add, none have led armies and fought battles u-ith more 
uniform success. Leaving his home in the West on the first 
news of the attack on Fort Sumter, he started for Washington ; 
and, meeting at Philadelphia the gallant 7th New York, 
Colonel Lcfferts, embarked with it on transports for Annapolis. 
From that point the march was made through the heat and 
dust by day and night to Washington. Returning to Keokuk, 
he assisted in raising volunteers, and was, on the 1st of June, 
elected colonel of the 2d Iowa Infantry, (the first three-years 
regiment from the State) by the unanimous vote of the officers 
and men. Ten days later and at midnight, he Was summoned 
by General Lyon by telegraph to Northern Missouri, and 
marched next day with his regiment for that point. Besides 
capturing many prisoners, guns etc., he established at once in 
Northern Missouri the military authority of the Federal 
Government. 

In the latter part of June, he left again for Washington to be 
present at the fourth session of Congress, and while there was 
made a brigadier-general. He now resigned his seat in Con- 
grt 55, and, reporting at St. Louis, Missouri, was soon after 
placed in command, first 'of Jefferson Barracks, next of the 
Cnmp of Instruction at Benton Barracks, and finally of the 
St. Louis District. While holding the last named command, 
tit- 1 President devolved on him the duties connected with the 
clmhge of commanders — a most delicate and painful service, 



38 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

which he neither sought nor desired; but for the prudence and 
decision he discovered in the discharge of these duties, he re- 
ceived the special thanks of Mr. Lincoln. 

In December 18G1, General Curtis was placed in command of 
the District of Southwest Missouri, and at once repaired to 
Kolla, where he established his head-quarters. Having organ- 
ized his army in the early part of January 1862, he marched 
against General Price, and drove him through Missouri and 
Northern Arkansas. On this march, the enemy were encoun- 
tered in several skirmishes and engagements. The culminating 
one was the sanguinary battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas. It 
resulted in a brilliant victory to the Federal arms, and in the 
restoration of the flag and the authority of the Government in 
that State. 

Although the battle of Pea Ridge was one of the earliest and 
most decisive of the war, yet, I believe, less is known of it, 
than of any other of equal magnitude, especially of those 
fought in the South West. 

In the latter part of January, 1SC2, nearly four months after 
the march of General Fremont was mule from Jefferson City to 
Springfield, General Curtis lift Holla, Missouri, for the purpose 
of capturing or dispersing the rebel army under General Sterling 
Price. His command consisted of the divisions of Sigel, (subse- 
quently Osterhous') Asboth, Davis and Carr, and numbered 
about twelve thousand men. Passing through Lebanon, Marsh- 
field, Springfield and over the bid Wilson Creek battle-field, he 
arrived in the vicinity of Pea Ridge on the evening of the 20th of 
February. Hefirstmct the enemy north of Springfield— though 
neither there, nor at any point between that and Sugar Creek, 
did he meet with determined resistance. Shortly before the 
arrival of Curtis at Sugar C'n ok, Price had heen re-inforced by 
McCulloch, and, in consequence of this, quite a severe engage- 
ment took place at the above named point. At Sugar Creek, 



SAMUEL B. CURTIS. 39 

SIgel, who had made a detour, rejoined the main army, 
which now pressed on to Osage Springs, a position which 
Hanked Cross Hollows, the rebel strong-hold, and compelled its 
evacuation by McOulloch. From the 21st of February to the 
51 h of March, General Curtis' forces remained in this vicin- 
ity, the enemy in the meantime collecting all his forces in 
the front. Being informed of the enemy's great increase of 
strength, and his designs to assume the offensive, General Cur- 
tis ordered all his several divisions, by different routes, to 
fall back to Sugar Creek and Pea Bidge to give battle, should 
the enemy force one. At this time General Sigel was near 
Bentonville, Carr was at Cross Hollows, while General Jeffer- 
son C. Davis was already on Sugar Creek, just at the base of 
Pea Ridge. * 

On the morning of the 5th of March, Captain H. H. Griffiths, 
of the 4th Iowa Infantry, (subsequently of the 1st Iowa Battery) 
who was field-officer of the day, found the picket-line in com- 
motion, and, on inquiry, learned that a government foraging 
train had been captured. Soon after it was learned from scouts, 
contrabands and from loyal citizens, living in the vicinity of 
Cross Hollows, that General Van Born, having formed a junc- 
tion with Price, was advancing to give battle, and that night 
Colonel Carr, under orders and accompanied by General Curtis, 
marched back to Sugar Creek, a distance of fourteen miles. 
That same afternoon, GeneraTSigel also received orders at his 
camp near Bentonville, to forthwith move back to Sugar Creek, 
distant about sixteen miles; for General Curtis was now satis- 
fied that a great battle was imminent, and it was his purpose 
to concentrate at Pea Pudge, and engage the enemy from that 
strong position. Colonel Vandcver, of the 9th Iowa Infantry, 
who was near Himtsville, In command of a brigade, was 
ordered to march day and night till he reached the place 
designated. 



40 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Pea Ridge, Arkansas, is a narrow plateau, running nearly- 
east and west, and lying near the Boston Mountains. Along 
its southern base is the historic stream of Sugar Creek, whose 
northern bank is in many places precipitous, rising to the 
hight of two or three hundred feet. On its top, Pea Ridge has 
a few cultivated fields; but for the most part is covered with a 
short and stinted growth of oak of great density. Its northern 
slope is gradually descending, and terminating in wild, deep 
ravines. Just north of these ravines are abrupt, rocky and 
rugged hills, and, among and in the vicinity of these, is the 
celebrated. Cross Timber Hollows, so named, it is said, from 
the heavy timber which was felled there by General McCulloch, 
in October 1861, to block the advance of General Fremont, in 
his march from Springfield. Punning along through Cross 
Timber Hollows, and over Pea Ridge and Sugar Creek, is the 
Wire, or Butterfield road. Its course is nearly due north and 
south. Branching off from this road to the west, and about four 
miles north of Sugar Creek, is the Lee town road, which, after 
passing through a small village by that name, bears round to 
the south to Bentonville. It was over this last named road 
that General Sigel fell back to Pen Ridge. Carr returned with 
his division from Cross Hollows, over the "Wire road; Cross 
Hollows lying south of Pea Ridge, and, as I have said, some 
fourteen miles distant from it. 

On the morning of the Cth of March, the divisions of both 
Carr and Davis were at Sugar Creek, and in position, throwing 
up temporary field-works, while the command of Sigel was 
just moving out of Bentonville; and here it was that Sigel first 
met the enemy. It happened in this wise: having halted in 
Bentonville with a small force until after the departure of the 
greater part of his command, he was attacked by the rebel 
army and almost completely surrounded. Forming his small 
force— scarcely six hundred men— he broke through the ene- 



SAMUEL R. CURTIS. 41 

my'g lines and, though still closely pursued and his ilanks 
severely pressed, marched for several hours, sustaining an almost 
continuous engagement; indeed, the enemy did not cease their 
attacks until the arrival of reinforcements, sent and led by 
General Curtis in person. That he was not entirely cut off and 
compelled to surrender was duo as well to the superior discip- 
line of the troops, as to the skill displayed by General Sigel, in 
managing his rear defences. Thus the enemy were checked, 
and Sigel arrived safely on the north bank of Sugar Creek. 

At midnight on the 6th of March, the position of General 
Curtis' forces were as follows: The enemy were expected to 
advance from the south across Sugar Creek valley, and the 
troops of General Curtis were therefore drawn up in-line of 
battle on the high bluffs, facing that valley. Davis 1 and Carr's 
divisions held the left, and Sigel's and Asboth's the right; and 
the whole front was defended by strong works, thrown up 
during the day and night. The commissary-stores had been 
sent back to the rear to Elkhorn Tavern, and placed under 
charge of Major Weston, provost-marshal of the army ; for it 
was supposed that that was a place of safety. Early on the 
morning of the 7th instant, General Curtis became convinced, 
from the reports of his scouts, that a heavy body of the enemy 
was moving round his right, for the purpose of attacking his 
rigid Hank and rear. A change of front to the rear was there- 
fore ordered, so as to face the road west, along which the enemy 
were now advancing. Before this movement had been com- 
pleted, a detachment of cavalry and light artillery, well sup- 
ported by infantry under Colonels Osterhaus and Busseywas 
ordered from the new centre. Its object was to attack the 
enemy while they were moving by the flank. But in the 
meantime Major Weston was attacked at Elkhorn Tavern, 
by rebel infantry. Elkhorn Tavern was the point where the 
new right was to rest, and Carr's Division was already on its 



42 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

way to reinforce Major Weston's command, and to order the 
train to a place of safety. It was this prompt movement on 
the part of General Curtis that saved him his army, and for 
the coolness and judgment that prompted it, he is entitled to 
great credit. ]N T or is it true, as has often been stated, that 
General Sigel, at Pea Ridge, saved the Federal army from de- 
feat and capture. He did well the duties of a subordinate 
officer, and is entitled to great praise for the manner in which 
he wrested his mere handful of men from the enemy's grasp 
at Bentonville ; but, on the 7th of March, and after the change 
of front, he held the extreme left which was not . engaged at 
all. 

A civilian has no idea of the extent of country embraced in 
the lines of a great battle, and will be surprised when told that 
the right and centre of Curtis' line at Pea Ridge were several 
miles apart. He can better understand that to handle troops 
successfully under such circumstances, requires great coolness 
and judgment — and that is just what makes a good general. 

The fighting now opened on the right and in the centre with 
great fury ; and in the centre the enemy were at first successful. 
The Federal cavalry, sent out under Osterhaus and Bussey, 
wore routed and lost their artillery ; and General Curtis there- 
fore ordered Davis to Osterhaus' support. On arriving, he 
assumed command, for he was the senior officer; and now the 
centre was held firmly. Soon Davis assumed the offensive, 
and assaulting the enemy, re-captured the lost battery, and 
either killed or mortally wounded Generals Mcintosh and 
Slack. McCulloch had been killed before Davis came up. 

In the meantime General Carr had met the enemy and 
fought a most unequal and terrible battle on the right. 
Opposed to his division were the commands of both Price and 
Van Dorn. From sun-rise to near sun-set, Carr fought with 
but few reinforcements, and, though his troops displayed the 






SAMUEL B. CURTIS. 43 

greatest bravery, he had, toward night, bceu forced back 
marly a mile; and now his troops had left but little ammuni- 
tion. 

The enemy now having developed their strength and posi- 
tion, it became evident to General Curtis that he must re-form 
his line ; and the order was promptly given. He divined the 
object of the enemy, which was to force back his right, cut off 
nil lines of retreat, and dash his army to pieces against the Bos- 
ion Mountains. The commands of Sigel, Davis, Asboth and 
Osterhaus were brought up from the left and centre, and 
thrown into position, facing the north aud confronting the 
main body of the enemy under Price aud A r an Porn. But 
while this movement was in progress, General Curtis, in com- 
pany with Asboth and a small portion of his division, rode 
to the right to the immediate relief of Carr, who, by this 
time, as I have said, had been driven back nearly a mile. 
Biding on to the ground he met the 4th Iowa Infantry, who, 
having fired their last cartridge, were gradually yielding 
ground to the enemy. He at once ordered them to about- 
face and charge the enemy, which they did in such gallant 
style as to cheek their further advance that night. During 
the night, the troops were afforded rest and sleep, and fresh 
supplies of ammunition, and early on the following morning 
the struggle was renewed. I should not omit to state that 
during the night a third and last line Mas formed; and it was 
now for the first time quite continuous. Carr held the right, 
as he had done the entire day before, Davis the centre, and 
Asboth and Sigel the left; but these last troops did not get 
into position till after the fighting of the morning begun. 
The right and centre was the only part of the line engaged, 
aud the fighting was being principally done by the artillery. 
Soon Sigel came upon the left, and forced the enemy's right 
from a strong position it had taken up on one of the hills in 



44 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Cross Timber Hollows. It was now the moment of victory, 
seeing which General Curtis ordered a general charge. The 
enemy struggled fiercely for a moment, but their lines were 
soon broken at all points, ami they fled in utter rout from the 
field. But for one thing, large numbers of them would 
have been captured— Cross Timber Hollows gave them a sure 
and almost unmolested way of retreat. 

It was a splendid victory ! For his bravery, watchfulness 
and skill, General Curtis well deserved to be made a major- 
general; and only thirteen days after the last day's battle, he 
was promoted to that rank. General Sigel received a like pro- 
motion; but, on account of ill health, was soon after compelled 
to leave the field. lie never returned to the Army of the 
South West. 

After remaining in the vicinity of the battle-ground for 
nearly a month, the enemy no longer appearing in any force 
near his front, General Curtis, by a difficult march, moved 
across the Boston Mountains to Batesville, on White Fiver. 
Here he remained till the 23d of the following June, when he 
began his celebrated march through Arkansas to Helena. At 
that day it was a celebrated undertaking, and the papers 
throughout the country were filled witli its recital ; but to-day, 
when contrasted with the wonderful movements of Sherman, 
it seems only an ordinary affair. The skirmishes and engage- 
ments which resulted from this movement will be given 
elsewhere. That was now accomplished which General Fre- 
mont claimed he would have effected six months earlier, had 
his hands not been tied by the President— the west bank of 
the Mississippi was gained at a point below Memphis. 

General Curtis remained at Helena until the following Aug- 
ust, His head-quarters were established at the magnificent 
residence of the rebel General Hindman, which is situated 
near the base of one of tin' hills that look down on that sickly, 






SAMUEL R. CURTIS. 45 

detestable village. While here he organized many expeditions, 
one of which penetrated the waters of the Yazoo River. 
Another went down the Mississippi, and captured a partially 
prepared battery; and still another was sent to Richmond, a 
considerable town in Louisiana, eighteen miles west of Vicks- 
burg. It was through this same town that Grant inarched, 
v hen on his way to the rear of Yieksburg. 

Put, though burdened with the cares of a large military 
command^ General Curtis did not forget that magnificent 
enterprise, fur the success of which he had, in civil life, labored 
so untiringly, and, I may add, so successfully. Having been 
made one of the corporators, he obtained a leave of absence 
from the War Department to attend the Pacific Railroad Con- 
vention at Chicago. He was chosen and acted as President of 
that body. In the future, that assemblage will be looked upon 
as a land-mark of a new era ; for it organized and inaugurated 
the great work which is now in progress, to connect the two 
oceans and bind the continent together with iron bands. 

On the 10th of September, 18G2, General Curtis was assigned 
to the command of the Department of the Missouri, with 
head-quarters at St. Louis. At that time tins department 
included tin- States of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, the Territo- 
ries of Nebraska, Colorado, and the Indian Territory. The 
military forces consisted of the armies of the South West, the 
Frontier, and South-east Missouri. The department was sub- 
sequently diminished by the withdrawal of Arkansas. While 
in command of this department, his troops fought the following 
battles : Cane Hill, Old Town, Wayne, Prairie Grove, Spring- 
held, Hartsville, Cape Girardeau, besides capturing Fort Smith 
and Van Puren, Arkansas. There were also many skirmishes 
and engagements of lesser note. Put General Curtis was too 
i.iiii a! for that early day of the struggle. His anti-Slavery 
spirit was distasteful to the conservative governor of Missouri, 



40 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

and, harassed by the importunities of that official, and other 
influential conservative men of the State, the President relieved 
the general of his command, after a successful and, with the 
true friends of the Government, a popular administration of 
eight months. The President expressly stated that he had no 
faidt to find with the general's administration, but that he 
was willing to yield to the wishes of the conservative party, 
headed by Governor Gamble, and see, if by inaugurating a 
more lenient policy, he could not conciliate hostile factions, and 
heal the breach in the Union Party of Missouri. But the Pres- 
dent, though honest in his intentions, (as he always has been), 
was in error, as the subsequent triumph of anti-Slavery princi- ' 
pies in that State evidences. Indeed, the history of the Balti- 
more Convention of 1864 is conclusive proof in tins' matter; 
for the Missouri delegation was the only one which cast its 
vote against Mr. Lincoln in that body. 

General Curtis' next command was the Department of Kan- 
sas, to which he was assigned the first day of January, 1SG4. 
It included Kansas, and the Territories of Nebraska and Colo- 
rado, with head-quarters at Fort Leavenworth. Fort Smith 
and the Indian Territory were at first included, but these 
were subsequently given to General Steele, whose head- 
quarters were at Little Rock. During the summer and fall of 
1SG4, the general was engaged in protecting the exposed settle- 
ments on the frontier from the depredations of hostile Indians, 
and in guarding lines of travel west. He was at Fort Leaven- 
worth, and his troops scattered in every quarter of his com- 
mand, when he first learned of the rapid and almost unopposed 
march of Price into Missouri. The course of the rebel general 
was bearing toward the borders of Kansas, and General 
Curtis, although his available force was scarcely three thousand 
men, began preparations to nut-t him. The Kansas Militia 
were at once organized under General Deitzler, and, with the 



SAMUEL K. CUKTIS. 47 

volunteer forces under General Blunt, General Curtis took the 
field. The part taken by the general in routing and driving 
Price from Missouri was active and successful. I quote from a 
statement of one of his staff officers: 

14 The sudden rallying of the people of Kansas, under Curtis, 
checked the movements of Price, who had boasted that he 
would capture Fort Leavenworth and city, and lay the State 
waste. The first resistance actually confronting the advance of 
Price was the advance of General Blunt, under Curtis, at Lex- 
ington, on October lfJth. " 

" Rosecrans and Pleasanton were south-east of the rebel gen- 
eral, while Curtis, Blunt and Deitzler, with their little band of 
volunteers, were to his west, near Kansas City, on the border 
of Kansas. Blunt advanced to Lexington, where he was 
attacked by Price, and, as he was ordered only to feel the 
enemy, fell back to the Little Blue. In the battles of Little 
Blue and Big Blue, on the 20th and 22d of October, Curtis 
delayed the advance of the rebel general, and held him a 
severe engagement. At Westport, on the 23d, the battle was 
renewed ; and General Curtis, with his whole force, completely 
checked Price's westward movement, and turned him south. 
After the rebel retreat had commenced, Pleasanton joiued in 
pursuit, and the retreat became a rout. Price was driven south 
along the border of Kansas. 

" After the battle of Westport, Price successively fought and 
lost the battles of Marias des Cygnes, [Swamp of the Swans] 
Mine Creek, Osage, and on October 25th, the battle of Char- 
lotto, losing two thousand men and two guns. The rebel 
generals Marmaduke and Cabell were captured, and large 
quantities of Price's equipments were burned and scattered in 
the retreat. The rebel generals Graham and Slemmons were 
killed. Price passed within a few miles of the richly stored 
military depot of Fort Scott; but was too closely pressed to 
attempt its capture. The same night he burned five hundred of 
his wagons, and a large quantity of bis stores. The pursuit 
was continued on October 2f,th, ami on the 28th, at Granby, the 
rebel rear-guard wa.s struck. At Newtonia, five miles beyond, 
Blunt, being in advance, attacked the enemy with parts of two 
brigades, holding his ground for three hour-, until the arrival 
of Curtis with Sanborn's Brigade on the field. The enemy 



4S IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

was soon routed, and again retreated in great disorder, having 
lost some six hundred men. On this night Bosecrans with- 
drew all his forces, and, as the Kansas Militia had been dig 
banded at Fort Scott, General Curtis' whole force did not now 
exceed twenty-two hundred men. 

" The next day, in accordance with orders from Lieutenant- 
General Grant, Curtis continued the pursuit of Price. The 
Missouri troops were included in the order; but for some 
reason did not overtake General Curtis. At Keetsville, Colonel 
Benton with a small brigade of veterans of the lGth Army 
Corps, making Curtis' force about three thousand men, joined 
in the pursuit, which was continued over the old I'ea Ridge 
battle-ground to Cross Hollows. From this point a forced 
march was made to the relief of Fayetteville, for three days 
invested by Price's forces, who hastily retired, on the approach 
of General Curtis, who, they supposed, still retained the whole 
force that operated in Missouri. The pursuit was continued 
over Cane Hill battle-ground, and through a portion of the 
Indian Territory, to a point on the Arkansas River, thirty 
miles above Fort Smith. Here, on Xovember 8th, Price suc- 
ceeded in crossing the river, a parting volley of shells being 
fired at his rear. General Curtis now returned by easy march.es 
to Fort Leavenworth. 

" In a campaign of thirty-eight days, a march of nearly one 
thousand miles had been accomplished; nine battles had been 
fought, with a Union loss of eighteen hundred men, killed and 
wounded. From Lexington to Cane Hill, the rebels admitted 
a loss of ten thousand five hundred killed, wounded and miss- 
ing. General Curtis was welcomed back to his post with a 
grain} reception by the people of Leavenworth ; and the Legis- 
lature of Kansas tendered him 'their thanks for his noble 
defense of the State, and recommended his promotion in the 
regular army." 

General Curtis has recently been assigned to the command of 
the Department of the North West, with head-quarters at Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin. It is the same command recently held by 
Major-General John Pope, including the States of Wisconsin, 
Minnesota and Iowa, and the Territories of Dacotah and 
Idaho. 

If we except two instances, General Curtis has served with- 



SAMUEL R. CURTIS. 49 

out reproach, from the time he entered the "war to the present. 
He was charged with dealing in cotton, while commanding in 
.Arkansas, and rebels gave their affidavits to impeach him ; bat 
the President was kind enough to inform the general of the 
secret assaults on his character, and the overwhelming proof 
which he offered of the integrity of his command in Arkansas, 
not only served with the President, but with the people, as a 
full vindication against the foul slander. He was also charged 
with appropriating two camels, which he had captured from 
the enemy, the remnant of those imported by the Government 
t<> traverse the sandy plains of the Southern Overland Route ; 
but, on inquiry, it appeared that they were kept by, and prop- 
erly accounted for, by the staff quarter-master, awaiting, at 
any time, the disposal of the Government. It further appeared 
that th^y were only sent to Iowa to secure them from re-cap- 
ture, and to preserve them for the Government, to which they 
rightfully and notoriously belonged. Even the genial-hearted 
Claggett, editor of the Keokuk "Constitution," and the bitter 
political opponent of General Curtis, vindicated him from this 
unjust and unmanly charge. 

Of the Iowa major-generals, General Curtis is the largest in 
person;. He has a tall, fine form, and, though nearly sixty 
years of age, is erect and vigorous. His large, hazel eyes give 
his countenance an expression of gravity and thoughtfulness 
which comports well with the dignity of his movements and 
manners. But, if he is sedate, and if he never laughs boister- 
ously, he is nevertheless easily approached and sociable; he is 
kind and generous-hearted, and would not knowingly injure 
the feelings of the most humble or unfortunate. 

He has one trait which is not in keeping with his general 
character. He is nice and precise in dress, and in this respect 
has been noted for the scrupulousness with which he has com- 
plied with the Army Regulations. He never, when on duty, 



50 IOWA COLONELS AND KEGIMEXTS. 

omits a regulation trapping. In many respects he is not unlike 
General Grant ; but not in this. 

Intellectually, General Curtis is not brilliant. He has excel- 
lent judgment, and great available ability. To these, and to 
unremitting labor, he is indebted for what he is. Pie is a most 
excellent mathematician, and, as a civil-engineer, has I believe 
no superior in the West. This remarkable endowment made 
him the leader in Congress of the great Pacific Railroad enter- 
prise. 

As a soldier, General Curtis is able, magnanimous and brave ; 
and why, against his known wishes, he has recently been kept 
from the front, I do not understand. Perhaps he too much 
resembles the great military chieftain of the day ; for I have 
noticed that, in nearly every instance, commands at the front 
have been given to those who, as regards sjmghtUne.ss and dash, 
are the direct, opposites of General Grant. 

General Curtis has a proud record, whether before, or during 
the War of the Rebellion ; and when this great conflict shall 
have dosed, and a true love of the Nation's ancient motto 
re-en -hrin rd in the hearts of all, he will stand, with the honest 
historian, as one of the most practical and deserving men of 
his day. 



RIGADIER-GEXERAL JAMES M. TUTTLE. 



SECOND COLONEL, SECOND INFANTRY. 

General James Madison Tuttle, was born near Summer- 
fleld, Monroe county, Ohio, on the 24th of September, 1S23 ; and 
was educated at "the people's college" — the Common School. 
Emigrating to Indiana with his father's family, in the winter 
of 1833, he settled in Fayette county, whence, after a residence 
of thirteen years, he removed to Farmiugton, Van Buren 
county, Iowa, where he soon after engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. 

Prior to entering the United States Service, General Tuttle 
was a quiet citizen, and not known to any great extent, outside 
of his own county. In the fall of 1855, he was elected to the 
office of sheriff of Van Buren county, and in 1S57, to that of 
treasurer and recorder, and was known as a prompt, honora- 
ble and accurate official —but nothing further. He cared little 
for public eclat ; and what little public life he had seen, was 
not so much attributable to his own efforts, as to the solicitation 
and labor of his friends. In his case, as in many others, the 
war developed latent powers that otherwise would doubtless 
have remained dormant. 

Early in 1861, in response to the call of the President for sev- 
enty-five thousand men, General Tuttle closed up his business 
hastily, and recruited a company, of which he was elected cap- 
tain ; but the quota of the State's three-months men being 
already full, his company, in the following May, was assigned 
to the 2d Iowa Infantry. At its rendezvous, he was chosen 
lieutenant-colonel of that regiment, and on the 6th of the fol- 
lowing September, was made its colonel. 

51 



52 IOWA COLONELS AXD REGIMENTS. 

There are few officers, who have a better military record than 
General Tuttle — none a fairer; and from the time he led his 
regiment in its gallant and reckless charge against Fort Don- 
elson till August, J8G3, when he accepted the Democratic nom- 
ination for Governor of Iowa, there were none, except confessed 
sympathizers with the rebellion, who were not loud in his 
praise ;— and he merited his great popularity. 

That the 2d Iowa Infantry, Colonel James M. Tuttle com- 
manding, and the glory incident to the capture of Fort Don- 
elson are inseparable, is known not only in Iowa, but in 
every loyal State ; but, it is not so generally known that the 
tender of the " forlorn hope" had been previously made by 
General Smith to several other regiments, by all, of which, 
through their commanders, it had been declined. 

" Colonel, will you take those works ? " 

" Support me promptly, and in twenty minutes I will go 
in." 

And he did go in ; but the glory was dearly purchased. The 
dangers met, and the obstacles encountered and overcome in 
this assault, wore of the most prodigious character; and the 
heroism that inspired the assailants has never been fully ap- 
preciate!. It is without question the most gallant, reckless 
and successful charge of the whole war. On the right of the 
Fort Henry, or Dover Road, a fierce struggle had been going on 
during all the forenoon of the loth, with results so favorable to 
the enemy that, abandoning their purposes of retreating, they 
returned to their works, confident of being able to force the en- 
tire Federal position ; and, to show that their hopes of success 
were not unreasonable, it is only necessary to state that with 
the exception of a few regiments— only two brigades — the 
whole Federal force had been encountered and sadly worsted. 
McClemand and Wallace had both been defeated. I am aware 
that the Rev. John S. C. Abbott, our able and pleasant histori- 



JAMES M. TUTTLE. 53 

an, docs not corroborate this statement; nor does the rebel Gen- 
eral Pillow, whom Mr. Abbott cites as authority; but the 
former was doubtless misinformed, and, as for the latter, he 
would not tell the truth if a lie would better suit his purpose. 
Indeed his own flaming dispatch, forwarded to Nashville just 
on the eve of the Confederate successes, contradicts his official 
report of the battle— " On the honor of a soldier, the day is 
ours;" and so at that hour it was. 

In the disposition of the Federal troops at Fort Donelson, 
the 2d Iowa Infantry held the extreme left of General Grant's 
forces. Its position from the rebel lines, at the point where the 
attack was to be made, and where, I may add, a whole brigade 
had made an assault the day before and been repulsed, was 
some six hundred yards distant. The character of the ground, 
intervening between the 2d Iowa and the intrenched line of 
the enemy, was such as to throw all the advantages in the 
enemy's favor. In front of the regiment, and just beyond the 
open field in which it formed for the charge, was a ravine 
whose sides, thickly lined with tangled brush, were very diffi- 
cult of passage. Beyond, was the steep, obstructed hill-side, 
along the crest of which, and parallel to the ravine, were the 
earth-works of the enemy. Not more than one hundred yards 
in front of these works was a formidable, abattis, to pass which 
an assaulting column must break its line of battle, and move 
by the flank. Beyond the abattis there were no obstructions 
except the enemy's breast-works. 

The assaulting party consisted of three hundred men of the 
2d Iowa, under Colonel, afterwards General Turtle; and here 
Mr. Abbott is again in error ; for he says: " General Smith led 
the charge on horseback. It was a sublime sight, as this mass 
of troops, in unbroken line emerged from the woods, and com- 
menced its firm, resolute, silenfctramp up the steep hill in the 
face of the battery of the foe. " General Smith remained at 






54 IOWA COLOXEIJ3 AXD REGIMENTS. 

the foot of the hill till the charge had been made, and the 
enemy's defenses gained. 

But to return: When all was in readiness, the order to 
advance was given, when Colonel Tuttle, with the left wing of 
his regiment, forcing his way through the ravine, began scal- 
ing the hill-side. The abattis was reached, and that obstruc- 
tion passed without the firing of scarcely a gun, but the instant 
after, and hardly before the gallant band had again come into 
line, it received the concentrated fire of three rebel infantry 
regiments — not less than two thousand men. The slaughter 
was terrible. At the first fire, one hundred and fifty of these 
three hundred gallant men fell, either dead or wounded. 
Among them were the lamented captains, Slaymaker and 
Cloutman. But the ardor of the surviving was in no manner 
cooled. Their good name had been impeached at St. Louis, by 
an unjust and unwarranted order of General Hamilton; and 
the last man was to die or be a victor. Without a perceptible 
halt, the assaulting party, closing up its ranks, moved steadily 
on. Such daring was too much for the enemy ; and two whole 
regiments, with the exception of a few men who were promptly 
put to the bayonet, fled from their defences in precipitate 
flight. A Mississippi regiment to the right, still remained; 
but, the right wing of the 2d Iowa now coming up, this also 
fled to the ravine below. 

The key to the rebel position had now been wrested from 
the enemy, and yet the fighting was not more than half done. 
Between the main fort and the position the 2d Iowa now held 
was a deep ravine, through which the enemy having passed, 
had taken up a position on the high ground, which bounded 
its opposite side. Colonel Tuttle, wishing to avail himself of 
their present fright, promptly formed his regiment, and moved 
against them. He had reached the ravine, and was engaging 
the enemy, when that Indiana regiment, just having gained the 



JAMES M. TUTTEE. 55 

hill for the. first tone, commenced pouring a severe musketry- 
fire upon his rear. Momentary confusion followed. Colonel 
Turtle first waved his sword, and in other ways endeavored to 
induce the lndianians to cease their firing; hut they believed 
they were engaging the enemy, and no token but the white 
flag would they accept. Alarmed for the safety of his own regi- 
ment, Colonel Turtle now determined to run back to them, 
and inform them in person of their mistake; but he had not 
gone far before he slopped short, and, turning his face in the 
direction of the enemy's fire, began moving backward. The 
reason for this maneuver of the colonel was then unknown, 
and for sometime after; but it afterwards turned out that he 
was fearful of being shot in the back by the enemy, which he had 
declared should never happen. My informant was a member 
of his old regiment. 

Order was now restored. In the meantime General Smith, 
having come on the hights to superintend movements in per- 
son, recalled the 2d Iowa, and, with the other troops of his 
command, stationed the regiment behind the captured works 
of the enemy. Random firing was kept up till late in the 
evening, and the next morning the fort surrendered. 

Fifteen thousand prisoners, many ordnance stores, and 
much other property, woro the fruits of the victory. There 
were other fruits, though these were not to be relished by the 
public palate. The commander-in-chief, and every division 
commander in the fight, were made major-generals, and every 
brigade commander was made a brigadier. The 2d Iowa 
infantry, therefore, not only made U. S. Grant, C. F. Smith, 
J. A. McClernand and Lew Wallace, major-generals; but 
Lauman and some ten others, brigadiers. It also broke the 
line of the enemy's defences, which extended in the South 
West, from Bowling Green to Columbus, and opened up the 
enemy's country south, to the Memphis and Charleston 



5G IOWW COIiONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Railroad. The regiment did still more; it forced General 
Johnson to evacuate Bowling Green, captured Buckner, and 
frightened into flight Pillow at Fort Donelson, and compelled 
Polk to evacuate Columbus, on the Mississippi. Glorious old 
Regiment ! Well might General Halleck say : " The 2d Iowa 
proved themselves the bravest of the brave." Bichly did 
the regiment deserve its place in the van of the triumphal 
march into the rebel stronghold ! 

And yet, after the surrender of the fort, the colonel of the 
Indiana regiment, who had ordered his men to fire into the 2d 
Iowa, had the impudence to claim the honor of being the first 
in the enemy's works; but in justice to General Smith, let me 
say, his claims were met oidy by reprimands and cursings. 

In adding the roll of honor, I shall quote from 'the official 
report of Colonel Tuttle : 

"When I come to speak of those who particularly distin- 
guished themselves for coolness and bravery, so many exam- 
ples occur to me that it seems invidious to make distinctions. 
Of those few who were in the most responsible positions, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Baker, Major Chipman and Adjutant Tuttle, to 
say that they were cool and brave would not do them justice. 
Tin \ were gallant to perfection. Lieutenant-Colonel Baker had 
a ball pass through his cap and come out near his temple. 
Major Chipman was among the first to fall, severely wounded, 
while cheering on the men of the left wing, and refused to be 
carried from the field ; but waved his sword and exhorted the 
men to press forward. Captains Slaymaker and Cloutman fell 
dead, at the head of their companies, before they reached 
the entrenchments. Near them also fell Lieutenant Harper. 
NLs death was that of a true and brave soldier. Captains 
Cox, Mills, Moore and Wilkins were at the head of their 
companies, marked examples of gallantry and efficiency. 
Lieutenants Schofield, Ensign, Davis, Holmes, Huntington, 
Weaver, Mastic, Snowdon and Godfrey— in fact nearly all of 
my officers, commissioned and non-commissioned, deported 
themselves nobly throughout the engagement. Sergeant-Major 
Brawncr deserves very honorable mention for his gallant con- 



JAMES M. TUTTLE. 57 

duet. Surgeons Marsh and Nassau also deserve the highest 
pmisc l">r their skill and untiring devotion to the welfare of 
Ihe wounded. Dr. Nassau was particularly noticed for his 
bravery on the field, taking off the wounded during a heavy 
lire of the enemy." 
I cannot omit, in this report, an account of the color-guard : 
•' Color-Sergeant Doolittle fell early in the engagement, pierced 
by four balls, and dangerously wounded. The colors were 
then taken by Corporal Page, company B, who soon fell dead. 
They were again raised by Corporal Churcher, company I, 
who had his arm' broken, just as he entered the entrench- 
ments, when they were taken by Corporal Twombly, com- 
pany P, who was almost instantly knocked down by a spent 
ball, but immediately rose and bore them gallantly to the end 
of the fight. Not a single man of the color-guard but himself 
was on his feet at the close of the engagement." 

At Shiloh, Colonel Tuttle was placed in command of a brig- 
ade, where he won new laurels. His command consisted of 
the 2d, 7th, 12th, and 1-ith Iowa regiments, and, with it, he 
held a portion of that line which saved the Federal army from 
capture. After the fall of General W. H. L. Wallace, in that 
deadly cross-fire of the enemy, and just at the mouth of that 
flanking swoop that swallowed up the 8th, 12th, and 14th 
Iowa. Colonel Tuttle, at the request of Captain McMichael, 
General Smith's acting assistant adjutant-general, assumed 
command of the division, which he held the remainder of 
that day, and until the enemy were finally repulsed and driven 
from the field. At Shiloh, he showed himself to be cool and 
calculating in danger, and on the 9th of the following June, he- 
was rewarded with the commission of a brigadier-general. 
Subsequently to his promotion to the rank of a general officer, 
and until the spring of 1SG4, when he left the service, General 
Tuttle, a principal portion of the time, commanded a division 
in the held. During the fall of 1862, and the following winter, 
he was in command at Cairo, Illinois ; but, in the spring of 
LSU3, was relieved and placed in command of the 3d Division, 



58 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

loth Army Corps. He joined Sherman in the march through 
Jackson to the rear of Vicksburg, and, in the assault and cap- 
ture of Jackson on the 1 1th of May, was with his division in the 
advance. His division moved against the south side of the 
rebel capital, while General Crocker's made the assault on the 
west. 

There is a solitary political chapter in General Turtle's his- 
tory. He was the Democratic candidate for Governor of Iowa, 
at the fall election of 1SG3, and the following brief extract from 
his Address to the People will show his views upon the all-ab- 
sorbing political question of the day." 

"I am in favor of a vigorous prosecution of the war to the 
full extent of our power, until the rebellion is suppressed, and 
of using all means that may be in our possession,, recognized 
by honorable warfare, for that purpose. I am for the Union 
without an if, and regardless of whether Slavery stands or fulls 
by its restoration ; and in favor of peace on no other terms than 
the unconditional submission of the rebels to the constituted 
authorities of the Government of the United States." 

In size General Tutlle is above the medium, with broad, 
square shoulders, and weighing one hundred and ninety 
pounds, lie has a sanguine, bilious temperament; light, florid 
complexion ; and gray eyes. His mental and physical organ- 
ism seem to be in perfect sympathy; for he is slow of speech, 
and slow in action. He has none of the dash of Sheridan ;— he 
is more like General Grant — slow and sure. Ordinarily he 
does not draw conclusions rapidly; but, if the circumstances be 
such as to give him no time for deliberation, he seems equal to 
emergencies, for his judgments are nearly always correct. He 
is naturally modest, unassuming and unostentatious. He has 
large hope, but little self-esteem, and lacks confidence in his 
own ability. Put he is stubborn, and his deliberate opinions 
are not easily shaken. 



COLONEL JAMES BAKER. 

THIRD COLONEL, SECOND INFANTRY. 

Colonel James Baker of the 2d Iowa Infantry, who fell 
mortally wounded, while leading his regiment in a charge 
against the enemy at Corinth, was a native of Gallatin county, 
Kentucky, where he was horn the 25th of Decemher, 1823. 
lie was reared and educated in Shelby ville, Indiana, where 
his father removed with his family in his son's infancy. In 
1852, he came to Iowa and settled in Bloomfield, Davis county. 
At Bloomfield, he entered the practice of law, in partnership 
with his brother-in-law, II. II. Trimble, to which he devoted 
his exclusive attention from 1S55 to 1861. He was a successful 
lawyer and had, at the outbreak of the war, secured an exten- 
sive practice. 

In April, 1861, Mr. Baker entered the Volunteer Service, as 
captain of company G, 2d Iowa Infantry. He was the first 
volunteer from Davis county, and enrolled his name in the 
old Methodist Church of Bloomfield. Entering the field with 
his regiment, he served with it with the rank of captain, till 
the 2d of November, 1801; when he was promoted to the 
lieutenant-colonelcy of his regiment. Less than eight months 
later, he succeeded General Tuttle to the colonelcy. 

The history of the 2d Iowa Infantry, from the 22d of June, 
1SC2, (the date of Colonel Baker's commission) till September 
following, is nearly the same as that of all the Federal troops 
camped at and in the vicinity of Corinth: the regiment did 
little except camp- and picket-duty. 

Corinth, Mississippi, whore, on the 3d and 4th of October, 
1602, was fought one of the most important and decisive 



60 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

battles of the war, especially in the South "West, and where 
the 2d Iowa Infantry, for more than a year was stationed on 
garrison-duty, is a point to which attaches much interest in the 
history of the war. It was the first Confederate town of conse- 
quence in the South West besieged by the Federal forces. It 
is situated in the north-east corner of Mississippi, and is at the 
point of intersection of the Memphis and Charleston, and the 
Mobile and Ohio Railroads. To the enemy, it was a place of 
great importance. 

From the 30th of May, 1862, the date of the place's evacuation 
by Beauregard, till the early part of the following September, 
every thing remained quiet at Corinth. Indeed, no considerable 
rebel force was in its vicinity; for, after its evacuation, the 
greater part of the rebel army was transferred to the neigh- 
borhood of Chattanooga, Tennessee. General Sterling Price 
made his appearance at Iuka, about twenty miles east of Cor- 
inth, on the thirteenth of September, and, on the nineteenth 
of that month, General Poseerans fought with him the battle 
of Iuka. Defeated at that point, General Price marched his 
army, by a circuitous route, round to Ripley, where he was 
joined by Generals Van Dorn and Viliipigue. The combined 
rebel force numbered now not less than forty thousand, and, 
in Van Dorn's opinion, was sufficient to capture Corinth. 
Price, who had recently felt the mettle of the Federal troops 
at Iuka, thought otherwise; but Van Dorn was the ranking 
officer, and an attack was determined on and ordered. 

The enemy marched on Corinth from Eipley, and first 
encountered a detachment of Federal troops at Chewalla, a 
small town north-west of Corinth. This was on the afternoon 
of the second of October. In the meantime General Grant, 
having learned of the enemy's approach, had made prepara- 
tions to meet him. The attack on Corinth was made from the 
direction of the enemy's march — on the west and north-west 



JAMES BAKER. 61 

of the town— and mot serious resistance two and a half miles 
out, on the Chewalla road. 

The 2d Iowa Infantry, attached to the 1st Brigade of the 2d 
Division, was among the troops sent out to encounter the 
enemy, and, marching in a north-westerly direction, formed 
line of battle at the front. Frequent changes of position hav- 
ing been made to check -mate the advances of the enemy, the 
regiment finally became hotly engaged near what was known 
as the White House. Near the White House, the position of 
the 2d Iowa was as follows: it was stationed on high ground, 
and in the edge of timber. In its front, the country was open, 
affording almost an unobstructed view for a mile or more to 
the left and front. The regiment was assaulted in this position 
by the enemy in force, who, by a charge, endeavored to break 
the Federal line; but they were repidsed. They did not 
renew the charge, but returning to within musket-range, and 
covering themselves as much as possible behind stumps and 
old logs, opened on the Federal lines with their rifles. The 
fighting continued in front of the 2d Iowa for nearly an hour, 
but with no advantage to the enemy; for, whenever they 
advanced so as to expose themselves, they were driven to cover 
by the sharp and accurate fire of the regiment. 

But now heavy columns of rebel re-inforcemcnts were seen 
approaching in the distance, and for the regiment to remain 
where it was, and allow the enemy in its immediate front to 
hold their position till their re-inforcements arrived, would 
result in certain defeat. Colonel Baker was sitting upon his 
horse, watching the movements of the enemy, and contempla- 
ting the course to be pursued, when Lieutenant, now Major 
Ilaniill stepping to his side, said, "Colonel, let us charge the 
enemy." The suggestion was adopted and a charge ordered, 
which resulted successfully; but just as the enemy were being 
routed, Colonel Baker fell from his horse, mortally wounded. 



62 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

As he fell, he said, " Thank God, I fell while my regiment 
was victoriously charging! " lie was borne from the field on a 
litter, and placed in hospital at Corinth, where he lay for three 
days and night?, breathing regrets for his sad fate* " Poor 
Charlie, (his wife) if it wore not for you, I could die more wil- 
lingly." He was never a father, and doted on his wife with 
the fondest affection. 

From the first, there was no hope of saving his life, and he 
was drugged to kill his intense pain. He lingered till the 
morning of the seventh of October, when he died. Of the 
Iowa colonels, he was the first that had fallen in battle, and the 

second that had fallen in the service of the country. Colonel 

I 
Worthington, of the oth Iowa Infantry, had been shot during 

the siege of Corinth by a frightened sentinel. 

When Colonel Baker fell, Lieutenant-Colonel Mills assumed 
command of the 2d Iowa, and soon after was ordered to fall 
bark in the direction of Corinth, and take position in the vicin- 
ity of the Federal battery, Robinette, where the regiment 
remained during the following night. In the next day's 
engagement, Colonel Mills received a wound which terminated 
fatally, five days after the death of Colonel Baker. 

In the two day's engagement at Corinth, the loss of the 2d 
Iowa was severe — especially in officers. When it marched out 
to the front on the morning of the 3d, there were, in officers 
and enlisted men, an aggregate of three hundred and forty-six. 
In the first day's battle, it lost three officers killed, and two 
wounded ; and in the second, one killed, and five wounded. 
The entire loss of the regiment, in killed, wounded and mis- 
sing, was one hundred and eight. Thirteen enlisted men were 
killed. The officers killed dead, were Lieutenants Huntington, 
Suowden, Bing, and George W. Neal. 

The following is from Major Weaver's official report: 

"Among those who distinguished themselves was Adjutant 



JAMES BAKER. 63 

(Jeorge L. Godfrey, who could always be seen and heard 
charging along the line upon his horse, shouting to the men to 
bo cool and steady. lie is one of the most valuable young 
officers with whom I have ever met. Captains Cowles, 
MeCulloch, Mastic, Howard, Ensign and Davis were marked 
instances of bravery and efficiency upon the field, and reflected 
great credit upon themselves and their commands. Cap- 
tain Holmes, on account of a wound received in the battle 
at Fort 1 >onelson, was unable to take command of his company 
during the engagement. 

" ( 'onspicuous for bravery, were Lieutenants Parker, Duffield, 
Marsh, Wilson, Tisdale, Suiter, Hamill, Hall, Bloke, Duck- 
worth, Ballinger, Twombly and MeCoid. After Lieutenants 
Parker and Twombly of company F, were wounded, Sergeant 
James Ferry took charge of the company, and displayed 
marked efficiency and courage. Likewise after the fall of 
Lieutenants Huntington and Suiter, of company B, Sergeant 
Lewis, (acting lieutenant) took charge of the company, and 
rendered most satisfactory service. Too much credit can not be 
t'estowed upon our excellent First Assistant Surgeon Elliott 
Pyle, then in charge of the Medical Department of the regi- 
ment. He was most indefatigable in his attention to the 
wounded. Nor upon our Quarter-Master Sergeant Johu 
Lynde, who was ever present upon the field to supply the 
wants of the men. Sergeant-Major Campbell distinguished 
hi tnself throughout the battle for coolness and bravery. Color- 
Sergeant Harry Doolittle, whilst supporting the colors, was 
again wounded, and Color-Corporals Henry A. Seiberlich, G. 
C. Phillips, G. B. Norris, I. C. Urie and John II. Stewart 
were all wounded, whilst supporting the .old flag." 

Captain Ensign distinguished himself by capturing a bat- 
tle-flag, and in the charge upon the battery, was the first to 
reach it, and turn the guns upon the enemy. 

Colonel Baker was a man of middle size, and had a stocky 
and vigorous form. He had a dark, or olive complexion, black 
hair, and dark, lustrous eyes. In personal appearance he was 
extremely prepossessing. With his friends he was extremely 
sociable; but he had little to say to strangers. During the last 
months of his service, ho became somewhat convivial in his 



61 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

habit?, which was doubtless occasioned by his inactive camp- 
life at Corinth. 

The Colonel had great independence of character, and never 
fawned nor flattered. lie never asked favors; but, for prefer- 
ment, relied solely on his merit and ability. He had fine legal 
talent, and there were few lawyers in Southern Iowa who 
were his superiors. But he had one peculiarity — a weak- 
ness, if it may be so termed, attributed by his friends to 
his native modesty, which he could never overcome — he 
never attempted to address a jury or- a public assembly without 
at first showing signs of fear. It could be seen in his pale face, 
his compressed lips, and in the nervous tremor of his hand. 
This is the more remarkable since he was a fine public speaker, 
and never spoke with hesitancy. 

The Colonel was a fine officer: indeed, the State has fur- 
nished few better. His remains now lie buried on his former 
happy homestead in Bloomfield, and a fine monument, erected 
by his wife, marks the spot of his burial. 






COLONEL NOAH WEBSTER MILLS. 

FOURTH COLONEL., SECOND REGIMENT. 

The memories of the noble dead, who have fallen in battle, 
we shall ever cherish ; and the names of those who distinguished 
themselves most, we shall, regardless of their rank, hold in the 
highest honor. Though Noah W. Mills, at the time of his 
death, held only the rank of a colonel, yet, I believe, we have 
rarely sustained a greater loss in the death of a general officer. 

The subject of this memoir was a native of Indiana, and was 
born in Montgomery county of that State, on the 21st day of 
June, 1S34. In his early history there is little of special interest. 
His education, which was liberal, he received at "Wabash 
College, Indiana. He had to defray his own educational 
expenses, and, for that purpose, passed much of his time in a 
printing-house. In college he was noted simply for his honesty, 
morality and industry. Naturally modest, he did not seek 
that distinction in Ids class to which his talents entitled him. 
For several months after leaving college, he was employed with 
an engineering corps, but subsequently became an employee of 
the Adams Express Company, in whose service he remained 
one year. While in the service of this company, he began the 
study of law, the profession for which he had always mani- 
fested a preference; and, as an example of his industry, it 
maybe stated that his leisure moments, while passing to and 
fro over the road, were devoted to the study of Ids chosen pro- 
fession, lie was admitted to the bar in 1856, and in the fall of 
the same year removed to Des Moines, where, renouncing for 
the time his legal pursuits, he engaged in the book and printing 

business, with his brother, F. M. Mills, Esq., under the firm 
5 65 



66 IOWA COLONELS AXD REGIMENTS. « 

name of Mills & Co. ; and the zeal and skill which he carried 
with him into the business were, I am informed, important 
elements in the success of this enterprising house. 

Colonel Mills was one of the first in Polk county to enter the 
War of the Rebellion. Hi9 keen sense of honor and love of 
justice, his horror of anarchy and hatred of the institutions 
which were threatening to produce it, were the chief induce- 
ments for his entering the army; for he was naturally of a 
retiring disposition, and hated contention. He entered the 
service as a lieutenant in Captain, now General Crocker's com- 
pany, which, being too late in its organization for the three- 
months service, was assigned to the 2d Iowa Infantry. At its 
rendezvous in Keokuk, Captain Crocker was elected major of 
the regiment, and Lieutenant Mills was promoted to the cap- 
taincy of his company. He held this rank till the 22d of June, 
18G2, when he was made major. Two davs later he was com- 
missioned lieutenant-colonel ; and on the Sth of October follow- 
ing, the day after the death of Colonel Baker, he was promoted 
to the colonelcy of the 2d Iowa Infantry. He entered upon his 
military career with the lowest rank of a commissioned officer, 
and, in .seventeen months time, attained, by gallant and 
meritorious conduct, the highest rank within the gift of the 
State Executive. But he was entitled to even greater distinc- 
tion ; for, after his death, General Rosecrans said : "He was a 
gallant officer, and richly merited promotion to the rank of a 
brigadier." 

To give his military history in detail is needless; for it is to 
be found in the history of his gallant regiment. He served 
with his regiment in all its campaigns, and fought with it in 
all its battles; and the force of every blow which it dealt the 
rebellion was augmented by his gallantry and prowess. That 
his merit as an officer was not of the common sort may be seen 
from the two following incidents: the first occurring on the 



NOAH W. MILLS. 67 

bljihte of Fort Donelson, and the second on the battle-field 
ofShJloh: 

At Fort Donelson, after the hights had been gained, and 
the works of the enemy captured, the left wing of the 2d (the 
right wing had not yet come up) had started, in their enthu- 
liiwm, in pursuit of the enemy, to the ravine below, when they 
wore halted by Colonel Tuttle and ordered to re-form, so as to 
meet the assault of a Tennessee regiment moving against them 
on the right. The order was no sooner given than the company 
of Captain Mills, quitting the pursuit, instantly rallied in a 
cirele around him ; reminding one, as General Tuttle expressed 
it, "of a brood of chickens huddling around their mother, on 
the approach of danger." No more striking instance of the 
confidence reposed in him by his men could be given. 

He was equally fortunate in securing the confidence of his 
Buperior officers. At about four o'clock on the afternoon of the 
fir>t day's fight at Shiloh, that portion of the line formed by 
General Tuttle's Brigade was being held successfully : every 

I tliing in the immediate vicinity looked as though the advance 
of the enemy had been Checked, though the heavy firing at the 
left find right rear indicated otherwise. Just at this juncture, 
Captain Mills, who held the right of his regiment, and the 
right of the brigade, sent a sergeant to General Tuttle with 
word that the enemy were passing his flank on the right, and 
that the command was in imminent danger. " Did Captain 
Mills send you to' me?" inquired General Tuttle. "Yes." 
" Well then, there must be something wrong, and I will report 
it to General Wallace." 

The facts are now well known. On a reconnoisance being 
made, the statements of Captain Mills were found to be cor- 
rect ; but only in tune to save two regiments of the brigade 
from capture. After the danger was passed, General Tuttle 
remarked: "Had any one but Captain Mills reported that fact 



68 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

to me I should have taken no notice of it ;" and thus he saved 
the 2d and 7th Iowa regiments from capture at Shiloh. " ]!• 
was the coolest man in battle I ever saw; (I again use the 
language of General Tuttle) and his watchfulness and valor 
were worth a regiment." 

Colonel Mills' last engagement was that of Corinth, Octobi r 
3d and 4th, 18G2. On the afternoon of the first day's fight, thi 
gallant Colonel Baker was mortally wounded; and the com- 
mand of the regiment devolved on Lieutenant-Colonel anils. 
He himself was struck in the foot by a spent ball, and his horse 
killed under him, in the same charge in which Colonel Baker 
fell ; but fortunately he was not disabled. 

The morning of the 4th of October dawned with but little 
hope for the Union army at Corinth. Our lines on every hand 
had been forced back, and on the north, west and south sides 
of the city, the enemy had possessed themselves of the outer 
defences; and the contest, which would decide the final issue, 
could be of but short duration. Soon after day-light, the enemy 
resumed their advance, and a few moments later the battle was 
raging in every quarter. On the north side, Battery Robinetto 
was repeatedly charged; but the enemy were each time 
repulsed with dreadful slaughter. Despairing of success at 
that point, they massed their forces on the south side, and, with 
an appalling yell and at double-quick, came dashing into the 



town, many of them even reaclung the Tishamingo House. 
At this critical moment, when victory was almost perching on 
the banner of the enemy, three Iowa regiments sprang to the 
rescue, and, with an answering yell of defiance, charged the 
rebel legions and drove them back in utter confusion. To 
the 2d, 7th, and 17th Iowa regiments belong the credit of 
meeting and repelling the final assault of the enemy at Corinth. 
The last desperate charge of the enemy on Battery Robinetto 
had been made just before. 



NOAH W. MILLS. by 

In this final charge, Lieutenant-Colonel Mills was conspicu- 
» t 

oua. Springing to the front of his regiment, he snatched its 

tattered battle-flag from the color-guard, and, in the very face 

of the foe, cheered on his men to the onset. It was in this 

charge, and after the enemy had been routed, that he was 

wounded. He was shot in the foot with a musket-ball, which 

entered at the big-toe joint and lodged in the heel. A week 

after he was wounded he was attacked with lock-jaw, from 

which he could receive no relief; and he died at sun-down, on 

Sunday evening, the 12th of October, 1862. He retained his 

consciousness to the last. He knew he must die, and wrote : 

(he could not speak) " 1 am not alarmed, if the danger is great. 

If this is to be fatal, it is my time, and God is wise and ^ust: 

1 am not afraid to die." And he added: "In the army I 

have tried conscientiously and prayerfully to do my duty ; and, 

if I am to die in my youth, I prefer to die as a soldier of my 

country. To do so as a member of the 2d Iowa is glory enough 

I for me." 

To leave his beloved wife and his two dear little children, 
was 1'. is greatest cross; and many kind and touching messages 
he left them. The grief of that noble woman but few can 
understand; for, in the engagement at Corinth, she sacrificed 
her all. Her father, General Hackelman, of Indiana, was 
killed in the first day's battle. Colonel Mills' farewell to his 
parents was: "Your teachings have done me good through 
all my life, and I honor and thank you for them." But he 
had a Christian burial in a Christian land, which in a degree 
assuaged the grief of his friends; and John A. Kasson, his 
warm friend, and one of Iowa's most eloquent and distin- 
guished sons, pronounced his eulogy. 

Immediately after learning of the death of Colonel Baker, 
Governor Kirkwood promoted Lieutenant-Colonel Mills to the 
colonelcy of the 2d Iowa Infantry ; and, though he did not live 



70 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

to receive his commission, he died a full colonel of that no!,!. 
regiment. 

The names of Colonels Baker and Mills are immortal— at least 
in the annals of Iowa. In life their regiment learned their 
worth, and in death it mourned their loss: 

"JResotved, That in view of the gallant conduct of these brave 
men, we, the oflicers and men of the 2d Iowa Infantry, join in 
paying fitting honor to their memory. 

Mesolved, That, at Donelson, Shiloh and Corinth, they dis- 
played that coolness and bravery, which will secure for them a 
place upon the brightest page of our history ; while posterity 
will gratefully remember and emulate them, as among the 
most worthy martyrs in the cause of their country." 

Colonel Mills was tall and erect in person, and, in health, 
had the appearance of being rather portly. He had light-gray 
eyes, a fair, florid complexion, and light-brown hair. His 
voice was clear and kind: his manners frank and unas- 
suming. He had gcod literary taste; was a good writer and a 
fine scholar. J n civil life he was quiet, urbane and industrious ; 
and, though young, was a prominent, useful and influential 
citizen. Though few predicted for him great success as a 
military man, yet, his friends and those who knew him best, 
were not surprised at his brilliant military career. He was 
taught from childhood to hate Slavery. From the first he 
saw it was the cause of the war, and he believed there could 
be no peace till it was utterly destroyed. Soon after entering 
the field he wrote to his friends: "I never fail to pray that this 
rebellion may be the beginning of the end of Slavery." With 
him the maintenance of Liberty and Justice were paramount. 
To this end he gave his life a willing sacrifice; and his friends 
can rejoice that it was not given in vain. 



COLONEL JAMES BAIRD WEAVER. 

FIFTH COLONEL, SECOND INFANTRY. 

James B. Weaver was the fifth colonel of the 2d Iowa 
Infantry. He is a native of the city of Dayton, Ohio, where 
he was born on the 12th of June, 1833, and a son of Abrarn 
Weaver, Esq., formerly a county officer and politician of Davis 
county. He accompanied his father's family from Ohio to 
Michigan, and thence to Iowa, where he arrived in IS 13. In the 
year following, he settled in Davis county, where he has since 
resided. 

Colonel Weaver's early education was limited — only such as 
the West, at that early day, afforded. At the age of nineteen, 
he began the study of law, which he pursued for two years in 
Bloomfickl, and then, with the late lamented Colonel James 
Baker, entered the Cincinnati Law School. Leaving that 
University in the spring of 1856, he returned to Iowa; and, 
from that date until the commencement of the war, practiced 
his profession in Bloomfield, Davis county. Soon after estab- 
lishing himself in practice, he was married to Miss Clara 
Vinson, a lady of intelligence and worth. 

Colonel Weaver entered the service, as first lieutenant of 
Company G, 2d Iowa Infantry, and with that rank fought at 
the battles of Fort Donelson and Shiloh. He was made major 
of his regiment, vice N. W. Mills promoted to lieutenant-col- 
onel, and, after the death of Colonels Baker and Mills, was 
promoted to the colonelcy. His commission as major was 
received the day before the first day's fight at Corinth, and that 
of colonel, in (lie latter pari of the same month. 

If we except the part taken by the 2d Iowa Infantry in the 

71 



72 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

early part of General Sherman's campaign against Atlanta, 
the history of the regiment, while under the command of 
Colonel Weaver, has in it little of general interest. From the 
fall of 1802 to the fall of 1SC3, it was stationed on garrison-duty 
at and near Corinth, Mississippi; and, if we except the few 
expeditions in which it took part during this time, the routine 
of its camp-life was only occasionally broken by droll camp- 
scenes and incidents. 

In garrison-duty, the day begins something as follows: — 
awakened in the morning by the braying of mules, the impu- 
dent clattor of drums, and the shrill whistle of fifes, the 
soldiers hurry on their clothes and assemble on the company 
parade grounds for "roll-call." But there is always some 
delinquent: some lazy fellow throws back his blanket and, 
sitting upright, rubs his eyes and yawns lustily. He begins to 
wonder if he will have to "police" to-day, or stand picket, 
or— what he will have to do, when the command " fall in " is 
sounded, and instantly the trumpet-voice of the orderly begins 
calling, "Buckmaster;" "Banner;" "Brown;" "Brooks;" — 
he hurries on his pants and out into line, but only in time 
to find his name passed, and himself checked as absent from 
"roll-call." The day begins badly; for the thing he most 
dreaded is now upon him — he is the first on the list of those 
detailed for "policing," and he curses his ill luck. 

Next follows the morning ablutions and toilet, and then 
breakfast. The 2d Iowa at Corinth were gentlemen ; for, in 
those days, they had black men for their cooks, their "hewers 
of wood and drawers of water." Tho soldiers chatted and 
laughed, while their servants fried the bacon, and made the 
coffee. "Guard-mounting," "company-drill," "dinner-call," 
and "retreat," followed each other, until finally "tattoo" 
closed the day. Generally, the history of one day was repeated 
in that following. 



JAMES B. WEAVER. 73 

Of all the troops sent out from Iowa, there has been no regi- 
ment, where the enlisted men have maintained so much inde- 
pendenee in their relations with their officers, as have those of 
the 2d Iowa,— none, where the members would endure less of 
style in their held- and line-officers. In every other respect, the 
discipline of the regiment was most commendable. In the 
summer of 1SG3, while the 2d Iowa was stationed with its brig- 
ade at Corinth, General T. "W. Sweeney, (afterwards dismissed 
in disgrace from the service for threatening to shoot General 
Dodge, and a surgeon) issued an order, embracing the follow- 
ing points: — 1st. There must be no familiarity between enlist- 
ed men and their officers. 2d. If any enlisted man have any 
business with the commanding officer of his company, he must 
transact it through the orderly-sergeant. The orderly-ser- 
geant, on entering his officer's tent, must remove his hat, and 
taking the position of a soldier, make known his business. He 
must never seat himself, or talk about other matters than those 
relating to the business in question ; and, that being atten- 
ded to, he must leave promptly, and with the proper salute. 
Violations of the order were to be reported by company-officers, 
and all offenders severely punished. 

This was a new article in the regiment's code of discipline, 
to which it would not yield submission. But Colonel "Weaver, 
always anxious to comply with orders, added one of his own ; 
and, with a rhetorical flourish, held his company-officers 
responsible for all infringements of the former. Both were 
read to his regiment on dress-parade, and were greeted with 
three groans. One stormy night not long after, when the colo- 
nel was in bed, a shot was fired through his quarters, the ball 
passing within four or five inches of his person. For some 
reason or other, no more was said about the obnoxious order, 
and the men visited the tents of their company-officers as 
usual. 



74 IOWA COLONELS ANT) REGIMENTS. 

After Vicksburg had fallen, and Port Hudson, and the Mis- 
sissippi had been opened from its mouth to its sources, there 
was little need for the magnificent army of General Grant, in 
its old field of operations. On the west side of the Mississippi, 
the power of the Confederacy was inconsiderable: its chief 
strength lay on the east side of the river. Rosecrans success- 
fully engaged Bragg at Murfreesboro, and forced him back 
across the tail of the Cumberland Mountains, to and beyond 
Chattanooga. Then, himself defeated, he was beaten back to 
Chattanooga, and there beseiged. After the fall of Vicksburg, 
therefore, Chattanooga became the chief point of interest, in 
military operations in the South West. General Grant's vic- 
tory at Vicksburg was the consummation of success" in that 
quarter, and he therefore planned immediate relief for the 
Army of the Cumberland, at Chattanooga. 

In order to open and protect new lines of communication 
between Nashville and Chattanooga, and to render that one 
already open more secure, Corinth was to be evacuated, a large 
extent of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad abandoned, 
and General Dodge's command ordered across the country to 
the Nashville and Dceatur Railroad. Hence it was that the 
2d Iowa, with its brigade and division, was transferred from 
Corinth to the line of the above named road. General Dodge's 
command left Corinth and crossed the Tennessee, at Eastport, 
with the rear of General Sherman's Corps, then on its way to 
Chattanooga. 

The 2d Iowa marched directly to Pulaski, Tennessee, where 
were established the head-quarters of the regiment. Pulaski 
was also General Dodge's head-quarters. Colonel Weaver was 
made commandant of the post, and held the position during 
the following winter, and until just before the expiration of his 
term of service. The services of the 2d Iowa were, in the 
meantime, the same as those of other troops, stationed on rail- 



JAMES B. WEAVER. 75 

road guard-duty. The regiment however, marched on no 
expeditions, and was, at no time, attacked by the enemy. It 
was at Pulaski that the 2d re-enlisted, and from that point 
left for Iowa on veteran-furlough. 

Soon after its return from Iowa, the 2d Iowa, with the bal- 
ance of Dodge's command, took the field. Leaving the non- 
veterans at Pulaski, the regiment, in the latter part of March, 
1S64, marched to the front, by way of Elkton, Huntsville 
and Bridgeport. It had been so long stationed in camp that 
the news of its assignment to the front was hailed with much 
satisfaction, and demonstrations of joy, along the line of march, 
such as song-singing and the like, were frequent. The Elk 
river was to be crossed at Elkton, and there was no bridge and 
no boats; but that was no obstacle; for the regiment, and 
indeed the whole brigade, stripping off all but their shirts, 
waded the stream, amid shouting and laughter. There are 
always some wags in every regiment, and at such times as 
these, they crack their jokes and make much sport. 

On arriving at Huntsville, General Sweeney's Division, (the 
2d) to which was attached the 2d Iowa, was joined by that of 
General Veatch. These troops constituted General G. 31. 
Dodge's command — the celebrated left wing of the 16th Army 
Corps. They proceeded from Huntsville to Chattanooga, and 
from Chattanooga, over the battle-ground of Chickamauga, on 
to Dalton. 

At Dalton, General Johnson was strongly intrenched, with 
the finest rebel army ever mustered in the South West ; and so 
confident was he of his strength that he had boasted he would 
march on Chattanooga, and, having driven the Federal forces 
from that place, would move on and capture Nashville. But 
Dalton was to fall with but little bloodshed. General McPher- 
son, moving through Snake Creek Gap, gained Johnson's left 
flank, and compelled him to evacuate his strong works and fall 



76 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

back to Resaca. In this flank movement, the first in General 
Sherman's " flanking campaign," the 2d Iowa took part. Soon 
after, Colonel "Weaver was mustered out of the service, and 
returned to his home in Bloomfield. His three year's term 
expired on the 2Sth of May, 1864. From that time to the 
present, the 2d Iowa Infantry has been commanded by Colo- 
nel Noel B. Howard. 

Colonel Weaver is one of the handsomest of the Iowa colonels. 
He has a symmetrical, well-developed person, which, with his 
dignified address, intelligent countenance, and dark-blue eyes, 
makes him interesting and pleasing. He is too small for a 
great man, and yet, with his dignity and self-assurance, he 
impresses a stranger favorably. *■ 

Intellectually, he is rather brilliant; I am told he is a grace- 
ful and interesting public speaker. His worst fault is an 
affectation in delivery. 

He has some vanity, and was proud of his position as colonel 
of the 2d Iowa. For instance: just after being commissioned a 
lieutenant, it is said he returned to Bloomfield and attended 
church in full uniform, sporting the whole regulation outfit. 
"From his walk," said an officer of his regiment, "you could 
tell that he was colonel of the 2d Iowa." 

He was a good and brave officer, and there are few who were 
as cool us he in battle. At Shiloh, while the 2d and 7th Iowa 
were running that terrible gauntlet, on the afternoon of the 
first day's fight, Captain Moore, of company G, was shot 
through both legs and disabled. Lieutenant Weaver stopped, 
picked him up, and bore him from the field. Under the circum- 
stances, not one man in five thousand would have imitated his 
example. He is a member of the Methodist Church, and is 
one of the few officers who abstained from the use of liquor in 
the service. 



COLONEL NOEL B. HOWARD. 

SIXTH COLONEL, SECOND INFANTRY. 

Noel B. Howard is one of the youngest officers of his rank 
in the service, and one of the best. He was born in the State 
of Vermont, in the year 1S38 ; and was educated, I think, at 
the Norwich Military University of the same State. Just before 
the outbreak of the Avar, he was teaching a military school in 
one of the southern Atlantic States. Coming North, he was 
stopping in Lyons, Clinton county, Iowa, at the time Captain 
Hugh P. Cox's company of the 2d Iowa was being recruited. 
He enlisted in that company, and on its organization was elec- 
ted first lieutenant. With that rank he entered the service. 
After the battle of Fort Donelson, he was promoted to the 
captaincy of his company, (I) and, on the 13th of October fol- 
lowing, was made major of his regiment. He served with 
the rank of major till the spring of 1S64, when he was made 
lieutenant-colonel, vice Lieutenant-Colonel Henry II. Cowles, 
resigned. 

Colonel Weaver left his regiment at Resaca: since that time 
it has been commanded chiefly by Colonel Howard. In the 
terrible battle of the 22d of July, before Atlanta, he was 
wounded, which left the regiment for several weeks in com- 
mand of Major M. G. Hamill. After the fall of Atlanta, the 
3d Iowa Infantry was consolidated with the 2d. This, with 
the recruits and drafted men assigned to it, increasing its num- 
bers to above the minimum of a regimental organization, 
entitled the 2d Iowa to a Colonel. Lieutenant-Colonel How- 
ard was accordingly promoted to that rank; and no officer in 
the Federal army more richly merited the position. 



78 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

The opening and closing days of the war were the most 
eventful to the 2d Iowa. It gained pre-eminent distinction at 
Fort Donelson, and closed its brilliant record, (for the war is 
virtually over) in the campaigns from Dalton to Atlanta, from 
Atlanta to Savannah, and from Savannah to Raleigh. 

After leaving Besaca, Georgia, the operations of the 2d Iowa, 
up to the time of the capture of Atlanta, were briefly as fol- 
lows:— On the Mth day of May, it marched with its brigade to 
Calhoun Ford, on the Oostanaula river, and assisted in forcing 
a crossing of that stream. It was the first regiment sent across, 
after which, having deployed as skirmishers, it held the enemy 
in check till the other troops were over. The Oostanaula was 
crossed on the morning of the 15th instant, and in the after- 
noon of the day following, the march was directed toward 
Home. At Rome Cross Roads, the 2d Iowa engaged the enemy 
as skirmishers, and held the left of its division. Defeated at 
this point, the enemy foil back to Kingston, and beyond. The 
2d Iowa, with its brigade and division, followed, and reached 
that place in the afternoon of the 19th of May. From King- 
ston, the regiment marched to Dallas, where it was engaged ; 
from Dallas to Acworth Station, and thence to Big Shanty, 
near Kenesaw Mountain, where it arrived on the 10th of June. 
At Big Shanty, it was detached for a time from its brigade, 
and assigned to provost- and fatigue-duty; but it joined it again 
near Lost Mountain on the 3d of July, and the same day assis- 
ted in throwing up fortifications on Nick-a-jack creek. 

From the 3d of July, until the arrival of MePherson before 
Atlanta, the movements of the 2d Iowa were the same as those 
of the other troops of its corns. Marching up past Marietta, 
it crossed the Chattahoochie at Roswell, and then followed out 
through Decatur to the east side of Atlanta. In approaching 
Atlanta, on the 20th instant, tho regiment was deployed as 
skirmishers, and occupied a position between its own corps 



NOEIi B. HOWARD. 79 

and the 23d. That day, it was engaged but slightly ; but, on 
the 22d instant, it took an active part in repelling the desperate 
assaults of the enemy on the Army of the Tennessee. For the 
part taken by the 2d Iowa in that day's fighting, I refer to the 
report of Major Hamill. 

"The regiment, with its brigade, was marched from position 
on the line between the loth and 23d Corps, on the morning of 
the 23d, to position on the extreme left, to meet a rapid 
advance of the enemy on the left flank of the 17th Corps. We 
took position on the left flank of the brigade, the 7th Iowa on 
our right, on a ridge running almost at right angles with the 
line of the 17th Corps, and in an open field. Company G, 
under command of Captain Duckworth, was deployed as skir- 
mishers; but had advanced only a short distance, when the 
enemy was discovered in the edge of the woods, advancing in 
force directly in our front. Our skirmishers being hard* pressed 
retired to the left to avoid exposure, and until the regimental- 
front was uncovered, when the regiment opened a well-directed 
fire on the enemy's advancing column, checking him, and 
throwing him into confusion. After fruitless efforts to rally 
his men under our fire, he was driven from the field, leaving 
dead, wounded, and arms in our hands." ******* 
"About the close of the engagement, Lieutenant-Colonel 
N. B. Howard was severely wounded, and compelled to leave 
the field, leaving the regiment in my command. Captain 
George lleaton, and three sergeants were severely wounded; 
one corporal mortally, and four privates, slightly. The cap- 
tures were twenty prisoners, one hundred and sixty-seven 
stand of arms, and one stand of colors. 

"Were I to make special mention of the officers and men 
who did their duty well, and who deserve promotion, 1 should 
have to mention every member of the regiment ; for each officer 
and soldier deported himself as if the safety of the army and 
the success of our cause depended on his individual efforts. No 
soldiers ever discharged their duties better — none were ever 
more deserving of the lasting gratitude of the country." 

The day following this terrible engagement, the 2d Towa took 
up a position on the extreme left of the army, which it held till 
the morning of the 27th; and then, with its corps, swung round 



80 IOWA COLONELS AND KEGIMENTS. 

to the west side of Atlanta. Throwing up earth-works, the 
regiment remained in this position till the 8th of August follow- 
ing, when it was ordered to take up an advanced position. 

But the movement in which the regiment most distinguished 
itself, during the campaign, was that which resulted in the 
evacuation of Atlanta. Captain John A. Duckworth, a most 
excellent officer, who afterwards died as Sherman was approach- 
ing Savannah, gives the following account of the part taken by 
his regiment in the first part of this brilliant movement. After 
stating that on the 2:>th of August, the 2d Iowa had assisted in 
destroving the West Point railroad, he goes on to say: 

"On the morning of the 30th, in company with the 7th Iowa 
Infantry, the regiment was ordered to support the cavalry 
under General Kilpatrick, when the advance on Jone^boro was 
commenced. Taking the main road leading to that point, the 
command moved out at a brisk step, and under a burning sun, 
carrying, besides arms, ammunition, clothing and rations, a 
number of intrenching tools. A force of the enemy's cavalry 
was found at Strithe^ville Post-Office, six miles north-west of 
Joncsboro, posted on an eminence in an open field, and pro- 
tected by a barricade of rails. Tins position the regiment, sup- 
port*-'] by the 7th Iowa , was ordered to charge. Two companies, 
(B and G ) under command of Captain Lewis, were deployed as 
Skirmishers; Major M. G. Hamill assumed command of both 
regiments, and the movement commenced." 

" The line moved cautiously until it arrived at the edge of a 
corn-field, through which it had to pass, when the charge was 
ordered. The regiment advanced in the most gallant style, 
driving the enemy from the crest of the ridge, and taking pos- 
session of their defenses. In this charge, Major Hamill was 
wounded, who, it is needless to say, was doing his duty in the 
coolest and bravest manner. Skirmishers were advanced, and 
the enemy driven from his second position, in the edge of the 
woods. Throwing out an additional company as skirmi.-hers, 
(E) the command again moved forward, under Major Mahon 
of the 7th Iowa. The enemy was found in his third position 
near Linerty llil! Church, which was charged, taken and held, 
by companies B, G and E, and a squadron of cavalry. Here 



NOEL. B. HOWARD. 81 

five companies of the 7th Iowa took the advance, supported by 
the remainder of the two regiments united; but after advancing 
a mile further, orders came to joiu the brigade." 

That same day the advance was continued to Flint Itiver, 
where the 2d Iowa arrived late in the evening, and fortified. 
The next day, the 31st, the river was crossed, and the enemy 
went in heavy force; and from that time until Hood's defeat 
and flight, the regiment was much of the time under fire. 
Atlanta was evacuated on the night of the 2d of September, 
and, with the exception of the brief pursuit which was made 
to Fayetteville, the campaign was closed. 

In the march from Dulton, and in the battles and skirmishes 
fought around Atlanta, the loss of the regiment was fifty-five 
officers and men, killed and wounded. Eight were killed, 
among whom were Lieutenant T. K. Kaush, and Sergeant 
Cyrus Bartow. Lieutenant V. P. Twombly, regimental adju- 
tant, was the only officer wounded near Jonesboro. 

The services of the 2d Iowa, subsequently to the fall of 
Atlanta, are substantially the same as those of the other Iowa 
troops, who accompanied Sherman on his tour, via. Savannah, 
to Laleigh, and thence to Washington. At the National Capi- 
tal, it joined in the Grand Review; and I am told, held the 
post of honor in the triumphal march of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee. 

Colonel Howard is a small, pale-faced man, with a weakly 
voice, and weighing not more than one hundred and fifteen or 
twenty pounds. A stranger would judge that he had little 
capacity for physical endurance; but he is as hardy as a knot. 
He is quiet, and unpretending in his manners, and quick in his 
movements. To look at him, one would not judge him to be 
the man that he is; though his countenance indicates much 
energy and intelligence-. 

He is a model soldier. From the very first, he was known 



82 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

in the 2d Iowa, as "the nicest young man in the regiment." 
When his regiment left Keokuk, he was its best drilled officer, 
and, while a line officer, he had the best drilled company. He 
always did his duty quietly and faithfully ; was always popu- 
lar and approachable, and never became inflated by flattery or 
promotion. 



COLONEL WILSON G. WILLIAMS. 

FIRST COLONEL, THIRD INFAXTRY. 

Colonel W. G. Williams, of the 3d Iowa Infantry, was 
horn in Bainbridge, Chenango county, New York, in the year 
1823. He is a descendant of one of the earliest settlers of Con- 
necticut. His father, on the maternal side, was a resident of 
Danbury, Connecticut, and, at the capture and burning of that 
place by the British under Governor Try on, was taken pris- 
oner. Colonel Williams, while young, removed with his 
parents to Utica, New York, then a small village, where he 
passed his youth, and received a good academic education. 
On attaining his majority, he removed to New York City, 
and was, for several years, engaged in the importing business. 

!He came West in 1853, and, locating in the city of Dubuque, 
opened soon after, a mercantile house. After following this 
business for several years, he sold out his interest to a younger 
brother, and purchased a farm in Dubuque county, on which 
he lias since resided. 

At the outbreak of the war, Colonel Williams was among 
the first in the State to tender his services to the Government. 
He was for a long time unsuccessful; but finally, through his 
own persistency, and aided by the earnest endeavors of his 
friends, he was commissioned colonel of the 3d Iowa Infantry. 

He retained this rank until November, 1SG2, when he 
resigned lus commission and returned to his farm in Dubuque 
county. 

The 3d Iowa Infantry, which was made up from nearly 
every part of tin- State, was rendezvoused in the city of 
Keokuk, and mustered into the United States service, on the 

83 



84 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

10th day of Juno, 1861. It has the saddest, and, all things 
considered, the proudest record of all the troops furnished by 
our patriotic State. Strife for position has been the bane of 
this war, especially with the Federal army ; and I need not add, 
what was the first source of discontent with the 3d Iowa Infan- 
try. This proved a great misfortune to the regiment. Like 
the 1st, 2d, 4th, oth and Gth Iowa Infantry regiments, the 3d 
first served in Northern Missouri. It went to the front under 
Captain II. G. Herron, a brother of Major-General Herron; 
for Colonel Williams was left behind, not yet having received 
his commission. The regiment arrived at the pretty, and 
just before that time, flourishing city of Hannibal, in the last 
of June, and two days later, left on the Hannibal and St. 
Joseph Railroad, which it was to assist in guarding. 

It entered the field under many disadvantages. It not only 
had no commanding officer above a captain, (for neither Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Scott nor Major Stone had yet received their 
commissions) but it was without transportation and equip- 
ments. It was armed with the Springfield musket of the pat- 
tern of "1848," but had no cartridge-boxes, belts or bayonet- 
scabbard-. When it went on board the train for the West, on 
the morning of the 1st of July, 1861, it did not have even a 
cartridge — only burnished guns and bayonets; and its route lay 
through that section of the State in which the rebel Thomas 
Harris was organizing his forces. But what was the greatest 
matter of surprise to the regiment, it was sent off without 
rotio)ix. It was stationed along the road in detachments, in 
the vicinity of Utica, and that night was the regiment's first 
night in the field. It was tired and sleepy, and the detach- 
ment at Utica threw themselves on the wet ground and slept, 
without even establishing a picket-post. Lieutenant S. D. 
Thompson, of the 3d Iowa, who Ins written a history of the 
regiment, quaintly remarks that they trusted in Providence. 



WILSON G. WILLIAMS. 85 

The history of the 3d Iowa Infantry, while stationed in 
Northern Missouri, is extremely interesting ; but I can not give 
it in detail. I shall give only those points which are of chief 
Interest. The regiment first formed line of battle, at the beat 
of the long-roll, about midnight of the 3d of July, at Utica; 
and at Brookfield, early in August, first made the acquaintance 
of ' ' gray-backs." Its first affair, which approached to anything 
like a battle, was that of Hager's Woods, in Monroe county, 
and its last, while stationed in Missouri, that of Blue Mills 
Landing. This last, though terminating unsuccessfully, was a 
most gallant affair, and will be given in full hereafter. In the 
affair of Hager's Yvoods, the expedition was under Colonel 
.Smith, of the 16th Illinois, and numbered about four hundred 
and fifty men. Besides detachments from the 3d Iowa and 
lGth Illinois, there was one company of Hannibal home- 
guards. One Sergeant Fishbeem commanded the artillery, 
which consisted of a six-pounder swivel. This force moved 
from Monroe on the line of the railroad, and came on the 
enemy's scouts in Hager's Woods, who, firing on the Federal 
advance, wounded three men. Hurrying his artillery to the 
front, the incorrigible Fishbeem sent the enemy flying in an 
instant. Night soon came on, and Colonel Smith retired. 

The march from Macon City to Kirksville, comes next in 
order. The object of this expedition was to intercept and rout 
the forces of Colonel Martin Green, which were, at that time, 
reported in camp on Salt River. The line of march from Macon 
City was taken up at midnight, of the 15th of August. The 
expedition was accompanied by Fishbeem with his " unfailing 
six-pounder;" but how Green with his rebel command, having 
been routed by Colonel Moore and some Iowa home-guards at 
Athens, on the Dies Moines River, subsequently made good his 
escape south, is well known. This was the result of a blunder, 
for which one, who subsequently became distinguished, was 



86 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

responsible. It was positively asserted at the time, that, had 
General Hurlbut used more powder and fewer proclamations, 
the result would have been different. On this expedition the | 
3d Iowa had one man shot by rebel citizens. 

Before Lieutenant-Colonel Scott, with his detachment of the 

I 

3d Iowa, had returned from Kirksville, Colonel Williams, 

with the balance of his regiment, left on an expedition to 
Paris, in company with six companies of the gallant 2d Kan- 
sas. On arriving at Paris, the enemy was reported in large 
force near that place — more than three to one. The country 
in the vicinity was reconnoitered, and a portion of the scouts 
were captured. Colonel Williams became alarmed, and beat a 
hasty retreat to Shelbina, the point on the railroad from which 
he had marched. In his retreat on Shelbina, Colonel Williams 
had exercised good judgment; for he had only reached the 
town, when, on looking to the rear, he saw first, dense clouds 
of dust, and then the head of a column of cavalry, emerging 
from the timber. These proved to be the forces of Green, and 
numbered not less than three thousand. Having formed in 
line of battle, the enemy sent in a flag of truce; but to Green's 

demand to surrender, Colonel Williams replied, ".go to h ." 

The enemy's artillery was now in position, and they began 
throwing shells into the town ; it moreover appeared that they 
were about surrounding the place, to force a surrender. Colo- 
nel Williams had sent for reinforcements; but they had failed 
to come, and now, calling a council of war, it was determined 
to escape on the railroad, while there was yet opportunity. 
For his conduct in tins affair, Colonel Williams was put under 
arrest by General Hurlbut. In this inatter, even the Colonel's 
enemies thought that General Hurlbut acted unjustly ; for his 
conduct merited approbation, rather than censure. It was said 
that the Colonel was drunk at Paris; but the general, with Ids 
own tceaknesse.*, would hardly have put him under arrest for 



WILSON G. WILLIAMS. 87 

that. After much delay, the papers were lost, and the case 
never came to trial. That which most annoyed the Colonel's 
regiment in this matter, (for it had no love for him) was its 
fears that his arrest would be a reflection on its own conduct ; 
but in this its apprehensions were needless; for no one ever 
questioned the courage of the 3d Iowa Infantry. 

The battle of Blue Mills Landing, on the Missouri Paver, in 
which the 3d Iowa, under Lieutenant-Colonel John Scott, so 
distinguished itself, was fought on the 17th of September, 1861. 
It terminated unsuccessfully ; but it also discovered, on the 
part of the 3d Iowa and its gallant commander, a spirit of for- 
titude and promptness to duty, unsurpassed in the record of 
any engagement. 

It will be remembered that, at the time General Price was 
besieging Colonel Mulligan in Lexington, Missouri, in Septem- 
ber, 1861, Colonels Boyd and Patton, with their rebel com- 
mands, marched against and captured St. Joseph. At that 
very time Generals Pope and Sturgis were at or near Macon 
City, with the ostensible purpose of organizing means for the 
relief of Mulligan. From the movements which followed, it 
seems that the aim of these officers was two-fold: to attack 
Boyd and Patton, and re-capture their long train of plunder, 
and afterwards to concentrate near Lexington, and raise the 
sioge of that city. In pursuance of these plans was fought the 
battle of Blue Mills Landing. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Scott left Macon City, with his regiment, 
for Cameron, on the loth of September, 1861. His orders from 
General Sturgis were, to leave Cameron, march south to Lib- 
erty, and act against the enemy in co-operation with Colonel 
Smith of the 16th Illinois; and here I should state, that Colonel 
Smith was to march south, in the direction of Liberty, from a 
point on the railroad some twenty-five miles west of Came- 
ron. These, then, were the forces which were to attack Boyd 



88 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

and Pat toil, and either capture, or compel them to destroy 
their train of plunder. In the meantime, General Sturgis, with 
ahout eleven hundred men, marched from Macon City, in 
nearly a direct course for Lexington. 

Passing through Hainsville and Centreville, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Scott arrived at Liberty, at about eight o'clock in the 
morning of the 17th instant. Here he expected to find Colonel 
Smith; but, disappointed in this, he dispatched a courier to 
him, with the request that he come up with all speed; for he 
knew that the enemy were in the vicinity, since, on entering 
Liberty, Lieutenant Call, in command of the van-guard, had 
driven their pickets through the town and forward to the main 
body. From eight A. M. until one P. M., the time was passed 
in the most harrowing suspense. From the citizens the num- 
bers of the enemy had been learned, and, although their sym- 
pathies were with the rebel party, yet, from the honesty of 
their deportment, their statements were doubtless correct. All 
told, Scott's force was not more than five hundred and fifty, and 
that of the enemy was not less than three thousand. But why 
did not Colonel Smith come up? was the ever recurring ques- 
tion with Lieutenant-Colonel Scott. It was eleven; he would 
certainly be up by twelve; but twelve, and even one P. M. 
passed, and still no signs of his coming. The enemy were 
probably crossing the Missouri, only four and a half miles dis- 
tant, and Would soon be beyond reach. Lieutenant-Colonel Scott 
hesitated, for he was to act with Colonel Smith. But just then 
six distinct artillery reports were heard in the direction of 
Independence. The citizens, too, said there was fighting on 
the opposite side of the river. The enemy were being 
attacked near the crossing, on the opposite side of the river, by 
forces from Kansas City, was the conclusion of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Scott, and he hesitated no longer. Besides, his regi- 
ment had not forgotten the affair at Shelbina, and were earnest 



WILSON G. "WILLIAMS. «y 

iii thuir demands to be led against the enemy. Such were the 
considerations influencing Lieutenant-Colonel Scott to fight 
the battle of Blue Mills Landing. 

It was now nearly two o'clock, and the colonel dispatching 
another messenger to Colonel Smith, ordered his command to 
"loll in." Lieutenant Call, with his advance-guard, composed 
of volunteer mounted Missourians, encountered the enemy's 
pickets two miles south of Liberty, and was pursuing them 
rapidly down the road, when he suddenly found himself 
ambushed. A murderous volley from the enemy emptied five 
saddles, and four men were killed dead. Their ghastly bodies, 
lying by the road-side, were soon passed by the infantry troops ; 
but the sight only nerved them for the pending conflict. 
Finally, the enemy were encountered in the dense timber 
bordering the Missouri, and about one mile from the Landing. 
Their position was in a semi-circular, dry slough, whose arc, 
near its centre, was crossed by the road leading to the Landing. 
They were consequently well concealed, and the Federal skir- 
mishers came on them unexpectedly. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Scott was still marching by the flank, 
when his skirmishers, who were only a few yards in advance 
of the head of the column, discovered the enemy. Not only 
the skirmishers, therefore, were within range of the enemy's 
musketry, but nearly the whole column; for, as I have said, 
the dry slough, in which the enemy were concealed, swung 
round on both the right and left flanks. Rising to their feet, 
the enemy delivered one concentrated fire, and then began to 
advance, first on the rigid, and then in the centre and on 
the left. They looked for instant and total rout ; but in 
this were disappointed. By order of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Scott, his cannon (for he had one piece) was brought for- 
ward, and discharged twice almost in the teeth of the enemy; 
but the gunner and horbes were instantly either killed or 



90 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

wounded, and the piece rendered useless. In front, the 
enemy were repulsed and retired to their cover. In the 
movement against the right, they had also been repulsed ; for, 
after receiving the first volley, the column had deployed, a 
part to the right, and a part to the left of the road. For half 
an hour, the fighting was most desperate ; and, in spite of every 
effort, the enemy were held in their places of concealment ; but 
now the Federal troops began gradually to give ground. 
During all this time, Lieutenant-Colonel Scott, with his color- 
guard, Lakin, had been in the extreme front, cheering the 
men and watching the conflict. The colonel's orders had been 
neither to advance nor retire; for, to advance would result in 
the capture of his command, and, to retire precipitately, might 
be equally disastrous. He therefore sat on his horse and 
watched — a mark for the enemy, and a sign of hope for his 
men. They gradually yielded their position, and he watched, 
cheered and followed. The enemy pursued for a time, and 
then returned to the Landing. 

With the exception of his caisson, Lieutenant-Colonel Scott 
lost nothing. The gun was dragged from the field by Captain 
Trumbull and Lieutenant Crosley. Thus closed the battle of 
Blue Mills Landing. That night Colonel Smith came up, but 
declined to renew the engagement before morning; and before 
that time, the enemy had crossed the river, and were en route 
to join Price before Lexington. 

Of all the battles that have been fought in Missouri, that of 
Blue Mills Landing ranks second to none in point of gal- 
lantry. "Major Stone, Captains Warren, Willet and O'Niel, 
were severely wounded ; and also Lieutenants Hobbs, An- 
derson and Knight.' The latter refused to retire from the 
field, after being three times wounded, and remained with 
his men till the close of the engagement." "Scott's horse 
was hit several times, and several balls went through his 



WILSON G. WILLIAMS. 91 

clothes. Eight balls went through the flag, in the hands of 
Lakin, and a ninth one struck the staff.' 3 Sergeant Aber- 
nethy, who commanded the twelve skirmishers, also deserves 
special mention for Ids gallantry. 

General It. P. Atchison made the official report of this battle, 
on the part of the enemy. lie was not, of course, present in 
the engagement, but that makes no difference ; for he would 
not have told the truth any way. In speaking of the results of 
the battle he says : 

" The Federal troops almost immediately fled, our men pur- 
suing rapidly, shooting them down until they annihilated the 
rear of their army, taking one caisson, killing about sixty men, 
and wounding, it is said, about seventy. Our men followed 
them like hounds in a wolf-chase, strewing the road with dead 
and wounded, until compelled to give over the chase from 
exhaustion, the evening being very warm. " 

But no rascal of his pattern, would tell the truth against 
himself; and he goes on to say : 

"Colonel Saunders, Colonel Patton, Colonel Childs, Colonel 
Candiff, Colonel Wilfley, Major Grease, Adjutant Shackelford, 
and all other officers and men, so far as I know, behaved gal- 
lantly." 

With all these commands, (and why the commanders if not 
the commands?) the enemy could have had scarcely less than 
four thousand in this engagement. Indeed, with this number of 
men, the Federal troops should have been handled as roughly 
as is declared they were by the rebel historian, Pollard ; for, 
after asserting that the jay-hawkers numbered five thousand 
five hundred, anil the " loyal Missourians " only five hundred, 
he goes on to say : — " Charging the jay-hawkers with shouts 
of almost savage ferocity, and fighting with reckless valor, the 
Missourians drove the enemy back (en miles, the conflict becom- 
ing a hand-to-hand fight between detached parties on both 
sides;" and such history as that has sustained the rebellion. 

The 3d Iowa Infantry remained in Northern Missouri until 



92 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

the ISth of October, 1SG1, when it left for Quincy, Illinois. 
Here it remained a few weeks, and was then ordered to Benton 
Barracks, St. Louis. From Benton Barracks, it was sent 
out on the Northern Missouri Railroad, where it remained 
till March, 1SG2, when it sailed for Savannah, on the Ten- 
nessee River. It took a distinguished part in the battle of 
Shiloh. 

I have stated that the case of Colonel Williams, with refer- 
ence to his conduct at Shelbina, never came to trial, the papers 
having in some way been mislaid or lost. He was therefore 
released, and restored to command in November, while his 
regiment was at Benton Barracks. " Immediately on assum- 
ing command, he arrested a number of officers, his personal 
enemies, without the knowledge of the commandant of the 
post. " For some reason, which I do not understand, this, too, 
was deemed an offense, and he was again put under arrest by 
General Halleck ; but, on a hearing of the charges in this case 
at St. Louis, he was acquitted, and again restored to his com- 
mand. He re-joined his regiment while it was stationed on the 
Northern Missouri Railroad ; and, on its departure for the front, 
left in its command. From this time on, till the date of his 
leaving the service, he was much more popular with his regi- 
ment. It was claimed that his experiences had worked great 
improvement in his conduct ; but whatever is said against Col- 
onel "Williams, it must be admitted that, from the first, he was 
a fine disciplinarian. It was doubtless this, with his naturally 
overbearing disposition, that made him so unpopular with his 
regiment. 

But few outside of our State are aware of the important part 
the Iowa troops acted in the battle of Shiloh. On that bloody, 
chaotic field, as at Fort Donelson, the chief credit and glory 
belong to their banners. The disposition and conduct of the 
troops in this engagement, and the particular part sustained by 



WILSON G. WILLIAMS. 93 

those from Iowa, arc given elsewhere. On the first day's fight, 
they saved Grant's army from capture. 

The 3d Iowa Infantry disembarked at Pittsburg Landing, on 
the 17th of March, 18G2, with the 4th Division, commanded by 
General Stephen Augustus Hurlbut. On the re-organization of 
that division by brigades, the regiment was assigned to the 
First, which was commanded by Colonel Williams, as the rank- 
ing officer. The brigade was composed of the 2Sth, 32d and 
41st Illinois, the 3d Iowa and Burrow's Battery of light 
artillery. It was a fine body of troops, and Colonel Williams 
was proud of his command. 

The part taken by the 3d Iowa at the battle of Shiloh, I will 
endeavor to give briefly, after first premising that the divisions 
of Hurlbut and Smith (the latter commanded in the' battle by 
W. H. L. Wallace.) were in camp between the front and the 
Landing. The divisions of Prentiss, McClernand and Sherman 
held the front, from left to right, respectively. 

Early in the morning of the 6th of April, while eating its 
breakfast, the 3d Iowa Infantry was startled by firing at the 
front. Similar firing had occurred in the past few days, and it 
created no alarm. But it soon appeared that the firing now 
was not wholly the work of the pickets, for with every instant 
it continued to increase in volume and rapidity. Couriers, too, 
were now seen hurrying in every direction ; and soon the call 
"to arms" was .sounded through the camps of both Hurlbut 
and Wallace. Leaving its breakfast unfinished, and buckling 
on its armor, the 3d Iowa was soon in line and in march to the 
front, under its major; for its colonel was in command of the 
brigade, and its lieutenaiu-colenel sick with typhoid fever, and 
absent. Marching clown the road, Major Stone was directed to 
the left, and ordered to the support of Prentiss. In front, the 
battle was now raging with the utmost fury, and from the 3d 
Iowa's camp-ground to that point the distance was but little 



94 IOWA COLONEL AND EEGLMENTS. 

more than a mile. The regiment moved on at quick-step, but 
had not proceeded far before encountering the stragglers and 
the wounded ; and that was the hour when began that babel of 
confusion which, with the exception of a few hours, reigned 
supreme throughout that terrible day. To those who have 
never seen five thousand men frightened in battle, and fleeing 
from a victorious enemy, no idea can be gained, by words, of 
the wild ness of the scene, I care not how glaring the picture, 
nor how accurate the language. With the unsuccessful party, 
not only the human, but even the brute creation become over- 
whelmed and crazed with terror. With the Union Army, this 
hour was just dawning on the Shiloh battle-field. 

But the 3d Iowa moved on, paying little heed to the tales of 
of these frightened, disorganized men, and arrived safely at 
the front. The regiment had sought the front for glory, and it 
was resolved now to win it. Its position was at first in an old 
cotton-field; but this was soon abandoned for one further to 
the rear in the skirt of the timber, with the cotton-field still 
in front. It held the right of its brigade, but, with this excep- 
tion, held the left of the entire army. To its right were the 
1st and 2d brigades of Its division, and then came the division 
of Wallace, in which were the 2d, 7th, 8th, 12th and 14th Iowa 
regiments. This is the line which was held till four o'clock in 
the afternoon; and this the position where was done such 
magnificient lighting. This line broken, and this position lost, 
and there was no other successful stand made until the fright- 
ened troops had reached the Landing. It Mas on this line, too, 
that the 8th, 12th and 14th Iowa were captured, as also was the 
58th Illinois. While retreating from this line, Major Stone 
was captured. This was the line which the enemy had tried 
so hard, but unsuccessfully, to break for five long hours. 
When they had accomplished this, net by attacks in front, but 
by jtank movements, the day was so far gone that they could 



WILSON G. WILLIAMS. 95 

not push their successes to full victory; and hence, I say, the 
luvca troops saved Grant's army from capture at Shiloh. 

As to the conduct of the 3d Iowa in this part of the field, I 
can only say : It held its position, when the troops on hoth its 
right and left had heen driven hack, and utterly routed. So 
fully did it win the confidence of its commanding general that, 
riding up to Major Stone, he said: "I look to the 3d Iowa to 
retrieve the fortunes of this field;" but, already, the fortunes 
of that part of the field were past retrieving. It is a wonder 
how the regiment escaped capture ; but, like the 2d and 7th 
Iowa, it by some means worked its way through the circling 
lines of the enemy. 

While stationed in the skirt of the timber above alluded to, 
Colonel "Williams was badly injured and taken from the field. 
A solid shot struck his horse just behind the saddle, killing it 
Instantly, and completely paralyzing the colonel. lie did not 
recover from the effects of the injury for many months : indeed 
it was on account of this injury, I am informed, that he finally 
tendered his resignation. 

Out of the four hundred and fifty officers and men of the 3d 
Iowa who were engaged in the battle, more than two hundred 
wore either killed, wounded or captured. Captain Ilobbs, an 
unassuming, but noble-hearted man, was killed. lie was the 
idol of Ins company. Of the other officers, O'Neil, Knight, 
Merrill and Wayne, were wounded and captured; Trumbull, 
Ogg, Weiser, Tullis and Ilamill were wounded. Sergeant 
Lakin, who bore the battle-flag of the regiment at Blue Mills 
Landing, again flaunted it in the face of the enemy at Shiloh. 
With a few exceptions, every member of the regiment fought 
gallantly. In the second day's fight, the 3d Iowa was com- 
manded by Lieutenant Croslcy; but, in the operations of this 
day, it did not suffer severely. 
" Colonel Williams, recovering partially from his recent injury, 



96 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

was returned to the command of his regiment, and, after the 
fall of Corinth, marched with his division to Memphis, where 
he was soon after prostrated by sickness. On the 27th of 
November, he resigned his commission, as I have already 
stated. After leaving the service, he was appointed a brig- 
adier-general, but his appointment failed confirmation in the 
Senate. 

I never saw Colonel "Williams but once, and that was late in 
the fall of 1&&2, when he was on his way to re-join his regi- 
ment, after a leave of absence; but his person and manners 
impressed me so strongly that I am still able to recall them. 
He has a dark, complexion, dark eyes, a large head, and a 
rather low and retreating forehead. In person, he is short, 
and heavy set, with full chest and large, square shoulders. He 
is not attractive in his personal appearance. 

While sitting by himself, he looked grum and uncompan- 
ionable; but his whole manner changed as soon as he was 
addressed. I saw that he was fond of amusement, and all its 
concomitants: indeed, there have been few officers M'ho would 
not occasionally indulge in a game of cards, ct cetera. 

As a commanding officer, I judged him to be precise and 
exacting ; and I have since learned that this was his character. 
While in command of his regiment, he was tyrannical, and, 
by a majority of both the officers and men, sincerely hated. 



COLONEL AARON BE OWN. 

SECOND COLONEL, THIKD INFANTRY. 

A ,\ Hon Brown was born in Mississippi, about the year 
ls±2, and is the only native from that State who has held a col- 
onel's commission from Iowa. He entered the service from 
the county of Fayette, Iowa, and was the first lieutenant of 
Captain Carman A. Newcomb's company. He was made cap- 
tain, April 8th, 1SG2, and promoted to the majority of his regi- 
ment, after the resignation of Major William M. Stone. I am 
unacquainted with Colonel Brown's history, prior to his enter- 
ing the service. 

In resuming the history of the 3d Iowa, I shall go back to its 
encampment at Shiloh, where it rested immediately after the 
battle. It was the same whence it had marched on the previ- 
ous Sunday morning to the bloody field. Its dead comrades it 
had gathered and buried ; ami now it rested and contemplated 
the scenes of the past conflict. It had won military glory; but 
was this an equivalent for its dead comrades just buried? All 
were sad, and yet all hearts swelled with secret and inexpres- 
sible joy at their miraculous escape from harm. Shiloh had 
taught the regiment a new lesson— to respect the valor of the 
enemy, and, needlessly, not to seek a new encounter; and such 
has been the experience of every regiment that has once me 
the enemy in a desperate engagement. Kb one will a second 
time have his cot in the hospital to be present in battle, and 
yd there are hundreds of instances where this thing has been 
done by novices. Good soldiers soon learn to do their whole 
duty, and no more. 

During the siege of Corinth, and for several months after, 
7 97 



98 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

the 1st Brigade of the 4th Division was commanded by Gen- 
eral Lauman ; hut neither the 3d Iowa, nor any other regiment 
of the brigade, met the enemy during the environment of that 
place. I of course, except the affairs on the skirmish line. 
Before the fall of the city, there was hut one affair in front of 
the 3d Iowa, which approached to any tiling like an engage- 
ment : this was the charge of the 8th Missouri, of General 
Sherman's command, to capture a block house, known as Rus- 
sel's House. The charge was successful, and gave the regiment 
an enviable reputation ; and it sustained its name well, for it 
was this same regiment that so distinguished itself nearly a 
year after, at Raymond, Mississippi. The position of the 4th 
Division before Corinth was to the left of General Sherman, 
that general holding the extreme right of the besieging army. 
While the 3d Iowa was lying in the trenches before Corinth, 
it was joined by Lieutenant-Colonel Scott, who had but just 
recovered from his sickness. " All welcomed him joyfully." 

Much was expected of General Halleck at Corinth. He had 
command of the lines! army that had ever been marshaled in 
the Souih West. The enemy, in his disasters at Shiloh, had 
lost his best general; his troops were dispirited; and it was 
expected, nay demanded, that Beauregard and his army be 
either routed or captured. But, if General Grant had been 
lazy in pressing the enemy after his defeat at Shiloh, so was 
Halleck cautious not to push him to a new engagement. He 
thought he would capture the whole thing, never dreaming, 1 
suppose, but what Beauregard was fool enough to sit still and 
be surrounded. 

But, presto change ! At a quarter before six, on the morning 
of the 30th of May, a deafening explosion was heard in the 
direction of Corinth, and, instantly, dense clouds of smoke 
were seen rising over the city. But few wondered at the 
cause. Pope had told Halleck several days before that Beau- 

i 



AARON BROWN. 99 

n-gnrd was evacuating; and that time Pope told the truth. 
Many privates, cxun, could have told as much. Pope had 
begged eagerly for permission to swing the left wing against 
the enemy's works ; but, Ko ! The severe jar that all had just 
(<■}{ was caused by the explosion of the enemy's magazines. 
And so the enemy escaped, and the government gained — a 
little, sickly, strategical point. The whole army was at once 
put underarms, and marched, a part into Corinth and a part 
in pursuit of the enemy. With the divisions of Sherman and 
Hurlbut, there was a strife to see who would be first in the 
city: who was the winning party, I never learned. I only 
know that we, of Pope's command, were put in pursuit. 

Corinth fell on the 30th of May, 18G2, and, seven days later, 
Memphis was surrendered to Captain, now Rear-Admiral 
Charles II. Davis. On the 2d of June, and before the fall of 
Memphis, the 4th and 5th Divisions, under General Sherman, 
loft Corinth, and marched west in the direction of the last 
named city. The object of this movement was, I believe, to 
co-operate with the fleet of Ellett and Davis in the capture of 
Memphis, and ultimately to open up the railroad between that 
place and Corinth. The news of the fall of Memphis reached 
these troops while they were camped on the high bluffs that 
overlook the Big Hatchie— that stream which, four months 
later, General Ilurlbut's Division was to render historic. 
Before them, where they were then encamped, lay the future 
battle-field of Matainora. 

After' considerable delay at La Grange and Moscow, General 
Sherman resumed the march to Memphis, where he arrived 
with his command on the 21st of July. The 3d Iowa led the 
van of its division into the city. On the 6th of September 
following, General Hurlbut was ordered back in the direction 
of Corinth; and, on tlie departure of his division from Mem- 
plus, the 3d Iowa Mas again in the van. 



. 






100 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

On the 13th of September this command was encamped at a 

point on Spring Creek, where it remained till the 19th instant, 

when a detachment of it, consisting of the 1st Brigade and two 

battalions of the 2d Illinois cavalry, under General Lauman, 

marched south to create a diversion in favor of General Grant. 

I 
It will he remembered that this was the date of the battle of 

luka ; and the reason of this movement on the part of General 
Lauman will be found elsewhere. General Lauman's scouts 
came on the enemy in the vicinity of La Grange. They were 
moving north in force; the column, on the march, was a mile 
and a half in length. The force of Lauman being unequal to 
engage them, that general beat a hasty retreat, and marched 
till he came within supporting distance of General Hurlbut; 
but the enemy, although they pursued, declined to give battle. 
Northern Mississippi was at this time full of scouting parties 
of the enemy: they were actively developing their plans for 
the re-capture of Corinth and the destruction of General 
Grant's army. Price was disheartened by his defeat at luka ; 
but Van Doru resolved to strike again at Corinth. 

While General Hurlbut was encamped near Bolivar, Tennes- 
see, on the 3d of October, 1862, he received orders to march 
promptly in the direction of Corinth; and the next morning 
reveille tx-at at one o'clock. Soon after the column was in 
motion. He had his own division, and, in addition to these 
troops, the GSth Ohio and 12th Michigan, two regiments of 
Ross' command that had come down from Jackson. The 
march was to be made in light trim — only two wagons to the 
regiment. The ambulances were to go along, and the men 
knew that all this meant fighting. The march was pushed 
rapidly, and, just beyond Pocahontas, the cavalry van-guard 
came on the enemy's pickets. That night the column reached 
the Big Muddy, about two miles west of the Ilatchie, and that 
same forenoon Van Born and Trice had been repulsed and 



AARON BROWS - . 101 



utterly routed at Corinth. All that afternoon^ the enemy had 
been in rapid retreat in the direction of the Hatchie; but of all 
this General Ilurlbut was ignorant. 

The 1st Brigade had just stacked their arms, and were pre- 
paring supper, when it was reported that the cavalry in front 
were engaging the enemy. Instantly orderlies began flying 
to and fro, and for a time there was much apprehension ; but 
the firing soon ceased and all remained quiet till morning. 
That night General Ord arrived from Jackson via Bolivar, and 
reported the defeat of the enemy and his subsequent retreat in 
the direction of the Hatchie. He would probably be met on 
the morrow, and all nerved themselves for the conflict. Gen- 

Ieral Ord, who was the ranking officer, now assumed command 
of the forces. In the early part of the engagement which fol- 
lowed he was wounded, and retired from the field, leaving 
Hurlbut in command of the Federal forces. To Hurlbut, 
therefore, belongs the credit of that brilliant victory. 

The battle of the Hatchie, or Matamora, was fought on the 
5th of October, 1SG2, and was an unequal and most desperate 
engagement. It was good fortune for the 4th Division that the 
enemy had been previously routed and demoralized ; and also 
that he was being hard pressed by Bosecrans: had this not 
been so, General Hurlbut and Ids command must have been 
certainly crushed. Even after the demonstration of the Fed- 
eral cavalry of the previous evening, on the west bank of the 
Hatchie, the enemy never dreamed that there was any consid- 
erable force to resist his advance. He suppo-ed it was a small 
cavalry command, sent forward to harrass him on his retreat. 
Therefore, on the morning ot the 5th, he began pushing his 
infantry across the Hatchie with all confidence; his surprise 
can be imagined, when he met the division of Ilurlbut. Beat- 
ing a hasty retreat back across the bridge, he took up a strong 
position on the bluffs opposite; but the particulars of this 



102 IOWA COLONELS AND KEGIMENT3. 

engagement appear in the sketch of General Lauman. The 3d 
Iowa was one of the regiments that was filed to the right, into 
the pocket, and, with the other troops there stationed, was sub- 
jected to a murderous fire, without being able to protect itself, 
or return it. But for the movement round the bluffs to the 
left, General Hurlbut must have been defeated before Rose- 
crans came up. 

The disproportion in killed and wounded of the 3d Iowa was 
unprecedented : two only were killed, while nearly'sixty were 
wounded. One of the former was Lieutenant Dodd. He was 
struck by a shell just before reaching the bridge, and killed 
instantly. Captains Weber and Kostman were wounded, as 
also were Lieutenants Hamill, Foote.and C. E. Anderson. 
The latter was wounded just at the close of the battle, after 
having done his duty nobly. In their conduct in the battle, 
the men of the regiment vial with the officers; and their 
names should all be recorded, to go down in honor to posterity. 

After the fighting had closed and the result of all three bat- 
tles learned, there was both sadness and rejoicing. The 3d 
Iowa, with its division, marched back to Bolivar, and there 
tendered and receives congratulations. General Hurlbut was 
lavish of his praises to all his troops: — " Comrades in battle, 
partakers of the weary march and long watches! the title of 
the Fighting Fourth, earned at Shiloh, has been burnished 
with additional splendor." He was now Mr. Hurlbut, and 
no longer Genera?. His heart was as warm and tender as a 
woman's. But he had covered himself with glory, had been 
made a major-general, and was now taking leave of his divis- 
ion. 

After the battle of the Hatehie, the seven subsequent months 
were not eventful to the 3d Iowa Infantry. General Lauman 
succeeded General Hurlbut in thecommand of the -1th Divis- 
ion, and under him the regiment remained, and, in the follow- 



' 



AARON BROWN. 103 

ing spring, followed him to Vicksburg. It had in the mean- 
time made many fatiguing marches, the most important of 
which was that under General Grant, through Central Missis- 
sippi to the Yockona. For many weeks it was stationed on 
guard-duty at Moscow, on the line of the Memphis and 
Charleston Railroad. During these seven months, there had 
been many changes in the regiment, the chief one of which 
was the resignation of Colonel Williams, and the promotion of 
Major Brown to that rank. 

On the ISth of May, 1864, the 3d Iowa left Memphis for 
Vicksburg. Its days of rest and quiet camp life had passed, 
and now, for many months to come, it was to endure the hard- 
ships and breast the dangers of active field service. With its 
brigade it sailed up the Yazoo River, at day-light of the 21st of 
May. The object was to open up communication with Sher- 
man, then just forcing the enemy back into his inner-works at 
Vicksburg. It is claimed that companies G and K, of the 3d 
Iowa, were the first to occupy the enemy's strong works at 
Haine's Bluff; but about this there must be some mistake. 

One incident in the passage of the 3d Iowa from Memphis to 
Vicksburg, I must not omit to mention. The Crescent City, 
on which the regiment was embarked, had arrived, in the 
afternoon of the 19th instant, at the bend of the river near 
Island Xo. 65, and was sailing on unsuspectingly, when it was 
suddenly opened on with two howitzers from the eastern bank. 
Thirteen men of the regiment were wounded at the first dis- 
charge, one of them mortally; but, before the guerillas had 
time to re-load, a gunboat came up and drove the wretches from 
their cover. This circumstance will be remembered, when I 
state that the 41st and 53d Illinois, having landed and pursued 
the guerillas without being able to overtake them, returned 
and burned to tin- -round the village of Greenville, some two 
miles below the scene of murder. If reports were true, its fete 



101 IOWA COLONELS AND KEGIMENT3. 

was merited, and for other reasons; for it was said that, early 
in the war, a father and his son,- Union residents of Greenville, 
were headed up in barrels by the fiendish citizens, and rolled 
down the steep bank into the Mississippi: 

Before Vicksburg, the services of the 3d Iowa were the same 
as those of the other troops, buried in the heated trenches 
around that beleaguered city. 

I now hasten to the most eventful chapter in the history 
of the 3d Iowa Infantry — its charge on the enemy's works 
at Jackson, Mississippi, on the 12th of July, 1863. Vicks- 
burg had fallen, and the 3d Iowa had marched with the 
forces of General Sherman against Johnson, who, for several 
weeks, had been raising the siege — with official dispatches. On 
the advance of Sherman, Johnson had fallen back and'planted 
himself behind his works at Jackson; and there he was on the 
12th of July, in a state of siege, confronted and watched by 
three corps — the 9th, under Parke, on his right; the loth, 
under Steele, in his front; and the 13th, under Ord, on his left. 
General Lauman was in Ord's command, and his division held 
the right of Sherman's army. And thus matters stood on the 
morning of the 12th of July. 

At the date above mentioned, it was thought by General Ord 
that the position of Lauman's Division was too much retired. 
He therefore ordered it forward, so that its left should dress on 
the right of General Hovey, whose division, from right to left, 
came next in order. Its right was to be thrown forward so as 
to correspond with the advance on the loft. The object was to 
horten and strengthen the line, and not to bring on an engage- 
ment; nor would one have followed, but for the aspirations of 
an ambitious general, who was charged by his own men with 
hunting for promotion among the slaughtered and mangled 
soldiers of his command. 

The scene of this merciless butchery is south of the city of 



AARON BROWX. 105 

Jackson, and between the New Orleans and Jackson Railroad 
and Pearl River. "At about 9 o'clock in the morning," (I 
quote from }[ajor Crosley's official report) "the 3d Iowa, -list 
and 53d Illinois Infantry, and the 5th Ohio Battery of six 
guns crossed the New Orleans and Jackson Railroad, at a point 
about two miles south of Jackson, and one mile from the 
enemy's works. After crossing, line of battle was formed, 
skirmishers thrown out, and the line ordered forward. After 
advancing about one-fourth of a mile, the lino was halted; and 
the battery, placed in position one hundred yards in our rear, 
opened fire with shell, and continued to fire rapidly for about 
twenty minutes. The enemy replied promptly with two guns, 
getting our range the first shot. As soon as the battery ceased 
firing, the line again moved forward. We advanced half a 
mile through timber and a dense under-growth, our skirmish- 
ers meeting witli no opposition, when, coming to the edge of 
an open field, the line was again halted. Here we were joined 
by the 28th Illinois, which took position on our right." Ther e 
the line should have rested; but General Lauman now coming 
up, ordered it forward. 

This was now the position: In front were open, undulating 
fields, cleared of every thing that could afford protection or 
cover, even down to corn-stalks ; about four hunched yards in 
advance were the enemy's skirmishers, backed by reserves, 
and, a little further on, a strong line of works, so constructed 
as to give the enemy a concentrated fire on a charging column. 
Behind these works, in addition to two brigades of infantry, 
were fourteen cannon — more than two full batteries, whose 
dark mouths spoke almost certain death to assailants. There 
was in addition, a formidable abattis, constructed with occa- 
sional gaps, to pass which, it would be necessary for the 
charging party to break its lino and assemble in groups. This 
formidable strong-hold was to be carried by less than one 



10G IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 



thousand men, and that, too, without any diversion in their 
favor. 

The brigade advanced in compliance with orders, until it had 
reached, forced back and occupied the position of the enemy's 
skirmishers. The order had been to move forward; but Colonel 
Pugh, the brigade commander, believing there must be some 
mistake, again reported to General Lauman — this time in 
person. He explained to the general the point his command 
had reached, the position of the enemy, and the character of his 
works, and then waited for further orders; but they were still 
the same — to move forward. There could be no mistaking the 
general's purpose. All, from field-officers to privates, saw the 
situation; but, although the movement filled them with amaze- 
ment, there was no faltering. Literally, they were to enter the 
jaws of death; but they would not sully their good name by 
disobeying orders. 

The order to advance was given, and the whole line moved 
forward at double-quick and in perfect order, when — but 
what need of further recital ? They were, of course, repulsed. 
Many, passing the abattis, advanced to within pistol-shot 
range of the enemy's work's; they could go no further, and, 
after struggling a few moments, retreated precipitately. As 
soon as the exhausted, bleeding troops reached the edge of the 
timber, whence they had advanced before encountering the 
enemy's skirmishers, they rallied promptly, and, soon after, 
were marched back to the point on the railroad at which they 
had crossed in the morning. All the dead, and nearly all the 
wounded, were left upon the field; nor would the enemy allow 
them to be reached and rescued by flag of truce; and there they 
lay, nymgled and bleeding, beneath the rays of the scorching 
sun, comrades in agony, as they had long been comrades in 
battle. 

The escape of any from death was almost miraculous; and 



AARON BROWN. 107 

yet, in the 3d Iowa, the loss was only about fifty per cent. The 
regiment went into the engagement with an aggregate of two 
hundred and forty-one officers and men, and lost, in killed, 
wounded and missing, one hundred and fourteen. Company 
B lost all three of her officers, killed — the two Ruekmans and 
Lieutenant Hall. Colonel Brown was severely wounded. The 
loss of the 53d Illinois was greater than that of any other regi- 
ment. Among others, it lost its gallant colonel. He was struck 
by a charge of canister, and fell from his horse, literally torn in 
pieces. It is said that General Lauman wept when he looked 
on the remnant of his old brigade. 

After the lamentable affair at Jackson, the 3d Iowa returned 
with its division to Vicksburg, and sailed thence to Natchez. 
In the following Winter it again returned to Vicksburg, and 
accompanied General Sherman on his march to Meridian. 
The regiment re-enlisted as veterans, and came North in the 
early spring of 1864. Returning to the front, it was ordered to 
join General Sherman, already on the march against Atlanta. 
Before the fall of that city, Colonel Brown, and a majority of 
the field- and line-officers resigned their commissions. In 
re-officering the regiment, a lieutenant was promoted to the 
lieutenant-colonelcy: it was entitled to no colonel, on account 
of the fewness of its numbers. On the memorable 2i!d of July, 
lSGi, before Atlanta, the regiment was again put in the thickest 
of the fight, and lost heavily. Among the killed was its lieu- 
tenant-colonel, who had only the day before received his 
commission. The regiment was soon after consolidated with 
the 2d Iowa Infantry, and lost its organization as a regiment. 

In closing this sketch of Colonel Brown and his regiment, I 
will add an extract from a letter of Captain J. II. Beid, of the 
loth Iowa: 

"Our men, captured on the 2:M of July, were taken through 
Atlanta that day, and their names reported to the provost- 



108 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

marshal-general, when they were marched to East Foint the 
same night. In passing through the city, whenever a shell fell 
in the streets from our batteries, they cheered and sang, 'Rally 
Round the Flag.' Rebel officers told them to dry up, they 
were prisoners of war; but they answered, 'We will always 
cheer a Yankee shell.' A squad of rebel cavalry was passing 
through the streets with the flag of the 3d Iowa Infantry, cap- 
tured after the color-sergeant fell, literally pierced through and 
through with bullets. Some of that regiment among the 
prisoners saw their old flag in the hands of the enemy. They 
made a rush for it, wrested it from its captors, and, amid 
torrents of threats and curses from the guards, tore it into a 
thousand shreds." 



I never saw Colonel Brown; but, from what I can learn of 
him, he must bo a large man, with phlegmatic temperament, 
and an easy-going disposition. He may not be a brilliant man, 
but he was certainly a brave and faithful officer. 



MAJOR-GENERAL GRENVILLE M. DODGE. 

FIRST COLONEL, FOURTH INFANTRY. 

Gkkxville Mellen Douge is a native of Massachusetts, 
and was bom at Danvers, Essex county, on the 12th day of 
April, 1832. His father, Sylvamis Dodge, was, prior to 1844, a 
provision dealer; but subsequently, and up to the time of his 
removal West, was Postmaster of the town of Danvers. Gren- 
viile remained with his father till he was sixteen years of age, 
having prior to that time been afforded only a limited common 
school education ; for his fathers business had been such as to 
require much of his son's assistance. At the age of sixteen, he 
was sent to the Academy at Durham, New Hampshire, then to 
that of Newbury; Vermont, and in 1850 was entered a student 
of Norwich Military University, at that time under the super- 
intendence of the late Captain Alden Patridge. Here he com- 
pleted his education, which was thoroughly practical, scientific 
and military. 

In 1851, he left Norwich, and, coming West, lived fur a time 
in Peoria, Illinois, where he obtained a situation in an Engi- 
neer Corps on the Pock island Railroad. His skill as an 
engineer, with his remarkable judgment and great ability to 
control men, soon discovering themselves, he was entrusted 
with the survey of this road to Peoria. On the completion of 
this survey, he came to Iowa, and was for several years in the 
employ of the Mississippi and Missouri Piver Railroad Com- 
pany, during which' time he projected surveys from the Mis- 
sissippi Piver to the Missouri, and up the valley of the Platte. 
As a civil engineer, young Dodge was very successful. 

In May, 18-31, he was married to Miss Annie Drown, of 

100 



110 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Peoria, Illinois, and for a short time resided in Iowa City. In 
the fall of the same year, he removed to Nebraska, where, in 
connection with his father and brother, ho remained nearly a 
year, taking up claims on the Elkhorn River. At that day, 
this section of Nebraska was the extreme limit of the frontier 
settlements, and of easy access to the hostile tribes of Indians, 
who, in the latter part of 1855, commenced their hostilities 
against the white settlers. In consequence of these troubles, 
G. M. Dodge returned to Iowa, and settled in Council Bluffs ; 
where, engaging in the banking business, he continued to 
reside till the beginning of the war. 

The excitement produced at Council Bluffs by the first news 
of the firing on Tort Sumter had hardly subsided, before Gen- 
eral Dodge was recruiting a company for the service. Having 
filled his company, he reported, early in the spring of 1861, to 
Governor S. J. Kirkwood, who, after learning what he had 
done, was so much pleased with him that he clothed him with 
proper authority, and sent him to Washington in quest of arms 
and munitions of war for the State. The promptness with 
which he discharged the duties of his commi.-sion attracted the 
notice of the War Department, and he was offered a commission 
in the regular army; but this honor he declined, for he pre- 
ferred to serve his own State. On his return from Washington, 
he was commissioned colonel of the -1th Iowa Infantry, his 
commission dating the 17th of June, 1861. 

In less than two weeks after his regiment was organized, and 
before he had been assigned to duty, he marched against Poin- 
dexter, drove him from Northern Missouri, and returned to 
Council Bluffs. On the 13th of August following, he reported 
at St. Louis, Missouri, for duty ; and was ordered to Rolla, to 
which place he at once proceeded. In the following October, 
he was made Commandant of the Post. On the first of Novem- 
ber, 1861, he led an expedition to Huston and Salem; and met 



GRF.NVILXE M. DODGE. Ill 

r.nd defeated the enemy at both places. In December, ho was 

quite severely wounded, but in what manner I am unadvised. 
On recovering from this wound, he was assigned by General 
Curtis (then organizing his army for an advance on Trice) to 
the command of a brigade. With this command lie led the 
advance against Springfield, on the morning of the 13th of 
February, 1S152. 

Company E, of the 4th Iowa Infantry, one of the regiments 
of Colonel Dodge's Brigade, being deployed as skirmishers 
under Lieutenant Stitt and ordered forward, never halted until 
it had taken possession of the city. Company II, Captain D. 
A. Craig, of the- 17th Iowa, performed a similar feat at Jack- 
son, Mississippi, the 14th of May, 1SG3. At Springfield, the 
entree and occupation of the city was attended with much 
sport. After the company had routed the enemy, who were 
principally stragglers, and made their captures of prisoners, 
horses &c, they broke for the city saloons and bakeries; and 
when General Curtis, accompanied by his staff and body-guard, 
came riding through to the public square, there he found 
them, feasting on beer and ginger-bread — their first spoils of 
war. 

The object of General Curtis' campaign was not simply the 
capture of Springfield: it was the defeat of General Price's 
army; and accordingly, on the morning of the fourteenth, the 
Army of the South West started in pursuit of the enemy. In 
this pursuit, Colonel Dodge's command met and engaged the 
enemy at Cane Creek, Sugar Creek, and Blackburn's Mill: 
in the last of these engagements, the rebels were led by the 
notorious Gates. These encounters took place on the 11th, 17th, 
and 27th of February, 1SG2, respectively. 

How Van Dorn, uniting with Price after that general's flight 
from Missouri, marched on General Curtis at Pea Ridge has 
been already given, as has also the desperate fighting that 



112 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

occurred on the right, between Carr's Division and the rebel 
forces. 

At day-light on the morning of the 7th, the troops of Carr's 
Division were put hurriedly under arms, and marched north- 
ward. None but Carr and his brigade commanders knew the 
object of the movement ; for it was supposed the enemy would 
make their attack from the south and south-west. But no time 
was given for breakfast, and all knew there must be danger 
from an unexpected quarter. Colonel Dodge, having marched 
his brigade a mile or more, turned eastward, along what was 
known as the "White River road. Companies E and K, of the 
4th Iowa, constituted the van-guard, they being followed by 
one section of the 1st Iowa Battery. Suddenly the sharp 
barking of musketry was heard. Dodge had come upon the 
enemy's cavalry, rceonnoitering for the advance of their 
infantry ; but this force was soon dispersed, and pursued 
thruugh the timber and past the rough and rocky hills, beyond 
and around which was Cross Timber Hollows. Dodge took up 
his position on these hills, with the enemy beyond in the fallen 
timber. Colonel Vandever, with his brigade, was to the left 



on the Springfield road; and there the severe fighting first 
began. Yandever's line was soon broken, and forced back, 
and 1 todge had no alternative but to retire. In the. meantime, 
the enemy were moving round Dodge's right. Gaining the 
ground out of the fallen timber, they swung round to the 
south, and, the first intimation he had of their approach, they 
were moving in heavy masses through open country to pass 
his right, and cut him off. Promptly changing position "by 
the right flank, file left," the colonel threw his handful of 
troops along an old fence, with timber on his right and left, 
and an open field in his front; in the latter, the enemy were 
forming fa- a charge. At this alarming juncture, he had only 
two regiments—the 4th Iowa and S-Ah Illinois. The enemy 



GREN'VILLE M. DODGE. 113 

outnumbered him nearly ten to one; and, in addition, they 
were supported by artillery. Concealing his men behind the 
fence, Colonel Dodge awaited their approach. After a 
vigorous cannonading, their infantry came sweeping across the 
field in magnificent style and with a hideous yell, expecting 
little opposition; but they were met with a deadly fire and 
driven back. The charge was renewed several times, and each 
time repulsed. Xor could they force Colonel Dodge from his 
position, till they began moving columns past his right and 
Uft flank. It was the fighting of the 4th Iowa and Goth 
Illinois, in this position, that so challenged the admiration of 
General Van Doin, and other rebel officers. 

3 

The services of Colonel Dodge at Pea Ridge ranked those of 
every other brigade commander: there were none to dispute 
with him this honor. He was here a second time wounded, 
and soon after sent to St. Louis, in charge of the surgeon of the 
3d Iowa cavalry. 

The important services of Colonel Dodge were now recog- 
nized by the Government; and he was, on the 31st of March, 
il863, made a brigadier-general. Early in June of the same 
year, he was made Post Commandant of Columbus, Kentucky, 
and, on the 36th of the same month, was assigned to the 
command of the Central Division, Army of the Tennessee, 
with head-quarters at Trenton. On the 30th of the following 
October, he assumed command of the District of Corinth; and 
the magnificent works, erected for the defense of that place, 
were planned and constructed under his personal supervision. 
From October, 1862, till the 8th of July, 18G3, when by order 
of General Hurl but he assumed command of the left wing of 
tiie K'.th Army Corp-;, General Dodge was engaged repeatedly 
with the enemy under Forrest, Van Dorn, Chalmers, Ruggles 
and Ferguson^ and, in every engagement and expedition, he 
Was successful. In addition to his other labors in the summer 



114 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

of 1863, he organized five regiments of colored troops, and 
several companies of heavy artillery, also colored troops. 

In the fall of 1863, General Dodge was transferred, with his 
command, from Corinth to Pulaski, Tennessee. He left his 
old field of operations late in October, following on with the 
rear of Sherman's army, then en route for Chattanooga, but a 
history of these movements I have given elsewhere. Estab- 
lishing his head-quarters at Pulaski, he began opening the 
Nashville and Decatur Railroad, and by Spring had the task 
nearly completed. 

General Dodge most distinguished himself in the Atlanta 
campaign. The troops of his command were the same that 
he had commanded on garrison- and railroad-duty. Among 
them were three Iowa regiments — the 2d, 7th and 39th. He. 
joined General Sherman at Chattanooga, early in May, and soon 
marched out to Dalton, General Johnson's boasted stronghold. 
Through nearly this entire campaign he held the right of Sher- 
man's army; but the details of his services on this march will 
be more fully given in the sketches of the Iowa regiments of 
his command. For his gallant and important services in this 
campaign, he was made a major-general, and there are few 
officers who have more richly earned the rank. 

The general was wounded for the third time, before Atlanta. 
11 happened thus: the morning in question he went out to the 
trenches of the skirmish line, sporting a new hat, trimmed 
with a brilliantly polished bugle. If I am rightly informed, 
some important movement was on hand, in which he was to 
bike part, and, prior to moving, ho exposed his head at one of 
the loop-holes under the head-log, to make observations. The 
sun, which was shining brightly, reflected on the bugle of his 
hat, making a fine target for the enemy's sharp-shooters. The 
rrlvl's aim was so accurate that the ball struck near the bugle, 
and, going through the general's hat, passed round under the 



GBENVTLLE M. DODGE. 115 

scalp. It did not prove fatal, though for several weeks it dis- 
abled him for service. This accident occurred early in August, 
after which he came North, and never after returned to his 
old command. 

On recovering from his wound, he was first placed in com- 
mand at Vicksburg, Mississippi ; but, in a short time after, 
succeeded General Roseerans in Missouri. He is still in com- 
mand of that department, with head-quarters at St. Louis. 

During the present war, no officer, whether of the regular or 
volunteer service, has made a bettor record than Major-General 
Dodge. One officer from our State has made a more brilliant 
one — General Corse; but that general's services are in no 
manner to be compared with those of General Dodge. His 
duties have been varied, and in many instances have involved 
the greatest responsibility and complexity; but he has met 
with uniform success in every department of his labors, and 
has never been relieved from a command unless it was by 
orders assigning him to another mid more important one. 
His worth has been appreciated by General Grant, who, on 
more than one occasion, has tendered him high compliments. 
During operations around Vicksburg, General Dodge Mas in 
command at Corinth, one hundred and fifty miles removed 
from the former city; and yet General Grant stated officially, 
I am credibly informed, that there was no officer of Dodge's 
rank in his army to whom he was more indebted for his suc- 
cess in capturing the stronghold. 

In person, General Dodge is a small man, weighing only 
about one hundred and thirty pounds. I never saw him but 
once, which was in the summer of 1S62, os I was passing 
through Trenton, Tennessee, at that time the general's head- 
quarters. He was standing upon the depot platform, and was 
in conversation with Lieutenant W. S. Burke, of the I7th Iowa. 
From the lieutenant I afterwards learned that this was the 



116 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

gallant, distinguished General Dodge, and I confess I was 
surprised. He is slightly stooping in the shoulders, and, at 
first sight, does not look like the man he is. He has a fine 
eye, though, which, after seeing his shoulder-straps, was the 
first thing that attracted my attention. 

But he has the following distinguishing traits of character, 
for without them he could never have accomplished what he 
has. He has an iron will, a mind rich in expedients, and a 
perseverance that is active and untiring: these traits, with 
promptness of action, and a judgment remarkably matured for 
a man of his years, have conspired to make him in fact, as he 
is in rank, one of the best officers of our army. If Iowa has 
been honored by her troops in the field, she has been equally 
honored by her general officers; and in this respect she is 
indebted to no one more than to General Dodffe. 



BRIGADIER-GENERAL J. A. WILLIAMSON. 

SECOND COLONEL, FOURTH INFANTRY. 

James Alexander Williamson, the successor of Major- 
General Dodge to the colonelcy of the 4th Iowa Infantry, is a 
Southerner by birth, and a good representative of the old-style 
chivalry. He is a native of Columbia, Adair county, Ken- 
tucky ; where he was born on the 8th day of February, 1829* 
All that I know of his early history is, that he was educated at 
Knox College, Illinois, where he was known as a hard student 
and accurate scholar. In 1815, he removed to Iowa, and, ten 
years later, located in Des Moines, the present home of his 
family. His profession is the law, in the practice of which he 
was engaged just before entering the army. 

Soon after the second call of the President for troops, in the 
summer of 1SG1, General Williamson enlisted in the volunteer 
service for " during the war. " He was commissioned 1st lieu- 
tenant and adjutant of the 4th Iowa Infantry, on the 8th of 
August, 1SGI ; since which time his history has been almost 
identical with the history of that regiment ; and, as much as 
we admire the general's military career, we could not, if we 
would, pay him a higher compliment ; for to no Iowa regiment 
is the State more largely indebted for its military renown than 
to the noble 1th Iowa. At Pea Ridge, its conduct was most 
gallant, challenging alike the admiration of friend and foe. 
General Curtis said : — " This regiment won immortal honors ;" 
and General Van Dora:— "I never saw troops stand up and 
fight so before." 

During the thirty months subsequent to the 23d of January, 
1862, the time when the 4th Iowa left Holla, Missouri — in its 

117 



118 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

march under General Curtis against General Price to Spring- 
field and to the Ozark Mountains ; from that point to Batesville 
and across the State of Arkansas to Helena; thence to Chicka- 
saw Bayou and up the Arkansas River to Arkansas Post ; from 
Milliken's Bend round through Grand Gulf aud Jackson to the 
rear of Vicksburg, and then, after the fall of that city, back to 
Jackson ; from Vicksburg to Memphis, and thence across the 
country to Chattanooga ; and finally, in its march with General 
Sherman against Atlanta — its record is one continued series of 
achievements, un.-urpassed for success and brilliancy. 

That I do not speak of this regiment in too high terms of 
praise, the following order of General Grant is proof: 

• ; Ueai>-Qi;akters Military Division of tiie Mississippi, 
Nashville. Tennessee, February 2d, 18G4. 

" The Board of officers of the loth Army Corps, appointed to 
determine the battles each regiment and battery of that com- 
mand are entitled to inscribe on their colors and guidons, have 
made the following award, in the case of the 4th Iowa Infan- 
try : — Pea Ridge ; First at Chickasaw Bayou ; Arkansas Post ; 
Vicksburg^- siege and assaults on the 19th and 22d of May; 
Jackson ; Chattanooga. " 

But this order is imperfect in details. The following are the 
skirmishes and engagements in which the 4th Iowa took part, 
previous to joining the campaign of General Sherman against 
Atlanta: — Pea Ridge; Chickasaw Bayou; Arkansas Post; 
Jackson (May 11th, 1S63) ; siege and assaults at Vicksburg ; 
Jackson (July 12th, 1863); Cherokee Station; Caney Creek; 
Tuscumbia; Lookout Mountain; and Ringgold. This too, 
including the battles that the -1th Iowa was engaged in on the 
Atlanta campaign, is the battle-record of General Williamson. 

When Colonel, now Major-General Dodge, was assigned to 
the command of a brigade under General Curtis, he retained 
Adjutant J. A. Williamson upon his staff, and made him his 
acting assistant adjutant-general. At the battle <>f IVa Ridge, 
Lieutenant Williamson acted as aid-de-camj) to Colonel Budge, 



JAMES A. WILLIAMSON. 119 

and, by his coolness and promptness, rendered important 
service. I might add, it was his good conduct in that engage- 
ment that made him lieutenant-colonel of his regiment ; for 
Lieutenant-Colonel Galligan had resigned, for reasons which I 
will not mention. On the confirmation of Colonel Dodge as 
brigadier-general, Lieutenant-Colonel "Williamson was promo- 
ted to the colonelcy of the 4th Iowa Infantry. 

On the third day's fight at Chickasaw Bayou, Colonel "Wil- 
liamson, in command of his regiment, distinguished himself. 

The fleet bearing the command of General Sherman entered 
the mouth of the Yazoo River, on the morning of the 26th of 
December, 1862, and proceeded up that stream until opposite 
Johnson's plantation, which lies on the south bank of the river, 
and some five miles below Haine's Bluff. At this point Gene- 
ral Frederick Steele, in command of the 4th Division, 13th 
Army Corps, debarked his command, and, under instructions 
from General Sherman, sent out Blair's Brigade on the Johnson 
road, which leads to the Walnut Hills, in the direction of 
Yicksburg. That day reconnoissances were made, and that 
night a new point of attack was determined on. Accordingly, 
on the following morning, General Steele re-embarked with 
the brigades of Hovoy and Thayer, (in the last of which were 
the 1th, Oth, L'Glh and 50th Iowa) and, moving further up the 
river, effected a landing just above the mouth of Chickasaw 
Bayou. From near this point to the Walnut Hills, a distance 
of four miles or more, extends a narrow, winding causeway, 
or levee, and over this was the only accessible way to the point 
of attack ; for, on either side of the levee, the country is 
covered with brush and timber, and is so low that, at that 
time, much of it was under water. Along this highway, 
which had been obstructed by the enemy with brush and 
fallen trees, the brigades of Hovey and Thayer moved, till 
they had arrived in the vicinity of the bluffs— General Steele 



120 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

says, "within about eight hundred yards;" but it could hardly 
have been so near. " At this point the levee turned to the left, 
and continued in a curve for about eight hundred yards;" 
and, on its farther side, were the enemy's skirmishers and 
sharp-shooters. General Hovey's Brigade, which was in the 
advance, endeavored to remove the obstructions in its front, 
and dislodge the enemy's sharp-shooters; but the position was 
covered by the enemy's artillery on the bluff, which made it 
impossible. But this point gained, and still General Steele 
had little assurance of success; for the steep sides of the bluff 
were lined with rifle-pits, in which the enemy were lodged in 
force. The enemy's artillery, too, frowned down upon him 
from four different points. He believed it impossible to make 
a successful assault, and, falling back to the river, returned to 
Johnson's plantation. On the morning of the 29th instant, 
General Thayer's Brigade, being the first off the boats, was 
hurried rapidly forward. It was to be held in reserve, but the 
zeal of its commander led it directly to the front. "The 2Cth 
Iowa was detached to cut a road," and the 80th was met by 
General Steele, and turned to the right; but the 4th, under the 
lead of its gallant colonel, moved forward at double-quick, and 
was the first to enter the enemy's second tier of rifle-pits. It 
was for its gallant conduct at this point that the 4th Iowa was 
permitted to inscribe on its colors, "JFirst at Chickasaw Bayou." 
But the regiment's bravery was of no avail, and that assault 
was mere butchery j for the whole of Pemberton's Vicksburg 
army was in possession of the bluffs. 

The fact that General Sherman ordered, or permitted, that 
assault, was, with many, new evidence of his insanity; but it 
is now, I believe, well settled that the orders under which he 
acted were unconditional and imperative. 

The engagement at Pea Ridge was more protracted and 
exhausting, but, for fierceness, it is in no way to be compared 



JAMES A. WILLIAMSON. 121 

with that at Chickasaw Bayou. In each of these battles, the 4th 
Iowa was in the hardest of the conflict; but, considering the 
time it was engaged in each, its loss was fifty per cent, greater 
in the latter than in the former. Its loss at Chickasaw Bayou 
was one hundred and twelve, out of an aggregate of tliree 
hundred and fifty taken into the engagement. Lieutenants 
L. Pitzer, E. C. Miller, and J. II. Miller were among the 
killed; and Colonel Williamson and Captain R. A. Stitt of 
Company F, among the wounded. 

In the re-organization of the army before the final Yicksburg 
campaign, the 4th Iowa Infantry was assigned to the loth 
Army Corps; and, with that command, it has served ever 
since. Its losses in the assaults on the enemy's works in rear 
of Vieksburg were heavy ; and at Chattanooga, where, under 
General Osterhaus, it joined General Hooker in scaling 
Lookout Mountain, the loss in killed was especially heavy. 
In the march of General Sherman on Atlanta, it engaged the 
enemy at Resaca, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, and 
in the battles of the 22d and :28th of July, and at Jonc^boro. 
Its conduct before Atlanta, on the 22d of July, was gallant in 
the extreme, as was also that of the 9th Iowa. An account of 
the part it acted, during that day, will bo found in the sketch 
of the last named regiment. 

In the march from Atlanta to Savannah, the 4th Iowa was 
brigaded with the 9th, 25th, 26th, 3uth, and 31st Iowa 
regiments — the same troops who afterwards captured the city 
of Columbia, South Carolina. While in rear of Savannah, 
these troops had a compliment paid them, to which I should in 
justice allude. The brigade, General Williamson commanding, 
arrived in rear of Savannah, on the 11th of December, and, on 
the 2l)th instant, was one of the commands selected to carry 
the enemy's works, and force an entrance into the city. The 
assault was to come oil" on the morning of the 21st; but the 



122 IOWA COLOXEI^S AND REGIMENTS. 

night previous General Hardee fled. To appreciate the value 
of this compliment, it is necessary to understand the position 
of the brigade, and the character of obstacles to be overcome. 
Its position was in the low lands south-west of Savannah, and 
on the right of the road leading to the city. Five hundred 
yards in its front was the Little Ogechee, whose north-east 
bank was fortified, and held by the enemy: between its line 
and the river was the Grave Yard Battery. The bridge over 
the Ogechee was destroyed, and the waters of the stream, 
much swollen. The brigade was to cross on rafts, planks, and 
poles, placed by a storming party. It was a hazardous under- 
taking; but, had not General Hardee fled, it would doubtless 
have been successfully accomplished. y 

The 4th Iowa Infantry has met the enemy in eight differ- 
ent rebel States— Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, 
Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, and 
has never been repulsed; only once has it been compelled to 
yield the ground it had wrested from the enemy. 

1 n dosing an official statement of the services of his regiment 
called for by the Adjutant-General of Iowa, General William- 
son -ays: 11 "stayed at Nashville a few days to get an outfit, 
and then started on the campaign against Atlanta, and has 
only halted in line of battle since, until its arrival at this place, 
<-n the 7th instant. This is not a regiment which has ordina- 
rily been at 'posts.' I can hardly realize the meaning of the 
term. We have stopped a few weeks to rest after a campaign, 
but never had charge of any post since the regiment was really 
equipped for the held at Rolla, in the fall of 1861. 

"Our records, reports, and returns are made from the place 
where we happened to bo when they fell due, and one camp 
has been almost as much a 'post' with us as another." 

Subsequently to the spring of 1S(V3, General Williamson has 
been in command of the brigade to which his regiment lias 



JAMES A. WILLIAMSON. 123 

Jkkjd attached; and during all this time has enjoyed, in an 
uncommon degree, the confidence of his superior bmcers. In 
proof of this I give the following instance: While Governor 
Stone was on a visit to the army before Atlanta, in the summer 
of 1864, he met General Sherman at his head-quarters. In the 
course of conversation,, the names of different Iowa officers 
were introduced, when Governor Stone enquired: "Where, 
general, is Colonel Williamson?" "With his command and 
doing his duty, as he always is," was the reply; and only 
those who know General Sherman can appreciate the worth of 
this compliment. 

General Williamson was not promoted to his present rank 
until the winter of 1864-5. Why such merit was so long unre- 
warded, has been a question much canvassed, and lias produced 
not a little indignation, both in and out of the army. I give 
the following on the authority of a distinguished citizen of 
General Williamson's city: — On one occasion, the family of 
General Williamson being sick, that officer, knowing the long 
delay that would follow in obtaining a leave of absence through 
the regular channel, applied directly to the War Department. 
He obtained his leave and left for his home, after presenting 
his papers at corps head-quarters. The corps commander, who 
was, and still is jealous of his authority, was indignant ; and 
from that time until the fall of 1864, although conceding the 
merit and claims of the general, declined to urge his promo- 
tion. 

General Williamson is of medium hight, and has a fine, 
symmetrical form. His full, gray eyes, which in his ordinary 
moods have a sort of absent and care-worn expression, tingle 
with intelligence and animation as soon as he becomes inter- 
ested in conversation. In manners he is modest and reserved. 
\W never begs favors. In Xew England he would be appreci- 
ated; but, for a Western man, he lacks impudence. 



124 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

The editor of the Cass County "Gazette," an intimate 
acquaintance of the general, speaks thus of him : 

" Colonel Williamson is a refined, chivalrous gentleman, 
whom one must know to appreciate. To those who win hia 
confidence, he is lavishly. sociable; but, for those who treat hini 
coolly, he has no smile or word of gladness. He rarely alters 
a deliberate opinion, and we know of but one exception ; once 
of the best Democratic blood of the North, he is now a warm 
friend of Lincoln. He is a brave man. In battle his fine form 
moves near the van. He rides slowly, speaks with much calm- 
ness, and never becomes excited in action. Williamson is still 
a young man ; but he is to-day a favorite of the people — espec- 
ially in Middle and Western Iowa." 



COLONEL WILLIAM HORD WORTIIIXGTON. 

FIRST COLONEL, FIFTH INFANTRY. 

Wtlliam II. Wortjiington, who was shot dead before 
Corinth, in the spring of 1862, by a frightened sentinel, was 
linked by blood to the earliest and most distinguished families 
of the country — on the paternal side to the Virginia line of 
Madisons, and to General Andrew Lewis, the Virginia soldier, 
who was recommended by General Washington as "Com- 
mander-in-chief of the American Army:" on the maternal 
side, to the Slaughters, also a distinguished Virginia family. 
His grand-father, Colonel Gabriel Slaughter, who emigrated to 
Kentucky in its earliest history, was twice elected lieutenant- 
governor of that State — first with Governor Scott, and last 
with Governor George Madison — and each time succeeded to 
the administration of the government, as survivor of the 
governor elect. He was also the colonel of a Kentucky regi- 
ment which fought with General Jackson at the battle of New 
Orleans. His faithfulness and ability as an executive officer, 
and his gallantry at the battle of New Orleans, have been 
commemorated by his adopted State, in the erection of a fine 
monument to his memory. 

Colonel Wbrthington's grand-father, Edward Worthington, 
a Marylander, was also an early and distinguished settler in 
Kentucky. His father, the Rev. John Tolly Worthington, 
I). D., a devoted Christian and zealous patriot, is still living, 
and a resident of Pittsfiold, Illinois. William H. Worthington 
was born at Harrodsburg, Kentucky, on the 2d day of Novem- 
ber, 1828. He lost his mother in early infancy, and was 

adopted, reared and educated by his maternal grand-uncle, 

125 



126 IOWA COLONELS AND KEGIMENTS. 

Major William Hord, also a distinguished Kentucky gentle- 
man. I am thus particular in giving the colonel's lineage, for 
his military enthusiasm was of ancestral inheritance. 

His primary education Colonel Worthington received in the 
schools of Louisville, at that time the residence of Major Hord; 
and it was there, while under the instruction of a Polish officer, 
that he first gave token of that military spirit which, in despite 
of his untimely fate, has made his name celebrated in the 
history of our State. Having graduated at Bacon College, 
Harrodsburg, Kentucky, he Mas, at the ago of nineteen, mar- 
ried to Miss Anna Eliza, daughter of Dr. Toralinson, a lady of 
reputed beauty and intelligence; and now, throwing aside his 
books, he began life on a form. This calling soon proved 
uncongenial to his tastes, and he abandoned it for the law. 
After being admitted to the bar, he opened an office in his 
native town; and, though his professional studies had been 
chiefly of his own shaping, he soon gave promise of future 
eminence. In 1857 he moved to Iowa, where, establishing 
himself in a lucrative practice, he made his home till the 
beginning of the war. 

When the war broke out he was serving as the captain of 
the "City Rifles," a military company in the city of Keokuk; 
and it was the aptness which he discovered in military matters 
while in this position, that first brought his name into favora- 
ble notice with Governor Kirkwood. 

While in Washington City, seeking a position in the regular 
army, (which he only failed in obtaining on account of all 
vacancies being filled) he was tendered the colonelcy of an 
Iowa volunteer regiment. This he accepted; and, returning 
to Iowa early in July, received his commission as colonel of 
the ;",th Iowa Infantry, on the 15th of the same month. 

The 5th Tow a Infantry entered the service under peculiar 
and promising omens: its colonel was a descendant of our most 



WILLIAM II. WOKTIIIXGTOX. 127 

illustrious revolutionary heroes, and its drummer-hoy, Robert 
Bain, beat the same drum with which his father, in 1812, and 
lih grand-father, in 1776, had stirred the hearts of the Revolu- 
tionists. For aught I know, this same drum beat defiance to 

Sir George Packenham, on the battle-field of New Orleans. 

The history of the 5th Iowa is a proud one. From the time 
it took the field in August, 1861, till it was consolidated with 
the 5th Iowa Cavalry, three years later, no blot or stain dis- 
figures its fair record. I have stated elsewhere that the 
regiment first served in Missouri. Leaving Jefferson Barracks 
the 14th of August, it proceeded to Jefferson City, where it 
remained till the first of September. From Jefferson City it 
marched to Columbia; from Columbia to Boonville; from 
Boonville to Glasgow; from Glasgow to Springfield; from 
Springfield to Syracuse; from Syracuse back to Boonville, and 
thence to Cairo, Illinois, where it arrived on the 20th of Febru- 
ary, 1862. Thus far, the regiment had failed to meet the enemy 
in a general engagement. 

When the 5th Iowa, under Colonel Worthington, arrived at 
Cairo, it was one of the best drilled and disciplined regiments 
in the volunteer service. This, at first, was secured at the 
expense of the colonel's popularity. Indeed, in the early his- 
tory of the war, the people of the North were so largely 
imbued with their peculiar ideas of Democracy, (doing as they 
pleased) that it was hard for them to learn the duties and sub- 
mit to the requirements of soldiers; and this, with the 5th 
Iowa as well as with other Iowa regiments, was the cause of 
much discontent. The men were, at first, restive under 
Colonel Worthingtmi's strict discipline. But the semi-official 
order of General Pope, of October, 1861, announcing: "Colonel: 
your regiment is the most soldierly-appearing one I have seen 
in Missouri,*' secured, in the future, an unquestioning compli- 
ance with his orders; for the men were, proud of their good 



128 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

name, and knew to 'whom belonged the credit. This, too, in 
connection with the fact of his having periled his own life in 
rescuing a private of his command from drowning in the Mis- 
souri River, secured him, from that day to the day of his 
death, the respect and esteem of his regiment. 

After a three days' rest at Cairo, Colonel Worthington crossed 
the Mississippi with his regiment, and marched out to Benton, 
Missouri. From that point, he accompanied General Pope to 
New Madrid, where, during the ten days' siege, he was con- 
spicuous. In the meantime, he had assumed command of a 
brigade, and with that was assigned the important task, of 
assaulting and capturing the ' Upper Fort, ' which, I may add, 
would have been successfully accomplished, had not the ruse 
de guerre of General Stanley been divined by the enemy. This 
was on the morning of the 7th of March, 1862, and, on the 
morning of the 13th, the place was evacuated. But the gallan- 
try of companies A and B, of the 5th Iowa, and three compa- 
nies of the 39th Indiana, (these regiments were of Colonel 
AVortlungton's command) I should not omit to mention. On 
the afternoon of the 1th of March, these troops, under com- 
mand of Major Robertson of the 5th Iowa, made the first 
demonstration against New Madrid. After engaging the ene- 
my's pickets, and driving them through the large corn-field 
that lay to the nortb of the town, they suddenly found them- 
selves confronted by a force which, in numbers, was not only 
treble their own, but which was supported by artillery. Here, 
however, they maintained their position, in the face of a gall- 
ing fire, for upwards of two hours; nor did they retire till 
ordered to do so by Colonel, now General Granger. 

During the operations around Island No. 10, which was sur- 
rendered to General Pope on the 7th of the following April, 
Colonel Worthington was again conspicuous; and the troops of 
his command were, by order of General Pope, permitted to 



WILLIAM H. WORTHINGTON. 129 

inscribe on their flags, "Island No. 10." He now sailed to 
Hamburg Lauding', ou the Tennessee, where, with the com- 
mand of General Pope, he took up his position before Corinth, 
on the left of our army. But his gallant career was soon to 
close : he was shot by a heedless and frightened sentinel, on the 
morning of the 22d of May ; and the story, a brief one, is thus 
sadly told: 

"General Orders No. 53. 

"Head-quarters Army of the Mississippi, 
Near Farmingtox, May 22d, 1862. 

" The general commanding announces to the army with deep 
regret the death of Colonel W. H. Worthington, Fifth Iowa 
Volunteers. He was killed by an unfortunate accident this 
morning, at two o'clock, while in discharge of his duties as 
general officer of the day. * * * * 

"Speed Butler, 
Assistant Adjutant General. " 
" By order of General Pope." 

The report of the gun was heard by Captain "Wever and 
myself, who, at the time, were on picket-duty, on the extreme 
left. It came to us across an open field to our right and rear, 
and from the edge of the timber, which was some quarter of a 
mile away. On our return to camp in the morning, wo 
learned the sad story. The night was dark, and the sentinel, 
having left his post, was walking carelessly to the rear, when 
the officer of the day approached. Forgetting that he was 
witjim the line, and alarmed at what he supposed the approach 
of the enemy, he fired, without even challenging the 
approaching party. The ball took effect near the left eye, and 
the colonel, falling from bis horse, died almost instantly. 

Of the many gallant Iowa officers who have fallen in the 
service of their country, few were more deeply and sincerely 
mourned than Colonel Worthington. Many were the tributes 
that were offered to his memory. The army in which he 
served, his regiment, the District Court of his county, his old 

9 



130 IOWA COLONELS AND 11EGIMENT3. 

company, the "City Rifles,"— all spoke his praise and joined 
in one common wail: all, as was expressed by Judge Francis 
Springer, "mourned the loss, and cherished the memory of the 
noble-hearted, brave and heroic Worthington." 

At the time of his death, the future of no officer in our army 
was more promising than his. He loved the service, and was 
a model soldier. Already he had been recommended for 
promotion ; and, had he survived the siege of Corinth, he 
would have been made a brigadier-general. I do not speak 
without authority. "In Colonel Worthington" (I quote from 
the above order of General Pope) "this army has sustained a 
serious loss. Prompt, gallant and patriotic, a brilliant career 
in the military profession was before him. " 

I remember well the first time I saw him. We had just 
arrived at the front, and he had called on Colonel Rankin to 
enquire and talk of friends at home. His manly form, and 
frank, open countenance impressed me; and, though I did not 
then know his name, I knew he was no ordinary man. 

Colonel Worthington was a Southern man, with a Southern 
education and Southern prejudices; and, during the Presiden- 
tial canvass of IS60, advocated the cause of Bell and Everett. 
Even at the outbreak of the war, he was a conservative. But 
he was aLso loyal; and no sooner was Abraham Lincoln 
declared elected, than he recognized and respected him as the 
legal Executive of the Nation. Indeed, when it was rumored 
that the rebels were threatening the Capital, he declared to his 
father: "If they enter Washington they shall march over my 
dead body ! " Before leaving Missouri, he wrote to his father : 
"You know my conservative views heretofore; I am now a 
radical; and so lie died. To his wife he wrote: "If I fall, 
teach my son to do likewise, if his country needs his life. " 
His love for his country he sealed with his blood, and died a 
true patriot. 



BRIGADIER-GENERAL 0. L. MATTHIES. 

SECOND COLOXEL, FIFTH INFANTRY. 

Charles Leopold Matthies was the first man in the 
State of Iowa, and in the United States, to tender a military 
company to the Government, to aid in crushing the rebellion. 
The tender was made by letter through Governor Kirkwood, 
on the 9th day of January, 1SG1 . The general can not be proud- 
er of the distinction which this act has secured him, than is the 
State of Iowa. 

General Matthies is a Prussian by birth, and was born in 
Bromberg, on the 31st day of May, 1824. When sixteen years 
of age, his father, an affluent farmer, sent him to the Univer- 
sity at Halle, where he received a thorough military education. 
On leaving that University, he returned home; and, from that 
time till he readied his twentieth year, he labored on his 
father's farm. At the age of twenty, he entered the Prussian 
army; and, in 1847, served in the campaign against the Insur- 
rectionists, (the Poles) under General Miroslawski. In ISIS, 
lie resigned the commission which he had won by his good 
conduct, and a few months later emigrated to America, arriv- 
ing in New York in the spring of 1849. In the latter part of 
the same year, he came to Iowa, and settled in Burlington, 
where, engaging in mercantile pursuits, ho has made his home 
ever since. 

General Matthies entered the volunteer service, as captain of 
Company I), 1st Iowa Infantry — that noble regiment which, 
by its heroism at Wilson's Creek, established the military 
prowess of the State, lie was not present in. that engagement ; 
for, in the latter part of July, he received notice of his 

131 



' 



132 IOWA COLONELS AND regiments. 

promotion to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the 5th Iowa, ami at 
once left to report to that regiment. After the death of Colon. 1 
Worthlngton, he was promoted to the colonelcy. He shared 
with his regiment the fatigues and hardships of the Missouri 
campaigns; was with it at Island No. 10, and during the siege 
of Corinth ; and yet, prior to the battle of luka, his name was 
hardly known outside of his own brigade. It was his courage 
and gallantry in that sanguinary battle that made him distin- 
guished in Ilis army corps, and earned for him the commission 
of a brigadier-general. 

After the evacuation of Corinth, the 5th Iowa, under Colonel 
Matthies, joined in the pursuit of Beauregard to Boonville, 
and returned thence to Clear Springs, near Corinth. Late in 
June, it marched to Eipley with "its division; returned imme- 
diately to Rienzi, and, on the 10th of July, marched back to 
Clear Springs. From Clear Springs it changed camp to Jacinto, 
and, from that point, marched against Price at luka, in the 
evening of the ISth of September, 1862. With the exception 
of the last, the regiment met the enemy in none of these 
movements. 

General Ilo-eerans, by incautiously pushing his advance too 
far, precipitated the battle of luka on the afternoon of the 10th 
of September, when, in accordance with pre-arranged plans, it 
should have been fought on the morning of the 20th. General 
Grant first arranged to fight the battle as early as the morning 
of the 19th instant; and, with that understanding, the forces of 
Ord moved out from Corinth in the afternoon of the 17th, and 
the evening of the next day came up with, and drove in the 
enemy's pickets. But at that hour the chief part of Rosecrans' 
command was still at Jacinto, and the time for making the 
attack was changed. General Price, divining Grant's plan of 
concentration, hurried out from luka in the afternoon of the 
10th, and threw his entire army against Rosecrans, hoping to 



CHARLES L. MATTHIES. 133 

overwhelm him before Ord could come up; aud thus it hap- 
pened that Rosecrans fought alone the heedless battle of luka. 
There is another version of this affair, which, judging by the 
authority from which I receive it, is doubtless the correct one : 
that Rosearans, ambitious, and desirous of superseding General 
Grant, moved up against Price for the express purpose of 
bringing on a battle and winning glory, well knowing at the 
time that he was disobeying orders. Any other general, 
except the magnanimous Grant, would have at once relieved 
him and put him in arrest. 

The 5th Iowa under Matthies, together with the 10th, 16th 
and 17th Iowa, the 10th Missouri aud SOth Ohio, were among 
the troops in the van of Rosecrans' forces, and were the first to 
encounter the enemy. The straggle which ensued was* pro- 
tracted and desperate in the extreme; indeed, for courage and 
endurance it has few parallels. No pen can do more than 
credit to the 5th Iowa Infantry for its heroism in this terrible 
engagement. During the fore part of the day, while en route 
from Jacinto to luka, this regiment led the advance of the 3d 
Division, aud, for more than six miles, continued to drive back 
the enemy, who, in small force, made repeated stands. "When 
the enemy were finally met in force some three miles south- 
west of luka, the 5th Iowa was one of the first regiments in 
line of battle; and, from that time until it fired its last cart- 
ridge, it maintained its position. Its list of casualties is proof 
of its gallantry. It lost in killed, wounded and missing, from 
an aggregate of four hundred and eighty-two that went into the 
fight, two hundred and seventeen men. Fifteen commissioned 
officers were killed and wounded; and, of the enlisted men, 
thirty-four were killed, and one hundred and sixty-eight 
wounded. Lieutenants Lafayette Shawl and E. M. Ilolcomb 
were killed, and Captains John Albaugh and Joel Drown, and 
Lieutenants R. F. Patterson, J. W. Casad, A. L. Mateer, A. 



134 IOWA COLONELS AND KEGIMENT8. 

Ellis, J. E. Page, Benjamin Jarvis, A. B. Lewis, S. S. Sample, 
J. E. Pangborn, W. C. Iluber and W. II. Colton were wounded. 
Lieutenant Mateer died of his wounds soon after the battle. 
Among those mentioned for special gallantry were Lieutenant- 
Colonel Sampson, and Lieutenant and Acting-Major Patterson, 
and Lieutenant Marshall. Nearly all were equally deserving 
of mention. 

The 5th was General S. Hamilton's pet regiment; and, after 
the battle, Colonel Matthies enclosed to him his official report, 
to which he received the following reply: 

"New York, October 27th, 1S62. 
"Colonee C. I/. Matthies, Uhlowa Infantry: 

"My Dear Colonel: In sending to me the report of the 
brilliant conduct of the 5th Iowa at Iuka, September 19th, 
1S62, you have given me a very great pleasure, as well as 
paid me a great compliment. When I read the newspaper 
accounts of battles in the vicinity of Corinth, though still sick, 
my heart thrilled with pride and satisfaction at the splendid 
conduct of the regiments composing my old division, espe- 
cially that of the 5th Iowa and 26th Missouri. 

" To show you how well understood it is, the 5th Iowa has 
become a household word with us, and my youngest boy, a 
prattler of four years of age, when asked what company he 
belongs to, says, (and he breakfasts m his knapsack) 'Com- 
pany A, Fifth Iowa— papa's pet regiment.' 

"lam under orders from Washington, and though I may 
not again have the honor to number the 5th Iowa among 
those under my command, I shall always point to its conduct, 
as an evidence of the character of the troops from that State, 
and how kindly tiny respond to, and confer honor upon those 
who have diligently endeavored to look after their welfare, 
discipline, and instruction, which I honestly think I may 
claim a share in having done. Feeling, Colonel, that their 
honor is my honor, I shall watch their future career with the 
same interest I watched over them when a part of my 
command. Write my compliments and kind remembrances 
In all. Believe me, very truly your friend, 

" SCHUYLEE HAMILTON, 
" Major- General Volunteers, U. S. A" 



CHAKLES L. MAT Till ES. 135 

The 5th Iowa Infantry next engaged the enemy at Corinth- 
October 3d and 4th, 1862 ; and, from that date until the 24th of 
April, 1863, the time of Colonel Matthias' promotion to 
brigadier-general, its history is the same as that of the 10th 
and, I might add, that of the 17th Iowa ; for these three 
regiments served in the same division. 

After receiving, in April, 1S63, a brigadier's commission, 
General Matthies was ordered to report to General Mcl'hersou, 
who assigned him to the command of the 7th Division, 17th 
Army Corps; but this order being soon after recalled, he was 
given command of the 3d Brigade, 3d Division, loth Army 
Corps, which he commanded, under General Sherman, from 
Grand Gulf to Jackson and thence to the rear of Yiqksburg. 
He continued in command of this brigade until the death of 
Colonel Boomer, of the 26th Missouri, when he was sent back 
to his old army corps, and given command of the 3d Brigade, 
of the 7th Division. On leaving the command of General 
Sherman, that ofheer honored him with an autograph letter, 
in which he complimented him highly for his efficient 
services. IDs new command was composed of the following 
troops: the 5th and 10th Iowa, the 26th Missouri and 93d 
Illinois— four as gallant regiments as ever met the enemy in 
battle. I)i the latter part of January, 1SC4, he was given 
command of a temporary division, made up of different 
regiments of the 15th Army Corps, with which he marched to 
East Tennessee, to aid in driving back Longstreet, who was 
then threatening Kno.wille. Returning from this expedition, 
he was assigned to an important command, with head-quarters 
at Decatur, Alabama. He had charge of the Nashville and 
Decatur Itailroad as far north as Linnville, and of the 
Memphis and Charleston Railroad as fir east as Huntsville. 
He removed his head-quarters to Decatur, on the 1st of May, 
1864, and at once began fortifying that place. The works 



136 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

which he erected were of the most imposing character;— so 
formidable that General Hood, in his flanking tour north, did 
not essay their capture. In the latter part of May, 1864, the 
general tendered his resignation, which was reluctantly 
accepted. 

I should not close this sketch without stating briefly the 
distinguished part General Matthies sustained in the operations 
around Chattanooga, in November, 1S63. General Bragg was 
defeated in the evening of the 24th, and his only hope, on the 
morning of the 25th, was to save his baggage, stores and 
artillery. The point on Mission Ridge that commanded the 
road over which these must pass was on Grant's extreme left, 
and, during the entire day of the 25th, the divisions of Ewing, 
John E. Smith, Morgan L. Smith and Jefferson C. Davis had 
.sharp and sanguinary fighting for its possession; but it had 
been so strongly fortified, and Bragg had massed his troops 
there to such an extent that, all efforts on the part of General 
Sherman were fruitless. There was no harder fighting done 
on any portion of Mission Bidge or Lookout Mountain, than 
was done on this point; and acts of individual gallantry, on 
the part of the Union troops, were numerous. Colonel Hoi den 
Putnam of the 93d Illinois, although not an Iowa man, deserves 
special mention; and nothing can give the Iowa troops, who 
fought with him on Mission Bidge and at Champion's Hill, 
more pleasure than to meet his name on these pages. His 
was the first regiment of General Matthies' Brigade to scale 
the hill from the AVhite Hou.^e and assaidt the enemy in their 
strong works. His command was instantly repulsed; but, 
uudaunted, he rallied his men, and, seizing the colors, dashed 
on to the top of the hill in spite of all remonstrances. He was 
shot dead instantly, through the head. The 2Gth Missouri soon 
followed the 93d Illinois, and then the 5th and 10th Iowa, with 
General Matthies in person; and still the enemy, rejoicing in 



CHARLES L. MATTHIES. 137 

the strength of their numbers and position, maintained their 
ground. The 2d Brigade of the same division now came up; 
but in a few moments after the enemy, emerging in strong 
force from the railroad tunnel near by, and with their move- 
ments concealed by dense brush, suddenly made their appear- 
ance in rear of the right flank, when a retreat was ordered. 
The command was, " For God's sake, get out of this ! " It was 
on that hill-top that General Matthics was wounded ; and it 
was that wound, together with the exposures and hardships of 
the previous campaign, that broke down his health, in conse- 
quence of which he tendered his resignation. He was an 
excellent officer, and had a reputation for promptness and 
trustworthiness that but few enjoyed in his division. ^ 

General Matthics is a little above the medium in size, with a 
full breast and heavy shoulders. He has mild, gray eyes, and 
a round, full, good-natured face. To look at him, you would 
not take him for a foreigner; but he no sooner speaks than he 
betrays his nativity. He has never been able to master the 
accent of our language. He is one of those men whom to know 
is to like. His sanguine temperament, and earnest, open- 
hearted disposition enables him, in his happy moods, to talk 
and laugh with extreme good nature, and, in his less happy 
ones, to hate and berate his enemies most intensely. He was 
always on kind and familiar terms with every soldier of his 
command, and his familiarity in no way interfered with his 
discipline. The soldiers loved "old Dutchie," he was so good 
and brave. 

I can not take leave of General Matthies without relating the 
following: When the division of John E. Smith was in camp 
back of Memphis, late in February, 1SG3, the general chanced 
one day to be general officer of the. day. At about seven o'clock 
in the morning of the day in question, a captain, whose 2d 
lieutenant had deserted to the enemy the night before, and 



138 IOWA COLONELS AXD KEGEMENT3. 

whose 1st lieutenant was enjoying himself in the city, arrived 
on the pickeWine to relieve the old picket-guard. The captain 
left his reserve in charge of a sergeant, while he went to dis- 
tribute the first relief at the different posts, and give proper 
instructions. In his absence, the officer of the day made his 
appearance. Having at some point stole his way through the 
lines, he came riding down the road at full speed, and was on 
the reserve before the sergeant could get his men in line to 
receive him. The general, who was dressed in a common 
soldier's overcoat, and without any scarf or other insignia of 
his office, began administering a rebuke for negligence; but 
was quickly cut short by the sergeant, who replied, "How did 
I know who you was? you haven't got any scarf on; I thought 
it was a soldier just coming in from foraging." " Well, well," 
said the general, "I know; but — ycu must be on the watch 
for guerrillas." 



COLONEL JABEZ BANBURY. 

THIRD COLONEL, FIFTH INFANTRY. 

Jabez Banbury is a native of England, and was born in 
tbo year 1S31 ; but, removing to this country when quite young, 
he became, long since, thoroughly Americanized. lie is a 
man of limited education, and by trade a mechanic. 

At the time of entering the service, he had some experience 
in military matters ; for he had been a member of an independ- 
ent military company in Marshalltown. At that time I am 
informed, he gave proof of military taste and talent. He 
enlisted in the United States volunteer service in June, 1861, 
and assisted in raising a company for the war, which was 
afterwards assigned to the 5th Iowa Infantry, and designated 
Company D. Of this company, he was elected 1st lieutenant, 
and, with this rank, entered the field. He was promoted to 
the captaincy of his company in February, 1SG2 ; was made 
major of Ins regiment, on the 14th of tbo following July, and, 
on the promotion of Colonel Matthics to brigadier-general, was 
commissioned colonel. At the time his regiment was trans- 
ferred to the 5th Iowa Cavalry in August, 1S64, he was 
mustered out of the service, and returned to his home in 
Marshalltown. 

General Matthies left his regiment at Milliken's Bend, 

Louisiana, just before it started on its march to the rear of 

Vicksburg. From that time till tbo fall of that city, the 5th 

Iowa was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel E. S. Sampson. 

From the fill of Vicksburg, up to the time Colonel Banbury 

was mustered out of the service, the regiment was under his 

command, if we except a few months when he was in 

139 



140 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

command of a brigade. The 5th Iowa is proud of its record, 
and it may also be proud of its commanding officers ; for tiiey 
were all most excellent men. 

The march to the Yockona, and thence back to Memphis ; the 
trip down the Mississippi to Grand Lake, and thence back to 
Helena; and the wild expedition down the Yazoo Pass, all 
belong to the history of the 5th Iowa Infantry. An account of 
these I have given in the sketches of other officers and regi- 
ments, as I also have of the march from Milliken's Bend round 
to the rear of Vicksburg. Of the battles fought during the last 
named march, the 5th Iowa was engaged in two — Jackson and 
Champion's Hill. The regiment also engaged the enemy in 
two skirmishes — the first on the hills north of Bayou Pierre, 
and the second in the rugged country north of Big Black 
River. In the last, the regiment constituted a portion of the 
force under Colonel Boomer of the 26th Missouri, who was sent 
out on a reconnoissance some five miles in the direction of 
Vicksburg. The 5th Iowa led the advance of its corps from 
Baymond to Clinton, and marched with its division, which led 
the advance, from Clinton to Jackson. In the battle of Jack- 
son, the regiment did not suffer severely. Its position was to 
the left of the 17th Iowa, and so far to the north that it over- 
lapped (he right of the enemy's line. Its loss was four meji 
wounded. 

The part Avhkh the 5th Iowa took in the battle of Cham- 
pion's Hill, or Baker's Creek, was most brilliant and sanguin- 
ary. This battle, which came off on the lGth of May, 1SG3, 
"was fought mainly by Hoyey's Division of McClernand's 
Corps, and Logan's and Quimby's Divisions (the latter com- 
manded by Brigadier-General M. M. Crocker) of McPherson's 
Corps;" and in it the Iowa troops were consequently largely 
represented. On the evening of the loth instant, General 
Grant made his head-quarters at Clinton. Early on the fol- 



JABEZ BANBURY. 1-11 

lowing morning, two employees on the Jackson and Vicksbnrg 
Railroad were brouglit to him, who represented that, on the 
previous night, they had passed through General Pemberton's 
army. They also represented that Pembcrton had marched 
out from Vieksburg with a force consisting of about eighty 
regiments, with ten batteries of artillery, the entire command 
numbering about twenty-five thousand men. The object of 
Pemberton was, to come up with and attack General Grant in 
rear, before he should be able to overcome General Johnson at 
Jackson ; and it had been before reported by prisoners that, on 
General Johnson's arrival at Jackson in the evening of the 
13th instant, he had sent peremptory orders to Pemberton to 
make this movement. The evidence was conclusive tq General 
Grant that a great battle was near at hand; and he therefore 
ordered a rapid concentration of his troops, even sending back 
to Jackson for General Sherman's Corps, which had been left 
behind to destroy the railroads and rebel government property. 
This done, he mounted his horse and rode rapidly to the front. 
In the march from Jackson back in the direction of Vieksburg, 
the divisions of Logan and Crocker (excepting the 2d brigade) 
reached a point some live miles west of Clinton; and were, 
therefore, only about seven miles east of Champion's Hill, 
and not far distant from General Hovey, who, with his divi- 
sion, was in the extreme advance. The next morning, the 
16th of May, the troops of Hovey's Division left their camp 
at Bolton's Station, and moved in the direction of Champion's 
kill, three and a half miles distant. These troops were the 
first to meet the enemy. The engagement was just opening as 
the 5th Iowa, with its brigade, came up. 

"The enemy had taken up a very strong position on a nar- 
row ridge, his left resting on the bight where the road makes a 
sharp turn to the left approaching Vieksburg. The top of the 
ridge, and the precipitous hill-side to the left of the road, are 



142 IOWA COLOXELS AND REGIMENTS. 

covered by a dense forest and under-growth. To the right of 
the road, the timber extends a short distance down the hill, 
and then opens into cultivated fields on a gentle slope, and 
into a valley, extending for a considerable distance. On the 
road and into the wooded ravine and hill-side, Ilovey's Divi- 
sion was disposed for the attack." 

But Logan and Crocker fought on the right of the road, hav- 
ing come into line in the above named open fields. Logan's 
Division held the extreme right, and next to his was Crock- 
er's; and now the fighting opened in earnest. The rebel, as 
compared with the Federal force, was more than two to one; 
for Pembcrton had not less than twenty-eight thousand men; 
whereas the divisions of Hovey, Crocker and Logan would not 
number thirteen thousand. Confident of success with his 
superior numbers, the enemy massed heavily on the right of 
Ilovey's Division, which was near the road, and forced it back. 
His left they also flanked, and soon after forced back his -whole 
line. The 3rd Brigade, to -which the 5th Iowa was attached, 
held the left of Crocker's Division, and, seeing Ilovey's right 
driven in, and their own left flank threatened, they faced to the 
left, and double-quicked down to the road to meet the enemy 
and check their further advance. The 9§& Illinois was the 
extreme left regiment of the brigade, and, next to that, was 
the 6th Iowa: a portion of the 93d crossed the road, so that the 
5th was but a few paces distant from it. And right here the 
fighting was most obstinate and sanguinary. The trees, living, 
though insensible witnesses to this terrible contest, stand 
there still, bearing on their shattered branches and lacerated 
trunks, thrilling evidence "of these hours of bloody strife. 
From one tree near the road-side, more than five hundred 
bullets were afterward extracted; and it was not three feet 
through. 

In that immediate vicinity, the 5th Iowa with its brigade, 
maintained its position in the unequal conflict for more than 



JABEZ BAXBURY. 143 

an hour and a half, and, during the last half hour, it had no 
ammunition, or only such as could be taken from the cartridge- 
boxes of the dead and wounded. In the meantime, the enemy 
at this point had been reinforced, and were being led on with 
the promise of certain victory. To withstand longer such 
odds and desperation was impossible, and the gallant 3d 
Brigade began to break, retiring over the hill in its rear, and 
back into the open fields. McClernand, with the balance of 
his corps, was momentarily expected, and was now looked for 
with the greatest anxiety ; but relief came from another and 
unexpected quarter. Just then two regiments of the 2d Brig- 
ade, wMch had been left the night before at Clinton, as a sort 
of body-guard to General Grant, came in view, down the road, 
at double-quick. The 17th Iowa was in the advance, and was 
closely followed by the 10th Missouri ; and both regiments did 
not number more than five hundred and fifty men. In the 
instant that these troops were seen by Colonel Putnam of the 
93d Illinois, he came riding back at full run, without his hat, 
and his brown, wavy hair streaming in the wind, shouting to 
Colonel Ilillis, of the 17th: "For God's sake, Colonel, hurry 
up — we. can not stand another minute ;" and the fields to the 
right, which were filled with the affrighted and fleeing strag- 
glers, were proof of what he said. "With the handful of 
reinforcements thus brought up, the scale of battle was turned; 
and, before McClernand had arrived, the enemy were hasten- 
ing in total rout back in the direction of Yicksburg. 

To show the determination and valor with which the 5th 
Iowa and its brigade fought, I will give one instance, which 
came under my own observation. On arriving at the top of 
the hill from which our lines had been driven, I noticed a 
noble young boy lying near the road. He was shot through 
both legs, and was unable to stand; but he had his musket in 
his hands, and was loading and firing on the advancing enemy. 



144 IOWA COLONELS AND KEGIMENTS. 

We were now under a gulling fire, and I saw no more of the 
brave boy till the enemy were driven from the field. On 
returning afterward to look for the dead and wounded of my 
company, I saw him lying in the same spot, but he was dead. 
I do not know his name or his regiment ; but he must have 
belonged to the 5th Iowa, or the 93d Illinois. 

The 5th Iowa, in this engagement, lost nineteen killed and 
seventy-five wounded, out of an aggregate of three hundred 
and fifty officers and men. There were many individual 
instances of gallantry ; but I am able to mention only the 
names of Captains Tait, Lee and Pickerell. 

The same night of the battle, the 5th Iowa marched two 
miles in the direction of Vicksburg; and the next night 
camped on the Big Black. On the 19th instant, the regiment 
with its brigade arrived in rear of Vicksburg; and, from that 
time until the fall of the city, its history is the same as that of 
the 10th Iowa, and the other regiments of its brigade. I might 
add that, from the fall of Vicksburg up to the winter of 1S64, its 
history is the same as that of its brigade. Early in September, 
1863, the 5th Iowa left with its division for the purpose of join- 
ing the army of General Steele in Arkansas; but, on arriving 
at Helena, learned that no reinforcements were needed in that 
quarter. From I lelcna it moved up the river to Memphis, and 
from that point marched across the country with General Sher- 
man to Chattanooga, where with its brigade it took a distin- 
guished part in the engagement of the 25th of November. On 
the night of the 21th instant, the regiment stood picket near 
the Chattanooga and Knoxville Bailroad, just where it passes 
the north point of Mission Bidge; and the next day, at noon, 
joined its brigade and moved out through the open fields as 
elsewhere described, to engage the enemy. After arriving at 

the White House, which was near the base of the lull for 

I 
which General Sherman was lighting, the chief portion of the 



JABEZ BANBURY. 145 

regiment was deployed as skirmishers to the right and front of 
its brigade-, and remained thus deployed till a retreat was 
ordered. The total loss of the 5th Iowa in this engagement 
wis one hundred and six; but the greater portion of these 
were captured in the sudden left flank movement of the enemy. 
Two commissioned officers were wounded, and eight captured; 
among the latter were Major Marshall and Adjutant Byers. 

Subsequently to Grant's victory at Chattanooga, there is little 
in the history of the 5th Iowa Infantry of striking interest. 
It joined its division in the pursuit of Bragg, as far as 
Graysville, Georgia, and then returned to Chattanooga. After 
going into several temporary camps along the road, it finally 
reached Huntsville, Alabama, where it passed the following 
Winter. In April, it came North on veteran furlough; 
returned to the field early in May ; served for a short time on 
the Huntsville and Decatur Railroad, and was then ordered to 
Kingston, Georgia. On the 8th of August, 186-1, the veterans 
of the regiment, by special order of the War Department, Xo. 
262, were transferred to the 5th Iowa Cavalry, and assigned as 
Companies G and I, under the following officers: Captain 
Albert G. Ellis, 1st Lieutenant Jeremiah M. Lembocker, and 
Second Lieutenant William S. Peck, of Company G; Captain 
William G. M'Elrae, 1st Lieutenant Robert A. McKee, and 
2d Lieutenant John Q. A. Campbell, of Company I. 

At Mission Ridge Colonel Banbury showed great courage, 
riding constantly under the heavy artillery- and musketry- 
fire of the enemy. The same night of the engagement, he was 
assigned to the command of his brigade; for General Matthies, 
the brigade commander, had been wounded as I have already 
stated. There is one other item in the colonel's military 
history, which 1 should not omit to mention. At the battle of 
Corinth, October 3d and 1th, 1862, he commanded the 17th 
Iowa Infantry ; and led it in the charge in which the 



146 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

regiment captured the colors of the 40th Mississippi, and 
between one and two hundred prisoners. 

Although I served in the same division with Colonel 
Banbury for many months, I never saw him to know him ; 
but I am told by good authority that "he is reticent in 
manners, intelligent though not educated, honest, upright, 
and thoroughly reliable." As a soldier, he ranked among the 
best officers of his division ; and, had he possessed sufficient 
impudence, would doubtless have been promoted to a brigadier- 
general. 



COLONEL JOHN ADAIR M'DOWTLL. 

FIRST COLONEL, SIXTH INFA3TEB.Y. 

Johx A. McDowell is a younger brother of Major-General 
Irwin McDowell, who led the Federal forces in the first great 
battle of the war. Colonel McDowell was born in the city of 
Columbus, Ohio, the 22d day of July, 1825, and was graduated 
at Kenyan College, Gambia, Ohio, in the year 1846. While at 
Kenyan College he devoted much time to the study of military 
tactics, under the instruction of Professor Ross, a former Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics and Tactics in the West Point Military 
Academy, Xew York, and the widely known translator of 
Bourdon and other mathematical works. Colonel McDowell's 
experience as an officer began as captain of the Kenyan Guards, 
an independent military company, which, in its day, attained 
much celebrity for its proficiency in discipline and drill. 

Leaving college witli the highest oratorical honors of his 
class, he entered, in 1817, the office of Judge Swan, and pre- 
pared himself for the practice of law. The vast mineral wealth 
of California was, in 18 IS and 1810, attracting thousands of 
emigrants from the States to that country ; and, for young men 
of enterprise and talent, the prospects seemed flattering. Hav- 
ing completed his legal studies in 1848, he left in the following 
Spring for California, in company with the 2d United States 
Dragoons. He arrived on the shores of the Pacific in the 
following Fall, and without incident, if we except the passage 
of the Rio Grande. In crossing that river, he came near losing 
his own life, in his generous efforts to save the life of a friend. 
Locating in Monterey, he began the practice of Jaw, and soon 
became a public man; for, in 1801, he was elected mayor of 

147 



148 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

that city. Those were, in California, the days of vigilance com- 
mittees, and the duties of his office required great caution and 
judgment; hut his management was firm and judicious, and 
he secured the confidence of the public. 

In 1852 he returned to the States, and, the following year, 
settled in Keokuk, Iowa. During Colonel McDowell's resi- 
dence in Iowa, and prior to his entering the service, he 
followed the profession of civil engineering. He was at one 
time the City Engineer of Keokuk, but, at the outbreak of the 
war, was Superintendent and Chief Engineer of the Keokuk, 
Mount Pleasant and Minnesota Railroad. 

In the spring of 1S61, Colonel McDowell visited Washington 
for the purpose of obtaining authority to raise a regiment of 
infantry. Authority was granted by the War Department, 
and he returned to Burlington, which was to be the rendezvous 
of his regiment. The 6th Iowa Infantry was enlisted princi- 
pally from the counties of Linn, Lucas, Hardin, Appanoose, 
Monroe, Clark, Johnson, Lee, Des Moines and Henry. It was 
mustered into the United States service on the 17th of July, 
1861: its camp was Camp Warren. On the 2d of the following 
August, Colonel McDowell was ordered to Keokuk, and, during 
his week's stay there, a portion of his regiment took part in 
the. affair at Athens, between the Union forces under Colonel 
Moore, and the Confederates under Green. On the 19th instant 
the regiment left for St. Louis, whore, reporting to General 
Fremont, it was retained for five weeks in camp, at La Fayette 
Park. The first campaign on which the 6th Iowa marched, 
was that from Jefferson City to Springfield. 

Lyon had been killed at Wilson's Creek, and Sturgis, his suc- 
cessor, had fallen back to Kolla; when, instantly, the rebellious 
citizens of Missouri, from every quarter, made haste to join 
Price, their deliverer. Price, strongly reinforced, in council 
With that mean, cowardly traitor, Ciaib Jackson, resolved on a 



JOHN A. m'dowell. 149 

march northward. Small detachments of'Federal troops with- 
drew from his line of march; and, on the 12th of September, he 
laid siege to Lexington. Fremont, in command of the Western 
Department, having made ineffectual efforts to relieve Mulli- 
gan, quit St. Louis, and concentrated an army at Jefferson 
City, with which to march ou Price, and either rout or capture 
his forces. Some claim more for this fossil hero; — that, after 
Price's annihilation, he was to march south, and, flanking 
Columbus, Hickman, Memphis, and a long stretch of the 
Mississippi, was to enter, in triumph, Little Rock. With him 
were Sigel, Hunter, Asboth, McKinstry, Pope, Lane, and his 
royal guard under Zagonyi. Price left Lexington on the 30th 
of September, and, the 8th of October, Fremont marched from 
Jefferson City. Such, briefly, is the history of what preceded 
the first great campaign in Missouri. 

Passing through Tipton, Warsaw on the Osage, and thence 
south, Fremont arrived in Springfield the 29th of October. 
Price was then at Neosho. And this is all that there is of 
Fremont's celebrated campaign in Missouri; for he was now 
relieved by the President, and his command turned over to 
General Hunter, who forthwith ordered a return in the direc- 
tion of St. Louis. I cannot forbear adding that Fremont was a 
better man than Hunter; for, if he had style, he also had pluck 
and confidence. On this campaign the 6th Iowa Infantry was 
under Brigadier-General McKinstry, and in three clay's time 
marched seventy-five miles. 

During the winter of 1801-2, Colonel McDowell was stationed 
on the Pacific Railroad, which he guarded from Sedalia to 
Tipton; but, in the opening of the Spring Campaign, was 
relieved at his own request, and sent to the front. Early in 
March he '-•ailed with his regiment up the Tennessee River, 
and landed at Pittsburg Landing, where ho was immediately 
assigned to General Sherman's Division, and placed in 



150 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

command of a brigade. At the battle of Shiloh his command 
held the extreme right of General Grant's Army, and was 
stationed near the Purdy road. The 3d Iowa, it will be 
remembered, was stationed near the extreme left. The 11th 
and 13th Iowa, under McClernand, were to the left of Sherman; 
and the 2d, 7th, Sth, 12th and. 14th Iowa, in Smith's Division, 
commanded by W. II. L. Wallace, and to the left of McClern- 
and. The loth and 16th Iowa fought on their own hook. The 
Sth Iowa, however, fought, under Prentiss. These were all the 
Iowa troops in the battle of Shiloh. 

The 6th Iowa was commanded at Shiloh by Captain John 
Williams; and, to show the part acted by the regiment, I 
quote briefly from his official report : ► 

"On Sunday morning, when the attack was made on Genera* 
Grant's centre, the regiment was immediately brought into 
line of battle, and was then moved about fifty yards to the 
front, along the edge of the woods. Company I was thrown 
out as skirmishers, and Companies E and G were moved to the 
left and front of our line, to support a battery just placed there. 
We were in this position for more than two hours, when we 
were ordered to fall back to the rear of our camp, on the Purdy 
road. Tlic battle at this lime was raging fiercely in the centre, 
and extending gradually to the right. The line was slowly 
yielding to a vastly superior force, and it now became evident 
that we must change our position or be entirely cut off from 
the rest of the army. 

"The regiment then marched by the left flank about six 
hundred yards, crossed an open field about one hundred and 
fifty yards wide, took a position in the edge of the woods and 
formed a new line of battle, which was succeeded by another 
line, nearly perpendicular to the former, the right resting close 
to the Purdy road." 

This left flank movement was to the left and rear; but this 
position was held but a very short time, when the regiment 
was marched to the rear about half a mile; for MJcClernand's 
Division, and the left of Sherman's, had been driven back rap- 
idly. The next position taken by the regiment was in the 



JOIIX A. M'DOWELLu 151 

edge of the woods, and formed a part of that line which, for 
several hours, held the enemy successfully at bay. At this 
hour, things looked more hopeful ; and, had all the troops that 
had stampeded and straggled been now in their proper places, 
Grant would probably have suffered no further reverses at Shi- 
loh. It was in this last position that the 6th Iowa suffered its 
severest loss. Captain Williams was wounded here, and the 
command of the regiment turned over to Captain Walden. 

Of less than six hundred and fifty men that went into the 
engagement, sixty-four were killed, one hundred wounded, 
and forty-seven missing. The Cth Iowa, as a regiment, was 
not engaged in the second day's battle, and its losses were 
slight. Among the wounded in the first day's fight were Cap- 
tain Williams, and Lieutenants Halliday and Grimes. The 
names of the killed I have failed to learn. " In regard to the 
bravery, coolness and intrepidity of both officers and men, too 
much can not be said. Where all did so well, to particularize 
would seem invidious." The regiment continued with Sher- 
man during the siege of Corinth, and Colonel McDowell in 
command of his brigade The 6th was one of the regiments of 
his command. 

After the fall of Corinth, Colonel McDowell marched with 
his brigade to Memphis, whore he remained the balance of the 
Summer, and during the following Fall. In November, he 
marched with his division on the campaign down through 
Oxford, and to the Yockona, after which he returned to La 
Grange, Tennessee, where he passed the Winter. While on the 
march from Corinth to Memphis, he was attacked with a dis- 
ease, pronounced by his surgeon an affection of the sciatic 
nerve. It had been contracted through exposure and by almost 
constant duty in the saddle, and was extremely painful ; but he 
continued on duty. Finally, receiving no relief, ho tendered 
his resignation, which was accepted late in the winter of 1SG2-3. 



152 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

While stationed at Memphis, he received from General Sher- 
man a recommendation for brigadier-general, which was 
endorsed, I am informed, as fodows: — "I think it but right 
and just that a gallant officer, who has discharged faithfully 
the duties of a brigadier for many months, should enjoy in full 
the rank and pay of the position." On leaving the service, his 
regiment presented him with a costly silver set, which, in its 
own language, was "a token of their esteem for him as a man, 
and their appreciation of his merit a^ an ofiicer." 

Colonel McDowell is a large man, and well proportioned, 
but a little too fleshy to look comfortable. He is above six feet 
in bight, and erect ;.has a mild blue eye, light complexion, and 
a good-natured countenance. Usually, he seems kind and 
approachable, but, when aroused, the flash of his eye makes 
him look, as he really is, a most formidable opponent. He has 
large self-esteem, a good education and fine social cpualities. 
His conversational powers are remarkable. He is fond of mer- 
riment, to be convinced of which you have only to look on his 
shaking sides: he laughs, like Momus, all over. 

Colonel McDowell has fine ability, but is naturally, I believe, 
inclined to bo a little lazy. He is a close observer, and forms 
positive opinions. His experience in the army destroyed his 
faith in field artillery. "There are occasions," he once said, 
" when it is invaluable ; but, as a general thing, it is vox i»'(v,- 
ier-er nihil. If you tight to whip, you must light to kill; and 
whoever heard of a dead or wounded artillery-man? These 
things that you hold straight at a man, are the things that 
hurt." 

As a soldier, Colonel McDowell excelled as a disciplinarian 
and tactician : he was a splendid drill-master, a fact attested by 
his regiment, which was one of the best thrilled in the volun- 
teer service. 



BREVET MAJOR-GENERAL JOHN M. CORSE. 

SECOND COLONEL, SIXTH INFANTRY. 

John M. Cobsb is the only military prodigy the State has 
furnished in the War of the Rebellion. For his family and 
intimate friends I am unable to speak, but I have knowledge 
positive that, with all others, his brilliant military career has 
created the greatest surprise. In civil life, though possessing 
large self-esteem, he was looked on as having only ordinary 
ability ; and, therefore, his promotion in the army to nearly 
the highest rank in the volunteer service, was wholly unlooked 
for. 

General Corse is a native of Pennsylvania, where he was 
born in about the year 18C3. When young, he accompanied 
his parents West and settled with them in Burlington, Iowa ; 
wbere he has since resided. He was at one time a cadet in the 
West Point Military Academy, New York; but had spent, I 
think, hardly two years at the institution, when he was 
politely informed that, should lie tender his resignation, it 
would be accepted. At all events, he left West Point, and 
returned to Burlington, wbere be entered the book-store of his 
father. Not long after he became a partner in the business, 
and was thus engaged at the outbreak of the war. 

He entered the service as major of the 6th Iowa Infantry, 
and, up to the time of its arrival at Pittsburg Landing, has a 
military history similar to that of his regiment. During the 
siege of Corintb, be was a staff-officer of General Sherman — I 
think, his inspector-general. From the time of their first 
meeting, be was held in high esteem by that general. He 
was mustered a lieutenant-colonel the 21st of May, lt>G2; and, 

153 



154 IOWA COLOXET.S AXD REGIMENTS. 

oxi the resignation of Colonel McDowell, was made colonel of 
his regiment, and returned to its command. From that time 
forward, he grew rapidly popular. 

During his colonelcy and after, the history of the 6th Iowa is 
one of great interest. It is the same as that of Sherman's old 
Division. It was the only Iowa regiment in that division. 
On the assignment of General Sherman to the command of the 
loth Army Corps, its division was commanded by General 
William L. Smith, who, during the siege of Vicksburg, joined 
the army of General Grant in rear of the city. " Smith's and 
Kimball's Divisions, and Parke's Corps were sent to Haine's 
Bluff. * * This place I [Grant] had fortified to the 
land-side, and every preparation was made to resist at heavy 
force." After the fall of Vicksburg, the 6th Iowa marched 
with Sherman to Jackson, where it made itself conspicuous — 
with the exception of the 3d Iowa, more conspicuous than 
any other Iowa regiment. On the morning of the ICth of 
July, Colonel Corse was put in command of the skirmishers of 
the 1st Division, loth Army Corps, and ordered to report to 
Major-General Parke, commanding the 9th Corp/. The Gth 
Iowa was included in the colonel's command; and, to show 
the part taken by the regiment in the advance of that 
morning, I quote from his official report: 

" 1 as.-umed command of the line formed by the skirmishers 
of the 6th Iowa ; an<i, at the designated signal, the men dashed 
forward with a shout, met the line of the enemy's skirmishers 
and pickets, drove them back, capturing eighteen or twenty, 
and killing as many more. Clearing the timber, they rushed 
out into the open field, across the railroad, over the fence, up a 
gentle slope, across the crest, down into the enemy's line, when 
two field-batteries of four guns each, pointing west, opened a 
terrific cannonade. The enemy were driven from two pieces 
at the point of the bayonet, our men literally running them 
through. In rear of the batteries, two regiments were lying 
supporting the gunners, and, at our approach, they opened 



jorrx m. corse. 155 

along their whole line, causing most of the casualties in this 
gallant regiment. With such impetuosity did the line go 
through the field that the enemy, so completely stunned were 
they, would have precipitately fled, had they not been re-as- 
sured by a large gun-battery, nearly six hundred yards to our 
right, which enfiladed the railroad line of skirmishers. 
Startled at this unexpected obstacle, which was now in full 
play, throwing its whirlwind of grape and canister about us 
uutil the corn fell as if by an invisible reaper, I ordered the 
bugle to sound the 'lie down.' The entire line fell in the 
corn-rows, and I had the opportunity to look round. * * 
* * Feeling that 1 had obtained all the information I 
could, I ordered the 'rise up' and 'retreat,' which was done 
in the most admirable manner, under the fire of at least three 
regiments and seven guns— three of these enfilading my line. 
But few of those who had so gallantly charged the battery got 
back. I cannot speak in too extravagant terms of the officers 
and men of the Gth Iowa on this occasion. * They awakened 
my admiration at the coolness with which they retired, return- 
ing the incessant fire of the enemy as they slowly fell back." 

The loss of the Oth Iowa in this encounter was one killed, 
eighteen wounded, and nine missing. The conduct of the regi- 
ment filled the general commauding the division with admi- 
ration: 

"Heaw-Qfarters First Division, Sixteenth Atmiv Corfs, 
" I.N Front of Jackson, Mississippi, July 16th, 1S63. 

"Colonel Corse, commanding Wli Iowa Infantry: 

"The valor of your noble regiment has been conspicuous, 
even amidst the universal good conduct that has marked the 
operations of all the troops of the 1st Division, during our 
advance upon Jackson, and since our arrival here. I can not 
too highly commend the gallantry you have displayed in two 
successful charges you have made. The true heart swells with 
emotions of pride in contemplating the heroism of those who, 
in their country's cause, charge forward under the iron-hail of 
half a dozen rebel batteries, and, exposed to a murderous fire 
of musketry from behind strong intrenchmcnts, capture prison- 
ers under their very guns. Such has been the glorious conduct 
of the 6th Iowa this morning; and those who shared your 
dangers, and emulated your valor, will join me in tendering to 



156 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

you and the bravo men under your command my warmest 
thanks and most hearty congratulations. 
"Most truly yours, 

" William Lov'y Smith, 
"Brigadier-General commanding 1st Div., l&h A. C." 

In October, 1863, the 6th Iowa, with its division, (which in 
the meantime had been transferred to the 15th Corps) marched 
to the relief of Chattanooga. Under General Hugh Ewing it 
fought on Mission Ridge. Its position was just to the left of 
the two brigades of General John E. Smith; and, with those 
troops, it fought for the possession of that point which covered 
General Bragg's line of retreat. It was so far to the left that it 
escaped the flank movement of the enemy from the railroad 
tunnel, and lost few, if any prisoners. The regiment, how- 
ever, suffered severely in killed and wounded. Eight fell dead 
upon the field, one of whom was the gallant Captain Robert 
Allison. Major Ennis, and Captains Calvin Minton, L. C. 
Allison and G. R. Nunn were wounded. The total number of 
killed and wounded was sixty-eight. 

If foraging in the enemy's; country is always a labor of 
danger, it is also sometimes attended with sport. Apropos, 
the 6th Iowa Infantry was one of the most expert and success- 
ful foraging regimcnls in the service. At all events, it was, in 
this respect, the banner regiment from Iowa; and I am aware 
how high is the compliment I am paying it. If that sergeant 
is still living, (I did not learn his name) he will recognize the 
following: Hugh Ewing's Division led John E. Smith's in the 
march from Chickasaw on the Tennessee to Bridgeport. That 
of which I speak occurred between Prospect Station and 
Eayetteville. "We were marching along leisurely through a 
beautiful, highly-improved country, when, of a sudden, there 
was great confusion in the front. It would remind you of a 
crowd running to witness a show-day fight. A sergeant of the 
6th Iowa, with a squad of one man, two mules and a revolver, 



JOHN M. CORSE. 157 

had left his regiment on a foraging excursion, and returned 
with a whole train, ladened with the fruits of the land. He had 
fresh apples and dried apples, sweet potatoes and pumpkins, 
bed-clothes, and butter-milk in canteens: all were loaded on 
old rickety wagons, drawn by half-starved mules, and driven 
by American citizens of African descent. To share these spoils 
was the cause of the confusion. " He had got them for his 
boys," he said; but precious few of them did his boys ever get. 

At Fayetteville, the Cth Iowa was Infantry, and, only two 
days later, when they passed us in the woods near "Winchester, 
nearly half the regiment was cavalry. " What in the d— 1 do 
you go a-foot for?" they said to us; but they lost their horses 
before reaching Chattanooga, and, like us, fought at Mission 
Ridge on foot. The regiment was as reckless in battle as it was 
on the march. 

General Corse was severely wounded at Mission Ridge, and 
disabled fur several months. His intrepidity there, and his 
previous good conduct, secured his promotion to the rank of 
brigadier-general. AVhen partially recovered, he was, I think, 
ordered on duty in Indiana. In a short time he was placed on 
General Sherman's staff, and in August, 1864, was assigned to 
the command of a division. That passage in his military his- 
tory which will make his name distinguished hereafter, is that 
which records his defense of Allatoona, Georgia. At the time 
in question he was in command of the 4th Division, 10th Army 
Corps, one of the divisions comprised in General Dodge's com- 
mand during the march on Atlanta. An account of the 
defense of Allatoona will be found elsewhere. I give below 
simply the correspondence of Generals French and Corse, and 
the congratulatory orders of Generals Howard and Sherman: 

" AnotTND Allatoona, October 5th, 8:15 A. M. 

"Commanding Officer U. S. Force, Allatoona: 
"Sir: — I have placed the forces under my command in such 

positions that you are surrounded, and, to avoid a useless 



15S IOWA COLONELS AXD REGIMENTS. 

effusion of blood, I call on you to surrender your forces at once, 
and unconditionally. Five minutes will be allowed you to 
decide. Should you accede to this, you will be treated in the 
most honorable manner, as prisoners of war. 
"I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours, 

"S. G. French, 
" Major- General commanding forces C. S." 



[the reply.] 

" Head Quarters Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, 
Allatoona, Georgia, October 5th, 8:30 A M. 

"Major-General S. G. French, C. S. A.: 

" Your communication demanding surrender of my com- 
mand, 1 acknowledge receipt of, and respectfully reply that we 
are prepared for the useless effusion of blood whenever it is 
agreeable to you. 

"I am very respectfully your obedient servant, 
"John M. Corse, 
" Brigadier-General commanding ith Division, 15th A. C." 
How needless was the effusion of blood the following orders 
of Generals Howard and Sherman will show: 

General Field Orders No. is. 

" Head-Quarters Department and Army of the Tennessee, 
Near Kenesaw Mountain, October 16th. 

" Whilst uniting in the high commendation awarded by the 
General-in-elnef, the Army of the Tennessee would tender 
through me its most hearty appreciation and thanks to Brig- 
adier-Gi ueral J. M. Corse for his promptitude, energy and 
eminent success in the defense of Allatoona Pass, against a 
force so largely superior to his own ; and our warmest congrat- 
ulations are extended t<> him, to Colonel Tourtellotte, and the 
rest of our comrades in arms who fought at Allatoona, for the 
glorious manner in which they vetoed 'the useless effusion of 

blood. ' 

"O. O. Howard, 
" Official. Major-General." 



Special Field Orders, Xo. SG. 

" IIead-Quartehs Military Diyisios of the Mississippi] 
In the Field, Kexesav Mountain, October 6th. 

"The General commanding avails himself of the opportu- 



JOHN M. CORSE. 159 

nityin the handsome defense made of 'Allatoona,' to illustrate 
the most important principle in war, that fortified posts should 
be defended to the last, regardless of the relative numbers of 
the party attacking and attacked. 

"Allatoona was garrisoned by three regiments commanded 
by Colonel Tourtelotte, and reinforced by a detachment frum a 
division at Home, under command of Brigadier-General J. M. 
Corse on the morning of the 5th, and a few hours after was 
attacked by French's Division of Stewart's Corps, two other 
divisions being near at hand, and in support. General French 
demanded a surrender, in a letter to ' avoid an useless effusion 
of blood,' and gave but five minutes for an answer. General 
Corse's answer was emphatic and strong, that he and his com- 
mand were ready for the 'useless effusion of blood,' as soon as it 
was agreeable to General French. 

"This answer was followed by an attack which was prolonged 
for five hours, resulting in the complete repulse of the enemy, 
who left his dead on the ground amounting to more than two 
hundred, and four hundred prisoners, well and wounded. The 
'effusion of blood' was not 'useless,' as the position at Alla- 
toona was and is very important to our present and future 
operations. 

" The thanks of this army are due, and hereby accorded to 
General Corse, Colonel Tourtelotte, officers and men for their 
determined and gallant defense of Allatoona, and it is made an 
example to illustrate the importance of preparing in time, and 
meeting the danger when present, boldly, manfully ami well. 

"This Army, though unseen to the garrison, was co-operat- 
ing by moving toward the road by which the enemy could 
alone escape, but unfortunately were delayed by the rain and 
mud, but this fact hastened the retreat of the enemy. 

"Commanders and garrisons of posts along our railroads 
are hereby instructed that they must hold their posts to the 
last minute, sure that the time gained is valuable and neces- 
sary to their comrades at the front. 
" By order of 

" Major-General V,'. T. SHERMAN, 

" L. M. Dayton, 

"Official. A.D. C." 

At Allatoona General Corse was again wounded. A musket- 
shot struck him in the cheek, and, for a time, rendered him 



1G0 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

insensible. Colonel R. Ilowett of the 7th Illinois, as ranking 
officer, succeeded him in command; and the fighting continued 
as before with great fury. At twelve o'clock M., Sherman 
had reached the summit of Kenesaw, and from that point 
signaled to the garrison : — " Hold on to Allatoona to the last ; 
I will help you." ZSTot long after the enemy retired, having 
failed to draw their one million and a half of rations. 

For his brilliant defense of Allatoona, General Corse was 
made, by brevet, a major-general. Since that time, he has 
remained in command of his division. He joined Sherman in 
the march from Atlanta to Savannah, and from that city to 
Raleigh. They say Sherman calls him, " my pet.' 1 '' 

Subsequently to the engagement at Mission Ridge , ( the 6th 
Iowa Infantry has been commanded a chief portion of the 
time by Lieutenant-Colonel J. A. Miller. During the winter 
of 18(53-1 the regiment was stationed with its division along 
the line of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, between 
Bridgeport and Huntsville; but in the Spring was ordered to 
the front and served through the Atlanta campaign. It fought 
at Resaca, Dallas, Dig Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, before 
Atlanta and at Jonesboro; and lost in killed and wounded, in 
the months of May and June, an aggregate of one hundred 
and six. Lieutenant Rodney F. Barker, of Company A, was 
wounded in the first day's engagement at Dallas. On the28th 
of May, the day following, Lieutenant F. F. Baldwin Mas 
killed, and Lieutenant and Adjutant Xewby Chase mortally 
wounded. The former was killed while saving two guns of 
the 1st Iowa Battery from capture, and the latter, shot in the 
throat and mortally wounded, while on the skirmish line. A 
correspondent of the regiment says: "Better men never 
drew swords." Lieutenant-Colonel A. J. Miller was severely 
wounded in this same engagement at Dallas. Indeed, three of 
the four regimental commanders of the 2d Brigade, 4th 



JOHN M. COESE. , 161 

Division, were struck, two of them being killed— Colonel 
Dickerman of the 10.3d Illinois and Major G$sey of the 46th 
Ohio. The total loss of the 6th Iowa at Dallas, wa.s seven men 
killed, and fifteen wounded. 

On the loth of June the regiment joined its division in the 
brilliant charge near Big Shanty, and, two days later, took 
part in the unsuccessful charge at Kenesaw Mountain. In that 
of the 15th instant, Lieutenant J. F. Grimes, acting adjutant, 
was killed. At the opening of the campaign, the 6th Iowa 
arrived before Dalton, nearly four hundred strong; and by the 
middle of July had suffered a loss of fifty per cent. The last 
services of the 6th Iowa Infantry were performed in the 
marches from Atlanta to Savannah, and thence to Raleigh. 

General Corse is a small man. He is not above" five feet 
eight inches in bight, and weighs less than one hundred and 
twenty-five pounds. He is small in stature, and, to look at him, 
a stranger would not think his mind and body much out of pro- 
portion. He has more ability than he seems to have. He has 
sharp features, a dark complexion, large, dark eyes, and black 
hair, which he usually wears long. In his movements, he is 
dignified and somewhat consequential, carrying a high head, 
and wearing a stern countenance. (I speak of him as I saw 
him in the service.) Before he entered the service, his neigh- 
bors in Burlington told on him the following story. I do not 
suppose it is true, but possibly it illustrates his character. 
"When he became a partner with his father in the book business, 
the story gees, there had to be a new sign made. The father 
suggested that it read, "J. L. Corse & Son ; " while the future 
general insisted that it should read, "John M. Corse and 
Father." 

I omitted to mention in the proper place that, in 1860, the 
general was a candidate for the office of Secretory of State. 
Perhaps 1 ought to omit it now, for I venture to say, he is not 



162 IOWA COLONELS ASD REGIMENTS. 

proud of that passage in his history ; he was the candidate <>i; 
the old Hickory ticket, with a certain prospect of being 
defeated. 

In battle I believe General Corse to be as cool a man as ever 
met an enemy. His defense of Allatoona shows that. He has 
always seemed to act on the principle suggested by General 
Jerry Sullivan: "Boys, when you have fought just as Jon- 
as you think you possibly can, then fight ten minutes longer, 
and you will always whip." General Corse has richly earned 
his distinguished reputation, and the State will always be 
proud of him. 



BRIGADIER-GENERAL JACOB G. LAUMAN. 

FIRST COLONEL, SEVENTH INFANTRY. 

Jacob Gartner Lauman was the fourth volunteer officer 
from Iowa, promoted to a brigadier. He was born in Tarry- 
town, Maryland, on the 20th day of January, 1813; but 
removed with his family, when young, to York, Pennsylva- 
nia. In 1814, he came West, and settled in Burlington, Iowa, 
where, engaging in mercantile pursuits, he has since made his 
home. At the outbreak of the war, he took an active part in 
enlisting and mastering our volunteer troops, and, on the 11th 
of July, 1861, was commissioned colonel of the 7th Iowa Infan- 
try—later, the heroes of Belmont. 

While under the command of Colonel Lauman, the 7th Iowa 
was stationed and served at the following points: — Jefferson 
Barrack?, Pilot Knob, fronton, Cape Girardeau and Jackson, 
Missouri; Cairo, Illinois; Fort Holt, Mayfield Creek, Camp 
Crittenden and Fort Jefferson, Kentucky; and Norfolk and 
Bird's Point, Missouri. The regiment was stationed at the 
latter place, on the 6th of November, 1861, when it sailed on 
the Belmont expedition, the object of which was, "to prevent 
the enemy from sending out re-inforcements to Price's army 
in Missouri, and also from cutting off columns that I [Grant] 
had been directed to send out from Cairo and Cape Girardeau, 
in pursuit of Jeff Thompson." 

On this expedition, the battle of Belmont was fought ; and 
the conduct of Colonel Lauman in the engagement, together 
with that of his regiment, gave him his early popularity as a 
military leader. At Belmont, the 7th Iowa greatly distin- 
guished itself, and received from General Grant, in his official 

163 



101 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

report, the following mention : — " Nearly all the missing were 
from the Iowa regiment, (the 7th) who behaved with great 
gallantry, and suffered more severely than any other of the 
troops." 

Just when the enemy had been driven from their camp, ami 
down the steep bank of the Mississippi, Colonel Lauman, while 
giving Captain Parrott instructions with reference to the cap- 
tured artillery, was disabled from a musket-shot wound in the 
thigh. He was taken back to the transports on one of the guns 
of Captain Taylor's Battery, just in advance of his regiment, 
and was only in time to escape that terrible enfilading fire that 
well nigh annihilated the rear of Grant's forces. 

A remarkable incident occurred while the troops were 
re-embarking after the battle. It is well vouched for, and wor- 
thy of record. The last transport had just cut its hawser, and 
was dropping out into the stream, when the enemy suddenly 
appeared on the bank with artillery. One piece was hastily 
put in battery, and leveled on the crowded decks of the trans- 
port. The rebel gunner was just about pulling the lanyard, 
when a shell, from one of the Union gun-boats, burst directly 
under the carriage of the gun, throwing gun, carriage and all 
high in the air. The carriage was demolished, and, while 
still in the air, the gun exploded. The rebel gunner and 
several others were killed; and the lives of at least a score of 
Union soldiers were saved by this remarkable shot. 



"It was after the retreat had commenced that Lieutenant- 
Colonel Wentz was killed, lie died on the field of battle, like 
a true soldier; he was a truly brave man, and did his duty 
well and nobly. Lieutenant Lodge of Company B was killed, 
and Lieutenant Gardner, who commanded Company I, and 
Lieutenant Ream of Company C, mortally wounded. Among 
my officers, more or less severely wounded, you will find the 
names of Major Lice, Captains Harper, Parrott, Kittredge and 
Gardner, and 1st Lieutenant De lieus, (who commanded com- 



JACOB G. LAUJIAX. 165 

prmy A) of whose bravery I desire to speak in the most 
emphatic manner. I desire also to direct your attention to 
Captain Crabb, who was taken prisoner, and who behaved in 
the bravest manner. But I might go on in this way and name 
nearly nil my command, for they all behaved like heroes ; but 
there are one or two more I feel it my duty to name as deserv- 
ing special mention. Lieutenant Bowler, adjutant of the regi- 
ment, and Lieutenant Estle, whose conduct was worthy of all 
praise, and private Lawrence A. Gregg, whose thigh was 
broken and he left on the field ; he was taken prisoner and his 
leg amputated, but he died the same day, telling his captors 
with his dying breath, that, if he ever recovered so as to be 
able to move, he would shoulder his musket again in his coun- 
try's cause." 

"My entire loss in killed, wounded, prisoners and missing, 
out of an aggregate of somewhat over four hundred, is as 
follows: Killed, fifty-one; died of wounds, three; missing, 
ten; prisoners, thirty-rune; wounded, one hundred and twenty- 
four. Total, two hundred and tweuty-seven." 

Having recovered from his w r ound, Colonel Lauman ve-joined 
his regiment ; and at the battle of Fort Donelson was placed in 
command of a brigade, composed of the 2d, 7th and 14th Iowa, 
and the 2-3th Indiana. At Fort Donelson, the gallantry of his 
brigade— more especially that of the 2d Iowa— made him a 
brigadier-general. From what occurred just before the success- 
ful assault was made, it seems that the success of his troops was 
unlooked for by Colonel Lauman; for to Colonel Tuttle, who 
desired to lead the charge, he said: "Why, sir, you can't go up 
there; didn't 1 try it yesterday?" And to the reply of Colonel 
Tuttle, that he would, if he lost the last man of his regiment, 
he said, "Oh, sir! you'll soon get that, taken out of you." 
After the assault of the 2d Iowa at Fort Douelson, Colonel 
Lauman believed there was nothing that brave men could not 
accomplish. 

After being promoted to the rank of a brigadier, General 
Lauman was assigned to the command of a brigade in General 
Hurlbut's Division, with which lie fought in the left win"' of 



166 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Grant's army at Shiloh. Colonel Williams of the 3d Iowa 
having been disabled in that engagement, General Lanman 
succeeded him in the command of his brigade; which com- 
mand he retained until the following October. He marched 
with Sherman and Hurlbut from Corinth to Memphis, after 
the fall of the former place; and, in the following Fall, when 
the enemy began to show activity in the neighborhood of 
Corinth, returned with Hurlbut to the vicinity of Bolivar, 
Tennessee; near which place he was encamped just before 
the battle of Iuka. To mislead the enemy under Price at 
Iuka, or, as General Grant expresses it, "to cover our 
movement from Corinth, and to attract the attention of the 
enemy in another direction, I ordered a movement from 
Bolivar to Holly Springs. This was conducted by Brigadier- 
General Lauman." On the 5th of October, General Lauman 
commanded his brigade in the battle on the Hatchie. 

General Hurlbut's march from Bolivar to the Big Muddy, 
about two miles west of the Hatchie, has already been given 
in the sketch of Colonel Aaron Brown. The battle of the 
Hatchie, or Malamora, opened between the Federal and 
Confederate artillery, the former stationed on the bluffs, and 
the latter in the Hatchie Bottom. After a brief artillery duel, 
the 2d Brigade, General Veatch commanding, charged the 
enemy's infantry that had crossed the bridge to the west side 
of the stream, and routed them. Falling back across the 
bridge, they, with the balance of the rebel forces, took up a 
position on the opposite bluffs. General Ord, now coming to 
the front, determined to attack the enemy in their strong 
position, and accordingly ordered General Veatch to push his 
brigade across the bridge. 

The topography of the battle-ground on the east side of the 
Hatehie, is thus well given by Lieutenant Thompson, of the 
3d Iowa Infantry: 



JACOB G. LAUMAN. 167 

" Beyond the river there was about twelve rods of bottom, 
and then there arose a very high and steep bluff. Along the 
brow of this, the enemy, rallying and reinforced, had formed 
new lines of battle, and planted artillery, which, from different 
points, enfiladed the road and bridge, and swept the field on 
both sides of the stream. Following up the river just above 
the bridge, it makes an abrupt elbow, and comes down from 
the east, running parallel to the road on the opposite side [of 
the bridge]. In this elbow, and on not more than half an acre 
of ground, a part of General Veatch's Brigade, according to 
the orders of General Ord, would have to deploy." 

Crossing the bridge and filing to the left, it was possible to 
gain the enemy's right flank ; for on that side of the road the 
north point of the bluffs could be passed; and what seems 
strange is that, a man of General Ord's ability should not have 
discovered this strategical point. The balance of General Lau- 
man's Brigade, which was of the reserve forces, was now 
ordered across the bridge, and directed to file to the right, into 
the inevitable pocket. General Lauman, accompanied by his 
orderlies, led the advance. To cross the open field, and then 
the bridge, was a most perilous undertaking; for, on the bluffs 
on the opposite side, as has already been stated, the enemy's 
artillery was so planted as to give them a converging fire on 
both the field and bridge. General Lauman reached the oppo- 
site side in safety, followed by the other two regiments of his 
brigade, one of which was the 3d Iowa Infantry. 

The battle was now raging with great fury, the enemy from 
their elevated position pouring a deadly, continuous fire on 
their helpless victims below, whose returning fire was almost 
wholly ineffectual. Confusion must soon have followed ; but 
just then General Ord was wounded, and General Hurlbut 
assumed command. He at once crossed the bridge, and, in 
person, directed a flank movement around the bluffs to the left. 
The troops employed were the 46th Illinois, the 68th Ohio, and 
the 12th Michigan. The enemy's right flank was soon gained 



168 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

and turned, which compelled them to abandon the bluffs ; — 
and thus the day was saved from disaster. 

This pocket-blunder of General Ord, and the subsequent 
indiscretion of General Lauman, have been considered by some 
as connected with the latter's ill-fortune at Jackson, Missis- 
sippi, in the summer of 1SG3. The story is as follows: — In 
the winter of 1862-3, a supper was given in Memphis, where 
Generals Ord, Veatch, Lauman and others, were present. 
When the wine was passing, and all were merry, the affair on 
the Hatchie occurred to General Lauman, and he remarked to 
General Ord : — " General, that was a bit of a blunder, in put- 
ting us into tha* pocket, wasn't it?" (I may not give the 
language, but I give the idea.) General Ord, it is said, made 
no reply; but gave his eyes a wicked leer, which, even then, 
some thought meant mischief. 

Soon after the battle of Matamora, General LTurlbut was 
made a major-general, and assigned to the command of the 
District of Jackson, Tennessee. General Lauman succeeded 
him in the command of his division. 

If we except the march of General Grant into Central Mis- 
sissippi, in which General Lauman joined with his division, 
his military history, for the six months following the battle of 
Matamora, is void of great interest. During this time, he had 
his head-quarters, first at Bolivar, then at Moscow, and then 
at Memphis. When Vicksburg was beleagured, he left 3Iem- 
phis to report to General Grant in rear of that city; and, on 
the fall of Vicksburg, marched with his division on the, to him, 
unfortunate campaign to Jackson. His position before Jack- 
son, and what happened on the 12th of July, appear in the 
sketch of Colonel Aaron Brown, of the 3d Iowa Infantry. 
With reference to a further history of this affair, I shall only 
add an extract from the oflicial report of General Sherman. 

"On the 12th [July], whilst General Lauman's Division was 



JACOB G. LAUMAN. 1G9 

moving up into position, dressing to his left on Gpneral Ilovey, 
the right of his line came within easy range of the enemy's 
field artillery aud musketry, from behind his works, whereby 
this division sustained a serious loss, amounting in killed, 
wounded and missing to near five hundred men. This was 
the only serious loss which befell my command during the 
campaign, and resulted from misunderstanding or misin- 
terpretation of General Orel's minute instructions, on the part 
of General Lauman." 

At the time of the occurrence of this misfortune, General 
Ord's head-quarters were to the right of the Clinton and Jack- 
son road, and near where the left of his command rested. 
Near that of General Orel's, was the tent of Surgeon Win. L. 
Orr of the 21st Iowa. When the heavy firing opened in front 
of General Lauman's command, Ord, in a tone of mudh ^sur- 
prise and alarm, called hurriedly to one of his aids: "What 
does that mean? what does that mean? Kide out there quickly 
and see." General Lauman was at once relieved of his 
command, and ordered to report to General Grant at 
Vicksburg. Upon his departure he issued the following 
order: 

"IlKAn-QI'ARTFP.S FcrRTII DIVISION, SIXTEENTH Af.MY Cor.I'S. 

"In the Fu:lt>, Near Jacksox, Miss., July 12th. 1So3. 
" FELLOW-SOLDIEKS : 

Having been relieved from the command of the 4th Division 
by Major-General Ord, the command is turned over to Briga- 
dier-General Ilovey. To say that I part with my olel comrades 
with sorrow and regret, is simply giving expression to my 
heart-felt feelings. 1 shall ever remember the toils and hard- 
ships we have endured together, and the glory which the Old 
Fourth has won on hard-fought fields, and the glory which 
clusters around their names like a halo — with pride and satis- 
faction. 

"And now, in parting with you, I ask a last request, that, in 
consideration of your past fame, you do nothing, in word or 
deed, to mar it; but that you give to your present or future 

commander that prompt obediene;e to orders which has always 



170 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

characterized the division, and which has given to it the proud 
position which it now enjoys. 
"Officers and soldiers, I bid you now an affectionate farewell. 

"J. G. Laumax, 

Brigadier- General." 

But for his ill-fated blunder at Jackson, General Launian 
would doubtless ere this have been made a major-general. 

Reporting to General Grant, he was sent, I think, to an 
Eastern Department, and assigned a command somewhere in 
Northern Virginia ; but before his arrival, the command had 
been given to another. He was then ordered to report to his 
home in Burlington to await further orders from Washington, 
which, thus far, he has failed to receive. The general, I am 
informed, has made frequent efforts to secure an investigation 
of the causes, whereby he was thrown under opprobrium, 
but without success. Rumor says that both Grant and Sher- 
man have put him off with, u we have no time to convene 
courts-martial." 

The war is now closing, and he will, probably, go out of the 
service, without being restored to a command. Indeed, his 
health is broken down, and he is now totally unfit for service. 

Like the nuijority of the Iowa general officers, General 
Lauman is of only middle size. His person is slender, and his 
weight about one hundred and forty pounds. He has a nervous, 
excitable temperament, and a mild, intelligent countenance. 

As a military leader, he is brave to a fault, but he lacks 
judgment. He would accomplish much more by intrepidity, 
than by strategy; and, if his intrepidity failed him, he might 
lose every thing. 

He has been a successful merchant, and stands among the 
wealthy men of Burlington. As a citizen, he has always been 
held in the highest esteem, ami is noted fur his kind-hearted- 
ness and liberality. 



BRIGADIER-GENERAL ELLIOTT W. RICE. 

SECOND COLONEL, SEVENTH INFANTE Y. 

Elliott W. Bice, a younger brother of the late General 
Samuel A. Rice, who died in the summer of 1864, of a wound 
received at the battle of Jenkins' Ferry, is a native of Pitts- 
burg, Pennsylvania, where he was born on the 16th of 
November, 1835. In 1837, he removed with his father's family 
to Belmont county, Ohio, where he made his home till the 
year 1855. He was regularly graduated at Franklin College, 
Ohio, in 1854; and immediately after entered the Law Uni- 
versity at Albany, New York. In 1855, he came West, and 
became a law-partner of his late brother at Oskaloosa, Iowa. 

Early in the spring of 1861, General Rice enlisted as a 
private in the 7th Iowa Infantry ; but was, on the 30th of the 
following August, promoted to the majority of the regiment. 
He served with his regiment with that rank till after the 
battle of Fort Donelson, when he was commissioned colonel, 
vicp. Colonel Laumao promoted to brigadier-general. This 
promotion was endorsed by the almost unanimous voice of the 
officers of his regiment, and was a high compliment to his 
military talent and worth. One of the brightest pages in 
General Rice's military history was made prior to the date of 
his colonel's commission, on the battle-field of Belmont. The 
enemy had been forced through the low, timbered bottoms 
that skirt the west side of the Mississippi above Columbus; 
they had been driven back to their encampment, and 
beyond, to the [••inks of the Mississippi below Columbus; 
their camp had been burned, and their flag — Harp of Erin 
— captured, when word came, "we are flanked." Colonel 

171 



172 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Lauman had already been wounded and taken to the rear. At 
the very moment that orders were received to fall back, the 
enemy rallied in front, and Lieutenant-Colonel Wentz fell, 
mortally wounded. Under these circumstances, Major Rice 
took command of his regiment to conduct the retreat. lie had 
already been severely wounded, though he said he was not 
hurt. Placing himself at the head of his regiment, which he 
had hastily re-formed, (for all just then was confusion) he 
dashed through the lines of the enemy that had been inter- 
posed between the Federal forces and the landing, disregarding 
all calls of " surrender!" In the terrific enfilading fire through 
which he passed, his horse was pierced with twenty bullets; 
his sword-scabbard was shot in two ; his sword-belt. shot away, 
and his clothes riddled; but he saved a remnant of his 
regiment, and brought it safely back to the transports. His 
gallant conduct in this engagement made him the idol of his 
regiment. 

The history of the 7th Iowa Infantry, subsequently to the 
battle of Fort !>onelson, when Major Rice was promoted to 
colonel, is briefly as follows : — For three weeks after the battle, 
the regiment rested in rebel barracks, constructed by the enemy 
for winter quarter Then, marching back to the Tennessee, it 
took the steamer White Cloud at Metal Landing for Pittsburg. 

As already staled, the 7th Iowa fought at Shiloh with the lid, 
12th, and 1 1th Iowa regiments. It was commanded by Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel J. C. Parrott, and lost in the engagement thirty- 
four in killed, wounded and missing. Lieutenant John Dillin, 
a resident of Iowa City, Mas killed, and no other commissioned 
officer of the regiment was struck. After the fall of Corinth, 
and the pursuit of the enemy to Boonville, the 7th returned 
and established, with its brigade, what was known as Camp 
Montgomery. Here the regiment passed the chief portion of 
its time till the battles of Iuka and Ccrinth. 



ELLIOTT W. RICE. 173 

At the battle of Corinth, the 7th Iowa suffered severely, the 
list of casualties amounting to one hundred and twenty-three. 
In speaking of the conduct of his officers and men in the 
engagement. Colonel Rice said : 

" I must make special mention of Lieutenant-Colonel Par- 
rott, who, with great bravery and coolness, cheered and 
encouraged the men to renewed vigor. * * * It is 
with pleasure that I make favorable mention of almost all my 
officers who were engaged in the two clay's battle. Major 
MeMullen did efficient service until he was wounded and dis- 
abled, on the evening of the 3d. Captain Conn, although 
wounded, remained with his command through both clay's 
battle. Captains Hedges and Mahon, left in camp sick, left 
their beds and came on the battle-field on Saturday, and did 
efficient service. Their companies were well commanded Fri- 
day by Lieutenants Li lion and Sergeant. Lieutenant Gale 
displayed great gallantry, and was severely wounded in the 
battle of the 4th, after which the company was bravely led by 
Lieutenant Morrison. 

" Captains Irvin and Ileiniger performed their duties nobly. 
I must also mention Lieutenants Hope, Loughridge, Irvin, 
McCormick, Bennett and Bess. Captain Smith, who was 
killed in the last hour of the battle of the 4th, was one of the 
mo^l promising young officers of the service. He was brave, 
cool and deliberate in battle, and very efficient in all his duty. 
Color-Sergeant Aleck Field was wounded in the battle of the 
3d: afterwards the colors were borne by William Akers of 
Company G, who was also wounded, when they were carried 
by George Craig, of Company L\ All of the color-guard, with 
the exception of one, were either killed or wounded. Sergeant- 
Major Cameron, severely wounded, must not escape favorable 
mention for his brave and valuable services on the field. 

" While it is a pleasure to report the noble and heroic conduct 
of so many of my officers and men, we mourn the loss of the 
gallant dead, and sympathize deeply with the unfortunate 
wounded. More than one-third of those taken into action are 
wounded, or lie dead beneath the battle-field. With this sad 
record, we can send to Iowa the gratifying word that her 
unfortunate sons fell with faces to the enemy. * 
For nearly a year and a half prior to the month of October, 



174 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

18G3, the 7th Iowa Infantry remained at and near Corinth, 
Mississippi; but, at the above named date, marched with 
General Dodge from Corinth to Pulaski. In the winter of 
1S63-4, the regiment re-enlisted and came North on veteran 
furlough, and, on its return to the field, marched to the front 
with the 2d Iowa, via Prospect, Elkton and Huntsville. 

In Sherman's celebrated Atlanta campaign, Colonel Eice 
commanded his brigade, composed of the 2d and 7th Iowa, the 
52d Illinois and GGth Indiana, (the same that he had com- 
manded f«>r nearly a year before) and, at the battles of Resaea, 
Kay's Ferry, Pome Cross Poads, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, 
and Nick-a-jack Creek, distinguished himself. For his gal- 
lantry and promptness to duty, he was recommended by 
General Sherman for promotion to a brigadier-general, and 
was appointed and confirmed to that rank, his commission 
dating the 20th of June, 1SG4. 

The engagement on Oustanaula Piver is worthy of special 
mention. Crossing his brigade in the face of the rebel General 
Walker's entire Division, he drove it in disgrace from the 
south bank of the stream, and, secured a position which was 
generally believed to have necessitated the evacuation of 
Resaea. 

Of the different regiments in his command, the 7th Iowa 
Infantry suffered the most severely in this engagement. The 
regiment was moving through heavy timber, when it was 
suddenly charged by a whole brigade of rebel infantry. The 
charge was gallantly sustained, and a counter-charge made, 
which resulted in driving the enemy from the field. The loss 
of the regiment here was between sixty and seventy. 

The preliminaries to the battle of Dallas are briefly as fol- 
lows: Having arrived at King-ton, a small railroad station 
about eighty miles south of Chattanooga, the enemy were 
found posted across the Etowah Piver, in the Allatoona Moun- 



ELLIOTT W. RICE. 175 

f 

tains. Their position, which was one of great natural strength, 
was to be carried by a flank movement; and General MePher- 
son, moving south-west, reached and crossed the Etowah 
River, and marched directly for Atlanta. The enemy, when 
advised of the movement, abandoned their position on the 
Allatoona Mountains, and pushed for Dallas, some thirty-five 

! miles south of Kingston. Hardee's rebel Corps, leading the 

advance, reached Dallas and strongly fortified itself before 
McPherson's arrival. What followed is well given by an 
officer of General Rice's command: 

"At early dawn, on the 28th of May, the Iavo contending 
armies were on the qui vive. All looked forward for the deeds 
the day might bring forth. Heavy skirmishing was kept up, 
which, at times, almost swelled into volleys; and, at short 
intervals, stretcher-men, with their precious burdens going to 
the rear, attested the accuracy with which the 'Johnny 
rebs' handled their long Enfields. At four o'clock 1'. M., 
the threatening storm burst out in all the fury of battle, just 
on the extreme right of Logan's Corps, where it sounded like 
the wind roaring through a pine forest. The breeze wafted it 
dismally toward us. On came the wall of fire, ncaring us at 
every instant; until it broke in all its violence on our front. 
Here was the rebel right. Their assaulting column reached 
along the whole line of Logan's Corps, and over on to Dodge's 
front far enough to engage Rice's Brigade, which was posted 
in the front line. The rebel forces consisted of Hardee's 
Corps — three divisions. Their men were told that we were 
one-hundred-day men; and their charge was a desperate one. 
In front of Rice's Brigade (two regiments being in line, the 
2d Iowa and CGth Indiana) there was a brigade of the enemy, 
known as the Kentucky Brigade, consisting of the 2d, 3d, 5th, 
Gth, 7th and Oth Kentucky Infantry. They charged in columns 

isix lines deep, and, as they neared our works, yelled in that 
unearthly style peculiar to themselves. They were met by 
men who were equal to the emergency. Not a man left the 
works, unless he was wounded. They stood there like a wall 
of iron, their comrades from the reserve carrying ammunition 
to replenish their exhaus ted supplies. Yet still the rebel hosts 
poured up to the works, those behind being cursed by their 
l 

! 



176 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

officers and rushed up so as to prevent those in front frurn fall- 
ing back. Thus they continued, hoping against hope, and all 
the time being mowed down like grass by the fire of our brave 
veterans, and the grape and canister of AVelker's Battery. 
Pushing forward till they were almost hand-to-hand, they 
continued the deadly struggle for one hour and a half; when, 
completly exhausted, they broke and fled, amid the loud 
huzzas of our splendid fellows. I never wish to know a 
prouder day than that. 

" Our brigade that day fought for the first time behind 
breast-works. Although they had built miles of them, this 
was the first chance to use them. Too much praise can not be 
given to Colonel Rice, who was ever where the danger was the 
thickest, mounted on his magnificent gray. He looked the 
personification of the brave soldier. His example appeared to 
inspire the men: they fought as only the best and bravest of 
soldiers can fight, and never left the works. 

" After the action, T noticed him riding to the different regi- 
ments to ascertain, I suppose, the extent of our casualties. He 
was every where met with loud and prolonged cheers; but he 
modestly attributed it all to them, and kindly thanked them 
for their great bravery. Such men as he are not made of the 
ordinary stuff. Though young in years, he is already a vete- 
ran-hero of nearly a score of battles ; and has, since this cam- 
paign, made a reputation for himself and the brigade he so 
gallant ly commands, unequalled by any in this army." 

No one lias been a warmer admirer of the gallantry of Gen- 
eral Rice than myself, whenever it has fallen to his lot to meet 
the enemy ; but .-till 1 think it hardly just to say that the repu- 
tation of himself or of his brigade was "unequalled by any" 
in that magnificent Army of the Tennessee. The general 
himself would not claim this; nor would the author, from 
whom I have quoted, on sober reflection. He wrote under the 
inspiration of recent victory. 

General Rice, I believe, most distinguished himself on the 
memorable 22d of July before Atlanta. \\\ that engagement, 
though assaulted by an entire division of Hardee's Corps, he 
held his ground firmly, and inflicted most bitter punishment 



ELLIOTT W. RICE. 177 

upon the enemy. Besides capturing one hundred prisoners of 
war, and six hundred stand of arms, he buried in his front, on 
the morning cf the 23d, one hundred and twenty of the ene- 
my's dead, which is evidence that his brigade placed nearly 
one thousand rebels out of battle. 

After General Dodge was wounded before Atlanta, the 
division to which General Rice's brigade was attached was 
assigned to the loth Army Corps : since that time, the services 
of the general and, I may add, of the 7th Iowa, are the same 
as those of General Logan's command. Marching first in 
pursuit of General Hood back nearly to Dalton, and round 
through Snake Creek Gap, they then returned, and, with the 
other troops, pushed through to Savannah, and thence north, 
through South Carolina and North Carolina to Raleigh. 

The operations of the 7th Iowa in rear of Savannah, are thus 
given by Lieutenant-Colonel Parrott: 

"December 11, moved to the rear, and encamped on Ander- 
son's plantation, where we remained in camp until the 21st, 
keeping up all the time a lively skirmish on the picket line. 
On the night of the 19th, my regiment was ordered to effect a 
crossing of the Little Ogechee. The regiment marched to the 
vicinity of the river, Company A, being detailed to carry 
boards for the purpose of crossing sloughs, and Company B to 
carry a boat for the purposeof crossing a detachment to recon- 
noitre the opposite bank. Major Mahon, with four picked 
men, crossed the river, and from his reconnoissance it Mas 
found impossible to cross the regiment on account of swamps 
and morasses on the opposite bank. At 12 midnight, the regi- 
ment was ordered back to camp. 

"December 20th was quiet all day. December 21st, reports 
were in circulation, at an early hour, that the enemy had 
abandoned his stronghold on the Little Ogechee. The brigade 
was ordered to move to the front, and at 2 P. M. entered the 
city of Savannah without tiring a gun, the enemy having 
made a hasty retreat." 

The only time I ever saw General Riee was in the summer 



178 IOWA COLOXEL3 AND REGIMENTS. 

of 18G2, and not long after he had received his colonel's com- 
mission, lie was in company with Captain, now Major, 
Mahon, and on a visit to some friends at Camp Clear Springs, 
Mississippi. He was dressed in a brand-new uniform, and I 
thought him a gallant and handsome looking officer. 

He is a man of middle size, and has a fine form. His com- 
plexion, and the color of his hair and eyes, are much like 
those of his late distinguished brother. He is reputed a more 
brilliant man than was his brother, but not so able. His 
neighbors say he has one of those minds that learn from 
observation, rather than from hard study. "When he entered 
the service, he was so young that he had had little opportunity 
to gain distinction. He has made a brilliant record in the 
army ; and his friends expect that his course in civil life will 
be equally brilliant. 



MAJOR-GENERAL FREDERICK STEELE. 

PIEST COLONEL, EIGHTH INFANTRY. 

Frederick Steele is a native of Delhi, Delaware county, 



New York, -where he was born in the year 1819. He was the 
second regular army officer appointed to a field office from Iowa. 
Entering the West Point Military Academy in the year 1S39, 
he was regularly graduated in 1S43, and appointed a brevet 2d 
lieutenant in the 2d Infantry. He served with General Scott 
in the Mexican War, and greatly distinguished himself in the 
battles of Contreras and Chapultcpec. He commanded his 
company at the capture of the City of Mexico, having been 
brevetted 1st lieutenant and captain, on account of gallant con- 
duct in the two previous engagements. 

On the declaration of peace, he reported, under orders, to 
General Riley, in California, and was made his assistant adju- 
tant-general, which position he retained for several years. At 
the outbreak of the war, he was serving in Missouri, and, with 
the 1st Iowa Infantry, fought under General Lyon at the battle 
of Wilson's Creek. Captain Steele was commissioned colonel 
of the Sth Iowa Infantry, on the 23d of September, 1861; but 
his connection with this regiment was brief; for, his good 
conduct at Wilson's Creek coming to the ears of the War 
Department, he was, on the 29th of January, 1862, made a 
brigadier-general. If we except the time he served with Sher- 
man around Vicksburg, in the spring and summer of 1863, 
and the time he served under General Canby, at Pensacola and 
around Mobile, in the spring of 1865, General Steele has, at all 
other times, held commands in Missouri and Arkansas. He 
was in command at Helena, Arkansas, in December, 1S62, just 

179 



180 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

before joining the expedition under General Sherman, which 
left that point in the latter part of that month for Chickasaw 
Bayou. On this expedition he commanded the 4th Division, 
13th Army Corp-; and. with two brigades of it, led the attack 
against the bluffs, over the long and narrow causeway that 
leads to the "Walnut Hills from above the mouth of Chickasaw 
Bayou. 

Immediately after tins unfortunate affair, General Steele 
sailed with his command up the Arkansas River; and on the 
night of the 10th of January, 1363, marched to the rear 
of Arkansas Post, through the brushy swamps that were 
well-nigh impassable for infantry, and quite so for the ambu- 
lances and baggage-wagons. It is to the patience, and valor 
of General Steele's troops that the country is chiefly 
indebted for the capture of these formidable works. We 
next find General Steele with Sherman, in command of 
his division on the final march against Vicksburg; and, 
after the fall of that city, on the second march against 
Jackson, in command of the 15th Corps. General Sherman 
approached Jackson in three columns, General Steele's com- 
mand holding the centre, General Ord's the right, and General 
Parke's the left. On this march, " nothing worth recording 
occurred till the head of Steele's column was within six hun- 
dred yards of the enemy's line, on the Clinton road, when 
[July 9th, S A. M»] a six-inch rifle-shot warned us to prepare 
for serious wurk." Indeed, if we except the heedless affair of 
General Lauman, who commanded a division of General Orel's 
Corps, and the reconnaissance of Colonel, now General Corse, in 
command of the 6th Iowa and other troops, nothing of special 
interest occurred, during the eight day's siege of the city. 

On the evacuation of Jack- on by General Johnson, and 
after the destruction of the railroads and the rebel governnv :;t 
property in and around the city, General Steele returned to 



FREDERICK STEELE. 1S1 

Vicksburg; and, immediately after was appointed to the 
command of the Department and Army of Arkansas. He 
arrived at Helena on the 31st of July, 1863. 

This was bis first distinct and important command; and, for 
the manner in which he managed some matters of detail, he 
has been severely criticised. As a fighting-general, he proved 
himself all the loyal North could ask. It was the policy he 
adopted in governing the people of a subjugated district — 
nearly all of them bitter rebels — which lost him much of his 
early popularity ; but, without questioning the wisdom of his 
plans, it is but just to say that, he was doubtless honest in his 
motives. He believed that the speedier way to bring a disaf- 
fected people back to a love of the Union was to treat them 
with kindness. He was right in principle: he only forgot that 
he was dealing with those who were rotten with treason, and 
totally destitute of principle. 

General Steele left Helena for Little Hock, Arkansas, on the 
10th of August, 18G3, with an expeditionary army, numbering, 
of all arms, not quite twelve thousand men. On the 10th of 
September following, after forcing the enemy back step by 
step from Clarendon and across the Arkonsas, he had 
compelled Generals Trice and Marmaduke to evacuate 
Little Rock; and, on the evening of the same day, he 
received the city by formal surrender of the municipal 
authorities. 

His successes were brilliant and, by General Grant, unlooked 
for ; for, on the 12th of September, that general dispatched a 
seventeenth corps' division, (General John E. Smith's) from 
Vicksburg to reinforce him. News of the fall of Little Rock 
reached this division at Helena, and it marched to Chatta- 
nooga. 

By tiiis brief campaign, General Steele had restored to the 
Government nearly the entire State of Arkansas; fur the 



182 IOWA COLONELS AND KEGIMENTS. 

enemy now disputed the possession of only a few counties in 
the south-western part of the State. 

General Steele's next important move, which was made iu 
conjunction with a similar one under Major-General N. P. 
Banks, was a failure, though history, I believe, will attribute 
it to no fault of the general. The object of this grand campaign 
was the capture of Shreveport, and the dispersion of the enemy 
in the Red River country, and, had General Banks escaped the 
serious disasters which overwhelmed his command at Sabine 
Cross Boads and Pleasant Hill, the object would doubtless 
have been attained. 

General Steele left Little Bock on the 23d of March, 1864, 
and marching via Benton, Rockport and Arkadelphia, entered 
Camden at sun-down on the loth of April. On this march he 
met and defeated the enemy under Price, Marmaduke, Shelby, 
Cabell and a score or more of others, of the ragged, epauletted 
chivalry, at Tcrre Noir Creek, Elkin's Ford, Prairie de Anne 
and north-west of Camden. When leaving Little Bock, it 
was doubtless General Steele's intention to march directly on 
Shreveport; for he crossed tbe Washita at Arkadelphia, and 
was directing his line of march nearly mid-way between 
Washington and Camden. Why did he enter Camden ? On 
the 10th, llth and 12th of April, he engaged the enemy at 
Prairie de Anne, and, from prisoners captured there, or from 
other sources, learned that the advance of Banks had not only 
been checked, but his whole command overwhelmed with 
disaster. The enemy, who at this point were in strong force 
in Steele's front, soon disappeared; and the general was not 
long in discovering that they were marching by a circuitous 
route to occupy Camden, and gain his rear. A race followed 
between himself and the enemy for Camden, which resulted 
in the battle bearing that name. The battle was fought at the 
cross-roads, some seven miles west-north-west of the city. 



FREDERICK STEELE. 183 

Before reaching Camden, General Steele remained incredu- 
lous of the reports of General Bank's defeat; but after his 
arrival there he was convinced of their truth, and contem- 
plated an immediate return to Little Rock. But, a large train 
of supplies reaching him in safety, he persuaded himself that 
he could maintain his position, and accordingly ordered the 
train to return to Pine Bluff for additional supplies. This is 
the train which was captured just north of the Moro Bottom; 
and this circumstance, some think, saved the balance of his 
army. 

Having learned of the capture of his train, (and he had just 
before lost one sent out on a foraging expedition to Poisoned 
Springs) General Steele prepared for a rapid march back to 
Little Bock, where he arrived on the 2d of May. To show 
that fortune favored him, I give the following: After the cap- 
ture of the train above referred to and the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Drake of the 36th Iowa, the rebel General 
Fagan was ordered to cross the Saline Biver, and intrench him- 
self fronting Jenkin's Ferry, at which point Steele was to 
cross his army. For some reason, Fagan failed to comply with 
the~e orders, and, in consequence thereof, was relieved of his 
command and put in arrest. Had he complied with these 
orders, Steele must have surrendered to the rebel forces ; for, 
without any enemy in his front, and after having burned the 
most of his own train, it was with the utmost difficulty he 
effected a crossing. 

After General Steele's return to Little Bock, and during the 
entire time he was retained in command in Arkansas, he did 
little worthy of record. In January, 1865, he was relieved of 
his command, ami ordered to report to Major-General Cauby, 
at New Orleans. His last services were performed in the 
vicinity of Mobile, Tie was given a command, stationed at 
Pensaeola, Florida, with which he marched against Mobile. 



. 


















184 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

He took a prominent part in the capture of Fort Blakely ; but 
a history of this affair will appear elsewhere. 

General Steele is the smallest of the Iowa major-generals, 
or the smallest of the major-generals who have, held colonel's 
commissions from the State; for he can hardly be called an 
Iowa man. He has a light complexion, lively, gray eyes, and 
hair, though originally brown, now heavily sprinkled with 
gray. He has a slender, wiry form, and a sharp, shrill voice. 
Nearly all army officers are occasionally profane: I know of 
but few exceptions, and General Steele is not one of them. He 
swears with precision, and with great velocity. 

The general i.- passionately fond of a fine horse, and, in civil 
life, would be called a horse-jockey. It is reported that his 
horses have more than once appeared on the old race-course at 
Little Rock, where, competing with the steeds of the cavalry 
privates of his command, they have always borne off the 
stakes. The general, in his flannel shirt, would stand by, a 
spectator of the sport, but nothing more. 

General Steele is kind-hearted and humane, and easily 
approached, even by an humble private. It is this same 
kindness of heart, as 1 am informed, that tempered his rule 
while in command in Arkansas, and made him popular with 
the citizens and camp-followers, and unpopular with many in 
his army. In the field, he is really a fine officer; but he lacks 
firmness, and is unfit for a military governor. That which 
injured him not a little at Little Rock was his lack of judgment 
in selecting his staff officers. In this respect he was very 
unfortunate. 

But he stands high in the confidence of General Grant, which 
is no common recommendation. The general is neat and tidy 
in his dress, and, when on duty, always appears in full uniform. 



COLONEL JAMES LORAINE GEDDE8. 

SECOXD COLONEL, EIGHTH INFAKTRY. 

James L. Geddes, of the 8th Iowa Infantry, is a Scotchman, 
and was born in the city of Edinburgh, on the 19th day of 
March, 1827. When ten years of age, he emigrated with his 
family to Canada; but, at the age of eighteen, returned to 
Scotland, and, in the following Winter, embarked for the East 
Indies, where he entered the British Military Academy at 
Calcutta. After studying at that Institution for about two 
years, he enlisted in the British service, and was a member of 
the Royal Horse Artillery. He was connected with the British 
service seven years, and, during that time, served under Sir 
Hugh Gough, Sir Charles Napier, and Sir Colin Campbell. 
Under Gough, he took part in the celebrated Punjaub Cam- 
paign, and with Napier fought in the battle of Kyber Pass. 
He was also engaged under Sir Colin Campbell in the cam- 
paign against the Hill Tribes of the Himalaya. For his 
services in India, he was awarded a medal and clasp. 

After leaving the British service, he returned to Canada 
where, being commissioned by Queen Victoria a colonel of 
cavalry, he organized a cavalry regiment; but, as he himself 
expressed it, he soou became disgusted, and resigned his com- 
mission. He came to Iowa in the Hill of 1857, and purchased 
a farm in Benton county, on which he has since lived. 

In August, 1SG1, Colonel Geddes enlisted a company in 
Benton county, for the 8th Iowa Infantry, and was commis-. 
sioned its captain; but, on the organization of his regiment, he 
was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and, with that rank, 
he entered the field. He was promoted to the colonelcy of 

1S-3 



186 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

the Sth Iowa, on the 7th of February, 1862, vice Colonel Steele, 
who had been appointed a brigadier-general. 

The first campaign on which the 8th Iowa Infantry marched 
was that of General Fremont, from Jefferson City to Spring- 
field. The regiment's first battle was Shiloh. The part it took 
in this engagement is the first point of interest in its history. 
It was attacbed to the division of General C. F. Smith, which, 
in the absence of that general, was commanded by Wallace. 
The camp of the regiment was, therefore, in rear of the line 
first assailed by the enemy. 

Early in the morning of the 6th of April, and soon after the 
enemy opened fire on the divisions of Prentiss and Sherman, 
Colonel Geddes ordered his regiment under arms and formed 
ii in line of battle in front of its camp. In the meantime, the 
firing at the front was increasing rapidly, and the colonel, con- 
vinced that the enemy were advancing in force, ordered the 
baggage to be loaded on the wagons and driven back in the 
direction of the Landing. This done, his regiment was ordered 
to the front. The other regiments of the brigade, which was 
commanded by Colonel Sweeney, of the 52d Illinois, were, on 
the arrival of the Sth Iowa, already in position. Forming his 
regiment on the left of his brigade, Colonel Geddes remained 
in this position for about an hour, in support of a battery in 
his front, and during this time suffered from a galling fire of 
the enemy's artillery. 

lie was now separated from his brigade and ordered to the 
left, and still further to the front : and the position which his 
regiment now took up was in that line, portions of which were 
held so obstinately until about four o'clock in the afternoon. 
The Sth Iowa in this position was the connecting link between 
the division of General Wallace and that portion of General 
Breatiss' which had not stampeded at the first onset of the 



JAMES LORAIXE GEDDE3. 187 

enemy. On the left of General Prentiss was the division of 
Hurlbut, which had just come into position. It was now 
nearly eleven o'clock, and every thing promised well for the 
Federal cause; for the enemy in their first successes had been 
effectually arrested. 

Hardly had the 8th Iowa been aligned and drawn a long 
breath, when it was assaulted by a battalion of the enemy, 
advancing to turn Prentiss' right flank. A most determined 
struggle followed of nearly an hour in length. The enemy, 
flushed with their first successes, which surprise as well as their 
valor had contributed to win, would not yield the contest until 
they had left nearly half their number upon the field. The 
8th Iowa held its ground steadily, and, like the 14th Iowa on 
its right, charged and bore down the enemy whenever they 
approached too closely. Finully they retired, after which 
there was a respite of nearly an hour. 

In the meantime General Prentiss had placed a battery in 
position immediately in front of the 8th Iowa, and ordered the 
regiment to hold and defend it at all hazards. It was now 
about one o'clock in the afternoon, the hour when the fiercest 
fighting of the whole day began ; for the enemy had com- 
pleted their reconnoissances, and were advancing at nearly 
every point along the line. The battery placed by General 
Prentiss in front of the Sth Iowa opened upon the advancing 
columns of the enemy, under the direction of the general in 
person, and so accurately and rapidly was it served that it 
soon became to them an object of special attack. " To this end 
[I quote from the statement of Colonel Geddes to Governor 
Kirkwood] they concentrated and hurled column after column 
on my position, charging most gallantly to the very muzzles 
of the guns. Here a struggle commenced for the retention 
and possession of the battery, of a terrific character, their 



188 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

concentrated and well-directed fire decimating my ranks in a 
fearful manner. In this desperate struggle, my regiment lost 
one hundred men in killed and wounded. The conspicuous 
gallantry and coolness of my company commanders, Captains 
Cleaveland, Stubhs and Benson on the left; Captains McCor- 
miek and Bell in the centre; Captains Kelsey, Geddes and 
Lieutenant Muhs, on the right, by reserving the fire of their 
respective companies until the proper time for its delivery 
with effect, and the determined courage of my men, saved the 
battery from capture ; and I had the satisfaction of sending 
the guns in safety to the rear." 

And thus the conflict raged along the line, but at few points 
with as great fury as in front of the Sth and 14th Iowa. 
Finally, after the struggle had lasted nearly two hours, the 
enemy retired, leaving the troops at this point masters of the 
field. But they had not been equally unsuccessful at other 
points. They had broken the line on the right, and had forced 
back the left and centre of Prentiss' Division and the right of 
Hurlbut's. Heavy volleys of musketry were now heard to 
the left and rear of the Sth Iowa, where Prentis^ having rallied 
his troops, had formed a new line. This line was at nearly 
right angles with his former one, and the enemy were promptly 
engaging him in this new position. At this time, about half- 
past three o'clock, there was no enemy in front of the Sth Iowa, 
or on its immediate lefi ; but, to conform with Prentiss' new 
line, Colonel Geddes threw back the left of his regiment, and 
dressed it on the right of the 58th Illinois, the right regiment 
of Prentiss' Division. 

The rest is soon told. Prentiss' new line gave way and fled 
in terror to the Landing, and the enemy, meeting with no 
further opposition, swung round to the rear of the Sth Iowa ; 
and thus it was that the regiment was captured. The 5Sth 



JAMES LORAIXE GEDDES. 189 

Illinois stood nobly to the last, and was captured in like man- 
ner. General Prentiss was near these troops, and was also 
made prisoner. It has been asserted by many, that, had all 
the troops at Shiloh fought with the same determination as 
did the 58th Illinois, the 8th Iowa, and the four other Iowa 
regiments on its right, the first day's battle would not have 
been disastrous to our arms. Some have blamed General 
Prentiss for holding his position so long; but, had he aban- 
doned it sooner, who can tell the calamities that might have 
followed; for, with all the delay he and the Iowa troops on his 
right occasioned the enemy, the Federal forces barely escaped 
capture, and the day closed with little hope. 

Of the conduct of Colonel Geddes and his regiment at Shiloh, 
General Prentiss, in his official report, says: 

"He acted with distinguished courage, coolness and ability. 
His regiment stood unflinchingly up to the work the entire 
portion of the clay, during which it acted under my orders." 

The loss of the regiment in this engagement was nearly two 
hundred. Captain Hogin was shot dead early in the day, and 
soon after the regiment took up its position on the right of 
General Prentiss' Division. Captain Palmer was at nearly the 
same time severely wounded. Later in the day, and at the 
time the conflict was going on for the retention of the battery 
in his regiment's front, Colonel Geddes was wounded in the 
leg. Major Anderson was at the same time severely wounded 
in the head. Among those mentioned for special gallantry 
was Lieutenant-Colonel Ferguson, who, throughout the day, 
was reckless in the exposure of his person to the enemy. 

The history of that portion of the 8th Iowa Infantry which 
escaped capture is to be found in the record of the Union Brig- 
ade. This brigade, which was organized immediately after 
the battle of Shiloh, and which retained its organization until 
the 17th of the following December, acted an honorable part in 



190 IOWA COLOTELS AND KEGIMENT3. 

the battle of Corinth, in the fall of 1862, under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel J. P. Coulter of the 12th Iowa Infantry. 
On the morning of the 18th of December, 1862, the detach- 
ments of the 8th, 12th and 14th Iowa regiments, which had 
served in the Union Brigade for upward of eight months, left 
Corinth, by order of General Dodge, to report at Davenport, 
Iowa, for re-organization in their respective commands. This, 
it will be remembered, was at the time of Forest's raid through 
Tennessee into Kentucky; and, on the arrival of these troops 
at Jackson, Tennessee, they were ordered by Colonel Lawler, 
Commandant of the Post, to assist in defending the place 
against the threatened attack of the enemy, who were reported 
to be in strong force, and supported by artillery. But Jackson 
was not attacked. The enemy's demonstrations before that 
city were oidy intended to divert the Federal forces, while 
they in the meantime destroyed the railroad north in the 
direction of Columbus; and this work they effectually accom- 
plished. Forest now tied the State, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Coulter proceeded with his command to Davenport. 

Subsequently to the re-organization of the 8th Iowa Infantry 
and up to the spring of 1861, the history of the regiment is 
similar to that of the 12th Iowa. It joined General Grant's 
army at Milliken's Bend in the spring of 1863, and was 
assigned to the 3d Brigade, 3d Division, loth Army Corps, 
which it accompanied in all its long and tedious marches 
through Mississippi. But when that corps ieft Vicksburg for 
Chattanooga, in the fall of 1S63, the 8th Iowa with its division 
was left behind. The regiment remained at Yicksburg until 
the following Winter, when, having re-enlisted, it was sent 
North on veteran furlough. On its return, it was ordered to 
Memphis, since which time it has served under Major-General 
A.J. Smith. 

When Forest made his dash into Memphis, late in August, 



JAMES LORAINE GEDDES. 191 

1SG4, the Sth Iowa was stationed in the city on garrison-duty, 
and took an important part in driving out, and dispersing the 
forces of the guerrilla chief. "Sergeants Ostrander, and 
privates A. M. Walling, Charles Smith, I. F. Newman and 
Perry Clark, watched their opportunity, and fired a volley on 
the flank of the enemy, killing the rebel Captain Lundy and 
wounding several others." Lieutenant-Colonel "VY. B. Bell 
commanded the Sth Iowa in this affair ; and, before the enemy 
were dispersed, the regiment suffered severely. Lieutenant 
A. S. Irwin was mortally wounded and died soon after. 
Lieutenants J. A. Boyer and J. S. Tinkham were also 
wounded. Among those mentioned for good conduct, are 
Captain Geddes, and Lieutenants Stearns and Campbell. 

The Sth Iowa has recently and most signally distinguished 
itself, in the operations of General Canby around Mobile. 

The arrival of A. J. Smith's Corps at Darky's Mill on Fish 
River, and the march to Spanish Fort and its investment will 
appear elsewhere. The Sth Iowa Infantry was attached to this 
Corps, and its position in front of the fort was to the extreme 
right of the Federal line. The brigade to which the regiment 
was attached, was commanded by Colonel Geddes, and the 
divi-iun by General E. A. Carr. 

Of Spanish Fort, which is situated on Blakely River, and 
nearly east from Mobile, one who was on the ground writes 
thus: 

"At Spanish Fort, there were several lines of inferior rifle- 
pits for skirmishers, outside the principal works. A formida- 
ble ditch added to the strength of the position ; the most 
elaborately constructed abattis presented its sharp points to an 
enemy; a line of ehevaux de frize intervened between the 
ditch and the abattis ; the trees were felled and laced together 
for an area of many acres around, and the ground everywhere 
was pretty thickly sown with torpedoes. Artillery, of all 
kinds and calibres, bristled along the walls, and three thou- 
sand men with muskets held the interior of the fort." 



192 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Spanish Fort was crescent-shaped in form, its right and left 
defenses swinging back to near the river. Just at the northern 
extremity of these defenses, a dee]) ravine puts down to the 
river, dividing the high bluff along its eastern bank. On the 
north-eastern side of this ravine Mas the brigade of Colonel 
Geddes in position, and, on the opposite one, the northern 
extremity of Spanish Fort. At the mouth of the ravine was 
low bottom-land, not long since covered with dense and 
heavy timber; but this had all been felled, to enable the rebel 
gun-boats to sweep it from the river. This was the point 
selected from which to carry Spanish Fort. 

In speaking of the charge of the 8th Iowa, which led the 
advance, the same correspondent goes on to say : 

"For nearly an hour and a half the bombardment continued, 
before Colonel Geddes judged it expedient to move; and the 
sun was just sinking below the western horizon when the 
signal to advance was given. Instantly the men of the 8th 
Iowa sprang to their feet, and the company of skirmishers, 
followed by the entire regiment, threw themselves among the 
fallen and matted timbers in the swanip, and urged their way, 
as rapidly as possible, across the mouth of the ravine. A loud 
shout from the rest of the division, as if the whole were about 
to charge, distracted the attention of the enemy, while the bold 
advance of the Bth Iowa seemed to strike him with dismay. 
Such of his men as were posted behind the log breast-work, 
[that which extended from the bluff down across the low 
ground to the river] fired a scattering, hesitating volley, and 
ran for their lives. But from the extreme left of the rebel 
rifle-pits, a heavy tire was poured upon our boys, until the 
foremost of them, mounting the bluff, came full upon the rear 
of the enemy. 

"It was just here that Lieutenant Vineyard, the gallant 
leader of Company G, fell dangerously wounded. Some of his 
men halted a moment where he lay. ' Pay no attention to me,' 
he said; 'move on;' and they did move on. The frightened 
rebels .seeing the boys still clambering over the bluff, and not 
knowing What force there might be behind, threw down their 



JAMES LORAIXE GEDDE3. 193 

arras. Throe hundred were made prisoners on the spot. 
Others retreated rapidly toward the centre of the fort, and a 
line of battle was now formed by the enemy to check the fur- 
ther advance of our troops into the fortress. For more than 
three hundred yards, the brave Sth fought its way toward the 
enemy's centre; but it was now dark, and, in obedience to 
orders which they had received, the victorious Ilawkeyes 
halted, and hastily constructed a line of rifle-pits." 

At about eleven o'clock at night, it was learned that the 
enemy were evacuating, when, nearly an hour later, the whole 
Federal line moved against the fort. There was little resist- 
ance made; for nearly all the enemy had left. Of all the 
prisoners captured, there were less than six hundred; but, 
besides large quantities of ammunition, nearly fifty pieces of 
artillery fell into our hands. The Sth Iowa Infantry should be 
permitted to inscribe on their banner, First at Spanish Fort. 
The troops with whit-la the Sth was brigaded were the Slst, the 
108th and the 124th Illinois. 

Of the scenes inside the fort after its evacuation, the author 
from whom I have quoted goes on to say: 

"For several hours on Monday morning, I wandered about 
over the interior and battlements of the deserted fortress. 
Objects and localities of interest abounded. Here was the 
point where the Sth Iowa effected its entrance; the swamp 
covered with fallen timbers through which it had clambered; 
the huge ravine whose mouth it had passed; the bluff up 
which it had climbed ; the line of rifle-pits which it had thrown 
up after gaining a lodgment. Here lay a huge columbiad, dis- 
mounted during the bombardment on the -1th. One of the 
heavy iron trunnions was knocked olf, and lay beside the gun. 
Down there was the formidable water battery, from which you 
could, with ease, see Mobile ami the entire upper part of the 
bay, witli all of its rivers and shores and indentations. That 
cabin there, was occupied as the quarters of the general com- 
manding this fort, Randall F. Gibson. Surely, it could have 
been no enviable residence; for the trees all around it were 
torn to pieces with shot and shell, and the timbers of several 



194 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

similar cabins in the immediate vicinity had been shivered 
and splintered by the fiery missiles. 

"Other effects of the terrible bombardment to which tin- 
fort had been subjected were plainly and painfully visible. 
Haversacks and clothing crimsoned with blood were scattered 
over the ground. In several places gory streams had run for ;t 
considerable distance along the trenches, and the little pools of 
it, which even the thirsty sands had not yet drank up, were 
standing here and there. At other points the life-blood from 
the bosoms of the rebel soldiery along the lines had spurted 
upon the walls, dying them even a deeper red from the head- 
log to the foot of the rampart. Oh, it was a sickening sight ! 
Gun-carriages shivered to pieces ; hundreds of iron fragments 
of missiles which had burst; solid shot and unexploded shells 
that had been flung from grim-mouthed cannon ; great holes 
in the earth, dug out in an instant by some ponderous projec- 
tile ; immense rents in the earthworks, through which the fiery 
bolts had ploughed their way — all these were every where vis- 
ible. The bombardment of the evening before must have 
indeed possessed every feature calculated to terrify the souls of 
those who lay within the fort. " 

Colonel Geddes is a small, slender man, weighing about one 
hundred and thirty-five pounds. He has thin, sharp features, 
fine, brown hair, and large, hazel eyes. He is active and 
intelligent, and has much general information. As an officer, 
1 am told, he was always held in high esteem by his men. lb- 
has most certainly enjoyed the full confidence of his superiors. 



BRIGADIER-GENERAL WM. VANDEVER. 

FIRST COLONEL, NINTH INFANTRY. 

Of General Vandever's early history I have been able to 
learn but little. I do not even know his native State. I first 
find him at Hock Island, Illinois, where he was employed in a 
news-paper office. Iowa was thcu a Territory. From Rock 
Island, he removed to Dubuque, and entered the Surveyor- 
General's office at that place. Still later, he studied and prac- 
ticed law in Dubuque. In 1858, he was nominated for Congress 
from the Dubuque District, there being, I am told, no stronger 
man of his party, who would accept the nomination, on 
account of the almost certain prospect of defeat. But the 
general made a good canvass; and, to the surprise of all, was 
elected. He was distinguished iu Congress, fur his dignity and 
taciturnity: two traits, which would embellish the records of 
many, who have worn Congressional honors. 

Mr. Vandever was commissioned colonel of the 9th Iowa 
[ 

Infantry, on the 30th of August, 1SG1 ; and in the winter of 

1SG2-3 was made a brigadier-general. As a military man, he 

has gained less distinction than any other public man who has 

entered the service from Iowa. 

The 9th Iowa Infantry was enlisted principally from the' 

counties of Jackson, Dubuque, Buchanan, Jones, Clayton, 

Fayette, Bremer, Blackhawk, Winneshiek, Howard and Linn. 

Its first field of service was Missouri, and its first hard-fought 

battle, Pea Bidge, Arkansas. At Pea Bidge, the regiment was 

commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel, now Major-General Her- 

ron; for Colonel yaridever was in command of the brigade to 

which it was attached. In the march from Bella to Cross 

195 



196 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Hollows, it had several skirmishes with the enemy, but 
suffered, I think, no loss. From Cross Hollows it marched 
with its brigade on on expedition to Huntsville, Arkansas, an 
account of which is thus given by Colonel Yandever : 

"Or the morning of the 4th instant [March 1862] I left Camp 
Halleck, at Cross Hollows, in command of an expedition in 
the direction of Huntsville. The forces consisted of three hun- 
dred and fifty of the 9th Iowa Infantry, one hundred and fifty 
from Colonel Phelps' Missouri Regiment, one battalion from 
the 30th Illinois Cavalry, one section of the Dubuque Battery, 
(light artillery) and one section of Brown's Mountain Howitz- 
ers. We prosecuted the march and arrived at Huntsville at 
noon of the 5th instant, without incident. A portion of the 
enemy's stores was captured at their camp, three miles beyond 
Huntsville, and several prisoners taken. From the prisoners 
I obtained information that the enemy was marching in force 
toward our lines, for the purpose of attack, which information 
I immediately transmitted to head-quarters, and then prepared 
to retrace my steps. 1 moved out of Huntsville, and camped 
three miles distant. At two o'clock in the morning, I received 
your [General Curtis] orders to return and join the main body 
at Su^ur Creek. At three o'clock A. M., I resumed my line of 
march, and, at dusk the same evening, arrived in camp, having 
accomplished a forced march of forty miles in a single day. " 

The next day, the seventh, the severe fighting at Pea Ridge 
opened ; and early in the morning Colonel Vandever marched 
his brigade out in the direction of Elkhorn Tavern. His 
command fought that entire day, on the left of the brigade of 
Colonel Dodge, which, it will be remembered, held the 
extreme right of General Curtis' army. It is stated elsewhere 
that the division of Colonel Carr, to which both Dodge and 
Vandever were attached, did the severest fighting at Pea 
Ridge. In speaking of the conduct of his own regiment in 
this engagement, Colonel Vandever says: 

" Major Coyl of the 9th Iowa acted with distinguished valor, 
until disabled by a severe wound, and compelled, reluctantly, 
to leave the field. Adjutant William Scott also deserves great 



WILLIAM VANDEVER. 197 

praise. Lieutenant Asher Riley, of Company A, my acting 
assistant adjutant-general, deserves particular mention. Upon 
the fall of Captain Drips and Lieutenant Kelsey, both distin- 
guished for their bravery, Lieutenant Riley gallantly took 
command, and remained with the company throughout the 
action. Captain Carpenter and Lieutenant Jones, of Company 
B, also acted with great bravery, leading their company in the 
face of the enemy, and bringing off one of our disabled pieces 
and a caisson. 

" Captain Towner and Lieutenant Neff, of Company F, were 
conspicuous for their bravery. Both of these officers were 
severely wounded, when the command devolved upon Lieut- 
enant Tisdale, who gallantly led the company through the 
remainder of the action. Captain Bull and Lieutenant Rice of 
Company C also deserve particular mention, the latter of 
whom was killed near the close of the day, while the former 
was severely wounded. Captain Bevins of Company E, was 
killed upon the field, and the command devolved upon Lieut- 
enant Baker. He acquitted himself with great credit. Cap- 
tain Washburn and Lieutenants Beebe and Leverich of 
Company G, Lieutenants Crane and MeGee of Company D, 
Captain Moore and Lieutenant McKenzie of Company II, 
Captain Carsakaddon and Lieutenant Claflin of Company K, 
and Lieutenant Fellows, commanding Company I, also Lieut- 
enant Inman, were all conspicuous for bravery, under the 
hottest tire of the enemy. Many instances of special gallantry 
occurred among non-commissioned officers and privates. All 
did their duty well. I should also mention Sergeant -Major 
Foster of the 9th Iowa, and other members of the non- 
commissioned staff, who did their duty nobly." 

After nearly a month's rest in the vicinity of the battle- 
ground, Colonel Vandever joined in the march of General 
Curtis across the Ozark Mountains to Batesville. While at 
Batesville, General Steele joined Curtis with a division from 
Pilot Knob ; but here, also, the general lost the commands of 
Davis and Asboth, which were summoned by Halleck to 
Corinth. Early in June, the Army of the South West was 
re-orgnnized into three divisions, commanded by Steele, Carr 



19S IOWA COLONELS AXD REGIMENTS. 

and Osterhaiis. Colonel Vandever remained in Carr's Divi- 
siou, and retained the command of his brigade. The hardships 
of Curtis' march from Batesville to Helena, which was made 
in mid-summer, have already been enumerated; but not the 
different points at which the enemy were met: they were 
Searcy Landing, Sillamore, Waddell's Farm, Jeffries' Mills, 
Cashe River Bridge, Stuart's Plantation, Pickett's Farm, 
Grand Glaize and Pound Hill. The last was of the most 
importance: less than six hundred defeated two thousand 
Texan Rangers, inflicting on them a loss of more than two 
hundred. 

Colonel Vandever remained at Helena for several mouths, 
when, being appointed a brigadier-general, he was ordered to 
report to General Curtis at St. Louis, and given a command in 
Central Missouri. In the early part of April, 1SG3, he com- 
manded the cavalry force, which, leaving Lake Spring's, Mis- 
souri, marched against Marmadukc, and drove him from the 
State. It was this command that, at mid-night of the 2Gth of 
April, charged the enemy's camp on the Dallas road, near 
Jackson, routing the enemy, and afterwards pursuing them to 
St. Francis River. 

General Vandever accompanied General Herron to Vicks- 
burg, in command of one of his brigades; and, after the fall of 
the city, sailed with him up the Yazoo River to Yazoo City. 
For Ins services on this expedition, he was thus complimented 
by General Herron : 

" I desire to return my thanks to Brigadier-Generals Vande- 
ver and Orme, my brigade commanders, for their unceasing 
efforts to carry out all my plans, and aid in the success of the 
expedition." 

Since that time, and up to the spring of ISG-i, General Van- 
dever served in the Department of the Gulf, but during the 
march on Atlanta he was ordered to report to General Sherman 



WILLIAM VAXDEVER. 199 

by whom he was assigned a district command with head-quar- 
ters at Rome, Georgia. lie retained this command till after 
the fall of Atlanta, when he was ordered to Louisville, and 
assigned to duty on a court-martial. After the fall of Savan- 
nah he reported to General Sherman at that city, and was 
assigned to the command of a brigade in the 11th Corps which 
he commanded till the arrival of tbc Army of the Tennessee 
at Washington, when he was assigned to the command of the 
2d Division of said corps. This command he accompanied to 
Louisville. 

During the march from Fayetteville, North Carolina, to 
Goldsboro, General Vandever distinguished himself. The his- 
tory of the march is as follows: 

Crossing Cape Fear River, opposite Fayetteville, on the loth 
of March, General Sherman "ordered Kilpatrick to move up 
the plank road to and beyond Averysboro. lie was to be 
followed by four divisions of the left wing, [the 14th and 20th 
Corps] with as few wagons as possible; the rest of the train, 
under escort of the two remaining divisions of that wing, to 
take a shorter and more direct road to Goldsboro. In like 
manner, General Howard [commanding 15th and 17th Corps] 
was ordered to send his trains, under good escort, well to 
the right toward Faison's Depot and Goldsboro, and to hold 
four divisions light, ready to go to the aid of the left wing, 
if attacked while in motion. The weather continued very bad, 
and the roads had become a mere quag-mire. Almost every 
foot of it had to be corduroyed to admit the passage of wheels." 

Prosecuting this line of march, the left wing fought the bat- 
tle of Averysboro, and then turned east in the direction of 
Goldsboro; for Hardee had fled, "in a miserable, stormy night, 
over the worst of roads," in the direction of Smithfield. The 
feint on Raleigh did not deceive Johnson, and Sherman, con- 
trary to his expectations, had to fight the old rebel before 



200 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

reaching Goldsboro. While the left wing was on the march 
through the marshy, timbered bottoms that lie near Benton- 
ville, Johnson, hurrying down from Smithfield, threw himself 
on the front and left flank of Jefferson C. Davis' Corps, which 
was in the advance. Disaster threatened to overwhelm the 
leading division, and indeed the whole left wing, and Sherman 
became anxious; but the great courage and endurance of the 
troops held the enemy at bay till the right wing was brought 
up. Then, with their left flank and rear threatened, the 
the enemy retired, and Sherman entered Goldsboro. In this 
engagement General Vaudever distinguished himself. 

Mr. J. Thompson, a member of the 1st Iowa Cavalry, who 
served for several months under General Vandever, writes 
thus of him: 

"General Vandever is a man of medium hight, dark hair 
and wiry constitution. There is nothing remarkable in his 
features or organization, to impress one with the belief that 
there is any true greatness about him, either as a man or a 
general. He lacks both the will and the energy, but more, the 
ability of a successful leader. The history of his military lite 
is a history of the man — tame and unromantic, exhibiting 
nothing striking or remarkable — never sinking below, nor yet 
rising above his chosen level. Such he is as a general, and 
such would be your opinion of him were you to see him." 

From what 1 have been able to learn of General Vandever, I 
am persuaded Mr. Thompson does him hardly justice. Though 
in no respect brilliant, yet he is a man of good judgment and 
of great perseverance, lie is not of a social, communicative 
nature. He minds his own business, and this, I believe, has 
been to his disadvantage in the army ; for rapid promotion has 
depended not less upon hard bcyying, than upon hard working, 
especially if the officer in question holds a subordinate posi- 
tion. Can one in any other way account for so many worthless 
field and general officers? 



MAJOR-GENERAL FRANCIS J. HEREON. 

LIEUTEXANT-COLOXEE, NINTH INFANTRY. 

Francis J. Hebron is Iowa's youngest major-general, and 
the second one of that rank appointed from the State. His 
ancestry are ancient and honorable, and, on the paternal side, 
are familiarly known as "Herron's Branch," who, settling in 
Eastern Pennsylvania in the early history of that State, were 
ever classed among her most intelligent and well-to-do yeo- 
manry. On the maternal side of the house, he is descended 
from one of the oldest families of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 
who settled in that city when it was a mere village, and who 
have maintained an honorable position in the community to 
the present day. The general's uncle, the late James Ander- 
son, ranked with the most benevolent and wealthy citizens of 
Pittsburg. 

The subject of our sketch is a son of the late Colonel John 
Herron, and a native of Pittsburg, where he was born on the 
17th day of February, 1837. Tie was educated at the Western 
University, in Pittsburg, which was then, and is still, under 
the superintendence of Professor J. M. Smith, a brother-in-law 
of the general. Leaving this University at sixteen, he was 
soon after appointed to a clerkship in a Pittsburg banking- 
house, and, in 1S54, became a partner in the banking firm of 
" Herron & Brothers." In 1855, he removed to Iowa, and, in 
connection with one of his brothers, opened a banking-house 
in the city of Dubuque. Dubuque is his present home. 

General Herron began his brilliant military career as cap- 
tain of Company 1, 1st Iowa Infantry. He served with his 
regiment in Missouri till the expiration of its term of service, 

201 



202 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

and with it took part in the memorable battle of Wilson's 
Creek. Returning home in the latter part of August, he was, 
on the tenth of the following September, commissioned lieut- 
enant-colonel of the 9th Iowa Infantry. For gallantry at the 
battle of Pea Ridge, (March 6th, 7th and 8th, 1862, where he 
was wounded and taken prisoner) he was made a brigadier- 
general, and, for his courage and superior military skill at the 
battle of Prairie Grove, December 7th, 18G2, was promoted to 
his present rank. The battle of Prairie Grove is one of the 
most brilliant of the war — perhaps the most brilliant, when we 
consider the disparity in numbers of the forces engaged; and 
it was by no means barren in results; for a well-organized and 
confident army was overwhelmed in defeat, from the effects of 
which it never recovered. 

In the organization of the Army of the Frontier, under 
General Schofield, of date the loth of October, 1862, General 
llerron was put in command of the 3d Division. The 1st and 
2d Divisions were commanded by Generals Blunt and Totten 
respectively. For three weeks previous to the 1st of December, 
1SG2 and longer, the Army of the Frontier had been watching 
the enemy, who hud below, and in the vicinity of the old Pea 
Ridge battle-fieM, a large and well-organized army, under 
command of the rebel Major-Gcneral Thomas C. Ilindman. 

On the first of December, General Blunt, who had been hold- 
ing his division on Prairie Creek, near Bentonvillej moved 
against a detachment of the enemy, and, driving it from Cane 
Hill, held the position. This was no sooner done, however, 
than the enemy threatened him in heavy force, and compelled 
him to send to General Schofield for reinforcements. General 
Blunt's messenger, arriving at head-quarters near "Wilson's 
Creek on the evening of the 3d of December, found General 
Schofield absent, and General llerron in command. "General 
Blunt must have reinforcements or lose his entire command:" 



FRANCIS J. HERRON. Zltt 

and there was no other alternative; but General Herron, 
under instructions, could afford no relief. The expedient 
which he adopted was worthy of him, and will redound to his 
infinite credit. Dispatching a messenger to General Sehofield, 
but without awaiting or expecting a reply, he broke camp and 
marched to the rescue. 

At day-light on Sunday morning, the seventh of December, 
his command passed through Fayetteville, Arkansas, and 
halted for breakfast one mile beyond; but before the meal was 
completed, members of the 1st Arkansas Cavalry, which com- 
posed a portion of the advance-guard, came hurrying back 
with word that llindman's cavalry was upon them. The 
merest incident often controls momentous issues, and so it 
happened here. Major Hubbard, a gallant, positive fellow, 
and an officer of General Herron's staff, being in command of 
the advance-guard, was captured and taken before the rebel 
general. "Plow much of a force has General Herron?" 
demanded Hindman. "Enough," replied the major, "to 
annihilate you;" and this answer, with Uerron's determined 
fighting and superior generalship, saved to our arms the battle 
of Prairie Grove; for Hindman, with his twenty thousand, 
dared not move out against the handful of men in his front, 
(net four thousand all told) for fear of being annihilated by an 
overwhelming reserve, marshaled, in his imagination, in the 
heavy timber to our rear. Is or did he learn his mistake till 
late in the afternoon, and just before the guns of General Blunt 
began thundering on his left and rear. 

Having completed their hasty meal, Herron's troops resumed 
the march and pushed vigorously on, till arriving at Illinois 
Creek, about ten miles distant from Fayetteville. There the 
enemy were met in force. They were on the south-west Bide 
of the creek, and strongly posted on the high ground, which, 
on either side, looks down into the valley through which the 



204 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

road to Cane Hill passes. The situation was no sooner learned 
than .Herron had formed his decision. He must bluff his 
adversary, or lose his command; and this was the plan on 
which the engagement was fought, which, to General Hind- 
man, was a confirmation of Major Hubbard's report. General 
Herron first endeavored to push Battery E, 4th Missouri Light 
Artillery, and the 9th Illinois Infantry across the ford in his 
front; but that was so accurately covered with the guns of the 
enemy as to make it impossible. The detachment was driven 
back in some confusion. Next, he ordered Colonel Houston to 
cut a road through the timber to the right, and, having gained 
the opposite side with Captain Murphy's Battery, to open on 
the enemy and divert their attention, while he, with s the bal- 
ance of his command, pushed across the ford and gained a 
position in front of the enemy. The movement was successful. 
A further account of this battle will be found in the sketch of 
Colonel W. McE. Dye, of the 20th Iowa. I will only add here, 
that Hindxnan was defeated, and Herron made a major-gen- 
eral. 

It will be interesting to know the names of the troops who 
earned General Herron this promotion. They were the 9th, 
37th, and 94th Illinois, the 19th and 20th Iowa, the 26th Indi- 
ana, and the 20th Wisconsin Infantry regiments, together 
with four Missouri batteries, commanded by Captains Murphy, 
Faust and Baikof, and Lieutenant Borries. The 6th, 7th, and 
8th Missouri Cavalry, the 1st Iowa and 10th Illinois, and 
the 1st Battalion of the 2d Wisconsin Cavalry, were all sent 
forward to General Blunt from Elkhom, and remained with 
his command till the close of the engagement. 

General Herron remained with his command, operating in 
Missouri and Arkansas, till late in the following May, when 
he was summoned toVicksburg to take part in the reduction 
of that place. Immediately after the fall of the city, he made 



FRANCIS J. IIERRON. 20o 

his expedition up the Yazoo Paver, after -which, he embarked 
his command on transports, and sailed for Port Hudson and 
thence for Carrollton, Louisiana ; where he arrived on the loth 
of August. Subsequently to that date, the general has served 
principally in the Gulf Department; but the operations in 
which ho took part will appear in the sketches of other officers. 
General Herron's Division was attached to Orel's Corps. By 
that general he was held in the highest esteem, as is shown by 
General Order Number 39, dated, " Head-quarters 13th Army 
Corps, Carrollton, Louisiana, September, 2.3th, 1S63." 

During the winter of 18C3-4 and for some time after, General 
Herron, while serving in Texas, made his head-quarters at 
Brownsville. It will be remembered that it was during this 
time the forces of M. Ruiz, Governor of Tamaulipas, and those 
of Colonel Cortinas, came in collision in Matamoras. L. 
Pierce, U. S. Consul stationed in that city, became alarmed, 
and sent to General Herron for protection. Colonel Bertram 
of the 20th Wisconsin was at once sent across the river with a 
portion of his regiment, with which he conducted the Consul 
and his property and papers within the Federal lines. Had I 
the space, a further history of this affair would be interesting. 

General Herron's ventilation of the Department of Arkan- 
sas has more recently made his name quite distinguished. 
This was a most thankless mission, and he was charged by 
some with being partial; but that is not strange. Indeed, we 
are not to suppose the exposer would be more popular with the 
guilty parties than the expose. The result of his investigations 
was published in nearly all the leading papers of the country, 
and convinced all honest men that, the Department of 
Arkansas had been the theatre of most outrageous abuses. 

General Herron has a neat, well-formed person, and dresses 
with much taste. In appearance he is intelligent, and in 
manners agreeable. He has, I am told, some vanity. His 



206 IOWA COLONELS AXD REGIMENTS. 

marked traits of character are three. He is always calm and 
composed, no matter how great the danger, or how wild the 
excitement. At Prairie Grove he led the advance over the 
ford of Illinois Creek, and, under the rapid and accurate fire of 
the enemy, was in imminent peril; but he was perfectly calm, 
and apparently insensible of danger. 

Another marked trait of his character is his taciturnity; and 
yet, if he talks but little, there is nothing about him 
sullen or morose. His voice, which is clear and kind, has a 
sort of charm about it that evidences a warm heart and gene- 
rous nature. He was always popular with the soldiers of his 
command. 

His third and most distinguishing trait — that which more 
than all others has contributed to make him what he is — is a 
self-reliant spirit. This, from his early youth, was always 
noticeable, and was the cause of his leaving the Western Uni- 
versity before mastering the full course of study. It was a 
matter of no consequence to him that his father and his friends 
were opposed to this course. He bdlevcd he knew enough to 
make his way in the world, and, because he thought so, all 
remonstranres were unavailing. 

Frank J. Herron was promoted to the rank of brigadier- 
general from that of lieutenant-colonel. He is the only officer 
from the State who has been thus complimented by the War 
Department, 



COLONEL DAVID CARSAKADDON. 

SECOND COLONEL, NINTH INFANTRY. 

Of Colonel Cabsakaddon I have been able to learn still less 
than of General Vandever. He is a native of Pennsylvania, 
which is all that I know of his earlier history. He settled in 
Iowa after the year 1850, and at the time of entering the army 
was the proprietor of a livery-stable. He recruited Company 
K, 9th Iowa Infantry, in the summer of 1861, and was mus- 
tered its captain the 21th of September following. On the 
promotion of Colonel Vandever to a general officer, lie was 
made colonel of his regiment. 

The history of the 0th Iowa, while under the command of 
Colonel Carsakacldon, need not be given in detail, for it is 
essentially the same as are tho-^e of the 4th, 25th, 26th, 30th 
and 31st Iowa regiments. Its loss during the Vicksburg Cam- 
paign was about one hundred and forty. In the charge of the 
22d of May, 18G3, it was in the front, and suffered severely. 
Among the killed in this charge were Captain P. M. Kelsey of 
Company A, and Lieutenants Jacob Jones and Edward Tyrrell. 
Captain T. S. Washburn and Lieutenant E. C. Little were both 
wounded. The former commanded the regiment in the charge. 
He was a gallant officer, and died of his wounds soon after 
reaching his home in Iowa. Lieutenant John Sutherland of 
Company D, was also wounded in the charge of the 22d, and 
Sergeant, afterwards Major, lnman. 

The following incident is deserving of mention: Sergeant 
J. M. Elson, the color-bearer, was shot through both thighs, 
while endeavoring to scale the outer slope of the enemy's 
defenses. The flag fell forward on the enemy's works, where 

207 



SOS IOWA COLOXELS AXD REGIMENTS. 

it lay till it was siezed by Lieutenant and Adjutant George 
Granger. Tearing it from the staff, lie put it in his bosom and 
brought it from the field. While on the march from Memphis 
to Chattanooga, the regiment lost three men in the affair at 
Cherokee Station. Its loss on Lookout Mountain was one man 
wounded, and at Mission Ridge, seven. In the affair at Ring- 
gold it lost three men killed, and eleven wounded. 

Daring the winter of 1SG3-4, the 9th Iowa was stationed near 
Woodville, Alabama, and, in the following spring, marched 
with its brigade and division to the front. It participated in 
the entire Atlanta Campaign, but most distinguished itself on 
the 22d of July, 18G4, before the city. An account of general 
movements on these two memorable days may be given with 
interest. We begin with the 21st instant; for the advance to 
and beyond Decatur has been already given. 

The 21st day of July closed with the enemy in their line of 
works, just beyond Decatur, and from which Sherman had 
tried unsuccessfully to force them : it closed with a vigorous 
fire of mu-ketry along the whole line, and with the prospect 
that the enemy would not abandon their position till forced to 
do so. The night following was a magnificent one: the firing 
ceased late in the evening, and, not lung after, the moon rose 
in all its splendor, lighting up dimly the scene of the recent 
conflict. Before mid-night, every thing was quiet, with the 
exception of an incessant rattling of wagon-trains and artil- 
lery, away off to the left and front. The sentinels said to each 
other, that Hood was evacuating Atlanta; and they were 
happy in the thought that they were to possess the Gate City 
without further blood-shed; hut they were doomed to wretched 
disappointment. 

When morning broke, no enemy were in view. They had 
abandoned their long line of work-- extending from the right 



DAVID CARS AH AD DUX. 209 

of General Thomas to near the left of General MePherson ; and 
where, on the 21st instant, they had brought General Sherman 
at bay. An advance was, of course, at once ordered. The line 
of march of the Army of the Tennessee was nearly due west, 
and along and parallel with the Decatur road. Before the 
advance was made, the 16th Corps held the right, and joined 
the 2:3d ; the loth Corps the centre ; and the 17th the left. After 
the movement was made, and the Army of the Tennessee dis- 
posed in line, the loth Corps covered the Atlanta and Decatur 
Railroad, leaving the 17th Corps still at its left, and south-east 
of Atlanta. But the lines were shortened so as to crowd the 
16th Corps out ; and at the time the enemy made their assault, 
it was in reserve, in rear of the 15th and 17th Corps. This, as 
subsequent events proved, was most fortunate. 

The enemy had not fled. They were soon discovered in a 
new and strong line of works, not more than a mile and a half 
back from those they had just abandoned, Sherman moved 
up and took position, shortly before twelve o'clock, at noon. 

Di this maneuver of his forces, the rebel Hood showed strat- 
egy. He could count on Sherman's advance in the morning, 
and, having massed a heavy force on bis left, he would strike 
him, just after the advance was begun. There were two obsta- 
cles to his success — the tardiness of his troops in coming into 
position, and the courage and endurance of the 17th Corps. 
But the 9th Iowa was attached to the loth Corps, and was not 
less than four miles north of the Federal left, when the Iowa 
Brigade, commanded by Colonel Hall, received the first attack 
of the enemy. 

As soon as the firing commenced on the left, "Wood's Divis- 
ion, to which the 9th belonged, was put under arms, and rested 
in line. On the left of Wood's Division was Morgan L. 
Smith's. Separating these two commands was a deep and 



210 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

difficult ravine, along the bottom of which ran a small stream. 
The sides of the ravine were covered with brush and fallen 
timber; and the banks of the stream, with thick bramble. In 
front of Smith's right, and near the ravine, was a bald knob, 
on which the enemy had erected a crescent-shaped work, (now 
vacant) to cover the approaches from the east. West of this 
work and in the direction of Atlanta, the ground was descend- 
ing, and heavily timbered. In front of "Wood's right was the 
Howard House, where Sherman was making his head-quarters, 
and where the body of the gallant and lamented McPherson 
was brought, soon after he was killed. I should further state 
that, the position of Wood's and Smith's commands was along 
the line of works the enemy had abandoned the, previous 
night : portions of these had already been reversed. 

The attack of the enemy broke with great fury on the left. 
The deep and prolonged roar of musketry, broken, occasion- 
ally, by the booming of artillery, seemed constantly approach- 
ing and increasing. Soon there were other evidences of the 
enemy's success. Aids, with despair in their faces, hurried 
to and from Sherman's head-cmarters ; and the general 
himself grew anxious and nervous. General officers were 
sent for, or reported without orders; and among them 
were Thomas, Howard, and Logan. General McPherson had 
already been killed in rear of the 17th Corps, and news of the 
calamity brought to Sherman. The ambulance bearing his 
dead body was then approaching the Howard House. 

All this had been witnessed by the right wing of Wood's 
Division, when its attention was suddenly drawn in the oppo- 
site direction. Morgan L. Smith was being attacked by the 
enemy, and not only the smoke of the battle could be seen, 
but the shouts of the combatants distinctly heard. Smith's 
command stood firmly for only a few moments, and then broke 
in confusion, the enemy occupying their works. But these 



DAVID CAttSAKADDON. 211 

successes were only temporary ; and yet, at that instant, with 
its left wing forced back and its centre broken, it looked as 
though the Array of the Tennessee was overwhelmed with 
disaster. In this gallant charge, the enemy captured several 
prisoners, besides Be Grass' Battery of twenty-pounder Tar- 
rots. This affair took place in plain view of Sherman's head- 
quarters; and, if I am rightly informed, the general was 
himself a witness to it. Wood threw back the left wing of his 
division promptly, so as to confront the advancing enemy. 
Colonel, now General, J. A. Williamson commanded the 
right brigade, the extreme right of which was the pivot on 
which the line turned. Sherman was still present and, after 
the new line was formed, said, "that battery must be re-cap- 
tured." Wood accordingly selected the 2d Brigade, only three 
regiments of which were present — the 4th, 9th and 25th Iowa: 
the 31st Iowa was detached, and at lioswell, doing guard- and 
picket-duty. Between Colonel Williamson and the euemy 
was the ravine of which I have spoken; for the enemy held 
the works just before occupied by Smith. With the 4th on the 
right, the 9th on the left, and the 25th in reserve, Colonel 
William.-on entered the ravine, and, after having with much 
difficulty worked his way to the opposite slope, .-hot out on the 
enemy's flauk with such impetuosity as to give them Little 
time for resistance. The Uh and 9th Iowa re-captured Dc 
Grass'' Battery^ a?ul turned it again on the foe, A portion of 
the ICth Corps now came up, and claimed a share of the honor; 
but it was awarded by both Generals Sherman and Wood to 
the 2d Brigade, 1st Division, loth Army Corps. 

For the part taken by these troops, during the balance of 
this engagement, I refer to the report of Colonel Williamson: 

"leaving the pth Iowa in the works, I sent the 4th to the 
right, to occupy a rebel battery which commanded the head of 
a ravine, leading to our line in the only place where there was 



212 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

not a breast- work. The regiment had not more than formed 
when it was assaulted by a brigade of rebel infantry, under 
command of Colonel Backer, and a very stubborn fight ensued; 
but the regiment held its position, and finally repulsed the 
assaults, inflicting great loss on the rebels in killed, wounded, 
and prisoners. 

"The 37th Alabama (rebel) was, according to the statements 
made by prisoners, nearly annihilated in this engagement. 
After the last assault made by the rebels was repulsed, the 
command went to work changing the rebel works and con- 
structing new ones, completing them against day-light. I now 
received orders to move to the left of the lGth Corps, some two 
or three miles to the left of our position." 

In the movement of the 27th instant from the east to the 
west side of Atlanta, the 9th Iowa with its brigade was given 
the post of honor: it covered the rear of its division, in the 
line of march. Marching all that day and until about ten 
o'clock at night, it rested on its arms till day-light of the 
28th, and then, in line of battle, moved forward to its new 
position in line. The loss of the 9th Iowa and its brigade 
in this day's fighting was slight, the enemy making their 
desperate assaults on the forces to its right. Among the 
wounded was Colonel Carsakaddon. He was struck by a 
musket-shot in the forehead, receiving a wound very simi- 
lar to that received by General Dodge a few days after. 
Only a portion of Colonel Williamson's Brigade was engaged 
in the battle of the 28th. This brigade was relieved on the 
3d instant, and placed in reserve, the 9th Iowa being sent to 
picket the extreme right. On the 13th of August, having 
re-joined its brigade, the regiment took part in assaulting the 
enemy's skirmish line, which resulted in capturing the entire 
force in the pits. 

In the march to Jonosboro, which closed the memorable 
campaign, the 9th Iowa took part. It reached the Montgom- 
ery Railroad in the forenoon of the 28th of August, where it 



DAVID CAESAKADDOX. 213 

remained with its brigade one day, destroying the road, and 
then marched to within one mile north of Jonesboro. While 
lying before Jonesboro on the 31st instant, the enemy made a 
desperate assault on the 1st Division; and the part which a 
portion of the 9th took in repelling this assault is thus given 
by the brigade commander: 

"During the assault, four companies of the 9th Iowa, under 
Captain McSweeny, went forward and took a position in an 
interval between the right of the 4th Division and the left of 
the 3d Brigade, where there were no intrenchments, and, while 
the battle continued, succeeded in throwing up temporary 
works, which enabled them to hold the position." 

The loss of the 2d Brigade in the Atlanta Campaign (and the 
4th and 9th Iowa suffered the most severely) was two hundred 
and eighty. 

An account of the march from Atlanta to Savannah, and 
thence, through the swamps of South Carolina to Goldsboro 
and Raleigh, will be found in the sketch of Colonel William 
Smyth, 31st Iowa. After the fall of Atlanta, the 30th Iowa 
was attached to the loth Corps' Iowa Brigade, and the brigade 
itself changed from the 2d to the 3d. On the march from 
Savannah to Goldsboro, the brigade was commanded by Colo- 
mi George A. Stone of the 2-'>th Iowa, and met the enemy at 
three different points on the line of march. Of the part taken 
by the 4th and 9th Iowa on the Little Congaree Creek, near 
Columbia, South Carolina, Colonel Stone says: 

"1 was ordered to form in two lines of battle, two regiments 
front, and the other regiment (the 4th Iowa) to cover the front 
as skirmishers, and to move forward to effect a crossing of the 
Little Congaree Creek, if possible. Immediately in front of the 
4th Iowa was a swamp about waist-deep, and some three hun- 
dred yards wide. The regiment did not falter at this obstacle, 
but gallantly plunged in, led by its commanding officer, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Nichols. We were now about five hundred 
yards above the position held by the rebels on Little Congaree 
Creek; but a branch of that same stream intervened between 



214 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

us and the creek itself. It was discovered our position flanked 
an out-post of the enemy on the same side, of the stream we 
were on, and three companies of the 4th Iowa and four compa- 
nies of the 9th Iowa were ordered to attack this out-post. 
Major Anderson of the 4th Iowa commanded the skirmishers 
making the attack, and Captain Bowman of the 9th com- 
manded the reserve. The attack was made with great vigor, 
and was entirely successful. The enemy could not withstand 
the impetuosity of the skirmishers, and broke, after a few 
minutes' fighting, to the opposite side of the creek. I now 
ordered my command forward to the branch of the Little Con- 
ga roe, separating us from the main creek, and with the 4th 
Iowa went about three-fourths of a mile up the creek, to a 
point beyond the enemy's right flank, and in their rear. Here 
I ordered the 4th Iowa to cros> on a log as quickly as possible, 
intending, as soon as that regiment had crossed, to support it 
with two others, and attack the enemy from the rear.?' 

But the movement was discovered, and the enemy retired. 

On the march through the Carolinas, the 9th Iowa was com- 
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Abernethy, a most excellent 
officer. lie is a brother of the late Lieutenant-Colonel John 
Abernethy of the 3d Iowa, who was killed on the 22d of July, 
before Atlanta. Both entered the service as first sergeants, and 
rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. 

After Colon.'! Catsakaddon was wounded on the 28th of July, 
he received leave of absence and came North. He did not 
re-join his regiment till after its arrival at Savannah, Georgia, 
and, before it left that point on its final campaign, he tendered 
his resignation. 

The colonel is a short, stocky man, with black hair and 
eyes, and has the appearance of much energy and determi- 
nation. I am told he is a good sample of a Western man — 
unpretending and practical, but rather illiterate. He was a 
brave man, and a gallant officer ; and there are few of his old 
regiment, who do not cut. ".-tain, for him the greatest good-will 
and affection. 



COLONEL NICHOLAS PERCZEL. 

FIRST COLONEL, TEXTH IXFAXTKY. 

Nicholas Perczel is a native of Hungary, where he was 
born in the year 1813. He has a military education, and passed 
a number of years in active service, before coming to this 
country. For several years, he has been a resident of Daven- 
port, Iowa, where he has been engaged in the business of 
merchant and trader. He was made colonel of the 10th Iowa 
Infantry, on the 1st day of September, 1861, and held that 
position till the 1st of November, 1SG2, when he resigned his 
commission. 

Authority to recruit the 10th Iowa Infantry was granted by 
the War Department to J. C. Bennett, in July, 1861. Mr. 
Bennett was afterword major of the regiment. He, aided by 
F. M. 3Iills, Esq., of Des Moines, a brother of the late Colonel 
Mills of the 2d Iowa, had nearly completed the regiment's 
enlistment, when it was ordered to rendezvous at Iowa City. 
The manner in which the regiment was officered created con- 
siderable dissatisfaction; but this will not be matter of interest, 
either to the old members of the regiment, or to the public. 

ColonelTerczel first served with the 10th Iowa in Missouri. 
He was engaged in the skirmish near Charleston, on the morn- 
ing of the 6th of January, 1802, his loss being eight killed, and 
sixteen wounded. These were the first men the 10th Iowa lost 
in battle. The colonel was also present at the capture of New 
Madrid, and Island No. 10; and with his regiment formed a 
part of the force winch, at Tiptonville, captured five thousand 
of the enemy, After operations were completed in this direc- 
tion, the 10th Iowa sailed with the command of General Pope 

215 



216 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

to Hamburg Landing, on the Tennessee, and served with that 
general during the siege of Corinth, on the left of the besieging 
army. 

Colonel Perczel commanded a brigade before Corinth, two 
regiments of which were his own and the 17th Iowa; and 
during the siege of that city was engaged in two important 
reeonnoissances and skirmishes. The first of these was made 
on the afternoon of the 26th of May, with a force consisting of 
the 10th Iowa, and four pieces of artillery. With the enemy, 
this skirmish assumed the importance of an engagement ; for, 
saying nothing of his wounded, he admitted a loss of one 
hundred and twenty-five in killed. The 10th Iowa, the only 
troops on our side that suffered loss, had only eight men 
wounded. The looses were so disproportionate as to give the 
above statement an air of improbability ; but its truth is well 
vouched for. 

On the morning of the 28th of May, two days later, the 17th 
Iowa and the loth Missouri of the same brigade had a skirmish 
with the enemy, in which the looses were nearly as dispropor- 
tionate. These troops were sent out under the immediate 
command of Colonel Holmes of the 10th Missouri; and mov- 
ing against the enemy's extreme right, which was held by the 
commands of Price and Van Dora, came within musket-range 
of the two strong forts on the hills to the south of the Memphis 
and Charleston Railroad. The enemy supposed they were 
being attacked in force, and came swarming out of their works 
and down the steep hills to oppose the advance; while their 
pickets, skirmishers and reserves, hurried with greater haste 
in the opposite direction. Corinth was evacuated that night, 
and, on passing over the ground the next morning, where the 
skirmish took place, ninety-three new graves were counted. 
The Union loss in this encounter was about thirty in killed and 
wounded. 



NICHOLAS PEECZEL. 217 

On the fall of Corinth and the hasty retreat of the enemy, 
the division of General Schuyler Hamilton, to which Colonel 
Perczel's Brigade was attached, followed in pursuit, and 
marched as far south as Boonville, on the Mobile and Ohio 
Railroad. The l-oute from Corinth lay through the heavily- 
timbered swamps, which form the head-waters of the Tombig- 
bee River, and which would be, at any season of the year, 
difficult of passage to a large army with baggage-trains and 
artillery. There was but little fighting; but, one day of the 
march it rained incessantly, which rendered the corduroy 
roads almost impassable. Add to this the fact that the army 
had for a long time been lying before Corinth inactive, and the 
hardships and fatigue of the march can be imagined. One 
scene on the road, at a point some six miles north of Boon- 
ville, will never be forgotten by those troops who, on the night 
of the 2d of June, ascended from the swamps to the up-Iands, 
near mid-night. On an open, even, but gradually-sloping field, 
containing not less than two thousand acres, and facing the 
Corinth road to the north-east, just in front of where it rises 
from the bottom-lands and turns to the left, were encamped 
nearly two entire divisions. The previous afternoon had been 
rainy, and the soldiers, cold and wet, had built large and bril- 
liant camp-fires throughout their entire encampment. The 
sky was still hung with dark, heavy clouds, which, as viewed 
from the point in the road above mentioned, formed the back- 
ground of this magnificent scenery — the grandest I ever 
witnessed. It was literally a city of fire, and was ample com- 
pensation for the slippery, hazardous, mid-night-march over 
the never-to-be-forgotten one-mile-of corduroy. 

Pursuit was made to a few miles south of Boonville; but the 
enemy, with the exception of some hundreds of stragglers and 
deserters, hud made good his escape with his shattered legions. 
To pursue further would so extend the line of communications 



218 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

as to imperil a safe return ; and a "right about " was therefore 
ordered to Corinth. Returning to the vicinity of Corinth, the 
the 10th Iowa went into camp at Clear Springs, a place three 
and a half miles south of Corinth, and so called from the 
beautiful, translucent springs which gush out from the foot of 
the hills, on which the camp was" made. The regiment 
remained here and at Jacinto, the county-scat of Tishamingo 
county, and some twenty miles south of Corinth, till the 18th 
of the following September; when, with the balance of Gen- 
eral Roseerans' command, it was ordered out to engage the 
forces of General Trice, then supposed to be intrenching 
themselves near Tuka. In this heedless, blundering fight, the 
10th Iowa held the left of its brigade, and, like the other regi- 
ments of its brigade, suffered severely. 

The pursuit of the enemy in his hasty retreat on the 
morning of the 20ih, and the bloody battle at Corinth on the 
3d and 4lh of the following October, and subsequent pursuit of 
the rebel forces to and beyond the Hatchie, form the next 
chapter in the history of this regiment. With the close of 
these operations also closed the colonelcy of Nicholas Perczel ; 
for, as has already been stated, he resigned his commission on 
the first of the following November. 

He had in (he meantime been recommended for promotion 
to brigadier-general, but for some reason was not appointed by 
the President. 

Among the officers of the 10th Iowa with whom I became 
acquainted early in the regiment's history, were 3Iajor, after- 
wards Lieutenant-Colonel Nathaniel McCalla, Captain Albert 
Stoddard and Lieutenant and Adjutant John Delahoyd; and 
I hope that, in giving their names special mention, I shall do 
no injustice to other officers of the regiment equally deserving. 
I never met -Major MeCalla without thinking of an old Roman 
lieutenant. He is rough in exterior and in manners, and a.- 



NICHOLAS PERCZEL. 219 

gallant and generous as rough. Captain Stoddard is a hand- 
some and most genial fellow, and "was, in the spring and 
summer of 1863, Judge- Advocate of the old 7th Division. In 
the hour of battle, and at the convivial board, he always took 
his place in the front. Lieutenant John Delahoyd was one 
of the most reckless aids and adjutant-generals that ever 
carried a dispatch in the face of the enemy. He distinguished 
himself at Corinth. Having ridden out with the 17th Iowa 
to assign it a position, he put the regiment under a terrific 
fire of grape and canister, and then, directing it to lie clown, 
sat and watched the enemy from his horse. Whenever the 
enemy were about to fire, he would say: "Lay low, Seven- 
teenth." It is a wonder how he escaped being killed. He 
was General Sullivan's adjutant-general, and was one of the 
most popular officers of the brigade. 

Luring the siege of Corinth, (I believe it was on the l!2d of 
May) and while his brigade was encamped near Farmington, 
an incident occurred which the colonel will never forget. That 
morning a company of the 3d Michigan Cavalry, which, like 
all the troops before Corinth, had seen but little service, was 
stationed beyond the picket-line, as vedettes on the extreme 
left. And I should add further that, an attack from this direc- 
tion was being anticipated, and the extreme left wing, by 
reliefs, was engaged in digging rifle-pits, and in cutting the 
timber which Mould form a cover for the approach of the 
enemy, and obstruct the range of the artillery. All was quiet, 
and the work Mas steadily progressing, until about two o'clock 
in the afternoon, when, instantly, a cry of alarm was heard in 
the direction of the enemy, and, turning the eye down the 
road, a cavalry-man was seen coming at the top of his speed, 
standing upright in his saddle, and whirling his drawn sword 
about his head in the wildest manner. In an instant lie had 
passed, shouting in a frantic, broken voice, "Tin.' enemy are 



220 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

coining against the left in force ! The enemy are coming against 
the left in force!" All were instantly under arms, and, with 
breathless determination, stood waiting the approach of the 
enemy. The guns of the Gth Wisconsin Battery, hurriedly 
charged with canister, were turned in the direction of the 
threatened attack, when Colonel Perczel, riding down the road 
and out through a large, open field to the right, suddenly 
saw — that he was sold. The captain of the 3d Michigan Cav- 
alry had been frightened at the approach of one of our own 
scouting parties. Colonel Perczel was chief in command, and 
felt the sell most keenly; but he only said: ""Whare es dat 
eap'n ob de Third (?) Hee-che-gan Cabalry, wat run widout 
firing one gun?" 

Colonel Perczel is about six feet in hight, and both slender 
and erect. He has a lively, gray eye, and, in the service, wore 
a long, heavy, gray beard. Naturally he is excitable, but 
in danger was cool and brave, and was greatly loved by his 
command. He knew his merit as a military man, and was 
chagrined at being placed under the command of officers who 
were not only his inferiors in military knowledge, but who 
would get beastly drunk on duty. To escape this unpleasant 
situation, I am advised, was the chief cause of his leaving the 
service. The general, whom he most despised, died late in 
1862, at Corinth, of mania apotu. 



COLONEL WILLIAM E. SMALL. 

SECOND COLONEL, TENTH INFANTRY. 

"William E. Small, the successor of Nicholas Perczel to 

the colonelcy of the 10th Iowa Infantry, is a native of the State 
of Maine. At the time of entering the service, in September, 
1SC1, he was a resident of Iowa City, and a practicing- lawyer. 
lie was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 10th Iowa 
Infantry, the 10th of September, 1861; and with this rank 
served till the second of November, 1S62, when, Colonel 
Perczel resigning, he was promoted to the colonelcy of the 
regiment. 

During his colonelcy, as also from the time of its organiza- 
tion, the 10th Iowa Infantry has a proud and interesting 
history. From the second of November, 18G2, till after the 
fall of Vicksburg, the time of Colonel Small's discharge, this 
regiment was always at the front; and, if there was any fight- 
ing to he done, like the other Iowa regiments of the 7th Divis- 
ion, 17th Army Corps, the 10th was sure to have part in it. 

Late in November, 18G2, the 10th Iowa joined its division in 
the march of General Grant down the Mobile and Ohio Rail- 
road. Passing through Abbeville and Oxford, it had reached a 
point as far south as the Yockona Diver, when, the line of 
communications being cut, it was ordered to return. On the 
20th of Dwember, it marched with its division from near 
Lumpkin's Mills, Mississippi, to Memphis, having in charge a 
provision-train of six hundred and twenty-five wagons; and 
this was one of the most vexing and fatiguing marches the 
regiment ever made. It was the coldest part of the Southern 
Winter, and the trip was made without baggage, or only such 

221 









' 



222 IOWA C'OEONELS AXD REGIMENTS. 

as the men could carry on their persons. A cold, sleety rain 
was falling almost constantly, and the red, clayey mud, the 
dirtiest and daubiest in the world, was half-knee deep. Hang- 
ing on their flanks and rear was a band of guerrillas, ready to 
pick up the stragglers, and to fire into the train whenever 
occasion offered. Usually, men are merry on the march; but, 
without rest by day or sleep at night, there was little merri- 
ment here. For so short a one, this is regarded the hardest 
march the old 7th Division ever made. 

After this march was completed, the balance of the winter 
of 1RC2-3 the 10th Iowa passed on the Memphis and Charles- 
ton Railroad; but, in the opening Spring, moved down the 
Mississippi to Helena. Trior to the 22d of March following, 
the operations of the division are detailed elsewhere; and the 
history of the division is the same as that of this regiment. 
On the evening of the last named date, the 10th Iowa sailed 
into the mouth of the Yazoo Pass, which opens into the 
Mississippi on its east side, and eight miles below Helena. 
This was a most wonderful expedition, and, had it not been a 
military movement, would have been romantic. For the 
labor and skill employed in opening this pass, and in clearing 
it of obstructions, General Grant was chiefly indebted to Iowa 
troops under General Washburn. For more than a week, the 
2 bli, 28th, and 33d Iowa regiments were kept naif-leg deep in 
mud and water, hauling out the timber, which the enemy had 
felled for purposes of obstruction. 

The object of the Yazoo Pass Expedition was a flank move- 
ment on Yicksburg, but it ended, as it begun, in strategy. This 
was one of the forty-three plans, which General Grant had 
pocketed for the reduction of Yicksburg. The story is as 
follows, but I do not vouch for its truth: A Federal soldier 
was captured on the Deer Creek raid, and taken before a rebel 
officer, when the following colloquy occurred: "What in the 



WILLIAM E. SMALL. 223 

devil is Grant in here for? what does lie expect to do?" "To 
take Vicksburg," was the soldier's reply. " Well, hasn't the 
old fool tried this ditching and flanking five times already?" 
"Yes," said the soldier, "but he has got thirty-seven more 
plans in his pocket." 

From the mouth of this pass to Moon Lake, (so named from 
its crescent shape) the distance is five miles, and was passed 
over without much trouble; but, for forty miles after leaving 
Moon Lake, it was literally a boat-ride in the forest ; for the 
stream was so winding that its course could rarely be seen 
more than forty yards in advance. It seemed to have no 
outlet ; and gigantic trees,- on every hand, challenged an 
advance. Small stern-wheel boats could only be used, and 
even these were found to be unwieldy. The force of the 
current which put in from the swollen waters of the Missis- 
sippi Mas prodigious; and the danger was in going too fast. 
Until the boats reached the Cold Water, their engines had to 
be kept reversed ; and so it happened that this was called by 
the soldiers "the back-water expedition." Even with all the 
care that was used, the boats were stripped of every thing that 
was fancy, and of much that was substantial. Not a smoke- 
stack in the whole fleet was able to weather the storm; and 
whole state-rooms were raked off by projecting limbs, into 
whose ugly embrace the boats would rush, in spite of the 
pilots and engineers ; and, I may add, in spite of from twenty 
to fifty soldiers, aligned on the decks and armed with long 
poles. 

But in spite of all these dangers, the expedition did not lack 
amusement; for instance: a tall, awkward fellow, (he did not 
belong to the 10th) while standing on the hurricane deck of the 
Lady Pike, was watching a large sycamore limb, which a spar 
of tin' boat was pushing aside, lie was wondering if it would 
not break; when just then it slipped by the spar, and, taking 



224 IOWA COLON EES AND REGIMENTS. 

him across the face, knocked him several feet, and came near 
dropping him into the stream. He carried a " stiff upper-lip,'' 
if not a brave heart, till the expedition returned. History 
may, if it will, omit to mention this expedition; for it has 
furnished itself a record that will be read many years hence. 
On the trees, at nearly every bend in this stream, the name of 
some soldier is literally "recorded on high," and nearly every 
regiment in Quimby's and Ross' Divisions is thus represented. 
For nearly every boat of the fleet was caught at some one of 
these bends, and before it could be released the enterprising 
soldiers would carve their names on pieces of broken cracker- 
boxes, and nail these to the limbs. When the expedition 
returned, the water in the pass had fallen many feet, leaving 
these inscriptions high in the air; and there they still hang. 

There was one feature of this expedition, which, though 
interesting, lacked amusement; though it was experienced 
only on the Tallahatchie River and the lower waters of the 
Cold Water. The banks of these streams are covered, mostly, 
with timber and thick under-brush, forming fine places ol 
concealment for guerrillas. We were in the enemy's country 
and, acquainted with their chivalric mode of warfare, were 
looking for it to be put in practice; yet, when the first guerrilla 
gun was fired, it was all unexpected. Standing on the hum- 
cane-deck, you would see in the brush near a fallen log, or the 
trunk of a standing tree, a blue circling pull' of smoke, and then 
hear the pat or .-harp whistle of a bullet. The report of the gun 
would follow, when all hands would dodge. In spite of the 
anticipation of seeing the thing repeated, the men would laugh 
at their folly, and remark, "that shows what a little noise 
will do." 

On the 6th of April, the last of the fleet arrived above Fort 
Pcmberton, at the junction of the Tallahatchie and Yallabusha 
Rivers; and a fight was expected the day after; but either 



WILLIAM E. SMALL. 225 

General Grant had accomplished all he expected to in this 
direction, or had learned he could accomplish nothing, and the 
entire fleet was ordered to return. The last boat, in a damaged 
condition, arrived at the Sand Bar below Helena, at noon on 
the 12th of April; and, should one return from Hades, he could 
be little more surprised at his safe arrival on terra firma, than 
were many who sailed on the celebrated Yazoo Pass Expe- 
dition. 

In this connection, I desire to speak of a good man, who 
rendered important services on this expedition, and who after- 
wards died at Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Captain Robert 
Lusby of the 10th Iowa, and, at the time of his death, 
adjutant-general to General Crocker, was a noble man and 
officer. 

Next in the history of the 10th Iowa, is the final Vicksburg 
Campaign. During this celebrated march, the details of which 
are given elsewhere, the regiment met the enemy at the battles 
of Jackson, and Champion's Hill. In the last of these engage- 
ments, it greatly distinguished itself, and suffered severely, as 
also did the regiments of the 3d Brigade, commanded by the 
gallant little Boomer. The 5th and 10th Iowa, the 26th Mis- 
souri and 93d Illinois, deserve a proud place in the history of 
our civil war. On the 10th of May, the 10th Iowa arrived 
before the rebel works, in rear of Vicksburg ; and, from that 
day till the 4h of July following, the day of General Grant's 
triumphal entry into the city, did its full share of duty. With 
its brigade, it join d in the memorable charge of the 22d of 
May; and, under General McClernand, to whom the brigade 
had been ordered to report, was preparing to assault the right 
of the enemy's works, when Colonel Boomer fell, shot through 
the head. He was killed at sun-down, and near the crest of a 
hill within two hundred yards of the enemy's line. Colonel 
Boomer was a native of Massachusetts, and a brave and gallant 

15 



226 IOWA COLONELS AND KEGIMENTS. 

officer. The confusion, incident to the loss of the brigade 
commander, created some delay, and, before an advance was 
made, orders were received to withdraw to a position behind 
the second line of hills. On the 24th of May, the 3d Brigade 
reported back to its division, whose position in the line was to 
the left of the centre, and about half a mile south of the rebel 
Fort Hill; and here the 10th Iowa remained till the surrender 
of Vicksburg. 

Immediately after the fall of Vicksburg, the brigade of Gen- 
eral Matthies, to which the 10th Iowa was attached, (for after 
the death of Boomer he had been transferred to this command) 
joined the command of General Sherman, in the pursuit of the 
rebel forces under General Johnson. The brigade arrived 
before Jackson on the evening of the 14th of July, having 
marched from Clinton; but had hardly stacked arms, when 
orders were received to march back to Clinton, to anticipate 
the rebel General Jackson in his cavalry-raid upon Sherman's 
train. General Matthies arrived in Clinton late that night, 
and just in time to meet and repulse one brigade of Jackson's 
cavalry, the only rebel troops sent to that point. For this gal- 
lant affair, the K>th Iowa, with the balance of the troops of the 
brigade, was handsomely complimented by General Sherman. 

The principal portion of the time covered by these opera- 
tions, Colonel Small was absent from his regiment: indeed, he 
was never with it much, and. if I am rightly informed, was 
never present in an engagement. His military record is not in 
keeping with that of his gallant regiment. He was a fine drill- 
master, which was his chief merit as a soldier. 

In person, Colonel Small is below the medium. He has a 
nervous temperament, a pale, sickly countenance, and a feeble 
constitution. In his manners, 1 am told, he is dignified and 
sedate. 



1 

COLONEL PARIS PERRIN IIEXDERSON. 

THIRD COLONEL, TENTH INFANTRY. 

Parts P. Henderson was bom at Liberty, Union- county, 
Indiana, on the 3d day of January, 182-3. He was educated at 
the Common Schools of his native town, where he resided 
till he reached his eighteenth year. At eighteen, he learned 
the tanner's and currier's trade in Vermillion county, Illinois. 
He settled in Warren county, Iowa, in the fall of 1847, and 
two years later was appointed organizing-sheriff of that 
county. In August, 1851, he was elected County Judge of 
his county, which office he held for three consecutive terms. 
In the fall of 1859, he was elected to the State Senate, and was 
the Senator of Warren county at the outbreak of the war. 

In September, 1861, Mr. Henderson was commissioned cap- 
tain of Company G, 10th Iowa Infantry, which he had enlisted 
in Warren county. On the 27th of January, 1SG3, he was pro- 
moted to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and, on the 18th of the 
following August;* to the colonelcy of the 10th Iowa Infantry. 
On the arrival of General Sherman at Savannah, in his grand 
march from Atlanta to the sea, Colonel Henderson resigned 
his commission, having served three years and nearly three 
months. The military history of Colonel Henderson reflects 
on him much credit: it is the same as that of his regiment; for, 
from the time of his entering the service until the date of his 
leaving it, he was present with it. Even during the greater 
part of the time of his lieutenant-colonelcy, he commanded it; 
for Colonel Small was sick ami absent. 

Early in September, 18G3, the 10th Iowa Infantry, which 
was then in camp at Vicksburg, left with its division for the 

227 



228 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMEXTS. 

purpose of reinforcing General Steele, then marching on Little 
Itock; but, news coming of the fall of Little Bock on the arri- 
val of the division at Helena, it remained in camp at that ; 
place, awaiting transports in which to return to Vieksburg. 
In the meantime, General Sherman's old Corps had been 
ordered to report at Chattanooga. The march from Memphis 
commenced about the middle of October. Why, I do not 
know, but for some reason the 7th Division of the 17th Corps 
was separated from its command, and ordered to join General 
Sherman in this march. There were many other troops, who j 
for a long time had done little, and who, in fairness, should 
have been selected for this arduous campaign. It was sup- 
posed by the division that the mettle of which it had shown 
itself possessed, on so many battle-fields, had determined the 
commanding general in this choice; for General Grant was 
once reported to have said: — "One knows just what he can 
do with that division." Injustice to the veteran troops of 
this command, these facts should be stated; for they should 
receive the credit due to their gallant services. And here, 
although not in strict keeping with my plan, I yield to what 
1 know would be the earnest wish of the regiment whose his- 
tory 1 am recording, and append the names of the regiments 
which constituted this noble command. In the First Brigade 
were the 4th Minnesota, the 48th and 59th Indiana, the 18th 
Wisconsin, and the 63d Illinois. In the Second Brigade were 
the 10th Missouri, the 17th Iowa, the 56th Illinois, and the 80th 
Ohio. In the 3d Brigade were the. 5th and 10th Iowa, the 26th 
Missouri, and the 93d Illinois. In our great National struggle 
there has been no more worthy or potent representative from 
the great North West than the 7th Division, 17th Army Corps. 
Moving up the river from Helena to Memphis, the 10th Iowa 
left that city early in October, and proceeded by rail as tar as 



PARIS PERRIN HENDERSON". 229 

Glendale, Mississippi, nine miles east of Corinth. From that 
point the regiment marched to Chattanooga, hy way of Dixon's 
Station; Chickasaw Landing, on the Tennessee River; Florence, 
Alabama. Rogersville, Prospect Station, on the Nashville and 
Decatur Railroad; Fayetteville, Winchester, Peeherd and 
Bridgeport. The Tennessee River, at Chickasaw Landing, 
was crossed on the night of the 30th of October, and, in the 
evening of the 19th of November, the 10th Iowa, with its divi- 
sion, arrived under Lookout Mountain. The night of the 30th 
of October, 1S63, was stormy and dismal, which not only ren- 
dered the crossing of the Tennessee disagreeable, but soured 

the tempers of all. General , in command of the division, 

superintended the crossing of his troops, and, like everyone 
else, was irritable. On one occasion, while his boat was 
approaching the south bank of the river, the detail on shore 
had left their post, and no one chanced to be at hand but a 
lieutenant, the son of a Congressman. The hawser being 

thrown ashore and no one there to receive it, General 

cried out, "Take hold of that rope, sir." "I am a lieutenant, 

and the son of Congressman ." " Lon't care a d — n, take 

hold of that rope." But the lieutenant was relieved by the 
detail, who at that instant came up. 

I have said that the 10th Iowa, with its division, arrived at 
the foot of Lookout Mountain in the evening of the 19th of 
November. The head of the division arrived in Lookout Val- 
ley just before night-fall, and no sooner was it seen by the 
enemy, than he commenced displaying his signal-lights. 
Bragg knew that General Grant was receiving reinforcements, 
but the number he could not tell, for darkness intervened soon 
after the head of the column came in view. Before day-light 
the next morning, the division was marched across the Ten- 
nessee River*, and behind some hills, out of view of the enemy. 
It Mas said that this was one of the plans which General Grant 



£30 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

had adopted to puzzle and mislead the enemy; and it may he 
correct history. It was even said that General Grant would, 
in the night-time, march troops from the north bank of the 
river under Lookout Mountain, and, after day-light the next 
morning, march them back to their former position. But, 
however this may be, it is certain that Bragg was, by some 
means, thrown from his reckoning; for he attributed to Gun- 
end Grant, at Chattanooga, a much larger army than he had. 

From the 20th of November until the 23d, the 10th Iowa, 
with its brigade and division, rested in camp behind the hills 
above mentioned, but at mid-night of the last named date 
marched down to the river to effect a crossing. The crossing 
was to be mode in pontoons, and just below the mouth of 
South Chickamauga Creek. The pontoon-boats had already 
been launched in the North Chickamauga, so that all was in 
readiness. The brigade of General Giles A. Smyth, numbering 
about eighteen hundred men, led the advance. Embarking on 
the pontoon-boats, they floated quietly down into the Tennes- 
see, and then made rapidly for the opposite shore; and so quiet 
and systematic were their movements that they surprised and 
captured the entire picket-guard of the enemy but one. By 
day-light in the morning, nearly three entire divisions of Sher- 
man's command had reached the south bank safely, and were 
behind intrenchnients nearly a mile and a half in length. 
These successes injured victory to General Grant at Chatta- 
nooga; for he could now swing round on the enemy's right and 
rear, and force him to abandon his boasted impregnable 
position. 

In the fighting which followed, the 5th, the 10th, and the 
17th Iowa regiments took a conspicuous part, though neither 
of those regiments met the enemy till the 25th instant. Nor 
did the 0th Iowa, which was the only other Iowa regiment 

that crossed the Tennessee with Sherman, meet the enemy 

- 



PABIS PEBRIN ITEXDEBSOX. 231 

before that time. In a south-westerly direction from where 
the crossing was effected, and about four miles distant, was the 
long range of irregular and precipitous hills, known as Mission 
Ridge; and to wrest these from the possession of the enemy, 
was the object of General Sherman's crossing the river. At 
about three o'clock in the afternoon of the 24th instant, the 
10th Iowa, with its brigade and division, (the whole command 
drawn up in column by division) marched down through the 
timber and wet bottom-lands that intervened between the 
place of crossing and Mission Ridge, to assault and capture a 
high hill in the northern portion of the ridge. The movement 
was made, and the hill gained without a casualty ; for, not 
having been fortified, it was abandoned by the enemy. But 
on the next hill beyond, which was about half a mile distant, 
were the enemy in large force, and strongly fortified; and 
against this position were the attacks of the 7th Division 
directed the next day. Retiring from the hill just occupied by 
its division, the 10th Iowa bivouacked the night of the 24th in 
the woods near the Chattanooga and Knoxville Railroad ; but 
there was little sleep for the regiment, for it was during that 
night that General Hooker was driving the enemy from Look- 
out Mountain; and such an incessant and appalling fire of 
musketry was hardly ever heard before in the night-time. 
It raged from sun-down until near day-light the next morning. 
Thus far every tiling had worked favorably, and "on the 
night of the 24th our forces maintained an unbroken line, with 
open communications, from the north end of Lookout Moun- 
tain, through Chattanooga Valley, to the north end of Mission 
Ridge." General Bragg was now defeated; and to save his 
army, his baggage, stores and artillery, was with him the 
important question. The point against which the attacks of 
the 5th, Gth, Kith and 17th Iowa regiments, with their respec- 
tive commands, were directed on the 25th instant, covered 



232 IOWA COI.OXEL9 AND REGIMENTS. 

and protected Bragg's line of communications to the rear; 
and hence it was that the fighting at that point was of the 
most desperate character; for, that hill lost, and Bragg would 
have lost nearly every thing. 

The 10th Iowa, with its hrigade, was ordered up to reinforce 
General Ewing's command at eleven o'clock in the morning. 
Moving west across the railroad already alluded to, it marched 
out across an open field, and down into low ground, which 
was covered with under-brush. Next, it was faced to the south, 
which brought it fronting the hill in question, and for the 
possession of Which, General Sherman was now struggling. 
Thus far, the entire brigade had lost but two men; but now 
orders came for an advance — first to the "White House, 
(which was already in flames) and then to the top of the hill. 
In the advance- to the White House, the artillery-firing of 
the enemy was most frightful. Their position on the hill, or 
succession of hills, was semi-circular, and, at different points 
along their line, were some forty pieces of artillery in battery, 
the range of which was short and accurate. They used solid 
shot, shell, canister and grape; and, altogether, it was the most 
terrific artillery-fire the 10th Iowa ever passed under in the 
o]>^n field. It whs also the most terrific artillery-fire the 5th 
and 17th Iowa ever passed under. To this day, I can not recall 
that hour, without feeling in sympathy with the old Latin 
poet: " &eteruntque coimc et voxfaitcibus Aasit." 

On the hill-topi the 10th held the left of the brigade, and 
fought with its accustomed gallantry; but the numbers of the 
enemy, with their strong position, could not be overcome, and 
a retreat had to be ordered soon after General Matthies, its 
brigade commander, was wounded. The engagements of 
Champion's Hill and Mission Hid'.'.' are regarded by the 10th 
Iowa, as among their hardest battles. 



PARIS I'EKRIN HENDERSON. £53 

From the 2oth of November, 18G3, until the following May, 
the histories of the 10th and 17th Iowa regiments are similar. 
The 10th marched to Graysville, Georgia, in pursuit of Bragg's 
forces, and then, returning, was ordered to Huntsville, Ala- 
bama, where it remained until the following May. It was 
then sent to Decatur, Alabama, the junction of the Nashville 
and Decatur, with the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. 
"While at Huntsville, the regiment had re-enlisted as veterans; 
but it did not receive its veteran furlough until the following 
June. 

While stationed at Decatur, the 10th Iowa, under Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel McCalla, with some one hundred and thirty men 
of the 9th Ohio Cavalry, had a little affair with the rebel forces 
of General Forest, on the south side of the Tennessee River; 
but I omit details, for their recital could give no additional 
lustre to the already brilliant record of the regiment. 

The 10th Iowa Infantry returned to the front late in July, 
1864, and arrived at Kingston, Georgia, on the 1st of August. 
Here it remained on guard-duty along the railroad, until the 
time of Wheeler's celebrated cavalry raid on General Sher- 
man's rear line of communications, when it joined the command 
which was organized to make pursuit. The expedition was 
out about twenty days, and marched, during that time, more 
than five hundred miles. But their fleet-footed adversary 
could not be brought to a stand, and, after pursuing him 
through East and Middle Tennessee and Northern Alabama, 
they finally came up with him just as his rear-guard Mas cross- 
ing the Tennessee River at Florence. Soon after, followed the 
flank movement of General Hood, after which, the 10th Iowa 
moved with General Sherman on his memorable march to 
Savannah. Its last campaign was from Savannah to Raleigh, 
and thai will probably be its last in the war; for the veteran 
army of Northern Virginia has now surrendered. 



, 






234 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Colonel Henderson is about six feet in hight, and well 
formed. He has a pleasant face, and an easy, winning address. 
No one can know him but to like him. The Colonel was a 
brave and efficient officer, and popular with his regiment ; but 
he was too kind and conceding, I am told, for an excellent 
disciplinarian. 

Henderson was one of the Iowa colonels who would do justice 
to a subordinate, without an exjrress or imjrficd consideration. 
He never bartered his honor to enhance his chances for pro- 
motion. 



COLOXEL ABRAHAM M. HARE. 

FIKST COLONEL, ELEVENTH INFANTRY. 

Abraham M. Hake, the original colonel of the 11th Iowa 
Infantry, is a native of Ohio, where he was born about the 
year 1^12. He was one of the earliest settlers of Muscatine, 
Iowa, having established himself in that place before the year 
1S39. For several years after settling in Muscatine, he carried 
on the hatter's business; and later, opened a hat and cap store. 
He was successful in business, and, in the course of a few years, 
acquired a respectable fortune. I am told he stands among 
the wealthy and most exemplary men of Muscatine. He had 
some knowledge of military matters before entering the 
service, having been a major of militia in Ohio. 

He was mustered colonel of the 11th Iowa on the 1st day of 
November, 1861, and served with his regiment until the battle 
of Shiloh, when he resigned his commission, on account of a 
wound received in that engagement. 

But little of the history of the 11th Iowa Infantry was made 
under Colonel Hare. The regiment was recruited mainly from 
the counties of Muscatine, Iowa, Hardin, Marshall, Louisa, 
Cedar, Keokuk, Washington, Henry, Clinton and Linn: Mus- 
catine is the most largely represented. It was mustered into 
the United States service, by companies, in the months of Sep- 
tember and October, 1861, and the following Winter, served 
in Missouri. Shiloh was its first battle, and the only one it 
was engaged in-duringthe colonelcy of Colonel Hare: indeed, 
it was not under him in that engagement; for he was in com- 
mand of the brigade to which it was attached. Lieutenant- 
Colonel, afterward Colonel Hall commanded the regiment, and 

235 



23G IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

made the report of the engagement. The 11th and 13th Iowa 
were attached to the fame brigade at Shiloh, and the part the 
regiment sustained in the engagement, may be seen in the 
sketeh of Brigadier-General M. M. Crocker. 

Among the killed at Shiloh, the 11th Iowa lost Lieutenant 
John F. Compton, Sergeants Henry Seibert, Ezra McLoney 
and George E. Daniels; and Corporals William P. Hough, 
George J. Burns, and Martin A. McLain. Captain Charles 
Foster was wounded, as also was Sergeant E. D. Akers, who 
was not long after promoted to the captaincy of his company. 
The regiment lost heavily in killed and wounded, but the 
exact number I have been unable to learn. The rebel General 
A. Sidney Johnson fell in front of the 11th Iowa, .and was 
doubtless killed by this regiment. 

Colonel Hare was quite severely wounded near the close of 
the first day's battle, and left the field. He was wounded 
where his brigade made its last stand ; and in speaking of him 
General MeClernand says : — " Colonel A. M. Hare, command- 
ing the 1st Brigade, who had borne himself through the day 
with great constancy and courage, was here wounded, and the 
command of the brigade devolved on his able and gallant 
successor, Colonel Crocker." 

Colonel Hare is a large, athletic man, of billious-sanguine 
temperament, and dark complexion. His hair once black, is 
now streaked with gray; his eye though mild, is penetrating. 
He is determined in purpose, and kind-Jiearted, a fact univers- 
ally attested by the "boys" of his regiment. He is cool, 
deliberate and fearless in battle, and unostentatious in man- 
ners. It is doubtless owing to this peculiar trait of character 
that I am unable to get further details of his history. He 
seems satisfied with having done bis duty. 



COLONEL WILLIAM HALL. 

SECOND COLONEL, ELEVENTH INFANTRY. 

WILLIAM Hall was born in the city of Montreal, Canada 
East, on the 2.">th of January, 1S32; but, though born in Canada, 
he is not a foreigner. His parents were, at the time of his 
birth, residents of the State of Vermont, and chanced to be on 
a visit at Montreal. William remained at home with his 
family till 1844, during which time his father resided in 
Ogdensburg, New York; Brookville, Canada West; and Roch- 
ester, New York. In 1S44 he entered Oberlin College, where 
he remained a year and a half, and then entered the Western 
Military Institute of Kentucky. At that time, as also at the 
breaking out of the rebellion, the rebel Bushrod Johnson was 
superintendent of the institution. Commencing with the rank 
of private, Colonel Hall went through all the military grades 
of the school, and graduated as acting-adjutant, and with the 
rank of captain. Soon after leaving that institution, he entered 
the Harvard Law School, at Cambridge, Massachusetts; hut, 
Without graduating, left in 1854, and came West. Since that 
time he has made his residence in Davenport, Iowa. By pro- 
fession, Colonel Hall is a lawyer; and I understand he ranked 
fairly at the Davenport bar. He had the reputation of being a 
hard worker, and of doing the best he could for his clients. 

In the summer of 1861 he entered the volunteer service, and 
the 23d of September following was commissioned major of the 
11th Iowa Infantry. He was promoted to the lieutenant- 
colone'ey of his regiment, on the 11th of October, 1861, and, on 
the resignation of Colonel Hare, was commissioned colonel. 
He held this rank, and served in the field, till the summer of 

237 



238 IOWA COLONELS AXD EEGIMEXT3. 

1SC4, when, Colonel W. W. Belknap being promoted over him 
to a general officer, he resigned in disgust. It is reported that, 
after his return home, he espoused, conservatism, and vilUfied, 
in public speeches, the policy of the Administration; but that 
can hardly be so. 

As already stated, the 11th Iowa's first battle was Shiloh. 
Its second was Corinth; and the part it acted in the latter may 
be gained from the following extract from Colonel, now Gene- 
ral, Crocker's official report: 

"About five o'clock in the morning of the 3d instant, the 
brigade formed— two regiments, the 11th and 13th Iowa vol- 
unteers in line of battle, facing to the west, and the 15th and 
lOth Iowa volunteers, in close column by division in rear of the 
line. The regiments remained in that position, with skirmish- 
err, deployed in front, receiving an occasional cannon-shot, 
until about three o'clock, when, the division on the right hav- 
ing fallen back, a change of front was ordered. The 15th and 
10th wen- then formed in line of battle perpendicular to the 
first line, and the 11th and 13th, in close column by division, 
in the rear. In this position, the brigade remained until about 
four o'clock I\ M., when orders were again received to again 
change front, so as to connect the right of the brigade with 
the left of General Davis' Division, its left to rest in the direc- 
tion of Battery E. After the execution of this order had been 
commenced, notice was received from General McKean that 
the division was to move back inside the inner fortifications; 
and an order was received that, the 11th and 13th regiments be 
formed in line of battle a quarter of a mile in the rear of the 
line formed by the loth and 16th, in front of, and parallel to 
the road, over which the artillery of the division must pass, 
the brigade to protect the movements of the rest of the divi- 
sion, and the artillery." 

This position, which the 11th Iowa, or the Iowa brigade was 
thus ordered to abandon, was south of the Chewalla road, and 
a little north-of-west of Corinth. "On arriving inside the 
fortifications, we took position, the 15th Iowa in lino of battle 
in rear of, and to the right of the battery commanded by 



WILLIAM HALL. 239 

Captain Phillips, 1st Infantry; the 10th in rear of, and sup- 
porting the 5th Ohio Battery, which was in position on the left 
of Captain Phillip's Battery ; five companies of the' 11th Reg- 
iment, in command of Major Ahererombio, in line of battle, 
supporting the 1st Minnesota Battery, in position still on the 
left of the Oth Ohio Battery; the 13th Iowa, ami five compa- 
nies of the nth, still in the roar of the 15th and 10th, in close 
column by division, as a reserve." This last position was held 
through all the fighting of the next day, the 11th Iowa being- 
drawn up in line of battle in rear of the loth. The only com- 
missioned officers of the regiment, wounded in both day's 
fighting, were Lieutenants William IT. Wethorby and Dennis 
P. Greeley: the latter was wounded by a fading true. 

From November 18G1, till the spring of 1804, the history of 
the 11th Iowa will be found in the sketches of other officers 
and regiments. It re-enlisted in the winter of 1SG3-4, and 
came North, on veteran furlough, in March following. 

In May, ISO 1, two divisions of the 17th Army Corps ren- 
dezvoused at Clifton, on the Tennessee, from which point, 
General Blair marched across the country to Sherman, via 
Iluntsville, Decatur and Rome. The 11th Iowa was attached 
to tins command, and arrived at the front early in June, and, 
while Sherman was in the vicinity of Aeworth, Georgia. The 
regiment first confronted the enemy before Kenesaw Mountain, 
and lost its first man on the loth of June. Before Kenesaw, 
"General Hooker was on its right and front, General Howard 
on its left and front, and General Palmer between it and the 
railroad." The rebel General Polk was killed by a cannon- 
shot on the 14th of June, after which the enemy abandoned 
Pine Mountain away on the right, and took up a position 
"with Kenesaw as his salient point, his right wing thrown 
back to cover Marietta, and his left belaud Nose's Creek, 



turedj and brought over the works by Private George B. 
Haworth, of Company B, and is now in his possession. A 
banner, belonging to the 15th Alabama, was also brought over 
by Private Edward Siberts, of Company G, which was placed 
by him in the hands of Lieutenant Saliey, Provost-Marshal of 
the brigade." 

Altogether, the 11th Iowa captured, and sent to the rear, 
ninety-three persons. Both Captain J. W. Anderson and 



240 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

covering the railroad back to the Chattahooehie." While the 
enemy were in this position, General Sherman made his bloody 
and unsuccessful assault. The flank movement to the right, 
led by the 17th Corps, commenced in the evening of the 2d of 
July, and an account of it will be found in the sketch of Gen- 
eral Hedrick. 

Like the other regiments of the Iowa Brigade, the 11th Iowa 
suffered its severest loss on the afternoon of the 22d of July; 
but an account of this engagement has been given elsewhere. 
The following is from Lieutenant-Colonel Abercrombie's offi- 
cial report : 

"Many acts of bravery were performed by officers and men 
of the regiment, which might be mentioned, did time and 
opportunity permit. , 

"Major Foster was wounded early in the action, faithful in 
discharge of his duty. Captain Neal was killed instantly by a 
grape-shot at the fort late in the afternoon. Captain Barr is 
missing. Captain Pose, missing, is supposed to have been 
wounded and captured. 1st Lieutenant Cassell, missing; 1st 
Lieutenant Caldwell, killed ; 1st Lieutenant Pfoutz, wounded ; 
2d Lieutenant Wylie, wounded. I would make honorable 
mention of Sergeant-Major John G. Safley, who, with 1st Ser- 
geant John A. Luck, Company K, (afterward-; killed — brave 
fellow) and a party of picked up men, numbering thirty or 
forty, made a dash over the works held by the enemy, bring- 
ing over more than their own number as prisoners, amongst 
whom were a colonel and captain. 

"in the sally, Safley was wounded, but it is not believed 
seriously. During the action a Confederate flag was cap- 



WILLIAM HALL. 241 

Adjutant B. W. Prescott are mentioned for gallantry. The 
loss of the regiment, in killed, wounded and missing, was 
severe — eight officers and one hundred and twenty-nine men. 
Jt has already been stated that Major Foster was wounded. 
He died not long after, and the regiment mourned, in his loss, 
one of its finest and most popular officers. He was a native of 
New Hampshire. 

From the 15th of June, 18G4, to the 5th of September, the 11th 
Iowa lost, in killed, wounded and missing, ten commissioned 
officers, and two hundred and seven enlisted men. One of the 
officers, who has not already been mentioned, was Lieutenant 
Alfred Carey of Company E. lie was wounded on the 15th of 
June, before Kenesaw, and afterwards died of his wounds. 

A further history of the 11th Iowa will be found in the 
sketches of the other regiments of the 17th Corps' Iowa Brigade. 

For several months, Colonel Hall commanded the Iowa 
Brigade. He commanded it on General Blair's Mechanicsville 
march during the siege of Vicksburg, and until tbe return of 
Colonel Chambers of the lGth Iowa from leave of absence. He 
also commanded it through the entire Atlanta Campaign. He 
was not much liked by bis brigade. He was nearly all tbe 
time sick and irritable; but, in justice, I should add, be never 
made his sickness an excuse to avoid duty. If danger was at 
band, he was never the second man present. 

Tbe colonel is a small man, weighing about one hundred and 
twenty-five pounds. He has a slender, gaunt, ungainly per- 
son, rendered so, I suppose by disease. He wears long, black 
hair; lias large, black eyes, and a dark, sallow complexion. 
Colonel Hall i< not a comely man. When 1 saw him, in tbe 
spring of 1SG4, I wondered bow he had for three years endured 
the hardships of the service. 

When interested or excited, he moves about nervously, with 

16 



242 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

his face turned downward, and his hands thrust in his panta- 
loons' pockets. He has large self-esteem, and prides himself 
in doing things in his own way. If he is as he seems, he is 
impervious to flattery; but that can hardly be, for he shows 
great indignity, if he thinks his services underrated. It was 
on this score that he tendered his resignation. 

Considering his ill-health, Colonel Hall was successful as a 
soldier. He was a good tactician, and brave and resolute. 1 lis 
greatest fault seemed to be in questioning the justness and 
propriety of the orders of his superiors. He would obey them, 
but it Mas not uncommon for him to do so wider protest. The 
following will illustrate how the enlisted men of his command 
appreciated his temper. 

While the Iowa Brigade was encamped at Clifton, Tennessee, 
just before starting across the country to Huntsville, a squad 
of raw recruits, from its different regiments, were put on 
picket. They were in the enemy's country, and, of course, 
were ordered tu load their pieces. Returning to camp in the 
morning, they inquired of the veterans how they should get 
the charges out of their guns, and received the following 
instructions : " Go out there, behind Colonel Hall's tent, and fire 
them off: that's the only place— and be sure and all fire at 
once." They did us directed. What followed, was better 
appreciated by the veterans, than by those who were learning 
their fir.-t lesson in soldiering. Colonel Hall, who was in bed, 
sprang out in a rage, and ordered the poor fellows tied from 
morning till night. 



COLONEL JOSEPH JACKSON WOODS. 

TWELFTH INFANTRY. 

J. J. Woods, of the 12th Iowa Infantry, ha.? a checkered 
history, which will be read with interest. He is a native of 
Ohio, and was born in Brown county, the 11th day of January, 
1823. In 1833, he removed with his father's family to Hush 
county, Indiana, whence, after a residence of two years, he 
returned to his native county. 

Colonel Woods is a West Point graduate. Having completed 
his preparatory course at Augusta College, Kentucky, he 
entered the West Point Military Academy in 1843. He was a 
successful scholar, and graduated in 1SI7, the third in his class. 
Receiving a 2d lieutenant's commission in the 1st United 
States Artillery, he sailed, on the 10th of October, 1S17, under 
orders for Vera Cruz; but, on the fourth day out, the vessel 
on which he had taken passage was wrecked near the Great 
Bahama. After several days of peril and hardship, ho reached 
Nassau, New Providence, and sailed thence to Charleston, 
South Carolina, where he passed several weeks with a former 
class-mate, by the name of Blake. Ite-embarking again for 
Vera Cruz, he reached that place on the 5th of January, 1S48. 
In August of th" same year, after having had yellow fever, he 
was recalled and ordered to report at Governor's Island, New 
York Harbor. lie was promoted to a 1st lieutenancy the 29th 
of October, 1848, and soon after sailed with Companies L and 
M of Ids regiment for Oregon: these were the first troops sent 
by our Government to that Territory. He remained in Oregon 
till the winter of 18o3; ami, during his stay in the Territory, 
was stationed at Fort YanCouver, Astoria, and Middle Oregon. 

213 



244 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

At the last named place he had command of the Dalles. 
In the winter of 1853, he was ordered to New York City on 
recruiting service, where he remained till the following Octo- 
ber, when he resigned his commission. Soon after, he pur- 
chased a farm in Jackson county, Iowa, on which he has since 
resided. 

In August, 1861 j Colonel Woods was tendered the lieuten- 
ant-colonelcy of the 9th Iowa Infantry; but this position he 
declined, and was, on the 23d of the following October, commis- 
sioned colonel of the 12th. From that date till the expiration 
of his three year's term of service, he served in command, 
either of his regiment, or of the brigade to which it was 
attached. He left the army in the fall of 1861, with the respect 
and good-will of his regiment, and with the high personal con- 
sideration of his superior officers. His services merited recog- 
nition at Washington; but, with him as with some others, 
moiJrsfi/ blocked the wheels of promotion. 

The 12th Iowa Infantry, like the other Iowa regiments which 
were captured with it in the first day's battle at Shiloh, has a 
bright record. Its first battle was Fort Donelson. It had been 
present at the capture of Fort Henry; but, like the other 
infantry troops, took no part. The late gallant Admiral Foote 
captured Fort Henry with his three wooden and four iron-clad 
gun-boats, and received the surrender of General Tilghman ; 
and no one will dispute with him that honor. 

General Smith, in whoso command was the 12th Iowa, 
operated on the bluffs on the west bank of the Tennessee, and 
General MeClernand, on the east. Had McClcrnand moved 
two hours sooner, he would have invested the fort, and cap- 
tured five thousand prisoners; but he floundered in miry 
swamps, and nearly the entire rebel garrison escaped to Fort 
Donelson hefore he came up. It was said the blunder was 



JOSEPH J. WOODS. 245 

General Grant's ; but, if it was, he retrieved it a few clays after 
at Fort Donelson. 

After the fall of Fort Henry, the 12th Iowa, with its divis- 
ion, marched across the country to the rear of Fort Donelson, 
on the Cumberland. The distance is twelve miles. One strong 
and important point in the long' line of rebel defenses — that 
line extending from Bowling Green, Kentucky, down past 
Fort Donelson aud Fort Henry, and across the country to 
Columbus — had been wrested from the enemy. Fort Donel- 
son captured, and the country south, to the vicinity of the 
Memphis and Charleston Railroad, including the city of Nash- 
ville and the railroad connecting Bowling Green with Colum- 
bus, must be yielded by the Confederates. Columbus, too, 
must be evacuated, and the Mississippi abandoned as far south 
as Memphis. Then, with prompt and energetic movement on 
the part of the Federal forces, the Memphis and Charleston 
Railroad could be cut, the strategic point of Corinth occupied, 
and Kentucky and West Tennessee restored to Federal author- 
ity. The issue at Fort Donelson was therefore watched with 
impatience and anxiety. 

General Grant, with the divisions of Smith and McClernand, 
arrived in rear of Fort Donelson in the evening of the 12th of 
February, 18G2. That night the troops slept on their arms, as 
they also did on every subsequent night, until the fort capitu- 
lated. The division of Smith, filing to the left from the Dover 
road, swung round against the enemy's right, and that of 
McClernaud, filing to the right, formed line in front of the 
enemy's left. The right and left of these divisions remained 
connected; for the division of General Wallace, which was to 
occupy the centre, had not yet arrived, but was on its way up 
the Cumberland River. The 12th Iowa was still under Smith, 
and was attached to the 3d Brigade, commanded by Colonel J. 



246 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Cook. The 4th Brigade of the same division, in which were 
the 2d, 7th, and 14th Iowa regiments, was next on the left and 
constituted both the left of the division and the left of the 
Federal forces. 

"Thursday morning-, at half past eight o'clock, (I quote 
from Colonel Woods' report) we marched down to, and up the 
Dover road about half a mile, when we filed to the left, and 
formed line of battle: threw forward the flanking companies 
as skirmishers, and marched forward down a long slope that 
lay in front, the grape, shot and shell of the enemy flying thickly 
around us all the time. Our skirmishers advanced to the top of 
the hill that lay in front of us. The battalion halted at two- 
thirds of the distance to the top of the hill, where it was pro- 
tected from the enemy's fire by the ridge in front." This 
position was held by the 12th Iowa the following night; and 
that night and the following one will never be forgotten by the 
regiment. A fierce north-east storm set in late in the afternoon, 
and raged with great fury, and the men, though drenched with 
the rain, and chilled with the cold, were allowed no fires, and 
suffered most bitterly. That morning the 12th Iowa had lost 
it.-- fir.-d man killed in battle- private Edward C. Buckner. He 
was shot through the head on the skirmish line, and killed 
instantly. In the wet and cold of the following night, the sad 
event was talked over by the men, and they wondered who 
would be the next to fall. 

The entire day of the 1 4th, (Friday) and the forenoon of 
the following, were passed by the 12th Iowa in skirmishing 
with the enemy; and, during this time, the regiment was gal- 
lantly supported by the 50th Illinois, and by Birge's Sharp- 
shooters. No assaults were attempted on Friday, for the divi- 
sion of General Wallace, and the gun-boat fleet had not yet 
come up. The fighting on the south side of Fort Donelson 
elosed about noon on Saturday, the loth instant; when the 



JOSEPH J. WOODS. 247 

enemy, having routed McClernand, returned to their works in 
triumph. It was at this hour that General Pillow sent his 
laconic report to Nashville: "On the honor of a soldier, the 
day is ours." " At about two o'clock in the afternoon of Sat- 
urday, the 12th Iowa, 50th Illinois, and Birge's Sharp-shooters 
were ordered to make a feint-attack, to draw the enemy's fire. 
The men went cheerfully to the work assigned them ; and kept 
up a warm fire on the enemy, while Colonel Lauman's brig- 
ade, on our left, advanced on the enemy, and got possession of 
a part of the enemy's outer works, and hoisted thereon the 
American flag." From that hour until night-fall, the 12th 
Iowa was sharply engaged, and during that time, the regiment 
suffered nearly its entire loss. It moved to the support of 
Colonel Tuttle by the left flank, and, marching through the 
deep ravine in its front, and over the fallen timber, arrived at 
the top of the hill, just as the 21th Indiana commenced falling 
back. The regiment entered the rebel works to the right of 
Colonel Tuttle, and held its position till morning, when the 
Fort and its garrison were surrendered. 

The casualties of the regiment in this engagement were 
thirty— all, with the exception of three, being sustained on 
Saturday afternoon. .Two only were killed. Among the 
wounded, was Lieutenant-Colonel Coulter, who "behaved 
with the utmost coolness and bravery, and performed his 
duties regardless of the danger to which he was exposed." 
Major Brodtbcck and Surgeon Parker received special men- 
tion for their good conduct. "Every commissioned officer 
performed his duty without flinching." Sergeant-Major Mor- 
risy, and Color-bearer Sergeant Grannis, and many others, 
deserve special mention for their coolness and gallantry. 
Privates Buekner and Stillman were the two men killed: the 
f .rim r was shot in (he eye, and the latter in the right temple. 
With the exception of the 2d Iowa Infantry, no troops are 



248 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

entitled to more credit, for the part they sustained in the 
capture of Fort Donelson, than this regiment. 

The next engagement of the 12th Iowa was Shiloh, where, 
for holding its position too long, it was captured. It has been 
matter of wonder why General Grant and Admiral Foote, after 
the fall of Fort Donelson, did not push on directly to Nashville. 
The people of that city, and the rebel troops there stationed, 
would he in the utmost consternation; and it was believed that 
the place could be occupied with little or no opposition. Both 
Grant and Foote appreciated the situation, and were anxious 
to advance against the city ; but Hal leek, the general command- 
ing the Department, would not give his consent. They called 
him the old wheel-horse. Some said he was good only on the 
hold-back, and, to succeed, he must have a down-MU enter- 
prise. As it was, the enemy, in their mad fright, destroyed 
some two million dollars' worth of property which might have 
been appropriated by the Government. General Johnson's 
army, too, on the march from Bowling Green, might probably 
have been captured. A week after the fall of Fort Donelson, 
General Bnel occupied Nashville; after which, General Grant 
proceeded up the Tennessee River to Savannah arid Pittsburg 
Landing 1 . 

At the battle of Shiloh, the 12th Iowa was attached to the 1st 
Brigade, 2d Division, commanded by General Wallace. Gen- 
eral Smith was absent at Paducah. Colonel, afterwards General 
Tuttle commanded the brigade. The part taken by the regi- 
ment in this engagement is elsewhere given. It formed a part 
of that line which, though at last broken, was held with such 
obstinacy as to save Grant's army from total rout. 

After receiving orders to fall back, Colonel Woods says, in 
his official report: 

"Seeing ourselves surrounded, we nevertheless opened a 
brisk fire on that portion of the enemy who blocked our pass- 



JOSEPH J. WOODS. 249 

age to the Landing, who, after briskly returning our fire for a 
short time, fell back. A brisk fire from the enemy on our left 
was going on at the same time. Seeing the enemy in front 
falling back, we attempted, by a rapid movement, to cut our 
way through; but the enemy on our left advanced rapidly, 
coming in behind us, pouring into our ranks a most destructive 
fire. The enemy in front faced about, and opened on us at 
short range, the enemy in our rear still closing in on us rapidly. 
I received two wounds, disabling me from further duty. The 
command then devolved on Captain Edgington, acting as field' 
officer. The enemy had, however, already so closely sur- 
rounded us that their balls, which missed our men, took effect 
in their ranks beyond us. To have held out longer would have 
been to suffer complete annihilation. The regiment was there- 
fore compelled to surrender as prisoners of war." 

The regiment's list of casualties was great, though the exact 
number I am unable to give. The killed and wounded num- 
bered about one hundred and fifty. Of the conduct of his 
regiment, Colonel Woods says : — " Captains Earle, Warner, 
Stibbs, Haddock, Van Puzee and Townsley performed well 
their part, as did all the lieutenants in the action, in a prompt 
and willing manner. The non-commissioned officers and men 
stood bravely up to their work, and never did men behave 
better." Lieutenants Ferguson and Moir, two brave and wor- 
thy officers, were both killed. As already stated, Colonel 
Woods was twice wounded, and taken prisoner. He was shot 
through the left leg and right hand. The former wound dis- 
abled him, so that he could not march to the rear with the 
other prisoners, and the fortunes of the following day restored 
him to liberty ; for he was re-captured by our forces. Over 
four hundred of the 12th Iowa were captured, and, of these, 
eighty died in Southern prisons. That is the saddest page in 
the history of this noble regiment. 

The 12th Iowa was re-organized in the winter of lS(J2-3, that 
portion of it which had been captured having been previously 
exchanged. The regiment was again led to the front by its 



250 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

unassuming colonel, and assigned to the 3d Brigade, 3d Divis- 
ion, loth Army Corps. The command of the brigade was given 
to Colonel Woods. A detailed account of the movements of 
the regiment need not be given here; for a full history of 
operations in the rear of Vicksburg will be found elsewhere. 
The 12th marched with its corps from Milliken's Bend, via 
Grand Gulf to Jackson, and thence to the rear of Vicksburg, 
where it participated in the long and arduous siege. On the 



fall of that city, it marched back with Sherman to Jackson, 
and, after the flight of Johnson, assisted in the almost total 
destruction of the place. 

The regiment's next important services were rendered in 
Northern Mississippi, in the spring of 1864; though I should 
not omit to state that it marched with Sherman on his trip to 
Meridian. 

It re-en lifted as a veteran regiment, in the winter of 1863-4, 
and came North vn veteran furlough; after which, it was 
assigned to the command of General A. J. Smith, and, under 
that general, fought at the battle of Tupelo, July 14th, 1864. 
Its conduct in this engagement, and in saving Smith's train 
from capture and burning the day before, between Pontotoc 
and Tupelo, made it one of the star regiments of the expedi- j 

tion. 

The previous reverses, sustained by the army stationed at 
and near Memphis, under General Sturgis, are stated in the 
sketches of other officers. The expedition in question left 
La Grange, on the line of the Memphis and Charleston Bail- 
road, on the 5th of July, 1864; and, proceeding in a south- 
easterly direction, passed through Ripley and Pontotoc, and 
thence on to Tupelo. The heat and the dust rendered the 
march extremely painful and exhausting; but the brave men 
endured the hardships with great fortitude, for they were to 
retrieve our arms in that quarter from disgrace. 



JOSF.PH J. WOODS. 251 

On the 13th instant, the 12th Iowa was assigned the duty of 
guarding: the supply-train, a task which was not without its 
dangers, and which, on account of the hilly and timbered 
country through which the. march lay, required the greatest 
vigilance. The country, too, was full of scouting- parties of the 
enemy. Early in the afternoon, Lieutenant-Colonel Stihbs, 
commanding the regiment, was informed by one of his flankers 
that, the enemy's cavalry, in large force, were advancing 
rapidly through the timber on his right. It proved to be 
Maley's Mississippi Brigade. Learning their intended point 
of attack, the colonel threw his regiment in their front, and, 
concealing his men in the dense brush, ordered them to hold 
their fire till they received the proper command. Soon, the 
enemy came dashing through the woods, firing their carbines, 
and shouting like demons. They were allowed to approach 
within less than twenty paces, when a well-directed volley 
from the regiment checked them, and a second one drove 
them back in confusion, with the loss of their colors. They 
continued a scattering fire for fifteen or twenty minutes, and 
then retired. 

In this affair, the loss of the 12th Iowa was one man killed, 
and twelve wounded. Among the latter, was Captain C. 
L. Lurabardo. The battle of Tupelo opened the next 
morning. 

On Thursday, the 1 1th instant, Smith's army was put under 
arms at three o'clock in the morning, and was soon after 
marched out and formed in line, on the right of the Pontotoc 
road. The position of the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, to which 
was attached the 12th Iowa, was as follows: "On the extreme 
right was stationed the jSth Indiana Battery, four guns; next 
in line, on the left, was the 33d Wisconsin, of the 4th Brigade; 
next, the 33d Missouri; next, the 2d Iowa Battery, four guns, 
commanded by Lieutenant J. Heed: and on the left of the 



252 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

brigade, in the most advanced position of our front line of 
battle, was the 12th Iowa, the 7th Minnesota being in reserve." 

Immediately after the line was formed, skirmishers were 
thrown out; and soon, the enemy, moving from their cover in 
the timber, appeared in force, and formed for the encounter. 
The battle opened with artillery, which was fired with great 
rapidity and precision. The range was short, and the screach- 
ing of shells, and the whistling of grape and canister, was 
frightful. In the meantime, the enemy pushed their infantry 
forward, and engaged the whole Federal front. The 12th Iowa < 

was protected by an old fence thrown down for a barricade, 
from behind which it did terrible, execution, repelling every 
rebel assault. And thus the fighting continued for upward of 
two hours, when the regiment, having exhausted its ammuni- 
tion, was sent to the rear. In half an hour, it returned with 
replenished cartridge-boxes, and, taking up its former position, 
again engaged the enemy. As the battle progressed, the 
enemy made charge after charge, confident of victory. They 
would approach within fifty yards of the Federal line, when, 
mot by terrible volleys of canister and musketry, they would 
stagger fur a moment, and then retire precipitately. To whip 
Smith's forces, was to be a "fore-breakfast spell"; but they 
must have thought their breakfast a long way off. Finally, 
they were charged in turn by the 12th Iowa in the ran, the 
35th Iowa, the 33d Missouri, the 33d Wisconsin and two com- 
panies of the 7th Minnesota. They could not face the valor 
of these veterans, and tied to the woods, leaving the bloody 
field in possession of the Federal forces. Nor did they return 
that day to renew the contest. 

Of the second day's fight, and of the results of both days' 
battles, Lieutenant-Colonel Stibbs says: 

"On the morning of the 15th instant my regiment was 
assigned a position to the left of the Pontotoc road, and formed 



JOSEPH J. WOODS. 253 

the left centre of the brigade line. We had a substantial breast- 
work of cotton-bales in our front, which served as an admirable 
protection against the enemy's sharp-shooters. We took full 
part in the fight and charge of the day, losing one man killed 
and three wounded. Our loss during the three days' fighting 
was one officer and eight men killed, one officer and fifty-four 
men wounded, and one man missing." 

Lieutenant A. A. Burdick, acting regimental quarter-master, 
was killed by a shell, while assisting to bring forward ammu- 
nition. He was a gallant young officer, and held in the highest 
esteem by his regiment. Sergeant Robert Fowler and Corporal 
G. R. llolden were also killed. 

Being without supplies, General Smith could not continue 
the pursuit; and he therefore moved back in the direction of 
Memphis. Indeed, I am informed that the object of the expe- 
dition was accomplished on the battle-field of Tupelo — Forest 
and his command had been routed. The enemy's cavalry 
followed on the return as far as Oldtown Creek, giving the rear 
guard much trouble; but so skillfully and successfully was the 
march conducted, that not a single wagon of the long train was 
lost. The expedition arrived at La Grange on the 20th instant ; 
and from that point all the wounded were sent forward to 
Memphis. 

The entire Federal loss in the fighting at Tupelo was about 
six hundred, while the enemy's was estimated at not less than 
two thousand. 

After General Smith's operations against Price in Missouri, 
in which the 12th Iowa took part, we next find the regiment 
with that general before Nashville. In the battles fought 
south of the last named city, it figured conspicuously; and its 
gallantry became the more noted, from the fact that it went 
into the fight without a single line officer: each company was 
commanded by a sergeant. Lieutenant-Colonel J. 11. Stibbs 
commanded the regiment, and Captain, now Major Knee was 



254 IOWA COLONELS AND KEGIMEXTS. 

acting major — both bravo and true men. The regiment's eon- 
duct at Nashville is deserving- of the greatest praise; for its 
colors were among the first to be placed upon the enemy's 
strong redoubts. It accomplished much, with but small loss 
— two killed and eighteen wounded. The 12th Iowa last 
operated with General Smith, in the reduction of Mobile, or 
rather the strong fnvi^, by which that city was defended. 

Colonel Woods has a slender, stooping form, brown hair, a 
light complexion, and mild, blue eyes. He is, in appearance 
and in fact, the most unassuming of the Iowa colonels, lie 
speaks slowly and kindly, and was accustomed to give his 
commands with great coolness and deliberation. The officers 
and men of his regiment at first thought he lacked style and 
energy; but they soon learned he possessed great worth as a 
commanding officer. He is the farthest removed from every 
thing that distinguishes regular armv officers. 



BRIGADIER-GENERAL M. M. CROCKER. 

FIRST COLOXKT,, THIRTEENTH IM'.VXTUY. 

Marcellus M. Crocker is a native of Johnson county, 
Indiana, where he was born on the Gth day of February, 1830. 
At the age of ten years, he accompanied his father's family to 
Illinois, whence, after a residence of four or five years, he 
removed to Jefferson county, Iowa. The extent of his early 
education I have failed to learn ; but, at the ago of sixteen, he 
was appointed, through the recommendation of General A. C. 
Dodge, a cadet in the military academy at West Point. He is 
not however a graduate of that Institution. After an attend- 
ance of some two years and a half, his health failed him, and 
lie was compelled to leave the Academy. Late in 18-19, he 
returned to Iowa, and began the study of law in the office of 
Judge Olney, at Fairfield. He commenced the practice of his 
profession in 1851, in the town of Lancaster, Keokuk county, 
when- he remained till the spring of 1S55, and then removed 
to Des Moines, his present home. 

General Crocker entered the service as captain of Company 
1), 2d Iowa Infantry. He had recruited his company in April, 
1861, fur the three month's service, (as was the case with nearly 
every captain of the 2d Iowa) but, the State's quota for that 
term of service bavin-- been already filled, he was assigned to 
the 2d Iowa, ami, at the rendezvous of the regiment in 
Keokuk, was elected its major. With that rank ho entered 
the field. Four months later, he was commissioned lieuten- 
ant-colonel, vice Tuttle, promoted, and on the 30th of October 
following:, was transferred from his regiment, and madecolonel 
of the 13th Iowa Infantry. In the winter of lS(52-3, he was 



2o6 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 



appointed and confirmed a brigadier-general. His promotions 
were rapid and richly merited ; for, with her splendid galaxy 
of military heroes, Iowa can not boast a better nor truer soldier 
than General Crocker. 

During his colonelcy of the 13th Iowa, General Crocker took 
part in two engagements — Shiloh and Corinth. In the for- 
mer, he commanded his regiment, and in the latter the Iowa 
Brigade — the oldest and not the least distinguished brigade 
command in the Army of the Tennessee. In the former, his 
conduct was gallant in the extreme; and how he escaped with- 
out injury is really wonderful. I have spoken elsewhere of 
the confusion that reigned on the field in the afternoon of the. 
first day's battle. At about four and a half o'clock it was at 
its bight, and was so wild and terrible as to beggar description. 
At that hour, Colonel Crocker was conspicuous. I am told that 
his splendid example of courage contributed not a little toward 
the establishment of the new line, which successfully resisted 
the enemy's further advance that night. The progress of the 
battle on the left, I have given in the sketch of Colonel W. G. 
Williams. To show its opening and progress on the right, I 
quote from the official report of Colonel Crocker ; for that gives 
the clearest and most intelligible account of any that I have 
seen : 

"Early on the morning of the sixth, the alarm was given, 
and heavy firing in the distance indicated that our camp was 
attacked. The regiment was formed in front of its color-line, 
its full force consisting of seven hundred and seventeen men, 
rank and file. It was at once ordered to form on the left of the 
2d Brigade, and proceeded to that position at a double-quick, 
and was then formed in line of battle in a skirt of woods, 
bordering on an open field, to the left of a battery. Here it 
remained for some time inactive, while the enemy's guns were 
playing on our battery. In the meantime, a large force of the 
enemy's infantry were filing around the open field in front of 
our line, protected by the woods, and in the direction of our 



MARCELLUS U. CEOCKER. 257 

battery, opening a heavy fire of musketry on the infantry sta- 
tioned on our right, and charging upon the battery. The 
infantry and battery to the right having given way, and the 
enemy advancing at double-quick, we gave them one round of 
musketry, and also gave way. At this time we, as indeed all 
of our troops in the immediate vicinity of the battery, were 
thrown into great confusion, and retired in disorder. Having 
retreated to the distance of one or two hundred yards, we suc- 
ceeded in rallying and forming a good line, the Sth and ISth 
Illinois volunteers on our left, and, having fronted to the 
enemy, held our position there under a continual fire of cannon 
and musketry, until after twelve o'clock, when we were ordered 
to retire and take up a new position. This we did in good 
order, and without confusion. 

"Here having formed a new line, we maintained it under an 
incessant fire, until four and a half o'clock, P. M., the men 
conducting themselves with great gallantry and coolness, and 
doing great execution on the enemy, repelling charge after 
charge, and driving them back with great loss. At four and a 
half o'clock, we were again ordered to fall back. In obeying 
this order, we became mixed up with a great many other regi- 
ments, falling back in confusion, so that our line was broken, 
and the regiment separated, rendering it very difficult to 
collect it." 

This was the last order to retire that was given that after- 
noon, and the last ground yielded to the enemy; for the new 
line, when firmed, was held successfully. It should, however, 
be stated that, it was now near night, and there was little 
more fighting that evening. It was in this new position that 
Colonel Hare, of the 11th Iowa, was wounded and retired 
from the field. During the day, he had commanded the 1st 
Brigade of McClernand's Division. After he was wounded 
and left the field, the command of the brigade was then 
turned over to Colonel Crocker— "his able and gallant succes- 
sor." 

In closing his report of the battle of Shiloh, Colonel Crocker 
.-ays : 

"During the day, we were under fire of the enemy for ten 
17 



258 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

hours, aud sustained a loss of twenty-three killed, and or. 
hundred and thirty wounded. 

"On the morning of the 7th, we were ordered to continue 
with Colonel Tuttle's Division, and to follow up and support 
our forces that were attacking, and driving back the enemy. 
We followed them up closely, moving to support the batteries, I 
until the enemy was routed, after which, we were ordered to 
return to the encampment that we had left on Sunday morn- 
ing, where we arrived at eight o'clock, P. M. Our total loss 
in the action of the Gth and 7th is killed, twenty-four; 
wounded, one hundred and thirty-nine; missing, nine: total, 
one hundred and seventy-two. The men, for the most part, 
behaved with great gallantry. All the officers exhibited the \ 
greatest bravery and coolness; and I call especial attention to 
the gallant conduct of my field officers, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Price and Major Shane, who were both wounded in the action I 
of the Gth, and acknowledge my great obligations to my adju- 
tant, Lieutenant Wilson, who, during the entire action, 
exhibited the highest qualities of a soldier." 

The last gun was fired at Shiloh, before two o'clock in the] 

afternoon of the 7th, and that same evening, the main portion ' 

of Grant's army marched back to their former encampment-. 

where, having buried the dead and cared for the wounded. . 

i 
they rested. 

Immediately after this engagement, the Iowa Brigade was ] 
organized, and placed under the command of Colonel Crocker. \ 
It was composed of the 11th, 13th, loth and 16th Iowa regi- 
ments, and afterward, as I have already said, became one of 
the most distinguished brigade commands in the Army of the j 
Tennessee. Under its first commander, it acquired that disci- 1 
pline and efficiency, for which it was noted under each of the j 
general's successors— Chambers, Hall and Belknap. It has 
distinguished itself on half a score of battle-fields, and once 
saved the Army of the Tennessee from calamitous defeat. K 
has a most brilliant record. With this brigade, Colonel 
Crocker fought at the battle of Corinth; but an account of that 
engagement will be found in the sketches of other officers. 

1 



MABCELLUS M. CROCKER. 259 

In the winter of 1SG2-3, the colonel was made a brigadier- 
general. His sterling qualities as a soldier, and his continued 
gallant deportment earned the promotion. After receiving 
his commission, he continued with his brigade till the latter 
part of April, 1863, when, by order of General McPherson, he 
succeeded General Quiniby in the command of the 7th Divi- 
sion, 17th Army Corps— the division which fought so gallantly, 
and lost so heavily at Jackson and Champion's Hill. He joined 
his division at Bruinsburg, just after it had crossed the Missis- 
sippi, and commanded it in the two above engagements. 

On the evening of the 13th of May, the 7th Division bivou- 
acked, with its army corps at Clinton, ten miles west of 
Jackson. The following night it was to camp in Jackson. 
The character of the country between Clinton and Jackson, 
the condition of the roads, and the state of the weather on the 
morning of the 14th instant, I have given elsewhere. Crocker's 
Division led the advance. This post of honor was granted by 
McPherson, at the general's own request, which barely antici- 
pated a similar one from Logan. The march was made, and 
Hie enen^y encountered about two and a half miles west of the 
city. Their line of battle was along a high ridge, and extended 
from north to south, as far as the eye could reach. The rain 
was falling in torrents, and, until it partially ceased, the two 
armies stood and watched each other. In half an hour it broke 
away, when General Crocker, pushing forward the 12th Wis- 
consin Battery, saluted General Johnson. Tattle's Division of 
Sherman's Corps, which had in the meantime come up on the 
south side of the city, opened on the enemy at nearly the same 
, instant. The 2d Iowa Battery, Lieutenant Peed, tired the first 
gun on the south side of Jackson. The enemy's force was 
about ten thousand, and the principal portion of it was it! 
Crocker's front; but he pushed his leading brigade, winch was 
drawn up in a continuous line, to the farthest point that 



260 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

afforded cover, and then ordered a charge. It was a magnifi- 
cent sight, for the conduct of the brigade was magnificent. 
The battle was bloody, but not protracted: in ten minutes 
after the order to charge was given, the enemy were fleeing in 
total rout; nor did they stop until they had crossed Pearl 
River. 

For so great results, the Federal loss was small — only two 
hundred and eighty-six; but all, except six or eight of the 
casualties, were from the 2d Brigade of Crocker's Division. 
The press of Illinois gave Logan the credit of fighting the 
battle of Jackson. It was all wrong. His command was not 
under fire; nor did it lose a man, even by a stray shot. The 
general himself was at the front, where he always was, when 
there was any fighting to be done; but he was only a spectator. 
He sat quietly on his horse, caressing his huge mustache, till 
word came of the flight of the enemy across the river, when he 
rode into the city. In his official report, General McPherson 
says: — " Colonel Sanborn was directed to send the flag of one 
of his regiments, which had borne itself most gallantly in the 
battle, and place it on the Capitol of the State of Mississippi, 
and shortly before four o'clock the flag of the o9th Indiana was 
proudly waving from the dome." The 59th Indiana "bore 
itself gallantly," but it did not fire a gun at Jackson. The 
10th Missouri, 17th Iowa and SOth Ohio made the charge, and 
captured the city; and why the flag of the 59th first waved 
from the dome was, the regiments entitled to the honor had 
been left on the field, and could not be reached. Had General 
Crocker delayed five minutes longer, the colors of the 9-3th 
Ohio of Tuttle's Division, would have flaunted from the rebel 
Capitol. 

As soon as the fighting was done, General Crocker rode 
down his line to the 17th Iowa, and to the other regiments of 
the brigade, and thanked them for their gallantry; and as he 



MARCELEUS M. CROCKER. 261 

looked back on the hill-slope, where were lying the dead and 
wounded, his eyes filled with tears, and his voice choked with 
emotion. "Noble fellows," he said, "I am sorry, but we can 
not help it." 

Two days after the battle at Jackson, General Crocker com- 
manded his division at Champion's Hill. His own, with 
Hovey's and Logan's Divisions, fought that battle— the 
bitterest of the whole campaign, if we except the charge on 
the 22d of May ; but an account of this engagement has been 
already given. 

In June, 1863, General Crocker came North on sick leave. 
His health, always bad, had been rendered much worse by the 
hardships aud exposures of the recent campaign, and he 
accepted his leave, at the urgent request of General Grant. 
There is a story connected with this sick leave, which illus- 
trates the kind-heartedness of General Grant, and which 
affords me pleasure to relate. On the return of General 
Quimby in the latter part of May, he resumed command of 
his old division, when General Crocker was placed temporarily 
upon the staff of General Grant. Crocker's tent being near 
that of Grant, the attention of the latter was attracted by the 
severe and almost incessant coughing of the former during the 
night ; and, on meeting him the morning after, General Grant 
said : "General Crocker, was that you whom I heard coughing 
so last night?" "Yes," replied the general. "Well, then, 
my dear fellow, you must go straight home, for you will die 
here." 

The general was at his home in Dcs Moines, at the time the 
Union Gubernatorial Convention was held in that city. Dur- 
ing its session, he visited the hall of the Convention, and the 
evldt with which he was received, was a flattering testimonial 
of the esteem in which he was held by his State. He was the 
choice of the Convention for Governor of Iowa, and was 



2b2 IOWA COLONELS AST) REGIMENTS. 

earnestly solicited to accept the nomination; but his answer 
was: "If a soldier is worth any thing, he can not be spared 
from the field; and, if he is worthless, he will not make a 
good Governor." The argument was unanswerable, and his 
name was reluctantly dropped. 

Early in July, 1863, General Crocker returned to the field, 
and was given a division command, and made Commandant of 
the District of Natchez. While commanding at Natchez, he 
made his expedition to Harrisonburg, Louisiana. "The expe- 
dition consisted of the following troops: the 2d Brigade, 4th 
Division, Colonel G. Hall, 14th Illinois, commanding; the 3d 
Brigade, 4th Division, General W. Q. Gresham commanding; 
Company F, 3d Illinois Battery, and the 15th Ohio Battery, 
with the 17th Wisconsin Infantry, mounted, commanded by 
Colonel Mallory." At Harrisonburg, the enemy were reported 
in considerable force, and intrenched in strong works. The 
object of the expedition was to destroy these works and ord- 
nance property, and capture or disperse the rebel garrison. It 
resulted in the capture and burning of one small steamer on 
Black River at Trinity, the capture and destruction of Fort 
Beauregard at Harrisonburg, the destruction of all ammunition 
and six pieces of artillery; and the capture of about twenty 
prisoners and two six-pound brass cannon. There was no 
battle — only trilling skirmishing. 

li\ the fall of 1863, General Crocker returned to Vicksburg, 
where he joined Sherman on the Meridian march. In the 
following Spring, he joined his corps (the 17th) in its march 
across the country to Georgia; but, on account of ill health, 
was relieved, and, early in the summer of 1864, was tendered a 
command hi New-Mexico, with head-quarters at Fort Sumner. 



Believing the climate would be beneficial to his health, the 
general accepted this command, since which time he has served 
in that department. 



MARCEI/LU3 M. CROCKER. 263 

General Crocker is about five feet ten inches in bight, with a 
blender, nervous form, which can never pass one unnoticed. 
He has a passionate temper, and is plain-spoken, often saying 
things which, in his calmer moments, he would leave unsaid. 

His mode of discipline is severe and uncompromising, and a 
careless blunder he would never excuse. On one occasion, 
while in command of the Iowa Brigade, a general review was 
ordered, and great pains was taken to avoid all mistakes. One 
can imagine then what must have been the general's mortifica- 
tion to see Colonel , of his leading regiment, ride past the 

reviewing officer, with his sword at a protracted "present." 

That was bad enough; but next followed Colonel , whose 

regiment passed with arms at a " right-shoulder-shift." When 
the review was over, the regimental commanders Were sum- 
moned to the general's head-quarters, when, beginning with 
the chief in rank, he administered the following rebuke: — 
"Now, Sir, aren't you a pretty man — and pretend to be a 
military man — and educated at a military school ! " " But — " 
(began the colonel, wishing to apologize) " Hush up, Sir. I'm 
doing the talking here." It all ended in a friendly chat, and 
in an order for a new review ; and there was no more mistakes. 

As a military man, General Crocker has boon pre-eminently 
successful, not only as a disciplinarian, but as a bold and able 
leader. Asa division commander, he has no superior in the 
State, and, what is a little remarkable, this fact is universally 
conceded. 

Nor was the general less successful as a civilian, than he has 
been as a soldier. Though young, he ranked, at the time of 
entering the service, among the best lawyers of Bes Moines — 
tiic city which boasted one of the ablest bars in the State. 
C. C. Cole, ( now Judge of the State Supreme Court ) J. A. 
Kasson, (now Congressman from the 5th Bistrict) C. C. 
Nourse, (Attorney General of the State) T. F. Withrow, 



264 IOWA COLONELS AXD REG EXTENTS. 

(State Supreme Court Reporter) P. M. Cassady, (General 
Crocker's law-partner) General Williamson, Polk, Jewett, W. 
W. Williamson, Finch, St. John, Ellwood, Rice, Clark, 
Mitchell, Ingersoll, Smith, Phillips, White, McKay anrl 
Brown, was Des Moines' roll of attorneys in the spring of 1861, 
and of these the general ranked among the very best, as an 
advocate and circuit practitioner. Some say that, in these 
respects, he led the Des Moines Bar. 



COLONEL JOHN SHANE. 

SECOND COLONEL, THIRTEENTH INFANTRY. 

John Shane was born in tho county of Jefferson, Ohio, on 
the 2Gth of May, 1822, and was educated at Jefferson College, 
Pennsylvania. After graduating, he taught school for a few 
years in Kentucky, and then, returning to Ohio, studied 
law in the office of E. M. Stanton, Esq., now our honored 
Secretary of War. He was admitted to the bar at Steuben- 
ville, in 1848, where he continued in the practice till the year 
1855, when he removed to Vinton, Benton county, Iowa, his 
present home. 

Colonel Shane volunteered as a private in Company G, 13th 
Iowa Infantry; and, on its organization, was elected its cap- 
tain. This rank he held till the 30th of October, 1861, when 
he was elected to the majority of his regiment. At the battle 
of Shiioh, both Lieutenant-Colonel Price and Major Shane 
were severdy wounded. The former soon after resigning his 
commission, Major Shane was promoted to the lieutenant- 
colonelcy. On the loth of March, 1S63, he succeeded General 
Crocker to the colonelcy of the 13th Iowa Infantry, which 
position ho retained till the expiration of his three years' 
term of service. The principal portion of the history of this 
gallant regiment has been made under Colonel Shane; for, 
with the exception of Shiioh, it was under his command in all 
its engagements, prior to the fall of Atlanta. It is, however, 
but proper to state that, for several months after Colonel 
Crocker I'll his regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Shane was 
indehted to him for its marked efficiency; for, although in 

2G5 



260 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

command of a brigade and nominally absent, the colonel was 
really the commanding officer of the regiment. 

I need not record in full the services of the 13th Iowa, for 
they are given elsewhere, in connection with the histories of 
the other regiments of the Iowa Brigade. Dating from the 
middle of April, 1S02, the records of these regiments are almost 
precisely the same. 

Returning from General Grant's march into Central Missis- 
sippi in the winter of 1SG2-3, the 13th Iowa, with its brigade, 
returned to the line of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, 
and, for a few weeks, went into camp at La Fayette, Tennessee. 
About the 20th of January, the brigade marched to Memphis, 
and on the 22d left that city on transports for Young's Point, 
Louisiana. Here the regiment remained for several weeks, 
furnishing heavy details to work on the celebrated Vicksburg 
Canal, which taps the Mississippi just below Young's Point. 
The services of the 13th Iowa and of the Iowa Brigade were, 
from this time till the following September, of the most annoy- 
ing and fatiguing nature. 

In the complicated movements around Vicksburg, which 
attended its investment and capture, the regiment acted a 
prominent part ; though the services performed were of such a 
nature as not to challenge special notice. General McArthur's 
Division, to which the Iowa Brigade was attached, was the last 
of the 17th Corps to leave the river above Vicksburg, in the 
march across the country (o the river below that city. By the 
time this division had reached a point opposite Grand Gulf, 
the brilliant successes of General McClernand and two divis- 
ions of General McPherson's Corps had compelled the evacua- 
tion of this point; and all that was now required of McArthur 
was to cross the river, and take possession of the place. This 
happened on the 6th of May, and, from that date until after 
the battles of Champion's Hill and Big Black River Bridge, 



JOHN SHANE. 267 

Grand Gulf was held by the Iowa Brigade, and made a sort of 
base from which Grant's army received its Supplies, and where 
all surplus baggage was stored. 

There is an amusing and honest story connected with the 
occupation of Grand Gulf. Admiral 1). D. Porter, since become 
celebrated on the coast of the Atlantic, had tried nearly one 
whole day to reduce this strong-hold, with his gun-boat fleet ; 
but he so far failed as not to silence a single gun. lie still 
watched in the vicinity, and, when the garrison, flanked by 
MeClernand and McPherson, were compelled to evacuate, at 
once entered and occupied the works, and labeled upon the 
breech of every gun, "Captured by Admiral D. I). Porter, 
May 6th, 1863." I suppose Admiral Porter did well at Fort 
Fisher, as, indeed, he did on the Mississippi; but, though he is 
a brave and efficient officer, General Ben. Butler is not the only 
one who has had occasion to "blow the froth from his lively 
porter." 

On the 19th of May, at mid-night, the Iowa Brigade was 
ordered back by forced marches across the neck of land to 
Young's Point, and sent by boat up the Yazoo, to the assist- 
ance of Sherman; but, on its arrival, it was learned that 
Sherman had sufik-ient force, and it was ordered again to the 
left. It retraced its weary stops, and, crossing the Mississippi 
River near Warrenton, marched to the front, arriving on the 
evening of the memorable 22d of May, but too late to partici- 
pate in the general charge. 

What is true of the position of Grant's forces before Vicks- 
burg, on the morning of the 22d of May, is not generally 
known. The left of McClernand's Corps did not extend to the 
river below the city. A strip of country nearly seven miles 
in width, between McClernand's left and the river, was held 
by the enemy : and it was this gap in the line, which 
McArthur was ordered to fill, and which, when filled, 



268 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

completed the investment of Vicksburg. In coming into this 
position, the Iowa Brigade skirmished nearly the entire day 
of the 22d, and, as I have said, arrived before the enemy's 
works, just after tbe disastrous charge. But this position 
was maintained by General McArthur only until the 2Gth of 
May, the date of the arrival of General Lauman's command ; 
for in the meantime, the enemy were reported to be concen- 
trating in heavy force in the direction of Yazoo City, and the 
Upper Big Black, for the purpose of moving on General 
Grant's roar, to raise tbe siege; and General Blair, with a 
picked command, consisting of McArthur's Division and other 
troops was ordered out to disperse them. This, with the 
exception of the march to Monroe, Louisiana, and that one 
just recently made through the bottomless swamps of South 
Carolina, is the hardest one the Iowa Brigade ever made. It 
was made by forced marches, in the heat of a Southern sum- 
mer's sun, and through dust that was well-nigh suffocating. By 
those who participated in it, it will never be forgotten. But 
tbe march was the only thing of terror connected with the expe- 
dition; for the enemy, who were met only in inconsiderable 
force near Mechanics vUle, were dispersed with but few casual- 
ties. The expedition, however, was not without its good 
results; for, on its return byway of the fertile valley of the 
Yazoo, almost fabulous quantities of corn and cotton were 
destroyed. Five thousand head of cattle, sheep and hogs, too, 
were driven back to Grant's needy army. 

After the return of this expedition, the 13th Iowa, with its 
brigade, constituted a portion of the force with which General 
Sherman held at bay the rebel General Johnson, on the Big 
Black. On the 3d and 4th of July, the regiment skirmished 
with the enemy's advance, and, on their retreat to Jackson, 
followed in close pursuit. Next follows the expedition under 
Brigadier-General Stevenson, from Vicksburg to Monroe, 



JOHN SHANE. liGy 

Louisiana, which was made in the middle of August, 1S(3G; and 
nn account of which appears in the sketch of General J. M. 
lfedriek, formerly of the 15th Jowa. 

The following Autumn, and the greater part of the following 
Winter, were passed by the 13th Iowa in camp at Vicksburg. 
It was at Vicksburg that the regiment re-enlisted as veteran 
volunteers. Immediately after the march to Meridian, in 
which the 13th joined, it returned North on veteran furlough. 
The balance of its history has been made in the three wonder- 
ful marches of General Sherman — from Dalton to Atlanta, 
from Atlanta to Savannah, and from Savannah to Goldsboro 
and Washington. The regiment bore a conspicuous part in 
the memorable engagement of the 22d of July before Atlanta. 
Its loss was eleven killed, forty-two wounded, and ninety-six 
missing. Among the killed was the brave Major William A. 
Walker; and among the wounded, Captain George McLaugh- 
lin and Lieutenants Wesley Huff, George B. Hunter, and 
Charles II. Haskins. Captain Pope, and Lieutenants Rice, 
Parker and Eyestone were captured. 

The aggregate loss of the 13th Town during the Atlanta Cam- 
paign I have failed to learn. 

That which has most contributed to give the regiment a 
National reputation is the part it acted, or a portion of it, in 
the capture of Columbia, South Carolina, on the 17th of Feb- 
ruary, 18G5. The colors of the regiment, in the hands of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Justin C. Kennedy, were the first to flaunt 
from the capitol building of South Carolina. 

l: Head-quarters 4tii Divisios, 17th Ap.mv Corps, 
"Near Columbia, S. C, Fobruary ]7, 1865 

"Brigadier-General W. W. Belknap: 

"Sir: — Allow me to congratulate you, and through you, 
Lieutenant-Colonel J. C. Kennedy, 13th Iowa Veteran Volun- 
teers, and the men under his command, for first entering the 
city of Columbia on the morning of Friday, February 17th, 



270 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

and being the first to plant his colors on the Capitol of South 
Carolina. 

"I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 

" Your obedient servant, 

"Giles A. Smith, 
" Brevet Jtfaj or- General Commanding. ," 

Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy is a resident of Vernon, Linn 
county, Iowa. He is thirty-two years of age, and a native of 
the State of Now York. His name will live in American 
history. 

Colonel Shane is one of the largest of the Iowa colonels, his 
weight being two hundred and ten pounds. He lias sandy 
hair, (perhaps red) a frorid complexion and blue eyes, looking 
out through a large, round, good-natured face. He is of an 
easy, jovial nature, relishes a joke, and is fond of good living. 
He ranked fairly as a soldier, and was popular with his com- 
mand. 

At home and in private life, he is much respected. He is 
economical, and has secured a snug property. I am told he 
was one of the few officers of our army who honestly made 
money in the service. 

From the organization of the Republican Party in his county, 
he has been a prominent, working member. He was a dele- 
gate to the State Convention which re-nominated the Hon. 
Samuel J. Kirkwood for Governor of Iowa. 



COLOXEL WILLIAM TUCKERMAX SHAW. 

FOURTEENTH IX FA XTKY. 

The beltigerous Colonel Siiaw is a native of the State of 
Maine, and was born in the town of Steuben, Washing-ton 
county, on the 22d day of September, 1S22. He received his 
education at the Maine Wesleyan Seminary, and after leaving 
that Institution removed to Kentucky, where he engaged in 
school teaching. He Mas in Kentucky at the time war was 
declared by our Government against Mexico, and enlisted in 
the 2d Kentucky Infantry regiment, commanded by the 
gallant Colonel William II. McKee. He served with his 
regiment till the close of the war, accompanying it on every 
march, and fighting with it in every engagement, in which it- 
took part. He was present in the sanguinary battle of Buena 
Vista; nod was on that hill-slope, and in that ravine, where 
the battle raged with such fury, and where Colonel McKee was 
killed, and the chivalrie Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Clay, Jr., 
mortally wounded. On the declaration of peace, he assisted in 
clearing our South-western borders of those hostile tribes of 
Indians, which were then so annoying to the frontier settlers. 

]>y his greed courage and determination, Colonel Shaw 
attained notoriety, and, in 1849, was chosen the leader of the 
first party, which crossed the barren and trackless country 
lying between Fort Smith, Arkansas, and Santa Fe. This 
event at that day was quite notable; and the number and 
names of the party have been preserved. It was composed of 
thirty-six men— citizens of New York, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Louisiana and Arkansas. In 1852, Colonel Shaw again eross< d 
the plains, starting from Council Blufis; and, tins time, he was 

271 



272 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

accompanied by only one man. In 1853, he settled in Ana- 
mosa, Jones county, Iowa, where he has since resided. 

Colonel Shaw was made colonel of the 14th Iowa Infantry, 
on the 24th day of October, 1861 j and held tins rank till the 
summer of 1864, when he was dismissed the service. 

The first of the long and bloody series of battles in which 
the 14th Iowa has borne a conspicuous part was that of Fort 
Donelson. Though present at the capture of Fort Henry, the 
regiment was not engaged. In the engagement at Fort Don- 
elson, the 14th Iowa held the right of its brigade; and, on the 
afternoon of the 13th, two days before the successful assault 
which was led by the left wing of the 2d Iowa, under Colonel 
Tuttle, charged the enemy's works in connection with' the 25th 
Indiana. The object of this assault was the capture of a six- 
gun battery, and the enemy's line in front; but through the 
failure of the 2-3th Indiana, under the immediate command of 
Colonel Lauman, to co-operate in the movement, no advantage 
was gained, except that a slightly advanced position was taken 
and held. 

On the afternoon of the 15th of February, the 14th moved 
into the enemy's works to the right of the 2d Iowa, and soon 
after they had been entered by that regiment. In this day's 
fight the Loss of the regiment was trifling — only one man 
killed, and seven wounded. On the afternoon of the 13th, 
it suffered mure severely, losing two killed and fourteen 
wounded. 

In closing his official report of this engagement, Colonel 
Shaw says : 

" I may mention the valuable services rendered by Sergeant- 
Major S. II. Smith, who was shot dead by my side, while 
encouraging the men on to enter the breast-works of the 
enemy; also 1st Lieutenant William \Y. Kirkwood, comniaud- 
ing Company K, rendered very valuable assistance, in forming 



WILLIAM T. SHAW. 273 

the- line in front of the enemy's breast-works. Captain War- 
ren C. Jones, of Company I, also rendered valuable service, in 
directing the fire of my marksmen, and, especially, in protect- 
ing the retiring of the skirmishers on the 13th instant." 

I am informed that Colonel Shaw was mistaken in the case 
of Lieutenant Kirkwood. Second-Lieutenant Charles P. 
King commanded Company K at Fort Donelson, and distin- 
guished himself. 

Sergeant I. N. Rhodes, of Company I, also distinguished 
himself. Just after his regiment had gained the enemy's rifle- 
pits, the 1st Missouri Battery was hurried up to a sally-port, 
near by, and opened on the enemy. It at once drew the fire of 
a six-gun rebel battery, to the right and front. The firing of 
the rebel guns was so rapid and accurate that, the lieutenant in 
command of one section of the Missouri Battery became 
frightened, and deserted his guns. A sergeant of the battery, 
however, named Bremer, stuck to his piece, and returned the 
fire of the enemy. Sergeant Rhodes, of the 14th Iowa, seeing 
the other pieces deserted, sprang forward with six men of his 
company, and continued to work them on the enemy, till 
darkness prevented their further use. 

From Fort Donelson, the 14th Iowa marched with its 
division to Pittsburg Landing, on the Tennessee. The dis- 
tinguished part which the 14th took in the sanguinary 
engagement of Shiloh, has been noticed in the sketches of 
Colonels Geddes and Woods. The 8th, 12th and 14th Iowa 
regiments stood side by side, at the time they were surrounded 
and captured — the 14th holding the centre, with the 12th on 
its right, and the Sth on its left. In speaking of the gallant 
conduct of Colonel Shaw's regiment in this engagement, Major 
Hamill, of the '2d Iowa Infantry, said: 

"They were to our left, and in plain view of us, until up to 
the time we learned of the flank movement of the enemy, and 
were ordered to fall back to save ourselves. The regiment can 



274 IOWA COLOXELS AXD REGIMENTS. 

not receive too much credit; for I never saw such splendid 
fighting before nor since. They would lie quietly in line 
until the enemy was within fifteen or twenty paces, when they 
would rise and deliver a deadly fire, and then, in an instant, 
charge his line, which, in every instance, they did not fail to 
break, and force back in confusion." 

Colonel Shaw, who commanded his regiment in this engage- 
ment, was captured and retained a prisoner of war until the 
following October, when he was paroled at Richmond, and 
sent into our lines. The history of his hardships, during his 
six months' prison-life, is the same as are those of Major, 
now Governor Stone, Colonel Geddes, Captain, now General 
Hedrick, and others, who were captured during the first day's 
battle. 

The 1 1th Iowa, as also the other Iowa troops captured at 
Shiloh, were exchanged in the fall of 1SG2, and sent to Annap- 
olis, Maryland. "While at Annapolis, some of the officers 
telegraphed to General Halleck for permission to visit Wash- 
ington; and the general replied: "You can come. Such troops 
can go any where: your indomitable courage at Shiloh saved 
the Army of the Mississippi from total annihilation." The 
courage and endurance of these troops was appreciated by Gen- 
eral Beauregard, who is reported to have said, "We charged 
the centre [they held the centre] five distinct times, and could 
not break it." 

The history of the 1 4th Iowa Infantry, subsequently to its 
exchange and re-organization, and up to the time when the 
greater portion of it was mustered out of the service, is similar 
to that of the 32d Iowa. During the spring and summer of 
1SG3, it served at different points on the Mississippi River, on 
garrison-duty; but shortly before General A. J. Smith moved 
with his division from Memphis to Vicksburg, from which 
last named point he marched on t lie Meridian Expedition, the 
14th was brigaded with the 27th and 32d Iowa, and the 24th 



WILLIAM T. SHAW. 1'70 

Missouri. Colonel Shaw of the 14th Iowa was assigned to the 
command of this brigade; and, with it, saved the army of 
General Banks from defeat and capture at the battle of Pleasant 
Hill, Louisiana. 

In the fall of 1864, the 14th Iowa joined in the operations 
which were instituted for the expulsion of General Price's 
army from Missouri ; soon after which the regiment was mus- 
tered out of the United States service; for it had failed to 
re-enlist in sufficient numbers to entitle it to retain its organi- 
zation. Only two companies remained in the service. 

The 11th is the only Iowa regiment, from the 2d to the 17th, 
(and no others of the infantry troops came within the order) 
that lost its name and organization, on account of not re-enlist- 
ing. The reasons why the regiment refused to renew their 
enlistment need not be stated, for they involve an old feud, 
which should not be revived. 

A true history of the Bed River Campaign will attribute the 
chief glory which attaches to the battle of Pleasant Hill, to 
the 2d Brigade, 3d Division, 16th Army Corps; (Colonel Wil- 
liam T. Shaw's command) for these troops saved the army of 
General Banks from destruction, on that day of terror. 

Bumor says that the army of General Steele should have 
been, at least, as far south as Camden, Arkansas, on the 8th of 
April, 1864, the day on which General Banks first met the 
enemy in strong force, some four miles east of Mansfield, 
Louisiana. The object of both Banks and Steele was a com- 
mon one — the capture of Shreveport, and the destruction of 
the rebel army in Western Louisiana and Arkansas. Of the 
character of the orders under which these officers marched, I 
am ignorant; but, had they co-operated as they should have 
done, the power of the Confederates would no doubt have been 
broken in the trans-Mississippi country. As it is, history 



276 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

must record disastrous defeat to the armies of both Steele and 
Banks. 

General Smith arrived with his command within one mile 
of Pleasant Hill, at sun-down on the evening of the 8th of 
April, 1864, and a little before the fighting of that day had 
closed at the front. That night, General Banks fell back with 



his troops of the 13th and 19th Corps; and, early on the follow- 
ing morning, took up a position about one mile west of 
Pleasant Hill. At ten o'clock of the same morning, the com- 
mand of General Smith was ordered to the front. Colonel 
Shaw's Brigade led the advance, and took up a position on the 
Pleasant Hill and Mansfield road. His own regiment was 
thrown across the road, and at nearly right angles with it. Ilis 
right was held by the 24th Missouri, and his left by the 27th and 
32d Iowa— the 32d holding the extreme left. To the right of his 
command, was the brigade of General Dwight; but the name 
of the brigade on the left, I am unable to give. Nor does it 
matter, since it fled at the first onset of the enemy. No sooner 
had Colonel Shaw brought his command into line, than the 
skirmishers of the enemy were encountered; and then, after 
an interval of long and harrowing suspense, followed the fierce 
and sanguinary conflict of Pleasant Hill, the details of which 
are given in the sketch of Colonel John Scott, of the 32d Iowa 
Infantry. 

For the part taken by the 1 1th regiment in this engagement, 
I refer to the official report of Lieutenant-Colonel, then Captain 
W. C. Jones: 

"The regiment moved out to the front with the brigade to 
which it was attached, at a few minutes before eleven o'clock 
A. M., taking position upon the line parallel with an open 
field, the right resting upon a road immediately in the rear of 
the 20th New York Battery. Company I, under command of 
2d Lieutenant G. 11. Logan, Company K, under command of 
Captain W. J. Campbell, were deployed as skirmishers toward 



WILLIAM T. SHAW. 277 

the centre of the field. Their left was resting upon the 
skirmish line of the 27th Iowa. Skirmishing occurred at 
intervals, until 4 o'clock P. M., when the enemy advanced by 
a cavalry charge — our skirmishers rallying in their proper 
places, the 25th New York Battery fell in the rear of us. We 
reserved our fire until the enemy were in easy pistol range, 
when we opened a fire upon them, which almost annihilated 
them. Horses and riders rolled almost within our lines. This 
charge was followed by an advance of infantry in two lines, 
when the conflict became general. The enemy was repulsed in 
front with heavy slaughter. The second line advanced upon our 
_ front, and a line at right angles upon our ri^ht flank, opening a 
terrible cross-fire. Our right w T as changed in the new direction 
to meet the new line. In this bloody cross-fire, our lamented 
Lieutenant-Colonel J. H. Xewbold, fell from his horse, mor- 
tally wounded, the ball passing through his body from the 
right breast, disabling his left arm. There, also fell Lieuten- 
ant Logan, Lieutenant McMillen, and Lieutenant Shanklin, 
officers beloved by all, nobly laying their bodies a bleed- 
ing sacrifice upon their country's altar. The long list of 
casualties below, clearly indicate the unreproachable bravery 
and indomitable will of the regiment, Upon the fall of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Xewbold, I assumed command of the 
regiment, and I tender most hearty thanks to the officers, 
commissioned and non-commissioned and privates, for the 
gallant manner in which they sustained their reputation, 
gained upon the bloody fields of Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, 
De Russy and Pleasant Hill. 

"I withdrew the regiment, with the rest of the brigade, by 
your order, at six o'clock P. M." 

Among the wounded of the 14th Iowa in this engagement, 
were Lieutenant Holmes, and Sergeants Ford, Parmenter, 
Kichol and M. L. Roberts — the last mortally. Private S. 
J. Parker had his head blown completely off by a shell. 

Disregarding former services, his conduct in this engagement 
alone should have made Colonel Shaw a brigadier-general ; but 
he was disgusted with the weakness of certain general officers, 
and the exhibitions of his manly wrath procured his dismissal 
from the service. Ho was dismissed for publishing a letter 



278 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

in the Dubuque "Times," from which the following is an 
extract : 

" I reported to General Emery at about ten o'clock in the 
morning: he then appeared to be both drunk and a coward. I 
relieved General McMillan, who was drunk. I did not see 
General Emery again till after dark, and the fighting had 
ceased. Tic was. then beastly drunk. I saw General kStone, 
General Banks' Chief of Staff, thirty minutes before the main 
attack was made, and pointed out to him my position, which 
he approved and said it must be held at all hazards." 

I am informed by officers, who were with Colonel Shaw at 
the battle of Pleasant Hill that he stated in his letter nothing 
but the truth ; but, though that be so, the publication of the 
letter was an ill-judged act, and in violation of wise and 
imperative rules. The colonel received his dismissal in the 
fall of 1864, and while he was with his command in Missouri, 
aiding to drive Price from that State. He returned at once to 
his home in Anamosa. 

The last three months' service of the 14th Iowa was per- 
formed in Missouri. After the death of Colonel Newbold, the 
regiment was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel W. C. Jones, 
the original and celebrated " Paul Bentley," who, in the winter 
Of 1862-3, entrapped Mrs. Jeff Thompson and KosaatSt, Louis. 
The history of this affair need not be repeated. I will only add 
the compliment the colonel received from General Curtis. 
"You have," he said, "done me more service than all my 
troops stationed at St. Louis." 

The 11th Iowa, with its division, took part, during the 
month of October and a portion of September, in driving Gen- 
eral Price from Missouri. Leaving Memphis on the steamer 
BostQna, the 5th of September, it arrived by way of Cairo at 
Jefferson Barracks, and, after a stay of a few days, left for Pilot 
Knob. It left at mid-night of the 24th of September. Part of 
the regiment was distributed along the Iron Mountain Railroad 



WILLIAM T. SHAW. 279 

for purposes of defense, while the balance went forward with 
General Ewing to Pilot Knob. 

Having: been re-called to Jefferson Barracks, or that portion 
of it stationed along the railroad, it left with its division for 
Jefferson City, and marched thence to Tipton. From the last 
named point, it returned to St. Louis without meeting the 
enemy, and, on the Cth of November, reached Camp Kinsman, 
Davenport. Here the non-veterans were mustered out, and 
the others — two companies, as I have before stated — were 
organized into the Besiduary Battalion. This battalion, which 
has since served at Camp Butler, Illinois, was officered as fol- 
lows: — Company A: Hugo Hoffbauer, captain; Joseph D. 
McClure; 1st lieutenant; Addison Davis, 2d lieutenant. 
Company B: Orville Burke, captain ; Thomas B. Beach, 1st 
lieutenant; Perry L. Smith, 2d lieutenant. 

Colonel Shaw is of only medium size, being five feet and ten 
inches in hight, and sparely built ; though there is something 
about him which makes him appear larger. He is rough and 
abrupt in his manners, is careless in dress, and by no means 
comely in person. His eyes are gray and deep-set, and his 
cheek-bones prominent. His mouth is large, and has about it 
an expression of stubbornness, which, I believe, is his most 
prominent trait of character. 

Colonel Shaw is a man of great experience, and large and 
varied acquirements. Indeed, there seems to be no profession 
or science, with which he is not, in a good degree, familiar. 
He can bilk law, divinity or physic; and, by his blunt shrewd- 
ness, surprises even those who, by these callings, obtain a 
livelihood. In nearly all questions, he is noted for assuming 
the negative; and, when once interested, he will talk and 
argue from morning till night. Many days of his prison-life 
were parsed in this way. In prison, Major, now Governor 
Stone, was his chief oppouent. 



2S0 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

It is a mystery to some why Colonel Shaw was never made 
a brigadier-general. He was brave and efficient in the field, 
and never met the enemy without distinguishing himself; 
and many, destitute of these qualifications, have been made 
general officers. He doubtless would have been promoted, 
had he been more reticent on the conduct and merits of his 
superiors. It was against his nature to let a blunder pass 
unnoticed ; and he would quarrel with a superior, sooner than 
with a subordinate. 



BRIGADIER-GENERAL HUGH T. REID. 

FIRST COLONEL, FIFTEENTH IXFAXTKY. 

Hugh Thompson Reid was born in Union county, Indiana, 
the Sth day of October, 1811. His father, who was a native of 
South Carolina, had left that State only a year before his son 
Hugh's birth. General Reid worked on his father's farm, in 
Indiana, till the year 1S30, when he entered the Miami Uni- 
versity, then under the tutorship of Professor Bishop. He 
graduated at the Indiana College, in 1S37. Choosing the law 
for a profession, he studied for two years in the office of Judge 
Perry of Liberty, Indiana, and was then admitted to the bar. 
He came to Keokuk, Iowa, in 1813, and began the practice of 
his profession. Keokuk has since remained his home. 

General Reid first became widely known in Southern Iowa, 
from his connection with the Keokuk and Des Moines River 
Railroad: indeed, to his energy and perseverance, more than 
to the efforts of any other man, this road is indebted for its 
existence. At one time its abandonment was talked of; but he 
would not consent, and the work was pushed forward. Its 
present flourishing condition evidences the soundness of his 
judgment. 

Late in the summer of 1861, General Reid began recruiting a 
regiment for the service. Then, recruiting dragged heavily. 
On every hand he met with discouragements; but he finally 
succeeded, for he never turned his back on an enterprise once 
undertaken. The loth Iowa Infantry was mustered into the 
United States service on the 2:>d day of February, 1SG2. 

The 15th Iowa left its rendezvous in Keokuk on the 17th of 
March, 18G2, and, after a stay of only ten days in St. Louis, 

281 



282 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

proceeded to the front. At St. Louis the regiment received its 
arms and camp equipage. It arrived at Pittsburg Landing at 
six o'clock on Sunday morning, the first day of the battle. Its 
opening chapter was an eventful one. It fired its first gun at 
Shiloh. 

General Grant's head-quarters were then at Savannah, 
eight miles below, on the river; and at that point Colonel Reid 
had, the night before, been assigned to the division of General 
Prentiss. On arriving at the Landing, on the morning of the 
sixth, his first business was to report to that general, and, 
mounting his horse, he rode out toward the front for that pur- 
pose; but for some reason, he <Jid not reach the front till the 
battle had opened with great fierceness, and he was unable to 
effect his object. He therefore returned to the river, and, dis- 
embarking his regiment, drew it up in line on the high bluffs, 
and waited for orders. It was now hardly nine o'clock, and 
yet the frightful stampede had already begun. Long lines of 
fugitives, many of them hatless and coatless, and all of them 
frightened to desperation, came streaming to the river-bank, 
and nothing could stop them. 

Colonel Reid first received orders to arrest these fugitives, 
and effect their re-organization; but it was utterly impossible, 
and he was therefore, after considerable delay, ordered to pro- 
ceed hastily to the front.' 

I have already stated that the loth Iowa received their arms 
at St. Louis, just before embarking for the front : it is therefore 
unnecessary to add that the regiment had never been instructed 
in the manual of arms. In the process of loading and firing, 
they were all novices; but it was fortunate that they were 
nearly all of them accustomed to a gun, and could handle it 
with efficiency. 

Under the guidance of a staff officer of General McClernand, 
and followed by the lGth Iowa, Colonel Chambers, Colonel 



HUGH T. KEID. 2S3 

Iteid started with his regiment for the front ; and, after a long, 
circuitous march occasioned by the ignorance or confusion of 
tlie guide,— first to the right, in almost the opposite direction 
from where the firing was the heaviest, and then to the left in 
a south-westerly direction — finally entered a large, open field, 
the west side of which was bordered by timber and held by 
the enemy. On his right, too, the field was bordered with 
timber and held by the enemy ; and here they had artillery 
in position, with which, as soon as he came into view, they 
opened on him with great vigor. They used shell, grape and 
canister, and fired with precision; but Colonel Iteid, heedless 
of danger, advanced to engage the enemy in his front. He 
was so confident, or so forgetful, that he did not even take the 
precaution to deploy his regiment in line of battle; but 
marched it by the right flank, into the very face of the 
enemy. Some of his regiment said after the engagement that, 
if the enemy had opened their lines, he would have marched 
straight through and been captured ; but it is needless to say 
that these were the colonel's enemies. 

Yv'hen he had reached a point where he was met both in front 
and on the right by a most galling fire, he drew his regiment 
out into line of battle; and the manner in which he did it, 
showed his great courage. He first filed it to tiie left, in a line 
parallel to that of the enemy, and then counter-marched it 
into a position to return the enemy's fire. All this time he 
was suffering loss. Such coolness must have been a strange 
spectacle to the enemy; and such troops they must have 
encountered with hesitancy. 

As soon as the regiment was brought to a front, it engaged 
the enemy, tir^t by a rapid fire, and then with the bayonet; 
and thus the struggle continued for nearly two hours, when, 
flanked on both the rigid and left, the order to fall back was 
given. The regiment fell back, as did nearly all the troops on 



284 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

that field, in confusion. But that is not strange: what is 
strange, is how, undisciplined as it was, the regiment main- 
tained itself so long, and with such courage. 

About this time, Colonel Beid was severely wounded. A 
shot struck him in the neck, and paralyzed him. Seeing him 
fall from his horse, Major Belknap ran to him, and raised him 
up, when he said: "Tell my wife that I died gloriously, fight- 
ing for my country." Brave man! He thought he was hit 
mortally — dulcc jrro patria mori; but it fortunately proved 
otherwise. He revived in a half-hour, and resumed command 
of his shattered regiment. 

There are various accounts of the particular part taken by 
the 15th Iowa at Shiloh: indeed, hardly two men of the regi- 
ment saw the thing alike. One says the regiment did not file 
left in coming into line, but that it formed "forward on first 
company." Another says that, a portion of the regiment filed 
left, and the other right, and thus got separated, (which is 
true); and still another that, it engaged the enemy across a 
large ravine, to the right and front, while standing by the 
right flank and before it was formed in line of battle. To 
show how great was the confusion, I may further add that, one 
of the regiment's field officers, the day after the battle had 
closed, was not able to find the field in which the fighting was 
done. 

The following is Colonel Rcid's statement of casualties, and 
his roll of honor : 

"Fifteen of the thirty-two commissioned officers, who went 
on the field, had been killed, wounded, or taken prisoners: 
twenty-two officers and men had been killed, and one hundred 
and fifty-six wounded. 

"Adjutant Pomutz distinguished himself during the action, 
for his coolness and courage. He, too, was wounded. Cap- 
tains Kittle, of Company A: Smith, of Company B; Seevers, 
of Company C; Madison, of Company D; Hutcheraft, of Com- 
pany E ; Cunningham, of Company G; Day, of Company I; 



HUGH T. KEID. 285 

ami Hedriek, of Company K, who was captured in a charge 
upon the enemy, all distinguished themselves for their gal- 
lantry and courage, in leading forward and encouraging 
their men. Captain Blackmar, of Company F, was wounded 
in the action, and disabled; 1st Lieutenant Goode of the same 
company was also wounded. Captain Clark, of Company H, 
was not in the engagement, having been left sick in the hos- 
pital at St. Louis. Captains Hutchcraft and Day were both 
severely wounded. Second Lieutenant Penniman of Company 
A, and Hamilton of Company I, were killed whilst bravely 
performing their duty. First Lieutenant King, and 2d Lieu- 
tenant Danielson of Company II, were both severely wounded, 
while acting well their part, thus leaving the company without 
a commissioned officer. First Lieutenants Studer, of Company 
B; Porter, of Company 1) ; Craig, of Company E ; Hanks, of 
Company Cf; J. Monroe Reid, of Company 1, who, though 
wounded himself, continued iu command of the company after 
the captain was disabled and the 2d Lieutenant killed; and 
Eldridge, of Company K ; all deserve special praise for the 
maimer in which they conducted themselves on the field. 
Second Lieutenants Lanstrum, of Company B; Brown, of 
Company E; Herbert, of Company C; and Sergeant-Major 
Brown, who was severely wounded, conducted themselves 
well on the field. The non-commissioned officers generally, 
were at their posts, and performed their duty. The color-Ser- 
geant, Newton J. Rogers, who fought in the 1st Iowa at 
Springfield, gallantly bore our standard forward, ami planted 
it among the enemy, where it was bravely maintained and 
defended by portions of Companies C, E, I, and K. * * The 
Reverend "\Y. \V. Eastbrook, too, for a time laid aside his 
sacred office, and resumed the use of the surgeon's scalpel with 
great success." 

In no respect is Colonel Reid too lavish of his praise. Tlie. 
15th loica did nobly. Luring the war, no cruder troops have 
met the enemy; and but few have borne themselves with 
greater credit. 

In tlie retreat from the front to the Landing, Captain Kittle, 
of the l"<t!i Iowa, a handsome and brave young officer, was 
reported the hero of an incident which I would like to tell, 



286 IOWA COLONELS AXD REGIMENTS. 

but it is not well vouched for. The following - is true. Soon 
after arriving at the Landing, a lieutenant-colonel — a staff 
officer — rode up to the frightened crowd on the river hank, 
and shouted: "Is there no officer here?" Captain Kittle step- 
ping forward said: "Yes, Sir, lam an infantry officer: what 
shall I do?" "For God's sake, organize these men, and bring 
them out to the new line." . Going at the work, he gathered in 
line, by threats and entreaties, a respectable battalion, and 
started with them to the front; but the greater part of them 
were so filled with terror, that they soon broke and fled back 
to the Landing. With the balauce, he went on and took part 
in repelling the last assaults of the enemy, that were made 
that afternoon. There were many other instances of special 
gallantry among the line officers of the 10th Iowa; and the 
names of Captains Hedrick, Madison and Blaekmar ; and 
Lieutenant J. S. Porter, may be mentioned specially, for their 
conduct was admirable. 

Colonel Reid continued with his regiment till the 23d of 
April, 1st;:}, when he received his commission as brigadier- 
general. A portion of this time he had been in command of a 
brigade. Subsequently to the battle of Shiloh, and up to the 
time he received Ids promotion, the history of his regiment is 
the same as that of the other regiments of the Iowa Brig- 
ade. General Reid was promoted to the rank of brigadier on 
the special recommendation of General Grant; and the general 
may well he proud of tins compliment; for General Grant, 
knowingly, never compliments the undeserving. 

During the spring of 1S03, and till the Gth of the following 
August, General Reid commanded the District of Lake Provi- 
dence, with the following named troops comprising his com- 
mand: the 16th Wisconsin, the 122d Illinois, portions of the 
17th andOoth Illinois, and the 1st Kansas Mounted Infantry. 
At the last named date, orders were given for the evacuation 



HUGH T. REID. 287 

of the place. They were issued on account of the sickliness of 
the locality. After visiting his family on leave of absence, the 
general was placed in command at Cairo, Illinois, lie was 
holding this command at the time of tendering his resignation, 
which was in the spring of 1S(.?4. 

Colonel Reid does not look like the man he is. From what 
he has accomplished, I judge him to be a man of more than 
ordinary ability. He is tall, and slightly stooping in person, 
has coarse features, and a large, sandy, bushy head. He has 
large perceptive organs, and small, gray eyes, sunk deeply in 
his head. He is perhaps a little more comely than Colonel 
Shaw of the 14th, but not much. 

In character, he is brave and determined. A neighbor of 
his, of long acquaintance, speaks thus of him: 

"In the early history of the Half-Breed Tract in Fee county, 
which included the city of Keokuk, there was much trouble 
about titles to real estate, and at times, a state of tilings border- 
ing upon civil war. In these contests, General Reid was 
conspicuous, and had to undergo many dangers. On several 
occasions, his life was threatened by an infuriated mob; but 
he maintained his rights with so much courage, as to secure a 
local fame for prowess, which, more recently, has become 
national, by his military achievements." 

In the essentials, General Reid was a fine soldier. He was 
brave, and had good judgment; but he could never master 
tactics. "He could not," say many of his regiment, "drill a 
company, to say nothing about a regiment;" and many 
instances are given, showing how he used to handle his regi- 
ment. In passing an obstacle, he once gave the following 
command: "File left, boys; and follow my horse round this 
stump!" But his regiment noticed this deficiency more, on 
account of the great contrast, in this respect, between himself 
and his successors, Generals Belknap and Ileclriek. Both those 
officers are fine tacticians. 



2SS IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

The following incident occurred while General Reid was 
colonel of the 15th Iowa: He was stationed with his regiment 
at Lake Providence, Louisiana, in February, 1803, when Adju- 
tant-General Thomas visited Grant's army, to institute negro 
recruiting; for the Government had at last come to the 
conclusion that, for a black man to shoot a rebel, was no mur- 
der. McArthur's Division, of McPherson's Corps, was drawn 
up in hollow square, and addressed by Generals Thomas, 
McPherson and McArthur. Finally, Colonel Peid was called 
to the stand. Some officers of his regiment felt anxious for 
him; but he soon relieved their minds, for he made the best 
speech of them all. 



BRIGADIER-GENERAL W. W. BELKNAP. 

SECOND COLONEL, FIFTEENTH INFANTRY. 

William Worth Belknap, the successor of Colonel Reid 
to the colonelcy of the loth Iowa Infantry, is a son of the late 
General Belknap, who, as a colonel, distinguished himself in 
the Mexican War. Entering the United States Army in 
1S12, the late General Belknap continued in the service till the 
day of his death. For his efficient services in the Mexican 
War, he was made a brevet brigadier-general. lie died in 
Texas soon after the publication of peace, and near the fort 
bearing his own name. He was, at the time of his death, 
traveling in an ambulance from one portion to another of his 
command. 

William, the subject of this sketch, was born in the year 
1830, at Newburg, Xew York. He was named after General 
William J. Worth, a warm friend of his father's family. In 
about the year 1856, he came to Iowa, and located in the city 
of Keokuk. Trior to coming to Iowa, General Belknap had 
Studied the law, and, soon after settling in Keokuk, he entered 
upon its practice. As a lawyer, he was cpiite successful. lie is 
one of the few young attorneys, who, settling at that day in 
the city of Fast Living and High Prices, was able to secure a 
paying practice, and establish himself as a permanent resident. 
He was engaged in the practice of his profession at the out- 
break of the war, and till as late as the fall of 1861, when he 
abandoned it to enter the service. 

In compliment for his successful efforts in assisting to recruit 
the l-'tli Iowa Infantry, lie was commissioned major of the 
regiment. With this rank he accompanied it to the field. On 
" 289 



290 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

the promotion of Lieutenant-Colonel Dewey to the colonelcy 
of the 23d Iowa Infantry, he was made lieutenant-colonel, and 
still later— the 22d of April, 1863— was commissioned colonel, 
vice Colonel Reid, promoted to a general officer. 

If we except General Belknap's services at the battle of 
Corinth, where he distinguished himself, his military record, 
that has made his name familiar in Iowa, and secured his 
appointment as brigadier-general, was almost wholly made 
in General Sherman's campaign against Atlanta. The same is 
true of his old regiment. Brigaded with the 11th Iowa, the 
13th and Kith ever since the spring of 1862, the history of 
the 15th Iowa is almost identical with that of these regiments. 
It took part in the battle of Corinth, October 3d and 4th, 
1SG2; but, with this exception, the loth, with the balance of 
the Iowa Brigade, escaped every hard-fought battle until the 
spring of 1864 ; and this, too, notwithstanding it was always in 
the front, and present in the Department that, of all others, 
was characterized by its Moody battle-fields and vigorous cam- 
paigns. 

Of the different regiments of the Iowa Brigade, the loth most 
distinguished itself at the battle of Corinth. The following is 
from Colonel Crocker's report, the brigade commander: 

"The execution of the order to move back had just com- 
menced, when the enemy, in greatly-superior force, attacked 
the front of the line (the loth and 16th Iowa). The officers and 
men of these regiments, acting with signal determination and 
bravery, not only held the enemy in check, but drove him 
back, and held their position, until notice was received that 
the artillery had passed safely to the rear, when they were 
ordered to fall back and form in line of battle on the right of 
the second line, which they did in good order, the enemy 
declining to follow. This engagement lasted three-quarters of 
an hour. The firing was incessant, and the regiments, especi- 
ally the 15th, suffered severely. T deem it my especial duty to 
particularly mention Lieutenant-Colonel Belknap, who com- 



WILLIAM W. BELKNAP. 291 

manded the loth regiment. This regiment was under the 
hottest fire, and Colonel Belknap was everywhere along the 
line, mounted, and with sword in hand encouraging, by voice 
and gesture, his men to stand their ground." * * * 

The opening of General Sherman's campaign in the spring 
of 1864, forms a new and sanguinary chapter in the history of 
the Iowa Brigade. Returning .from veteran furlough, the 
brigade proceeded to the front at Kcnesaw Mountain, after 
which, for nearly sixty days, it was almost constantly under 
fire; and its scores of killed and wounded, during this period, 
are witnesses of its conspicuous gallantry. From the time the 
enemy was flanked at Kenesaw Mountain, till he was forced 
back to and into his entrenchments at Atlanta, there were few 
engagements in which this brigade did not take part. But the 
greatest battle of the campaign was precipitated, just at the 
time it was supposed the contest for the Gate City had closed. 

During the greater part of the night of the 21st of July, 
1864, the rumbling of artillery, and the confusion so common 
in the movements of large bodies of men, were distinctly heard 
by our troops, in the direction of the enemy; and it was sup- 
posed by many that, General Hood was evacuating Atlanta; 
McPherson thought otherwise, and was anxious and watchful. 
In the disposition of our forces in this engagement, the 17th 
Army Corps held the left, and on the extreme left of this corps, 
was the Iowa Brigade. The position held by this brigade, was 
a commanding ridge on the cast side of the McDonongh road, 
and almost at right angles with the main line of battle, which 
was west of, and nearly parallel with, the above named road. 
The head-quarters of the 15th Iowa were not more than two 
and a half miles north of the Atlanta and Macon Bailroad, and 
about three miles south-cast of the city of Atlanta. The coun- 
try on every si le was broken, and for the most part, heavily 
wooded ; but that portion lying in the direction of the Macon 



292 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

road, was more especially so. In this dense timber, General 
Hood hud massed his forces on the evening of the 21st instant. 
At a little after twelve o'clock on the afternoon of the 22d, 
Colonel Belknap and Lieutenant-Colonel Hedrick had just 
seated themselves for dinner, when the first gam of the senti- 
nels was fired. The suddenness of the enemy's attack was 
unprecedented. Colonel Belknap had barely time to buckle 
on his sword, and hurry from his head-quarters to the front of 
his regiment, when the line of skirmishers was driven in. 
Almost nt the same instant, the enemy was seen coming at 
double-quick, and in a line of battle, nearly at right angles 
with that of General Blair's along the MeDonough road. In 
the suddenness of his attack, the rebel general was 'aping 
Napoleon. He doubtless expected to force in our line, as one 
would slide in the sections of a telescope, thus crowding the 
Army of the Tennessee together in hopeless confusion ; but he 
had reckoned without his host. The Iowa Brigade, having 
hastily formed, met and repulsed the assaults of the enemy in 
their front; when, his centre being repulsed, his left and right 
wing swung round to the Federal front and rear. And in this 
way, is accounted for the almost incredible story of our troops 
fighting, first on the one, and then on the other side of their 
intrench ments. Subjected to a galling artillery-fire, and now 
well-nigh surrounded, Colonel Belknap had no other alterna- 
tive than to retire, which he aid, in a north-westerly direction, 
and across the MeDonough road. During that afternoon, the 
15th Iowa fought in seven distinct positions; and its losses are 
proof of the stubbornness with which each was contested. The 
following were among the gallant dead: Lieutenants Logan 
W.Crawford and E. M. Gephart. The latter was killed in 
the regiment's fourth position. Seeing, as he thought, a small 
detachment of the enemy in cover not far distant, he rallied a 
few volunteers, and rushed out to capture them; but they 



WILLIAM W. BELKNAP. 293 

proved to be quite a large force. He turned to retreat to his 
regiment, but was shot before he reached it. lie was a young 
man of much promise. 

The loss of the loth Iowa in killed, wounded and missing, 
was one hundred and fifty-three. Lieutenant-Colonel Hedriek 
was severely wounded, as was also his brother, Captain Hed- 
rick. Lieutenant W. P. L. Muir was wounded for the fourth 
time in the head, and was captured. Lieutenants Evans and 
Scheevers were also severely wounded. 

At one time during the engagement, the loth Iowa was 
assaulted by the 45th Alabama Infantry, Colonel Lampley. 
The loth in this instance was protected by earth-works, and 
literally slaughtered its assailants, while they were rushing to 
tbe onset with the most determined bravery. Only a few of 
the entire rebel regiment reached the foot of the works, and of 
these, one was killed, and the others either wounded or cap- 
tured. Colonel Lampley was captured by Colonel Belknap in 
person. Connected with this charge of the -loth Alabama, was 
an amusing incident. A young boy, of the genuine chivalry, 
was among the party tba t reached the foot of the works. After 
the assault had been repelled, and the firing had slackened, 
Colonel Belknap stepped up on the works to secure his pris- 
oners; but he had no sooner exposed his person than the young 
boy fired on him. The ball passed under his chin and cut 
through his whiskers. He was enraged and, seizing the boy 
by the hair of the head, dragged him over the works; but, in 
spite of himself he could not help admiring the pluck of the 
young rascal. 

For his gallantry in this and in other battles of the cam- 
paign, Colonel Belknap, on the recommendation of General 
Sherman, was appointed a brigadier-general. After receiving 
his commission, he succeeded Colonel Hall of the 11th Iowa, in 



■ 

294 IOWA COLONELS AXD REGIMENTS. 

the command of the Iowa Brigade, which he has held ever 
since. 

General Belknap is about five feet, eleven inches in hight, 
and rather portly. His eyes, which are dark-blue and very 
expressive, are his handsomest feature. In his manners he is 
rather dignified; but he is educated and refined, and a favorite 
in the social circle. 

In the legal practice, he did not excel as an advocate. He 
made no pretensions to oratory; but, in preparing a case for 
trial, he had few equals. It was a rare thing for a demurrer to 
be sustained to one of his pleadings. 

At the time of entering the army, he was reputed an able 
and honorable business-man. In the army he has been known 
as a good disciplinarian, a brave officer, and a warm friend to 
the soldier. His neighbors in Keokuk look upon his brilliant 
military career with much pride. 



BREVET BRIGADIER-GENERAL J. M. HEDRICK. 

THIRD COLONEL, FIFTEENTH INFANTRY. 

John Morrow Hedrick is a native of Indiana, the State 
which stands third, in the number of her sons, who, in Iowa, 
have been honored with colonel's commissions. He is a son of 
J. W. Hedrick, Esq., a resident of "Wapello county, and an 
intelligent and influential farmer. 

General Hedrick was born in Hush county, Indiana, the 
16th day of December, 1S32. In the year 184G he accompanied 
his father's family to Iowa, where he has since resided. His 
means of education were limited. He never entered the halls 
of an academy or a college as a student. He accpiired his edu- 
cation at the Common Schools, and at his father's fireside; but, 
notwithstanding his limited advantages, he had, at the age of 
seventeen, qualified himself for a teacher. From the age of 
seventeen to that of twenty, he passed his Winters in teaching, 
and his Summers on his father's farm. In 1?52, he entered a 
mercantile house as clerk. Soon he became a partner in the 
business, and, ere long, proprietor of the house. With the 
exception of two years, when he was engaged in the real-estate 
business, his entire attention, from 1S52 till the beginning of 
the war, was turned to mercantile pursuits. But he was unfor- 
tunate in some investments. In 1857-8, he had risked much in 
land speculations; and, like the great majority of those who at 
that time dealt in wild lands, suffered pecuniary losses. 

In August, 1SB1, General Hedrick closed out his business in 
Otturawa, for the express purpose of entering the service, and, 
before the close of that month, had enlisted a sufficient number 
of men to entitle him to a first lieutenant's commission. Before 

295 



296 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

entering the service, he had held commissions as second lieu- 
tenant and captain in an independent military company of the 
city of Ottumwa; hut this company existed only in name, and 
the knowledge of military matters, which he derived from his 
connection with it, was of no importance: indeed, in this 
respect, he was as purely a civilian as any officer that has gone 
out from the State. 

General Hedrick was commissioned 1st Lieutenant of Com- 
pany I>, loth Iowa Infantry, the 20th day of September, 1SG1, 
and on the 23d of the following December was made quarter- 
master of that regiment. While the regiment was at its 
rendezvous in Keokuk, he was promoted to the captaincy of 
Company K, and with this rank he entered the field. 

Shiloh, as has already been stated, was the loth Iowa's first 
battle; and the part taken by the regiment in this engagement 
has been already given. Captain Hedrick here distinguished 
himself, and was wounded and taken prisoner. At the time 
the regiment made its partially successful assault against the 
enemy, and just when the left wing was overpowered and 
forced back by overwhelming numbers, lie was wounded, and 
instantly surrounded and captured. Being taken to the rear 
he, with about two hundred and fifty other officers, was for- 
warded to Corinth, and thence by rail to Memphis; where he 
arrived on the night of the 8th, near mid-night. Hustling 
the prisoners rudely from the cars, the Confederates huddled 
them, both officers and men, into a large store-room, where 
they guarded them that night, and where, for the first time 
since their capture, they issued them rations. It had been 
more than fifty hours since they had tasted food, and now they 
received only raw bacon and rotten bread. 

But in the meantime the issue of the battle having been 
decided, the enemy became apprehensive, not only of the 



JOHN M. HEDRICK. 21)7 

capture of Corinth, but of Memphis; for a fleet of Union guu- 
boats was, at that very time, lying only a few miles above the 
city. The Union prisoners were therefore, on the morning of 
the 9th, hurried onboard the cars, in order to be sent South; 
but for some reason the train did not leave till evening. 

At that time, the fiendish cruelties practiced by the Confed- 
erates upon all Union people within their lines, had not 
purged the city of Memphis of all Union sentiment; for, 
during the entire day of the 9th, hundreds of her citizens 
crowded closely around the carefully-guarded train, which con- 
tuned the prisoners, speaking kind words and, whenever 
occasion offered, tendering more substantial testimonials of 
their sympathy. But the story of the sufferings of Union 
prisoners of war has been often told, and need not be here 
repeated. 

The sojournings of Captain Hedrick in the South, and the 
route he traveled with his brother officers, may be given with 
interest. Leaving Memphis on the evening of the 9th of April , 
lie was taken, first to Jackson, Mississippi; from Jackson to 
Meridian; from Meridian to Mobile; from Mobile up the Ala- 
bama iliver to Selma; and from Selma to Talladega, where for 
two weeks lie Mas quartered with his brother officers in a 
vacant Baptist College. From Talladega he was taken back 
to Selma, where lie remained two months; from Selma to 
Montgomery; from Montgomery to Atlanta; from Atlanta 
to Madison; and from Madison to Richmond, via Augusta, 
Columbia, Raleigh and Weldon. At Itichmond Captain Hed- 
rick was paroled, after a prison-life of six months and seven 
days, and entered our lines on the 18th day of October, 1SG2. 

After remaining several weeks with his family at Ottumwa, 
he learned that he was exchanged, and at once returned to his 
regiment. Ue re-joined it on the 9th of February, 18G3, at La 
Fayette, Tennessee, and was immediately promoted to the 



298 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

majority, his commission dating the 17th of January, 1863. 
On the 22d of the following April he was made lieutenant- 
colonel ; and with this rank ho won his chief laurels. When, 
after the fall of Atlanta, Colonel Belknap was made a briga- 
dier-general, Lieutenant-Colonel Hedrick was promoted to the 
full colonelcy of the loth Iowa Infantry, his commission dating 
the 20th of August, 186-1. He was breveted brigadier-general 
in the spring of 186-3, for gallant services in the Atlanta Cam- 
paign. 

As has already been stated, the 15th Iowa saw its hardest 
service in General Sherman's campaign against Atlanta. Just 
before returning home on veteran furlough, the regiment had 
accompanied General Sherman on the Meridian march," which, 
however, is celebrated only for the rapidity of the movement, 
and the large amount of rebel property destroyed ; and still 
earlier the regiment had joined in the siege of Vicksburg, and 
in the subsequent march on Jackson; but in none of these 
movements was it in any general engagement. It did not 
accompany its corps on the march through Bruinsburg, Port 
Gibson, Raymond and Jackson, to the rear of Vicksburg ; but 
with its brigade was stationed at Grand Gulf. 

In the march to Monroe, Louisiana, which, considering its 
length, is the hardest with one exception that was ever made 
by the Iowa Brigade, the loth Iowa was commanded by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hedrick. The expedition was commanded 
by Brigadier-General Stevenson, and left Goodrich's Landing 
above Vicksburg, about the middle of August, 1863. The line 
of march, which was almost due .west, lay across the broad 
bottom-lands that, for nearly fifty miles, stretch westward from 
the Mississippi. These bottom-lands, lying as they do below 
Lake Providence, had in the previous Spring received rich 
deposits from the Lake Providence Canal ; and the road, which 
was narrow and straight, was bordered with the most luxuri- 



JOHN M. HEDRICK. 2W 

ant vegetation, in many places the weeds being twelve feet 
high. There was hardly a breath of air stirring, and, from 
morning till night the troops for the most of the way had no 
protection from the burning rays of the sun. The weather too 
was dry, and the dust almost suffocating. In addition to all 
this, the timber and the rank and dense vegetation was thickly 
inhabited by snakes of all kinds, and of the most fabulous size 
— enemies which the troops held in much greater terror than 
the few hostile rebels who hovered in their front. The only 
alleviating circumstance in this expedition seemed to be that 
the country had never been ravaged by our army, and supplies 
were abundant. Of the two hundred and eighty-one men of 
the 15th who started on this march, sixty had to be brought 
back to the river in wagons and ambulances. Several too, who 
were unable to bear the fatigue, were left within the lines of 
the enemy, in care of Surgeon Gihbon. 

The fruits of the expedition, which was some twenty days 
out from Yicksburg, were small. Monroe, the terminus of 
the Vicksburg and Monroe Railroad, was entered without 
opposition, the enemy abandoning the place, crossing the 
Washita, and destroying their pontoons. A few prisoners 
were captured, and a small quantity of Confederate stores 
destroyed. 

The march of the Iowa Brigade with the greater portion of 
its army corps from Clifton, Tennessee, to the front at Kene- 
saw Mountain, has already been given. On the morning of 
the 2d of July, 1S64, the 17th Army Corps formed the left of 
Sherman's army before Kenesaw. The Iowa Brigade held 
the right of its corps. Already, Sherman had despaired of 
dislodging the enemy from their strong-hold in his front, and 
that night he ordered a flank movement to the right, by way 
of Nick-a-jack Creek, Just at dusk, the 17th Corps, which was 
to hold the advance, broke camp, and, with the division of 



300 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

Giles A. Smith in the lead, took up its line of march down the 
valley, just in rear of the main line of works in the centre and 
on the right. The movement was a surprise to the enemy; 
and yet, the character of the country to be passed, which was 
broken and heavily timbered, enabled them to make much 
resistance. Keeping a considerable force of cavalry with 
light artillery constantly in the front, they would halt at 
every commanding point along the road, and, with their artil- 
lery, supported by their cavalry, dismounted, harrass the 
advance. These positions, in nearly every instance, had to be 
charged. 

During two days of this march, (the 4th and 5th of July) 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hedrick, with four companies of the 15th 
Iowa, and four of the 16th, as skirmishers, led the advance. 
On the second day's march, the following incident occurred: 
on a heavily-wooded point, the enemy was found in posi- 
tion, and the reserves brought up and deployed, for a charge. 
Instantly, as the charge was ordered, the lowans swept reck- 
lessly down through the ravine, and up the opposite slope to 
the crest, where the enemy had just shown themselves. They 
gained the point, and now for the pursuit. With a shout, they 
started down through the brush, each man striving for the 
lead, when — bang! bang! bang! went the enemy's artillery 
from the hill not more than seventy-five yards in advance. A 
deadly volley of musketry followed, when the boys, returning 
as quickly as they went, reported to their officers: ''Damn 
'em, they are right up there!" 

Soon after discovering Sherman's movement to NIck-a-jack 
Creek, the enemy evacuated Kenesaw and Marietta, and hur- 
ried to their left, where, on the morning of the Gth, they showed 
sufficient force to prevent a further advance; for their position 
was a strung one on the hills that lay on the east side of Nick- 
a-jack Creek, and near where that stream forms a junction 



JOHN M. IIEDKICK. 301 

with the Chattahoochie. From the 6th of July to the 10th, the 
time wag passed in skirmishing with the enemy; but, in the 
meantime, General Sherman had entered Marietta, and passed 
up the Chattahoochie fifteen miles to Roswell, where he secured 
a crossing. That stream was now passed, and the capture of 
Atlanta made certain. This happened on the morning of the 
10th instant; and in the afternoon and evening of the same 
day, the enemy abandoned their works on the iNick-a-jack, and 
crossed the Chattahoochie. A tedious march up the valley 
past Marietta, and the 17th Corps also crossed the river at Ros- 
well, and led the advance to Decatur, which was entered with 
little opposition, on the evening of the 19th instant. [In giv- 
ing the movements of the 17th Corps, I am also giving the 
movements of the loth Iowa, and of the other regiments of the 
Iowa Brigade.] 

The advance from Decatur to the south-east side of Atlanta, 
on the 20th, was fiercely contested ; but the enemy, at night- 
fall, had been successfully forced back to their defenses around 
the doomed city. On the following morning, followed the 
fierce assault of the 21st, which was unsuccessful, and in which 
the loth Iowa lost some fifty in killed and wounded; but the 
great battle of the campaign, and the one in which the 15th 
Iowa suffered most, and most distinguished itself, was that 
fought on the afternoon of the day following. 

After the engagement of the 21st, the Iowa Brigade marched 

to the extreme left of its corps, and took up a position as a sort 

of picket-reserve; and in this position it was assaulted near 

the hour of dinner-call, on the following day ; but a description 

j of this engagement has.heen already given. 

Colonel Iledriek was wounded in the early part of the 
engagement, and just before his regiment was forced hark. 
lie was shot with a minnie ball directly over the spine, in the 
small of the hack. The hall, striking and cutting las sword 



JOHN M. HEDRICK. 302 

belt in two, was turned slightly to the left; and, passing down 
across the ilium, came out near the lower point of the hip. 
Completely paralyzed by the wound, he was at once placed 
upon the shoulders of two men to be taken to the rear when he 
instantly received another shot through the left fore-arm. The 
first wound was supposed to be mortal ; and, but for his vigor- 
ous constitution, it must have proven so. For many weeks he 
was kept upon his back, and even now he can not move about 
without the aid of crutches. Having partially recovered, he 
was detailed on a court-martial in the city of Washington, 
where he is stiil serving. 

Since the battle of the 22d of July, before Atlanta, the loth 
Iowa has been commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Pornutz, a 
Hungarian by birth, and, I am told, a good officer. The 
services of the regiment, since the fall of that place, are com- 
prised in the march from Atlanta, via Savannah, to Raleigh 
and Washington, 

Of General Hedrick as u military man, I dare not speak as I 
Otherwise would, were he not my fellow-townsman. All who 
know his military history concede that he is an officer of great 
worth. 

In person, he is tall and slender, with spare features, dark- 
brown hair, and large, dark eyes. He is an energetic and 
rapid talker, and expresses his opinions with great positive- 
ness; which he can do with safety, since he has much general 
information. He has a firm step, and a hearty laugh; is hope- 
ful, cheerful and self-confident, and endures reverses with great 
fortitude, lie is as much esteemed as a citizen, as he is admired 
as a soldier. 



COLONEL ALEXANDER CHAMBERS. 

SIXTEENTH 1XFANTRY. 

Alexander Chambers is thirty-two years of age, and a 
native of the State of New York. I know little more of his 
history prior to his entering the volunteer service except that 
he was a lieutenant of the 18th Regular Infantry, and a resi- 
dent of Owatonna, Minnesota. After the war hroke out, and 
before he was made colonel, he served as a mustering officer of 
Iowa troops. He was the United States mustering officer of 
the following Iowa regiments: the 1st, 2d and -1th Cavalry; 
and the 1st, 2d, 3d, 5th, Gth, 7th, 8th, 10th, 11th, 10th and 14th 
Infantry. Though not an Iowa man, his military services 
certainly go to the credit of the State. He was commissioned 
Colonel of the 16th Iowa, in February, 1S62, and served with 
this rank till the winter of 1863-4, when he left the volunteer 
service and returned to his former position as captain in the 
ISth Regular Infantry; for he had been promoted to a cap- 
taincy, in the summer of 1861. 

Colonel Chambers' first engagement, which was also the first 
of his regiment, was Shiloh. In that action he was slightly 
wounded. The position of his regiment in the first day's 
battle was on the right of the loth Iowa, and the part it sus- 
tained sufficiently appears in the sketch of General H. T. Reid. 
In the closing paragraph of an official statement concerning 
this engagement, Colonel Chambers says : 

" The field officers were particularly cool under a destructive 
fire, and rendered great assistance. The horses of all the field 
and staff officers Avere killed or wounded, evidently showing 
an intention on the part of the enemy to pick off the most 
prominent officers. Captains Ruehl and Zettler, both gallant 

803 . 



304 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

men, were killed or mortally wounded, and 1st Lieutenant 
Frank N. Doyle, a brave and efficient officer, was also killed. 
The loss during Sunday's fight was two officers and sixteen 
non-commissioned officers and privates killed, and nine 
officers and twenty-four non-commissioned officers and privates 
wounded, and fifteen non-commissioned officers and privates 
missing. " 

Among the wounded officers, were Captains A. Palmer, E. 
S. Fraser, and E. M. Newcomb; and Lieutenants Lewis 
Buride, J. H. Lucas, G. If. Holcomb, and Henry Meyer. It 
was reported that the regiment did not conduct itself with 
credit, but its losses tell a different story. The conduct of 
Lieutenant-Colonel A. II. Sanders was especially gallant, as it 
ever after was, in the face of the enemy. <■ 

It is elsewhere stated that immediately after the battle of 
Shiloh or Pittsburg Landing, the Iowa Brigade was organized, 
nnd that the organization was preserved till the close of Gen- 
eral Sherman's campaign through the Carolinas, in the spring 
of ISO"). The lfith Iowa was the junior regiment of this brig- 
ade, and much relating to its history will be found in the 
sketches of Generals Crocker, lleid, Belknap and Hcdrick, and 
Colonels Hall and Shane. But the 10th has a chapter in its 
history, not to be found in those of the other regiments of its 
brigade. It fought Price at Iuka; was conspicuous upon th<' 
field, and suffered terribly in killed and wounded. Next to 
the 5th Iowa Infantry, it lost more heavily than any other 
regiment on that bloody field. 

"For some ton days or more before the final move of the 
rebel army under General Price, eastward from the Mobile and 
Ohio Railroad, it was evident that an attack upon Corinth was 
contemplated, or some change to be made in the location of 
that army. This caused great vigilance to be necessary, on the 
part of our cavalry, especially that to the southern front, under 
Colonel Mizner. The labor of watching and occasional skir- 
mishing was most satisfactorily performed, and almost every 



ALEXANDER CHAMBERS. 305 

move of the enemy was known as soon as commenced. About 
the llth of September, Price left the railroad — the infantry 
and artillery probably moving from Baldwin, and the cavalry 
from the roads north of Baldwin, toward Bay Springs. At 
the latter place, a halt of a few days seemed to have been 
made; likely, for the purpose of collecting stores and reeon- 
noitering our eastern flank. On the 13th of September, the 
enemy's cavalry made their appearance near Iuka, and were 
repulsed by the small garrison under Colonel Murphy of the 
Sth Wisconsin Infantry, still left there to cover the removal of 
stores, not yet brought into Corinth. The enemy appeared 
again in increased force on the same day, and, having cut 
the railroad between there and Burnsville, Colonel Murphy 
thought it prudent to retire to save his force," 

ITow the 16th Iowa became separated from its brigade and 
fought with Eosecrans at Iuka happened thus: When' Colonel 
Murphy was attacked by the enemy, he sent back for rein- 
forcements: Colonel Crocker was directed to send a regiment 
to his support. The ICth Iowa was ordered forward, and thus 
formed a junction with General Eosecrans. In speaking of 
the part the ICth and other regiments of his command bore at 
Iuka, General Eosecrans says : 

" The 16th Iowa, amid the roar of battle, the rush of wounded 
arlilh -ry-horses, the charges of a rebel brigade, and a storm 
of grape, canister and musketry, stood like a rock, holding the 
centre, while the glorious 5th Iowa, under the brave and dis- 
tinguished Matthies, sustained by Boomer, with his noble little 
26th .Missouri, bore the thrice-repeated charges and cross-fires 
of the rebel left and centre, with a valor and determination, 
seldom equaled, and never excelled by the most veteran 
soldiery." 

So far as I can learn, the killed and wounded of the lGth 
Iowa at Iuka numbered about sixty-five. Colonel Chambers 
was wounded and obliged to turn his command over to Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Sanders. Lieutenant and Adjutant George 
Lawrence, a gallant young officer, was killed. Captain A. 
Palmer and Lieutenant J. II. Lucas of Company C, were both 



SOG IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

wounded, as they had also been at Shiloh. Lieutenants Alcorn 
and Williams were also wounded, both severely. Iuka was 
the 16th Iowa's second engagement, and their courage and 
intrepidity, on that field, was a triumphant answer to all 
insinuations of former ungallant conduct. They were the 
heroes of their brigade, and when they marched back to 
re-join it they were looked on with admiration, and received 
the eager gratulations of their sister regiments. 

Next in the history of the regiment is the battle of Corinth, 
a full account of which has been given elsewhere. It lost its 
commanding officer at Iuka, and suffered the same misfortune 
at Corinth. Lieutenant-Colonel Sanders was severely wounded 
in the thigh, in the afternoon of the first day's fight. Of this 
gallant officer's conduct, Colonel, afterward General Crocker 
says: 

"Lieutenant-Colonel Add. II. Sanders, who commanded the 
lGth, is entitled to great praise. lie rode along the line of his 
regiment, amid the storm of bullets, encouraging his brave 
boys, who had so lately suffered at Iuka, to remember their 
duty, and, although severely wounded, remained with his regi- 
ment until it marched off the field." 

Major William Purcell succeeded Colonel Sanders in the com- 
mand of the regiment. Its loss in the engagement I have been 
unable to learn, but, next to the loth Iowa, it suffered more 
severely than any other regi ment of its brigade. Major Purcell 
was slightly wounded, but not so severely as to compel him to 
leave the field. Captain C. W. Williams was taken prisoner. 
Color-Sergeant Samuel Duffin, and Color-Corporals McElhaney, 
Eighmey and Kara are mentioned for their gallant conduct 
on the field. 

The pursuit of the defeated and dispirited rebel army to the 
Hatchie, and the return to Corinth; the march to the Yockonn 
late that same Fall ; the trip down the Mississippi to Young's 
Point, and the operations around Vicksburg; the march to 



ALEXAXDER CHAMBERS. 307 

Mechanicsville, up the Yazoo ; the expedition to Jackson, and 
the escape of Johnson ; the raid to Monroe, Louisiana, and, 
later, that to Meridian, Mississippi ; the long and tedious 
march from Clifton on the Tennessee, to North-western Georgia, 
in the Spring of 1864, and the operations of the Iowa Brigade 
on the memorable Atlanta Campaign, will be found in the 
sketches of those officers and regiments, whose histories they 
help to make up. The lGth Iowa Infantry took part in all 
these operations. 

It has already been stated that Colonel Chambers resigned 
his commission in the winter of 1863-1. Subsequently to that 
date, the 16th Iowa has been commanded by that excellent 
officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Sanders. Indeed, for many months 
prior to the resignation of the former officer, Colonel Sanders 
commanded his regiment; for, on the departure of General 
Crocker to assume command of the 7th Division, of his corps, 
Colonel Chambers succeeded him in the command of the Iowa 
Brigade. 

I pass now to the most interesting and exciting chapter in 
the history of the 16th Iowa— a chapter which, could I write 
it as it was made, would e(juid any passage in war-literature. 
Certainly no regiment in all Sherman's grand army of "ninety- 
eight thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven men" can fur- 
nish an instance of greater and more distinguishing valor, than 
that of which I write. 

How Sherman, having crossed the Chattahoochie, threw his 
army by a grand right-wheel around Atlanta, with the Army 
of the Tennessee— Blair, Logan and Dodge— on the left, I 
have written elsewhere. In the sketch of General Belknap, I 
have also given an account of the enemy's opening attack, 
which, for suddenness and desperation, would have done credit 
to the best marshals of France. The 22d of July, and the 
assault on Sherman's left, are the day and the battle of which 



30S IOWA COEONEL3 and kegimexts. 

I speak. The ICth Iowa " was posted upon. the left of the 11th 
Iowa, and in the immediate front of the 13th Iowa, the 15th 
Iowa being upon the left and upon a prolongation of the line 
of the 13th, the brigade being the left of the 4th Division, 
which held the left wing of the Army of the Tennessee." The 
lGth Iowa, therefore, held the extreme left and front of Sher- 
man's victorious legions— a post of honor deserving double 
honor, on account of its gallant defense. "Companies B and 
G, under the respective commands of Captain Henry Lefeldt 
and Lieutenant Timm, were deployed as skirmishers in front, 
connecting on the right with the skirmishers of the 11th Iowa, 
and on the left with those of the 15th." This position had 
been taken up, and these dispositions had been made, (earth- 
works in front of each regiment having been in the meantime 
constructed) on the previous afternoon. And it is proper to 
state in this connection that the left of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee had not joined in the general advance made by Sher- 
man's army on the morning of the 22d. 

As elsewhere stated, the ground occupied by tho Iowa 
Brigade was open, with the exception of being covered with 
under-brush; but, immediately after taking up the position, 
the 11th, 10th, and 16th Iowa had " policed " in their front, 
from thirty to fifty yards. No enemy could pass that line 
under cover, and to come within it was almost certain death. 
The skirmish line was posted in the thicket beyond. 

Ju.-t before noon of the day in question, General Giles A. 
Smith, in person, had directed Colonel Sanders to have his 
regiment ready to fall in at a minute's notice, adding, "you 
must hold your works to the last, as the safety of the division 
may depend on the delay occasioned the enemy at this point." 
This was the last order received by Colonel Sanders from his 
superior that day. Already the reign of ominous silence, 
which commonly precedes great battles, portended the ap- 



ALEXANDER CHAMBERS. 309 

proaching conflict, and, hardly hud General Smith rode back 
to his head-quarters, when the roar of musketry along the 
skirmish line signaled the advance of the enemy. It was 
sharp and spiteful, and told the brave boys, who sprung for 
their guns and the trenches, that a desperate struggle was at 
hand. Instantly the skirmishers, with anxious faces, made 
their appearance, and came running back to the works. They 
were sent back by Colonel Sanders, but had scarcely entered 
the thicket, when they were fired on and again driven back. 
The enemy were coming in heavy line of battle, and closely on 
the heels of their own skirmishers, while the 10th Iowa, 
crouched in their trenches and, with their muskets pointed 
toward the threatened point, awaited their approach. <( When 
you fire, fire low, but don't fire a gun till you receive my 
command, no matter how near they come," were the orders of 
Colonel Sanders, and they were strictly obeyed. Then fol- 
lowed a moment of anxious, protracted suspense and then 
the opening battle. 

The enemy advanced their line boldly into the clearing in 
front of the Sixteenth's works, and, with bayonets fixed and 
their pieces at a charge, began raising their accustomed shout, 
when Colonel Sanders gave the order to fire— first to the rear 
rank, and then to the front. "The response was a terrific and 
deadly volley from one rank, followed immediately by another, 
and then a continuous, rapid firing, as fast as eager, experi- 
enced soldiers eould load and discharge their guns. The result 
of our fire was terrible. The enemy's line seemed to crumble 
to the earth; for even those not killed or wounded fell to the 
ground for protection. Another heavy line of the enemy 
advanced, and was repulsed in the same terrible manner. 
Officers ami men worked enthusiastically, and guns became so 
heated that they could not he handled, the powder Hashing 
from them as the cartridges were dropped in. The officers 



310 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

prepared the cartridges for the raen, and helped them load 
their guns. More splendid firing, or more effectual in its 
results, was never before witnessed in the army." I have 
taken the above from Colonel Sander's report; for, should J 
make the same statement myself, it would pass for fiction. 

Simultaneously with the attack on the 10th, the 11th and 
15th Iowa were charged in their works. The left of the 15th 
had no protection, and, as the enemy came swinging round to 
its rear, it had no alternative but to draw out of its works and 
retire. The 11th Iowa was dislodged in like manner. But 
just before this occurred, the enemy in front of the 16th 
(the 2d and 8th Arkansas and two companies of Texan 
troops) put up the white flag and surrendered as prisoners of 
war. When they arrived in Colonel Sanders' rear, he found 
that he had two prisoners for every man in his ranks. But 
there were other prisoners to the left, or men whom Captain 
Smith claimed as prisoners, but who refused to throw down 
their arms. Learning this, Colonel Sanders hurried down to 
the left, and began disarming them himself, but he had taken 
the guns of only two, when he was surrounded by a rebel 
squad, who demanded: "Surrender, Sir, and we won't hurt 
you." Startled by such a demand, he turned and looked about 
him. For the first time he now saw that, the works of the 
loth and 15th Iowa in his rear were in the possession of the 
enemy. Believing that he had held his works " to the last," 
and hoping that he might break away and escape with his 
regiment to the rear of the 11th Iowa, he sprung away, and, 
with the exclamation —"I am not talking of surrender now," 
hurried back to his command. The rebels stared in wonder 
and none fired at him except a rebel captain, who instantly 
after was shot dead by Captain Lucas of the 16th Iowa. 

On reaching the right of his regiment, the last hope tied; 
for the works of the 11th Iowa were already in possession of 



ALEXANDER CHAMBERS. 311 

the enemy. The regiment was thus surrounded, and had no 
choice but to surrender or be butchered. The lGth Iowa was 
the sixth Iowa regiment to be captured nearly entire. " The 
regiment numbered, on the morning of the twenty-second, 
four hundred and twenty-five effective men : of these, a 
fatigue detail of three officers and eighty men was made in 
the morning, most of whom were captured afterward, while 
fighting in front of field-works near by." 

During the Atlanta Campaign, or rather up to the 23d of 
July, the 16th Iowa lost in killed, wounded and captured, 
three hundred and sixty-eight men. Of these, twenty were 
killed, and one hundred and six wounded. Private Charles 
M. Stark was the first man of the regiment killed. He was 
shot through the head on the 14th of June, and while on 
picket near Big Shanty, Georgia. From the 14th of June to 
the '22d of July following, hardly a day passed without 
adding one or more to the regiment's list of casualties ; and to 
show the character of warfare in which the regiment engaged, 
it may be stated that, of the twenty killed, nine at least were 
shot through the neck or head. Quarter-master-Sergeant John 
W. Drury was the only man killed by a shell, and Corporal 
James Huntington, the only one killed by a solid shot. 
Lieutenant George II. Holcomb was one of the killed, and 
among the wounded were Captains Hugh Skillings and Peter 
Miller, and Lieutenants Thomas A. liurke and Samuel Duffin: 
the latter afterward died of his wounds. 

The greater part of the enlisted men of the ICth Iowa, who 
were captured on the 22d of July, were exchanged in Septem- 
ber, 1SG4 ; but the officers were held until the following Winter 
and Spring. The regiment has closed the interesting portion 
of its history in the siege of Atlanta, and in the Savannah and 
Carolina Campaigns, all of which operations have been fully 
detailed. 



312 IOWA COLONELS AXB REGIMENTS. 

I am told Colonel Chambers is a trim, black-haired, black- 
eyed gentleman, with the airs and deportment of a regular 
army officer. lie was a severe disciplinarian, and, by reputa- 
tion, ranked well with the Iowa Colonels. After the fall of 
Vicksburg, he was appointed by the President a brigadier- 
general; but the appointment failed confirmation in the Senate. 
His status defeated him ; he was neither an Iowa nor a Minne- 
sota man. Iowa would indorse his appointment, provided he 
was credited to Minnesota, and Minnesota, vice versa. He is 
the only Iowa officer who was killed by having too many 
friends. 



COLONEL JOHN WALKER RANKIN. 

FIRST COLONEL, SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY. 

John W. Rankin was born on the 11th day of June, 1823. 
He is of Scotch Irish descent, his mother being a relation of 
Burns, the poet. He was educated at Washington College, 
Pennsylvania, whore, graduating at the age of sixteen, he was 
complimented with the Latin Oration. After leaving college, 
he taught school for a few years, and then studied law. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1844. Before coming West, he 
practiced his profession in Wooster, and in Ashland county, 
being, at the latter place, a partner of Judge Sloan. He settled 
in Keokuk, Iowa, in 1848. Since living in Iowa, he has been 
district judge, State senator, United States assistant quarter- 
master, and colonel. He was appointed Assistant Quarter- 
Matter of United States Volunteers in the summer of 18G1, and 
discharged the duties of the office with credit. In the winter 
of 1SG1-2, he was granted authority by the Secretary of War to 
raise a regiment of volunteers. He entered with energy upon 
the business of recruiting, and, in a little more than thirty days 
from the time he began active operations, the 17th Iowa Infan- 
try was mustered into the United States service. Colonel 
Itankin received his commission on the 17th of April, 18G2, 
and two days later, under orders from Halleck, left Keokuk 
with his regiment for St. Louis. 

In what I have to say of the 17th Iowa, I desire to be impar- 
tial. That it was composed of as fine a body of men as ever 
went out from the State, is true, in proof of which I may state 
that, at the time it was enlisted, it was supposed, by both the 
State Executive and the Secretary of War, that it would be 

313 



31^- IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

the last regiment furnished by the State for the war. Lieuten- 
ant C. J. Ball, mustering officer, and Surgeon S. B. Thrall, 
examining officer, both able and efficient in their respective 
departments, will bear me witness that no man was passed if 
he had the slightest physical blemish, and no man mustered 
unless, in size, he more than filled the letter of the regulations. 

It was supposed at the time the 17th Iowa entered the service 
that the war was near its close. This was the opinion of the 
chief military men of the day ; though nearly all of these men 
are fossils now. The resplendent victory at Fort Donelson 
threw the North into ecstasies of joy. That one was soon fol- 
lowed by the bloody triumph at Shiloh; and then it was 
declared that no more troops were wanted. It might have 
been so, had first reports been true ; for the news of the battle 
of Shiloh, which was read to the 17th Iowa on dress-parade, 
declared that twenty thousand Union troops had been placed 
hors du combat, and that the enemy had lost more than double 
that number. 

The regiment stared in amazement, and thought there were 
none left to kill. It was well for the enemy that the news was 
false; for, had it In en true, he would have marched back to 
Corinth with hardly a corporal's guard. The v:ar ivould have 
been near Us dose. " I can crush the rebellion in the South 
West with what men I have," a certain general in the West 
declared to the Secretary of War; and an order was even issued 
for disbanding the 17th Iowa, and was only recalled, after 
the utmost exertion on the part of Colonel Rankin. Many 
honestly believed that the 17th would never fire a gun : never- 
theless, the regiment has fired more guns, and slain more 
rebels, than almost any other equal number of men in the 
field. 

The first march of the 17th Iowa was from the St. Louis 
wharf to Benton Barracks: the debarkation and inarch was 



JOHN W. EAXKLX. 315 

made in the mud and rain ; and the regiment experienced a 
foretaste of soldier-life. Embarking on the steamer Conti- 
nental, Colonel Rankin left St. Louis with his command for 
the front, on Sunday morning, the 4th day of May, 1S02, and 
arrived at Hamburg Landing, on the evening of the 6th 
instant. Under orders from General Ilalleek, he reported to 
General Pope, and was assigned a position at the extreme left 
and front of the besieging army at Corinth. Here began the 
brilliant record of the 17th Iowa; for, though it was once 
disgraced on papa; and over the signature of a major-general, 
it was never disgraced in the eyes of its' sister regiments. The 
regiment arrived at the front, on the evening of the Oth of 
May, the day of the battle near Farmington, where the 2d 
Iowa cavalry, and the troops of Colonel Loomis' Brigade 
deported themselves so handsomely. On the afternoon of that 
day, the 17th beheld for the first time terror-stricken cowards 
fleeing from the scene of action. Never present in battle, they 
are always the first to herald disaster. "Turn back! turn 
back ! ! " they said ; " the whole army is killed and captured ! " 
but on arriving at the front all was found quiet. 

On the. 28th of May, 1S62, Colonel Rankin received orders to 
advance his regiment as skirmishers, and, having ascertained 
the character and strength of the enemy's works, to fall back. 
Accompanying the order were the compliments of General S. 
Hamilton in the following language : — " For gentlemanly and 
soldier-like conduct, your regiment has been assigned this post 
of honor." The reconnoissance was made in connection with 
the 10th Missouri, and resulted in a sharp fight. More than 
one hundred rebels were killed and wounded; and that same 
night Corinth was evacuated. Next followed the march to 
Boonville, Mississippi, in pursuit of General Beauregard, and 
on which General Pope captured thirty thousand stand of 
arms, and ten thousand prisoners. (?) These were splendid 



3iG IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

successes ; but, though the 17th Iowa had marched near the 
van, it first learned the glad news while encamped in the 
woods near Boon vi lie. Beauregard made good his escape, and 
Pope returned to Corinth. To new troops, this march was one 
of great hardships. It was made in the early days of Summer, 
when, in that climate, the days are hot and the nights cool. 
Un inured to the hardships, and ignorant of the customs of 
soldier-life, the 17th Iowa suffered severely; for they parted 
with nothing, and struggled along with burdens that would 
have broken down even veterans. They would not throw 
away even a cartridge. 

Ordered into camp at Clear Springs, Mississippi, the 17th 
remained there until the latter part of June, and then joined 
the forces which marched out bevond Ripley. One incident 
on this march will be remembered by every member of the 
regiment who joined in it. It happened on the evening of the 
second day of the return to Camp Clear Springs. In the even- 
ing of that day, which had been cold and rainy, camp was 
made in a low bottom, and soon after the camp-fires were 
lighted, a dense fog arose, which was almost blinding. This 
proved the cause of the fright which followed. At about eight 
o'clock, sudden cries of alarm were given from the hill above— 
"For God's sake get out of there, or you will be all dead in 
half an hour." The regiment was filled with fright, and in 
ten-minutes' time every camp-fire was deserted. That night 
the poor fellows slept between corn-rows on the hill-side. Dr. 

MeG was a ivag as well as a good surgeon, and, whether he 

perpetrated the above in sport or in earnest, I never learned. 
After returning from the Ripley march, the 17th Iowa remained 
at Camp Clear Springs until the middle of the following August, 
and then marched with its division to Jacinto, about twenty- 
five miles south of Corinth, where it remained till just before 
the battle of Iuka. 



JOHN W. RANKIN. 317 

In August, 1SG2, Hon. Samuel F. Miller, Colonel Rankin's 
law-partner, was appointed to a judgeship of the United States 
Supreme Court. The husiness of the firm was large and com- 
plicated, embracing many cases of great importance, which 
required the personal attention of one of the original members 
of the firm. Indeed, I am informed that it was the under- 
standing, when Colonel Rankin entered the sendee, that, in 
case Judge Miller should leave the firm, the colonel was to 
resign his commission. At all events, he tendered his resigna- 
tion, which was accepted on the 3d of September, 18G2. On 
the 19th of September, 1862, was fought the rough-and-tumble 
battle of Iuka ; and Colonel Rankin had not yet left for his 
home. 

Iuka was the 17th Iowa's first engagement, and by the for- 
tunes of war the regiment was temporarily put in disgrace. It 
was gross injustice, and the fact that the commanding general 
who issued the order of censure was afterwards retired in 
shame from an important command affords us no satisfaction. 
And now I regret for the first time that I was a member of the 
17th Iowa, for in stating the truth some may think me partial. 

How the battle of Iuka was brought on is explained in the 
sketch of General Matthies. Rosccrans either blundered or dis- 
obeyed orders, and it mutters not which ; for, in either case, he is 
equally censurable. The battle was fought on the afternoon of 
the l'.Uh of September, and that morning the 17th Iowa, with its 
brigade, marched from Jacinto some twenty-five miles south- 
west of Iuka. Immediately after arriving at the front the 
regiment was hurried into the action. Its position was at the 
cross-roads and along an open ridge; and just across a narrow 
ravine, filled with (V-i^q brush, were the enemy. Hardly had 
the regiment come into line, when it was met with a terrible 
volley of -rape, canister and musketry, and General Sullivan 
ordered it to a less exposed position. While Colonel Rankin 



31S IOWA COEOXELS AND KEGIMEXTS. 

was giving the proper command for the movement, that 
happened which was the cause of the regiment being censured. 
A portion of Roseerans' body-guard, in reconnoitering at the 
front, came on the enemy's line. Surprised and alarmed by 
the terrible fire which met them, they rode hurriedly back, and 
finding the 17th Iowa drawn up across the road dashed 
through its ranks, knocking down and injuring several men. 
At about the same time, Colonel Rankin's horse was shot, and, 
becoming unmanageable, ran and threw him, his head strik- 
ing the roots of a tree, which rendered him insensible. 
Captain Anderson of the 80th Ohio, supposing him dead, laid 
him by the side of a tree, where he remained till late that 
night. For months afterward, I am told, the colonel did not 
recover from the effects of this stroke. 

Standing/or Uie first time under a galling fire; overrun and its 
ranks broken by stampeding cavalry; its commanding officer 
disabled, and all happening in the same instant, is it matter 
of wonder that the 17th Iowa was thrown into temporary 
confusion, and partially disorganized? A portion of the left 
wing got separated from the right; but the greater part of the 
regiment was present throughout the engagement. Indeed, it 
may be said that, in all its hard-fought battles, the 17th Jowa 
never did better, all things considered, than it did in its luck- 
less fight at Iuka. Go read the inscriptions on its battle-flags ! 
go count its gallant dead, whose bleaching bones give addi- 
tional sacredness to a dozen battle-fields! or, what you may 
more easily do, go ask those who know its history, if the 
regiment has not a gallant record. And it was not ingloriously 
begun at Iuka. 

The losses of the 17th Iowa at Iuka, numbered about forty. 
Among the killed was Lieutenant Oliver IT. P. Smith, a good 
man and a brave officer, lie was shut in the midst of contu- 
sion, and doubtless by our own men ; lor the ball entered the 



JOTIN W. RANKIN. 319 

hack of his head, and he never turned his bach to the enemy. 
Captain, now Lieutenant-Colonel S. M. Archer was among 
the severely wounded. lie had just before assumed command 
of the regiment. 

It was reported that Colonel Rankin was under the influence 
of liquor in the action at Iuka. If he was, and if the injury he 
received was attributable to that fact, I do not know it. I 
have been told by officers of the regiment (for I was not present 
in the engagement) that all the liquor was destroyed before the 
troops were marched out from their camps. In addition to 
this, I was told by Assistant Surgeon McGorrisk, afterward 
surgeon of the 9th Iowa Infantry, and still later, surgeon-in- 
chief of the 1st Division, 15th Army Corps, that, while the 
command of Rosecrans was en route for Iuka, General Stanly 
rode up to Colonel Rankin and asked him for a drink. The 
colonel, pulling his flask from his pocket, replied, "I am sorry, 
general; but you see I hav'nt got any." Lieutenant Delahoyd, 
brigade adjutant-general, was present, and confirms the above 
statement. lam no particular friend of Colonel Rankin, for 
he is the only officer who ever threatened to put me in arrest, 
and, as I think, unjustly. But then, it is my duty to give facts 
as they are. The truth is, the conduit of the 17th Iowa would 
never have been censured, had it not been for the malice of a 
certain brigadier, and the disappointment of a certain aspiring 
captain, who dared in no other way to strike at the reputation 
of Colonel Rankin. 

Colonel Rankin is a small man, with light complexion, and 
a nervous-sanguine temperament. Before entering the service, 
he was unused to hardship and exposure, and, for many weeks 
after entering the field, suffered much from sickness. He is 
warm-hearted, generous and unassuming; and no man of his 
influence and -landing, in the State, has fewer enemies than 
he. In politics, he is an ultra-Republican, though with both 



320 IOWA COLONELS AND REGIMENTS. 

parties in his county he has always been popular. With an 
average democratic majority of five hundred, he was, in 1808, 
elected to the State Senate from Lee county. All were sur- 
prised, but. only a few disappointed. The colonel is quick to 
invent, quick to execute, and has one of the best legal minds in 
Iowa. 



5676